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U.S. Department of Labor
Raymond J. Donovan, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Janet L. Norwood, Commissioner
April 1982
Bulletin 2200
Material in this publication is in the
public domain and may, with appropriate
credit, be reproduced without permission.




F o r sa le by th e S u p erin ten d en t of D ocu m en ts, U .S. G overnm ent P r in tin g Office
W ash in gton , D.C. 20402



Raymond J. Donovan
Secretary of Labor

Few decisions that young people must make are more crucial to their future well-being than the se­
lection of an occupation. For the young job-seeker, questions abound as to what skills are required in
each field, and how those skills may be attained or refined. Furthermore, while job-seekers may be
aware of their own abilities, they face the perplexing choice of selecting a field which promises the
greatest economic and personal satisfaction.
In today’s rapidly changing job market, it is not only the young who need current, accurate, and
comprehensive career information. The choices are no easier for persons seeking a career change, or
for those entering the labor force at later stages in their lives. The availability of career information is
vital to these people as well, and to our Nation as a whole.
The Occupational Outlook Handbook is an invaluable primary source of vocational guidance
information. In clear language, it describes what workers do in each job; the training and education
they need; earnings; working conditions; and expected job prospects for selected occupations
covering a wide spectrum of the economy. I am certain that the updated 1982-83 edition of the
Occupational Outlook Handbook will provide valuable assistance to everyone seeking satisfying and
productive employment.

Prefatory Note
Janet L. Norwood
Bureau of Labor Statistics

Information on tomorrow’s career opportunities must be available for today’s youth and others if
they are to prepare realistically for their future in the world of work. For four decades, the Bureau of
Labor Statistics has conducted research on employment in occupations and industries for use in
vocational guidance. A major product of this research is the Occupational Outlook Handbook.
The Handbook represents the most current and comprehensive information available on work
today and job prospects for tomorrow. Revised every two years, this 15th edition of the Handbook
covers about 250 occupations. For each of these occupations, the Handbook provides information
about job duties, working conditions, level and places of employment, education and training
requirements, advancement possibilities, job outlook, earnings, and other occupations that require
similar aptitudes, interests, or training. Handbook information is based on data from a variety of
sources, including business firms, trade associations, labor unions, professional societies, research
organizations, educational institutions, and government agencies.
This edition of the Handbook also includes information about the effect of the business cycle,
defense spending, energy development, and other economic variables on occupational employment.
In addition, occupations are grouped according to the new Standard Occupational Classification
Manual, 1980 edition. The Handbook also contains an index referenced to the most recent edition of
the Dictionary of Occupational Titles.


The Handbook was prepared in the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Division of Occupational Outlook,
under the supervision of Neal H. Rosenthal. General direction was provided by Ronald E. Kutscher,
Assistant Commissioner for Economic Growth and Employment Projections.
The general planning and coordination of the Handbook was done under the direction of Michael
Daniel E. Hecker, Anne Kahl, Chester Curtis Levine, and Patrick Wash supervised the research
and preparation of individual Handbook sections.
Members of the Office’s staff who contributed sections were Verada P. Bluford, Douglas J.
Braddock, Charles A. Byrne III, Donald Clark, Carin P. Cohen, Lisa S. Dillich, Conley Hall
Dillon, Jr., Lawrence C. Drake, Jr., Stephen W. Ginther, John P. Griffin, H. Philip Howard,
Margaret C. Long, Ludmilla K. Murphy, Thomas Nardone, H. James Neary, James V. Petrone,
Debra E. Rothstein, Shirley G. Rudney, and Jon Q. Sargent.
Alan Eck provided technical assistance in the development of draft materials for the Handbook.
Chester Curtis Levine coordinated the compilation and editing of tables and graphic arts material
associated with the Handbook. The gathering and editing of photographs was done by Anne Kahl.
Word processing was handled by Vidella H. Hubbard, Brenda A. Marshall, Michelle Antoinette
McCree, and Beverly A. Williams.


A great many trade associations, professional societies, unions, and industrial organizations are
able to provide career information that is valuable to counselors and jobseekers. For the convenience
of Handbook users, some of these organizations are listed at the end of each occupational statement.
Although these references were assembled carefully, the Bureau of Labor Statistics has neither
authority nor facilities for investigating the organizations listed. Also, because the Bureau does not
preview all the information or publications that may be sent in response to a request, it cannot
guarantee the accuracy of such information. The listing of an organization, therefore, does not
constitute in any way an endorsement or recommendation by the Bureau or the U.S. Department of
Labor, either of the organization and its activities or of the information it may supply. Each
organization has sole responsibility for whatever information it may issue.
The occupational information contained in the Handbook presents a general, composite descrip­
tion of jobs and cannot be expected to reflect work situations in specific establishments or localities.
The Handbook, therefore, is not intended and should not be used as a guide for determining wages,
hours, the right of a particular union to represent workers, appropriate bargaining units, or formal job
evaluation systems.


Photograph Credits
The Bureau of Labor Statistics gratefully acknowledges the cooperation and assistance of the many
government and private sources that either contributed photographs or made their facilities available to U.S.
Department of Labor photographers. Manuel Gomez of Fotos de Vida was principal photographer for this
edition of the Occupational Outlook Handbook. Photographs may not be free of every possible safety or
health hazard. Depiction of company or trade name in no way constitutes endorsement by the Department of

A&P Contractors, Inc., H.E. Alexander, Al­
exandria Department of Social Services (Va.),
Alexandria Hospital (Va.), Allen-Mitchell
and Co., American Ballet Theatre, American
Bankers Association, American Medical Rec­
ord Association, American Osteopathic Asso­
ciation, American Telephone and Telegraph
Co., Back River Treatment Plant, B&F Ce­
ramic Tile, Inc., Baltimore Aircoil Co., Bay
Printing Co., Bendix Corp., Benyas-Kaufman
Photographers, Inc., Bethlehem Steel Corp.,
Blake Construction Co., Blakeslee-Lane,
Inc., Board of Governors of the Federal Re­
serve System, Bernie Boston, Bowers-Snyder,
BowlAmerica, Jack Buxbaum, Cherokee
Wholesalers Inc., Chesapeake and Potomac
Telephone Co., Computer Science Corp.,
Congregation Olam Tikvah (Va.), Dean Wit­
ter Reynolds Inc., District of Columbia Police
Department, E.I. Dupont De Nemours and
Co., Inc., Everhart Jewelers, Inc., Fairfax
Hospital (Va.), Fairlington United Methodist
Church (Va.), Federal Bureau of Prisons, First
American Bank of Virginia, Frederick Pattern

Co., Garfinckel’s, GEICO, General Elevator
Co., George Washington University, George
Washington University Hospital, Gulf Oil
Corp., Pat Hays Buick, Hoffman Corp., Hoff­
man Upholsterer, Holiday Travel Agency,
Hunter Vending Machine Co., Hyatt Regency
of Washington, The Honorable Daniel K.
Inouye, Inter-Avia Magazine, Jerry’s Appli­
ance and Service Co., Johns Hopkins Univer­
sity Hospital, John F. Kennedy Center for the
Performing Arts, Kitt Peak National Observa­
tory, Koons Ford Inc., Dr. Steven Kulawy, La
Casita Restaurant, Library Binders, Marine
Midland Bank, Martin Marietta Corp., Mary­
land Dental Laboratory, Inc., Maryland Na­
tional Capital Park and Planning Commission,
Mayflower Hotel, McDonough School (Md.),
Joyce Mitchell, Esq., Montgomery County
Public Schools (Md.), Morgan State Universi­
ty, Mortgage Bankers Association of America,
National Education Association, National
Museum of American History, National Oce­
anic and Atmospheric Administration, Nation­
wide Insurance Co., Navy, Marshall, and Gor­

don, North American Business Machines,
North Carolina School of the Arts, Parade
Magazine, PPG Industries, Inc., Public Li­
brary of Cincinnati and Hamilton Co. (Ohio),
Richards Heating and Air-Conditioning Co.,
Ben Ross, Salter Machine Corp., Signs of the
Times, Slattery Associates Inc., Southeast
Auto Supply, St. Louis Catholic Church
(Va.), Sun Oil Co., Martha Swope, Allen
Tannenbaum, Temple Foundry, Texaco, Inc.,
Trans World Airlines, United Airlines, United
Way of America, U.S. Air Force, U.S. Army,
U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Depart­
ment of Agriculture, U.S. Department of
Commerce, U.S. Department of Labor, U.S.
International Communication Agency, U.S.
Navy, U.S. Postal Service, U.S. Soil Conser­
vation Service, Virginia Spring and Align­
ment, Inc., Washington Hospital Center,
Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Au­
thority, Washington Star Newspaper, Westinghouse Electric Corp., Westvaco Corp., White
House Real Estate Sales, A1 Whitley, Dr. Ce­
celia Williams, Wolf Trap Farm Park, Yale
New Haven Magazine.

Comments about the contents of this publication and suggestions for improving it are
welcome. Please address them to Chief, Division of Occupational Outlook, Bureau of Labor
Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, D.C. 20212.



i Guide
to the Handbook









Accountants and auditors
Bank officers and managers
City managers
College student personnel workers
Construction inspectors (government)
Credit managers
Health services administrators
Health and regulatory inspectors
Hotel managers and assistants
Medical record administrators
Occupational safety and health
Personnel and labor relations
Purchasing agents
School administrators



Landscape architects
Surveyors and surveying technicians

57 Engineers
58 Aerospace engineers
59 Agricultural engineers
60 Biomedical engineers
60 Ceramic engineers


Chemical engineers
Civil engineers
Electrical engineers
Industrial engineers
Mechanical engineers
Metallurgical engineers
Mining engineers
Petroleum engineers




Mathematical scientists and systems
68 Actuaries
70 Mathematicians
71 Statisticians
72 Systems analysts

Physical scientists

88 Life scientists
88 Agricultural and biological scientists
90 Biochemists
91 Food technologists
92 Foresters
94 Range managers
95 Soil conservationists




101 Social scientists and urban planners
101 Anthropologists
104 Economists
106 Historians
109 Market research analysts
110 Political scientists
112 Psychologists
115 Sociologists
117 Urban and regional planners

Social and recreation workers
Social workers
Recreation workers

124 Religious workers
124 Protestant ministers
125 Rabbis
127 Roman Catholic priests



College career planning and placement
College and university faculty
Cooperative extension service workers
Employment counselors
Kindergarten and elementary school
Rehabilitation counselors
School counselors
Secondary school teachers



1D /

Osteopathic physicians



160 Dietitians
161 Occupational therapists
163 Pharmacists
165 Physical therapists
167 Physician assistants
169 Registered nurses
171 Respiratory therapy workers
172 Speech pathologists and audiologists



Dental hygienists
Electrocardiograph technicians
Electroencephalographic technologists
and technicians
Emergency medical technicians
Licensed practical nurses
Medical laboratory workers
Medical record technicians and clerks



188 Radiologic (X-ray) technicians
190 Surgical technicians



Communications occupations
Public relations workers
Radio and television announcers and
196 Reporters and correspondents
199 Writers and editors
201 Design occupations
201 Commercial and graphic artists
and designers
203 Display workers
204 Floral designers
206 Industrial designers
207 Interior designers
209 Photographers
212 Performing artists
212 Actors and actresses
214 Dancers
215 Musicians
217 Singers



Air traffic controllers
Broadcast technicians
Engineering and science technicians
Legal assistants
Library technicians and assistants
Technical writers




Advertising workers
Automobile parts counter workers
Automobile sales workers
Insurance agents and brokers
Manufacturers sales workers
Real estate agents and brokers
Retail trade sales workers
Securities sales workers
Travel agents
Wholesale trade sales workers




Airline reservation and ticket agents
Bank clerks
Bank tellers
Bookkeepers and accounting clerks
Claim representatives
Collection workers



Computer operating personnel
Hotel front office clerks
Mail carriers
Postal clerks
Secretaries and stenographers
Teacher aides
Telephone operators






Protective service occupations
Correction officers
FBI special agents
Police officers
State police officers

290 Food and beverage preparation and
service occupations
290 Bartenders
291 Cooks and chefs
293 Food and counter workers
294 Meatcutters
295 Waiters and waitresses
296 Waiters’ assistants and kitchen helpers

Central office equipment installers
Computer service technicians
Electric sign repairers
Line installers and cable splicers
Maintenance electricians
Telephone and PBX installers and
343 Television and radio service

Other mechanics and repairers
Air-conditioning, refrigeration, and
heating mechanics
346 Business machine repairers
348 Elevator constructors
350 Industrial machinery repairers
351 Millwrights
353 Piano and organ tuners and repairers
355 Pinsetter mechanics
356 Vending machine repairers
358 Watch repairers

Health service occupations
Dental assistants
Medical assistants
Occupational therapy assistants
Optometric assistants
Physical therapy assistants


Cleaning and building service
Hotel housekeepers and assistants


Personal service occupations
Bellhops and bell captains
Flight attendants




Agriculture occupations
Forestry technicians




Vehicle and mobile equipment
mechanics and repairers
321 Aircraft mechanics
323 Automobile body repairers
324 Automobile mechanics
326 Farm equipment mechanics
328 Truck mechanics and bus mechanics

Electrical and electronic equipment
330 Appliance repairers
331 Central office craft occupations



Construction occupations
Bricklayers and stonemasons
Cement masons and terrazzo workers
Drywall installers and finishers
Electricians (construction)
Floor covering installers
Insulation workers
Painters and paperhangers
Plumbers and pipefitters
Sheet metal workers


Extractive occupations
Coal mining operatives






Blue-collar worker supervisors

j OU


Precision production occupations
All-round machinists
Automobile repair service estimators
Boilermaking occupations
Bookbinders and bindery workers
--5 9 9
Coremakers (Foundry)
401 Dental laboratory technicians
Dispensing opticians
404 Furniture upholsterers
405 Instrument makers (mechanical)
407 Jewelers
408 Lithographers
*"409 Molders (Foundry)
410 Opthalmic laboratory technicians
*412 Patternmakers (Foundry)
413 Photoengravers
414 Photographic process workers


Shoe repairers
Tool-and-die makers


Automotive painters
Welders and flamecutters




Plant and system operators
Stationery engineers
Waste water treatment plant operators




Construction laborers

Machine operators, tenders,
and setup workers
423 Boiler tenders
424 Electrotypers and stereotypers
425— Forge shop occupations
427 Machine tool operators
429 Machine tool setup workers
430 Printing press operators and assistants
431 Production painters


Motor vehicle operators
Intercity busdrivers
Local transit busdrivers
Local truckdrivers
Long distance truckdrivers






Other transportation and material
moving occupations
Airplane pilots
Merchant marine officers
Merchant marine sailors
Operating engineers (construction
machinery operators)

(D .O .T .) INDEX







Fabricators, assemblers, and hand
working occupations




How to Get the Most from the Handbook
What do people do in their jobs? How much
education and training will I need to enter a
certain occupation? Will it be difficult to find a
job? How much can I expect to earn? Whether
you are preparing to enter the world of work for
the first time, reentering the labor force after an
absence, or planning to change your occupa­
tion, these and other questions may arise as you
try to select a career that is right for you. With
thousands of jobs to choose from, finding an­
swers to these kinds of questions can be diffi­
cult. However, with sufficient research, you
can make an informed and confident career
Where do I start?
A good place to start your study of careers is
the Occupational Outlook Handbook. The
Handbook provides information on what jobs
are like; education and training requirements;
and advancement possibilities, earnings, and
job outlook. While every possible job is not
discussed, the Handbook provides detailed in­
formation on about 250 occupations.
Like a dictionary, encyclopedia, or other
reference book, the Handbook is not meant to
be read from beginning to end. You can simply
look through the table of contents or alphabeti­
cal index, find an occupation or area of work
that you are interested in, and read that section.
If you want to get a general view of the econo­
my and the world of work, read the chapter on
Tomorrow’s Jobs. It explains some of the
changes taking place in the job market today
and what is expected to happen through the
If you are just beginning to plan for a career,
you may wonder what things you should con­
sider. Start by listing your interests, abilities,
and goals. Does science or art interest you? Do
you enjoy working with your hands and build­
ing things, or do you really prefer working with
people? Is money, recognition, or being a lead­
er important to you? Once you have answered
these and similar questions, you will be better
able to choose an occupation or area of work
that most closely matches your personal char­
acteristics. Of course, assessing your traits and
aptitudes is very difficult. Ask others to help
you. Your school counselor has special tests
that can help you learn about yourself. Your
family, friends, and neighbors can also provide
useful assistance.
Once you have decided what your interests
are, use the Handbook to find occupations and
areas of work that match your interests. The
occupations in the Handbook are grouped in 20
clusters of related jobs. So, if you find that you
enjoy fixing things, you might start by looking
at occupations in the cluster on mechanics and
repairers. Or, if you want to make helping
other people your life’s work, you might look at

occupations in 1 of the 3 health clusters. The
20 occupational clusters are:
—Administrative and managerial occupations.
—Engineers, surveyors, and architects.
—Natural scientists and mathematicians.
—Social scientists, social workers, religious work­
ers, and lawyers.
—Teachers, librarians, and counselors.
—Health diagnosing and treating practitioners.
—Registered nurses, pharmacists, dietitians, thera­
pists, and physician assistants.
— Health technologists and technicians.
—Writers, artists, and entertainers.
—Technologists and technicians, except,health.
—Marketing and sales occupations. ^
—Administrative support occupations, including
clerical. .
—Service occupations.
—Agricultural and forestry occupations.
—Mechanics and repairers.
—Construction and extractive occupations.
—Production occupations.
—Transportation and material moving occupations.
—Helpers, handlers, equipment cleaners, and
—Military occupations.

About Those Numbers at the
Head of Each Statement
The numbers in parentheses that appear
just below the title of most occupational state­
ments are D.O.T. code numbers. D.O.T.
stands for the Dictionary of Occupational
Titles (fourth edition), a U.S. Department of
Labor publication. Each number helps clas­
sify jobs by the type of work done, required
training, physical demands, and working
conditions. D.O.T. numbers are used by Job
Service offices to classify applicants and job
openings, and for reporting and other operat­
ing purposes. They are included in the Hand­
book because career information centers and
libraries frequently use them for filing occu­
pational information. An index listing Hand­
book occupations by D.O.T. number may be
found just before the alphabetical index in the
back of this book.

What will I learn?
Once you have chosen an occupation or
cluster you’d like to learn more about, go to
that section of the Handbook. Each occupa­
tional description follows a standard format.
There are sections on the nature of the work;
working conditions; employment; training,
other qualifications, and advancement; job out­
look; earnings; related occupations; and
sources of additional information.
Nature of the work. An important part of your

career decision will be whether the work done
on the job appeals to you. In this section, you
will discover what workers do on the job, what
tools or equipment they use, and how they do
their tasks. To get a better understanding of
how the work in various occupations differs,
you should read several different occupational
descriptions and compare them. This will al­
low you to match your abilities, interests, and
goals with the type of work done in a particular
job or employment setting.
Working conditions. When considering an
occupation, you may want to know the condi­
tions under which you would have to work.
Some working conditions may not be desirable
while others may appeal to you. Most jobs
offer a little of both. For example, when over­
time is required, employees must give up some
of their free time and be flexible in their person­
al lives. This is offset, however, by the oppor­
tunity to earn extra income or time off.
Evening or nightwork is part of the regular
work schedule in many jobs. Bartenders,
guards, and some factory workers may be re­
quired to work these shifts on a permanent
basis. Workers in other occupations, such as
nurses and police officers, may work nights on
a rotating basis. Still other workers may be
assigned to split shifts: Busdrivers, for exam­
ple, may work morning and evening rush hours
with time off in the middle of the day. Howev­
er, some people prefer shiftwork because they
can pursue leisure activities or take care of
errands during daytime hours.
Work settings vary greatly. People work in
office buildings; on construction sites; in
mines, factories, restaurants, and stores; and
on ships and planes. Some people like a quiet,
air-conditioned setting; others prefer the hum
of machinery. By knowing the setting of jobs
you find interesting, you can avoid working
in an environment that you would find
Many workers have to be outdoors some or
all of the time. Mail carriers, construction
workers, firefighters, and foresters are a few
examples. Being exposed to all types of weath­
er may be preferred to indoor work, however,
by those who enjoy the outdoors and consider it
Some jobs are potentially dangerous. Cuts,
burns, and falls can occur in restaurant kitch­
ens, factory assembly lines, and forge shops,
for example. Consequently, many jobs, such as
mining and construction work, require the use
of specially designed equipment and protective
Some jobs require standing, crouching in
awkward positions, heavy lifting, or are other­
wise strenuous. Be sure you have sufficient

p h y sica l strength and stam ina for the work you
are interested in.

Employment. Information on the number of
workers in an occupation is important because
large occupations, even those growing slowly,
provide more job openings than small ones as
workers leave the occupation for a variety of
This section also tells whether workers in an
occupation are concentrated in certain indus­
tries or geographic areas. Some jobs, such as
secretaries, are found throughout the country in
almost every industry. Others, like actors and
actresses, are concentrated in certain parts of
the country. This type of information helps you
know where to go to look for the kind of job
you want. It also is useful to those who have
strong preferences about where they live.
In addition, information on part-time em­
ployment may be included. For students,
homemakers, retired persons, and others who
may want to work part time, knowing which
occupations offer good opportunities for parttime work can be a valuable lead in finding a
Training, other qualifications, and advance­
ment. This section should be read carefully
because preparing for an occupation can mean
a considerable investment of time and money.
If you currently are in school, it’s a good idea to
look closely at the high school and college
courses considered useful preparation for the
career you have in mind.
Workers can prepare for jobs in a variety of
ways, including college study leading to a de­
gree, certificate, or associate degree; programs
offered by public and private postsecondary
vocational schools; home study courses; gov­
ernment training programs; experience or
training obtained in the Armed Forces; appren­
ticeship and other formal training offered by
employers; and high school courses. For each
occupation, the Handbook identifies the pre­
ferred training. In many cases, alternative
ways of obtaining training are listed as well.
Remember, the amount of training you have
often determines the level at which you enter an
occupation and the speed with which you
For many occupations, certification or li­
censure is required. Physicians and nurses,
elementary and secondary school teachers, bar­
bers and cosmetologists, and electricians and
plumbers are examples of workers who must be
licensed. This section identifies occupations
that require licensure and what the general
requirements are. However, States vary in their
licensure requirements for certain occupations.
If you are considering an occupation that re­
quires licensure, be sure to check with the
appropriate State agency about specific re­
quirements. Common requirements for a li­
cense include completion of a State-approved
training or educational program and passing a
written examination.
In addition to education, training, and li­
censure requirements, this section discusses

Figure I

Projected 1980- 90
change in employment

Much faster than the average for all occupations
Faster than the average for all occupations ........
About as fast as the average for all occupations1
More slowly than the average for all occupations
Little change is expected......................................
Expected to decline ..............................................

50.0 percent or more
28.0 percent to 49.0 percent
15.0 percent ot 27.0 percent
6.0 percent to 14.0 percent
5.0 percent to - 5 .0 percent
— percent or more

‘The average increase projected for all occupations over the 1980-90 period is between 17.1 percent and 25.3 percent.

the personal qualities generally needed by
workers in a particular job. For example, a job
may require a person who can make responsi­
ble decisions, enjoys working with other peo­
ple, and can work in a highly competitive
atmosphere. This information will allow you
to match your personality—your likes and
dislikes—with those required in a certain
The world of work is constantly changing
and today fewer people spend their lives in a
single occupation. Roughly 1 worker in 9
changes his or her occupation each year. Some
have several jobs over a lifetime, changing
careers as they learn new skills or feel a need to
try another line of work. If a pattern of move­
ment exists from an occupation to another, it is
discussed in this part of each Handbook chap­
ter. It is helpful to know, for example, that
certain jobs are stepping stones to others. Skills
gained working at one job can make you more
employable in another—perhaps a job that is
more desirable in terms of earnings, working
conditions, or self-expression. In addition, it is
useful to know which jobs offer the best oppor­
tunities for transferring to other work of a
similar nature. Persons trained in electrical or
chemical engineering, for example, frequently
can transfer to another engineering specialty
where they can apply general engineering
knowledge in different ways. Similarly, many
computer programmers move into systems ana­
lyst jobs after several years of experience.
In some cases, moving from one occupation
to another takes more than the training or ex­
perience acquired on the job. For example, a
hospital aide must have a year of specialized
training before advancing to licensed practical
nurse. Many Handbook statements describe
the possibilities for advancement after addi­
tional training and note any in-service pro­
grams that allow employees to gain needed
skills while continuing to work part time.
Because local job markets vary significantly,
it usually is wise to discuss patterns of job
transfer and advancement with counselors, lo­
cal employers, and others who know about the
particular job market where you want to work.
Job outlook. While your interests, abilities,
and career goals are extremely important, you
also need to know something about the avail­
ability of jobs in the fields that interest you
most. This section discusses prospective em­
ployment opportunities for each occupation. In

most cases, the information about job pros­
pects begins with a sentence about the expected
change in employment through the 1980’s (fig­
ure I). In general, if expansion in an occupation
is expected to be as fast as or faster than the
average for all occupations, job opportunities
should be favorable. Occupations in which
employment is likely to grow more slowly than
the average, stay about the same, or decline
generally offer less favorable job prospects.
For most occupations, the specific factors that
are expected to influence an occupation’s rate
of growth are discussed.
For some occupations, information is avail­
able on the supply of workers—that is, the
number of people pursuing the required type of
education or training and the number subse­
quently entering the occupation. When such
information is available, the job outlook de­
scribes prospective employment opportunities
in terms of the expected demand-supply rela­
tionship. The job outlook is termed excellent
when the demand for workers is likely to great­
ly exceed the supply of workers; keenly com­
petitive when the supply of workers is likely to
exceed the demand for them. The precise terms
used in the Handbook are shown in figure II.

Figure II
Job opportunities
Very good
Good or favorable
May face competition
Keen competition

Prospective demandsupply relationship
Demand much greater
than supply
Demand greater than
Rough balance between
demand and supply
Likelihood of more sup­
ply than demand
Supply greater than

Workers who transfer into one occupation
from another sometimes are a significant part
of the supply of workers; similarly, those who
transfer out may have a substantial effect on
demand because their leaving usually creates
job openings. When information is available,
the job outlook section describes transfer pat­
terns and their effect on the demand for and
supply of workers in certain occupations. The
employment outlook for engineers, for exam­
ple, recognizes that transfers into the field are
likely to constitute a substantial portion of
supply, if past trends continue.

In many cases, a statement is made about the
effect on employment of fluctuations in eco­
nomic activity. This information is valuable to
people looking into long-range career possi­
bilities at a time when the economy is in a
recession. You may understandably wonder:
What will the economy be like when I enter the
labor market? Will it be harder to find a job 5 or
10 years fom now than it is today? What are the
chances that I might be laid off from my job?
The Handbook gives information, wherever
possible, on the sensitivity of employment in
an occupation to changes in economic condi­
tions. Bear in mind that employment in
many—but not all—occupations is affected by
economic downturns, and that the outlook for
these occupations generally improves as the
economy picks up. Other occupations—pro­
grammers, systems analysts, and computer
operators are prime examples—are less vul­
nerable to short-term changes in economic
activity. Their growth or decline is influenced
by other factors discussed in this section.
The information in the job outlook section
should be used carefully. The prospect of rela­
tively few openings, or of strong competitions,
in a field that interests you should make you
take a second look at your career choice. But
this information alone should not prevent you
from pursuing a particular career, if you feel
confident in your ability and are determined to
reach your goal.
Remember, even occupations that are small
provide some jobs. So do occupations in which
employment is growing very slowly or even
declining, for there is always a need to replace
workers who transfer to another occupation or
leave the labor force. If the occupation is large,
the number of job openings arising from re­
placement needs can be substantial. Secre­
taries, retail trade salesworkers, and kinder­
garten and elementary school teachers are
examples of occupations that provide a signifi­
cant number of job openings each year as work­
ers leave. On the average, openings resulting
from replacement needs are expected to ac­
count for the vast majority of all job openings
in the next 10 years.
Also keep in mind that no one can predict
future labor market conditions with perfect
accuracy. In every occupation and industry, the
number of jobseekers and job openings con­
stantly changes. A rise or fall in the demand for
a product or service affects the number of
workers needed to produce it. New inventions
and technological innovations create some jobs
and eliminate others. Changes in the size or age
distribution of the population, work attitudes,
training opportunities, and retirement pro­
grams determine the number of available work­
ers. As these forces interact in the labor mar­
ket, some occupations experience a shortage of
workers, some a surplus, and some a balance
between jobseekers and job openings. Methods
used by economists to develop information on
future occupational prospects differ, and judg­
ments that go into any assessment of the future
also differ. For every occupation covered in the
Handbook, an estimate of future employment

needs is developed. These estimates are consis­
tent with a set of assumptions about the future
of the economy and the country. For an expla­
nation of how these projections are developed,
see the chapter entitled Assumptions and
Methods Used in Preparing the Employment
Finally, job prospects in your community or
State may not correspond to the description of
the job outlook in the Handbook. For the par­
ticular job you are interested in, the outlook in
your area may be better or worse. The Hand­
book does not discuss the outlook in local
areas; such information has been developed,
however, by many States and localities. The
local office of your State employment service
is the best place to ask about local area employ­
ment projections. Names and addresses of
sources and suggestions for additional infor­
mation on the job market are given in the
following chapter, Where to Go for More
Earnings. This section helps answer many of
the questions that you may ask when choosing a
career. Will the income be high enough to
maintain the standard of living I want and to
justify my training costs? How much will my
earnings increase as I gain experience? Do
some areas of the country or some industries
offer better pay than others for the same type of
work? Remember to look at both money in­
come and fringe benefits, which often are a
substantial part of total earnings.
About 9 out of 10 workers receive money
income in the form of a wage ox salary. Often,
wage and salary workers who work overtime,
irregular hours, or on the night shift receive an
additional percentage of their regular wage or
Some workers, such as waiters and waitress­
es, also receive tips based on the services they
provide to customers. Automobile sales work­
ers and real estate agents are among workers
who are paid a commission—a percent of the
amount they sell. Factory workers are some­
times paid a piece rate—a set amount for each
item they produce.
The remaining 10 percent of all workers
are in business for themselves and earn selfemployment income instead of, or in addi­
tion to, a wage or salary. Self-employed
workers keep the income that exceeds the
expenses they incur in carrying out their
job. Physicians, barbers, photographers, and
lawyers are examples of workers who are
frequently self-employed.
Some occupations may offer a chance to
supplement their wage or salary income with
self-employment income. For example, elec­
tricians and carpenters often do small repair or
remodeling jobs during evenings or weekends,
and college professors frequently are paid for
articles they publish based on their independent
Besides money income, most wage and sala­
ry workers receive a variety of fringe benefits
as part of their earnings on the job. In addition

to those required by Federal and State law,
such as social security, workers ’compensation,
and unemployment insurance, fringe benefits
usually include paid vacations and holidays,
and, often, sick leave. In addition, many work­
ers are covered by life, health, and accident
insurance; retirement plans; and supplemental
unemployment benefits. All of these benefits
are provided—in part or in full—by their em­
ployers. Some employers also offer stock op­
tions and profit-sharing plans, saving plans,
and bonuses.
Workers in many occupations receive part of
their earnings in the form of goods and serv­
ices, or payments in kind. Sales workers in
department stores, for example, often receive
discounts on merchandise. Some private
household workers receive free meals and
housing. Flight attendants and other airline
employees often are entitled to reduce fares for
themselves and their families on their own and
other airlines. Workers in other jobs may re­
ceive uniforms, business expense accounts, or
use of a company car.
Which jobs pay the most? This is a diffi­
cult question to answer because good infor­
mation is available for only one type of
earnings—wages and salaries—and for some
occupations even this is unavailable. Never­
theless, the Handbook does include some
comparisons of earnings among occupations.
Generally, earnings are compared to the
average earnings of workers in private in­
dustry who are not supervisors and not in
farming. This group represented about 60
percent of all workers in 1980.
Besides differing among occupations, pay
levels may differ within each occupation. Be­
ginning workers almost always earn less than
experienced workers (table 1). Earnings in an
occupation usually vary by geographic area as

Table 1.

Career ladder of drafters
Average annual earnings, 1980

Tracers (beginners)....................
Experienced drafters..................
Senior drafters ..........................


Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 2. Average weekly earnings of beginning
computer programmers, 1980, selected cities
D etroit........................................
M iam i........................................
Los Angeles ..............................
Milwaukee ................................
Minneapolis-St. P a u l................
Dallas ........................................
Baltimore ..................................
B oston........................................


Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics.


well (table 2). The average weekly earnings of
beginning computer programmers, for exam­
ple, vary considerably from city to city. Of the
10 cities listed, the highest earnings occurred
in Detroit, Mich., and the lowest in Boston,
Mass. Although it is generally true that earn­
ings are higher in the North Central and North­
east regions than in the West and South, there
are exceptions. You also should keep in mind
that the cities that offer the highest earnings
often are those in which it is most expensive to
live. Salaries also vary by the specialty or type
of work performed. For example, surgeons
earn more on the average than any other medi­
cal specialty (table 3).
Because of all these variations in earnings,
you should check with a counselor or with local



employers if you are interested in specific in­
formation for occupations in your area.
Related occupations. If you find that an occu­
pation you are reading about appeals to you,
you also may wish to explore the jobs listed in
this section. Usually, the related occupations
are those that require similar aptitudes, inter­
ests, and education and training.
Sources of additional information. The
Handbook is only one source of career infor­
mation. Many associations, government agen­
cies, unions, and other organizations provide
useful information on careers. In this section,
names and addresses of various organizations
are listed to help you further your research into
careers that interest you. The next chapter of

the Handbook Where to Go for More Informa­
tion—also suggests ways to learn more about
Table 3. Estimated annual earnings of private
physicians, 1980, by speciality


Surgery .................................................... $94,100
Anesthesiology...................................... 84,800
Obstetrics/gynecology .......................... 80,000
Internal medicine .................................. 72,600
General practice.................................... 60,300
Pediatrics ............................................... 59,100
1After tax-deductible expenses but before income taxes.
SOURCES: American Medical Association; Bureau of
Labor Statistics.

Where to Go for More Information
Whether you have questions about a particu­
lar job or are trying to compare various fields,
the Occupational Outlook Handbook is a good
place to begin. The Handbook will answer
many of your initial questions. But remember
that it is only one of many sources of informa­
tion about jobs and careers. After reading a few
Handbook statements, you may decide that you
want more detailed information about a par­
ticular occupation. You may want to find out
where you can go for training, or where you
can find this kind of work in your community.
If you are willing to make an effort, you
will discover that a wealth of information is

Sources of Career Information
Government agencies, professional soci­
eties, trade associations, labor unions, cor­
porations, and educational institutions put
out a great deal of free or low-cost career
material. Write for information to the organiza­
tions listed in the Sources of Additional Infor­
mation section at the end of every Handbook
statement. Other organizations that publish ca­
reer information are listed in directories in your
library’s reference section. One of the largest
directories is Encyclopedia of Associations
(Detroit: Gale Research Company, 1980), a
multivolume publication that lists thousands of
trade associations, professional societies, labor
unions, and fraternal and patriotic organiza­
tions. There are dozens of other directories,
however. Ask the librarian for help in locating
directories that list:
—trade associations.
—professional associations.
—business firms.
—community and junior colleges.
—colleges and universities.
—home study and correspondence programs.
—business, trade, and technical schools.

Lists of organizations that distribute career
information also may be found in books and
directories put out by several commercial
A Counselor’s Guide to Occupational Infor­
mation, published in 1980 by the U.S. Depart­
ment of Labor, identifies pamphlets, bro­
chures, monographs, and other career guidance
publications prepared by Federal agencies. An
invaluable resource for students and jobseekers
as well as for counselors,/! Counselor’s Guide
can be purchased for $4.00 from the Super­
intendent of Documents, U.S. Government
Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.
Orders should include the GPO stock number,

The National Audiovisual Center, a central
source for all audiovisual material produced by
the U.S. Government, provides lists of free
materials in a number of subject areas, includ­
ing career education. Contact the National
Audiovisual Center, General Services Admin­
istration, Reference Section /PR, Washington,
D.C. 20409. Phone: (301) 763-1896.
Carefully assess any career materials you
obtain. Keep in mind the date and source, in
particular. Material that is too old may contain
obsolete or even misleading information. Be
especially cautious about accepting informa­
tion on employment outlook, earnings, and
training requirements if it is more than 5 years
old. The source is important because it affects
the content. Although some occupational ma­
terials are produced solely for the purpose of
objective vocational guidance, others are pro­
duced for recruitment purposes. You should be
wary of biased information, which may tend to
leave out important items, overglamorize the
occupation, overstate the earnings, or exagger­
ate the demand for workers.
Libraries, career centers, and guidance
offices are important sources of career infor­
mation. Thousands of books, brochures, mag­
azines, and audiovisual materials are available
on such subjects as occupations, careers, selfassessment, and job hunting. Your school li­
brary or guidance office is likely to have some
of this material; ask the staff for help. Collec­
tions of occupational material also can be
found in public libraries, college libraries,
learning resource centers, and career counsel­
ing centers.
Begin your library search by looking in an
encyclopedia under4‘vocations ” or ‘ ‘careers, ’’
and then look up specific fields. The card
catalog will direct you to books on particular
careers, such as architect or plumber. Be sure
to check the periodical section, too. You’ll find
trade and professional magazines and journals
in specific areas such as automotive mechanics
or interior design. Some magazines have clas­
sified advertising sections that list job open­
ings. Many libraries and career centers have
pamphlet files for specific occupations. Col­
lections of occupational information may also
include nonprint materials such as films, film­
strips, cassettes, tapes, and kits. Computerized
occupational information systems enable users
to obtain career information instantly. In addi­
tion to print and nonprint materials, most ca­
reer centers and guidance offices offer indi­
vidual counseling, group discussions, guest
speakers, field trips, and career days.

Counselors play an important role in provid­
ing career information. Vocational testing and
counseling are available in a number of places,
—guidance offices in high schools.
—career planning and placement offices in colleges.
—placement offices in vocational schools.
—vocational rehabilitation agencies.
—counseling services offered by community organi­
zations, commercial firms, and professional
—Job Service offices affiliated with the U.S. Em­
ployment Service.

The reputation of a particular counseling
agency should be checked with professionals in
the field. As a rule, counselors will not tell you
what to do. Instead, they are likely to adminis­
ter interest inventories and aptitude tests; inter­
pret the results; talk over various possibilities;
and help you explore your options. Counselors
are familiar with the job market and also can
discuss entry requirements and costs of the
schools, colleges, or training programs that
offer preparation for the kind of work in which
you are interested. Most important of all, a
counselor can help you consider occupational
information in relation to your own abilities,
aspirations, and goals.
Don’t overlook the importance of personal
contacts. Talking with people is one of the best
ways of learning about an occupation. Most
people are glad to talk about what they do and
how well they like their jobs. Have specific
questions lined up; you might question workers
about their personal experiences and knowl­
edge of their field. By asking the right ques­
tions, you will find out what kind of training is
really important, how workers got their first
jobs as well as the one they’re in now, and what
they like and dislike about the work. These
interviews serve several purposes: you get out
into the business world, you learn about an
occupation, you become familiar with inter­
viewing, and you meet people worth contacting
when you start looking for a job.
State occupational information coordi­
nating committees can help you find informa­
tion about the job situation in your State or
area. By contrast, the Handbook provides in­
formation for the Nation as a whole. The com­
mittee may provide the information directly, or
refer you to other sources. In many States, it
can also tell you where you can go to use the
State’s career information system. To find out
what career materials are available, write to the
director of your State occupational information
coordinating committee. Following are their
addresses and telephone numbers:





Director, Alabama Occupational Information Co­
ordinating Committee, First Southern Towers, Suite
402, 100 Commerce St., Montgomery, Ala. 36130.
Phone: (205) 832-5737.

Coordinator, Idaho Occupational Information Co­
ordinating Committee, Len B. Jordan Bldg., Room
301, 650 W. State St., Boise, Idaho 83720. Phone:
(208) 334-3705.

SOICC Director, Vocational Technical Education,
P.O. Box 771, Jackson, Miss. 39205. Phone: (601)



Coordinator, Alaska Occupational Information
Coordinating Committee, Pouch F — State Office
Bldg., Juneau, Alaska 99811. Phone: (907)

Executive Director, Illinois Occupational Informa­
tion Coordinating Committee, 217 E. Monroe, Suite
203, Springfield, 111. 62706. Phone: (217) 7850789.



Executive Director, Arizona State Occupational In­
formation Coordinating Committee, 1535 West Jef­
ferson, Room 345, Phoenix, Ariz. 85007. Phone:
(602) 255-3680.

Director, Indiana Occupational Information Coordi­
nating Committee, 17 W. Market St., 434 Illinois
Bldg., Indianapolis, Ind. 46204. Phone: (317) 2323625.



Director, Arkansas State Occupational Information
Coordinating Committee, P.O. Box 2981, Little
Rock, Ark. 72203. Phone: (501) 371-3551.

Executive Director, Iowa State Occupational Infor­
mation Coordinating Committee, 523 E. 12th St.,
Des Moines, Iowa 50319. Phone: (515) 281-8076.




Executive Director, California Occupational Infor­
mation Coordinating Committee, 1027 10th Street,
No. 302, Sacramento, Calif. 95814. Phone: (916)

Director, Kansas Occupational Information Coordi­
nating Committee, 320 West 7th, Suite D, Topeka,
Kans. 66603. Phone: (913) 296-5286.



Director, Office of Occupational Information, Colo­
rado Occupational Information Coordinating Com­
mittee, 213 Centennial Bldg., 1313 Sherman St.,
Denver, Colo. 80203. Phone: (303) 866-3335.

Coordinator, Kentucky Occupational Information
Coordinating Committee, 275 E. Main St., D.H.R.
Bldg., 2nd Roor East, Frankfort, Ky. 40621.
Phone: (502) 564-4258.



Executive Director, Connecticut State Occupational
Information Coordinating Committee, c/o Elm Hill
School, 569 Maple Hill Avenue, Newington, Conn.
06111. Phone: (203) 666-1441.

Director, Louisiana State Occupational Information
Coordinating Committee, P.O. Box 44094, Baton
Rouge, La. 70804. Phone: (504) 925-3593.

Director, State Occupational Information Coordi­
nating Committee of Delaware, Drummond Office
Plaza, Suite 3303, Building No. 3, Newark, Del.
19711. Phone: (302) 368-6908.

District of Columbia
Executive Director, D.C. Occupational Information
Coordinating Committee, 500 C St. NW., Suite
621, Washington, D.C. 20001. Phone: (202) 7243965.


Executive Director, Maine State Occupational Infor­
mation Coordinating Committee, State House Sta­
tion 71, Augusta, Maine 04333. Phone: (207)

Executive Director, Maryland Occupational Infor­
mation Coordinating Committee, Jackson Towers,
Suite 304, 1123 N. Eutaw St., Baltimore, Md.
21201. Phone (301) 383-6350.


Director, Missouri Occupational Information Co­
ordinating Committee, 830d E. High St., Jefferson
City, Mo. 65101. Phone: (314) 751-2624.

Program Manager, Montana State Occupational In­
formation Coordinating Committee, P.O. Box
1728, Helena, Mont. 59624. Phone: (406)

Executive Director, Nebraska Occupational Infor­
mation Coordinating Committee, W. 300 Nebraska
Hall, Lincoln, Nebr. 68588. Phone: (402) 4722062.

Director, Nevada Occupational Information Coordi­
nating Committee, Capitol Complex, Kinkead
Bldg., Room 601, 505 E. King St., Carson City,
Nev. 89710. Phone: (702) 885-4577.

New Hampshire
SOICC Director, New Hampshire Occupational In­
formation Coordinating Committee, c/o Department
of Employment and Training, 155 Manchester St.,
Concord, N.H. 03301. Phone (603) 271-3156.

New Jersey
Acting Staff Director, New Jersey Occupational In­
formation Coordinating Committee, Department of
Labor and Industry, Division of Planning and Re­
search, P.O. Box CN056, Trenton, N.J. 08625.
Phone: (609) 292-2626.

New Mexico
Director, New Mexico State Occupational Informa­
tion Coordinating Committee, NEA Building, 130
South Capitol, Suite 157, Santa Fe N.M. 87501.
Phone: (505) 827-3411 or 3412.

New York
SOICC Director, New York Department of Labor,
Labor Department Bldg. # 12, State Campus, Room
559A, Albany, N.Y. 12240. Phone: (518)

North Carolina

Director, Florida Occupational Information Coordi­
nating Committee, 325 John Knox Rd., Suite
1^500, Tallahassee, Ha. 32303. Phone: (904) 3866111.

Executive Director, Massachusetts Occupational In­
formation Coordinating Committee, Charles F.
Hurley Bldg., Government Center, Boston, Mass.
02114. Phone: (617) 727-9740.



North Dakota

Executive Director, Georgia Occupational Informa­
tion Coordinating Committee, 151 Ellis St. NE.,
Suite 504, Atlanta, Ga. 30303. Phone (404) 6563117.

Executive Coordinator, Michigan Occupational In­
formation Coordinating Committee, 309 N. Wash­
ington, P.O. Box 30015, Lansing, Mich. 48909.
Phone: (517) 373-0363.

Director, North Dakota Occupational Information
Coordinating Committee, 1424 W. Century Ave.,
P.O. Box 1537, Bismarck, N. Dak. 58505. Phone:
(701) 224-2733.




Executive Director, Hawaii State Occupational In­
formation Coordinating Committee, 1164 Bishop
St., Suite 502, Honolulu, Hawaii 96813. Phone:
(808) 548-3496.

SOICC Director, Department of Economic Securi­
ty, 690 American Center Bldg., 150 E. Kellogg
Blvd., St. Paul, Minn. 55101. Phone: (612) 2962072.

Director, Ohio Occupational Information Coordi­
nating Committee, State Department Bldg., 65 S.
Front St., Room 904, Columbus, Ohio 43215.
Phone: (614) 466-2095.


SOICC Director, North Carolina Department of
Administration, 112 W. Lane St., 218 Howard
Bldg., Raleigh, N.C. 27611. Phone: (919).



Executive Director, Oklahoma Occupational Infor­
mation Coordinating Committee, School of Occupa­
tional and Adult Education, Oklahoma State Univer­
sity, 1515 W. 6th St., Stillwater, Okla. 74074.
Phone: (405) 377-2000, ext. 311.

SOICC Director, Washington Commission for Vo­
cational Education, Bldg. 17, Airdustrial Park, Mail
Stop LS-10, Olympia, Wash. 98504. Phone: (206)

West Virginia
Coordinator, Oregon Occupational Information Co­
ordinating Committee, 875 Union St., NE., Salem,
Oreg. 97311. Phone: (503) 378-8146.

Executive Director, West Virginia State Occupa­
tional Information Coordinating Committee, 1600
1/2 Washington St., E., Charleston, W. Va. 25311.
Phone: (304) 348-0061.



Director, Pennsylvania Occupational Information
Coordinating Committee, Labor and Industry
Bldg., 7th and Forster Sts., Room 1008, Harrisburg,
Pa. 17120. Phone: (717) 787-3467.

Director, Wisconsin Occupational Information Co­
ordinating Committee, Educational Sciences Bldg.,
Room 952, 1025 W. Johnson, Madison, Wis.
53706. Phone: (608) 263-1048.

Puerto Rico


Executive Director, Puerto Rico Occupational Infor­
mation Coordinating Committee, Cond. El Centro
II, Suite 224, Munoz Rivera Ave.„ Hato Rey, P. R.
00918. Phone: (809) 753-7110.

Director, Wyoming Occupational Information Co­
ordinating Committee, Hathaway Bldg. — Base­
ment, 2300 Capitol Ave., Cheyenne, Wyo. 82002.
Phone: (307) 777-7177 or 7178.

Rhode Island

American Samoa

Executive Director, Rhode Island Occupational In­
formation Coordinating Committee, 22 Hayes St.,
Room 315, Providence, R.I. 02908. Phone: (401)

Executive Director, American Samoa SOICC, Gov­
ernor’s Office, American Samoa Government, Pago
Pago, American Samoa 96799.

South Carolina

Acting Executive Director, Guam Occupational In­
formation Coordinating Committee, P.O. Box
2817, Agana, Guam 96910. Phone: (617) 4778941.

Director, South Carolina Occupational Information
Coordinating Committee, 1550 Gadsden St., Co­
lumbia, S.C. 29202. Phone: (803) 758-3165.

South Dakota
Executive Director, South Dakota Occupational In­
formation Coordinating Committee, 108 E. Mis­
souri, Pierre, S. Dak. 57501. Phone: (605) 7733935.


Northern Mariana Islands
Executive Director, Northern Mariana Islands Oc­
cupational Information Coordinating Committee,
P.O. Box 149, Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands
96950. Phone: 7136.

Trust Territory of the Pacific
Director, Tennessee Occupational Information Co­
ordinating Committee, 512 Cordell Hull Bldg.,
Nashville, Tenn. 37219. Phone: (615) 741-6451.

Executive Director, Texas Occupational Informa­
tion Coordinating Committee, Texas Employment
Commission Bldg., 15th and Congress, Room
526T, Austin, Tex. 78778. Phone: (512) 397-4970.

Director, Utah Occupational Information Coordinat­
ing Committee, Elks Club Bldg., Suite 6003, 139
East South Temple, Salt Lake City, Utah 84111.
Phone: (801) 533-2028.

Director, Vermont Occupational Information Co­
ordinating Committee, P.O. Box 488, Montpelier,
Vt. 05602. Phone: (802) 229-0311.

SOICC Director, Virginia Vocational and Adult
Education, Department of Education, P.O. Box6Q,
Richmond, Va. 23216. Phone: (804) 225-2735.

Director, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands,
Occupational Information Coordinating Committee,
Office of Planning and Statistics, Saipan, Mariana
Islands 96950.

Virgin Islands
Director, Virgin Islands Occupational Information
Coordinating Committee, Department of Educa­
tion, P.O. Box 630, Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas,
Virgin Islands 00801. Phone: (809) 774-0100, ext.

Sources of Education and Training
As a rule, professional or trade associations
can provide lists of schools that offer training in
a particular field—operations research, pub­
lishing, or arts management, for example.
Whenever possible, the Sources of Additional
Information section at the end of every Hand­
book statement directs you to organizations
that can provide training information. For gen­
eral information, a library, career center, or
guidance office may be the best place to look;
all of them ordinarily have collections of cata­
logs, directories, and guides to educational and
job training opportunities. The State career

information system available in many States
can also provide specific information on where
to go for training in various fields. These sys­
tems are located in school guidance offices,
Job Service offices, and other places. You can
find out about the career information system in
your State by writing or calling the State occu­
pational information coordinating committee.
A number of standard handbooks give perti­
nent information on courses of study, admis­
sions requirements, expenses, and student fi­
nancial aid at the Nation’s 2-year and 4-year
colleges and universities. Publishers include
the College Board, Barrons, and Chronicle
Guidance, among others. School and public
libraries almost always have copies, as do large
bookstores. Remember that these directories
are updated and revised frequently; be sure to
use the most recent edition. Libraries and guid­
ance offices often have collections of college
catalogs as well.
Information on private trade and technical
schools is available from the National Asso­
ciation of Trade and Technical Schools
(NATTS). Single copies of two of their publi­
cations, Handbook o f Trade and Technical
Careers and Training and How to Choose a
Career and a Career School, can be obtained
from NATTS at 2021 K St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20006. Phone: (202) 296-8892.
The National Home Study Council supplies
information about home study programs. They
distribute Directory o f Accredited Home Study
Schools (free) and There’s a School in Your
Mail Box ($5.00, including postage). Re­
quests for these publications should be directed
to National Home Study Council, 1601 18th
St. NW., Wahsington, D.C. 20009. Phone:
(202) 234-5100.
Labor unions and school guidance offices
can provide information about apprentice­
ships. Local Job Service offices usually have
at least one counselor familiar with apprentice­
ship programs in the area. In some cities, Ap­
prenticeship Information Centers (AIC’s) af­
filiated with the U.S. Employment Service
furnish information, counseling, and aptitude
testing, and direct people for more specific
help to union hiring halls, Joint Apprenticeship
Committees, and employer sponsors. The lo­
cal Job Service can tell you whether there’s an
AIC in your community. The U.S. Depart­
ment of Labor’s Bureau of Apprenticeship and
Training has prepared several pamphlets that
provide background information on appren­
ticeship. These may be requested from: Office
of Information, Inquiries Unit, Employment
and Training Administration, U.S. Depart­
ment of Labor, Room 10225, 601 D St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20213. Phone: (202) 3766730.

Sources of Financial Aid
If possible, consult a high school guidance
counselor or college financial aid officer for


advice on sources of financial aid. Don’t ne­
glect any possibility, for many organizations
offer scholarships, fellowships, grants, loans,
and work-study programs. Study the directo­
ries and guides to sources of student financial
aid available in guidance offices and public
libraries. Many career information systems
also provide information on financial aid.
Particularly useful is the American Legion’s
Need a Lift?, a booklet containing career and
scholarship information for both undergrad­
uate and graduate students. The 1982 edition
costs $1.00 prepaid (includes postage) and can
be obtained from: American Legion, Attn:
Emblem Sales, P.O. Box 1055, Indianapolis,
Ind. 46206.
Meeting College Costs, a College Board
publication that is updated annually, explains
how to apply for student financial aid. High
school students should ask their guidance coun­
selors for the current edition. Others can re­
quest a free copy, and a listing of other College
Board publications on student financial aid,
College Board Publication Orders, Box 2815, Prin­
ceton, N.J. 08541.

The Federal Government provides several
kinds of financial assistance to students:
Grants, loans, work-study, and benefits. Infor­
mation about programs administered by the
U.S. Department of Education is presented in
a pamphlet entitled, Five Federal Finan­
cial Aid Programs, 1981-82; A Student Con­
sumer’s Guide. This pamphlet is revised every
year; request the current edition by calling,
toll-free, 800-638-6700 (residents of Mary­
land should call 800-492-6602), or by writing
Bureau of Student Financial Assistance, P.O. Box
84, Washington, D.C. 20044.

Federal financial aid for students in the
health professions is administered by the U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services.
Currently, major programs include Health
Education Assistance Loans (HEAL), Health
Profession Student Loans, Nursing Student
Loans, and National Health Service Corps
Scholarships. The financial aid office at the
school in which you are enrolled, or plan to
enroll, can provide information on eligibility
requirements and application procedures. In­
formation about National Health Service
Corps Scholarships also can be obtained by
calling, toll-free, 1-800-638-0824. Residents
of Alaska, Hawaii, and Maryland can call
collect, 0-301-436-6453, between 8:30 a.m.
and 5:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through
Friday, except Federal holidays. Persons in the
Washington, D.C. metropolitan area can call
Some student aid programs are designed to
assist specific groups: Hispanics, blacks, Na­
tive Americans, or women, for example. Se­
lected List of Postsecondary Education Oppor­
tunities for Minorities and Women, published


annually by the U.S. Department of Educa­
tion, is a useful guide to organizations that
offer loan, scholarship, and fellowship assis­
tance, with special emphasis on aid for minor­
ities and women. Opportunities for financial
aid are listed by field of study, including archi­
tecture, arts and science, business, education,
engineering and science, health, international
affairs, journalism, law, political science and
public administration, psychology, sociology,
social work, speech pathology and audiology,
and theology. Educational opportunities with
the Armed Forces are also described. This
publication can be found in many libraries and
guidance offices, or may be purchased from the
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Govern­
ment Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
20402. Price for the 1981 edition is $6.00 and
the GPO stock number is 065-000-00118-7.

ing on specific problems that women face in the
labor market. Many women’s centers are locat­
ed on campuses of community and junior col­
leges and universities. Although some have a
strong academic slant, many have outreach
programs designed to provide services to all
women in the community. Women’s centers are
also operated by community organizations.
Many of these centers have an emphasis on
nontraditional jobs for women, and almost all
provide information and referral services.

Career and Counseling Information
for Special Groups

Resource materials for women abound. Re­
cent examples include Directory of Special
Opportunities for Women, Job Options for
Women in the 80’s and Suit Yourself... Shop­
ping for a Job. The Directory published in
1981 by Garrett Park Press (Garrett Park,
Maryland), lists sources of career training, fi­
nancial aid, and other assistance for women
entering or reentering the labor force. Look for
it in a library, guidance office, or counseling
center. Job Options, a 1980 publication of the
Women’s Bureau of the U.S. Department of
Labor, is available from the Superintendent of
Documents, U.S. Government Printing Of­
fice, Washington, D.C. 20402. The price is
$2.25, and the GPO stock number is 029-00200059-2. Suit Yourself was published in 1980
by Wider Opportunities for Women (WOW), a
national nonprofit women’s employment orga­
nization. It can be purchased for $6.00 (in­
cludes postage) from WOW, 1619 M St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036. Phone: (202)7835155. The National Directory o f Women’s
Employment Programs, also available from
WOW, lists 140 women’s job action and advo­
cacy organizations in communities throughout
the country. Price for the 1979 publication is
$8.50, including postage.

Certain groups of jobseekers face special
difficulties in obtaining suitable and satisfying
employment. All too often, veterans, youth,
handicapped persons, minorities, and women
experience difficulty in the labor market. The
reasons for disadvantage in the job market
vary, of course. People may have trouble set­
ting career goals and looking for work for
reasons as different as a limited command of
English, a prison record, or lack of selfconfidence. Some people are held back by their
background—by growing up in a setting that
provided only a few role models and little
exposure to the wide range of opportunities in
the world of work.
A growing number of communities have ca­
reer counseling, training, and placement serv­
ices for people with special needs. Programs
are sponsored by a variety of organizations,
including churches and synagogues, nonprofit
organizations, social service agencies, the Job
Service, and vocational rehabilitation agen­
cies. Some of the most successful programs
provide the extensive counseling that disadvan­
taged jobseekers require. They begin by help­
ing clients resolve the personal, family, or oth­
er fundamental problems that prevent them
from finding a suitable job. Some agencies that
serve special groups take a strong interest in
their clients, and provide an array of services
designed to help people find and keep jobs.

Most States and many cities and counties
have commissions or councils for women,
many of which are actively engaged in im­
proving employment opportunities for wom­
en in their area. A number of commissions
have prepared resource directories for wom­
en, and a few operate employment or coun­
seling programs.

Directory o f Special Programs for Minority
Group Members: Career Information Serv­
ices, Employment Skills Banks, Financial Aid
Sources (Garrett Park, Md.: Garrett Park
Press), now in its third edition, lists thousands
of educational, career, and other services and
Employment counseling programs of all programs that help minority group members in
kinds are included in Directory of Counseling their educational and career advancement.
Services, an annual publication that lists ac­ Look for the 1980 edition in libraries, guid­
credited or provisional members of the Interna­ ance offices, and counseling centers. Career
tional Association of Counseling Services, information for minority group members also
Inc. (I ACS), an affiliate of the American Per­ appears in specialized magazines including
sonnel and Guidance Association. The 1981— The Black Collegian and Minority Engineer.
82 edition is available for $6 (including post­
The 1980-81 edition of Directory of Orga­
age) from IACS at Two Skyline Place, Suite nizations Interested in the Handicapped lists
400, 5203 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, Vir­ more than 150 voluntary and public agencies in
ginia 22041. Phone: (703) 820-4710.
the rehabilitation field and briefly describes
Women’s centers are an excellent resource
for women seeking employment and counsel­

their purpose, programs, and publications.
Copies of the Directory may be obtained from

the People to People Committee for the Handi­
capped, 1111 20th St. NW., 6th floor, Wash­
ington, D.C. 20210. Phone: (202) 653-5024.
State vocational rehabilitation agencies are an
important source of career and counseling in­
formation for people with disabilities; they are
listed in the Directory.
Employment counseling and placement
services for older workers have been estab­
lished in some communities. The area agency
on aging can tell you whether there is a senior
employment program in your community. Lo­
cal offices of the State employment service
may be helpful, too. Information about the
small but growing network of nonprofit senior
employment agencies can be obtained from the
National Association of Older Worker Em­
ployment Services, 600 Maryland Ave. SW.,
West Wing 100, Washington, D.C. 20024.
Phone: (202) 479-1200. Case studies describ­
ing the operations of specific agencies are
available from the National Clearinghouse on
Careers for Older Americans, Academy for
Educational Development, 680 Fifth Avenue,
New York, N.Y. 10019. Phone: (212) 3970073.
Several agencies of the Federal Government
publish pamphlets on career opportunities and
job-hunting techniques that may interest coun­
selors working with special groups. Much of
this material is free. Requests for career mate­
rials currently in stock may be directed to:

President’s Committee on Employment of the
Handicapped, Room 600, Vanguard Building, 1111
20th St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20036. Phone:
(202) 653-5157.
President’s Committee on Mental Retardation,
Washington, D.C. 20201.
Rehabilitation Services Administration, U.S. De­
partment of Education, Room 3523, 330 C St. SW.,
Washington, D.C. 20202.
Office of Personnel Management, Federal Job Infor­
mation Center, P.O. Box 52, Washington, D.C.
20044. Phone: (202) 737-9616.

Older Workers
Office of Information, Inquiries Unit, Employment
and Training Administration, U.S. Department of
Labor, Room 10225, 601 D St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20213. Phone: (202) 376-6730.

Department of Veterans Benefits (232A), Veterans
Administration Central Office, 810 Vermont Ave.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20420. Phone: (202) 389^3227.

Federal laws, Executive Orders, and select­
ed Federal grant programs bar discrimination
in employment based on race, color, religion,
sex, national origin, age, and handicap. Em­
ployers in the private and the public sectors,
Federal contractors, and grantees are covered
by these laws. The U.S. Equal Employment
Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is responsi­
ble for administering many of the programs that
prohibit discrimination in employment. Infor­
mation about how to file a charge of discrimi­
nation is available from local EEOC offices
around the country (their addresses and tele­
phone numbers are listed in telephone directo­
ries under U.S. Government, EEOC) or from:
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 2401
E St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20506. Phone: (202)

Information on Federal laws concerning fair
labor standards—including the minimum wage
law—and equal employment opportunity can
be obtained from the Office of Information and
Consumer Affairs, Employment Standards
Administration, U.S. Department of Labor,
Room C-4331, 200 Constitution Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20210.

Information on Finding a Job
Do you need help in finding a job? For
information on job openings, follow up as
many leads as possible. Parents, neighbors,
teachers, and counselors may know of jobs.
Check the want ads. Investigate your local Job
Service office and find out whether private or
nonprofit employment agencies in your com­
munity can help you. The following section
will give you some idea of where you can go to
look for a job and what sort of help to expect.
Informal job search methods. Informal
methods of job search are the most popular, and
also the most effective. Informal methods in­
clude direct application to employers with or
without referral by friends or relatives. Job­
seekers locate a potential employer and file an
application, often without certain knowledge
that an opening exists.

Office of Information, Inquiries Unit, Employment
and Training Administration, U.S. Department of
Labor, Room 10225, 601 D St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20213. Phone: (202) 376-6730.

You can find targets for your informal search
in several ways. The Yellow Pages and local
chambers of commerce will give the names and
addresses of appropriate firms in the communi­
ty where you wish to work. You can also get
listings of most firms in a specific industry—
banking, insurance, and newspaper publish­
ing, for example—by consulting one of the
directories on the reference shelf of your public
library. Friends, relatives, and people you
meet during your job search are likely to give
you ideas about places where you can apply for
a job.

Office of Personnel Management, Federal Job Infor­
mation Center, P.O. Box 52, Washington, D.C.
20044. Phone: (202) 737-9616.

Want ads. The ‘‘Help Wanted” ads in a major
newspaper contain hundreds of job listings. As

Women’s Bureau, U.S. Department of Labor, Room
S-3005, 200 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20210. Phone: (202) 523-6668.


a job search tool, they have two advantages:
They are cheap and easy to acquire, and they
often result in successful placement. There are
disadvantages as well. Want ads give a distort­
ed view of the local labor market, for they tend
to underrepresent small firms. They also tend
to overrepresent certain occupations, such as
clerical and sales jobs. How helpful they are
will depend largely on the kind of job you seek.
Bear in mind that want ads do not provide
complete information; many give little or no
description of the job, working conditions, and
pay. Some omit the identity of the employer. In
addition, firms often run multiple listings.
Some ads offer jobs in other cities (which do
not help the local worker); others advertise
employment agencies rather then employment.
If you use the want ads, keep the following
suggestions in mind:
—Don’t rely exclusively on the want ads;
follow up other leads, too.
—Answer ads promptly. The opening may
be filled before the ad stops running.
—Follow the ads diligently. Checking them
every day as early as possible gives you the best
advantage over other applicants, which may
mean the difference between a job and a
—Don’t expect too much from “ blind ads”
that do not reveal the employer’s identity. Em­
ployers use blind ads to avoid being swamped
with applicants, or to fill a particular vacancy
quietly and confidentially. The chances of find­
ing a job through blind ads tend to be slim.
—Be cautious about answering ‘‘no experi­
ence necessary” ads. Most employers are able
to fill job openings that do not require experi­
ence without advertising in the newspaper.
This type of ad may mean that the job is hard to
fill because of low wages or poor working
conditions, or because it is straight commission
Public employment service. The public em­
ployment service, also called the Job Serv­
ice, is often overlooked in finding out about
local job openings. Run by the State employ­
ment security agencies under the direction of
the Labor Department’s U.S. Employment
Service, the 2,500 local Job Service offices
provide help without charge. Job Service
staff help jobseekers find employment and
help employers find qualified workers. As its
motto says, the Job Service aims to “bring
people to jobs and jobs to people.” To find
the office nearest you, look in the State gov­
ernment telephone listings under “Job Serv­
ice” or “ Employment.”
Job matching and referral. Upon entering a
Job Service center, an applicant is interviewed
to determine the type of work for which he or
she indicates an interest and aptitude. The in­
terviewer determines if the applicant is “job
ready ” or if counseling and testing services are


needed. Applicants who know what kind of
work they are qualified for may spend some
time examining the Job Bank, a computerized
listing of public and private sector job openings
that is updated every day. The Job Bank is selfservice; applicants examine a book or micro­
film viewer and select openings that interest
them. Afterwards, a Job Service staff member
may describe a particular job opening in some
detail and arrange for an interview with the
prospective employer.
Counseling and testing. Job Service centers
also help jobseekers who are uncertain about
their qualifications and the kind of work they
want. Most centers are staffed with a specialist
who furnishes complete counseling and testing
services. Counselors help jobseekers choose
and prepare for an occupation based on their
qualifications and interests. They aim to help
individuals become aware of their job potential
and then develop it. The testing program mea­
sures occupational aptitudes, clerical and liter­
ary skills, and occupational interests. Testing
and counseling before job referral ensure a
better match between applicant and job.
Services for veterans and youth. By law, veter­
ans are entitled to priority in interviewing,
counseling, testing, job development, and job
placement. Special counselors called veterans
reemployment representatives are trained to
deal with the particular problems of veterans,
who may find it difficult to readjust to civilian
life. Although such veterans often face multi­
ple problems, joblessness alone is a major bar­
rier to resuming an ordinary life. Special help
for disabled veterans begins with outreach
units in each State, whose job it is to identify
jobless disabled veterans and make them aware
of the many kinds of assistance available.
To reduce excessive youth unemployment,
Job Service centers test, counsel and refer
young people to training programs or jobs
whenever possible.
Occupations in Demand. A monthly publica­
tion of the U.S. Department of Labor entitled
Occupations in Demand highlights occupa­
tions for which the Job Bank network reports
large numbers of job openings. It also indicates
which cities and areas have significant num­
bers of job openings. An extra edition for
students and graduates, published twice a year,
lists high-demand occupations for which em­
ployers usually request people with high school
or postsecondary training. The extra edition
also identifies hard-to-fill occupations listed
with the Job Service. Copies of Occupations in
Demand may be found in libraries and counsel­
ing centers. Or you can request single free
copies from:
Consumer Information Center, Dept. No. 533J,
Pueblo, Colorado 81009.

Annual subscriptions cost $18.00 and can be
purchased from the Superintendent of Docu­
ments, U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, D.C. 20402.


Private employment agencies. In the appro­
priate section of the classified ads or the tele­
phone book you can find numerous advertise­
ments for private employment agencies. All
are in business to make money, but some offer
higher quality service and better chances of
successful placement than others.
The three main places in which private agen­
cies advertise are newspaper want ads, the
Yellow Pages, and trade journals. Telephone
listings give little more than the name, address,
phone number, and specialty of the agency,
while trade journals generally advertise open­
ings for a particular occupation, such as ac­
countant or computer programmer. Want ads,
then, are the best source of general listings of
These listings fall into two categories—
those offering specific openings and those of­
fering general promise of employment. You
should concentrate on the former and use the
latter only as a last resort. With a specific
opening mentioned in the ad, you have greater
assurance of the agency’s desire to place quali­
fied individuals in suitable jobs.
When responding to such an ad, you may
learn more about the job over the phone. If you
are interested, visit the agency, fill out an
application, present a resume, and talk with an
interviewer. The agency will then arrange an
interview with the employer if you are quali­
fied, and perhaps suggest alternative openings
if you are not.
Most agencies operate on a commission ba­
sis, with the fee contingent upon a successful
match. The employer pays agencies advertis­
ing “ no fees, no contracts” and the applicant
pays nothing. Many agencies, however, do
charge applicants. You should find out the
exact cost before using the service.
Community agencies. A growing number
of nonprofit organizations throughout the Na­
tion provide counseling, career development,
and job placement services. These agencies
generally concentrate on services for a particu­
lar labor force group—women, youth, minor­
ities, ex-offenders, or older workers, for ex­
ample. Some of these agencies are listed in
directories already mentioned in the section on
Career and Counseling Information for Special
It’s up to you to discover whether your com­
munity has such agencies and whether they can
help you. The local Job Service center should
be able to tell you whether such an agency has
been established in your community. Your
church, synagogue, or local library may have
the information, too.
College career planning and placement
offices. For those who have access to them,
career planning and placement offices at col­
leges and universities offer valuable services.
College placement offices function as more

than just employment agencies; they provide
career counseling and also teach students to
acquire jobseeking skills. They emphasize
writing resumes and letters of application, pre­
paring for interviews, and other aspects of job
search. College placement offices offer other
services, too. At larger campuses they bring
students and employers together by providing
schedules and facilities for interviews with in­
dustry recruiters. Many offices also maintain
lists of local part-time and temporary jobs, and
some have files of summer openings.

Labor Market Information
All 50 States, and the District of Columbia,
develop detailed information about the labor
market. Typically, State agencies publish re­
ports that deal with future occupational supply,
characteristics of the work force, changes in
State and area economic activities, and the
employment structure of important industries.
For all States, and for nearly all Standard Met­
ropolitan Statistical Areas (SMS A’s) of 50,000
inhabitants or more, data are available that
show current employment as well as estimated
future needs. Each State issues a report cover­
ing current and future employment for hun­
dreds of industries and occupations. In addi­
tion, major statistical indicators of labor
market activity are released by all of the States
on a monthly, quarterly, and annual basis. For
information on the various labor market stud­
ies, reports, and analyses available in a specific
State, contact the chief of research and analysis
in the State employment security agency. Ti­
tles, addresses, and telephone numbers are as

Chief, Research and Statistics, Department of Indus­
trial Relations, Industrial Relations Bldg., 649 Mon­
roe St., Montgomery, Ala. 36130. Phone: (205)

Chief, Research and Analysis, Employment Se­
curity Division, Department of Labor, P.O. Box 37000, Juneau, Alaska 99802. Phone: (907) 4654505.

Chief, Labor Market Information, Research and
Analysis, Department of Economic Security, P.O.
Box 6123, Phoenix, Ariz. 85005. Phone: (602) 2553616.

Chief, Research and Analysis, Employment Se­
curity Division, P.O. Box 2981, Little Rock, Ark.
72203. Phone: (501) 371-1541.

Chief, Employment Data and Research Division,
Employment Development Department, P.O. Box
1679, Sacramento, Calif. 95808. Phone: (916) 4454434.



New Jersey

Chief, Research and Development, Division of Em­
ployment and Training, Department of Labor and
Employment, 1278 Lincoln St., Denver, Colo.
80203. Phone: (303) 866-6316.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Department of Hu­
man Resources, 275 E. Main St., Frankfort, Ky.
40621. Phone: (502) 564-7976.

Director, Division of Planning and Research, De­
partment of Labor and Industry, P.O. Box 2765,
Trenton, N.J. 08625. Phone: (609) 292-2643.


New Mexico

Chief, Research and Statistics, Department of Em­
ployment Security, P.O. Box 44094, Baton Rouge,
La. 70804. Phone: (504) 342-3141.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Employment Ser­
vices Division, P.O. Box 1928, Albuquerque, N.
Mex. 87103. Phone: (505) 842-3105.


New York

Director, Manpower Research Division, Employ­
ment Security Commission, 20 Union St., Augusta,
Maine 04330. Phone: (207) 289-2271.

Director, Division of Research and Statistics,
Department of Labor, State Campus, Bldg. 12,
Albany, N.Y. 12240. Phone: (518) 457-6181.


North Carolina

Director, Research and Analysis, Department of
Human Resources, 1100 N. Eutaw St., Baltimore,
Md. 21201. Phone: (301) 383-5000.

Director, Bureau of Employment Security Research
Employment Security Commission, P.O. Box
25903, Raleigh, N.C. 27611. Phone: (919) 7332936.

Director, Research and Information, Employment
Security Division, 200 Folly Brook Blvd., Hartford,
Conn. 06115. Phone: (203) 566-2120.

Chief, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation,
Department of Labor, Bldg. D., Chapman Rd.,
Route 273, Newark, Del. 19713. Phone: (302) 3686962.

District of Columbia
Chief, Labor Market Information, Research and
Analysis, D.C. Department of Labor, 605 G St.
NW., Room 1000, Washington, D.C. 20001.
Phone: (202) 724-2413.

Chief, Research and Analysis, Florida Department
of Labor and Employment Security, Caldwell Bldg.,
Tallahassee, Fla. 32301. Phone: (904) 488-6037.

Director, Job Market Research, Division of Employ­
ment Security, Hurley Bldg., Government Center,
Boston, Mass. 02114. Phone: (617) 727-6556.

Director, Research and Statistics Division, Employ­
ment Security Commission, 7310 Woodward Ave.,
Detroit, Mich. 48202. Phone: (313) 876-5445.

Director, Labor Information Systems, Employment
Security Agency, Department of Labor, 254 Wash­
ington St. SW., Atlanta, Ga. 30334. Phone: (404)



Chief, Research and Statistics Division, Employ­
ment Security Commission, P.O. Box 1699, Jackson, Miss. 39205. Phone: (601) 961-7424.


Chief, Research and Statistics, Division of Employ­
ment Security, Department of Labor and Industrial
Relations, P.O. Box 59, Jefferson City, Mo. 65101.
Phone: (314) 751-3215.

Director, Division of Research and Statistics, Bu­
reau of Employment Services, 145 S. Front St.,
Columbus, Ohio 43216. Phone: (614) 466-3240.


Chief, Research and Analysis, Department of Em­
ployment, P.O. Box 35, Boise, Idaho 83707. Phone:
(208) 384-2755.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Employment Se­
curity Bureau, P.O. Box 1537, Bismarck, N.Dak.
58505. Phone: (701) 224-2868.


Chief, Research and Statistics, Department of Labor
and Industrial Relations, P.O. Box 3680, Honolulu,
Hawaii 96811. Phone: (808) 548-7639.

North Dakota

Director, Research and Statistical Services, Depart­
ment of Economic Security, 390 N. Robert St., St.
Paul, Minn. 55101. Phone: (612) 296-6545.

Manager, Research and Analysis Division, Bureau
of Employment Security, Department of Labor, 910
S. Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. 60605. Phone:
(312) 793-2316.

Chief, Reports and Analysis, Employment Security
Division, P.O. Box 1728, Helena, Mont. 59601.
Phone: (406) 449-2430.

Chief, Research and Planning Division, Employ­
ment Security Commission, 310 Will Rogers Me­
morial Office Bldg., Oklahoma City, Okla. 73105.
Phone: (405) 521-3735.

Assistant Administrator, Research and Statistics,
Employment Division, 875 Union St. NE., Salem,
Oreg. 97311. Phone: (503) 37S-3220.

Director, Research and Statistics, Bureau of Em­
ployment Security, Department of Labor and Indus­
try, 7th and Forster Sts., Harrisburg, Pa. 17121.
Phone: (717) 787-3265.

Puerto Rico
Chief, Research and Statistics, Bureau of Employ­
ment Security, 505 Munoz Rivera Ave., Hato Rey,
P.R. 00918. Phone: (809) 754-5385.



Chief of Research, Employment Security Division,
10 N. Senate Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46204.
Phone: (317) 232-7702.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Division of Employ­
ment, Department of Labor, P.O. Box 94600, Lin­
coln, Nebr. 68509. Phone: (402) 475-8451.



South Carolina

Chief, Research and Analysis, Department of Job
Service, 1000 E. Grand Ave., Des Moines, Iowa
50319. Phone: (515) 281-8181.

Chief, Employment Security Research, Employ­
ment Security Department, 500 E. Third St., Carson
City, Nev. 89713. Phone: (702) 885-4550.

Director, Manpower Research and Analysis, Em­
ployment Security Commission, P.O. Box 995, Co­
lumbia, S.C. 29202. Phone: (803) 758-8983.


New Hampshire

South Dakota

Chief, Research and Analysis, Division of Em­
ployment, Department of Human Resources, 401
Topeka Ave., Topeka, Kans. 66603. Phone: (913)

Director, Economic Analysis and Reports, Depart­
ment of Employment Security, 32 S. Main St., Con­
cord, N.H. 03301. Phone: (603) 224-3311, ext.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Office of Adminis­
trative Services, Department of Labor, P.O. Box
1730, Aberdeen, S. Dak. 57401. Phone: (605)6222314.

Rhode Island
Supervisor, Employment Security Research, De­
partment of Employment Security, 24 Mason St.,
Providence, R.I. 02903. Phone: (401) 277-3704.




West Virginia

Chief, Research and Statistics, Department of Em­
ployment Security, Cordell Hull Office Bldg.,
Room 519, Nashville, Tenn. 37219. Phone: (615)

Chief, Research and Statistics, Department of Em­
ployment Security, P.O. Box 488, Montpelier, Vt.
05602. Phone: (802) 229-0311.

Chief, Labor and Economic Research, Department
of Employment Security, 112 California Ave.,
Charleston, W. Va. 25305. Phone: (304) 885-2660.




Chief, Economic Research and Analysis, Employ­
ment Commission, 1117 Trinity St., Austin, Tex.
78701. Phone: (512) 397-4540.

Commissioner, Virginia Employment Commission,
P.O. Box 1358, Richmond, Va. 23211. Phone:
(804) 786-3001.

Director, Research and Statistics, Department of
Industry, Labor and Human Relations, P.O. Box
7944, Madison, Wis. 53707. Phone: (608) 2667034.




Director, Research and Analysis, Department of
Employment Security, P.O. Box 11249, Salt Lake
City, Utah 84147. Phone: (801) 533-2014.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Employment Se­
curity Department, 212 Maple Park, Olympia,
Wash. 98504. Phone: (206) 757-5224.

Chief, Reports and Analysis, Employment Security
Commission, P.O. Box 2760, Casper, Wyo. 82601.
Phone: (307) 237-3703.


Tomorrow’s Jobs
Constant change is one of the most signifi­
cant aspects of the U.S. job market. Changes
in the size, age structure, and geographic loca­
tion of the population, the introduction of new
technology or business practices, and changes
in the needs and tastes of the public continually
alter the economy and affect employment op­
portunities in all occupations. Population
growth has spurred the need for workers to
provide more housing, medical care, educa­
tion, and other services and goods. The use of
new technology has created, eliminated, or
changed the nature of hundreds of thousands of
jobs. The computer, for example, has given
birth to an entire new group of occupations—
programmers, systems analysts, computer and
peripheral equipment operators—while at the
same time it has decreased the need for inven­
tory clerks, bookkeepers, and other clerical
works. Changes in the way businesses are or­
ganized and managed have had similar effects.
For example, the use of centralized credit of­
fices has reduced the need for credit managers
in retail stores.
As an individual planning for a career, you
should learn about changes that are expected to
occur in the job market. Your interests and
abilities determine the occupation that attracts
you, but future economic and social conditions
will determine possible job opportunities. For­
tunately, most changes that alter the demand
for workers in various occupations generally
occur gradually over several years. By analyz­
ing the changing nature of the economy and the
factors causing these changes it is possible to
project future industry and occupational em­
ployment. Although no one can forecast the
future with certainty, these employment pro­
jections can help you learn about future oppor­
tunities in occupations that interest you.
The Handbook presents information about
the job outlook for many occupations. This
chapter provides a background for those dis­
cussions. In it you will find information about
expected changes in the population and the
labor force, as well as employment projections
for major industrial sectors and broad occupa­
tional groups.

are available to work—which in turn can influ­
ence the amount of competition for jobs in an
occupation. Three population factors that will
affect future employment opportunities are
population growth, shifts in the age structure of
the population, and movement of the popula­
tion within the country.
Population Growth. The population of the
United States has increased throughout the
century. However, the rate of growth (the size
of the annual increases) was declining until the
post-World War II ‘‘baby boom, ’’ which lasted
until the late 1950’s. Since the 1960’s, the rate
of growth has declined again (chart 1).
In 1980, the population was 226.5 million.
It is expected to increase by about 0.9 percent a
year during the 1980’s, slightly faster than
during the 1970’s. Continued growth will mean
more people to provide with goods and ser­
vices, causing greater demand for workers in
many industries. The effects of population
growth on employment in various occupations
will differ. These differences are accounted for
in part by the age distribution of the future
Age Structure. Because of the “ baby boom,”
the proportion of people age 14 to 24 was high
in the 1970’s. Through the 1980’s, as these
young adults become older, the proportion of
the population between the ages of 25 and 44
will swell. By 1990, nearly one-third of the
population will be in this age group compared
to 24 percent in 1970. As a result of the rela­
tively low number of births during the 1960’s

and early 1970’s, the number of people be­
tween the ages of 14 and 24 will decline in the
coming decade. The number of people 65 and
over will grow, but more slowly than in recent
years. These changes in the age structure of the
population will directly affect the types of
goods and services demanded. For example, as
the number of young people declines, the need
for some education services will fall. When
greater numbers of people from the baby boom
establish families, they will require more hous­
ing and goods such as appliances.
Shifts in the age structure of the population
also will affect the composition of the labor
force. These effects are discussed in a later
Regional Differences. National trends in
population may not be the same as changes in a
particular region or locality. A nation as large
the United States is bound to vary from one
place to another in rate of population growth.
For example, between 1970 and 1980, the pop­
ulation of the Northeast and North Central
regions increased by 0.2 percent and 4.0 per­
cent, respectively, compared with 20.0 percent
for the South and 23.9 percent in the West
(chart 2). These differences in population
growth reflect the movement of people to find
new jobs, to retire, or for some other reason.
Geographic shifts in the population alter the
demand for and supply of workers in local job
markets. In areas with a growing population,
for example, demand for services such as po­
lice and fire protection, water, and sanitation
will increase. At the same time, in some occu-

Chart 1

Since 1960, the population has grown more slowly
Average annual percent increase

Changes in population are among the basic
factors that will affect employment opportuni­
ties in the future. The demand for workers in
any occupation depends ultimately on the
goods and services sought by the public.
Changes in the size and characteristics of the
population influence the amount and types of
goods and services demanded. Changes in
population also affect the size and characteris­
tics of the labor force—the people who work or

1940- 1945- 195045




1970- 197575



Source: Bureau of the Census


pations more people looking for work in those
areas could increase competition. Individuals
investigating future employment opportunities
in an occupation should remember that local
conditions could differ greatly from national
projections presented in the Handbook.
Sources of information about local job market
conditions can be found in the section, ‘ ‘Where
to Go for More Information.”

Labor Force
The size and characteristics of the labor
force determine the number and type of people
competing for jobs. In addition, because work­
ers are a vital part of the production process,
the size of the labor force affects the amount of
goods and services that can be produced.
Growth, alterations in the age structure, and
rising educational levels are among the labor
force changes that will affect employment op­
portunities through the 1980’s.

always choose those applicants who have the
most education. However, individuals look­
ing for a job should be aware that the higher
educational attainment of the labor force as a
whole could increase competition in many
Persons contemplating dropping out of high
school should recognize that a high school
education has become standard. The educa­
tional attainment of the labor force has risen
from 11.1 years of school in 1952 to 12.7 years
in 1980. Many technical, craft, and office oc­
cupations now require postsecondary vocation­
al education or apprenticeship, because em­
ployers prefer to hire trained applicants rather
than provide training. Thus, high school drop­
outs are likely to be at a serious disadvantage
when seeking jobs that offer better pay or
Traditionally, a college education has been

viewed as a gateway to better pay, higher sta­
tus, and more challenging work. As college
education has become more widespread, the
proportion of workers in the labor force who
have completed at least 4 years of college has
risen from 8 percent in 1952 to 19 percent in
1980. Recent experience has shown, however,
that the traditional view of a college degree as a
guarantee of success has not been matched by
reality. Between 1970 and 1980, employment
of college graduates grew 84 percent. The pro­
portion employed in professional, technical,
and managerial occupations, however, de­
clined because these occupations did not ex­
pand rapidly enough to absorb the growing
supply of graduates. As a result, 1 out of 4
college graduates who entered the labor market
between 1969 and 1978 took jobs not usually
considered by graduates to be appropriate to
their education and abilities. The proportion of
graduates in clerical, lower level sales, and

Growth. The civilian labor force consists of
people with jobs and people looking for jobs.
Through the late 1960’s and the 1970’s, the
number of people in the labor force grew tre­
mendously because many people bom during
the baby boom entered the job market, and
women increasingly sought jobs. In 1980, the
civilian labor force totaled about 105 million
persons—63 percent of the non institutional
population 16 years of age and over.
The labor force will continue to grow during
the 1980’s but at a slower rate than in recent
years. By 1990, the size of the labor force is
expected to range from 122 to 128 million
persons—a projected increase of 17 to 22 per­
cent over the 1980 level. Contributing to this
anticipated growth will be the expansion of the
working age population and the continued rise
in the proportion of women who work. The
labor force will grow more slowly between
1985 and 1990 than in the early 1980’s. This
slowdown will result from a drop in the number
of young people of working age despite contin­
ued growth in the participation rate of women
(charts 3 and 4). A larger labor force will
mean more people looking for jobs. However,
because of shifts in the age structure, the em­
ployment outlook for many individuals will
Age Structure. As a result of the baby boom,
a large number of young people entered the
labor force during the 1970’s, increasing com­
petition for many entry level jobs. As the num­
ber of people between 16 and 24 drops, there
will be fewer first-time entrants into the labor
force, and competition for entry level jobs
should ease. The proportion of 25- to 54-yearolds in the labor force will swell as people bom
during the baby boom get older. The whole
economy should benefit from this change be­
cause workers in this age group generally have
work experience and are, therefore, more pro­
ductive and less likely to be unemployed (chart
Education. Employers always wish to hire
the best qualified persons available at the
offered wage. This does not mean that they

Chart 3

Labor force growth will slow during the 1980’s
Average annual percent increase

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics




Chart 4

The number of women workers will continue to grow faster
than the total labor force
Percent increase from 1960

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

Chart 5

Through the 1980’s, the number of workers in the prime
working ages will grow dramatically
Millions of persons

nance, insurance, and real estate would result
in an increase in demand for white-collar work­
ers (chart 6).
The Bureau of Labor Statistics has prepared
three sets of projections of employment in in­
dustries and occupations. Referred to as the
low-trend, high-trend I, and high-trend II alter­
natives or scenarios, the projections are based
on different assumptions concerning growth of
the labor force, unemployment, output, pro­
ductivity, and other factors. The low-trend pro­
jection assumes a decline in the rate of labor
force growth, moderately high employment
levels throughout the decade, continued high
inflation, and modest increases in production
and productivity. The two high-trend scenarios
are more optimistic, assuming a slowdown of
inflation, and lower unemployment rates than
the low-trend scenario. The high-trend I sce­
nario assumes a faster growth of the labor force
but slower growth of productivity than the
high-trend II scenario. A more detailed discus­
sion of the assumptions and methods used to
develop the three sets of projections can be
found in a separate chapter of the Handbook.
The following sections present employ­
ment estimates from the low-trend and the
higher of the high-trend scenarios. Together
these two estimates define the range of the
projected industry and occupational employ­
ment growth.

Industrial Profile

1970 1980 1990 1990
Low High

1970 1980 1990 1990
Low High

1970 1980 1990 1990
Low High

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

blue-collar occupations grew.


Analysis of the future demand for college
graduates, and of future supply, indicates that
more college graduates will be available than
will be needed to fill jobs that require a college
degree. Not all occupations requiring a college
degree will be overcrowded, however. Systems
analysts, programmers, and engineers are ex­
amples of occupations where college graduates
are expected to be in very strong demand.

The previous sections discussed trends in the
population and the labor force—two factors
that affect employment opportunities. Others
factors include the policies of the Federal Gov­
ernment, the rate of inflation, and the availabil­
ity of energy. Changes in these and related
factors affect the amount and type of goods and
services that will be demanded in the future. If
the demand for an industry’s output increases in
the future, more workers generally will be
hired to increase production, and employment
in the industry will grow. Growth in an occupa­
tion is closely related to the growth rates of
industries in which the occupation is found.
For example, growth in the construction indus­
try would result in an increase in employment
of blue-collar workers, as would growth in
mining, manufacturing, or transportation—in­
dustries that also employ a high proportion of
blue-collar workers. Likewise, growth in fi­

But despite widespread publicity about the
overall poor job market for college graduates,
graduates still have an advantage over other
workers. They are more likely to be employed
and to hold the highest paying professional and
managerial jobs. Persons interested in occupa­
tions that require a college degree should not be
discouraged from pursuing a career that they
believe matches their interests and abilities, but
they should be aware of job market conditions.

To discuss employment trends and projec­
tions in industries, it is useful to divide the
economy into nine industrial sectors under two
broad groups—service-producing industries
and goods-producing industries. Over twothirds of the Nation’s workers currently are
employed in industries that provide services
such as health care, trade, education, repair
and maintenance, government, transportation,
banking, and insurance. Industries that pro­
duce goods through farming, construction,
mining, and manufacturing employ less than
one-third of the country’s work force.
Service-Producing-Industries. Employment
in service-producing industries has increased at
a faster rate than employment in goods-produc­
ing industries (chart 7). Among the factors that
have contributed to this rapid growth are rising
incomes and living standards that result in
greater demand for education, health care, en­
tertainment, and business and financial ser­
vices. In addition, the growth of cities and
suburbs brought a need for more local govern­
ment services. Further, because many services
involve personal contact, fewer people have
been replaced by machines in service-produc­
ing industries.
Employment in service-producing indus­
tries is expected to increase from 65.7 million
workers in 1980 to between 78.7 and 83.5
million in 1990, or by 20 to 27 percent. Growth
will vary among industries within the group
(chart 8). The following paragraphs summa­
rize recent trends and the projections of em15

ployment in the five industrial sectors that
make up the service-producing industries.

tance to finance the expansion of their plants
and the purchase of new equipment.

Transportation, communications, and pub­
lic utilities. This is the slowest growing sec­
tor of the service-producing industries. Be­
tween 1970 to 1980, employment in this
sector increased only one-third as fast as in
the service-producing industries as a whole,
due largely to declining employment require­
ments in the railroad and water transportation
industries. However, even in the communica­
tions industries where demand increased
greatly, technological innovations limited
employment growth.

Services. This sector includes a variety of
industries, such as hotels, barber shops, auto­
mobile repair shops, business services, hospi­
tals, and nonprofit organizations. Employment
in this sector increased 37 percent between
1970 and 1980. High demand for health care,
maintenance and repair, advertising, and com­
mercial cleaning services has been among the
forces behind this growth.

Between 1980 and 1990, employment in the
transportation, communication, and public
utilities sector is expected to rise from 5.5
million to between 6.5 and 7.1 million work­
ers, or by 12 to 22 percent. Communications
industries will grow 14 to 27 percent, from 1.4
million to between 1.5 and 1.7 million work­
ers. More efficient communications equipment
is likely to keep employment from growing as
rapidly as output.
Although employment in railroad and water
transportation industries is expected to decline,
other transportation industries such as air, local
transit, and trucking will increase. Employ­
ment in transportation as a whole will rise by
12 to 18 percent, from 3.6 million to between
4.1 and 4.3 million workers.

From 1980 to 1990, employment in service
industries is expected to increase from 26.2
million to between 31.6 and 33.5 million work­
ers or by 20 to 28 percent, and will provide
more new jobs than any other industry sector.
Employment requirements in health care are
expected to grow rapidly due to population
growth—particularly the elderly—rising in­
comes and increased health insurance coverage

that increase people’s ability to pay for medical
care. Business services, including accounting,
data processing, and maintenance, also are ex­
pected to grow rapidly.
Government. Increase demand for services
provided by government—administration,
health and welfare and police and fire protec­
tion—caused employment in the government
sector to rise about 36 percent between 1970
and 1980. Employment in State and local gov­
ernments expanded 47 percent compared to 13
percent for the Federal Government.
As a result of public desire to limit gov­
ernment growth, employment is expected to
rise only 14 to 16 percent, from 7.9 million
to between 9 and 9.1 million workers. Most
of this growth will be in State and local
Goods-Producing Industries. Employment
in goods-producing industries rose only 10 per-

Chart 6

Industries differ substantially in the kinds of workers
they employ
Blue-collar workers 5.1%

Service workers 1.0%

Demand for electric power, gas utilities, and
water and sanitary services will increase
through the 1990’s as population and industry
grow. Employment in industries that deliver
these services is expected to increase from
834,000 to between 910,000 and 1.1 million
workers, or by 9 to 30 percent.
Trade. Both wholesale and retail trade em­
ployment have increased as the population has
grown and as rising incomes have enabled peo­
ple to buy a great number and variety of goods.
Retail trade grew slightly faster than wholesale
trade during the 1970’s, 38 percent compared
to 32 percent—reflecting the growth of shop­
ping centers as the suburbs expanded. Between
1980 and 1990, wholesale and retail trade em­
ployment is expected to grow from 20.6 mil­
lion to between 25.1 and 26.8 million workers,
or by 22 to 31 percent. Employment will con­
tinue to increase faster in retail than in whole­
sale trade, 24 to 31 percent compared with 17
to 28 percent. Employment will rise despite the
use of some laborsaving innovations such as
self-service merchandising and computerized
inventory systems.

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

Chart 7

Industries providing services employ more people
than those providing goods
Workers (millions)1

Finance, insurance, and real estate. This
sector grew 42 percent between 1970 and 1980
as these industries expanded to meet the fi­
nancial and banking needs of a growing
Between 1980 and 1990, employment in this
section is expected to rise from 5.2 million to
between 6.5 and 6.9 million workers, or by 26
to 34 percent. A growing population will keep
demand high for credit and other financial ser­
vices. In addition, businesses will need assis­



’ Wage and salary workers, except for agriculture, which includes self-employed and unpaid fam ily workers
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics


while a moderate rise in employment is pro­
jected for the paper industry. Among durable
goods, computer equipment manufacturing is
expected to undergo a rapid employment in­
crease, while sawmills will employ about the
same number of workers in 1990 as in 1980.

Chart 8

Through the 1980’s, changes in employment will vary
widely among industries
Projected range of employment growth, 1980-90 (millions)1






Customarily, occupations are divided into
white-collar occupations—professional and
technical, managerial, clerical, and sales jobs;
blue-collar occupations—craft, operative, and
laborer jobs; service occupations; and farm

Transportation, communications,
and public utilities
Finance, insurance, and real estate
'W age and salary workers, except for agriculture, which includes self-employed and unpaid family workers
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

cent between 1970 and 1980. Growth varied
greatly by industry, however. Between 1980
and 1990, employment in goods-producing in­
dustries is expected to increase from 29 million
to between 32.5 and 35.5 million workers, or
by 13 to 22 percent. Significant variation in
growth rates is expected to continue among the
four sectors that make up this group (chart 8).
Agriculture. Employment in agriculture de­
clined 7 percent between 1970 and 1980, while
farm output increased through the use of more
and better machinery, fertilizers, feeds, pesti­
cides, and hybrid plants.
Domestic demand for food will increase
only slightly through the 1980’s. The world­
wide demand for food will rise because of
population growth, and exports of food will
increase through the next decade. Farm pro­
ductivity, however, will continue to improve—
although more slowly than in the past—and
employment is expected to decline even as
production rises. Between 1980 and 1990, em­
ployment is projected to drop from 3.1 million
to between 2.6 and 2.9 million workers, or by 7
to 16 percent.
Mining, Having declined through most of
the 1960’s, employment in the mining sector
increased substantially during the 1970’s. Em­
ployment rose about 65 percent between 1970
and 1980, mostly because of the country’s
renewed emphasis on developing energy
As the development of fuel resources, espe­
cially coal, continues through the next decade,
employment in the mining sector is expected to
grow from 1 million to between 1.2 and 1.3
million workers, or by 20 to 30 percent. In
some nonenergy industries such as iron ore
mining, employment will grow more slowly
than in the sector as a whole. Improvements in
mining techniques in these industries will per­
mit increased output with only a slight increase
in employment.

Occupational Profile

Contract construction. Despite several eco­
nomic slumps, employment rose 25 percent
between 1970 and 1980, because of strong
demand for houses, apartments, office build­
ings, and highways.
During the 1980’s, the demand for new
housing is expected to remain high as the num­
ber of households continues to increase. Busi­
ness expansion and maintenance of existing
buildings also will require more construction.
Between 1980 and 1990, employment in the
construction sector is expected to increase from
4.5 million to between 5.6 and 6 million work­
ers, or 24 to 34 percent.
Manufacturing. Although a growing popu­
lation and rising incomes increased demand for
almost all types of goods, improved production
methods and stiff foreign competition limited
employment growth in many manufacturing
industries during the 1970’s. In fact, the growth
in employment over the decade, 5 percent, was
less than in any other sector except agriculture.
Manufacturing employment is expected to
rise to between 23.3 and 25.3 million workers
by 1990, a 15- to 24-percent increase from the
1980 level of 20.4 million.
Manufacturing is divided into two broad
categories, durable goods manufacturing and
nondurable goods manufacturing. Employ­
ment in durable goods manufacturing is ex­
pected to increase 19 to 30 percent as rising
population and incomes increase demand for
consumer durables, such as automobiles and
appliances, and rising business investment in­
creases demand for capital goods, such as
machinery. Employment in nondurable goods
manufacturing will increase more slowly, by 8
to 15 percent, reflecting the tendency of con­
sumers to spend less of their budget on staples
such as food and clothing as their incomes rise.
Growth rates will vary among individual
industries within each of these categories. In
nondurable goods industries, for example, em­
ployment in bakeries is expected to decline,

Growth rates among these groups have dif­
fered markedly since 1960. White-collar work­
ers now represent about half of the total labor
force up from 43 percent in 1960 (chart 9).
The number of service workers also has risen
rapidly, while the blue-collar work force has
grown only slowly and farm workers have de­
clined. The following section describes ex­
pected changes among the broad occupational
groups between 1980 and 1990 (chart 10).
Professional and technical workers. This
category includes many highly trained work­
ers, such as scientists and engineers, medical
practitioners, teachers, entertainers, pilots,
and accountants. Between 1980 and 1990, em­
ployment is expected to grow from 16.4 mil­
lion to between 19.7 and 20.7 million workers,
or by 20 to 26 percent.
Greater efforts in energy development and
industrial production will contribute to a
growing demand for scientists, engineers, and
technicians. The medical professions can be
expected to grow as the health services industry
expands. The demand for systems analysts and
programmers to further develop and utilize
computer resources is projected to grow
Some occupations in this group will offer
less favorable job prospects. For example, em­
ployment of secondary and college and univer­
sity faculty is expected to decrease somewhat
as a result of declining school enrollments.
Other jobs, such as lawyer or architect, are
expected to grow substantially but will be
very competitive because they attract many
Managers and administrators. This group
includes workers such as bank officers and
managers, buyers, credit managers, and selfemployed business operators, between 1980
and 1990, this group is expected to grow from
9.4 million to between 10.6 and 11.3 million,
or by 13 to 21 percent.
Changes in business size and organizational
structure have resulted in differing trends for
self-employed and salaried managers. The
number of self-employed business managers
will continue to decline as large corporations
and chain operations increasingly dominate
many areas of business. Some small busi­
nesses, such as quick-service groceries and
fast-food restaurants, still will provide oppor­
tunities for self-employment, however. The
demand for salaried managers will continue to

dising techniques such as computerized check­
out counters, more stores and longer operating
hours will cause employment to increase.

Chart 9

W hite-collar workers have been the largest
occupational group for more than two decades
Workers (millions)




Chart 10

Through the 1980’s, changes in employment will vary
widely among occupational groups
Projected range of employment growth, 1980-90 (millions)

Professional and technical workers
Managers and administrators
Sales workers
Clerical workers
Craft workers
Operatives, except transport
Transport operatives
Private household workers (Nogrowth)
Other service workers
Farm workers

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

grow as firms increasingly depend on trained
management specialists, particularly in highly
technical areas of operation.
Clerical workers. This group constitutes the
largest occupational group and includes bank
tellers, bookkeepers and accounting clerks,
cashiers, secretaries, and typists. Between
1980 and 1990, employment in these occupa­
tions is expected to grow from 18.9 million to
between 22.4 and 23.9 million workers, or by
19 to 27 percent.
Although new developments in computers,
office machines, and dictating equipment will
enable clerical workers to do more work in less
time and will change the skills needed in some
jobs, continued growth in employment is ex­
pected in most clerical occupations. Excep­
tions are keypunch operators, stenographers,
and airline reservation and ticket agents—
occupations that are expected to decline as

Employment in many craft occupations is
tied to trends in a particular industry. Employ­
ment in nearly all construction trades, for ex­
ample, is expected to grow because of high
demand for residential construction and busi­
ness investment in new plants.
In contrast, the long-run employment de­
cline in the railroad industry will lessen the
demand for some craft occupations concen­
trated in that industry, such as railroad and car
shop repairers. Because of advances in printing
technology, very little growth is anticipated in
the printing crafts.

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

Craft workers. This group includes a wide
variety of highly skilled workers, such as car­
penters, tool-and-die makers, instrument mak­
ers, all-round machinists, electricians, and
automobile mechanics. Between 1980 and
1990, employment in this group is expected to
increase from 12.4 million to between 14.6 to
15.8 million, or by 18 to 27 percent.

improved technology reduces the need for
workers. Conversely, the more extensive use of
computers will greatly increase the employ­
ment of computer and peripheral equipment
Sales workers. These workers are employed
primarily by retail stores, manufacturing and
wholesale firms, insurance companies, and
real estate agencies. Employment in this group
is expected to grow from 6.8 million to be­
tween 8.1 and 8.8 million workers, or by 19 to
28 percent.
Much of this growth will be due to expan­
sion in the retail trade industry which employs
nearly one-half of these workers. The demand
for both full- and part-time sales workers in
retail trade is expected to increase as the
growing population along with its geographic
movement requires more shopping centers and
stores. Despite the use of laborsaving merchan­

Operatives except transport. This group in­
cludes production workers such as assemblers,
production painters, and welders. Between
1980 and 1990, employment is expected to rise
from 10.7 million to between 12.2 and 13.2
million workers, or by 14 to 23 percent.
Employment of operatives is tied closely to
the production of goods, because the majority
of these workers are employed in manufactur­
ing industries. The projected slow growth of
some manufacturing industries, along with im­
proved production processes, will hold down
the demand for many of these workers. Em­
ployment of textile operatives, for example, is
expected to decline as more machinery is used
in the textile industry.
Transport operatives. This group includes
workers who drive buses, trucks, taxis, and
forklifts, as well as parking attendants and
sailors. Employment in most of these occupa­
tions will increase because of greater use of
most types of transportation equipment. Some
occupations, such as bus driver and sailor, will
grow only slowly. Between 1980 and 1990,
employment of transport operatives is expected
to rise from 3.5 million to between 4.2 and 4.4
million workers, or by 18 to 26 percent.
Laborers. This group includes such workers
as garbage collectors, construction laborers,
and freight and stock handlers. Employment in
this group is expected to grow slowly as ma­
chinery increasingly replaces manual labor.
Power-driven equipment, such as forklift
trucks, cranes, and hoists will handle more
material in factories, loading docks, and ware­
houses. Other machines will do excavating,
ditch digging, and similar work. Between 1980
and 1990, employment of laborers is expected
to increase from 5.9 million to between 6.7 and
7.1 million workers or by 14 to 22 percent.
Private household service workers. These

workers include housekeepers, child care
workers, and maids and servants. In contrast
to the rapid employment growth expected for
other service occupations, the number of pri­
vate household workers is projected to remain
about the same as in 1980 when employment
was 988,000. Although demand for maids and
other private household workers should rise as
more women work outside the home and per­
sonal incomes rise, fewer people are expected
to seek these jobs because of the low wages,
lack of advancement opportunities, and low
social status associated with the work.
Service workers. This group includes a wide
range of worker—firefighters, janitors, cosme­
tologists, and bartenders are a few examples.
These workers, most of whom are employed in
service-producing industries, make up the
fastest growing occupational group. Factors
expected to increase the need for these workers
are the rising demand for health services as
the population becomes older and—as incomes
rise—more frequent use of restaurants, beauty
salons, and leisure services. Between 1980 and
1990, employment of service workers is ex­
pected to increase by about 24 to 32 percent,
from 14.6 million between 18.1 and 19.2 mil­
lion workers.
Farm workers. This group includes farmers
and farm managers as well as farm laborers.
Employment of these workers has declined for
decades as farm productivity has increased as a
result of fewer but larger farms, the use of more
efficient machinery, and the development of
new feeds, fertilizers, and pesticides. Between
1980 and 1990 the number of farmworkers is
expected to decline from 2.7 million to be­
tween 2.4 and 2.2 million workers, or by be­
tween 10 and 18 percent.

Job Openings
Projected employment growth is one indica­
tor of future job prospects because it identifies
the occupations in which demand for workers
is increasing. Another is the total number of
job openings that are expected to be generated
from replacement needs as well as employment

growth. Replacement needs result from the
constant changes occurring in the work force as
workers transfer to other jobs or stop working.
Some workers transfer to other occupations
either as a step up the career ladder or to change
careers. Some workers temporarily stop work­
ing, perhaps to return to school or care for a
family. And some workers leave the labor force
permanently. These movements result in job
openings for people outside the occupation.
When these replacement needs are considered
it becomes apparent that even occupations in
which employment is expected to decline or
to increase slowly can offer many job

which they could transfer. They also have in­
vested a great deal of time and money in pre­
paring for their careers. As a result the replace­
ment rate is much higher for laborers than for
In the past, the Bureau’s estimates of re­
placement needs included only job openings
due to deaths and retirements. These esti­
mates understated replacement needs because
they excluded openings that are created as
workers leave the labor force temporarily to
return to school and for other personal rea­
sons. They also excluded the number of
openings that are generated as workers
change occupations. After several years of
research, the Bureau has developed openings
estimates that take account of these factors.
These new estimates should provide a more
accurate picture of job opportunities resulting
from replacement needs. Detailed informa­
tion about the new estimates of replacement
openings will be presented in the forthcom­
ing bulletin, Occupational Projections and
Training Data, 1982 Edition.

The number of replacement openings varies
among occupations (chart 11). These vari­
ations reflect differences in the average age of
workers in the occupation, the earnings and
status associated with the job, and the level of
required training. Construction laborers, for
example, can quit and later easily find a similar
or better job. On the other hand, physicians
have few occupations of equal status and pay to

Chart 11

Replacement needs result from occupational transfers
and labor force separations
Average annual replacement needs, 1980-90 (m illions)1





Professional and technical workers
Managers and administrators
Sales workers
Clerical workers
Craft workers
Operatives, except transport
Transport operatives
Private household workers
Other service workers
Farm workers

1Based on low-trend projections
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

Labor force separations


Assumptions and Methods Used in
Preparing Employment Projections
Although the discussions of future em­
ployment contained in the Handbook are
written in qualitative terms, they are based
on quantitative estimates developed using the
most recent data available on population, in­
dustry and occupational employment, pro­
ductivity, consumer expenditures, and other
factors expected to affect employment. The
Bureau’s staff specializing in developing eco­
nomic and employment projections provided
much of these data, but many other agencies
of the Federal Government were important
contributors as well, including the Bureau of
Apprenticeship and Training of the Depart­
ment of Labor; the Bureau of the Census of
the Department of Commerce; the National
Center for Education Statistics and the Reha­
bilitation Services Administration of the De­
partment of Education; the Office of Person­
nel Management; the Interstate Commerce
Commission; the Civil Aeronautics Board;
the Federal Communications Commission;
the Department of Transportation; and the
National Science Foundation.
In addition, experts in industry, unions, pro­
fessional societies, and trade associations fur­
nished data and supplied information through
interviews. Many of these individuals also re­
viewed preliminary drafts of the statements.
The information presented in each statement
thus reflects the knowledge and judgment not
only of the Bureau of Labor Statistics staff, but
also of leaders in the field discussed. The Bu­
reau, of course, takes full responsibility for the
published material.
Information compiled from these sources
was analyzed in conjunction with alternative
projections of the economy to 1990 constructed
as part of the Bureau’s projections program.
Like other models used in projecting economic
and employment development, the Bureau’s
system encompasses the major facets of the
economy and represents a comprehensive view
of its projected structure. It is comprised of a
series of closely related projections encom­
passing labor force; gross national product
(GNP); industrial output and productivity;
average weekly hours of work; and employ­
ment for detailed industry groups and occupa­
tions. A detailed description of the model sys­
tem appears in The BLS Economic Growth
Model System Used for Projections to 1990,
Bulletin 2112. For more detail on the projec­
tions used in developing this report, see the


August 1981 issue of the Monthly Labor
Assumptions. The Bureau has prepared three
different scenarios of economic growth
through the 1980’s. Each alternative is based
on the following general assumptions.
—Energy prices will not rise dramatically and alter
the growth of GNP.
—The institutional framework of the U.S. economy
will not change radically.
— Current social, technological, and scientific trends
will continue.
—No major event such as widespread or long-lasting
energy shortages or war will significantly alter the
industrial structure of the economy or alter the rate of
economic growth.
— Federal grants-in-aid to State and local govern­
ments will decline.
— Federal expenditures will decline as a proportion
of GNP.

The differences among the scenarios reflect
different sets of specific assumptions about
fiscal and demographic factors, as well as pro­
ductivity, employment, and price levels
through the decade. The low-trend projection
is characterized by assumptions of continuing
high inflation, low productivity growth, and
moderate expansion in real production. The
high-trend I version assumes marked improve­
ment in both inflation and productivity, greater
labor force growth, and higher real production.
Finally, the high-trend II version alternative
assumes labor force growth consistent with the
low trend, but greater productivity gains and
less inflation than in the high-trend I version.
Detailed information about the assumptions
used in these projections is presented in BLS
Projections to 1990, Bulletin 2121.
Methods. Beginning with population projec­
tions by age and sex developed by the Bureau
of the Census, a projection of the total labor
force is derived using expected labor force
participation rates for each population group.
In developing participation rates, the Bureau
takes into account a variety of factors that affect
decisions to enter the labor force, such as
school attendance, retirement practices, and
family responsibilities.
The labor force projection is then translated
into the level of GNP that would be produced
by the labor force at the assumed employment

and unemployment levels. Real GNP then is
calculated by subtracting unemployment from
the labor force and multiplying the result by a
projection of output per worker. The estimates
of future output per worker are based on an
analysis of trends in productivity (output per
workhour) among industries and changes in
average weekly hours of work.
Next, the projection of GNP is divided
among its major components: Consumer ex­
penditures, investment, government expendi­
tures— Federal, State, and local—and net ex­
ports. These estimates of GNP by major
component are derived using an economic
model and by making assumptions about fiscal
policy, taxes, and other major economic varia­
bles. Each of these major GNP components is
in turn broken down by producing industry.
Consumer expenditures, for example, are di­
vided among industries producing goods and
services such as housing, food, automobiles,
medical care and education.
Once estimates are developed for these
products and services, they are translated into
detailed projections of industry output, not
only for the industries producing the final prod­
uct—such as an automobile—but also for the
industries that provide electric power, transpor­
tation, component parts, and other inputs re­
quired in the production process. Input-output
tables developed by the Department of Com­
merce and modified by the BLS are used to
estimate output.
By using estimates of future output per
workhour based on studies of productivity and
technological trends for each industry, industry
employment projections are derived from the
output estimates. In addition, many detailed
industries are studied using regression analy­
sis. In these studies, equations are developed
that relate employment by industry to combina­
tions of economic variables, such as population
and income, that are considered determinants
of long-run changes in employment. The in­
dustry employment projections developed
through these studies are evaluated with data
generated by the basic model to develop the
final industry employment projections. They
also are used to develop projections for indus­
tries that are not included in the basic model.
Occupational employment projections. Pro­
jections of industry employment are translated
into occupational employment projections us­
ing an industry-occupation matrix. The Bureau

converted the National Industry-Occupational
Employment Matrix from a Census base to
an Occupational Employment Statistics
(OES) survey base in 1981; this edition of
the Handbook is the first to incorporate the
OES data. The new matrix is divided into
378 industries and about 1,600 occupations,
offering far greater detail than has been avail­
able on the current and projected employment
structure of the economy.
Staffing patterns that reflect data from the
OES surveys are projected to the target year
(currently 1990) and, when applied to projec­
tions of total employment by industry and
summed across all industries, yield employ­
ment projections for all occupations in the
matrix. Thus, the projected employment of
an occupation is determined by changes in
the proportion of workers in the occupation
in each industry, and the growth rate of in­
dustries in which an occupation is concentrat­
ed. For example, employment in an occupa­
tion would be projected to grow: (1) if its
proportion of the work force increases but
industry employment remains constant, or (2)
if its proportion of the work force remains

constant but industry employment increases.
In some cases, employment is projected on
the basis of its relationship to certain inde­
pendent variables rather than on its represen­
tation in each industry. This approach is par­
ticularly useful when projecting employment
for an occupation that is affected by its own
complex set of factors. For example, employ­
ment of elementary school teachers is pro­
jected based on trends in pupil-teacher ratios
applied to projected school attendance, and
the projection of automobile mechanics is
based on the expected stock of motor vehi­
cles. Projections that are developed inde­
pendently are compared with those in the
matrix and revised, if necessary, to assure
Replacement needs. In addition to a projec­
tion of employment, an estimate is made of the
total number of job openings expected to occur
in each occupation. Growth in the size of an
occupation is only one source of job openings.
Employment opportunities also occur when
workers transfer to another occupation, leave
the labor force temporarily, retire, or die.

In previous editions of the Handbook, esti­
mates of replacement needs reflected only
openings due to permanent labor force sepa­
rations. They did not take into account job
openings created by the movement of work­
ers between occupations or by workers who
temporarily stop working for school, family,
or other reasons. These estimates seriously
understated replacement needs for many oc­
cupations, thereby hindering an accurate as­
sessment of job market conditions in specific
Using longitudinal data from the Current
Population Survey (CPS), estimates of job
openings from all sources have been derived
that should provide a more comprehensive
view of the demand for workers through the
The development of job openings informa­
tion based on CPS data is described in Measur­
ing Labor Force Movements: A New Ap­
proach, BLS Report 581. Detailed job open­
ings information for some of the occupations
covered in the Handbook will be presented in
the forthcoming BLS bulletin, Occupational
Projections and Training Data, 1982 Edition.


Administrative and Managerial
Managers and administrators achieve orga­
nizational objectives by planning and direct­
ing the activities of others. In a very small
enterprise, the owner may also be the man­
ager. However, as a business or other organi­
zation grows and becomes more complex,
more people are needed to oversee the oper­
ations of the work force. Large corporations
or government agencies may employ hun­
dreds of managers, organized into a hierarchy
of administrative positions.
Top level managers—executives—are pri­
marily concerned with policymaking, plan­
ning, and overall coordination. They direct
the activities of the organization through de­
partmental or mid-level managers. Top level
managers include school superintendents, po­
lice and fire chiefs, bank presidents, gover­
nors, mayors, hospital administrators, chief
executive officers of corporations, depart­
ment store managers, and government agency
Below the top management in a large orga­
nization are the middle managers, who direct
various departments. Middle managers may
handle a particular area, such as personnel,
accounting, sales, finance, or marketing. Or
they may supervise the production process at
a factory or industrial plant. Middle manag­
ers are the people who keep things running
smoothly. They organize activities at the op­
erating level and provide direct supervision.
Middle managers work with the assistance
of support personnel who plan, organize,
analyze, and monitor activities. Support per­
sonnel include accountants, loan officers,
employment interviewers, purchasing agents
and buyers, credit managers, membership di­
rectors, promotion agents, and inspectors of
all kinds. Jobs such as these require technical
expertise or a thorough understanding of a
particular procedure or operation.
Managers and administrators are employed
in virtually every type of industrial plant,
commercial enterprise, and government agen­
cy. Large numbers are employed in finance,
insurance, real estate, construction, public
administration, health, education, transporta­
tion, and public utilities.
The accompanying table presents 1980
employment estimates for selected adminis­
trative and managerial occupations.
Because of the wide range of establish­
ments employing managers, job duties vary
greatly. For example, the manager of a fast
food restaurant performs tasks that differ sub­
stantially from those of a school administra­
tor, community organization director, or con­
struction manager.


As the nature of the work varies, so does
the level of education required. Some manag­
ers and administrators, including school prin­
cipals and hospital administrators, need at
least a master’s degree. Positions such as
these require the specialized knowledge and
skills obtained through years of formal edu­
cation. Other positions, including production
supervisor, retail buyer, construction man­
ager, and maintenance superintendent, may
not require a college degree. People in these
jobs often have worked their way up in the
organization. Their main qualification is a
thorough knowledge of the operating proce­
dures of the workplace. Most managerial and
administrative positions require a college
education, however. In some occupations—
such as accounting—continuing education is
important for career advancement.
On-the-job training enables workers with
management potential to “ learn the ropes.”
Particularly in wholesale and retail trade,
many managers begin as management train­
ees, working under the direction of more
experienced managers. Management trainees
may be hired from outside the organization
or promoted from other positions within it.
On-the-job training programs provide train­
ees with the specific knowledge and exper­
ience they need to perform successfully.
Despite the differences in formal education
and training, successful managers are likely
to have certain characteristics in common.
Because they work with people, managers
need to be able to get along with and moti­
vate and influence others. They should be
able to inspire confidence and respect in
those who work for them.
When they make plans and set goals for
their enterprise, managers work with ideas.
They need organzational skills, good judg­
ment, and decisionmaking ability. Successful
managers have mastered the art of getting all
the facts, coming to a decision, and commu­
nicating it effectively. They need a strong
sense of initiative to be able to work without
close supervision.
For some administrative positions analyt­
ical, evaluative, and promotional skills are
essential. Accountants, financial analysts,
and others provide the technical expertise
upon which management decisions are based.
Good judgment and the ability to relate to
others are important for people in these
Earnings for managers and administrators
vary widely. They depend on the industry
and on the size and nature of the particular

establishment in which the manager is em­
ployed. Earnings also vary with the level of
managerial or administrative responsibility.
For example, management trainees may start
working at salaries that are not much higher
than those of the people they supervise.
Earnings increase as managers gain expe­
rience, prove their ability to handle the job,
and take on additional responsibility.
On the whole, employment of managers
and administrators is projected to grow about
as fast as the average for all occupations
through the 1980’s. The growing size and
complexity of both private and government
enterprise is expected to require increasingly
sophisticated management techniques. There­
fore, the demand for trained management
specialists will increase.
Employment opportunities will be better in
some industries than in others, however. Lit­
tle employment growth is foreseen in educa­
tional institutions during the 1980’s, and
therefore most job openings for school ad-

Table 1. Employment in selected administrative
and managerial occupations, 1980


Accountants, auditors, and related
Accountant and auditor ........
Tax examiner, collector, and
revenue agent ......................
Restaurant, cafe and bar - .
manager......... -rv. . . . 5 5 7 , 0 0 0
Sales manager, retail trade ..........
Personnel and labor relations
Purchasing agent and buyer ........
Inspector (except construction),
public administration..................
Cost estimator ................................
Employment interviewer................
Construction inspector, public
Assessor ...........................................
Tax preparer....................................
Postmaster and mail
Credit analyst..................................
Special agent, insurance................
Claim examiner, property/casualty
Claim taker, unemployment..........
Media bu y er....................................
Welfare investigator........................
Chief credit analyst........................
Safety inspector..............................
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Administrative and Managerial Occupations/23

ministrators will result from replacement
needs. By contrast, projected expansion in
the health industry will generate many new
managerial and administrative support posi­
tions in hospitals, clinics, nursing homes,
insurance companies, pharmaceutical and
medical supply firms, and other health-relat­
ed organizations. Employment growth should
also be strong in wholesale and retail trade
and in manufacturing.
Both the number and proportion of selfemployed managers and administrators are
expected to decline during the 1980’s, as
large enterprises and chain operations in­
creasingly dominate business activity.

Accountants and
(D .O .T. 160 and 090.227-010)

Nature of the Work
Managers must have up-to-date financial
information to make important decisions. Ac­
countants and auditors prepare and analyze
financial reports that furnish this kind of

Many persons with accounting backgrounds
work for the Federal Government as Internal
Revenue Service agents or are involved in
financial management, financial institution ex­
amining, and budget administration.
Accountants staff the faculties of business
and professional schools as accounting teach­
ers, researchers, or administrators. Some ac­
countants teach part time, work as consultants,
or serve on committees of professional organi­
zations. For additional information, see the
Handbook statement on college and university

Working Conditions
Most accountants and auditors work in of­
fices and have structured work schedules.
Accounting teachers, on the other hand, with
more flexible schedules, divide their time
among teaching, research, and administrative
responsibilities. Self-employed accountants,
who may set up offices at home, work as
many hours as the business requires.
Tax accountants work long hours under
heavy pressure during the tax season. Ac­
countants employed by large firms may travel
extensively to audit or work for clients or
branches of the firm.

About 900,000 people worked as account­
ants and auditors in 1980, including more

than 200,000 Certified Public Accountants
(CPA), 20,000 licensed public accountants,
and about 10,000 Certified Internal Auditors
Most accountants do management account­
ing. Many others are engaged in public ac­
counting as proprietors, partners, or employees
of independent accounting firms. Other ac­
countants work for Federal, State, and local
government agencies, and some teach in col­
leges and universities. Opportunities are plen­
tiful for part-time work, particularly in smaller
Accountants and auditors are found in all
business, industrial, and government organi­
zations. Most, however, work in large urban
areas where many public accounting firms
and central offices of large businesses are

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Training is available at colleges and uni­
versities, accounting and business schools,
and correspondence schools. Although many
graduates of business and correspondence
schools are successful in landing junior ac­
counting positions, most public accounting
and business firms require applicants for ac­
countant and internal auditor positions to
have at least a bachelor’s degree in account­
ing or a closely related field. Many employ -

Three major fields are public, management,
and government accounting. Public account­
ants have their own businesses or work for
accounting firms. Management accountants,
also called industrial or private accountants,
handle the financial records of their company.
Government accountants and auditors examine
the records of government agencies and audit
private businesses and individuals whose deal­
ings are subject to government regulations.
Accountants often concentrate on one phase
of accounting. For example, many public
accountants specialize in auditing (examining
a client’s financial records and reports and
attesting that they are in comformity with
standards of preparation and reporting). Oth­
ers specialize in tax matters, such as preparing
income tax forms and advising clients of the
tax advantages and disadvantages of certain
business decisions. Still others specialize in
management consulting and offer advice on a
variety of matters. They might develop or
revise an accounting system to serve the needs
of clients more effectively or give advice
about various types of computers or electronic
data processing systems.
Management accountants provide the fi­
nancial information executives need to make
sound business decisions. They may work in
areas such as taxation, budgeting, costs, or
investments. Internal auditing, a specializa­
tion within management accounting, is rapid­
ly growing in importance. Internal auditors
examine and evaluate their firm’s financial
systems and management control procedures
to ensure efficient operation.

Accountants need mathematical and analytical skills.

24/Occupational Outlook Handbook

ers prefer those with the master’s degree in
accounting. A growing number of large em­
ployers prefer applicants who are familiar
with computers and their applications in ac­
counting and internal auditing. For beginning
accounting and auditing positions, the Feder­
al Government requires 4 years of college
(including 24 semester hours in accounting or
auditing) or an equivalent combination of
education and experience. However, appli­
cants face competition for the limited number
of openings in the Federal Government. For
teaching positions, most colleges and univer­
sities generally require a doctoral degree or
the Certified Public Accountant Certificate.
Previous experience in accounting or au­
diting can help an applicant get a job. Many
colleges offer students an opportunity to gain
experience through summer or part-time in­
ternship programs conducted by public ac­
counting or business firms. Such training is
invaluable in gaining permanent employment
in the field.
Professional recognition through certifica­
tion or licensure also is extremely valuable.
Anyone working as a ‘‘certified public account­
ant” must hold a certificate and a license issued
by a State board of accountancy. All States use
the four-part Uniform CPA Examination, pre­
pared by the American Institute of Certified
Public Accountants, to establish certification.
The CPA examination is rigorous and candi­
dates are not required to pass all four parts at
once. However, most States require candidates
to pass at least two parts for partial credit.
Many States require all sections of the test to be
passed within a certain period of time. Al­
though the vast majority of States require CPA
candidates to be college graduates, some States
substitute a certain number of years of public
accounting experience for the educational re­
quirement. Most States require applicants to
have some public accounting experience for a
CPA certificate. For example, bachelor’s de­
gree holders most often need 2 years of experi­
ence while master’s degree holders often need
no more than 1 year. Based on recommenda­
tions made by the American Institute of Certi­
fied Public Accountants, a few States now
require or are considering requiring CPA can­
didates to have training beyond a bachelor’s
degree and, in some cases, a master’s degree.
This trend is expected to continue in the com­
ing years.
For a “public accountant” or “accounting
practitioner” license or registration, some
States require only a high school diploma
while others require college training. Infor­
mation on requirements may be obtained di­
rectly from individual State boards of
accountancy or from the National Society of
Public Accountants (NSPA).
The Accreditation Council for Accountan­
cy awards accreditation in accountancy to
persons who have passed a comprehensive
examination. Accreditation is maintained by
completing mandatory continuing education.
The Institute of Internal Auditors, Inc., con­
fers the Certified Internal Auditor (CIA)

upon graduates from accredited colleges and
universities who have completed 3 years’ ex­
perience in internal auditing and who have
passed a four-part examination. The National
Association of Accountants (NAA) confers
the Certificate in Management Accounting
(CMA) upon candidates who pass a series of
uniform examinations and meet specific edu­
cational and professional standards.
Persons planning a career in accounting
should have an aptitude for mathematics, be
able quickly to analyze, compare, and inter­
pret facts and figures, and to make sound
judgments based on this knowledge. They
must question how and why things are done
and be able to clearly communicate the re­
sults of their work, orally and in writing, to
clients and management.
Accountants and auditors must be patient
and able to concentrate for long periods of
time. They must be good at working with
systems and computers as well as with peo­
ple. Accuracy and the ability to handle re­
sponsibility with limited supervision are
Perhaps most important, because millions
of financial statement users rely on the ser­
vices of accountants and auditors, the public
expects accountants and auditors to have high
standards of integrity.
A growing number of States require both
CPA’s and licensed public accountants to
complete a certain number of hours of con­
tinuing education before licenses can be re­
newed. The professional associations repre­
senting accountants sponsor numerous
courses, seminars, group study programs,
and other forms of continuing education. In­
creasingly, accountants and auditors are
studying computer programming so they can
adapt accounting procedures to data process­
ing. Although capable accountants and audi­
tors should advance rapidly, those having
inadequate academic preparation may be as­
signed routine jobs and find promotion
Junior public accountants usually start by
assisting with auditing work for several cli­
ents. They may advance to intermediate posi­
tions with more responsibility in 1 or 2 years
and to senior positions within another few
years. Those who deal successfully with top
industry executives often become supervi­
sors, managers, or partners, or transfer to
executive positions in private firms. Some
open their own public accounting offices.
Beginning management accountants often
start as ledger accountants, junior internal
auditors, or as trainees for technical account­
ing positions. They may advance to chief plant
accountant, chief cost accountant, budget di­
rector, or manager of internal auditing. Some
become controllers, treasurers, financial vicepresidents, or corporation presidents. Many
corporation executives have backgrounds in
accounting and finance.
In the Federal Government, beginners are
hired as trainees and usually are promoted in
a year or so. In college and university teach­

ing, those having minimum training and ex­
perience may receive the rank of instructor
without tenure; advancement and permanent
faculty status depend upon further education
and teaching experience and are increasingly
difficult to attain.

Job Outlook
Employment is expected to grow faster
than the average for all occupations through
the 1980’s due to increasing pressure on
businesses and government agencies to im­
prove budgeting and accounting procedures.
Because the occupation is large, many job
openings should result from the need to re­
place workers who leave the occupation, re­
tire, or die.
Demand for skilled accountants and audi­
tors will rise as managers rely increasingly
on accounting information to make business
decisions. For example, plant expansion,
mergers, or foreign investments may depend
upon the financial condition of the firm, tax
implications of the proposed action, and oth­
er considerations. On a smaller scale, small
businesses are expected to rely more and
more on the expertise of public accountants
in planning their operations. Legislation re­
garding pension reform, tax reform, financial
disclosure, and other matters should create
many jobs for accountants and auditors. In
addition, increases in investment and lending
also should spur demand for accountants and
College graduates will be in greater de­
mand for accounting and auditing jobs than
applicants who lack this training. CPA’s
should have a wider range of job opportuni­
ties than other accountants. Opportunities for
accountants without a college degree will oc­
cur mainly in small businesses and account­
ing firms.
Many employers prefer graduates who
have worked part time in a business or ac­
counting firm while in school. In fact, exper­
ience has become so important that some
employers in business and industry seek per­
sons with 1 or 2 years ’ experience for begin­
ning positions.
The increasing use of computers and elec­
tronic data processing systems in accounting
and auditing should stimulate the demand for
those trained in such procedures. Opportuni­
ties should be particularly good for internal
auditors and tax accountants.

According to a 1980 College Placement
Council Salary Survey, bachelor’s degree
candidates in accounting received offers aver­
aging around $16,800 a year; master’s degree
candidates, $19,200.
The starting salary of beginning account­
ants in private industry was about $15,100 a
year in 1980, according to a national survey.
Earnings of experienced accountants ranged
between $18,400 and $31,900, depending on


their level of responsibility and the complex­
ity of the accounting system. Chief accoun­
tants who direct the accounting program of a
company or one of its establishments earned
between $28,300 and $50,100, depending
upon the scope of their authority and size of
professional staff.
According to the same survey, beginning
auditors averaged $14,900 a year in 1980,
while experienced auditors’ earnings ranged
between $18,000 and $26,800.
In the Federal Government, the starting
annual salary for junior accountants and audi­
tors was about $12,300 in early 1981. Candi­
dates who had a superior academic record
could begin at $15,200. Applicants with a
master’s degree or 2 years’ professional ex­
perience began at $18,600. Accountants and
auditors in the Federal Government averaged
about $27,700 a year in 1980.
According to a 1980 survey of State gov­
ernments, average annual salaries of begin­
ning accountants or auditors ranged from
about $12,800 to $17,400; principal auditors
(work at first level of full supervision),
$18,800 to $25,600; accounting supervisors
(work at first level of full supervision),
$17,300 to $23,700; and chief fiscal officers
(those who administer accounting and fiscal
management programs of large State agen­
cies), $24,000 to $32,400.

Related Occupations
Accountants and auditors design and con­
trol financial records and analyze financial
data. Others for whom training in accounting
is invaluable include appraisers, budget offic­
ers, loan officers, financial analysts, bank
officers, actuaries, underwriters, FBI special
agents, securities sales workers, and purchas­
ing agents.

Bank Officers and
(D .O .T. 186.117-026, -038, -050, -054, -070,-074,
-078, .137-010, .167-014, -050, -054, -058,
and .267-018)

Nature of the Work
Practically every bank has a president who
directs operations; one or more vice presi­
dents who act as general managers or who
are in charge of bank departments such as
trust or credit; and a comptroller or cashier
who, unlike cashiers in stores and other busi­
nesses, is an executive officer generally re­
sponsible for all bank property. Large banks
also may have treasurers and other senior
officers, as well as junior officers, to super­
vise the various sections within different de­
partments. Banks employed over 400,000 of­
ficers and managers in 1980.
Bank officers make decisions within a
framework of policy set by the board of
directors and existing laws and regulations.
They must have a broad knowledge of busi­
ness activities to relate to the operations of
their department. For example, loan officers
evaluate the credit and collateral of individ­
uals and businesses applying for a loan.
Similarly, trust officers must understand each
account before they invest funds to support
families, send young people to college, or
pay retirement pensions. Besides supervising
financial services, officers advise individuals
and businesses and participate in community
Because banks offer many services, a wide
choice of careers is available to workers who
Loan officers may handle installment,
commercial, real estate, or agricultural loans.

Administrative and Managerial Occupations/25

To evaluate loan applications properly, offic­
ers need to be familiar with economics, pro­
duction, distribution, merchandising, and
commercial law. Also, they need to know
business operations and should be able to
analyze an industry’s financial statements.
Bank officers in trust management require
knowledge of financial planning and invest­
ment for investment research and for estate
and trust administration.
Operations officers plan, coordinate, and
control the workflow, update systems, and
strive for administrative efficiency. Careers
in bank operations include electronic data
processing manager and other positions in­
volving internal and customer services.
A correspondent bank officer is responsi­
ble for relations with other banks; a branch
manager, for all functions of a branch office;
and an international officer, for advising cus­
tomers with financial dealings abroad. A
working knowledge of a foreign country’s
financial system, trade relations, and eco­
nomic conditions is beneficial to those inter­
ested in international banking.
Other career fields for bank officers are
auditing, economics, personnel administra­
tion, public relations, and operations research.

Working Conditions
Since a great deal of bank business de­
pends on customers’ impressions, officers
and managers are provided attractive, com­
fortable offices and are encouraged to wear
conservative, somewhat formal, business
clothes. Bank officers and managers typically
work 40 hours a week; however, attending
civic functions, keeping abreast of communi­
ty developments, establishing and maintain­
ing business contacts, and similar activities
are aspects of their jobs that occasionally
require overtime work.

Sources of Additional Information
Information about careers in accounting
and about aptitude tests administered in high
schools, colleges, and public accounting
firms may be obtained from:
American Institute of Certified Public Account­
ants, 1211 Avenue of the Americas, New York,
N.Y. 10036.

Information on specialized fields of ac­
counting and auditing is available from:
National Association of Accountants, 919 Third
Ave., New York, N.Y. 10022.
National Society of Public Accountants and Ac­
creditation Council for Accountancy, 1010 North
Fairfax St., Alexandria, Va. 22314.
Institute of Internal Auditors, 249 Maitland Ave.,
Altamonte Springs, Fla. 32701.

For information on educational institutions
offering a specialization in accounting, con­
American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Busi­
ness, 11500 Olive Blvd., Suite 142, St. Louis,
Mo. 63141.

Bank officers often specialize in one area of bank operations.

26/Occupational Outlook Handbook

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Bank officer and management positions are
filled by management trainees, and by pro­
moting outstanding bank clerks or tellers.
College graduation usually is required for
management trainees. A business administra­
tion major in finance or a liberal arts curricu­
lum, including accounting, economics,
commercial law, political science, and statis­
tics, serves as excellent preparation for offic­
er trainee positions. A Master of Business
Administration (MBA) in addition to a social
science bachelor’s degree, which some em­
ployers prefer, may provide an even stronger
educational foundation. However, banks do
hire people with diverse backgrounds such as
chemical engineering, nuclear physics, and
forestry to meet the needs of complex, hightechnology industries with which they deal.
Valuable experience may be gained through
summer employment programs.
A management or officer trainee may
spend a year or two learning the various
banking areas before choosing a permanent
position. This practice is common but not
universal. A bank may hire an applicant with
specific skills for a position that is clearly
defined at the outset.
Persons interested in becoming bank offic­
ers should like to work independently and to
analyze detailed information. The ability to
communicate, both orally and in writing, is
important. They also need tact and good
judgment to counsel customers and supervise
Advancement to an officer or management
position may come slowly in small banks
where the number of positions is limited. In
large banks that have special training pro­
grams, promotions may occur more quickly.
For a senior officer position, however, an
employee usually needs many years of
Although experience, ability, and leader­
ship are emphasized for promotion, advance­
ment may be accelerated by special study.
Banks often provide opportunities for work­
ers to broaden their knowledge and skills.
Many banks encourage employees to take
courses at local colleges and universities. In
addition, banking associations sponsor a
number of programs, sometimes in coopera­
tion with colleges and universities. The
American Bankers Association (ABA) offers
the most extensive national program for bank
officers. Each of its dozen schools, located
all over the country, deals with a different
phase of banking. Those enrolled prepare
extensively at home, then attend annual ses­
sions of 1 or 2 weeks for a period of 1 to 3
years in areas such as commercial lending,
installment credit, and international banking.
ABA also sponsors annual seminars and con­
ferences and provides textbooks and other
educational materials. Many banks pay all or
part of the costs for those who successfully
complete courses. The American Institute of
Banking, an arm of the ABA, has long filled
the same educational need among bank sup­

port personnel. (See the statements on bank
clerks and bank tellers elsewhere in the
Because banking is an essential part of
business, well-trained, experienced officers
and managers may transfer to closely related
positions in other areas of finance or to posi­
tions within other industries, such as manu­
facturing, that need individuals with banking

Job Outlook
Through the 1980’s, employment of bank
officers is expected to increase faster than the
average for all occupations. Rising costs due
to expanded banking services and the increas­
ing dependence on computers will require
more officers to provide sound management
and effective quality control. Greater interna­
tional trade and investment will stimulate in­
ternational and domestic banking activities,
thus increasing the need for bank officers and
managers. Adding to this increase in demand
due to growth will be the need to replace
experienced officers who die, retire, or leave
their jobs for other reasons.
Because of the increasing number of quali­
fied applicants, competition for bank man­
agerial positions is expected to stiffen. Once
employed, managers and officers are likely to
work year-round, even during periods of
slow economic activity, because cyclical
swings in the economy seem to have little
immediate effect on banking activities.

National Association of Bank Women, Inc., Na­
tional Office, 500 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago,
111. 60611.
National Bankers Association, 499 S. Capitol St.
SW., Suite 520 , Washington, D.C. 20003.

For information about career opportunities
as a bank examiner, contact:
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Director
of Personnel, 550 17th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20429.
Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation,
Office of the General Counsel, 1700 G St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20552.

Information on careers with the Federal
Reserve System is available from:
Board of Governors, The Federal Reserve System,
Personnel Department, Washington, D.C. 20551,
or from the personnel department of the Federal
Reserve bank serving each geographic area.

State bankers’ associations can furnish spe­
cific information about job opportunities in
their State. And writing directly to a particu­
lar bank to inquire about job openings can
produce favorable results. For the names and
addresses of banks in a specific location as
well as the names of their principal officers,
consult one of the following directories,
which are published twice each year:
The American Bank Directory (Norcross, McFadden Business Publications).
Bankers Directory-The Banker’s Blue Book (Chi­
cago, Rand McNally International).
Polk’s World Bank Directory (Nashville, R.L.
Polk & Co.).

Officer trainees at the bachelor’s level gen­
erally earned between $1,100 and $1,300 a
month in 1980. Those with master’s degrees
generally started at between $1,300 and
$1,900 a month. A Master of Business Ad­
ministration, however, appears to be worth
more in salary terms: Graduates with an
MBA were offered starting salaries of $1,400
to $2,400 a month in 1980.
Salaries of senior bank officers may be
several times as much as starting salaries.
The actual salary level depends upon the
particular position and the size and location
of the bank. For officers, as well as for other
bank employees, earnings are likely to be
lower in small towns than in big cities.

Related Occupations
Bank officers and managers combine for­
mal schooling with experience in one or
more areas of banking, such as lending, to
provide services for customers. Other occu­
pations which require similar training and
ability include business representatives, in­
dustrial relations directors, safety council di­
rectors, city managers, export managers, and
purchasing agents.

Sources of Additional Information
General information about banking occu­
pations, training opportunities, and the bank­
ing industry itself is available from:
American Bankers Association, Bank Personnel
Division, 1120 Connecticut Ave. NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20036.

(D .O .T . 162.157-018 and -022)

Nature of the Work
The Americans have been invited to a
private showing of the latest fashions in Par­
is. Representing a major New York depart­
ment store, they sit with a select group in an
elegantly furnished room. They watch grace­
ful models float down the runway displaying
the latest creations by the world’s most fa­
mous designers. After some consultation,
they purchase thousands, perhaps millions of
dollars worth of goods. All in a day’s work.
The job of retail buyer often brings to
mind the glamour of high fashion; indeed,
many fashion buyers do lead exciting, fastpaced lives. Not every buyer, however, trav­
els abroad or deals in fashion. All mer­
chandise sold in a retail store—garden furni­
ture, automobile tires, toys, aluminum pots,
and canned soups—appears there on the deci­
sion of a buyer. Buyers seek goods that satis­
fy their stores’ customers and sell at a profit.
The kind and variety of goods they purchase
depend on the store. A buyer for a small
clothing store, for example, may purchase its
complete stock of merchandise, from sports­
wear to formal wear. Buyers in larger retail
businesses often handle one or a few related
lines of goods, such as men’s wear, ladies’
sportswear, or children’s clothes. Some,

Administrative and Managerial Occupations/27

known as foreign buyers, purchase merchan­
dise outside the United States.
In order to purchase the best merchandise for
their stores, buyers must be familiar with the
manufacturers and distributors who have the
merchandise they need. They also must keep
informed about changes in existing products
and the development of new ones. To do this,
buyers attend fashion and trade shows and visit
manufacturers’ showrooms. They usually or­
der goods during these buying trips, and also
when wholesale and manufacturers’ sales
workers call on them to display their merchan­
Buyers must be able to assess the resale
value of goods after a brief inspection and
make a purchase decision quickly. They try
to select merchandise that will sell quickly at
well above the original cost. Since most buy­
ers work within a fixed budget, they must
plan their purchases to keep needed items
always in stock but also allow for special
purchases when a ‘‘good buy ’’ presents itself.
Because buyers purchase merchandise for
resale (unlike purchasing agents who buy
goods for direct use by the firm—see the
statement on purchasing agents elsewhere in
the Handbook), they must know what moti­
vates customers to buy. Before ordering mer­
chandise, buyers study market research
reports and past sales records to determine
what products are currently in demand. They
also work closely with assistant buyers and
sales clerks whose daily contact with custom­
ers furnishes information about consumer
likes and dislikes. In addition, buyers read
fashion and trade magazines to keep abreast
of style and manufacturing trends, follow
competitors ’ ads in newspapers and other me­
dia, and watch general economic conditions
to anticipate consumer buying patterns.
Buyers are usually supervised by merchan­
dise managers (D.O.T. 185.167-034) who
plan and coordinate buying and selling activi­
ties for large and medium-sized stores. These
individuals are not involved in actual buying
activities. They determine the amount of
merchandise to be stocked, what the markups
and markdowns should be, and plan sales
Buyers and merchandise managers usually
have busy schedules and deal with many
people in a day. They work with manufactur­
ers’ representatives, store executives, assis­
tant buyers, sales workers, and customers.
Buyers assist with sales promotions and cre­
ate enthusiasm among sales personnel, pro­
vide information, such as dress sizes and
product descriptions to the advertising depart­
ment for sales promotions, and meet with
floor sales workers about new merchandise.
Some buyers direct assistants who handle
routine aspects of purchasing such as verify­
ing shipments; others supervise department
New technology has altered the buyer’s
role in retail chainstores. In the past, firms
employed a buyer for each department, for
example, the hardware department, for a

Buyers usually have very busy schedules.

group of stores in a local area. Now cash
registers connected to a computer, known as
point-of-sale terminals, allow retail chains to
maintain centralized, up-to-the-minute inven­
tory records. With these records, a single
buyer can purchase hardware for the entire

Working Conditions
Retailing is a highly competitive business,
and buyers operate under pressure. Anticipat­
ing customers’ preferences and ensuring that
goods are in stock when they are needed is
far from easy, and mistakes can be costly.
The buyer’s job calls for resourcefulness and
good judgment, as well as the self-confidence
to make decisions and take risks. However,
many successful buyers feel that the stimula­
tion and excitement of the job more than
make up for any emotional strain.

Buyers frequently work more than a 40hour week because of special sales, confer­
ences, and travel. The amount of traveling
varies with the type of merchandise and the
location of suppliers, but most spend 4 or 5
days a month on the road.

In 1980, approximately 150,000 buyers
worked for retail firms. Although buyers
work in all parts of the country, most are in
major metropolitan areas where retail stores
are concentrated.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Because familiarity with merchandise and
with the retailing business is important for
buyers, prior retailing experience is helpful in

28/Occupational Outlook Handbook

getting a job. High school distributive educa­
tion programs have launched careers in retail­
ing that led eventually to a buyer’s position.
(More information about distributive educa­
tion appears in the statement on retail trade
sales workers elsewhere in the Handbook.)
An increasing number of employers prefer
applicants who have a college degree. Many
colleges and universities offer associate de­
gree or bachelor’s degree programs in mar­
keting and purchasing. Postsecondary
training also is offered in vocational schools
or technical institutes that prepare students
for careers in fashion merchandising.
While courses in merchandising or market­
ing may help in getting started in retailing,
they are not essential. Most employers accept
college graduates in any field of study and
train them on the job. Many stores have 6- to
8-month programs for buyer trainees. They
combine classroom instruction in merchan­
dising and purchasing with short rotations to
various jobs in the store. This training intro­
duces the new worker to store operations and
policies, and to the fundamentals of merchan­
dising and management.
Most trainees begin as assistant buyers,
selling merchandise, supervising sales work­
ers, checking invoices on material received,
and keeping account of stock on hand. They
gradually assume buying responsibilities.
They usually work as assistant buyers for at
least a year before becoming buyers. Expe­
rienced buyers may advance to merchandise
manager and some advance to executive jobs
such as general merchandise manager for a
store or chain.
Buyers should be good at planning and
decisionmaking and have an interest in mer­
chandising. They need leadership ability and
communications skills to supervise sales
workers and assistant buyers and to deal ef­
fectively with manufacturers’ representatives
and store executives. Because of the fast
pace and pressure of their work, buyers need
physical stamina and emotional stability.

Job Outlook
Employment of buyers is expected to grow
about as fast as the average for all occupa­
tions through the 1980’s as the retail trade
industry, where buyers work, expands in re­
sponse to a growing population and higher
personal incomes. Besides jobs that will be
created by increased demand for buyers,
many job openings will arise each year from
the need to replace workers who transfer to
other occupations, retire, or die.
Competition for buying jobs is expected to
be keen, for merchandising attracts many col­
lege graduates. Prospects are likely to be best
for qualified applicants who enjoy the com­
petitive, fast-paced nature of retailing.

Income of buyers depends upon the
amount and type of product purchased, the
employer’s sales volume and, to some extent,
the buyers’ seniority. Buyers for discount de­
partment stores and other mass merchandisers

and those who buy centrally for large chain
department stores are among the most highly
paid. Most buyers earned between $19,000
and $28,000 a year in 1980.
Buyers often earn cash bonuses based on
their performance. In addition, many stores
have incentive plans, such as profit sharing
and stock options.

Related Occupations
Workers in other occupations who need a
knowledge of marketing and the ability to
assess consumer demand are sales managers,
comparison shoppers, manufacturers’ sales
representatives, insurance sales agents,
wholesale trade sales representatives, and
travel agents.

Sources of Additional Information
General information about a career in re­
tailing is available from:
National Retail Merchants Association, 100 West
31st St., New York, N.Y. 10001.

Information on schools that teach retailing
is available from:
U.S. Department of Education, Division of Vocational/Technical Education, Washington, D.C.
National Association of Trade and Technical
Schools, 2021 K St. NW., Washington, D.C.

City Managers
(D .O .T. 188.117-114)

Nature of the Work
Population growth and industrial expan­
sion place increasing pressure on housing,
transportation, recreation, and other facilities
of cities. Problems associated with the
growth of modem communities, such as air
and water pollution and rising crime rates,
also demand attention. To cope effectively
with these problems, many communities hire
a specialist in management techniques—the
city manager.
A city manager usually is appointed by the
community’s elected officials and is responsi­
ble directly to them. Although duties vary by
city size, city managers generally administer
and coordinate the day-to-day operations of
the city. They are responsible for functions
such as tax collection and disbursement, law
enforcement, and public works. They also
hire department heads and their staffs and
prepare the annual budget to be approved by
elected officials. In addition, they study cur­
rent problems, such as housing, traffic con­
gestion, or crime, and report their findings to
the elected council.
City managers must plan for future growth
and development of cities and surrounding
areas. To provide for an expansion of public
services, they frequently appear at civic
meetings to advocate certain programs or to
inform citizens of current government
City managers work closely with planning
departments to coordinate new and existing

programs. In smaller cities that have no per­
manent planning staff, coordination may be
done entirely by the manager.
To aid the city manager, many cities em­
ploy management assistants: Assistant city
managers, department head assistants
(D.O.T. 189.167-030), administrative assist­
ants (D.O.T. 169.167-010), and manage­
ment analysts (D.O.T. 161.167-010). Under
the manager’s direction, management assist­
ants administer programs, prepare reports,
receive visitors, answer correspondence, and
generally help to keep the city government
functioning smoothly. Assistant city manag­
ers organize and coordinate city programs,
supervise city employees, and act for the city
manager on occasion. They also may assume
responsibility for some projects, such as the
development of a preliminary annual budget.
Department head assistants generally are re­
sponsible for one activity, such as personnel,
finance, or law enforcement, but they also
may assist in other areas. Administrative as­
sistants, also called executive assistants or
assistants to the city manager, usually do
administrative and staff work in all depart­
ments under the city manager. For instance,
they may compile operating statistics or re­
view and analyze work procedures. Manage­
ment analysts study and recommend possible
changes in organization or administrative

Working Conditions
City managers generally work in welllighted and well-ventilated offices. They of­
ten work overtime at night and on weekends
meeting with individuals and citizens’
groups, attending civic functions, reading
and writing reports, or finishing paperwork.
When a problem arises or a crisis occurs,
they may be called to work at any hour.

About 3,300 city managers were employed
in 1980, according to the International City
Management Association. In addition, sever­
al times as many persons worked as adminis­
trative assistants, department head assistants,
and assistant city managers. Most city man­
agers work for cities and counties that have a
council-manager form of government. Under
this type of government, an elected council
appoints a manager who is responsible for
the day-to-day operation of the government
as well as for the hiring and firing of assist­
ants, department heads, and other staff.
Many other city managers work for munici­
palities that have the mayor-council form of
government, in which the mayor appoints the
city manager as the chief administrative offi­
cer. A few city managers work for county
governments, metropolitan or regional plan­
ning organizations, and councils of govern­
ments. All types of local governments
employ management assistants, but larger ju­
risdictions generally employ them in greater
Although about four-fifths of all city man­
agers work for cities having fewer than

Administrative and Managerial Occupations/29

25,000 inhabitants, many larger cities also
employ a city manager. Over one-half of the
cities having between 10,000 and 500,000
inhabitants have city managers.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A master’s degree, preferably in public or
business administration, is essential for those
seeking a career in city management. Al­
though some applicants with only a bache­
lor’s degree may find employment, strong
competition for positions, even among mas­
ter’s degree recipients, makes the graduate
degree a requirement for most entry level
jobs. In some cases, employers may hire a
person with a graduate or professional degree
in a field related to public administration,
such as political science, planning, or law.
In 1980, over 200 colleges and universities
offered graduate degrees in public affairs or
administration. Degree requirements in some
schools include completion of an internship
program in a city manager’s office. During
this internship period, which may last from 6
months to a year, the degree candidate ob­
serves local government operations and does
research under the direct supervision of the
city manager.
Nearly all city managers begin as manage­
ment assistants. Most new graduates work as
management analysts or administrative assist­
ants to city managers for several years to
gain experience in solving urban problems,
coordinating public services, and applying
management techniques. Others work in a
government department such as finance, pub­
lic works, or public planning. They may
acquire supervisory skills and additional ex­
perience by working as assistant city manager
or department head assistant. At least 5 years
of experience are generally required to com­
pete for the job of city manager. City manag­
ers often are first employed in small cities,
but during their careers they may work in
several cities of increasing size.
Persons who plan a career in city manage­
ment should like to work with detail and to
be a part of a team. They must have sound
judgment, self-confidence, and the ability to
perform well under stress. To handle emer­
gencies, city managers must quickly isolate
problems, identify their causes, and provide a
number of possible solutions. City managers
should be tactful and able to communicate
and work well with people.
City managers also must be dedicated to
public service since they often put in long,
hard hours in times of crisis.

Job Outlook
Employment of city managers and local
government management assistants is expect­
ed to expand about as fast as the average for all
occupations through the 1980’s as local gov­
ernment management becomes increasingly
complex. Examples of more sophisticated
management techniques include computerized
tax and utility billing, electronic traffic con­
trol, and application of systems analysis to

City managers generally begin their careers as management analysts or assistants.

urban problems. The demand for city manag­
ers also will increase as more cities convert
to the council-manager form of government,
currently the fastest growing form of city
government. Furthermore, city managers and
management assistants will be employed by
other types of local government to help elect­
ed officials with day-to-day operations of
government. Increased emphasis on regional
solutions to urban problems also should result
in additional job opportunities for city man­
agers and management assistants in councils
of government.
Population growth in the South and West
may create particularly strong demand for
additional city managers and assistants in
those regions. Growth of small communities
that have council-manager forms of govern­
ment also may result in additional job oppor­
tunities throughout the Nation.
Persons who seek beginning management
assistant jobs are expected to face keen com­
petition through the 1980’s, however, as the
number of qualified applicants greatly ex­
ceeds the number of job openings. Competi­
tion also should be keen among the growing
number of administrative assistants, depart­
ment head assistants, and assistant city man­
agers for the relatively few city manager

Salaries of city managers and management

assistants vary according to experience, job
responsibility, and city size. In 1980, the
average annual salary for all managers was
more than $33,000. Average annual salaries
of city managers ranged from about $28,000
in small cities of 5,000 to 10,000 inhabitants
to about $49,000 in medium-sized cities of
50,000 to 100,000 inhabitants, according to
the International City Management Associ­
ation. City managers employed in large cities
of 500,000 to 1 million inhabitants earned
more than $70,000 a year. City managers in
cities not having council-manager govern­
ments received slightly less.
Salaries of management assistants ranged
from about $18,000 in small cities to more
than $25,000 in large ones. Salaries of assist­
ant city managers generally were higher than
those of other management assistants.

Related Occupations
A variety of related careers are open to
persons interested in managerial work. In the
private sector, managerial and executive ca­
reers in business and industry cover a wide
range. In the public sector, related manageri­
al occupations include: Program analysts,
government program managers, management
analysts, budget officers, school or hospital
administrators, and airport managers.

Sources of Additional Information
For information about city management

30/Occupational Outlook Handbook

positions, contact the personnel offices of
local governments in your area.
Information on education for public man­
agement careers is available in Programs in
Public Affairs and Administration, a directo­
ry that contains data on the academic content
of programs, the student body, the format of
instruction, and other information. The direc­
tory may be purchased for $10 from:
National Association of Schools of Public Affairs
and Administration, 1225 Connencticut Ave.
NW., Suite 306, Washington, D.C. 20036.

College Student
Personnel Workers
(D.O.T. 045.107-010, -018, -026, -038 ; 090.107-010,
.117-018, -022, -030, .167-014, -022, -030; 129.107-018;
166.167-014; 169.267-018, -026)

Nature of the Work
Many factors influence a student’s choice
of an institution of higher education. Avail­
ability of a specific educational program,
quality of the school, cost, size, and location
all may play important roles. For many stu­
dents, another important factor is the institu­
tion’s ability to provide for their housing,
social, cultural, and recreational needs. De­
veloping and administering these services are
the tasks of college student personnel
The dean of students and the director of
student affairs are probably the best known.
But there are many aspects to student person­
nel administration, and those in the field re­
present a number of specialties. Student
personnel workers are responsible for student
housing, religious life, counseling, health,
athletics, financial aid, on-campus and sum­

mer employment, career counseling and
placement, learning assistance, skills devel­
opment, and cultural activities. On many
campuses, they provide special services for
veterans, and for women, minority, handi­
capped, and foreign students. Their duties
also include the student union, bookstore,
and campus security.
Job titles vary from institution to institution,
from program to program within a single
school, and with the level of responsibility
within a student personnel program. The more
common titles are dean, director, officer, as­
sociate dean, assistant director, and adviser.
The dean of students (D.O.T. 090.117018) heads the entire student personnel pro­
gram; associate or assistant deans may be in
charge of specific programs, such as student
life or housing. At some schools, another
title is used, such as vice-president for stu­
dent affairs or vice-chancellor for student
affairs. Planning is an important part of the
dean’s job; planning includes evaluating the
changing needs of students and helping de­
velop institutional policies. For example, to
meet the needs of older, part-time students—
many of them women who support fam­
ilies—colleges and universities have been
changing their policies on student housing,
financial aid, and counseling. And an in­
crease in the number of handicapped students
on college campuses has stimulated still other
changes in student services.
The director of student affairs (D.O.T.
090.167-022) manages the student union and
assists student groups in planning and arrang­
ing social, cultural, and recreational activi­
ties. Student activities staff assist in the
orientation of new students; advise fraterni­
ties, sororities, and other social groups; and
promote student participation in cultural and

Financial aid counselor advises student about applying for a loan.

recreational pursuits. They usually publish a
student handbook and a calendar of student
activities. Their responsibility for the student
union includes the building’s physical facili­
ties as well as the services it provides.
The director of residence life oversees all
aspects of student housing, including such
operational matters as room selection and
assignments; damage control and residence
hall inventory; and liaison with other depart­
ments on recordkeeping, billing, and building
maintenance. Developing and coordinating
cultural, educational, recreational, and social
activities for residents is another major area
of responsibility; in large colleges and uni­
versities, this is handled by an assistant di­
rector. Residence counselors (D .O .T .
045.107- 038) live in the dormitories and, in
general, help the students to live together in
harmony. They may counsel students who
have personal problems. Student housing
staff may also manage the fiscal, food serv­
ice, and housekeeping operations of student
The director o f religious activities
(D.O.T. 129.107-018) coordinates the activi­
ties of the various denominational groups on
campus and advises them on ways to pro­
mote spirtual growth and interfaith under­
standing. Counseling on marital, health, fi­
nancial, or religious problems is an important
part of the job.
The director o f counseling (D .O .T .
045.107- 018) supervises counselors (D.O.T.
045.107- 010), counseling psychologists
(D.O.T. 045.107-026), graduate students,
interns, and other staff who help students
with personal, educational, and vocational
problems. Students may come to the counsel­
ing center on their own or be referred by a
faculty member, a residence hall counselor,
or a friend. Counseling needs may arise from
lack of self-confidence or motivation on the
part of the student, failure in academic work,
desire to leave college or transfer to another
college, inability to get along with others,
loneliness, drug abuse, or marriage prob­
lems. On many campuses, counselors try to
reach more students by establishing group
sensitivity sessions and telephone “ hotlines.”
Counselors often administer tests that indi­
cate aptitudes and interests to students having
trouble understanding themselves. Counsel­
ing center staff may also teach or assist with
admissions, orientation, and training of resi­
dence hall staff. For further information on
this field, see the statement on psychologists
elsewhere in the Handbook.
Foreign student advisers (D .O .T .
090.107- 010) administer and coordinate
many of the services that help to insure a
successful academic and social experience for
students from other countries. They assist
with admissions, orientation, financial aid,
housing, English as a foreign language, aca­
demic and personal counseling, student-com­
munity relationships, job placement, and
alumni relations. In addition, they may work
as advisers for international associations and
nationality groups and for U.S. students in

Administrative and Managerial Occupations/31

terested in study, educational travel, work, or
service projects abroad.
Veterans coordinators (D.O.T. 169.267026) provide information and services to vet­
erans and potential military enlistees. They
advise students on their eligibility for veter­
ans benefits or other forms of assistance,
interpret laws and regulations to students,
and supervise the processing of applications
for benefits.
Student health service directors are respon­
sible for planning and administering the col­
lege or university student health program.
They arrange for facilities and equipment,
recruit and hire staff, prepare budgets and
authorize expenditures, and plan programs
and services that respond to student needs.
For example, the student health service might
organize health awareness seminars, provide
health counseling, or set up a rape crisis
Athletic directors (D.O.T. 090.117-022)
administer intercollegiate athletic activities.
They hire and discharge coaches, schedule
sports events, and direct publicity efforts.
They also prepare the budget and authorize
expenditures by the athletic department.
Financial aid officers (D.O.T. 090.117030) help students obtain financial support
for their education. They direct a staff of
financial aid counselors (D.O.T. 169.267018) who advise students about their eligibil­
ity for various forms of financial aid:
Scholarships,' grants, loans, work/study,
teaching or research assistantships, and cam­
pus jobs. In some colleges and universities,
the financial aid office maintains jobs listings
for the benefit of students who want or need
to work. Often, they enlist the support of
alumni in identifying job possibilities.
The director o f placement (D .O .T .
166.167- 014), sometimes called the college
placement officer, assists students in career
exploration and advises them on job search
strategies. The placement office may arrange
for prospective employers to visit the campus
to discuss personnel needs and interview stu­
dents. The work is described in more detail
in the statement on college career planning
and placement counselors, elsewhere in the
Admissions and records are closely related
to student personnel administration, although
admissions officers and registrars normally
report to the dean of academic affairs, not to
the dean of students.
The director o f admissions (D .O .T .
090.167- 014) directs the work of admissions
officers, who interview and evaluate prospec­
tive students and process their applications.
They may travel widely to recruit high
school students and adult learners. “ Talent
search” programs that identify and recruit
bright and talented students are the responsi­
bility of the admissions office, which works
closely with faculty, administrators, financial
aid personnel, and public relations staffs to
determine policies for recruiting and admit­
ting students.
The registrar (D.O.T. 090.167-030) di­

rects and coordinates college and university
registration activities. The registrar’s office
prepares class schedules, coordinates sched­
ules with room assignments, prepares tran­
scripts of students’ academic records, and
provides enrollment and other statistical data
to government and educational agencies.

Working Conditions
Students are not always available during
the day, so student personnel workers often
work evenings and weekends. And since the
workflow at a college may be irregular, they
sometimes face hectic periods where they
work more than 40 hours a week. Registrars,
for example, are especially busy during the
weeks immediately preceding and including
registration, while admissions counselors
may work long hours in early spring, as the
deadline for determining next year’s student
body approaches.
Employment in these occupations usually
is on a 12-month basis. In most schools,
college student personnel workers are entitled
to pensions, life and health insurance, sabba­
ticals, and other fringe benefits.

An estimated 55,000 persons were em­
ployed in college student personnel adminis­
tration in 1980. Every college and university
has a staff responsible for student life, even
though they are not always organized as a
unified program. Large colleges and univer­
sities generally have specialized staffs for
each personnel function. In many small col­
leges, a few persons may carry out the entire
student personnel program.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Because of the diversity in duties, the edu­
cation and backgrounds of college student
personnel workers vary considerably. In fill­
ing entry-level jobs, schools often prefer per­
sons who have a bachelor’s degree in a social
science, such as economics or history, and a
master’s degree in student personnel adminis­
tration. In 1980, nearly 400 colleges and
universities offered graduate programs in this
Some student personnel occupations re­
quire specialized training. A master’s degree
in counseling or in clinical or counseling
psychology usually is required for work as a
college counselor; counseling psychologists
need a doctoral degree. Directors of religious
life usually are members of the clergy. Fa­
miliarity with information systems is an asset
for work in admissions, records, or financial
Previous experience in college administra­
tion is desirable. Indeed, the best training
may be on-the-job. Many graduate students
obtain experience by working part time in
residence halls or in financial aid or admis­
sions offices, sometimes as part of a work/
study program. Participation in student gov­
ernment as an undergraduate also provides
useful exposure.

Student personnel administration requires
leadership and organizational skills, commit­
ment to the purpose of the institution, and a
desire to serve. College student personnel
workers must be especially good at working
with people. Individuals in this field need the
patience to cope with conflicting viewpoints
and the emotional stability to deal with the
unexpected and the unusual. The ability to
function under pressure is essential.
Entry level positions include student ac­
tivities advisers, student union staff, admis­
sions counselors, financial aid counselors,
residence hall counselors, and counseling
center staff. A master’s degree is preferred
and a doctoral degree may be necessary for
advancement to top positions.
Some of the more responsible positions in
the field are filled by individuals who have
developed organizational and interpersonal
skills in other fields, including philanthropy,
business, and social services. The ministry
provides a congenial background, too.

Job Outlook
The employment outlook for college stu­
dent personnel workers is likely to be com­
petitive through the 1980’s. Most openings
will result from the need to replace personnel
who transfer to other positions, retire, or
leave the field for other reasons. Tightening
budgets and declining enrollments in 4-year
colleges and universities are expected to af­
fect employment in those institutions. Some
staff reductions are likely. Although enroll­
ments in 2-year and community colleges have
been rising, these are commuter institutions,
for the most part, and they put somewhat less
emphasis on student life.
The various student personnel functions
will not be affected equally by staff cuts,
however. Positions least likely to be elimi­
nated are those in admissions and financial
aid, while positions in counseling and other
student services will be susceptible to. cut­
backs. Some positions are likely to be lost as
people leave; the job may be eliminated alto­
gether or the duties assumed by faculty or
other administrative staff. In counseling cen­
ters, greater reliance may be placed on in­
terns and graduate assistants.

According to the College and University
Personnel Association, median annual sala­
ries for selected college student personnel
positions were as follows in 1980-81:
$28,050 for athletic directors, $24,700 for
counseling directors, $24,611 for admissions
directors, $23,151 for registrars, $21,924 for
student health services directors, $21,600 for
student union directors, $20,733 for financial
aid directors, $20,671 for placement direc­
tors, and $19,117 for housing directors. Sala­
ries vary greatly, however, depending on
geographic location, budget, source of sup­
port, and the size of the school.

Related Occupations
College student personnel workers admin­
ister programs which directly affect the wel-

32/Occupational Outlook Handbook

fare of students. Their jobs, which are very
much people-oriented, have counterparts in
private industry, government, and elementary
and secondary schools. Some of these occu­
pations include: personnel managers, educa­
tion and training managers, credit counselors,
public relations representatives, government
contact representatives, principals, or school

(D .O .T. 168.167-030, -034, -038, -046, and -050)

Nature of the Work
Federal, State, and local government con­
struction inspectors examine the construction,
alteration, or repair of highways, streets,
sewer and water systems, dams, bridges,
buildings, and other structures to insure com­
pliance with building codes and ordinances,
zoning regulations, and contract specifica­
tions. Construction inspectors generally spe­
cialize in one particular type of construction
work. Broadly categorized, these are build­
ing, electrical, mechanical, and public
works. Inspectors usually work alone on

small jobs, but several may be assigned to a
large, complex project.
Building inspectors inspect the structural
quality of buildings. Some may specialize,
for example, in structural steel or reinforced
concrete buildings. Before construction, in­
spectors determine whether the plans for the
building or other structure comply with local
zoning regulations and are suited to the engi­
neering and environmental demands of the
building site. They visit the worksite before
the foundation is poured to inspect the posi­
tioning and depth of the footings. They in­
spect the foundation after it has been
completed. The size and type of structure
and the rate of completion determine the
number of other visits they must make. Upon
completion of the project, they conduct a
final comprehensive inspection.
Electrical inspectors inspect the installa­
tion of electrical systems and equipment to
insure that they work properly and are in
compliance with electrical codes and stan­
dards. They visit worksites to inspect new
and existing wiring, lighting, sound and se­
curity systems, and generating equipment.
They also may inspect the installation of the
electrical wiring for heating and air-condi­
tioning systems, kitchen appliances, and oth­
er components.
Mechanical inspectors examine plumbing
systems including septic tanks; plumbing fix­
tures and traps; and water, sewer, and vent

lines. They also inspect the installation of the
mechanical components of kitchen appli­
ances, heating and air-conditioning equip­
ment, gasoline and butane tanks, gas piping,
and gas-fired appliances. Some specialize in
inspecting boilers, mechanical components,
or plumbing.
Public works inspectors insure that Feder­
al, State, and local government construction
of water and sewer systems, highways,
streets, bridges, and dams conforms to de­
tailed contract specifications. They inspect
excavation and fill operations, the placement
of forms for concrete, concrete mixing and
pouring, and asphalt paving. They also re­
cord the amount of work performed and ma­
terials used so that contract payment
calculations can be made. Public works in­
spectors may specialize in inspection of high­
ways, reinforced concrete, or ditches.
While inspections are primarily visual, in­
spectors often use tape measures, metering
devices, concrete strength measurers, and
other test equipment during inspections.
They often keep a daily log of their work,
take photographs, file written reports, and, if
necessary, act on their findings. For exam­
ple, construction inspectors notify the con­
struction contractor, superintendent, or
supervisor when they discover a detail of a
project that is not in compliance with the
appropriate codes, ordinances, or contract
specifications. If the deficiency is not cor­
rected within a reasonable period of time,
they have authority to issue a “ stop-work”
Many inspectors also investigate reported
incidents of “bootlegging,” construction or
alteration that is being carried on without
proper permits. Violators of permit laws are
directed to obtain permits and submit to

Working Conditions

Construction inspectors must be familiar with building codes and ordinances.

Construction inspectors work indoors and
out. They spend about half their time in an
office reviewing blueprints, answering letters
or telephone calls, writing reports, and
scheduling inspections. The rest of their time
is spent traveling to construction sites—
usually in a government car—and making
Inspection sites may be dirty and cluttered
with tools, materials, or debris. Inspectors
may have to climb ladders or several flights
of stairs, or may have to crawl beneath build­
ings to make inspections. However, the work
is not considered hazardous.
Inspectors normally work regular hours.
However, in case of an accident at the con­
struction site, such as a partially collapsed
concrete structure, inspectors must respond
immediately and may be expected to work
irregular hours until a report has been
Inspection work tends to be steady and
year-round, unlike the seasonal and intermit­
tent nature of employment in many of the
occupations associated with the construction
industry. When new construction slows, ren­

Administrative and Managerial Occupations/33

ovation generally increases, helping construc­
tion inspectors to continue working full time.

About 48,000 persons worked as govern­
ment construction inspectors in 1980. About
two-thirds worked for municipal or county
building departments. Public works construc­
tion inspectors were employed primarily at
the Federal and State levels.
The employment of local government con­
struction inspectors is concentrated in cities
and in suburban areas undergoing rapid
growth. These governments employ large in­
spection staffs, including most of the inspec­
tors who specialize in structural steel,
reinforced concrete, and boiler inspection.
About one-half of the construction inspec­
tors employed by the Federal Government in
1980 worked for the Department of Defense,
primarily for the U.S. Army Corps of Engi­
neers. Other Federal employers include the
Tennessee Valley Authority and the De­
partments of Agriculture, Interior, and

of their assignments is gradually increased
until they are able to handle complex assign­
ments. An engineering degree is frequently
needed in order to advance to supervisory
Since they advise representatives of the
construction industry and the general public
on matters of code interpretation, construc­
tion practices, and technical developments,
construction inspectors must keep abreast of
new building code developments. The Feder­
al Government and most State and large city
governments conduct formal training pro­
grams for their construction inspectors to
broaden their knowledge of construction ma­
terials, practices, and inspection techniques
and to acquaint them with new materials and
practices. Inspectors who work for small
agencies that do not conduct training pro­
grams frequently can broaden their knowl­
edge of construction and upgrade their skills
by attending State-conducted training pro­
grams or by taking college or correspondence

Job Outlook
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
To become a construction inspector, sever­
al years of experience as a construction con­
tractor, supervisor, or craft worker are
generally required. Federal, State, and most
local governments also require an applicant
to have a high school diploma. High school
preparation should include courses in draft­
ing, algebra, geometry, and English.
Workers who want to become inspectors
should have a thorough knowledge of con­
struction materials and practices in either a
general area like structural or heavy construc­
tion, or in a specialized area such as electri­
cal or plumbing systems, reinforced concrete,
or structural steel; a significant number of
construction inspectors have recent expe­
rience as carpenters, electricians, plumbers,
or pipefitters.
Many employers prefer inspectors to be
graduates of an apprenticeship program, to
have studied at least 2 years toward an engi­
neering or architectural degree, or to have a
degree from a community or junior college,
with courses in construction technology,
blueprint reading, technical mathematics,
English, and building inspection.
Construction inspectors must be in good
physical condition in order to walk and climb
about construction sites. They also must have
a motor vehicle operator’s license. In addi­
tion, Federal, State, and many local govern­
ments usually require that construction
inspectors pass a civil service examination.
Construction inspectors receive most of
their training on the job. During the first
couple of weeks, working with an expe­
rienced inspector, they learn about inspection
techniques; codes, ordinances, and regula­
tions; contract specifications; and recordkeep­
ing and reporting duties. They begin by
inspecting less complex types of construction
such as residential buildings. The difficulty

Employment of government construction
inspectors is expected to grow about as fast
as the average for all occupations through the
1980’s. Because of the increasing complexity
of construction technology and the trend to­
ward the establishment of professional stand­
ards for inspectors by State governments, job
opportunities should be best for those who
have some college education or who are cur­
rently employed as carpenters, electricians,
or plumbers.
In addition to growth needs, job openings
for construction inspectors will occur each
year to replace those who die, retire, or leave
the occupation for other reasons.
The number of new positions for construc­
tion inspectors will be largely affected by the
level of new housing and commercial build­
ing activity. Because construction activity is
sensitive to ups and downs in the economy,
the number of job openings may fluctuate
from year to year. However, once employed,
inspectors seldom experience layoffs which
typically affect most occupations associated
with construction.
The demand for construction inspectors
also should increase as they are given more
responsibility for insuring safe construction
of prefabricated buildings mass-produced in
factories and assembled on the construction

In 1980, most construction inspectors
working for the Federal Government earned
between $16,300 and $20,200 a year. The
most experienced inspectors earned higher
salaries. The average Federal salary was
about $19,500.
According to limited information, salaries
for inspectors working for State or local gov­
ernments ranged from $12,000 to $22,000 a
year, with top supervisors earning somewhat
more than $22,000 a year. Salaries in the

North and West are slightly higher than sala­
ries in the South.

Related Occupations
Construction inspectors combine a knowl­
edge of law with their abilities to coordinate
data, diagnose problems, and communicate
with people to provide accurate inspections
of construction sites. Other occupations in­
volving a combination of similar skills are
drafters, estimators, industrial engineering
technicians, and surveyors.

Sources of Additional Information
Persons seeking additional information on
a career as a State or local government con­
struction inspector should contact their State
or local employment service or:
International Conference of Building Officials,
5360 South Workman Mill Rd., Whittier, Calif.

Persons interested in a career as a con­
struction inspector with the Federal Govern­
ment can get information from:
U.S. Office of Personnel Management, 1900 E St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20415.

Credit Managers
(D.O.T. 168.167-054)

Nature of the Work
Over the years, buying on credit has be­
come a customary way of doing business.
Consumers use credit to pay for houses, cars,
appliances, and travel, as well as day-to-day
retail purchases. Most business purchases,
such as raw materials used in manufacturing
and merchandise to be sold in retail stores,
also are on credit.
For most forms of credit, a credit manager
has final authority to accept or reject a credit
application. In extending credit to a business
(commercial credit), the credit manager or an
assistant analyzes detailed financial reports
submitted by the applicant, interviews a rep­
resentative of the company about its manage­
ment, and reviews credit agency reports to
determine the firm’s record in repaying debts.
The manager also checks at banks where the
company has deposits or previously was
granted credit. In extending credit to individ­
uals (consumer credit), detailed financial re­
ports usually are not available. The credit
manager must rely more on personal inter­
views and credit bureau and bank reports to
provide information about applicants.
Particularly in large organizations, execu­
tive level credit managers work with other
top managers to formulate a credit policy.
They establish financial standards to be met
by applicants, and thereby determine the
amount of risk that their company will accept
when offering its products or services for sale
on credit. Managers must cooperate with the
sales department in developing a credit policy
liberal enough to allow the company’s sales
to increase and yet strict enough to deny

34/Occupational Outlook Handbook

ability to speak and write effectively also are
characteristics of the successful credit man­
The work performed by credit managers
allows them to become familiar with almost
every phase of their company’s business.
Highly qualified and experienced managers
can advance to top level executive positions.

Job Outlook

Credit managers rely on personal interviews and information from banks and credit bureaus to
evaluate credit applications.

credit to customers whose ability to repay
their debts is questionable. Many credit man­
agers establish office procedures and super­
vise workers who gather information, analyze
facts, and perform general office duties in a
credit department; they include application
clerks, collection workers, bookkeepers,
computer operators, and secretaries.
In small companies that handle a limited
number of accounts, credit managers may do
much of the work themselves. They may
interview applicants, analyze information
gained in the interview, and make the final
approval. They frequently contact customers
who are unable or refuse to pay their debts.
If these attempts at collection fail, credit
managers may refer the account to a collec­
tion agency or assign an attorney to take
legal action.

Working Conditions
Credit managers normally work the stan­
dard 35- to 40-hour workweek, but some
may work longer hours. In wholesale and
retail trade, for example, a seasonal increase
in credit sales can produce a greater work
Credit managers usually spend most of
their time in the office. However, they may
travel occasionally. Some credit managers,
for example, attend conferences sponsored by
industry and professional organizations in
which they develop and discuss new tech­
niques for credit department management.

An estimated 55,000 persons worked as
credit managers in 1980. About half were
employed in wholesale and retail trade; most
others worked for manufacturing firms and
financial institutions.
Although credit is granted throughout the

United States, most credit managers work in
urban areas where many financial and busi­
ness establishments are located.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A college degree is becoming increasingly
important for entry level jobs in credit manage­
ment. Employers usually seek persons who
have a degree in business administration, but
they may also hire graduates holding liberal arts
degrees. Courses in accounting, economics,
finance, computer programming, statistics, and
psychology all are valuable in preparing for a
career in credit management. Some employers
promote high school graduates experienced in
collection work or processing credit informa­
tion to credit manager positions.
Newly hired workers normally begin as
management trainees and work under the
guidance of experienced personnel in the
credit department. Here they learn the com­
pany’s credit procedures and policies. They
may analyze previous credit transactions to
learn how to recognize which applicants
prove to be good customers. Trainees also
learn to deal with credit bureaus, banks, and
other businesses which may have information
on the past credit dealings of their customers.
Some formal training programs are avail­
able through associations that service the
credit and finance field. This training in­
cludes home study, college and university
programs, and other instruction to improve
beginners’ skills and keep experienced credit
managers aware of developments in the field.
Credit managers should be able to analyze
detailed information and draw valid conclu­
sions based on this analysis. Because it is
necessary to maintain good customer rela­
tionships, a pleasant personality and the

Employment of credit managers is expect­
ed to grow more slowly than the average for
all occupations through the 1980’s. Neverthe­
less, many jobs will become available each
year due to the need to replace persons who
leave the occupation.
Anticipated increases in business and con­
sumer purchases are expected to result in a
greater use of credit in the future. However,
several factors are expected to continue to
limit growth in employment of credit manag­
ers. The use of computers for storing, re­
trieving, and processing information has
enabled credit managers to evaluate applica­
tions for credit more efficiently. The use of
telecommunications networks has enabled re­
tail outlets to centralize credit operations.
Businesses also will continue to reduce or
eliminate their credit departments and rely on
their customers using bank credit cards.
These bank credit operations also maintain
more efficient centralized operations.

In 1980, credit manager trainees who had a
college degree earned annual salaries that
ranged from about $12,000 to $14,000, de­
pending on the type of employer and the
geographic location of the job. Salaries of
experienced credit managers averaged about
$22,000 to $25,000 annually. Those in charge
of large operations earned somewhat more.

Related Occupations
Other managerial occupations in banks, in­
vestment companies, and credit agencies in­
clude loan officers, credit card operations
managers, credit union managers, risk and
insurance managers, and controllers.

Sources of Additional Information
Information about a career in consumer
credit may be obtained from:
National Retail Merchants Association, 100 West
31st St., New York, N.Y. 10001.

For information about training programs
available in commercial credit, write:
National Association of Credit Management, 475
Park Ave. South, New York, N.Y. 10016.

Health Services
(D .O .T. 070.101-046; 075.117-014, -018, -022; 169.167010; 187.117-010, -018, -050, .167-034, -090; and

Nature of the Work
Medical and health care is provided by

Administrative and Managerial Occupations/35

organizations that vary from large teaching
hospitals to storefront clinics. It is the job of
the health services administrator to provide
effective management for these facilities un­
der the general supervision of a board of
directors or other governing body.
Administrators direct the various functions
and activities that make a health organization
run smoothly. They have overall responsibil­
ity for management decisions of many kinds:
Budget preparation; establishing rates for
health services; directing the hiring and train­
ing of personnel; and directing and coordinat­
ing the activities of the medical, nursing,
physical plant, and other operating depart­
ments. They must also plan and negotiate for
expansion of facilities and services to keep
pace with requirements of the community.
They may handle these matters alone if the
organization is small, or, more commonly,
direct a staff of assistant administrators. Even
where assistant administrators direct daily op­
erations of various departments, the chief
executive keeps informed through formal and
informal meetings with assistants, medical
staff, and others.
Many health administrators also help carry
out fundraising drives and promote public
participation in health programs. This phase
of the administrator’s job often includes
speaking before civic groups, arranging pub­
licity, and coordinating the activities of the
organization with those of government or
community agencies.

Working Conditions
Health administrators often work long
hours. Facilities such as nursing homes and
hospitals operate around the clock, and ad­
ministrators may be called at all hours to
settle emergency problems. Also, some may
travel to meetings or, for those who oversee
several facilities, to make inspections.

About 220,000 persons worked in some
phase of health administration in 1980. Most
administrators work in patient care facilities,
including hospitals, nursing homes, rehabilita­
tion centers, home health agencies, and health
maintenance organizations. Hospitals employ
about half of all administrators; some of these
work for the Federal Government in Veterans
Administration, Public Health Service, and
Armed Forces hospitals and clinics.
Some health administrators work for State
and local health departments. Others work
for voluntary health agencies that support
medical research into the causes and treat­
ment of particular diseases or impairments.
These agencies also conduct professional and
public education and community service pro­
grams. Still other health administrators are
employed by consulting firms that provide
management services for a fee.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A sound knowledge of management princi­

Conferring with patients' relatives is part of the nursing home administrator’s job.

ples and practices is essential preparation for
a career in health administration. Academic
programs in health administration, leading to
a bachelor’s, master’s, or doctoral degree, are
offered by colleges, universities, and schools
of public health. The various degree pro­
grams provide different levels of career prep­
aration. The master’s degree—in hospital
administration, health administration, or pub­
lic health—is regarded as the standard cre­
dential for many positions in this field.
Academic programs in health administra­
tion do not provide the only way of entering
this career area, however. A degree in such
fields as business, personnel administration,
or public administration provides an appropri­
ate background for some positions. And for
others, institutional management capability is
the key qualification. Educational require­
ments vary with the size of the organization
and the amount of responsibility involved.
Generally, larger organizations require more
specialized academic preparation than smaller
ones do.
In 1980, about 100 colleges and universi­
ties offered bachelor degree programs in
health services administration. About 70
schools had programs leading to the master’s
degree in hospital or health services adminis­
tration; 21 of these programs were in schools
of public health. Some schools offer joint
degree programs, leading to a master’s in
public health and a master’s in business ad­
ministration, for example.
To enter graduate programs, applicants
must have a bachelor’s degree, with courses
in natural sciences, psychology, sociology,
statistics, accounting, and economics. Com­
petition for entry to these programs is keen,
and applicants need above-average grades to
gain admission. The programs generally last
about 2 years and may include sortie super­

vised administrative experience in hospitals,
clinics, or health agencies. Programs may
include courses such as hospital organization
and management, accounting and budget
control, personnel administration, public
health administration, and the economics of
health care.
New graduates with master’s degrees in
health or hospital administration may be
hired by hospitals as associate or assistant
administrators, department heads, or project
directors, while those with master’s degrees
in public health often find work as program
analysts or program representatives in public
health departments. Very few master’s degree
recipients take entry level administrative po­
sitions in nursing or personal care homes,
although many nursing home administrators
pursue graduate education while employed.
New master’s degree recipients from related
disciplines such as public administration or
business are sometimes hired for administra­
tive jobs in the health field. Master of busi­
ness administration (MBA) graduates, for
example, are sometimes hired by public
health departments as program analysts.
New recipients of bachelor’s degrees in
health administration usually begin their ca­
reers as administrative assistants or depart­
ment heads in hospitals, or as assistant
administrators in small hospitals or in nursing
The Ph.D. degree usually is required for
positions in teaching or research, and is an
asset for those seeking administrative jobs in
larger, more prestigious health organizations.
Although some public health departments
still require chief administrators to be physi­
cians, the trend is away from this. Directors
of nursing are usually chosen from among
supervisory registered nurses with adminis­
trative abilities.

36/Occupational Outlook Handbook

Administrators in Armed Forces hospitals health administration has increased rapidly in
usually are career military personnel who recent years; in addition, administrative spe­
generally hold graduate degrees in health ser­ cialists with graduate degrees in other fields
are entering the profession. Consequently,
vices administration.
As a rule, licensure is not required in most competition for jobs has intensified, particu­
areas of health services administration, with larly in hospital administration. This situation
the exception of nursing home or long-term is expected to continue, and it may become
care administration. All States and the Dis­ difficult for persons with less than a graduate
trict of Columbia require these administrators education to obtain administrative jobs in
to pass a qualifying licensing examination, hospitals. In nursing homes and other long­
and most students prepare for it by complet­ term care facilities, where a graduate degree
ing a special course of study. These prepara­ in health administration is not ordinarily a
tory courses, usually consisting of 100 to 200 requirement, job opportunities will be good
hours of study in long-term care administra­ for individuals with a business or manage­
tion, are available through some colleges, ment background.
Employment of health services administra­
universities, and home study programs. The
licensing examination covers principles of tors is expected to grow faster than the aver­
administration; management of a long-term age for all occupations through the 1980’s as
care facility; the role of government in long­ the health industry expands and health ser­
term care; environmental health and safety; vices management becomes more complex.
and medical, psychological, and social as­ Not all areas of health care will experience
pects of patient care. Nearly half the States identical rates of growth, however. Popula­
require applicants to complete an internship tion migration has caused the closing of some
known as an Administrator-in-Training pro­ hospitals where population is declining and
gram before taking the licensure examina­ the opening of hospitals in areas of popula­
tion. This internship generally lasts 1 year tion growth—notably in the South and West.
and is supervised by a licensed administrator. Overall, however, hospital administration
Since requirements vary from State to State, may not contribute heavily to employment
persons considering a career in long-term opportunities for health administrators in the
care administration should investigate licens­ coming years. Although hospitals have been
ing requirements where they wish to work. growing in size and increasing the scope and
Health services administrators are often re­ sophistication of their services, the number of
sponsible for millions of dollars of facilities hospitals is decreasing. Demand for adminis­
and equipment and hundreds of employees. trators will be stimulated, however, by the
They need a command of business and com­ formation of group medical practices and
munication skills that allows them to make health maintenance organizations. Adminis­
timely policy decisions and to motivate sub­ trators also will be needed in nursing and
ordinates to implement those decisions. Ad­ convalescent homes, to handle the increasing
ministrators, especially head administrators, amount of administrative work expected as
of all types of health organizations need to be these facilities expand. Job openings also will
result from the need to replace personnel who
In order to create an atmosphere favorable transfer to another field, retire, or die.
to good patient care, administrators must like
people, enjoy working with them, and be Earnings
able to deal effectively with them. Admin­
Salaries of hospital administrators depend
istrators also should be good at public on factors such as the level of job responsi­
bility; the size, type, and location of the
Health administrators advance in the pro­ hospital; and the size of its administrative
fession by moving into more responsible and staff and budget.
higher paying positions. They may do this
Chief administrators in State hospitals with
within their own institution, or by shifting to 350 to 800 beds earned an average of $35,000
another health care facility or organization. a year in 1980. Some, in larger hospitals,
Frequently, the administrator’s first job in a earned over $50,000. Recent recipients of
large institution is a position that is some­ master’s degrees in health administration start­
what narrow in scope—department head in ing work in Veterans Administration hospitals
charge of purchasing, for example. Advance­ earned $18,585 a year in 1980. The average
ment occurs with promotion to successively salary paid administrators of Federal hospitals
more responsible jobs such as assistant or was $34,100.
associate administrator and finally chief ad­
Commissioned officers in the Armed
ministrator. Less commonly, hospital admin­ Forces who work as hospital administrators
istrators begin their careers in small hospitals hold ranks ranging from second lieutenant to
in positions with broad responsiblities, such colonel or from ensign to captain. Command­
as assistant administrator. Regardless of the ing officers of large Armed Forces hospitals
path of advancement chosen, the ultimate are generally physicians, who may hold high­
occupational goal in hospitals and nursing er ranks. Hospital administrators in the U.S.
homes is the position of chief executive or Public Health Service are commissioned offi­
chief administrative officer.
cers holding ranks equivalent to those of lieu­
tenant (junior grade) through captain in the
Job Outlook
Administrators of nursing and personal
The number of graduate programs in

care homes usually earn lower salaries than
those paid hospital administrators in facilities
having similar numbers of beds. Most admin­
istrators employed by voluntary health agen­
cies earned between $25,000 and $40,000 a
year in 1980, and some earned well over
$50,000 annually.

Related Occupations
Health services administrators plan pro­
grams, set policies, and make decisions for a
health service agency or institution. Other
administrators with similar responsibilities in­
clude social welfare administrators, emergen­
cy medical services coordinators, community
organization directors, college or university
department heads, medical-record administra­
tors, and recreation superintendents.

Sources of Additional Information
Information about health administration
and the academic programs in this field of­
fered by universities, colleges, and communi­
ty colleges is available from:
American College of Hospital Administration, 840
North Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, 111. 60611.
Association of University Programs in Health Ad­
ministration, One Dupont Circle, NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20036.
National Health Council, Health Careers Program,
70 West 40th St., New York, N.Y. 10019.
American College of Nursing Home Administra­
tors, 4650 East-West Hwy., Washington, D.C.

Health and
(D .O .T . 073.264-010; 079.117-018; 160.167- 046;
168.167-022, -026, -042, -062, and -074; .264-010;
.267-018, -022, and -042 through -078, except -070;
.287; .387-010; 169.284-010; and 379.364-010)

Nature of the Work
Protecting the public from health and safe­
ty hazards, prohibiting unfair trade and em­
ployment practices, controlling immigration,
and raising revenue are responsibilities of
government. Health and regulatory inspectors
enforce the laws and regulations that govern
these responsibilities. For discussion of an­
other type of inspector, see the statement on
construction inspectors (Government) else­
where in the Handbook.
The duties, titles, and responsibilities of
Federal, State, and local health and regula­
tory inspectors vary widely. Some types of
inspectors work only for the Federal Govern­
ment while others also are employed by State
and local governments.
Health Inspectors. Health inspectors work
with engineers, chemists, microbiologists,
and health workers to insure compliance with
public health and safety regulations govern­

Administrative and Managerial Occupations/37

ing food, drugs, cosmetics, and other con­
sumer products. They also administer regula­
tions that govern the quarantine of persons
and products entering the United States from
foreign countries. The major types of health
inspectors are: Consumer safety, food, agri­
cultural quarantine, and environmental health
inspectors. In addition, some inspectors work
in a field closely related to food inspection—
agricultural commodity grading.
Most consumer safety inspectors specialize
in food, feeds and pesticides, weights and
measures, or drugs and cosmetics inspection.
Some are proficient in several areas. Work­
ing individually or in teams under a senior or
supervisory inspector, they periodically
check firms that produce, handle, store, and
market food, drugs, and cosmetics. They
look for inaccurate product labeling, and for
decomposition or chemical or bacteriological
contamination that could result in a product
becoming harmful to health. They assemble
evidence of violations, using portable scales,
cameras, ultraviolet lights, container sam­
pling devices, thermometers, chemical test­
ing kits, and other equipment. They send
product samples collected as part of their
examinations to laboratories for analysis.
After completing their inspection, inspec­
tors discuss their observations with plant
managers or officials and point out areas
where corrective measures are needed. They
write reports of their findings, and, when
necessary, compile evidence that may be
used in court if legal action must be taken to
enforce the law.
Federal and State laws empower food in­
spectors to inspect meat, poultry, and their
byproducts to insure that they are wholesome
and safe for public consumption. Working as
part of a constant onsite team under a veter­
inarian, they inspect meat and poultry slaugh­
tering, processing, and packaging operations.
They also check for correct product labeling
and proper sanitation.
Agricultural quarantine inspectors protect
American agricultural products from the in­
troduction and spread of foreign plant pests
and animal diseases. To safeguard crops, for­
ests, gardens, and livestock, they inspect
ships, aircraft, railroad cars, and motor vehi­
cles entering the United States for restricted
or prohibited plant or animal materials.
Environmental health inspectors, or sani­
tarians, who work primarily for State and
local governments, insure that food, water,
and air meet government standards. They
check the cleanliness and safety of food and
beverages produced in dairies and processing
plants, or served in restaurants, hospitals,
and other institutions. They often examine
the handling, processing, and serving of food
for compliance with sanitation rules and reg­
ulations. They oversee the treatment and dis­
posal of sewage, refuse, and garbage. They
examine places where pollution is a danger,
test for pollutants, and collect air or water
samples for analysis. They determine the na­
ture and cause of the pollution; then initiate
action to stop it.

In large local and State health or agricul­
ture departments, environmental health in­
spectors may specialize in milk and dairy
products, food sanitation, waste control, airpollution, institutional sanitation, or occupa­
tional health. In rural areas and small cities,
they may be responsible for a wide range of
environmental health activities.
Agricultural commodity graders apply
quality standards to insure that retailers and
consumers receive wholesome and reliable
products. They generally specialize in an
area such as eggs and egg products, pro­
cessed or fresh fruits and vegetables, grain,
or dairy products. They inspect product sam­
ples to determine quality and grade, and is­
sue official grading certificates. Graders also
may inspect the plant and equipment to in­
sure that sanitation standards are maintained.
Regulatory Inspectors. Regulatory inspec­
tors insure compliance with laws and regula­
tions that protect the public welfare.
Important types of regulatory inspectors are:
Immigration; customs; air safety; occupation­
al safety and health; mine; wage-hour com­
pliance; and alcohol, tobacco, and firearms
Immigration inspectors interview and ex­
amine people seeking to enter the United
States. They inspect passports to determine
whether people are legally eligible to enter
and to verify their citizenship, status, and
identity. Immigration inspectors also prepare
reports, maintain records, and process appli­
cations and petitions for immigration or tem­
porary residence in the United States.
Customs inspectors enforce laws govern­
ing imports and exports. Stationed at air­
ports, seaports, and border crossing points,
they count, weigh, gauge, measure, and sam­
ple commercial cargoes entering and leaving
the United States to determine the amount of
tax that must be paid. They also inspect
baggage and articles worn by passengers and
crew members to insure that all merchandise
is declared and proper taxes are paid.
Air safety inspectors insure that Federal
Aviation Administration (FAA) regulations
which govern the quality and safety of air­
craft equipment and personnel are main­
tained. Air safety inspectors may inspect
aircraft manufacturing, maintenance and re­
pair, or operations procedures. They usually
specialize in either commercial or general
aviation aircraft. They also certify aircraft
pilots, pilot examiners, flight instructors,
schools, and instructional materials.
Occupational safety and health inspectors
visit places of employment to detect unsafe
or unhealthy working conditions. They in­
spect machinery and equipment and observe
employees at work to check that safety
equipment and proper safety precautions are
in use in accordance with Federal, State,
or local government safety standards and
Occupational safety and health inspectors
usually visit a plant, factory, or other work­
place in response to a complaint or an acci­

dent. In reports of their findings, they de­
scribe hazards, and cite safety standards or
regulations that have been violated. They
also discuss their findings with the employer
or plant manager and urge that violations be
promptly corrected. Workers in the private
sector who have related responsibilities are
discussed in the statement on occupational
safety and health workers elsewhere in the
Mine inspectors work to insure the health
and safety of miners. They visit mines and
related facilities to obtain information on
health and safety conditions and to enforce
safety laws and regulatons.
Mine inspectors discuss their findings with
the management of the mine, write reports of
their findings and decisions, and issue notices
that describe violations and hazards that must
be corrected. They also investigate and report
on mine accidents and direct rescue and fire­
fighting operations when fires or explosions
Wage-hour compliance inspectors inspect
employers’ time, payroll, and personnel re­
cords to insure compliance with Federal laws
on minimum wages, overtime, pay, employ­
ment of minors, and equal employment op­
portunity. They often interview employees to
verify the employer’s records and to check
for complaints.
Alcohol, tobacco, and firearms inspectors
inspect distilleries, wineries, and breweries;
cigar and cigarette manufacturing plants;
wholesale liquor dealers and importers; fire­
arms and explosives manufacturers, dealers,
and users; and other regulated facilities. They
insure compliance with revenue laws and oth­
er regulations on operating procedures, unfair
competition, and trade practices, and deter­
mine that appropriate taxes are paid.

Consumer safety inspectors make periodic

38/Occupational Outlook Handbook

Working Conditions
Most health and regulatory inspectors live
an active life; they meet many people and
work in a variety of environments. Their jobs
often involve considerable fieldwork, and
some inspectors travel frequently. They are
furnished with an automobile or reimbursed
for travel expenses.
At times, inspectors have unfavorable
working conditions. For example, food, and
alcohol, tobacco, and firearms inspectors fre­
quently come in contact with strong, unpleas­
ant odors. Mine inspectors often work in
mines where they are exposed to the same
hazards as miners. Many inspectors work
long and often irregular hours.

About 112,000 persons worked as health
and regulatory inspectors in 1980. Employ­
ment was nearly evenly divided among the
three levels of government—Federal, State,
and local. The largest single employer of
consumer safety inspectors is the U.S. Food
and Drug Administration, but the majority
work for State governments. Most food in­
spectors and agricultural commodity graders
in processing plants are employed by the
U.S. Department of Agriculture. Agricultur­
al quarantine inspectors work for the U.S.
Public Health Service or the U.S. Depart­
ment of Agriculture. Most environmental
health inspectors work for State and local
Most Federal regulatory inspectors work in
regional and district offices throughout the
United States. Air safety inspectors work for
the Federal Aviation Administration; wagehour compliance officers, for the Department
of Labor; and alcohol, tobacco, and firearms
inspectors, for the Treasury Department. Oc­
cupational safety and health inspectors and
mine inspectors also work for the Department
of Labor, as well as many State govern­
ments. Like agricultural quarantine inspec­
tors, immigration and customs inspectors
work at U.S. airports, seaports, and border
crossing points, and at foreign airports and
seaports. Immigration inspectors are em­
ployed by the Department of Justice. Cus­
toms inspectors work for the Treasury

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Because of the wide range of inspector
jobs, qualifications for employment vary
greatly. The Federal Government requires a
passing score on the Professional and Ad­
ministrative Career Examination (PACE) for
several inspector occupations, including im­
migration; customs; wage-hour compliance;
alcohol, tobacco, and firearms; occupational
safety and health; and consumer safety in­
spectors. To take this examination, an appli­
cant must have a bachelor’s degree, 3 years
of responsible work experience, or a combi­
nation of the two. In most cases, agencies
prefer applicants whose course work or ex­
perience is related to the job.

Food inspectors must have related expe­
rience and pass an examination based on
specialized knowledge.
Air safety inspectors must have consider­
able experience in aviation maintenance, and
an FAA Air Frame and Power Plant certifi­
cate. In addition, pilot certificates and con­
siderable flight experience are required.
Many air safety inspectors have had flight
training and mechanical training in the
Armed Forces. No written examination is
Applicants for mine safety inspector posi­
tions generally must have experience in mine
safety, management, or supervision, or pos­
sess a skill such as electrical engineering (for
mine electrical inspectors). In some cases, a
general aptitude test may be required.
Some Civil Service registers, including
those for agricultural quarantine inspectors
and agricultural commodity graders, rate ap­
plicants solely on their experience and educa­
tion and require no written examination.
Qualifications usually are similar for in­
spectors at the State and local level. Environ­
mental health inspectors, called sanitarians in
many States, usually must have a bachelor’s
degree in environmental health or the phys­
ical or biological sciences. In 35 States, they
are licensed by examining boards.
All inspectors are trained in applicable
laws and inspection procedures through a
combination of classroom and on-the-job
training. In general, people who want to be­
come health and regulatory inspectors should
be able to accept responsibility and like de­
tailed work. They should be neat and person­
able and able to express themselves well
orally and in writing.
Federal Government inspectors are pro­
moted on a Civil Service “career ladder.’’
Workers whose performance is satisfactory
advance automatically, usually at 1-year in­
tervals, to a specified maximum level. Above
this level (usually supervisory positions), ad­
vancement is competitive, based on agency
needs and individual merit.

Job Outlook
Employment of health and regulatory in­
spectors as a group is expected to increase
more slowly than the average for all occupa­
tions through the 1980’s. Employment
growth is expected to be constrained by slow
growth in government regulatory programs
and in government spending. Most job open­
ings will be to replace those who transfer to
other occupations, retire, or die.
Because health and regulatory inspectors
are government workers, their employment is
seldom affected by general economic fluctu­
ations. Most inspectors work in programs
which enjoy wide public support. As a re­
sult, they are less likely to lose their jobs
than many other workers when government
programs are cut.

In the Federal Government, aviation safety

officers and mining inspectors usually started
at $18,585 a year in early 1981. Other health
and regulatory inspectors and graders started
at $12,266 a year in early 1981.
Experienced food inspectors and agricul­
tural commodity graders averaged about
$18,500 a year in 1980. Experienced immi­
gration and customs inspectors averaged
more than $20,000 a year; agricultural quar­
antine and alcohol, tobacco, and firearms
inspectors about $23,000 a year; and wagehour compliance inspectors more than
$26,000 a year in 1980. Experienced con­
sumer safety inspectors, mine inspectors, and
occupational safety and health inspectors em­
ployed by the Federal Government averaged
more than $28,000 in 1980. Experienced avi­
ation safety officers averaged over $36,000 a
Nonsupervisory environmental health in­
spectors working for selected U.S. cities and
counties received average starting salaries of
about $14,000 in 1980; those working for
State governments started at about $1,500
less. Experienced environmental health in­
spectors working for State governments
earned between $14,800 and $20,000 but top
supervisors and administrators had salaries
between $21,200 and $29,000 in 1980.

Related Occupations
Health and regulatory inspectors are re­
sponsible for seeing that government laws
and regulations are obeyed. Revenue agents,
construction inspectors, State and local police
officers, and fish and game wardens also
enforce laws.

Sources of Additional Information
Information on Federal Government jobs
is available from local offices of the State
employment service, area offices of the U.S.
Office of Personnel Management, and Feder­
al Job Information Centers in large cities
throughout the country. For information on a
career as a specific type of inspector, the
Federal department or agency that employs
them may also be contacted directly.
Information about State and local govern­
ment jobs is available from State civil service
commissions, usually located in each State
capital, or from local government offices.

Hotel Managers and
(D .O .T . 163.117-018; 187.117-038, .167-078, -110,
-122, -126; 238.137-010)

Nature of the Work
Hotel managers are responsible for operat­
ing their establishments profitably, and satis­
fying hotel guests. They determine room
rates and credit policy, direct the operation of
the food service operation, and manage the
housekeeping, accounting, security, and
maintenance departments of the hotel. Han-

Administrative and Managerial Occupations/39

dling problems and coping with the unexpect­
ed are important parts of the job.
A small hotel or motel requires only a
limited staff, and the manager may have to
fulfill various front office duties, such as
taking reservations and assigning rooms.
When management is combined with owner­
ship, these activities may expand to include
all aspects of the business.
General managers of large hotels usually
have several assistants or department heads
who manage various parts of the operation.
Because the hotel restaurant and cocktail
lounge are important to the success of the
entire establishment, they almost always are
operated by managers with experience in the
restaurant field. Other areas that usually are
handled separately are advertising, rental of
banquet and meeting facilities, marketing and
sales, personnel, and accounting.
Large hotel and motel chains often central­
ize some activities, such as purchasing and
advertising, so that individual hotels in the
chain may not need managers for these de­
partments. Managers who work for chains
may be assigned to organize a newly built or
purchased hotel or to reorganize an exist­
ing hotel or motel that is not operating
About 84,000 hotel and motel managers
worked in 1980.

Working Conditions
Since hotels are open around the clock,
night and weekend work is common. Hotel
employees frequently must work on shifts.
Managers who live in the hotel usually have
regular work schedules, but they may be
called for work at any time.
Hotel managers sometimes experience the
pressures of coordinating a wide range of
functions. Dealing with irate or non-Englishspeaking patrons can also be stressful. The
job can be particularly hectic around check­
out time.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Experience generally is the most important
consideration in selecting managers. Howev­
er, employers increasingly are emphasizing
college education. A bachelor’s degree in
hotel and restaurant administration provides
particularly strong preparation for a career in
hotel management. In 1980, over 80 colleges
and universities offered 4-year programs in
this field. Because more aspiring hotel man­
agers seek formal training, applicants to these
programs may face increasing competition in
the coming years, however. Many junior col­
leges, technical institutes, and the Education­
al Institute of the American Hotel and Motel
Association also have courses in hotel work
that provide a good background.
Included in many college programs in hotel
management are courses in hotel administra­
tion, accounting, economics, data processing,
housekeeping, food service management and
catering, and hotel maintenance engineering.

Management trainees learn the business by working in the various departments of a hotel.

Part-time or summer work in hotels and res­
taurants is encouraged because the experience
gained and the contacts with employers may
benefit students when they seek a job after
Managers should have initiative, self-disci­
pline, and the ability to organize and direct
the work of others. They must be able to
solve problems and concentrate on details.
Sometimes large hotels sponsor special­
ized, on-the-job management training pro­
grams which enable trainees to rotate among
various departments and receive a thorough
knowledge of the hotel’s operation. Other
hotels may help finance the necessary train­
ing in hotel management for outstanding
Most hotels promote employees who have
proven their ability, usually front office
clerks, to assistant manager and eventually to
general manager. Newly built hotels, particu­
larly those without well-established on-the-job
training programs, often prefer experienced
personnel for managerial positions. Hotel and
motel chains may offer better opportunities for
advancement than independently owned estab­
lishments, because employees can transfer to
another hotel or motel in the chain or to the
central office if an opening occurs.

Job Outlook
Employment of hotel managers is expected
to grow faster than the average for all occu­
pations through the 1980’s as additional ho­
tels and motels are built and chain and
franchise operations spread. However, most
openings will occur as experienced managers
die, retire, or leave the occupation. Seasonal
employment opportunities will be available in
resort establishments that are open only part
of the year.
Applicants who have college degrees in

hotel administration will have an advan­
tage in seeking entry positions and later

Salaries of hotel managers and assistants
are particularly dependent upon the size and
sales volume of the hotel, and vary greatly
because of differences in duties and responsi­
bilities. Hotel manager trainees who are
graduates of specialized college programs
generally start at around $13,500 a year and
usually are given periodic increases for the
first year or two. Experienced managers may
earn several times as much as beginners. For
example, salaries of hotel general managers
ranged from about $20,000 to $80,000 a year
in 1981, according to a'survey conducted by
the American Hotel and Motel Association.
Hotel food and beverage managers earned
from about $16,000 to $40,000. Managers
may earn bonuses ranging from 10 to 20
percent of their basic salary in some hotels.
In addition to salary, hotels sometimes fur­
nish managers and their families with lodging
in the hotel, meals, parking facilities, laun­
dry, and other services.
Most employees receive 5 to 10 paid holi­
days a year, paid vacation, sick leave, life
insurance, medical benefits, and pension
plans. Some hotels offer bonuses, profit shar­
ing plans, educational assistance, and other
benefits to their employees.

Related Occupations
Hotel managers and assistants are not the
only workers concerned with organizing and
directing a business where pleasing people is
very important. Other workers with similar
responsibilities include apartment building
managers, food service managers, depart­
ment store managers, office managers, and
sales managers.

40/Occupational Outlook Handbook

Sources of Additional Information
Information on careers and scholarships in
the lodging industry may be obtained from:
The American Hotel and Motel Association, 888
7th Ave., New York, N.Y. 10019.

For a directory of colleges and other
schools offering programs and courses in
hospitality education, write to:
Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional
Education, Human Development Building, Room
118, University Park, Pa. 16802.

Medical Record
(D .O .T . 079.167-014)

Nature of the Work
All health care institutions record medical
information on each patient, including case
histories of illnesses or injuries, reports on
physical examinations, X-rays and laboratory
tests, doctors’ orders and notes, and nurses’
notes. These records are necessary for correct
and prompt diagnosis and treatment of ill­
nesses and injuries. They also are used for
research, insurance claims, legal actions,
evaluation of treatment and medications pre­
scribed, and in the training of medical per­
sonnel. Medical information also is used to

evaluate patient care in hospitals and to plan
health care in the community.
Medical record administrators direct the
activities of the medical record department
and develop systems for documenting, stor­
ing, and retrieving medical information.
They supervise the medical record staff,
which processes and analyzes records and
reports on patients’ illnesses and treatment.
They train the medical record staff for spe­
cialized jobs, compile medical statistics for
State or national health agencies, and assist
the medical staff in evaluations of patient
care or research studies. Medical record ad­
ministrators serving as department heads are
a part of the hospital management staff and
participate fully in management activities. As
the administrators responsible for the medical
information system, they may be required to
testify in court about records and record
The size and type of institution affect the
duties and responsibility assigned to medical
record administrators. Large hospitals have
chief medical record administrators who su­
pervise other medical record administrators,
technicians, and clerks. Smaller hospitals
may employ only two or three persons in the
medical record department; nursing homes
often have one person in charge of medical
records. Small health care facilities may em­
ploy a part-time medical record administrator
to advise technical and clerical personnel.

Most medical record administrators work in hospitals.

Working Conditions
Medical record adminstrators generally
work a standard 40-hour week in clean, welllighted surroundings. Because the record de­
partment seldom is involved in emergencies,
the pace of work usually is regular and not
crisis-oriented. However, accuracy and atten­
tion to detail can be very tiring.

An estimated 15,000 medical record ad­
ministrators were employed in 1980. Most
worked in hospitals. The remainder worked
in nursing homes, clinics, group practices,
public health departments, and university
medical centers. Health insurance companies
employ medical record administrators to help
determine liability for payment of clients’
medical fees. Some medical record adminis­
trators work for firms which manufacture
equipment for recording and processing
medical data and which develop and print
health insurance and medical forms.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Preparation for a career in this field is
available through college and university pro­
grams that lead to a bachelor’s degree in
medical record administration. Medical
schools offer many of these programs. Since
concentration in medical record administra­
tion begins in the third or fourth year of
study, transfer from a community or junior
college is possible. One-year certificate pro­
grams are open to those who already have a
bachelor’s degree and required courses in the
liberal arts and biological sciences.
In 1980, 55 programs in medical record
administration were approved by the Com­
mittee on Allied Health Education and Ac­
creditation (CAHEA) of the American
Medical Association in collaboration with the
American Medical Record Association
(AMRA). High school courses that provide a
good background include health, business ad­
ministration, mathematics, computer science,
and biology.
Training for medical record administrators
includes both classroom instruction and prac­
tical experience. Anatomy, physiology, fun­
damentals of medical science, medical
terminology, and medical record science are
among the required scientific courses. In ad­
dition, management courses such as hospital
organization and administration, health law,
statistics, data processing, and computer sci­
ence are part of the curriculum. Experience
in the medical record departments of hospi­
tals provides students with a practical back­
ground in applying standardized medical
record practices, compiling statistical reports,
analyzing data, and organizing medical rec­
ord systems.
Graduates of approved schools in medical
record administration are eligible for the na­
tional registration examination given by
AMRA. Passing this examination gives pro­

Administrative and Managerial Occupations/41

fessional recognition as a Registered Record
Administrator (RRA). According to the
AMRA, there were about 6,500 employed
RRA’s in 1980.
Medical record administrators must be ac­
curate and interested in detail, and must be
able to speak and write clearly. Because medi­
cal records are confidential, medical record
administrators must be discreet in processing
and releasing information. Supervisors must
be able to organize, analyze, and direct work
procedures and to work effectively with other
hospital personnel.
Medical record administrators with some
experience in smaller health facilities may
advance to positions as department heads in
large hospitals or to higher level positions in
hospital administration. Some coordinate the
medical record departments of several small
hospitals. Others move on to medical record
positions in health agencies. Many teach in
the expanding programs for medical record
personnel in 2- and 4-year colleges and

Job Outlook
Employment opportunities for graduates of
approved medical record administrator pro­
grams are expected to be good through the
1980’s. Employment is expected to grow fas­
ter than the average for all occupations due to
a growing and aging population; more infor­
mation required by third-party payers, such as
insurance companies and government agen­
cies; and standardization of health records in
outpatient clinics, community health centers,
nursing homes, and home care programs. The
widespread use of computers to store and
retrieve medical information should stimulate
demand for administrators qualified to develop
automated record systems.
In addition to jobs created by heightened
demand for these workers, openings will oc­
cur as medical record administrators transfer
to other kinds of work, retire, or die.
Part-time employment opportunities should
continue in teaching, research, and consult­
ing work for health care facilities.

Related Occupations
Medical record administrators work almost
exclusively in hospitals and, as members of
the health care team, assume responsibility
for a large volume of medical records. They
train and supervise workers who verify, tran­
scribe, code, and maintain files on patients’
medical history. Other occupations which
provide similar services in related fields in­
clude emergency medical service coordina­
tors, hospital-insurance representatives,
library directors, and public health educators.

Sources of Additional Information
Information about approved schools and
employment opportunites is available from:
American Medical Record Association, John Han­
cock Center, Suite 1850, 875 N. Michigan Ave.,
Chicago, 111. 60611.

Occupational Safety
and Health Workers
(D .O .T. 010.061-026; 012.061-014, .167-022, -026,
-034, and -058, and .261-010; 079.021-010 and .161-010;
168.167-078, .264-014, and .267-074; 373.167-018 .367010; and 821.367-014; and 909.127-010)

Nature of the Work
Occupational safety and health workers

The salaries of medical record administra­
tors are influenced by the location, size, and
type of the employing institution, as well as
by the duties and responsibilities of the posi­
tion. The average starting salary for medical
record administrators in hospitals was about
$18,000 a year in 1981, according to a na­
tional survey conducted by the University of
Texas Medical Branch. Experienced record
administrators in hospitals averaged about
$23,600 a year, with some earning well over
Newly graduated medical record adminis­
trators employed by the Federal Government
generally started at about $12,300 a year in
early 1981; those having good academic rec­
ords were eligible to begin at about $15,200.
In 1980, experienced medical record admin­
istrators averaged about $19,500 a year in the
Federal Government.

Safety engineer taking measurements.

strive to control occupational accidents and
diseases, property losses from accidents and
fires, and injuries from unsafe products. This
group of workers includes safety engineers,
fire protection engineers, industrial hygien­
ists, and loss control and occupational health
consultants. Workers employed in safety and
health occupations peculiar to government
are discussed in the statement on health and
regulatory inspectors elsewhere in the Hand­
The largest group of safety workers is
safety engineers (D.O.T. 012.061-014). Al­
though all are concerned with preventing ac­
cidents, their specific tasks depend on where
they work. For example, safety engineers in
large manufacturing plants may develop a
comprehensive safety program covering sev­
eral thousand employees. They analyze each
job in the plant to identify potential hazards
that can be avoided with preventive mea­
sures. When accidents occur, safety engi­
neers investigate to determine the cause. If
poor design, improper maintenance, or me­
chanical failure is involved, they use their
technical skills to correct the situation and
prevent its recurrence. When human error
causes an accident, safety engineers may drill
workers in proper safety procedures.
Safety engineers who work for trucking
companies (D .O.T. 909.127-010) study
schedules, routes, loads, and speeds to deter­
mine their influence on trucking accidents.

42/Occupational Outlook Handbook

They also inspect trucks and trailers and sug­
gest ways of safer operation. In the mining
industry, safety engineers (D.O.T. 010.061026) may inspect underground or open-pit
areas to insure compliance with State and
Federal laws, design protective equipment
and safety devices for mine workers and ma­
chinery, or lead rescue activities during
Many safety engineers are concerned with
the safety of their company’s products. They
work with design engineers to develop mod­
els that meet safety standards, and they mon­
itor the manufacturing process to insure the
safety of the finished product.
Fire protection engineers (D .O .T .
012.167-026) safeguard life and property
against fire, explosion, and related hazards.
Those in research investigate problems such
as fires in high-rise buildings or the manufac­
ture, handling, and storage of flammable ma­
terials. Fire protection engineers in the field
use these research findings to identify and
correct hazards. For example, findings con­
cerning flashpoints (the temperatures at
which different materials will ignite) are
valuable to the engineer designing storage
facilities in a chemical plant.
Like safety engineers, fire protection engi­
neers may have different job duties depend­
ing on the place where they work. Those
with fire equipment manufacturing compa­
nies may design new fire protection devices,
while those in design and consulting firms
work with architects and other engineers to
insure that fire safety is built into new struc­
tures. Fire protection engineers working for
insurance rating bureaus (organizations that
calculate costs of insurance coverage in par­
ticular areas) inspect commercial and indus­
trial properties to evaluate the adequacy of
fire protection. Many fire protection engi­
neers specialize in one or more types of fire
protection, such as sprinkler or fire detection
While safety and fire protection engineers
primarily strive to minimize the dangers of
accidents from careless operation of machin­
ery and other physical hazards, industrial
hygienists (D.O.T. 079.161-010) seek to
minimize environmental health hazards in the
workplace. These health professionals are
concerned with how noise, dust, vapors,
chemicals, and other hazards common to the
industrial setting affect workers’ health.
Many take air samples, monitor noise levels,
or measure radioactivity levels at job sites.
Other industrial hygienists work in private
laboratories maintained by large insurance
companies or industrial or consulting firms.
Laboratory hygienists analyze air samples,
do research on the reliability of health equip­
ment such as respirators, or investigate the
effects of exposure to chemicals or radiation.
Some hygienists specialize in problems of air
and water pollution. They work with govern­
ment officials, environmental groups, labor
organizations, and plant management to de­
velop systems to screen harmful substances

before they enter and pollute air and water­
Loss control and occupational health con­
sultants (D.O.T. 168.167-078) in propertyliability insurance companies perform many
services for clients. These range from cor­
recting a single hazard in a small business to
devising a program to eliminate or reduce all
hazards in a large firm. When dealing with a
new account, the consultant thoroughly in­
spects the plant and then confers with man­
agement to formulate a program that meets
the company’s needs. The consultant may,
for example, help set up plant health pro­
grams and medical services, assist plant per­
sonnel to insure that a new facility meets all
safety requirements, or train plant safety peo­
ple. Safety and health consultants also help
their company’s underwriters determine
whether a risk- is acceptable and the amount
of premium to charge.

Working Conditions
Although occupational safety and health
workers are based in offices, much of their
time is spent at work sites inspecting or
studying safety hazards, talking to workers,
or taking air or dust samples. Safety and
health workers may travel a great deal unless
they work exclusively at a single plant. The
amount of travel depends upon job specialty
and geographic location. For example, the
plant safety engineer may travel only to an
occasional seminar or conference, while the
insurance consultant may spend about half
the time away from the home office, inspect­
ing worksites.

An estimated 80,000 occupational safety
and health workers were employed in 1980.
About half were safety engineers, and most
of the rest were fire protection engineers,
industrial hygienists, or workers who divided
their time between two or more areas. A
few were engineering or industrial hygiene
Occupational safety and health workers
were employed throughout the economy, but
were concentrated in manufacturing, insur­
ance, and engineering and architectural serv­
ices industries.
Occupational safety and health workers are
generally employed in population and indus­
trial centers. Insurance consultants generally
have offices in a major city and travel to and
from various sites.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
The basic entry requirement for occupa­
tional safety and health jobs is a bachelor’s
degree in engineering or one of the physical
or biological sciences. Employers usually
prefer a bachelor’s or master’s degree specifi­
cally related to occupational safety and
health, such as safety engineering or manage­
ment, industrial hygiene, fire protection engi­
neering, public health, or health physics, or a
degree in chemical or mechanical engineer­
ing. Some employers hire graduates of 2-year

college curriculums as technicians, particu­
larly if they have work related experience.
To stay abreast of changing technologies,
new ideas, and emerging trends, many insur­
ance companies offer training seminars and
correspondence courses for their staffs. The
Occupational Safety and Flealth Administra­
tion (OSHA) conducts courses for safety and
health workers on topics such as occupational
injury investigation and radiological health
hazards. The recognized marks of achieve­
ment in the field are the designations Certi­
fied Safety Professional; Certified Industrial
Hygienist; and Member, Society of Fire Pro­
tection Engineers. The Board of Certified
Safety Professionals and the American Board
of Industrial Hygiene certify candidates who
complete the required experience and pass an
examination. A few States require that occu­
pational safety and health professionals be
In addition to possessing technical compe­
tence, safety and health workers must com­
municate well and motivate others. They
should be able to adapt to different situa­
tions, and be equally at ease with a represen­
tative of a local union, a supervisor in the
welding shop, or a corporate executive. Be­
cause physical activity is basic to the job,
good physical condition is necessary.
In the insurance industry, safety and health
workers can be promoted to department man­
ager in a small branch office, then to a larger
branch office, and finally to an executive
position in the home office. In industrial
firms, they can advance to safety and health
manager for one or several plants. Techni­
cians with appropriate experience and educa­
tion can advance to professional safety and
health positions.

Job Outlook
Reflecting a growing economy, a larger
labor force, and continued concern for work­
er and consumer safety, employment of safe­
ty and health workers is expected to increase
about as fast as the average for all occupa­
tions through the 1980’s. Many openings also
will arise from the need to replace workers
who transfer to other occupations, retire, or
Many firms are expected to establish a
safety and health program, and others will
upgrade and expand existing programs in re­
sponse to government requirements, union
interest, and rising insurance costs. The num­
ber of safety and health workers in casualty
insurance companies also will increase as
more small employers request the services of
their insurer’s engineering or loss control de­
partment. Prospects should be best for gradu­
ates of occupational safety or health related

Experienced occupational safety and health
workers averaged about $28,000 a year in
1980. Depending on their qualification, safe­
ty and health workers with bachelor’s degrees
generally started at salaries between $20,000

Administrative and Managerial Occupations/43

and $22,000 a year in late 1980. Those with
a graduate degree usually received higher
starting salaries, and technicians somewhat
lower ones. Many safety and health workers
with supervisory responsibilities earned more
than $30,000 a year.

Related Occupations
Occupational safety and health workers in­
sure that industrial production is carried out
in a manner that is safe for workers. Related
occupations also concerned with the technol­
ogy of production include mechanical,
chemical, product safety, industrial, and pol­
lution-control engineers.

Sources of Additional Information
For general information about safety ca­
reers, and colleges and universities offering
degree programs in the occupational safety
and health field, write to:
American Society of Safety Engineers, 850 Busse
Hwy., Park Ridge, 111. 60068.

Information concerning a career in indus­
trial hygiene is available from:
American Industrial Hygiene Association, 475
Wolf Ledges Pkwy., Akron, Ohio 44311.

Career information concerning fire protec­
tion engineering may be obtained from:
Society of Fire Protection Engineers, 60 Batterymarch St., Boston, Mass. 02110.

Career information on insurance loss con­
trol consulting is available from the home
offices of many property-liability insurance
For information on requirements for var­
ious careers in the occupational safety and
health field, as well as lists of college and
universities that award degrees in the various
occupational safety and health disciplines,
Division of Training and Manpower Development,
National Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health, Robert A. Taft Laboratories, 4676 Co­
lumbia Pkwy., Cincinnati, Ohio 45226.

quent contact. Dealing with people is an es­
sential part of the job.
Personnel specialists and labor relations
specialists concentrate on different aspects of
employer-employee relations. Personnel spe­
cialists interview, select, and recommend ap­
plicants to fill job openings. They keep
informed of rules and regulations pertaining
to affirmative action and equal employment
opportunity and oversee the implementation
of policies governing hiring and advance­
ment. They handle wage and salary adminis­
tration, training and career development, and
employee benefits. “ Labor relations” mean
union-management relations, and people who
specialize in this field work in unionized
establishments, for the most part. They help
company officials prepare for collective bar­
gaining sessions, participate in contract nego­
tiations, and handle labor relations matters
that come up every day.
In a small organization, personnel work
consists mostly of interviewing and hiring,
and one person can handle it all. By contrast,
the professional staff of a large personnel
department may include recruiters, interview­
ers, job analysts, benefits specialists, training
specialists, and labor relations specialists.
Personnel clerks and assistants handle routine
tasks such as issuing forms, maintaining
files, compiling statistics, and answering
Personnel work often begins with the re­
cruiter, who maintains contacts within the
community and may travel extensively—usu­
ally to college campuses—in the search for
promising job applicants. Recruiters talk to
applicants, and refer and recommend those
who appear qualified to fill vacancies. They
may administer pre-employment tests and
check references. These workers need to be
thoroughly familiar with the organization and

its personnel policies, for they must be pre­
pared to discuss wages, working conditions,
and promotional opportunities with prospec­
tive and newly hired employees. They also
need to keep informed about equal employ­
ment opportunity (EEO) and affirmative ac­
tion guidelines.
EEO representatives or affirmative action
coordinators handle this complex and sensi­
tive area in large organizations. They main­
tain contact with women and minority
employees, and investigate and resolve EEO
grievances. They also examine corporate
practices for possible violations, and compile
and submit EEO statistical reports.
Job analysts (D .O .T . 166.267-018),
sometimes called compensation analysts, do
very exacting work. They collect and exam­
ine detailed information about job duties in
order to prepare job descriptions. These de­
scriptions or “ position classifications” explain
the duties, training, and skills each job re­
quires. Whenever a large organization intro­
duces a new job or reviews existing ones, it
calls upon the expert knowledge of the job
analyst. Accurate information about job du­
ties also is required when an organization
considers changes in its pay system.
Establishing and maintaining a firm’s pay
system is the principal job of the compensa­
tion manager (D.O.T. 166.167-022). With
the assistance of staff specialists, compensa­
tion managers devise ways to ensure that pay
rates within the firm are fair and equitable.
They may conduct surveys from time to time
to see how their pay rates compare with
others. Being certain that the firm’s pay sys­
tem complies with laws and regulations is
another part of the job, one that requires
knowledge of compensation structures and
labor law.
Human resource development is emerging

Personnel and Labor
Relations Specialists
(D.O.T. 079.127-010; 166.067-010, .117, .167-014,
-018, -022, -026, -030, -034, .227-010, .267-018, -030;
and 169.207-010)

Nature of the Work
Attracting the best employees available
and matching them to the jobs they can do
best is important for the success of any orga­
nization. But many enterprises have become
too large to permit close contact between
management and employees. Instead, person­
nel and labor relations specialists provide this
link—assisting management to make effec­
tive use of employees’ skills, and helping
employees to find satisfaction in their jobs
and working conditions. Although some jobs
in this field require only limited contact with
people outside the office, most involve fre­

Personnel specialist interviews applicant for job opening.

44/Occupational Outlook Handbook

as a major specialization within personnel
administration. Training specialists (D.O.T.
079.127-010; 166.167-026, .227-010) are re­
sponsible for a broad range of employee edu­
cation and training activities. They work with
adults in a variety of business and industrial
settings, as well as in local, State, and Feder­
al government agenices. Trainers conduct
orientation sessions for new employees and
arrange on-the-job training for them. They
develop in-house programs as needs are iden­
tified; they may, for example, instruct expe­
rienced workers in the impact of new proce­
dures or the operation of new equipment, or
they may teach management skills to new
supervisors. In addition to designing, devel­
oping, and conducting programs, these spe­
cialists assess employee training needs;
maintain records of company training activi­
ties; and monitor and evaluate the effective­
ness of various kinds of training. Helping
employees prepare for future responsibilities
is an increasingly important part of the job.
Sometimes, this means setting up an individ­
ualized training plan, which provides a time­
table for strengthening existing job-related
skills and acquiring new ones. Career devel­
opment may involve employer-financed study
outside the company as well as job rotation
to different parts of the firm. The training
function within a company and the role and
responsibilities of training specialists vary
greatly, depending on the size of the firm and
organizational goals and objectives.
Employee-welfare managers (D .O .T .
166.117-014, 166.167-018) handle the em­
ployer’s benefits program, notably its insur­
ance and pension plans. Expertise in
designing and administering benefits pro­
grams is increasingly important in the person­
nel field, in part because of the enactment of
the Employee Retirement Income Security
Act (ERISA). ERISA reporting require­
ments are an important responsibility for per­
sonnel departments in large firms.
The scope of employee benefits has grown
considerably, and many firms offer their em­
ployees such benefits as dental insurance,
accidental death and disability insurance,
auto insurance, home owners’ insurance,
stock options, profit sharing and thrift/savings plans in addition to conventional health
insurance and pension coverage. Benefits an­
alysts and benefits administrators handle
these programs. They also are responsible for
developing and coordinating services as di­
verse as van-pooling, child care, lunchrooms
and company cafeterias, newsletters, annual
physical exams, recreation and physical fit­
ness, and counseling. Personal and financial
counseling for employees approaching retire­
ment age is becoming a more important part
of the job.
Occupational safety and health programs
are handled in various ways. In small com­
panies especially, accident prevention and in­
dustrial safety are the responsibility of the
personnel department-or of the labor rela­
tions specialist, if the union has a safety
representative. Increasingly, however, there

is a separate safety department under the
direction of a safety and health professional,
generally a safety engineer or industrial hy­
gienist. (The work of occupational safety and
health workers is discussed elsewhere in the
Labor relations specialists (D .O .T .
166.167-034) advise management on all as­
pects of union-management relations. When
a collective bargaining agreement is up for
negotiation, they provide background infor­
mation for management’s negotiating posi­
tion, a job that requires familiarity with
sources of economic and wage data as well
as extensive knowledge of labor law and
collective bargaining trends. Actual negotia­
tion of the agreement is conducted at the top
level, with the director of labor relations or
another top-ranking official serving as the
employer’s representative, but members of
the company’s labor relations staff play an
important role throughout the negotiations.
Much of the work of the labor relations
staff concerns interpretation and administra­
tion of the contract, the grievance procedures
in particular. Labor relations specialists
might work with the union on seniority rights
under the layoff procedure set forth in the
contract, for example, or meet with the union
steward about a grievance. Doing the job
well means staying abreast of current devel­
opments in labor law, including arbitration
decisions, and maintaining continuing liaison
with union officials.
Personnel specialists in government agen­
cies generally do the same kind of work as
those in large business firms. There are some
differences, however. Public personnel spe­
cialists deal with employees whose jobs are
subject to civil service regulations. Because
civil service jobs are strictly classified as to
entry requirements, duties, and pay, much of
the emphasis in public personnel work is on
job analysis. Training and career develop­
ment are growing in importance in the public
sector, however, so much so that an entire
‘‘industry ’’ of educational and training consul­
tants helps provide staff training for public
agencies. Labor relations in the public per­
sonnel field have changed as union strength
among government workers has grown. This
has created a need for more and better trained
workers to handle negotiations, grievances,
and arbitration cases on behalf of Federal,
State, and local government agencies.

Working Conditions
Since personnel offices generally are locat­
ed where outside visitors and prospective em­
ployees gain an initial impression of the
organization, they tend to be modem and
pleasant places to work. Personnel specialists
usually work a standard 35-to 40- hour work­
week. Labor relations specialists, however,
may work longer hours-particularly when
contract agreements are being prepared and
Although most personnel specialists spend
their time in the office, some of them travel
extensively. Recruiters regularly attend pro­

fessional meetings and visit college campuses
to interview prospective employees.

In 1980, about 178,000 people worked as
personnel and labor relations specialists. Two
out of three worked in private industry,
where they were employed by businesses of
every description. Personnel and labor rela­
tions specialists work for firms that engage in
manufacturing; construction; trade; transpor­
tation and communications; finance, insur­
ance, and real estate; and services. Some
work for labor unions. Others are employed
by, or run, management consulting firms that
specialize in such areas as compensation,
pension planning, and staff development.
Approximately 55,000 personnel and labor
relations specialists worked for Federal,
State, and local governments in 1980. They
handled recruitment, interviewing, job classi­
fication, training, and related matters for the
Nation’s 15 million public employees: police
officers, fire-fighters, sanitation workers,
teachers, hospital workers, and many others.
Labor unions employed about 12,000 of
these workers in 1980. An elected union
official generally handles labor relations mat­
ters at the company level. At national and
international union headquarters, however,
the research and education staff usually in­
cludes specialists with professional training
in industrial and labor relations, economics,
or law.
Some personnel and labor relations spe­
cialists teach college or university courses in
personnel administration, industrial relations,
and related subjects.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A college degree is required for most be­
ginning positions in this field. Prospective
personnel or labor relations specialists have a
wide choice of undergraduate majors, for a
number of disciplines provide a suitable
background. Some employers look for indi­
viduals who have majored in personnel ad­
ministration or industrial and labor relations,
while others prefer college graduates with a
general business background. Still other em­
ployers feel that a well-rounded liberal arts
education is best; many personnel specialists
have degrees in psychology, sociology, coun­
seling, or education. A master’s in business
administration (M.B.A.) also provides suit­
able preparation for a job in the field. Indi­
viduals looking for a job with a government
agency may find that a degree in personnel
administration, political science, or public
administration is an asset.
At least 200 colleges and universities have
programs leading to a degree in the field of
personnel and labor relations. Other colleges
and universities offer programs in personnel
administration or personnel management.
About 70 colleges and universities offer de­
gree or certificate programs in training and
development. Depending on the school,
preparation for a career in human resources


development may be obtained in departments
of business administration, education, in­
structional technology, organizational devel­
opment, human services, communication, or
public administration.
Because an interdisciplinary background is
appropriate for work in this area, a combina­
tion of courses in the social sciences, behav­
ioral sciences, business, and economics is
useful. Prospective personnel specialists
might take courses in principles of manage­
ment, organization dynamics, and human re­
lations. Other relevant courses include
business administration, public administra­
tion, psychology, sociology, political sci­
ence, economics, and statistics. Courses in
labor law, collective bargaining, labor eco­
nomics, labor history, and industrial psychol­
ogy provide a valuable background for the
prospective labor relations specialist.
Graduate study in industrial or labor rela­
tions may be required for work in labor rela­
tions. A law degree seldom is required for
entry level jobs, but most of the people re­
sponsible for contract negotiations are law­
yers, and a combination of industrial
relations courses and a law degree is highly
desirable. Although a growing number of
people enter the labor relations field directly,
some begin in personnel work, gain exper­
ience in that area, and subsequently move
into a labor relations job.
Getting a college education, though highly
important, is not the only way to enter person­
nel work. Some clerks advance to professional
positions through experience. However, even
then, part-time college courses are useful.
Newly hired workers usually enter formal
or on-the-job training programs where they
learn how to classify jobs, interview appli­
cants, or administer employee benefits. Next,
they are assigned to specific areas in the
personnel department, to gain experience.
Later, they may advance within their own
company or transfer to another employer.
Advancement eventually may take the form
of responsibility for managing a major ele­
ment of the personnel program—compensa­
tion, training, or EEO/affirmative action, for
Workers in the middle ranks of a large
organization, including the personnel depart­
ment, often advance by moving into a top job
in a smaller organization. Employees with
exceptional ability may be promoted to ex­
ecutive positions, such as director of person­
nel or director of labor relations.
Personnel and labor relations specialists
should speak and write effectively and be
able to work with people of all levels of
education and experience. They also must be
able to see both the employee’s and the em­
ployer’s points of view. In addition,
should be able to work as part of a team.
They need supervisory abilities and must be
able to accept responsibility. Integrity, fairmindedness, and a persuasive, congenial per­
sonality are all important qualities.



J o b O u tlo o k
The number of personnel and labor relations specialists is expected to grow about as
fast as the average for all occupations
through the 1980's. Most of this growth will
occur in the private sector as employers,
aware of the potential benefits, try to provide
effective employee relations programs for an
expanding work force. Within public personnel administration, opportunities probably
will be best in State and local governments.
At the Federal level, most job openings will
result from replacement needs. In addition to
new jobs created by heightened demand for
these workers, many openings will occur every year as personnel and labor relations specialists change occupations, retire, or die.
Legislation setting standards for employment practices in the areas of occupational
safety and health, equal employment opportunity, and pensions has greatly increased
record keeping and reporting requirements as
well as legal requirements, thus stimulating
demand for personnel and labor relations
workers. Continued growth is foreseen as
employers review and evaluate programs in
these areas
Every year, billions of dollars are spent on
employee training in the public and private
sectors. and the amount is expected to increase
in the decade ahead. Greater emphasis on
productivity is expected to stimulate greater
investment in job-specific, employer-sponsored training that aims to improve performance by sharpening employees’ skills and
heightening their motivation. Continued ex.
. .
pans,on m the area of human resource development will contribute to the projected
increase in the number of personnel and labor
relations specialists during the 1980’s.
Although the number of jobs in this field
is projected to increase over the next decade,
job competition is increasing, too. Particularly keen competition is anticipated for jobs in
labor relations. A small field, labor relations
traditionally has been difficult to break into,
and opportunities are best for applicants with
a master’s degree or a strong undergraduate
major in industrial relations, economics, or
business. A law degree is an asset.

Administrative and Managerial Occupations/45

Inanding work assignments, and job analysts
with more
L * 6? ? “ perience had s t a ­
range m 1980,
with an average of $25,000 EEO representatlves- b' nefits anal5'sts- and tralmn« , Pec'al;
,sf wl,h “'L „ J ear! “ penenCue 3,80 had
” 5
S25-000'* 27-000a™rage.
Average annual salaries of personnel directors in private industry ranged from $27,719
to $49.730 in 1980, according to a Bureau of
Labor Statistics survey. Top personnel and
labor relations executives in large corporations earned considerably more,
salaries for
m d specialists
l d b State goveraments ranged from
$12700 tQ $17200 a
in 1980) accord_
ing tQ a survey conducted by ^ U S office
0f Personnel Management. Personnel specialists who had supervisory responsibilities
averaged from $18,900 to $25,900 and State
directors of personnel earned average salaries
ranging from $36,500 to $42,000.

Federal Government, new graduates
a bachelor s degree generally started at
about $12,300 a year in late 1980. Those
with a master s degree started at about
5.1*-600' Avera«« Federal salarif , ia sevef d
dlfferent f eas of
and, ' a^°r rela‘
tlons work were 38 follows ,n l980:
Mediator.............................................. $39,763
Labor relations specialist ..................... 29,371
Labor-management relations examiner . 28,810
Personnel management specialist.......... 27,374
Employee development specialist ........ 26,884
Position classifier ............................. 26,190
Salary and wage administrator ............ 26,060
Employee re|atjons specialist................ 25,290
Personnel staffing specialist.................. 24,315

All of the personnel and labor relations
occupations are closely related. Other workers who help people find satisfactory jobs or
help to make the work environment safe and
pleasant include health and regulatory inspectors, occupational safety and health workers,
lawyers, employment counselors, rehabilitation counselors, college career planning and
placement counselors, industrial engineers,
psychologists, and sociologists. All of these
occupations are described elsewhere in the

E a r n in g s
Typical entry level jobs in the personnel
field include job analyst, EEO representa­
tive, benefits analyst, and training specialist. S o u rc e s o f A d d itio n a l I n f o r m a tio n
These positions generally require a bachelor’s
For general information on careers in perdegree but no experience. Salaries vary wide- sonnel and industrial relations, write to:
ly, and depend on the size and location of the
„ .
c .. ,
firm as well as the nature of its business.

In 1980, according to a survey conducted
by the American Management Associations
(AMA), starting salaries for job analystssometimes called position analysts, wage anor compensation analysts-ranged from
i] 9 0 Q with an average of
$16,100. EEO representatives had average
starting salaries of $J7j JX10t benefits analysts,
$18.000: and training specialists, $19,000.
Salaries rise with experience and more tie-

American Society for Personnel Administration,
30 D
Park Dr., Berea, Ohio 44017.

or informat* about the field of employon
ee training an<^ human resource development,
American Society for Training and Development,
600 Maryland Ave. SW., Suite 305, Washington,
D-C. 20024.
A brochure describing a career in labormanagement relations as a field examiner is
available from:

46/Occupational Outlook Handbook

Director of Personnel, National Labor Relations
Board, 1717 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20570.

Purchasing Agents
(D .O .T. 162.117-022 and -026; 162.157-010, -034
and -038; 162.167-010, -014 and -030)

Nature of the Work
If an organization does not have the right
materials, supplies, or equipment when they
are needed, its entire production process or
work flow could be interrupted or halted.
Purchasing agents see to it that this does not
happen. Purchasing agents, also called indus­
trial buyers, obtain goods and services of the
quality required at the lowest possible cost,
and see that adequate materials and supplies
always are available. Agents in industry and
the government, depending on the nature of
the operation, may buy machinery, raw mate­
rials, parts and components, furniture, busi­
ness machines, vehicles, office supplies, and
services. Information on retail buyers, who
purchase merchandise for resale in its origi­
nal form, rather than for internal use, is
presented in the chapter on buyers elsewhere
in the Handbook.
Purchasing agents buy supplies when the
stock on hand reaches a predetermined re­

order point, when a department in the organi­
zation requisitions items it needs, or when
market conditions are especially favorable.
Because agents often can purchase from
many sources, their main job is selecting the
supplier who offers the best value.
Purchasing agents use a variety of means
to choose suppliers. They compare listings in
catalogs, directories, and trade journals.
They meet with salespersons to discuss items
to be purchased and examine samples, and
attend demonstrations of equipment. Fre­
quently, agents invite suppliers to bid on
large orders, and then select the lowest bid­
der among those who meet requirements for
quality and delivery date.
Sometimes purchasing agents negotiate for
custom-made products. To meet specifi­
cations, agents must thoroughly understand
the products and their uses. In some cases,
such as computer equipment, this means
agents must have considerable technical
knowledge. After placing an order, the pur­
chasing agent checks periodically to insure
prompt delivery.
Purchasing agents develop a good business
relationship with suppliers in order to get
cost savings, favorable payment terms, and
quick delivery on emergency orders or help
in obtaining scarce materials. Agents also
work closely with other employees in their
own organization. For example, they may
discuss design of custom-made products with

company engineers, defects in purchased
goods with quality control technicians, or
shipment problems with workers in the ship­
ping department.
Purchasing agents ’ functions may differ ac­
cording to the type and size of the organiza­
tion. In a large firm , agents usually
specialize in a commodity or group of com­
modities—for example, steel, lumber, cot­
ton, or petroleum products. In smaller
organizations, agents generally buy a wider
range of goods, such as all raw materials or
all office supplies, furniture, and business
machines. Purchasing managers usually su­
pervise a group of purchasing agents han­
dling a number of related commodities.

Working Conditions
Purchasing agents generally work a stan­
dard 35- to 40-hour week. Some overtime
may be necessary if, for example, the supply
of critical materials runs short. Although they
spend most of their time in the office, some
travel to suppliers, seminars, or trade shows.

About 172,000 persons worked as pur­
chasing agents in 1980. Over half worked in
manufacturing industries. Large numbers
also were employed by government agencies,
construction companies, hospitals, and
About half of all purchasing agents work
in organizations that have fewer than five
employees in the purchasing department.
Many large business firms and government
agencies, however, have much larger pur­
chasing departments; some employ as many
as 100 specialized purchasing agents.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Purchasing agent discusses a new product with the supplier.

Although there are no universal education­
al requirements for entry level jobs, most
large organizations require a college degree,
and prefer applicants with a master’s degree
in business administration or management.
Companies that manufacture machinery or
chemicals may prefer applicants with back­
grounds in engineering or science, while oth­
er companies hire business administration
majors as trainees. Courses in purchasing,
accqunting, economics, and statistics are
helpful. Familiarity with computers also is
desirable. A few colleges offer a college
degree in purchasing.
Some small companies require a bachelor’s
degree; many others, however, hire graduates
of associate degree programs in purchasing
for entry level jobs. They also may promote
clerical workers or technicians to purchasing
jobs. Regardless of the size of an organiza­
tion, however, a college degree is becoming
increasingly important for advancement to
management positions.
Whatever their educational background,
beginning purchasing agents spend consider­
able time learning about company operations
and purchasing procedures. They work with
experienced buyers to learn about commod­

Administrative and Managerial Occupations/47

ities, prices, suppliers, and negotiating tech­
niques. They may be assigned to production
planning to learn about the purchasing sys­
tem, inventory records, and storage facilities.
Junior agents purchase standard and cata­
log items. As they gain knowledge and ex­
perience, they may be prom oted to
purchasing agent, then senior purchasing
agent. Senior agents purchase highly com­
plex, usually custom-made items.
Purchasing agents must be able to analyze
the technical data in suppliers’ proposals to
make buying decisions and spend large
amounts of money responsibly. The job re­
quires the ability to work independently and
a good memory for details. In addition, a
purchasing agent must be able to get along
well with people, to balance the needs of
personnel in his or her organization with bud­
getary constraints, and to negotiate with sup­
pliers. He or she may have to work with
lawyers, contract administrators, and engi­
neers and scientists when involved in com­
plex procurements.
A qualified purchasing agent can become
an assistant purchasing manager in charge of
a group of purchasing agents and then ad­
vance to purchasing manager, director or vice
president of purchasing, or director or vice
president of materials management.
Continuing education is essential for ad­
vancement. Most agents participate in semi­
nars offered by professional societies and
take college courses in purchasing. In private
industry, the recognized mark of experience
and professional competence is the designa­
tion Certified Purchasing Manager (CPM). It
is conferred by the National Association of
Purchasing Management, Inc., upon candi­
dates who pass four examinations and meet
educational and experience requirements. In
government, the indications of professional
competence are the designations Professional
Public Buyer (PPB) and Certified Public
Purchasing Officer (CPPO), conferred by
the National Institute of Governmental Pur­
chasing, Inc. The PPB is earned by passing a
written two-part examination and meeting
educational and experience requirements. A
candidate must meet more stringent basic re­
quirements, pass a three-part written exam,
and an oral assessment interview to earn the

schools also recognize the importance of pro­
fessional purchasers in reducing costs.
Persons who have a master’s degree in
business administration, a bachelor’s degree
in engineering, science, or business adminis­
tration, and whose college program included
some courses in purchasing should have the
best opportunities. Graduates of 2-year pro­
grams in purchasing should continue to find
good opportunities, especially in small firms.

College graduates hired as junior purchas­
ing agents earned about $16,200 a year in
1981, according to a surveys conducted by
the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Experienced
agents purchasing standard items averaged
about $20,300 a year; senior purchasing
agents specializing in complex or technical
goods averaged about $25,200. Assistant
purchasing managers received average sala­
ries of about $30,600 a year. Many corporate
directors of purchasing or materials manage­
ment earned well over $50,000 a year. Sala­
ries generally are higher in large firms where
responsibilities often are greater.
In the Federal Government, beginning pur­
chasing agents who had college degrees
earned $12,266 or $15,193 in early 1981,
depending on scholastic achievement and ex­
perience. Salary levels vary widely among
State governments; average earnings range
from $13,500 to $18,250 for purchasers of
standard items, from $18,500 to $25,000 for
senior buyers purchasing complex items, and
from $27,700 to $36,200 for State purchas­
ing directors.

Related Occupations
Other workers who negotiate and contract to
purchase equipment, supplies, or other mer­
chandise include retail buyers, procurement
services managers, livestock commission
agents, traffic managers, and wholesalers.

Sources of Additional Information
Further information about a career in pur­
chasing is available from:
National Association of Purchasing Management,
Inc., 11 Park Place, New York, N.Y. 10007.
National Institute of Governmental Purchasing,
Inc., 1735 Jefferson Davis Hwy., Suite 101, Ar­
lington, Va. 22202.

Job Outlook
Employment of purchasing agents is ex­
pected to increase about as fast as the aver­
age for all occupations through the 1980’s.
Many job openings will occur as employed
purchasing agents transfer to other work, re­
tire, or die.
Demand for purchasing agents is expected
to rise as the volume of goods and services
produced increases and as their importance in
reducing costs is increasingly recognized.
Large industrial organizations will expand
purchasing departments to handle the grow­
ing complexity of manufacturing processes.
Many opportunities also should arise as ser­
vice organizations such as hospitals and

(D .O .T. 091.107-010; 099.117-018, -022)

Nature of the Work
“ Go to the principal’s office!” Do any five
words strike more terror into the heart of a
student? Principals—who are doubtless
warm, outgoing souls when they are not dis­
ciplining students—are the most familiar and

the most numerous school administrators.
Other administrators are school district super­
intendents, assistant superintendents, and as­
sistant principals. The jobs vary greatly, and
most of what follows primarily concerns
those in the public school system. But no
matter the system, administrators provide the
leadership and managerial ability that keep
individual schools and entire school systems
running smoothly.
The task of school administrators has
grown more complex in recent years. Not
only are schools and school systems larger
than ever before—the result of a continuing
trend toward consolidation—but they touch
the lives of people who have become increas­
ingly vocal, even angry, in pursuing their
goals. It takes political as well as administra­
tive skill to handle the issues that confront
school leaders today: Desegregation, declin­
ing enrollment and school closings, contract
negotiations with teachers, spiraling costs,
and taxpayer resistance to higher taxes, to
name a few. But, as educators, administra­
tors have the satisfaction of knowing that
their work smooths the way to knowledge for
thfeir schools’ students.
The job of a school administrator begins
with planning and setting goals. To achieve
these goals, administrators must organize,
coordinate, direct, and evaluate the activities
of school personnel, ensuring that they meet
deadlines and stick to their budgets. Admin­
istrators, acting on behalf of the school
board, negotiate contracts and settle labor
disputes. They must also maintain good rela­
tions with the public.
Superintendents, the chief administrators
of a school district, oversee and coordinate
the activities of all the schools in the district.
The board of education selects the superin­
tendent, whose duties range from routine ad­
ministrative tasks to long-range planning.
Naturally, the nature of the job depends in
part on the size of the district. Managing the
schools in Raynham, Massachusetts, is not
quite the same as running all the public
schools in Chicago. Nevertheless, the kind of
work performed by the superintendent is es­
sentially the same in every district.
On any given day, a superintendent may
supervise the preparation of a budget; partici­
pate in collective bargaining sessions with
employees; meet with parents, teachers, or
local citizen’s groups; plan for changes in
physical facilities or staff size due to changes
in enrollment; write reports to the school
board; or issue directives pertaining to the
operation of the school system.
Most superintendents have one or more
deputies or assistants. An assistant superin­
tendent’s duties depend on the size and
organization of the school system. In some
districts, assistant superintendents oversee all
the operations in a particular geographic area;
in others, they have authority over specific
activities—personnel, budget, or instruction
and pupil services, for example.
Principals are the highest authority in a
school. They are responsible for running the

48/Occupational Outlook Handbook

Elementary school principals try to become acquainted with every child.

school according to the standards set forth by
the superintendent and board of education.
The actual extent of a principal’s authority
varies a great deal from district to district.
Improving the quality of instruction is the
principal’s most important responsibility.
Most principals visit classrooms, review in­
structional objectives, and examine learning
materials. But principals also spend a great
deal of time doing paperwork: Filling out
forms, preparing administrative reports,
keeping track of attendance, seeing that sup­
plies are properly requisitioned and allocated,
and so on. Despite the paperwork, principals
spend much of the day with people. They
confer with teachers and other staff—advis­
ing, explaining, or answering procedural
questions; they talk with parents and mem­
bers of the community; and they meet with
students—particularly those who cause disci­
plinary problems.
In larger schools, assistant principals often
handle the discipline.. Assistant principals
may also provide individual or group coun­
seling about personal, social, educational, or
vocational matters. And they often coordi­
nate school social and recreational programs.

Working Conditions
School administrators work mainly in of­
fices, but they spend some time away from
their desks at meetings with parent and teach­
er associations, the school board, and civic
groups. Principals and assistant principals
also sit in on classes, attend school assem­
blies and sports events, and check the
school’s physical facilties.
School superintendents and principals usu­
ally work a standard 40-hour week. Howev­
er, at night and on weekends, they often go
to meetings or attend to problems that require
immediate attention. Unlike teachers, admin­

istrators work at pretty much the same tasks
year round and can usually be found at their
desks even during school vacations.

An estimated 150,000 elementary and sec­
ondary school administrators were employed
in 1980, most of them in public school sys­
tems. Of these, about 23,000 were superin­
tendents and assistants, and about 127,000
were principals and assistants.
Every school system typically has at least
one superintendent, who in turn generally has
one or more assistants. Similarly, every
school usually has a principal, and larger
schools may have one or more assistant prin­
cipals. Assistant principals are generally em­
ployed in secondary schools, which tend to
be larger than elementary schools.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
All 50 States and the District of Columbia
require the certification of school administra­
tors. Certification requirements may include
good health and character, U.S. citizenship
or State residency, graduate training in edu­
cational administration, and experience.
Some States require school administrators to
pass an examination in order to become certi­
fied. Information on specific requirements
may be obtained from the Department of
Education in each State.
Experience in education is virtually a must
for the individual seeking a job as a school
administrator. School superintendents usually
are experienced administrators. Many are
former principals who worked their way up
through the administrative hierarchy. Princi­
pals and assistant principals are required by
most most school systems to have several
years of experience as classroom teachers.

Teachers with varying backgrounds some­
times move directly into principalships.
However, experience organizing and super­
vising school programs and activities is also
an important qualification for principals and
assistant principals, who may move into the
position from another administrative job—
such as curriculum specialist; financial advi­
sor; or director of audiovisual aids, arts, or
special education.
Graduate study in educational administra­
tion, preferably at the doctoral level, is usually
required for a school district superintendent.
In some larger districts, candidates for posi­
tions in the district’s central administrative
office may be expected to have a law degree or
business degree in addition to a graduate
degree in education. A master’s degree in
educational administration is the usual prereq­
uisite for a position as a school principal or
assistant principal.
The National Council for Accreditation of
Teacher Education accredits graduate pro­
grams in educational administration on over
250 campuses. Programs provide specific
preparation for elementary school principals,
secondary school principals, or school district
superintendents. Valuable courses within
educational administration include school
management, school law, school finance and
budgeting, curriculum development and eval­
uation, systematic planning, supervision of
instruction, research design and data analy­
sis, personnel administration, community re­
lations, politics in education, and leadership.
A semester of internship and field experience
is recommended.
In addition to experience and education,
school administrators need certain personal
characteristics in order to do their jobs well.
Leadership skills and managerial ability are
needed to direct the activities of the many
people employed in a school or school sys­
tem. Administrators need a personal philos­
ophy of education which includes an
understanding of the educational process and
its goals, as well as familiarity with educa­
tional technology, curriculum development,
and strategies for meeting educational needs.
Because the various aspects of their jobs may
be rather loosely defined, school administra­
tors must also have a strong internal sense of
direction and motivation. Moreover, they are
frequently under fire from many different
groups, making self-confidence and the abili­
ty to withstand criticism essential. Finally,
since their work involves dealing with a wide
range of people, communications skills and
the ability to get along with different groups
are crucial.
Because administrative competence is such
an important trait for a school administrator,
an applicant’s past work record and reputa­
tion are extremely important when hiring de­
cisions are made.

Job Outlook
Little change in employment of school
administrators is expected through the
1980’s. Nearly all job openings will result

Administrative and Managerial Occupations/49

from the need to replace administrators who
transfer to other occupations, retire, or die.
Due to consolidation, both the number of
school districts and the total number of
schools have declined for over 40 years. The
trend is expected to continue. However, the
implications of consolidation for employment
of school administrators are mixed: While
some administrative positions are lost, others-particularly for assistants-are created as a
result of the increased size and complexity of
the consolidated units. However, public edu­
cation is under strong pressure from taxpay­
ers to limit spending increases, and budget
constraints could limit the expansion of ad­
ministrative staffs in some consolidated units.
Enrollments declined in elementary and
secondary schools during the 1970’s. They
are expected to begin rising again in the mid1980’s, although the increase in the number
of students will occur only in the elementary
schools. The number of secondary school
students will continue to decline until after
1990. Therefore, the need for elementary
school principals may well be greater than
the need for secondary school principals and
In spite of some new openings for princi­
pals that may occur at the elementary school
level, competition for school administrative
jobs is expected to remain keen throughout
the decade. Large numbers of teachers and
other school personnel obtained graduate de­
grees in education or educational administra­
tion during the 1970’s. Many of thesewhether prompted by “ bum out,” dissatisfac­
tion with the classroom environment, or sim­
ply attracted by the wider range of duties,
greater responsibilities, and higher salaries of
a position in the administrative hierarchy-can
be expected to compete for positions in the
field of educational administration.

Salaries of school administrators vary ac­
cording to position, level of responsibility,
and the size and geographic location of the
school or school district. In general, salaries
are highest in the Far West and Mid-Atlantic
States and lowest in the Southeast. Accord­
ing to the Educational Research Service,
Inc., average salaries for selected school ad­
ministrators in 1980-81 were as follows:
Superintendent ........................................ $43,001
Deputy or associate superintendent . . . . 41,117
Assistant superintendent ........................ 36,633
Senior high school principal ................ 32,231
Senior high school assistant principal . 27,285
Junior high/middle school principal . . . 30,401
Junior high/middle school
assistant principal........................ 26,045
Elementary school principal.........
Elementary school assistant principal .. 23,118

Related Occupations
School administrators need organizational
and leadership skills in order to manage peo­
ple, programs, and financial resources suc­
cessfully. The same combination of profes­

sional competence and managerial effective­
ness is needed for top administrative
positions in the areas of health, welfare, reli­
gion, and recreation. Related occupations in­
clude hospital administrators, academic
deans, directors of agencies on aging, library
directors, college or university department
heads, recreation and parks directors, and
museum curators.

(D .O .T . 169.167-058)

Nature of the Work
Insurance companies assume billions of
dollars in risks each year by transferring
the risk of loss from their policyholders to
themselves. Underwriters appraise and select
the risks their company will insure. (The
term underwriter sometimes is used in refer­
ring to insurance agents; see the statement on
insurance agents and brokers elsewhere in
the Handbook for a discussion of that
Underwriters decide whether their com­
panies will accept risks after analyzing infor­
mation in insurance applications, reports
from loss control consultants, medical re­
ports, and actuarial studies (reports that de­
scribe the probability of insured loss). Their
companies may lose business to competitors
if they appraise risks too conservatively or
may have to pay more claims if their under­
writing actions are too liberal.
When deciding that an applicant is an ac­
ceptable risk, an underwriter may outline the
terms of the contract, including the amount
of the premium. Underwriters frequently cor­
respond with policyholders, agents, and man­
agers about policy cancellations or other
requests for information. In addition, they
sometimes accompany salespeople on ap­
pointments with prospective customers.
Most underwriters specialize in one of
three major categories of insurance: Life,
property and liability, or health. They further
specialize in group or individual policies.
The property and liability underwriter spe­
cializes by type of risk insured, such as fire,
automobile, marine, or workers’ compensa­
tion. In cases where casualty companies in­
sure in a single “package” policy, covering
various types of risks however, the under­
writer must be familiar with different lines of
insurance. Some underwriters, called com­
mercial account underwriters, handle busi­
ness insurance exclusively. They often
evaluate a firm’s entire operation in apprais­
ing its insurance application.
An increasing proportion of insurance
sales is being made through group contracts.
A standard group policy insures all persons
in a specified group through a single contract
at uniform premium rates, generally for life
or health insurance protection. The group

underwriter analyzes the overall composition
of the group to be sure that total risk is not
excessive. Another type of group policy pro­
vides members of a group—a labor union,
for example—with individual policies reflect­
ing their individual needs. These generally
are casualty policies such as those covering
automobiles. The casualty underwriter ana­
lyzes the application of each group member
and makes individual appraisals. Some group
underwriters meet with union or employer
representatives to discuss the types of poli­
cies available to their group.

Working Conditions
Underwriters have desk jobs that require
no unusual physical activity. Their offices
generally are comfortable and pleasant. Al­
though some overtime may be required, the
normal workweek is 35-40 hours. Underwrit­
ers occasionally may attend meetings away
from home for several days.

About 76,000 persons worked as insurance
underwriters in 1980. Over three-fourths
were property and liability underwriters in
regional or home offices; most life insurance
underwriters were in home offices in a few
large cities, such as New York, San Francis­
co, Chicago, Dallas, Philadelphia, and

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
For beginning underwriting jobs, most
large insurance companies seek college
graduates who have a degree in liberal arts or
business administration, but a major in al­
most any field provides a good general back­
ground. Some small companies hire persons
without a college degree for underwriter
trainee positions. In addition, some high
school graduates who begin as underwriting
clerks may be trained as underwriters after
they demonstrate an aptitude for the work.
Underwriter trainees begin by evaluating
routine applications under the close supervi­
sion of an experienced risk appraiser. They
study claim files to become familiar with
factors associated with certain types of
losses. As they develop the necessary judg­
ment, they are assigned policy applications
that are more complex and have a greater
face value.
Continuing education is necessary for the
underwriter to advance. Insurance companies
generally pay tuition for successfully com­
pleted underwriting courses; some also offer
salary increases. Independent study programs
are available through the American Institute
of Property and Liability Underwriters, the
American College of Life Underwriters, the
Academy of Life Underwriters, the Health
Insurance Association of America, and the
Life Office Management Association. Ex­
perienced underwriters can qualify as a “fel­
low” of the Academy of Life Underwriters
by passing a series of examinations and com-

50/Occupational Outlook Handbook

pleting a paper on a topic in the underwriting
field. Examinations are given by the Institute
of Home Office Underwriters and the Home
Office Life Underwriters Association. Des­
ignation as a “ fellow” is recognized as a
mark of achievement in the underwriting
Underwriting can be a satisfying career for
persons who like working with detail and
enjoy evaluating information. In addition,
underwriters must be able to make prompt
decisions and communicate effectively. They
must also be imaginative and aggressive, es­
pecially when they have to get information
from outside sources.
Experienced underwriters who complete
courses of study may advance to chief under­
writer or underwriting manager. Some un­
derwriting managers are promoted to senior
managerial jobs.

Job Outlook
Employment of underwriters is expected to
rise about as fast as the average for all occu­
pations through the 1980’s as insurance sales
continue to expand. Each year many jobs
will become available as the need for under­

writers grows and as those who die, retire, or
transfer to other work are replaced.
Several factors underlie the expected
growth in the volume of insurance and the
resulting need for underwriters. Over the
next decade, many more workers will enter
the 25-54 age group. People in this age
group have the greatest need for life and
health insurance and protection for homes,
automobiles, and other valuables. A growing
demand for insurance coverage for working
women is also expected. Growing security
consciousness should also contribute to de­
mand for more insurance protection. New or
expanding businesses will need protection for
new plants and equipment, insurance for
workers’ compensation, product liability, and
mandatory insurance against long-term grad­
ual environmental damage caused by hazard­
ous waste. Competition among insurance
companies and changes in regulations affect­
ing investment profits also are expected to
increase the need for underwriters.
Since insurance is usually regarded as a
necessity regardless of economic conditions,
underwriters are unlikely to be laid off during
a recession.

Life insurance underwriters with some ex­
perience averaged about $17,000 a year in
1980, according to a Life Office Manage­
ment Association (LOMA) survey. Senior
life underwriters averaged $25,000, while
senior group underwriters earned average sal­
aries of about $28,000. In most cases, under­
writers in larger companies earned higher
A survey of property and liability insur­
ance companies showed that underwriters
earned median salaries of $16,000 to $17,000
in 1980. Earnings varied by specialty, how­
ever: personal lines underwriters earned me­
dian salaries of $15,800, while those
specializing in surety bonds earned $19,400.
Senior underwriters earned substantially
higher incomes—personal lines underwriters
received median salaries of $20,500 while
those specializing in commercial lines earned
$20,300 a year. Underwriting supervisors in
property and liability companies received me­
dian salaries between $22,000 and $24,000 a
year in 1980.
Most insurance companies have liberal va­
cation policies and other employee benefits.
Almost all insurance companies provide em­
ployer-financed group life and retirement

Related Occupations
Underwriters make decisions on the basis
of financial data. Other workers with the
same type of responsibility include auditors,
loan officers, credit managers, and real estate

Sources of Additional Information
General information about a career as an
insurance underwriter is available from the
home offices of many life insurance and
property and liability insurance companies.
Information about career opportunities as an
underwriter also may be obtained from:
American Council of Life Insurance, 1850 K St.
NW„ Washington, D.C. 20006.
Insurance Information Institute, 110 William St.,
New York, N.Y. 10038.
Alliance of American Insurers, 20 N. Wacker Dr.,
Chicago, 111. 60606.

Underwriter reviewing application for insurance policy.

The National Association of Independent Insurers,
Public Relations Department, 2600 River Rd.,
Des Plaines, 111. 60018.

Engineers, Surveyors, and Architects
Nature of the Work

Job Outlook

Engineers, surveyors, and architects do
planning and design. Engineers design ma­
chines, processes, systems, and structures.
Architects design buildings and other struc­
tures, landscape architects design outdoor
areas, and surveyors and surveying techni­
cians measure and lay out land boundaries.
Architects, engineers, and surveyors often
work together on building projects. Archi­
tects concentrate on the visual appearance of
buildings as well as the needs of owners and
occupants. Engineers design the structural
parts of the building, including its mechani­
cal and electrical systems. Surveyors lay out
the building’s boundaries.
Engineers apply scientific and mathemat­
ical theories and principles to solve practical
technical problems. Most work in one of the
more than 25 specialties recognized by pro­
fessional societies. Electrical, mechanical,
civil, chemical, and aerospace engineering
are the largest. Although many engineers de­
sign and develop technical products and sys­
tems, others work in testing, production,
operations, and maintenance.
Architects also apply scientific and math­
ematical theories and principles to design and
construct buildings which are esthetically ap­
pealing and safe, and which meet the needs
of their client.
Landscape architects apply the principles
of botany and design in the planning of func­
tional and esthetically pleasing outdoor areas.
Like architects, they also work closely with
their clients.
Surveyors and surveying technicians use
mathematical and scientific principles to
measure and lay out land areas and establish
boundaries. They also research deeds, write
legal descriptions of land, and collect infor­
mation for maps and charts.

All occupations in this group are expected
to grow as fast as or faster than the average
for all occupations through 1990. In architec­
ture, however, growth will not be rapid
enough to provide jobs for all of those seek­
ing to enter the occupation.

(D .O .T . 001.061-010)

Nature of the Work
Designing a building involves far more
than planning an attractive exterior made of
stone, steel and glass, or other materials.
Buildings must be safe as well as attractive
and suit the needs of the people who use
them. Architects take all these things into
consideration and design buildings that are
esthetically appealing, safe, and functional.
Architects provide a wide variety of profes­
sional services to individuals and organiza­
tions planning a building project. Architects
are involved in all phases of development,
from the initial discussion of general ideas
with the client through construction. Their
duties require a variety of skills—design, en­
gineering, managerial, and supervisory.
The architect and client first discuss the
purposes, requirements, and cost of a project.

The architect then prepares carefully scaled
drawings that show the mechanical as well as
the structural components of the building.
If the schematic drawings are accepted, the
architect develops a final design showing the
floor plans and the structural details of the
project. For example, in designing a school,
the architect determines the width of corri­
dors and stairways so that students may move
easily from one class to another; the type and
arrangement of storage space; and the loca­
tion and size of classrooms, laboratories,
lunchroom or cafeteria, gymnasium, and ad­
ministrative offices.
Next the architect prepares working draw­
ings showing the exact dimensions of every
part of the structure and the location of
plumbing, heating units, electrical outlets,
and air-conditioning.
Architects also specify the building materi­
als and, in some cases, the interior furnish­
ings. In all cases, the architect’s design and
specifications must conform to local and
State building codes, zoning laws, fire regu­
lations, and other ordinances, including those
that require easy access by handicapped
Throughout the planning stage the archi­
tect may make changes to satisfy the client.
A client may decide that the design is too
expensive and ask the architect to make
modifications, or the client may propose ad­
ditions to the original plan. Redesigning to
suit the client requires flexibility, and some-

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Surveyors and surveying technicians usual­
ly qualify for their work with a combination
of postsecondary school courses and on-thejob training. Some obtain a junior college
degree in surveying. The generally accepted
standard for engineers is a bachelor’s degree
in engineering, although those with degrees
in natural science or mathematics may some­
times qualify as engineers. A bachelor’s de­
gree in architecture is necessary to become
an architect. To offer architectural services to
the public, architecture graduates must have
several years’ work experience and pass a
licensing examination. The minimum educa­
tional requirement for a landscape architect is
a bachelor’s degree in landscape architecture.

An architect has to understand clients’ needs.

52/Occupational Outlook Handbook

times considerable patience, on the part of
the architect.
After all drawings are completed, the ar­
chitect assists the client in selecting a con­
tractor and negotiating the construction con­
tract. As construction proceeds, the architect
visits the building site from time to time to
ensure that the contractor is following the
design and using the specified materials. The
architect also checks to be sure that the qual­
ity of work meets the specified standards.
The job is not complete until construction is
finished, all required tests are made, con­
struction costs are paid, and guarantees are
received from the contractor.
Architects design a wide variety of struc­
tures, such as houses, churches, hospitals,
office buildings, and airports. They also de­
sign multibuilding complexes for urban re­
newal projects, college campuses, industrial
parks, and new towns. Besides designing
structures, architects also may help in select­
ing building sites, preparing cost and landuse studies, and conducting long-range
planning for land development.
When working on large projects or for
large architectural firms, architects often spe­
cialize in one phase of the work, such as
designing or administering construction con­
tracts. This often requires working with engi­
neers, urban planners, landscape architects,
and others.

Working Conditions
Most architects spend a great deal of their
time at the drawing board in well-equipped
offices. It is at the drawing board that archi­
tects do most of their more creative and
imaginative work. The majority of their time,
however, is spent interviewing clients; dis­
cussing the design, construction procedures,
or building materials of a project with other
architects, engineers, and contractors; and
making inspections at construction sites.

About 79,500 architects were employed in
1980. This included architecture school
graduates who were not yet registered (li­
censed), although they worked in the field
under the supervision of licensed architects.
Most architects work for architectural
firms—most of which employ fewer than 10
workers—or for builders, real estate firms, or
other businesses that have large construction
programs. Some work for government agen­
cies responsible for housing, planning, or
community development, mainly for the De­
partments of Defense, Interior, and Housing
and Urban Development, as well as the Gen­
eral Services Administration.
A large proportion of architects are located
in New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, Bos­
ton, and Washington where many large archi­
tectural firms are located. Increasing numbers
of architects are finding employment in areas
of the South and Southwest that are attracting
new business and residential construction
such as Houston, Dallas-Ft. Worth, Phoenix
and a number of Florida cities.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
All States and the District of Columbia
require individuals to be licensed before they
may call themselves architects or contract for
providing architectural services. To qualify
for the licensing exam, a person generally
must have at least a Bachelor of Architecture
degree followed by 3 years of acceptable
practical experience in an architect’s office.
As a substitute for formal education, most
States accept additional experience (usually
13 years) and successful completion of a
qualifying test for admission to the licensing
examination. Many architecture school
graduates work in the field even though they
are not licensed. However, a registered archi­
tect is required to take legal responsibility for
all work.
In 1980, the National Architectural Ac­
crediting Board had accredited 92 programs
of the 101 schools offering professional de­
grees in architecture. Most of these schools
offer either a 5-year curriculum leading to a
Bachelor of Architecture degree or a 6-year
curriculum leading to a Master of Architec­
ture degree. Students also may transfer to
professional degree programs after complet­
ing a 2-year junior or community college
program in architecture. Many architecture
schools also offer graduate education for
those who already have their first profession­
al degree. Although such graduate education
is not essential for practicing architects, it
often is desirable for those in research and
teaching. A typical college architecture pro­
gram includes courses in architectural theory,
design, graphics, engineering, and urban
planning, as well as in English, mathematics,
physics, economics, and the humanities.
Persons planning a career in architecture
should be able to work independently, have a
capacity for solving technical problems, and
be artistically inclined. They also must be
prepared to work in the competitive environ­
ment of business where leadership and ability
to work with others are important. Working
for architects or building contractors during
summer vacations is useful for gaining practi­
cal knowledge.
New graduates usually begin as drafters in
architectural firms, where they prepare archi­
tectural drawings and make models of struc­
tures under the direction of a registered
architect. They also may work as designers,
construction contract administrators, or speci­
fication writers who prepare documents that
specify the building materials, their method
of installation, the quality of finishes, re­
quired tests, and many other related details.
Employees who become associates in their
firms may receive, in addition to a salary, a
share of the profits. Often, however, the
architect’s goal is to own his or her own

Job Outlook
Architects are expected to face competition
for jobs through the 1980’s. Although em­

ployment of architects is expected to rise
faster than the average for all workers during
this period, the number of degrees granted in
architecture is expected to continue growing
as well. If so, supply in this small field could
exceed the number of job openings arising
from growth in demand for architects and
from transfers to other occupations, retire­
ments, and deaths.
Demand for architects is highly dependent
upon the level of new construction, and the
anticipated rapid growth of nonresidential
construction is expected to be a major source
of job opportunities through the 1980’s. Any
significant upswing or downturn in building
could temporarily alter demand, however. In­
deed, the cyclical nature of construction ac­
tivity leads some architects to move in and
out of the field from time to time. Their
design skills and familiarity with building
materials and techniques enable them to
move into related areas such as graphic de­
sign, advertising, visual arts, product design,
construction contracting and supervision, and
real estate.
Although most job openings will be in
architectural firms, some will occur in con­
struction firms, colleges and universities, and
government agencies. Construction firms em­
ploy architects to oversee various aspects of
project design and actual construction. In col­
leges and universities, the anticipated high
level of enrollments in architecture and envi­
ronmental design programs may create a de­
mand for additional faculty. Public concern
about the quality of the environment may
heighten the demand for community and en­
vironmental planning projects. This may cre­
ate opportunities in consulting firms and
planning agencies. (See the statement on ur­
ban planners elsewhere in the Handbook.)

The average salary for experienced archi­
tects in 1980 was well over $25,000 a year,
according to the limited information avail­
able. Newly hired architects receive salary
increases as they work toward passing the
licensing examination. For example, gradu­
ates with a master’s degree started at about
$13,000 to $15,000 a year in 1980. Archi­
tects with 3 years’ experience who had
passed the exam earned from $18,000 to
$ 20, 000.

Architects with well-established private
practices generally earn much more than even
highly paid salaried employees of architectur­
al firms. Some architects with many years of
experience and good reputations earn well
over $40,000 a year. However, architects
starting their own practices may have diffi­
culty getting established and may go through
a period when their expenses are greater than
their income. Annual income may fluctuate
due to changing business conditions.
In 1980, the average salary for architects
working in the Federal Government was
about $32,000.

Engineers, Surveyors, and Architects/53

Related Occupations
Architects are concerned with the design
and construction of buildings and related
structures. Others who engage in related
work are building contractors, civil engi­
neers, urban planners, interior designers, in­
dustrial designers, landscape architects,
drafters, and surveyors.

Sources of Additional Information
General information about careers in archi­
tecture, including a catalog of publications,
can be obtained from:
The American Institute of Architects, 1735 New
York Ave. NW„ Washington. D.C. 20006.

Specific questions on education careers
should be addressed to:

include written reports, sketches, models,
photographs, land-use studies, and cost esti­
mates. If the plans are approved, landscape
architects prepare working drawings showing
all existing and proposed features. They out­
line in detail the methods of construction and
draw up a list of necessary materials. They
then may invite landscape contractors to bid
for the work. After the contractor has been
picked, they supervise the construction to
insure proper completion of the job.
Some landscape architects specialize in
parks and playgrounds; other specialize in
hotels and resorts, shopping centers, or pub­
lic housing. Still others work primarily in
regional planning and resource management,
feasibility, environmental impact and cost
studies, or site construction.

Working Conditions
Landscape architects spend much of their
time in offices preparing drawings, models,
and cost estimates, and discussing them with
clients. But the time in the office is balanced
by the time they spend outdoors, studying
and planning sites, and supervising landscape

An estimated 15,000 persons worked as
landscape architects in 1980. Most had their
own businesses or worked for architectural,
landscape architectural, or engineering firms.
Others were employed by government agen­
cies concerned with forest management, wa­
ter storage, public housing, city planning,

The Association of Collegiate Schools of Architec­
ture, Inc., 1735 New York Ave. NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20006.

Information about the licensing examina­
tions can be obtained from:
The National Council of Architectural Registration
Boards, 1735 New York Ave. NW., Suite 700,
Washington, D.C. 20006.

(D .O .T . 001.061-018)

Nature of the Work
Everyone enjoys attractively designed resi­
dential areas, public parks, college cam­
puses, shopping centers, and industrial parks.
Landscape architects design these areas so
that they are not only functional but beauti­
ful. They plan the location of buildings,
roads, walks, and the arrangement of vegeta­
tion and other features of open spaces. They
also redesign streets to limit automobile traf­
fic and improve pedestrian access and safety.
They sometimes supervise the construction of
these projects. Natural resource and energy
conservation are other important objectives
that require a knowledge of natural processes
as well as artistic principles.
In planning a site, landscape architects first
consider the nature and purpose of the project
and the funds available. They analyze the
natural elements of the site, such as climate,
soils, slope of the land, natural drainage
ways, and vegetation. They assess the useful­
ness of existing buildings, roads, walkways,
and utility lines to the project. They observe
the sunny parts of the site at different times
of the day, views on and from the site, and
other landscape features. They establish the
best possible physical relationship between
the people and the buildings, trees, shrubs,
water, roads, drainage, and lights. Then,
working as part of a design team or as con­
sultants to the project architect or engineer,
they draw up detailed plans of the site that

Landscape architect prepares a drawing showing location of buildings, roads, walkways, shrubs,
and trees.

54/Occupational Outlook Handbook

urban renewal, highways, parks, and recrea­
tion. The Federal Government employed
over 650 landscape architects, mainly in the
Departments of Agriculture, Defense, Trans­
portation, Interior, and the Veterans Admin­
istration. Some landscape architects worked
for landscape contractors, and a few taught in
colleges and universities.
Most landscape architects worked in large
metropolitan areas, primarily on the East and
West Coasts. However, employment oppor­
tunities have recently been growing in the
Southwest and Southeast.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A bachelor’s degree in landscape architec­
ture, which takes 4 or 5 years, is usually the
minimum educational requirement for enter­
ing the profession. The American Society of
Landscape Architects accredited 44 college
and university programs in landscape archi­
tecture in 1981. About 60 other schools also
offer programs or courses in landscape
A person interested in landscape architec­
ture should take high school courses in me­
chanical or geometrical drawing, art, botany,
and mathematics through trigonometry. Writ­
ten and spoken English is important, since
landscape architects must be able to commu­
nicate their ideas to clients and make presen­
tations before large groups.
College courses in this field include tech­
nical subjects such as surveying, landscape
design and construction, graphics, structural
design, and city and regional planning. Other
courses include horticulture and botany as
well as science, mathematics, English, and
the social sciences. Most college programs
also include field trips to study examples of
landscape architecture.
More than 35 States require a license,
based on the results of a uniform national
licensing examination, for independent prac­
tice of landscape architecture. Admission to
the licensing examination usually requires a
degree from an accredited school of land­
scape architecture plus 1 to 4 years of exper­
ience. Lengthy apprenticeship training (6-8
years) under experienced and licensed land­
scape architects sometimes may be substitut­
ed for college training.
Persons planning careers in landscape archi­
tecture should appreciate nature and be cre­
ative and have artistic talent. Landscape
architects employ lines, colors, textures,
spaces, and light to create an attractive landuse plan. Self-employed landscape architects
must understand business practices. A sum­
mer job with a landscape architect or land­
scape contractor provides practical experience
and may help to obtain employment after
New graduates usually begin by tracing
drawings and doing other simple drafting
work. After gaining experience, they help
prepare specifications and construction de­
tails and handle other aspects of project de­
sign. After 2 or 3 years, they can usually

carry a design through all stages of develop­
ment. Highly qualified landscape architects
may become associates in private firms; land­
scape architects who progress this far, how­
ever, often open their own offices.

Job Outlook
Employment of landscape architects is ex­
pected to grow faster than the average for all
occupations through the 1980’s. In addition,
new entrants will be needed as replacements
for landscape architects who retire or die.
The level of new construction plays a ma­
jor role in determining employment of land­
scape architects. Anticipated growth in
construction is expected to spur demand over
the long run. However, the cyclical nature of
construction may cause employment to fluc­
tuate from year to year. During economic
downturns, some landscape architects may be
laid off or may have to move into related
areas of work in design or horticulture.
Another significant factor contributing to
the increased demand for landscape architects
is the growth in city and regional environ­
mental planning. Metropolitan areas need
landscape architects to plan efficient and safe
land use for growing populations. Legisla­
tion to promote environmental protection has
spurred demand for landscape architects to
help plan and design transportation systems,
outdoor recreation areas, and land reclama­
tion projects, as well as to ensure safe indus­
trial growth. Laws dealing with historic
preservation and coastal zone management
are also sources of demand in this field.
However, anticipated reduction of Federal
Government support for these projects could
dampen the demand.

Beginning landscape architects generally
earned from about $13,500 to $18,000 a year
in 1980. Experienced landscape architects
earned between $18,000 and $30,000 a year,
although some highly skilled persons earned
salaries of over $40,000 a year. Earnings of
self-employed landscape architects ranged
from $15,000 a year to about $40,000 a year,
depending on the individual’s educational
background, experience, and geographic
The Federal Government paid new gradu­
ates with a bachelor’s degree annual salaries
of about $15,900 or $19,700 in 1981 depend­
ing on their qualifications. Those with an
advanced degree had a starting salary of
about $22,900. Experienced landscape archi­
tects in the Federal Government generally
earned between $24,700 and $35,000 a year
in 1981.
Salaried employees both in government
and in landscape architectural firms usually
work regular hours, although employees of
private firms may also work overtime during
seasonal rush periods to meet a deadline.
Self-employed persons often work long

Related Occupations
A sensitivity to beauty is essential in com­
bining the elements of design and nature to
develop a composite landscape project. Oth­
ers whose work requires similar design skills
include architects, ornamental horticulturists,
environmental planners, urban planners, and
land-use planners.

Sources of Additional Information
Additional information, including a list of
colleges and universities offering accredited
programs in landscape architecture, is avail­
able from:
American Society of Landscape Architects, 1733
Connecticut Ave. NW., Washington, D.C. 20009.

For information on a career as a landscape
architect in the Forest Service, write to:
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Division of Personnel Management, P.O. B6x
2417 Room 906 R .P.-E , Washington, D.C.

Surveyors and
(D .O .T . 018.167-010, -014, -018, -026 and -034 through
-050; .261-018, -022, and -026; and .262-010)

Nature of the Work
Surveyors, with the assistance of surveying
technicians, establish official land bound­
aries, research deeds, write descriptions of
land to satisfy legal requirements, assist in
setting land valuations, measure construction
and mineral sites, and collect information for
maps and charts.
Surveys are usually conducted by a survey
party to measure distances, directions, and
angles between points and elevations of
points, lines, and contours on the earth’s sur­
face. Land surveyors (D.O.T. 018.167-018),
who may head one or more survey parties,
are directly responsible for a party’s activities
and the accuracy of its work. They plan the
fieldwork, select survey reference points, and
determine the precise location of natural and
constructed features of the survey project
area. They record the results of the survey,
verify the accuracy of data, and prepare
sketches, maps, and reports.
A typical survey party is made up of the
party chief (D.O.T. 018.167-010) and one to
six assistants and helpers. The party chief
leads the day-to-day work activities of the
party. Instrum ent assistants ( D . O . T .
018.167-034) adjust and operate surveying
instruments such as the theodolite (used to
measure horizontal and vertical angles) and
electronic equipment used to measure dis­
tances. These workers also compile notes,
sketches, and records of the data obtained
from using these instruments.
Surveyors and surveying technicians may
specialize in a particular type of survey.

Engineers, Surveyors, and Architects/55

Many do land surveys to locate boundaries of
a particular tract of land. They then prepare
maps and legal descriptions for deeds, leases,
and other documents. Those doing topo­
graphic surveys determine elevations, depres­
sions, and contours of an area, and indicate
distinguishing surface features such as farms,
buildings, forests, roads, and rivers. Geodet­
ic surveyors (D.O.T. 018.167-038) use spe­
cial high-accuracy techniques, such as
satellite observations, to measure large areas
of the earth’s surface. Geophysical prospect­
ing surveyors (D.O.T. 018.167-042) mark
sites for subsurface exploration, usually pe­
troleum related. Marine surveyors (D.O.T.
018.167-046) survey harbors, rivers, and oth­
er bodies of water to determine shorelines,
topography of the bottom, depth, and other
Photogrammetrists (D.O.T. 018.261-026)
measure and interpret photographic images
to determine the various physical character­
istics of natural or constructed features of an
area. By applying analytical processes and
mathematical techniques to photographs
from aerial, space, ground, and underwater
locations, photogrammetrists are able to
make detailed maps of areas that are inac­
cessible or difficult to survey by other meth­
ods. Control surveys on the ground are
made to insure the accuracy of maps derived
from photogrammetric techniques. Mosaicists (D.O.T. 018.261-022) and map editors
(D.O.T. 018.261-018 and .262-010) help
develop and verify maps and pictures from
aerial photographs.
Closely related occupations that use sur­
veying techniques in their work include geod­
esists (see statement on geophysicists
elsewhere in the Handbook) and cartogra­
phers (see statement on geographers else­
where in the Handbook).

Working Conditions
Surveyors and surveying technicians usual­
ly work an 8-hour day, 5 days a week.
Sometimes they work longer hours during the
summer months when weather conditions are
most suitable for surveying.
The work of a survey party is active and
sometimes strenuous. Party members often
stand for long periods and walk long dis­
tances or climb hills with heavy packs of
instruments and equipment. They also are
exposed to all types of weather. Occasionally
they must commute long distances or find
temporary housing near the survey site.
Surveyors spend considerable time on of­
fice duties, such as planning surveys, prepar­
ing reports and computations, and drawing

About 61,000 persons worked as surveyors
or surveying technicians in 1980. Federal,
State, and local government agencies employ
about one-fourth of these workers. Among
the Federal Government agencies are the
U.S. Geological Survey, the Bureau of Land
Management, the Army Corps of Engineers,

Surveying technician makes measurements prior to construction.

the Forest Service, the National Ocean Sur­
vey, and the Defense Mapping Agency.
Most surveyors and surveying technicians in
State and local government agencies work for
highway departments and urban planning and
redevelopment agencies.
About 40 percent of all surveyors and sur­
veying technicians work for construction
companies and for engineering and architec­
tural consulting firms. A sizable number ei­
ther work for or own firms that conduct
surveys for a fee. Surveyors and surveying
technicians also work for crude petroleum
and natural gas companies and for public

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Most persons prepare for surveying work
by combining postsecondary school courses
in surveying with extensive on-the-job train­
ing. Some prepare by obtaining a college
degree. Junior and community colleges, tech­
nical institutes, and vocational schools offer
1-, 2-, and 3-year programs in surveying. A
few 4-year colleges offer bachelor’s degrees
specifically in surveying, while many others
offer several courses in the field.
High school students interested in pursuing
a career in surveying should take courses in
algebra, geometry, trigonometry, drafting,
and mechanical drawing.
High school graduates with no formal
training in surveying usually start as surveyor
helpers. After several years of on-the-job ex­
perience and some formal training in survey­
ing, workers may advance to instrument
assistant, then to party chief, and finally to
licensed surveyor.

Beginners with postsecondary school train­
ing in surveying can generally start as instru­
ment assistants. After gaining experience,
they may advance to party chief, or become a
licensed surveyor. In many instances, promo­
tions to higher level positions are based on
written examinations as well as experience.
Those interested in a career as a photogrammetrist usually need a bachelor’s degree
in engineering or a physical science. Most
photogrammetry technicians have had some
specialized postsecondary school training.
All 50 States require licensing of land sur­
veyors. Licensing requirements are generally
quite strict, because once licensed, surveyors
can be held legally responsible for their
work. Requirements for licensure vary
among the States. Generally, the quickest
route to licensure is a combination of 4 years
of college, 2 to 4 years of experience, and a
passing grade on the State licensing exam. In
most States, persons also may qualify to take
the licensing exam after 5 to 12 years of
surveying experience. As a prerequisite to
licensure, some States now require a bache­
lor’s degree in surveying or in a closely relat­
ed field such as civil engineering or forestry
with courses in surveying. A few States al­
low such graduates to take the licensing ex­
amination without experience in the field.
Surveyors and surveying technicians
should have the ability to visualize and un­
derstand objects, distances, sizes, and other
abstract forms. Also, because mistakes can
be very costly, surveyors must make math­
ematical calculations quickly and accurately
while paying close attention to the smallest
detail. Leadership qualities are important for
surveyors who supervise others.

56/Occupational Outlook Handbook

Members of a survey party must be in
good physical condition to work outdoors and
carry equipment over difficult terrain. They
also need good eyesight, coordination, and
hearing to communicate over great distances
by hand or voice signals.

Job Outlook
Employment of surveyors and surveying
technicians is expected to grow about as fast
as the average for all occupations through the
1980’s. In addition to openings arising from
growth in the demand for these workers,
many will result from the need to replace
those who die, retire, or leave their jobs for
other reasons.
In the long run, the anticipated growth in
construction should create additional jobs for
surveyors and surveying technicians who lay
out streets, shopping centers, housing devel­
opments, factories, office buildings, and rec­
reation areas. Construction and improvement
of the Nation’s roads and highways also

should create new surveying positions. How­
ever, employment may fluctuate from year to
year because construction activity is highly
sensitive to changes in economic conditions.

Although salaries in private industry vary
by geographic area, limited information indi­
cates that salaries are generally comparable to
those in Federal service.


Related Occupations

In early 1981, high school graduates with
little or no training or experience earned
$9,000 annually as surveyor helpers with the
Federal Government. Those with 1 year of
related postsecondary training earned $9,800.
Those with an associate degree that included
courses in surveying generally started as in­
strument assistants with an annual salary of
$11,000. The average annual Federal salary
for surveying technicians in 1980 was
$12,600. In early 1981, persons starting as
land surveyors with the Federal Government
earned $12,300 or $15,200 a year, depending
on their qualifications. The average annual
Federal salary for land surveyors in 1980 was

Other occupations concerned with accurate
measurement and delineation of land areas,
coastlines, and natural and constructed features
include cartographers, cartographic drafters,
geodesists, and topographical drafters.

Sources of Additional Information
Information about career opportunities, li­
censure requirements, and schools that offer
training in surveying is available from:
American Congress on Surveying and Mapping,
210 Little Falls St., Falls Church, Va. 22046.

General information on careers in photogrammetry is available from:
American Society of Photogrammetry, 105 North
Virginia Ave., Falls Church, Va. 22046.


The work of engineers enables us to drive
safer automobiles, travel in space, and pro­
long life. Future accomplishments could help
increase available energy supplies, develop
more pollution-free powerplants, and aid
medical science in its fight against disease.
In 1980, about 1.2 million persons were
employed as engineers. Engineering is the
second largest profession, exceeded only by
teaching. Most engineers specialize; more
than 25 specialties are recognized by profes­
sional societies. Within the major branches
are over 85 subdivisions. Structural, environ­
mental, hydraulic, and highway engineering,
for example, are subdivisions of civil engi­
neering. Engineers also may specialize in the
problems of one industry, such as motor ve­
hicles, or in one field of technology, such as
propulsion or guidance systems. This sec­
tion, which contains an overall discussion of
engineering, is followed by separate state­
ments on 12 branches of the profession—
aerospace, agricultural, biomedical, ceramic,
chemical, civil, electrical, industrial, me­
chanical, metallurgical, mining, and petrole­
um engineering.

Nature of the Work
Engineers apply the theories and principles
of science and mathematics to practical tech­
nical problems. Often their work is the link
between a scientific discovery and its appli­
cation. Engineers design machinery, prod­
ucts, systems, and processes for efficient and
economical performance. They develop elec­
tric power, water supply, and waste disposal
systems. They design industrial machinery
and equipment for manufacturing goods, and
heating, air-conditioning, and ventilation
equipment for more comfortable living. En­
gineers also develop scientific equipment to
probe outer space and the ocean depths, de­
sign defense and weapons systems for the
Armed Forces, and design, plan, and super­
vise the construction of buildings, highways,
and rapid transit systems. They also design
and develop consumer products such as auto­
mobiles, television sets, refrigerators, and
electronic games, and systems for control and
automation of manufacturing, business, and
management processes.
Engineers must consider many factors in
developing a new product. For example, in
developing devices to reduce automobile ex­
haust emissions, engineers must determine
the general way the device will work, design
and test all components, and fit them togeth­
er in an integrated plan. They must then
evaluate the overall effectiveness, cost, reli­
ability, and safety of the new device. This
process applies to products as different as
lawnmowers, electronic computers, industrial
machinery, and toys.

In addition to design and development,
many engineers work in testing, production,
operations, or maintenance. They supervise
production processes in factories, determine
the causes of breakdowns, and test newly
manufactured products to maintain quality.
They also estimate the time and cost to com­
plete projects. Some work in engineering ad­
ministration and management, or in sales
jobs where an engineering background en­
ables them to discuss the technical aspects of
a product and assist in planning its installa­
tion or use. (See statement on manufacturers’
sales workers elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Some engineers work as consultants. Others
with advanced degrees teach in colleges and
Engineers in each branch apply their
knowledge to many fields. Electrical engi­
neers, for example, work in the medical,
computer, missile guidance, or power distri­
bution fields. Because complex problems cut
across traditional fields, engineers in one
field often work closely with specialists in
scientific, other engineering, and business
Engineers often use calculators and comput­
ers to solve mathematical equations which
describe how a machine, structure, or system
operates. Engineers also spend a great deal of
time writing reports and consulting with other
engineers. Complex projects may require
many engineers, each working with a small
part of the job under the supervision of an
engineering project manager. Other projects
may be the responsibility of one engineer.

Working Conditions
Some engineers are at a desk almost all of
the time but others work in research laborato­
ries or in industrial plants. Engineers in spe­
cialities such as civil engineering may work
outdoors part of the time. A few engineers
travel extensively to plants or construction
sites. Some work overtime to meet deadlines,
often without additional compensation.

About half of all engineers work in manu­
facturing industries—most in electrical and
electronic equipment, aircraft and parts, ma­
chinery, chemicals, scientific instruments,
primary metals, fabricated metal products,
and motor vehicle industries. In 1980, about
400,000 were employed in nonmanufacturing
industries, primarily in construction, public
utilities, engineering and architectural ser­
vices, and business and management consult­
ing services.
Federal, State, and local governments em­
ployed almost 160,000 engineers. Over half
of these worked for the Federal Government,
mainly in the Departments of Defense, Inte­

rior, Energy, Agriculture, and Transporta­
tion, and in the National Aeronautics and
Space Administration. Most engineers in
State and local government agencies worked
in highway and public works departments.
Colleges and universities employed over
40,000 engineers in research and teaching
and a small number worked for nonprofit
research organizations.
Engineers are employed in every State, in
small and large cities, and in rural areas.
Some branches of engineering are concentrat­
ed in particular industries and geographic
areas, as discussed in the statements later in
this chapter.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A bachelor’s degree in engineering is gen­
erally acceptable for beginning engineering
jobs. College graduates with a degree in a
natural science or mathematics also may
qualify for some jobs. Experienced techni­
cians with some engineering education are
occasionally able to advance to some types of
engineering jobs.
Many colleges have 2- or 4-year programs
leading to degrees in engineering technology
which prepare students for practical design
and production work rather than for jobs that
require more theoretical scientific and math­
ematical knowledge. Graduates of such 4year engineering technology programs may
get jobs similar to those obtained by engi­
neering bachelor’s degree graduates. Howev­
er, some employers regard them as having
skills between those of a technician and an
Graduate training is essential for most
teaching jobs but is not needed for the major­
ity of other entry level engineering jobs.
Many engineers obtain a master’s degree
however, because an advanced degree often
is desirable for promotion or for learning new
technology. Some specialties, such as nucle­
ar, environmental, or biomedical engineer­
ing, are taught mainly at the graduate level.
About 250 colleges and universities offer a
bachelor’s degree in engineering, and over 80
colleges offer a bachelor’s degree in engi­
neering technology. Although most institu­
tions offer programs in the larger branches of
engineering, only a few offer some of the
smaller specialties. Therefore, students
should investigate curriculums before select­
ing a college. Admissions requirements for
undergraduate engineering schools usually in­
clude courses in advanced high school math­
ematics and the physical sciences.
In a typical 4-year curriculum, the first 2
years are spent studying basic sciences—
mathematics, physics, chemistry, and intro­
ductory engineering—and the humanities, so­

58/Occupational Outlook Handbook

cial sciences, and English. In the last 2
years, most courses are in engineering. Some
programs offer a general engineering curricu­
lum; students then choose a specialty in grad­
uate school or acquire it on the job.
Some engineering curriculums require
more than 4 years to complete. A number of
colleges and universities offer 5-year master’s
degree programs. In addition, several engi­
neering schools have arrangements whereby a
student spends 3 years in a liberal arts col­
lege studying preengineering subjects and 2
years in the engineering school and receives
a bachelor’s degree from each.
Some 5- or even 6-year cooperative plans
combine classroom study and practical work
experience. In addition to gaining useful ex­
perience, students can thereby finance part of
their education. To keep up with rapid ad­
vances in technology, engineers often contin­
ue their education throughout their careers by
attending evening classes in colleges and uni­
versities or in employer-sponsored programs.
All 50 States and the District of Columbia
require licensing for engineers whose work
may affect life, health, or property, or who
offer their services to the public. In 1980,
over 400,000 engineers were registered. Reg­
istration generally requires a degree from an
accredited engineering program, 4 years of
relevant work experience, and passing a State
examination. Some States will not register
those with degrees in engineering technol­
Beginning engineering graduates usually
do routine work under the close supervision
of experienced engineers and may also re­
ceive formal classroom or seminar-type train­
ing. As they gain experience, they then are
assigned responsibility for more difficult
tasks. Some move to managerial or adminis­
trative positions within engineering; others
leave engineering for non-technical manage­
rial, administrative, and sales jobs. Some
engineers obtain graduate degrees in business
administration to improve advancement op­
portunities; others obtain law degrees and
become patent attorneys. Many high level
executives in government and industry began
their careers as engineers.
Engineers should be able to work as part
of a team and should have creativity, an
analytical mind, and a capacity for detail. In
addition, engineers should be able to express
themselves well—both orally and in writing.

Job Outlook
Employment opportunities for those with
degrees in engineering are expected to be
good through the 1980’s. Recent graduates
will be in especially great demand. In addi­
tion, there may be some opportunities for
college graduates from related fields in cer­
tain engineering jobs.
Employment of engineers is expected to
increase faster than the average for all occu­
pations through the 1980’s. In addition to job
openings created by growth in the demand
for engineers, many openings will result from
the need to replace engineers who transfer to

management, sales, and other professional
jobs, retire, or die.
Much of the projected growth in require­
ments for engineers will stem from the ex­
pected higher levels of investment in industri­
al plants and equipment to meet the demand
for more goods and services and to increase
productivity. Growth also is expected in de­
fense-related industries as a result of antici­
pated sharp increases in defense budgets.
More engineers will be required in energyrelated activities to develop sources of energy
as well as to design energy-saving systems
for automobiles, factories, and homes and
other buildings, and to solve environmental
problems. If investment and defense spend­
ing levels are significantly different from
those assumed, however, the outlook for en­
gineers will be altered.
In industries such as electronics and aero­
space, large cutbacks in defense or research
and development expenditures may result in
layoffs for engineers. Engineers may also be
laid off if the demand for their specialty
declines. Layoffs could be a particular prob­
lem for older engineers, who sometimes face
difficulties in finding other engineering jobs.
A career in one of the more stable industries
or engineering specialties and continuing
education may minimize these difficulties.
Despite these problems, over the long run the
number of people seeking jobs as engineers
is expected to about equal the number of job
(The outlook for various branches is dis­
cussed in the separate statements that follow
this introductory section.)

According to the College Placement
Council, engineering graduates with a bache­
lor’s degree and no experience averaged
$22,900 a year in private industry in 1981;
those with a master’s degree and no exper­
ience, $25,500 a year; and those with a
Ph.D., $32,800. Starting offers for those
with the bachelor’s degree vary by branch as
shown in the accompanying table.
Table 1. Average starting salaries for engineers
by branch, 1980.


Petroleum ................................................$23,844
Chemical engineering .......................... 21,612
Mining engineering.............................. 20,808
Metallurgical engineering .................... 20,712
Mechanical engineering........................ 20,436
Electrical engineering .......................... 20,280
Industrial engineering .......................... 19,860
Aeronautical engineering...................... 19,776
Civil engineering.................................. 18,648
SOURCE: College Placement Council.

In the Federal Government in 1981, engi­
neers with a bachelor’s degree and no expe­
rience could start at $15,947 or $19,747 a
year, depending on their college records.
Those with a master’s degree could start at
$22,925, and those having a Ph.D., degree

could begin at $24,763. Higher salaries were
offered for certain specialties and in a few
geographic areas. The average salary for ex­
perienced engineers in the Federal Govern­
ment was about $32,516 in 1980.
For a 9-month academic college year in
1980, faculty members with 5 years’ expe­
rience beyond the bachelor’s degree received
about $18,650; those with 18 to 20 years’
experience beyond the bachelor’s degree re­
ceived about $25,100. Some faculty mem­
bers receive additional income from con­
sulting, writing, or teaching summer school.
(See statement on college and university
teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.)
According to an Engineering Manpower
Commission survey, engineers with 20 years
of experience averaged $34,000 in 1980.
Some in management eafned much more.

Related Occupations
Much of the work of physical scientists,
life scientists, mathematicians, engineering
and science technicians, and architects is re­
lated to engineering.

Sources of Additional Information
General information on engineering ca­
reers—including engineering school require­
ments, courses of study, and salaries—is
available from:
Engineering Manpower Commission of American
Association of Engineering Societies, 345 E. 47th
St., New York, N.Y. 10017.
National Society of Professional Engineers, 2029
K St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20006.
Society of Women Engineers, 345 E. 47th St.,
New York, N.Y. 10017.

Societies representing the individual branch­
es of engineering are listed in this chapter. Each
can provide information about careers in the par­
ticular branch.

Aerospace Engineers
(D .O .T . 002.061, .151, .167, and 090.227-010)

Nature of the Work
Aerospace engineers design, develop, test,
and help produce commercial and military
aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft. They play
an important role in advancing technology in
commercial aviation, defense systems, and
space exploration.
Aerospace engineers often specialize in
areas like structural design, navigational
guidance and control, instrumentation and
communication, or production methods.
They also may specialize in one type of
aerospace product, such as passenger planes,
helicopters, satellites, or rockets.

About 68,000 aerospace engineers were
employed in 1980, mainly in the aircraft and
parts industry. Some worked for Federal
Government agencies, primarily the Depart­

Engineers, Surveyors, and Architects/59

ment of Defense and the National Aeronau­
tics and Space Administration. A few
worked for commercial airlines, consulting
firms, and colleges and universities.
Employment of aerospace engineers is
concentrated in States with large aerospace
manufacturers, especially California and

management agencies, and distributors of
farm equipment and supplies. Some worked
as consultants to farmers and farm-related
industries; others were specialists with agri­
cultural organizations, or managers of agri­
cultural processing plants.

About 440 agricultural engineers were em­
ployed in the Federal Government in 1980,
mostly in the Department of Agriculture;
some were on the faculty of colleges and
universities; and a few worked in State and
local governments.

Job Outlook
Employment of aerospace engineers is expefcted to grow faster than the average for all
occupations through the 1980’s as Federal
outlays on new military aircraft, missies, and
other aerospace systems increase. Aerospace
engineers also will be needed to design and
help produce new commercial aircraft. Much
of the present fleet of airliners will have to be
replaced during the 1980’s with new aircraft
which are quieter and more fuel-efficient.
Increased demand for helicopters and busi­
ness aircraft also will create opportunities for
aerospace engineers. Besides job openings
created by growth in demand, many aero­
space engineers will be needed each year to
replace those who transfer to other occupa­
tions, retire, or die.
Since a large proportion of aerospace en­
gineering jobs are defense related, cutbacks
in defense spending—like those which took
place in 1969 and 1970—can result in layoffs
of aerospace engineers.

Sources of Additional Information
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronau­
tics, Inc., 1290 Avenue of the Americas, New
York, N.Y. 10019.

(See introductory section of this chapter
for discussion of training requirements and
Aerospace engineers with spacecraft components.

(D .O .T . 013.061, .151, and 090.227-010)

Nature of the Work
Agricultural engineers design agricultural
machinery and equipment and develop meth­
ods that will improve the production, pro­
cessing, and distribution of food and other
agricultural products. They also design sys­
tems to improve the conservation and man­
agement of energy, soil, and water resources.
Agricultural engineers work in research and
development, production, sales, or manage­

Most of the estimated 15,000 agricultural
engineers employed in 1980 worked for man­
ufacturers of farm equipment, electric utility
companies, Federal and State soil and water

Agricultural engineers design agricultural machinery and equipment.

60/Occupational Outlook Handbook

Job Outlook
Employment of agricultural engineers is
expected to grow faster than the average for
all occupations through the 1980’s. Increas­
ing demand for agricultural products, mod­
ernization of farm operations, increasing
emphasis on conservation of resources, and
the use of agricultural products and wastes as
industrial raw materials and energy sources
should provide additional opportunities for
agricultural engineers. Besides job openings
created by growth in demand, many agricul­
tural engineers will be needed to replace
those who transfer to other occupations, re­
tire, or die.

Sources of Additional Information
American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 2950
Niles Rd., St. Joseph, Mich. 49085.

(See introductory part of this section for
information on training requirements and
earnings. See also statement on agricultural
occupations elsewhere in the Handbook.)

ministration, or in State agencies. An in­
creasing number work in private industry or
in hospitals developing new devices, tech­
niques, and systems for improving health

(D .O .T . 006.061, .151, and 090.227-010)

Nature of the Work
Job Outlook
Employment of biomedical engineers is
expected to grow faster than the average for
all occupations through the 1980’s. The actu­
al number of openings—including replace­
ment needs—in this small profession is not
likely to be very large. Because relatively
few undergraduate degrees have been granted
in biomedical engineering, employment pros­
pects of those with B.S. degrees in this field
are still uncertain. Those who have advanced
degrees will be in demand to teach and to fill
jobs resulting from increased expenditures for
medical research.

Sources of Additional Information
Alliance for Engineering in Medicine and Biology,
Suite 311, 4405 East-West Highway, Bethesda,
Md. 20014.
Biomedical Engineering Society, P.O. Box 2399,
Culver City, Calif. 90230.


Ceramic Engineers

(See introductory part of this chapter for
information on training requirements and

To most people, the word ceramics means
pottery, but ceramics actually include all
nonmetallic, inorganic materials which re­
quire the use of high temperature in their
processing. Ceramic engineers develop new
ceramic materials and methods for making
ceramic materials into useful products as di­
verse as glassware, heat-resistant materials
for furnaces, electronic components, and nu­
clear reactors. They also design the equip­
ment to manufacture these products.
Ceramic engineers often specialize in one
type of ceramic product—for example, prod­
ucts of refractories (fire- and heat-resistant
materials such as firebrick); whitewares (por­
celain and china dinnerware or high-voltage
electrical insulators); structural materials
(such as bricks and tile); electronic ceramics
(the materials used in the integrated circuits
that have made small calculators and comput­
ers possible); protective and refractory coat­
ings for metals; glass; abrasives; cement; or
fuel elements for atomic energy.

An estimated 15,000 ceramic engineers
were employed in 1980, mostly in the stone,

(D .O .T. 019.061-010 and 090.227-010)

Nature of the Work
Biomedical engineers use engineering prin­
ciples to solve medical and health-related
problems. Many do research, along with life
scientists, chemists, and members of the
medical profession, on man and animals.
Some design and develop medical instru­
ments and devices, including artificial hearts
and kidneys, lasers for surgery, and pace­
makers that regulate the heartbeat. Other
biomedical engineers adapt computers to
medical science and design and build systems
to modernize laboratory, hospital, and clini­
cal procedures. Most engineers in this field
have an undergraduate degree in one of the
major engineering disciplines (mechanical,
electrical, industrial, or chemical) and an ad­
vanced degree in some area of biomedical
engineering. However, a growing number of
colleges are offering undergraduate degrees
in biomedical engineering, and others offer
biomedical engineering as an area of special­
ization within a more traditional engineering

There were an estimated 4,000 biomedical
engineers in 1980. Many teach and do re­
search in colleges and universities. Some
work for the Federal Government, primarily
in the National Aeronautics and Space Ad­

Biomedical engineers use engineering principles to solve medical problems.

Engineers, Surveyors, and Architects/61

working in 1980 were in manufacturing in­
dustries, primarily in the chemicals, petrole­
um refining, and related industries. Some
worked in government agencies or taught and
did research in colleges and universities. A
small number worked for independent re­
search institutes and engineering consulting
firms, or as independent consultants.

Job Outlook
Employment of chemical engineers is ex­
pected to grow about as fast as the average
for all occupations through the 1980’s. A
major factor underlying this growth is expan­
sion in the energy and chemical industries.
The growing complexity and automation
of chemical processes will require additional
chemical engineers to design, build, and
maintain the necessary plants and equipment.
Chemical engineers also will be needed to
solve problems dealing with environmental
protection, development of synthetic fuels,
and the design and development of nuclear
reactors. In addition, development of new
chemicals used in the manufacture of con­
sumer goods, such as plastics and synthetic
fibers, probably will create additional open­
ings. Besides job openings created by growth
in demand, many chemical engineers will be
needed each year to replace those who die,
retire, or transfer to other occupations.

Ceramic engineers conduct research on a wide range of nonmetallic, inorganic materials.

clay, and glass industry. Others work in in­
dustries that produce or use ceramic pro­
ducts, such as the iron and steel, electrical
equipment, aerospace, and chemicals indus­
tries. Some are in colleges and universities,
independent research organizations, and the
Federal Government.

information on training requirements and

Job Outlook

American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 345
East 47th St., New York, N.Y. 10017.
American Chemical Society, 1155 16th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

Nature of the Work

Employment of ceramic engineers is ex­
pected to grow faster than the average for all
occupations through the 1980’s. Programs re­
lated to nuclear energy, electronics, defense,
and medical science will provide job opportu­
nities for ceramic engineers. Additional ce­
ramic engineers will be required to improve
and adapt traditional ceramic products, such
as whitewares and abrasives, to new uses.
The development of filters and catalytic sur­
faces to reduce pollution, and of ceramic
materials for energy conversion and conser­
vation, should create additional openings.
Besides job openings created by growth in
demand, many ceramic enginers will be
needed each year to replace those who die,
retire, or transfer to other occupations.

Sources of Additional Information

Chemical engineers are involved in many
phases of the production of chemicals and
chemical products. They design equipment
and plants, and determine and test methods
of manufacturing the products. Chemical en­
gineers also work in areas other than chemi­
cal manufacturing such as the design of
synthetic fuel plants or the development of
processes designed to prevent pollution. Be­
cause the duties of chemical engineers cut
across many fields, these professionals must
have a knowledge of chemistry, physics, and
mechanical and electrical engineering.
This branch of engineering is so diversi­
fied and complex that chemical engineers
frequently specialize in a particular operation
such as oxidation or polymerization. Others
specialize in a particular area such as pollu­
tion control or the production of a specific
product like plastics or rubber.

Sources of Additional Information
National Institute of Ceramic Engineers, 65 Ce­
ramic Dr., Columbus, Ohio 43210.

(See introductory part of this section for

Chemical Engineers

(See introductory part of this section for
information on training requirements and

(D .O .T. 008.061, .151, .167, and 090.227-010)

Most of the 55,000 chemical engineers

Chemical engineer conducting laboratory re­
search on water quality.

62/Occupational Outlook Handbook

Civil Engineers
(D .O .T. 005.061, .167, and 090.227-010)

Nature of the Work
Civil engineers, who work in the oldest
branch of the engineering profession, design
and supervise the construction of roads, air­
ports, tunnels, bridges, water supply and
sewage systems, and buildings. Major spe­
cialties within civil engineering are structur­
al, hydraulic, environmental (sanitary),
transportation, highway, and soil mechanics.
Many civil engineers are in supervisory or
administrative positions ranging from super­
visor of a construction site to city engineer to
top-level executive. Others teach in colleges
and universities or work as consultants.

About 165,000 civil engineers were em­
ployed in 1980. Most work for Federal,
State, and local government agencies or in
the construction industry. Many work for
consulting engineering and architectural
firms or as independent consulting engi­
neers. Others work for public utilities, rail­
roads, educational in stitu tio n s, and
manufacturing industries.
Civil engineers work in all parts of the
country, usually in or near major industrial
and commercial centers. They often work at
construction sites, sometimes in remote areas
or in foreign countries. In some jobs, they
often move from place to place to work on
different projects.

Job Outlook
Employment of civil engineers is expected
to increase faster than the average for all
occupations through the 1980’s. 'A growing
population and an expanding economy will

Electrical engineering is the largest engineering specialty.

result in a need for more civil engineers to
design and construct manufacturing plants,
electric power generating plants, and trans­
portation systems. Construction of defense
installations and synthetic fuels projects also

will generate demand for civil engineers. Be­
sides job openings created by growth in de­
mand, many civil engineers will be needed
each year to replace those who transfer to
other occupations, retire, or die.
Since many civil engineers are employed
in construction and related industries, em­
ployment opportunities may decrease during
economic slowdowns when many new con­
struction projects often are curtailed.

Sources of Additional Information
American Society of Civil Engineers, 345 E. 47th
St., New York, N.Y. 10017.

(See introductory part of this section for
information on training requirements and

Electrical Engineers
(D .O .T . 003.061, .151, .167, .187, and 090.227-010)

Nature of the Work

Civil engineers often visit construction sites.

Electrical engineers design, develop, test,
and supervise the manufacture of electrical
and electronic equipment. Electrical equip­
ment includes power generating and trans­
mission equipment used by electric utilities,
electric motors, machinery controls, and

Engineers, Surveyors, and Architects/63

lighting and wiring in buildings, auto­
mobiles, and aircraft. Electronic equipment
includes radar, computers, communications
equipment, and consumer goods such as TV
sets and stereo components. Electrical engi­
neers who work with electronic equipment
often are called electronic engineers.
Electrical engineers generally specialize in
a major area—such as power distributing
equipment, integrated circuits, computers,
electrical equipment manufacturing, or com­
munications—or in a subdivision of these
areas—microwave communication or aviation
electronic systems, for example. Electrical
engineers design new products, write perfor­
mance requirements, and develop mainte­
nance schedules. They also test equipment,
solve operating problems, and estimate the
time and cost of engineering projects. Be­
sides manufacturing and research, develop­
ment, and design, many are employed in
administration and management, technical
sales, or teaching.

Electrical engineering is the largest branch
of engineering. Over 325,000 electrical engi­
neers were employed in 1980, mainly by
manufacturers of electrical and electronic
equipment, aircraft and parts, business ma­
chines, and professional and scientific equip­
ment. Many worked for public utilities,
government agencies, and colleges and uni­
versities. Others work for construction and
engineering consulting firms. Some are inde­
pendent consultants.

Job Outlook
Employment of electrical engineers is ex­
pected to increase faster than the average for
all occupations through the 1980’s. Although
increased demand for computers, communi­
cations equipment, and military electronics is
expected to be the major contributor to this
growth, demand for electrical and electronic
consumer goods, along with increased re­
search and development in new types of
power generation, should create additional
jobs. Besides job openings created by growth
in demand, many electrical engineers will be
needed each year to replace those transfer to
other occupations, retire, or die.

Industrial Engineers
(D .O .T . 012.061, .067, .167 except -066, .187, and

Nature of the Work
Industrial engineers determine the most ef­
fective ways for an organization to use the
basic factors of production—people, ma­
chines, and materials. They are more con­
cerned with people and methods of business
organization than are engineers in other spe­
cialties, who generally are concerned more
with products or processes, such as metals,
power, or mechanics.
To solve organizational, production, and
related problems most efficiently, industrial
engineers design data processing systems and
apply mathematical concepts (operations re­
search techniques). They also develop man­
agement control systems to aid in financial
planning and cost analysis, design production
planning and control systems to coordinate
activities and control product quality, and
design or improve systems for the physical
distribution of goods and services. Industrial
engineers also conduct plant location sur­
veys, where they look for the best combina­
tion of sources of raw materials, transporta­
tion, and taxes, and develop wage and salary
administration systems and job evaluation
programs. Many industrial engineers move
into management positions because the work
is closely related.

About 115,000 industrial engineers were
employed in 1980; more than two-thirds
worked in manufacturing industries. Because
their skills can be used in almost any type
of company, they are more widely distrib­
uted among industries than are those in

other branches of engineering. For example,
they work for insurance companies, banks,
construction and mining firms, public utili­
ties, hospitals, retail organizations, and gov­
ernment agencies. Some teach in colleges
and universities. A few are independent

Job Outlook
Employment of industrial engineers is ex­
pected to grow faster than the average for all
occupations through the 1980’s. Industrial
growth, more complex business operations
and the greater use of automation will con­
tribute to employment growth. Reducing
costs and increasing productivity through sci­
entific management and safety engineering
should create additional opportunities. Be­
sides job openings created by growth in de­
mand, many industrial engineers will be
needed each year to replace those who die,
retire or transfer to other occupations.

Sources of Additional Information
American Institute of Industrial Engineers, Inc.,
25 Technology Park/Atlanta, Norcross, Ga.

(See introductory part of this section for
information on training requirements and

(D O T. 007.061 except -026 and -030, .151, .161-022
and -034, .167-014; 014.061, .151, .167; and 090.227010)

Nature of the Work
Mechanical engineers are concerned with
the use, production, and transmission of

Since many electrical engineering jobs are
defense related, cutbacks in defense spend­
ing—like those which took place in 1969 and
1970—could result in layoffs of electrical
engineers in defense related industries.

Sources of Additional Information
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers/
United States Activities Board, 1111 19th St.
NW., Suite 608, Washington, D.C. 20036.

(See introductory part of this section for
information on training requirements and

Industrial engineers help solve production problems.

64/Occupational Outlook Handbook

ments—heat resistant, strong but lightweight,
or highly malleable. They also develop meth­
ods to process and convert metals into useful
products. Most of these engineers work in one
of the three main branches of metallurgy—
extractive or chemical, physical, and mechani­
cal. Extractive metallurgists are concerned
with extracting metals from ores, and refining
and alloying them to obtain useful metal. Phys­
ical metallurgists deal with the nature, struc­
ture, and physical properties of metals and their
alloys, and with methods of converting refined
metals into final products. Mechanical metal­
lurgists develop methods such as casting, forg­
ing, rolling, and drawing to work and shape
metals. Scientists working in this field are
known as metallurgists or materials scientists,
but the distinction between scientists and engi­
neers in this field is small.

The metalworking industries—primarily the
iron and steel and nonferrous metals indus­
tries—employed over one-half of the estimated
15,000 metallurgical engineers in 1980. Metal­
lurgical engineers also work in industries that
manufacture machinery, electrical equipment,
and aircraft and parts, and in the mining indus­
try. Some work for government agencies and
colleges and universities.

Job Outlook

Many mechanical engineers work in maintenance and production operations.

power. They design and develop power-pro­
ducing machines such as internal combustion
engines, steam and gas turbines, and jet and
rocket engines. They also design and develop
power-using machines such as refrigeration
and air-conditioning equipment, elevators,
machine tools, printing presses, and steel
rolling mills.
The work of mechanical engineers varies
by industry and function. Many specialties
have developed within the field; they include
motor vehicles; marine equipment; energy
conversion systems; heating, ventilating, and
air-conditioning; instrumentation; and special
machines for industries such as petroleum,
rubber and plastics, and construction.
Large numbers of mechanical engineers do
research, test, and design work while others
work in maintenance, technical sales, and
production operations. Many are administra­
tors or managers. Some teach in colleges and
universitites or work as consultants.

Job Outlook



About 213,000 mechanical engineers were
employed in 1980. Almost three-fourths were
employed in manufacturing—most in the pri­
mary and fabricated metals, machinery,
transportation equipment, and electrical
equipment industries. Others worked for gov­
ernment agencies, educational institutions,
and consulting engineering firms.

Employment of mechanical engineers is
expected to increase faster than the average
for all occupations through the 1980’s, the
result of growing demand for machinery and
machine tools and the increasing complexity
of industrial machinery and processes. Me­
chanical engineers will be needed to develop
new energy systems and to help solve envi­
ronmental pollution problems. Besides job
openings created by growth in demand, many
mechanical engineers will be needed each
year to replace those who die, retire, or
transfer to other occupations.

Sources of Additional Information
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers,
345 E. 47th St., New York, N.Y. 10017.

(See introductory part of this section for
information on training requirements and

Employment of metallurgical engineers is
expected to grow faster than the average for
all occupations through the 1980’s. More will
be needed by the metalworking industries to
develop new metals and alloys as well as to
adapt current ones to new applications. For
example, jet engines require metals that can
withstand extreme heat. As the supply of
high-grade ores diminishes, more metallurgi­
cal engineers will be required to develop new
ways of recycling solid waste materials and
processing low-grade ores now regarded as
unprofitable to mine. Metallurgical engineers
also will be needed to solve problems associ­
ated with the efficient use of nuclear energy.
Besides job openings created by growth in
demand, many metallurgical engineers will
be needed each year to replace those who
die, retire, or transfer to other occupations.

Sources of Additional Information
The Metallurgical Society of AIME, 420 Com­
monwealth Dr., Warrendale, Pa. 15086.
American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio

(See introductory part of this section for
information on training requirements and

Mining Engineers___

(D .O .T. 011.061, .161.010, and 090.227-010)

(D .O .T . 010.061

except -010 and-018,

.151, and

Nature of the Work

Nature of the Work

Metallurgical engineers develop new types
of metal tailored to meet specific require­

Mining engineers find, extract, and pre­
pare minerals for manufacturing industries to

Engineers, Surveyors, and Architects/65

use. They design open pit and underground
mines, supervise the construction of mine
shafts and tunnels in underground operations,
and devise methods for transporting minerals
to processing plants. Mining engineers are
responsible for the safe and economical oper­
ation of mines, including ventilation, water
supply, power, communications, and equip­
ment maintenance. Some mining engineers
work with geologists and metallurgical engi­
neers to locate and appraise new ore depos­
its. Others develop new mining equipment or
direct mineral processing operations to sepa­
rate minerals from the dirt, rock, mid other
materials they are mixed with. Mining engi­
neers frequently specialize in the mining of
one mineral such as coal or copper.
With increased emphasis on protecting the
environment, many mining engineers have
been working to solve problems related to
mined-land reclamation and water and air

About 6,000 mining engineers were em­
ployed in 1980. Most work in the mining
industry. Some work for firms that produce
equipment for the mining industry, while
others work in colleges and universities,
in government agencies, or as independent
Mining engineers are usually employed at
the location of mineral deposits, often near
small communities. However, those in re­
search, teaching, management, consulting, or
sales often are located in metropolitan areas.

(See introductory part of this section for
information on training requirements and

Petroleum Engineers
(D .O .T . 010.061-018, .161-010 and -014, .167-010 and
-014, and 090.227-010)

Nature of the Work
Petroleum engineers are mainly involved
in exploring and drilling for oil and gas.
They work to achieve the maximum profit­
able recovery of oil and gas from a petroleum
reservoir by determining and developing the
most efficient production methods.
Since only a small proportion of the oil
and gas in a reservoir will flow out under
natural forces, petroleum engineers develop
and use various artificial recovery methods,
such as flooding the oil field with water to
force the oil to the surface. The best methods
in use today recover only about half the oil.
Petroleum engineers’ research and develop­
ment in the future will be directed at finding
ways to increase the proportion of oil recov­
ered in each reservoir.
Petroleum engineers also supervise drilling
operations, conduct research on drilling
methods, and develop new methods of re­

covering offshore oil and gas. As oil and gas
become harder to find, petroleum engineers
must develop methods of recovery from areas
that were previously considered inaccessible
such as the Arctic or the ocean depths.

About 18,000 petroleum engineers were
employed in 1980, mostly in the petroleum
industry and closely allied fields. Their em­
ployers include not only the major oil com­
panies, but also the hundreds of smaller,
independent oil exploration, production, and
service companies. They also work for com­
panies that produce drilling equipment and
supplies. Some petroleum engineers work for
banks and other financial institutions which
need their knowledge of the economic value
of oil and gas properties. A small number
work for engineering consulting firms or as
independent consulting engineers, and for
Federal and State governments.
The petroleum engineer’s work is concen­
trated in places where oil and gas are found.
Almost three-fourths of all petroleum engi­
neers are employed in Texas, Oklahoma,
Louisiana, and California. There also are
many American petroleum engineers working
overseas in oil-producing countries.

Job Outlook
Employment of petroleum engineers is ex­
pected to grow faster than the average for all

Job Outlook
Employment of mining engineers is ex­
pected to increase faster than the average for
all occupations through the 1980’s. Efforts to
attain energy self-sufficiency should spur the
demand for coal and, therefore, for mining
engineers. The increase in demand for coal
will depend, to a great extent, on the avail­
ability and price of other energy sources such
as petroleum, natural gas, and nuclear ener­
gy. More technologically advanced mining
systems and further enforcement of mine
health and safety regulations also will in­
crease the need for mining engineers. In
addition, exploration for all other minerals
is also increasing. Easily mined deposits
are being depleted, creating a need for engi­
neers to devise more efficient methods for
mining low-grade ores. Employment oppor­
tunities also will arise as new alloys and new
uses for metals increase the demand for less
widely used ores. Recovery of metals from
the sea and the development of oil-shale de­
posits could present major challenges to the
mining engineer. Besides job openings cre­
ated by growth in demand, many mining
engineers will be needed each year to replace
those who die, retire, or transfer to other

Sources of Additional Information
The Society of Mining Engineers of AIME, Caller
Number D, Littleton, Colo. 80127.

Metallurgical engineer testing a new metal alloy.

66/Occupational Outlook Handbook

Petroleum engineer reviewing well data.

expensive recovery methods will be used.
New sources of oil, such as oil shale and
new offshore oil sources, will be developed.
Also, oil and gas drilling techniques may be
applied in developing geothermal energy and
in recovering certain minerals. All of these
factors will contribute to increasing demand
for petroleum engineers. Besides job open­
ings created by growth in demand, many
petroleum engineers will be needed each year
to replace those who die, retire, or transfer to
other occupations.

Sources of Additional Information
Mining engineers design mines and supervise the construction of mine shafts and tunnels.

occupations through the 1980’s, as economic
expansion requires increasing supplies of pe­
troleum and natural gas, even with energy

conservation measures. With efforts to attain
energy self-sufficiency and with high petro­
leum prices, increasingly sophisticated and

Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME, 6200
North Central Expressway, Dallas, Tex. 75206.

(See introductory part of this section for
information on training requirements and

Natural Scientists and Mathematicians
Nature of the Work
Natural scientists and mathematical scien­
tists seek knowledge of the physical world
through observation, study, and experimenta­
tion. The knowledge gained through their
scientific and mathematical research activities
has been used to develop new products, in­
crease productivity, provide greater defense
capabilities, protect the environment, and im­
prove health care. Three subgroups make up
this broad occupational field: Mathematical
scientists and systems analysts, physical sci­
entists, and life scientists.
Mathematical scientists and systems ana­
lysts not only study mathematics but use it as
a tool to solve practical business or scientific
problems. Most mathematicians do research
or teach in colleges and universities. Actu­
aries, statisticians, and systems analysts ap­
ply mathematical techniques to practical
problems in business, health care, defense,
and other areas.
Physical scientists include those who do
research on the nature of matter and energy
both on earth and in the rest of the universe

(astronomers, physicists, and chemists) and
those who study how physical processes af­
fect the earth (geologists, geophysicists, and
geographers), its oceans (oceanographers),
and its atmosphere (meteorologists).
Life scientists study living organisms and
their life processes. The broad area of life
science includes agricultural and biological
scientists. Food technologists, also consid­
ered life scientists, apply the principles of
life science to processing, preserving, pro­
ducing, and distributing food. Foresters,
range managers, and soil conservationists ap­
ply their knowledge of life science to con­
serving forests, rangelands, and soil.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
For some natural science and mathematics
jobs, a bachelor’s degree is adequate for en­
try. However, in fields such as mathematics,
astronomy, physics, biochemistry, or biol­
ogy, an advanced degree is usually required
for entry into professional level jobs.
Undergraduate training for natural scien­

tists and mathematicians includes courses in
their major field and in related scientific
In graduate school, students take more ad­
vanced courses in their major area of study
and in related sciences as well. Requirements
for the master’s or doctor’s degree usually
include a thesis, which is a report on the
student’s original research.

Job Outlook
In the past, growth in employment of natu­
ral scientists and mathematicians has been
related to an expanding economy and to in­
creased research and development (R&D) ex­
penditures. Both government and industry are
expected to increase their R&D expenditures
through the 1980’s in order to expand our
basic knowledge of natural science, develop
new technologies and products, and to pro­
tect the natural environment. However, if the
rate of economic growth and actual R&D
levels and patterns differ from those as­
sumed, the outlook in many occupations de­
scribed in this section would be altered.


Mathematical Scientists and Systems Analysts
Mathematics is both a science and a tool
used in many kinds of work. As a tool,
mathematics is essential for understanding and
expressing ideas in natural and social science,
engineering, and business. (Occupations in
these fields are discussed elsewhere in the
Handbook.) The application of mathematical
techniques in these fields has increased greatly
because of the widespread use of computers,
which help solve complex mathematical prob­
lems rapidly and inexpensively.
Although mathematics is used extensively
in many occupations, people in the occupa­
tions covered in this section use mathematics
to a higher degree than others, and often
devise new mathematical techniques to solve
problems. Most mathematicians teach math­
ematics or do research on both theoretical
and applied mathematical problems.
Mathematics is applied in many areas.
Statisticians use mathematical techniques to
design and interpret surveys and experiments
and test theories dealing with people or
things. Actuaries use statistical techniques to
assess the likelihood of risks that insurance
companies agree to cover and to calculate the
costs associated with insuring such risks.
Systems analysts use mathematical, statisti­
cal, and accounting techniques to analyze and
design data processing methods for business
and scientific research projects.
Most jobs related to mathematics require at
least a bachelor’s degree in mathematics, sta­
tistics, or a related field. A graduate degree
is helpful but not necessary for employment
as a statistician, actuary, or systems analyst.
The majority of mathematicians have a

(D.O.T. 020.167-010)

Nature of the Work
Why do young persons pay more for auto­
mobile insurance than older persons? How
much should an insurance policy cost? How
much should an organization contribute each
year to its pension fund? Answers to these
and similar questions are provided by actu­
aries who design insurance and pension plans
and follow their experience to make sure that
they are maintained on a sound financial ba­
sis. Actuaries assemble and analyze statistics
to calculate probabilities of death, sickness,
injury, disability, unemployment, retirement,
and property loss from accident, theft, fire,
and other hazards. They use this information
to determine the expected insured loss. For
example, they may calculate how many per­
Digitized for 68

sons who are 21 years old today can be
expected to die before age 65—the probabil­
ity that an insured person might die during
this period is a risk to the company. They
then calculate a price for assuming this risk
that will be profitable to the company yet be
competitive with other insurance companies.
Finally, they must make sure that the price
charged for the insurance will enable the
company to pay all claims and expenses as
they occur. In a similar manner, the actuary
calculates premium rates and determines poli­
cy contract provisions for each type of insur­
ance offered. Most actuaries specialize in
either life and health insurance or property
and liability (casualty) insurance; a growing
number specialize in pension plans.
To perform their duties effectively, actu­
aries must keep informed about general eco­
nomic and social trends, and legislative,
health, and other developments that may af­
fect insurance practices. Because of their
broad knowledge of insurance, company ac­
tuaries may work in investment, group un­
derwriting, or pension planning departments.
Actuaries in executive positions help deter­
mine company policy. In that role, they may
be called upon to explain complex technical
matters to company executives, government
officials, policyholders, and the public. They
may testify before public agencies on pro­
posed legislation affecting the insurance busi­
ness, for example, or explain intended
changes in premium rates or contract provi­
Actuaries who work for the Federal Gov­
ernment usually deal with a particular insur­
ance or pension program, such as social
security or life insurance for veterans and
members of the Armed Forces. Actuaries in
State government regulate insurance compa­
nies, supervise the operations of State retire­
ment or pension systems, and work on unem­
ployment insurance or workers ’ compensation
problems. Consulting actuaries set up pen­
sion and welfare plans for private companies,
unions, and government agencies. They cal­
culate future benefits and determine the
amount of employer contribution. Actuaries
who are enrolled under the provisions of the
Employee Retirement Income Security Act
of 1974 (ERISA) evaluate these pension
plans and report on their financial soundness.

Working Conditions
Actuaries have desk jobs that require no
unusual physical activity; their offices gener­
ally are comfortable and pleasant.
Actuaries generally work between 35 and
40 hours a week, except during busy periods
when overtime may be required. Actuaries
may travel to branch offices of their company
or to clients.

Approximately 8,000 persons worked as
actuaries in 1980. Many worked in insurance
company headquarters in New York, Hart­
ford, Chicago, Philadelphia, or Boston.
More than half of all actuaries worked for
private insurance companies. Most of these
worked for life insurance companies; the rest
worked for property and liability (casualty)
companies. The number of actuaries em­
ployed by an insurance company depends on
its volume of business and the types of insur­
ance policies it offers. Large companies may
employ over 100 actuaries; others, generally
smaller companies, may rely instead on con­
sulting firms, accounting firms, or rating bu­
reaus (associations that supply actuarial data
to member companies).
Employment of actuaries has been growing
in consulting firms, rating bureaus, and ac­
counting firms. Other actuaries work for pri­
vate organizations administering independent
pension and welfare plans or for Federal and
State government agencies. A few teach in
colleges and universities.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A good educational background for a be­
ginning job in a large life or casualty com­
pany is a bachelor’s degree with a major in
mathematics or statistics; a degree in actuar­
ial science is even better. Some companies
hire applicants with a major in engineering,
economics, or business administration, pro­
vided they have a working knowledge of
mathematics, including calculus, probability,
and statistics (20-25 hours). Courses in ac­
counting, computer science, economics, and
insurance also are useful. Although only 32
colleges and universities offer a degree in
actuarial science, several hundred schools of­
fer a degree in mathematics or statistics.
A strong background in mathematics is
essential for persons interested in a career as
an actuary. It is an advantage to pass, while
still in school, one or more of the examina­
tions offered by professional actuarial soci­
eties. Three societies sponsor programs
leading to full professional status in their
specialty. The Society of Actuaries gives ten
actuarial examinations for the life and health
insurance and pension field, the Casualty Ac­
tuarial Society gives ten examinations for
the property and liability field, and the
American Society of Pension Actuaries gives
nine examinations covering the pension field.
Because the first parts of the examination
series of each society cover similar materials,
students need not commit themselves to a
specialty until they have taken four exam­
inations. The first three test competence in
subjects such as linear algebra, numerical

Natural Scientists and Mathematicians/69

methods, operations research, probability,
calculus, and statistics; the fourth covers con­
cepts of actuarial science such as theories of
compound interest, mortality tables, and risk.
These first few examinations help students
evaluate their potential as actuaries, and
those who pass usually have better opportu­
nities for employment and higher starting
Actuaries are encouraged to complete the
entire series of examinations as soon as
possible; completion generally takes from 5
to 10 years. Examinations are given twice
each year. Extensive home study is required
to pass the advanced examinations; many
actuaries study 20-25 hours a week. Actu­
aries who complete five examinations in ei­
ther the life insurance series or the pension
series or seven examinations in the casualty
series are awarded “ associate” membership
in their society. Those who pass an entire
series receive full membership and the title
“ fellow. ”
Consulting pension actuaries who service
private pension plans and certify their sol­
vency must be enrolled by the Joint Board
for the Enrollment of Actuaries, a U.S.
government agency. Applicants for enroll­
ment must meet certain experience and edu­
cation requirements as stipulated by the
Joint Board.
Beginning actuaries often rotate among
jobs to learn various actuarial operations
and different phases of insurance work. At
first, they prepare tabulations for actuarial
tables or perform other simple tasks. As
they gain experience, they may supervise
clerks, prepare correspondence and reports,
and do research.
Advancement to more responsible work as
assistant, associate, and chief actuary de­
pends largely on job performance and the
number of actuarial examinations passed.
Many actuaries, because of their broad
knowledge of insurance and related fields,
are selected for administrative positions in
underwriting, accounting, or data processing
departments. Many advance to top executive

Job Outlook
Employment of actuaries is expected to
grow faster than the average for all occupa­
tions through the 1980’s. In addition to job
openings resulting from growth in demand
for actuaries, additional openings will arise
each year as individuals retire, die, or trans­
fer to other occupations. Job opportunities
will be best for new college graduates who
have passed at least two actuarial examina­
tions while still in school and have a strong
mathematical and statistical background.
Employment in this occupation is influ­
enced by the volume of insurance sales,
which is expected to grow over the next
decade. Shifts in the age distribution of the
population will result in a large increase in
the number of people with established careers

Actuary analyzes statistical data.

and family responsibilities. This is the group
that traditionally has accounted for the bulk
of private insurance sales.
In addition, changing insurance practices
will create a need for more actuarial services.
For example, as insurance companies branch
out into more than one kind of insurance
coverage, more actuaries will be needed to
establish rates. Growth in new forms of pro­
tection, such as dental, prepaid legal, and
kidnap insurance also will stimulate demand.
As people live longer, they draw health and
pension benefits for a longer period, and
actuaries will need to recalculate the prob­
abilities of such factors as death, sickness,
and length of retirement. As more States pass
competitive rating laws, many companies
that previously relied on rating bureaus for
actuarial data can be expected to create actu­
arial departments.
The liability of companies for damage re­
sulting from their products has received much
attention as a result of recent court decisions.
In the years ahead, actuaries will be more
involved in the development of product li­
ability insurance, as well as medical malprac­
tice, workers’ compensation coverage, and
pollution liability insurance.
Insurance coverage is considered a necessi­
ty by most individuals and businesses, re­
gardless of economic conditions. Therefore,
actuaries are unlikely to be laid off during a

ners who had completed the first exam re­
ceived between $14,000 and $17,000, and
those who had passed the second exam aver­
aged between $15,000 and $18,000, depend­
ing on geographic location.
Life insurance companies give merit in­
creases to actuaries as they gain experience
and pass examinations. Actuaries who be­
came associates in 1980, earned average sala­
ries between $21,000 and $24,500 a year;
actuaries who became fellows during that
year received average salaries between
$30,000 and $35,000. Fellows with addition­
al years of experience earned substantially
more—top actuarial executives received aver­
age salaries of about $52,000 a year. Al­
though data are not available for those in
casualty companies or consulting firms, it is
believed that their salaries are comparable to
those of life insurance actuaries.

Related Occupations
Actuaries assemble and analyze statistics
in their day-to-day work. Other workers
whose jobs involve similar skills include
mathematicians, statisticians, economists, fi­
nancial analysts, and engineering analysts.

Sources of Additional Information
For facts about actuarial opportunities and
qualifications, contact:
American Society of Pension Actuaries, 1700 K
St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20006.

In 1980, new college graduates entering
the life insurance field without having passed
any actuarial exams averaged about $13,000,
according to a survey by the Life Office
Management Association (LOMA). Begin­

Casualty Actuarial Society, One Penn Plaza, 250
West 34 St., New York, N.Y. 10119.
Society of Actuaries, 208 South LaSalle St., Chi­
cago, 111. 60604.
American Academy of Actuaries, 1835 K St.
NW., Suite 515, Washington, D.C. 20006.

70/Occupational Outlook Handbook


is many times greater than the number actual­
ly designated as mathematicians.

(D .O .T. 020.067-014, -022 and 090.227-010)

Working Conditions

Nature of the Work

Mathematicians work almost exclusively
in offices and classrooms. Most work regular
hours and travel infrequently.

Mathematicians work in one of the oldest
and most basic sciences. Mathematicians to­
day are engaged in a wide variety of activities,
ranging from the creation of new theories to the
translation of scientific and managerial prob­
lems into mathematical terms.
Mathematical work falls into two broad
classes: theoretical (pure) mathematics; and
applied mathematics. However, these classes
are not sharply defined and often overlap.
Theoretical mathematicians advance math­
ematical science by developing new princi­
ples and new relationships between existing
principles of mathematics. Although they
seek to increase basic knowledge without
necessarily considering its practical use, this
pure and abstract knowledge has been instru­
mental in producing many scientific and en­
gineering achievements. For example, in
1854 Bernard Riemann invented a seemingly
impractical non-Euclidian geometry that was
to become part of Albert Einstein’s theory of
relativity. Years later, this theory contributed
to the creation of atomic power.
Applied mathematicians use mathematics
to develop theories, techniques, and ap­
proaches to solve practical problems in busi­
ness, government, engineering, and the
natural and social sciences. Their work
ranges from analysis of the mathematical as­
pects of launching communications satellites
to studies of the effects of new drugs on
Much work in applied mathematics, how­
ever, is carried on by persons other than
mathematicians. In fact, the number of work­
ers who depend upon mathematical expertise

Three out of four mathematicians work in col­
leges and universities.

About 40,000 persons worked as math­
ematicians in 1980. Almost three-fourths
worked in colleges and universities. Most
were teachers; some worked mainly in re­
search and development with few or no
teaching duties.
Most other mathematicians worked in pri­
vate industry and government. In private in­
dustry, major employers were the communi­
cations, chemical, aircraft, and computer
and data processing industries. The Depart­
ment of Defense and the National Aeronau­
tics and Space Administration employed
most of the mathematicians working in the
Federal Government.
Mathematicians work in all States, but are
concentrated in those with high-technology
industries and large college and university

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
An advanced degree is the basic require­
ment for beginning teaching jobs, as well as
for most research positions. In most four-year
colleges and universities, the Ph.D. degree is
necessary for full faculty status. A master’s
degree is adequate preparation for teaching
jobs in most two-year colleges and technical
Although the bachelor’s degree may be
adequate preparation for some jobs in private
industry and government, employers usually
require an advanced degree. Those bachelor’s
degree holders who find jobs as mathemati­
cians usually assist senior mathematicians by
performing computations and solving less ad­
vanced problems in applied mathematics.
However, advancement often depends on
achieving an advanced degree. Other bache­
lor’s degree holders work as research or
teaching assistants in colleges and universi­
ties while studying for an advanced degree.
The majority of bachelor’s degree holders
work in related fields such as computer
The bachelor’s degree in mathematics is
offered by most colleges and universities.
Mathematics courses usually required for a
degree are analytical geometry, calculus, dif­
ferential equations, probability theory and
statistics, mathematical analysis, and modem
algebra. Many colleges and universities urge
or even require students majoring in math­
ematics to take several courses in a field that
uses or is closely related to mathematics,
such as computer science, operations re­
search, a physical science, or economics. A
prospective college mathematics student
should take as many mathematics courses as
possible while in high school.

More than 400 colleges and universities
offer the master’s degree in mathematics;
about 150 also offer the Ph.D. In graduate
school, students conduct research and take
advanced courses, usually in a specific field
of mathematics such as algebra, mathemat­
ical analysis, or geometry.
For work in applied mathematics, training
in the field in which the mathematics will be
used is very important. Fields in which ap­
plied mathematics is used extensively include
physics, engineering, and operations re­
search; of increasing importance are business
and industrial management, economics, sta­
tistics, chemistry and life sciences, and the
behavioral sciences.
M athematicians should have a good
knowledge of computer programming since
most complex mathematical computation is
done by computer.
Mathematicians need good reasoning abil­
ity, persistence, and the ability to apply basic
principles to new types of problems. They
must be able to communicate well since they
often need to discuss the problem to be
solved with nonmathematicians.

Job Outlook
Employment of mathematicians is expect­
ed to increase more slowly than the average
for all occupations through the 1980’s be­
cause the majority of mathematicians work in
colleges and universities, where little em­
ployment growth is expected. Those with
Ph.D. degrees in mathematics should have
favorable employment opportunities. How­
ever, most job openings for Ph.D .’s will
either be in industry or in college faculty
positions at the undergraduate level. There
will be competition for jobs involving theo­
retical research or for research oriented uni­
versity faculty positions.
Holders of Ph.D. degrees in applied math­
ematics should have better employment pros­
pects than those whose interest and training
are confined to the theoretical aspects of
mathematics. Although some opportunities
may be available to theoretical mathemati­
cians in nonacademic areas, most nonaca­
demic employers will seek applied math­
ematicians who can solve practical problems.
Private industry and government agencies
will need applied mathematicians for work in
operations research, numerical analysis, com­
puter systems programming, applied math­
ematical physics, market research, and
commercial surveys, and as consultants in
industrial laboratories.
Those with only a bachelor’s or master’s
degree in mathematics may have difficulty
finding a job as a mathematician because
most jobs in teaching or research require a
Ph.D., although there will be some openings
in applied areas and in two-year college
teaching. However, a mathematics degree
makes one well qualified to enter related
occupations such as statistician, actuary,
computer programmer, systems analyst,
economist, engineer, and physical or life sci-

Natural Scientists and Mathematicians/71

entist. Employment opportunities in these
fields will probably be best for those who
combine a major in mathematics with a mi­
nor in one of these subjects.
Graduates with State teaching certificates
may also find openings as high school math­
ematics teachers. (See statement on secon­
dary school teachers elsewhere in the
Handbook. )

Starting salaries for mathematicians with a
bachelor’s degree averaged about $17,700 a
year. Those with a master’s degree started at
about $20,200 annually. Salaries for new
graduates having the Ph. D ., most of whom had
some experience, averaged over $26,400.
In the Federal Government in 1980, math­
ematicians having the bachelor’s degree and
no experience could start at either $12,266 or
$15,193 a year, depending on their college
records. Those with the master’s degree
could start at $18,585 or $22,486; and per­
sons having the Ph.D. degree could begin at
either $22,486 or $26,951. The average sala­
ry for all mathematicians in the Federal Gov­
ernment was about $30,100 in 1980.
Salaries paid to college and university
mathematics teachers are comparable to those
for other faculty members. (See statement on
college and university teachers elsewhere in
the Handbook.)

Related Occupations
The work of actuaries, statisticians, comput­
er programmers, systems analysts, and oper­
ations research analysts is closely related to
mathematics. In addition, workers in many
fields such as natural and social science, engi­
neering, and finance use m athem atics

Sources of Additional Information
Several brochures are available that give
facts about the field of mathematics, includ­
ing career opportunities, professional train­
ing, and colleges and universities with degree
Seeking Employment in the Mathematical
Sciences is available for 50 cents from:
American Mathematical Society, P.O. Box 6248,
Providence, R.I. 02940.

Professional Opportunities in Mathematics
is available for $1.50 from:
Mathematical Association of America, 1529 18th
St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

For specific information on careers in ap­
plied mathematics, contact:
Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics,
1405 Architects Building, 117 S. 17th St., Phila­
delphia, Pa. 19103.

Statisticians devise surveys and experiments and interpret the results.

tants. Statisticians devise, carry out, and in­
terpret the numerical results of surveys and
experiments. In doing so, they apply their
knowledge of statistical methods to a particu­
lar subject area, such as economics, human
behavior, natural science, or engineering.
They may use statistical techniques to predict
population growth or economic conditions,
develop quality control tests for manufac­
tured products, or help business managers
and government officials make decisions and
evaluate the results of new programs.
Often statisticians are able to obtain accu­
rate information about a group of people or
things by surveying a small portion, called a
sample, rather than the whole group. For
example, television rating services ask only a
few thousand families, rather than all view­
ers, what programs they watch to determine
the size of the total audience. Statisticians
decide where and how to get the data, deter­
mine the type and size of the sample group,
and develop the survey questionnaire or re­
porting form. They also prepare instructions
for workers who will tabulate the returns.
Since statistics are used in so many areas,
it sometimes is difficult to distinguish statisti­
cians from specialists in other fields who use
statistics. For example, a statistician working
with data on economic conditions may have
the title of economist.

Working Conditions

(D.O.T. 020.067-026, and 090.227-010)

Nature of the Work
Statistics are numbers that help describe
the characteristics of the world and its inhabi­

Statisticians usually work regular hours in
offices. Some statisticians may travel occa­
sionally to supervise or set up a survey, or to
gather statistical data. Some spend all day
doing fairly repetitive tasks, while others
may be involved in a variety of tasks such as
designing surveys or interpreting data.

Approximately 26,500 persons worked as
statisticians in 1980. Over half were in pri­
vate industry, primarily in manufacturing, fi­
nance, and insurance companies. About onethird worked for Federal, State, or local
government. Federally employed statisticians
are concentrated in the Departments of Com­
merce, Health and Human Services, Agricul­
ture, and Defense. Others worked in colleges
and universities and nonprofit organizations.
Although statisticians work in all parts of
the country, most are in metropolitan areas,
and about one-fourth work in three areas—
New York City; Washington, D.C.; and Los
Angeles-Long Beach, Calif.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A bachelor’s degree with a major in statis­
tics or mathematics is the minimum educa­
tional requirement for many beginning jobs
in statistics. For other entry level statistical
jobs, however, a bachelor’s degree with a
major in an applied field such as economics
or natural science and a minor in statistics is
preferable. A graduate degree in mathematics
or statistics is essential for college and uni­
versity teaching.
Over 200 colleges and universities offered
statistics as a concentration for a bachelor’s
degree in 1980. Many schools also offer ei­
ther a degree in mathematics or a sufficient
number of courses in statistics to qualify
graduates for beginning positions. Required
subjects for statistics majors include math­
ematics through differential and integral cal­
culus, statistical methods, and probability
theory. Courses in computer uses and tech­
niques, if not required, are highly recom­
mended. For quality-control positions,
training in engineering or physical or biologi­

72/Occupational Outlook Handbook

cal science is desirable. For many market
research, business analysis, and forecasting
jobs, courses in economics and business ad­
ministration are helpful.
Many colleges and universities also of­
fered graduate degrees in statistics in 1980,
and many other schools offered one or two
graduate level statistics courses. Acceptance
into graduate programs does not require an
undergraduate degree in statistics although a
good mathematics background is essential.
Beginning statisticians who have only the
bachelor’s degree often spend much of their
time performing routine work under the su­
pervision of an experienced statistician.
Through experience, they may advance to
positions of greater technical and supervisory
responsibility. However, opportunities for
promotion are best for those with advanced

Job Outlook
Employment opportunities for persons who
combine training in statistics with knowledge
of a field of application are expected to be
favorable through the 1980’s. Besides the
average growth expected in this field, addi­
tional statisticians will be needed to replace
those who die, retire, or transfer to other
Private industry will require increasing
numbers of statisticians for quality control in
manufacturing. Statisticians with knowledge
of engineering and the physicial sciences will
find jobs working with scientists and engi­
neers in research and development. Business
firms will rely more heavily than in the past
on statisticians to forecast sales, analyze
business conditions, modernize accounting
procedures, and help solve management
Many fields such as law and history have
recognized the usefulness of statistics, and
statistical techniques are being used increas­
ingly to determine such things as the effects
of pollution and toxic substances. As the use
of statistics expands into new areas, more
statisticians will be needed.
Federal, State, and local government agen­
cies will need statisticians for existing and
new programs in fields such as transporta­
tion, social security, health, and education.
The broader use of statistical methods is also
likely to result in a need for more teachers of
statistics in colleges and universities

In the Federal Government in 1980, statis­
ticians who had the bachelor’s degree and no
experience could start at either $12,266 or
$15,193 a year, depending on their college
grades. Beginning statisticians with the mas­
te r’s degree could start at $18,585 or
$22,486. Those with the Ph.D. could begin
at $22,486 or $26,951. The average annual
salary for statisticians in the Federal Govern­
ment was about $29,300 in 1980.

Salaries in private industry were compara­
ble to those in the Federal Government, ac­
cording to the limited data available.
Statisticians employed by colleges and uni­
versities generally receive salaries compara­
ble to those paid other faculty members. (See
the statement on college and university teach­
ers elsewhere in the Handbook.) In addition
to their regular salaries, many statisticians in
educational institutions earn extra income
from outside research projects, consulting,
and writing.

Related Occupations
Workers in the following occupations use
statistics to such an extent their job is often
similar to that of a statistician: Marketing
research workers, urban and regional plan­
ners, engineers, environmental scientists, life
scientists, physical scientists, and social sci­
entists. Others who work with numbers are
actuaries, mathematicians, financial ana­
lysts, computer programmers, and systems

Sources of Additional Information
For information about career opportunities
in statistics, contact:
American Statistical Association, 806 15th St.
NW„ Washington, D.C. 20005.

Information on Federal job opportunities is
available from area offices of the State em­
ployment service and the U.S. Office of Per­
sonnel Management or from Federal Job
Information Centers located in various large
cities throughout the country.
For information on a career as a math­
ematical statistician, contact:
Dr. Martin Fox, Institute of Mathematical Statis­
tics, Department of Statistics and Probability,
Michigan State University, East Lansing, Mich.

Systems Analysts
(D.O.T. 003.167-062; 012.167-066; 020.062-010 and
067.010; and 109.067-010)

Nature of the Work
Many essential business functions and sci­
entific research projects depend on systems
analysts to plan efficient methods of process­
ing data and handling the results. Analysts
begin an assignment by discussing the data
processing problem with managers or special­
ists to determine the exact nature of the prob­
lem and to break it down into its component
parts. If a new inventory system is desired,
for example, systems analysts must deter­
mine what new data must be collected, the
equipment needed for computation, and the
steps to be followed in processing the
Analysts use various techniques, such as
cost accounting, sampling, and mathematical
model building to analyze a problem and
devise a new system. Once a system has
been developed, they prepare charts and dia­

grams that describe its operation in terms that
managers or customers can understand. They
also may prepare a cost-benefit analysis to
help the client decide whether the proposed
system is satisfactory.
If the system is accepted, systems analysts
translate the logical requirements of the sys­
tem into the capabilities of the computer ma­
chinery or “ hardware.” They also prepare
specifications for programmers to follow and
work with them to “debug,” or eliminate
errors from the system. (The work of com­
puter programmers is described elsewhere in
the Handbook.)
The problems that systems analysts solve
range from monitoring nuclear fission in a
powerplant to forecasting sales for an appli­
ance manufacturing firm. Because the work
is so varied and complex, analysts usually
specialize in either business or scientific and
engineering applications.
Some analysts improve systems already in
use by developing better procedures or adapt­
ing the system to handle additional types of
data. Others do research, called advanced
systems design, to devise new methods of
systems analysis.

Working Conditions
Systems analysts usually work about 40
hours a week—the same as other professional
and office workers. Unlike many computer
operators, systems analysts are not assigned
to evening or night shifts. Occasionally,
however, evening or weekend work may be
necessary to complete emergency projects.

About 205,000 persons worked as systems
analysts in 1980. Employment of these work­
ers is concentrated in two geographic re­
gions—about one-third of the total are
employed in the Midwest and one-fourth
work in the northeastern portion of the Unit­
ed States. Most systems analysts worked in
urban areas for manufacturing firms, govern­
ment agencies, wholesale businesses, and
data processing service organizations. In ad­
dition, large numbers worked for banks and
insurance companies.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
There is no universally acceptable way of
preparing for a job as a systems analyst be­
cause employers’ preferences depend on the
work being done. However, college gradu­
ates generally are sought for these jobs, and,
for some of the more complex jobs, persons
with graduate degrees are preferred. Employ­
ers usually want analysts with a background
in accounting, business management, or eco­
nomics for work in a business environment
while a background in the physical sciences,
mathematics, or engineering is preferred
for work in scientifically oriented organiza­
tions. A growing number of employers seek
applicants who have a degree in computer
science, information science, information

Natural Scientists and Mathematicians/73

systems, or data processing. Regardless of
college major, employers look for people
who are familiar with programming lan­
guages. Courses in computer concepts, sys­
tems analysis, and data base management
systems offer good preparation for a job in
this field.
Prior work experience is important. Nearly
half of all persons entering This occupation
have transferred from other occupations, es­
pecially from computer programmer. In
many industries, systems analysts begin as
programmers and are promoted to analyst
positions after gaining experience.
Systems analysts must be able to think
logically and should like working with ideas.
They often deal with a number of tasks si­
multaneously. The ability to concentrate and
pay close attention to detail also is important.
Although systems analysts often work inde­
pendently, they also work in teams on large
projects. They must be able to communicate
effectively with technical personnel, such as
programmers, as well as with clients who
have no computer background.
In order to advance, systems analysts must
continue their technical education. Techno­
logical advances come so rapidly in the com­
puter field that continuous study is necessary
to keep skills up to date. Training usually
takes the form of 1- and 2-week courses
offered by employers and “ software” ven­
dors. Additional training may come from
professional development seminars offered
by professional computing societies.
An indication of experience and profes­
sional competence is the Certificate in Data
Processing (CDP). This designation is con­
ferred by the Institute for Certification of
Computer Professionals upon candidates who
have completed 5 years’ experience and
passed a five-part examination.
In large data processing departments, per­
sons who begin as junior systems analysts
may be promoted to senior or lead systems
analysts after several years of experience.
Systems analysts who show leadership abili­
ty also can advance to jobs as managers
of systems analysis or data processing

Job Outlook
Employment of systems analysts is expect­
ed to grow much faster than the average for
all occupations through the 1980’s as comput­
er usage expands, particularly in computer
service firms, accounting firms, and organi­
zations engaged in research and develop­
ment. Many systems analysts also will be
needed by computer manufacturers to design
software packages. In addition to jobs that
will be created by increased computer usage,
some openings will occur as systems analysts
advance to managerial positions, become
consultants, or enter other occupations. Be­
cause many of these workers are relatively
young, few positions will result from retire­
ment or death.
The demand for systems analysts is ex­
pected to rise as computer capabilities are

The shortage of trained computer personnel has resulted in an upward pay spiral that is expected
to continue.

increased and as new applications are found
for computer technology. Sophisticated ac­
counting systems, telecommunications net­
works, and scientific research are just a few
areas where use of computer systems has
resulted in new approaches to problem solv­
ing. Over the next decade, systems analysts
also will be developing ways to use the com­
puter’s resources to solve problems in areas
that have not yet been recognized.
Advances in technology that have drasti­
cally reduced the size and cost of computer
hardware will have differing effects on em­
ployment of systems analysts. Employment
in data processing firms may not grow quite
as rapidly as in recent years as more small
businesses install their own computers rather
than rely on a data processing service. This
will be offset, however, by a rising demand

for analysts to design systems for small com­
puters that are specifically adapted to meet
problem-solving needs of small firms.
Graduates of computer-related curriculums
should enjoy the best prospects for employ­
ment. College graduates who have had
courses in computer programming, systems
analysis, and other data processing areas
should also find many opportunities. Persons
without a college degree and college gradu­
ates unfamiliar with data processing will
face competition from the large number of
experienced workers seeking jobs as systems

Earnings for beginning systems analysts in
private industry averaged about $330 a week
in 1980, according to surveys conducted in

74/Occupational Outlook Handbook

urban areas by the Bureau of Labor Statistics
and private firms engaged in research on
computer occupations. Experienced workers
earned from $390 to $460, and lead systems
analysts earned about $490 weekly. Overall,
systems analysts earn well over twice as
much as the average for all nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except farming.
In the Federal Government, the entrance sal­
ary for recent college graduates with a bache­
lor’s degree was about $200 a week in early
Systems analysts working in the North and
West earned somewhat more than those in

the South, and generally their earnings were
greater in data processing service firms or in
heavy manufacturing than in insurance com­
panies or educational institutions.

Related Occupations
Other workers in mathematics, business,
and science who use logic and reasoning
ability to solve problems are programmers,
financial analysts, urban planners, engineers,
mathematicians, operations research analysts,
and actuaries.

Sources of Additional Information
Further information about the occupation
of systems analyst is available from:
American Federation of Information Processing
Societies, 1815 North Lynn St., Arlington, Va.
Association for Systems Management, 24587 Bagley Rd., Cleveland, Ohio 44138.

Information about the Certificate in Data
Processing is available from:
The Institute for Certification of Computer Profes­
sionals, 35 E. Wacker Dr., Suite 2828, Chicago,
111. 60601.

Physical Scientists
Physical scientists investigate the structure
and composition of the earth and the uni­
verse. Many physical scientists perform re­
search designed to increase basic scientific
knowledge. Others employ the results of re­
search to solve practical problems in develop­
ing new products, locating new sources of
oil, or predicting the weather. Many physical
scientists work in colleges and universities;
others, especially chemists, geologists, and
geophysicists, work in private industry.
This section covers eight physical science
occupations—astronomers, chemists, geog­
raphers, geologists, geophysicists, meteorolo­
gists, oceanographers, and physicists. Most
astronomers, oceanographers, and physicists
have Ph.D .’s. The jobs of many other phys­
ical scientists also require a Ph.D., especially
those who are employed in colleges and uni­
versities, but some jobs in these other fields
can be entered with a bachelor’s degree.
A knowledge of the physical sciences (es­
pecially chemistry and physics) is also re­
quired by engineers and life scientists; these
occupations are discussed elsewhere in the

(D.O.T. 021.067-010 and 090.227-010)

Nature of the Work

Contrary to the popular image, astrono­
mers almost never actually look through a
telescope, because photographic and elec­
tronic light-detecting equipment is more ef­
fective than the human eye. Also, much
astronomical information is collected by ra­
dio telescopes and other electronic means
which detect invisible radio waves, X-rays,
and cosmic waves.
Most astronomers spend only a few weeks
each year making observations. They spend
the rest of their time analyzing the large
quantities of data collected by their own and
others’ observations and writing scientific pa­
pers on the results of their research. Some
astronomers concentrate on theoretical prob­
lems and seldom visit observatories. They
formulate theories or mathematical models to
explain observations made earlier by other
Almost all astronomers do research or
teach; those in colleges and universities often
do both. In schools that do not have separate
departments of astronomy or only small en­
rollments in the subject, they often teach
courses in mathematics or physics as well as
astronomy. Some astronomers administer re­
search programs, develop and design astro­
nomical instruments, and do consulting

Working Conditions
Most astronomers spend much of their
time working in offices or classrooms, al­
though astronomers who make observations

may need to travel to the observing facility
and frequently work at night. Astronomers
are often under considerable pressure to pro­
duce research results which are of publish­
able quality. In some universities, relatively
new astronomers who do not produce signifi­
cant research results are not granted tenure,
which is in effect a permanent position.
Those not granted tenure face the possibility
of losing their jobs.

Astronomy is the smallest physical sci­
ence; about 3,000 persons worked as astrono­
mers in 1980. Over half of all astronomers
work in colleges and universities. Most of
the rest work in observatories operated by
universities, nonprofit organizations, and the
Federal Government.
The Federal Government employed about
550 astronomers and space scientists in 1980.
Most worked for the National Aeronautics
and Space Administration. Others worked for
the Department of Defense, mainly at the
U.S. Naval Observatory and the U.S. Naval
Research Laboratory. A few astronomers
worked for aerospace firms or in museums
and planetariums.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
The usual requirement for a job in astron­
omy is a Ph.D. degree. Persons with less
education may qualify for some jobs assisting

Astronomers seek answers to questions
about the fundamental nature of the uni­
verse, such as its origin and history and the
evolution of our solar system. Astrono­
mers—sometimes called astrophysicists—use
the principles of physics and mathematics to
study and determine the behavior of matter
and energy in distant galaxies. One applica­
tion of the information they gain is to prove
or disprove theories of the nature of matter
and energy such as Einstein’s theory of rela­
To make observations of the universe, as­
tronomers use large telescopes, radiotele­
scopes, and other instruments (some in
orbiting satellites) that can detect electromag­
netic radiation from distant sources. By using
spectroscopes to analyze light from stars, as­
tronomers can determine their chemical com­
position. They use computers to analyze data
and solve complex mathematical equations
that are developed to represent various theo­
ries. Computers also are useful for process­
ing astronomical data to calculate orbits of
asteroids or comets, guide spacecraft, and
work out tables for navigational handbooks.

Astronomer prepares to make an observation by adjusting a spectrograph.

76/Occupational Outlook Handbook

About 50 universities offer the Ph.D. de­
gree in astronomy. These programs include
advanced courses in astronomy, physics, and
mathematics. Some schools require that grad­
uate students spend several months working
at an observatory. In most institutions, the
program leading to the doctorate is flexible
and allows students to take courses in their
own area of interest. The usual qualification
for entrance to a graduate program in astron­
omy is a bachelor’s degree in astronomy,
physics, or mathematics with a physics
Persons planning careers in astronomy
should have great interest and ability in sci­
ence and mathematics, as well as imagination
and an inquisitive mind. Perseverance and
the ability to concentrate on detail and to
work independently also are important.
New graduates with a doctorate may work
for several years on a postdoctoral fellow­
ship, which provides employment while they
gain further research experience and look for
a permanent position. Other new Ph.D.’s,
however, enter teaching or research jobs im­
mediately after attaining their degree.

Job Outlook
Persons seeking positions as astronomers
will face keen competition for the few avail­
able openings expected through the 1980’s.
Employment of astronomers is expected to
grow slowly, if at all, because funds for
basic research in astronomy, which come
mainly from the Federal Government, are not
expected to increase enough to create many
new positions. Furthermore, enrollments in
astronomy and physics are not expected to
grow, so there will be little need for addition­
al teaching faculty. Most openings will occur
as replacements for those who die or retire.
Since astronomy is such a small profession,
there will be few openings arising from the

need for replacements. There will be keen
competition for these openings because the
number of degrees granted in astronomy
probably will continue to exceed available
Many of the new positions in colleges and
universities may be temporary rather than
permanent because the use of temporary fac­
ulty members usually is less costly and al­
lows institutions to adjust faculty size more
easily. Temporary jobs usually last for 2
years and are seldom renewed.

The average annual salary for astonomers
was $26,000 in 1979, according to an
American Astronomical Society survey. The
average annual salary for astronomers and
space scientists in the Federal Government
was over $38,000 in 1980. Astronomers
teaching in colleges and universities received
salaries equivalent to those of other faculty
members. (See statement on college and uni­
versity teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.)

Related Occupations
The work of astronomers is closely related
to that of physicists, and astronomy often is
thought of as a branch of physics. Other
related occupations are physical scientists and

Sources of Additional Information
For a pamphlet containing information on
careers in astronomy and on schools offering
training in the field, send 25 cents to:
Education Office, American Astronomical Soci­
ety, University of Delaware, Newark, Del. 19711.

(D .O .T. 022.061-010 and -014, .137-010, .161-010,
.281-014; 041.061-026; and 090.227-010)

Nature of the Work

Nearly half of all chemists work in research
and development.

The clothes we wear, the foods we eat, the
houses in which we live—in fact, most things
that help make our lives better, from medical
care to a cleaner environment—result, in part,
from the work done by chemists.
Chemists search for and put to practical
use new knowledge about substances. Their
research has resulted in the development of a
tremendous variety of synthetic materials,
such as nylon and polyester fabrics, ingredi­
ents that have improved other substances,
and processes which help save energy and
reduce pollution, such as improved oil refin­
ing methods.
Over half of all chemists work in research
and development. In basic research, chemists
investigate the properties, composition, and
structure of matter and the laws that govern
the combination of elements and reactions of
substances. In applied research and develop­
ment, they create new products or improve
existing ones, often using knowledge gained

from basic research. For example, synthetic
rubber and plastics have resulted from re­
search on small molecules uniting to form
larger ones (polymerization).
The process of developing a product be­
gins with descriptions of the characteristics it
should have. If similar products exist, chem­
ists test samples to determine their ingredi­
ents. If no such product exists, chemists
experiment with various substances to devel­
op a product with the required specifications.
Nearly one-sixth of all chemists work in
production and inspection. In production,
chemists prepare instructions (batch sheets)
for plant workers that specify the kind and
amount of ingredients to use and the exact
mixing time for each stage in the process. At
each step, samples are tested for quality con­
trol to meet industry and government stand­
ards. Chemists keep records and prepare
reports showing results of tests.
Others work as marketing or sales repre­
sentatives where they sell and provide techni­
cal information on chemical products. A
number of chemists teach in colleges and
universities. Some chemists are consultants
to private industry and to government
Chemists often specialize in a subfield of
chemistry. Analytical chemists determine the
structure, composition, and nature of sub­
stances, and develop new analytical tech­
niques. An outstanding example of the
capabilities of this specialty was the analysis
of moon rocks by an international team of
analytical chemists. Organic chemists study
the chemistry of carbon compounds. When
combined with other elements, carbon forms
a vast number of substances. Many modem
commercial products, including plastics and
other synthetics, have resulted from the work
of organic chemists. Inorganic chemists
study compounds other than carbon. They
may, for example, develop materials to use
in solid-state electronic components. Phys­
ical chemists study the physical characteris­
tics of atoms and molecules and investigate
how chemical reactions work. This research
may result in new and better energy sources.
Biochemists, considered chemists or life sci­
entists, are discussed elsewhere in the Hand­
book . Some chemists specialize in the
chemistry of foods. (See statement on food
technologists elsewhere in the Handbook.)

Working Conditions
Chemists usually work regular hours in
offices, laboratories, or classrooms. Some
are exposed to health or safety hazards when
handling certain chemicals, but there is little
risk if proper procedures are followed.

About 113,000 persons worked as chemists
in 1980. About one-half of all chemists work
for manufacturing firms—about one-half of
these are in the chemical manufacturing indus­
try; the rest are scattered throughout other man­
ufacturing industries.
Colleges and universities employed about
19,000 chemists in 1980. Chemists also work

Natural Scientists and Mathematicians/77

for State and local governments, primarily in
health and agriculture, and for Federal agen­
cies, chiefly the Departments of Defense,
Health and Human Resources, Agriculture,
and Interior. Smaller numbers work for non­
profit research organizations.
Chemists are employed in all parts of the
country, but they are concentrated in large
industrial areas.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A bachelor’s degree with a major in chem­
istry or a related discipline is sufficient for
many beginning jobs as a chemist. However,
graduate training is required for most re­
search jobs, and most college teaching jobs
require a Ph.D. degree. Beginning chemists
should have a broad background in chemis­
try, with good laboratory skills.
Many colleges and universities offer a
bachelor’s degree program in chemistry.
About 550 are approved by the American
Chemical Society. In addition to required
courses in analytical, inorganic, organic, and
physical chemistry, undergraduates usually
study mathematics, liberal arts, and physics.
Several hundred colleges and universities
award advanced degrees in chemistry. In
graduate school, students generally specialize
in a subfield of chemistry. Requirements for
the master’s and doctor’s degree usually in­
clude a thesis based on independent research.
Students planning careers as chemists
should enjoy studying science and mathemat­
ics, and should like working with their hands
building scientific apparatus and performing
experiments. Perseverance and the ability to
concentrate on detail and to work indepen­
dently are essential. Other assets include an
inquisitive mind and imagination.
Graduates with the bachelor’s degree gen­
erally begin their careers in government or
industry by analyzing or testing products,
working in technical sales or service, or as­
sisting senior chemists in research and devel­
opment laboratories. Some employers have
training and orientation programs which pro­
vide special knowledge needed for the em­
ployer’s type of work. Candidates for an
advanced degree often teach or do research in
colleges and universities while working to­
ward their degrees.
Beginning chemists with the master’s de­
gree can usually go into applied research in
government or private industry. They also
may qualify for teaching positions in 2-year
colleges and some 4-year colleges.
The Ph.D. generally is required for basic
research, for teaching in colleges and univer­
sities, and for advancement to many adminis­
trative positions.

from increased demand for chemists, many
openings will result each year as chemists
transfer to other occupations, retire, or die.
This outlook for chemists is based on the
assumption that research and development
expenditures of government and industry will
increase through the 1980’s at a faster rate
than during the 1970’s. If actual expenditures
differ significantly from those assumed, the
outlook for chemists would be altered.
The majority of job openings are expected
to be in private industry, primarily in the
development of new products. In addition,
industrial companies and government agen­
cies will need more chemists to help solve
problems related to energy shortages, pollu­
tion control, and health care.
Little growth in college and university em­
ployment is expected. (See statement on col­
lege and university teachers elsewhere in the
Some graduates of baccalaureate programs
will find openings in high school teaching
after completing professional education
courses and other requirements for a State
teaching certificate. They usually are then
regarded as teachers rather than chemists.
Others may qualify as chemical or other
types of engineers, especially if they have
taken some courses in engineering. (See
statements on secondary school teachers and
engineers elsewhere in the Handbook.)

According to the College Placement
Council, chemists with the bachelor’s degree
were offered starting salaries averaging
$19,600 a year in 1981; those with the mas­
ter’s degree, $23,600; and those with the
Ph.D., $29,800.
According to the American Chemical So­
ciety, salaries of experienced chemists having
a bachelor’s degree averaged $27,500 a year
in 1981; for those with a master’s degree,
$30,000; and for those with a Ph.D.,
$35,000. In colleges and universities, the
average salary of those with the master’s de­
gree was $21,400 and of those with the
Ph.D., $26,200. Many chemists in educa­
tional institutions supplement their salaries
with income from consulting, lecturing, and
Depending on a person’s college record,
the annual starting salary in the Federal Gov­
ernment in early 1981 for an inexperienced
chemist with a bachelor’s degree was either
$12,266 or $15,193. Those who had 2 years
of graduate study could begin at $18,585 a
year. Chemists having the Ph.D. degree
could start at $22,486 or $26,951. The aver­
age salary for all chemists in the Federal
Government in 1980 was $29,700 a year.

Job Outlook

Related Occupations

Employment opportunities in chemistry are
expected to be good for graduates at all de­
gree levels through the 1980’s. The employ­
ment of chemists is expected to grow about
as fast as the average for all occupations
during this period. In addition to jobs arising

The occupations of chemical engineers,
occupational safety and health workers, agri­
cultural and biological scientists, food tech­
nologists, and chemical technicians are
closely related to chemistry. Many manufac­
turers’ sales representatives and wholesale

trade sales workers in chemical marketing
have backgrounds in chemistry, as do many
technical writers. Other physical science and
environmental science occupations are also
related to chemistry.

Sources of Additional Information
General information on career opportuni­
ties and earnings for chemists is available
American Chemical Society, 1155 16th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

Information on Federal job opportunities is
available from local offices of State employ­
ment services and the U.S. Office of Person­
nel Management, and from Federal Job
Information Centers located in various large
cities throughout the country.

(D .O .T . 029.067 and .167-010; and 090.227-010)

Nature of the Work
Geographers do research on a wide range
of social, economic, and environmental is­
sues. They study the distribution and location
of various characteristics of the earth’s sur­
face. Such studies help to explain changing
patterns of human settlement—where people
live, why they are located there, and how
they earn a living.
Geographers are involved in a variety of
activities. Most are primarily researchers or
analysts. They prepare reports and recom­
mendations and may work for consulting
firms, research organizations, business and
industrial firms, or government agencies.
Some geographers use their specialized
knowledge and research skills in planning or
administrative jobs in such fields as econom­
ic development or environmental resource
management. Others are college or university
teachers and, like other faculty members, do
research and consulting in addition to teach­
ing. (For more information, see the statement
on college and university faculty elsewhere in
the Handbook.)
Depending on their training and field of
interest—or on a client’s needs—a geogra­
pher might examine the distribution of landforms; study variations in climate, soils, or
vegetation; or analyze such resources as wa­
ter and minerals. Geographers are also con­
cerned with human resources, and frequently
their research overlaps that of social science
disciplines. Thus, a geographer might study
political organizations, transportation sys­
tems, marketing systems, patterns of industri­
al development, housing, or public health.
Research techniques depend on the topic
under study. However, field study, including
interviews and the use of surveying and me­
teorological instruments, is a standard tech­
nique. In addition, geographers analyze
maps, aerial photographs, and data transmit­
ted by satellites. Most geographers construct

78/Occupational Outlook Handbook

maps, graphs, and diagrams in the course of
their research. Geographers typically make
use of advanced statistical techniques and
mathematical models—and, frequently, a
computer—when they analyze or map the
data they have obtained.
Geographers specialize, as a rule. Eco­
nomic geographers deal with the geographic
distribution of an area’s economic activities—
manufacturing, mining, forestry, agriculture,
trade, and communications. Their research
might be used, for example, to determine the
costs and benefits of putting resources to use
in a particular way. Many economic geog­
raphers work for private firms, evaluating
and selecting the best locations for industrial
Political geographers study the relation­
ship of geography to politics. They define
and describe the political boundaries of

cities, counties, and administrative subdivi­
sions, as well as offshore areas.
Urban geographers study cities and met­
ropolitan regions. They provide background
information and make recommendations in
such areas as community development,
housing, transportation, and industrial
Physical geographers focus on the phys­
ical characteristics of the earth. They study
the earth’s water systems, vegetation pat­
terns, wildlife distribution, and climates.
They also study the effect of physical charac­
teristics on navigation and other activities.
Typically, they specialize in a particular
branch of physical geography such as geo­
morphology—the study of landforms—or hy­
drology—the study of water. Geographers
specializing in climatology use atmospheric
data to describe overall climatic conditions

Digitized forCartographers use data from satellite sensors to make maps.

and to do research into the causes of climatic
change. They may determine the significance
of climatic conditions for defense, conserva­
tion, agriculture, health, transportation, mar­
keting, and other activities.
Regional geographers study the physical,
climatic, economic, political, and cultural
characteristics of a particular region or area,
which may range in size from a river basin
to a State, a country, or even a continent.
In addition to an understanding of the geog­
raphy of a region, some knowledge of its
history, customs, and languages may be
Cartographers compile and interpret data
and design and construct maps and charts.
They also conduct research in surveying and
mapping techniques and procedures. Cartog­
raphers increasingly use computers in their
Medical geographers study the effect of
the environment on health and take into ac­
count such factors as climate, vegetation,
mineral traces in water, and atmospheric pol­
lution. They work with public health offi­
cials, biostatisticians, and others to determine
how our health is influenced by our physical
surroundings—including access to health-care
Geographers may specialize even further
in the subfields of agricultural geography,
biogeography, conservation, cultural geogra­
phy, geographical methods and techniques,
historical geography, location analysis, satel­
lite data interpretation, population geogra­
phy, rural geography, social geography, and

Working Conditions
Geographers working for government agen­
cies and private firms often work regular 40hour weeks. They often work alone behind a
desk or a drafting table, reading and writing
reports on their research or constructing maps
and charts. Many experience the pressures of
deadlines and tight schedules and sometimes
must work overtime. Their routine may be
interrupted by telephone calls, letters, special
requests for information, meetings, or confer­
ences. Geographers employed by colleges and
universities, on the other hand, have much
more flexible work schedules, dividing their
time among teaching, research, and adminis­
trative responsibilities.
Increasingly, geographers are an integral
part of a research team in the field. Physical
stamina is important for these geographers
because field work requires traveling to re­
mote areas, and working long hours under
severe weather conditions. Adaptability is
also needed to adjust to different cultural

An estimated 15,000 persons worked as
geographers in 1980. About two-fifths of all
geographers work for private industry as re­
searchers and planners; often, they specialize
in location analysis. Geographers work for

Natural Scientists and Mathematicians/79

textbook and map publishers, travel agencies,
manufacturing firms, real estate development
corporations, insurance companies, commu­
nications and transportation firms, and chainstores. Some work for scientific foundations
and research organizations or run their own
research or consulting business. Colleges and
universities employ over one-third of all
The Federal Government employs several
thousand cartographers and several hundred
geographers, primarily in the Departments of
Defense and Interior. Geographers employed
by State and local governments work mostly
in the fields of urban and regional planning,
economic development, and community

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
The minimum educational requirement for
beginning positions in geography in govern­
ment, industry, or secondary schools usually
is a bachelor’s degree with a major in the
field. However, a master’s degree increasing­
ly is required for many entry level positions.
Training in a specialty such as cartography,
photogrammetry, satellite data interpretation,
statistical analysis including computer sci­
ence, or environmental analysis is helpful.
A master’s degree is the minimum require­
ment for junior college positions and is im­
portant for advancement in business and
government. A Ph.D. is required for most
permanent teaching positions. The doctoral
degree and a record of significant published
research are required for a professorship and
are necessary to gain tenure. The doctoral
degree also is necessary for many senior lev­
el planning, research, and administrative po­
sitions in government, industry, research
organizations, and consulting firms.
In the Federal Government, geographers
generally must have a college degree with a
minimum of 24 semester hours in geography
or related fields. Cartographers need a col­
lege degree including at least 18 hours in one
or a combination of the following: Cartog­
raphy, photogrammetry, geodesy, or plane
surveying. However, because competition for
Federal jobs is keen, additional education or
experience may be required.
About 340 colleges and universities of­
fered programs in geography in 1980. Some
departments of geography are combined with
other disciplines such as urban planning or
geology. To further illustrate the interdisci­
plinary nature of the field, courses in satellite
data intepretation and photogrammetry often
are offered not only in departments of geog­
raphy but in geology, forestry, or engineering
departments as well. Undergraduate study
provides a general introduction to the field of
geography and often includes field study.
Research methods and writing skills also are
taught. Typical courses offered are physical
geography, cultural geography, climatology
and meteorology, economic geography,

medical geography, political geography, ur­
ban geography, and quantitative methods in
geography. Courses in cartography, historical
geography, ecology, natural resource plan­
ning, social geography, geography of trans­
portation, geographic aspects of pollution,
and geography of various regions also are
offered. Geography majors should take ap­
propriate electives in other departments. For
example, courses in economics, architecture,
urban planning, and urban and rural sociolo­
gy are important for planners; courses in
drawing, design, computer science, and
mathematics are important for cartographers;
and courses in physics, botany, and geology
are important for physical geographers.
In 1980, about 150 institutions offered
master’s degree programs; 58 offered Ph.D.
programs. Applicants for advanced degrees
are required to have a bachelor’s degree in
one of the social or physical sciences with a
substantial background in geography. The
program of graduate study includes field and
laboratory work as well as course work in
geography and a thesis. Graduate schools
also require course work in advanced math­
ematics, statistics, and computer science be­
cause of the increasing importance of
quantitative research methods. A language
may be required, especially for those students
who plan to specialize in foreign regional
geography. In recognition of the increasing
importance of applied research, academic
programs are putting more emphasis on pre­
paring individuals to apply their knowledge
to the solution of practical problems.
Students should select graduate schools
that offer appropriate areas of specialization
and good research opportunities in nearby
libraries, archives, laboratories, and field sta­
tions. Internships or part-time employment for
graduate students often may be available in
government agencies or research, scientif­
ic, or industrial firms.
Persons who want to become geographers
should enjoy reading, studying, and doing
research because they must keep abreast of
developments in the field. Creativity and in­
tellectual curiosity are important, because
geographers work with abstract ideas and the­
ories in addition to doing practical studies.
Patience and persistence help, because geog­
raphers spend long hours on independent
study and problem solving. They also must
be objective and systematic in their work.
The ability to communicate ideas effectively,
both orally and in writing, is important in
this field, as it is in any research-oriented
job. The ability to work well with others is
often important. Cartographers, who handle
drafting tools, need good vision, manual dex­
terity, and the ability to do detailed work
requiring a high degree of precision.

Job Outlook
Employment of geographers is expected to
grow about as fast as the average for all
occupations through the 1980’s. Most open­
ings are likely to result from deaths, retire­

ments, and other separations from the labor
Demand for geographers will be greatest in
urban and environmental management and
planning, including such areas as location
analysis, land and water resources planning,
and health planning. Those with strong back­
grounds in urban, economic, and physical
geography and in quantitative research and
computer-related techniques should be in par­
ticular demand. Significant demand also is
expected for graduates with knowledge of
satellite data interpretation, photogrammetry,
and cartography. Private industry is expected
to hire more geographers for market research
and location analysis. The Federal Govern­
ment may need additional personnel to work
in programs such as health planning, regional
development, environmental quality, and in­
telligence. Employment of geographers in
State and local government is expected to
expand, particularly in health planning; con­
servation; environmental quality; highway
planning; and city, community, and regional
planning and development. Since college and
university enrollments are expected to decline
during the 1980’s, little or no employment
growth is expected in academic jobs.
The employment outlook for geographers
with the Ph.D. is expected to be favorable
through the 1980’s for research and adminis­
trative positions in government, industry, re­
search organizations, and environmental and
other consulting firms. Ph.D.’s face competi­
tion for academic positions, although those
graduating from high-ranking universities
may have an advantage. Persons qualified to
teach quantitative research techniques, com­
puter mapping, or natural resources manage­
ment will have the best opportunities. Those
with the master’s degree will have very few
opportunities for academic positions, al­
though some may continue to find jobs in
junior and community colleges. Some gradu­
ates are likely to accept temporary assign­
ments with little or no hope of acquiring
An increasing proportion of geographers
are expected to enter nonacademic positions.
Graduates with a master’s degree who have
training in applied areas should have good
opportunities for planning and marketing po­
sitions in government and industry; others
may face competition.
Graduates with a bachelor’s degree are ex­
pected to face strong competition for jobs as
geographers. Those with quantitative skills
and training in cartography, satellite data in­
terpretation, or planning should have the best
prospects. Many of these degree holders may
find employment in government and industry
as management or sales trainees, research
assistants, or administrative assistants. Oth­
ers may land jobs as research or teaching
assistants in educational institutions while
studying for advanced degrees. Some bache­
lor’s degree holders teach at the high school
level, although in some States the master’s
degree is becoming essential for high school

80/Occupational Outlook Handbook

According to an Association of American
Geographers survey, starting salaries for
Ph.D.’s with no teaching experience aver­
aged around $17,000 for the academic year
1980-81, while the average salary of geog­
raphers employed in colleges and universities
was about $26,000. Salaries of geographers
in planning positions in business and industry
are comparable to those in the Federal Gov­
Geographers in educational institutions
usually have an opportunity to earn income
from other sources, such as consulting work,
special research, and publication of books
and articles.
The Federal Government recognizes edu­
cation and experience in certifying applicants
for entry level position. In general, geog­
raphers in the Federal Government with the
bachelor’s degree and no experience started at
about $12,300 or $15,200 a year in early
1981, depending on their college achieve­
ment. Those with a master’s degree started at
$18,600 a year, and those with the Ph.D.
started at $22,500. Geographers in the Feder­
al Government averaged around $26,900 a
year in 1980; cartographers averaged around

Related Occupations
Formal training in geography provides the
background for a wide range of jobs requiring
expertise in environmental resources, regional
planning, and social science research. Exam­
ples of such jobs are aerial photo interpreter,
climatologist, community development spe­
cialist, ecologist, intelligence analyst, map
analyst, land economist, marketing analyst,
regional planner, research analyst, site re­
searcher, and transportation planner. Jobs
such as these generally require knowledge not
only of geography, but of other disciplines as
well. Particularly useful are combinations of
geography with economics, political science,
sociology, anthropology, geology, or urban
and regional planning.

Sources of Additional Information
For additional information on careers and
job openings for geographers, and on schools
offering various programs in geography, con­
Association of American Geographers, 1710 16th
St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20009.

For additional information on careers in
cartography, surveying, and geodesy, con­
American Congress on Surveying and Mapping,
210 Little Falls St., Falls Church, Va. 22046.

For more information on careers and a list
of schools that offer courses in photogrammetry and satellite data interpretation, con­
American Society of Photogrammetry, 105 North
Digitized forVirginia Ave., Falls Church, Va. 22046.

(D .O .T. 024.061-010, -018, -022, -034, -038, -042,
-046, -054; and .161-010)

Nature of the Work
Geologists study the structure, composi­
tion, and history of the earth’s crust. By
examining surface rocks and drilling to re­
cover rock cores, they determine the types
and distribution of rocks beneath the earth’s
surface. They also identify rocks and miner­
als, conduct geological surveys, draw maps,
take measurements, and record data. Geo­
logical research helps to determine the struc­
ture and history of the earth and may assist in
predicting future geological events, such as
earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. An im­
portant application of geologists’ work is lo­
cating oil and other minerals.
Geologists use many tools and instruments
such as hammers, chisels, levels, transits
(mounted telescopes used to measure angles),
gravity meters, cameras, compasses, and
seismographs (instruments that record the in­
tensity and duration of earthquakes and earth
tremors). They may evaluate information
from photographs taken from aircraft and sat­
ellites and use computers to record and ana­
lyze data.
Geologists also examine chemical and
physical properties of specimens in laborato­
ries under controlled temperature and pres­
sure. They may study fossil remains of
animal and plant life or experiment with the
flow of water and oil through rocks. Labora­
tory equipment used by geologists includes
complex instruments, such as the X-ray dif­
fractometer, which determines the structure
of minerals, and the petrographic micro­
scope, used for close study of rock forma­
Besides locating resources and working in
laboratories, geologists also advise construc­
tion companies and governmental agencies
on the suitability of certain locations for con­
structing buildings, dams, or highways.
Some geologists administer and manage re­
search and exploration programs. Others
teach and work on research projects in col­
leges and universities.
Geologists usually specialize in one or a
combination of three general areas—earth
materials, earth processes, and earth history.
Economic geologists locate earth materials
such as minerals and solid fuels. Petroleum
geologists attempt to locate oil and natural
gas deposits below the earth’s surface. Some
petroleum geologists work on specific drill­
ing projects, while others develop petroleumrelated geologic information for entire
regions. Marine geologists do research on
the contours and deposits of the ocean bot­
tom, study heat flow on the ocean floor, and
investigate ocean basins for petroleum and
mineral potential. Engineering geologists de­
termine suitable sites for the construction of
roads, airfields, tunnels, dams, and other

structures. They decide, for example, wheth­
er underground rocks will bear the weight of
a building or whether a proposed structure
may be in an earthquake-prone area. Miner­
alogists analyze and classify minerals and
precious stones according to composition and
structure. Geochemists study the chemical
composition and changes in minerals and
rocks to understand the distribution and mi­
gration of elements in the earth’s crust.
Geologists concerned with earth processes
study landforms and their rock masses, sedi­
mentary deposits (matter deposited by water
or wind), and eruptive forces, such as volca­
noes. Volcanologists study active and inac­
tive volcanoes, lava flows, and other eruptive
activity to try to predict their occurrence and
minimize potential damage. Geomorpholo­
gists examine landforms and those forces,
such as erosion and glaciation, which cause
them to change.
Other geologists are primarily concerned
with earth history. Paleontologists study
plant and animal fossils found in geological
formations to trace the evolution and devel­
opment of past life. Geochronologists deter­
mine the age of rocks and landforms by the
radioactive decay of their elements. Stratigraphers study the distribution and arrange­
ment of sedim entary rock layers by
examining their fossil and mineral content.
Many geologists specialize in new fields
that require knowledge of another science as
well. Astrogeologists study geological condi­
tions on other planets. Geological oceanogra­
phers study the sedimentary and other rock
on the ocean floor and continental shelf. (See
statement on oceanographers elsewhere in the

Working Conditions
Because most geologists divide their time
between fieldwork and office or laboratory
work, conditions of work vary. While in the
field, geologists often travel to remote sites
by helicopter or jeep and cover large areas by
foot, often working in teams. Geologists in
mining sometimes work underground. Explo­
ration geologists often work overseas. When
not working outdoors, geologists are in com­
fortable, well-lighted, well-ventilated offices
and laboratories.

An estimated 34,000 people worked as
geologists in 1980. Most geologists work in
private industry, primarily for petroleum
companies. Geologists also work for mining
and quarrying companies. Some are em­
ployed by construction firms. Others are in­
dependent consultants to industry and
The Federal Government employed over
2,400 geologists in 1980. About two-thirds
worked for the Department of the Interior in
the U.S. Geological Survey, the Bureau of
Mines, and the Bureau of Reclamation. Oth­
er Federal agencies that employ geologists
include the Departments of Defense, Agri­
culture, and Energy. State agencies also em­

Natural Scientists and Mathematicians/81

ploy geologists, some working on surveys in
cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey.
Geologists also work for colleges and universi­
ties, nonprofit research institutions, and muse­
ums. Some are employed by American firms
overseas for varying periods of time.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A bachelor’s degree in geology or a related
field is adequate for entry into some geology
jobs. An advanced degree is helpful for promo­
tion in most types of work and is essential for
college teaching and many research positions.
Nearly 450 colleges and universities offer
a bachelor’s degree in geology. Undergrad­
uate students take geology courses, including
physical, structural, and historical geology,
mineralogy, petrology, and invertebrate pale­
ontology; and courses in mathematics, engi­
neering, and related sciences, such as physics
and chemistry.
More than 220 universities award ad­
vanced degrees in geology. Graduate stu­
dents take advanced courses in geology and
specialize in one branch of the science.
Geologists often work as part of a team.
They should be curious, analytical, and able
to communicate effectively. Those involved
in fieldwork must have physical stamina.
Geologists usually begin their careers in
field exploration or as research assistants in
laboratories. With experience, they can be
promoted to project leader, program man­
ager, or other management and research posi­

Job Outlook
Employment opportunities in geology are
expected to be good for those with degrees in
geology. The employment of geologists is
expected to grow faster than the average for
all occupations through the 1980’s. In addi­
tion to new jobs created by increased demand
for geologists, many openings will arise each
year as geologists leave the occupation, re­
tire, or die.
Increased prices for petroleum and the ne­
cessity to locate new sources of energy as
older sources become exhausted will continue
to stimulate domestic exploration activities
and require many additional geologists. Ad­
ditional geologists also will be needed to
discover new resources and their potential
uses, including the feasibility of using geo­
thermal energy (steam from the earth’s interi­
or) to generate electricity. Geologists are
needed to devise techniques for exploring
deeper within the earth’s crust and to develop
more efficient methods of mining resources.
They also are needed to develop adequate
water supplies and waste disposal methods,
and to do site evaluation for construction
Federal agencies may hire more geologists
over the next decade. Through the 1980’s,
jobs will depend heavily on the amount of
Federal support provided for energy research
and exploration for natural resources.


Related Occupations

According to surveys done by the College
Placement Council in 1980, graduates with
bachelor’s degrees in physical and earth sci­
ences received average starting offers of
$20,600 a year. Graduates with master’s de­
grees in geology and related geological sci­
ences received average starting offers of
$24,600 per year.

Many geologists work in the petroleum
and natural gas industry. This industry also
employs many other workers who are in­
volved in the scientific and technical aspects
of petroleum and natural gas exploration and
extraction, including drafters, engineering
technicians, geophysicists, laboratory assis­
tants (petroleum production), petroleum engi­
neers, and surveyors.

In the Federal Government in early 1981,
geologists having a bachelor’s degree could
begin at $12,300 or $15,200 a year, depend­
ing on their college records. Those having a
master’s degree could start at $15,200 or
$18,600 a year; those having the Ph.D. de­
gree, at $22,500 or $27,000. In 1980, the
average salary for geologists employed in the
Federal Government was about $30,000 a

Sources of Additional Information
General information on training and career
opportunities for geologists is available from:
American Geological Institute, 5202 Leesburg
Pike, Falls Church, Va. 22041.

For information on Federal Government
careers, contact:
U.S. Office of Personnel Management, 1900 E St.
NW„ Washington, D.C. 20415.

82/Occupational Outlook Handbook

(D.O.T. 024.061-014, -026, -030, -050; and .167-010)

Nature of the Work
Geophysicists study the composition and
physical aspects of the earth and its electric,
magnetic, and gravitational fields. Geophysi­
cists use highly complex instruments such as
the magnetometer, which measures variations
in the earth’s magnetic field, and the gravi­
meter, which measures minute variations in
gravitational attraction. They often use satel­
lites to conduct tests from outer space and
computers to collect and analyze data.
Geophysicists usually specialize in 1 of 3
general phases of the science—solid earth,
fluid earth, and upper atmosphere. Some may
also study other planets.
Solid earth geophysicists search for oil and
mineral deposits, map the earth’s surface, and
study earthquakes. Exploration geophysicists
use seismic prospecting techniques to locate
oil and mineral deposits. They send sound
waves into the earth and record the echoes
bouncing off the rock layers below to deter­
mine if conditions are favorable for the accu­
mulation of oil.
Seismologists study and interpret seismic
data to locate earthquakes and earthquake

faults. They explore for oil and minerals,
study the effects of underground nuclear ex­
plosions, and provide information for con­
structing bridges, dams, and buildings. For
example, in selecting a site for a dam, seis­
mologists determine where bedrock (solid
rock beneath the soil) is closest to the sur­
face. They use explosives or other methods
to create sound waves that reflect off bed­
rock; the time it takes for the shock wave to
return to the surface indicates the depth of
bedrock. Seismologists also seek to under­
stand the causes of earthquakes so that one
day they might be predicted.
Geodesists study the size, shape, and
gravitational field of the earth and other plan­
ets. Their principal task is to make the pre­
cise measurements necessary for accurate
mapping of the earth’s surface. With the aid
of satellites, geodesists determine the posi­
tions, elevations, and distances between
points on the earth, and measure the intensity
and direction of gravitational attraction.
Hydrologists study the distribution, circu­
lation, and physical properties of under­
ground and surface waters, including rivers,
glaciers, snow, and permafrost. They may
study the form and intensity of precipitation,
its rate of infiltration into soil, and its return
to the ocean and atmosphere. Some are con­
cerned with water supplies, irrigation, flood
control, and soil erosion. (See the statement
on oceanographers, sometimes classified as

geophysical scientists, elsewhere in the
Geophysicists also study the atmosphere,
investigate the earth’s magnetic and electric
fields, and compare its outer atmosphere with
those of other planets. Geomagneticians
study the earth’s magnetic field. Paleomagneticians learn about past magnetic fields from
rocks or lava flows. Planetologists study the
composition and atmosphere of the moon,
planets, and other bodies in the solar system.
They gather data from geophysical instru­
ments placed on interplanetary space probes
or from equipment used by astronauts during
the Apollo missions. Meteorologists some­
times are classified as geophysical scientists.
(See the statement on meteorologists else­
where in the Handbook.)

Working Conditions
Because many geophysicists divide their
time between fieldwork and laboratory or
office work, conditions of work vary. While
doing fieldwork, they may travel for ex­
tended periods of time, sometimes overseas,
and may conduct research in remote areas or
aboard ships or aircraft. When not in the
field, geophysicists work in modem, wellequipped, well-lighted laboratories and

An estimated 12,000 people worked as
geophysicists in 1980. Most geophysicists
work in private industry, chiefly for petrole­
um and natural gas companies. Others are in
mining companies, exploration and consult­
ing firms, and research institutes. A few are
independent consultants and some do geo­
physical prospecting on a fee or contract
About 2,800 geophysicists, geodesists,
and hydrologists worked for Federal Gov­
ernment agencies in 1980, mainly the U.S.
Geological Survey, the National Oceanic
and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),
and the Department of Defense. Other geo­
physicists work for colleges and universities,
State governments, and nonprofit research

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Many geophysicists work for petroleum and natural gas companies.

A bachelor’s degree in geophysics or a
geophysical specialty is sufficient for most
beginning jobs in geophysics. A bachelor’s
degree in a related field of science or engi­
neering also is adequate preparation, if the
person has courses in geophysics, physics,
geology, mathematics, chemistry, and
Geophysicists doing research or supervis­
ing exploration activities should have grad­
uate training in geophysics or a related
science. Those planning to teach in colleges
or do basic research should acquire a Ph.D.
About 75 colleges and universities award
the bachelor’s degree in geophysics. Other
programs offering training for beginning geo­

Natural Scientists and Mathematicians/83

physicists include geophysical technology,
geophysical engineering, engineering geolo­
gy, petroleum geology, and geodesy.
About 70 universities grant the master’s
degree in geophysics; about 50 schools offer
the Ph.D. degree. Candidates with a bache­
lor’s degree which includes courses in geolo­
gy, mathematics, physics, engineering, or a
combination of these subjects can be ad­
mitted to these programs.
Geophysicists often work as part of a
team. They should be curious, analytical,
and able to communicate effectively. Those
involved in fieldwork must have physical
Most new geophysicists begin their careers
doing field mapping or exploration. Some
assist senior geophysicists in research labora­
tories. With experience, geophysicists can
advance to jobs such as project leader or
program manager, or other management and
research jobs.

Related Occupations

Job Outlook


Employment opportunities are expected to
be good for graduates with a degree in geo­
physics or a related field. Employment of
geophysicists is expected to grow faster than
the average for all occupations through the
1980’s as petroleum and mining companies
seek to employ more sophisticated techniques
to find less accessible fuel and mineral de­
posits. Also, growth is expected as research
activities expand on ways to productively
harness cosmic and solar radiation as well as
use geothermal power (steam from the earth’s
interior) to generate electricity.
Federal agencies may hire more geophysi­
cists over the next decade. Through the
1980’s, jobs will depend heavily on govern­
ment support for energy research in both
established and alternative sources. The Fed­
eral Government also may fund research to
locate more natural resources and to prevent
environmental damage through better land
Besides job openings created by growth in
demand for geophysicists, many will be
needed to replace those who leave the occu­
pation, retire, or die.

Geophysicists use basic scientific princi­
ples to investigate the nature and composition
of the earth. Other scientists engaged in simi­
lar activities are chemists, geologists, meteo­
rologists, and oceanographers.

Sources of Additional Information
General information on career opportuni­
ties and training for geophysicists is available
American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Ave.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20009.
Society of Exploration Geophysicists, P.O. Box
3098, Tulsa, Okla. 74101.

For information on Federal Government
careers, contact:
U.S. Office of Personnel Management, 1900 E St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20415.

(D .O .T . 025.062-010)

Nature of the Work
Meteorology is the study of the atmo­
sphere, which is the air that surrounds the
earth. Meteorologists try to understand the
atmosphere’s physical characteristics, mo­
tions, and processes, and determine the way
the atmosphere affects the rest of our envi­
ronment. The best known application of this
knowledge is in understanding and forecast­
ing the weather. Meteorological research also
is applied in many other areas, such as air
pollution control, fire prevention, agriculture,
air and sea transportation, and studying
trends in the earth’s climate.
Meteorologists who specialize in forecast­

ing the weather, known professionally as
operational meteorologists, are the largest
group of specialists. They study current
weather information, such as air pressure,
temperature, humidity, and wind velocity, in
order to make short-range and long-range
predictions. Their data come from weather
satellites and observers in many parts of the
world. Although some forecasters still pre­
pare and analyze weather maps, most data
now are plotted and analyzed by computers.
Some meteorologists are engaged in basic
and applied research. For example, physical
meteorologists study the chemical and elec­
trical properties of the atmosphere. They do
research on the effect of the atmosphere on
transmission of light, sound, and radio
waves, as well as study factors affecting
formation of clouds, rain, snow, and other
weather phenomena. Other meteorologists,
known as climatologists, study trends in cli­
mate and analyze past records on wind,
rainfall, sunshine, and temperature to deter­
mine the general pattern of weather that
makes up an area’s climate. These studies
are used to plan heating and cooling sys­
tems, design buildings, and aid in effective
land utilization.
Some meteorologists teach or do re­
search—frequently combining both activi­
ties—in colleges and universities. In colleges
without separate departments of meteorology,
they may teach related courses, such as geog­
raphy, mathematics, physics, chemistry, or
geology, as well as meteorology.

Working Conditions
Jobs in weather stations, which operate
around the clock 7 days a week, often in­
volve night work and rotating shifts. Most
stations are at airports or in or near cities;
some are in isolated and remote areas. Me-

According to surveys done by the College
Placement Council in 1980, graduates with
bachelor’s degrees in physical and earth sci­
ences received average starting offers of
about $20,600 a year. Graduates with mas­
ter’s degrees in geology and related geologi­
cal sciences received average starting offers
of about $24,600 a year.
In the Federal Government in early 1981,
geophysicists having a bachelor’s degree
could begin at $12,300 or $15,200 a year,
depending on their college records. Geo­
physicists having a master’s degree could
start at $15,200 or $18,600 a year; those
having a Ph.D. degree, at $22,500 or
$27,000. In 1980, the average salary for geo­
physicists employed by the Federal Govern­
ment was about $31,300 a year.

Meteorologist uses automated equipment to observe weather.

84/Occupational Outlook Handbook

teorologists in smaller weather stations gener­
ally work alone; in larger ones, they work as
part of a team.

An estimated 4,000 persons worked as me­
teorologists in 1980. In addition to civilian
meteorologists, thousands of members of the
Armed Forces did forecasting and other me­
teorological work.
The largest employer of civilian meteor­
ologists was the National Oceanic and Atmo­
spheric Administration (NO A A), where
about 1,800 worked at stations in all parts of
the United States and in a small number of
foreign areas. The Department of Defense
employed about 200 civilian meteorologists.
A few worked for State and local govern­
ments and for nonprofit organizations.
Commercial airlines employed meteorolo­
gists to forecast weather along flight routes
and to brief pilots on atmospheric conditions.
Others worked for private weather consulting
firms, companies that design and manufac­
ture meteorological instruments, and firms in
aerospace, engineering, utilities, radio and
television, and other industries.
Colleges and universities employed over
1,300 meteorologists in research and teach­

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A bachelor’s degree with a major in me­
teorology is the usual minimum requirement
for beginning jobs in weather forecasting.
However, a bachelor’s degree in a related
science or engineering, along with some
courses in meteorology, is acceptable for
some jobs. For example, the Federal Gov­
ernment’s minimum requirement for begin­
ning jobs is a bachelor’s degree with at least
20 semester hours of study in meteorology
and courses in physics and mathematics, in­
cluding calculus. However, employers prefer
to hire those with an advanced degree, and
an advanced degree is increasingly necessary
for promotion.
For research and college teaching and for
many top level positions in other meteoro­
logical activities, an advanced degree, prefer­
ably in meteorology, is essential. However,
people with graduate degrees in other sci­
ences also may qualify if they have advanced
courses in meteorology, physics, mathemat­
ics, and chemistry.
In 1980, about 35 colleges and universities
offered a bachelor’s degree in meteorology or
atmospheric science; about 40 schools of­
fered advanced degrees. Many other institu­
tions offered some courses in meteorology.
Before selecting a degree program in meteo­
rology, students should investigate the par­
ticular emphasis of the program since many
meteorology programs are combined with the
study of a related scientific or engineering
The Armed Forces give and support mete­
orological training, both undergraduate edu­

cation for enlisted personnel and advanced
study for officers.
Beginning meteorologists often start in
jobs involving routine data collection, com­
putation, or analysis. Experienced meteorolo­
gists may advance in academic rank or to
various supervisory or administrative jobs. A
few very well qualified meteorologists with a
background in science, engineering, and
business administration may establish their
own weather consulting services.

For facts about job opportunities with the
NOAA National Weather Service, contact:
National Weather Service, Manpower Utilization
Staff, Gramax Bldg., 8060 13th St., Silver Spring,
Md. 20910.

(D .O .T . 024.061-018, -030, and 041.061-022)

Job Outlook
Employment of meteorologists is expected
to grow more slowly than the average for all
occupations through the 1980’s. The number
of applicants applying for jobs in this very
small occupation is likely to exceed the num­
ber of job openings generated by increased
demand for meteorologists and from the need
to replace those who change occupations,
retire, or die. Persons with an advanced de­
gree in meteorology should have the best job
Colleges and universities and the Federal
Government, the major employers of meteor­
ologists, are not expected to increase employ­
ment of meteorologists significantly during
the 1980’s. Employment of meteorologists in
private industry may grow as companies rec­
ognize the value of having their own weather
forecasting and meteorological services.
Since most meteorologists work for the
Federal Government and colleges and univer­
sities, changes in funding for Federal mete­
orological programs or for meteorological
research in academic institutions would influ­
ence the job outlook.

In early 1981, meteorologists in the Feder­
al Government with a bachelor’s degree and
no experience received starting salaries of
$12,300 or $15,200 a year, depending on
their college grades. Those with a master’s
degree could start at $15,200 or $18,600;
with the Ph.D. degree, at $22,500 or
$27,000. The average salary for meteorolo­
gists employed by the Federal Government
was $31,300 in 1980.
Meteorologists working in colleges and
universities generally receive the same sala­
ries as other faculty members. (See statement
on college and university faculty elsewhere in
the Handbook.)

Related Occupations
Workers in other occupations concerned
with the environment include forest ecolo­
gists, foresters, geologists, geophysicists,
oceanographers, range managers, and soil

Sources of Additional Information
Information on career opportunities and
schools that offer programs in meteorology is
available from:
American Meteorological Society, 45 Beacon St.,
Boston, Mass. 02108.

Nature of the Work
Oceans cover more than two-thirds of the
earth’s surface and are a valuable source of
food, fossil fuels, and minerals. They also
influence the weather, serve as a “highway”
for transportation, and offer many kinds of
recreation. Oceanographers use the principles
and techniques of natural science, mathemat­
ics, and engineering to study oceans—their
movements, physical properties, and plant
and animal life. Their research not only ex­
tends basic scientific knowledge, but also
helps develop practical methods for forecast­
ing weather, developing fisheries, mining
ocean resources, and improving national de­
Most oceanographers test their ideas about
the ocean by making observations and con­
ducting experiments at sea. They may study
and collect data on ocean tides, currents, and
other phenomena. They may study undersea
mountain ranges and valleys, oceanic interac­
tions with the atmosphere, and layers of sedi­
ment on and beneath the ocean floor.
Many oceanographers work primarily in
laboratories on land where, for example, they
measure, dissect, and photograph fish. They
also study sea specimens and plankton (float­
ing microscopic plants and animals). Much
of their work entails identifying, cataloging,
and analyzing different kinds of sea life and
minerals. At other laboratories, oceanogra­
phers plot maps or use computers to test
theories about the ocean. For example, they
may study and test the theory of continental
drift, which states that the continents were
once joined together, have drifted to new
positions, and continue to drift, causing the
sea floor to spread in places. To present the
results of their studies, oceanographers pre­
pare charts, tabulations, and reports, and
write papers for scientific journals.
Oceanographers use surface ships, aircraft,
satellites, and various types of underwater
craft to explore and study the ocean. They
use specialized instruments to measure and
record the findings of their explorations and
studies; special cameras equipped with strong
lights to photograph marine life and the
ocean floor; and sounding devices to mea­
sure, map, and locate ocean materials. Re­
search facilities equipped with large water
tanks enable some oceanographers to simu­
late and study oceanic phenomena such as
waves and tides.
Most oceanographers specialize in one
branch of the science. Biological oceanogra-

Natural Scientists and Mathematicians/85

phers study plant and animal life in the
ocean. The biological oceanographer’s re­
search has practical applications in improving
and controlling commercial and sport fishing
and in determining the effects of pollution on
marine life. Physical oceanographers study
the physical properties of the ocean such as
waves, tides, and currents. Their research on
the relationships between the sea and the
atmosphere may lead to more accurate pre­
diction of the weather. Geological oceanog­
raphers study the ocean’s underwater
mountain ranges, rocks, and sediments; some
use the knowledge obtained to find valuable
minerals, oil, and gas beneath the ocean
floor. Chemical oceanographers investigate
the chemical composition of ocean water and
sediments as well as chemical reactions in
the sea. Oceanographic engineers design and
build instruments for oceanographic research
and operations. They also lay cables and
supervise underwater construction.
Many other scientists also work on prob­
lems related to oceans, but are counted in
other scientific fields, such as biology, chem­
istry, or geology. Scientists who specialize in
the study of fresh water aquatic life are called

Working Conditions
When conducting research in land-based
laboratories, oceanographers work in clean
and comfortable surroundings. Research on
ocean expeditions requires oceanographers to
be away from home for weeks or months at a
time. Working and living areas on small re­
search ships are sometimes cramped. Some
oceanographers use scuba gear, submersible
craft, and other equipment to work under

An estimated 2,800 persons worked as
oceanographers in 1980. Over one-half
worked in colleges and universities, and
about one-fourth for the Federal Govern­
ment. Federal agencies employing substantial
numbers of oceanographers include the Navy
and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration (NOAA). Some oceanogra­
phers work in private industry; a few work
for fishery laboratories of State and local
Although some oceanographers are em­
ployed in almost every State, most work in
States that border on the ocean.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
The minimum requirement for beginning
jobs in oceanography is a bachelor’s degree
with a major in oceanography, biology, earth
or physical sciences, mathematics, or engi­
neering. However, most jobs, particularly in
research and teaching, require graduate train­
ing in oceanography or a related science. For
many high level positions, a doctoral degree
in oceanography or a related science is pre­
ferred, and sometimes required.
About 65 colleges and universities offered
undergraduate degrees in oceanography or

Oceanographer works on test equipment.

marine sciences in 1980. However, under­
graduate training in a basic science and a
strong interest in oceanography may be ade­
quate preparation for some beginning jobs
and is a good background for graduate train­
ing in oceanography.
College courses needed to prepare for grad­
uate study in oceanography include mathemat­
ics, physics, chemistry, geophysics, geology,
meteorology, and biology. In general, college
students who are not majoring in oceanogra­
phy should specialize in the particular science
that is closest to their area of oceanographic
interest. For example, students interested in
chemical oceanography should obtain a degree
in chemistry.
In 1980, about 55 colleges offered ad­
vanced degrees in oceanography and marine
sciences. In addition to advanced courses in
oceanography and basic sciences, graduate
programs are increasingly emphasizing train­
ing in specialized oceanographic research
Graduate students in oceanography usually
do research part time aboard ship to become
familiar with the sea and with techniques
used to obtain oceanographic information.
Universities having oceanographic research
facilities offer summer courses for both grad­
uate and undergraduate students.
Beginning oceanographers with the bache­
lor’s degree usually start as research or labo­
ratory assistants, or in jobs involving routine
data collection, computation, or analysis.
Depending on their background and needs,
most beginning oceanographers receive onthe-job training.
Experienced oceanographers often direct
surveys and research programs or advance to
administrative or supervisory jobs in research

Job Outlook
The number of persons seeking entry to
this small field is likely to exceed the number
of job openings created by increased demand
for oceanographers and the need to replace
those who transfer to other occupations, re­
tire, or die. In general, those with a Ph.D.
degree should have the best opportunities.
Persons holding a Ph.D. degree in oceanog­
raphy may have an advantage over those
holding a Ph.D. degree in a related field
because of their knowledge of specialized,
increasingly sophisticated oceanographic re­
search methods. Those with less education
may find limited opportunities as research
assistants or technicians.
Employment of oceanographers is expect­
ed to grow about as fast as the average for all
occupations through the 1980’s due to the
increasing need for ocean research to recover
offshore oil and other resources and to con­
trol pollution. Since the Federal Government
finances much oceanographic research, Fed­
eral funding in this field could greatly influ­
ence the job outlook.

In early 1981, oceanographers in the Fed­
eral Government with a bachelor’s degree
received starting salaries of $12,300 or
$15,200 a year, depending on their college
grades. Those with a master’s degree could
start at $18,600 or $22,500; and those with a
Ph.D. degree at $22,500 or $27,000. The
average salary for experienced oceanogra­
phers in the Federal Government in 1980
was about $29,800 a year.
Oceanographers in educational institutions
generally receive the same salaries as other
faculty members. (See statement on college
and university faculty elsewhere in the Hand­
book.) In addition to regular salaries, many

86/Occupational Outlook Handbook

earn extra income from consulting, lecturing,
and writing.

Related Occupations
Other occupations in which workers apply
mathematical and scientific laws and princi­
ples to specific problems and situations in­
clude astronomers, chemists, geographers,
geologists, geophysicists, life scientists,
mathematicians, meteorologists, and physi­

Sources of Additional Information
For information about careers in oceanog­
raphy, contact:
Dr. C. Schelske, Secretary, American Society of
Limnology and Oceanography, I.S.T. Bldg.,
Great Lakes Research Division, University of
Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 48109.

Federal Government career information is
available from any local office of the Federal
Job Information Center or from:
U.S. Office of Personnel Management, 1900 E St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20415.

The booklet, Training and Careers in Ma­
rine Science, is available for $1 from:
International Oceanographic Foundation, 3979
Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, Fla. 33149.

Some information on oceanographic spe­
cialties is available from professional soci­
eties listed elsewhere in the Handbook. (See
statements on geologists, geophysicists, life
scientists, meteorologists, and chemists.)


narrow, intense beam) are utilized in surgery;
microwave devices are used for ovens; and
measurement techniques and instruments can
detect and measure the kind and number of
cells in blood or the amount of mercury or
lead in foods.
Some engineering-oriented physicists do
applied research and help develop new prod­
ucts. For instance, their knowledge of solidstate physics led to the development of tran­
sistors and then to the integrated circuits used
in calculators and computers.
Many physicists teach and do research in
colleges and universities. A small number
work in inspection, testing, quality control,
and other production-related jobs in industry.
Some do consulting work.
Most physicists specialize in one or more
branches of the science—elementary-particle
physics; nuclear physics; atomic, electron, or
molecular physics; physics of condensed mat­
ter; optics; acoustics; plasma physics; and the
physics of fluids. Some specialize in a subdi­
vision of one of these branches. For exam­
ple, solid-state physics subdivisions include
ceramics, crystallography, and semiconduc­
tors. However, since all physics involves the
same fundamental principles, several special­
ties may overlap.
Growing numbers of physicists are special­
izing in fields such as astrophysics, biophys­
ics, chemical physics, and geophysics that
combine physics and a related science. Fur­
thermore, the practical applications of physi­
cists’ work increasingly have merged with

(D.O.T. 023.061-014, .067-010; 041.061-034; 079.021010, -014; and 090.227-010)

Working Conditions

Nature of the Work

Physicists generally work regular hours in
laboratories, classrooms, and offices. Most
physicists do not encounter unusual hazards
in their work.

The flight of astronauts through space, the
probing of ocean depths, and even the safety
of the family car depend on research by
physicists. Through systematic observation
and experimentation, physicists describe in
mathematical terms the structure of the uni­
verse and the interaction of matter and ener­
gy. Physicists develop theories that describe
the fundamental forces and laws of nature.
Determining the basic laws governing phe­
nomena such as gravity, electromagnetism,
and nuclear interactions leads to discoveries
and innovations. For instance, the develop­
ment of irradiation therapy equipment which
destroys harmful growths in humans without
damaging other tissues resulted from what
physicists know about nuclear radiation.
Physicists have contributed to scientific pro­
gress in recent years in areas such as nuclear
energy, electronics, communications, aero­
space, and medical instrumentation.
Most physicists work in research and de­
velopment. Some do basic research to in­
crease scientific knowledge. For example,
they investigate the structure of the atom or
the nature of gravity. The equipment that
physicists design for their research can often
be applied to other areas. For example, lasers
(devices that amplify light and emit it in a

Over 37,000 people worked as physicists
in 1980. Private industry employed about
one-half of all physicists, primarily in com­
panies manufacturing electrical equipment,
aircraft and missiles, and scientific instru­
ments. Many others worked in hospitals,
commercial laboratories, and independent re­
search organizations.
Almost one-half of all physicists taught or
did research in colleges and universities;
some did both. Almost 5,000 physicists were
employed by the Federal Government in
1980, mostly in the Departments of Defense
and Commerce.
Although physicists are employed in all
parts of the country, their employment is
greatest in areas that have heavy industrial
concentrations and large college and universi­
ty enrollments. Nearly one-fourth of all
physicists work in four metropolitan areas—
Washington, D.C.; Boston, Mass.; New
York, N.Y.; and Los Angeles-Long Beach,
Calif., and more than one-third are concen­
trated in three States—California, New
York, and Massachusetts.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Graduate training in physics or a closely
related field is almost essential for most entry
level jobs in physics and for advancement.
The doctorate usually is required for full
faculty status at colleges and universities and
for industrial or government jobs administer­
ing research and development programs.
Those having master’s degrees may qualify
for some research jobs in private industry and
in the Federal Government. In colleges and
universities, some teach and assist in research
while studying for their Ph.D.

Most physicists are engaged in research and development.

Natural Scientists and Mathematicians/87

Those having bachelor’s degrees may
qualify for a few applied research and devel­
opment jobs in private industry and in the
Federal Government. Some are employed as
research assistants in colleges and universi­
ties while studying for advanced degrees.
Many with undergraduate physics degrees
work in engineering and other scientific
fields. (See statements on engineers, geo­
physicists, programmers, and systems ana­
lysts elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Over 750 colleges and universities offer a
bachelor’s degree in physics. The undergrad­
uate program provides a broad background in
the science and serves as a base for later
specialization either in graduate school or on
the job. Some typical physics courses are
mechanics, electromagnetism, electronics,
optics, thermodynamics, and atomic and mo­
lecular physics. Students also take courses in
chemistry and many courses in mathematics.
About 270 colleges and universities offer
advanced degrees in physics. In graduate
school, the student, with faculty guidance,
usually works in a specific subfield of phys­
ics. Graduate students, especially candidates
for Ph.D. degrees, spend a large portion of
their time conducting research.
Students planning a career in physics
should have an inquisitive mind, mathemat­
ical ability, and imagination. They should be
able to work on their own, since physicists,
particularly in basic research, often receive
only limited supervision.
Physicists often begin their careers doing
routine laboratory tasks. After some experi­
ence, they are assigned more complex tasks
and may advance to work as project leaders
or research directors. Some work in top man­
agement jobs. Physicists who develop new
products or processes sometimes form their

own companies or join new firms to exploit
their own ideas.

Job Outlook
Employment opportunities in physics are
expected to be good through the 1980’s for
persons with graduate degrees in physics.
Although employment of physicists is pro­
jected to grow more slowly than the average
for all occupations over the period, the num­
ber of graduate degrees awarded annually in
physics has been declining since 1970, and
may remain at about the current level through
1990. Most job openings will arise as physi­
cists transfer to other occupations, retire, or
Many physicists work in research and de­
velopment (R&D). The anticipated increase
in R&D expenditures through the 1980’s
should result in increased requirements for
physicists. If actual R&D expenditure levels
and patterns differ significantly from those
assumed, however, the outlook would be al­
Some physicists with advanced degrees
will be needed to teach in colleges and uni­
versities, but opportunities will be better in
private industry. Since little employment
growth is expected in colleges and universi­
ties, most openings in this area will result
from the need to replace physicists who leave
the occupation.
Persons with only a bachelor’s degree in
physics are expected to face competition for
physicist jobs through the 1980’s. However,
many with bachelor’s degrees in physics find
jobs as engineers, computer scientists, or
technicians. Others with teaching certificates
become high school physics teachers. How­
ever, they are usually regarded as teachers
rather than as physicists. (See statement on
secondary school teachers elsewhere in the

According to an American Institute of
Physics Survey of 1980 degree recipients,
starting salaries for physicists in private in­
dustry averaged about $21,500 for those with
a master’s degree and $27,300 for those with
a Ph.D.
Depending on their college records, physi­
cists with a bachelor’s degree could start in
the Federal Government in early 1981 at
either $12,266 or $15,193 a year. Beginning
physicists having a master’s degree could
start at $15,193 or $18,585, and those having
the Ph.D. degree could begin at $22,486 or
$26,951. Average earnings for all physicists
in the Federal Government in 1980 were
$34,700 a year.
Starting salaries on college and university
faculties for physicists with the Ph.D. aver­
aged $16,800 in 1980, according to the
American Institute of Physics. (See statement
on college and university teachers elsewhere
in the Handbook.) Many faculty physicists
supplement their regular incomes by working
as consultants and taking on special research

Related Occupations
Physics is closely related to astronomy and
other scientific occupations such as chemists,
geologists, and geophysicists. Engineers and
engineering and science technicians also use
a knowledge of the principles of physics in
their work.

Sources of Additional Information
General information on career opportuni­
ties in physics is available from:
American Institute of Physics, 335 East 45th St.,
New York, N.Y. 10017.

Life Scientists
Life scientists study living organisms and
their life processes such as growth, reproduc­
tion, and behavior. They apply knowledge
gained from research to specific goals such
as the development of drugs, special varieties
of plants, and ways of maintaining a cleaner
environment. They are concerned with the
origin, preservation, and development of life,
from the largest animal to the smallest living
cell. Biological scientists study the basic life
processes of plants and animals, and agricul­
tural scientists apply their knowledge of biol­
ogy to agricultural problems. Biochemists
study the chemistry of life. Food technolo­
gists use the principles of biology and chem­
istry to develop better methods of processing,
packaging, and preserving food. Foresters,
range managers, and soil conservationists use
their knowledge of life science to manage
and conserve the natural resources of soil,
forests, and rangelands. Detailed information
about training requirements and job outlook
in these occupations appears in the six state­
ments that follow.

Agricultural and
Biological Scientists
(D.O.T. 040.061, except -026, -034, -046, and -054
through -062; 041.061 except -034; 041.261-010; and

Nature of the Work
Agricultural and biological scientists study
all aspects of living organisms and the rela­
tionship of animals and plants to their envi­
ronment. Although many specialize in some
area such as ornithology (the study of birds)
or microbiology (the study of microscopic
organisms), all have in common the study of
About one-third of all agricultural and bio­
logical scientists are primarily involved in
research and development. Many conduct ba­
sic research to increase knowledge of living
organisms. Others in applied research use
this knowledge in activities such as develop­
ing new medicines, increasing crop yields,
and improving the environment. Those work­
ing in laboratories must be familiar with re­
search techniques and the use of laboratory
equipment and computers. Not all research,
however, is performed in laboratories. For
example, a botanist may do research in the
volcanic valleys of Alaska to see what plants
grow there.
About one-quarter of all agricultural and
biological scientists work in management or
administration, for example planning and ad­
ministering programs for testing foods and
drugs and directing activities at zoos or bo­


tanical gardens. About one-fifth teach in col­
leges or universities. Some work as consul­
tants to business firms or to government while
others test and inspect foods, drugs, and other
products or write for technical publications.
(See statement on technical writers elsewhere
in the Handbook.) Some work in technical
sales and service jobs for companies manufac­
turing chemicals or other technical products.
(See statements on manufacturers’ sales repre­
sentatives and wholesale trade sales workers
elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Many agricultural and biological scientists
come under the broad category of biologist
(D.O.T. 041.061-030). Most are further
classified by the type of organism they study
or by the specific activity they perform.
Biological Scientists. Anatomists (D.O.T.
041.061-010) study and examine the struc­
ture of organisms, from cell structure to the
formation of tissues and organs. Many spe­
cialize in human anatomy. Research methods
may entail dissections or the use of electron
Botanists (D.O.T. 041.061-038) deal pri­
marily with plants and their environment.
Some study all aspects of plant life, while
others specialize in areas such as identifica­
tion and classification of plants, the structure
of plants and plant cells, and the causes and
cures of plant diseases.
Embryologists study the development of
an animal from a fertilized egg through the
hatching process or birth, and the causes of
healthy and abnormal development.

Microbiologists (D.O.T. 041.061-058) in­
vestigate the growth and characteristics of
microscopic organisms such as bacteria, vi­
ruses, and molds. Medical microbiologists
study the relationship between bacteria and
disease or the effect of antibiotics on bacte­
ria. Other microbiologists specialize in soil
bacteriology (effect of microorganisms on
soil fertility), virology (viruses), or immunol­
ogy (mechanisms that fight infections).
Pharmacologists (D.O.T. 041.061-074)
and toxicologists conduct tests on animals
such as rats, guinea pigs, and monkeys to
determine the effects of drugs, gases, poi­
sons, dusts, and other substances on the
functioning of tissues and organs. Pharma­
cologists may develop new or improved
drugs and medicines.
Physiologists (D.O.T. 041.061-078) study
life functions of plants and animals under
normal and abnormal conditions. Physiolo­
gists may specialize in functions such as
growth, reproduction, respiration, or move­
ment, or in the physiology of a certain body
area or system.
Zoologists (D.O.T. 041.061-090) study
various aspects of animals—their origin, be­
havior, diseases, and life processes. Some
experiment with live animals in controlled or
natural surroundings while others dissect
dead animals to study the structure of their
parts. Zoologists are usually identified by the
animal group studied-—ornithologists (birds),
entomologists (insects), mammalogists
(mammals), herpetologists (reptiles), and
ichthyologists (fish).

Laboratory animals are used to study the effects of test compounds.

Natural Scientists and Mathematicians/89

Agricultural Scientists. Agricultural scien­
tists apply scientific principles to problems
related to food, fiber, and horticulture.
Agronomists (D.O.T. 040.061-010) are con­
cerned with the mass development of plants.
They improve the quality and yield of crops,
such as com, wheat, and cotton, by develop­
ing new growth methods or by controlling
diseases, pests, and weeds. They also ana­
lyze soils to determine ways to increase acre­
age yields and decrease soil erosion.
Animal scientists (D.O.T. 040.061-014)
do research on the breeding, feeding, and
diseases of domestic farm animals.
Horticulturists (D .O .T. 040.061-038)
work with orchard and garden plants such as
fruit and nut trees, vegetables, and flowers.
They seek to improve plant culture methods
for the beautification of communities, homes,
parks, and other areas as well as for increas­
ing crop quality and yields.
Veterinarians (D.O.T. 073-061) study dis­
eases and abnormal functioning in animals.
(See statement on veterinarians elsewhere in
the Handbook.)
Some agricultural and biological scientists
apply their knowledge across a number of
areas and may be classified by the functions
performed. Ecologists, for example, study
the relationship between organisms and their
environments and the effects of influences
such as pollutants, rainfall, temperature, and
altitude on organisms. For example, ecolo­
gists examine plankton (microscopic water
plants and animals) to determine the effects
of pollution and measure the radioactive con­
tent of fish.
Biochemists and biological oceanogra­
phers , who may also be classified as biologi­
cal scientists, are included in separate
statements elsewhere in the Handbook.

Working Conditions
Agricultural and biological scientists gen­
erally work regular hours in offices, laborato­
ries, or classrooms and usually are not
exposed to unsafe or unhealthy conditions.
Some biological scientists such as botanists,
ecologists, and zoologists may take field trips
which involve strenuous physical activity and
primitive living conditions.

An estimated 125,000 persons worked as
agricultural and biological scientists in 1980.
About 35,000 were agricultural scientists,
and 90,000 were biological scientists.
Colleges and universities employ over half
of all agricultural and biological scientists, in
both teaching and research. Many researchers
in agronomy, horticulture, animal husbandry,
entomology, and related areas work at State
agricultural colleges and agricultural experi­
ment stations.
About 12,500 agricultural and biological
scientists worked for the Federal Government
in 1980. Almost half worked for the Depart­
ment of Agriculture, with large numbers also
in the Department of the Interior and in the
National Institutes of Health. State and local


combined employed about

22, 000.
Approximately 17,000 worked in private
industry, mostly in the pharmaceutical, in­
dustrial chemical, and agricultural services
industries in 1980. About 3,700 worked for
nonprofit research organizations and founda­
tions; a few were self-employed.
Employment of agricultural and biological
scientists is concentrated in communities with
large universities and in certain metropolitan
areas—for example, nearly 6 percent work in
the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
The Ph.D. degree generally is required for
college teaching, for independent research,
and for advancement to administrative re­
search positions and other management jobs
in agricultural and biological science. A mas­
ter’s degree is sufficient for some jobs in
applied research. The bachelor’s degree is
adequate preparation for some beginning
jobs, but promotions often are limited for
those who hold no higher degree. New
graduates with a bachelor’s degree can start
their careers in testing and inspecting jobs, or
become technical sales and service represen­
tatives. They also may become advanced
technicians, particularly in medical research
or, with courses in education, high school
biology teachers. (See statement on secon­
dary school teachers elsewhere in the
Most colleges and universities offer agri­
cultural and biological science curriculums.
However, different schools may emphasize
only certain areas. For example, liberal arts
colleges may emphasize the biological sci­
ences, while many State universities offer
programs in agricultural science as well.
Students seeking careers in agricultural and
biological science should obtain a broad un­
dergraduate background in biology with
c o u rse s in c h e m istry , p h y sic s, and
Many colleges and universities confer ad­
vanced degrees in agricultural and biological
science. Requirements for advanced degrees
usually include fieldwork and laboratory re­
search as well as classroom studies and prep­
aration of a thesis.
Prospective agricultural and biological sci­
entists should be able to work independently
or as part of a team and must be able to
communicate their findings clearly and con­
cisely, both orally and in writing. Agricultur­
al and biological scientists conducting field
research in remote areas must have physical
Agricultural and biological scientists who
have advanced degrees usually begin in re­
search or teaching jobs. With experience,
they may advance to jobs such as supervisors
of research programs.

Job Outlook
Employment opportunities for agricultural
and biological scientists are expected to be

good for those with advanced degrees through
the 1980’s, but those with lesser degrees may
experience competition for jobs. However, an
agricultural or biological science degree also is
useful for entry to related occupations such as
agricultural and biological technician, medical
laboratory technologist, and health care occu­
pations. Employment in agricultural and bio­
logical science is expected to increase about as
fast as the average for all occupations over this
period. In addition to jobs arising from growth
in demand for agricultural and biological sci­
entists, job openings will occur as some trans­
fer to other occupations, retire, or die.
Employment in agricultural and biological
science is expected to increase as a result of
efforts to preserve the environment and con­
tinue medical research. Employment oppor­
tunities in industry and government should
grow as environmental research and develop­
ment increase. Concern over toxic substances
will create many new openings for toxicol­
ogists and other biological scientists who are
skilled in testing for cancer-causing sub­
Agricultural and biological scientists rarely
lose their jobs during recessions, since most
are employed in teaching, on long-term re­
search projects, or in agriculture, activities
which are not usually affected much by eco­
nomic fluctuations.

According to the College Placement
Council, beginning salary offers in private
industry in 1981 averaged $15,400 a year for
bachelor’s degree recipients in agricultural
science and $15,200 a year for bachelor’s
degree recipients in biological science.
In the Federal Government in early 1981,
agricultural and biological scientists having a
bachelor’s degree could begin at $12,266 or
$15,193 a year, depending on their college
records. Those having the master’s degree
could start at $15,193 or $18,585, depending
on their academic records or work exper­
ience, and those having the Ph.D. degree
could begin at $22,486 or $26,951 a year.
Agricultural and biological scientists in the
Federal Government averaged $28,100 a
Salaries paid to college and university agri­
cultural and biological science teachers are
comparable to those paid to other faculty
members. (See statement on college and uni­
versity teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.)

Related Occupations
Many occupations are related in some way
to agricultural and biological science since
they deal with living organisms. These in­
clude the conservation occupations of forest­
ers, forestry technicians, range manangers,
and soil conservationists, as well as biochem­
ists, soil scientists, oceanographers, and life
science technicians. The wide array of health
occupations are all related to agricultural and
biological science, as are occupations dealing
with raising plants and animals such as farm­

90/Occupational Outlook Handbook

ers and farm workers, florists, and nursery

Sources of Additional Information
General information on careers in agricul­
tural and biological science is available from:
American Institute of Biological Sciences, 1401
Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Va. 22209.
American Physiological Society, Education Offi­
cer, 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Md. 20014.
Dr. Carol C. Baskin, Secretary, Botanical Society
of America, School of Biological Sciences, Uni­
versity of Kentucky, Lexington, Ky. 40506.

For information on careers in horticultural
science, send a stamped self-addressed enve­
lope to:
American Society for Horticultural Science, 701
North Saint Asaph St., Alexandria, Va. 22314.

Information on Federal job opportunities is
available from local offices of State employ­
ment services and the U.S. Office of Person­
nel Management or from Federal Job
Information Centers located in various large
cities throughout the country.

teaching in colleges and universities. A few
work in industrial production and testing ac­

Working Conditions
Biochemists usually work regular hours in
laboratories, offices, and classrooms. Some
biochemists travel occasionally to attend
meetings and conferences. Biochemists’ labo­
ratory work usually is not dangerous or un­
healthy, if proper procedures are observed.

An estimated 16,000 biochemists were
employed in 1980. About one-half worked
for colleges and universities and about onefourth for private industry. Some worked for
nonprofit research institutes and foundations;
others, for Federal, State, and local govern­

ment agencies. Most government biochemists
do health and agricultural research for Federal
agencies. A few self-employed biochemists
are consultants to industry and government.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
The minimum educational requirement for
many beginning jobs as a biochemist, espe­
cially in research or teaching, is an advanced
degree. A Ph.D. degree is a virtual necessity
for persons who hope to contribute significant­
ly to biochemical research and for advance­
ment to many management and administrative
jobs. A bachelor’s degree with a major in
biochemistry or chemistry, or with a major in
biology and a minor in chemistry, may qualify
some persons for entry jobs as research assist­
ants or technicians.

(D.O.T. 041.061-026 and 090.227-010)

Nature of the Work
Biochemists study the chemical composi­
tion and behavior of living things. Since life
is based on complex chemical combinations
and reactions, the work of biochemists is
vital for an understanding of reproduction,
growth, and heredity. Biochemists also may
study the effects of food, hormones, or drugs
on various organisms.
The methods and techniques of biochemis­
try are applied in areas such as medicine and
agriculture. For instance, biochemists may
investigate causes and cures for diseases, or
conduct research on transferring characteris­
tics of one kind of plant to another.
More than 3 out of 4 biochemists work in
basic and applied research activities. The dis­
tinction between basic and applied research is
often one of degree, and biochemists may do
both types. Most, however, are in basic re­
search. The few doing strictly applied re­
search use the results of basic research to
solve practical problems. For example, they
use knowledge of how an organism forms a
hormone to synthesize and produce hormones
on a mass scale.
Laboratory research involves weighing,
filtering, distilling, drying, and culturing
(growing microorganisms). Some experi­
ments also require the designing and con­
structing of laboratory apparatus or the use of
radioactive tracers. Biochemists use a variety
of instruments, including electron micro­
scopes and centrifuges, and they may devise
new instruments and techniques as needed.
They usually report the results of their re­
search in scientific journals or before scienti­
fic groups.
Some biochemists combine research with

Biochemists spend much of their time in the laboratory.

Natural Scientists and Mathematicians/91

About 100 schools award the bachelor’s
degree in biochemistry, and nearly all col­
leges and universities offer a major in biol­
ogy or chemistry. Persons planning careers
as biochemists should take undergraduate
courses in chemistry, biology, biochemistry,
mathematics, and physics.
About 150 colleges and universities offer
graduate degrees in biochemistry. Graduate
students generally are required to have a
bachelor’s degree in biochemistry, biology,
or chemistry. Many graduate programs em­
phasize one specialty in biochemistry because
of the facilities or the research being done at
that school—so students should select their
schools carefully. Graduate training requires
actual research in addition to advanced sci­
ence courses. For the doctoral degree, the
student does intensive research and a thesis
in one field of biochemistry.
Persons planning careers as biochemists
should be able to work independently or as
part of a team. Biochemists should have ana­
lytical ability and curiosity, as well as the
patience and perseverance needed to com­
plete the hundreds of experiments necessary
to solve a single problem. They should also
express themselves clearly when writing and
speaking to communicate the findings of their
research effectively.
Graduates with advanced degrees may be­
gin their careers as teachers or researchers in
colleges or universities. In private industry,
most begin in research jobs and with exper­
ience may advance to positions in which they
plan and supervise research.
New graduates with a bachelor’s degree
usually start work as research assistants or
technicians. These jobs in private industry
often involve testing and analysis. In the
drug industry, for example, research assist­
ants analyze the ingredients of a product to
verify and maintain its purity or quality.

Job Outlook
Job opportunities for biochemists with ad­
vanced degrees should be favorable through
the 1980’s. The employment of biochemists
is expected to grow about as fast as the
average for all occupations during this peri­
od. In addition to jobs arising from increased
demand for biochemists, some job openings
will result each year as biochemists retire,
die, or transfer to other occupations.
The recent advances in recombinant DNA
(gene splicing) and other areas of biochemi­
cal research may have much commercial po­
tential. Therefore there are likely to be many
openings in private industry for those with
the knowledge to conduct research in areas of
biochemisty with commercial applications.
Additional growth in this field should result
from the effort to find cures for cancer, heart
disease, and other diseases, and from public
concern with environmental protection. Col­
leges and universities may need additional
teachers if biochemistry enrollments continue
to increase.

According to a 1980 survey by the Ameri­
can Chemical Society, median salaries for
experienced biochemists were about $20,500
for those with a bachelor’s degree; $22,500
for those with a master’s degree; and $30,000
for those with a Ph.D.
Salaries of biochemists employed in col­
leges and universities are comparable to those
for other faculty members. (See statement on
college and university teachers elsewhere in
the Handbook.)

Related Occupations
Biochemistry is closely related to biology
and chemistry. Medical laboratory workers
often use biochemical procedures in their
work, and physicians, pharmacists, and other
health practitioners need to know a great deal
about biochemistry.

Sources of Additional Information
For general information on careers in bio­
chemistry, contact:
American Society of Biological Chemists, 9650
Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Md. 20014.

Food Technologists
(D.O.T. 041.081-010 and 090.227-010)

Nature of the Work
In the past, consumers processed most
food in the home, but today industry proc­
esses almost all foods.. A key worker in the
development and processing of the large vari­
ety of foods available-today is the food tech­
nologist .
Food technologists study the chemical,
physical, and biological nature of food to

learn how to safely process, preserve, pack­
age, distribute, and store it and to insure an
adequate, nutritious, wholesome, and eco­
nomical supply f. Almost one-third of all food
technologists work in research and develop­
ment. Others work in quality assurance labo­
ratories or in production or processing areas
of food plants. Some teach or do basic re­
search in colleges and universities, and others
work in sales or management positions.
Food technologists in basic research study
the structure and composition of food and the
changes it undergoes in storage and process­
ing. For example, they may develop new
sources of proteins, study the effects of pro­
cessing on micro-organisms, or search for
factors that affect the flavor, texture, or ap­
pearance of foods. Food technologists who
work in applied research and development
create new foods and develop new processing
methods. They also work to improve existing
foods by making them more nutritious and
enhancing their flavor, color, and texture.
Food technologists seek ways to retain the
characteristics and nutritive value of foods
during processing and storage. They also
conduct chemical and microbiological tests to
see that products meet industry and govern­
ment standards, and determine their nutritive
content for federally required labelingq For
example, they test processed foods for sugar,
starch, protein, fat, vitamin, and mineral
In quality control laboratories, food tech­
nologists check raw ingredients for freshness,
maturity, and suitability for processing. Peri­
odically, they inspect processing line oper­
ations to insure conformance with government
and industry standards. They make sure that,
after processing, various enzymes are inactive
and bacterial levels are low enough so that the
food will not spoil or present a safety hazard.

92/Occupational Outlook Handbook

Other food technologists develop and im­
prove packaging and storage methods.
Food technologists in processing plants
prepare production specifications, schedule
processing operations, maintain proper tem­
perature and humidity in storage areas, and
supervise sanitation operations, including the
proper disposal of wastes. To increase effi­
ciency, they advise management on the pur­
chase of equipment and recommend new
Some food technologists apply their
knowledge in areas such as market research,
advertising, and technical sales. Others teach
in colleges and universities.

Working Conditions
Most food technologists work regular
hours in offices, laboratories, or classrooms.
Those in production or quality control posi­
tions work in or near food processing areas,
sometimes under noisy, hot, or cold condi­

An estimated 15,000 persons worked as
food technologists in 1980. Food technolo­
gists are employed in every State, but the
products they work with vary by locality. For
example, many technologists in Maine and
Idaho work with potatoes; in the Midwest,
with cereal and meat products; and in Florida
and California, with citrus fruits and vegeta­
Most food technologists work in the food
processing industry. Some work for Federal
agencies such as the Food and Drug Admin­
istration and the Departments of Agriculture
and Defense; others work for State regulatory
agencies. A few work for private consulting
firms and international organizations such as
the United Nations. Some teach or do re­
search in colleges and universities. (See
statement on college and university teachers
elsewhere in the Handbook.)

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A bachelor’s degree with a major in food
technology is the usual minimum requirement
for beginning jobs in food technology. Some
food technologists have degrees in a variety
of other areas such as chemistry, biology,
engineering, agriculture, or business. Almost
one-half have advanced degrees, which are
necessary for college teaching and many
management and research positions.
About 55 colleges and universities offered
programs leading to the bachelor’s degree in
food technology in 1980. Undergraduate stu­
dents majoring in food technology usually
take courses in physics, biochemistry, math­
ematics, microbiology, the social sciences
and humanities, and business administration,
as well as food technology courses such as
food preservation, processing, sanitation, and
Most colleges and universities with under­
graduate food technology programs also offer

advanced degrees. Graduate students usually
specialize in a particular area of food tech­
nology. Requirements for the master’s or
doctor’s degree usually include extensive re­
search and a thesis, which is a report of
original research findings. Food technologists
who specialize in administrative, managerial,
or regulatory areas sometimes take advanced
degrees in business administration or law
rather than food technology.
People planning careers as food technolo­
gists should have analytical minds, be able to
express their ideas clearly, and like details
and technical work.
Food technologists with a bachelor’s de­
gree might start work as quality assurance
chemists or as assistant production managers.
After gaining experience, they can advance
to more responsible management jobs. A
food technologist might also begin as a junior
food chemist in a research and development
laboratory of a food company, and be pro­
moted to section head or other research man­
agement positions.
People who have master’s degrees may
begin as food chemists in a research and
development laboratory. Those who have the
Ph.D. degree usually begin their careers do­
ing basic research or teaching.

11 to 15 years of experience earned about
$36,500. The median salary for all food
technologists was about $29,500 in 1980.
The average salary for experienced food
technologists in the Federal Government was
about $30,500 a year in 1980.

Job Outlook

Nature of the Work

Employment of food technologists is ex­
pected to grow more slowly than the average
for all occupations through the 1980’s, pri­
marily because of anticipated slow growth in
the food processing industry, where most are
employed. Most openings will result from
the need to replace those who die, retire, or
transfer to other fields, rather than from
growth in demand for these workers.
Employment of food technologists is ex­
pected to grow somewhat as the food indus­
try responds to the challenge of providing
wholesome and economical foods that can
meet changing consumer preferences and
food standards. In addition, both private
households and food service institutions that
supply customers such as airlines and res­
taurants will demand a greater quality of con­
venience foods.
In recent years, expenditures for research
and development in the food industry have
increased moderately and probably will con­
tinue to rise, creating more jobs for technolo­
gists. Through research, new foods are being
produced from modifications of wheat, com,
rice, and soybeans. For example, food scien­
tists are working to improve “ meat” products
made from vegetable proteins. There will be
an increased need for food scientists in qual­
ity control and production because of the
complexity of products and processes and the
application of higher processing standards.

Forests are one of our most important nat­
ural resources. We use their products—
trees—for building materials, paper, fuel,
and a variety of other uses. The forests help
clean the air we breathe, protect our water
supplies and wildlife, and provide us with
recreational opportunities. Foresters manage,
develop, and protect them for use now and in
the future.
Foresters plan and supervise the growing,
protection, and harvesting of trees. They
make maps of forest areas, estimate the
amount of standing timber and future growth,
and manage timber sales. All of these things
involve working with other people. Manag­
ing timber sales, for example, involves deal­
ing with landowners and supervising the
work of loggers. Foresters also protect the
trees from fire, harmful insects, and disease.
Some foresters perform other duties rang­
ing from wildlife protection and watershed
management to the development and supervi­
sion of camps, parks, and grazing lands.
Other foresters do research, provide informa­
tion to forest owners and to the general pub­
lic (called extension work), and teach at
colleges and universities.
Foresters often specialize in one area of
work, such as timber management, outdoor
recreation, or forest economics.

According to a survey of the Institute of
Food Technologists, food technologists with
a bachelor’s or master’s degree and 11 to 15
years of experience earned about $32,000 in
1980, and those with the Ph.D. degree and

Related Occupations
The work of food technologists is closely
related to that of chemists and, to a lesser
extent, to biologists. Other occupations in
which the work is related to food technology
are agricultural and environmental scientists,
engineers, and engineering and science

Sources of Additional Information
For information on careers in food technol­
ogy, contact:
Institute of Food Technologists, Suite 2120, 221
North LaSalle St., Chicago, 111. 60601.

(D.O.T. 040.061-034, -050, and -062)

Working Conditions
Working conditions for foresters vary con­
siderably, according to the type of work they
perform. The image of foresters as solitary
horseback riders, singlehandedly protecting
large areas of land far from civilization no
longer holds true. Modem foresters spend a
great deal of time working with people. They

Natural Scientists and Mathematicians/93

must deal constantly with landowners, log­
gers, forestry aides, and a wide variety of
other people.
The work can still be physically demand­
ing, though. Beginning foresters often spend
considerable time outdoors in all kinds of
weather, sometimes in remote areas. To get
to these areas, they use airplanes, helicop­
ters, and four-wheel drive vehicles. Foresters
also may have to work long hours on emer­
gency duty, as in firefighting or search and
rescue missions.

to more responsible positions. In the Federal
Government, an experienced forester may su­
pervise an entire forest area, and may ad­
vance to regional forest supervisor or to a top
administrative position. In private industry,
foresters start by learning the practical and
administrative aspects of the business. Many
foresters work their way up to top managerial
positions within their companies.
Many experienced foresters advance to of­
fice jobs where they plan and organize the
activities of the staff.


Job Outlook

Almost 30,000 persons worked as foresters
in 1980. Nearly one-half worked for the Fed­
eral Government, primarily in the Forest Ser­
vice of the Department of Agriculture. About
one-fourth worked for State governments.
The remainder worked in private industry,
mainly for pulp and paper, lumber, logging
and milling companies, and for local govern­
ments, colleges and universities, and consult­
ing firms. A few were self-employed either
as consultants or forest owners.
Although foresters are employed in every
State, employment is concentrated in the
Western and Southeastern States where many
national forests and parks are located and
where most of the lumber and pulpwood pro­
ducing forests are located.

In recent years the number of persons
earning degrees in forestry has exceeded the
number of openings in the field, creating
competition for jobs. If the number of de­
grees granted each year remains at present
levels, competition is expected to persist
throughout the period. Opportunities will be
better for persons with an advanced degree.
Employment of foresters is expected to
grow more slowly than the average for all
occupations through the 1980’s. Employment
will probably continue to grow faster in pri­
vate industry than in the Federal Government
where budget limitations may restrain
growth. The country will need more foresters
in private industry to ensure an increasing
output of forest products. Private owners of
timberland also are likely to employ more
foresters as they recognize the need for—and

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A bachelor’s degree in forestry is the mini­
mum educational requirement for profession­
al careers in forestry. However, due to keen
job competition and the increasingly complex
nature of the forester’s work, many employ­
ers prefer graduates who hold advanced de­
grees. Certain jobs such as teaching and
research require advanced degrees.
To qualify for college forestry programs,
high school students should take courses in
chemistry, physics, mathematics, and the
biological sciences. Courses in English lit­
erature and public speaking also are helpful.
Education in forestry leading to a bachelor’s
or higher degree was offered in 1980 by 49
colleges and universities, of which 43 were
accredited by the Society of American Forest­
ers. Curriculums stress the liberal arts and
communications skills as well as technical
forestry subjects. Courses in forest economics
and business administration supplement the
student’s scientific and technical knowledge.
Many colleges require students to spend one
summer in a field camp operated by the
college. All schools encourage summer jobs
that give experience in forest or conservation
In addition to meeting the intellectual de­
mands of forestry, foresters must enjoy work­
ing outdoors, be physically hardy, and be
willing to move, often to remote places. For­
esters should also work well with people and
express themselves clearly.
Recent forestry graduates usually work un­
der the supervision of experienced foresters.
After gaining experience, they may advance

the higher profitability of—improved forestry
and logging practices. Besides job openings
created by growth in demand, many foresters
will be needed each year to replace those who
die, retire, or transfer to other occupations.

Beginning foresters in 1980 averaged
about $13,900 a year, while experienced for­
esters averaged about $24,000.
In private industry, starting foresters aver­
aged $15,200 a year in 1980, and the overall
average salary was $25,200.
Graduates entering the Federal Govern­
ment as foresters in early 1981 with just a
bachelor’s degree started at $12,266 a year.
However, because of keen competition, most
foresters hired by the Federal Government
either held a master’s degree or had some
experience, and generally started at $15,193
a year. Ph.D.’s generally started at $18,585
or $22,486 a year. The median annual salary
in early 1981 for federally employed foresters
was $26,500.
In local government, foresters generally
began at about $12,700 a year in 1980, while
their median annual salary was $19,400.
Starting salaries in State governments were
about $12,600 in 1980, and State median
salaries were $20,400 per year. College pro­
fessors generally started at about $19,600
annually in 1980, while their median salary

94/Occupational Outlook Handbook

was over $26,000 per year. Many faculty
foresters supplement their regular salaries
with income from lecturing, consulting, and

Related Occupations
Foresters are not the only workers con­
cerned with managing, developing, and pro­
tecting natural resources. Other workers with
similar responsibilities include agronomists,
farmers, farm managers, ranchers, range
managers, fish hatchery managers, soil con­
servationists, and wildlife managers.

Sources of Additional Information
General information about the forestry pro­
fession and lists of schools offering education
in forestry are available from:
Society of American Foresters, 5400 Grosvenor
Lane, Bethesda, Md. 20814.
American Forestry Association, 1319 18th St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

For details on forestry careers in the Forest
Service, contact:
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
P.O. Box 2417, Washington, D.C. 20013.

Range Managers
(D.O.T. 040.061-046)

Nature of Work
Rangelands cover more than 1 billion acres
of the United States, mostly in the Western
States and Alaska. They contain many natu­
ral resources: Grass and shrubs for animal
grazing, wildlife habitats, water from vast
watersheds, recreation facilities, and valuable
mineral and energy resources. Rangelands
also serve as areas for scientific study of the

Range managers, sometimes called range
scientists, range ecologists, or range conser­
vationists , manage, improve, and protect
range resources to maximize their use with­
out damaging the environment. For example,
range managers help ranchers attain optimum
livestock production by determining the num­
ber and kind of animals to graze, the grazing
system to use, and the best season for graz­
ing. At the same time, however, they con­
serve the soil and vegetation for other uses
such as wildlife habitat, outdoor recreation,
and timber.
Range managers restore and improve rangelands through controlled burning, reseeding,
and biological, chemical, or mechanical con­
trol of undesirable plants. For example, some
rangelands that have been invaded by sage­
brush or other shrubs may be plowed and
reseeded with more desirable plants. Range
managers also determine the need for and help
carry out range conservation and development
plans that provide for water facilities, erosion
control, and soil treatments.
Not all of a range manager’s time is spent
outdoors. Range managers consult with other
conservation specialists, prepare written re­
ports, and do administrative work in an
Because of the multiple use of rangelands,
range managers often work in closely related
fields such as wildlife and watershed man­
agement, forest management, and recreation.

Working Conditions
Range managers usually begin their ca­
reers on the range. They work outdoors in all
kinds of weather and may spend considerable
time away from home. Range managers trav­
el by car or small plane, or, in rough coun­
try, by four-wheel drive vehicle, by horse, or
on foot.

Many range managers work for the Federal Government.

There is much more to the job than simply
riding the range, however. Range managers
must constantly deal with people, including
the general public, ranchers, government of­
ficials, and other conservation specialists. In
many cases, they work as part of a team.
Many range managers advance to adminis­
trative jobs where they write reports and plan
and supervise the work of others.

An estimated 4,000 persons worked as
range managers in 1980. Most worked for
the Federal Government, principally for the
Forest Service and the Soil Conservation Ser­
vice of the Department of Agriculture, and
the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Bureau
of Land Management of the Department of
the Interior. Range managers in State govern­
ments are employed in game and fish depart­
ments, State land agencies, and extension
An increasing number of range managers
work for private industry. Coal and oil com­
panies employ range managers to help restore
or reclaim mined areas. Banks and real estate
firms employ them to help increase the rev­
enue from their landholdings. Other range
managers work for private consulting firms
and large ranches.
Some range managers who have advanced
degrees teach and do research at colleges and
universities. Other range managers work
overseas with United States and United Na­
tions agencies and with foreign governments.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A bachelor’s degree in range management
or range science is the usual minimum educa­
tional requirement for range managers. The
Federal Government requires at least 42 hours
in plant, animal or soil sciences and natural
resources management courses, including at
least 18 hours in range management. Graduate
degrees in range management generally are
required for teaching and research positions,
and may be helpful for advancement in other
In 1980, about 18 colleges and universities
offered degree programs in range manage­
ment or range science. A number of other
schools offered some courses in range man­
A degree in range management requires a
basic knowledge of biology, chemistry, phys­
ics, mathematics, and communication skills.
Specialized courses combine plant, animal,
and soil sciences with principles of ecology
and resource management. Desirable elec­
tives include economics, forestry, hydrology,
agronomy, wildlife, computer science, and
Federal agencies, primarily the Forest Ser­
vice, the Soil Conservation Service, and the
Bureau of Land Management, hire college
students for summer jobs in range manage­
ment. This experience may better qualify
these students for jobs when they graduate.

Natural Scientists and Mathematicians/95

Besides having a love for the outdoors,
range managers must be able to write and
speak effectively and work well with others.
They should be able to work either alone or
under direct supervision. Good physical
health and stamina also are important.

For information about career opportunities
in the Federal Government, contact:

Job Outlook

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conserva­
tion Service, P.O. Box 2890, Washington, D.C.

Employment of range managers is expect­
ed to grow about as fast as the average for all
occupations through the 1980’s. Most open­
ings in this small occupation will result from
the need to replace range managers who re­
tire, die, or leave the occupation for other
The growing demand for red meat, wild­
life habitats, recreation, and water, as well as
increasing environmental concern should
stimulate the need for more range managers.
Since the amount of land cannot be expand­
ed, range managers will need to increase
productivity while they maintain the environ­
mental quality of the range ecosystem. Also,
range managers will be in greater demand to
manage large ranches, which are increasing
in number.
As oil and coal exploration accelerates,
private industry will require many more
range specialists to reclaim or restore mined
lands to a productive state.
The use of rangelands for other purposes
such as wildlife habitat and recreation could
create additional need for range managers.
Federal employment for these activities de­
pends heavily upon legislation concerning the
management of range resources. Federal bud­
getary limitations are expected to limit em­
ployment growth in this area, at least in the
short run.

In the Federal Government, range manag­
ers with a bachelor’s degree started at either
$12,266 or $15,193 a year in early 1981,
depending on their college grades. Those
having 1 or 2 years of graduate work began
at $15,193 or $18,585. Range managers with
the Federal Government averaged about
$20,700 a year in 1980.
Salaries for range managers who work for
State governments and private companies are
about the same as those paid by the Federal
Government, according to limited data.

Bureau of Land Management, Denver Service
Center, Federal Center Building 50, Denver,
Colo. 80225.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
P.O. Box 2417, Washington, D.C. 20013.

Soil Conservationists
(D .O .T. 040.061-054)

Nature of the Work
Soil conservationists provide technical as­
sistance to farmers, ranchers, and others con­
cerned with the conservation of soil, water,
and related natural resources. They help
farmers and other land managers develop
programs that make the most productive use
of land without damaging it. Soil conserva­
tionists do most of their work in the field. If
a farmer is experiencing an erosion problem,
the conservationist will visit the farm, find
the source of the problem, and help develop
a program to combat the erosion. For exam­
ple, if the erosion is caused by water runoff
on sloping fields, the conservationist may
recommend terracing the land, constructing
waterways, conservation tillage systems, or
changing the land to permanent vegetation. If
erosion results from wind, the conservationist
may recommend growing hedges to provide
windbreaks or may suggest leaving the wheat
or com stalks on the field after harvesting to
provide ground cover.
In many areas of the country—particularly
in the West—
-rainfall is insufficient to permit

Related Occupations
Range managers are not the only workers
who plan and manage the use of natural
resources. Other workers with similar duties
include animal breeders, farmers, farm man­
agers, foresters, ranchers, fish hatchery man­
agers, wildlife managers, and soil con­

Sources of Additional Information
Information about a career as a range man­
ager as well as a list of schools offering
training is available from:
Society for Range Management, 2760 W. 5th
Ave., Denver, Colo. 80204.

Soil conservationists mapping soil types.

the growing of crops. Much of the land,
however, is suitable for grazing livestock.
Soil conservationists inventory pastureland
and rangeland, and recommend to farmers
and ranchers areas where ponds can be con­
structed to provide water for livestock. They
also recommend solutions to problems of
overgrazing, such as seeding grassland or
placing salt licks in undergrazed areas to
keep the livestock away from areas that have
been overgrazed. In this manner, they can
distribute herds so that the concentration of
animals in any one area does not exceed the
replaceable food supply.
Soil conservationists pay close attention to
weather patterns to be aware of possible con­
servation problems before they arise. During
the winter months, they make periodic snow­
mobile or ski patrols into the Rockies and
other mountainous areas of the West to mea­
sure snowfall. This enables them to predict
the spring and summer water runoff. In years
when the snowfall is light, they alert irriga­
tion districts, farmers, and other water users
to possible water shortages and develop ap­
propriate water conservation measures.
Soil conservationists also work as technical
advisors to Soil and Water Conservation Dis­
tricts, which are legal subdivisions of State
governments concerned with, and responsible
for, conservation problems within a county or
other area. Soil conservationists map areas
with soil and water conservation problems
and help landowners plan and develop con­
servation programs. These problem areas
may include only a few farms and ranches or
an entire watershed.

Working Conditions
Soil conservationists do most of their work
in the field. When the weather is bad, they
usually work in their offices, but occasionally

96/Occupational Outlook Handbook

they have to work outdoors in inclement
As is the case with other conservation
workers, a large part of the soil conservation­
ist’s job involves working with other people.
For example, they work with farmers, ranch­
ers, and other land managers in developing
conservation programs for their landholdings.
When developing a conservation program for
a large area, such as a conservation district,
soil conservationists may confer with other
conservation workers, as well as representa­
tive landowners and other concerned persons.

An estimated 5,000 soil conservationists
were employed in 1980, mostly by the Fed­
eral Government in the Department of Agri­
culture’s Soil Conservation Service or in the
Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Indian
Affairs. Soil conservationists employed by
the Department of Agriculture work with
Soil and Water Conservation Districts in al­
most every county in the country. Those
employed by the Bureau of Indian Affairs
generally work near or on Indian reserva­
tions, most of which are located in the West­
ern States. Others are employed by State and
local governments, and some teach at col­
leges and universities.
Some soil conservationists are employed
by rural banks, insurance firms, and mort­
gage companies that make loans for agricul­
tural lands. A few also work for public
utilities and lumber and paper companies that
have large holdings of forested lands.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Very few colleges and universities offer
degrees with a major in soil conservation.

Most soil conservationists have degrees in
agronomy, agricultural education, or general
agriculture; a few have degrees in related
fields such as wildlife biology, forestry, and
range management. Programs of study gener­
ally include 30 semester hours in natural re­
sources or agriculture, including at least 3
hours in soils.
A knowledge of agricultural engineering is
very helpful to soil conservationists, and so
are courses in cartography, or mapmaking.
Soil conservationists must be able to commu­
nicate well since much of their work consists
of assisting farmers and ranchers in planning
and applying sound conservation practices.
Also, they must be able to prepare written
reports and plans of programs to present to
farmers, range managers, and Soil and Water
Conservation Districts.
Opportunities for advancement are some­
what limited. However, conservationists
working at the county level may advance to
the area and State level. Also, soil conserva­
tionists can transfer to related occupations
such as farm management advisors or land
appraisers. Those with advanced degrees
may find teaching opportunities in colleges
and universities.

Job Outlook
Employment of soil conservationists is ex­
pected to change little through the 1980’s.
Most openings will occur from the need to
replace conservationists who retire, die, or
transfer to other occupations.
Little change is expected in the number of
soil conservationists employed by the Federal
government, which is the largest employer of
conservationists. However increased employ­

ment may occur in banks, public utilities,
and other organizations that make loans on
agricultural lands or that have large holdings
of farm or ranchlands. In addition, as con­
cern for the environment and interest in con­
serving the productivity of agricultural lands
increase, a larger number of colleges may
add soil conservation majors to their degree
programs, which would increase the demand
for soil conservationists to fill teaching posi­

Soil conservationists who had a bachelor’s
degree and were employed by the Federal
Government started at $12,266 a year in ear­
ly 1981. Those who had outstanding records
in college, or who had a master’s degree,
started at $15,193 and could advance to
$18,585 after 1 year. Soil conservationists
with the Federal Government averaged about
$24,300 in 1980.

Related Occupations
Other workers who use science to help
conserve and protect our natural resources
include animal scientists, agronomists, aquatic
biologists, agricultural engineers, foresters,
geneticists, horticulturists, plant pathologists,
range managers, soil scientists, and wood

Sources of Additonal Information
Additional information on employment as
a soil conservationist may be obtained from:
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conserva­
tion Service, P.O. Box 2890, Washington, D.C.

Social Scientists, Social Workers,
Religious Workers, and Lawyers
Many of the workers described in this sec­
tion of the Handbook are concerned with the
social needs of people. For example, clinical
psychologists help the mentally or emotionally
disturbed adjust to life through behavior modi­
fication programs and other techniques. Social
workers in a wide range of settings address the
needs of individuals, families, groups, and
communities. Their work may involve any­
thing from helping an elderly person adjust to
life in a nursing home to organizing fund
raising for community social welfare activi­
ties. Recreation workers help people enjoy
their nonworking hours by organizing activi­
ties in camps, community centers, play­
grounds, and other settings. Religious workers
counsel people in their faith and provide spirit­
ual and moral leadership within their commu­
nities. Lawyers advise clients of their legal
rights and obligations and suggest particular
courses of action in personal and business
People in these types of jobs must be
tactful, compassionate, and sensitive to the
needs of others. They must possess a manner
that inspires trust and confidence. In fact,
religious workers, lawyers, and others are
bound by strict rules of ethics and may not
disclose matters discussed in confidence with
clients. Patience also is a vital personal char­
acteristic as clients often are confused, hesi­
tant, fearful, or angry. They may not fully
understand their circumstances and may have
difficulty expressing themselves.
Other workers described in this section
conduct basic and applied research in the
social sciences. They deal primarily with
data and things rather than people. They use
established methods to assemble a body of
fact and theory that contributes to human
knowledge. Social scientists study all aspects
of human society—from an anthropologist
studying the origins of the human race or a
historian studying an ancient civilization to a
political scientist analyzing the results of
presidential elections or a market research
analyst conducting a survey of consumer
preferences. Through their studies and analy­
ses, social scientists help educators, govern­
ment officials, business executives, and
others to address broad social, economic, and
political questions.
The ability to think logically and methodi­
cally and to analyze data is essential to social
science research. Other important personal
characteristics include objectivity, openmind­
edness, and systematic work habits. Good
oral and written communication skills also
are necessary.
While training and educational require­

ments vary among the occupations in this
cluster, advanced training leading to a doc­
toral or equivalent professional degree is of­
ten necessary for employment in certain
settings and for “ professional” recognition.
Even in the case of occupations for which
entry is possible with a bachelor’s degree, for
example, advancement prospects may be
quite limited for those without graduate train­
ing. In terms of training requirements, these
occupations demand a greater commitment
than most occupations in the Handbook.
The Handbook statements that follow in­
clude more detailed information on the nature
of the work, employment, and training re­
quirements. Information on earnings, work­
ing conditions, and job outlook also is


constructing buildings, and administering
Because social needs and attitudes are con­
tinually changing, the legal system that regu­
lates our social, political, and economic
relationships also changes. Lawyers, also
called attorneys, link the legal system and
society. To perform this role, they must un­
derstand the world around them and be sensi­
tive to the numerous aspects of society that
the law touches. They must comprehend not
only the words of a particular statute, but the
human circumstances it addresses as well.
As our laws grow more complex, the work
of lawyers takes on broader significance.
Laws affect our lives in new ways as the
legal system takes on regulatory tasks in
areas such as transportation, energy conser­
vation, consumer protection, and social wel­
fare. Lawyers interpret these laws, rulings,
and re g u la tio n s for in d iv id u a ls and

(D.O.T. 110 and 090.227-010)

Laws affect every aspect of our society.
They regulate the entire spectrum of relation­
ships among individuals, groups, businesses,
and governments. They define rights as well
as restrictions, covering such diverse activi­
ties as judging and punishing criminals,
granting patents, drawing up business con­
tracts, paying taxes, settling labor disputes,

Nature of the Work
In our society, lawyers act as both advo­
cates and advisors. As advocates, they repre­
sent opposing parties in criminal and civil
trials by presenting arguments that support
their side in a court of law. As advisors,
lawyers counsel their clients as to their legal
rights and obligations and suggest particular


98/Occupational Outlook Handbook

courses of action in business and personal
Whether acting as advocates or advisors,
nearly all attorneys have certain activities in
common. Probably the most fundamental ac­
tivities are the interpretation of the law and
its application to a specific situation. This
requires in-depth research into the purposes
behind certain laws and into judicial deci­
sions that have applied those laws to circum­
stances similar to those currently faced by the
attorney. Based on this research, the attorney
decides what action would best serve the
interests of the client.
Lawyers must deal with people in a cour­
teous, efficient manner and not disclose mat­
ters discussed in confidence with clients.
Because lawyers hold positions of great re­
sponsibility, they must always adhere to strict
rules of ethics.
Finally, most lawyers write reports or
briefs which must communicate clearly and
precisely. The more detailed aspects of a
lawyer’s job depend upon his or her field and
While all licensed attorneys are allowed to
represent parties in court, some appear in
court more frequently than others. A few
lawyers specialize in trial work. These law­
yers usually have an exceptional ability to
think quickly, speak with ease and authority,
and are thoroughly familiar with courtroom
strategy. Trial lawyers still spend consider­
able time outside the courtroom conducting
research, interviewing clients and witnesses,
and handling other details in preparation for
Although some lawyers deal with many
different areas of the law, a significant num­
ber specialize in one branch of law, such as
admiralty, probate, or international law.
Communications lawyers, for example, may
represent radio and television stations in their
dealings with the Federal Communications
Commission (FCC). They help established
stations prepare and file license renewal ap­
plications, employment reports, and other
documents required by the FCC on a regular
basis. They also keep their clients informed
of changes in FCC regulations. Communica­
tions lawyers help individuals or corporations
buy or sell a station or establish a new one.
Lawyers who represent public utilities be­
fore the Federal Power Commission and other
regulatory agencies handle matters involving
utility rates. They develop strategy, argu­
ments, and testimony; prepare cases for pre­
sentation; and argue the case. These lawyers
also inform clients about changes in regula­
tions and give advice about the legality of their
Still other lawyers advise insurance com­
panies about the legality of insurance transac­
tions. They write insurance policies to
conform with the law and to protect compa­
nies from unwarranted claims. They review
claims filed against insurance companies and
represent companies in court.
Private practitioners specializing in other
areas deal with wills, trusts, contracts, mort­

gages, titles, and leases. Some manage a
person’s property as trustee or see that provi­
sions of a client’s will are carried out as
executor. An increasing number handle only
public interest cases—civil or criminal—
which have a potential impact extending well
beyond the individual client. Attorneys hope
to use these cases as a vehicle for legal and
social reform.
A single client may employ a lawyer full
time. Known as house counsel, this lawyer
usually advises a company about legal ques­
tions that arise from business activities. Such
questions might involve patents, government
regulations, a business contract with another
company, or a collective bargaining agree­
ment with a union.
Attorneys employed at the various levels
of government constitute still another cate­
gory. Criminal lawyers may work for the
State attorney general, a prosecutor or public
defender, or the court itself. At the Federal
level, attorneys may investigate cases for the
Justice Department or other agencies. Law­
yers at every government level help develop
laws and programs; draft legislation; establish
enforcement procedures; and argue cases.
Other lawyers work for legal aid soci­
eties—private, nonprofit corporations estab­
lished to serve poor people in particular
areas. These lawyers generally handle civil
rather than criminal cases.
A relatively small number of attorneys
work in law schools. Most are faculty mem­
bers who specialize in one or more subjects,
while others serve as administrators. Some
work full time in nonacademic settings and
teach part time. (For additional information,
see the statement on college and university
faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Some attorneys use their legal background
in administrative or managerial positions in
various departments of large corporations. A
transfer from a corporation’s legal department
to another department often is viewed as a
way to gain administrative experience and
rise in the ranks of management.
People may use their legal background as
journalists, management consultants, finan­
cial analysts, insurance claim adjusters, real
estate appraisers, lobbyists, tax collectors,
probation officers, and credit investigators. A
legal background also is an asset for political
office seekers.

Working Conditions
Lawyers do most of their work in offices
and courtrooms. They sometimes meet in
clients’ homes or places of business and,
when necessary, in hospitals or prisons. They
frequently travel to attend meetings, to gather
evidence, and to appear before courts, legis­
lative bodies, and other authorities.
Salaried lawyers in government and private
firms generally have structured work sched­
ules. Law teachers, however, whose sched­
ules are more flexible, may divide their time
among teaching, research, and administrative
responsibilities. Independent lawyers may
work irregular hours while conducting re­

search, conferring with clients, or preparing
briefs during nonoffice hours. Lawyers gen­
erally work long hours and are under particu­
larly heavy pressure when a case is being
tried. Preparation for court includes keeping
abreast of the latest laws and judicial deci­
Although work generally is not seasonal,
the work of tax lawyers may be an exception.
Since lawyers in private practice can deter­
mine their own workload, many stay in prac­
tice well beyond the usual retirement age.

About 425,000 persons worked as lawyers
in 1980. About three-fourths of them prac­
ticed privately, either in law firms or in solo
practices. Most of the remaining lawyers
held positions in Federal, State, or local gov­
ernment. Although lawyers are concentrated
in the Departments of Justice, Treasury, and
Defense, they work for many other Federal
agencies. Others are employed as house
counsel by public utilities, transportation
firms, banks, insurance companies, real es­
tate agencies, manufacturing firms, welfare
and religious organizations, and other busi­
ness firms and nonprofit organizations. Over
8,000 lawyers taught full or part time in law
schools. Some salaried lawyers also have in­
dependent practices; others do legal work
part time while in another occupation.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
To practice law in the courts of any State,
a person must be admitted to its bar. Appli­
cants for admission to the bar must pass a
written examination; however, a few States
drop this requirement for graduates of their
own law schools. Lawyers who have been
admitted to the bar in one State occasionally
may be admitted in another State without
taking an examination if they meet that
State’s standards of good moral character and
have a specified period of legal experience.
Federal courts and agencies set their own
qualifications for those practicing before
To qualify for the bar examination in most
States, an applicant must complete at least 3
years of college and graduate from a law
school approved by the American Bar Asso­
ciation (ABA) or the proper State authorities.
(ABA approval signifies that the law school
meets certain standards developed by the as­
sociation to promote quality legal education.
With certain exceptions, graduates of nonapproved schools generally are restricted to tak­
ing the bar examination and practicing in the
State in which the school is located.) A few
States accept the study of law in a law office
or in combination with study in a law school;
only California accepts the study of law by
correspondence as qualification for taking the
bar exam. Several States require registration
and approval of students by the State Board
of Examiners, either before they enter law
school or during the early years of legal

Social Scientists, Social Workers, Religious Workers, and Lawyers/99

Although there is no nationwide bar exam,
44 States and the District of Columbia par­
ticipate in the Multistate Bar Examination
(MBE). The MBE, covering issues of broad
interest since the early 1970’s, is given in
addition to the State bar exam. States vary in
their treatment of MBE scores.
The required college and law school edu­
cation usually takes 7 years of full-time study
after high school—4 years of undergraduate
study followed by 3 years in law school.
Although some law schools accept a very
small number of students after 3 years of
college, most require applicants to have a
bachelor’s degree. To meet the needs of stu­
dents who can attend only part time, a num­
ber of law schools have night or part-time
divisions which usually require 4 years of
study. In 1979, about one-eighth of all
graduates of ABA-approved schools were
part-time students.
Competition for admission to law school is
intense. Enrollments rose very rapidly during
the early 1970’s, with applicants far outnum­
bering available seats. Competition for ad­
mission remains stiff, especially in more
prestigious law schools. Although enroll­
ments are expected to level off during the
1980’s, admission to law school will remain
the first of several hurdles for prospective
Preparation for a career as a lawyer really
begins in college. Although there is no rec­
ommended “ prelaw” major, the choice of
undergraduate program is important. Certain
courses and activities are desirable because
they give the student the skills needed to
succeed both in law school and in the profes­
sion. Essential skills—the ability to write, to
read and analyze, to think logically, and to
communicate verbally—are learned during
high school and college. An undergraduate
program that cultivates these skills while
broadening the student’s view of the world is
best. Majors in the social sciences, natural
sciences, and humanities all are suitable, al­
though a student should not specialize too
narrowly. Regardless of one’s major, courses
in English, foreign language, public speak­
ing, government, philosophy, history, eco­
nomics, and mathematics, among others, are
highly recommended.
Students interested in a particular aspect of
law may find related courses helpful; for
example, engineering and science courses for
the prospective patent attorney, and account­
ing for the future tax lawyer. In addition,
typing is advisable simply for convenience in
law school.
Acceptance by most law schools depends
on the applicant’s ability to demonstrate an
aptitude for the study of law, usually through
good grades and the Law School Admission
Test (LSAT), administered by the Educa­
tional Testing Service. In 1980, the Ameri­
can Bar Association had approved 170 law
schools. Others were approved by State au­
thorities only.
During the first year or year and a half of
law school, students generally study funda­

mental courses such as constitutional law,
contracts, property law, and judicial proce­
dures. In the remaining time, they may elect
specialized courses in fields such as tax, la­
bor, or corporation law. Practical experience
often is acquired by participation in schoolsponsored legal aid or legal clinic activities,
in the school’s moot court competition in
which students conduct practice trials under
the supervision of experienced lawyers and
judges, and through writing on legal issues
for the school’s law journal.
A number of law schools have clinical
programs where students gain legal exper­
ience through practice trials and law school
projects under the supervision of practicing
lawyers and law school faculty. Law school
clinical programs might include work in legal
aid clinics, for example, or on the staff of
legislative committees. Part-time or summer
clerkships in law firms, government agen­
cies, and corporate legal departments also
provide experience that can be extremely
valuable later on. Such training can provide
references or lead directly to a job after
graduation, and can help students decide
what kind of practice best suits them. Clerk­
ships also may be an important source of
financial aid.
Graduates receive the degree of juris doc­
tor (J.D.) or bachelor of law (LL.B.) as the
first professional degree. Advanced law de­
grees are desirable for those planning to spe­
cialize, do research, or teach. Some law
students pursue joint degree programs, which
generally require an additional year or more.
Joint degree programs are offered in a num­
ber of areas, including law and business ad­
ministration, law and public administration,
and law and social work.
After graduation, lawyers must keep in­
formed about legal and nonlegal develop­
ments that affect their practice. An attorney
representing electronics manufacturers, for
example, must follow trade journals and the
latest Federal regulations. Attorneys in the
State Department must remain well versed in
current events and international law, while
divorce lawyers read about the changing role
of the family in modem society. Many law
schools and State and local bar associations
provide continuing education courses that
help lawyers stay abreast of recent develop­
The practice of law involves a great deal
of responsibility. Persons planning careers in
law should like to work with people and be
able to win the respect and confidence of
their clients, associates, and the public. In­
tegrity and honesty are vital personal quali­
ties. Intellectual capacity and reasoning
ability are essential to analyze complex cases
and reach sound conclusions. At times, law­
yers need creativity when handling new and
unique legal problems.
Most beginning lawyers start in salaried
positions. Newly hired salaried attorneys
usually act as research assistants to exper­
ienced lawyers or judges. After several years
of progressively responsible salaried employ­

ment, many lawyers go into practice for
themselves. Some lawyers, after years of
practice, become judges.

Job Outlook
Employment of lawyers grew very rapidly
during the late 1970’s. Faster-than-average
growth is expected to continue through the
1980’s as increased population, business ac­
tivity, and government regulation help sus­
tain the strong demand for attorneys. This
demand also will be spurred by the growth of
legal action in such areas as consumer pro­
tection, the environment, and safety, and an
anticipated increase in the use of legal ser­
vices by middle-income groups through pre­
paid legal service programs. As colleges and
universities add law courses to their liberal
arts, business, and other curriculums, addi­
tional lawyers may be needed to teach part
time. Most jobs, however, will be created by
the need to replace lawyers who die, retire,
or leave the occupation for other reasons.
Despite strong growth in the demand for
lawyers, the sizable number of law school
graduates entering the job market each year
has created keen competition for jobs. While
the number of graduates is expected to level
off during the 1980’s, competition for jobs
will remain intense.
Employers will continue to be selective in
hiring new lawyers. Graduates of prestigious
law schools and those who rank high in their
classes should find salaried positions with
law firms, on the legal staffs of corporations
and government agencies, or as law clerks
for judges. Graduates of less prominent
schools and those with lower scholastic rat­
ings will experience some difficulty in find­
ing salaried jobs. Some graduates may be
forced to accept positions for which they are
overqualified or in areas outside their field of
interest. An increasing proportion will enter
fields where legal training is an asset but not
normally a requirement. For example, banks,
insurance firms, real estate companies, gov­
ernment agencies, and other organizations
seek law graduates to fill many administra­
tive, managerial and business positions.
Due to the competition for jobs, a law
graduate’s geographic mobility and exper­
ience assume greater importance. The will­
ingness to relocate may be an advantage in
getting a job. In addition, employers increas­
ingly seek graduates who have advanced law
degrees and experience in a particular field
such as tax, patent, or admiralty law.
Establishing a new practice probably will
continue to be best in small towns and ex­
panding suburban areas, as long as an active
market for legal services already exists. In
such communities, competition is likely to be
less than in big cities and new lawyers may
find it easier to become known to potential
clients; also, rent and other business costs are
somewhat lower. Nevertheless, starting a
new practice will remain an expensive and
risky proposition that should be weighed
carefully. Salaried positions will continue
largely in urban areas where government

100/Occupational Outlook Handbook

agencies, law firms, and big corporations are
Some lawyers are adversely affected by
cyclical swings in the economy. During re­
cessions, the demand for some discretionary
legal services, such as planning estates, draft­
ing wills, and handling real estate transac­
tions, declines. Also, corporations are less
likely to litigate cases when declining sales
and profits result in budgetary restrictions.
Although few lawyers actually lose their jobs
during these times, earnings may decline for
many. Some corporations and law firms will
not hire new attorneys until business im­
proves. Several factors, however, mitigate
the overall impact of recessions on lawyers.
During recessions, individuals and corpora­
tions face other legal problems, such as
bankruptcies and foreclosures, that require
legal action. Furthermore, the continuous
emergence of new laws and legal interpreta­
tions will create new opportunities for law­

In 1980, starting salaries for recent law
school graduates ranged from $10,000 a year
in some small firms to over $35,000 in some
larger ones. Beginning attorneys in private
industry averaged around $21,000. In the
Federal Government, annual starting salaries
for attorneys in early 1981 were about
$18,600 or $22,500, depending upon aca­
demic and personal qualifications. Factors

affecting the salaries offered to new gradu­
ates include: Academic record; type, size,
and location of employers; and the desired
specialized educational background. The
field of law makes a difference, too. Patent
lawyers, for example, generally are among
the highest paid attorneys.
Salaries of experienced attorneys also vary
widely according to the type, size, and loca­
tion of the employers. The average salary of
the most experienced lawyers in private in­
dustry in 1980 was over $60,000. General
attorneys in the Federal Government aver­
aged around $35,000 a year in 1980; the
relatively small number of patent attorneys in
the Federal Government averaged around
Lawyers starting their own practice may
need to work part time in other occupations
during the first years to supplement their
income. Lawyers on salary receive increases
as they assume greater responsibility. In­
comes of lawyers in practice usually grow as
their practices develop. Private practitioners
who are partners in law firms generally earn
more than those who practice alone.

Related Occupations
Legal training is invaluable in many other
occupations. Some of these are abstractors,
arbitrators, conciliators, hearing officers, pat­
ent agents, title examiners, legislative assis­
tants, and FBI special agents.

Sources of Additional Information
Persons considering law as a career will
find information on law schools and prelaw
study in the Prelaw Handbook, published
annually (Law School Admission Services,
Box 944, Princeton, N.J. 08540). Copies
may be available in public or school librar­
ies. In addition, many colleges and universi­
ties have a prelaw advisor who counsels
undergraduates about their course work, the
LSAT, law school applications, and other
Information on law schools, financial aid
for law students, and law as a career is
available from:
Information Services, American Bar Association,
1155 East 60th St., Chicago, 111. 60637. (There
may be a slight charge for publications.)

For information on the placement of law
graduates and the legal profession in general,
National Association for Law Placement, Boston
University School of Law, 207 Bay State Rd.,
Boston, Mass. 02215.

Information on legal education is available
Association of American Law Schools, 1 Dupont
Circle NW., Suite 370, Washington, D.C.20036.

For advice on financial aid, contact a law
school financial aid officer.
The specific requirements for admission to
the bar in a particular State may be obtained
at the State capital from the clerk of the
Supreme Court or the Secretary of the Board
of Bar Examiners.

Social Scientists and Urban Planners
Social scientists study all aspects of human
society—from the fossilized remains of pre­
historic life to newly formed religious groups
or plans for modem mass transportation sys­
tems. Social science research provides in­
sights that help us understand the many
different ways in which individuals and
groups make decisions, exercise power, or
respond to change. Through their studies and
analyses, social scientists and urban planners
assist educators, government officials, busi­
ness leaders, and others to solve social, eco­
nomic, and environmental problems.
Depending on their jobs, social scientists
and urban planners may need a wide range of
personal characteristics. Because they con­
stantly seek new information about people,
things, and ideas, intellectual curiosity and
creativity are two fundamental personal
traits. The ability to think logically and me­
thodically is important to a political scientist
analyzing the differences between dictators
and leaders of democratic governments. The
ability to analyze data is important to an
economist studying proposals for tax reform.
Objectivity, open-mindedness, and systemat­
ic work habits are important in all kinds of
social science research. Perseverance is es­
sential for an anthropologist who might spend
years accumulating artifacts from an ancient
civilization. Emotional stability and sensitiv­
ity are vital to a clinical psychologist work­
ing with mental patients. And, of course,
written and oral communication skills are
essential to all these workers.
Research is a basic activity for many so­
cial scientists. They use established methods
to assemble a body of fact and theory that
contributes to human knowledge. Applied re­
search usually is designed to produce infor­
mation that will enable people to make better
decisions or manage their affairs more effec­
tively. Surveys are widely used to collect
facts, opinions, or other information. Data
collection takes many other forms, however,
including excavations at an archeological
“ dig;” the analysis of historical records and
documents; experiments with human subjects
or lower animals in a psychological laborato­
ry; and the administration of standardized
tests and questionnaires.
Statistics is becoming an essential part of
the training for most social scientists. Math­
ematics is also very important. Indeed, the
widespread introduction of mathematical and
other quantitative research methods in eco­
nomics, political science, market research,
experimental psychology, and other fields is
among the most important changes in recent
times. The ability to use computers for re­
search purposes is a “ must” in many disci­
Regardless of their field of specialization,
social scientists are concerned with some as­

pect of society, culture, or personality. An­
thropologists study the relics and ruins of
ancient civilizations, analyze human physical
characteristics, and compare the customs,
values, and social patterns of different cul­
tures. Economists study the way we use our
resources to produce goods and services.
They compile and analyze data that explain
the costs and benefits of allocating resources
in different ways. Historians describe and
interpret the people, ideas, institutions, and
events of the past and present. Political sci­
entists investigate the ways in which political
power is amassed and used. Studying topics
such as public opinion, political decision­
making, and ideology, they analyze the struc­
ture and operation of governments and
examine informal political entities as well.
Psychologists study human behavior and use
their expertise to counsel or advise individ­
uals or groups. Their research also assists
advertisers, politicians, and others interested
in influencing or motivating people. Sociolo­
gists analyze the behavior of groups or social
systems such as families, neighborhoods, or
Market research analysts conduct surveys
to determine public preferences for a wide
variety of products and services. The results
of their research are used by business, indus­
try, and government in formulating policy.
Urban and regional planners develop com­
prehensive plans and programs for the use of
land for industrial and public sites.
Besides the occupations described in this
section, a number of related fields are cov­
ered elsewhere in the Handbook. See the
statements on lawyers, city managers, statis­
ticians, mathematicians, programmers, sys­
tems analysts, reporters and correspondents,
social workers, college and university facul­
ty, college student personnel workers, and
counseling occupations classified under
teachers, librarians, and counselors.
The Ph.D. is a minimum requirement for
most positions in colleges and universities
and is important for advancement to many
top level nonacademic posts. Graduates with
master’s degrees have more limited profes­
sional opportunities, although the situation
varies a great deal by field. For example, job
prospects for master’s degree holders in urban
and regional planning are much brighter than
for master’s degree holders in history. Bache­
lor’s degree holders have even more limited
opportunities and in most social science oc­
cupations do not qualify for “professional”
positions. The bachelor’s degree does, how­
ever, provide a suitable background for many
different kinds of “junior professional” jobs,
such as research assistant, administrative
aide, or management trainee.
An estimated 264,000 persons were em­
ployed as social scientists and urban planners

in 1980. The interdisciplinary nature of the
various fields makes it difficult to determine
the exact size of each profession. Psychology
and economics are the largest fields; anthro­
pology is the smallest.
About one-third of these workers are em­
ployed by colleges and universities, where
they characteristically combine teaching with
research and consulting. The importance of
the academic world as a source of employ­
ment varies widely by discipline, however.
For example, a large proportion of urban and
regional planners, market research analysts,
and psychologists work in nonacademic jobs.
The predominance of academic employ­
ment in such disciplines as history and soci­
ology may cause problems for these special­
ists during the 1980’s as college enrollments
decline. Compared to the past, few academic
positions will be available, and efforts are
underway to acquaint new graduates in these
fields with alternative or nontraditional career
opportunities in areas such as program ad­
ministration and evaluation. Such positions
are available in Federal, State, and local gov­
ernment agencies; research organizations and
consulting firms; hospitals and other health
facilities; and labor unions, trade associa­
tions, nonprofit organizations, and business
The number of advanced degrees awarded
in the social sciences through the 1980’s is
expected to exceed job openings and produce
a highly competitive outlook for professional
positions traditionally requiring a doctorate.
Job prospects are better in some disciplines
than in others. As in the past, top graduates
of leading universities will have a decided
advantage in competing for jobs, especially
for the limited number of academic jobs.
Other considerations that affect employment
opportunities in these occupations include de­
gree level; field of specialization; specific
skills and experience; desired work setting;
salary requirements; and geographic mobil­
ity. More detailed information about the job
outlook in these individual occupations ap­
pears in the following statements.

(D .O .T . 055.067 and 090.227-010)

Nature of the Work
Anthropologists study people—their evolu­
tion and physical characteristics, and the cul­
tures they create. The domain is broad;
anthropologists study people’s traditions, be­
liefs, customs, languages, material posses­
sions, social relationships, and value systems.
They generally concentrate in one of four

102/Occupational Outlook Handbook

Cleaning a specimen from a tar pit is painstaking work.

subfields: Cultural anthropology, archeology,
linguistics, or physical anthropology.
Most anthropologists specialize in cultural
anthropology, sometimes called ethnology.
They study the customs, culture, and social
life of groups, and may spend months or
years living with a group to learn about its
way of life. These cultural anthropologists
may learn another language while observing
and studying a group. Ethnographic research
may focus on a particular institution or aspect
of group life such as kinship, personality,
art, law, religion, economics, or ecological
adaptation. The field lends itself to compara­
tive studies, such as those on different soci­
eties’ attitudes towards old age. In recent
years, anthropologists have ventured beyond
their traditional concern with nonindustrialized societies. More and more, their re­
search deals with groups found in modem

urban societies: Ghetto inhabitants, drug ad­
dicts, politicians, and business leaders, for
Archeologists study cultures from artifacts
and other remains in the ground. Using sci­
entific techniques for dating and analyzing
everything they find, archeologists gather and
examine the remains of homes, tools, cloth­
ing, ornaments, and other evidences of hu­
man life and activity to reconstruct the
inhabitants’ history and customs. Their work
requires extensive knowledge of earth sci­
ence, geology, biology, and paleontology
(the study of fossil remains). Archeological
fieldwork takes place wherever people have
once lived. Sites in all parts of the world
span many centuries—from ancient times up
to the present. For example, extensive exca­
vations have provided clues about the social
and economic life of ancient Greek, Roman,

and Middle Eastern civilizations. In recent
years, support has grown for archeological
study of relatively modem communities—
American colonial settlements and 19th cen­
tury industrial towns, for example.
Linguistic anthropologists study the role of
language in various cultures. They examine
and relate the sounds and structure of a soci­
ety’s language to people’s behavior and
thought patterns. Their research tells us, for
example, that the way people use language
may influence the way they think about
Physical anthropologists are concerned
with humans as biological organisms. They
study the evolution of the human body and
look for the earliest evidence of human life.
They also study the effect of heredity and
environment on different populations. Their
work requires extensive training in anatomy,
biology, chemistry, genetics, and the study
of primates (the order of mammals that in­
cludes humans, apes, and monkeys). A phys­
ical anthropologist might study children’s
growth and development or investigate the
relationship between diet and health. A
knowledge of body structure enables these
anthropologists to work as consultants on
projects as diverse as the design of military
equipment and the sizing of clothing. Anthropometrists specialize in the measurement of
the body or skeleton.
Anthropologists, like other social scientists,
are research-oriented. Most, however, com­
bine fieldwork or other forms of anthropologi­
cal research with other activities: Teaching,
writing, consulting, or administering pro­
grams. Moreover, a growing number of an­
th ro p o lo g ists sp e c ia liz e in app l ie d
anthropology, they concern themselves first
and foremost with practical applications for
research findings. Medical anthropologists,
for example, may study cultural attitudes to­
wards medicine and health care to help formu­
late a health program for a particular group.
Some medical schools hire medical anthro­
pologists as instructors. Urban anthropolo­
gists study complex, industrialized societies
and examine the influence of city life upon
people and their institutions. Some work with
architects, designers, and land use experts in
planning community development projects.
Others advise social service agencies; their
cross-cultural insights enable them to help
improve the delivery of health, counseling,
nutritional, and other services to particular
population groups. Still other anthropologists
use their knowledge of ethnic customs and
values to help educators improve the effective­
ness of classroom teaching and increase paren­
tal involvement. The advice of anthropologists
has been sought in the planning of bilingual
education programs, for example.
Preparing cultural environmental impact
statements is an increasingly important activ­
ity for anthropologists, as it is for other social
scientists. In many communities, environmen­
tal protection and historic preservation laws
require local authorities to identify historic
areas which may be affected by development

Social Scientists, Social Workers, Religious Workers, and Lawyers/103

or renovation plans. Typically, those propos­
ing to construct a new building or demolish
an old one are required to suggest ways of
avoiding or lessening any adverse impacts on
the environment. Generally, the research and
writing involved in preparing an impact state­
ment are done on a consultant basis by an­
thropologists associated with museums, col­
leges and universities, research institutes, or
private consulting firms. In some cases, an­
thropologists are hired by highway commis­
sions or planning departments to prepare
impact statements.

Working Conditions
Dividing their time among teaching, re­
search, and administration, anthropologists
employed by colleges and universities have
flexible work schedules. On the other hand,
anthropologists working in government agen­
cies and private firms have much more struc­
tured work schedules. Anthropologists often
work alone behind a desk—reading, analyz­
ing data, and writing up the results of their
research. Many experience the pressures of
deadlines, tight schedules, and heavy work­
loads, and sometimes must work overtime.
Numerous telephone calls, letters, special re­
quests for information, meetings, or confer­
ences may interrupt their routine.
When anthropologists participate in field
research, working conditions differ, for they
are an integral part of a research team. Field­
work may require traveling to remote areas,
working under adverse weather conditions,
living in primitive housing, and adjusting to
different cultural environments. Physical
stamina is important because anthropologists
doing fieldwork may have to lift equipment,
walk considerable distances, and spend long
hours digging.

An estimated 7,200 persons worked as an­
thropologists in 1980. About 4 out of 5 anthro­
pologists work in colleges and universities,
where they teach and do research and consult­
ing work. (More detailed information may be
found in the Handbook statemen* on college
and university faculty.)
The Federal Government employs several
hundred anthropologists, chiefly in the De­
partments of Interior, State, Agriculture, and
the Army, and in the Smithsonian Institution.
Anthropologists who work for State and local
governments are primarily involved in com­
munity development planning, health plan­
ning, archeological research, and historic
preservation. A number of them have admin­
istrative jobs in museums.
Some anthropologists work for consulting
firms or operate their own consulting ser­
vices. They conduct research and prepare
proposals for government agencies, commu­
nity organizations, citizens’ groups, and busi­
ness firms. Some consultants specialize in
overseas development projects.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Persons who want to become anthropolo­
gists should obtain the Ph.D. degree. Col­
lege graduates often get temporary positions
and assistantships to work on advanced de­
grees. A master’s degree, plus field experi­
ence, is sufficient for many beginning profes­
sional positions, but promotion to top posi­
tions generally is reserved for individuals
who have a Ph.D. degree. Colleges and uni­
versities require a Ph.D. for permanent
teaching appointments. Persons with a mas­
ter’s or bachelor’s degree in anthropology
may qualify for research and administrative
positions in government and private firms.
A student interested in anthropology
should have a broad background in the social
and physical sciences and in languages.
Those planning to become physical anthro­
pologists should concentrate on biological
sciences. Aspiring archeologists should sup­
plement their studies with courses in the
physical sciences. Cultural anthropology, on
the other hand, requires more courses in so­
cial science and the humanities. Mathemat­
ics, statistics, and computer science are
increasingly important research tools. Under­
graduates may begin their field training in
archeology by arranging, through their uni­
versity departments, to accompany expedi­
tions as laborers or to attend field schools
established for training. They may later be­
come supervisors in charge of the digging or
collection of material and finally may direct a
portion of the work of the expedition. Eth­
nologists and linguists usually do fieldwork
independently. Because most anthropologists
base doctoral dissertations on data collected
through research, they are experienced fieldworkers by the time they earn the Ph.D.
The Federal Government generally re­
quires a college degree with 24 semester
hours in anthropology for entry level posi­
tions as anthropologists and 20 semester
hours in anthropology, including one course
in American archeology, for archeologists.
However, because competition for Federal
jobs is keen, additional education or experi­
ence may be required.
Over 300 colleges and universities have
bachelor’s degree programs in anthropology;
some 160 offer master’s degree programs and
about 90, doctoral programs. The choice of a
graduate school is very important. Students
interested in museum work should select a
school associated with a museum that has
anthropological collections. Similarly, those
interested in archeology either should choose
a university that offers opportunities for sum­
mer experience in fieldwork or attend an
archeological field school elsewhere during
summer vacations.
Interdisciplinary studies are an important
part of an anthropologist’s professional train­
ing, for anthropology embraces all aspects of
life and overlaps many other disciplines, each
with its own tradition and body of knowl­

edge. To bring anthropological insights to
bear on projects centered in another disci­
pline—bilingual education is a good exam­
ple—anthropologists may have to learn
theory and techniques from another field. For
this reason, some departments of anthropolo­
gy are combined with other departments such
as sociology or geography.
Some anthropology students broaden their
employment possibilities by pursuing courses
or degrees in other areas including law,
medicine, public administration, and educa­
Anthropologists should have a special in­
terest in natural history and social studies and
enjoy reading, research, and writing. Cre­
ativity and intellectual curiosity are essential
to success in this field. In addition, anthro­
pologists must be objective and systematic in
their work. Perseverance is essential, particu­
larly for archeologists who may spend years
accumulating and piecing together artifacts
from ancient civilizations. Archeological
fieldwork also may require manual dexterity,
as well as the ability to analyze data and
think logically. Anthropologists must speak
and write well to communicate the results of
their work effectively.

Job Outlook
Employment of anthropologists is expected
to increase about as fast as the average for all
occupations through the 1980’s. However,
nearly all growth will occur in nonacademic
jobs—notably in consulting firms, research
institutes, corporations, and Federal, State,
and local government agencies. Among the
factors contributing to this growth is environ­
mental, historic, and cultural resource preser­
vation legislation. This legislation has
increased the demand for anthropologists to
write environmental impact statements. Dur­
ing the mid-1970’s, rapid growth in this de­
mand resulted in a shortage of trained
archeologists. Those who had no more than a
master’s degree were being hired to work full
time or on a temporary contract basis for
consulting firms, government agencies, aca­
demic institutions, and museums. However,
as more anthropologists have sought work in
the fields of environmental protection and
historic preservation, the Ph.D. is increasing­
ly required. Growing interest in ethnic stud­
ies may spur demand for anthropological
research in that area as well.
College and university teaching will re­
main the largest area of employment for an­
thropologists. The basic determinant of
demand for college faculty is enrollment.
College enrollments are expected to decline
during the 1980’s. This almost certainly
would mean no growth and perhaps even
some decrease in employment of college fac­
ulty over the period.
The number of qualified anthropologists
seeking to enter the field is expected to ex­
ceed available positions. As a result, doctor­
ate holders may face keen competition
through the 1980’s, particularly in colleges
and universities. Some are expected to accept

104/Occupational Outlook Handbook

temporary appointments with little hope of
tenure. Graduates with master’s degrees are
expected to face very keen competition, al­
though some may find jobs in junior colleges
and government and private agencies. Bache­
lor’s degree holders who find jobs as anthro­
pologists may have very limited advancement
opportunities. Some teaching positions may
be available in high schools for those who
meet State certification requirements.
Overall, specialties offering the best em­
ployment prospects include archeology and
physical, medical, and urban anthropology.

The results of a 1980 American Anthropo­
logical Association survey of departments of
anthropology included data on faculty sala­
ries. The average beginning salary for new
faculty members without full-time teaching
experience ranged from about $15,600 to
$19,500 for persons with a Ph.D., and from
$13,500 to $14,500 for persons without a
Ph.D. Faculty salaries varied widely but gen­
erally were lower in departments granting
only bachelor’s degrees than in departments
granting graduate degrees. Most professors
earned from $20,000 to over $30,000 a year;
associate professors, $18,000 to $30,000; as­
sistant professors, $15,000 to $27,000; and
instructors, $12,000 to $18,000.
The Federal Government recognizes edu­
cation and experience in certifying applicants
for entry level positions. Anthropologists
having a bachelor’s degree could begin at
about $12,300 or $15,200 a year in early
1981, depending upon the applicant’s aca­
demic record and experience. The starting
salary for those having a master’s degree
generally was $18,600 a year; for those hav­
ing a Ph.D., $22,500. Anthropologists in the
Federal Government averaged around
$34,800 a year in 1980; archeologists,
around $20,600.
Many anthropologists in colleges and uni­
versities supplement their regular salaries
with earnings from other sources such as
summer teaching, research grants, and con­
sulting fees.

Related Occupations
Like anthropologists, people in several
other occupations are concerned with under­
standing how social institutions operate.
Among them are economists, geographers,
historians, political scientists, psychologists,
sociologists, urban planners, market research
analysts, and newspaper reporters.
Knowledge of physical, environmental,
and biological science often is important to
anthropologists. Others whose work requires
training in one or more of these fields include
geologists, geophysicists, meteorologists,
oceanographers, astronomers, chemists,
physicists, biochemists, life scientists, and
soil scientists.

Sources of Additional Information
For information about careers (including
opportunities for contract work in archeology

and historic preservation and State employ­
ment opportunities for archeologists); job
openings; grants and fellowships; and schools
that offer training in anthropology, contact:
The American Anthropological Association and
the Society for American Archeology, 1703 New
Hampshire Ave. NW., Washington, D.C. 20009.

For information on careers and fieldwork
opportunities in archeology, contact:
The Archeological Institute of America, 53 Park
Place, New York, N.Y. 10007.

(D .O .T. 050 and 090.227-010)

Nature of the Work
Economists study the way a society uses
scarce resources such as land, labor, raw
materials, and machinery to provide goods
and services. They analyze the results of
their research to determine the costs and
benefits of making, distributing, and using
resources in a particular way. Their research
might focus on topics such as energy costs,
inflation, business cycles, unemployment,
tax policy, or farm prices.
Some economists who are primarily theo­
reticians may develop theories through the
use of mathematical models to explain the
causes of inflation. Most economists, howev­
er, are concerned with practical applications
of economic policy in a particular area, such
as finance, labor, agriculture, transportation,
energy, or health. They use their understand­
ing of economic relationships to advise busi­
ness firms, insurance companies, banks,
securities firms, industry associations, labor,
government, unions, and others.
Depending on the topic under study,
economists may devise methods and proce­
dures for obtaining data they need. For ex­
ample, sampling techniques may be used to
conduct a survey, and econometric modeling
techniques may be used to develop projec­
tions. Preparing reports usually is an impor­
tant part of the economist’s job. He or she
may be called upon to review and analyze all
the relevant data, prepare tables and charts,
and write up the results in clear, concise
Being able to present economic and statisti­
cal concepts in a meaningful way is particular­
ly important for economists whose research is
policy directed. Economists who work for
business firms may be asked to provide man­
agement with information to make decisions
on marketing and pricing of company pro­
ducts; to look at the advisability of adding new
lines of merchandise, opening new branches,
or diversifying the company’s operations; to
analyze the effect of changes in the tax laws;
or to prepare economic and business forecasts.
Business economists working for firms that
carry on operations abroad may be asked to
prepare forecasts of foreign economic condi­

Economists who work for government
agencies assess economic conditions in the
United States and abroad and estimate the
economic impact of specific changes in legis­
lation or public policy. They study such ques­
tions as the effect on youth unemployment of
changes in minimum wage legislation, for
example. Most government economists are in
the fields of agriculture, business, finance,
labor, transportation, urban economics, or in­
ternational trade. For example, economists in
the U.S. Department of Commerce study
domestic production, distribution, and con­
sumption of commodities or services; those in
the Federal Trade Commission prepare indus­
try analyses to assist in enforcing Federal
statutes designed to eliminate unfair, decep­
tive, or monopolistic practices in interstate
commerce; and those in the Bureau of Labor
Statistics analyze data on prices, wages, em­
ployment, and productivity.
Economists in colleges and universities
teach the theories, principles, and methods of
economics. In addition, economics faculty
members conduct research, write, and engage
in other nonteaching activities. They fre­
quently are asked to serve as consultants to
business firms, government agencies, and in­
dividuals. (For more information on jobs in
colleges and universities, see the Handbook
statement on college and university faculty.)

Working Conditions
Economists employed by colleges and uni­
versities have flexible work schedules, divid­
ing their time among teaching, research, and
administrative responsibilities. Economists
working for government agencies and private
firms, on the other hand, have much more
structured work schedules. They often work
alone with only reports, statistical charts,
computers, and calculators for company. Or
they may be an integral part of a research
team on some assigned projects. Most econo­
mists work under pressure of deadlines, tight
schedules, and heavy workloads, and some­
times must work overtime. Their routine may
be interrupted by telephone calls, letters, spe­
cial requests for data, meetings, or confer­
ences. Travel may be necessary to collect
data or attend conferences.

An estimated 44,000 persons worked as
economists in 1980. More than one-third of
all economists were employed in colleges and
universities, while another one-third worked
for government agencies, including a wide
range of Federal agencies. Private industry,
including manufacturing firms, banks, insur­
ance companies, securities and investment
companies, economic research firms, and
management consulting firms, employed
most of the remaining economists. Some
economists run their own consulting busi­
nesses. A number of economists combine a
full-time job in government, business, or an
academic institution with part-time or con­
sulting work in another setting.

Social Scientists, Social Workers, Religious Workers, and Lawyers/105

Economists work in all large cities and
university towns. The largest numbers are in
New York City and Washington, D.C. Some
work abroad for companies with major inter­
national operations; for the Department of
State and other U.S. Government agencies;
and for international organizations.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Economists must thoroughly understand
economic theory and mathematical methods of
economic analysis. Since many beginning jobs
in government and business involve the collec­
tion and compilation of data, a thorough
knowledge of basic statistical procedures is
required. In addition to courses in macroeco­
nomics, microeconomics, econometrics, and
business and economic statistics, training in
computer science is highly recommended.
At the undergraduate level, courses in the
following subjects also are valuable: Business
cycles; economic and business history; eco­
nomic development of selected areas; money
and banking; international economics; public
finance; industrial organization; labor eco­
nomics; comparative economic systems; eco­
nomics of national planning; urban economic
problems and policies; marketing; consumer
analysis; organizational behavior; and busi­
ness law.
A bachelor’s degree with a major in eco­
nomics is sufficient for many beginning re­
search, administrative, management trainee,
and business sales jobs. However, graduate
training increasingly is required for advance­
ment to more responsible positions. Areas of
specialization at the graduate level include
advanced economic theory, comparative eco­
nomic systems and planning, econometrics,
economic development, economic history,
environmental and natural resource econom­
ics, history of economic thought, industrial
organization, institutional economics, inter­
national economics, labor economics, mone­
tary economics, public finance, regional and
urban economics, and social policy. Students
should select graduate schools strong in spe­
cialties in which they are interested. Some
schools help graduate students find intern­
ships or part-time employment in government
agencies or economic research firms. Work
experience and contacts can be useful in test­
ing career preferences and learning how the
job market for economists really works.
In the Federal Government, candidates for
entrance positions generally need a college
degree with a minimum of 21 semester hours
of economics and 3 hours of statistics, ac­
counting, or calculus. However, because
competition is keen, additional education or
experience may be required.
A master’s degree generally is the minimum
requirement for a job as a college instructor in
many junior colleges and small 4-year schools.
In some colleges and universities, however, a
Ph.D. is necessary for appointment as a teach­
ing assistant or instructor. The Ph.D. is re­
quired for a professorship and for tenure, which
is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain.

Economists use diagrams and charts to explain their findings.

In government, industry, research organi­
zations, and consulting firms, economists
who have a graduate degree usually can
qualify for more responsible research and
administrative positions. A Ph.D. may be
necessary for top positions in some organiza­
tions. Experienced economists may advance
to managerial or executive positions in
banks, industrial concerns, trade associ­
ations, and other organizations to formulate
business and administrative policy.

because economists may spend long hours on
independent study and problem solving. So­
ciability enables economists to work easily
with others. Economists must be objective
and systematic in their work and must be
able to express themselves effectively both
orally and in writing. Creativity and intellec­
tual curiosity are essential to success in this
field, just as they are in other areas of scien­
tific endeavor.

About 1,600 colleges and universities offer
bachelor’s degree programs in economics;
about 270, master’s; and about 120, doctoral

Job Outlook

Persons who consider careers as econo­
mists should be able to work accurately with
detail since much time is spent on data analy­
sis. Patience and persistence are necessary

Employment of economists is expected to
grow faster than the average for all occupa­
tions through the 1980’s. In addition to
growth in demand for economists, many job
openings will result from transfers, deaths,
retirements, and other separations from the
labor force.

106/Occupational Outlook Handbook

Overall, economists are likely to have
more favorable job prospects than most other
social scientists. Opportunities should be best
for economists in business and industry, re­
search organizations, and consulting firms,
reflecting the complexity of the domestic and
international economies and increased reli­
ance on quantitative methods of analyzing
business trends, forecasting sales, and plan­
ning purchases and production operations.
Employers will seek economists well trained
in econometrics and statistics.
The continued need for economic analyses
by lawyers, accountants, engineers, health
service administrators, urban and regional
planners, and others will also increase the
number of jobs for economists. Their em­
ployment in State and local government
agencies is expected to increase in response
to the heavy responsibilities of local authori­
ties in housing, transportation, environment
and natural resources, health, and employ­
ment development and training. Employment
of economists in the Federal Government is
expected to rise slowly—in line with the rate
of growth projected for the Federal work
force as a whole. Since college enrollments
are expected to decline during the 1980’s,
little or no employment growth is expected in
colleges and universities. As a result, many
highly qualified economists will enter nonacademic positions.
Persons who graduate with a bachelor’s
degree in economics through the 1980’s are
likely to face keen competition. However,
many will find employment in government,
industryj and business as management or
sales trainees, or as research or administra­
tive assistants. Those with strong back­
grounds in mathematics, statistics, and
computer science may be hired by private
firms for market research work. Candidates
who hold master’s degrees in economics face
very strong competition for teaching posi­
tions in colleges and universities, although
some may gain positions in junior and com­
munity colleges. However, they should find
good opportunities for administrative, re­
search, and planning positions in private in­
dustry and government. Those with a strong
background in marketing and finance may
have the best prospects in business. Ph.D .’s
are likely to face competition for academic
positions, although top graduates from lead­
ing universities should have little difficulty in
acquiring teaching jobs. However, a larger
number of Ph.D .’s will be forced to accept
jobs at smaller, less prestigious institutions.
Generalists who have a strong background in
economic theory, mathematics, and statistics
and who can teach an applied area are in
greatest demand. Ph.D.’s should have favor­
able opportunities in government, industry,
research organizations, and consulting firms.
Generally, a strong background in eco­
nomic theory and econometrics provides the
tools for acquiring any specialty within the
field. Those skilled in quantitative techniques
and their application to economic modeling

and forecasting may have the best job

National Association of Business Economists,
28349 Chagrin Blvd., Suite 201, Cleveland, Ohio.

According to an American Economic As­
sociation survey, average salaries of econo­
mists employed in college and university
departments offering the Ph.D. degree were
as follows in academic year 1979-80: Profes­
sors, about $34,100; associate professors,
about $24,600; assistant professors, about
$19,100; and instructors, about $16,100.
Average salaries were lower in departments
that offered only the master’s or bachelor’s
The median base salary of business econo­
mists in 1980 was $38,000, according to a
National Association of Business Economists
survey. About one-half of the respondents
reported additional compensation from pri­
mary employment while about one-third re­
ported income from secondary employment.
Economists in general administration and
economic advisors commanded the highest
salaries while econometricians and teachers
had the lowest base salaries. By industry, the
highest paid business economists were in the
securities and investment and consulting
fields; the lowest were in colleges and uni­
versities and real estate.
The Federal Government recognizes edu­
cation and experience in certifying applicants
for entry level positions. In general, the en­
trance salary for economists having a bache­
lor’s degree was about $12,300 a year in
early 1981; however, those with superior aca­
demic records could begin at about $15,200.
Those having a master’s degree could qualify
for positions at an annual salary of about
$18,600, while those with a Ph.D. could
begin at about $22,500. Economists in the
Federal Government averaged around
$31,400 a year in 1980.
Based on a 1980 State government salary
survey, average salaries for economists (posi­
tions requiring a bachelor’s degree) ranged
from about $14,100 to $19,300; for principal
economists (positions requiring a master’s de­
gree and experience), from $20,500 to
$27,600; and for chiefs of economic research
(positions requiring a master’s degree and
extensive administrative or supervisory ex­
perience), from $25,200 to $33,500.

Related Occupations
Economists are concerned with under­
standing and interpreting financial matters.
Others with jobs in this area include financial
analysts, bank officers, accountants and audi­
tors, underwriters, actuaries, securities sales
workers, appraisers, credit analysts, loan of­
ficers, and budget officers.

Sources of Additional Information
For information on schools offering grad­
uate training in economics, contact:
American Economic Association, 1313 21st Ave­
nue South, Nashville, Tenn. 37212.

For additional information on careers in
business economics, contact:

(D .O .T . 052; 090.227-010;

101; 102.017-010; and

Nature of the Work
History is the record of past events, insti­
tutions, ideas, and people. Historians de­
scribe and analyze the past through writing,
teaching, and research. They use standard
techniques to locate and evaluate historical
evidence. Historians do not accept docu­
ments, records, or spoken accounts at face
value; they study each piece of evidence
carefully to determine whether it is reliable
or genuine. Once they have established the
validity of historical evidence, historians try
to determine the significance of their find­
ings. Sometimes they develop theories to ex­
plain the importance of facts and their
interrelationships. They may, for example,
relate their knowledge of the past to current
events in an effort to explain the present.
Historians almost always specialize. Some
concentrate on the history of a country or a
region; others study a particular period of
time—the 20th century, for example. Al­
though many historians in this country special­
ize in the social or political history of the
United States or modem Europe, a growing
number study African, Latin American,
Asian, or Middle Eastern history. Some spe­
cialize in the history of a field, such as econom­
ics, medicine, philosophy, religion, science,
technology, music, art, military affairs, or the
labor movement. Other fields of specialization
are genealogy, biography, rare books and doc­
uments, and historic preservation.
Most historians teach in colleges or univer­
sities. Like other faculty members, they may
also lecture, write, and do consulting work.
Some historians employed by colleges and
universities do only research. (For more in­
formation on these jobs, see the statement on
college and university faculty elsewhere in
the Handbook.)
A growing number of historians do many
things besides teach, however. Archivists and
Curators work for museums, special librar­
ies, or historical societies, where they typi­
cally identify, classify, and preserve
historical documents, artifacts, objects, and
other material. They may also help scholars
use manuscripts and artifacts and educate the
public through exhibits and publications.
Many do extensive research and writing.
Biographers use diaries, news accounts,
personal correspondence, interviews with rel­
atives and business associates of their sub­
jects, and other sources to obtain information
about individuals. Genealogists use birth,
death, and marriage certificates, court and
military records, wills, records of real estate

Social Scientists, Social Workers, Religious Workers, and Lawyers/107

transactions, and other evidence to trace a
family history.
A growing number of historians are em­
ployed to help protect and preserve historic
buildings and sites. They work to identify
and interpret our historical heritage, which
includes houses, public buildings, factories,
churches, forts, public markets, farms, and
battlefields. Some historians are employed to
manage, interpret, and write about restored
communities and other places of historic in­
terest. Historic preservationists also work to
save city neighborhoods and old business dis­
tricts and maintain unique historic and archi­
tectural qualities. They also inform the public
and government officials of the value of pre­
serving cultural resources and assist in educa­
tional activities for which historic properties
will be used. This work usually means a joint
effort with architects, lawyers, urban plan­
ners, business and community leaders, and
city officials.
Some historians consult with editors, pub­
lishers, and producers of materials for radio,
television, and motion pictures. Others do
research for government agencies, social sci­
ence research firms, and similar organiza­
tions. Public historians help policymakers
address increasingly complex social and economic problems. Such historians might be
asked, for example, to assist in the prepara­
tion of an environmental impact statement or
to provide information for a community de­
velopment plan that involves housing, trans­
portation, energy use, and other vital issues.

Working Conditions
Historians employed in colleges and univer­
sities have flexible work schedules, dividing
their time among teaching, research, and ad­
ministrative responsibilities. Those in govern­
ment agencies and private firms, on the other
hand, have much more structured schedules.
While working alone behind a desk, they read
and write research reports. Many experience
the pressures of deadlines and tight schedules,
and sometimes must work overtime. Their
routine may be interrupted by telephone calls,
letters, special requests for information, meet­
ings, or conferences. Travel may be necessary
to collect information or attend meetings.

An estimated 20,000 persons worked as
professional historians in 1980. Colleges and
universities employed most of them—about
70 percent. Historians also work in archives,
libraries, museums, research and educational
organizations, historical societies, publishing
firms, large corporations, and government
agencies. Historians, archivists, and museum
curators employed in the Federal Govern­
ment work principally in the National Ar­
chives, Smithsonian Institution, General
Services Administration, or in the Depart­
ments of Defense, Interior, and State. Other
Federal employers include the National
Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cen­
tral Intelligence Agency, National Security

Historians need a spirit of intellectual inquiry.

Agency, and the Departments of Agriculture,
Commerce, Energy, Transportation, and
Health and Human Services. A number work
for State and local governments.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Graduate education usually is necessary
for a job in this field. A master’s degree in
history is the minimum requirement for the
position of college instructor. However, a
Ph.D. degree is required for a first appoint­
ment at some institutions of higher education
and for many other entry level positions. A
Ph.D. is required for a professorship or a top
administrative position, and to gain tenure.
However, tenure is becoming increasingly
difficult to acquire.
Even though historians in the Federal
Government generally must have a college
degree with 24 semester hours in history,
requirements vary for certain specialists. For
example, archivists need a college degree
with 18 semester hours in American history
or government and 12 additional hours of
history, American civilization, economics,
political science, or related fields; museum
curators need an advanced degree in museum
studies or in an appropriate field such as art
history, American history or the history of
technology. However, because competition
for Federal jobs is keen, additional education
or experience is most often required. Most
historians in the Federal Government and in
nonprofit organizations have Ph.D. degrees
or their equivalent in training and experience.
Although a bachelor’s degree with a major
in history is sufficient for some beginning
jobs in government—either Federal, State, or
local—advancement opportunities may be
limited for persons without at least a master’s
and preferably a Ph.D. in history. Since be­

ginners likely will collect and preserve his­
torical data, a knowledge of archival work is
Training for historians is available in many
colleges and universities. About 800 schools
offer programs for the bachelor’s degree;
330, the master’s; and about 140, the doctor­
History curriculums in the Nation’s col­
leges and universities are varied; however,
each basically provides training in research
methods, writing, and speaking. These basic
skills are essential for historians in all posi­
tions. Quantitative methods of analysis, in­
cluding statistical and computer techniques,
are increasingly important for historians.
Most doctoral candidates must exhibit com­
petence in at least one foreign language.
Because of the tightening job market in
colleges and universities, more history de­
partments are placing greater emphasis on
preparing students for nonacademic careers.
Increasingly, courses and programs are de­
signed to prepare graduates for museum jobs,
archival management, historical editing, pub­
lic historical studies, historic preservation,
and other applied research. Courses in other
applied fields such as public administration,
business administration, and finance also
greatly enhance one’s opportunities for nonacademic employment.
Historians spend a great deal of time doing
research, writing papers and reports, and giv­
ing lectures and presentations. They must
possess strong analytical skills in order to
evaluate historical evidence and work effec­
tively with abstractions and theories. They
must be systematic and objective in their
work, since they must consider all relevant
facts before reaching a conclusion. Patience
and persistence are necessary because histori­
ans spend long hours in independent study.
As in other fields of scientific endeavor, the

108/Occupational Outlook Handbook

Most historians and art historians with doctoral degrees are
employed in colleges and universities

P e rc e n t e m p lo y e d by typ e o f e m p lo y e r, 1979

Nonprofit organizations
Museums/historical societies 7.2
Research libraries/archives

A rt h isto rian s

H istorians

Many historians, particularly those in col­
lege teaching, supplement their income by
teaching summer classes, writing books or
articles, or giving lectures.

Source: National Research Council

qualities of intellectual curiosity and creativ­
ity are essential.
Presenting the results of their research is
an important part of a historian’s job, so the
ability to communicate effectively—both
orally and in writing—is a “ must.” The abili­
ty to work with others on joint research pro­
jects can be important.

Job Outlook
Overall, little if any growth is expected in
the employment of historians through the
1980’s. Replacement needs accordingly will
constitute the principal source of jobs. This
will be particularly true in colleges and uni­
versities, where the basic determinant of de­
mand for college faculty is enrollment.
College enrollments are expected to decline
during the 1980’s. Fewer students almost cer­
tainly would mean some decrease in employ­
ment of college faculty over the period. On
the other hand, demand for historians to
work in nonacademic institutions may in­
Persons with computer backgrounds and
training in quantitative methods in historical
research are expected to have the most favor­
able job opportunities in business, industry,
government, and research firms. Historians
with strong backgrounds in historic preserva­
tion, public historical studies, or other applied
disciplines such as public administration, busi­
ness administration, or finance also may be in
a relatively favorable position.
The oversupply of history graduates is ex­
pected to continue; throughout the 1980’s, the
number of persons seeking to enter the occu­
pation will greatly exceed available positions.
As a result, historians with a Ph.D. are ex­
pected to face very keen competition for po­
sitions. Those graduating from prestigious
universities may have some advantage in this
highly competitive situation. Since academic
institutions traditionally employ many highly
qualified historians and competition is ex­

According to a survey by the National
Research Council, the 1979 median annual
salary for Ph.D .’s in history was $23,900; in
educational institutions, $24,400. The medi­
an annual salary of Ph.D .’s in art history was
$21,800; in educational institutions, $22,100.
The Federal Government recognizes edu­
cation and experience in certifying applicants
for entry level positions. In general, histori­
ans having a bachelor’s degree could start at
about $12,300 or $15,200 a year in early
1981, depending upon the applicant’s aca­
demic record. The starting salary for those
having a master’s degree was about $18,600
a year, and for those having a Ph.D., about
$22,500. Historians in the Federal Govern­
ment averaged around $29,000 a year in
1980; museum curators, around $28,300; and
archivists, around $26,700.

pected to be particularly keen, only a small
proportion of new graduates are expected to
find full-time teaching positions. Many
Ph.D .’s are expected to accept part-time,
temporary assignments as instructors with lit­
tle or no hope of gaining tenure. Applicants
who are qualified to teach several areas of
history, such as American history combined
with Russian or Asian history, should have
the best opportunities. An increasing number
of Ph.D .’s will take research or administra­
tive positions in government, industry, re­
search firm s, and other nonacadem ic
Persons with the master’s degree in history
also will encounter severe competition for
jobs as historians. Some may find teaching
positions in junior and community colleges.
Those who have taken courses in historic
preservation and museum studies should have
the best opportunities to work in government
and industry. Those who meet State certifica­
tion requirements may become secondary
school teachers.
People with a bachelor’s degree in history
are likely to find very limited opportunities
for employment as professional historians.
However, an undergraduate major in history
provides an excellent background for many
jobs including international relations, journal­
ism, library science, and foreign service, and
for continuing education in law, business ad­
ministration, and related disciplines. Many
graduates will find jobs in secondary schools
or in government, business, and industry as
management or sales trainees, or as research
or administrative assistants.

According to information from the Ameri­
can Historical Association, colleges and uni­
versities offered new Ph.D.’s starting salaries
ranging from about $14,000 to $16,000 for
the academic year 1979-80. Full professors
and top administrators earn substantially

Related Occupations
Historians study past events, institutions,
and ideas. Their concern with understanding
how societies operate is shared by other work­
ers, including writers, journalists, political
scientists, economists, sociologists, anthro­
pologists, geographers, urban and regional
planners, and market research analysts.

Sources of Additional Information
Additional information on careers and job
openings for historians, and on schools offer­
ing various programs in history, is available
American Historical Association, 400 A St. SE.,
Washington, D.C. 20003.

For information on careers and schools
offering degree programs and courses in his­
toric preservation, contact:
National Trust for Historic Preservation, 1785
Massachusetts Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.

General information on careers for histori­
ans is available from:
Organization of American Historians, Indiana Uni­
versity, 112 North Bryan St., Bloomington, Ind.

For additional information on careers for
historians, send a self-addressed, stamped en­
velope to:
American Association for State and Local History,
1400 Eighth Avenue South, Nashville, Tenn.

For information on museum careers and
museum studies programs, contact:
Office of Museum Programs, Arts and Industries
Building, Room 2235, Smithsonian Institution,
Washington, D.C. 20560.

For information on training for museum
careers, contact:
American Association of Museums, 1055 Thomas
Jefferson St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20007.

Social Scientists, Social Workers, Religious Workers, and Lawyers/109

Market Research
(D .O .T. 050.067-014)

Nature of the Work
If a business is to be successful, it must
provide a product or service people will buy.
Yet persuading people to spend their money
requires more than simply offering a useful
or desirable item. People try a product for
many reasons in addition to basic utility.
They consider price, of course, as well as
convenience, appearance, and a trusted
name. For some products, reliability and ease
of maintenance are most important. Very of­
ten, it is the product’s image—created by
advertisements, sales promotion, and the type
of store in which it is sold—that influences
Business executives have to make deci­
sions concerning all these areas when they
put a product or service on the market. Other
organizations, whether they are asking the
public to volunteer their time, contribute to a
charity, or even spend a vacation, in their
State, must make similar decisions. Market
research analysts analyze the buying public
and its wants and needs, thus providing the
information on which these marketing deci­
sions can be based.
Market research analysts plan, design, im­
plement, and analyze the results of surveys.
Most marketing research starts with a collec­
tion of data and information about products
or services and the people who are likely to
buy the product or service. For example, if
the researcher’s task is to find out why a
company’s frozen foods are not selling well
in a certain city, he or she may start by
studying the company’s current marketing
strategy to see if it matches consumers’
needs. Is the company shipping foods that
suit the tastes of most people in the city? Are
the prices reasonable for the income of most
people in the area? Does the distributor de­
liver the food to the stores in good condition?
Is the company advertising its products, and
are the ads seen by the people most likely to
buy them? Is the company’s sales force well
trained and actively promoting the product to
the stores? Are the stores providing good
shelf space or are the boxes of food in a
comer of the freezer where they may be
overlooked? By investigating these and other
issues, market research analysts determine
what actions should be taken. They may con­
clude, for example, that sales would be im­
proved substantially by increased newspaper
advertising. Or they may conclude that the
company should concentrate its efforts in oth­
er sections of the country where the product
is more successful.
Since the goal of marketing is to satisfy
the consumer, research analysts often are
concerned with finding out customers ’ prefer­
ences and buying habits. They conduct tele­

phone, personal, or mail surveys, and some­
times offer samples of a product to find out
whether potential customers are pleased with
the design.
Market researchers employed by large or­
ganizations often work with statisticians who
help them select a group of people to be
interviewed who will accurately represent
prospective customers, and “ motivational re­
search” specialists who design survey ques­
tions that produce reliable information.
Trained interviewers then conduct the sur­
vey, and office workers tabulate the results
under the direction of market research ana­
In contrast to surveys for consumer goods,
researchers for business and industrial firms
often conduct the interviews themselves to
gather opinions of a product. They also may
speak to company officials about new uses
for it. Therefore, they must have a thorough
knowledge of both marketing techniques and
the industrial uses of the product.

Working Conditions
Market research analysts usually work in
modem, centrally located offices. While mar­
ket research analysts often function as an
integral part of a research team, they spend
much time alone—planning surveys, using
calculators and computers, preparing statisti­
cal charts, and analyzing data. Some, espe­
cially those employed by independent research
firms, travel frequently when working with
out-of-town clients. Also, they may have to
work long hours, including nights and week­
ends, to meet deadlines.

An estimated 29,000 market research ana­
lysts were employed in 1980. Most jobs for
market research analysts are found in manu­
facturing companies, advertising agencies,
and independent research organizations.
Large numbers are employed by stores, radio
and television firms, and newspapers; others
work for university research centers and gov­
ernment agencies. Market research organiza­
tions range in size from one-person enterprises
to firms with a hundred employees or more.
Many market research analysts are em­
ployed in large cities such as New York
where major advertising agencies, indepen­
dent marketing organizations, and central of­
fices of large manufacturers are located.
However, market research analysts are em­
ployed in many smaller cities as well—wher­
ever there are central offices of large
manufacturing and sales organizations.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Although a bachelor’s degree usually is
sufficient for trainees, graduate education is
necessary for many specialized positions in
market research. Graduate study usually is
required for advancement, and a sizable num­
ber of market researchers have a master’s

Market research analysts study customer pref­
erences in order to suggest appropriate sales

degree in business administration or some
other graduate degree in addition to a bache­
lor’s degree in marketing. Some schools offer
market research internships in which students
gain experience and make contacts that may
prove invaluable in landing a job. Some peo­
ple qualify for jobs through previous experi­
ence in other types of research; university
professors of marketing or statistics, for ex­
ample, may be hired to head marketing re­
search departments in business firms or
advertising agencies. Sociologists, econo­
mists, and others who have strong back­
grounds in quantitative research methods also
qualify for many market research positions.
Bachelor’s programs in marketing and re­
lated fields, including courses in statistics,
English composition, communications, psy­
chology, sociology, and economics, are valu­
able preparation for work in market research.
Some market research positions require spe­
cialized skills such as engineering, or sales
experience and a thorough knowledge of the
company’s products. Since quantitative re­
search is central to survey analysis, sales
forecasting, cost analysis, and other aspects
of market research work, a strong back­
ground in computer science is helpful.
College graduates may find their first job
in any of a number of places: The market
research department of a large manufacturing
company, a research firm, an advertising
agency, a lending institution, an insurance
company, a government planning agency, or
even a university marketing department.
Trainees usually start as research assistants
or junior analysts. At first, they may do
considerable clerical work, such as copying
data from published sources, editing and cod­
ing questionnaires, and tabulating survey re­
turns. They also learn to conduct interviews
and write reports on survey findings. As they

110/Occupational Outlook Handbook

gain experience, assistants and junior ana­
lysts may assume responsibility for specific
market research projects, or advance to su­
pervisory positions. An exceptionally able
worker may become market research director
or vice president for marketing or sales.
Market research analysts must be able to
analyze problems objectively and apply var­
ious techniques to their solution. Creativity is
essential in formulating new ideas. Patience
and perseverance are necessary to complete
long research projects. As advisers to man­
agement, market research analysts should be
skilled in both written and verbal communi­

Job Outlook
Opportunities for the most prestigious,
highest paying jobs should be best for appli­
cants with graduate degrees in business in­
cluding courses in market research, statistics,
and computer science. The growing com­
plexity of market research techniques also
may expand opportunities in this field for
psychologists, economists, and other social
Employment of market research analysts is
sensitive to cyclical swings in the economy.
Market research employment rises as new
products and services are developed, particu­
larly when business activity and personal in­
comes are expanding rapidly. In periods of
slow economic growth, however, the reduced
demand for marketing services may limit the
hiring of research workers.
Over the long run, population growth and
the increased variety of goods and services
that businesses and individuals will require
are expected to stimulate a high level of
marketing activity. Competition among man­
ufacturers of both consumer and industrial
products makes the appraising of marketing
situations important. As techniques improve
and statistical data accumulate, company of­
ficials are likely to turn more often to market
research analysts for information and advice.
As a result, employment of market research
analysts is expected to grow faster than the
average for all occupations through the
New job opportunities are expected to
arise in health care facilities, banks, account­
ing firms, local governments, and other orga­
nizations to help promote use of their
services. For example, market research ana­
lysts might be needed to help determine the
optimum location for a new hospital or sub­
way station.

Salaries of beginning market researchers
ranged from about $12,000 to $17,000 a year
in 1980, according to the limited information
available. Persons with master’s degrees in
business administration and related fields
usually started with salaries of about $21,500
a year. Starting salaries varied according to
the type, size, and location of the firm as
well as the exact nature of the position.

Experienced workers such as senior ana­
lysts received salaries of about $27,000 a
year. Earnings were highest, however, for
workers in management positions of great
responsibility. Directors of market research
averaged about $40,000 a year in 1980. Mar­
ket research directors who had more than 15
years’ experience averaged almost $50,000 a
year in 1980.

Related Occupations
Besides market research analysts, many
others are involved in social research—in­
cluding the planning, implementation, and
analysis of surveys to learn more about peo­
ple’s wants and needs. Some of these work­
ers include economists, employment research
and planning directors, social welfare re­
search workers, political scientists, urban and
regional planners, sociologists, developmen­
tal psychologists, and experimental psycholo­

Sources of Additional Information
A pamphlet, “ Careers in Marketing”
(Monograph Series No. 4), may be obtained
American Marketing Association, 250 Wacker
Street, Chicago, 111. 60606.

Political Scientists
(D .O .T. 051, 059.267-010, and 090.227-010)

Nature of the Work
Political scientists study political behavior
and institutions. Although some specialize in
political theory or philosophy, most political
scientists, particularly those specializing in
public administration, analyze The organiza­
tion and operatiorfof government at all levels
in the United States and abroad. They ex­
plore such phenomena as pEfbtrc opinion, po­
litical parties, elections, special interest
groups, and intergovernmental relations.
They also study the role of Federal, State,
and local governments including the Presi­
dency, Congress and State legislatures, and
the judicial system. Processes and techniques
of public administration and public policy­
making also are of interest to political scien­
Political scientists examine political and
administrative behavior in order to aid gov­
ernment leaders and others trying to develop
policies and plan programs that meet a soci­
ety’s needs. Like other social scientists, po­
litical scientists are research oriented and
base their theories on a systematic analysis of
the data they collect. Depending on the topic
under study, a political scientist might con­
duct a public opinion survey, analyze elec­
tion results, or compare the principal features
of various tax proposals. Some areas of po­
litical science research are highly quantita­

tive, and involve the use of sophisticated
simulation and modeling techniques.
Most political scientists work in colleges
and universities. They may combine research
or administrative duties with teaching, and
often they do consulting work as well. (For
more information, see the statement on col­
lege and university faculty elsewhere in the
Some political scientists are primarily re­
searchers or consultants in nonacademic orga­
nizations. They might survey public opinion
on a current issue, explore the political and
administrative ramifications of government re­
organization, or suggest ways of mobilizing
support for a particular candidate, policy, or
administrative change. The results of political
science research are used by public officials,
political parties, government administrators,
legislative staffs and committees, citizens’
groups, legislative reference bureaus, taxpay­
ers’ associations, and business firms.
Because of their understanding of political
institutions and political and administrative
processes, political scientists are well quali­
fied for jobs in and out of government. Many
are employed in government management
and staff positions; others are employed by
legislatures and courts; still others are in­
volved in government relations. Here they
may work as lobbyists or consultants for gov­
ernment liaison by business firms, trade asso­
ciations, public interest groups, and other
organizations. Some political scientists work
for large banks and corporations, analyzing
political conditions in foreign countries to
help these organizations formulate investment
plans abroad. Other political scientists work
as journalists. A few work primarily as advi­
sors to candidates for political office.

Working Conditions
Political scientists employed in colleges
and universities divide their time among
teaching, research, and administrative re­
sponsibilities. Those employed by govern­
ment agencies and private firms, on the other
hand, have much more structured schedules.
They study and interpret data, prepare re­
ports, confer with coworkers, and meet with
government officials, business executives,
and others. Many experience the pressures of
deadlines, tight schedules, and heavy work­
loads. and sometimes must work overtime.
They may travel to interview people, conduct
surveys, attend meetings and conferences,
and present reports.
Political scientists on foreign assignment
must adjust to unfamiliar cultures and cli­
mates. Those in the diplomatic service work
long and irregular hours, both in the office
and in many social activities considered part
of the job.

An estimated 15,000 persons worked as
political scientists in 1980. About threefourths worked in colleges and universities.

Social Scientists, Social Workers, Religious Workers, and Lawyers/111

An interest in politics and hard work can lead to a job on Capitol Hill.

Most of the remainder worked for govern­
ment firms, political organizations, research
institutes, labor unions, public interest
groups, or business firms. This estimate does
not include political scientists who work as
administrators in the government, in the pri­
vate sector, or in journalism and related posi­
Political scientists can be found in nearly
every college or university town since
courses in government and political science
are taught in almost all institutions of higher
education. Since the national headquarters of
many associations, unions, and other organi­
zations are located in Washington, D.C., this
area attracts a sizable number of political
scientists in research or policy jobs.
Government employs political scientists
both domestically and abroad. They deal
with legislative or administrative matters in
areas such as foreign affairs, international
relations, intelligence, housing, economic de­
velopment, transportation, environmental
protection, social welfare, or health. Political
scientists also apply their analytical expertise
in fields such as marketing, advertising, pub­
lic relations, personnel, finance, and consum­
er affairs.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Graduate training generally is required for
employment as a political scientist. Comple­

tion of all the requirements for the Ph.D.
degree is the prerequisite for appointment to
academic positions in some colleges and uni­
versities and is required for a professorship
and tenure, which is becoming increasingly
difficult to attain. Because of the tightening
academic job market, a Ph.D. is increasingly
required for nonacademic jobs.
Graduates with a master’s degree can
qualify for teaching positions in junior and
community colleges and for administrative
and research positions in government, indus­
try, and research or civic organizations. A
master’s degree in international relations, for­
eign service, or a particular foreign area pro­
vides a suitable background for Federal
Government positions dealing with foreign
affairs. Competence in one or more foreign
languages may be important to enter the For­
eign Service. Minimum requirements for in­
telligence, foreign affairs, and international
relations specialists in the Federal Govern­
ment generally include a college degree with
24 semester hours in political science, histo­
ry, economics, or related fields. However,
because competition for Federal jobs is keen,
additional education or experience may be
required. A growing number of applicants for
the Foreign Service, for example, have a
Ph.D., law degree, or other advanced de­
People with a bachelor’s degree in political
science may qualify as trainees in such areas

as management, research, administration,
sales, and law enforcement. Many students
with bachelor’s degrees in political science go
on to study law, journalism, or some special­
ized or related branch of political science,
such as public administration or international
In 1980, about 1,400 colleges and univer­
sities offered a bachelor’s degree in political
science; around 165, master’s programs;
about 120, doctoral programs. Approximate­
ly 250 schools offered specialties in public
administration. Some schools combine politi­
cal science with another discipline such as
history in one department, while others have
separate departments of political science,
public administration, international studies,
or other fields. Some universities have sepa­
rate schools of public affairs and administra­
tion. Colleges and universities strongly
recommend field training and internships in
government, politics, public service, and
similar fields. Internships give students an
opportunity to gain experience and make con­
tacts for jobs later on. However, the number
of internships is limited and prospective in­
terns face keen competition.
Undergraduate programs in political science
include courses in the principles of govern­
ment and politics, State and local government,
comparative studies, political theory, foreign
area studies, foreign policy, public administra­
tion and policy, political behavior, constitu­
tional, administrative, and international law,
and many other offerings. Other courses might
deal with the problems of detente, politics of
economic growth and scientific technology,
environmental and energy policies, legal sta­
tus of women, and international economics.
Because of the bleak academic job market,
political science departments are placing
greater emphasis on preparing students for
nonacademic careers. For example, a growing
number of programs at both the undergraduate
and graduate levels offer courses in quantita­
tive and statistical methods, including the use
of computers.
Graduate students may specialize in
American government, State and local gov­
ernment, comparative politics, international
relations, foreign area studies, political be­
havior, political theory, public administra­
tion, urban affairs, public policy, and other
areas. Doctoral candidates often must exhibit
competence in one or more foreign languages
and quantitative research techniques.
Persons planning to be political scientists
should have qualities that are important in any
research or management career. Most impor­
tant of all are intellectual curiosity—a ques­
tioning, probing mind and a keen interest in
solving problems—and a commitment to pub­
lic service. Political scientists also must think
objectively and independently, handle data
carefully and systematically, and analyze in­
formation and ideas. Patience and persistence
are important in conducting independent re­
search, and creativity helps in formulating
ideas. Because the results of political science
research are almost always presented orally or

112/Occupational Outlook Handbook

in writing, communication skills are impor­
tant, too. The ability to write clearly and
well is essential.
For some political scientists, an intense
interest in political systems and the way they
operate is an asset. Active participation in
student government, local political cam­
paigns, community newspapers, service
clubs, and community activities is recom­
mended for the practical experience and per­
spective it can provide. Such experience is
particularly useful for political scientists who
specialize in politics or com m unity

Job Outlook
Employment of political scientists is ex­
pected to increase more slowly than the aver­
age for all occupations through the 1980’s.
Because most political scientists are relative­
ly young, very few job openings will result
from deaths and retirements. Colleges and
universities, the traditional employers of
highly qualified political scientists, are not
expected to hire additional faculty members;
indeed, as college enrollments decline, some
vacancies may remain unfilled. However, de­
mand may increase for political scientists
who work in nonacademic positions. For ex­
ample, large banks and corporations may in­
creasingly hire political scientists to conduct
political analyses of conditions in foreign
countries to help plan investment strategies.
Also, polling and marketing research firms
will increasingly seek graduates well trained
in survey research methods.
Because graduates with advanced degrees
in political science will greatly exceed job
openings through the 1980’s, even Ph.D .’s
will face stiff competition, particularly for
academic jobs. The prestige of the university
from which a Ph.D. graduates may be in­
creasingly important in this highly competi­
tive situation. Many Ph.D .’s seeking college
teaching jobs are expected to accept parttime, temporary assignments as instructors
with little or no hope of gaining tenure.
Graduates seeking to enter the Foreign Ser­
vice also face very stiff competition. Gradu­
ates with strong backgrounds in quantitative
techniques, including computer science,
should have the widest choice of jobs. Those
trained in applied fields such as public ad­
ministration, public policy, and American
government also should be in a relatively
favorable position. Graduates who majored
in comparative politics, international rela­
tions, and political theory face the most diffi­
cult job market.
Master’s degree holders will face increas­
ing competition for both academic and nona­
cademic positions. Some will find teaching
jobs in community and junior colleges. As
with Ph.D .’s, graduates trained in quantita­
tive methods, public policy, or public admin­
istration have the best opportunities for jobs
in Federal, State, and local government, re­
search bureaus, political organizations, and
business firms.
New graduates with a bachelor’s degree

are expected to find few opportunities for
jobs as professional political scientists. Many
of these graduates are expected to accept
positions as trainees in government, business,
and industry. Persons who have successfully
completed an internship will have an advan­
tage. For those planning to continue their
studies in law, foreign affairs, journalism,
and related fields, political science provides
an excellent background. Graduates who
meet State certification requirements may en­
ter high school teaching.

For additional information on careers in
the Foreign Service, contact:



According to an American Political Sci­
ence Association Survey, the median salaries
of political scientists employed in educational
institutions during 1979-80 were around
$27,500 for full professors, $21,500 for asso­
ciate professors, $16,500 for assistant profes­
sors, and $14,500 for lecturers and
The Federal Government recognizes edu­
cation and experience in certifying applicants
for entry level positions. In general, the en­
trance salary for those with a bachelor’s de­
gree, depending upon the a p p lic a n t’s
academic record, was about $12,300 or
$15,200 a year in early 1981. The starting
salary for those with a master’s degree was
about $18,600 a year, and for those with a
Ph.D., about $22,500. Intelligence special­
ists in the Federal Government averaged
around $29,400 in 1980; international rela­
tions specialists, $35,300; and foreign affairs
specialists, $34,100.
Some political scientists, particularly those
in college teaching, supplement their income
by teaching summer courses or consulting.
A political scientist’s training enables him
or her to understand the ways in which politi­
cal power is amassed and used. Knowledge
of the political process also is important for
journalists, lawyers, city managers, Foreign
Service Officers, political campaign manag­
ers and consultants, pollsters, lobbyists, leg­
islative liaison officers, political aides, and

Sources of Additional Information
The American Political Science Associ­
ation, 1527 New Hampshire Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036 offers a career
pamphlet for undergraduates and one for fac­
ulty and graduate students at $1 each. A
Guide to Graduate Study in Political Science
is available for $7.50 for members and $10
for nonmembers. In addition, a monthly
newsletter listing job openings, primarily
academic, is available to members of the
Programs in Public Affairs and Adminis­
tration, a directory that contains data on the
academic content of programs, the student
body, the format of instruction, and other
information, may be purchased for $10 from:
National Association of Schools of Public Affairs
and Administration, 1225 Connecticut Ave. NW.,
Suite 306, Washington, D.C. 20036.

Board of Examiners, Foreign Service, Box 9317,
Rosslyn Station, Arlington, Va. 22209.

For several directories that provide infor­
mation on internships, contact:
The National Society for Internships and Experien­
tial Education, 1735 I St. NW., Suite 601, Wash­
ington, D.C. 20006.

(D .O .T. 045.061, .067, .107-022, -026, -030, and -034;
and 090.227-010)

Nature of the Work
Psychologists study human behavior and
mental processes to understand and explain
people’s actions. Some research psycholo­
gists investigate the physical, emotional, or
social aspects of human behavior. Others in
colleges and universities combine teaching,
research, and administration. (For more in­
formation, see the Handbook statement on
college and university faculty.) Still other
psychologists in applied fields counsel and
conduct training programs; do market re­
search; or provide health services in hospitals
or clinics.
Like other social scientists, psychologists
collect and test the validity of data and for­
mulate hypotheses. Research methods de­
pend on the topic under study. Psychologists
may gather information through controlled
laboratory experiments; performance, apti­
tude, and intelligence tests; observation, in­
terviews, and questionnaires; clinical studies;
or surveys.
Psychologists usually specialize. Experi­
mental psychologists study behavior proc­
esses, and work with human beings and low­
er animals such as rats, monkeys, and pi­
geons; prominent areas of experimental
research include motivation, learning and re­
tention, sensory and perceptual processes,
and genetic and neurological factors in be­
havior. Developmental psychologists study
the patterns and causes of behavioral change
as people progress through life; some concern
themselves with behavior during infancy and
childhood, while others study changes that
take place during maturity and old age. Per­
sonality psychologists study human nature,
individual differences, and the ways in which
those differences develop. Social psycholo­
gists examine people’s interactions with oth­
ers and with the social environment;
prominent areas of study include group be­
havior, leadership, attitudes, and interperson­
al perception. Comparative psychologists
study the behavior of different animals, in­
cluding humans. Physiological psychologists
study the relationship of behavior to the bio­
logical functions of the body. Psychologists
in the field of psychometrics develop and

Social Scientists, Social Workers, Religious Workers, and Lawyers/113

apply procedures for measuring psychologi­
cal variables such as intelligence and
Clinical psychology is the largest specialty
among doctoral psychologists. Clinical psy­
chologists generally work in hospitals or clin­
ics, or maintain their own practices. They help
the mentally or emotionally disturbed adjust to
life. They interview patients; give diagnostic
tests; provide individual, family, and group
psychotherapy; and design and carry through
behavior modification programs. Clinical psy­
chologists may collaborate with physicians
and other specialists in developing treatment
programs. Some clinical psychologists work
in universities where they train graduate stu­
dents in the delivery of mental health services.
Others administer community mental health
programs. Counseling psychologists use sev­
eral techniques, including interviewing and
testing, to advise people on how to deal with
problems of everyday living—personal, so­
cial, educational, or vocational. Educational
psychologists design, develop, and evaluate
educational programs. School psychologists
evaluate students’ needs and problems, facili­
tate school adjustment, and help solve learning
and social problems in schools. Industrial and
organizational psychologists apply psycho­
logical techniques to personnel administration,
management, and marketing problems. They
are involved in policy planning, training and
development, psychological test research,
counseling, and organizational development
and analysis, among other activities. For ex­
ample, an industrial psychologist may work
with management to develop better training
programs and to reorganize the work setting to
improve worker productivity. Engineering
psychologists, often employed in factories and
plants, develop and improve human-machine
systems, military equipment, and industrial
products. Community psychologists apply
psychological knowledge to problems of urban
and rural life. Consumer psychologists study
the psychological factors that determine an
individual’s behavior as a consumer of goods
and services. Health psychologists counsel the
public in health maintenance to help people
avoid serious emotional or physical illness.
Other areas of specialization include environ­
mental psychology, population psychology,
psychology and the arts, history of psycholo­
gy, psychopharmacology, and military and
rehabilitation psychology.

Working Conditions
A psychologist’s specialty and place of
employment determine his or her working
conditions. For example, clinical and coun­
seling psychologists in private practice have
pleasant, comfortable offices and set their
own hours. However, they often have even­
ing hours to accommodate their clients. Some
employed in hospitals, nursing homes, and
other health facilities often work evenings
and weekends, while others in schools and
clinics work regular hours. Psychologists em­
ployed by academic institutions divide their

Clinical psychologists need to be good listeners.

By far the largest proportion of doctoral psychologists
are clinical specialists
Percent employed by specialty, 1979





Industrial and personnel
Counseling and guidance

Source: National Research Council

time among teaching, research, and adminis­
trative responsibilities. Some maintain parttime clinical practices as well. In contrast to
the many psychologists who have flexible
work schedules, some in government and
private industry have more structured sched­
ules. Reading and writing research reports,
they often work alone behind a desk. Many
experience the pressures of deadlines, tight
schedules, heavy workloads, and overtime
work. Their routine may be interrupted fre­
quently. Travel may be required to attend
conferences or conduct research.

An estimated 106,000 people worked as
psychologists in 1980. The largest group
worked in educational institutions—primarily

colleges and universities. Some were coun­
selors; others were researchers, administra­
tors, or teachers.
The second largest group of psychologists
work in hospitals, clinics, rehabilitation cen­
ters, nursing homes, and other health facili­
ties. Many others work for government
agencies at the Federal, State, and local lev­
els. The Veterans Administration, the De­
partment of Defense, and the Public Health
Service employ more psychologists than oth­
er Federal agencies. Psychologists also are
employed by research organizations, manage­
ment counsulting firms, market research
firms, and other businesses. After several
years of experience, some enter private prac­
tice or set up their own research or consulting

114/Occupational Outlook Handbook

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A doctoral degree, required for employ­
ment as a psychologist, is increasingly im­
portant for advancem ent and tenure,
particularly in the academic world. People
with doctorates in psychology (Ph.D. or
Psy.D.—Doctor of Psychology) qualify for a
wide range of responsible research, clinical,
and counseling positions in universities, pri­
vate industry, and government.
People with a master’s degree in psycholo­
gy can administer and interpret tests as psy­
chological assistants. Under the supervision
of psychologists, they can conduct research
in laboratories or perform administrative du­
ties. They may teach in 2-year colleges, or
work as school psychologists or counselors.
(See the Handbook statements on school
counselors and rehabilitation counselors.)
People with a bachelor’s degree in psy­
chology are qualified to assist psychologists
and other professionals in community mental
health centers, vocational rehabilitation of­
fices, and correctional programs; to work as
research or administrative assistants; to take
jobs as trainees in government or business;
or—provided they meet State certification re­
quirements—to teach high school. However,
without additional academic training, their
advancement opportunities are limited.
In the Federal Government, candidates
having at least 24 semester hours in psychol­
ogy and one course in statistics qualify for
entry level positions. Competition for these
jobs is keen, however. Clinical psychologists
generally must have completed the Ph.D. or
Psy.D. requirements and have served an in­
ternship; vocational and guidance counselors
usually need 2 years of graduate study in
counseling and 1 year of counseling experi­
At least 1 year of full-time graduate study
is needed to earn a master’s degree in psy­
chology. Requirements usually include prac­

tical experience in an applied setting or a
master’s thesis based on a research project.
Three to five years of graduate work usually
are required for a doctoral degree. The
Ph.D. degree culminates in a dissertation
based on original research. The Psy.D.,
based on practical work and examinations
rather than a dissertation, prepares students
for clinical and other applied positions. In
clinical or counseling psychology, the re­
quirements for the doctoral degree generally
include an additional year or more of intern­
ship or supervised experience.
Competition for admission into graduate
programs is keen. Some universities require
an undergraduate major in psychology. Oth­
ers prefer only basic psychology with courses
in the biological, physical, and social sci­
ences, statistics, and mathematics.
Over 1,100 colleges and universities offer
a bachelor’s degree program in psychology;
about 400, a master’s; about 300, a Ph.D.;
and about 10, a Psy.D. In addition, a grow­
ing number of professional schools of psy­
chology not affiliated with colleges or
universities offer the Psy.D. The American
Psychological Association (APA) presently
accredits Ph.D. training programs in clinical,
counseling, and school psychology as well as
Psy.D. programs. In early 1981, over 120
colleges and universities offered fully ap­
proved programs in clinical psychology; 28,
in counseling psychology; 17, in school psy­
chology; and 6 Psy.D. programs. APA also
has approved about 130 internship facilities
for doctoral training in clinical and counsel­
ing psychology.
Although financial aid is becoming in­
creasingly difficult to obtain, some universi­
ties award fellowships or scholarships, or
arrange for part-time employment. The Vet­
erans Administration (VA) offers predoctoral
traineeships to interns in VA hospitals, clin­
ics, and related training agencies. The Na­
tional Science Foundation, the Department of

Educational institutions, businesses, and hospitals and
clinics are the primary employers of doctoral psychologists
P e rc e n t e m p lo y e d by ty p e of e m p lo y e r, 1979

Source: National Research Council

Health and Human Services, the Armed
Forces, and many other organizations also
provide financial aid.
Psychologists who want to enter independ­
ent practice must meet certification or licens­
ing requirements. In 1980, most States and
the District of Columbia had such require­
ments. Licensing laws vary by State, but
generally require a doctorate in psychology
and 2 years of professional experience. In
addition, most States require that applicants
pass a written and an oral examination. Most
State boards administer a standardized test.
Some States certify those with master’s level
training as psychological assistants or associ­
ates. Some States require continuing educa­
tion for relicensure.
Most States require that licensed or certi­
fied psychologists limit their practice to those
areas in which they have developed profes­
sional competence through training and ex­
The American Board of Professional Psy­
chology recognizes professional achievement
by awarding diplomas in clinical, counseling,
industrial and organizational, and school psy­
chology. Candidates generally need a doctor­
ate in psychology, 5 years of experience, and
professional endorsements; they also must
pass an examination.
People pursuing a career in psychology
must be emotionally stable, mature, and able
to deal effectively with people. Sensitivity,
compassion, and the ability to lead and in­
spire others are particularly important for
clinical work and counseling. Research psy­
chologists should be able to do detailed work
independently and as part of a team. Verbal
and writing skills are necessary to communi­
cate research findings. Patience and persever­
ance are vital qualities because results from
psychological treatment of patients or re­
search often are long in coming.

Job Outlook
Employment of psychologists is expected
to increase about as fast as the average for all
occupations through the 1980’s. In addition
to growth in demand for psychologists, some
openings will result from transfers, deaths,
retirements, and other separations from the
labor force.
Several factors may help maintain the de­
mand for psychologists: (1) Public concern
for the development of human resources
which may result in more services for minor­
ities, the elderly, and the poor; (2) increased
testing and counseling of children; and (3)
legislation emphasizing good health rather
than treatment of illness.
Some openings are likely to occur as psy­
chologists increasingly study the effects on
people of technological advances in areas
such as agriculture, energy, the environment,
and the conservation and use of natural re­
sources. Psychologists also increasingly are
involved in program evaluation in such fields
as health, education, military service, law
enforcement, and consumer protection.
Because college enrollments are expected

Social Scientists, Social Workers, Religious Workers, and Lawyers/115

to decline during the 1980’s, little or no
employment growth is expected in colleges
and universities. As a result, there will be
keen competition for academic positions. Al­
though outstanding Ph.D. holders from lead­
ing universities should have no difficulty in
obtaining teaching jobs at top schools, a larg­
er number of Ph.D .’s will be forced to take
jobs at smaller, less prestigious institutions.
Some may accept part-time or temporary as­
signments with little or no hope of gaining
tenure. As a result, many psychologists are
expected to seek nonacademic jobs.
Persons holding doctorates from leading
universities in applied areas such as clinical,
counseling,.health, and industrial or organiza­
tional psychology will have more favorable
prospects for nonacademic jobs than those
trained in research specialties such as experi­
mental, physiological, and comparative psy­
chology. Psychologists with extensive training
in quantitative research methods and computer
science will have a competitive edge over
applicants without this background.
Persons with only a master’s degree in
psychology will probably continue to encoun­
ter severe competition for the limited number
of jobs for which they qualify. Nevertheless,
some may find jobs as counselors in schools
or as psychological assistants in community
mental health centers. Bachelor’s degree
holders may find jobs as assistants in reha­
bilitation centers.

According to a 1979 survey by the Nation­
al Research Council, the median annual sala­
ry of doctoral psychologists was about
$26,600. In educational institutions, the me­
dian was about $25,400; in the Federal Gov­
ernment, about $36,300; in State and local
government, about $24,800; in hospitals and
clinics, about $25,300; in other nonprofit or­
ganizations, about $25,400; and in business
and industry, about $36,700. Ph.D. or
Psy.D. psychologists in private practice and
in applied specialties generally have higher
earnings than other psychologists.

Related Occupations
Psychologists are trained to evaluate,
counsel, and advise individuals and groups.
Others who do this kind of work are psychia­
trists, social workers, clergy, special educa­
tion teachers, and counselors.

Sources of Additional Information
For information on careers, educational re­
quirements, and financial assistance, contact:
American Psychological Association, Educational
Affairs Office, 1200 17th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.

Information on traineeships and fellow­
ships also is available from colleges and uni­
versities that have graduate departments of

(D .O .T . 054 and 090.227-010)

Nature of the Work
Sociologists study human society and so­
cial behavior by examining the groups that
people form. These groups include families,
tribes, communities, and governments, as
well as a variety of social, religious, politi­
cal, business, and other organizations. Soci­
ologists study the behavior and interaction of
groups and trace their origin and growth and
analyze the influence of group activities on
individual members. Some sociologists are
concerned primarily with the characteristics
of social groups and institutions. Others are
more interested in the ways individuals are
affected by the groups to which they belong.
Fields of specialization for sociologists in­
clude social organization, social psychology,
rural and urban sociology, racial and ethnic

relations, criminology and penology, and in­
dustrial sociology. Other important special­
ties include medical sociology—the study of
social factors that affect mental and public
health; demography—the study of the size,
characteristics, and movement of popula­
tions; gerontology—the study of the special
problems faced by aged persons in our rapid­
ly changing society; and social ecology—the
study of the effect of the physical environ­
ment and technology on people.
Sociological research, like other kinds of
social science research, involves collecting
information, testing its validity, and analyz­
ing the results. Sociologists usually conduct
surveys or do case studies in order to gather
the data they need. For example, after pro­
viding for controlled conditions, a sociologist
might test the effects of different styles of
leadership on individuals in a small group. A
medical sociologist might study the incidence
of lung cancer in an area contaminated by
industrial pollutants. Sociological researchers
also conduct large-scale experiments to test
the efficacy of different kinds of social pro­
grams. They might test and evaluate particu­
lar programs of income assistance, job
training, or remedial education. Increasingly,
sociologists apply statistical and computer
techniques in their research. The results of
sociological research aid educators, lawmak­
ers, administrators, and others interested in
social problems and social policy. Sociolo­
gists work closely with members of other
professions including psychologists, physi­
cians, economists, political scientists, anthro­
pologists, and social workers.
Most sociologists are college and universi­
ty teachers. Like other college faculty, they
may conduct research, do consulting work,
or handle administrative duties in addition to
teaching. (For more information, see the

The Federal Government recognizes edu­
cation and experience in certifying applicants
for entry level positions. In general, the en­
trance salary for psychologists having a bach­
elor’s degree was about $12,300 or $15,200 a
year in early 1981; counseling psychologists
with a master’s degree and 1 year of counsel­
ing experience could start at $18,600; clinical
psychologists having a Ph.D. or Psy.D. de­
gree and 1 year of internship could start at
$22,500. The average salary for psycholo­
gists in the Federal Government was about
$31,800 a year in 1980.
According to a 1980 State salary survey,
average annual salaries of clinical psycholo­
gists in State government ranged from about
$20,100 to $27,000. These positions usually
require a doctor’s degree in clinical psycholo­
gy plus completion of an approved internship
or period of supervised experience.

Sociologist advises local officials on points to consider as they plan for future growth.

116/Occupational Outlook Handbook

statement on college and university faculty
elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Some sociologists are primarily adminis­
trators. They apply their professional knowl­
edge in areas as diverse as intergroup
relations, family counseling, public opinion
analysis, law enforcement, education, per­
sonnel administration, public relations, re­
gional and community planning, and health
services planning. They may, for example,
administer social service programs in family
and child welfare agencies or develop social
policies and programs for government, com­
munity, youth, or religious organizations.
A number of sociologists are employed as
consultants. Using their expertise and re­
search skills, they advise on such diverse
problems as halfway houses and foster care
for the mentally ill; ways of counseling ex­
offenders; and market research for advertisers
and manufacturers. Increasingly, sociologists
are involved in the evaluation of social and
welfare programs. Some do technical writing
and editing.

Working Conditions
Most sociologists do a lot of desk work,
reading and writing reports on their research.
Those employed by colleges and universities
have flexible work schedules, dividing their
time between teaching, research, consulting,
and administrative responsibilities. Those
working in government agencies and private
firms have more structured work schedules,
and many experience the pressures of dead­
lines, tight schedules, heavy workloads, and
overtime. Their routine may be interrupted
by numerous telephone calls, letters, requests
for information, and meetings. Travel may
be required to collect data for research pro­
jects or attend professional conferences.

An estimated 21,000 persons were em­
ployed as sociologists in 1980. Colleges and
universities employ over two-thirds of all so­
ciologists. A number work for government
agencies at all levels and deal with such
subjects as poverty, crime, public assistance,
population policy, social rehabilitation, com­
munity development, mental health, racial
and ethnic relations, and environmental im­
pact studies. Sociologists in the Federal Gov­
ernment work primarily for the Departments
of Defense, Health and Human Services,
Interior, and Agriculture. Some demogra­
phers work for international organizations
such as the International Bank for Recon­
struction and Development, the United Na­
tions, and the World Health Organization.
Some persons with training in sociology
work as social science analysts, statisticians,
and in other positions for Federal agencies.
Some sociologists hold managerial, re­
search, and planning positions in corpora­
tions, research firms, professional and trade
associations, consulting firms, and welfare or
other nonprofit organizations. Others run
their own research or consulting businesses.
Since sociology is taught in most institu­

tions of higher learning, sociologists may be
found in nearly all college communities.
They are most heavily concentrated, howev­
er, in large colleges and universities that of­
fer graduate training and opportunities for
research in sociology.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
The Ph.D. degree is required for appoint­
ment to permanent teaching and research po­
sitions in colleges and universities and is
essential for senior level positions in nonaca­
demic research institutes, consulting firms,
corporations, and government agencies. As
the academic job market gets tighter during
the 1980’s, a Ph.D. will be required increas­
ingly for virtually all professional sociologist
Sociologists with master’s degrees can
qualify for administrative and research posi­
tions in public agencies and private busi­
nesses, provided they have sufficient training
in research, statistical, and computer meth­
ods. However, advancement opportunities
generally are more limited for master’s de­
gree holders than for Ph.D’s. Sociologists
with master’s degrees may qualify for teach­
ing positions in junior colleges and for some
college instructorships. Many colleges, how­
ever, appoint as instructors only people who
have training beyond the master’s degree lev­
el—frequently the completion of all require­
ments for the Ph.D. degree except the
doctoral dissertation. Although financial aid
is increasingly difficult to obtain, some out­
standing graduate students may get teaching
or research assistantships that provide both
financial aid and valuable experience.
Bachelor’s degree holders in sociology
may get jobs as interviewers or as adminis­
trative or research assistants. Many work as
social workers, counselors, or recreation
workers in public and private welfare agen­
cies. Sociology majors who have sufficient
training in statistical and survey methods may
qualify for positions as junior analysts or
statisticians in business or research firms or
government agencies.
About 140 colleges and universities offer
doctoral degree programs in sociology; most
of these also offer a master’s degree. In 160
schools, the master’s is the highest degree
offered, and about 900 schools have bachelor’s
degree programs. Sociology departments offer
a wide variety of courses including sociologi­
cal theory, social statistics and quantitative
methods, crime and deviance, dynamics of
social interaction, sex roles, population, social
stratification, social control, small group anal­
ysis, urban sociology, social organizations,
and sociology of religion, law, the arts, war,
politics, education, work and occupations, and
mental health.
Some departments of sociology have high­
ly structured programs while others are rela­
tively unstructured and leave course selection
largely up to the individual student. Depart­
ments have different requirements regarding
foreign language skills, courses in statistics,

and completion of a thesis for the master’s
In the Federal Government, candidates
generally need a college degree including 24
semester hours in sociology, with course
work in theory and methods of social re­
search. However, since competition for the
limited number of positions is so keen, ad­
vanced study in the field is highly recom­
The choice of a graduate school is impor­
tant for people who want to become sociolo­
gists. Students should select schools that
have adequate research facilities and offer
appropriate areas of specialization such as
theory, demography, or quantitative meth­
ods. Opportunities to gain practical expe­
rience also may be available, and sociology
departments frequently help place students in
business firms and government agencies.
The ability to handle independent research
is important for sociologists. Intellectual curi­
osity is an essential trait; researchers must
have inquiring minds and a desire to find
explanations for the phenomena they observe.
Like other social scientists, sociologists must
be objective in gathering information about
social institutions and behavior; they need
analytical skills in order to organize data
effectively and reach valid conclusions; and
they must be careful and systematic in their
work. Because communicating their findings
to other people is such an important part of the
job, sociologists must be able to formulate the
results of their work in a way that others will
understand. The ability to speak well and to
write clearly and concisely is a “must” in this

Job Outlook
Employment of sociologists is expected to
increase more slowly than the average for all
occupations through the 1980’s. Most open­
ings will result from deaths, retirements, and
other separations from the labor force. This
will be particularly true in colleges and uni­
versities where the basic determinant of de­
mand for college faculty is enrollment.
College enrollments are expected to decline
during the 1980’s. This almost certainly
would mean some decrease in employment of
college faculty over the period. Some aca­
demic openings may result from the growing
trend to add sociology courses to the curriculums of other academic disciplines, such as
medicine, law, business administration, and
education. Demand in the nonteaching area
will center around the increasing involvement
of sociologists in the evaluation and adminis­
tration of programs designed to cope with
social and welfare problems.
The number of persons who graduate with
advanced degrees in sociology through the
1980’s is likely to exceed greatly the avail­
able job openings. Graduates with a Ph.D.
face increasing competition, particularly for
academic positions, although those with de­
grees from the most outstanding institutions
may have an advantage in securing teaching
jobs. Academic institutions increasingly seek

Social Scientists, Social Workers, Religious Workers, and Lawyers/117

persons qualified to perform a dual role:
Teach and also conduct applied research in a
university-affiliated organization such as a
center for environmental studies. Job search
time for new graduates seeking academic
jobs will be longer than in the past, and some
Ph.D .’s may accept temporary, part-time po­
sitions as instructors.
An increasing proportion of Ph.D .’s are
expected to enter nonacademic careers. Some
may find research and administrative positions
in government, corporations, research organi­
zations, and consulting firms. Those well
trained in quantitative research methods, in­
cluding survey techniques, advanced statis­
tics, and computer science, will have the
widest choice of jobs. For example, private
firms that contract with the government to
evaluate social programs and conduct other
research increasingly seek sociologists with
strong quantitative skills. Demand is expected
to be strong for those with training in applied
sociology, including such areas as criminol­
ogy, deviant behavior, medical sociology, so­
cial gerontology, and demography. For
example, international organizations such as
the United Nations and the International Bank
for Reconstruction and Development are ex­
pected to seek additional demographers to help
underdeveloped countries formulate long
range public planning programs. Sociologists
with training in other applied disciplines, such
as public policy, public administration, and
business administration, will be attractive to
employers seeking managerial and administra­
tive personnel.
Persons with a master’s degree will continue
to face very keen competition for academic
positions, although some may find jobs in
junior and community colleges. They also will
face strong competition for the limited number
of sociologist positions open to them in nona­
cademic settings. Some may find research and
administrative jobs in government, research
firms, and corporations. For example, soci­
ologists with backgrounds in business and
quantitative research methods may find oppor­
tunities in marketing research firms.
Bachelor’s degree holders will find few
opportunities for jobs as professional sociolo­
gists. As in the past, many graduates will
take positions as trainees and assistants in
government, business, and industry. As with
advanced degree holders, training in quantita­
tive research methods provides these gradu­
ates with the most marketable skills. Some
may find positions in social welfare agencies.
For those planning to continue their studies
in law, journalism, social work, recreation,
counseling, and other related disciplines, so­
ciology provides an excellent background.
Some who meet State certification require­
ments may enter high school teaching.

According to a 1979 survey by the Nation­
al Research Council, the median annual sala­
ry of all doctoral social scientists (including
sociologists) was $26,000. For those in edu­
cational institutions, it was $25,600; in the

ing and building codes. Because suburban
growth has increased the need for better ways
of traveling to the urban center, the planner’s
job often includes designing new transporta­
tion systems and parking facilities.
Urban and regional planners prepare for
situations that are likely to develop as a result
of population growth or social and economic
change. They estimate, for example, the
community’s long-range needs for housing,
transportation, and business and industrial
sites. Working within a framework set by the
community government, they analyze and
propose alternative ways to achieve more ef­
ficient and attractive urban areas.
Before preparing plans for long-range
community development, urban and regional
planners prepare detailed studies that show
the current use of land for residential, busi­
ness, and community purposes. These reports
include such information as the location of
streets, highways, water and sewer lines,
schools, libraries, and recreational sites.
They also provide information on the types
of industries in the community, characteris­
Related Occupations
Sociologists are not the only people whose tics of the population, and employment and
jobs require an understanding of social proc­ economic trends. With this information, ur­
esses and institutions. Others whose work ban and regional planners propose ways of
demands such expertise include anthropolo­ using undeveloped land and design the layout
gists, economists, geographers, historians, of recommended buildings and other facilities
political scientists, psychologists, urban and such as subway stations. They also prepare
regional planners, market research analysts, materials that show how their programs can
newspaper reporters and correspondents, and be carried out and what they will cost.
Urban and regional planners often confer
social workers.
with land developers, civic leaders, and other
public planning officials. They may prepare
Sources of Additional Information
Additional information on careers, job materials for community relations programs,
openings, and graduate departments of soci­ speak at civic meetings, and appear before
legislative committees to explain their pro­
ology is available from:
American Sociological Association, Career and
In large organizations, planners usually
Research Division, 1722 N St. NW., Washington,
specialize in areas such as physical design,
D.C. 20036.
For information about careers in demogra­ community relations, and the renovation or
reconstruction of rundown business districts.
phy, contact:
In small organizations, planners must be able
Population Association of America, 806 15th St.
to do several kinds of work.

Federal Government, $34,400; in nonprofit
organizations, $28,300; and in business and
industry, $33,600.
The Federal Government recognizes edu­
cation and experience in certifying applicants
for entry level positions. In general, the en­
trance salary for sociologists with a bache­
lor’s degree was about $12,300 or $15,200 a
year in early 1981, depending upon the appli­
cant’s academic record. The starting salary
for those with a master’s degree was about
$18,600 a year, and for those with a Ph.D.,
about $22,500. Sociologists in the Federal
Government averaged around $28,400 a year
in 1980.
In general, sociologists with the Ph.D.
degree earn substantially higher salaries than
those without the doctoral degree. Many so­
ciologists, particularly those employed by
colleges and universities for the academic
year, supplement their regular salaries with
earnings from other sources, such as summer
teaching and consulting work.

NW., Suite 640, Washington, D.C. 20005.

Working Conditions

Urban and Regional
(D.O.T. 199.167-014)

Nature of the Work
Urban and regional planners, often called
community or city planners, develop pro­
grams to provide for future growth and revi­
talization of urban, suburban, and rural
communities. They help local officials make
decisions to solve social, economic, and en­
vironmental problems.
Planners examine community facilities
such as health clinics and schools to be sure
these facilities can meet the demands placed
upon them. They also keep abreast of the
legal issues involved in community develop­
ment or redevelopment and changes in hous­

Urban and regional planners spend most of
their time in offices. To be familiar with
areas that they are developing, however, they
occasionally spend time outdoors examining
the features of the land under consideration
for development, its current use, and the
types of structures existing on it. Although
most planners have a scheduled 40-hour
workweek, they sometimes must attend eve­
ning or weekend meetings or public hearings
with citizens’ groups.

About 23,000 persons were urban and re­
gional planners in 1980. Most work for city,
county, or regional planning agencies. A
number are employed by State or Federal
agencies dealing with housing, transporta­
tion, or environmental protection.
Many planners do consulting work, either
part time in addition to a regular job, or full
time for a firm that provides services to pri-

118/Occupational Outlook Handbook

vate developers or government agencies.
Planners also work for large land developers
or research organizations and teach in col­
leges and universities.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Employers often seek workers who have
advanced training in urban or regional plan­
ning. Most entry jobs in Federal, State, and
local government agencies require 2 years of
graduate study in urban or regional planning,
or the equivalent in work experience. Al­
though the master’s degree in planning is the
usual requirement at the entry level, some
people who have a bachelor’s degree in city
planning, architecture, landscape architec­
ture, or engineering may qualify for begin­
ning positions.
In 1980, over 75 colleges and universities
offered a master’s degree in urban or regional
planning. Although students holding a bache­
lor’s degree in architecture or engineering
may earn a master’s degree after 1 year, most
graduate programs in planning require 2 or 3
years. Graduate students spend considerable
time in workshops or laboratory courses
learning to analyze and solve urban and re­
gional planning problems and often are re­
quired to work in a planning office part time
or during the summer.
Candidates for jobs in Federal, State, and
local government agencies usually must pass
civil service examinations to become eligible
for appointment.
Planners must think in terms of spatial
relationships and visualize the effects of their
plans and designs. They should be flexible
and able to reconcile different viewpoints to
make constructive policy recommendations.

After a few years’ experience, urban and
regional planners may advance to assign­
ments requiring a high degree of independent
judgment such as designing the physical lay­
out of a large development or recommending
policy, program, and budget options. Some
are promoted to jobs as planning directors
and spend a great deal of time meeting with
officials in other organizations, speaking to
civic groups, and supervising other profes­
sionals. Advancement beyond planning di­
rector is difficult and often occurs only
through a transfer to a large city with more
complex problems and greater responsibil­

Job Outlook
Employment of urban and regional planners
is expected to increase faster than the average
for all occupations through the 1980’s due to
the growing importance of environmental,
economic, and energy planning. Increased
interest in zoning and land-use planning in
undeveloped areas, including coastal areas,
should spur demand for planners. Expected
population growth in suburban locations and
in the South and West should increase the
workload of zoning and planning agencies and
may result in demand for additional planners.
Opportunities also are expected to arise in
health systems agencies that regulate the
growth of primary care facilities. In addition,
some jobs will open up because of the need to
replace planners who will die, retire, or trans­
fer to other occupations.
However, in recent years, qualified appli­
cants have exceeded openings in urban or
regional planning, and the situation is expect­
ed to persist unless fewer degrees are award­
ed through the 1980’s. Budgetary restraints in
government may also adversely affect em­

ployment. As a result, some persons trained
as planners will have to accept jobs in other
areas of public administration.
Graduates of prestigious academic institu­
tions should have the best job prospects.
With increasing competition, geographic mo­
bility and the willingness to work in small
towns or rural areas are important for many
job seekers.

Based on a survey by the American Plan­
ning Association, urban and regional plan­
ners earned a median annual salary of about
$24,000 in early 1980. City, county, and
other local governments paid urban and re­
gional planners median salaries of more than
$22,000 a year in early 1980. Salaries varied
slightly according to the size of the jurisdic­
tion. Planners employed by the largest juris­
dictions earned almost $24,000, while those
employed by the smallest jurisdictions earned
about $19,000. Planning directors earned
median salaries of about $27,000 a year in
1980. Salaries of planning directors varied
significantly according to the size of the ju­
risdiction. Directors employed by large cities
earned about $32,500, while those employed
by small cities earned less than $20,000.
Most planners have sick leave and vacation
benefits and are covered by retirement and
health plans.
State governments paid urban and regional
planners average beginning salaries of about
$13,800 a year in mid-1980, although plan­
ners started at more than $20,000 in the States
of Alaska and Utah. Salaries of experienced
State planners ranged from an average mini­
mum of nearly $20,300 a year to an average
maximum of more than $27,500 a year. Sala­
ries of State planning directors ranged from an
average minimum of about $30,800 to an
average maximum of nearly $37,600 in mid1980.
Planners with a master’s degree were hired
by the Federal Government at about $18,600 a
year in early 1981. In some cases, persons
having less than 2 years of graduate work
could enter Federal service as interns at yearly
salaries of about $12,300 or $15,200. Salaries
of urban and regional planners employed by
the Federal Government averaged $31,100 a
year in 1980.

Related Occupations
Urban and regional planners develop plans
for the orderly growth of urban and rural
communities. Others whose work requires
planning include architects, landscape archi­
tects, city managers, and planning engineers.

Sources of Additional Information
Facts about careers in urban and regional
planning and a list of schools offering train­
ing and job referrals are available from:
Urban and regional planners need to know a community in order to plan for its long-range needs.

American Planning Association, 1776 Massachu­
setts Ave. NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

Social and Recreation Workers

Those considering a career in social work
or recreation should be “people-oriented,” for
helping people is what the work is all about.
Social workers and recreation workers use a
variety of techniques to help people cope
with crises or live fuller lives.
Social workers assist individuals and fam­
ilies whose lives are being tom apart by
poverty, alcoholism, drug abuse, behavior
problems, or illness. They find families to
adopt or provide foster care for children
whose parents can’t take care of them; see to
it that needy families are able to give their
children proper food, health care, and school­
ing; and step in when there is evidence of
parental neglect or abuse. School social
workers help students who have severe per­
sonal or family problems. Group workers
give young people guidance and support so
that they will learn to deal with their chang­
ing lives and develop into responsible adults.
Some social workers do corrections work,
counseling juvenile delinquents and serving
as probation officers or parole officers.
Medical social workers counsel hospital pa­
tients and advise the family as well—perhaps
suggesting ways of arranging for home care
after the patient leaves the hospital. Psychiat­
ric social workers, usually employed in hos­
pitals, clinics, or mental health centers, help
patients respond to their treatment and serve
as a link with the family and the community
at large.
Growing attention is being given within
the profession to directing and influencing
social change. Social planners work with
health, housing, transportation, and other
planners to suggest ways of making our com­
munities more wholesome places to live. So­
cial workers use various forms of direct
action to help people deal with some of the
basic forces that shape their lives. They may,
for example, do research to identify commu­
nity needs; draft legislation; or comment on
government proposals in such areas as hous­
ing, health, and social and welfare services.
Or they may help organizations in the com­
munity work for social betterment.
Recreation workers, too, help individuals
and groups in a number of different ways.
They develop and supervise activity pro­
grams for children, teenagers, and adults.
Some specialize in therapeutic recreation,
and plan and coordinate activities for people
who are handicapped, emotionally disturbed,
or chronically ill. Like others in the helping
professions, recreation workers often operate
on a team basis with other professionals in­
cluding therapists, nurses, physicians, social
workers, counselors, and educators.
People enter professional positions in so­
cial work and recreation from a variety of
backgrounds. To a certain extent, an appli­

can t’s formal education determines the
amount of responsibility he or she is given
and affects advancement opportunities as
well. An MSW (master’s in social work) is
preferred or required for many social work
positions, while a college degree with a ma­
jor in recreation is increasingly important for
those aspiring to a career in recreation or
leisure services. In both fields, however,
training is offered at the associate, bache­
lor’s, master’s, and Ph.D. levels. Ordinarily,
a candidate with an associate degree would
be offered a job as an activity leader or
casework aide, while someone with a Ph.D.
would be considered for a position in teach­
ing, research, or administration. But the job
market does not always operate as predict­
ably as this; actual hiring decisions vary from
time to time and place to place. Experience,
or academic training in a related field, may
be the decisive consideration.
During the 1980’s, employment growth in
the human services area will respond to bud­
get constraints, and new graduates are likely
to experience competition for jobs. However,
the job market will be more “ crowded” in
some fields of specialization and some parts
of the country than in others. More detailed
information about job outlook appears in the
statements that follow.

Social Workers_____
(D .O .T. 195.107-010 through -038; .137-010; .164-010;
.167-010, -014, -030, -034, and .267-014)

Nature of the Work
Social workers are community trouble­
shooters. Through direct counseling or re­
ferral to other services, they help individuals,
fam ilies, and groups cope with their
The nature of the problem and the time
and resources available determine which of
three traditional approaches—casework,
group work, and community organization—
social workers will use. Social workers who
specialize in social planning and policy use
another approach; they help people effect
change in social institutions such as health
services, housing, or education, or tackle so­
cial problems such as drug abuse or racial
In casework, social workers interview indi­
viduals and families to understand their prob­
lems and secure the appropriate resources,
services, education, or job training. In group
work, social workers help people understand
themselves and others to achieve a common
goal. They plan and conduct activities for
children, teenagers, adults, older persons,
and other groups in community centers, hos­

pitals, nursing homes, and correctional insti­
tutions. In community organization, social
workers coordinate the efforts of political,
civic, religious, business, and union organi­
zations to combat social problems through
community programs. For a neighborhood or
larger area, they may help plan and develop
health, housing, welfare, and recreation ser­
vices. Social workers often coordinate exist­
ing services, organize fund raising for com­
munity social welfare activities, and aid in
developing new community services.
Social workers who specialize in family
and child services counsel individuals, work
to strengthen personal and family relation­
ships, and help clients cope with problems.
They provide information and referral ser­
vices in many areas—family budgeting and
money management, locating housing, home­
maker assistance for the elderly, job training,
and day care for parents trying to support a
Social workers who specialize in child
welfare seek to improve the physical and
emotional well-being of children and youth.
They may advise parents on child care and
child rearing, counsel children and youth
with social adjustment difficulties, and ar­
range homemaker services during a parent’s
illness. Social workers may institute legal
action to protect neglected or mistreated chil­
dren, help unmarried parents, and counsel
couples about adoption. After proper evalua­
tion and home visits, they may place and
oversee children in foster homes or institu­
tions. If these children have serious problems
in school, child welfare workers may consult
with parents, teachers, counselors, and others
to identify the underlying problems.
Medical social workers and psychiatric so­
cial workers are trained to help patients and
their families with social problems that may
accompany illness, recovery, and rehabilita­
tion. They work in hospitals, clinics, com­
munity mental health centers, rehabilitation
centers, and nursing homes. Renal social
workers (who deal with patients and families
of patients suffering from kidney disease) and
social workers specializing in drug addiction
help patients readjust to their homes, jobs,
and communities. Counselors, psychologists,
psychiatrists, and nurses with specialized
training also help patients and their families
cope with social problems resulting from se­
rious illness. These occupations are described
elsewhere in the Handbook.
A growing number of social workers spe­
cialize in the field of aging. They plan and
evaluate services for the elderly, and help
older persons and their families deal with
difficulties brought about by diminished ca­
pacities and changed circumstances. In nurs­
ing homes, for example, they help patients

120/Occupational Outlook Handbook

For some entry level positions, an MSW de­
gree is preferred or required. Furthermore, an
MSW is a decided asset for advancement to a
supervisory position. Two years of specialized
study including a period of supervised field in­
struction, or internship, generally are required
to earn an MSW. Field placement affords an
opportunity to test one’s suitability for social
work practice. At the same time, the student
may develop expertise in a specialized area and
make personal contacts that later are helpful in
securing a permanent job. Previous training in
social work is not required for entry into a grad­
uate program, but courses such as psychology,
sociology, economics, political science, histo­
ry, social anthropology, and urban studies, as
well as social work, are recommended. Some
graduate schools offer accelerated MSW pro­
grams for a limited number of highly qualified
BSW recipients. However, applicants to grad­
uate programs in social work may face keen
In 1980, about 300 colleges and universi­
ties offered accredited undergraduate pro­
grams and about 90 offered accredited
graduate programs in social work. A growing
Job opportunities for social workers are best in the Sunbelt and rural areas.
number of programs include courses in ger­
and their families adjust to the need for long­ through counseling, educational programs, ontology, the study of aging. Graduate stu­
and referral to community social programs. dents may specialize in clinical social work,
term institutional care.
Social workers and probation or parole of­ Industrial social workers might, for example, community organization, administration,
ficers in correctional institutions and correc­ counsel employees whose performance is af­ teaching, research, social policy planning,
tional programs help offenders readjust to fected by emotional problems, alcoholism, or and a variety of other areas.
A limited number of scholarships and fel­
society. They counsel on the social problems drug abuse.
A small but growing number of social lowships are available for graduate educa­
that arise on returning to family and commu­
tion. A few social welfare agencies grant
nity life, and also may help secure necessary workers are in private practice.
Although employment is concentrated in workers “ educational leave” to obtain grad­
education, training, employment, or commu­
urban areas, many work with rural families. uate education.
nity services.
A small number of social workers—em­
Advancement usually takes the form of
ployed by the Federal Government and the promotion to supervisor, administrator, or di­
Working Conditions
Most social workers have a 5-day, 35- to United Nations or one of its affiliated agen­ rector, although some social workers with
40-hour week. However, many, particularly cies—serve in other parts of the world as advanced degrees go into teaching, research,
in private agencies, work part time. Many consultants, teachers, or technicians and es­ or consulting. Like other administrators, di­
work evenings and weekends to meet with tablish agencies, schools, or assistance pro­ rectors of social service agencies hire, train,
and supervise staff, develop and evaluate
clients, attend community meetings, and han­ grams.
agency programs, make budget decisions,
dle emergency situations. Compensatory time Training, Other Qualifications,
solicit funds, and represent the agency in
generally is granted for overtime. Because and Advancement
social workers often must visit clients or at­
The bachelor’s degree in social work
tend meetings, the ability to drive a car often (BSW) usually is accepted as the minimum
A graduate degree and experience general­
is necessary.
education of the professional social worker. ly are required for supervisory, administra­
BSW programs generally provide instruction tive, or research work; the last also requires
in social work practice, social welfare poli­ training in social science research methods.
About 345,000 social workers were em­ cies and service, human behavior and the Many administrators have a background in
ployed in 1980. Two out of three were em­ social environment, and social research. Su­ social work, business or public administra­
tion, education, or health administration. For
ployed in the public sector. Most of these pervised field experience is required.
BSW programs prepare graduates for di­ teaching positions, an MSW is required and
worked for State, county, or municipal gov­
ernments; relatively few worked for the Feder­ rect service positions such as case worker or a doctorate usually is preferred.
In 1981, 26 States had licensing or regis­
al Government. Social workers are employed group worker. Formal training in social work
primarily in departments of human resources, is not always essential for an entry level job tration laws regarding social work practice
health, housing, education, and corrections. in the field, however. In many agencies, and the use of professional titles. Usually
Those in the private sector work for voluntary casework is performed by individuals who work experience, an examination, or both,
nonprofit agencies; community and religious have degrees in the liberal arts or humanities, are necessary for licensing or registration,
organizations; hospitals, nursing homes, and sociology and psychology being the most with periodic renewal required. The National
home health agencies; and other human ser­ prevalent majors. Hiring for positions in pub­ Association of Social Workers allows the use
lic agencies usually is subject to State or of the title ACSW (Academy of Certified
vice agencies.
Some are employed in business and indus­ local merit system requirements. Applicants Social Workers) for members who have
try, as “ industrial social workers.” They are may have to take a written examination, and earned a master’s degree, passed the ACSW
located, organizationally, in the personnel their test scores (not their academic creden­ examination, and gained at least 2 years of
department or health unit, and they support tials) determine whether or not they are se­ job experience. In view of the trend towards
employee productivity and quality of life lected for consideration.
specialization at advanced levels of social

Social Scientists, Social Workers, Religious Workers, and Lawyers/121

work practice, efforts are being made to de­
vise specialized examinations in addition to
the general ACSW examination currently
Social workers should be emotionally ma­
ture, objective, and sensitive, and should
possess a basic concern for people and their
problems. They must be able to handle re­
sponsibility, work independently, and main­
tain good working relationships with clients
and coworkers.
During high school and college, students
should do volunteer, part-time, or summer
work to determine whether they have the
interest and capacity for professional social
work. Some voluntary and public social wel­
fare agencies occasionally hire students as
assistants to social workers.

Job Outlook
Employment of social workers is expected
to increase about as fast as the average for all
occupations through the 1980’s. Some expan­
sion of social services is likely, especially in
health-related services in hospitals, nursing
homes, community mental health centers,
and home health agencies; in programs for
the aging; and in personal and family coun­
seling. Relatively high levels of unemploy­
ment coupled with problems caused by social
change are expected to sustain a strong need
for persons in the social service field. Social
workers will also be needed to assist profes­
sionals in other fields, such as transportation,
law, and public administration. In addition to
jobs resulting from growth in demand for
social services, many openings will result
from replacement needs.
Job prospects for social workers vary a
great deal. Opportunities depend to some ex­
tent upon academic credentials—whether or
not an applicant has formal social work train­
ing, and preferably an MSW—but geograph­
ic location is probably the most important
Competition is keen in cities where train­
ing programs for social workers abound, such
as Boston and New York. This competition
is certain to intensify if social service pro­
grams in those localities are cut back in re­
sponse to budget pressures on State and local
governments. At the same time, population
growth in the Sunbelt States is spurring ex­
pansion of social service programs there, and
some isolated rural areas find it difficult to
attract and retain qualified staff.
Although graduates having a BSW are re­
ported to be faring well in the job market,
they do not necessarily have an advantage
over other college graduates in the search for
entry level jobs. Jobs covered by civil service
regulations usually are filled through com­
petitive examination, and an applicant’s un­
dergraduate major is not a determining factor
in the selection.
Graduates of MSW and doctoral degree
programs are qualified for a wider range of
jobs, including planning, administration, re­
search, and teaching. The outlook for those
graduates is expected to be favorable through­

out the 1980’s, although some may have to

Salaries for social workers at all levels
vary greatly by type of agency (private or
public: Federal, State, or local) and geo­
graphic region, but generally are highest in
large cities and in States with sizable urban
populations. Private practitioners, administra­
tors, teachers, and researchers often earn
considerably more than social workers in oth­
er settings.
Starting salaries for social case workers
(positions requiring a BSW) in State and
local governments averaged about $12,000 in
1980, according to a survey conducted by the
U.S. Office of Personnel Management; for
social service supervisors, the average start­
ing salary was $15,900.
The average annual starting salary for so­
cial workers (positions requiring an MSW
and 1 year of related experience) in hospitals
and medical centers was about $16,300 in
1981, according to a survey conducted by the
University of Texas Medical School. Top
salaries for experienced social workers in
these settings averaged $21,100.
In the Federal Government, social workers
with an MSW and no other experience start­
ed at $18,585 in early 1981; average earnings
for social workers in the Federal service were
$25,200. Graduates with a Ph.D. or job ex­
perience may start at a higher salary. Most
social workers in the Federal Government are
employed by the Veterans Administration
and the Departments of Health and Human
Services, Education, Justice, and Interior.

Related Occupations
Through direct counseling or referral to
other services, social workers help people
solve a range of personal problems. Workers
in occupations with similar duties include:
Case aides, members of the clergy, counsel­
ors, counseling psychologists, and vocational
rehabilitation counselors.

Sources of Additional Information
For information about career opportunities
in social work, contact:
National Association of Social Workers, 1425 H
St. NW., Suite 600, Southern Building, Washing­
ton, D.C. 20005.

The Council on Social Work Education
publishes an annual Directory of Accredited
BSW Programs and Directory of Accredited
MSW Programs, which may be purchased
for $1.20 each, postpaid. These and other
publications are available from:
Council on Social Work Education, 111 Eighth
Ave., New York, N.Y. 10017.

Recreation Workers
(D .O .T. 159.124-010; 187.137-010; 195.167-018, .227010 and -014; 352.167-010)

Nature of the Work
Participation in organized recreation is

more important today than ever before as
people find the amount of leisure time in
their lives increasing. Recreation workers
plan, organize, and direct individual and
group activities that help people enjoy their
leisure hours. They work with people of all
ages and socioeconomic levels; the sick and
the well; and the emotionally and physically
handicapped. Their employment settings
range from the wilderness to rural to subur­
ban and urban, including the inner city.
Recreation personnel employed by local
governments and voluntary agencies provide
leisure-time activities at outdoor neighbor­
hood playgrounds and indoor recreation cen­
ters. They furnish instruction in the arts,
crafts, and sports. They may supervise re­
creational activities at correctional institu­
tions or work closely with social workers to
organize programs for the young and the
aged. School recreation staff organize the
leisure-time activities of school-age children
during schooldays, weekends, and vacations.
Under the supervision of a camp director,
camp counselors lead and instruct campers in
nature-oriented forms of recreation such as
swimming, hiking, and horseback riding as
well as outdoor education. They also provide
campers with specialized instruction in a par­
ticular area such as music, drama, gymnas­
tics, or tennis. In resident camps, the staff
also must insure that the campers have ade­
quate living conditions.
Recreation personnel in industry and in the
Armed Forces organize and direct activities
| in recreation rooms, athletic programs such
■as bowling and softball leagues, social func)
Stions, and other leisure activities for company
employees and service men and women.
therapeutic recreation is a rapidly growing
specialized field designed to help individuals
recover or adjust to illness, disability, or spe­
cific social problems. Recreational therapists
work in hospitals, correctional institutions,
health and rehabilitation centers, nursing
homes, and private schools and camps for the
mentally retarded, emotionally disturbed, and
physically handicapped. Therapeutic recrea­
tion workers, in conjunction with physicians,
prescribe activities on a one-to-one basis.
Recreation workers occupy a variety of
positions at different levels of responsibility.
Recreation leaders provide face-to-face lead­
ership and are responsible for a recreation
program’s daily operation. They may give
instruction in crafts, games, and sports, keep
records, and maintain recreation facilities.
Recreation leaders who give instruction in
specialties such as art, music, drama, swim­
ming, or tennis are called acXiyitv specialists.
They often conduct classes and coacK reams
in the activity in which they specialize. A
camp counselor is generally a recreation lead­
er and may also be an activity specialist.
Recreation leaders usually work under the
direction of a supervisor.
Recreation supervisors plan programs to
meet the needs of the population they serve;
supervise recreation leaders, sometimes over

122/Occupational Outlook Handbook

directly to a full-time job. The largest num­
ber of paid employees in the recreation field
are part-time or seasonal workers. Typical
jobs include summer camp counselors and
playground leaders, lifeguards, craft special­
ists, and after-school and weekend recreation
program leaders. Many of these jobs are
filled by teachers and college students.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Volunteer experience can lead to a full-time job as an activity director.

an entire region; and direct specialized
Recreation administrators or directors
manage recreation programs. They have
overall responsibility for program planning,
budget, and personnel.

Working Conditions
While the average week for recreation
workers is 35-40 hours, people entering this
field should expect some night work and
irregular hours. In addition, workers often
spend much of their time outdoors when the
weather permits.
Recreation workers are employed mostly
in urban areas where many people must
use the same playgrounds and recreation cen­
ters. Camp workers, however, often work in
rural, less populated areas of the country.
Some camp workers live at the camp and
their room and board are part of their

About 135,000 persons worked as group
recreation workers and camp directors in
1980. (This employment estimate does not
include many summer workers.) About 40
percent worked for government agencies, pri­
marily local recreation departments. These
included over 2,000 municipal park and re­
creation departments, over 1,200 county park
and recreation agencies, about 350 special

districts, and the State park systems. Several
thousand persons worked for the Federal
Government as recreation specialists, sports
specialists, outdoor recreation planners, and
recreation assistants and aides. They worked
primarily for the Veterans Administration
and the Departments of Defense and Interior.
Another 25 percent worked for civic, so­
cial, and fraternal associations, primarily Boy
Scout, Girl Scout, and other youth associ­
ations. Others worked for health service fa­
cilities, social service organizations, religious
organizations, senior centers and retirement
communities, and large business firms.
Many jobs for recreation workers are found
in private and commercial recreation—includ­
ing amusement parks, sports and entertain­
ment centers, wilderness and survival
enterprises, tourist attractions, vacation excur­
sions, hotels and other resorts, camps, health
spas, athletic clubs, apartment complexes, and
other settings.
The recreation field is characterized by an
unusually large number of part-time, season­
al, and volunteer jobs. Some volunteers serve
on local park and recreation boards and com­
missions. The vast majority, however, serve
as volunteer activity leaders at local play­
grounds, or in youth organizations, camps,
nursing homes, hospitals, senior centers, and
other settings. Many recreation professionals
have found that volunteer experience, as well
as part-time work during school, can lead

A college degree with a major in parks and
recreation is an increasingly important quali­
fication for those seeking full-time career po­
sitions in the recreation field. Generally, an
applicant’s level of formal education and
training determines the type of job he or she
can get.
A number of recreation leader positions
currently are filled by high school graduates.
However, those seeking jobs with career po­
tential should obtain a minimum of an associ­
ate degree. Some jobs as recreation leader
require specialized training in a particular
field, such as art, music, drama, or athletics.
\Most supervisors have a bachelor’s degree
plus experience. Persons with a degree in
parks and recreation have better prospects for
career advancement.
A bachelor’s degree and experience are
considered minimum requirements for admin­
istrators. However, increasing numbers are
obtaining master’s degrees in parks and re­
creation as well as in related disciplines.
Many persons with backgrounds in other dis­
ciplines, including social work, forestry, and
resource management, pursue graduate de­
grees in recreation.
In industrial recreation, companies seeking
recreation directors prefer applicants with a
minimum of a bachelor’s degree in recreation
with a strong background in business admin­
istration. While a bachelor’s degree in recrea­
tion or education is generally the minimum
requirement for the job of camp director, a
master’s degree is often preferred.
Requirements for college faculty in the
parks and recreation field vary according to
the type of institution. Based on a survey by
the National Recreation and Park Associ­
ation (NRPA), about two-thirds of junior
college faculty had a master’s, one-fifth had a
bachelor’s, and one-tenth had a Ph.D. de­
gree; over one-half of senior college faculty
had a Ph.D. degree and the remainder had a
master’s degree.
In 1980, about 210 2-year community col­
leges offered associate degree recreation
leadership and park technician programs; 295
4-year colleges and universities offered park
and recreation curriculums. In addition,
about 120 master’s degree programs and over
20 doctoral programs were offered. Programs
in therapeutic recreation were offered by
about 40 community and junior colleges and
125 4-year colleges and universities. A num­
ber of graduate programs also were offered.
The NRPA presently accredits park and
recreation curriculums at the bachelor’s and
master’s degree levels and is beginning a

Social Scientists, Social Workers, Religious Workers, and Lawyers/123

process of accrediting 2-year associate degree
programs. Students in accredited bachelor’s
degree programs devote about one-half of
their time to general education courses in
which they may gain knowledge of the natu­
ral and social sciences including an under­
standing of human growth and development
and of people as individuals and as social
beings; history and appreciation of human
cultural, social, intellectual, spiritual, and ar­
tistic achievements; and other areas of inter­
est. One-fourth of their time involves
exposure to professional park and recreation
education including history, theory, and phi­
losophy; community organization; recreation
and park services; leadership supervision and
administration; understanding of special pop­
ulations such as the elderly or handicapped;
and fieldwork experience. Students spend the
remainder of their time developing competen­
cies in specialized professional areas such as
therapeutic recreation (courses in psycholo­
gy, health, education, and sociology are rec­
ommended), park management, outdoor
recreation, park and recreation administra­
tion, industrial or commercial recreation
(courses in business administration are rec­
ommended), camp management, and other
The American Camping Association has
developed a curriculum for camp director
education which is utilized by many colleges
and universities. Many of the national youth
associations offer training courses for camp
directors at the local and regional level.
Persons planning recreation careers must
be good at motivating people and sensitive to
their needs. Good health and physical stam­
ina are required. Activity planning calls for
creativity and resourcefulness. Willingness to
accept responsibility and the ability to exer­
cise judgment are important qualities since
recreation personnel often work alone. To
increase their leadership skills and under­
standing of people, students are advised to
obtain related work experience in high school
and college. Opportunities for part-time,
summer, or after-school employment, or for
volunteer work, may be available in local
park and recreation departments, youth ser­
vice agencies, religious or welfare agencies,
nursing homes, camps, parks, or nature cen­
ters. Such experience may help students de­
cide whether their interests really point to a
human service career. Students also should
talk to local park and recreation profession­
als, school guidance counselors, and others.
After a few years of experience, recreation
leaders may become supervisors. Although
promotion to administrative positions may be
easier for persons with graduate training, ad­
vancement usually is possible through a com­
bination of education and experience.
NRPA has developed national registration
standards for professional and technical per­
sonnel, including both education and exper­
ience requirements. Over 30 States have
adopted these standards. The American Camp­
ing Association certifies camp directors based
upon experience and knowledge of the field.

As of mid-1981, Utah and Georgia had
mandatory licensing requirements for thera­
peutic recreation workers. More States are
expected to adopt such requirements in the
coming years. Therapeutic recreation work­
ers in long-term care facilities must be regis­
tered by the NRPA, National Therapeutic
Recreation Society’s Board of Registration,
or by the State in which they work.

Job Outlook
Employment of group recreation workers
and camp directors is expected to grow about
as fast as the average for all occupations
through the 1980’s as more people engage in
recreation activities during their increased lei­
sure time; as the number of older people
using senior centers and nursing homes in­
creases; and as additional recreation sites are
constructed to serve the needs of an expand­
ing population. In addition to jobs created by
growth in demand for these workers, there
will be many openings annually from the
need to replace recreation workers who trans­
fer to other occupations, retire, or die.
The job outlook for group recreation work­
ers is largely dependent on government fund­
ing for recreation services. In recent years,
austerity budgets have been adopted by gov­
ernments at all levels—a situation which is
likely to continue. Furthermore, the number
of applicants for full-time positions in the
recreation field is likely to exceed available
job openings. As a result, competition for
jobs as recreation workers is expected to be
keen, particularly in public recreation agen­
cies. Persons with formal training and exper­
ience in parks and recreation are expected to
have the best job opportunities in this field;
those with graduate degrees should have the
best opportunities for supervisory and admin­
istrative positions.
Job opportunities are expected to be more
favorable in therapeutic recreation and private
and commercial recreation. Opportunities for
specially trained therapeutic recreation work­
ers are likely to be favorable, in line with the
anticipated need for additional staff in many
health service facilities. By contrast, competi­
tion for jobs as camp directors is expected to
be very keen.
Job experience prior to graduation will great­
ly help a graduate find a position. Although
competition is expected to be keen, many op­
portunities for part-time and summer employ­
ment will be available for recreation leaders in
local government recreation programs. Many
of the summer jobs will be for counselors and
craft and athletic specialists in camps.

* According to a 1980 survey by the Interna­
tional Personnel Management Association,
State governments paid recreation program
leaders with a bachelor’s degree average be­
ginning salaries of about $11,500; experienced
workers, about $15,800. Municipalities paid
program leaders average beginning salaries of
about $13,000; experienced workers, about

According to NRPA, 2-year associate de­
gree graduates received starting salaries rang­
ing from $7,000 to $10,000 in 1981. Individ­
uals with bachelor’s degrees obtained park and
recreation positions with annual salaries that
were in the $10,000 to $13,000 range. Persons
with graduate degrees generally received high­
er salaries. Supervisors’ salaries ranged from
$15,000 to $20,000. The average salary for
chief administrators in public park and recrea­
tion agencies was about $25,000, and ranged
up to $55,000. All salaries varied widely de­
pending on the size and type of employing
agency and geographic location.
According to the American Camping As­
sociation, the average annual starting salary
J for camp directors was about $15,000 in
1980. Salaries for experienced camp directors
jgnged from $12,000 to $30,000 a year.
The average annual starting salary for reccreational therapists (positions requiring a col­
lege degree in recreational therapy or a related
field) in hospitals and medical centers was
about $13,000 in 1980, according to a survey
conducted by the University of Texas Medical
School. Top salaries for experienced recrea­
tional therapists in these settings averaged
$16,200, and some were as high as $22,900.
tarting salaries for recreation and park
essionals in the Federal Government in
early 1981 were about $12,300 for applicants
with a bachelor’s degree; $15,200 for those
with a bachelor’s degree plus 1 year of exper­
ience; $18,600 for those with a bachelor’s
plus 2 years’ experience or a master’s degree;
and $22,500 for those with a bachelor’s plus
3 years’ experience or a Ph.D. Recreation
and park assistants, aides, and technicians
earn less than these professionals.
Most public and private recreation agen­
cies provide vacation and other fringe bene­
fits such as sick leave and hospital insurance.


Related Occupations
Recreation workers must exhibit leadership
and sensitivity in dealing with people. Other
occupations that require similar personal qual­
ities include social workers, parole officers,
human relations counselors, school counsel­
ors, clinical and counseling psychologists, and

Sources of Additional Information
Information about recreation as a career,
employment opportunities in the field, colleges
and universities offering park and rec­
reation curricula, accreditation, and registra­
tion standards is available from:
National Recreation and Park Association, Division
of Professional Services, 3101 Park Center Drive,
Alexandria, Va. 22302.

For information on careers in industrial rec­
reation, contact:
National Industrial Recreation Association, 20
North Wacker Dr., Chicago, 111. 60606.

For information on careers in camping and
job referrals, send request and postpaid return
envelope to:
American Camping Association, Bradford Woods,
Martinsville, Ind. 46151.

Religious Workers
Most religious workers are members of the
clergy. Deciding on a career in the clergy
involves considerations different from those
involved in other career choices. When per­
sons choose to enter the ministry, priesthood,
or rabbinate, they do so primarily because
they possess a strong religious faith and a
desire to help others. Nevertheless, it is
important to know as much as possible
about the profession and how to prepare for
it, the kind of life it offers, and its needs for
The number of clergy needed depends
largely on the number of people who partici­
pate in organized religious groups. This af­
fects the number of churches and synagogues
established and pulpits to be filled. In addi­
tion to the clergy who serve congregations,
many others teach or act as administrators in
seminaries and in other educational institu­
tions; still others serve as chaplains in the
Armed Forces, industry, correctional institu­
tions, hospitals, or on college campuses; or
render service as missionaries or in social
welfare agencies.
Persons considering a career in the clergy
should seek the counsel of a religious leader
of their faith to aid in evaluating their qualifi­
cations. The most important of these are a
deep religious belief and a desire to serve the
spiritual needs of others. Priests, ministers,
and rabbis also are expected to be models of
moral and ethical conduct. A person consid­
ering one of these fields must realize that the
civic, social, and recreational activities of a
member of the clergy often are influenced
and restricted by the customs and attitudes of
the community.
The clergy should be sensitive to the needs
of others and able to help them deal with these
needs. The job demands an ability to speak
and write effectively, to organize, and to
supervise others. The person entering this
field also must enjoy studying because the
occupation requires continuous learning and
demands considerable initiative and self-disci­
In addition to the clergy, some lay people
are religious workers. Many coordinate the
activities of various denominational groups to
meet the religious needs of students or direct
religious school programs designed to pro­
mote religious education among members of
their faith. Like members of the clergy, they
sometimes provide counseling and guidance
on marital, health, financial, and religious
Education and training requirements as
well as job prospects for the clergy vary
widely among the faiths and even among
branches within some faiths. A detailed dis­
cussion of training requirements, job pros­
pects, and other information on the clergy in


the three largest faiths in the United States—
Protestant, Roman Catholic, and Jewish—is
presented in the following statements. Infor­
mation on the clergy in other faiths and on
lay religious workers may be obtained direct­
ly from leaders of the respective groups.

Protestant Ministers
(D.O.T. 120.007-010)

Nature of the Work
Protestant ministers lead their congrega­
tions in worship services and administer the
various rites of their churches, such as bap­
tism, confirmation, and Holy Communion.
They prepare and deliver sermons and give
religious instruction. They also perform mar­
riages; conduct funerals; counsel individuals
who seek guidance; visit the sick, aged, and
handicapped at home and in the hospital;
comfort the bereaved; and serve church mem­
bers in other ways. Many Protestant minis­
ters write articles for publication, give
speeches, and engage in interfaith, communi­
ty, civic, educational, and recreational activi­
ties sponsored by or related to the interests of
the church. Some ministers teach in seminar­
ies, colleges, and universities.
The services that ministers conduct differ
among Protestant denominations and also
among congregations within a denomination.
In many denominations, ministers follow a
traditional order of worship; in others, they
adapt the services to the needs of youth and
other groups within the congregation. Most
services include Bible reading, hymn sing­
ing, prayers, and a sermon. In some denomi­
nations, Bible reading by a member of the
congregation and individual testimonials may
constitute a large part of the service.
Ministers serving small congregations gen­
erally work on a personal basis with their
parishioners. Those serving large congrega­
tions have greater administrative responsibil­
ities and spend considerable time working
with committees, church officers, and staff,
besides performing their other duites. They
may share specific aspects of the ministry
with one or more associates or assistants,
such as a minister of education who assists in
educational programs for different age
groups, or a minister of music.

Working Conditions
Ministers are “on call’’ for any serious
troubles or emergencies that involve or affect
members of their churches. They also may
work long and irregular hours in administra­

tive, educational, and community service
Many of the ministers ’ duties are sedentary
in nature, such as reading or doing research
in a study or a library while preparing ser­
mons or writing articles.
In denominations such as the Methodist
Church, ministers are subject to reassignment
by a central body to a new pastorate every
few years.

In 1980, an estimated 230,000 Protestant
ministers served individual congregations.
Some also worked in closely related fields
such as chaplains in hospitals and the Armed
Forces. The greatest number of clergy are
affiliated with the five largest groups of
churches—Baptist, United Methodist, Luth­
eran, Presbyterian, and Episcopal.
All cities and most towns in the United
States have at least one Protestant church
with a full-time minister. Some churches em­
ploy part-time ministers; many part-time
clergy are seminary students, ministers re­
tired from full-time pastoral responsibilities,
or those who also have secular jobs. Al­
though most ministers are located in urban
areas, many live in less densely populated
areas where they may serve two or more

Training and Other Qualifications
Educational requirements for entry into the
Protestant ministry vary greatly. Some de­
nominations have no formal educational re­
quirements, and others ordain persons having
varying amounts and types of training in Bi­
ble colleges, Bible institutes, or liberal arts
In 1980, there were about 150 American
theological institutes accredited by the Asso­
ciation of Theological Schools in the United
States and Canada. These admit only stu­
dents who have received a bachelor’s degree
or its equivalent with a liberal arts major
from an accredited college. Many denomina­
tions require a 3-year course of professional
study in one of these accredited schools or
seminaries after college graduation. The de­
gree of master of divinity is awarded upon
Recommended preseminary or undergrad­
uate college courses include English, history,
philosophy, natural sciences, social sciences,
fine arts, music, religion, and foreign lan­
guages. These courses provide a knowledge
of modem social, cultural, and scientific in­
stitutions and problems. However, students
considering theological study should contact,
at the earliest possible date, the schools to
which they intend to apply, to learn how to
prepare for the program they expect to enter.

Social Scientists, Social Workers, Religious Workers, and Lawyers/125

and inadequate financial support are expected
to result in only limited growth in requirements
for ministers. However, the number of persons
being ordained has been increasing and is like­
ly to continue to do so. Asa result, new gradu­
ates of theological schools are expected to face
increasing competition in finding positions and
more experienced ministers will face competi­
tion in their efforts to move to large congrega­
tions with greater responsibility and more
remuneration. The supply-demand situation
will vary among denominations, with more
favorable prospects for ministers in Evangeli­
cal churches. Most of the openings for minis­
ters that are expected through the 1980’s will
therefore result from the need to replace those
in existing positions who leave the ministry,
retire, or die.
Employment alternatives for newly or­
dained Protestant ministers who are unable to
find positions in parishes include working in
youth counseling, family relations, and wel­
fare organizations; teaching in religious edu­
cational institutions; and serving as chaplains
in the Armed Forces, hospitals, universities,
and correctional institutions.

Salaries of Protestant clergy vary substan­
tially, depending on age, experience, de­
nomination, size and wealth of congregation,
and geographic location. Based on limited
information, the estimated median annual in­
come of Protestant ministers was about
$15,000 in 1980.

Related Occupations
Protestant ministers advise and counsel in­
dividuals and groups regarding their religious
as well as personal, social, and vocational
development. Other occupations involved in
this type of work include social workers,
clinical and counseling psychologists, teach­
ers, and counselors.

Sources of Additional Information
Newly ordained ministers often start out as assistant pastors.

The standard curriculum for accredited
theological schools consists of four major
categories: Biblical, historical, theological,
and practical. Courses of a practical nature
such as psychology, religious education, and
administration are emphasized. Many accred­
ited schools require that students gain expe­
rience in church work under the supervision
of a faculty member or experienced minister.
Some institutions offer doctor of ministry
degrees to students who have completed 1
year or more of additional study after serving
at least a year as minister. Scholarships and
loans are available for students of theological
In general, each large denomination has its
own school or schools of theology that reflect
its particular doctrine, interests, and needs.
However, many of these schools are open to
students from other denominations. Several

interdenominational schools associated with
universities give both undergraduate and grad­
uate training covering a wide range of the­
ological points of view.
Persons who have denominational qualifi­
cations for the ministry usually are ordained
after graduation from a seminary. In denomi­
nations that do not require seminary training,
clergy are ordained at various appointed
times. For example, the Evangelical minister
may be ordained with only a high school
Men and women entering the clergy often
begin their careers as pastors of small con­
gregations or as assistant pastors in large

Job Outlook
The anticipated slow growth in church mem­
bership combined with pressures of rising costs

Persons who are interested in entering the
Protestant ministry should seek the counsel
of a minister or church guidance worker.
Each theological school can supply informa­
tion on admission requirements. Prospective
ministers also should contact the ordination
supervision body of their particular denomi­
nation for information on special require­
ments for ordination.

(D.O.T. 120.007-010)

Nature of the Work
Rabbis are the spiritual leaders of their
congregations, and teachers and interpreters
of Jewish law and tradition. They conduct
religious services and deliver sermons on the
Sabbath and on Jewish holidays. Like other

126/Occupational Outlook Handbook

Rabbis teach and interpret Jewish law and tradition.

clergy, rabbis conduct weddings and funeral
services, visit the sick, help the poor, com­
fort the bereaved, supervise religious educa­
tion programs, engage in interfaith activities,
and involve themselves in community affairs.
Rabbis serving large congregations may
spend considerable time in administrative du­
ties, working with their staffs and commit­
tees. Large congregations frequently have an
associate or assistant rabbi. Many assistant
rabbis serve as educational directors.
Rabbis serve either Orthodox, Conserva­
tive, Reform, or Reconstructionist congrega­
tions. Regardless of their particular point of
view, all Jewish congregations preserve the
substance of Jewish religious worship. Con­
gregations differ in the extent to which they
follow the traditional form of worship—for
example, in the wearing of head coverings,
the use of Hebrew as the language of prayer,
or the use of music or a choir. The format of
the worship service and, therefore, the ritual
that the rabbis use may vary even among
congregations belonging to the same branch
of Judaism.
Rabbis also may write for religious and lay
publications, and teach in theological semi­
naries, colleges, and universities.

Community and educational activities may
also require long or irregular hours.
Some of their duties are intellectual and
sedentary, such as studying religious texts
and researching and writing sermons and arti­
cles for publication.
Rabbis have a good deal of independent
authority, since there is no formal hierarchy
among them. They are responsible only to
the Board of Trustees of the congregations
they serve.

An estimated 3,000 rabbis served individ­
ual congregations in 1980; approximately
1,300 were Orthodox rabbis, 850 were Con­
servative, 750 were Reform, and 60 were
Reconstructionist. Some rabbis work as
chaplains in the military services, in hospitals
and other institutions, or in one of the many
Jewish community service agencies. Some
are employed in colleges and universities as
teachers in Jewish Studies programs.
Although rabbis serve Jewish communities
throughout the Nation, they are concentrated
in major metropolitan areas that have large
Jewish populations.

Training and Other Qualifications
Working Conditions
Rabbis work long hours and are “on call”
to visit the sick, comfort the bereaved, and
provide counseling to those who need it.

To become eligible for ordination as a
rabbi, a student must complete a course of
study in a seminary. Entrance requirements
and the curriculum depend upon the branch

of Judaism with which the seminary is
About 30 seminaries train Orthodox rab­
bis. Of these, the Rabbi Issac Elchanan The­
ological Seminary (an affiliate of Yeshiva
University) and the Herbrew Theological
College of Skokie are the two largest semi­
naries in the United States. Both have formal
3-year ordination programs and require a
bachelor’s degree for entry. Many Orthodox
rabbis are ordained in seminaries with pro­
grams of varying length. There are no formal
requirements for admission to these seminar­
ies, nor are degrees, other than ordination,
always granted. The training, nevertheless, is
rigorous. When students have become suffi­
ciently learned in the Talmud, the Bible, and
other religious studies, they may be ordained
with the approval of an authorized rabbi,
acting either independently or as a represen­
tative of a rabbinical seminary.
The Hebrew Union College—Jewish In­
stitute of Religion is the official seminary
that trains rabbis for the Reform branch of
The Jewish Theological Seminary of
America, the official seminary that trains
rabbis for the Conservative branch of Juda­
ism, and the Hebrew Union College require
the completion of a 4-year college course, as
well as earlier preparation in Jewish studies,
for admission to the rabbinical program lead­
ing to ordination. Normally 5 years of study
are required to complete the rabbinical course
at the Reform seminary, including 1 year of
preparatory study in Jerusalem. Exceptional­
ly well-prepared students can shorten this 5year period to a minimum of 3 years. A
student having a strong background in Jewish
studies can complete the course at the Con­
servative seminary in 4 years; for other enrollees, the course may take as long as 6 years.
The Reconstructionist Rabbinical College
trains rabbis in the newest branch of Juda­
ism. A bachelor’s degree is required for ad­
mission to the Reconstructionist Rabbinical
College. The rabbinical program is based on
a five-year course of study which empha­
sizes, in each year, a period in the history of
Jewish civilization. In addition, students are
required to earn a master’s degree in a related
field at an area university. Graduates are
awarded the title “ Rabbi” and, with special
study, can earn the Doctor of Hebrew Let­
ters degree.
In general, the curriculums of Jewish the­
ological seminaries provide students with a
comprehensive knowledge of the Bible, Tal­
mud, Rabbinic literature, Jewish history, the­
ology, and courses in education, pastoral
psychology, and public speaking. Students of
the Reform seminary get extensive practical
training in dealing with social and political
problems in the community. Training for al­
ternatives to the pulpit, such as leadership in
community services and religious education,
increasingly is stressed.
Some seminaries grant advanced academic
degrees in fields such as Biblical and Talmu­
dic research. All Jewish theological seminar­

Social Scientists, Social Workers, Religious Workers, and Lawyers/127

ies make scholarships and loans available.
Newly ordained rabbis usually begin as lead­
ers of small congregations, assistants to exper­
ienced rabbis, directors of Hillel Foundations
on college campuses, teachers in seminaries
and other educational institutions, or chaplains
in the Armed Forces. As a rule, the pulpits of
large and well-established Jewish congrega­
tions are filled by experienced rabbis.

Job Outlook
The job outlook for rabbis varies among
the four major branches of Judaism.
Orthodox clergy currently face keen com­
petition because the number of graduates
from Orthodox seminaries is increasing at a
more rapid pace than the number of pulpits.
Rabbis in the Conservative branch of Juda­
ism, on the other hand, are expected to have
good employment opportunities if present
trends continue.
Reform rabbis are expected to enjoy favor­
able prospects for available positions because
the Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute
of Religion, the only seminary that trains
rabbis for the Reform branch of Judaism, has
recently sought to keep supply and demand
in balance by limiting enrollments.
Reconstructionist rabbis also are expected
to have good employment opportunities, as
supply and demand are expected to be in
balance through the 1980’s.
Newly ordained rabbis who do not have a
pulpit may work for a Jewish social service
agency, teach in a religious educational insti­
tution, or serve as chaplain in the Armed
Forces or in hospitals, universities, or correc­
tional institutions.

The Jewish Theological Seminary of America,
3080 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10027.
The Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary,
2540 Amsterdam Ave., New York, N.Y. 10033.
Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Reli­
gion, whose three campuses are located at 1 W.
4th St., New York, N.Y. 10012; at 3101 Clifton
Ave., Cincinnati, Ohio 45220; and at 3077 Uni­
versity Mall, Los Angeles, Calif. 90007.
Reconstructionist Rabbinical College, 2308-10 N.
Broad St., Philadelphia, Pa. 19132.

Roman Catholic
(D.O.T. 120.007-010)

Nature of the Work
Roman Catholic priests attend to the spiri­
tual, pastoral, moral, and educational needs
of the members of their church. Their duties
involve delivering sermons; administering the
sacraments of marriage and of penance, and
presiding at liturgical functions, such as fu­
neral services. They also comfort the sick,
console and counsel those in need of guid­
ance, and assist the poor.

Income varies, depending on the size and
financial status of the congregation, as well
as its denominational branch and geographic
location. Rabbis usually earn additional in­
come from gifts or fees for officiating at
ceremonies such as weddings.
Based on limited information, the annual
earnings of rabbis generally ranged from
$20,000 to $50,000 in 1980, including fringe
benefits. Some senior rabbis in large congre­
gations earn over $50,000 a year.

Related Occupations
Rabbis advise and counsel individuals and
groups regarding their religious as well as
personal, social, and vocational develop­
ment. Other occupations involved in this
type of work include social workers, clinical
and counseling psychologists, teachers, and

Sources of Additional Information
Persons who are interested in becoming
rabbis should discuss their plans for a voca­
tion with a practicing rabbi. Information on
the work of rabbis and allied occupations can
be obtained from:

Priest conducts wedding rehearsal.

Their day usually begins with morning
meditation and Mass, and may end with the
hearing of confessions or an evening visit to
a hospital or a home. Many priests direct and
serve on church committees, work in civic
and charitable organizations, and assist in
community projects.
There are two main classifications of
priests—diocesan (secular) and religious. Both
types have the same powers acquired through
ordination by a bishop. The differences lie in
their way of life, the type of work to which they
are assigned, and the church authority to whom
they are immediately subject. Diocesan priests
generally work as individuals in parishes as­
signed to them by the bishop of their diocese.
Religious priests generally work as part of a
religious order, such as the Jesuits, Domini­
cans, or Franciscans. They may engage in
specialized activities, such as teaching or mis­
sionary work, assigned to them by superiors of
their order.
Both religious and diocesan priests hold
teaching and administrative posts in Catholic
seminaries, colleges and universities, and
high schools. Priests attached to religious
orders staff a large proportion of the church’s
institutions of higher education and many
high schools, whereas diocesan priests are
usually concerned with the parochial schools
attached to parish churches and with diocesan
high schools. The members of religious or­
ders do most of the missionary work con-

128/Occupational Outlook Handbook

ducted by the Catholic Church in this coun­
try and abroad.

Working Conditions
Priests spend long and irregular hours
working for the church and the community.
Religious priests are assigned duties by
their superiors in their particular orders.
Some religious priests serve as missionaries
in foreign countries where they may live un­
der difficult and primitive conditions. Some
religious priests live a communal life in mon­
asteries where they devote themselves to
prayer, study, and assigned work.
Diocesan priests ordinarily serve church
members in parishes and they are “on call” at
all hours to serve their parishioners in emer­
gency situations. They also have many intel­
lectual duties including study of the scriptures
and keeping up with current religious and
secular events in order to prepare sermons.
Diocesan priests are responsible to the bishop
in the diocese.

There were approximately 58,000 priests
in 1980, according to the National Catholic
Conference. There are priests in nearly every
city and town and in many rural communi­
ties. The majority are in metropolitan areas,
where most Catholics reside. Large numbers
of priests are located in communities near
Catholic educational and other institutions.

Training and Other Qualifications
Preparation for the priesthood generally re­
quires 8 years of study beyond high school.
There are over 450 seminaries where students
receive training for the priesthood. Preparato­
ry study may begin in the first year of high
school, at the college level, or in theological
seminaries after college graduation.
High school seminaries provide a college
preparatory program that emphasizes English
grammar, speech, literature, and social stud­
ies. Some study of Latin is required and the
study of modem languages is encouraged.
The seminary college offers a liberal arts
program, stressing philosophy and religion;
the study of man through the behavioral sci­
ences and history; and the natural sciences
and mathematics. In many college seminar­
ies, a student may concentrate in any of these

The remaining 4 years of preparation in­
clude sacred scripture; dogmatic, moral, and
pastoral theology; homiletics (art of preach­
ing); church history; liturgy (Mass); and can­
on law. Fieldwork experience usually is also
required; in recent years, this aspect of a
priest’s training has been emphasized. Dioce­
san and religious priests attend different ma­
jor seminaries, where slight variations in the
training reflect the differences in the type of
work expected of them as priests. Priests
commit themselves not to marry.
Postgraduate work in theology is offered at
a number of American Catholic universities
or at ecclesiastical universities around the
world, particularly in Rome. Also, many
priests do graduate work in fields unrelated
to theology. Priests are encouraged by the
Catholic Church to continue their studies, at
least informally, after ordination. In recent
years, continuing education for ordained
priests has stressed social sciences, such as
sociology and psychology.
Young men never are denied entry into
seminaries because of lack of funds. In sem­
inaries for secular priests, scholarships or
loans are available. Those in religious sem­
inaries are financed by contributions of
The first assignment of a newly ordained
secular priest is usually that of assistant pas­
tor or curate. Newly ordained priests of reli­
gious orders are assigned to the specialized
duties for which they are trained. Depending
on the talents, interests, and experience of
the individual, many opportunities for greater
responsibility exist within the church.

Job Outlook
More priests will be needed in the years
ahead to provide for the spiritual, education­
al, and social needs of the increasing number
of Catholics. During the past decade, the
number of ordained priests has been insuffi­
cient to fill the needs of newly established
parishes and other Catholic institutions, and
to replace priests who retire, die, or leave the
priesthood. This situation is likely to persist
and perhaps worsen, if the sharp drop in
seminary enrollment continues, and if an
increasing proportion of priests retire as
In response to the shortage of priests, cer­
tain functions within the church traditionally
performed by priests are now being per­

formed by lay deacons, and this trend is
expected to increase in the future. Priests will
continue to offer Mass, administer the sacra­
ments, and hear confession, but probably will
be less involved in teaching, administrative,
and community work. An increasing number
of lay deacons are being ordained to preach
and perform liturgical functions such as dis­
tributing holy communion and reading the
gospel at the Mass.

Diocesan priests’ salaries vary from dio­
cese to diocese. Based on limited informa­
tion, salaries range from $2,000 to $4,000 a
year. The diocesan priest also may receive a
car allowance of $25 to $50 a month, free
room and board in the parish rectory, and
fringe benefits such as group insurance and
retirement benefits in the diocese.
Religious priests take a vow of poverty
and are supported by their religious order.
Priests who do special work related to the
church, such as teaching, usually receive a
partial salary which is less than a lay person
in the same position would receive. The dif­
ference between the usual salary for these
jobs and the salary that the priest receives is
called “contributed service. ” In some of these
situations, housing and related expenses may
be provided; in other cases, the priest must
make his own arrangements. Some priests
doing special work may receive the same
compensation that a lay person would

Related Occupations
Roman Catholic priests advise and counsel
individuals and groups regarding their reli­
gious as well as personal, social, and voca­
tional development. Other occupations
involved in this type of work include social
workers, clinical and counseling psycholo­
gists, teachers, and counselors.

Sources of Additional Information
Young men interested in entering the
priesthood should seek the guidance and
counsel of their parish priests. For informa­
tion regarding the different religious orders
and the secular priesthood, as well as a list of
the seminaries which prepare students for the
priesthood, contact the diocesan Directors of
Vocations through the office of the local
pastor or bishop.

Teachers, Librarians, and Counselors
Teaching, librarianship, and counseling
are ‘‘people-oriented ’’ fields that involve help­
ing others learn, acquire information, or gain
insight into themselves. Professional posi­
tions require a bachelor’s degree, as a rule,
although some require a master’s or doctoral
Teaching is one of the largest occupations
in the United States. In 1980, more than 1.6
million persons taught full time or part time
in kindergartens or elementary schools, and
another 1.2 million taught in secondary
schools. Nearly 700,000 persons were col­
lege or university faculty members. Many
other teachers provided instruction in pre­
school programs, including nursery schools
and Head Start; in adult education programs;
in dance, music, and art studios; and in other
places. Librarianship and counseling are
much smaller fields. Approximately 145,000
librarians and audiovisual specialists and
about 200,000 vocational and educational
counselors were employed in 1980.
Teaching takes place in many different
settings, and most people would agree that
education is a life-long process. But perhaps
our most influential educational experiences
occur during the period of formal education,
beginning in preschool or kindergarten and
extending through early adulthood. Teachers
help students gain the skills they need to
function in the world around them, encourag­
ing them to explore many subjects and mas­
ter some; to identify interests and values; and
to learn to make decisions. Perhaps most
important, teachers help students learn to
think for themselves.
Librarianship is undergoing profound
changes as libraries try to keep up with the
information explosion, assimilate new tech­
nology, and respond to budget pressures.
Many libraries are restructuring services and
looking for new ways to share resources,
developments that may alter library staffing
patterns as well.
Public libraries, long thought of as centers
for recreational reading, are enlarging the
scope of their activities and finding additional
ways to serve the community—as informa­
tion and referral services, cultural centers,
and learning centers or “open universities.”
School libraries, also called media centers
because so much of their collection is not in
printed form, have become an integral part of
the learning experience in elementary and
secondary schools. College and university li­
braries provide both reference collections for
students and support for highly specialized
research. Special libraries and documentation
centers, which generally tailor services to a
single group of users, have led the field in
the use of computers for information storage
and retrieval. Expertise in library automation

is important for all kinds of librarians, lack the knowledge of business practices and
organizational dynamics needed for a suc­
Counseling has many dimensions. The cessful career in private industry. For more
Handbook covers four counseling specialties: information, see the statement on personnel
School counseling, rehabilitation counseling, and labor relations specialists elsewhere in
employment counseling, and college career the Handbook.
While library jobs are relatively hard to
planning and placement.
find, people with information-handling skills
Other kinds of counselors provide personal, are in demand in other settings. New infor­
social, and vocational guidance in a wide mation-handling roles, for which many li­
range of settings, including community mental brarians are well qualified, are emerging in
health centers, halfway houses, and counsel­ business and industry—in the rapidly devel­
ing centers for women, minorities, veterans, oping “ information industry” in particular.
ex-offenders and alcohol or drug abusers.
More detailed information on job outlook
Some employers require a master’s degree in and alternative careers appears in the nine
counseling, counseling psychology, social statements that follow.
work, or a related field, but others do not.
Peer counseling, which has proved highly
effective in many situations, is conducted by
individuals who are trained and supervised by
professionals. Peer counselors do not ordinari­
ly have professional credentials themselves,
however. Moreover, counseling is a normal
part of the job for many others in the “helping
professions,” including members of the cler­
gy, social workers, psychologists, and nurses.
Job prospects in teaching, librarianship,
and counseling are relatively poor, overall, as (D .O .T . 166.167-014 and .267-010)
a result of anticipated enrollment declines in
secondary schools and colleges and universi­
Nature of the Work
ties; pressures to constrain spending for pub­
Career planning and placement counselors
lic education and social services; and an
help bridge the gap between education and
abundance of qualified jobseekers. Most po­
work by assisting students and alumni in all
sitions in these fields are in the public sector,
phases of career planning and job search.
where little employment growth is expected
Helping students and alumni identify suitable
during the 1980’s. Staff cutbacks in school
fields of work is just one aspect of the job.
systems and social service agencies will in­
Once a career choice has been made, the
tensify competition for jobs.
job search begins in earnest, and the counsel­
Nonetheless, the teaching occupations in or assists in resume writing, searching out
particular are so large that replacement needs prospective employers, and setting up job
alone will generate a substantial number of interviews.
openings throughout the decade. Further­
Because a curriculum in the liberal arts is
more, some specializations and some parts of not specifically career oriented, liberal arts
the country are far more promising than oth­ students in particular benefit from career
ers. Jobseekers who have specific kinds of planning and counseling. However, even in
training and who are willing to relocate will areas like accounting or engineering, where
be in a relatively favorable position. More­ the connection between college major and
over, opportunities in the private sector ap­ career is quite direct, students may need help
pear to be promising for educators with in deciding where and how to look for a job.
technical skills and an interest in business.
Midlife career changers and returning stu­
Training and human resource develop­ dents seeking to update their credentials or
ment, a field closely related to teaching, has prepare for a new field also benefit from
attracted the attention of growing numbers of career counseling.
teachers seeking a career change. Trainers
Counselors encourage students to examine
need many of the skills that mark successful their interests, abilities, values, and goals,
teachers; they, too, must be able to design and assist them in exploring career alterna­
lesson plans, speak in front of groups, and tives. They may help students test career
evaluate performance. And trainers should be interests by arranging internships, field place­
able to inspire interest and encourage learn­ ments, or part-time or summer employment.
ing. Teachers are among those who have Counselors discuss the kinds of jobs open to
responded to job opportunities in the growing college graduates with a particular major and
field of employee development. However, help students evaluate the pros and cons of
training specialists warn that many teachers further training. To counsel students ade-

College Career
Planning and


130/Occupational Outlook Handbook

Counselor advises college student on job search strategy.
quately, counselors must keep abreast of la­
bor market information, including salaries,
training requirements, and job prospects.
This means reading career and counseling
literature and maintaining contact with indus­
try and government recruiters.
Counselors also help students find jobs.
They arrange student interviews with job re­
cruiters who visit the campus from time to
time. The counselors provide employers with
information about students and inform stu­
dents about business operations and person­
nel needs in industry. They also instruct
students on resume writing and interview
Some career planning and placement coun­
selors, especially those in 2-year and commu­
nity colleges, advise school administrators on
curriculum and course content. They may
consult employers and then suggest courses
that would prepare students more adequately
for local jobs. In addition, some placement
directors and counselors, especially those
working in small schools, also teach. All
counselors maintain a library of career guid­
ance and recruitment information.
Counselors may specialize in areas such as
law, education, internships and field place­
ments, or part-time and summer work. How­
ever, the extent of specialization usually
depends upon the size and type of college as
well as the size of the placement staff.

Working Conditions
Working as they do with students, alumni,
faculty, and employers, college career plan­
ning and placement counselors have peopleoriented jobs. Their work entails a great deal
of contact with others—in counseling ses­
sions, meetings, public appearances, and
telephone calls.
College counseling offices are busy places,
and conflicting demands on the counselor’s

time can create considerable pressure. Career
planning and placement counselors frequently
work more than a 40-hour week; irregular
hours and overtime often are necessary, par­
ticularly during the “recruiting season.”
Many persons pursue careers as college
counselors because of the intellectual stimu­
lation and other intangible benefits of an aca­
demic environment.

Nearly all 4-year colleges and universities
and many 2-year and community colleges
provide career planning and placement ser­
vices to their students and alumni. Large
colleges and universities may have several
counselors working under a director of career
planning and placement activities, and fre­
quently have placement officers for each ma­
jor branch or campus. In many schools,
however, career planning and placement is
the responsibility of just one person—a direc­
tor—who may have some clerical assistance.
And in small schools, members of the faculty
or administrative staff may handle career
counseling on a part-time basis.
An estimated 5,000 persons worked as col­
lege career planning and placement counsel­
ors in 1980.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
There is no educational program that spe­
cifically prepares people for college career
planning and placement work. Colleges and
universities generally seek applicants with a
master’s degree in counseling, college student
personnel work, or a behavioral science.
Graduate courses for career planning and
placement counseling include counseling the­
ory and techniques, vocational testing, occu­
pational research and information, theory of

group dynamics, personnel management,or­
ganizational behavior, and industrial relations.
Some people enter the field after gaining a
broad background in business, industry, gov­
ernment, or education. Work experience in
business or industry or an internship in a
career planning and placement office are
Like other counselors, college career plan­
ning and placement counselors need certain
personal traits. Respect and concern for the
individual are important in this field. Coun­
selors must communicate with and gain the
confidence of students, faculty, and employ­
ers to work effectively. Intellectual curiosity
and openmindedness are important, for coun­
selors need to understand the personal, eco­
nomic, and environmental forces that affect
career decisions. People in this field should
be energetic and able to work under pressure
because they must organize and administer a
wide variety of activities.
Career planning and placement counselors
may advance to assistant director, associate
director, or director of career planning and
placement; director of student personnel ser­
vices; or other high-level positions in college
and university administration. The statement
on College Student Personnel Workers, else­
where in the Handbook, describes several of
these jobs. A doctoral degree is preferred,
and may be required, for advancement in this

Job Outlook
Little or no change in employment of career
planning and placement counselors is foreseen
during the 1980’s, as budgetary constraints
force institutions of higher education to limit
student services. Although colleges and uni­
versities will continue to emphasize career
planning and placement services for students
at all levels, including special groups—adults
seeking a midcareer change as well as minor­
ity, low-income, and handicapped students—
schools are likely to use existing staff rather
than hire additional personnel. Nearly all job
openings will result from the need to replace
counselors who transfer to other occupations
or retire.
As with other academic jobs, applicants
for college career planning and placement
positions will face keen competition. Those
with a master’s degree in counseling or a
related field and experience in business or
industry may have the best job prospects.

According to a survey of colleges and uni­
versities, the median salary of student place­
ment directors was about $20,671 in the
1980-81 academic year. Salaries generally
were higher in public than in private institu­
tions, and higher in major universities and 4year institutions than in 2-year schools. Most
counselors are employed on a 12-month ba­
sis. They are paid for holidays and vacations
and usually receive the same benefits as other
professional personnel employed by colleges
and universities.

Teachers, Librarians, and Counselors/131
Related Occupations
College career planning and placement
counselors help students to examine and
evaluate their interests, abilities, and goals;
explore career alternatives; and look for a
job. Others who help people attain goals and
solve personal problems include school coun­
selors, employment counselors, rehabilitation
counselors, personnel and labor relations spe­
cialists, social workers, psychologists, mem­
bers of the clergy, teachers, and college
student personnel workers.

Sources of Additional Information
A pamphlet on college career planning and
placement is available from:
The College Placement Council, Inc., P.O. Box
2263, Bethlehem, Pa. 18001.

College and
University Faculty
(D .O .T. 090.227-010)

Nature of the Work
Millions of people enroll in college every
year. They enroll for personal enrichment or
to obtain the skills they need for a job. While
the majority are recent high school graduates,
the number of older students on campus is
growing. Many are homemakers who are
preparing to enter or reenter the work force.
Others have returned to school to obtain
courses necessary for advancement in their
present job or to prepare for a career change.
College and university faculty members
provide instruction in particular fields of
study to meet the needs of these students.
Many faculty members conduct several dif­
ferent courses in the same field—freshman
composition and 18th century English litera­
ture, for example. Many instruct undergrad­
uates only, while some instruct both
undergraduates and graduate students. Still
fewer instruct only graduate students. Usual­
ly, the more experienced and educated facul­
ty members conduct the higher level classes.
College and university faculty members
use various methods to present information,
depending on the subject, interest, and level
of their students. Some conduct lectures in
classrooms that seat hundreds of students
while others lead seminars for only a few
students. Still others work primarily in labo­
ratories for subjects such as biology, engi­
neering, or chemistry. Some have the aid of
teaching assistants who may lead discussion
sections or grade exams. Closed-circuit tele­
vision, tape recorders, computers, and other
teaching aids frequently are used.
College faculty members must keep up
with developments in their field by reading
current literature, participating in profession­
al activities, and conducting scholarly re­
search. Writing books or journal articles can
be very important, and some college faculty

Job prospects for college teachers vary by academic field.
members experience a serious conflict be­
tween their responsibilities to their students
and the pressure to “ publish or perish.” The
importance of research and publication var­
ies, however. Research is stressed more at 4year colleges and universities than at 2-year
colleges. A recent survey indicated that over
one-fourth of the faculty in science and engi­
neering departments that offered doctoral de­
grees were engaged in separately budgeted
research and development activities.
In addition to time spent on preparation,
instruction, and research, college and univer­
sity faculty members work with student orga­
nizations and act as student advisors, work
with the college administration, and in other
ways serve the institution and the communi­
ty. Department heads also have supervisory
and administrative duties.

Working Conditions
College faculty members generally have
flexible schedules, dividing their time among
teaching, research, and administrative re­
sponsibilities. They may work odd hours,
however, such as when teaching classes at
night. The normal teaching load usually is
heavier in 2-year and community colleges
where less emphasis is placed on scholarly
research and publication than in major
Over 90 percent of all full-time college
and university faculty work in institutions
that have tenure systems (the assurance of
continuing employment with freedom from
dismissal without cause). Nearly three-fifths
of those faculty members are tenured. Under
a tenure system, a faculty member usually
receives 1-year contracts during a probation-

132/Occupational Outlook Handbook
aiy period lasting at least 3 years and ordi­
narily no more than 7 years; some universi­
ties award 2- or 3-year contracts. After the
probationary period, institutions consider fac­
ulty members for tenure. Due to declining
enrollments and budgetary constraints, how­
ever, faculty members now find it increasing­
ly difficult to gain tenure. Colleges and
universities are turning to short-term con­
tracts and to part-time faculty to save money
and avoid long-term commitments.
Few professions offer vacation arrange­
ments as attractive as those in college teach­
ing. In addition to the summer months during
which faculty members may conduct re­
search, prepare course and teaching materi­
als, travel, or pursue hobbies, they also have
breaks during other school holidays.
College faculty share in the growth and
development of students and are constantly
exposed to new ideas. Many persons pursue
teaching careers because of the intangible
rewards from working in an academic

According to the National Center for Edu­
cation Statistics, about 691,000 faculty mem­
bers taught in the Nation’s 3,200 colleges
and universities in 1980. An estimated
453.000 faculty members holding the rank of
professor, associate professor, assistant pro­
fessor, or instructor worked full time, and
209.000 worked part time. Approximately
29.000 persons were full time junior instruc­
tors. In addition to full-time and part-time
faculty members, thousands of graduate stu­
dents teach part time. They are employed as
assistant instructors, teaching fellows, teach­
ing assistants, or laboratory assistants.
Public institutions, which amount to less
than one-half of all colleges and universities,
employ over 70 percent of all full-time facul­
ty. They employ about two-thirds of the full­
time faculty in all universities and 4-year
colleges, and almost 95 percent in all 2-year
Nearly one-third of full-time faculty teach
in universities; almost one-half work in 4year colleges; and over one-fifth teach in 2year colleges.
Some part-time faculty are employed in
more than one institution of higher education.
Others are primarily employed outside of an
academic setting—in government, private in­
dustry or in nonacademic research. These
people—sometimes referred to as “ adjunct
faculty”—may teach as little as one course a

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
The overwhelming majority of full-time
college and university faculty are classified in
four academic ranks: Professors, associate
professors, assistant professors, and instruc­
tors. The top three ranks comprise about
four-fifths of all faculty. A small proportion
are classified as lecturers.

traditional-age college students. Community
colleges that emphasize programs for adult
learners may be an exception, in which case
employment opportunities would be better in
those institutions. In general, however, fewer
students during the 1980’s almost certainly
will mean fewer college faculty members.
As a result, job openings will result almost
entirely from replacement needs. In any giv­
en academic institution, the number of vacan­
cies will be influenced by the age of current
faculty, tenure patterns and policies, and re­
tirement practices.
Competition for these openings will be
extremely keen, particularly for faculty posi­
tions in the largest and most outstanding in­
stitutions. The number of Ph.D. recipients
alone will exceed greatly the number of
openings for college faculty through the
1980’s. Many graduates who succeed in find­
ing academic jobs may have to accept parttime or short-term appointments that offer no
hope of tenure.
Some fields will offer brighter employment
prospects than others, of course. Depart­
ments that report difficulty recruiting enough
faculty members include engineering, com­
puter science, business administration, and
law—areas that offer very attractive jobs out­
side the academic setting. Employment of
college faculty is related to the non-academic
job market in other fields in still another
way: There is an “ echo effect” as favorable
job prospects in a particular field—account­
ing, for example—cause large numbers of
students to sign up for courses, thus creating
a demand for more teachers. However,
changes in job market conditions, especially
in fields like engineering that are subject to
cyclical fluctuations, may cause a field to
lose its popularity with college students—and
thereby reduce demand for faculty.
Preference for faculty candidates with a doc­
torate will continue to be much stronger in 4year institutions than in 2-year institutions. At
2-year institutions, the lengthy research-orient­
ed education required to earn a doctorate may
not be considered advantageous.
Throughout the 1980’s, an increasing pro­
portion of prospective college faculty mem­
Job Outlook
The basic factor underlying the demand for bers will have to seek nonacademic jobs.
college faculty is enrollment. During the Government and private industry will provide
1960’s and most of the 1970’s, enrollments rose such positions, for the most part. However,
and employment of college faculty increased. some persons holding graduate degrees may
The steady rise in the number of persons at­ find it necessary to enter occupations that
tending college reflected not only growth in the have not traditionally required a master’s de­
number of 18- to 21-year-olds, but an increase gree or a Ph.D.
in the proportion of college-age persons who
actually went to college. This trend is expected Earnings
Earnings vary widely according to faculty
to change during the 1980’s, as the college age
rank and type of institution. In general, fac­
population decreases.
Future college enrollment levels cannot be ulty members in 4-year institutions earn high­
predicted with certainty, but it seems likely er salaries, on the average, than those in 2that enrollments will decline during the year schools. According to a 1980-81 survey
1980’s. Compared to the recent past, there conducted by the National Center for Educa­
will be many fewer people of traditional col­ tion Statistics, salaries for all full-time facul­
lege age. A growing number of adults have ty on 9-month contracts averaged around
entered college in recent years, many on a $23,267; professors, $30,738; associate pro­
part-time basis, but adult enrollments are not fessors, $23,199; assistant professors,
expected to completely offset the decline in $18,900; and instructors, $15,179.

Most faculty members enter the profession
as instructors and must have at least a mas­
ter’s degree. Because competition for posi­
tions is so keen, however, many colleges
and universities consider only doctoral
degree holders for entry level academic
Doctoral programs usually require 3 to 5
years of study beyond the bachelor’s degree,
including intensive research for a doctoral
dissertation that makes an original contribu­
tion to the candidate’s field of study. A
working knowledge of one or more foreign
languages and, in many fields, advanced
mathematical and statistical techniques, often
are required as well. Students should consid­
er carefully their academic potential and mo­
tivation before beginning doctoral studies.
Advancement through the academic ranks
usually requires a doctorate plus college
teaching experience, even in institutions that
hire master’s degree holders as instructors.
Assistant professors usually have a few years
of prior experience as an instructor, while an
appointment as associate professor frequently
requires 3 years or more of experience as an
assistant professor. For a professorship, ex­
tensive teaching experience and published
books and articles that evidence expertise in
one’s discipline usually are essential.
Academic, administrative, or professional
contributions affect advancement opportuni­
ties in this field. Research, publication, con­
sulting work, and other forms of professional
recognition all have a bearing on a college
faculty member’s chances of rising through
the academic ranks.
College faculty should have inquiring,
analytical minds in order to devote their lives
to the pursuit and dissemination of knowl­
edge. As teachers and researchers, they
should be good at communicating, both oral­
ly and in writing. And as models for their
students, they should exhibit dedication to
the principles of academic integrity and intel­
lectual honesty. College faculty must always
be open to new ideas—from their students,
their peers, and the nonacademic community.

Teachers, Librarians, and Counselors/133
Many institutions pay according to salary
schedules determined by rank. On the aver­
age, more faculty in public than in private
institutions are covered by these schedules.
In institutions without schedules, a college
senate often determines salaries according to
a general set of criteria.
Since over 85 percent of full-time faculty
members have 9-month contracts, many have
additional summer earnings from teaching,
research, writing for publication, or other
employment. Royalties and fees for speaking
engagements may provide additional earn­
ings. Some faculty members also undertake
additional teaching or research projects or
work as consultants.
Some college and university faculty members
enjoy benefits offered by few other professions,
including tuition waivers for dependents, hous­
ing allowances, travel allowances, and paid sab­
batical leaves. In many institutions, faculty
members are eligible for a sabbatical leave after
6 or 7 years of employment.

Related Occupations
College and university faculty function
both as teachers and as researchers, and they
must have an aptitude for communicating
information and ideas. Related occupations
include: Trainers and employee development
specialists, writers, consultants, lobbyists,
policy analysts, social scientists, mathemati­
cians, physical scientists, or life scientists.

Sources of Additional Information
Professional societies generally provide in­
formation on employment opportunities in
their particular fields. Names and addresses
of these societies appear in the statements
on specific occupations elsewhere in the
Answers to specific questions pertaining to
college and university teaching can be ob­
tained from:
American Association of University Professors,
One Dupont Circle, NW., Suite 500, Washington,
D.C. 20036.

Extension Service
(D.O.T. 096.121, .127, .161, and .167)

Nature of the Work
Cooperative Extension Service workers,
often called extension agents, conduct educa­
tional programs on topics such as agriculture,
home economics, youth activities, and com­
munity resource development. They general­
ly specialize in one of these areas and have
titles that match their specialties, such as
extension agent for youth activities or exten­
sion agent for agriculture science and horti­
culture. They are employed jointly by State

Extension specialists give farmers a tour of a test plot.
land-grant universities and the U.S. Depart­
ment of Agriculture.
Extension agents usually work with groups
of people. For example, the extension agent
for youth activities leads meetings of 4-H
clubs, and during the summer, may organize
day camps for young people. Home econom­
ics agents set up programs of interest to
homemakers such as nutrition. They might
suggest plans for economical meals and for
buying and preparing food. Agricultural ex­
tension agents conduct meetings on topics of
special interest to area farmers. In a county
that has much dairy farming, extension
agents arrange seminars on subjects such as
dairy herd health or raising forage crops.
During these seminars, agents teach farmers
how to select the proper feeds to meet cows’
nutritional needs and. raise their output of
milk, and how to establish a herd-inspection
program to recognize and combat health haz­
ards. They also may help local farmers mar­
ket their products.
Extension agents for community resource
development help community leaders plan for
economic development and other community
needs such as recreational programs and fa­
cilities, water supply and sewage systems,
libraries, and schools.
In addition to group work, agents also do
fieldwork with individuals. An extension or
home demonstration agent may visit a farm­
er or homemaker to help solve individual
Extension workers also provide informa­
tion to the community at large about their
area of specialization through a weekly news­
paper column, for example, or a marketing
report on local radio and television shows for
agricultural products important to the area.
Occasionally, extension service workers may
help produce documentary films on topics in

which they have special training for broad­
cast on local television stations. Also, exten­
sion workers at some land-grant universities
produce programs for university-owned UHF
and cable television stations.
In addition, State extension specialists at
land-grant universities coordinate the efforts
of county agents by developing ways of us­
ing the research in their fields of study at the
county level. Some State extension workers
also teach at the university.

Working Conditions
Cooperative Extension Service workers do
much paperwork and planning in their of­
fices, but they also spend considerable time
in the field visiting farmers, taping weekly
radio shows, or attending seminars at the
State university.
Extension work is not a 9 to 5 job. To
discuss new farming methods and new laws
that will affect farmers, extension agents of­
ten conduct evening meetings so farmers can
Most extension service offices are located
in small towns. As a result, extension work
may be an ideal career for persons who wish
to live outside the city.

In 1980, most of the approximately 14,000
Cooperative Extension Service agents were
employed by counties. Almost all of the
more than 3,000 counties have county staffs.
Depending on the population, staffs range in
size from one agent, who serves a wide vari­
ety of interests, to a dozen or more agents,
each serving a highly specialized need. Most
of the remaining extension agents work for
State extension services at land-grant univer­
sities. A few regional staffs serve multi­
county areas, a small number work for the

134/Occupational Outlook Handbook
Extension Service of the U.S. Department of
Agriculture and a few work in urban areas,
mostly to organize 4-H activities for youth.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A bachelor’s degree is usually required for
a job as an extension service worker. Agri­
cultural science, home economics, and train­
ing in teaching or a communications field,
such as journalism, also are excellent prep­
aration. Agricultural extension work almost
requires a farm background or work exper­
ience on a farm.
Workers may receive specific instruction
in extension work through pre-induction
training programs or through regular in-ser­
vice training programs that cover both educa­
tional techniques and their particular subject
Most States require specialists and agents
assigned to multicounty and State staffs to
have at least one advanced degree, and, in
many, they must have a Ph.D.

Job Outlook
Employment of Cooperative Extension
Service workers is expected to increase more
slowly than the average for all occupations
through the 1980’s. Nevertheless, as agricul­
tural technology becomes more complicated,
more education and communications workers
will be needed to relay information about
advances in agricultural research and technol­
ogy to farmers. In urban areas, more exten­
sion workers will be needed to advise
officials on the design of city projects and on
nutrition, recreation, and lawn and garden

According to limited data, county exten­
sion agents averaged almost $20,000 in
1980. Earnings vary, however, by State,
education, experience, and area of specializa­
tion. Agricultural extension agents and com­
munity resource development specialists, for
example, had the highest average annual
earnings, over $21,000, while home econom­
ics agents and 4-H club agents had average
annual earnings of about $18,500 and
$17,500, respectively, in 1980.

Related Occupations
Extension workers spend most of their
time helping farmers and other people imple­
ment new ideas. Other occupations that in­
volve helping people help themselves include
counselors, dietitians, teachers, and social

Sources of Additional Information
Additional information is available from
County Extension offices, the State Director
of the Cooperative Extension Service located
at each land-grant university, or the Person­
nel Division, U.S. Department of Agricul­
ture, Hyattsville, Md. 20782.

(D.O.T. 045.107-010 and -018)

Nature of the Work
Many times, people look for jobs before
they review their own assets or know enough
about the labor market. Employment coun­
selors (sometimes called vocational counsel­
ors) help people evaluate themselves and
their work potential. They help clients identi­
fy their interests and abilities; make them
aware of career opportunities and alterna­
tives; help them set goals; and assist them in
planning the steps they need to take to reach
their goals.
Most employment counselors work in
State employment offices. Others work in
community agencies, supported by both pub­
lic and private funds, that include career
counseling centers for women; social service
agencies that counsel school dropouts, drug
abusers, or ex-offenders; and neighborhood
organizations that help direct young people
toward meaningful roles in society. Some
counselors work in, or operate, private career
planning and counseling firms.
To help clients gain a better understanding
of their vocational interests and skills, coun­
selors usually begin with an assessment inter­
view. They explore education, training, work
history, interests, skills, values, personal
traits, physical capacities, and attitudes to­
ward work and leisure. They may arrange for
aptitude and achievement tests, and if appro­
priate, request physical capacities reports.
Counselors may use role playing, role rever­
sal, and similar techniques to help clients
identify problem areas. After reviewing all
the information they have gathered thus far,
counselors help their clients identify suitable
jobs. During this phase of the counseling
process, they may introduce the client to
various sources of career and occupational
Employability planning, the next phase,
centers on a review of the client’s employ­
ment prospects in a particular field. The
counselor and client discuss occupational
goals and alternatives, and determine what
steps need to be taken to reach those goals.
Counselors may use techniques such as con­
frontation to point out discrepancies between
stated goals and actual behavior.
Where needs are identified, counselors re­
fer clients to other agencies for additional
services. In most instances, these referrals
aim to overcome barriers to employment,
such as arranging an equivalency exam for
someone who has not finished high school,
or suggesting a child care facility so that a
parent might work. Proper referral requires
that employment counselors be thoroughly
familiar with other community agencies and
the services they provide; that they identify
and stay in touch with resource persons in

other agencies; and that they know eligibility
requirements and referral procedures.
Counselors may suggest specific employ­
ers and appropriate ways of applying for
work. In some cases, counselors may contact
employers about jobs for applicants, although
placement specialists often handle this work
in State employment service agencies. After
job placement or entrance into training, coun­
selors may follow up to determine if the
applicant needs additional assistance.
The kinds of clients a counselor sees dur­
ing a typical workday depend on the goals of
the agency. In public employment offices,
for example, counselors typically work with
clients who have serious labor market disad­
vantages, such as high school dropouts, ex­
offenders, or people who are emotionally
unstable. Prospective clients often have trou­
ble making a realistic job choice, or they
may have problems connected with job
change or job adjustment. Relatively few ap­
plicants at public employment offices are se­
lected for counseling; those who meet the
selection criteria tend to be hardest to place.
Among the factors considered are re­
sources—how much counseling time is avail­
able and how many counseling sessions a
client would need—and priority. In public
employment offices, the counselor is respon­
sible for demonstrating a priority of service
to special applicant groups, such as veterans,
handicapped, women, and minorities.

Working Conditions
Counselors usually work about 40 hours a
week, but some in community agencies may
schedule evening appointments to counsel
clients already employed.
Working space is often limited, but priva­
cy has been recognized as a critical factor in
the counseling process and most offices are
designed to be free from noise and distrac­
tions to allow for confidential discussions
with clients.

According to the U.S. Employment Ser­
vice, almost 3,600 persons held positions as
employment counselors or counseling supervi­
sors in public employment offices in 1980.
Several hundred other workers, although not
classified as employment counselors, engaged
in counseling activities in these offices. In
addition, several thousand employment coun­
selors worked for various private or communi­
ty agencies, primarily in larger cities. Some
worked in institutions such as prisons, training
schools for delinquent youths, and mental

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
All States require counselors in public em­
ployment offices to meet civil service or mer­
it system requirements. However, State
standards setting minimum education and ex­
perience vary widely. Some States require a
master’s degree in counseling or a related

Teachers, Librarians, and Counselors/135
field; others do not. However, the majority of
counselors in State employment agencies have
a bachelor’s degree plus additional courses in
guidance and counseling. Experience in coun­
seling, interviewing, and job placement also
may be required, particularly in the case of
those without advanced degrees.
Applicants with graduate degrees and addi­
tional experience may enter at higher levels
on the counselor career ladder. In many
States, however, individuals with extensive
experience in the employment service may
enter the counselor career ladder, take the
prescribed university courses, and gain the
necessary experience to move upward.
Entry requirements for counselors are far
from uniform in private and community
agencies. Most agencies prefer, and some
require, a master’s degree in vocational coun­
seling or in a related field such as psycholo­
gy, personnel administration, counseling,
guidance education, or public administration.
Many private agencies prefer to have at least
one staff member who has a doctorate in
counseling psychology or a related field. For
those lacking an advanced degree, employers
usually emphasize experience in closely
related work such as rehabilitation counsel­
ing, employment interviewing, school or col­
lege counseling, teaching, social work, or
In each State, the public employment ser­

vice provides an initial period of training for
newly hired counselors or counselor trainees.
In addition, both new and experienced coun­
selors often enroll for training at colleges and
universities during the regular academic year
or at institutes or summer sessions. Private
and community agencies also often provide
in-service training opportunities.
Individuals interested in this field should
include courses in psychology and sociology
in their college program. Graduate level
courses include techniques of counseling,
psychological principles and psychology of
careers, assessment and appraisal, cultures
and environment, and occupational informa­
tion. Counselor education programs at the
graduate level are available in more than 400
colleges and universities, mainly in depart­
ments of education or psychology. To obtain
a master’s degree, students must complete 1
to 2 years of graduate study including actual
supervised experience in counseling.
Persons aspiring to be employment coun­
selors should have a strong interest in helping
others make and carry out vocational deci­
sions. They should be able to work indepen­
dently and to keep detailed records.
Experienced counselors may advance to
supervisory or administrative positions as di­
rectors of agencies or supervisors of guid­
ance. Some move into research, consulting
work, or college teaching. Still others go into

private practice, and set up their own coun­
seling agencies.

Job Outlook
Qualified applicants are expected to face
keen competition for jobs through the 1980’s.
Employment in this small occupation may be
adversely affected by cuts in Federal funding
for the State, local, and community agencies
that provide job counseling. Because of un­
certainty about future funding levels, it is
difficult to project the long run outlook.
However, it is likely that little employment
growth will occur and most openings for
employment counselors will result from the
need to replace those who transfer to other
fields or retire.

Salaries of employment counselors in State
employment offices vary considerably from
State to State. The average minimum salary
in 1980 was about $13,900; the average
maximum salary was about $18,800.
Counselors generally receive benefits such
as vacations, sick leave, pension plans, and
insurance coverage.

Related Occupations
Employment counselors help people evalu­
ate their interests, abilities, and attitudes to­
wards work, and assist them in finding the
job that best suits them. Related occupations
include college career planning and place­
ment counselors, school counselors, rehabili­
tation counselors, parole officers, probation
officers, employment interviewers, employee
compensation and benefits managers, equal
employment opportunity/affirmative actionmanagers, and training and employee devel­
opment specialists.

Sources of Additional Information
For general information on employment or
vocational counseling, contact:
American Personnel and Guidance Association,
Two Skyline Place, Suite 400, 5203 Leesburg
Pike, Falls Church, Va. 22041.

The nearest local office of your State em­
ployment service can supply information
about job opportunities and entrance require­
ments for positions in your State.

Kindergarten and
Elementary School
(D .O .T . 092.227-010, -014; 094.224-010, .227-010
through -022; 099.224-010)

Nature of the Work

Counselors administer aptitude tests and interest inventories.

Kindergarten and elementary school teach­
ers play a vital role in the development of
children. What is learned or not learned in
these early years can shape students ’ views of
themselves and the world, and affect later
success or failure in school.

136/Occupational Outlook Handbook
Kindergarten and elementary school teach­
ers introduce children to the basics of math­
ematics, language, science, and social studies.
They try to instill good study habits and an
appreciation for learning, and observe and
evaluate each child’s performance and poten­
tial. Elementary school teachers look for cre­
ative ways of helping children learn, and may
use films, slides, computers, or instructional
games. They also arrange class trips, speak­
ers, and class projects.
Teachers keep track of their students’ so­
cial development and health. They study
each child’s interactions with classmates and
discuss any problems with the parents.
Teachers may, for example, meet with the
parents of a child who habitually resists au­
thority to discover the cause and work out a
solution. Teachers also report health prob­
lems to parents and school health officials.
One of the teacher’s primary concerns is to
insure that each child receives as much per­
sonalized help as possible.
Most elementary school teachers instruct a
single group of children in several subjects.
In some schools, two or more teachers team
teach and are jointly responsible for a group
of students or for a particular subject. An
increasing number of elementary school
teachers specialize in one or two subjects and
teach these subjects to several classes. Some
teach special subjects such as music, art, or
physical education, while others concentrate
on the special needs of certain groups: those
with reading problems, or those who do not
speak English, for example.
Much of a teacher’s work occurs outside the
classroom. Teachers generally prepare lessons
and grade papers at home, and attend faculty
meetings and supervise extracurricular activi­
ties after school. They also serve on faculty
committees, such as those to revise curricula
or to evaluate the school’s objectives and the
students’ performance. To stay up-to-date on
educational materials and teaching techniques,
they may participate in workshops and other
in-service activities and take courses at local
colleges and universities.
A growing number of elementary school
teachers have aides to do clerical work and to
help supervise lunch and playground activi­
ties. Freed from routine duties, these teachers
can give more individual attention to

Working Conditions
Teachers spend much of their time stand­
ing, walking, kneeling, or even sitting on the
floor. For example, kindergarten teachers
may join their students on the floor to finger
paint, cut out pictures, or do other crafts.
A teacher may often have to deal with
disruptive, disrespectful, and sometimes even
violent children, which can be physically and
emotionally taxing. Giving appropriate atten­
tion to disabled pupils also adds to a teacher’s
Most elementary school teachers work a
traditional 2-semester, 10-month school year.

(In most States the minimum number of days
that public schools must be in session is
specified by law; 180 days a year is the usual
minimum.) Teachers on a 10-month schedule
often are involved in the summer session or
take other jobs. Many enroll in college
courses or special workshops. Some teachers
work in year-round schools where they work
8-week sessions, are off 1 week between
sessions, and have a longer midwinter break.
This 12-month schedule makes it difficult for
teachers to take supplemental jobs.
Most States as well as the District of Co­
lumbia have tenure laws that protect the right
to a job of teachers who have taught success­
fully for a certain number of years. A teacher
normally must serve a probationary period of
3 years before attaining tenure status. In
some States, tenure is achieved automatically
when the probationary period is completed.
In other States, teachers who have completed
a probationary period are required to negoti­
ate a new contract. Tenure is not an automat­
ic guarantee of job security, but it does
provide procedural protection in the event of

More than 1.6 million people worked as
kindergarten and elementary school teachers
in 1980. Most elementary school teachers
work in public schools that have six grades;
however, some teach in middle schools that
cover the 3 or 4 years between the lower
elementary grades and 4 years of high
school. Fewer than 14 percent of elementary
school teachers work in nonpublic schools.
A large proportion of all public elementary
school teachers teach in urban areas.

Fourteen States require that teachers pass a
written examination for certification, and half
the States have health, citizenship, or character
requirements. Almost half of all States require
teachers to have graduate degrees. This re­
quirement is often coupled with provisions
concerning continuing education. Complete
information on requirements for elementary
school teaching is available from any State
department of education or superintendent of
Information about whether a particular
teacher training program is approved can be
obtained from the institution or offering the
training or from the State department of edu­
cation. Training need not be obtained in the
State in which one wants to teach. Many
colleges and universities offer teacher train­
ing programs that are approved in other
States. Moreover, many States have reciproc­
ity agreements that allow teachers who have
met the certification requirements in one
State to become certified in another.
Kindergarten and elementary school teach­
ers should be creative, dependable, and pa­
tient. Most important, they should want to be
directly involved in the educational and emo­
tional development of children. Competence
in handling classroom situations also is
As a teacher gains experience, he or she
may advance to supervisory, administrative,
or specialized positions within the school sys­
tem. Often, however, these positions require
additional training and certification. As a re­
sult, for most teachers, advancement consists
of higher pay rather than additional responsi­
bility or a higher position.

Job Outlook
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
All 50 States and the District of Columbia
require public elementary school teachers to
be certified by State education authorities.
Some States require teachers in private and
parochial schools to be certified as well.
Generally, certification is granted by the
State Board of Education, the State Superin­
tendent of Education, or a Certification Ad­
visory Committee.
Elementary school teachers may be certi­
fied to teach either the early childhood grades
(nursery school through the third grade) or
the elementary grades (grades 4 through 6 or
8). Some teachers obtain certification to
teach special education at the elementary
school level.
Requirements for certification vary by
State, and school systems may have addition­
al hiring requirements. In all States and the
District of Columbia, however, prospective
kindergarten or elementary school teachers
must have a bachelor’s degree from an insti­
tution with an approved teacher education
program. Teacher training programs include
a variety of liberal arts courses, as well as
student teaching and prescribed education

Job prospects for kindergarten and elemen­
tary school teachers may improve in the late
1980’s. If enrollments in teacher training in­
stitutions continue in line with past trends,
supply and demand will be roughly in bal­
ance for the next few years. Beginning in the
mid-1980’s, there is a possibility of more
openings than qualified applicants, which
would mean a favorable employment out­
look. Although employment is expected to
grow, the major source of job openings will
be the need to replace teachers who leave the
Employment in kindergarten and elemen­
tary school teaching is expected to increase
about as fast as the average for all occupa­
tions, primarily because of rising enrollments
in the latter part of the decade. Some addi­
tional positions may be created as a result of
efforts to improve the pupil-teacher ratio,
while others may result from greater empha­
sis on special education and bilingual instruc­
tion. However, public education is under
considerable taxpayer pressure to limit spend­
ing, and some communities are certain to
oppose expansion of instructional staff. In­
deed, in some school systems, budget prob­
lems may well force layoffs of classroom

Teachers, Librarians, and Counselors/137
Enrollment levels and employment of
classroom teachers are closely associated.
Because of fewer births in the 1960’s, ele­
mentary enrollments have been on the decline
since 1967, when they peaked at nearly 32
million. While birth rates are not projected to
increase substantially from the level of the
mid-1970’s, the number of births is expected
to rise during the decade as a result of the
growing number of women entering the
prime childbearing ages. The National Cen­
ter for Education Statistics projects that by
1983 the downward enrollment trend will halt
at a level of about 26.5 million. Thereafter,
elementary school enrollments will begin to
climb, advancing to more than 30 million by
Enrollment growth will not occur at the
same rate in all areas of the country, howev­
er. Largely because of migration to the
South and West, population growth (and
therefore the increase in enrollments) is ex­
pected to be greater in those regions. The
U.S. Bureau of the Census projects that be­
tween 1980 and 1990, fully three-fourths of
the entire increase in the number of Ameri­
can children ages 5 to 14 will occur in the
Southern and Western States. Growth in the
elementary school-age population during the
1980’s is projected to be greatest in the West
(11 percent) and smallest in the Northeast (1
Whether or not an elementary school
teacher “ shortage” will develop in the late
1980’s depends only in part on the interplay
of factors that affect demand for teachers.
Factors affecting teacher supply will also
play a role, and they are even less predictable
than those affecting demand. The basic
sources of teacher supply—recent graduates
qualified to teach at the elementary school
level and former teachers seeking reentry to
the occupation—are themselves likely to re­
spond to changes in the demand for elemen­
tary school teachers. The greater availability
of jobs beginning in the mid-1980’s may en­
courage more people to prepare for elemen­
tary school teaching and attract more people
from the teacher reserve pool. If such supply
responses occur, a shortage of elementary
school teachers may not develop. (Training
requirements for secondary school teachers
are substantially different from those for ele­
mentary school teachers, and relatively few
secondary school teachers are expected to
undergo the additional training necessary to
become certified to teach at the elementary

According to the National Education As­
sociation, public elementary school teachers
averaged $16,879 a year in 1980-81. Gener­
ally, States in the Northeast and in the West
paid the highest salaries.
Collective bargaining agreements cover an
increasing number of teachers. In 1980, 31
States and the District of Columbia had laws
that required collective bargaining in teacher

Pupil enrollment is the basic factor underlying the need for teachers.
contract negotiations, and an additional 9
States permitted such bargaining. Most pub­
lic school systems that enroll 1,000 students
or more bargain with teacher organizations
over wages, hours, and the terms and condi­
tions of employment.

Related Occupations
Kindergarten and elementary school teaching
requires a wide variety of skills and aptitudes,
including organizational and administrative
abilities, a talent for working with children,
communication skills, the power to influence,
motivate, and train others, creativity, and lead­
ership ability. Other occupations that make use
of some or all of these aptitudes include child
care attendants; trainers and employee develop­
ment specialists; employment interviewers; li­
brarians; personnel managers; public relations

representatives; social workers; and career, vo­
cational, and school counselors.

Sources of Additional Information
Information on certification requirements
is available from local school systems and
State departments of education.
Federal financial aid is available for educa­
tion students preparing to work with the
handicapped. For information, request Spe­
cial Education Career Preparation from:
Closer Look, Box

1492, Washington, D.C.

Information on teachers ’ unions and educa­
tion-related issues can be obtained from:
American Federation of Teachers, 11 Dupont Cir­
cle NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

General information on the teaching pro­
fessions can be obtained from local or State

138/Occupational Outlook Handbook
affiliates of the National Education Associ­
ation, or by contacting:
National Education Association, 1201 16th St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

A list of colleges and universities accredit­
ed by the National Council for Accreditation
of Teacher Education can be obtained from:
National Council for Accreditation of Teacher
Education, 1919 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Suite
202, Washington, D.C. 20006.

(D .O .T. 100 except 100.367-018)

Nature of the Work
Librarians make information available to
people. They serve as a link between the
public and the millions of sources of infor­
mation by selecting and organizing materials
and making them accessible.
Library work is divided into two basic
functions: User services and technical ser­
vices. Librarians in user services—for exam­
ple, reference and children’s librarians—work
directly with users to help them find the
information they need. Librarians in techni­
cal services—such as acquisitions librarians
and catalogers—are primarily concerned with
acquiring and preparing materials for use and
deal less frequently with the information
The size of the collection affects the scope
of the job. In small libraries or information
centers, librarians generally handle all as­
pects of the work. They select, purchase, and
process materials; publicize services; provide
reference help to groups and individuals; su­
pervise the support staff; prepare the budget;
and oversee other administrative matters. In
large libraries, librarians specialize in a
single area, such as acquisitions, cataloging,
bibliography, reference, circulation, or
administration. Or they may handle special
Building and maintaining a strong collec­
tion are essential in any library, large or
small. Acquisitions librarians (D .O .T .
100.267-010) select and order books, period­
icals, films, and other materials that suit us­
ers’ needs. To keep abreast of current litera­
ture, they read book reviews, look over
publishers’ announcements and catalogs, con­
fer with booksellers, and seek advice from
library users. A knowledge of book publish­
ing and business acumen are important, for
these librarians are under pressure to get as
much for their money as possible.
After materials have been received, other
librarians prepare them for use. Classifiers
(D.O.T. 100.367-014) classify materials by
subject matter. They may skim through a
publication quickly to be sure what it is about
and then assign a classification number.
Catalogers (D.O.T. 100.387-010) supervise
assistants who prepare cards or other access
tools that indicate the title, author, subject,

publisher, date of publication, and location in
the library. The cards are then filed in the
card catalog or other appropriate storage unit.
Bibliographers (D .O .T. 100.367-010),
who usually work in research libraries, com­
pile lists of books, periodicals, articles, and
audiovisual materials on particular subjects.
They also recommend materials to be ac­
quired in subject areas with which they are
familiar. Special collections librarians
(D.O.T. 100.267-014) collect and organize
books, pamphlets, manuscripts, and other
materials in a specific field, such as rare
books, genealogy, or music. From time to
time, they may prepare reports and exhibits
to inform scholars and other researchers
about important additions to the collection.
Librarians are also classified according to
the type of library in which they work: Pub­
lic libraries, school library/media centers,
academic libraries, and special libraries.
Public librarians serve people of all ages
and from all walks of life. Increasingly, pub­
lic librarians provide materials and services
to specific groups, including persons who,
because of physical handicaps, cannot use
conventional print materials. The profession­
al staff of a large public library system may
include the chief librarian, an assistant chief,
and division heads who plan and coordinate
the work of the entire system. The system
also may include librarians who supervise
branch libraries and specialists in acquisi­
tions, cataloging, special collectons, and user
Some public librarians work with specific
groups of readers. Children’s librarians
(D.O.T. 100.167-018) serve children by
finding materials they will enjoy and showing
them how to use the library. They may plan
and conduct special programs such as story
hours or film programs. In serving children,
they often work with school and community
organizations. Adult services librarians sug­
gest materials suited to the needs and inter­
ests of adults. They may cooperate in
planning and conducting education programs,
such as community development, public af­
fairs, creative arts, problems of the aging,
and home and family. Young adult librarians
(D.O.T. 100.167-034) help junior and senior
high school students select and use books and
other materials. They may organize programs
of interest to young adults, such as book or
film discussions or concerts of recorded mu­
sic. They also may coordinate the library’s
work with school programs. Community out­
reach librarians and bookmobile librarians
(D.O.T. 100.167-014) develop library ser­
vices to meet the needs of special groups
within the community. They might arrange
for materials to be brought to a migrant labor
camp, an inner city housing project, or a
nursing home, for example.
School librarians (D.O.T. 100.167-030)
help students learn how to use the school
library/media center and show them how to
find materials of special interest to them.
Working with teachers and media specialists,
school librarians familiarize students with the

library’s resources. They prepare lists of ma­
terials on certain subjects and help select
materials for school programs. They also se­
lect, order, and organize materials. Increas­
ingly, the library/media center is viewed as
an integral part of the school’s overall in­
structional program, and many school librar­
ians work closely with classroom teachers in
curriculum development. They assist teachers
in developing study units and participate in
team teaching.
In large high schools and in many commu­
nity colleges, the media center’s collection of
films, tapes, cassettes, records, and other
materials is maintained by a school library
media specialist (D.O.T. 100.167-030) or an
audiovisual librarian (D.O.T. 100.167-010).
Media center professionals also develop
audiovisual materials and work with teachers
on curriculum.
Academic librarians serve students, facul­
ty members, and researchers in colleges and
universities. They work closely with mem­
bers of the faculty to ensure that the general
collection includes reference materials re­
quired for the hundreds of courses that might
be offered during a particular academic year.
They also maintain the quality of the collec­
tion in research areas for which the institu­
tion is noted.
Special librarians (D.O.T. 100.167-026)
work in information centers or libraries main­
tained by government agencies and corporate
firms such as pharmaceutical companies,
banks, law firms, advertising agencies, medi­
cal centers, and research laboratories. They
build and arrange the organization’s informa­
tion resources to suit the needs of their users.
Often, the collection is highly specialized,
being limited to subjects of particular interest
to the firm. Special librarians may conduct
literature searches, compile bibliographies, or
prepare abstracts. In scientific and technical
libraries in particular, computerized data
bases are an important and much-used part of
the collection. Maintaining these, and assist­
ing users in retrieving information that has
been stored in a computer’s memory, are
increasingly important parts of the special
librarian’s job.
The staff of a technical library or docu­
mentation center may also include informa­
tion scientists (D .O .T . 109.067-010).
Although they work closely with special li­
brarians, information scientists must possess
a more extensive technical and scientific
background and a knowledge of various tech­
niques for handling information. They ab­
s tra c t c o m p lic a te d in fo rm a tio n into
condensed, readable form, and interpret and
analyze data for a highly specialized clien­
tele. Among other duties, they develop clas­
sification systems, prepare coding and
programming techniques for computerized in­
formation storage and retrieval systems, de­
sign information networks, and develop
microfilm technology.
Technological innovations are beginning to
alter traditional patterns of library organiza­
tion, and eventually may affect staffing as

Teachers, Librarians, and Counselors/139
well. A growing number of libraries are ty­
ing into remote computer data bases through
their computer terminals. The idea of serving
users by providing them with access to a
variety of commercial data banks took hold
initially in corporate libraries and information
centers. However, the practice has spread
and now some public libraries, too, are
linked to commercial data bases. The rise of
regional library networks also has profound
implications for library operations, for the
networks make it less important than it once
was for library to own the materials its users
want. It doesn’t really matter where the origi­
nal material is located, if it can be accessed
remotely by computer or sent by facsimile

Working Conditions
Libraries generally are busy, demanding,
even stressful places to work. Contact with
people, which often is a major part of the
job, can be taxing. Physically, the job may
require much standing, stooping, bending,
and reaching.
Librarians typically work a 5-day, 35- to
40- hour week. Public and college librarians
may work some weekends and evenings.
School librarians generally have the same
workday schedule as classroom teachers. A
35- to 40-hour week during normal business
hours is common for special librarians.

About 135,000 librarians were employed
in 1980; another 10,500 individuals worked
as audiovisual specialists in school library/
media centers. School and academic libraries
together accounted for roughly 7 out of 10
librarians. Public libraries and special librar­
ies employed the remainder. A small number
of librarians served as consultants, adminis­
tered State and Federal library programs, or
taught in schools of library science.
Most librarians work in cities and towns.
Those attached to bookmobile units serve
widely scattered population groups.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A master’s degree in library science
(M.L.S.) is necessary to obtain an entry
level professional position in most public,
academic, and special libraries. About 120
schools offered such degrees in 1980. How­
ever, most employers prefer graduates of one
of the 70 library schools accredited by the
American Library Association. Educational
preparation for school librarianship is more
diverse, reflecting the considerable differ­
ences among the States in standards and cer­
tification requirements for public school
Most graduate schools of library science
require graduation from an accredited 4-year
college or university and good grades. A
broad undergraduate background, with well
defined major and minor areas of study, is
appropriate preparation for graduate library

Librarians answer requests for information.
education. Schools’ preferences as to under­
graduate major vary. Some prefer students
who have majored in the liberal arts or the
humanities, while others seek students who
have majored in science or business. In addi­
tion, some library schools require a reading
knowledge of at least one foreign language.
Some require introductory undergraduate
courses in library science.
A typical graduate program in library sci­
ence includes basic courses in the founda­
tions of librarianship, including the history of
books and printing, intellectual freedom and
censorship, and the role of libraries in soci­
ety. Other basic courses cover material selec­
tion and processing; reference tools; and user
services. Advanced courses are offered in
such areas as resources for children or young
adults; classification, cataloging, indexing,
and abstracting; library administration; and

library automation. Because virtually all as­
pects of routine library operation are subject
to automation, many library schools encour­
age students to take courses in computer and
information science.
The master’s of library science (M.L.S.)
program represents a general, all-round prep­
aration for library work, but some people
specialize in a particular area such as ar­
chives, media, or library automation. A few
M .L.S. degree holders return to library
school for an additional year of study to earn
a certificate of advanced study. A Ph.D.
degree in library science is advantageous for
a teaching position or for a top administrative
post, particularly in a college or university
library or in a large library system.
For those interested in special libraries or
research libraries, a master’s degree, doctor­
ate, or professional degree in the appropriate

140/Occupational Outlook Handbook
subject specialization is highly desirable.
And in academic libraries, an advanced de­
gree may be essential for promotion to a
senior level position.
State certification requirements for public
school librarians vary widely. Most States
require that school librarians be certified as
teachers. A degree in library science may not
be required, for in many schools, the library
has become the “ learning resources center’’
and is staffed by media personnel with a
variety of educational backgrounds. Although
some media professionals have a bachelor’s or
master’s in library science, others have a
degree in media resources, educational tech­
nology, or audiovisual communications. The
State department of education can provide
information about specific requirements.
Some States require certification of public
librarians employed in municipal, county, or
regional library systems. The State library
agency can provide information about these
In the Federal Government, which current­
ly hires about 150 librarians a year, begin­
ning positions require completion of a 4-year
college course and a master’s degree in li­
brary science, or demonstration of the equiv­
alent in experience and education by a
passing grade on an examination.
Scholarships for training in library science
are available from library schools, large li­
braries, and library associations. Loans and
assistantships also are available. Under coop­
erative work-study programs, another form of
financial aid, library schools combine the
academic program with practical work expe­
rience in a library.
Because of an abundant supply of qualified
jobseekers, employers in some localities now
require several years’ experience for what
used to be entry level positions. Graduates
who have participated in internship programs
and work-study programs or who have
worked part time may have an employment
advantage over other new graduates.
Experienced librarians, primarily those
who have specialized or completed graduate
training in a library school, may advance to
administrative positions or to specialized
work. A master’s degree in business or pub­
lic administration may help to obtain such

Job Outlook
Employment of librarians is expected to
grow more slowly than the average for all
occupations through the 1980’s, and most job
openings will result from replacement needs.
However, the demand for individuals with
library skills outside the traditional setting is
expected to help ease the tight job market for
librarians. Furthermore, library school enroll­
ments, which have been declining since the
mid-1970’s, are expected to continue to drift
downward. With fewer new graduates of
M.L.S. programs entering the job market

each year, the oversupply should abate, and
employment prospects are expected to bright­
en during the 1980’s.
Employment growth in public libraries is
likely to be slower than it has been during the
last two decades. Faced with rising materials
costs and tighter operating budgets, many
libraries are expected to increase their use of
support staff and volunteers, and hire fewer
additional librarians.
Employment of academic librarians is ex­
pected to decline slightly, a reflection of the
overall decline in college enrollments expect­
ed during the 1980’s. The situation will vary
from institution to institution, however.
In school libraries, a large sector, little
change in employment is foreseen, overall.
While elementary school enrollments are pro­
jected to rise during the decade, secondary
school enrollments will continue to fall. In
some communities, declining enrollments
and fiscal constraints are likely to result in
staff cutbacks, with school librarians being
transferred to classroom teaching. In other
localities, however, population growth will
spur demand for educational personnel, in­
cluding librarians.
Opportunities should be favorable for li­
brarians with specialized knowledge in scien­
tific and technical fields including medicine,
law, engineering, and the physical and bio­
logical sciences. These jobs are available in
special libraries and research libraries, for the
most part. Individuals with expertise in com­
puterized library systems will also be in de­
mand, because of the widespread use of
computers to store information and to handle
routine operations such as ordering, catalog­
ing, and circulation control.
Information management outside the tradi­
tional library setting, a rapidly developing
field, is expected to offer excellent employ­
ment opportunities for library school graduates
and practicing librarians with backgrounds in
information science and library automation.
Private industry, consulting firms, and gov­
ernment agencies all need qualified people to
set up and maintain information systems.

Salaries of librarians vary by type of li­
brary, the individual’s qualifications, and the
size and geographical location of the library.
Starting salaries of graduates of library
school master’s degree programs accredited
by the American Library Association aver­
aged $13,127 a year in 1979, and ranged
from $12,218 in public libraries to $13,742
in school libraries. Starting salaries for tech­
nical librarians in private industry averaged
$14,500 a year in 1980, according to an
American Management Associations survey;
those with more than 5 years experience
averaged $21,300. The median salary for
librarians in college and university libraries
was $20,987 in 1980. Librarians in the Fed­
eral Government averaged about $25,500 in

The usual paid vacation after a year’s ser­
vice is 3 to 4 weeks. Vacations may be
longer in school libraries and somewhat
shorter in those operated by business and
industry. Many librarians are covered by sick
leave; life, health, and accident insurance;
and pension plans.

Related Occupations
Librarians play an important role in the
transfer of knowledge and ideas by providing
people with access to the information they
need and want. Jobs requiring similar analyt­
ical, organizational, and communicative skills
include archivists, information scientists, mu­
seum curators, publishers’ representatives, re­
search analysts, information brokers, book
critics, and records managers.

Sources of Additional Information
Additional information on librarianship,
including a listing of accredited education
programs and information on scholarships or
loans, may be obtained from:
American Library Association, 50 East Huron St.,
Chicago, 111. 60611.

For information on a career as a special
librarian, write to:
Special Libraries Association, 235 Park Ave.
South, New York, N.Y. 10003.

Material about a career in information sci­
ence may be obtained from:
American Society for Information Science, 1010
16th St. NW„ Washington, D.C. 20036.

Information on graduate schools of library
and information science can be obtained
Association of American Library Schools, 471
Park Lane, State College, Pa. 16801.

Information on Federal assistance to
schools for library training is available from:
Office of Libraries and Learning Technologies,
U.S. Department of Education, 400 Maryland
Ave. SW., Washington, D.C. 20202.

Those interested in a position as a librarian
in the Federal service should write to:
Office of Personnel Management, 1900 E St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20415.

Information concerning requirements and
application procedures for positions in the
Library of Congress may be obtained direct­
ly from:
Personnel Office, Library of Congress, Washing­
ton, D.C. 20540.

State library agencies can furnish informa­
tion on scholarships available through their
offices, requirements for certification, and
general information about career prospects in
the State. Several of these agencies maintain
job ‘‘hotlines ’’ which report current openings
for librarians in the State.
State boards of education can furnish infor­
mation on certification requirements and job
opportunities for school librarians.

Teachers, Librarians, and Counselors/141

(D .O .T . 045.107-042)

Nature of the Work
Every year more and more people overcome
mental, physical, or emotional handicaps and
become self-sufficient and productive citizens.
Some find employment in occupations pre­
viously thought too complex or physically
demanding for them to handle. Others enroll
in colleges and technical schools of all kinds.
One member of the team of professionals that
helps disabled individuals leave a sheltered
environment to lead as normal a life as possi­
ble is the rehabilitation counselor.
Rehabilitation counselors start by learning
about their client. Not only do they talk with
him or her, they may read school reports,
confer with medical personnel, and talk with
family members to determine the exact nature
of the disability. If the disability occurred
after the person had begun his or her work
life, the counselor may discuss the client’s
previous work experience with former em­
ployers. The counselor also confers with
physicians, psychologists, and occupational
therapists about the types of tasks the client
can perform. At that point, the counselor
begins a series of discussions with the client
to explore and evaluate training and career
options, and uses this information to develop
a rehabilitation program.
A rehabilitation program may begin with
specialized training to help make a disabled
person more independent generally. When
working with a blind individual, for example,
the counselor may arrange for training with
seeing-eye dogs. The disabled person then
may spend a few months learning to cross
streets and ride public transportation systems.
Throughout this period, the counselor and
disabled client meet regularly to discuss prog­
ress in the rehabilitation program and any
problems that have arisen.
A rehabilitation program generally in­
cludes training for a specific job. Job training
is one of several steps in the job placement
process, and occurs only after a sufficient
amount of evaluation, research, and counsel­
ing has been done to find the most suitable
job for a client.
Because a client’s employment success is
such an important goal of rehabilitation coun­
seling, the counselor must keep in touch with
the business community to learn the types of
workers needed by industry and the training
required for each job. Counselors in voca­
tional rehabilitation agencies spend some of
their time publicizing the program and in­
forming business and community leaders
about the services they offer. Rehabilitation
counselors in private industry keep up to date
on vacancies throughout the firm that might
be filled by employees who become physical­
ly or emotionally disabled.

Helping clients prepare for the job market is an important goal of rehabilitation counseling.
In addition to exploring job possibilities
with disabled persons, rehabilitation counsel­
ors often make followup contacts to ensure
that placement has been successful. If the
new employee has a specific problem on the
job, the counselor may suggest adaptations to
the employer.
An increasing number of counselors spe­
cialize in a particular area of rehabilitation;
some work almost exclusively with individ­
uals who are blind, deaf, mentally ill, or
retarded, or with alcoholics or drug addicts.
The amount of time spent counseling each
client varies with the severity of the disabled
person’s problems as well as with the size of
the counselor’s caseload. Some rehabilitation
counselors are responsible for many persons
in various stages of rehabilitation; others,
such as those working with the severely dis­
abled, may work with relatively few cases at

a time. Caseload size and amount of time
spent with a client primarily depend on the
work setting.

Working Conditions
Rehabilitation counselors generally work a
40-hour week or less. Some evening work is
required for speaking at community and civic
meetings. They may spend only part of their
time in their offices counseling, coordinating
services, and performing necessary paper­
work. The rest of their time is spent away
from the office, working with prospective
employers, training agencies, and the dis­
abled person’s family.
Rehabilitation counselors must maintain
close contact with handicapped clients and
their families over many months or even
years. The counselor often has the satisfac­
tion of watching day-by-day progress in the

142/Occupational Outlook Handbook
disabled person’s efforts toward indepen­
dence. At other times, however, the counsel­
or may experience the disappointment of a
client’s failures.

About 25,000 persons worked as rehabili­
tation counselors in 1980, according to the
Urban Institute. About 10,000 counselors
worked in State and local rehabilitation agen­
cies financed cooperatively with Federal and
State funds. Several hundred vocational reha­
bilitation specialists and counseling psycholo­
gists worked in the Veterans Administration’s
vocational rehabilitation programs, or in VA
hospitals and medical centers. Rehabilitation
centers, sheltered workshops, hospitals, men­
tal health centers, special schools, centers for
independent living, and other public and pri­
vate agencies with rehabilitation programs
and job placement services for the disabled
employed thousands more. Other rehabilita­
tion counselors worked in private industry,
including insurance companies and other
commercial enterprises, manufacturing firms,
and rehabilitation consulting firms.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A master’s degree in rehabilitation coun­
seling, counseling and guidance, or counsel­
ing psychology is generally considered the
minimum educational requirement for reha­
bilitation counselors. Vocational rehabilita­
tion agencies in some States may, however,
accept applicants with bachelor’s degrees in
rehabilitation services, counseling, psycholo­
gy, or other related fields. Experience in
employment counseling, job development,
psychology, education, and social work may
be helpful in securing employment as a reha­
bilitation counselor. Many State agencies
have work-study programs whereby em­
ployed counselors can earn graduate degrees
in the field.
Approximately 30 colleges and universities
offer bachelor’s degrees in rehabilitation ser­
vices education. In some States, graduates of
these programs are hired by vocational reha­
bilitation agencies as counselors, evaluators,
and case managers. Some graduates opt to
continue their professional education, and en­
roll in one of the graduate programs in reha­
bilitation counseling.
In 1980, The Council on Rehabilitation
Education accredited graduate programs in
rehabilitation counseling offered by about 70
colleges and universities. Usually, 2 years of
study—including a period of supervised work
experience—are required for the master’s de­
gree. Master’s degree programs generally of­
fer courses in human services and psychology,
principles of rehabilitation counseling, coun­
seling theory and techniques, occupational and
educational information, and community re­
sources. Also taught are courses in placement
and followup, assessment and evaluation, psy­
chosocial effects of disability, medical and
legislative aspects of rehabilitation, and re­
search methods.

The doctorate in rehabilitation counseling
or in counseling psychology may take a total
of 4 to 6 years of graduate study. Intensive
training in psychology and other social sci­
ences, as well as in research methods, is
Counselors in most State vocational reha­
bilitation agencies are hired in accordance
with State civil service and merit system
rules. In most cases, applicants must score
competitively on a written examination,
which sometimes is supplemented by an in­
terview and evaluation by a board of examin­
ers. Many private agencies and firms require
rehabilitation counselors to be certified. To
become certified, counselors must meet edu­
cational and work experience standards estab­
lished by the Commission on Rehabilitation
Counselor Certification, and pass a written
Because rehabilitation counselors deal with
the welfare of individuals, the ability to teach
and accept responsibility is important. It also
is essential that they be able to work indepen­
dently and be able to motivate and guide the
activity of others. Counselors who work with
the severely disabled need emotional stabil­
ity. They must be very patient in dealing
with clients who may be discouraged, angry,
or otherwise difficult to handle.
Counselors who have limited experience
usually are assigned the less difficult cases.
As they gain experience, their caseloads are
increased and they are assigned clients with
more complex rehabilitation problems. After
obtaining considerable experience and more
graduate education, rehabilitation counselors
may advance to supervisory positions or top
administrative jobs.

Job Outlook
Employment of rehabilitation counselors is
expected to grow about as fast the average
for all occupations during the 1980’s. Job
opportunities may be best in the small but
growing private sector, however.
Because most State and many private reha­
bilitation agencies are funded primarily by
the Federal Government, employment in
these organizations depends largely on the
level of government spending. Reductions in
Federal funding for rehabilitation services
would have an adverse effect on employment
in these agencies—at least until alternative
funding sources could be found. While future
funding levels are impossible to predict, it
seems likely that during the 1980’s, most job
openings in State vocational rehabilitation
agencies will result from replacement needs.
Substantial employment growth is expected
in the private sector, particularly in insurance
companies that handle worker compensation
programs and in private for-profit rehabilita­
tion consulting firms. Demand for qualified
rehabilitation counselors in private industry is
expected to increase as employers respond to
affirmative action legislation and as they be­
come aware of the savings that can be realized
by returning disabled workers to employment.
College and universities that employ coordi­

nators of services to handicapped students are
another source of employment opportunities
for rehabilitation counselors.

The average minimum salary of rehabilita­
tion counselors in State agencies was about
$13,300 in 1980; the average maximum sala­
ry was $18,100. Vocational rehabilitation di­
rectors in these State agencies received
average minimum and average maximum sal­
aries of $32,200 and $39,100, respectively.
The Veteran’s Administration paid coun­
seling psychologists with a bachelor’s degree
and 60 hours of graduate credit or more
starting salaries of $20,611 in early 1981. In
addition, the Veteran’s Administration em­
ployed a number of vocational rehabilitation
specialists—generally with master’s de­
grees—at starting salaries of $17,035 to
$20,611. The average salary of vocational
rehabilitation counselors in the Federal Gov­
ernment was $23,400 in 1980.

Related Occupations
Rehabilitation counselors help disabled in­
dividuals become as self-sufficient as their
conditions permit. Related occupations in­
clude: School counselors, employment coun­
selors, college career planning and placement
counselors, social workers, art therapists,
dance therapists, music therapists, occupa­
tional therapists, physical therapists, recrea­
tional therapists, industrial psychologists,
equal employment opportunity/affirmative ac­
tion specialists, and training and human re­
source development specialists.

Sources of Additional Information
A pamphlet entitled Seven Careers de­
scribes the work of rehabilitation counselors,
orientation instuctors, and others. Single
copies may be obtained from:
American Foundation for the Blind, 15 West 16th
St. New York, N.Y. 10011.

For information about rehabilitation coun­
seling as a career, contact:
American Rehabilitation Counseling Association,
Two Skyline Place, 5203 Leesburg Pike, Suite
400, Falls Church, Va. 22041.
National Rehabilitation Counseling Association,
Cary Building, Suite B-110, 8136 Old Keene Mill
Rd., Springfield, Va. 22152.
National Council on Rehabilitation Education,
2210 Massachusetts Ave, N W ., Washington,
D.C. 20008.
American Psychological Association, 1200 17th
St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

A list of Federally-funded programs offer­
ing training in rehabilitation counseling may
be obtained from:
Division of Manpower Development, Rehabilita­
tion Services Administration, U.S. Department of
Education, Washington, D.C. 20201.

Information on certification requirements
and procedures is available from:
Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certifi­
cation, 162 North State St., Chicago, 111. 60601.

Teachers, Librarians, and Counselors/143
A list of accredited graduate programs in
rehabilitation counseling may be obtained
Council on Rehabilitation Education, 162 North
State St., Chicago, 111. 60601.

School Counselors
(D.O.T. 045.107-010)

Nature of the Work
Uncertainty about a career choice, difficul­
ty with a particular class, or an unhappy
home life are examples of problems that stu­
dents face. Problems cannot always be
solved by the student alone; professional as­
sistance may be needed. Most school systems
employ counselors to give individual atten­
tion to students’ educational, career, and per­
sonal development.
The counselor’s primary role is to help
students understand themselves better—their
abilities, interests, talents, personality char­
acteristics, and career options. To accom­
plish this, counselors often administer tests
and conduct individual or group counseling
sessions in which they evaluate or explain the
results. In some cases they refer students to
other specialists within the school system or
in the community.
School counselors devote their time to the
social, behavioral, personal, and career plan­
ning concerns of youth. In addition to coun­
seling the students themselves, they consult
with parents and with other members of the
school staff, such as teachers, school psy­
chologists, school nurses, and school social
workers. Often, teachers and counselors con­
fer about problems affecting a student or
group of students. A teacher may refer a
student who appears to have problems deal­
ing with classmates to a counselor who will
attempt to find the cause. Counselors may
arrange meetings with parents or community
organizations, such as mental health agen­
cies, if a student’s problems are serious. The
counselor also acts as a spokesperson for the
individual student who is having difficulty
communicating his or her problems to parents
or teachers. When necessary, the counselor
may attempt to change those aspects of the
school environment that are harmful to the
psychological well-being of the student.
Counselors deal with problems affecting
the school as a whole as well as those affect­
ing only one or two individuals. If drug
abuse is a problem, counselors may initiate
group counseling sessions to discuss the dan­
gers of taking drugs. Or they may speak
individually with students and their parents.
School counselors may also provide educa­
tional, vocational, or career guidance assis­
tance. They might run a career information
center, for example, or a career education
program, which helps students explore career
alternatives. A counselor might suggest ways
in which teachers could incorporate career

information into their classes, arrange field
trips to factories and businesses, or show
films that depict actual work settings.
School counselors must stay up-to-date
about opportunities for education and training
beyond high school in order to counsel stu­
dents about admission requirements, entrance
exams, sources of student financial aid, and
the relative merits of military service, ap­
prenticeship, job training in a trade school or
technical institute, or a college education.
High school counselors often help students
find part-time and summer jobs and assist
them in getting their working papers if they
need them. Counselors may help with job
placements for students in work-study pro­
grams, and advise both graduates and drop­
outs on employment opportunities in the
Elementary school counselors help chil­
dren to make the best use of their abilities by
identifying these and other basic aspects of
the child’s makeup at an early age, and by
evaluating any learning strengths or prob­
lems. Methods used in counseling grade
school children differ in many ways from
those used with older students. Observations
of classroom and play activity furnish clues
about children in the lower grades. To under­
stand children better, elementary school
counselors devote much of their time to con­
sulting with parents and teachers. In some
elementary schools, counselors organize ca­
reer education activities designed to introduce
children to the world of work.
Some school counselors, particularly in
secondary schools, teach units on occupation­
al information within social studies or other
courses. They also may supervise school
clubs or other extracurricular activities relat­
ed to the exploration of career and education­
al options.

Working Conditions
Most school counselors work the tradition­
al 10-month school year with a 2-month va­
cation, although an increasing number are
employed on 10-1/2 or 11 month contracts.
Counselors work closely with school admin­
istrators, teachers, and parents as well as
students. Helping students solve specific
problems can be emotionally exhausting, as
well as rewarding.

An estimated 53,000 people worked as
public school counselors during 1980; several
thousand others worked in private schools.
Although school counselors work in both ele­
mentary and secondary schools, the majority
are in secondary schools. Most counselors
work in large schools. Those employed in
small school districts may be assigned to
several schools.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Most States require public school counsel­
ors to have counseling and teaching certifi­
cates. However, requirements are changing,
and a growing number of States no longer
require that counselors have a teaching certi­
ficate. Depending on the State, a master’s
degree in counseling, from 1 to 5 years of
teaching experience, and some non-education
work experience may be required for a coun­
seling certificate. People who plan to become
school counselors should learn the require­
ments of the State in which they plan to work
since requirements vary among States and
change rapidly.
College students interested in becoming
school counselors usually take the regular
program of teacher education, with additional
courses in psychology and sociology. In

Counselor discusses course selection with high school student.

144/Occupational Outlook Handbook
States where teaching experience is not a
requirement, it is possible to major in a liber­
al arts program. A few States substitute a
counseling internship for teaching experi­
ence. In some States, teachers who have
completed part of the courses required for the
master’s degree in counseling are eligible for
provisional certification and may work as
counselors under master counselor supervi­
sion while they take additional courses.
Counselor education programs at the grad­
uate level are available in over 450 colleges
and universities, usually in the departments
of education or psychology. Two years of
graduate study usually are necessary for a
master’s degree. Most programs provide su­
pervised field experience.
Subject areas of required graduate level
courses usually include appraisal of the indi­
vidual student, individual counseling proce­
dures and techniques, group guidance,
information services for career development,
professional relations and ethics, statistics,
and research methods.
The ability to help young people accept
responsibility for their own lives is important
for school counselors. They must be able to
inspire respect, trust, and confidence. They
should be able to coordinate the activities of
others and work as part of the team which
forms the educational system.
School counselors may advance by moving
to a larger school; becoming director or su­
pervisor of counseling or guidance; or, with
further graduate education, becoming a col­
lege counselor, educational psychologist, vo­
cational psychologist, school psychologist, or
school administrator. Usually educational or
vocational psychologists must have the
Ph.D. degree.

$26,500 in the West. School counselors usu­
ally earn more than classroom teachers.
In most school systems, counselors receive
regular salary increments as they obtain addi­
tional education and experience. A small
number of counselors supplement their in­
come by part-time consulting or other work
with private or public counseling centers,
government agencies, or private industry.

Related Occupations
School counselors help students gain a bet­
ter understanding of their interests, abilities,
and personality characteristics, and also help
them deal with personal, social, academic,
and vocational problems. Others who help
people in similar ways include college career
planning and placement counselors, clinical
psychologists, teachers, parole officers, pro­
bation officers, school social workers, school
psychologists, employment counselors, and
vocational rehabilitation counselors.

Sources of Additional Information
Career information is available from:
American Personnel and Guidance Association,
Two Skyline Place, Suite 400, 5203 Leesburg Pike,
Falls Church, Va. 22041.

State departments of education can supply
information on colleges and universities that
offer training in guidance and counseling as
well as on the State certification requirements.

Secondary School
(D.O.T. 091.221-010, .227-010; 094.224-010, .227-010
through -022; 099.224-010, .227-022)

Job Outlook
Little change in employment of school
counselors is expected through the 1980’s,
and most job openings will result from re­
placement needs.
Pupil enrollment, the major factor affect­
ing employment of school counselors, is ex­
pected to decline at the secondary level but
increase at the elementary level over the next
decade. Because fewer counselors are used in
elementary schools, however, little if any
employment growth is expected overall. In­
deed, in some places, severe budget con­
straints will mean fewer counseling positions.
Counselors whose positions are cut as a re­
sults of declining enrollments or fiscal con­
straints may be able to transfer to classroom
teaching in States where counselors must also
hold teacher certification.

According to a recent survey, the average
salary of school counselors in the academic
year 1980-81 was around $20,600. Salaries
varied by size, grade level, and locality of
the school. Average salaries ranged from
around $14,200 in the Southeast to about

Nature of the Work
The high school years are the years of
transition from childhood to young adult­
hood. They are the years when students
delve more deeply into subject matter intro­
duced in elementary school and learn more
about themselves and the world. They are
also a time of preparation for adult roles.
Secondary school teachers facilitate this
The primary function of the secondary
school teacher is to instruct students in a
specific subject, such as English, foreign lan­
guages, mathematics, social studies, or sci­
ence. Within a teacher’s specialized subject
area, he or she may teach a variety of
courses. A social studies teacher, for exam­
ple, may instruct two 9th grade classes in
American History, two 12th grade classes in
Contemporary American Problems, and an­
other class in World Geography. For each
class, the teacher develops lesson plans, pre­
pares and gives examinations, and arranges
class projects and other activities.
Teachers design their classroom presenta­
tions to meet the individual needs and abili­
ties of their students. They may arrange

tutoring for students or give advanced assign­
ments for highly motivated pupils. Recogniz­
ing the needs of each student can be difficult
because most teachers conduct five separate
classes a day, each of which may have 10 to
30 students.
Teachers use a variety of instructional mate­
rials including films, slides, and computer
terminals. They also may arrange for speakers
or trips to supplement the classroom work.
Some teachers give vocational education
courses, such as welding, auto mechanics, or
cosmetology, that train students for jobs after
graduation. These teachers instruct with the
actual tools of the trade, whether they be 4cylinder car engines or hairdryers.
In addition to their regular classes, secon­
dary school teachers supervise study halls
and homerooms, advise student groups, and
attend meetings with parents and school per­
sonnel. Teachers also participate in work­
shops and college classes to keep up-to-date
on their subject specialty and on current
trends in education.

Working Conditions
In addition to hours spent with their
classes, teachers spend time preparing les­
sons, grading papers, making reports, attend­
ing meetings, and supervising extracurricular
activities. As a result, most teachers work
well over 40 hours a week.
Teaching involves long periods of standing
and talking and can be both physically and
mentally tiring. Dealing with disruptive stu­
dents can also be emotionally exhausting.
While many teachers work the traditional
10-month school year with a 2-month vaca­
tion, some school districts have converted to
a year-round schedule. Teachers on this type
of schedule may work 8 weeks, be on vaca­
tion for 1 week, and have a 5-week midwin­
ter break. In most States the minimum
number of days that a school must be in
session is specified by law; the usual mini­
mum number of instruction days te 180 days.
The District of Columbia and most States
have tenure laws that protect the right to a
job of teachers who have taught successfully
for a certain number of years. A teacher
normally must serve a probationary period of
3 years before attaining tenure status. In
many States, tenure is automatic if the proba­
tionary period is completed and the teacher’s
contract has not been terminated. In other
States, teachers who have completed a proba­
tionary period are required to negotiate a new
contract. Tenure is not an automatic guaran­
tee of job security, but it does provide proce­
dural protection in the event of dismissal.

About 1.2 million secondary school teach­
ers were employed in 1980. More than 90
percent taught in public schools. Although
they work in all parts of the country, teachers
are concentrated in cities and surburan areas.

Teachers, Librarians, and Counselors/145
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
All 50 States and the District of Columbia
require public secondary school teachers to
be certified. Many States require teachers in
private and parochial schools to be certified
as well. Usually certification is granted by
the State Board of Education, the State Su­
perintendent of Education, or a Certification
Advisory Committee.
Requirements for certification to teach at
the secondary school level vary by State, and
school systems may have additional require­
ments. However, in all States and the Dis­
trict of Columbia, prospective teachers need
a bachelor’s degree from an approved teacher
training program with a prescribed number of
credits in the subject they plan to teach. They
must have completed student teaching and
other education courses.
Fourteen States require that teachers pass a
written examination for certification, and
some States have health, citizenship, or char­
acter requirements. Almost half the States
require teachers to have graduate degrees.
This requirement is often coupled with provi­
sions concerning continuing education. (Over
half of all States require continuing education
for certification.) Prospective teachers may
obtain information on certification require­
ments for secondary school teaching from
any State department of education or superin­
tendent of schools.
Information about whether a particular
teacher training program is approved can be
obtained from the institution offering the train­
ing from the State department of education.
Training need not be obtained in the State in
which one wants to teach. Many colleges and
universities offer teacher training that is ap­
proved in other States. Moreover, many States
have reciprocity agreements that allow teach­
ers who have met the certification require­
ments in one State to become certified in
Secondary school teachers should be good
at working with young people, interested in a
special subject, and able to motivate students
and to relate knowledge to them.
With additional preparation, and another
certificate as well, experienced teachers may
be able to move into positions as school
librarians, reading specialists, curriculum
specialists, or guidance counselors. Howev­
er, for most secondary school teachers, ad­
vancement takes the form of a higher salary
rather than a different job. Relatively few
teachers move into administrative or supervi­
sory positions in a public school system. To
do so usually requires at least 1 year of
graduate education and several years of class­
room teaching, and sometimes a special certi­
ficate as well.

Job Outlook
Prospective secondary school teachers will
face keen competition for jobs throughout the

1980’s. If past trends continue, the supply of
persons qualified to teach will greatly exceed
requirements, and an increasing proportion of
qualified graduates will have to consider alter­
natives to secondary school teaching. College
students interested in becoming secondary
school teachers would be well-advised to take
courses that are applicable to jobs outside the
teaching field. A willingness to relocate may
be an advantage in obtaining a teaching job.
The prime sources of teacher supply are
recent college graduates qualified to teach
secondary school and former teachers seeking
to reenter the profession. Although reentrants
have experience in their favor, many schools
may prefer to hire new graduates who com­
mand lower salaries and whose training is
more recent.
Employment of secondary school teachers
is expected to decline throughout the 1980’s
and, as a result, nearly all openings will stem
from the need to replace teachers who retire
or leave the profession. Pupil enrollment is
the basic factor underlying the demand for
teachers. Because of fewer births starting in
the early 1960’s, secondary school enroll­
ments began declining in the mid-1970’s.
The National Center for Education Statistics
projects that enrollment in secondary schools
will continue to decline during the 1980’s,
thereby reducing the demand for teachers.
The decline in enrollment will be more
severe in some parts of the country than in
others if past trends in migration prevail
through the 1980’s. Demand for secondary
school teachers could fall precipitously in the
Northeast and North Central States, where
the U.S. Bureau of the Census projects a
decline of close to 25 percent in the number
of 15-19 year olds between 1980 and 1990.
Although the number of youngsters of secon­
dary school age is projected to decline in the
South and West as well, the decrease is ex­
pected to be somewhat less, roughly 15
Employment of teachers is also sensitive to
changes in State and local expenditures for
education. Pressure from taxpayers to limit tax
and spending increases are likely to continue
through the 1980’s, but budget pressures on
public education are far greater in some States
and localities than in others. Moreover, school
systems respond to budget constraints in dif­
ferent ways. Increased emphasis on special
student needs may lead some school systems
to hire teachers to provide special or bilingual
education. But budget pressures in other dis­
tricts will undoubtedly result in the loss of
classroom teaching positions.
Although the overall outlook for secondary
teachers indicates a highly competitive mar­
ket, employment conditions are favorable in
certain fields. Persons qualified to teach
mathematics, natural sciences, and physical
sciences are currently in great 'demand.
Shortages in these fields may well continue,
chiefly because of salary competition from
business and industry. Some schools report
difficulty in finding enough teachers qualified

Teaching often continues after the class ends.
in special education and bilingual education.

According to the National Education As­
sociation, public secondary school teachers
averaged $17,725 a year in 1980-81. Gener­
ally, salaries were highest in States in the
Northeast and in the West.
-^Collective bargaining agreements cover an
increasing number of teachers. In 1980, 31
States and the District of Columbia had en­
acted laws that required collective bargaining
in teacher contract negotiations, and an addi­
tional 9 States permitted such bargaining.
In some schools, teachers receive supple­
mentary pay for coaching sports and working
with students in extracurricular activities,
such as music, drama, or school publications.
Some teachers work in the school system
during summer sessions. Others hold summer
jobs outside the school system.

Related Occupations
Secondary school teaching requires a wide
variety of skills and aptitudes, including orga­
nizational and administrative talents; research
abilities; communication skills; the power to
influence, motivate, and train others; record­
keeping expertise; creativity; helpfulness; and
leadership ability. Other occupations which
make use of some or all of these aptitudes
include: School administrators; career, voca­
tional, or school counselors; trainers and em­
ployee development specialists; employment
interviewers; encyclopedia research workers;
librarians; personnel managers; public rela­

146/Occupational Outlook Handbook
tions representatives; records managers; sales
representatives; and social workers.

Sources of Additional Information
Information on certification requirements
and approved teacher training institutions
is available from State departments of
Federal financial aid is available for educa­
tion students preparing to work with the

handicapped. For information, request Spe­
cial Education Career Preparation from:

affiliates of the National Education Associ­
ation, or by contacting:

Closer Look, Box 1492, Washington, D.C.
Information on teacher unions and educa­
tion-related issues may be obtained from:

National Education Association, 1201 16th St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

American Federation of Teachers, 11 Dupont Cir­
cle NW„ Washington, D.C. 20036.

General information on the teaching pro­
fessions can be obtained from local or State

A list of colleges and universities accredit­
ed by the National Council for Accreditation
of Teacher Education can be obtained from:
National Council for Accreditation of Teacher
Education, 1919 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Suite
202, Washington, D.C. 20006.

Health Diagnosing and Treating
The health professionals whose work is
described in the following statements diag­
nose, treat, and strive to prevent illness and
disease. Largest of these occupations is phy­
sicians, numbering 405,000 persons in 1980,
followed by den tists, who numbered
126,000. The other practitioner occupations
described in this section of the Handbook are
much smaller, ranging in size from veterinar­
ians (36,000) to podiatrists (12,000).
All of them practice the art of healing, but
they differ in the methods of treatment they
use and in their areas of specialization. Physi­
cians prescribe medications, exercise, proper
diet, and surgery for their patients. Osteopath­
ic physicians use these treatments and, in
addition, manipulate muscles and bones, espe­
cially the spine. These manipulations are the
primary form of treatment given by chiroprac­
tors. Optometrists specialize in eye care and
podiatrists treat foot diseases and deformities.
Dentists emphasize not only the treatment but
the prevention of problems associated with the
teeth and gums. Veterinarians treat animals
and inspect meat, poultry, and other food as
part of public health programs.
Because these practitioners routinely make
independent decisions affecting the health
and well-being of the public, they are closely
regulated. States require that health practi­
tioners be licensed and pass a State board
examination. Only physicians, osteopaths,
podiatrists, dentists, and veterinarians can
use drugs and surgery in their treatment.
Among these seven health practitioner oc­
cupations, requirements for a license vary
from 6 to 9 years of postsecondary education.
After graduation from college, osteopaths
must complete a 4-year program and physi­
cians generally a 3- or 4-year program. Most
States require a 1-year residency for both
physicians and osteopaths. Physicians who
specialize must spend additional years in train­
ing and pass a specialty board examination.
Two years of college are required for entry to
the 4-year chiropractic schools. Optometrists,
podiatrists, and veterinarians all must com­
plete a minimum of 2 years of college before
beginning the 4-year program.
Although the employment outlook in most
of these occupations is expected to be favor­
able during the 1980’s, the job market is
clearly changing as the supply of newly
trained practitioners begins to overtake de­
mand. The physician shortage that existed
during the 1950’s and 1960’s has passed.
Indeed, a few cities are oversupplied with
physicians. Nonetheless, the population is
growing, especially the number of older peo­
ple who are relatively heavy users of health

services, and many geographic areas need
additional health care practitioners. So the
outlook for most practitioners will be favor­
able. Veterinary medicine is becoming in­
creasingly crowded, however. Veterinary
school graduates are experiencing some diffi­
culty finding positions with established practi­
tioners, and competition is likely to intensify
through the 1980’s. For more detailed infor­
mation about employment outlook, see the
individual statements that follow.
Training to become a health practitioner is
much more rigorous than that for most other
professional occupations, but practice also
offers unusual rewards. Incomes of health
practitioners greatly exceed the average and
generally are higher than those of other profes­
sional workers with similar years of graduate
education. Furthermore, health practitioners
enjoy great prestige within the community,
and most derive considerable satisfaction from
knowing that their work contributes directly to
the well-being of others.
All health practitioners must have the abil­
ity and perseverance to complete the years of
study acquired. They should be emotionally
stable, able to make decisions in emergen­
cies, and have a strong desire to help the sick
and injured. Sincerity and an ability to gain
the confidence of patients also are important
Books and brochures on health careers are
widely available—look for them in libraries,
counseling centers, and bookstores. The
Sources of Additional Information section at
the end of each Handbook statement identi­
fies organizations that can provide career
pamphlets, lists of accredited schools, and
sources of financial aid. For an overview of
jobs in the health field, including some jobs
not covered in the Handbook, request a copy
of “ 200 Ways to a Health Career” from:
National Health Council, 1740 Broadway, New
York, N.Y. 10019.

Another useful publication is the Health Ca­
reers Guidebook, fourth edition, published in
1979 by the U.S. Department of Labor and the
U.S. Department of Health, Education and
Welfare (now the Department of Health and
Human Services.) It is available for $6. from:
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government
Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.

(D.O.T. 079.101-010)

Nature of the Work
Chiropractic is a system of treatment based

on the principle that a person’s health is
determined largely by the nervous system,
and that interference with this system impairs
normal functions and lowers resistance to
disease. Chiropractors treat patients primar­
ily by manual manipulation (adjustments)
of parts of the body, especially the spinal
Because of the emphasis on the spine and
its position, most chiropractors use X-rays to
help locate the source of patients’ difficulties.
In addition to manipulation, chiropractors use
water, light, massage, ultrasound, electric,
and heat therapy. They also prescribe diet,
supports, exercise, and rest. Most State laws
specify the types of supplementary treatment
permitted in chiropractic. Chiropractors do
not use prescription drugs or surgery.

Working Conditions
Almost all chiropractors work in private
offices that are clean and comfortable. The
typical workweek is 4 1/2 to 5 days. Because
most chiropractors are self-employed, they
can practice well beyond normal retirement

About 23,000 persons practiced chiroprac­
tic in 1980. Most were in private practice
and about three-fourths were in solo prac­
tice—that is, they had no partners. Some
were salaried assistants of established practi­
tioners or worked for chiropractic clinics. A
small number taught or conducted research at
chiropractic colleges.
Chiropractors often locate in small com­
munities—about half work in cities of 50,000
inhabitants or less.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
All 50 States and the District of Columbia
regulate the practice of chiropractic and grant
licenses to chiropractors who meet certain
educational requirements and pass a State
board examination. Many States have reci­
procity agreements that permit chiropractors
already licensed in another State to obtain a
license without taking an examination.
The type of practice permitted and the
educational requirements for a license vary
considerably from one State to another. For
example, 36 State boards recognize only aca­
demic training in chiropractic colleges ac­
credited by the Council on Chiropractic
Education. In general, State licensing boards
require successful completion of a 4-year
chiropractic course following 2 years of col-


148/Occupational Outlook Handbook
ment necessary to open and equip an office,
many start as salaried chiropractors to acquire
the experience and the funds needed.

Job Outlook
Employment of chiropractors is expected
to grow about as fast as the average for all
occupations through the 1980’s. Demand for
chiropractic is related closely to public ac­
ceptance of the profession, which appears to
be growing, and to the ability of patients to
pay for services, either directly or through
broader coverage of chiropractic services by
public or private health insurance. Enroll­
ments in chiropractic colleges have grown
dramatically, however, and as more students
graduate, new chiropractors may find it in­
creasingly difficult to establish a practice in
those areas where other practitioners already
are located.

In chiropractic, as in other types of inde­
pendent practice, earnings are relatively low
in the beginning. New graduates who worked
as associates to established practitioners
earned more than $15,000 a year in 1980.
Experienced chiropractors averaged about
$44,000, after expenses, according to a sur­
vey conducted by the American Chiropractic

Related Occupations
Chiropractors diagnose, treat, and work to
prevent diseases, disorders, and injuries. They
emphasize the importance of the nervous sys­
tem for good health. Others whose professions
require similar skills include acupuncturists,
audiologists, dentists, naturopathic doctors,
optometrists, osteopaths, podiatrists, speech
pathologists, and veterinarians.

Sources of Additional Information

Chiropractors treat patients primarily by manual manipulation.
lege. Some States require specific college
courses such as English, chemistry, biology,
or physics. Several States require that chiro­
practors pass a basic science examination.
The National Board of Chiropractic Examin­
ers’ test given to fourth-year chiropractic stu­
dents is accepted by 40 State boards in place
of a State examination.
In 1980, 7 of the 17 chiropractic colleges
in the United States were fully accredited by
the Council on Chiropractic Education; 4
others were recognized candidates working
toward accreditation. All chiropractic col­
leges require applicants to have a minimum
of 2 years of undergraduate study, including
courses in English, the social sciences,
chemistry, biology, and mathematics.
Chiropractic colleges emphasize courses in
manipulation and spinal adjustments. Most
offer a broader curriculum, however, includ­

ing subjects such as physiotherapy and nutri­
tion. In most chiropractic colleges, the empha­
sis during the first 2 years is on classroom and
laboratory work in subjects such as anatomy,
physiology, and biochemistry, while the last 2
years stress clinical experience. Students com­
pleting chiropractic training earn the degree of
Doctor of Chiropractic (D.C.).
Chiropractic requires a keen sense of ob­
servation to detect physical abnormalities and
considerable hand dexterity but not unusual
strength or endurance. Persons desiring to
become chiropractors should be able to work
independently and handle responsibility. The
ability to work with detail is important. Sym­
pathy and understanding are desirable quali­
ties for dealing effectively with patients.
Most newly licensed chiropractors either
set up a new practice or purchase an estab­
lished one. Because of the financial invest­

The board of licensing in each State cap­
ital can supply information on State licensing
requirements for chiropractors.
General information on chiropractic as a
career is available from:
American Chiropractic Association, 2200 Grand
Ave., Des Moines, Iowa 50312.
International Chiropractors Association, 1901 L
St. NW„ Suite 800, Washington, D.C. 20036.

For a list of chiropractic colleges, as well
as general information on chiropractic as a
career, contact:
Council on Chiropractic Education, 3209 Ingersoll Ave., Des Moines, Iowa 50312.

For information on requirements for ad­
mission to a specific chiropractic college,
contact the admissions office.

(D .O .T . 072)

Nature of the Work
Dentists examine teeth and tissues of the

Health Diagnosing and Treating Practitioners/149
mouth to diagnose diseases or abnormalities.
They take X-rays, fill cavities, straighten
teeth, and treat gum diseases. Dentists ex­
tract teeth and substitute artificial dentures
designed for the individual patient. They also
perform corrective surgery of the gums and
supporting bones. In addition, they may
clean teeth and provide other preventive
Dentists spend most of their time with
patients, but may devote some time to labo­
ratory work such as making dentures and
inlays. Most dentists, however—particularly
those in large cities—send their laboratory
work to commercial firms. Some dentists em­
ploy dental hygienists to clean patients’ teeth
and provide instruction for patient self-care.
Dentists may also employ other assistants to
perform office work, assist in “chairside”
duties, and provide therapeutic services under
their supervision. (The work of dental hy­
gienists and dental assistants is described
elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Most dentists are general practitioners who
provide many types of dental care; about 10
percent are specialists. The largest group of
specialists are orthodontists, who straighten
teeth. The next largest group, oral surgeons,
operate on the mouth and jaws. The remain­
der specialize in pedodontics (dentistry for
children); periodontics (treating the gums);
prosthodontics (making artificial teeth or den­
tures); endodontics (root canal therapy); pub­
lic health dentistry; and oral pathology
(diseases of the mouth).
About 5 percent of all dentists teach in
dental schools, do research, or administer
dental health programs on a full-time basis.
Many dentists in private practice do this
work on a part-time basis.

Working Conditions
Most dental offices are open 5 days a
week, and some dentists have evening hours.
Dentists usually work between 40 and 45
hours a week, although many spend more
than 50 hours a week in the office. Dentists
often work fewer hours as they grow older,
and a considerable number continue in parttime practice well beyond the usual retire­
ment age.

According to the U.S. Public Health Ser­
vice, about 126,000 individuals practiced
dentistry in the United States in 1980. Nine
out of 10 were in private practice. About
5,000 served as commissioned officers in the
Armed Forces, and another 1,700 worked in
other types of Federal Government posi­
tions—chiefly in the hospitals and clinics of
the Veterans Administration and the Public
Health Service.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A license to practice dentistry is required
in all States and the District of Columbia. To
qualify for a license in most States, a candi­
date must graduate from a dental school ap­
proved by the American Dental Association

Filling a tooth requires manual dexterity.
and pass written and practical examinations.
In 1980, candidates in 48 States and the
District of Columbia could fulfill part of the
State licensing requirements by passing a
written examination given by the National
Board of Dental Examiners. Most State li­
censes permit dentists to engage in both gen­
eral and specialized practice. In 14 States,
however, a dentist cannot be licensed as a
“ specialist” without having 2 or 3 years of
graduate education and, in some cases, pass­
ing a special State examination. In the other
36 States, the extra education also is neces­
sary, but a specialist’s practice is regulated
by the dental profession, not the State licens­
ing authority. To practice in a different State,
a licensed dentist usually must pass that
State’s examination. However, at least 21
States grant licenses to dentists from other
States on the basis of their credentials. Den­

tists who want to teach or do research usually
spend an additional 2 to 4 years in advanced
dental training in programs operated by den­
tal schools, hospitals, and other institutions
of higher education.
Dental schools require a minimum of 2 to 4
years of college-level predental education. In
fact, most dental students are college gradu­
ates. Five out of six of the students entering
dental schools in 1980 had a bachelor’s or
master’s degree. Predental education must in­
clude courses in the sciences and humanities.
Competition is keen for admission to den­
tal schools. In selecting students, schools
give considerable weight to college grades.
In addition, all dental schools participate in a
nationwide admission testing program, and
scores earned on these tests are considered
along with information gathered about the
applicant through recommendations and in­

150/Occupational Outlook Handbook
terviews. Many State-supported dental
schools give preference to residents of their
particular States.
Dental school generally lasts 4 academic
years, although one institution condenses the
program into 3 calendar years. Studies begin
with classroom instruction and laboratory
work in basic sciences including anatomy,
microbiology, biochemistry, and physiology.
Courses in preclinical technique and begin­
ning courses in clinical sciences also are pro­
vided at this time. The last 2 years are spent
chiefly in dental clinics, treating patients.
The degree of Doctor of Dental Surgery
(D.D.S) is awarded by most dental colleges.
An equivalent degree, Doctor of Dental
Medicine (D.M.D.), is conferred by 19
Earning a dental degree is a costly pro­
cess, but financial aid is available from the
Federal and State governments, health-relat­
ed organizations, industry, and dental schools
themselves. Many dental students rely on
student loans to finance their professional
Dentistry requires both manual skills and a
high level of diagnostic ability. Dentists
should have good visual memory, excellent
judgment of space and shape, and a high
degree of manual dexterity, as well as scien­
tific ability. Good business sense, self-disci­
pline, and the ability to instill confidence are
helpful for success in private practice. High
school students who want to become dentists
are advised to take courses in biology, chem­
istry, health, and mathematics.
Most dental graduates open their own of­
fices or purchase established practices. Some
gain experience with established dentists and
save money to equip an office; others may
enter residency training programs in ap­
proved hospitals. Dentists who enter the
Armed Forces are commissioned as captains
in the Army and Air Force and as lieutenants
in the Navy. Graduates of recognized dental
schools are eligible for positions in the Fed­
eral service and for commissions (equivalent
to lieutenants in the Navy) in the U.S. Public
Health Service.

Job Outlook
Employment opportunities for dentists are
expected to be good through the 1980’s.
Dental school enrollments have grown in re­
cent years, and the supply of new dentists is
expected to be in balance with the number
needed to fill openings created by growth of
the occupation and by death or retirement
from the profession.
Employment of dentists is expected to
grow about as fast as the average for all
occupations due to population growth, in­
creased awareness that regular dental care
helps prevent and control dental diseases, and
the expansion of prepayment arrangements,
which make it easier for people to afford
dental services. Fluoridation of community
water supplies and improved dental hygiene
prevent tooth and gum disorders and preserve
teeth that might otherwise be extracted.

However, since the preserved teeth may need
care in the future, these measures may in­
crease rather than decrease the demand for
dental care. Similarly, while new techniques,
equipment, and drugs, as well as the expand­
ed use of dental hygienists, assistants, and
laboratory technicians, should enable individ­
ual dentists to care for more patients, these
developments are not expected to offset the
need for more dentists.
There will continue to be a need for den­
tists to administer dental public health pro­
grams and teach in dental colleges. Also,
many dentists will continue to serve in the
Armed Forces.
Except for emergencies, dental work gen­
erally can be postponed. During periods of
economic hardship, therefore, dentists could
experience a reduction in the volume of
work, and in earnings—especially in commu­
nities affected by mass layoffs. Employment
of dentists is not significantly influenced by
changes in economic conditions, however.

During the first year or two of practice,
dentists often earn little more than the mini­
mum needed to cover expenses, but their
earnings usually rise rapidly as their practice
develops. Specialists generally earn consider­
ably more than general practitioners. The
average income of dentists in 1980 was about
$55,000 a year, according to the limited in­
formation available. In the Federal Govern­
ment, new graduates of dental schools could
expect to start at $22,500 a year in 1981.
Experienced dentists working for the Federal
Government in 1980 averaged $43,000; some
earned as much as $52,100.
Location is one of the major factors affect­
ing the income of dentists who open their
own offices. For example, in high-income
urban areas, dental services are in great de­
mand. However, a practice can be developed
most quickly in small towns, where new den­
tists can become known easily and where
they may face less competition from estab­
lished practitioners. Although the income
from practice in small towns may rise rapidly
at first, over the long run the level of earn­
ings, like the cost of living, may be lower
than it is in larger communities.

Related Occupations
Dentists examine, diagnose, and treat var­
ious oral diseases and abnormalities. Others
whose work involves personal contact and
requires a long and rigorous period of scienti­
fic training include psychologists, optom­
etrists, physicians, veterinarians, and

Sources of Additional Information
For information on dentistry as a career
and a list of accredited dental schools,
American Dental Association, Council on Dental
Education, 211 E. Chicago Ave., Chicago, 111.
American Association of Dental Schools, 1625

Massachusetts Ave. N W ., Washington, D.C.

The American Dental Association also
will furnish a list of State boards of dental
examiners. Persons interested in practicing
dentistry should obtain the requirements for
licensure from the board of dental examiners
of the State where they plan to work.
Prospective dental students should contact
the office of student financial aid at the
schools to which they apply for information
on scholarships, grants, and loans, including
Federal financial aid for dental students.

(D .O .T . 079.101-018)

Nature of the Work
Half the people in the United States wear
glasses or contact lenses. Optometrists (doc­
tors of optometry) provide most of the vision
care these people need. They examine peo­
ple’s eyes to detect vision problems, diseases,
and other abnormal conditions. They also test
to insure that the patient has proper depth and
color perception and the ability to focus and
coordinate the eyes. When necessary, they
prescribe lenses and treatment. Where evi­
dence of disease is present, the optometrist
refers the patient to the appropriate health
care practitioner. Most optometrists supply
the prescribed eyeglasses and fit and adjust
contact lenses. Optometrists also prescribe
vision therapy or other treatment which does
not require surgery. In 32 States optometrists
may utilize diagnostic drugs; in several of
these States they may also utilize drugs to
treat eye diseases.
Although most optometrists are in general
practice, some specialize in work with the
elderly or with children. Others work with
partially sighted persons, who use microscop­
ic or telescopic lenses. Still others concen­
trate on contact lenses or vision therapy.
Optometrists teach, do research, consult, and
serve on health advisory committees of var­
ious kinds.
Optometrists should not be confused with
either ophthalmologists or dispensing opti­
cians. Ophthalmologists are physicians (doc­
tors of medicine or osteopathy) who specialize
in medical eye care, eye diseases, and injuries;
perform eye surgery; and prescribe drugs or
other eye treatment, as well as lenses. Dis­
pensing opticians fit and adjust eyeglasses
according to prescriptions written by ophthal­
mologists or optometrists; they do not examine
eyes or prescribe treatment. (See statements
on physicians and dispensing opticians else­
where in the Handbook.)

Working Conditions
Optometrists work in places—usually their
own offices—that are clean, well lighted, and
comfortable. The work requires a lot of at­
tention to detail. Because optometrists, like
other health practitioners, generally are selfemployed, they have considerable flexibility

Health Diagnosing and Treating Practitioners/151
in setting their hours of work, and often
continue to practice after the normal retire­
ment age. Many independent practitioners
work well over 40 hours a week, including
time on Saturdays and in the evening.

In 1980, there were about 27,000 practic­
ing optometrists. More than 9 out of 10
worked full time. Although the majority of
optometrists are in solo practice, a growing
number are in partnerships or group prac­
tices. The trend toward partnerships or group
practices, which is especially pronounced
among younger optometrists, is associated
with the high cost of setting up a solo prac­
tice. For the same reason, some optometrists
work as salaried employees in the offices of
other optometrists.
Some optometrists work in specialized
hospitals and eye clinics or teach in schools
of optometry. Others work for the Veterans
Administration, health maintenance organiza­
tions, public and private health agencies, and
insurance companies.
Some optometrists in private practice also
act as consultants to industrial safety engi­
neers, insurance companies, manufacturers of
corrective lenses, and others.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
All States and the District of Columbia
require that optometrists be licensed. Appli­
cants for a license must have a Doctor of
Optometry degree from an accredited optometric school or college and pass a State
board examination. In some States, appli­
cants can substitute the examination of the
National Board of Examiners in Optometry,
given in the second, third, and fourth years
of optometric school, for part or all of the
written State examination. Some States allow
applicants to be licensed without lengthy ex­
amination if they have a license in another
State. In 44 States, optometrists must earn
continuing education credits in optometry to
renew their licenses.
The Doctor of Optometry degree requires a
minimum of 6 or 7 years of higher education
consisting of a 4-year professional degree pro­
gram preceded by at least 2 or 3 years of
preoptometric study at an accredited universi­
ty, college, or junior college. Most optometry
students enter with at least a bachelor’s degree.
In 1981, there were 13 schools and colleges of
optometry in the United States accredited by
the Council on Optometric Education of the
American Optometric Association; accredita­
tion was pending for 3 other schools. Require­
ments for admission to these schools usually
include courses in English, mathematics, phys­
ics, chemistry, and biology or zoology. Some
schools also require courses in psychology,
social studies, literature, philosophy, and for­
eign languages. All applicants must take the
Optometry College Aptitude Test (OCAT).
Admission to optometry schools is keenly
competitive. Therefore, superior grades in
preoptometric college courses may enhance
one’s chances for acceptance.

Optometrist uses instruments to measure patient’s vision.
Because most optometrists are self-em­
ployed, business ability, self-discipline, and
the ability to deal with patients tactfully are
necessary for success.
Many beginning optometrists enter into as­
sociate practice with an optometrist or other
health professional. Others purchase an es­
tablished practice or set up a new practice.
Some take salaried positions to obtain expe­
rience and the necessary funds to enter their
own practice.
Optometrists wishing to advance in a spe­
cialized field may study for a master’s or
Ph.D. degree in visual science, physiological
optics, neurophysiology, public health,
health administration, health information and
communication, or health education. Oneyear graduate clinical residency programs
also are available in the optometric special­
ties of family practice optometry, pediatric

optometry, low vision rehabilitation, contact
lenses, neuro-optometry, and hospital optom­
etry. Optometrists who enter the Armed
Forces as career officers have the opportunity
to work toward advanced degrees and to do
research on vision problems.

Job Outlook
Employment opportunities for optometrists
are expected to be favorable through the
1980’s. The number of graduates from the
Nation’s 16 schools of optometry is expected
to be roughly equal to the number of posi­
tions that will arise from growth in the de­
mand for optometrists and the need to replace
optometrists who retire or die.
Employment of optometrists is expected to
grow about as fast as the average for all
occupations. An increase in the total popula­
tion and the rising proportion of older peo-

152/Occupational Outlook Handbook
pie—the group most likely to need vision
care—are major factors contributing to the
expected growth in the occupation. Greater
recognition of the importance of good vision
and the broadening of public and private
health insurance coverage to include optometric services also should increase the de­
mand for optometric services.

In 1980, net earnings of new optometry
graduates in their first full year of practice
averaged about $18,000. Experienced optom­
etrists averaged about $45,000 annually. Op­
tometrists working for the Federal Government
earned an average of $28,500 a year in 1980.
Incomes vary greatly, depending upon loca­
tion, specialization, and other factors. Optom­
etrists who start out by working on a salaried
basis tend to earn more money initially than
optometrists who set up their own solo prac­
tice. However, in the long run, those with their
own private practice have the potential to earn
more than those employed by other optom­
etrists, hospitals, health agencies, retail stores,
or other firms.

Related Occupations
Other occupations in which the main activ­
ity consists of applying logical thinking and
scientific knowledge to prevent, diagnose,
and treat disease, disorders, or injuries in
humans or animals are chiropractors, den­
tists, osteopathic physicians, physicians, po­
diatrists, and veterinarians.

Sources of Additional Information
For information on optometry as a career,
write to:
American Optometric Association, 243 North
Lindbergh Blvd., St. Louis, Mo. 63141.

Additional career information and a listing
of accredited optometric educational institu­
tions as well as required preoptometry
courses can be obtained from:

muscles, ligaments, and nerves. One of the
basic treatments or therapies used by osteo­
pathic physicians centers on manipulating
this system with the hands. Osteopathic phy­
sicians also use surgery, drugs, and all other
accepted methods of medical care.
Most osteopathic physicians are “family
doctors” who engage in general practice.
These physicians usually see patients in their
offices, make house calls, and treat patients
in osteopathic and other private and public
hospitals. Some doctors of osteopathy teach,
do research, or write and edit scientific books
and journals.
In recent years, specialization has in­
creased. In 1980, about 13 percent of all
osteopathic physicians were practicing in spe­
cialties, including internal medicine, neurol­
ogy and psychiatry, ophthalmology, anesthe­
siology, physical medicine and rehabilitation,
dermatology, pathology, proctology, radiolo­
gy, and surgery.

Working Conditions
Many osteopathic physicians work more
than 50 or 60 hours a week. Those in general
practice usually work longer and more irregu­
lar hours than specialists. As osteopathic
physicians grow older, they may accept few­
er new patients and tend to work shorter
hours. However, many continue to practice
well beyond 70 years of age.

About 18,750 osteopathic physicians prac­
ticed in the United States in 1980, according
to Am erican O steopathic A ssociation
(A.O.A.) estimates. Almost 85 percent were
in private practice. A small number were
full-time staff or faculty members of osteo­
pathic hospitals and colleges, private indus­
try, or government agencies.

Osteopathic physicians are located chiefly in
those States that have osteopathic hospital fa­
cilities. In 1980, three-fifths of all osteopathic
physicians were in Florida, Michigan, Penn­
sylvania, New Jersey, Ohio, Texas, and Mis­
souri. Twenty-one States and the District of
Columbia each had fewer than 50 osteopathic
physicians. More than half of all general prac­
titioners are located in towns and cities having
fewer than 50,000 people; specialists, howev­
er, practice mainly in large cities.

Training and Other Qualifications
All 50 States and the District of Columbia
require a license to practice osteopathic medi­
cine. To obtain a license, a candidate must
be a graduate of an approved school of osteo­
pathic medicine and pass a State board ex­
amination. In four States, candidates must
pass an examination in the basic sciences
before they are eligible to take the profes­
sional examination; 38 States and the District
of Columbia also require a period of intern­
ship in an approved hospital after graduation
from an osteopathic school. The National
Board of Osteopathic Examiners also gives
an examination which is accepted by most
States as a substitute for the State examina­
tion. Most States grant licenses without fur­
ther examination to osteopathic physicians
already licensed by another State.
The minimum educational requirement for
entry to one of the schools of osteopathic
medicine is 3 years of college work, but in
practice almost all osteopathic students have
a bachelor’s degree. Preosteopathic education
must include courses in chemistry, physics,
biology, and English. Osteopathic colleges
require successful completion of 3 to 4 years
of professional study for the degree of Doc­
tor of Osteopathy (D.O.). During the first
half of professional training, emphasis is

Association of Schools and Colleges of Optom­
etry, Suite 410, 600 Maryland Ave. SW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20024.

The Board of Optometry in the capital of
each State can supply information on licens­
ing requirements.
For information on admission requirements
and sources of financial aid, including Feder­
al loans and scholarships, contact individual
optometry schools.

(D .O .T. 071.101-010)

Nature of the Work
Osteopathic physicians (D .O .’s) diagnose
and treat diseases or maladies of the human
body. They place special emphasis on the
musculo-skeletal system of the body—bones,

Osteopathic physicians usually set up practice in communities that have osteopathic hospitals.

Health Diagnosing and Treating Practitioners/153
placed on basic sciences, such as anatomy,
physiology, and pathology, and on the princi­
ples of osteopathy; the remainder of the time
is devoted largely to experience with patients
in hospitals and clinics.
After graduation, nearly all doctors of os­
teopathic medicine serve a 12-month rotating
internship (including experience in surgery,
pediatrics, internal medicine and other spe­
cialties) at 1 of the 94 osteopathic hospitals
approved by the American Osteopathic Asso­
ciation for intern or residency training. Those
who wish to specialize must have 2 to 5
years of additional training.
The osteopathic physician’s lengthy train­
ing is very costly. Federal and private loans
are available to help students meet these
costs. In addition, Federal scholarships are
available to qualified applicants who agree to
a minimum of 3 years’ military service after
In late 1981, there were 15 schools of osteo­
pathic medicine. Schools admit students on the
basis of their college grades, scores on the
required New Medical College Admissions
Test, and recommendations from premedical
college counselors. The applicant’s desire to
serve as an osteopathic physician rather than as
a doctor trained in other fields of medicine is an
important qualification. Colleges also give
considerable weight to a favorable recommen­
dation by an osteopathic physician familiar
with the applicant’s background.
Newly qualified doctors of osteopathic
medicine usually establish their own practice,
although a growing number enter group prac­
tice and some enter government service. Some
work as assistants to experienced physicians or
join the staff of osteopathic or allopathic
(M.D.) hospitals. In view of the variation in
State laws, persons who ^ish to become osteo­
pathic physicians should study carefully the
professional and legal requirements of the State
in which they plan to practice. The availability
of osteopathic hospitals and clinical facilities
also should be considered.
Persons who wish to become osteopathic
physicians must have a strong desire to pur­
sue this career. They must be willing to
study a great deal throughout their career in
order to keep up with the latest advances in
osteopathic medicine. They should exhibit
leadership, emotional stabiliy, and self-confi­
dence. A pleasant personality, friendliness,
patience, and the ability to deal with people
also are important.

Job Outlook
Opportunities for osteopathic physicians
are expected to be favorable through the
1980’s. Many localities are without medical
practitioners of any kind; many more have
few or no osteopathic physicians. In addition,
many new osteopaths will be needed to re­
place those who retire or die. The greatest
demand probably will continue to be in
States where osteopathic medicine is a widely
known and accepted method of treatment,
such as Pennsylvania, Florida, and several
Midwestern States. Generally, prospects for

beginning a successful practice are likely to
be best in rural areas, small towns, and city
suburbs, where young doctors of osteopathy
may establish their professional reputations
more easily than in the large cities.
The osteopathic profession is expected to
grow faster than the average for all occupa­
tions through the 1980’s because of general
population growth and the rising proportion
of elderly persons, the establishment of addi­
tional osteopathic hospital facilities, and the
extension of third-party payment programs
for hospitalization and medical care.

In osteopathic medicine, as in many of the
other health professions, income usually rises
markedly after the first few years of practice.
Earnings of individual practitioners are deter­
mined mainly by ability, experience, geo­
graphic location, and the income level of the
community served. Graduates who had com­
pleted an approved 3-year residency but had
no other experience received a starting salary
at a Veterans Administration hospital of
about $38,000 a year in 1981. In addition,
those who worked full time received up to
$13,000 in other cash benefits or “ special”
payments. In general, the income earned by
D.O. ’s compares favorably with other profes­
sions. Specialists usually earn higher incomes
than general practitioners.

Related Occupations
Osteopathic physicians work to prevent,
diagnose, and treat diseases, disorders, and
injuries. Other occupations that require the
exercise of similar critical judgments include:
Audiologists, chiropractors, dentists, optom­
etrists, physicians, podiatrists, speech pa­
thologists, and veterinarians.

Sources of Additional Information
People who wish to practice in a particular
State should find out about the requirements
for licensure directly from the board of ex­
aminers of that State. Information on Federal
scholarships and loans is available from the
director of student financial aid at the indi­
vidual schools of osteopathy. Information
about Armed Forces Health Professional
Scholarships is available from any local mili­
tary recruiting office. For a list of State
boards, as well as general information on
osteopathy as a career, contact:
American Osteopathic Association, Department of
Public Relations, 212 East Ohio St., Chicago, 111.
American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic
Medicine, 4720 Montgomery Lane, Bethesda,
Md. 20814.

(D.O.T. 070.061-010 through .107-014)

Nature of the Work
Physicians perform medical examinations,
diagnose diseases, and treat people who are

suffering from injury or disease. They also
advise patients on how to prevent disease and
keep fit through proper diet and exercise.
Physicians generally work in their own of­
fices and in hospitals, but they also may visit
patients in their homes or in nursing homes.
Depending on the type of patients they
see, physicians may be either generalists or
specialists. About three out of ten physicians
who provide patient care are generalists, and
these include general practitioners (G .P.’s) as
well as a number of specialty-trained practi­
tioners, such as family practitioners and some
practitioners in family medicine and pediat­
rics, who provide general, all-around health
care. Recent years have seen a decline in the
number of G .P .’s. Instead, almost all medi­
cal school graduates obtain advanced special­
ty training in a residency program. The
largest of the 38 specialties for which there is
postgraduate training are internal medicine,
general surgery, obstetrics and gynecology,
psychiatry, pediatrics, radiology, anesthesi­
ology, ophthalmology, pathology, and ortho­
pedic surgery. The most rapidly growing
specialties are in the primary care area—
family practice, internal medicine, and
Some physicians combine the practice of
medicine with research or teaching in medi­
cal schools. Others hold full-time research or
teaching positions or perform administrative
work in hospitals.

Working Conditions
Many physicians have long working days
and irregular hours. Most specialists work
fewer hours each week than general practi­
tioners. As doctors approach retirement age,
they may accept fewer new patients and tend
to work shorter hours. However, many con­
tinue in practice well beyond 70 years of age.

There were about 405,000 active physi­
cians in the United States in 1980, according
to the American Medical Association
(A.M.A.). About 263,000 of these had of­
fice practices; more than 104,000 others
worked as residents or full-time staff mem­
bers in hospitals. The remaining physi­
cians—almost 38,000—taught or performed
administrative or research duties.
In 1980, 12,000 graduates of foreign medi­
cal schools served as hospital residents in this
country. To be appointed to approved resi­
dencies in U.S. hospitals, alien graduates of
foreign medical schools usually must be cer­
tified by the Educational Commission for
Foreign Medical Graduates after having
passed an examination administered by that
The Northeast has the highest ratio of phy­
sicians to population and the South has the
lowest. Because physicians have tended to
locate in urban areas, close to hospital and
educational centers, many rural areas have
been underserved by medical personnel. Cur­
rently, more medical students are being ex­
posed to practice in rural communities with

154/Occupational Outlook Handbook
the direct support of educational centers and
hospitals in more populous areas. In addition,
some rural areas offer physicians guaranteed
minimum incomes to offset the relatively low
earnings typical in rural medical practice.

Training and Other Qualifications
All States, the District of Columbia, and
Puerto Rico require a license to practice
medicine. Requirements for licensure include
graduation from an accredited medical
school, successful completion of a licensing
examination, and, in most States, 1 or 2
years of supervised practice in an accredited
graduate medical education program (resi­
dency). The licensing examination taken by
most graduates of U.S. medical schools is
the National Board of Medical Examiners
(NBME) test that is accepted by all States
except Texas and Louisiana. Graduates of

foreign medical schools as well as graduates
of U.S. medical schools who have not taken
the NBME test must take the Federation
Licensure Examination (FLEX) that is ac­
cepted by all jurisdictions. Although physi­
cians licensed in one State usually can get a
license to practice in another without fur­
ther examination, some States limit this
In 1980, there were 126 accredited schools
in the United States in which students could
begin the study of medicine. Of these, 125
awarded the degree of Doctor of Medicine
(M.D.); 1 school offered a 2-year program in
the basic medical sciences to students who
could then transfer to another medical school
for the last semesters of study.
The minimum educational requirement for
entry to a medical school is 3 years of col­
lege; some schools require 4 years. A few

As the supply of physicians grows, opportunities will be better in some specialties than in others.

medical schools allow selected students who
have exceptional qualifications to begin their
professional study after 2 years of college.
Most students who enter medical schools
have a bachelor’s degree.
Required premedical study includes under­
graduate work in English, physics, biology,
and inorganic and organic chemistry. Stu­
dents also should take courses in the human­
ities, mathematics, and the social sciences to
acquire a broad general education. Recent
studies have shown that medical students
with undergraduate majors in the humanities
did as well in their medical studies as those
who majored in the sciences.
Medicine is a popular field of study, and
applicants must compete for entry with high­
ly motivated students who generally excelled
in premedical education. Factors considered
by medical schools in admitting students in­
clude their academic record and their scores
on the New Medical College Admission
Test, which is taken by almost all applicants.
Consideration also is given to the applicant’s
character, personality, and leadership quali­
ties, as shown by personal interviews, letters
of recommendation, and extracurricular ac­
tivities in college. Many State-supported
medical schools give preference to residents
of their particular State and, sometimes,
those of nearby States.
Most medical students take 4 years to
complete the curriculum for the M.D. de­
gree. Some schools, however, allow students
who have demonstrated outstanding ability
to follow a shortened curriculum, generally
lasting 3 years. A few schools offer the
M.D. degree within 6 years of high school
The first semesters of medical school are
spent primarily in laboratories and classrooms,
learning basic medical sciences such as anato­
my, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology,
microbiology, and pathology. Additionally,
students gain some clinical experience with
patients during the first 2 years of study, learn­
ing to take case histories, perform examina­
tions, and recognize symptoms. During the last
semesters, students spend most of their time in
hospitals and clinics under the supervision of
clinical faculty, where they gain experience in
the diagnosis and treatment of illness.
After graduating from medical school, al­
most all M .D .’s serve a residency of at least
3 years. Those planning a career as a gener­
alist spend 3 years in a family practice, gen­
eral internal medicine or pediatrics residency.
Almost 95 percent of medical school gradu­
ates expect to seek specialty board certifica­
tion. Those doctors must select an approved
residency program, pass the board’s certifica­
tion examination, and meet any other certifi­
cation board requirements. Some physicians
who want to teach or do research take grad­
uate work leading to a master’s or Ph.D.
degree in a field such as biochemistry or
Medical training is very costly because of
the long time required to earn the medical

Health Diagnosing and Treating Practitioners/155
degree. However, financial assistance in the
form of loans and scholarships is available
from the Federal Government, State and lo­
cal governments, and private sources. Some
of this aid requires the student to demonstrate
financial need or to commit a minimum of 3
years’ time to service in the Armed Forces
upon graduation.
Persons who wish to become physicians
must have a strong desire to serve the sick
and injured. They must be self-motivated and
competitive to survive the pressures of pre­
medical and medical education and the de­
manding workload during the residency that
follows medical school. They must be will­
ing to study a great deal in order to keep
up with the latest advances in medical sci­
ence. Sincerity and a pleasant personality are
assets that help physicians gain the confi­
dence of patients. Physicians should be emo­
tionally stable and able to make decisions in
The majority of newly qualified physicians
open their own offices or join associate or
group practices. Those who have completed
1 year of graduate medical education (a 1year residency) and enter active military duty
initially serve as captains in the Army or Air
Force or as lieutenants in the Navy. Gradu­
ates also qualify for professional medical po­
sitions in the Federal service.

Job Outlook
The employment outlook for physicians is
expected to be favorable through the 1980’s.
However, the shortage of physicians clearly
is past, except for rural and inner city areas
that continue to have difficulty attracting
medical personnel. Medical school enroll­
ments have increased and new graduates,
combined with foreign medical graduates
seeking to practice here, will continue to
increase the supply of physicians throughout
the 1980’s. In some areas considered very
desirable, evidence of an oversupply of phy­
sicians is emerging. This phenemenon is ex­
pected to become more common in coming
years and should encourage doctors to plan
carefully in selecting a specialization and a
location in which to practice. New physicians
should have little difficulty establishing a
practice, provided they are willing to locate
where doctors are not in oversupply.
A greater percentage of new medical
graduates are entering the primary care spe­
cialties, and this may help alleviate a critical
shortage of this type practitioner in many
localities. With more physicians in primary
care there may be an increasing movement of
physicians into rural and other areas that
have experienced shortages in the past.
Growth in population will create much of
the need for more physicians. In addition, a
larger percentage of the population will be in
the age group over 65, which uses more
physicians’ services. The effective demand
for physicians’ care is expected to increase
because of greater ability to pay, resulting
from widespread availability of prepayment

Specialists outnumber general practitioners by 5 to 1
Percent of physicians by specialty group, 1980

Other specialty
Anesthesiology, etc.

Surgical specialty

General practice

Orthopedic surgery, etc.

Medical specialty
Internal medicine
Pediatrics, etc.
Source: American Medical Association

programs for hospitalization and medical
care, including Medicare and Medicaid. In
addition, more physicians will be needed for
medical research and for the growing fields
of public health, rehabilitation, industrial
medicine, and mental health.
To some extent, the rise in the demand for
physicians’ services will be offset by devel­
opments that raise physicians’ productivity.
For example, increasing numbers of allied
health personnel are assisting physicians; new
drugs and medical techniques are shortening
illnesses; and growing numbers of physicians
are using their time more effectively by en­
gaging in group practice. The use of physi­
cian assistants and nurse practitioners also
may increase the productivity of physicians.

Stipends of medical school graduates serv­
ing as residents in hospitals vary according
to the type of residency, geographic area,
and size of the hospital, but allowances of
$16,000 to $17,000 a year are common.
Many hospitals also provide full or par­
tial room, board, and other maintenance
allowances to their residents.
Graduates who had completed approved 3year residencies but had no other medical
experience received a starting salary at Veteran s’ Administration hospitals of about
$38,500 a year in 1981. In addition, those
working full time received up to $13,000 in
other cash benefits or “ special” payments.
Newly qualified physicians who establish
their own practice must make a sizable finan­
cial investment to equip a modem office.
During the first year or two of independent
practice, physicians probably earn little more
than the minimum needed to pay expenses.
As a rule, however, their earnings rise rap­
idly as their practices develop.
Physicians have among the highest average
annual earnings of any occupational group.
Physicians earned an average net income of

$74,500 in 1980. Historically, most special­
ists, such as radiologists and surgeons, have
earned much more than family or general
practitioners. However, earnings of family
practitioners have risen sharply in recent
years. Earnings of physicians depend on fac­
tors such as the region of the country in
which they practice; the patients ’ income lev­
els; and the physicians’ skills, personality,
and professional reputation, as well as the
length of experience. Self-employed physi­
cians usually earn more than those in salaried

Related Occupations
Physicians work to prevent, diagnose, and
treat diseases, disorders, and injuries. Other
occupations that require similar kinds of skill
and critical judgment include audiologists,
chiropractors, dentists, optometrists, osteo­
pathic phsyicians, podiatrists, speech pa­
thologists, and veterinarians.

Sources of Additional Information
Persons who wish to practice in a particu­
lar State should inquire about licensure re­
quirements directly from the board of
medical examiners of that State. Information
on Federal scholarships and loans is available
from the directors of student financial aid at
medical schools. Information about Armed
Forces Health Professions Scholarships is
available from any local military recruiting
office. For a list of approved medical
schools, as well as general information on
premedical education, financial aid, and
medicine as a career, contact:
Council on Medical Education, American Medical
Association, 535 N. Dearborn St., Chicago 111.
Association of American Medical Colleges, Suite
200, One Dupont Circle, NW., Washington, D.C.

156/Occupational Outlook Handbook

(D .O .T. 079.101-022)

Nature of the Work
Because we use them so often in walking,
running, or just standing, we are constantly
and painfully aware when our feet hurt. To
get relief, a growing number of foot sufferers
are paying a visit to the podiatrist. Podiatrists
diagnose and treat diseases and deformities of
the foot. They perform surgery; fit corrective
devices; and prescribe drugs, physical ther­
apy, and proper shoes. To help in diagnoses,
they take X-rays and perform or prescribe
blood and other pathological tests. Podiatrists
treat a variety of foot conditions, including
corns, bunions, calluses, ingrown toenails,

Podiatrists diagnose and treat foot problems.

skin and nail diseases, deformed toes, and
arch disabilities. Whenever podiatrists find
symptoms of a medical disorder affecting
other parts of the body—arthritis, diabetes,
or heart disease, for example—they refer the
patient to a physician while continuing to
treat the foot problem.
More than 4 of every 5 podiatrists are gener­
alists who provide all types of foot care. How­
ever, some podiatrists specialize in foot
surgery, orthopedics (bone, muscle, and joint
disorders), podopediatrics (children’s foot ail­
ments), or podogeriatrics (foot problems of the
elderly). With the growing popularity of jog­
ging, tennis, racquetball, and other fast-mov­
ing sports, the specialty of sports medicine is
also showing rapid growth.

Working Conditions
Podiatrists usually work independently in

their own offices. Their work week is gener­
ally 40 hours, and they may set their hours to
suit their practice.

Of the 12,000 podiatrists active in 1980,
the majority were located in large cities.
Those who had full-time, salaried positions
worked mainly in hospitals, podiatric medical
colleges, or for other podiatrists. The Veter­
ans Administration and public health depart­
ments employ podiatrists on either a full- or
part-time basis. Others serve as commis­
sioned officers in the Armed Forces.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
All States and the District of Columbia
require a license for the practice of podiatry.
To qualify for a license, an applicant must
graduate from an accredited college of podi­
atric medicine and pass a written and oral
State board proficiency examination. Six
States—Arizona, Georgia, Michigan, New
Jersey, Oklahoma, and Rhode Island—also
require applicants to serve a 1-year residency
in a hospital or clinic after graduation.
Three-fourths of the States grant licenses
without further examination to podiatrists al­
ready licensed by another State.
The five colleges of podiatric medicine are
located in California, Illinois, New York,
Pennsylvania, and Ohio. Minimum entrance
requirements at these schools include 3 years
of college work with courses in English,
chemistry, biology or zoology, physics, and
mathematics. Competition for entry to these
schools is keen, however, and most entrants
surpass the minimum requirements. About 85
percent of the class entering in 1980 held at
least a bachelor’s degree, and the average
enrollee had an overall grade point average
of “ B” or better. All colleges of podiatric
medicine also require applicants to earn an
acceptable score on the New Medical Col­
lege Admissions Test. Of the 4 years in
podiatry school, the first 2 are spent in class­
room instruction and laboratory work in
anatomy, bacteriology, chemistry, pathology,
physiology, pharmacology, and other basic
sciences. During the final 2 years, students
gain clinical experience while continuing
their academic studies. The degree of Doctor
of Podiatric Medicine (D.P.M .) is awarded
to graduates.Additional education and expe­
rience generally are necessary to practice in a
specialty. Federal, State, and private loans
are available for needy students to pursue
full-time study leading to a degree in podiat­
ric medicine, and some Federal scholarships
are available for students willing to locate in
underserved areas after graduation.
Persons planning a career in podiatry
should have scientific aptitude and manual
dexterity, and like detailed work. A good
business sense and congeniality also are as­
sets in the profession.
Most newly licensed podiatrists set up
their own practices. Some purchase estab­
lished practices, or take salaried positions to

Health Diagnosing and Treating Practitioners/157
gain the experience and money they need to
begin their own practice.

Job Outlook
Opportunities for graduates to establish
new practices, as well as to enter salaried
positions, should be favorable through the
Employment of podiatrists is expected to
grow faster than the average for all occupa­
tions as podiatry gains recognition as a heal­
ing art and as an expanding population
demands more health services. Broader par­
ticipation in fast-moving sports that tend to
aggravate foot disorders, as well as the grow­
ing number of older people who need foot
care and who are entitled to certain podia­
trists’ services under Medicare, also should
spur demand.

injuries. They help prevent the outbreak and
spread of animal diseases, some of which can
be transmitted to human beings. Veterinar­
ians perform surgery on sick and injured ani­
mals and prescribe and administer medicines
and vaccines.
Over one-third of all veterinarians treat
small animals or pets exclusively. Another
one-third treat both large and small animals.
Almost 10 percent specialize in the health
and breeding of cattle, poultry, sheep, swine,
or horses. The remainder are in a variety of
practice specialties. Some veterinarians in­
spect food, investigate disease outbreaks, or
work in laboratories as part of Federal and
State public health programs. Others teach in
veterinary colleges, work in zoos or animal
laboratories, or engage in medical research.

Working Conditions
Newly licensed podiatrists build their prac­
tices over a number of years. Income during
the first several years is usually low but
generally rises significantly as the practice
grows. A net income of over $50,000 a year
is common for established podiatrists. Newly
licensed podiatrists hired by Veterans Ad­
ministration hospitals earned starting salaries
between $22,486 and $26,951 in 1980.

Related Occupations
Podiatrists work to prevent, diagnose, and
treat diseases, disorders, and injuries. Other
occupations that require similar skills include
audiologists, chiropractors, dentists, optom­
etrists, osteopathic physicians, physicians,
speech pathologists, and veterinarians.

Sources of Additional Information
Information on license requirements in a
particular State is available from that State’s
board of examiners in the State capital.
Information on colleges of podiatric medi­
cine, entrance requirements, curriculums,
and student financial aid is available from:
American Association of Colleges of Podiatric
Medicine, 20 Chevy Chase Circle NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20015.

For additional information on podiatry as a
career, contact:
American Podiatry Association, 20 Chevy Chase
Circle NW., Washington, D.C. 20015.

(D.O.T. 073. except .361-010)

Nature of the Work
The doctor who treats your pet poodle or
mynah bird, the government official who in­
spects meats sold at the supermarket, the
scientist who heads a medical research team
investigating the mysteries of disease—any
one of these could be a veterinarian (doctor
of veterinary medicine). Veterinarians diag­
nose, treat, and control animal diseases and

Veterinarians usually treat pet animals in
hospitals and clinics. Those who specialize in
large animal practice usually work out of well
equipped mobile clinics and drive considerable
distances between farms and ranches to care for
their animal patients. Veterinarians are some­
times exposed to injury, disease, and infection.
Those in private practice often work long
hours. Veterinarians in rural areas may have to
work outdoors in all kinds of weather. Because
they are self-employed, veterinarians in private
practice usually can continue working well be­
yond normal retirement age.

About 36,000 veterinarians were profes­
sionally active in 1980. Most were in private
practice. The Federal Government employed
about 2,550 veterinarians, chiefly in the U.S.
Department of Agriculture and the U.S. Pub­
lic Health Service. About 600 more were
commissioned officers in the veterinary ser­
vices of the Army and Air Force. Other
employers of veterinarians are State and local
governments, international health agencies,
colleges of veterinary medicine, medical
schools, research laboratories, livestock
farms, animal food companies, and pharma­
ceutical companies.
Veterinarians are located in all parts of the
country, and the type of practice generally
varies according to geographic setting. Veter­
inarians in rural areas mainly treat farm ani­
mals; those in small towns usually engage in
general practice; those in cities and suburban
areas often limit their practice to pets.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
All States and the District of Columbia
require veterinarians to have a license. To
obtain a license, applicants must have a Doc­
tor of Veterinary Medicine (D.V.M . or
V.M.D.) degree from an accredited college
of veterinary medicine and pass written
and—in most States—oral State board profi­
ciency examinations. Some States issue li­
censes without further examination to
veterinarians already licensed by another

For positions in research and teaching, an
additional master’s or Ph.D. degree usually is
required in a field such as pathology, physi­
ology, toxicology, or laboratory animal
The D.V.M. or V.M.D. degree requires a
minimum of 6 years of college consisting of
a 4-year professional degree program preced­
ed by at least 2 years of preveterinary study
that emphasizes the physical and biological
sciences. Several veterinary medical colleges
require 3 years of preveterinary work, and
most applicants have completed 4 years of
college. In addition to rigorous academic in­
struction, professional training includes con­
siderable practical experience in diagnosing
and treating animal diseases, performing sur­
gery, and performing laboratory work in
anatomy, biochemistry, and other scientific
and medical subjects.
In 1980, 22 colleges of veterinary medi­
cine in the U.S. were accredited by the
Council on Education of the American Vet­
erinary Medical Association. Admission to
these schools is highly competitive. Each
year there are many more qualified applicants
than the schools can accept. Serious appli­
cants usually need grades of “ B” or better,
especially in science courses. Experience in
part-time or summer jobs working with ani­
mals is advantageous. Colleges usually give
preference to residents of the State in which
the college is located, because these schools
are largely State supported. In the South and
West, regional educational plans permit co­
operating States without veterinary schools to
send students to designated regional schools.
In other areas, colleges that accept out-ofState students give priority to applicants from
nearby States that do not have veterinary
The Federal Government provides some
scholarships and loans for students in schools
of veterinary medicine, subject to the avail­
ability of funds; several of the Federal fi­
nancial assistance programs involve a period
of service in an underserved area after
Most veterinarians begin as employees or
partners in established practices. Those who
can afford the substantial investment needed
for drugs, instruments, and other startup
costs may set up their own practices. An
even greater investment is needed to open an
animal hospital or purchase an established
Newly qualified veterinarians may enter
the military services as commissioned offi­
cers, or qualify for Federal positions as meat
and poultry inspectors, disease-control work­
ers, epidemiologists, research assistants, or
commissioned officers in the U.S. Public
Health Service. A license is not required for
Federal employment.

Job Outlook
Veterinary employment is expected to
grow faster than the average for all occupa­
tions through the 1980’s, primarily because
of growth in the companion animal (horses,

158/Occupational Outlook Handbook
$21,065 a year in 1981. The average annual
salary of veterinarians in the Federal Govern­
ment was $34,100 in 1980. The average sal­
ary paid veterinarians working for local
governments was $24,500 in 1980. The in­
comes of veterinarians in private practice
vary considerably, depending on factors such
as location, type of practice, and years of
experience, but usually are higher than those
of veterinarians employed by government

Related Occupations
Veterinarians use their professional train­
ing to prevent, diagnose, and treat diseases,
disorders, and injuries. Others who require
similar skills are audiologists, chiropractors,
dentists, optometrists, osteopathic physi­
cians, physicians, podiatrists, and speech

Sources of Additional Information
A pamphlet entitled Today’s Veterinarian
presents information on veterinary medicine
as a career and lists accredited colleges of
veterinary medicine. A free copy may be
obtained by submitting a request, together
with a self-addressed, stamped business-size
envelope, to:
American Veterinary Medical Association, 930 N.
Meacham Rd., Schaumburg, 111. 60196.

A third of all veterinarians treat small animals or pets.
dogs, and other pets) population. Emphasis
on scientific methods of raising and breed­
ing livestock and poultry and growth in pub­
lic health and disease control programs also
will contribute to heightened demand for
Despite relatively rapid growth in employ­
ment, newly qualified veterinarians will face
increasing competition in establishing prac­
tices, for the number of veterinary school
graduates rose sharply in the 1970’s and is

expected to continue growing. The consider­
able expense of establishing a practice has
prompted more and more graduates to seek
employment with established veterinarians
until they can finance their own practices. If
this trend continues, competition for jobs
with existing veterinary practices will grow.

Newly graduated veterinarians employed
by the Federal Government started at

Information on opportunities for veterinar­
ians in the U.S. Department of Agriculture is
available from:
Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Field
Service O ffice, Employment Services, Butler
Square West, 5th Floor, 100 N. 6th St., Minne­
apolis, Minn. 55043.
Food Safety and Quality Service, Personnel Divi­
sion, Butler Square West, 4th Floor, 100 N. 6th
St., Minneapolis, Minn. 55043.

Prospective veterinary students should
contact the financial aid officer of the schools
to which they apply for admission for infor­
mation on scholarships, grants, and loans.

Registered Nurses, Pharmacists,
Dietitians, Therapists, and
Physician Assistants
The health professionals described in this
section of the Handbook care for the sick,
help the disabled, and advise individuals and
communities on ways of maintaining and im­
proving their health. Nursing is the largest by
far of these occupations. More than one mil­
lion registered nurses were employed in
1980. The other occupations described here
vary in size from pharmacists (about 141,000
in 1980) to physician assistants (9,500).
Registered nurses are an essential part of the
health team and work primarily on hospital
staffs, providing direct patient care. A growing
number work in long-term care facilities in­
cluding nursing homes, rehabilitation centers,
and mental hospitals. Some engage in commu­
nity health, industrial, or school nursing, while
others work in clinics or physicians’ offices or
do private duty nursing. With additional spe­
cialized training and experience, registered
nurses may qualify for jobs as nurse practition­
ers, nurse midwives, or nurse anesthetists. In
these “expanded roles,’’ nurses perform tasks
that otherwise would be performed by a physi­
cian. Three principal kinds of nursing educa­
tion programs—diploma, associate degree,
and bachelor’s degree—prepare students for
careers as registered nurses. There are differ­
ences among them that should be understood
by the prospective nursing student. However,
all nursing education programs share the goals
of teaching nurses the scientific basis of mod­
em nursing practice, familiarizing them with
the latest treatment and rehabilitation tech­
niques, and equipping them to understand pa­
tients’ social and psychological needs as well as
their medical ones.
The relatively new occupation of physician
assistant involves direct patient care by work­
ers who are specially trained to perform
many of the more routine medical tasks nor­
mally carried out by a physician. These tasks
include taking medical histories, doing rou­
tine examinations, and making hospital
rounds. Physician assistants work under the
supervision of a physician, usually right in
the office. Some, however, practice in rural
health clinics and other places where physi­
cians are not readily available. Training com­
monly lasts 2 years; some programs accept as
students only people with previous expe­
rience in the health field. Legal provisions
permitting physician assistants to practice are
not uniform throughout the country, in part
because the occupation is so new.
Therapists work directly with patients who
are injured, disabled, or emotionally dis­

turbed, using a variety of techniques to help
them regain physical or emotional indepen­
dence. Physical therapists use exercise and
other treatments to help patients increase
strength, mobility, and coordination. Occupa­
tional therapists teach skills of everyday liv­
ing, including vocational skills, to people who
are disabled or handicapped. Their goal is to
help patients adapt to their limitations and learn
to be as self-sufficient as possible. Speech pa­
thologists and audiologists work with children
and adults who have speech, language, or hear­
ing impairments. Statements describing each
of these occupations appear below. Rehabilita­
tion counselors, whose work is closely related
to that of therapists, are described elsewhere in
the Handbook.
Mention should be made of a number of
other therapists who aid in rehabilitation. Ori­
entation therapists for the blind help newly
blinded persons learn to move about unassist­
ed; to handle such everyday activities as dress­
ing, grooming, eating, and using the telephone;
and to communicate by means of Braille, read­
ing machines, or other devices. Recreation
therapists, also known as therapeutic recrea­
tion workers, are trained to use sports, games,
crafts, and hobbies as part of the rehabilitation
of ill, disabled, or handicapped persons. (See
the statement on recreation workers elsewhere
in the Handbook.) Art, dance, and music
therapists help patients resolve physical, emo­
tional, or social problems through nonverbal
means of communication. Horticultural thera­
pists use gardening for therapeutic purposes—
as a group activity for persons with mental or
emotional problems, for example. A bache­
lor’s degree with a health professions special­
ization is standard preparation for most therapy
occupations. For some jobs, a master’s degree
is essential.
Dietitians and pharmacists also use special
skills and expertise to assist sick or disabled
persons, although they do not provide direct
patient care. Having completed college pro­
grams that include bacteriology, chemistry,
and other sciences, these workers draw on a
body of scientific knowledge when they de­
vise therapeutic treatment or give advice on
the effects of diet or drugs. Both fields offer
opportunities to practice in a variety of set­
tings. Dietitians plan diets to meet the nutri­
tional needs of groups as diverse as hospital
patients, school children, prisoners, and hotel
guests. Pharmacists generally work in hospi­
tals or community pharmacies where they
dispense drugs and medicines prescribed by

health practitioners. Like other health profes­
sionals, dietitians and pharmacists sometimes
teach or do consulting work in addition to
their primary job.
Pharmacists, physical therapists, and regis­
tered nurses must have a license in order to
practice. State licensing requirements protect
the public by insuring that health care workers
meet minimum standards of education and
competence. Students considering one of these
careers should investigate the State licensing
requirements where they plan to work.
Employment in these occupations is ex­
pected to grow faster than the average for all
occupations through the 1980’s. Population
growth, especially the increase in the number
of older people, will spur demand for health
care. During the decade of 1980’s, as the
number of persons aged 75 and over rises
from 9.4 to 12.0 million, demand for a full
range of health care services for older per­
sons is bound to increase. However, the
availability of public and private health insur­
ance, and insurance terms that prescribe
which services are reimbursable, will contin­
ue to affect the actual level of employment.
Increased coverage for services provided in
convalescent institutions and outpatient care
facilities, for example, has contributed to em­
ployment growth in these areas. While it is
clear that employment of health care workers
is affected by changes in the extent and terms
of insurance coverage, it is not clear what
changes in health care financing are likely to
occur during the 1980’s. Employment in spe­
cific professions may increase more or less
rapidly than currently anticipated.
In addition to new jobs created by growth
of the health field, many openings occur each
year due to replacement needs. Turnover is a
major reason for the current shortage of
nurses in some communities.
Several other sections of the Handbook
contain statements on health careers. Check
the alphabetical index at the back to lo­
cate the statements on health services ad­
ministrators, dental assistants, medical as­
sistants, optometric assistants, occupational
therapy assistants, physical therapy assis­
tants, dispensing opticians, ophthalmic labo­
ratory technicians, and dental laboratory
Books and brochures on health careers are
available in libraries, counseling centers, and
bookstores. The Sources of Additional Infor­
mation section at the end of each Handbook
statement identifies organizations that can


160/Occupational Outlook Handbook
provide pamphlets, lists of accredited
schools, and sources of financial aid. For an
overview of jobs in the health field, includ­
ing some jobs not covered in the Handbook,
request a copy of “ 200 Ways to a Health
Center” from:
National Health Council, 1740 Broadway, New
York, N.Y. 10019.

Another useful publication is the Health
Careers Guidebook, fourth edition, pub­
lished in 1979 by the U.S. Department of
Labor and the U.S. Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare (now the Department
of Health and Human Services). It is avail­
able for $6.00 from:
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government
Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.

(D .O .T. 077.061-010, .117-010, .127-1)10, -014, -018,
-022, and .167-010)

Nature of the Work
Nutrition is the science of food and its
effect on the body. It is concerned with the
nutrients in food, their use in body chemis­
try, and—in the final analysis—the relation­
ship between diet and health. Dietitians
provide nutritional counseling to individuals
and groups; set up and supervise food service
systems for institutions such as hospitals and
schools; and promote sound eating habits
through education and research.
In this field, the term “ nutritionist” applies
to a number of different health professionals
involved with food science and human nutri­
tion. Among these are dietitians, food tech­
nologists, and home economists. (The work
of food technologists is described elsewhere
in the Handbook.)
Among dietitians, major areas of special­
ization include administration, education, re­
search, and clinical and community dietetics.
Administrative dietitians apply the princi­
ples of nutrition and sound management to
large-scale meal planning and preparation,
such as that done in hospitals, prisons, com­
pany cafeterias, schools, and other institutions.
They supervise the planning, preparation, and
service of meals; select, train, and direct food
service supervisors and workers; budget for
and purchase food, equipment, and supplies;
enforce sanitary and safety regulations; and
prepare records and reports. Dietitians who are
directors of dietetic departments also decide on
departmental policy; coordinate dietetic ser­
vices with the activities of other departments;
and are responsible for the dietetic department
budget, which in large organizations may
amount to millions of dollars annually.
Clinical dietitians, sometimes called thera­
peutic dietitians, assess nutritional needs, de­
velop and implement nutrition care plans,
and evaluate and report the results in hospi­
tals, nursing homes, or clinics. Clinical dieti­
tians confer with doctors and other members
of the health care team about patients’ nutri­

tional care, instruct patients and their families
on the requirements and importance of their
diets, and suggest ways to maintain these
diets after leaving the hospital or clinic. In a
small institution, a dietitian may perform
both administrative and clinical duties.
Community dietitians or nutritionists may
counsel individuals and groups on sound nu­
trition practices to prevent disease, maintain
health, and rehabilitate persons recovering
from illness. They may engage in teaching
and research with a community health focus.
This work covers areas such as special diets,
meal planning and preparation, and food bud­
geting and purchasing. Dietitians or nutri­
tionists in this field usually are associated
with community health programs; they may
be responsible for planning, developing, co­
ordinating, and administering a nutrition pro­
gram or a nutrition component within the
community health program. They work
mainly for public and private health and so­
cial service agencies, including “ meals-onwheels programs,” congregate meals for
older Americans, and women-infant children
nutritional programs.
Research dietitians seek ways to improve
the nutrition of both healthy and sick people.
They may study nutrition science and educa­
tion, food management, food service systems
and equipment, or how the body uses food.
Other research projects may investigate the
nutritional needs of the aging, persons who
have chronic diseases, or space travelers. Re­
search dietitians need advanced training in
this field and usually are employed in medi­
cal centers or educational facilities, or they
may work in community health programs.
Dietetic educators teach dietetics to mem­
bers of the health care team in medical and
educational institutions. Some teach this sub­
ject to consumer groups and adult education

Working Conditions
Although most dietitians work 40 hours a
week, dietitians in hospitals may sometimes
work on weekends, and those in commercial
food services have somewhat irregular hours.
Dietitians spend much of their time in clean,
well-lighted, and well-ventilated areas, such
as research laboratories, classrooms, or offices
near food preparation areas. However, they do
spend time in kitchens and serving areas that
often are hot and steamy. Dietitians working
in hospital and clinical settings may have to be
on their feet a lot; those involved in consulting
spend significant time traveling.

About 44,000 persons worked as dietitians
in 1980. Part-time work is available in this
field; approximately 15 percent of all dieti­
tians work part time.
Health care facilities including hospitals,
nursing homes, and clinics are major employ­
ers of dietitians, accounting for about 65 per­
cent of the total. About 1,200 work for the
Veterans Administration or the U.S. Public
Health Service. Colleges, universities, and
school systems employ about 10 percent of all

dietitians and another 10 percent direct food
service systems for child care or residential
care facilities. Most of the rest work for public
health agencies, restaurants or cafeterias, and
large companies that provide food service for
their employees. Some are self-employed.
A growing number of dietitians do consult­
ing work. Much of the dietetic supervision
for nursing homes, for example, is provided
by dietitians working on a consultant basis.
Some dietitians have their own consulting
firms, while others consult on the side.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A bachelor’s degree, with a major in foods
and nutrition or institution management, is the
basic educational requirement for dietitians.
This degree can be earned in about 240 col­
leges and universities, usually in departments
of home economics and food and nutrition
sciences. Required college courses include
food and nutrition, institution management,
chemistry, bacteriology, and physiology. Oth­
er courses that also are important are math­
ematics, data processing, psychology, soci­
ology, and economics. It is also possible to
prepare for this profession by receiving an ad­
vanced degree in nutrition, food service man­
agement, or related sciences and providing
evidence of qualifying work experience.
To qualify for professional certification, the
American Dietetic Association (ADA) recom­
mends completion of an approved dietetic in­
ternship or a coordinated undergraduate
program. The internship lasts 6 to 12 months
and combines clinical experience under a quali­
fied dietitian with some classroom work. In
1980, 81 internship programs were accredited
by the ADA. A growing number of coordinat­
ed undergraduate programs have been devel­
oped that enable students to complete their
clinical experience requirement while obtain­
ing their bachelor’s degree. In 1980, there were
77 of these programs offered by medical
schools and allied health and home economics
departments of colleges and uni versifies. These
programs also are accredited by the ADA.
Persons meeting the qualifications established
by the ADA’s Commission on Dietetic Regis­
tration and passing the registration examination
can become Registered Dietitians (R .D .’s).
Continuing education is required to maintain
Experienced dietitians may advance to as­
sistant or associate director or director of a
dietetic department. Advancement to higher
level positions in teaching and research re­
quires graduate education; public health nu­
tritionists usually must earn a graduate
degree. Graduate study in institutional or
business administration is valuable to those
interested in administrative dietetics. About
30 percent of all dietitians have acquired
advanced degrees in related areas.
Persons who plan to become a dietitian
should have organizational and administrative
ability, as well as high scientific aptitude,
and should be able to work well with a

Registered Nurses, Pharmacists, Dietitians, Therapists, and Physician Assistants/161
variety of people. Among the courses recom­
mended for high school students interested in
careers as dietitians are home economics,
business administration, biology, health,
mathematics, and chemistry.

Job Outlook
Employment of dietitians is expected to
grow faster than the average for all occupa­
tions through the 1980’s to meet the rapidly
expanding needs of hospitals and long-term
care facilities. The factors that spur demand
for health services in general—population
growth and the aging of the population,
greater health consciousness, and widespread
ability to pay for medical care under public
and private health insurance programs—also
will spur demand for dietitians. In addition,
dietitians will be needed in other settings,
such as industrial plants and restaurants. Di­
etitians also will be needed to staff communi­
ty health programs and to conduct research in
food and nutrition. An increasing number of
experienced dietitians are entering manage­
ment positions in private industry. In addition
to new jobs, many others will open each year
to replace those who transfer to other kinds
of work, retire, or die. Opportunities should
remain favorable for dietitians who wish to
work part time.
In recent years, nursing homes have used
(under the supervision of registered dieti­
tians) dietetic assistants trained in vocationaltechnical schools and dietetic technicians
trained in ADA-approved programs in com­
munity colleges to help meet the demand for
dietetic services. Employment opportunities
should continue to be favorable for graduates
of these programs.

Entry level salaries of hospital dietitians
averaged about $15,800 a year in 1981, ac­
cording to a national survey conducted by the
University of Texas Medical Branch. Some
experienced hospital dietitians received as
much as $25,872 a year.
The median salary for teaching dietitians
was approximately $21,400 in 1980, accord­
ing to a survey by the American Dietetic
Association; for dietetic directors, $23,400;
for food service administrators, $19,100; for
clinical dietitians, $17,400; for research dieti­
tians, $17,600; and for community dietitians,
The entrance salary in the Federal Govern­
ment for those completing an accredited in­
ternship was about $15,200 in early 1981.
Beginning dietitians with a master’s degree
who had completed an internship earned
about $18,600. In 1980, the Federal Govern­
ment paid experienced dietitians average sal­
aries of about $21,900 a year.
Dietitians usually receive benefits such as
paid vacations, sick leave, holidays, health
insurance, and retirement benefits.

Related Occupations
Dietitians apply the principles of nutrition
in a variety of situations. Other workers with

Dietitians see to it that schoolchildren are served nutritious meals.
similar duties include food and beverage ana­
lysts, food chemists, food technologists,
homemakers, home economists, executive
chefs, and food service managers.

Public Health Service, U.S. Department of
Health and Human Services.

Sources of Additional Information


For information on accredited dietetic in­
ternship and coordinated undergraduate pro­
grams, scholarships, employment opportuni­
ties, registration, and a list of colleges
providing training for a professional career in
dietetics, contact:
The American Dietetic Association, 430 North
Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. 60611.

The U.S. Office of Personnel Manage­
ment, Washington, D.C. 20415, will send
information on the requirements for dietitians
in Federal Government hospitals and for pub­
lic health nutritionists and dietitians in the

(D.O.T. 076.121-010)

Nature of the Work
Occupational therapists provide services to
people who are mentally, physically, or emo­
tionally disabled. Like most of the other
health professionals, occupational therapists
usually work as a member of a medical team,
which may include a physician, physical
therapist, vocational counselor, and other

162/Occupational Outlook Handbook
professionals. The team members evaluate
the patient in terms of their individual spe­
cialties and consult with each other to arrive
at an overall evaluation of the patient’s ca­
pacities, skills, and abilities. Together they
develop short- and long-term goals and the
means by which they may be achieved.
Therapists select activities that are suited
to the developmental level, physical capacity,
intelligence, and interests of each patient.
These activities are designed to develop inde­
pendence, prepare patients to return to work,
develop or restore basic functions, and aid in
adjustment to disabilities. Activities of var­
ious kinds are the primary therapy tools. For
instance, occupational therapists may use
woodworking, weaving, or other therapeutic
activities to help patients improve motor
skills, strength, endurance, concentration,
motivation, or other physical and/or mental
capacities. Other patients might engage in
therapeutic activities that develop the func­
tional skills, abilities, and capacities needed
for the tasks of everyday living, such as
dressing and eating.
In addition to planning and directing thera­
peutic activities, occupational therapists may
design and make special equipment for dis­
abled patients; make and apply splints; assist
in the selection and use of equipment to help
patients adapt to their environment and/or
impairment; and recommend changes in
home or work environments. Although they

cannot be expert in all these activities, occu­
pational therapists must know enough about
them to understand their therapeutic values
and to set them into motion.
Occupational therapists tend to work with
certain types of disability and age groups.
For instance, approximately 3 out of 5 occu­
pational therapists work principally with per­
sons who have physical disabilities and the
rest work with patients who have psychologi­
cal or emotional problems or developmental
deficits. Some work exclusively with chil­
dren and young adults; others work exclu­
sively with the elderly.
Besides working with patients, occupation­
al therapists supervise student therapists, oc­
cupational therapy assistants, volunteers, and
auxiliary nursing workers. The chief occupa­
tional therapist in a hospital may teach medi­
cal and nursing students the principles of
occupational therapy. Many therapists super­
vise occupational therapy departments, co­
ordinate patient activities, or are consultants
to public health departments and mental
health agencies. Some teach in colleges and

Working Conditions
Although occupational therapists generally
work a standard 40-hour week, they may
occasionally have to work evenings or week­
ends. Their work environment varies accord­
ing to the setting and available facilities. In a

Job prospects for occupational therapists are very good.

large rehabilitation center, for example, the
therapist may work in a spacious room
equipped with machines, handtools, and oth­
er devices that often generate noise. In a
nursing home, the therapist may work in a
kitchen, using food preparation as therapy. In
a hospital, building blocks or paints may be
used as rehabilitation devices. Wherever they
work and whatever equipment they use, they
generally have adequate lighting and ventila­
tion. The job can be physically tiring because
therapists are on their feet much of the time.

About 19,000 occupational therapists were
employed in 1980. More than one-half
worked in hospitals, including long-term
rehabilitation and psychiatric hospitals. Nurs­
ing homes, another major employer, ac­
counted for about 15 percent of all oc­
cupational therapists. A number worked for
school systems and schools for handicapped
children. Most of the others worked in reha­
bilitation centers, clinics, community mental
health centers, home health agencies, and
adult day care programs. Some worked in
vocational rehabilitation programs. Many oc­
cupational therapists work part time.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Educational preparation for this field re­
quires a bachelor’s degree. Fifteen States and
the District of Columbia require a license to
practice occupational therapy. Applicants for
a license must have a degree or certificate
from an accredited educational program and,
to qualify, must pass the State licensure
In 1980, the Committees on Allied Health
Education and Accreditation of the American
Medical Association and the American Oc­
cupational Therapy Association accredited
programs in occupational therapy offered by
55 colleges and universities. Fifty four of
these schools offer a bachelor’s degree pro­
gram, and one offers only a master’s degree
program. Some of the 55 schools also offer
programs leading to a certificate or a master’s
degree in occupational therapy for students
who have a bachelor’s degree in another
field. A graduate degree often is required for
teaching, research, or administrative work.
Course work in occupational therapy pro­
grams includes physical, biological, and be­
havioral sciences and the application of
occupational therapy theory and skills. These
programs also require students to work for 6
to 9 months in hospitals, health agencies, or
schools to gain experience in clinical prac­
tice. Graduates of accredited educational pro­
grams are eligible to take the American
Occupational Therapy Association certifica­
tion examination to become registered occu­
pational therapists (OTR). Occupational
therapy assistants who are certified by the
Association (COTA’s) and have 4 years of
approved work experience also are eligible to
take the examination to become registered
occupational therapists. COTA’s considering

Registered Nurses, Pharmacists, Dietitians, Therapists, and Physician Assistants/163
this path of entry to the occupation