View PDF

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

RADIO AND TELEVISION BROADCASTING OCCUPATIONS

weekly shows, assign personnel
to cover special events, and pro­
vide general program services
such as music, sound effects, and
lighting. In addition to these staff
employees, freelance actors, co­
medians, singers, dancers, some
well-known
announcers,
and
other entertainers are hired for
specific broadcasts or a series of
broadcasts or for special assign­
ments. These performers work on
a contract basis for the station,
network,
advertising
agency,
sponsor, or an independent com­
pany and specialize in producing
programs. Many radio and tele­
vision entertainers also perform
in stage plays, motion pictures,
nightclubs, or other entertain­
ment media.
The size of a station’s program­
ing department depends not only
on the size of the station, but also
on the extent to which its broad­
casts are live, recorded, or re­
ceived from a network. In small
stations, the program functions
are handled by a few people who
make
commercial
announce­
ments, read news and sports sum­
maries, select and play record­
ings, and introduce network pro­
grams. A large television station,
on the other hand, may have a
program staff consisting of a
large number of people in a wide
variety of specialized jobs.
Responsibility for the overall
program schedule of a large sta­
tion rests with a program direc­
tor. He arranges for a combina­
tion of programs that he believes
will be most effective in meeting
the needs of advertisers who buy
the station’s services and will at
the same time be most attractive
and interesting to members of
the community served by the sta­
tion. He determines and admin­
isters the station’s programing
policy.
Daily schedules of programs
are prepared by a traffic man­
ager, who also keeps a record of




735

Program director and assistant monitor on-the-air show from control room.

broadcasting time available for
advertising. A continuity director
is responsible for the writing and
editing of all scripts. He may be
assisted by a continuity writer,
who prepares Announcers’ Books
( “ copy” ). These books contain
the script and commercials for
each program along with their
sequence and length.
Individual programs or series
of programs are planned and su­
pervised by a director. In large
stations, he may work under the
supervision of a producer, who
assumes responsibility for selec­
tion of scripts, financial control,
and other overall problems of pro­
duction. Sometimes these func­
tions are combined in the job of
producer-director. The director’s
major functions include selecting
appropriate artists and studio
personnel, scheduling and con­
ducting rehearsals, coordinating
the efforts of all the people in­
volved in the show to produce

effective entertainment, and di­
recting the on-the-air show. He
may be assisted by an associate
director, who takes over such
tasks as working out detailed
schedules and plans, arranging
for distribution of scripts and
changes in scripts to the cast,
and assisting in directing the onthe-air show. Some stations em­
ploy program assistants to aid in
carrying out the orders of the di­
rector and his assistants. The
assistants help assemble and co­
ordinate the various parts of the
show. They arrange for obtain­
ing props, makeup service, art
work, and film slides. They assist
in timing the on-the-air show,
preparing cue cards from the
scripts and using them to cue the
performers. Education and public
affairs directors act as a link be­
tween the station and schools,
churches, and civic and chari­
table institutions. They super-

736
vise and edit most noncommer­
cial programs.
Announcers are the largest and
best known group of program
workers. In radio and television
stations of all sizes, the announc­
er introduces programs, guests,
and musical selections, and de­
livers most of the live commercial
messages. (Further information
on broadcast announcers is given
later in this chapter.)
Music is an important part of
radio and television programing.
Both small and large stations
use recordings and transcriptions
to provide musical programs and
background m u s i c for other
shows. Large stations, which have
extensive music libraries, some­
times employ a music librarian,
who maintains the music files
and answers requests for any par­
ticular selection or type of music.
In addition to recorded music, a
few of the largest stations have
specialized personnel who plan
and arrange for musical services.
The musical director selects, ar­
ranges, and directs suitable music
for programs on general instruc­
tions from the program director.
He selects musicians for live
broadcasts and directs them dur­
ing rehearsals and broadcasts.
Musicians are generally hired for
particular assignments on a free­
lance basis, although a few sta­
tions employ staff musicians full­
time.
News gathering and reporting
is an increasingly important as­
pect of radio and television pro­
graming. In addition to daily
coverage of the news, sports,
weather, and, in rural areas, farm
reports, the news department also
presents special programs cover­
ing such events as conventions,
elections, and disasters. The news
director plans and supervises the
overall news and special events
coverage of a station. A news­
caster broadcasts daily news pro­
grams and reports special news




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Writers prepare copy for news shows.

events on the scene. A newswriter
selects and writes news copy to
be read on the air by the news­
casters. In small stations the jobs
of newscaster and newswriter fre­
quently are combined.
Stations that originate live
television shows must have staff
members capable of handling
staging jobs, since staging a tele­
vision show is similar in many
ways to producing a professional
stage play. The studio supervisor
plans and supervises the setting
up of scenery and props and
other studio and stage equip­
ment for broadcasts. The floor or

stage manager plans and directs
the actors’ positions and move­
ments on the set in accordance
with the director’s instructions
by relaying stage directions, sta­
tion breaks, and cues. The jobs
of studio supervisor and floor
manager often are combined.
Floormen set up props, hold cue
cards, and do the unskilled chores
around the studio. (This job is
frequently held by a beginner in
the programing department.)
Makeup artists prepare personnel
for broadcasts by applying proper
makeup, and maintain the sup­
plies and facilities necessary for

RADIO AND TELEVISION BROADCASTING OCCUPATIONS

this work. Scenic designers plan
and design settings and back­
grounds for programs. They se­
lect furniture, draperies, pictures,
and other properties to help con­
vey the visual impressions de­
sired by the director. Sound
effects technicians operate special
equipment to simulate sounds,
such as gunfire, thunder, or fall­
ing water during rehearsals and
broadcasts.
About half of all television pro­
graming is on film, about 15 per­
cent is live, and the remainder
is recorded on magnetic video
tape. Video tape recording is
done by broadcast technicians on
electronic equipment that per­
mits instantaneous playback of a
television performance. It can be
used either to record a live show
being broadcast or to prerecord
a program for future broadcast.
For filmed programs, the role of
the station’s programing staff is
limited to editing the film and
timing and scheduling the show.
Many stations employ specialized
staff members to take care of
filmed program material. The
film editor edits and prepares all
film for on-the-air presentation.
This includes screening all films
received as well as cutting and
splicing feature films to insert
commercials. He also edits all
locally produced film. The film
librarian catalogs and maintains
the station’s files of motion pic­
ture film, which include not only
complete programs, but many
short sequences that can be fitted
into programs to create effects
which are difficult to produce in
the studio, such as outdoor
action.
Engineering Department. The en­
gineering department of a broad­
casting station is responsible for
converting the sounds and pic­
tures of programs into electro­
magnetic impulses that can be
received on home radio and tele­
vision sets. The main tasks of the




engineering staff are positioning
microphones, adjusting levels of
sound, keeping transmitters op­
erating properly, moving and ad­
justing television cameras to pro­
duce clear, well-composed pic­
tures, and lighting television
scenes and performers. The staff
also installs, maintains, and re­
pairs the many types of electrical
and electronic equipment re­
quired for these operations.
Broadcast technicians in the
engineering department perform
a variety of jobs in the radio or
television station. For example,
they control the operation of the
transmitter to keep the output
level and frequency of the outgo­
ing broadcast within legal re­
quirements. They also set up,
operate, and maintain equip­
ment in the studio and in loca­
tions from which remote broad­
casts are to be made. (Further

737
information on broadcast tech­
nicians is given later in this
chapter.)
All stations employ a chief en­
gineer, who has responsibility for
all engineering matters, including
supervision of other technicians.
In small stations, he also may
work a regular shift at the con­
trol board. Large stations have
engineers who specialize in fields
such as sound recording, mainte­
nance, and lighting. Networks
employ a few development engi­
neers to design and develop new
electronic apparatus to meet
special problems.
Sales Department. Broadcasting
stations earn their income by
selling services to advertisers.
These services consist of the time
on the air that is allotted to the
advertisers’ commercials. Adver­
tisers may buy time as part of a
regular daily or weekly show

Engineers and broadcast technicians control quality of transmission.

738
with which they wish to identify
their product, or they may sim­
ply buy a time segment or “ spot”
without special reference to the
program being broadcast.
Time salesmen, the l a r g e s t
group of workers in this depart­
ment, sell time on the air to
sponsors, advertising agencies,
and other buyers. They must
have a thorough knowledge of
the stations’ operations and the
characteristics of the area it
serves that are of most interest to
advertisers, such as population,
number of radio and television
sets in use, income levels, and
consumption p a t t e r n s . Time
salesmen in large stations often
maintain close relationships with
particular sponsors and advertis­
ing agencies, by selling time and
acting as general consultants and
advisers in matters pertaining to
advertising through the station.
In very small stations, the time
salesman also may handle other
functions. Many stations sell a
substantial part of their time,
particularly to national adver­
tisers, through independent sales
agencies known as station repre­
sentatives, which act as interme­
diaries for time buyers and sta­
tions or groups of stations.
Large stations generally have
several workers who do only sales
work. The sales manager super­
vises his staff of time salesmen,
by directing their efforts and set­
ting general sales policy. He also
may handle a few of the largest
accounts personally. Some large
stations employ statistical clerks
and research personnel to assist
the sales staff by analyzing and
reporting market data relating to
the community served, the sig­
nificance of the ratings of the sta­
tion’s programs reported by the
rating services, and other sta­
tistical information.
B u s i n e s s Management. Like
other businesses, broadcasting
stations have a considerable




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

amount of administrative work.
In a very small station, the owner
and his secretary may handle all
the recordkeeping, accounting,
purchasing, hiring, and other
routine office work. Where the
size of the station warrants the
employment of full-time special­
ists, the business staff may in­
clude accountants, publicity spe­
cialists, personnel workers, and
other professional workers. They
are assisted by office workers
such as stenographers, typists,
bookkeepers, clerks, and messen­
gers. Building maintenance men
are employed to keep the facili­
ties in good condition.

Train in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
A high school diploma is the
minimum educational require­
ment for entry jobs in broadcast­
ing, although for many jobs some
college training is increasingly
preferred. A liberal arts educa­
tion is a good qualification for the
beginner because broadcasting
needs broadly educated people
with knowledge and interests in
many areas. Work in television
programing for networks and
large independent stations gen­
erally requires a college degree
and some experience in the
broadcasting field.
Training in specialized areas
such as writing, public speaking
dramatics, designing, makeup, or
electronics may be required of
beginners in these specialties,
even though work experience usu­
ally is not necessary. Some young
people without specialized train­
ing or experience get their start
in broadcasting in such jobs as
clerk, typist, floorman, or assist­
ant to an experienced worker. As
these new workers gain knowl­
edge knowledge and experience,
they have the chance to advance
to more responsible jobs. Young

people are sometimes hired on
the basis of their potentialities
rather than for any specific train­
ing or experience, but the more
skills, education, and varied
background these beginners have,
the better will be their chances
for advancement. A few young
people get started in broadcast­
ing with temporary jobs in the
summer when regular workers go
on vacations, and broadcast
schedules of day light-hours sta­
tions are increased.
Technical training in electron­
ics is required for entry jobs in
engineering departments. In ad­
dition, anyone who operates or
adjusts a broadcast transmitter
must have a Federal Communi­
cations Commission Radiotele­
phone First Class Operator Li­
cense. T o obtain this license, an
applicant must pass a series of
technical examinations given by
the
Federal
Communications
Commission. Small radio stations
with only a few employees some­
times prefer to have as many per­
sonnel as possible legally quali­
fied to operate their transmitters.
Because of this, nontechnicians,
especially announcers, will have
a better chance of getting a job
in radio if they have a first class
license. A course in electronics
at a recognized technical institute
is probably the best way to pre­
pare for the FCC test.
Specific training or experience
usually is not required for entry
jobs as announcers in small sta­
tions, but an applicant must have
a good voice, a broad cultural
background, and other character­
istics that make him a dramatic
or attractive personality. Qualifi­
cations for adminstrative and
sales jobs in broadcasting are
similar to those required by other
employers; a business course of
study in high school or college is
good preparation for such jobs.
Most beginners start out in
small stations. Although these

RADIO AND TELEVISION BROADCASTING OCCUPATIONS

stations cannot pay high sala­
ries, they offer new workers op­
portunities to learn many differ­
ent phases of broadcasting work
because they generally use their
personnel in “ combination” jobs.
For example, in addition to his
regular duties, an announcer may
perform some of the duties of a
broadcast technician.
People in the engineering de­
partment tend to remain in this
area of work, where thorough
training in electronics is essential.
Program employees usually re­
main in programing work, al­
though sometimes transfers from
and to the sales and business
services departments are made.
Transfers are easier between
sales and administrative depart­
ments because of their close
working relationship; in fact, in
the small stations, they are often
merged into one department. Al­
though transfers of experienced
workers between departments are
limited to the extent noted, these
distinctions are less important
in the beginning jobs and also in
the top-level jobs. At the higher
levels, a station executive may be
drawn from top-level personnel
of any department. Many toplevel administrative jobs are
filled by people with sales experi­
ence.
Em ploym ent O utlook

Employment in the broadcast­
ing industry is expected to grow
at a moderate pace through the
1970’s. More job opportunities
will result from replacement as
thousands of job openings be­
come available as workers trans­
fer to other fields of work, retire,
or die. Retirements and deaths
alone will provide an estimated
2,800 job openings annually.
New radio and television
broadcasting stations will be es­




tablished over the period primar­
ily in small communities and will
result in opportunities for some
additional workers. Also, cable
television (C A TV ) has emerged
as a powerful new force in com­
munications and some additional
job opportunities for professional,
technical, and maintenance per­
sonnel will be created as CATV
systems increasingly originate
and transmit programs. By using
coaxial cables instead of air­
waves, CATV can bring to sub­
scribers a large selection of overthe-air signals plus many addi­
tional programs originated for
cable television.
The number of educational
broadcasting stations is expected
to increase as private and govern­
mental groups continue to expand
this medium as an educational
tool. The growth of educational
television stations, particularly,
should increase the number of
job opportunities, especially in
programing, engineering, and sta­
tion management.
In existing radio stations, em­
ployment probably will remain
about the same. Continued intro­
duction of equipment that per­
mits the control of transmitters
from the studio will eliminate the
need for a technical crew at the
transmitter site. Automatic pro­
graming equipment permits radio
stations to provide virtually un­
attended programing service. As
more of the smaller television sta­
tions acquire the capability to
originate local color telecasts,
there may be a small expansion
in the number of technical work­
ers to handle and operate the
more complex equipment.
Competition will be very keen
for entry jobs in broadcasting in
the years ahead, especially in the
large cities, because of the at­
traction this field has for young
people, and the relatively few be­
ginning jobs that will be avail­
able.

739
Earnings and W orking Conditions
In 1968, earnings of nonsupervisory broadcasting workers aver­
aged $135.74 a week or $3.61 an
hour for an average 37.6-hour
week. There is a wide range of
salaries among various occupa­
tions in the industry and among
locations. Employees in large cit­
ies generally earn much more
than those in the same kinds of
jobs in small towns. Wages also
tend to be higher in large stations
than in small ones and higher in
television than in radio.
Working conditions in broad­
casting stations are usually pleas­
ant. The work is done in clean,
attractive surroundings. It is per­
formed indoors, except where re­
mote pickups are involved. Jobs
in programing are particularly at­
tractive to young people inter­
ested in the performing arts, both
because of the glamour attached
to this field of work, and the op­
portunities it affords for high
earnings and artistic expression.
Most full-time broadcasting
employees have a scheduled 40hour workweek. However, some
employees, particularly in the
small stations, may have a longer
workweek. Sales and business
services
employees
generally
work in the daytime hours com­
mon to most office jobs. However,
program and engineering em­
ployees must work shifts which
may include evenings, nights,
weekends, and holidays. T o meet
a broadcast deadline, program
and technical employees in the
networks may have to work con­
tinuously for many hours under
great pressure.
Many unions operate in the
broadcasting field. They are most
active in the network centers and
large stations in metropolitan
areas. The National Association
of Broadcast Employees and
Technicians and the International
Brotherhood of Electrical Work-

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

740
ers both organize all kinds of
broadcasting workers, although
most of their members are tech­
nicians. The International Alli­
ance of Theatrical Stage Em­
ployees and Moving Picture Ma­
chine Operators organizes vari­
ous crafts, such as stagehands,
sound and lighting technicians,
wardrobe attendants, makeup
men, and cameramen. Many an­
nouncers and entertainers are
members of the American Feder­
ation of Television and Radio
Artists. The Directors Guild of
America, Ind. (Inc.) organizes
program directors, associate di­
rectors, and stage managers. The
Screen Actors Guild Inc., repre­
sents the majority of talent per­
sonnel who appear on films made
for television.

RADIO AND TELEVISION
ANNOUNCERS
(D.O.T. 159.148)

N atu re of the W ork
Radio and television staff an­
nouncers present news and live
commercial messages, introduce
programs, describe s p o r t i n g
events, act as masters of cere­
monies, conduct interviews, and
identify stations. In small sta­
tions, they may perform addi­
tional duties such as operating
the control board, selling time,
and writing commercial and news
copy. In large stations, their du­
ties are confined to the program­
ing department.
Many announcers act as disc
jockeys, introducing selections of
recorded music and commenting
on the music and other matters
of interest to the audience. Disc




jockeys “ ad-lib” much of the com­
mentary, working without a de­
tailed script.
About 14,000 staff announcers
were employed on a regularly
scheduled, full-time basis in radio
and television broadcasting sta­
tions in 1968. More than 85 per­
cent of them were employed in
radio. The average radio station
employed 2 or 3 announcers;
larger stations employed 5 or
more. Most television stations
employed 3 staff announcers,
although larger stations some­
times employed 4 or more. In ad­
dition to staff announcers, several
thousand freelance announcers
sell their services for individual
assignments to networks and sta­
tions, or to advertising agencies
and other independent producers,
for both programs (news, sports,
disc jockey, etc.) and commer­
cials. Some announcers become
well-known and highly paid per­
sonalities.

T rain in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
To succceed as an announcer,
one must have a pleasant and
well-controlled voice, a good
sense of timing, and excellent
pronunciation. In addition, a
thorough knowledge of correct
English usage and a knowledge
of dramatics, sports, music, and
current events improve chances
for success. In television, rather
high standards of personal ap­
pearance also must be met. When
on the air, an announcer must be
able to react quickly and imagi­
natively in unusual situations. He
also must be a convincing sales­
man when presenting commer­
cials. In addition to all the above
qualifications, the most success­
ful announcers have a combina­
tion of personality and showman­
ship that makes them attractive

to audiences. Therefore, anyone
considering a career as an an­
nouncer should judge his chances
of success realistically. Most an­
nouncers are men, but there are
a few opportunities for women,
especially in programs and com­
mercials aimed at women.
High school courses in English,
public speaking, dramatics, and
foreign languages, plus sports and
music hobbies, are valuable back­
ground for prospective announc­
ers. A number of vocational
schools offer training in announc­
ing, and some universities offer
courses of study in the broadcast­
ing field. A college liberal arts
education also provides an excel­
lent background for an an­
nouncer.
Most announcers get their first
broadcasting jobs in small sta­
tions. Because announcers in
small stations sometimes operate

RADIO AND TELEVISION BROADCASTING OCCUPATIONS

transmitters,
prospective
an­
nouncers often obtain a Federal
Communications C o m m i s s i o n
Radiotelephone First Class Op­
erator License which enables
them legally to operate a trans­
mitter and, therefore, makes
them much more useful to these
stations. Announcers more fre­
quently operate control boards,
for which only a Third Class li­
cense is required. (For informa­
tion on how to obtain such li­
censes, see p. 738.)
Announcers usually work in
several different stations in the
course of their careers. After ac­
quiring experience at a station in
a small community, an ambitious
and talented announcer may
move to a better paying job in a
larger community. He also may
advance by getting a regular pro­
gram as a disc jockey, sportscaster, or other specialist. Competi­
tion for announcing jobs in the
national networks is intense, and
an announcer usually must be a
college graduate and have several
years of successful announcing
experience before he will be given
an audition.

Em ploym ent O utlook
The employment of announcers
is expected to increase moderate­
ly in the 1970’s, as new radio and
television stations are opened.
The gains in employment result­
ing from these openings during
this period, however, will be re­
duced slightly by the increased
use of automatic programing.
Some job openings in this rela­
tively small occupation will also
result from transfers to other
fields of work and from retire­
ments and deaths. The growth of
the industry and replacement
needs will create, on the average,
several hundred openings for an­
nouncers each year through the
1970’s.




741

It will be easier to get an entry
job in radio than in television
because of the greater number of
radio stations, especially small
stations which hire beginners.
However, the great attraction
this field has for young people
and its relatively small size will
result in keen competition for en­
try jobs.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Earnings of staff announcers
vary and depend upon whether
the announcer works in radio or
television, in a large or small sta­
tion, or in a large or small com­
munity. As a general rule, wages
increase with the size of the com­
munity and the station. Earnings
of an announcer in television
tend to be somewhat higher than
those in radio.
The earnings of many better
paid announcers include fees re­
ceived from advertisers in addi­
tion to the salaries received from
stations. Such fees are larger and
more common in television than
in radio. In small radio stations,
announcers generally are paid a
fixed weekly or monthly salary.
Announcers who work in regular
shows, such as disc jockeys or
announcers who become identi­
fied with popular network radio
or television programs, earn con­
siderably more than other staff
announcers.
Most announcers in large sta­
tions work a 40-hour week and
receive overtime for work beyond
40 hours. In small stations, many
announcers work 2 to 6 hours of
overtime each week. Evening,
night, and weekend work occurs
frequently since some stations
are on the air 24 hours a day,
7 days a week. Announcers’ work­
ing hours consist of both time on
the air and time spent in prepar­
ing for broadcasts. Working con-

Technician edits film.

ditions are usually pleasant be­
cause of the variety of work and
the many personal contacts which
are part of the job. Announcers
also receive some satisfaction
from becoming well known in the
area their station serves.

BROADCAST TECHNICIANS
(D.O.T. 194.281, .282, and .782;
957.282; and 963.168 through .887)

N ature of th e W ork
Broadcast technicians set up,
operate, and maintain the elec­
tronic equipment used to record
or transmit radio and television
programs. They work with equip­
ment such as microphones, sound
recorders, lighting equipment,

742
sound effects devices, television
cameras, magnetic video tape re­
corders, and motion picture pro­
jection equipment. In the con­
trol room, broadcast technicians
operate equipment that regulates
the quality of sounds and pic­
tures being recorded or broad­
cast. They also operate controls
that switch broadcasts from one
camera or studio to another, from
film to live programing, or from
network to local programs. From
the control room, they give tech­
nical directions to personnel in
the studio by means of hand sig­
nals and, in television, by use of
telephone headsets. When work­
ing on disc jockey programs, they
sometimes operate phonograph
record turntables. Other control
room duties may include operat­
ing movie projectors, making re­
cordings of live shows, and keep­
ing an operation log of all broad­
casts.
As a rule, broadcast technicians
in small stations perform a wide

Technician previews video tape show.




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

variety of duties. In large sta­
tions and in networks, techni­
cians are more specialized, al­
though specific job assignments
may change from day to day.
Broadcast technicians who spe­
cialize may be given titles such
as transmitter technician (moni­
tors and logs outgoing signals and
is responsible for proper opera­
tion of the transmitter), mainte­
nance technician (sets up, main­
tains, and repairs electronic
broadcasting equipment), audio
control technician (operates con­
trols that regulate sound pickup,
transmission, and switching),
video control technician (oper­
ates controls that regulate the
quality, brightness, and contrast
of television pictures), lighting
technician (directs lighting of
television programs), field tech­
nician (sets up and operates
broadcasting equipment for pro­
grams originating outside the
studio), recording technician (op­
erates and maintains sound re­
cording equipment), and video
tape recording technician (op­
erates and maintains magnetic
video tape recording equipment).
Sometimes the term “ engineer”
is substituted for technician in
the above titles.
Installing a n d maintaining
complex electronic equipment is
the most technically difficult
work of broadcast technicians.
Most technicians do at least oc­
casional maintenance, but large
stations usually have one or two
experienced men who repair and
maintain electronic equipment
under supervision of the chief
engineer. In small radio stations,
the chief engineer frequently
does all maintenance and repair
work himself.
When events taking place out­
side the studios are to be broad­
cast, technicians go to the site
of the pickup and set up, test,
and operate the necessary equip­
ment. They also make emergency

repairs. After the broadcast, they
dismantle the equipment and re­
turn to the station.
In 1968, about 20,000 nonsupervisory broadcast technicians
were employed in radio and tele­
vision stations. Most radio sta­
tions employ fewer than four
technicians, although a few large
radio stations may employ more
than 15. Nearly all television sta­
tions employ at least five broad­
cast technicians. Stations located
in large metropolitan areas aver­
age about 30 technicians. Most
broadcast technicians work in
communities of more than 250,000 population. The highest pay­
ing and most specialized jobs are
concentrated in New York, Los
Angeles, Washington, D.C., and
Chicago, the originating centers
for most of the network programs.
In addition to the nonsupervisory technicians, several thou­
sand supervisory personnel with
job titles such as chief engineer,
assistant chief engineer, direc­
tor of engineering, technical
director, and supervisory techni­
cian work in engineering depart­
ments. Supervisory personnel op­
erate, maintain, and repair all
electronic equipment in the stu­
dio, at the transmitter, and on
remote broadcasting sites. They
may also do maintenance and re­
pair work, design and build new
equipment, purchase equipment
for the station, and help lay out
plans for building new studios,
transmitters, relay equipment,
and towers.

T rain in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
A young man interested in be­
coming a broadcast technician
should plan to get a Radiotele­
phone First Class Operator Li­
cense from the Federal Commu­
nications Commission. Federal
law requires that anyone who

RADIO AND TELEVISION BROADCASTING OCCUPATIONS

operates or adjusts broadcast
transmitters in television and
radio stations must hold such a
license. Some stations require all
their broadcast technicians, in­
cluding those who do not operate
transmitters, to have this license.
Applicants for the license must
pass a series of written examina­
tions covering the construction
and operation of transmission and
receiving equipment, the charac­
teristics of electromagnetic waves,
and Federal Government and in­
ternational regulations and prac­
tices governing broadcasting. In­
formation about these examina­
tions and guides to Study for
them may be obtained from the
Federal Communications Com­
mission, Washington, D.C. 20036.
High school courses in algebra
and trigonometry, and in physics
and other sciences, provide valu­
able barkground for young men
anticipating careers in this occu­
pation. Building and operating an
amateur radio station is also
good training. A good way to ac­
quire the knowledge necessary for
becoming a broadcast technician
is to take an electronics course
in a technical school. Many
schools give courses especially de­
signed to prepare the student for
the FCC first-class license test.
Training at the technical school
or college level is a distinct ad­
vantage for those who hope to
advance to supervisory positions
or to the more specialized jobs
in large stations and in the net­
works.
Young men with FCC firstclass licenses who get entry jobs
are instructed and advised by the
chief engineer or other experi­
enced technicians concerning the




work procedures of the station.
In small stations, they may start
by operating the transmitter and
handling other technical duties
after a brief instruction period.
As they acquire more experience
and skill, they are assigned to
more responsible jobs. Men who
demonstrate above-average abil­
ity may move into the top-level
technical positions, such as super­
visory technician and chief en­
gineer. A college degree in engi­
neering is becoming increasingly
important for advancement to
supervisory positions.

Em ploym ent O utlook
The number of broadcast tech­
nicians is expected to increase
only slightly during the 1970’s.
Retirements, deaths, and trans­
fers to other jobs will result in
some additional job openings.
Some job opportunities for
technicians will be provided by
the new radio and television sta­
tions expected to go on the air
during this period. In addition,
color television broadcasting may
slightly increase the need for
technicians. Color television pick­
up and transmitting equipment is
much more complicated than
black and white equipment and
requires more maintenance and
technical know-how. However,
other technical advances, such as
automatic switching and pro­
graming, automatic operation
logging, and remote control of
transmitters will limit the in­
crease in job opportunities in the
new stations and replacement
needs in existing stations.

743
Earnings and W orking Conditions

Earnings of broadcast techni­
cians vary greatly depending on
such factors as the size and loca­
tion of the community a station
serves, the size of the station,
whether he works in a radio or
television station, and the experi­
ence of the individual. As a rule,
technicians’ wages are highest in
large cities and in large stations.
Technicians employed by tele­
vision stations usually are paid
more than those working for ra­
dio stations because television
equipment is generally more com­
plex.
Most technicians in large sta­
tions work a 40-hour week with
overtime pay for work beyond 40
hours. Many broadcast techni­
cians in the larger cities work
a 37-hour week. In small stations,
many technicians work 2 to 8
hours of overtime each week. Eve­
ning, night, and weekend work
occurs frequently since some sta­
tions are on the air as many as
24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
Network technicians may occa­
sionally have to work continuous­
ly for many hours and under
great pressure in order to meet
broadcast deadlines.
Broadcast technicians general­
ly work indoors in pleasant sur­
roundings. The work is interest­
ing, and the duties are varied.
When remote pickups are made,
however, technicians may work
out of doors at some distance
from the studios, under less fa­
vorable conditions.




R A IL R O A D O C C U P A T IO N S

The railroads, with their net­
work of more than 200,000 miles
of rail line reaching into all parts
of the country, are one of the
Nation’s largest employers. Over
500,000 railroad workers were
employed in 1968, operating
trains, looking after the needs of
the traveling public, maintaining
and repairing facilities and equip­
ment, and performing the hun­
dreds of other activities required
in this industry. These activities
offer a great variety of interesting
careers requiring different kinds
of skills and levels of education.
In most railroad occupations, a
worker starts at the bottom and
works his way up by learning his
job, proving his ability, and ac­
quiring the seniority which will
enable him to advance.

N ature and Location of the
Industry
The railroad industry is made
up of “ line-haul” railroad com­
panies which transport freight
and passengers between cities and
towns, and switching and ter­
minal companies which operate
facilities at stations, freight
yards, and other terminal points.
About 580 of these railroad com­
panies were operating in 1968.
In addition, the Pullman Com­
pany performed special services
for passengers traveling on these
railroads.
The Class I line-haul railroads,
which include all of the large,
well-known companies, handle
about 95 percent of the railroad
industry’s business and employ
about 92 percent of all railroad
workers. Equipped with nearly
28.000 locomotive units, about
16.000 passenger cars, and about
1.5 million freight cars, they
transported more than 2.6 billion




tons of freight and nearly 300
million passengers in 1968. Em­
ployment and earnings data for
jobs on Class I line-haul railroads
are used in this chapter to illus­
trate employment and earnings
throughout the entire railroad
industry.
Of the various transportation
services provided by the rail­
roads, the shipment of commodi­
ties, such as coal, ore, grain, lum­
ber, and manufactured products,
account for most railroad revenue
and employment. Passenger ser­
vice also is important, although
it has declined substantially dur­
ing the past 20 years. Other rail­
road services include mail and
express.
Railroad workers are employed
in every State except Hawaii and
in both large and small commu­
nities, but the greatest numbers
work at terminal points where
the railroads maintain their cen­
tral offices, freight yards, and
maintenance and repair shops.
The metropolitan area of Chica­
go, where the great eastern and
western railroad systems meet, is

the hub of the Nation’s railroad
network and has more railroad
workers than any other area.
Other places where particularly
large numbers of railroad workers
are employed are areas around
New York City, Los Angeles,
Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, Cleve­
land, and St. Louis. “ Railroad
towns,” such as Altoona, Pa., and
Roseville, Calif., where locomo­
tive and car shops are located,
also have relatively large con­
centrations of railroad workers.
R ailroad O ccupations
The work force of the railroad
industry can be divided into five
main groups— employees who
(1) operate trains, (2) perform
communications, station, and of­
fice work, (3) build and maintain
locomotives, cars, and other roll­
ing stock, (4) build and maintain
tracks, structures, and other rail­
road property, and (5) handle
luggage, prepare and serve food,
and provide other personal serv­
ices to passengers. In 1968, 94
percent of the workers in railroad
jobs were men. Most women em­
ployed by the railroads do office
work.
Chart 34 shows the number of
employees in some of the princi­
pal railroad occupations. Other
occupations in which large num-

Eroploym ent In Selected R ailroad Occupations
THOUSANDS OF WORKERS, 1968
20
40
60

80

100

TRAIN, ENGINE, & YARD SERVICE
BRAKEMEN
CONDUCTORS
LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS
LOCOMOTIVE FIREMEN

OFFICE, COM M UNICATION, & STATION
CLERICAL WORKERS
TELEGRAPHERS. TELEPHONERS, & TOWERMEN
STATION AGENTS

MAINTENANCE OF EQUIPMENT
CARMEN
MACHINISTS
ELECTRICAL WORKERS
HELPERS (ALL SKILLED TRADES)
GANG FOREMEN AND LEADERS
SHEET METAL WORKERS
APPRENTICES (ALL SKILLED TRADES)
BOILERMAKERS
BLACKSMITHS

MAINTENANCE OF WAY & STRUCTURES
TRUCKMEN & GANG FOREMEN
SIGNAL DEPARTMENT WORKERS
BRIDGE & BUILDING WORKERS
PORTABLE EQUIPMENT OPERATORS & HELPERS
SOURCE: WAGE STATISTICS OF CLASS 1 RAILROADS IN

745

746
bers of workers are employed, but
not shown on the chart, range
from unskilled laundry and clean­
ing jobs to professional positions
such as accountant, engineer, and
statistician. (Information about
some of these jobs is given else­
where in the Handbook.)
The workers directly engaged
in running the trains are known
as “ operating employees.” They
represent more than one-fourth
of all railroad workers. Class I
line-haul railroads employed ap­
proximately 165,000 operating
employees in 1968. In this group
are locomotive engineers, fire­
men, conductors, brakemen, and,
on some passenger trains, bag­
gagemen. These men work to­
gether as train crews, either op­
erating trains out on the “ run”
or operating trains at the ter­
minals and railroad yards where
freight is loaded and unloaded,
freight cars are received and
switched, and trains are broken
up and put together. Other op­
erating employees who work in
the yards include switchtenders,
who assist conductors (or fore­
men) and brakemen (or switch­
men) by throwing the track
switches, and hostlers, who fuel
locomotives, check their operat­
ing condition, and deliver them
to the engine crews.
A large group of railroad work­
ers, about one-fourth of all those
employed in the industry, con­
sists of communications, station,
and office employees who regu­
late the movement of trains and
handle the business affairs of the
railroads. In 1968, Class I linehaul railroads employed about
150,000 persons in these jobs.
Communications are handled by
dispatchers who coordinate the
movement of trains and issue
train orders, and by telegraphers,
telephoners, and towermen who
either pass train orders and other
instructions to the train crews or
execute them by setting signals




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

and track switches. At all sta­
tions, agents are in charge of the
railroad stations business affairs.
Railroad clerks work in stations
and company offices where they
may do secretarial and other kinds
of office work, assist station
agents, deal with customers, sell
tickets, tend baggage rooms, keep
records, and perform related tasks.
Also included in this group of rail­
road workers are claims investiga­
tors, accountants, lawyers, motor
vehicle operators, partolmen, and
watchmen.
More than one-fifth of all rail­
road workers are employed in
railroad yards, carshops, and en­
gine houses where they maintain
and repair locomotives, cars, and
other railroad rolling stock. Class
I line-haul roads employed about
132,000 workers in this group in
1968. Carmen perform a variety
of repair and maintenance tasks
necessary to keep railroad freight
and passenger cars in good oper­
ating condition. Electrical work­
ers, machinists, boilermakers,
blacksmiths, and sheet metal
workers also are employed in car
shops.
A considerably smaller group
of railroad workers, about onesixth of the total, maintains and
constructs tracks, bridges, sta­
tions, signals, and other railroad
property. The Class I line-haul
railroads employed about 89,000
in work of this kind in 1968.
Trackmen and other maintenance-of-way workers maintain,
construct, and repair tracks and
roadbeds. Bridge and building
mechanics construct and main­
tain bridges, tunnels, and many
other kinds of structures along
the right of way. Signal workers
are responsible for installing the
railroad’s vast network of train
and crossing signals and for main­
taining it in working order.
Another considerably smaller
group of railroad workers pro­
vides personal services to passen­

gers at stations and aboard
trains. With 6,400 employees in
1968, it is by far the smallest of
the five major railroad occupa­
tional groups. It includes Pull­
man conductors who are in charge
of sleeping and parlor car service
on most trains, as well as porters
and attendants who perform
many kinds of personal service
for passengers. This group also
includes cooks and waiters who
prepare and serve food, and red­
caps who work in and around
railroad stations where they han­
dle luggage and otherwise assist
passengers in boarding and leav­
ing trains. (Additional informa­
tion about cooks and waiters is
given elsewhere in the Hand­

book.)
T rain in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
For most jobs, particularly
those on the trains, in the yards,
and around the stations, training
is received on the job. The new
employee learns by working and
receiving instructions from ex­
perienced men. For some office
and maintenance jobs, training
may be obtained in high schools
and vocational schools. Home
study courses on railroading also
are available. In addition, univer­
sities and technical schools offer
courses in railway engineering,
transportation, traffic manage­
ment, and other subjects valuable
to professional and technical
workers.
New employees in some occu­
pations— principally those con­
nected with train or engine serv­
ice— start as “ extra board” men,
that is, their names are placed on
an “ extra list” for individual oc­
cupations. From these lists, they
are called to fill vacancies that
arise due to vacations, days off,
or illness of men on regular jobs.
They also may be called for extra

RAILROAD OCCUPATIONS

work because of an increase in
railroad traffic. As regular job
assignments become available
and as the extra board workers
gain experience and seniority,
they are assigned to regular po­
sitions. The time spent on extra
board work varies with the type
of job and the number of avail­
able openings. In some cases,
workers may not receive regular
assignments for a number of
years.
Apprenticeship programs are
limited chiefly to trainees in the
railroad shop crafts. Many of
these programs are planned and
operated jointly by the compa­
nies and the railroad workers’
unions. Of the several thousand
men who were taking this kind of
training in 1968, the majority
were “ regular” apprentices, usu­
ally high school graduates with
no previous work experience, who
were working and receiving in­
struction in their chosen trades
for a 4-year period. Others were
“ helper” apprentices, men having
some previous experience as rail­
road workers, who were receiving
the same kind of training, usually
for a 3-year period.
Applicants who have a high
school education or its equivalent
are preferred by railroad compa­
nies for most kinds of nonprofes­
sional positions. Good physical
condition is required for most
jobs, and almost all large rail­
roads require applicants to pass
physical examinations
before
they are hired; in some jobs, phy­
sical examinations are required
periodically. Excellent hearing
and eyesight are essential for
train and engine service jobs, and
color blindness is an absolute bar
to employment in work involving
the interpretation of railroad
signals.
Promotions of qualified work­
ers to jobs covered by union-man­
agement agreements are made on
the basis of seniority. Most job




747
vacancies are listed on a bulletin
board, and all workers interested
may “ bid” for them. The job goes
to the qualified applicant whose
length of service places him high­
est on the seniority list. Often,
before workers can qualify for
promotion, they must pass writ­
ten and performance tests. For
occupations in train and engine
service, there are well-established
avenues of promotion. Engineers
usually are chosen from the
ranks of the firemen, and conduc­
tors from the list of brakemen.
A railroad worker’s seniority
usually entitles him to promotion
only for job openings which occur
within a limited area or “ senior­
ity district” of the railroad sys­
tem for which he works. In some
cases, seniority rights may apply
only to one shop, locality, or of­
fice. Among train and engine personel, seniority rights may be
limited either to road (freight
and/or passenger) service or
yard service. In such cases, work­
ers may bid only for positions in
the particular type of service in
which they have been employed.
The worker’s seniority also de­
termines how much choice he
may have about his working con­
ditions. A beginning telegrapher,
for instance, may have to work
several years on a night shift in
an out-of-the-way location before
he accumulates enough seniority
to get an assignment without
these disadvantages.
(Later sections of this chapter
contain more complete informa­
tion about the training and other
qualifications for selected occu­
pations in the railroad industry.)

Em ploym ent O utlook
The longrun decline in railroad
employment is expected to con­
tinue, but at a decreasing rate in
the immediate years ahead. Tech­
nological innovation and chang­

ing patterns of transportation
and production have resulted in
a substantial decline in railroad
employment in recent years. Be­
tween 1955 and 1968, employ­
ment in Class I line-haul rail­
roads dropped 59 percent, from
nearly 1.1 million to 591,000. De­
velopments such as the use of
larger, more powerful diesel loco­
motives and the extensive use of
machines for roadway upkeep
have had a considerable employ­
ment impact. The railroad work
force also declined as competition
from other modes of transporta­
tion— notably a u t o m o b i l e s ,
trucks, buses, airplanes, and pipe­
lines— brought a steep drop in
railroad passenger travel and
relatively little growth in freight
traffic.
Most of the factors which have
led to a reduced employment in
the past will continue to influ­
ence railroad employment dur­
ing the decade ahead. In addi­
tion, mergers of connecting or
parallel railroads could reduce
further railroad employment by
eliminating facilities, such as
those at terminals, and by com­
bining accounting and other func­
tions. Some mergers have occur­
red in recent years and, on the
basis of present developments,
other mergers are likely.
Despite prospects of declining
employment, job opportunities
will be available annually for
thousands of new railroad work­
ers. The railroads have one of the
largest work forces in American
industry, with a high proportion
of older workers. Many jobs will
become vacant because of retire­
ments, deaths, promotions to
other railroad jobs, and transfers
to other fields of work. Retire­
ments and deaths alone may re­
sult in tens of thousands of job
openings each year during the
1970’s.
Future job opportunities for
applicants probably will be most

748
numerous in construction and
maintenance work along the
right-of-way, in operating jobs as
brakemen, and in office work.
However, because of the season­
ality of railroad work, and the
seniority system under which
new workers are furloughed first
and recalled last, many new
workers will have less than full­
time employment during the first
few years on the job.
The number and type of job
openings for applicants hired by
an individual railroad also will be
influenced by the rapidity of the
railroad’s adoption of new equip­
ment and new methods of opera­
tion, and its geographical loca­
tion in relation to changing mar­
keting conditions. There will be
a need for professional engineers
and skilled personnel capable of
maintaining and improving the
new mechanical and electrical
equipment gradually being intro­
duced. Opportunities should in­
crease for industrial engineers
and methods analysts as railroads
seek better means of utilizing
equipment and personnel. The in­
creasing use of electronic dataprocessing equipment to handle
a wide range of railroad account­
ing and statistical activities will
generate a growing demand for
programers and other trained
specialists. As the railroads con­
tinue to explore new ways to
meet competition, opportunities
will arise for specialists in indus­
trial development and marketing.
Railroad freight traffic is ex­
pected to continue to rise through
the 1970’s. The anticipated rise
in demand for railroad freight
service is based on the assump­
tion of a high rate of growth in
the economy through the 1970’s.
The shipment of highway trailers
and large containers on railroad
flat cars, and the use of larger,
special purpose freight cars will
increase freight traffic signifi­
cantly by improving rail carriers’




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

ability to compete more effective­
ly with other modes of transpor­
tation.
New interest also has been
shown in the use of rapid rail
transit for intercity and intraur­
ban passenger movement. Studies
of the best methods for moving
passengers within and between
urban areas are progressing, and
may result in a significant re­
surgence of rail passenger trans­
portation.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Average earnings of railroad
workers are higher than those of
workers in most manufacturing
industries. Employees of Class I
line-haul railroads, exclusive of
executive and administrative per­
sonnel, averaged $3.39 an hour
and $149.16 a week in 1968,
whereas production workers in all
manufacturing industries aver­
aged $3.01 an hour and $122.51
a week.
The earnings of individual rail­
road workers vary greatly be­
cause of the great variety of their
occupations and skill require­
ments. Geographic differences in
wage levels are considerably less
than in most other industries,
since the wage scales specified in
many labor-management con­
tracts in the railroad industry
are identical throughout the
country. (Earnings in some of the
principal occupations are dis­
cussed in later sections of this
chapter.)
Most railroad workers are
members of trade unions, and
many of the conditions under
which they work are regulated by
collective bargaining agreements.
Contracts between the unions
and the railroad companies con­
tain clauses dealing with wage
rates, hours of work, vacation
pay, seniority, and oilier matters.
(The principal unions represent­

ing each occupational group are
listed in the sections of this chap­
ter which deal with individual
occupations.)
The work schedules of railroad
employees and the conditions un­
der which they are paid for over­
time work depend upon the type
of operation in which they are
employed. The great majority of
railroad employees work at ter­
minals— in yards, stations, and
railroad offices. In 1968, the
“ basic” workweek of most work­
ers in this group was a 5-day
week of 40 hours. Premium pay,
amounting to time and one-half
the regular wage rate, usually
was paid for any time worked
over 8 hours a day.
In freight and passenger road
service, the basic workday for
train and engine crews is estab­
lished on an entirely different
basis. Generally, when a member
of the train or engine crew has
covered a specified number of
miles, or has worked a certain
number of hours— whichever oc­
curs first— he receives a day’s
pay at his regular wage rate. He
receives extra pay for any addi­
tional miles covered or hours
worked on that day.
The basic hours of employees
who serve the needs of passengers
aboard trains— dining car cooks
and waiters, Pullman porters, and
train attendants— are set on a
monthly basis. Some workers in
these jobs receive time and onehalf pay for hours worked over
184 a month, and those employed
on regular assignments are guar­
anteed at least 174 hours of work
a month. Others receive overtime
after 240 hours and are guaran­
teed 205 hours a month, if work­
ing on regular jobs.
Because freight ship pers and
the traveling public must be
served 24 hours day, the mem­
bers of train and engine crews,
as well as hostlers, telegraphers
and telephoners, and station

749

RAILROAD OCCUPATIONS

agents, often are required to
work nights, weekends, and on
holidays. Irregular work sched­
ules are particularly common for
extra board workers, since they
have no regular assignments and
may be called to work any time
of the day or night. Some railroad
workers, like bridge and building
mechanics and certain track and
road maintenance workers, are
required to work away from home
for days at a time.

tion for workdays lost because of
sickness or injury.
Other insurance programs are
operated under agreements with
trade unions and provide group
life insurance to employees and
comprehensive hospital and medi­
cal insurance to these employees
and their dependents.

Practically all railroad em­
ployees receive 1 week’s paid va­
cation after 1 year on the payroll,
2 weeks after 3 years, 3 weeks
after 10 years, and 4 weeks after
20 years. On most roads, em­
ployees receive pay for 8 holidays
a year.
Under the federally adminis­
tered Railroad Retirement Act of
1935, all employees having more
than 10 years of service in the
railroad industry receive pensions
upon retirement. They receive
full pensions when they reach age
65 and reduced pensions at age
62. Those who have worked for
the railroads at least 30 years
may retire on a reduced pension
at age 60. Employees having 10
years service or more who be­
come disabled and are unable to
work, and dependent wives and
husbands of railroad workers who
have died also receive pensions.
In 1968, the average pension
paid to railroad workers who
retired because of age was about
$155 a month.
Another Federal law, the Rail­
road Unemployment Insurance
Act, provides benefits for railroad
workers who become unemployed.
Unemployment benefits are paid
for a period up to 26 weeks, but
workers having 10 years service
or more can receive benefits for
a longer period.
Under the Railroad Unemploy­
ment Insurance Act, railroad
workers also receive compensa­

Additional information about
occupations in the railroad indus­
try can be obtained from railroad
offices in your locality. General
information about the railroad
industry can be obtained from:




Sources of A dditional Inform ation

Association of American Rail­
roads,
American
Railroads
Building, 1920 L St. NW.,
Washington, D.C, 20036.

LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS

Diesel engineer checks track conditions
by radio.

(D.O.T. 910.383)

N ature of th e W ork
The engineer is responsible for
running the locomotive safely and
efficiently. He operates the throt­
tle, air brakes, and other con­
trols, and he supervises the work
of the fireman (helper) who may
work in the cab with him. Engi­
neers work in railroad yards or
on the road in passenger or
freight service.
The yard engineer operates the
locomotive
or
switch-engine,
which is used to move freight and
passenger cars when trains are
being put together before a run
and broken up after a run, or
when cars are being switched for
loading or unloading. The engi­
neer in passenger or freight serv­
ice operates the locomotive which
moves trains over the road ac-

cording to the train orders for
each run or any instructions re­
ceived en route through the con­
ductor, the wayside signal sys­
tem, or by train radio.
Before and after each run, the
engineer checks on the condition
of the locomotive and either sees
that minor adjustments are made
on the spot or reports to the en­
gine foreman mechanical defects
needing attention. While operat­
ing his locomotive, he must ob­
serve track signals and comply
with speed restrictions at all
hours and in all weather condi­
tions. T o do this he must be thor­
oughly familiar with the charac­
teristics of the road over which
he is operating. He must be alert
constantly, especially for obstruc­
tions on the track or other emer­
gencies.
In 1968, about 35,400 engineers
were employed by Class I linehaul railroads, and a few thou-

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

750
sand more were employed by
short-line railways and switching
and terminal companies.

Training , O th er Q ualificatio ns,
and A dvancem ent
Vacancies in engineer positions
generally have been filled by fire­
men (helpers) who have qualified
for promotion. Selection is on a
seniority basis. T o qualify, the
applicant must pass comprehen­
sive examinations which deal
with the train’s mechanical and
electrical equipment, and with
fuel economy, safety, timetables,
train orders, and other operating
rules and regulations. He also
must be able to operate any kind
of locomotive in service on his
road.
A newly promoted engineer
starts out as an extra board man
without any regular assignment.
It may be several years before he
receives such an assignment. Dur­
ing this period, he works on tem­
porary assignments whenever an
engineer is needed. An experi­
enced engineer may advance to
a supervisory position, such as
foreman of engines for his road.
Engineers are required to take
physical examinations at regular
intervals. They must have good
eyesight and hearing. If they fail
at any time to meet all of the
physical standards, they may be
restricted to working as engineers
only in certain types of service,
or they may be transferred to
other kinds of work where phy­
sical standards are less exacting.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment of locomotive en­
gineers is expected to decline
slowly during the 1970’s. How­
ever, openings will arise from the
need to fill positions left vacant
by engineers who retire, die, or




otherwise leave the occupation.
The number of engineers em­
ployed by the railroads has been
declining for some years because
of the decrease in railroad pas­
senger business and increasing
multiple-unit operation of diesel
locomotives.
Introduction
of
technological innovations, such as
the use of remote and automatic­
ally controlled devices for freight
car classification and signal con­
trol and other changes in equip­
ment and operating methods,
were also important factors in
lower employment levels. The
total number of engineers em­
ployed by Class I line-haul rail­
roads dropped from about 44,000
in 1955 to 35,400 in 1968.
However, this decline may be
somewhat slower in the 1970’s
if rapid transit rail systems are
developed on a large scale.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
The earnings of engineers de­
pend on the class of locomotive
operated and the kind of service
in which the engineer is em­
ployed. Engineers in yard service
for Class I line-haul railroads (in­
cluding extra board men) earned,
on the average, about $925 a
month in 1968. In road freight
service, engineers averaged $1,100
a month. The earnings of pas­
senger service engineers averaged
about $1,090 a month in 1968.
In 1968, the standard work­
week at straight-time rates for
yard engineers varied from 5 days
on some railroads and railroad
divisions to 7 days on others. All
yard engineers worked basic 8hour days with time and onehalf paid for work over 8 hours.
The basic unit of work for road
freight and passenger engineers
is 100 miles. Under certain cir­
cumstances, they may be paid on
an hourly basis or on a mileshour basis.

On many roads, the amount a
road engineer may earn in a sin­
gle month is governed by mileage
limitations agreed upon by the
unions and the railroad compa­
nies. Whenever an engineer on
one of these roads reaches the
maximum number of miles he is
permitted to operate a locomo­
tive during a month, his assign­
ment for the rest of the month is
taken over by another engineer—
usually an extra board man.
The engineer in road service,
even on regular assignments, of­
ten is scheduled to work nights,
weekends, and h o l i d a y s at
straight-time rates. Like other
workers in road service, he must
often “ lay over” at the end of a
run before he makes the return
trip back to his home terminal.
The assignments of engineers
on the extra board may be very
irregular because these men may
be called to work at any time of
the day or night, and the amount
of traffic varies from one season
to another on many roads. Extra
board engineers are likely to have
less work and lower earnings
than those men having regular
assignments.
On all major railroads, wages
and the conditions under which
engineers work are agreed upon
by employers and unions. The
great majority of engineers are
represented by the Brotherhood
of Locomotive Engineers (Ind.).
Some are represented by the
United Transportation Union.

LOCOMOTIVE FIREMEN
(HELPERS)
(D.O.T. 910.383)

N atu re of th e W ork
The l o c o m o t i v e fireman
(helper) works with the engineer

RAILROAD OCCUPATIONS

either in the railroad yards or in
road service. At the beginning of
his run, the fireman (helper)
checks to make sure that the
locomotive is supplied with the
fuel, sand, and water needed for
the run, that the engine is in
proper working order, and that
the flagging equipment, classifi­
cation markers, and tools needed
by the engine crew are on hand
and ready to use. During the run,
he makes mechanical and electri­
cal adjustments as needed. On
passenger trains, he also is re­
sponsible for operating the equip­
ment which supplies heat to the
train.
From his position at the left
side of the cab, the fireman
(helper) assists the engineer by
acting as lookout for obstructions
on tracks and at road crossings,
and by checking wayside signals
which indicate the speed at which
the train is to proceed. In addi­
tion, he inspects the train as it
rounds curves because this view
of the train enables him to spot
smoke, sparks, fire, and other
signs of defective equipment.
Class I line-haul railroads em­
ployed about 18,000 firemen in
1968.

T rain in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
For the relatively few firemen
(helper) positions being filled at
present, most railroads prefer
that applicants be at least 21
years of age and not over 35. A
high school education or its
equivalent is desired. Good health
is important, and firemen must
be able to pass periodic physical
examinations. Standards for eye­
sight and hearing are particularly
high.
A beginning fireman first
makes a series of trial trips in
the railroad yard or on the road.
On these trips, he works under




751
the direction of an experienced
engineer or fireman who instructs
him about his future duties and
about railroad rules and regula­
tions. This training period lasts
a few days on some roads and
as long as 3 weeks on others. Af­
ter the newly hired fireman has
satisfactorily demonstrated his
ability on the trial trips, and af­
ter he has passed examinations
on railroad rules and regulations,
his name is placed on the fire­
men’s extra board and he be­
comes subject to call for tem­
porary work assignments. He may
remain on extra board work up
to several years before he ob­
tains his first regular assignment.
On some roads, beginning assign­
ments are in yard service, and
the fireman advances first to road
freight service and then to road
passenger service. On other rail­
roads, firemen usually remain
either in yard service or in road
service throughout their railroad
careers.
Firemen who have sufficient
experience and seniority— usually
at least 3 or 4 years— can become
eligible for promotion to engineer
by passing qualifying examina­
tions covering the mechanical and
electrical equipment on trains,
air brake systems, fuel economy,
timetables, train orders, and
other operating rules and regula­
tions. As engineers are needed,
qualified firemen who have the
longest seniority are placed on
the engineers’ extra board.

Em ploym ent Outlook
Job openings for work as loco­
motive firemen (helpers) have
been extremely limited since May
1964, the effective date of a com­
pulsory arbitration award de­
signed to eventually eliminate all
but a relatively few firemen
(helper) positions in road freight
and yard locomotive service. Fire­

man (helper) positions on loco­
motives in passenger service were
not affected by this award, nor
were any positions of firemen
(helpers) for any class of loco­
motive service operating where
State law requires the employ­
ment of firemen on locomotives.
The national arbitration award
expired in April 1966, and since
no general agreement had been
reached between the parties in
the dispute by early 1969, the
outlook for job opportunities in
this occupation cannot be antici­
pated with any degree of cer­
tainty, although it appears that
employment opportunities for
new entrants will continue to be
minimal.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
The earnings of firemen depend
on the class of locomotive on
which they work, and the type of
service for which the locomotive
is operated. Firemen in yard serv­
ice for Class I line-haul railroads
(including extra board men) av­
eraged $730 a month in 1968.
Freight service firemen averaged
$860 monthly on freight trains.
Road passenger firemen averaged
$960 monthly.
In 1968, firemen in yard serv­
ice worked a basic 8-hour day
and 40-hour week, and 1*4 times
the basic hourly rate was paid
for work beyond these hours. On
many roads, the amount that fire­
men in road service could earn in
a single month was governed by
mileage limitations agreed upon
by the unions and the railroad
companies. Whenever a fireman
en one of these roads reached the
maximum number of miles he
was permitted to cover in a
month, his assignment for the
rest of the month was taken over
by another fireman— usually a
man on the extra board.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

752
Firemen often must work at
night and on weekends and holi­
days because train schedules re­
quire 24-hour-a-day service. Road
service often requires that they
be away from their home stations
for varying periods of time. Ir­
regular working hours are par­
ticularly common among men on
the extra board and in road
freight service. Extra board men
tend to have less work and there­
fore lower incomes than firemen
with regular assignments. On
many roads, the amount of work
varies from one season of the year
to another.
Workers in this occupation on
all major roads are covered by
union contracts. The great ma­
jority of firemen are represented
by the United Transportation
Union. Some are members of the
Brotherhood of Locomotive En­
gineers (Ind.).

cal breakdowns while the train is
on its run, or for defective cars to
be set out on the nearest siding.
At stops, he signals to the engi­
neer the proper time for deparure. As the superior officer on the
train, the conductor takes charge
in any emergency that may occur
while the train is on its run, and
all persons employed on it are
subject to his instructions.
On freight trains, the conduc­
tor keeps a record of the contents
and destination of each car, and
sees that freight cars are picked
up and set out along the route.
On passenger trains, the conduc­
tor collects tickets and cash fares.
Yard conductors, often called
“ yard foremen,” direct the work
of the switching crews who put
together and break up trains. In
mechanized yards, yard conduc­
tors operate consoles that electri­
cally control the alinement of
track switches.

CONDUCTORS

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent

(D.O.T. 198.168)

N ature of th e W ork
Conductors are responsible for
seeing that railroad trains are
moved according to train orders
or other instructions. Freight and
passenger train conductors are
the “ captains” of their trains.
They are responsible for the safe­
ty of their passengers and car­
goes, and they supervise the work
of the train and engine crews.
Before a freight or passenger
train leaves the terminal, the con­
ductor receives the train orders
from the dispatcher and confers
with other crew members to make
sure they u n d e r s t a n d the
orders. During the run, he sees
that the cars in the train are in­
spected periodically and arranges
either for the repair of mechani­




Openings for conductors are
filled on a seniority basis by pro­
motion of qualified brakemen. To
qualify for promotion, a man
usually must have several years’
experience as a brakeman and
pass examinations covering sig­
nals, air brakes, timetables, op­
erating rules, and related sub­
jects. On some roads, those who
have qualified for promotion first
are given temporary assignments
as conductors while they still are
working as brakemen. On other
roads, brakemen promoted to
conductor positions are put on
the extra board where they are
given temporary assignments as
men are needed. In either case,
as regular conductor assignments
become available, they are as­
signed to the men having the
greatest seniority.
On most roads, conductors in

Conductor uses radio phone to talk with
operator at wayside station.

yard service and in road service
have separate seniority lists, and
they usually remain in one of
these two t y p e s of service
throughout their careers. A few
roads, however, start conductors
on yard assignments and then
move them to freight service and
finally to passenger service.
The conductor is the member
of the train crew who has the
most direct contact with the pub­
lic, and it is important that he
be able to act effectively as the
railroad’s representative. Conduc­
tors who show special ability of
this kind may advance to man­
agerial positions such as train­
master.

Em ploym ent O utlook
There will be a moderate num­
ber of opportunities for brake-

RAILROAD OCCUPATIONS

men to be promoted to jobs as
conductors during the 1970’s.
Conductors compose one of the
oldest age groups in the Nation’s
work force, and job openings will
develop to replace those who re­
tire, die, or leave railroading for
some other reason.
The number of conductors on
Class I line-haul railroads de­
clined from about 45,200 in 1955
to 38,000 in 1968, owing to the
decline of passenger traffic, the
trend t o w a r d longer freight
trains, and the mechanization of
yard operations. Although more
yard work will be speeded up
by the use of the new devices,
such as electric and electronic
car classification systems and
communications equipment, little
change is expected in the number
of conductors during the 1970’s as
a result of the expected growth in
railroad freight traffic.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
The type of service in which
they are employed, and the num­
ber of cars in their trains deter­
mine the basic earnings of con­
ductors. In 1968, yard conductors
employed by Class I line-haul
railroads earned an average of
$830 a month. In road freight
service, conductors average $1,000
monthly. The average for pas­
senger conductors was $960 and
for assistant passenger conduc­
tors and ticket collectors $900 a
month.
In 1968, conductors in yard
service worked a basic 8-hour day
and 5-day week. For work beyond
these hours, they were paid 1%
times their basic wage rates. The
pay received by passenger and
freight conductors is based on a
combination of miles traveled and
hours worked. Under this prac­
tice, these conductors may re­
ceive more than their basic day’s
pay for a trip.




753
Like all other road crew mem­
bers, conductors in freight or pas­
senger service often are sched­
uled to work nights, weekends,
and on holidays. Conductors on
extra board work often have ir­
regular hours. They also may
work less time than conductors
with regular assignments and,
therefore, earn less.
Conductors on every major
railroad are covered by union
contracts negoitiated by the
United Transportation Union.

BRAKEMEN
(D.O.T. 910.364 and .884)

N atu re of the W ork
Brakemen work with the con­
ductors as members of the train
crews on freight and passenger
trains and in railroad yards. One
brakeman (or “ flagman” ) gener­
ally is stationed in the rear of
each freight and passenger train.
His duties include seeing that the
proper flags, warning lights, and
other signals are displayed at the
rear of the train to protect it
while it is in motion and at stops.
Most freight and passenger trains
carry at least one other brakeman stationed in the front end
of the train; his duties include
setting out signals to protect the
front of the train at unexpected
stops.
Before a train leaves the sta­
tion, the brakemen in road serv­
ice check the air brake equip­
ment on the cars and see that
tools and other equipment are in
their proper places. During a
run, they make frequent visual
inspections of their train from
positions at both the head and
rear end of the train, looking for
smoke, sparks or other indica­
tions of sticking brakes, over­

heated car bearings, or other
equipment malfunctions. At stops
during the run, they make “ walk­
ing inspections” of the cars in
the train and, when necessary,
couple and uncouple cars and air
hose and assist the conductor in
setting out and switching cars at
industrial sidings. They are re­
sponsible for regulating the airconditioning, lighting, and heat­
ing equipment in passenger cars.
Brakemen in passenger service
(also known as “ trainmen” )
sometimes assist the conductor
by collecting tickets and gener­
ally looking after the needs of
the passengers. Yard brakemen
(frequently called “ switchmen”
or “ helpers” ) assist in putting to­
gether and breaking up trains by
throwing switches, coupling and
uncoupling freight and passenger
cars, and applying or releasing
handbrakes on cars to control
car movement.

Brakeman signals engineer.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

754
Yard brakemen may advance
to yard conductors; usually they
stay in yard service throughout
their railroad careers. On some
roads, brakemen in road service
may move from freight service to
passenger work, usually consid­
ered more desirable because it is
less strenuous than freight service
and sometimes involves shorter
working hours.
When they have acquired suf­
ficient seniority, brakemen in
road service may advance to con­
ductors. Less frequently, they
take positions as baggagemen.
Conductor positions nearly al­
ways are filled by promoting
brakemen who have qualified by
passing written and oral examina­
tions covering subjects such as
signals, timetable, brake systems,
and operating rules. Promotions
are made according to seniority
rules, and it may require 10 years
or more for a brakeman to get
his first assignment as a con­
ductor.

E m ploym ent O utlook

Several thousand opportunities
for new workers to obtain jobs as
brakemen will develop through
the 1970’s, almost entirely as a
result of retirements and deaths
and because of promotions to
conductor and transfers to other
work.
The number of brakemen em­
ployed by Class I line-haul rail­
roads declined from about 103,000 in 1955 to 74,000 in 1968.
During the early 1970’s, work in
railroad yards is expected to be­
come increasingly mechanized,
using automatic car retarders, au­
tomatic switching, and other de­
vices. These developments are
expected to result in a further
decline in the employment of
brakemen during this period.




Earnings and W orking Conditions
The number of cars in the train
and the type of service in which
he is employed determine the
earnings of a freight brakeman.
The average monthly earnings of
yard brakemen employed by
Class I line-haul railroads were
$700 in 1968. Brakemen on
freight trains averaged $860 a
month. The monthly average for
passenger train brakemen was
$840 in 1968.
In 1968, brakemen in yard
service had a 5-day, 40-hour basic
workweek, and for work beyond
this they were paid 1 ^ times
their regular hourly rates. In ad­
dition to their basic day’s pay,
brakemen in road, passenger, or
freight service earned extra pay
under certain conditions; for ex­
ample, when they traveled more
than 100 miles on a freight run
or 150 miles on a passenger run.
Like other members of train
and engine crews, brakemen
often are scheduled to work
nights, weekends, and holidays.
Brakemen who are on the extra
board and have been employed
by the railroad for only a short
time have less steady work and
lower earnings than men having
regular assignments; and they
also may work more irregular
hours. Yard and freight brakemen face greater accident risks
than most other railroad workers.
Brakemen are represented by
t h e U n i t e d Transportation
Union.

TELEGRAPHERS,
TELEPHONERS, AND
TOWERMEN
(D.O.T. 236.588 and 910.782)

N atu re of the W ork
Telegraphers, telephoners, and
towermen control the movement

of trains according to instruc­
tions issued by the train dis­
patchers. Telegraphers and tele­
phones receive train orders from
the dispatchers and pass them on
the train crews. Towermen oper­
ate the controls which throw
track switches and set signals
to route traffic according to train
schedules or special orders. To
some extent, the three jobs are
interchangeable. For example,
many towermen also act as teleg­
raphers and telephoners in trans­
mitting orders, and some teleg­
raphers and telephoners spend
part of their time operating sig­
nals. Telegraphers, telephoners,
and towermen work either in
towers located in yards, termin­
als, and other important junction
points along the railroad’s right
of way. Often, at the larger fa­
cilities and signal towers, a chief
telegrapher, a chief telephoner,
or wire chief, or a chief towerman (train director) is in charge
of the work.
Telegraphers and telephoners
may transmit information about
train orders, as well as other
types of communications relating
to the railroad’s business, by
Morse Code, radio telephone,
telephone, and teletype or a sim­
ilar device. Morse Code, once
used for this purpose, generally
has been replaced by the tele­
phone. At some stations, teleg­
raphers may sell tickets or per­
form clerical work in addition to
their other duties.
Class I line-haul railroads em­
ployed about 13,200 workers in
the telegrapher, telephoner, and
towerman group in 1968. In
eluded in this group were about
1,000 chief telegraphers and tele­
phoners, 300 train directors, and
about 4,200 workers who com­
bined telegraphing and telephon­
ing with clerical duties in
stations. Short-line railways em­
ployed several hundred more of
these workers.

RAILROAD OCCUPATIONS

T rain in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and Advancem ent
Most telegraphers, telephones,
and towermen receive their train­
ing on the job, working under the
supervision of experienced teleg­
raphers, station agents, or towermen. They are instructed about
their future responsibilities, in­
cluding operating rules, train
orders, station operators, and the
Morse Code. On most roads,
trainees must pass examinations
on train operating rules, as well
as practical tests on other duties
relating to their future assign­
ments before they can qualify for
telegraphers, telephones, or tow­
ermen.
Most roads place newly quali­
fied workers on the extra board,
where they serve on temporary
assignments as men are needed
and, after acquiring sufficient
seniority, bid for regular assign­
ments as telegraphers, towermen,
clerk-telegraphers, and station
agent telegraphers.
Most railroads prefer appli­
cants for beginning positions to
be high school graduates between
21 and 30 years of age. Appli­
cants must pass physical exam­
inations which have strict eye­
sight and hearing requirements.
A man with the necessary
qualifications may advance to
station agent or train dispatcher.

755
dropped from about 24,400 in
1955 to about 13,200 in 1968.
The mechanization of yard oper­
ations, the use of dispatcher-totrain radio hookups and other
new communications devices, and
the extension of centralized traf­
fic control and other automatic
signaling systems are reducing
the number of workers needed to
help control the movement of
trains.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
The
average
straight-time
hourly earnings of clerk-telegra­
phers and clerk-telephoners on
Class I line-haul railroads in 1968
were $3.18; telegraphers, telephoners, and towermen averaged
$3.21. Chief telegraphers and
telephoners and train directors
averaged, respectively, $3.61 and
$4.32 an hour.
Telegraphers worked a basic
40-hour week of five 8-hour days
in 1968, with time and one-half
paid for overtime. Under Federal
law, telegraphers, whose duties
involve the movement of trains,
are prohibited from working more
than 9 hours in any one day,
except in emergencies.
Telegraphers, telephoners, and
towermen are members of the
Brotherhood of Railway, Airline
and Steamship Clerks.

Em ploym ent O utlook
There will be some opportuni­
ties for new workers to become
student operators each year
through the 1970’s. The open­
ings that occur will result pri­
marily from the need to replace
experienced workers who retire
or die.
Employment of Class I linehaul railroads in the telegrapher,
telephone, and towerman group




STATION AGENTS
(D.O.T. 211.468 and 910.138)

N atu re of th e W ork
Station agents are the rail­
roads’ official representatives in
dealing with the public at rail­
road stations. Most agents work

at small stations where they sell
tickets, check baggage, calculate
freight and express charges, load
and unload freight and express
packages, and perform many
other tasks. They also may serve
as telegraphers and telephoners,
receiving and delivering train
orders and other messages per­
taining to the company’s busi­
ness. At stations where super­
visory agents are employed, some
of this work may be done by rail­
way clerks, telegraphers, and
other employees working under
the stations agent’s supervision.
In major freight and passenger
stations employing many rail­
road employees, the duties of the
station agent are primarily ad­
ministrative and supervisory.
About 10,900 station agents
were employed by Class I linehaul railroads in 1968. About
9,200 worked in small stations
(7,100 of them acting as teleg­
raphers and telephoners in addi­
tion to their other duties), and
1,600 had supervisory positions
at major stations. The short-line
railways employed several hun­
dred other agents, chiefly at
small stations.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Experienced telegraphers usu­
ally become agents in small sta­
tions or assistant agents in larger
ones. In addition to the neces­
sary seniority, an agent should
have a knowledge of train sched­
ules and routes, rates, bookkeep­
ing methods, and other railroad
business transacted at wayside
stations.
Station agents may advance
from small to larger stations or
from assistant agents to agents.
They may be promoted to super­
visory positions such as stationmaster or inspector.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

756
E m ploym ent O utlook

CLERKS

A limited number of opportuni­
ties for assignment to station ag­
ent jobs will arise each year
through the 1970’s, principally
because of the need to replace
agents who retire or die. For sev­
eral years the number of station
agents employed by Class I linehaul railroads has been declining.
Between 1955 and 1968, employ­
ment dropped from about 19,600
to 10,900, principally because
some local passenger and freight
services were consolidated or dis­
continued. It is expected that the
railroads will consolidate or dis­
continue some additional pas­
senger and freight services over
the next decade, resulting in the
employment of fewer station ag­
ents. However, if rapid transit
rail systems are developed on a
large scale, this trend may be
slowed.

(D.O.T. 219.388 and .488; 222.368
through .687; 229.368; 231.682 ; 249.368; 910.368; 910.688; 913.168; and
919.138)

Earnings and W orking Conditions

N atu re of the W ork
Railroad clerks handle the
huge volume of paper work neces­
sary to account for each piece of
rolling stock, and to transact
business with freight shippers
and the traveling public. They
work in railroad stations, freight
houses, yards, terminals, and
company offices. Clerks make up
the largest single group of rail­
road employees— Class I linehaul railroads employed about
93,000 of these workers in 1968
and short-line railways, thou­
sands more.
The majority of railroad clerks
— 56,000 on Class I line-haul
railroads in 1968— do clerical

work connected with business
transactions such as collecting
bills, investigating complaints,
adjusting claims, tracing ship­
ments, compiling statistics, sell­
ing tickets, and bookkeeping. T o­
day, much of this work is done
by clerks who utilize computers
and other electronic business ma­
chines. In small offices and sta­
tions, one man may perform du­
ties related to several of these
jobs, but in large offices with
many employees, each clerk usu­
ally handles a specific job.
A second group, totaling 16,000 in 1968, consists of secre­
taries, stenographers, typists, and
operators of calculating, book­
keeping, and other kinds of office
machines. They perform duties
similar to those of workers in
the same kinds of jobs in other
industries. (Information about
the nature of the duties of em­
ployees in these clerical jobs may
be found elsewhere in the

Handbook.)

The earnings of station agents
vary. In 1968, agents who also
served as telegraphers and tele­
p h on es on Class I line-haul roads
averaged $3.26 an hour; other
agents at small stations who did
not act as telegraphers averaged
$3.48 an hour. Agents at major
stations earned a straight-time
average of $4.27 an hour.
Agents are paid either by the
hour or by the month; those in
nonsupervisory positions had a
basic 40-hour workweek, and
time and one-half was paid for
overtime work. Most agents who
handled the business of the Rail­
way Express Agency received, in
addition to their regular pay, a
commission on the business
transacted.
Station agents, except for some
supervisory agents, are members
of the Brotherhood of Railway
and Steamship Clerks.




System operations centers revolutionize control of railroad activity.

RAILROAD OCCUPATIONS

About 9,000 other railroad
clerks were in higher grade “ sen­
ior” jobs involving more respon­
sible or technical work. Some of
the clerks in this group prepare
the statistics on employment,
traffic, and other matters relat­
ing to railroad operations, re­
quired periodically by the Fed­
eral Government. Others, called
“ cashiers,” deal with customers
on matters such as uncollected
freight bills. Still others do ac­
counting work related to their
companies’ use of terminals and
other facilities owned jointly by
several roads.
A fourth group are the super­
visory and chief clerks, who num­
bered about 11,500. They not only
supervise the work of other rail­
road clerks and assume respon­
sibility for the clerical activities
of entire departments, but they
may be called on to discuss high­
ly complex problems related to
the business end of railroad
operations.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Beginning railroad clerk posi­
tions often are filled by hiring
newcomers or by promoting
workers such as office boys or
messengers. A high school edu­
cation usually is required, and
clerical aptitude tests sometimes
are given. Railroads prefer work­
ers who have had training or
some experience in working with
figures. In some clerical positions
— yard clerk for instance— begin­
ning workers on some roads are
assigned to extra board work,
where they work on temporary
assignments until regular assign­
ments become available.
In many offices, a railroad
clerk may advance to assistant
chief clerk or to a higher admin­
istrative position. Some clerks
may move from routine jobs to




757
work requiring special knowledge
of subjects such as accounting or
statistics, and this work may lead
eventually to positions as audi­
tors or statisticians. Railroad
clerks also may be promoted to
traffic agents, buyers, storekeep­
ers, or ticket and station agents.

Airlines, and Steamship Clerks,
Freight Handlers, Express and
Station Employees represents the
railroad clerks on all major roads.

SHOP TRADES
Em ploym ent O utlook
Several thousand job oppor­
tunities for new railroad clerks
will be available each year
through the 1970’s to replace
workers who retire, die, or trans­
fer to other fields of work.
Employment in this occupa­
tional group has been declining.
In 1955, Class I line-haul rail­
roads employed about 146,000
railroad clerks; by 1968, their
number was 93,000. A continued
decrease in the employment of
these workers is expected during
the 1970’s, as electronic business
machines do more of the work
formerly done by railroad clerks
in processing freight bills and
r e c o r d i n g information about
freight car movements and
freight yard operations.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Employees of Class I line-haul
railroads who had clerical jobs
involving work such as billing op­
erations, filing, and inventory
control, received average straighttime pay of $3.25 an hour in
1968. Secretaries, stenographers,
typists, and office machine oper­
ators averaged $3.29 an hour;
senior clerks and specialists av­
eraged $3.75 an hour; and super­
visory and chief clerks, $4.00 an
hour. Railroad clerks in nonsupervisory positions work a basic
8-hour day and 40-hour week,
with time and one-half paid for
overtime.
The Brotherhood of Railway,

N atu re of th e W ork
The skilled workers employed
by the railroads to build, main­
tain, and repair rolling stock and
other equipment may be classi­
fied in six main “ shop crafts” :
Carmen (D.O.T. 622.381), ma­

chinists, electrical workers, sheetmetal workers, boilermakers, and
blacksmiths. They work in rail­
way shops, enginehouses, yards,
and terminals.
In 1968, about 86,000 journey­
men mechanics in these six crafts
were employed by Class I linehaul railways. Working with
them were 6,500 gang foremen
and leaders, 8,700 helpers, and
3,600 apprentices. Several thou­
sand more workers in the same
occupations were employed by
short-line railways.
Carmen, who numbered about
47,700 on Class I line-haul rail­
roads in 1968, are by far the larg­
est group of shop craftsmen.
They do many different kinds of
work, since they build, maintain,
and repair railroad freight and
passenger cars. They also work
on locomotives and small ve­
hicles such as the motor-driven
cars used in transporting work­
ers along the tracks. Some car­
men are skilled in carpentry and
can use power equipment as well
as handtools. A few are skilled
only in specialties such as up­
holstering, car painting, and pattemmaking. Many carmen work
as car inspectors in the railroad
yards and stations, examining

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

758

craftsmen employed in the shops
include blacksmiths, molders, sta­
tionary firemen, oilers, and sta­
tionary engineers (steam). (More
information about the nature of
the work of most of the above
shop trades may be found else­
where in the Handbook.)

T rain in g , O th er Q ualificatio ns,
and A dvancem ent

Apprenticeship training is a
common way of entering the shop
trades, although many workers
are upgraded from the ranks of
helpers and laborers, and others
enter the industry as shop crafts­
men.

Shopworker checks for flaws in locomotive axles.

cars for defects that might lead
to accidents or delays.
Machinists are the second larg­
est group of skilled shop work­
ers. About 18,000 were employed
in 1968, maintaining and over­
hauling locomotives and machin­
ery used by the railroads. Elec­
trical workers, who numbered
about 12,000 in 1968, install and
maintain wiring and electrical
equipment in locomotives, pas­
senger cars, and cabooses, as well
as in buildings owned by the rail­
roads. (Another group of elec­




trical workers— nearly 2,100 in
1968— employed mainly away
from the shop, lay power and
communications lines for equip­
ment used by the railroads.)
Sheet-metal workers, numbering
about 5,600 in 1968, install and
maintain light sheet-metal parts
and do pipefitting on locomotives
and other equipment. Boilermak­
ers, of whom there were about
1,600 in 1968, maintain and re­
pair stationary boilers, tanks,
and other parts made of sheet
iron or heavy sheet steel. Other

Apprentices are trained in all
branches of t h e i r respective
trades, according to standards
which in many cases are included
in agreements negotiated by the
shopmen’s trade unions and the
railroad companies. Upon com­
pletion of their training, they are
certified as qualified journeymen.
Beginners, who have no previous
experience in their chosen trades,
take this training as regular ap­
prentices, generally for a 4-year
period. Men who have at least 2
years of previous work experience
train as helper apprentices for a
3-year period.
To become a regular appren­
tice, the applicant must be at
least 16 and not over 21 years
of age. The railroads prefer that
helpers entering the 3-year ap­
prentice training be no older than
35. On some roads, applicants for
regular apprentice training are
required to pass mathematical
and mechanical aptitude tests.
Workers in the shop trades
may advance to supervisory po­
sitions as foremen in shops, enginehouses and powerplants.

RAILROAD OCCUPATIONS

Em ploym ent O utlook
There will be several hundred
opportunities for new workers to
obtain jobs either as helpers or
as apprentices in the shop crafts
each year during the next decade.
In 1968, apprenticeship programs
operated by Class I line-haul
railroads were training about 3,600 new workers, 3,400 of them
as regular apprentices.
Openings in the skilled shop
crafts will result primarily from
the need to replace experienced
craftsmen who retire, die, or
transfer to other fields of work.
The number of journeymen me­
chanics employed in these crafts
declined from about 143,400 in
1955 to 86,000 in 1968, and some
further decline appears likely
through the 1970’s despite the
fact that more rolling stock will
be needed to handle the antici­
pated increase in freight traffic.
Among the factors which are
making it possible for the rail­
roads to handle a given amount
of work in shops with a smaller
work force than formerly are the
use of assembly line techniques
in repair work, greater specializa­
tion of labor, and the use of bet­
ter designed and constructed
rolling stock. Also fewer equip­
ment maintenance employees are
needed because of the practice on
some railroads of sending diesel
locomotives requiring major ov­
erhaul back to the manufacturer
for rebuilding or in exchange for
more highly powered new or re­
built units.
Employment trends for indi­
vidual shops crafts have not been
affected equally by changes in
equipment and operating meth­
ods, nor are they likely to be in
the future. During the 1955-67
period, the number of electrical
workers declined about 30 per­
cent; carmen, about 35 percent;
machinists, 40 percent; and boil­
ermakers, more than 60 percent.




759
Some increase in employment
of electrical workers may occur
through the 1970’s because of the
installation of more complex elec­
trical and electronic equipment
in locomotives, railroad cars, and
communication systems. The de­
clines in employment of carmen,
machinists, and boilermakers are
expected to continue through the
1970’s, although at less pro­
nounced rates.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Straight-time average hourly
earnings of journeymen em­
ployed by Class I line-haul rail­
roads in the shop trades in 1968
were: Carmen, $3.41; machinists,
$3.48; electrical workers, $3.50;
sheet-metal workers, $3.48; boil­
ermakers, $3.47; and black­
smiths, $3.43. Straight-time earn­
ings of helpers in all shop crafts
averaged $2.97 an hour. Regular
apprentices, who spend part of
their time in classroom instruc­
tion and the rest on the job, av­
eraged $2.72 an hour; and helperapprentices, who also worked on
the same basis, averaged $3.11
an hour. Gang foremen and gang
leaders averaged $3.99 an hour.
Most shop workers have a basic
40-hour workweek of five 8-hour
days and are paid time and onehalf for overtime.
Major repairs on locomotives
and cars are made generally in­
doors in the enginehouse or car
repair shop. Minor adjustments,
inspection, and emergency re­
pairs may be performed out-ofdoors.
Most shop workers are mem­
bers of unions. Among the unions
in this field are: Brotherhood
Railway Carmen of America; In­
ternational Association of Ma­
chinists and Aerospace Workers;
International Brotherhood of
Electrical Workers; Sheet Metal
Workers’ International Associa­

tion; International Brotherhood
of Boilermakers, Iron Shipbuild­
ers, Blacksmiths, Forgers and
Helpers; and the International
Brotherhood of Firemen and Oil­
ers. In collective bargaining,
these unions usually negotiate
their labor contracts through the
Railroad Employes’ Department
of the AFL-CIO.

SIGNAL DEPARTMENT
WORKERS
(D.O.T. 822.281 and .884)

N atu re of the W ork
Workers in railroad signal de­
partments c o n s t r u c t , install,
maintain, and repair the signal­
ing systems which control the
movement of trains and assure
the safety of railroad travel.
One group of skilled workers,
known as signal maintainers,
keep wires, lights, switches, and
other controlling devices in good
operating condition. The work
requires a thorough practical
knowledge of electricity and con­
siderable mechanical skill. Work
on the newer signaling systems
also requires a knowledge of elec­
tronics.
A second skilled group, known
as signalmen, generally has the
same skills and knowledge re­
quired of maintainers but con­
struct and install new signals and
signal systems. Signalmen work
as members of crews which also
include semiskilled workers. The
crews travel from one part of the
road to another, wherever con­
struction work is underway. In
constructing a signal system,
crews often build forms for con­
crete, mix and pour cement, weld
metal, and do many other types
of work in addition to electrical
work.

760

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

New employees start as helpers
doing work under the direction of
experienced men, or as assistants
if they have had previous experi­
ence in signal work. Helpers,
after about 1 year of training on
the job, usually advance to assist­
ant. Openings for signalmen and
signal maintainers are filled by
promoting qualified assistants ac­
cording to seniority rules. At
least 4 years usually are required
for an assistant to advance to sig­
nalman or signal maintainer.
Both signalmen and signal
maintainers may be promoted to
more responsible positions such
as inspectors or testmen, gang
foremen, leading signalmen, or
leading signal maintainers. A few
may advance to assistant super­
visors or signal engineers.
Em ploym ent O utlook

Signal maintainers check signal strength
of repeater station.

In 1968, Class I line-haul rail­
roads employed about 12,100
men in this kind of work; in­
cluded were about 8,100 signal­
men and signal maintainers,
about 1,200 semiskilled assist­
ants, and 700 helpers. Several
hundred workers in these groups
also were employed by the short­
line railways and by switching
and terminal companies.
T rain in g , O th er Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Railroads prefer that appli­
cants for entry jobs in the signal
department be between 18 and
35 years of age and have a high
school education or its equiva­
lent. Knowledge of electricity
and mechanical skill are assets to
young men seeking these jobs.




There will be some opportuni­
ties for new workers to obtain
entry jobs as helpers or assist­
ants during the 1970’s. Most of
these opportunities will result
from the need to replace workers
who retire, die, or transfer to
other fields of work. Job open­
ings for new workers will be lim­
ited because men furloughed in
recent years will be recalled be­
fore new men are hired.
Employment of helpers and as­
sistants declined from about
4,600 in 1955 to 1,900 in 1968,
and the number of skilled signal­
men and signal maintainers de­
clined from about 8,800 to 6,600.
These occupations are expected
to decline slowly in the 1970’s, as
improved signaling and communi­
cations systems require less main­
tenance and repair.

were $3.34. Assistant signalmen
and signal maintainers averaged
$2.94 and helpers, $2.86 an hour.
Signal workers have a basic 8hour day and 5-day week, and
are paid time and one-half for
work beyond 8 hours a day.
Signal maintainers have fairly
steady work because the amount
of work required for maintaining
railroad signal systems does not
change greatly with variations in
traffic or with the seasons. Sig­
nalmen and other crew members,
particularly on some northern
roads, may have less work during
especially bad weather. In both
of these occupations, the work
is mostly out of doors, and main­
tainers must make repairs re­
gardless of the time of day or
the weather conditions. Both
maintainers and signalmen, when
working on signaling devices,
often must climb poles and work
near high-tension electric wires
and unguarded railroad tracks.
Signalmen and other crew
members who work on construc­
tion and installation frequently
work away from their homes; on
these occasions, many railroads
provide camp cars for living
quarters while the men pay for
their own food. Signal maintaines generally are able to live at
home, since they maintain signals
only over a limited stretch of
track.
Most signal workers are mem­
bers of the Brotherhood of Rail­
road Signalmen.

TRACK WORKERS
(D.O.T. 182.168; 859.883; 869.887;
910.782; and 919.887)

Earnings and W orking Conditions
The a v e r a g e straight-time
hourly earnings of signalmen and
signal maintainers employed by
Class I line-haul railroads in 1968

N a tu re of th e W ork
Trackmen and portable equip­
ment operators construct, main-

761

RAILROAD OCCUPATIONS

tain, and repair railroad tracks
and roadways. Many of them
work in section crews which pa­
trol and maintain a limited sec­
tion of the railroad’s right-ofway. Some roads combine the
section crews and highly mech­
anized crews to cover longer
stretches of the right-of-way. Still
other track workers are employed
in “ extra” crews. These men per­
form seasonal maintenance and
repair work, such as replacing
rails.
Either a member of the section
crew or track workers operating
track motorcars make regular in­
spections of the right-of-way,
looking for cracked rails, weak
ties, washed out ballast, and other
track and roadway defects.
Trackmen and portable equip­
ment operators working in the
crews then make the necessary
repairs. Roadway maintenance
machines, such as multiple tie
tampers, power wrenches, and
ballast cleaners, have been dis­
placing gradually the use of
handtools such as picks, shovels,
and spike hammers. More and
more railroads are using road­
way machines, which require
skilled operators to do heavy
maintenance-of-way work once
done by trackmen using hand or
pneumatically powered tools.
In 1968, an average of 57,000
track workers were employed by
Class I line-haul railroads. They
included 37,000 trackmen work­
ing in crews, 9,400 portable
equipment operators and helpers,
and 10,700 gang foremen. Addi­
tional thousands of these workers
were employed by the shortline
railroads. The size of this main­
tenance-of-way work force varies
considerably during the year be­
cause many construction and re­
pair jobs are done in the sum­
mer months when the weather is
best.




Track worker drives spikes with mechanized spike driver.

T rain in g , O th er Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent

necessary seniority and qualifica­
tions may advance to gang or as­
sistant foreman. A qualified fore­
man may advance to a super­
visory maintenance-of-way posi­
tion such as track supervisor.

Most track workers are trained
on the job. To acquire the skills
necessary to become an all­
round trackman requires up to 2
years. Machine operating jobs in
track maintenance work are as­
Em ploym ent O utlook
signed to qualified trackmen on
the basis of seniority.
Several thousand new workers
Most roads prefer workers be­ will be hired each year in track
tween the ages of 21 and 45 for maintenance occupations during
their track work forces. Men the 1970’s, mostly for the sea­
seeking work as trackmen must sonal rush during the summer
be able to read and write and do months, particularly in northern
heavy work. Applicants often are sections of the country. Com­
required to take physical exam­ paratively few openings will offer
inations. A high school education "steady year-round employment.
is desirable for workers who are
For some years, the use of
seeking to advance to portable mechanized equipment and new
equipment operators and gang kinds of materials in roadway
foremen.
construction has been reducing
Trackmen and portable equip­ substantially the number of men
ment operators who have the employed by the railroads in

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

762
maintenance-of-way work. At the
same time, however, the use of
mechanized equipment has cre­
ated a limited number of main­
tenance-of-way jobs involving the
operation of roadway machines.
Between 1955 and 1968, as the
number of trackmen and fore­
men in section and other kinds
of crews dropped from about
136,000 to 47,700, the number of
portable equipment workers rose
from 7,400 to about 9,400. These
trends are expected to continue
in the years ahead.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Track workers are among the
lowest paid groups in the railroad
industry. Men employed in sec­
tion and other kinds of crews on
Class I line-haul railroads ha^
straight-time average earnings of
$2,76 an hour in 1968. Portable
equipment operators and helpers
averaged $3.18, and crew fore­
men averaged $3.28 an hour in
1968. A basic 5-day, 40-hour week
was in force for most classes of
track workers. Time worked over
8 hours a day was paid for at
time and one-half rates.
Since most section men inspect
and maintain only a few miles of
track, they usually live at home.
However, the section crew is
giving way rapidly to the mech­
anized “ floating” crew. Track­
men and portable equipment op­
erators who work in “ floating”
crews usually travel from place
to place and generally live in
camp cars or trailers provided by
the railroads. They pay for their
own food.
Most
maintenance-of-w a y
workers are members of the
Brotherhood of Maintenance of
Way Employes.




BRIDGE AND BUILDING
WORKERS

N a tu re of th e W ork

These workers construct, main­
tain, and repair tunnels, bridges,
stations, railway shops, and a
variety of other structures owned
by the railroads. In 1968, Class
I line-haul railroads employed
about 8,800 skilled craftsmen,
2,400 helpers, and 2,300 foremen
in this kind of work. Among the
skilled craftsmen were about 5,000 carpenters working as all­
round mechanics in a variety of
construction trades in addition
to carpentry; about 2,800 ma­
sons, bricklayers, plasterers, and
plumbers; and about 600 painters
and 400 ironworkers. The short­
line railways employed several
hundred more workers in the
same occupations. (Information
about the nature of the work
done by these craftsmen can be
found elsewhere in the Hand­

book.)

T rain in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
New employees usually receive
their training as helpers. As op­
enings occur in skilled mechan­
ics’ jobs, they are filled by
helpers who have qualified for
promotion and have the neces­
sary seniority.
Skilled workers who have the
necessary experience m a y ad­
vance to positions as foremen, in­
spectors, or bridge and building
supervisors.

Em ploym ent O utlook
A small number of job open­
ings in the bridge and building

work force will arise each year
during the 1970’s. Retirements,
deaths, and transfers to other
fields of work will provide some
job opportunities for new work­
ers. Most of the jobs available
will be as beginners or helpers,
where turnover rates are relative­
ly high.
Employment by Class I linehaul railroads of skilled crafts­
men, helpers, and foremen on
bridge and building work de­
creased from about 27,300 in
1955 to 13,400 in 1968. This
trend is expected to continue be­
cause of the increased use of
power tools and other laborsav­
ing equipment, and of new mate­
rials which require less mainte­
nance and repair.

Earnings and W orking Conditions

The a v e r a g e straight-time
hourly earnings of carpenters em­
ployed by Class I line-haul rail­
roads in bridge and building
work in 1968 were $3.15. Masons,
bricklayers, p l a s t e r e r s , and
plumbers averaged $3.34; iron­
workers, $3.40; painters $3.19;
helpers, $2.93; and foremen,
$3.53 an hour in 1968. Bridge
and building workers work a 5day, 40-hour week and are paid
time and one-half for work be­
yond 8 hours a day; they may
receive double time for work over
16 continuous hours.
Bridge and building men usual­
ly are away from home during
their workweek. On these occa­
sions, they usually live in camp
cars supplied by the railroads.
While living in camp cars, they
pay for their own food.
The Brotherhood of Mainte­
nance of Way Employes repre­
sents the bridge and building
workers on most roads.

T E L E P H O N E IN D U S T R Y
O C C U P A T IO N S

As our population and econ­
omy grow, and as technology ad­
vances, the need for more com­
munication increases. More than
400 million telephone calls are
made daily in the United States,
both locally and for long dis­
tances to different parts of the
country and overseas. Approxi­
mately 815,000 employees were
required to provide this service
in 1968.
The telephone industry offers
men and women many employ­
ment opportunities for steady,
year-round work in many differ­
ent jobs. Some of the jobs, such
as telephone operator and file
clerk, can be learned in a few
weeks; other jobs, such as in­
staller and repairman, require
many months to learn.
More than half of all telephone
workers are women. A large ma­
jority of them are employed as
telephone operators or clerical
workers. Men usually are em­
ployed in installing, repairing,
and maintaining telephone equip­
ment.
N ature and Location of the
industry
Providing telephone service for
the many millions of residential,
commercial, and industrial cus­
tomers is the main work of the
Nation’s telephone companies.
More than 100 million telephones
were in use in the United States
in 1968.
Telephone jobs are found in al­
most every community in the
United States. Most telephone
workers, however, are employed
in large cities where concentra­
tions and industrial and business
establishments are located. Near­
ly three-fifths of them work in the




10 States which have the largest
number of telephones; New York,
California, Pennsylvania, Illinois,
Ohio, Texas, Michigan, New Jer­
sey, Massachusetts, and Florida.
The nerve center of the local tele­
phone system is the central of­
fice, containing the switching
equipment through which a tele­
phone may be connected with
any other telephone. Every tele­
phone call made, whether by dial­
ing direct or signaling the oper­
ator, travels from the caller
through wires and cables to the
cable vault in the central office.
Thousands of pairs of wires fan
out from the cable vault to a
distributing frame where each set
of wires is attached to switching
equipment. T o join the caller’s
telephone to the telephone he is
calling, connections are made
automatically by electro-mechan­
ical switching equipment and to
a lesser but growing extent by
electronic switching equipment.
Manual connections also may be
made by the operator in the few
remaining manually operated
switchboards or in unusual situ­
ations.
Long-distance calls are dialed
by the customer or an operator
and connected with the telephone
called through switching equip­
ment. During 1968, about 85 per­
cent of all telephone users could
dial long-distance calls directly.
Information needed to bill the
customer may be recorded auto­
matically or, on operator handled
calls, is entered on a ticket by
the operator.
Some customers make and re­
ceive more calls than can be han­
dled on a single telephone line.
For these calls, a system some­
what similar to a miniature cen­
tral office may be installed on the
subscriber’s premises. This sys­

tem is the private branch ex­
change (P B X ), usually found in
places such as apartment and of­
fice buildings, hotels, department
stores, and other business firms.
A new type of service is called
CEN TREX, in which incoming
calls can be dialed direct to any
extension without an operator’s
assistance, and outgoing and in­
tercom calls can be dialed direct
by the extension users. The
equipment for this service can
be located either on telephone
company premises or on the cus­
tomer’s premises.
Other communications services
provided by telephone companies
include conference equipment in­
stalled at a PBX to permit con­
versations among several tele­
phone users simultaneously; mo­
bile radiotelephones in automo­
biles, boats, airplanes, and trains;
and telephones equipped to an­
swer calls automatically and to
give and take messages by record­
ings.
Telephone
companies
also
build and maintain the vast net­
work of cables and radio-relay
systems for communication serv­
ices, including those joining the
thousands of broadcasting sta­
tions all over the Nation. These
services are leased to networks
and their affiliated stations. Tele­
phone companies also operate
teletype and private-wire services
which they lease to business and
government offices.
The domestic telephone net­
work is made up of two ownership
groups— the Bell System and the
independent telephone compa­
nies. Bell, through its associated
companies, serves about 5 out of
6 of the Nation’s telephones. The
independents serve the remain­
der. There are approximately
2,000
independent
telephone
companies in the United States.
Telephone Occupations
The telephone industry re­
quires workers in many different
763

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

764

Telephon e Industry Em ploys M ore
Craftsmen Th an O p e ra to rs ^
PERCENT OF TOTAL WORKERS U

TELEPHONE
CRAFTSMEN
TELEPHONE
OPERATORS
CLERICAL
WORKERS
ADMINISTRATIVE &
SALES PERSONNEL
SCIENTIFIC & TECH­
NICAL PERSONNEL
MAINTENANCE & BUILD
ING SERVICE WORKERS
SO URCE: BASED ON DATA FROM T H E FEDERAL C O M M U N IC A T IO N S CO M M ISS IO N

occupations. Chart 35 shows the
percentage distribution of tele­
phone employment by occupa­
tional group.
Nearly 3 out of 10 workers in
the industry are telephone crafts­
men and foremen, and about the
same proportion are telephone
operators. Telephone craftsmen
install, repair, and maintain tele­
phones, cables, switching equip­
ment, and message accounting
systems. These workers can be
grouped by the type of work they
perform: (1) Line construction
men place, splice, and maintain
telephone wires and cables; (2)
installers and repairmen place,
maintain, and repair telephones
and private branch exchanges
(P B X ) in homes and offices and
other places of business; and (3)
central office craftsmen test,
maintain, and repair equipment
in central offices. The duties of
the operators include making
telephone connections; assisting
customers on specialized types of
calls, for example reverse-charge
calls; and giving telephone in­
formation. Telephone craftsmen
are discussed in detail later in
this chapter. A detailed discus­
sion of telephone operators and




operators of private branch ex­
changes (P B X operators) is pre­
sented in a separate statement
elsewhere in the Handbook.
When central office equipment
is purchased by a telephone com­
pany, it usually is installed by
employees of the equipment man­
ufacturers. A few central office
equipment installers work for
telephone companies or private
firms specializing in installation
work. Although most of these
skilled workers are not employed
in telephone operating compa­
nies, they are discussed in this
chapter because their work is so
closely connected with the Na­
tion’s telephone system.
Many other occupations in the
telephone industry, such as cleri­
cal, administrative, scientific, and
custodial jobs, are found in other
industries as well. They are de­
scribed in detail elsewhere in the
Handbook in the sections cover­
ing individual occupations.
More than one-fifth (22 per­
cent) of all telephone industry
employers are clerical workers,
such as stenographers, typists,
bookkeepers, office machine and
computer operators, keypunch
operators, cashiers, receptionists,

file clerks, accounting and audit­
ing clerks, and payroll clerks.
Among their other duties, these
clerical workers, most of whom
are women, keep records of serv­
ices, make up and send bills to
customers, and prepare statistical
and other reports. A small but
growing amount of this record­
keeping and statistical work is
being done by electronic dataprocessing equipment.
About 14 percent of telephone
company employees are business
office and sales representatives
who handle orders for new tele­
phone services, and administra­
tive and professional workers
such as accountants, attorneys,
personnel specialists, purchasing
agents, public relations employ­
ees, training specialists, and stat­
isticians.
Approximately 4 percent of
the industry’s employees are sci­
entific and technical personnel;
for example, engineers and their
assistants, and draftsmen. Most
of these workers plan and design
the construction of new buildings
and the expansion of existing
ones, and solve engineering prob­
lems that arise in the day-to-day
operations of the telephone sys­
tem. Some engineers are em­
ployed in sales development
work. Many top supervisory and
administrative jobs are held by
men having engineering back­
grounds. Basic research in com­
munications systems and the de­
velopment of new and improved
telephone equipment are not done
by employees of telephone oper­
ating companies, but mainly by
those employed in affiliated lab­
oratories specializing in such
work.
About 3 percent of the tele­
phone industry’s workers main­
tain buildings, offices, and ware­
houses; operate and service motor
vehicles; and do many other
maintenance and service jobs in
offices and plants. Skilled main-

TELEPHONE INDUSTRY OCCUPATIONS

tenance craftsmen include sta­
tionary engineers, carpenters,
painters, electricians, and plum­
bers. Other workers employed by
the telephone industry are jani­
tors, porters, watchmen, elevator
operators, and guards.

Em ploym ent O utlook

Part of the expansion in tele­
phone service will result from ex­
pected increases in the number of
households, and the number of
business and industrial establish­
ments. The remaining one-tenth
of households in the United
States without telephones will be
another factor in the demand for
telephone service, especially as
family incomes rise.

Tens of thousands of new
workers will be required by tele­
phone operating companies each
year throughout the 1970’s, main­
ly to replace the large numbers
of women telephone operators
and clerical workers who leave
the industry to marry, rear a
family, or for other reasons. Some
of these new workers, however,
will be needed for craft jobs to
replace skilled workers who die,
retire, or shift to other work. Job
turnover also will create openings
for administrative, sales, profes­
sional, technical, and scientific
personnel.
Despite an anticipated strong
growth in the amount and types
of telephone service, total em­
ployment in the telephone indus­
try is expected to grow only mod­
erately. This is because techno­
logical improvements such as
electronic switching equipment
are permitting more calls to be
made without any assistance from
an operator. However, operators
will continue to be needed to
handle more complex calls. Cleri­
cal workers and many of the
skilled craftsmen also are being
affected by technological changes
expected to restrict the total
number of workers required for
efficient telephone service. Occu­
pational groups in which employ­
ment is expected to grow as the
volume of business increases are
sales,
administrative,
profes­
sional, technical, and scientific
personnel.

Other factors also are expected
to increase the demand for tele­
phone services. For example, the
popularity of extension tele­
phones in private homes and of
telephones of different styles and
colors is increasing. A recent de­
velopment is the push-button in­
strument on which a set of but­
tons replaces the dial. This in­
strument enables the user to
make a call in half the time re­
quired for a dial call and has the
potential to provide many new
services, including the transmis­
sion of data, remote control of
appliances, or remote access to
electronic computers. Also, there
is growing use of specialized
equipment on telephone instru­
ments, such as volume controls
that compensate for impaired
hearing, and loudspeakers that
permit “ hands free” conversa­
tion. For industrial and commer­
cial users, high speed transmis­
sion of large quantities of com­
puter-processed and other data
via telephone, teletypewriter,
telephotograph, or facsimilie are
types of special services which
are becoming important. Because
of high speed data transmission,
for example, it is possible to pub­
lish the same newspaper almost
simultaneously in two widely
separated cities. T o meet the in­
creasing demand for overseas
communications,
transoceanic
service will continue to expand
as more undersea cables are laid
and communications satellites
come into wider commercial use.




765
Earnings and W orking C onditions
Since wage rates in the tele­
phone industry are geared to
those for comparable work in the
locality, earnings of telephone
workers depend not only on the
type of job and the worker’s
previous training and experience,
but also on location and charac­
ter of the community. Because
of differences in rates among re­
gions and communities, consider­
able variation exists in the rates
paid for any given telephone oc­
cupation. In general, telephone
wage rates are highest in the
Pacific and Middle Atlantic
States and lowest in the South­
east.
For the Nation as a whole, av­
erage basic hourly wage rates in
December 1967 for all telephone
employees, except officials and
managerial assistants, were $3.25.
Rates for these workers ranged
from an average of $1.94 an hour
for telephone operator trainees
and $2.29 for experienced tele­
phone operators, to $5.71 for pro­
fessional and semiprofessional
workers. Clerical workers in nonsupervisory positions averaged
$2.51 an hour. Construction, in­
stallation, and maintenance em­
ployees averaged $3.05 an hour.
A telephone employee usually
starts at the minimum wage for
his particular job. Advancement
from the starting rate to the
maximum rate generally takes
from 5 to 6 years and involves
from 10 to 14 pay grades.
More than two-thirds of the
workers in the industry, mainly
telephone operators and crafts­
men, are members of labor un­
ions. The Communications Work­
ers of America represents the
largest number of workers in the
industry, but many other em­
ployees are members of the 16
independent unions which form
the Alliance of Independent Tele­
phone Unions. Others are mem-

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

766
bers of the International Broth­
erhood of Electrical Workers.
Wage rates, wage increases,
and the amount of time required
to advance from one step to the
next are governed for most tele­
phone workers by union-manage­
ment contracts. The contracts
also call for extra pay for work
beyond the normal tour of 6 to 8
hours a day or 5 days a week, and
for all Sunday and holiday work.
Most contracts provide a pay dif­
ferential for night work.
Travel time between jobs is
counted as worktime for crafts­
men under some contracts. Over­
time work sometimes is required
in the telephone industry, espe­
cially during emergencies, such as
floods, hurricanes, or bad storms.
During an “ emergency call-out,”
which is a short-notice request
to report to work during nonscheduled hours, workers are
guaranteed a minimum period of
pay at the basic hourly rate.
In addition to these provisions
which affect the pay envelope di­
rectly, other benefits are pro­
vided. Periods of annual vacations
with pay are granted to workers
according to their length of serv­
ice. Usually, contracts provide for
a 1-week vacation for 6 months
to 1 year of service; 2 weeks for
1 to 10 years; 3 weeks for 11 to
19 years, 4 weeks for 20 to 24
years; and 5 weeks for 25 years
and over. Holidays range from 8
to 11 days a year, depending on
locality. The majority of tele­
phone workers are covered by paid
sick plans and group insurance
plans which usually provide sick­
ness, accident, and death benefits,
and retirement and disability pen­
sions.
The telephone industry has
achieved one of the best safety
records in American industry.
The number of disabling injuries
has been consistently well below
the average.




W here To Go fo r M ore Inform ation
Additional information about
jobs in the telephone industry
may be obtained from the local
telephone company or from local
unions with telephone workers
among their membership. If no
local union is listed in the tele­
phone directory, information may
be obtained from the following:
Alliance of Independent Tele­
phone Unions, Room 302, 1422
Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa.
19102.
Communications
Workers
of
America, 1925 K St., N.W.,
Washington, D.C. 20006.
International Brotherhood of Elec­
trical Workers, 1200 15th St.,
N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005.

Telephone craftsm e n
Nearly three-tenths of the em­
ployees in the telephone indus­
try are craftsmen engaged in con­
struction, installation, and main­
tenance activities necessary to
operate the vast amount of me­
chanical, electrical, and elect­
ronic equipment vital to the farreaching network of our modem
communications systems. About
1 out of 8 of these workers are
foremen, many of whom have
advanced to supervisory positions
from a craft job.

CENTRAL OFFICE
CRAFTSMEN

dition and locate potential trou­
ble before service is affected.
Telephone companies employed
about 80,000 central office crafts­
men in 1968, including approxi­
mately 18,000 test boardmen and
58,000 central office repairmen,
helpers, and framemen.
Frameman (D.O.T. 822.884) is
usually the beginning job from
which a worker may advance to
a more skilled central office craft
job. Much of the frameman’s job
involves running, connecting, and
disconnecting wires according to
plans prepared by line cosigners,
another small group of workers.

Central office r e p a i r m e n
(D.O.T.

822.281), often called

switchmen, maintain and repair
switching equipment and auto­
matic message accounting systems
in central offices. They check
switches and relays, using special
toools and gages. They also locate
and repair trouble on customers’
lines in central office equipment
as reported by testboardmen.
Testboardmen (D.O.T. 822.281) make periodic checks of cus­
tomers’ lines to prevent break­
downs or interference in tele­
phone service. They work at spe­
cial
switchboards
comprising
electrical testing instruments and
test for, locate, and analyze trou­
ble spots reported on customers’
lines. If repairs are needed and
the breakdown is outside the cen­
tral office, they direct the repair
activities of line and cable crews
or installer repairmen or of cen­
tral office repairmen (if the trou­
ble is inside).

N atu re of th e W ork

T rain in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent

Central office craftsmen test,
maintain, and repair mechanical,
electrical, and electronic switch­
ing equipment and other central
office equipment. They maintain
this equipment in operating con­

The telephone companies usu­
ally hire inexperienced men to
train for skilled jobs in central
offices. Applicants for these jobs
must have at least a high school
or vocational school education. A

767

TELEPHONE INDUSTRY OCCUPATIONS

Central office repairman tests functioning of switching equipment

knowledge of the basic principles
of electricity and electronics gen­
erally is desired. Telephone train­
ing and experience in the armed
services or technical training be­
yond the high school level may
be helpful in obtaining jobs as
telephone company craftsmen;




men with such training may be
brought in above the entry level.
Preemployment aptitude tests
usually are given to prospective
employees.
Most
telephone
companies
have regular programs for train­
ing new employees in central of­

fice craft jobs. A new worker may
be given classroom instruction as
well as on-the-job training. Usu­
ally, he is assigned to the start­
ing job of frameman and works
with experienced framemen un­
der the direction of a supervisor
or foreman. As the frameman
gains skill and experience, he may
advance to central office repair­
man or testboardman, and receive
such additional classroom in­
struction or other training as may
be required for the new job. In­
struction includes courses such as
the principles of electricity and
electronics, as well as special
courses in the maintenance of the
particular type of central office
equipment used by the company.
Central office craftsmen re­
ceive training throughout their
careers with the telephone com­
pany. As new types of equipment
and tools are introduced and new
maintenance methods are devel­
oped, these men may be sent to
school for short periods of in­
struction. Usually, it takes at
least 6 years for workers to reach
the top pay rate for central office
repairmen or testboardmen.
Many workers move into cen­
tral office craft jobs from other
types of telephone work. For ex­
ample, some men start as tele­
phone installers or linemen and
many, with additional training,
transfer to jobs as central office
craftsmen. Promotional opportu­
nities for central office craftsmen
include, in addition to the jobs
of central office foremen, jobs
such as those of engineering as­
sistants and adminstrative staff
workers.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Young men will find many op­
portunities for steady employ­
ment as central office craftsmen
during the 1970’s. The oppor­
tunities will result from the need

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

768
to replace workers who retire,
die, transfer to other telephone
jobs, or leave the telephone in­
dustry. Retirements and deaths
alone may result in several thou­
sand job openings each year.
The total number of central of­
fice craftsmen is expected to in­
crease moderately during the
1970’s, mainly as a result of the
increasing demand for telephone
service and data communication
systems. However, recent tech­
nological developments, such as
electronic switching and various
automatic testing devices, will
tend to restrict employment
growth.

neering assistant jobs can earn a
maximum of $211.50 a week after
6 years.
Since the telephone industry
gives continuous service to its
customers, central offices operate
24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
Some central office craftsmen,
therefore, have work schedules
for which they receive extra pay.
Central office craftsmen are cov­
ered by the same provisions gov­
erning overtime pay, vacations,
holidays, and other benefits that
apply to telephone workers gen­
erally. (See discussion earlier in
this chapter.) Employees in cen­
tral offices work in clean and
well-lighted surroundings.

ployees of private contractors
who specialize in large-scale tele­
phone installation jobs.
Central office equipment in­
stallers generally are assigned to
specific areas which may include
several States; they must travel
to central offices of local tele­
phone companies within these
areas. On a small job, such as
installing a switchboard in a cen­
tral office in a small community,
an installer may be teamed with
only one or two other installers.
On a large job, such as installing
a long-distance toll center in a
big city, he may work with hun­
dreds of other installers.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Central office craftsmen are
among the highest paid skilled
workers in the telephone indus­
try. In December 1967, average
basic hourly rates of pay in large
telephone companies in the
United States were $3.62 for testboardmen and $3.42 for central
office repairmen; average basic
hourly rates ranged from $3.51 to
$4.07 for testboardmen and from
$3.25 to $3.60 for central office
repairmen, depending on locality
and length of service.
Earnings increase considerably
with length of service in central
office jobs. According to a 1968
union-management contract in
one of the higher pay scale cities,
craft employees start at $90.00
for a 40-hour week. Framemen
can work up to a maximum of
$154.50 after 4 years and 11
months. If a vacancy occurs and
the worker is qualified, a frameman can move into the job of
central office repairman or testboardman with a higher pay
schedule. Central office repair­
men and testboardmen can earn
a maximum of $172.50 a week
after 6 years of periodic increases.
Craftsmen who qualify for engi­




CENTRAL OFFICE
EQUIPMENT INSTALLERS

N atu re of the W ork

Central office equipment in­
stallers set up complex switching
and dialing equipment in central
offices of local telephone com­
panies. They assemble, wire, ad­
just, and test this equipment
making sure that it conforms to
the manufacturer’s standards for
efficient and dependable service.
These jobs may involve installing
a new central office, adding
equipment in an expanding local
office, or modifying or replacing
outmoded equipment.
About 22,000 installers were
employed in 1968. Unlike the
other craftsmen discussed in this
chapter, most installers work for
manufacturers of central office
equipment rather than for the
telephone companies. A few in­
stallers work directly for tele­
phone operating companies, in­
cluding about 1600 in the New
England area, and some are em­

T rain in g , O ther Q ualificatio ns,
and A dvancem ent
Young men who wish to be­
come installers must have a high
school or vocational school edu­
cation. Men with some college
education, especially those with
engineering training, often are
hired for these jobs. Preemploy­
ment tests generally are given
to determine the applicant’s me­
chanical aptitudes, and a physical
examination is required.
New employees receive on-thejob training and classroom in­
struction. They attend classes for
the first few weeks to learn basic
installation methods and then
start on-the-job training under
experienced installers. After sev­
eral years of experience, they may
qualify as skilled installers.
Training on the job, however,
continues even after they become
skilled workers. A d d i t i o n a l
courses are given from time to
time not only to improve their
skills but also to teach them new
techniques of installing telephone
equipment. Installers may ad­
vance to engineering assistant
jobs, especially those workers
who have had some technical

TELEPHONE INDUSTRY OCCUPATIONS

769
matic dialing equipment for long­
distance calls will continue at
about the current rate; eventual­
ly, this equipment will be in­
stalled in all parts of the coun­
try. Some new central offices will
have to be constructed during the
years ahead and existing ones
modified or enlarged to meet the
growing needs of a population
that is expanding and shifting to
the suburbs. The amount of this
work may be somewhat less than
in recent years, however, because
many new central offices have
been built recently and will not
need replacement for some time.
On the other hand, increasingly
complex central office and toll
equipment, including advanced
types of P B X systems, as well as
data and computer networks, will
require manpower with more and
higher skills in electronic work.
Installers, perhaps more than
other craftsmen connected with
the telephone industry, are sub­
ject to possible employment fluc­
tuations in the short rim because
of changes in business conditions.
When the business outlook is de­
pressed, there is less likelihood
that new central offices will be
built or existing ones enlarged
or modernized. When business is
prospering, installations, addi­
tions, and modifications of cen­
tral offices may occur at an
above-average pace.

Earnings and W orking Conditions

Central office installers raise frame for dialing equipment

training beyond the high school
level.

E m ploym ent O utlook
During the 1970’s, several hun­
dred job openings a year are ex­




pected to become available for
young men to replace central of­
fice equipment installers who
transfer to other work, retire, or
die. The total number of instal­
lers, however, will remain at
about the present level for sev­
eral reasons. Installation of auto­

The straight-time a v e r a g e
hourly rate of pay for installers
in 1968 was $3.40. According to
a major union contract in effect
for this occupation in 1968, inex­
perienced installers start at $2.23
to $2.53 an hour, depending on
locality. The contract provides
for periodic increases, and em­
ployees may reach rates of $3.90
to $4.55 an hour after 6 years
of experience. Employees also

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

770
may receive merit increases above
these rates, based on job per­
formance plus length of service,
raising the top rates up to $4.16
to $4.81 an hour. Time and a
half is paid for work in excess
of 8 hours a day or 40 hours a
week, and double time is paid
for work on Sundays and holi­
days. Travel and expense allow­
ances also are given. Installers
receive 7 to 12 paid holidays a
year, depending on locality. Paid
vacations are provided according
to length of service.
The majority of central office
equipment installers, including
most of those servicing the Bell
System, are represented by the
Communications W o r k e r s of
America. Some installers, em­
ployed by manufacturers supply­
ing the non-Bell or independent
segment of the telephone indus­
try, and others, employed by
large installation contractors, are
represented by the International
Brotherhood of Electrical Work­
ers. Installers employed directly
by telephone operating compan­
ies in the New England area are
members of the International
Brotherhood of Telephone Work­
ers, which is affiliated with the
Alliance of Independent Tele­
phone Unions.

LINEMEN AND CABLE
SPLICERS

N atu re of th e W ork
The vast network of wires and
cables that connect telephone
central offices to the millions of
telephones and switchboards in
customers’ homes and buildings
is constructed and kept in good
operating order by linemen and
cable splicers and their helpers.
Telephone companies employed




over 40,000 of these workers in
1968— 16,000 linemen, 21,000
cable splicers, and 4,000 helpers,
laborers, and other workers.
In constructing new telephone
lines, linemen (D.O.T. 822.381)
place wires and cables leading
from the central office to cus­
tomers’ premises. They use pow­
er-driven equipment to dig holes
and set in telephone poles which
support cables. Linemen climb
the poles to attach the cables,
usually leaving the ends free for
cable splicers to connect later. In
cities where telephone lines are
below the streets, linemen place
cables in underground conduits.
Construction l i n e m e n usually
work in crews of two to five men.
A foreman directs the work of
several of these crews.
Much of the lineman’s work is
repairing and maintaining exist­
ing lines. When wires or cables

break or when a pole is knocked
down, linemen are sent immedi­
ately to make emergency repairs.
The line crew foreman keeps in
close contact with the testboardman who directs him to trouble
locations on the lines. Some line­
men are assigned sections of lines
in rural areas which they in­
spect periodically. During the
course of their work, they make
minor repairs and line changes.
After linemen place cables on
poles or in underground conduits,
cable splicers (D.O.T. 829.381)
generally complete the line con­
nections. Splicers work on aerial
platforms, in manholes, or in
basements of large commercial
buildings. They connect individ­
ual wires within the cable by
matching colors of wires so as to
keep each circuit continuous.
Cable splicers also rearrange pairs
of wires within a cable when lines
have to be changed. At each
splice, they either wrap insula­
tion around the wires and seal
the joint with a lead sleeve or
cover the splice with some other
type of closure. Sometimes, they
fill the sheathing with gas under
pressure to keep out moisture.
Cable splicers also maintain and
repair cables. The preventive
maintenance work that they do is
extremely important because a
single defect in a cable may re­
sult in a serious interruption in
service. Many trouble spots are
located through electric and gas
pressure tests.

T rain in g , O th er Q ualificatio ns,
and A dvancem ent
Telephone companies hire in­
experienced men to train for jobs
as linemen or cable splicers. Ap­
plicants for these jobs must have
a high school or vocational school
education and must pass a phy­
sical examination. Knowledge of
the basic principles of electricity,

TELEPHONE INDUSTRY OCCUPATIONS

and especially electronics, is help­
ful. Preemployment tests often
are given to help determine the
applicant’s aptitudes. Some line
and cable work is strenuous, re­
quiring workers to climb poles
and lift lines and equipment. Ap­
plicants for these positions must
be physically qualified for such
work. Manual dexterity and the
ability to distinguish color also
are important qualifications. Men
who have received telephone
training and experience in the
armed services frequently are
given preference for job openings
and may be brought in above the
entry level. For these jobs, tele­
phone companies have training
programs which include classroom
instruction as well as on-the-job
training. Classrooms are equip­
ped with actual telephone appa­
ratus, such as poles, cable sup­
porting clamps, and other fixtures
to simulate working conditions
as closely as possible. Trainees
learn to climb poles and are
taught safe working practices to
avoid contact with power wires
and falls.
After a short period of class­
room training, some trainees are
assigned to a line crew to work
on the job with experienced men
under the supervision of a line
foreman. About 6 years are re­
quired for linemen to reach the
top pay for the job. Other
trainees acquire the skills of the
trade by working with experi­
enced cable splicers to whom
they are assigned.
Line construction craftsmen
continue to r e c e i v e training
throughout their careers to qual­
ify for more difficult assignments
and to keep up with technologi­
cal changes in the industry.
Those having the necessary quali­
fications find many additional
advancement opportunities in the
telephone industry. For example,
a lineman may be transferred to
telephone installer and later to




771

telephone repairman
higher rated jobs.

or

other

E m ploym ent O utlook
Employment of linemen and
cable splicers is expected to in­
crease only at a slow rate, despite
anticipation of a continuing high
level of activity in line and cable
installation, maintenance, and re­
pair. However, hundreds of job
openings for these craftsmen as
a group are expected to become
available during the 1970’s be­
cause of the need to replace work­
ers who transfer to other jobs,
retire, or die.
Employment trends will differ
among individual occupations.
Very small growth is expected in
the number of cable splicers be­
cause of technological develop­
ments that increase worker effi­
ciency, such as devices that per­
mit splicing of cables without the
need to remove insulation; in­
struments for identifying types
of wires in cables; and use of
gas-filled cables whose failure can
be pinpointed by detecting de­
vices located in the central office.
These developments, further­
more, are expected to reduce
drastically the need for cable
splicers’ helpers, continuing the
rapid decline in employment in
this occupation in recent years.
The number of linemen is not
expected to increase significantly
because of the increasing use of
mechanical improvements, such
as trucks with derricks and pole­
lifting equipment, earth-boring
tools, lightweight ladders, and
“ sky buckets,” which have elim­
inated much of the physical work
of the line crews, and is causing
a substantial reduction in the
regular size of a line crew.
Earnings and W orking Conditions
Cable splicers have higher
earnings than linemen. In De­

cember 1967, in the United
States as a whole, cable splicer’s
basic rates averaged $3.49 an
hour, and linemen’s rates aver­
aged $2.78. Average hourly rates
ranged from $3.17 to $3.79 for
cable splicers and from $2.36 to
$3.11 for linemen, with variations
in earnings depending on locality.
Pay rates within the jobs also
depend to a considerable extent
upon length of service. For ex­
ample, according to a 1968 un­
ion-management agreement, new
workers in line construction jobs
in one of the higher pay scale
cities begin at $90.00 for a 40hour week. Linemen can reach
the maximum of $168.50 after 5
years and 6 months of service.
The maximum basic weekly rate
for cable splicers is $172.50,
based upon a combined total of
at least 6 years of work in a
plantcraft job, as a helper and as
a splicer, or in related craft jobs.
Linemen and cable splicers are
covered by the same contract
provisions governing overtime
pay, vacations, holidays, length
of service, and other benefits that
apply to telephone workers gen­
erally. (See discussion earlier in
this chapter.)
Linemen and cable splicers
work outdoors. They must do a
considerable amount of climbing.
They also work in manholes,
often in stooped and cramped
positions. Safety standards, de­
veloped over the years by tele­
phone companies with the coop­
eration of labor unions, have
greatly reduced the hazards of
these occupations. When severe
weather conditions damage tele­
phone lines, linemen and cable
"splicers may be called upon to
work long and irregular hours to
repair damaged equipment and
to restore service. Because of the
nature of their work, some line­
men and cable splicers, by the
time they reach their midfifties,
transfer to other jobs such as in-

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

772
stallers and repairmen or central
office craftsmen.

TELEPHONE AND PBX
INSTALLERS AND
REPAIRMEN
N atu re of the W ork
Telephone and private branch
exchange (P B X ) installers and
repairmen (sometimes called ser­
vicemen) install and service tele­
phone and P B X systems on the
customers’ property and make
necessary repairs on the equip­
ment when trouble develops.
These workers travel to custom­
ers’ homes and offices in trucks
equipped with telephone tools
and supplies. When telephone
customers move or request new
types of service, installers relo­
cate telephones or make changes
on customers’ existing equip­
ment. For example, they may in­
stall a P B X system in an office
or change a two-party line to a
single-party line in a residence.
Installers also may fill a custom­
er’s request to add an extension
in another room or to replace an
old telephone with a newer
model.
Telephone and P B X installers
and repairmen are the largest
group of telephone craftsmen;
about 86,000 were employed in
1968. The bulk of these men
mainly install telephones or pri­
vate branch exchanges, and about
20,000 of them repair and main­
tain this equipment. The jobs of
installing and repairing tele­
phones and P B X systems are dis­
cussed below as separate jobs,
but many telephone companies
combine two or more of these
jobs.

Telephone installers




(D.O.T.

822.381) install and remove tele­
phones in homes and places of
business. They connect newly in­
stalled telephones to outside ser­
vice wires which are on nearby
buildings or poles. Installers
often must climb poles to make
these connections. Telephone in­
stallers are sometimes called sta­

tion installers.
PBX installers (D.O.T. 822.381) perform the same duties as
telephone installers, but they spe­

cialize in more complex switch­
board installations. They connect
wires from terminals to switch­
boards and make tests to check
their installations. Some PBX
installers also set up equipment
for radio and television broad­
casts, mobile radiotelephones,
and teletypewriters.
Telephone repairmen (D.O.T.
822.281), with the assistance of
testboardmen in the central of­
fice, locate trouble on customers’

TELEPHONE INDUSTRY OCCUPATIONS

equipment and make repairs to
restore service. Sometimes the
jobs of telephone repairmen and
telephone installers are combined
and the workers are called tele­

phone installer-repairmen.
P B X repairmen (D.O.T. 822.281), with the assistance of testboardmen, locate trouble on cus­
tomers’ P B X systems and make
the necessary repairs. They also
maintain associated equipment
such as batteries, relays, and
power plants. Some P B X repair­
men maintain and repair equip­
ment for radio and television
broadcasts, m o b i l e radiotelep h o n e s , a n d teletypewriters.
Sometimes the jobs of PBX in­
stallers and PBX repairmen are
combined into the job of P B X

installer-repairmen.
T rain in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Telephone companies hire in­
experienced men and train them
for telephone and PBX installa­
tion and repair jobs. Since much
of the work requires personal con­
tact with customers, applicants
who have a pleasing appearance
and the ability to deal effectively
with people are preferred. Appli­
cants for these skilled jobs must
have a high school or vocational
school education. Preemployment
tests usually are given to help
determine applicants’ aptitude.
New workers are given class­
room instruction in addition to
on-the-job training. Classrooms
are equipped with telephone
poles, lines and cables, and term­
inal boxes, as well as models of
typical residential construction
to simulate actual working con­
ditions. Trainees practice install­
ing telephones and making con­
nections to service wires just as
they would in the field. After a
few weeks of such training, new
workers accompany skilled instal­




773

lers and continue to learn the job
of installing by watching and
helping these experienced men.
Telephone and P B X installers
and repairmen continue to re­
ceive training throughout their
careers with the telephone com­
pany to qualify for more diffi­
cult and responsible work. Since
technological changes in the tele­
phone industry are occurring
constantly, telephone companies
send their craftsmen to training
schools for further instruction.
Well qualified workers will have
many additional advancement
opportunities in this industry.
For example, after a telephone
installer has worked a few years,
he may be transferred to the
higher paying job of P B X in­
staller. Similarly, a telephone re­
pairman may be promoted to
P B X repairman, one of the high­
est paying craft jobs. Another
new worker may start as a line­
man and then transfer to the
job of installing or repairing
telephones, later moving to either
P B X installer or PBX repairman.

The total number of telephone
and P B X installers and repair­
men is expected to increase at a
moderate rate during the 1970’s.
Also, some expansion is antici­
pated in the volume of service
handled by these craftsmen be­
cause of the expanding number
of telephones to be serviced and
repaired, the growing popularity
of extension phones, the in­
creased use of specialized types
of phone equipment, and the de­
velopment of improved but more
complex equipment. The em­
ployment increase will be limited
by recent technological changes
which have increased the effici­
ency of individual installers or
repairmen. Examples of such
changes include improved de­
signs for telephone instruments,
wires, and cables; the develop­
ment of removable components
which can be returned to factory
or service shop for repair.

Earnings and W orking Conditions

Em ploym ent O utlook

Young men will find many op­
portunities for steady employ­
ment as telephone and P B X in­
stallers and repairmen through­
out the 1970’s. Primarily, these
opportunities will result from the
need to replace workers who
transfer to other telephone jobs,
leave the industry, retire, or die.
Retirements and deaths alone
may result in about 1,800 job
openings each year during the
1968-80 period. Some job open­
ings created by turnover may be
filled by workers transferring
from other telephone craft jobs,
such as linemen and cable splic­
ers, but many will be open to new
employees.

In December 1967, the aver­
age basic hourly rate for PBX
repairmen was $3.70 and the rate
for telephone and P B X installers
was $3.41. Average hourly rates
ranged from $3.35 to $3.89 for
P B X repairmen and from $3.04
to $3.62 for telephone and PBX
installers, with variations in earn­
ings depending on locality and
length of service.
The effect of length of service
on wage rates is illustrated by a
1966 union— management agree­
ment in one of the higher pay
scale cities. Under this agree­
ment, telephone installers and re­
pairmen have a starting rate of
$92.50 for a 40-hour week, with
periodic pay increases until a
maximum of $160.00 a week is
reached after about 6 years.

774
P B X installers and repairmen
also have a starting rate of $92.50
and progress to $170.50. Instal­
lers and repairmen are covered
by the same provisions governing
overtime pay, vacations, holi­
days, and other benefits that




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

apply to telephone workers gen­
erally. (See discussion earlier in
this chapter.)
Telephone and P B X installers
and repairmen work indoors and
outdoors in all kinds of weather.
Outdoor work includes climbing

poles to place and repair tele­
phone wires leading from poles to
customers’ premises. Installers
and repairmen may be called
upon to work extra hours when
breakdowns in customers’ lines
or equipment occur.

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE

Wholesaling and retailing are
the final stages in the process of
transferring goods from produc­
ers to consumers. Wholesalers
assemble goods in large lots and
distribute them to retail stores,
industrial firms, and institutions
such as schools and hospitals. Re­
tailers sell goods directly to
housewives and other consumers
in a variety of ways— in stores,
by mail, or through door-to-door
selling. A list of the items sold
by wholesale and retail businesses
would include almost every item
produced by American industry
— automobiles, clothing, food,
furniture, and countless others.
In 1968, more than 14 million
persons (not counting an esti­
mated 1.9 million self-employed
and unpaid family workers)
worked in wholesale and retail
trade. Retail trade accounted for
the largest number of workers—
10.5 million— or about threefourths of the employment in the
broad industry group. The ma­
jority of these workers are em­
ployed in department stores, food
stores, and in restaurants and
other eating places. About 3.6
million persons worked in whole­
sale trade.
Wholesale and retail businesses
are a major source of job oppor­
tunities for women. In 1968, for
example, nearly one-half of the
workers employed in retail trade
were women. They represented
about one-fourth of all workers
employed in wholesale trade.
Many women employed in retail
stores work part time.
Workers with a wide range of
education, training, skill, and
ability are employed in whole­
sale and retail trade. In 1968,
white-collar workers accounted
for more than 3 out of 5 persons
employed in the major industry




group, as shown in the accom­
panying table. Sales workers, the
largest single group, make up
nearly one-fourth of total indus­
try employment. Managers and
proprietors, the second largest
group of workers, account for
about one-fifth of the industry’s
work force. Many managers and
proprietors own and operate
small wholesale houses or retail
businesses such as food stores
and gasoline service stations.
Clerical workers account for
roughly one-sixth of the work
force; many are employed by re­
tail stores as cashiers, especially
in supermarkets and other food
stores. Other important clerical
occupations in retail trade in­
clude secretaries, stenographers
and typists, office machine oper­
ators, and bookkeepers and ac­
counting clerks. Large numbers
of shipping and receiving clerks
are employed in both wholesale
and retail trade.
Blue-collar workers (crafts­
men, operatives, and laborers) ac­
counted for nearly one-fourth of
all employment in the industry
group in 1968. Many are em­
ployed as mechanics and repair­
men, auto parking attendants,
drivers and deliverymen, meat
cutters, and materials handlers.
Most mechanics and autoparking
attendants work for motor ve­
hicle dealers and gasoline service
stations. A large number of meat
cutters are employed in whole­
sale grocery establishments and
in supermarkets and other food
stores.
Service workers,
employed
mostly in retail trade, accounted
for roughly 1 out of 7 workers
in the industry group. Food serv­
ice workers, such as waiters,
cooks, and bartenders, made up,
by far, the largest concentration

of persons employed in their oc­
cupational group. Other large
groups of service workers were
janitors, charwomen and clean­
ers, and guards and watchmen.
Estimated.
employment,
1968
Major occupation group

distribution)

All occupation groups..............
Professional, technical,
and kindred workers.....
Managers, officials, and
proprietors ....................
Clerical and kindred
workers ..........................
Sales workers ..................
Craftsmen, foremen, and
kindred workers ...........
Operatives and kindred’
workers ..........................
Service workers ................
Laborers ............................

100
2
21
16
24
7
12
14
4

N ote.—D ue to rounding sum of individual
items may not equal total.

Employment in wholesale and
retail trade is expected to in­
crease moderately through the
1970’s. The major factors con­
tributing to the expected growth
of employment in trade are in­
creasing population and consum­
er expenditures, continuation of
the population movement from
rural to urban areas and from
city to suburbs, and the trend
toward keeping stores open long­
er hours. Growth in employment
requirements is expected to be
slowed somewhat by the increas­
ing applications of laborsaving
technology. For example, techno­
logical change may effect employ­
ment because of improvements
in materials-handling methods,
packaging innovations, the grow­
ing use of computers for inven­
tory control and billing opera­
tions, the increasing use of mech­
anized equipment in supermark­
ets, and the continued growth
in the number of stores using
selfservice operations.
775

776
Within retail trade, employ­
ment in department stores, res­
taurants, and other eating places
and in auto dealers and service
stations is expected to rise fast­
est. Among wholesale establish­
ments, the rates of employment
growth are likely to be highest in
businesses that distribute motor




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

vehicles and automobile parts,
and in firms selling industrial ma­
chinery, equipment, and supplies.
The statement that follows
covers the major occupations in
restaurants, where, for example,
large numbers of waiters and
waitresses, and cooks and chefs
are employed. More detailed in­

formation about occupations that
cut across many industries ap­
pear elsewhere in the Handbook.
These include salesmen, office
workers, shipping and receiving
clerks, maintenance trades, and
many others. (See index in the
back of the book.)

R E S T A U R A N T IN D U S T R Y

Millions of people eat in res­
taurants, cafeterias, snack bars,
and other eating places daily.
There are about 335,000 estab­
lishments whose main business is
to serve food and beverages, and
in 1968, they employed more
than 2.2 million persons. Many
other food-service workers were
employed in establishments that
serve meals in connection with
some other activity— for exam­
ple, drug and department stores,
hotels, hospitals, schools and col­
leges operating lunchrooms for
students and staff, and factories
operating cafeterias for em­
ployees.
Commercial airlines,
railroads, and shiplines also em­
ploy food-service workers. (See
statements on the two largest
restaurant occupations— Waiters
and Waitresses, and Cooks and
Chefs.)

paid employees; many of these
are operated by their owners who
have no paid help or have only
1 or 2 part-time workers. An in­
creasing proportion of all restau­
rants are run by proprietors or
business firms owning more than
one restaurant.
Although restaurant employ­
ment is concentrated in the
States with the largest popula­
tions, and particularly in large

cities, even very small communi­
ties usually have coffee shops,
luncheonettes, and r o a d s i d e
diners.

R estaurant W orkers
About three-fourths of all res­
taurant employees prepare and
serve food or do other kinds of
related service work. The two
largest service groups, each with
several hundred thousands of
workers, are waiters and wait­
resses, and cooks and chefs. In
addition to these two groups,

N atu re and Location of the
Industry
Establishments catering to the
custom of “ eating out” range
from small diners to luxurious
and expensive restaurants. The
kind of food offered and the way
it is served depend upon the size,
location, and financing of the
restaurant, as well as the type of
customer it seeks to attract. For
example, cafeterias, which usu­
ally are located downtown in of­
fice buildings or factories, or in
a suburban shopping center, em­
phasize rapid service and inex­
pensive meals. In contrast, some
restaurants cater to customers
who have the time to eat in a
leisurely m a n n e r and, thus,
they serve elaborate meals which
may include unusual dishes or
“ specialties of the house.”
Most restaurants are small
businesses with fewer than 10




777

778
there are counter attendants who
serve food to customers in cafe­
terias; bartenders who mix and
serve alcoholic drinks to custom­
ers; busboys and busgirls who
clear tables, carry soiled dishes
back to the kitchen, and some­
times set tables; kitchen workers
who wash dishes and prepare
vegetables; pantrymen and pantrywomen who prepare salads and
certain other dishes for serving;
and janitors and porters who dis­
pose of trash and garbage, sweep
and mop floors, and do other
cleaning jobs. Some of these
workers operate m e c h a n i c a l
equipment such as powerdriven
dishwashers, floor polishers, vege­
table sheers and peelers, and gar­
bage disposal equipment. These
specialized service jobs, however,
are likely to be found only in the
largest restaurants. In many
small eating places, waiters and
waitresses clear and set up tables,
sometimes prepare certain kinds
of dishes, and help in the kitchen
when they are not busy with
customers.
Another large group of restau­
rant workers— about one-fifth of
the total— are managers and pro­
prietors. Many are owners and
operators of small restaurants
and, in addition to acting as man­
agers, may do cooking and other
work. Some are salaried em­
ployees managing restaurants for
others.
All other restaurant workers
combined account for less than
one-tenth of total industry em­
ployment. They are employed
principally in large restaurants.
Most are clerical employees—
cashiers who receive payments
and make change for customers;
food checkers who total the cost
of the meals selected by cafeteria
customers;
and
bookkeepers,
stenographers, typists, and other
office workers. Dietitians plan
menus, supervise the preparation
of meals, and enforce sanitary




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

regulations. Some large restau­
rants also employ mechanics and
other maintenance workers, ac­
countants, advertising or public
relations
directors,
personnel
workers, and musicians or other
entertainers.

T rain in g , O ther Q ualificatio ns,
and A dvancem ent
Experience and skill require­
ments for workers employed in
restaurants vary widely, depend­
ing on the particular occupation
and type and size of the restau­
rant. For example, employees in
inexpensive diners and lunch­
eonettes generally require less
training than those employed in
expensive restaurants.
Entry requirements for some
restaurant jobs are minimal.
Young people who have less than
a high school education and no
previous experience often can
qualify for employment in jobs,
such as kitchen worker, dish­
washer, or busboy. For other
jobs such as cook or chef, waiter
or waitress, and for supervisory
or managerial jobs, previous ex­
perience and in some cases spe­
cial training may be required.
(Information on training and
other qualifications for cooks and
chefs and waiters and waitresses
are described in greater detail
elsewhere in the Handbook) .
Newly hired restaurant work­
ers often receive on-the-job in­
struction to learn how to per­
form the duties required for their
work. A kitchen worker, for ex­
ample, may learn how to operate
a dishwasher or other mechanical
kitchen equipment. Waiters and
waitresses may be taught how to
set tables, take orders from cus­
tomers, and how to serve food in
a courteous and efficient man­
ner. In a great many small res­
taurants, new employees receive

their training under the close su­
pervision of an experienced em­
ployee or the proprietor. In larger
restaurants and some chain res­
taurant operations, training pro­
grams are likely to be more for­
mal, and beginners may be re­
quired to attend training sessions
for a few days or longer.
Many vocational schools— both
public and private— p r o v i d e
training that is helpful to per­
sons interested in preparing for
restaurant work. Vocational edu­
cation programs provide course
work in subjects such as food
preparation and cooking, cater­
ing, and restaurant management.
Similar training programs for a
variety of restaurant occupations,
ranging from a few months to 2
years or more in length, are
available through restaurant as­
sociations and trade unions, tech­
nical schools, junior and com­
munity colleges, and 4-year col­
leges. Many young people, for
example, prepare for supervisory
jobs in restaurants by complet­
ing 2 year programs in food serv­
ice management offered by junior
and community colleges located
throughout the country.
Training programs for unem­
ployed and underemployed work­
ers seeking entry jobs in restau­
rant occupations are in operation
in a large number of cities under
provision of the Manpower De­
velopment and Training Act
(M D T A ).
Training
under
M D TA provisions is provided for
cooks and cook apprentices, wait­
ers and waitresses, food service
supervisors, and cook helpers.
These programs are both institu­
tional and on the job and last
approximately 12 to 15 weeks.
Handicapped workers are being
trained in a number of programs
for employment in the restaurant
industry. Recent projects for ex­
ample have resulted in the em­
ployment of many mentally re­
tarded persons in occupations

RESTAURANT INDUSTRY

such as dishwasher, kitchen help­
er and busboy.
Employers look for certain per­
sonal qualifications in those
seeking restaurant work. Good
health and physical stamina are
important since restaurant work­
ers are required to work long
hours— often under considerable
pressure. Neatness, a pleasant
manner, and an even disposition
are important, particularly for
waiters and waitresses and other
employees who must deal with
the public.
Restaurants, particularly large
chain operations, offer promotion
opportunities to workers having
initiative and ability. A young per­
son who enters the industry as a
busboy or dishwasher can be pro­
moted to a better paying job such
as waiter or cook’s helper.
Through additional training, he
can advance further into jobs
such as cook or chef, baker, or
bartender. A restaurant hostess
may work her way up to assist­
ant manager. Experience as a
maitre d’ hotel may lead to a
position of director of food and
beverage services in a large chain
organization. Assistant managers,
particularly those with college
training, may be promoted to
manager and eventually manag­
ing director.
Em ploym ent Outlook
More than 150,000 openings
are expected annually in the res­
taurant industry through the
1970’s. Although many new jobs
will be created by the growth of
the restaurant business, most
openings will result from turn­
over. Most job openings will be
for waitresses and kitchen help­
ers— both because of high turn­
over and because these workers
make up a very large proportion
of all restaurant employees. Em­
ployment opportunities also are
expected to be favorable for skill­




779
ed cooks and salaried restaurant
managers. There will be a num­
ber of openings in clerical jobs
such as cashier,
bookeeper,
stenographer, and typist, and a
few in specialized positions such
as food manager and dietitian.
The volume of restaurant busi­
ness is expected to increase subtantially over the next decade,
and the number of restaurant
workers will rise rapidly. A grow­
ing population, increasing leisure
time, and higher income levels
will raise the demand for restau­
rant services. More people will
“ eat out” as large numbers of
housewives take outside employ­
ment and more people travel.
Restaurants, hotel and motel din­
ing rooms, school and factory
lunchrooms, drugstore fountains,
and even vending machines which
dispense prepared foods will
share in the increased business.
Manpower
changes
taking
place within the restaurant in­
dustry will tend to reduce the
number of employees needed to
prepare and serve food. Restau­
rants— particularly those serving
hundreds of meals daily— have
achieved substantial reductions
in manpower requirements dur­
ing recent years, as managers
have centralized the purchase of
food supplies, introduced selfservice, made use of precut meats
and modern mechanical equip­
ment, and otherwise increased
the efficiency of their operations.
Although further improvements
of this kind can be expected, the
number of restaurant employees
is likely to increase rapidly as
the volume of business continues
to expand to meet the popula­
tion’s need for restaurant serv­
ices.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
The location, size, and type of
restaurant affect earnings of res­

taurant workers. Other signifi­
cant factors include the tipping
practice for some occupations and
the degree of unionization.
In 1968, average e a r n i n g s
of nonsupervisory employees in
the restaurant industry (exclud­
ing tips) were $52.81 a week or
$1.61 an hour for a 32.8 hour
workweek, compared with $74.95
a week or $2.16 an hour for a
34.7 hour workweek for workers
in all retail trade establishments.
Limited wage data obtained
from union-management con­
tracts, in effect in 1969 and cov­
ering eating and drinking places
in large metropolitan areas on
the East and West Coasts and in
the Midwest, provide an indica­
tion of earnings for various types
of restaurant workers. In these
contracts, straight-time hourly
pay rates generally ranged from
$1.89 to $3.97 for bartenders;
$1.01 to $2.19 for busboys and
girls; $1.52 to $3 for cashiers;
$1.32 to $2.44 for dishwashers;
$1.54 to $3 for food checkers;
$1.32 to $3 for kitchen helpers;
$1.40 to $3.25 for pantry men
and women; and $1.37 to $2.44
for porters. (For earnings of
waiters and waitresses, and cooks
and chefs, see statements on
these occupations.) Most restau­
rant workers, however, are not
covered by union-management
contracts.
Salaries of employees in man­
agerial positions have a wide
range, mainly because of differ­
ences in duties and responsibili­
ties. Many college graduates who
have specialized training in res­
taurant management received
starting salaries ranging from
$6,000 to $10,000 annually in
1969. Managerial trainees with­
out this background often start­
ed at lower salaries. Many experi­
enced restaurant managers re­
ceive salaries between $10,000
and $20,000 a year, depending on
size, location, and type of restau-

780
rant. Salaries below this range
may be paid to managers of small
restaurants.
In addition to wages, restau­
rant employees usually receive at
least one free meal a day at their
place of work and often are pro­
vided with uniforms. Waiters,
waitresses, and bartenders also
receive tips. Paid vacations and
holidays are common, and vari­
ous types of health and insurance
programs also are available. Most
full-time restaurant workers have
work schedules of 40 to 48 hours
a week. Many work on split
shifts, which means they are on
duty for several hours during one
meal, take some time off, and
then return to work during the
next period of heavy activity.
Scheduled hours may include
work in the late evenings and on
holidays and weekends.
Many restaurants are air-con­
ditioned, have convenient work
areas, and are furnished with the




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

latest equipment and laborsaving
devices. In other restaurants—
particularly small ones— working
conditions may be less desirable.
In all restaurants, workers spend
long periods on their feet, may
be required to lift heavy trays
and other objects, or work near
hot ovens or steam tables. Work
hazards include the possibility of
bums; injury from knives, broken
glass or china, or mechanical
equipment; and slips and falls on
wet floors.
The principal union in the res­
taurant industry is the Hotel and
Restaurant Employees and Bar­
tenders International U n i o n
(AFL-CIO ). The proportion of
workers covered by union con­
tract agreements, however, varies
greatly from city to city.
W here To Go fo r M ore In fo rm atio n
Additional information about
careers in the food service indus­

try may be obtained by writing
to:
Educational Director, National
Restaurant Association, 1530
North Lake Shore Dr., Chica­
go, 11 . 60610.
1

A list of public and private
schools and colleges offering
courses which train restaurant
employees may be obtained by
writing to:
Council on Hotel, Restaurant and
Institutional Education, Statler
Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca,
N.Y. 14850.

Information on courses relating
to restaurant work may be ob­
tained from the local Director of
Vocational Education, the Super­
intendent of Schools in the local
community, or the State Director
of Vocational Education in the
Department of Education in the
State capital.

FINANCE, INSURANCE, AND REAL ESTATE

Nearly every individual or or­
ganization makes extensive use
of the diverse and complex serv­
ices provided by the finance, in­
surance, and real estate industry.
Financial institutions— b a n k s ,
savings and loan associations,
consumer credit organizations,
and others— make banking and
credit facilities available to in­
dividuals and businesses. The
types of services they offer range
from providing simple financial
services such as personal check­
ing and savings accounts to act­
ing as the broker and salesman in
the buying and selling of stocks
and bonds needed by giant cor­
porations for investment capital.
Insurance firms provide protec­
tion against unexpected losses
due to fire, accident, sickness,
and death, and for many other
contingencies. Real estate or­
ganizations act as the intermedi­
ary or broker in the sale of
houses, buildings, and other prop­
erty, and often operate and man­
age large office and apartment
buildings.
In 1968, nearly 3.4 million
workers were employed in the fi­
nance, insurance, and real estate
industry. Finance, employing
nearly 1.5 million persons, made
up the largest sector. The next
largest concentration of em­
ployment was in insurance where
over 1.2 million workers were em­
ployed. The remaining workers—
about one-sxth of the total— were
employed in real estate.
Finance, insurance, and real
estate firms are a major source
of job opportunities for women
who made up over half of the in­
dustry’s work force in 1968.




Their proportion ranged from
about 35 percent in real estate
to over 60 percent in banking.
This industry employs a very
high proportion of white-collar
workers. As shown in the follow­
ing tabulation, more than 9 out
of 10 workers in the industry
held white-collar jobs in 1968.
Clerical workers made up 46 per­
cent of the industry’s work force
and accounted for half of the
white-collar employees. Many
clerical workers are employed in
specialized banking and insur­
ance occupations such as bankteller, checksorter, and insurance
claims adjuster. Other large cler­
ical occupations include stenog­
rapher, typist, secretary, and
office machine operator— occupa­
tions also found in most other
industries. Sales workers, who
account for nearly one-fifth of the
workers in this industry, are
especially important in the in­
surance and real estate sectors,
where insurance and real estate
agents and brokers make up over
one-third of the total work force.
Stock and bond salesmen and
brokers are also an important
occupation in the finance sector.
Managers and officials— bank of­
ficials, office managers, and oth­
ers— made up roughly one-fourth
of the industry’s work force in
1968.
A majority of the very small
number of professional, technical,
and related workers in this in­
dustry are employed by financial
institutions. Accountants and
auditors, programers, and busi­
ness research analysts make up

M a j o r o c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p

Estimated
employment,
1968
(percent
distribution)

All occupational groups
Professional, technical,
and kindred workers ...........
Managers, officials, and
proprietors ............................
Clerical and kindred workers ..
Sales workers............................
Craftsmen, foremen, and
kindred workers ..................
Operatives and kindred
workers ..................................
Service workers........................
Laborers ....................................

100
5
23
46
18
2
f1)
4
2

1
Less than 0.5 percent.
N ote.—D ue to rounding sum of individual
items may not equal total.

the greater part of these highly
trained workers.
Employment in the finance,
insurance, and real estate indus­
try is expected to increase mod­
erately through the
1970’s.
Population growth, increasing
business activity, and rising per­
sonal incomes are among the im­
portant factors expected to gen­
erate a rapidly expanding demand
for financial, insurance, and real
estate services. However, the in­
creasing use of computer tech­
nology in performing the routine
clerical and record-keeping func­
tions that are so common in this
industry may limit employment
growth to some extent. In the
financial sector, employment is
expected to increase more rapidly
than in insurance and real estate.
In addition to the opportuni­
ties that will arise because of em­
ployment growth, many thou­
sands of job openings will result
as women leave the field to as­
sume family responsibilities. Re781

782
placements also will be needed to
fill vacancies created by deaths
and retirements and by transfers
of workers out of the industry.




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

The statements that follow
cover major occupations in the
banking and insurance fields.
More detailed information about

occupations that exist in many
industries appears elsewhere in
the Handbook. (See index in the
back of the book.)

O C C U P A T IO N S IN B A N K IN G

Banks have been described as
“ department stores of finance”
because of the variety of finan­
cial services they offer. Their
services range from convenient
individual checking accounts to
letters of credit that may be used
to finance world trade. They safe­
guard money and valuables; ad­
minister trusts and personal
estates; and lend money to busi­
ness, educational, religious and
other organizations. Banks also
make loans to individuals for the
purchase of homes, automobiles,
and household items, as well as
to pay for unexpected expenses
and other personal financial
needs. Banks strive to introduce
new services to meet the needs
of their customers. In recent
years, for example, they have
offered customers revolving check
credit plans, credit cards, travel
services, facilities for handling
charge accounts in retail stores,
and convenient “ drive-up” win­
dows.

Still others work in the 12 Fed­
eral Reserve Banks (or “ bankers’
banks” ) and their 24 branches;
and in foreign exchange firms,
clearing house associations, check
cashing agencies, and other or­
ganizations doing work closely
related to banking.

In addition to those employed
in banking, many people who do
similar work are employed in sav­
ings and loan associations, per­
sonal credit institutions, and oili­
er related financial institutions.
In 1967, commercial banks
processed more than 20 billion
checks and handled an enormous
amount of other paperwork. The
clerical employees who do this
work account for nearly threefourths of all bank employees.

Banks and T h e ir W orkers
B a n k i n g organizations em­
ployed nearly 875,000 workers in
1968; over half were women.
More than 800,000 of these bank
employees worked in commercial
banks, where a wide variety of
services are offered. The banking
occupations discussed in this
statement are generally those
found in b a n k s of this type.
Other bank employees, many of
whom are in the same occupa­
tions, work in mutual savings
banks, which offer a more limited
range of services— mainly savings
deposit accounts, safe-deposit
rentals, trust management, mort­
gage loans, money orders, travel­
ers checks, and passbook loans.




783

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

784
Many of these workers are in
jobs which are unique to banks;
they are either tellers or bank
clerks who process the thousands
of deposit slips, checks, and other
documents which banks handle
daily. Also employed are many
secretaries, stenographers, typ­
ists, telephone operators, recep­
tionists, and others whose duties
are much the same in banks as
in other types of businesses.
Bank officers are the second
largest occupational group with­
in the industry. Approximately 1
out of 5 bank workers is an offi­
cer— a president, vice president,
treasurer, comptroller, or other
official. Much smaller occupa­
tional groups include account­
ants, lawyers, personnel directors,
marketing and public relations
workers,
statisticians,
econo­
mists, and other professional
workers, as well as guards, ele­
vator operators, cleaners, and
other service workers who protect
and maintain bank properties.
This chapter describes three
large groups of workers in occu­
pations unique to banking— bank
clerks, tellers, and bank officers.
Some of the other occupations
which are common to banks, as
well as other institutions, are de­
scribed elsewhere in the Hand­

book.
Places of Em ploym ent
In early 1968, there were more
than 32,000 commercial banks
and branch banks, and more than
1,300 mutual savings banks and
branches. Bank employment is
concentrated, to a considerable
extent, in a relatively small num­
ber of very large banks and their
branches. In early 1968, the 450
largest commercial banks in the
country, each having total de­
posits of $100 million or more,
employed more than one-half of
all commercial bank employees,




whereas over 9,000 small com­
mercial banks (having total de­
posits of $10 million or less) em­
ployed only slightly more than
10 percent of all commercial
bank workers.
Bank employees work mainly
in heavily populated areas. Ap­
proximately half of all bank em­
ployees are located in five states:
New York, California, Illinois,
Pennsylvania, and Texas. New
York City, the financial capital
of the Nation, has far more bank
employees than any other city.

T rain in g
Professional and managerial
employees who work for banks
usually have completed college.
A high school diploma is ade­
quate preparation for entry into
most clerical jobs in banks; other
workers, such as building service
workers and guards, are in jobs
which can be filled by persons
who have a high school educa­
tion or less. Most newly hired
employees undergo some form of
in-service training so that they
may become familiar with bank
policies and procedures. Bank
employees have numerous oppor­
tunities which are provided by
their employers to broaden their
knowledge and skills. Besides the
on-the-job training opportunities
they may have, employees often
are encouraged to further their
education off the job. (Addition­
al information about the educa­
tional requirements which apply
to bank clerks, tellers, and bank
officers, and the training given
them, is provided in the state­
ments that follow).
Bank employees are encour­
aged to prepare themselves for
better jobs by enrolling in courses
offered by the American Institute
of B a n k i n g in many cities
throughout the country. The In­
stitute, whichphas 369 chapters

and 156 study groups, also offers
correspondence study for bank
employees. Courses include ac­
counting, finance and credit,
commercial law, investments,
bank operations, trusts, public
speaking, and English. In addi­
tion, the Institute assists local
banks in conducting cooperative
training programs for various
bank positions.
Many banks encourage their
employees to take courses at local
colleges and universities. In addi­
tion, a number of educational
programs are sponsored by bank­
ing associations, sometimes in co­
operation with colleges and uni­
versities throughout the country.
These programs are designed to
assist bank employees at all lev­
els to assume greater responsi­
bilities in their banks. Many banks
pay for all or part of the costs to
those who successfully complete
the courses in which they enroll.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment in banks is ex­
pected to rise very rapidly
through the 1970’s. New jobs re­
sulting from employment growth,
as well as jobs that must be
filled as employees retire or stop
working for other reasons, are ex­
pected to account for about 65,000 openings each year. Still
other openings will occur as em­
ployees leave their positions to
enter other types of employment.
Most openings will be in cleri­
cal occupations. In addition, an
increasing number of trainee
jobs, which may eventually lead
to officer positions, will probably
become available for college
graduates. Openings for profes­
sional and specialized personnel,
such as lawyers, accountants and
auditors, economists, statisti­
cians, actuaries, and electronic
computer personnel also will oc­
cur in great numbers.

OCCUPATIONS IN BANKING

Population growth and the ac­
companying rise in production,
sales, and national income are
expected to produce a steady
growth in the number of business
and financial transactions which
banks will handle. The number
of branch banks has been increas­
ing for many years and will prob­
ably continue to do so as banks
seek to make their services more
accessible both in cities and in
new and expanding suburban
business centers. More jobs also
will be created as banks continue
to expand other services. These
services include facilities for han­
dling charge accounts in retail
stores, special savings plans for
travel and education, estate plan­
ning and administration, “ inplant” banking facilities for em­
ployed workers, and the manage­
ment of employee pension funds.
The approximately 2,000 banks
which had electronic computer
installations in 1969 provided
conventional banking services to
other banks and financial institu­
tions without computers. They
also provided services such as
account reconciliation, payroll
preparation, sales analysis, inven­
tory control, and customer billing
for business corporations.
The number of additional
workers needed to handle the in­
crease in banking activities may
be offset somewhat by the con­
tinued conversion of many major
banking activities to electronic
data-processing. Even so, the very
rapid growth in employment,
which has characterized the
banking industry in recent years,
is expected to continue but at a
somewhat slower pace. Electronic
data-processing is likely to bring
about important changes in the
employment pattern of occupa­
tions in banking, substantially
reducing the number of workers
needed in some occupations and
at the same time creating other
jobs which are new to banks. The




785
effect of these developments will
vary from one occupation to an­
other, as indicated in the state­
ments on specific banking occu­
pations which follow.
Bank employees can anticipate
steadier employment than work­
ers in many other fields because
they are less likely to be affected
by layoffs during periods when
the general level of business ac­
tivity is low. Even when a bank
is sold or merged with another
bank, it usually continues to do
business, and there is little like­
lihood that workers will lose their
jobs. When bank officials find it
necessary to curtail employment,
they usually do so by not replac­
ing employees who retire or leave
their jobs for other reasons.

few localities, a workweek of 35
hours is common. Tellers and
some other types of employees
may work in the evening at least
once a week when banks remain
open for business; and overtime
work may be necessary for some
bookkeeping department em­
ployees during peak periods,
often at the end of each month.
Workers who do some kinds of
check processing may be em­
ployed on evening shifts, as are
many operators of electronic com­
puting equipment.
Generally, bank work is done
in modem, clean, well-lighted,
and air-conditioned offices. Few
jobs require strenuous physical
exertion.
Sources of A dditional In fo rm atio n

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Earnings of bank clerks, tellers,
and officers are discussed in the
statements which follow. In ad­
dition to their salaries, bank
workers receive fringe benefits
which are generally somewhat
more liberal than those provided
by other types of businesses. For
example, most banks offer their
workers some type of profit shar­
ing or bonus plan; sick leave;
paid holidays ranging from 5 to
12 a year; and vacations with
pay, generally 2 weeks for those
who have completed 1 year of
service, 3 weeks after 10 to 15
years of service, and 4 weeks
after 20 to 25 years of service.
In addition, group plans that pro­
vide life insurance, hospitaliza­
tion and surgical benefits, and
retirement income are common­
place fringe benefits for many
bank employees. Sometimes free
or preferred banking services,
such as checking accounts, safe
deposit boxes, installment loans,
and traveling services also are
provided.
Scheduled hours in banks are
generally 40 or less a week; in a

Local banks and State bankers*
associations can furnish specific
information about job opportuni­
ties in local banking institutions.
General information about bank­
ing occupations, training oppor­
tunities, and the banking indus­
try itself is available from:
American Bankers Association,
Personnel Administration and
Management
Development
Committee, 90 Park Ave., New
York, N.Y. 10016.
National Association of Bank
Women, Inc., National Office,
60 East 42nd St., New York,
N.Y. 10017.

Information on career oppor­
tunities in consumer finance can
be obtained from:
The National Consumer Finance
Association, 1000 16th St., NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

Information about career op­
portunities as a bank examiner
can be obtained from:
Federal Deposit Insurance Com­
pany, Director of Personnel,
550 17th Street, NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20429.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

786

BANK CLERKS
N atu re of th e W ork
Bank clerks handle the paper­
work associated with checking
and savings accounts, loans to
individuals and business firms,
and other bank business. Because
of the nature of banking, some
of their work differs from the
work done by clerks in other
kinds of business offices. (Secre­
taries, office machine operators,
receptionists, and other clerical
workers whose jobs are much the
same in banks as in other busi­
nesses are discussed in the chap­
ter on Clerical and Related Occu­
pations.)
The specific duties that must
be performed in a particular bank
depend on the size of the bank
and the extent and scope of the
services offered. In a small bank,
for example, one clerk may be
required to perform a variety of
work such as sorting checks,
totaling debit and credit slips,
and preparing monthly state­
ments for mailing to depositors.
However, in a large bank, each
clerk usually is assigned one kind
of work and frequently has a
special job title.
Bank clerks known as sorters
(D.O.T. 219.388) separate bank
documents— checks, deposit slips,
and other bank items— into dif­
ferent groups and tabulate each
“ batch” so they may be charged
to the proper account; often they
use canceling and adding ma­
chines in their work. Many banks
also employ proof machine opera­
tors (D.O.T. 217.388) who use
equipment that, in one opera­
tion, sorts items and adds and
records the amount of money
involved.
The bookkeeping workers who
keep records of depositors’ ac­
counts and of bank transactions
such as loans to business firms




or the purchase and sale of secu­
rities are the largest single group
of bank clerks. Bookkeeping ma­
chine operators (D.O.T. 215.388)
use either conventional book­
keeping machines or electronic
posting machines especially de­
signed for bank work; in most
other respects, their work is simi­
lar to that of bookkeeping ma­
chine operators in other types of
establishments. In banks, these
workers are sometimes known as
account clerks, posting machine

operators, or recording clerks.
Bookkeepers (D.O.T. 210.388)
are also employed in banks, usu­
ally to keep special types of fi­
nancial records. The job titles of
many bank bookkeepers are re­
lated to the kinds of records on
which they work— among them,

Christmas club bookkeeper, dis­
count bookkeeper, interest-accru­
al bookkeeper, trust bookkeeper,
and commodity loan clerk. Thou­
sands of bookkeeping and ac­

counting

clerks (D.O.T. 219.488) are also employed in book­
keeping departments to do rou­
tine typing, calculating, and post­
ing related to bank transactions.
Included in this group are recon­
cilement clerks, who process
statements from other banks to
expedite the auditing of ac­
counts; and trust investment
clerks who post the daily invest­
ment transactions of bank cus­
tomers.
Other clerical employees whose
duties and job titles are unique
to banking include country col­
lection clerks (D.O.T. 219.388)
who sort the thousands of pieces
of mail which come in daily to a
city bank and determine which
items must be held at the ipain
office and which should be routed
to branch banks or out-of-city
banks for collection. Also em­
ployed are transit clerks (D.O.T.
217.388) who sort bank items
such as checks and drafts on

OCCUPATIONS IN BANKING

other banks, list and total the
amounts involved, and prepare
the documents so that they can
be mailed for collection; ex­
change clerks (D.O.T. 219.388)
who service foreign deposit ac­
counts and determine charges for
cashing or handling checks drawn
against such accounts; interest
clerks (D.O.T. 219.388) who
maintain records relating to in­
terest-bearing items which are
due to or from the bank; and
mortgage clerks (D.O.T. 209.388) who type legal papers af­
fecting title to real estate upon
which money has been loaned,
and maintain records relating to
taxes and insurance on such
properties.
New clerical occupations which
have been created by electronic
data-processing and which are
unique to banks, include those
of the electronic reader-sorter op­
erator who operates electronic
check sorting equipment; the
check inscriber or encoder, who
operates machines that print in­
formation on checks and other
documents in magnetic ink to
prepare them for machine read­
ing; and the control clerk who
keeps track of the huge volume
of documents flowing in and out
of the computer division. Other
occupations, include card-tape

converter operator, coding clerk,
console operator, data typist,
data converting machine opera­
tor, data examination clerk, high
speed printer operator, tape li­
brarian, teletype operator, and
verifier operator. These workers

787
T rain in g , O ther Q ualificatio ns,
and A dvancem ent
High school graduation is ade­
quate preparation for most begin­
ning clerical jobs in banks. For
the majority of jobs, courses in
bookkeeping, typing, business
arithmetic, and office machine
operation are desirable. Appli­
cants may be given short employ­
ment and clerical aptitude tests
to determine their ability to
work rapidly and accurately, and
to communicate effectively with
others.
Beginners may be hired as file
clerks, bookkeeping clerks, transit
clerks, clerk-typists, or for re­
lated work. Some are trained by
the bank to operate proof, book­
keeping, and other office ma­
chines. A few start as pages or
inside messengers.
An employee in a routine cleri­
cal job may eventually be pro­
moted to a minor supervisory po­
sition, to a teller or credit
analyst, and eventually to a sen­
ior supervisor. Opportunities for
advancement to bank officer po­
sitions also exist for outstanding
clerical employees, although they
are more likely to attain such
positions if they have had college
training or have taken specialized
courses offered by the banking
industry. Additional education
obtained while employed— par­
ticularly the courses offered by
the American Institute of Bank­
ing— may be helpful in preparing
workers for advancement. (See
introduction to this chapter for
further information on the Insti­
tute’s educational program.)

are employed only in the rela­
tively small number of banks that
use this kind of equipment.

Em ploym ent O utlook

Banks employed about 400,000
clerical employees of all kinds in
1968, about 8 out of every 10 of
whom were women.

Employment of bank clerks is
expected to increase moderately
through the 1970’s. New jobs cre­
ated by growth, as well as jobs
that must be filled as employees




retire or stop working for other
reasons, are expected to result
in nearly 30,000 openings each
year. Turnover is relatively high
in banks, as in other industries
which employ many women in
clerical positions. Jobs for clerks
will arise as established banks
expand their services and as new
banks and branch banks are
opened. In those banks which in­
stall modem electronic equip­
ment, however, decreases may be
expected in the employment of
workers such as check sorters and
bookkeeping machine operators.
Most employees affected by the
changeover will probably be re­
trained and reassigned, either to
new jobs created by the change
in equipment and processing
methods, or to other duties re­
lated to the many new functions
and services which banks will in­
troduce. Overall, the growth in
the volume of work created by
new bank facilities and services
is expected to be so great that
the total number of clerical work­
ers will continue to rise for some
years to come, although much
less rapidly than in the recent
past. The sharpest increases in
employment are expected in oc­
cupations related to electronic
data processing.

Earnings
Clerical workers employed in
financial institutions, including
banks, and real estate and insur­
ance companies, averaged about
$86.00 a week in 1967. Men’s
average weekly salaries ranged
between $85 and $90; women
averaged between $84 and $87
a week.
Among men, Class A Account­
ing Clerks and Class A tabulat­
ing machine operators— generally
experienced employees— received
the highest salaries: $110 and
$117, respectively. The highest

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

788
paid occupation for women was
Class A tabulating machine op­
erator ($108).
The lowest salary among both
men and women bank clerks was
earned by Class C file clerks. The
average weekly salary in this oc­
cupation was $68.00 for men and
$62.00 for women.
Clerical workers in banks are
covered under provisions of the
Fair Labor Standards Act, a Fed­
eral law which provides for a
minimum wages. In 1968, the
minimum was $1.60 an hour;
thus, a clerk who worked a 40hour week would earn at least
$64.
See introductory section of this
chapter for information on Places
of Employment and Sources of
Additional Information; and for
addition information on Train­
ing, Employment Outlook, and
Earnings and Working Condi­
tions.

TELLERS
(D.O.T. 212.368)

N atu re of th e W ork
Every bank, no matter how
small, has at least one teller to
receive and pay out money and
record these transactions. In a
very small bank, one teller—
often known as an all-around
teller— may handle transactions
of all kinds, but in large banks
usually different kinds of trans­
actions are assigned to different
tellers. A Christmas Club teller
accepts and records deposits
made to Christmas Club savings
accounts, for example, and a
note teller handles certain trans­
actions for clients making loans
on securities. Other tellers who
have special job titles include




passbook, and simultaneously
posts the transaction in the
bank’s ledger.
After public banking hours,
the teller counts the cash on
hand, lists the currency-received
tickets on a settlement sheet,
and balances his day’s accounts.
He also may perform other in­
cidental tasks such as sorting
checks and deposit slips, filing
new account cards, and remov­
ing closed account cards from
files. A paying and receiving
teller may supervise one or more
clerks assigned to assist him.

T rain in g , O th er Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent

commercial (or paying and re­
ceiving), savings, foreign ex­
change, payroll, discount, and
securities tellers.
Approximately 230,000 tellers
of all kinds were employed in
early 1968. A considerable num­
ber worked only part time, and
about 8 out of 10 were women.
Commercial tellers are mainly
occupied with cashing customers’
checks, and handling deposits
and withdrawals from checking
and savings accounts during the
hours the bank is open to the
public. Before he cashes a check,
the teller must verify the identity
of the person to whom he makes
payment, and be certain that the
funds in the payee’s account are
sufficient to cover the payment.
When he accepts a deposit, he
checks to see whether the amount
of money has been correctly item­
ized on the deposit slip and en­
ters the total in a passbook or
on a deposit receipt. Tellers may
use machines to make change
and to total deposits. A teller
handling savings accounts may
use a “ window” posting machine
which prints a receipt or records
the transaction in the customer’s

In hiring tellers, employers
prefer high school graduates ex­
perienced in related clerical po­
sitions. They regard personal
characteristics such as maturity,
neatness, tact, and courtesy as
being particularly important be­
cause customers, who deal with
tellers far more frequently than
with other bank employees, often
judge a bank’s services principal­
ly on their impressions of the
tellers. Since tellers handle large
sums of money, they must be able
to meet the standards established
by bonding companies. In filling
new positions, most banks give
preference to their employees
who have demonstrated the nec­
essary qualifications.
Newly hired tellers usually
learn their duties by first observ­
ing experienced workers for a few
days and then, under close super­
vision, doing the work them­
selves. Training periods may last
from a few days to 3 weeks or
longer. A new teller’s first assign­
ment is usually a combination
job as a savings and commercial
teller; or, in those banks which
are large enough to have a sav­
ings teller’s “ cage,” the beginner
may start as a savings teller.

OCCUPATIONS IN BANKING

After gaining experience, a
competent teller in a large bank
may advance to the position of
head teller, in which he super­
vises the bank’s staff of tellers.
Eventually, experienced tellers
may qualify for promotion to
bank officer positions, particu­
larly if they have had college
training or have taken special­
ized courses offered by the bank­
ing industry. (See introduction to
this chapter for information
about the educational program of
the American Institute of Bank­
ing.)

Em ploym ent O utlook
The number of bank tellers is
expected to increase very rapidly
through the 1970’s, as banks con­
tinue to expand their services for
the growing urban population. An
increasing proportion, however,
will be part-time tellers em­
ployed during peak hours to ac­
commodate those customers who
transact business during the noon
hour and in the evenings. More
than 20,000 openings are ex­
pected each year as a result of
the increase in employment, and
the need to replace tellers who
retire or stop working for other
reasons. Turnover is relatively
high among the thousands of
women who work as tellers.
Although increased use of me­
chanical and electronic equip­
ment can be expected to elimi­
nate some of the routine work
done by many t e l l e r s , and to
speed other work they now per­
form, it is unlikely to affect
greatly the total number em­
ployed.

Earnings
In 1968, the earnings of nonsupervisory workers, including




789
tellers, in banks, averaged about
$90 per week. The range between
the lowest and highest weekly
salaries earned by men and wom­
en employed as tellers depends
on such factors as experience, the
specific teller position, and the
location and size of the bank.
Bank tellers are covered under
provisions of the Fair Labor
Standards Act, a Federal law
which provides for minimum
wages. In 1968, the minimum
was $1.60 an hour; thus, tellers
who worked a 40-hour week
would earn at least $64.
See introductory section of this
chapter for information on Places
of Employment and Sources of
Additional Information; and for
additional information on Train­
ing, Employment Outlook, and
Earnings and Working Condi­
tions.

BANK OFFICERS
(D.O.T. 186.118, .138, .168, and .288;
161.118; 189.118 and .168)

N atu re of the W ork
Practically every bank has a
president who exercises general
direction over all operations; one
or more vice presidents who
either act as general managers or
have charge of bank departments
such as trust, credit, and invest­
ment; and a comptroller or cash­
ier who (unlike cashiers in stores
and other businesses) is an ex­
ecutive officer generally respon­
sible for all bank property. Large
banks also may have treasurers
and other senior officers, as well
as assistant officers, to supervise
the various sections within differ­
ent departments. Banking insti­
tutions employed more than

125,000 officers in 1968; women
represented about one-tenth of
the total.
A bank officer makes decisions
within a framework of policy set
by the board of directors. His job
requires a broad knowledge of
business activities, which he must
relate to the operations of the
particular department for which
he is responsible. For example,
the loan officers must exercise
his best judgment in considering
applications for loans, bearing in
mind general business conditions
and the nature of the collateral
offered. He must evaluate care­
fully the reports of credit analy­
sis on the individual or business
firm applying for a loan, and bal­
ance the favorable and unfavor­
able elements in reaching a deci­
sion. Similarly, the trust officer
must have a thorough under­
standing of the provisions of each
trust which he is administering,
and the knowledge necessary to
manage properly the fund or es­
tate involved; he must invest
wisely in order to manage trust
funds which were established for
purposes such as supporting fami­
lies, sending young people to
college, or paying pensions to re­
tired workers. Besides supervising
financial services, bank officers
are called upon frequently to ad­
vise individuals and businessmen
and to participate in many dif­
ferent
kinds of
community
projects.
Because of the great variety of
services offered by banks, a wide
choice of officer careers in dif­
ferent areas of the bank is avail­
able for those who wish to spe­
cialize. For example, in the lend­
ing area, the loan officer must be
familiar with the principles of
economics, production, distribu­
tion, and merchandising, as well
as the fundamentals of commer­
cial law. He also must have the
ability to analyze financial state­
ments and have some knowledge

790

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

fields for bank officers are audit­
ing, economics, personnel admin­
istration, public relations, and
operations research.

T rain in g , O th er Q ualificatio ns,
and A dvancem ent

of tiie operations and customs of
businesses to which the bank ex­
pects to extend credit. Careers in
the lending area include: Install­
ment loan officer, commercial
loan officer, credit department
loan officer, real estate mortgage
loan officer, and agricultural loan
officer. In the trust services area,
the trust officer is responsible for
the management of assets belong­
ing to individuals, families, cor­
porations, and charitable and
educational institutions. Trust
management requires specializa­
tion in fields such as financial
planning, investment, adminis­
tration, taxes, and business and
real estate management. Special­
ized careers in the trust man­
agement area include, for exam­
ple, estate administration, indi­
vidual and institutional trust
administration, and investment
research positions. The operations
officer plans, coordinates, and
controls the work flow, updates




systems, and strives for more
efficient operations of a bank.
He must be able to train and
supervise a large number of peo­
ple, since most of a bank’s staff
works in operations. Career op­
portunities in the bank opera­
tions area include the following:
Customer s e r v i c e s , electronic
data processing services, and in­
ternal services. Other career spe­
cialities for bank officers include
correspondent bank officer, who
is responsible for relations with
other banks, branch bank man­
ager, who has full responsibility
for all aspects of a branch office;
and international officer, who is
financial advisor to customers in
the United States and abroad. A
working knowledge of a foreign
language and knowledge of a for­
eign country’s geography, poli­
tics,
history,
and economic
growth can be very helpful to
those interested in careers in in­
ternational banking. Other career

Bank officer positions may be
filled by promoting either experi­
enced clerical employees or man­
agement trainees. Outstanding
bank clerks may be selected for
promotion, even though their
academic background is limited,
but college graduation is the
usual requirement for young peo­
ple who enter as management
trainees. A business administra­
tion curriculum with a major in
finance or a liberal arts curricu­
lum including accounting, eco­
nomics, commercial law, political
science, and statistics are con­
sidered excellent preparation for
trainee positions. Valuable expe­
rience may be gained in the
summer employment programs
recently initiated by some large
city banks for college students.
Most large city banks have
w e 11-organized officer-training
programs. Usually, these range
from 6 months to 1 year in
length. Trainees may start as
credit or investment analysts or
be rotated among various jobs in
several bank departments so that
they get the “ feel” of banking;
bank officers then are better able
to determine the position for
which each employee is best
suited. Many banks too small to
operate formal officer-trainee
programs provide some other
form of training program which
enables trainees to gain an un­
derstanding of bank operations.
Advancement to officer posi­
tions may come slowly in small
banks where the number of these
positions is limited. In large city
banks having special training
programs, initial promotions may

791

OCCUPATIONS IN BANKING

come more quickly. For a senior
officer position, however, many
years of experience are usually
necessary before an employee can
acquire the necessary knowledge
of the bank’s operations and cus­
tomers and of the community.
Although experience, ability,
and leadership qualities receive
great emphasis when bank em­
ployees are considered for promo­
tion to officer positions, advance­
ment also may be accelerated by
special study. Courses in every
phase of banking are offered by
the American Institute of Bank­
ing, a long-established, industrysponsored school. (See introduc­
tion to this chapter for more in­
formation on the Institute’s pro­
gram and other training pro­
grams sponsored jointly by uni­
versities and l o c a l bankers’
associations.)

Em ploym ent Outlook
The number of bank officers is
expected to increase very rapidly
through the 1970’s. Many new
positions will be created by the




expected expansion of banking
activities. Others will develop be­
cause the increasing use of elec­
tronic computers enables banks
to analyze and plan banking op­
erations more extensively and to
provide new kinds of services. In
addition, because bank officers
are somewhat older, on the av­
erage, than most e m p l o y e e
groups, a large number of addi­
tional officers will be needed each
year to replace those who retire
or leave their jobs for other rea­
sons. About 10,000 workers will
be needed annually because of
employment growth and the need
to replace bank officers who re­
tire or stop working for other
reasons. Many other openings
will arise as bank officers trans­
fer to other types of employment.
Most of the officer positions
which become available will be
filled by promoting people who
have already acquired experience
in banking operations. Although
competition for these promotions
is likely to remain keen, par­
ticularly in large banks, college
graduates who meet the stand­
ards for executive trainees should

find good opportunities for entry
positions.

Earnings

According to a private survey
conducted in 1968, large banks,
insurance companies, and other
financial institutions paid salar­
ies ranging from about $525 to
almost $750 a month to new ex­
ecutive trainees who were col­
lege graduates having majors in
business administration or in the
liberal arts.
The salaries of senior bank
officers may be several times as
great as these starting salaries.
For officers, as well as for other
bank employees, salaries are like­
ly to be lower in small towns
than in big cities.
See introductory section of this
chapter for information on Where
Employed and Sources of Addi­
tional Information; and for addi­
tional information on Training,
Employment Outlook, and Earn­
ings and Working Conditions.




O C C U P A T IO N S IN T H E
IN S U R A N C E B U S I N E S S

Insurance is a multibillion dol­
lar business which offers many
employment opportunities for
young people recently graduated
from high school or college and
for experienced workers.
There are about 1,800 life in­
surance companies and more
than 3,000 property and liability
(sometimes called property and
casualty) insurance companies.
They conduct their business in
main offices, commonly called
“ home” offices, and in thousands
of local sales offices in cities and
towns throughout the country.
Local offices may be branches
operated by an insurance com­
pany or they may be operated by
independent agents and brokers.

N ature of the Business
Insurance policies are classified
into two broad categories: life
insurance, and property and li­
ability insurance. Most compan­
ies specialize in one of these
types. However, companies in
both fields sell health insurance.
An increasing number of life in­
surance companies also sell equ­
ity products, such as variable
annuities and m u t u a l fund
shares.
Life insurance companies sell
policies which provide not only
basic life insurance protection,
but also several other kinds of
protection. Under some policies,
for example, policyholders receive
an income when they reach re­
tirement age or if they become
disabled and stop working; other
life insurance policies may help
to pay the costs of educating
children when they reach college
age, or may give extra financial
protection when the children are
young. Life insurance companies




also may sell accident and health
insurance, which assists policy­
holders in paying medical ex­
penses, and may furnish other
kinds of benefits when they are
injured or ill. Life insurance is
increasingly used to protect busi­
ness interests and to assure em­
ployee benefits.
Policies sold by property and
liability insurance companies pro­
vide financial protection against
loss or damage to the policyhold­
ers’ property and protect the
policyholder when he is respon­
sible for injuries to others or
damage to other people’s prop­
erty. This insurance field in­
cludes protection against hazards
such as fire, theft, and wind­
storm, as well as workmen’s com­
pensation and other liability in­
surance.
Many policies sold by life in­
surance and by property and
liability insurance companies are
written to cover groups of people
— anywhere from a few individ­
uals to many thousands. Group
policies usually are issued to em­

ployers for the benefit of their
employees. They most often pro­
vide retirement income, life in­
surance, or h e a l t h insurance.
Group policies providing life in­
surance protected more than 68
million workers in 1967, and the
number of policies in force was
over twice the number 10 years
earlier.

Insurance W orkers
The insurance business pro­
vided jobs for about 1.3 million
people in 1968. The great major­
ity were clerical and sales work­
ers. (See chart 36.)
Salesmen are a key group of
employees in insurance compan­
ies. About one-third of all insur­
ance employees are sales workers
— chiefly agents, brokers, and
others who sell policies directly
to individuals and business firms.
Agents and brokers usually are
responsible for finding their own
customers or “ prospects,” and for
seeing that each policy they sell
provides the special kind of pro­
tection required by the policy­
holder. (A statement on Insur­
ance Agents and Brokers is in­
cluded in the chapter on Sales
Occupations.)

793

794
The various types of insurance
policies offered by companies in
both the life and property-lia­
bility fields must be carefully
planned so that they are finan­
cially sound and conform to legal
requirements. After a policy is
sold, the insurance company must
settle claims made by the policy­
holder. Insurance companies also
must keep records of premium
payments made by policyholders
and services and benefits ren­
dered to them. Most of the plan­
ning, record-keeping, and other
behind-the-scenes work is done in
home offices where the services of
company officials, professional
and technical employees, and
clerical workers are available.
About 1 out of 7 insurance
workers is in a managerial posi­
tion. Managers in charge of local
offices, through which most in­
surance policies are sold, often
spend part of their time in sales
work. Others, who work in home
offices, are company officials or
administrators in charge of actu­
arial calculations, policy issu­
ance, accounting, investments,
loans, and additional office work.
The large-scale investment activi­
ties of many insurance compan­
ies make financial administration
a particularly important area of
employment.
Working closely with the man­
agerial personnel in insurance
companies are specialists who
study insurance risks and cover­
age problems, analyze investment
possibilities, prepare financial re­
ports, and do other professional
work. Professional workers, em­
ployed mainly at home offices,
represent about 1 out of 25 in­
surance workers. Included among
them is the actuary (D.O.T. 020.188), whose job is unique to the
insurance field. Actuaries make
statistical studies relating to vari­
ous kinds of risks and, on the
basis of these studies, determine
how large the premium rate on




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

each type of policy should be.
Another specialist is the homeoffice underwriter (D.O.T. 169.188), who reviews insurance ap­
plications to evaluate the degree
of risk involved. Underwriters
decide whether to accept or re­
ject the insurance policy; they
also determine which premium
rate should apply for each policy
issued. The work of most other
professional employees in insur­
ance companies is fundamentally
the same as in other industries.
Accountants, for example, ana­
lyze insurance company records
and financial problems relating
to premiums, investments, pay­
ments to policyholders, and other
aspects of the business. Engi­
neers work on problems con­
nected with policies covering in­
dustrial work accidents, damage
to industrial plants and machin­
ery, and other technical matters.
Lawyers interpret the regulations
which apply to insurance com­
pany operations, handle the set­
tlement of some kinds of insur­
ance claims, and do other legal
work. Investment analysts eval­
uate real estate mortgages and
new issues of bonds and other
securities, analyze current in­
vestments held by their compan­
ies, and make recommendations
on when to hold, buy, or sell. As
more electronic computers are
installed to handle office records,
an increasing number of electron­
ic specialists, including program­
e d and systems analysts, are
being employed. Many companies
also employ editorial, public rela­
tions, sales promotion, and ad­
vertising specialists.
Keeping track of millions of
policies involves a vast amount
of paperwork and occupies the
time of hundreds of thousands of
clerical workers. Almost half of
all insurance company employees
are in jobs classified as clerical—
a much larger proportion than in
most other industries. The ma­

jority are secretaries, stenog­
raphers, and typists; operators of
bookkeeping and other kinds of
office machines; or general office
clerks. They do much the same
kind of work in insurance com­
panies as in other types of busi­
ness enterprises. Other clerks,
employed mostly in home offices,
have specialized jobs found only
in the insurance business. Among
them are typists known as policy
writers (D.O.T. 203.588) who
copy onto policy forms, from ap­
proved insurance applications,
the name and address of the pol­
icyholder, amount of the policy,
premium rate, and other infor­
mation. Policy change clerks
(D.O.T. 219.388) enter changes
in beneficiaries and coverage on
policies, according to the instruc­
tions given by the agents. Insur-

OCCUPATIONS IN THE INSURANCE BUSINESS

ance checkers (D.O.T. 219.488)
check the information entered on
policies by other clerical workers
to be certain that the work is
accurate.
Other clerical workers occupy
positions of considerable respon­
sibility which require extensive
knowledge of one or more phases
of the insurance business. This
group includes claim adjusters
(D.O.T. 241.168) who decide
whether insurance claims are cov­
ered by the customer’s insurance
policy, see that any payment due
the policyholder is made on each
claim, and when necessary, in­
vestigate the circumstances which
initiated the claim. Claim ad­
justers for life insurance com­
panies have home office posi­
tions; those in the property and
liability business are generally
field personnel.
In addition to the four major
clerical occupations discussed
above, insurance companies em­
ploy thousands of repairmen, jan­
itors, and others who do mainte­
nance and custodial work similar
to that required by other large
business organizations. These em­
ployees account for about 1 out of
50 workers in the insurance
business.
Additional information about
many of these occupations is con­
tained in this Handbook in the
chapter on Clerical and Related
Occupations and the statements
on Actuaries, Accountants, En­
gineers, Lawyers, Programers,
Systems Analysts, and Mainte­
nance Electricians.
Places of Em ploym ent
Relatively large numbers of in­
surance workers are employed in
California, Connecticut, Illinois,
Massachuetts, New Jersey, New
York, and Texas, where the home
offices of some of the largest in­
surance companies are located.
Many insurance workers also are




employed in agencies, brokerage
firms, and other sales offices in
cities and towns throughout the
country. Almost all sales person­
nel work out of local offices,
whereas the majority of profes­
sional and clerical workers are
employed in company home
offices.
More than half of all insurance
workers are employed by life in­
surance companies and agencies;
included in this group are some
large companies with thousands
of employees. Companies which
deal mainly in property and li­
ability insurance, although more
numerous than the life insurance
companies, generally have fewer
employees. Many local agencies
and sales offices are also small,
regardless of the type of insur­
ance they handle.
T rain in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Insurance offers job opportu­
nities for people having very dif­
ferent educational backgrounds
and talents. Some positions re­
quire much managerial and ad­
ministrative experience and abili­
ty; others require college training
in mathematics, accounting, and
engineering; but still others in­
volve only routine duties which
can be learned on the job.
Graduation from high school or
business school is regarded as
adequate preparation for most
beginning clerical p o s i t i o n s .
Courses in typing, business arith­
metic, and the operation of office
machines may be valuable. These
special skills often are required
for jobs in insurance company
offices, and this kind of training
provides a background of infor­
mation which helps employees
advance to more responsible po­
sitions. Some legal training in a
college or university also may be
helpful for the position of claim
adjuster.

795
Engineering, accounting, and
other professional positions in in­
surance companies usually re­
quire the same kinds of college
training as they do in other busi­
ness firms. College-trained peo­
ple also are preferred for man­
agerial positions, many of which
are filled by promotion from
within. In professional and man­
agerial work requiring contact
with the public, as well as in
sales work and claim adjusting, it
is important that the employee
have a pleasant disposition and
outgoing personality. An em­
ployee whose work requires fre­
quent contact with policy holders
should be able to inspire confi­
dence in his ability to protect the
customer’s interests.
Insurance companies and asso­
ciations of companies and agents
offer several kinds of training
programs to help employees pre­
pare for better jobs. The Insur­
ance Institute of America, for ex­
ample, furnishes study guides
relating to the fundamentals of
property and casualty insurance,
and awards certificates to those
who pass the Institute’s exami­
nations. Some national, State,
and local insurance associations
offer home study training or eve­
ning courses in various aspects
of the insurance business. The
American College of Life Under­
writers and the National Associa­
tion of Life Underwriters offer
life insurance courses that stress
the services agents may provide
to policy holders. Other courses,
especially designed to help cleri­
cal employees gain a better un­
derstanding of life insurance and
life insurance company opera­
tions, relate to the organization
and operation of both home and
field offices. They are given un­
der the auspices of the Life Of­
fice Management Association
which also provides programs for
the development of supervisory
and managerial personnel.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

796
E m ploym ent O utlook
Employment in the insurance
industry is expected to rise mod­
erately through the 1970’s. New
jobs to be filled, plus openings
that occur as employees retire or
stop working for other reasons,
are expected to total more than
75,000 a year. Turnover is par­
ticularly high in this industry
because of the many young wom­
en in clerical jobs who work only
for a few years and then leave to
care for their families. Still other
openings will occur as insurance
workers leave their jobs for em­
ployment in other industries.
The expected increase in em­
ployment will result mainly from
a rapidly increasing volume of in­
surance business. A growing
population will purchase more
life insurance, as well as more
insurance which provides retire­
ment income and funds for their
children’s education. Others who
do not presently have insurance
may become policyholders; for
example, advances in medical sci­
ence are making life insurance
available to persons who were
formerly rejected as poor insur­
ance risks. The need for property
and liability insurance also will
increase as a rising standard of
living enables more individuals
and families to own one automo­
bile or more, buy homes, and
make other major purchases
which are usually insured. In the
business world more insurance
of this kind also will be required
as new plants are built, new
equipment is installed, and more
goods are shipped throughout the
country and the world. Further­
more, as the coverage of State
workmen’s compensation laws is
broadened, more employers may
need workmen’s compensation
insurance.
Insurance employment prob­
ably will rise at a somewhat
slower rate than the volume of




business handled by insurance
companies. It is becoming more
common for companies to issue
“ multiple-line” policies, which
cover a variety of insurance risks
formerly covered in separate
policies, thus reducing the work­
load of sales personnel in local
offices and clerical employees in
home offices. As more companies
install electronic computers and
other equipment to process some
of the routine paperwork now
done by clerks, changes in insur­
ance company employment will
occur. The total number of in­
surance company clerical jobs
probably will continue to rise,
especially those jobs that require
special training, but the propor­
tion of routine jobs is likely to
decline.
Insurance workers have better
prospects of regular employment
than workers in many other in­
dustries. Most businessmen re­
gard property and liability insur­
ance as a necessity, both during
economic recession and in boom
periods, and private individuals
also attempt to retain as much
basic financial protection as pos­
sible, even when their incomes
decline.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
A 1966-67 survey of nonsupervisory employees in insurance
companies, banks, and related
businesses showed a wide range
of salaries among the individuals
in the companies surveyed. Some
clerical workers in beginning,
routine jobs earned less than $60
a week; some experienced em­
ployees in more responsible posi­
tions earned up to twice that
amount. Women employed in be­
ginning jobs as junior file clerks
averaged $62.50 a week and of­
fice girls, $64.00. Switchboard
operators, representing a fairly
large group of women employees,

averaged between $79.50 and
$90.00, depending upon skill and
experience. General stenograph­
ers averaged $78.50 a week and
senior stenographers averaged
$91.50. Typists, the largest of any
women’s group covered in the
survey, averaged $69.00 for be­
ginning jobs and $80.50 for ex­
perienced workers. The average
for women accounting clerks
ranged from $74.50 to $94.00, de­
pending on experience and skill.
The earnings of men in office oc­
cupations averaged somewhat
higher than those of women do­
ing similar work.
To some extent, these differ­
ences in salary levels may be due
to differences in the specific job
duties of the employees involved,
and in the firms for which they
worked. Salary levels in different
parts of the country also vary;
earnings are generally lowest in
southern cities and highest in the
western metropolitan areas. (See
chapter on Clerical and Related
Occupations for additional infor­
mation about the earnings of
workers in other office occupa­
tions found in insurance compa­
nies.)
Starting salaries for profes­
sional workers are generally com­
parable with these for similar
positions in other industries and
businesses. It is not uncommon
for specialists having several
years of experience in the insur­
ance business to receive annual
salaries of well-over $10,000. The
earnings of agents and brokers,
unlike those of salaried profes­
sional workers, depend on com­
missions from the policies they
sell. (See the statement on In­
surance Agents and Brokers.)
Except for agents and brokers,
who must sometimes extend their
working hours to meet with pros­
pective clients, insurance compa­
ny employees usually work be­
tween 35 and 40 hours a week.
The number of paid holidays is

OCCUPATIONS IN THE INSURANCE BUSINESS

somewhat greater than in many
other industries. Two-week paid
vacations generally are granted
employees after 1 year of service;
in most companies, vacations are
extended to 3 weeks after 10
years and, in some, to 4 weeks
after 20 years. Practically all in­
surance company workers share
in group plans providing life and
health insurance, as well as re­
tirement pensions.
Sources of A dditional Inform ation
General information on em­




797
National Association of Insurance
Agents, 96 Fulton St., New
York, N.Y. 10038.

ployment opportunities may be
obtained from the personnel de­
partments of major insurance
companies or from insurance
agencies in local communities.
Other information on careers in
the insurance field is available
from:

For additional information on
the salaries of clerical workers in
finance industries, including in­
surance, see:

Institute of Life Insurance, 277
Park Ave., New York, N.Y.
10017.

W a g e s and R e la te d B e n e fits , P a rt
11: M e tr o p o lita n A r e a s , U n ite d
S ta te s and R eg io n a l S u m m a ries.

Insurance Information Institute,
110 William St., New York,
N.Y. 10038.

(BLS Bulletin 1530-87, 1968).
Superintendent of Documents,
U.S. Government Printing Of­
fice, Washington, D.C. 20402.
Price 65 cents.




SERVICE AND MISCELLANEOUS

The long-term growth in the
American economy has created a
growing demand for services of
all kinds. Thus, in addition to
the multitude of goods produced
and distributed, a growing share
of our national wealth and man­
power is being devoted to needed
services, resulting from greater
emphasis on better medical care,
quality education, personal serv­
ices, and recreational activity. In
many ways, the rapid growth in
the importance of the service in­
dustries reflects the country’s
aspirations for a better and fuller
life for all of its citizens.
In today’s job market, the serv­
ice industries represent an im­
portant source of employment to
new as well as experienced work­
ers, and offer job opportunities to
persons having various levels of
skill and differing degrees of
training and education.
In 1968, about 20.5 million
workers were e m p l o y e d in
one of the various service indus­
tries. Approximately one-half
were wage and salary workers
employed by private firms, 5.7
million were government em­
ployees (mainly in educational
and medical services), and 2.1
million were self-employed per­
sons. The remainder, accounting
for 2.0 million persons, were em­
ployed in private households.
Educational services, including
public and private elementary
and secondary schools and insti­
tutions of higher education, make
up the largest sector of the serv­
ice industry’s employment. In
1968, educational services ac­
counted for more than one-fourth
of the service work force. Hospi­
tals and other establishments
that provide health services con­
stitute the next largest industry
sector, accounting for roughly 1




out of 5 workers. In both the edu­
cational service and health serv­
ice industries, government work­
ers (mainly local and State)
make up a large share of the work
force. Other service industries
employing many workers are ho­
tels, laundries, and other personal
services, private households, busi­
ness and repair services, and en­
tertainment services.
The service industries repre­
sent a major source of job op­
portunities for women. In 1968,
women accounted for about
three-fifths of the total employ­
ment in the service industry.
Among the various service indus­
tries that represent the broad in­
dustry group, however, their em­
ployment ranged from less than
one-tenth in automobile and
other types of repair businesses
to virtually all of the workers in
private households. Women work­
ers also accounted for an espe­
cially high proportion of the to­
tal employment in hospitals, edu­
cational services, hotels, and es­
tablishments that provide per­
sonal services such as beauty
shops and laundries.
Workers who have a wide range
of education, training, skills, and
abilities are employed in the
service industries. In 1968, as
shown in the accompanying ta­
ble, white-collar workers (pro­
fessional, managerial, clerical,
and sales workers) accounted for
more than one-half of the service
industry’s work force. The serv­
ice industry employs the highest
proportion of professional, tech­
nical, and kindred workers found
in any major industry, account­
ing for nearly one-third of total
industry employment. By far, the
largest concentration of profes­
sional and technical workers is
represented by teachers em­

ployed in the educational serv­
ices industry. Other major em­
ployers of professional workers
are found in the medical and
health services industry— where
doctors, dentists, and nurses con­
stitute a large share of the work
force, and professional services
where large numbers of engineers
and archictects are employed.
Self-employment is typical for
most of the male professional
workers in the health service in­
dustry. By way of comparison,
women in this field— typified by
the case of professional nurses—
are mainly salaried workers.
Clerical workers account for
about 1 out of 5 workers in the
service industry. Most are women
who are employed as stenograph­
ers, typists, secretaries, office
machine operators, and general
office occupations. Managers, of­
ficials, and proprietors, including
hospital administrators, make up
a relatively small fraction of total
employment in the service in­
dustry.
Service
workers
represent
about three-tenths of the total
industry employment. The major
service occupations are private
household
worker,
practical
nurse, hospital attendant, char­
woman, janitor, waiter, waitress,
cook, and protective service
worker.
Blue-collar workers, mainly
skilled craftsmen and mainte­
nance workers, account for a rela­
tively small share of total indus­
try employment— only about 1
out of 7 workers. Many of the
craftsmen are employed as mechainics and repairmen in auto­
mobile and other repair service
industries or as maintenance
workers in hotels, schools, the­
aters, and other establishments.
Motion picture projectionists are
799

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

800
especially important in the enter­
tainment service industry. Opera­
tives are employed mainly in
laundries,
automobile
repair
shops, and other types of repair
businesses. Most of the relatively
few laborers in this industry work
in auto repair shops, on golf
courses, and in bowling alleys.
Estimated
employment,
1968
Major occupational group

distribution)

All occupation groups .............
Professional, technical,
and kindred workers ....
Managers, officials, and
proprietors ........................
Clerical and kindred
workers ..........................
Sales workers....................
Craftsmen, foremen, and
kindred workers ...........
Operatives and kindred
workers .............
Service workers ...............
Laborers ............................

100
31
7
20
U)
6
6
30
2

(x) Less than 0.5 percent.
N ote.— Because o f rounding, individual items
may not add to total.




Employment in the service in­
dustry is expected to increase
very rapidly through the 1970’s.
Major factors contributing to the
sharp growth in the demand for
services are expected to stem from
population growth, expanding
business activity, rising personal
incomes, and the general aware­
ness of the benefits that educa­
tional, health, and other services
can provide. The fastest growing
components of the service indus­
try will be educational services,
medical health services, and
among firms that provide com­
puter services and laboratory re­
search facilities.

The necessity for extensive
person-to-person contact in the

performance of many service
functions tends to limit the im­
pact of technological innovations
on employment requirements. Al­
though the adoption of automatic
data-processing equipment may
moderate employment growth in
some areas— for example, in ac­
counting and bookkeeping serv­
ices— technological change is not
expected to influence greatly or
limit the demand for workers in
the service industries.
The statement that f o l l o w s
discusses job opportunities in the
hotel industry. More detailed in­
formation about occupations that
cut across many industries ap­
pears elsewhere in the Handbook.
(See index in the back of the
book.)

H O T E L O C C U P A T IO N S

Throughout the United States,
travelers find hotels and motels
ready to provide them with a
“ home-away-from-home.” M o r e
than 750,000 people worked in
these hotels, motels, and related
businesses in 1968. The great ma­
jority were employed in the Na­
tion’s hotels and motor hotels,
located chiefly in urban areas. Of
the remainder, most worked in
the large number of motels and
tourist courts located on the out­
skirts of large cities, along major
highways, and in resort areas. A
few were employed in related
businesses such as summer camps
and dude ranches. About one-half
of the employees in hotels and
related businesses were women.
Some hotel occupations can be
entered with little or no special­
ized training. In many kinds of
hotel work, however, the demand
for specially trained people is in­
creasing. Hotels are complex or­
ganizations and need specialized
personnel to direct and coordi­
nate operations which may in­
volve thousands of guests an­
nually and millions of dollars of
property and equipment.
This chapter deals with em­
ployment opportunities in hotels,
motels, and related businesses,
and includes separate statements
on several hotel occupations.

The Hotel Business and its
W orkers
Hotels are of three general
types— commercial, residential,
and resort. The vast majority are
commercial hotels which cater
chiefly to travelers seeking a
room for a brief stay. A small
number are residential hotels,
which chiefly accommodate peo­
ple for long periods, ranging from
a few months to many years.




Others are resort hotels, which
provide lodging for vacationers.
Motor hotels, motels, and other
establishments cater especially to
vacationers and other travelers
seeking accommodations for a
short time. Commercial and resi­
dential hotels generally operate
the year round. Although many
resort hotels, motor hotels, and
motels, are open for only part of
the year— for example, during the
winter season in Florida or the
summer months in northern parts
of the country— an increasing
number are remaining open the
year round.
Hotels range in size from those
which have fewer than 25 rooms
and only a few employees to some
which have 1,000 rooms or more
and many hundreds of workers.
In the past few years, an increas­
ing number of motor hotels have
been built, some of which have
large staffs. Many motels, how­
ever, are relatively small, includ­
ing a sizable number which are
run by the owners with few, if
any, paid employees.
Most hotels have restaurants,
ranging from simple coffee shops
to vast dining rooms, wine cellars,
and elaborate kitchens. L a r g e
hotels and motor hotels also
may have banquet rooms, ex­
hibit halls, and spacious ball­
rooms— to accommodate conven­
tions, business meetings, and so­
cial gatherings. Many hotels, es­
pecially in resort areas, have
recreational facilities such as
swimming pools, boating facilties,
golf courses, and tennis courts.
For the convenience of guests,
hotels may provide information
about interesting places to visit,
sell tickets to theaters and sport­
ing events, and even call in baby­
sitters. Their facilities often in­
clude newsstands, gift shops, bar­
ber and beauty shops, laundry

and valet services, and railroad
and airline ticket reservation of­
fices. Although motels and tour­
ist courts usually offer fewer
services than hotels, the number
with restaurants, s w im m i n g
pools, and other conveniences for
guests is steadily increasing.
Because of the many services
they offer, hotels need workers in
a wide variety of occupations.
One of the largest groups of hotel
employees is in the housekeeping
department. Many thousands of
maids, porters, housemen, linen
room attendants, and laundry
room workers are employed
by hotels and motels to make
beds, clean rooms and halls, move
furniture, hang draperies, provide
guests with fresh linens and tow­
els, operate laundry equipment,
and mark and inspect laundered
items. Women usually are em­
ployed for the lighter housekeep­
ing tasks, whereas men have jobs
requiring more strenuous physi­
cal effort such as washing walls
and arranging furniture. Large
hotels and motor hotels usually
employ executive housekeepers to
supervise these workers, and
some hotels also may have a spe­
cial manager in charge of laundry
operations.
In most hotels, a uniformed
staff performs guest services in
the lobby. This staff includes the
bellmen who carry baggage for
guests and escort them to their
rooms. Doormen are also a part
of the uniformed staff, as are ele­
vator operators.
The front office staff work as
room clerks, key clerks, mail
clerks, and information clerks.
Their chief duties are to greet
guests, assign rooms, and furnish
information. About half of the
hotel clerical workers are front
office employees. The remainder,
mainly women, are employed in a
variety of office occupations such
as bookkeeper, cashier, telephone
operator, and secretary. These
occupations are discussed else­
where in the Handbook.
801

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

802
Hotel managers and their as­
sistants are a relatively small
group with the highly important
task of supervising operations and
making them profitable. A gen­
eral manager is in charge of all
hotel operations. Some general
managers have assistants who are
in charge of the front office or
help with other phases of hotel
management. Some assistants
may be responsible for specific
operations; for example, foodservice managers who operate the
dining rooms and other eating
facilities, or sales managers re­
sponsible for attracting more
business to the hotel.
In addition, hotels also employ
workers who are found in other
industries. Among these are ac­
countants, personnel workers, en­
tertainers, recreation workers,
waiters, chefs, and bartenders.
Maintenance workers, such as
carpenters, electricians, station­
ary engineers, plumbers, and
painters, also work for hotels.
Still other types of workers em­
ployed in hotels include detec­
tives, barbers, beauty salon oper­
ators, valets, seamstresses, and
gardeners. Most of these occupa­
tions are discussed elsewhere in
the Handbook.

Em ploym ent O utlook
A moderate increase in employ­
ment is likely in this industry
through the 1970’s. In addition,
about 30,000 workers will be re­
quired each year to replace those
who retire or die. Many addi­
tional openings will result from
the need to replace workers who
transfer to positions in other in­
dustries.
Most of the anticipated em­
ployment growth in the industry
will stem from the need to staff
the new hotels, motor hotels, and
motels being built in urban areas,
as well as the additional facilities




being built in resort areas. Lim­
ited expansion probably will take
place in older hotels that try to
meet the challenge of increasing
competition for business by mod­
ernizing their facilties and ex­
panding their services. Hotels
that are unable to modernize their
facilities are likely to experience
low occupancy rates and may be
forced to reduce overhead costs
by eliminating services and work­
ers. Thousands of temporary jobs
will continue to be available each
year in resort hotels, motels, and
other establishments which are
open only part of the year or have
more business in some seasons
than others.
The demand for lodging is ex­
pected to increase through the
1970’s as the country’s popula­
tion grows and travel for business
and pleasure increases. Jet air
travel, which permits businessmen
and others who travel frequently
to make a trip to a distant city,
complete their business, and re­
turn home the same day, may
somewhat limit this increase.
Employment is likely to rise most
rapidly in moteb, motor hotels,
and other businesses catering es­
pecially to motorists. This trend
has been evident for some time
and will continue, as the Federal
highway building program fur­
ther stimulates both automobile
travel and the building of motels
and motor hotels. In motels, most
of the additional employees (not
counting new owners) will be
housekeeping and food-service
workers.
Most of the job openings in
hotels will continue to be for
workers who need little special­
ized training such as maids, por­
ters, housemen, kitchen helpers,
and some dining room employees.
These jobs account for a large
proportion of all hotel workers
and have high turnover rates.
When general employment con­
ditions are good, people in such

jobs find it relatively easy to shift
to other kinds of work. Also,
many of the workers are women,
who often leave their jobs to care
for their families. In a few of
these occupations, technological
changes may limit the number
of openings. For example, the in­
creased use of automatic dish­
washers, vegetable cutters and
peelers, and other mechanical
kitchen equipment is likely to re­
duce the need for kitchen helpers.
A number of people also will be
needed every year in front office
jobs to replace workers who are
promoted to managerial posts, as
well as to fill new jobs in the
increasing number of hotels and
motels. People in these occupa­
tions are less subject than many
other workers in the industry to
changes in general economic con­
ditions. In addition, there will be
openings for other clerical work­
ers, although the increasing use
of office machines may affect ad­
versely clerical employment in
some hotels. Opportunities are
expected to be favorable for
young people who acquire the
training and experience necessary
to qualify for jobs as cooks and
food managers. (Food service
workers and office workers are
discussed elsewhere in the Hand­

book.)
Earnings and W orking Conditions
The location, size, and type of
hotel affect earnings of hotel
workers. Other significant factors
include the tipping practice for
the occupation and the degree of
unionization. About one-half of
all hotel workers are now covered
by the Fair Labor Standards Act,
a Federal statute which sets
minimum wages. In 1968, hotel
workers covered by the law re­
ceived at least $1.30 an hour. In
addition, more than half the
States have their own wage and

803

HOTEL OCCUPATIONS

hour laws that cover hotel work­
ers among others.
Salaries of hotel employees in
managerial positions have an es­
pecially wide range, mainly be­
cause of great differences in du­
ties and responsibilities. Hotel
manager trainees who are grad­
uates of specialized college pro­
grams start out at salaries rang­
ing from $6,000 to $10,000 and are
usually given periodic increases
for the first year or two. Experi­
enced managers may earn several
times as much as beginners; a
few, in top jobs, earn $50,000 a
year or more. In addition to sal­
ary, hotels customarily furnish
managers and their families with
lodging in the hotel, meals, park­
ing facilities, laundry, and other
services.
According to a mid-1967 survey
conducted by the Bureau of La­
bor Statistics in more than 900
hotels, motels, and tourist courts
throughout the country, earnings
of bellmen average $.88 an hour.
Chambermaids earned an average
hourly wage of $1.25.
Although earnings for all nonsupervisory workers ip the hotel
industry averaged $1.43 an hour,
according to the survey, wage
rates of hotel workers varied
greatly from occupation to occu­
pation, between men and women,
and in different parts of the coun­
try. For example, nonsupervisory
hotel workers in the Western
part of the United States earned
an average of $1.71 an hour,
whereas those working in the
South earned an average of $1.16
an hour. In addition to regular
earnings, bellmen, maids, and
housekeepers may receive tips
from hotel or motel guests.
One-third of nonsupervisory
employees worked fewer than 35
hours a week in mid-1967. Work
hours ranging from 35 to 40 a
week accounted for another one-




third of these workers; the re­
maining one-third of nonsuper­
visory hotel employees worked
over 40 hours. Scheduled work­
weeks are usually longest in the
South.
Since hotels are open round the
clock, workers may be employed
on any one of three shifts. Usu­
ally, more people are employed
during the day than at night, and
additional compensation may be
paid for work during late hours.
Managers and housekeepers who
live in the hotel usually have
regular work schedules, although
managers may be called on at any
time.
Waiters and waitresses, cooks,
pantry workers, dishwashers, and
other kitchen workers commonly
receive free meals; in a few ho­
tels, maids, elevator operators,
and room clerks also receive free
meals. Almost 90 percent of non­
supervisory employees are cov­
ered by paid vacation provisions,
the duration of the vacation usu­
ally being determined by length
of service. Paid holidays— rang­
ing from 1 to 8 days a year— are
provided for nearly half of the
nonsupervisory hotel employees.
The Hotel & Restaurant Em­
ployees and Bartenders Interna­
tional Union is the major union
in the hotel business. Uniformed
personnel, such as bellmen and
elevator operators, may be mem­
bers of the Building Service Em­
ployees’ International Union.
The degree of unionization, how­
ever, differs sharply from area to
area. In Boston, Chicago, Detroit,
New York, St. Louis, and San
Francisco-Oakland, 50 percent or
more of nonsupervisory em­
ployees, except front desk and of­
fice, are in establishments with
union contract agreements. In
New Orleans, Atlanta, and Mem­
phis the percentage is 20 or
below.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Information on careers in hotel
work may be obtained from:
American Hotel and Motel Asso­
ciation, 221 West 57th St., New
York, N.Y. 10019.

Additional information on ho­
tel training opportunities and a
directory of schools and colleges
offering courses and scholarships
in the hotel field may be ob­
tained by writing to:
Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and
Institutional Education, Statler
Hall, Ithaca, N.Y. 14850.

Information on housekeeping
in hotels, including a list of
schools offering courses in house­
keeping, may be obtained from:
National Executive Housekeepers
Association, Inc., Business and
Professional Building, Gallipolis, Ohio 45631.

BELLMEN AND BELL
CAPTAINS
(D.O.T. 324.138 and .878)

N atu re of the W ork
Bellmen, also called bellboys or
bellhops, carry the baggage of in­
coming hotel guests while escort­
ing them to their rooms. The bell­
man checks to see that every­
thing is in order in the room. He
may suggest the use of various
hotel services, including the din­
ing room and the valet service.
Bellmen also handle room serv­
ice, perform errands for guests,
and deliver packages. In 1968,
nearly 30,000 such workers were
employed in the Nation’s lodging
places. In large hotels, special
baggage porters usually are em­
ployed to carry baggage for guests
who are checking out. In smaller

804

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

ful, and courteous. A knowledge
of the attractions and geography
of the local community is an as­
set. They also must be able to
stand for long periods and to
carry heavy baggage.

Em ploym ent O utlook

hotels, bellmen carry baggage for
outgoing as well as incoming
guests, and also may relieve the
elevator operator or switchboard
operator.
Bell captains are employed in
large and medium-size hotels to
supervise the bellmen. They as­
sign work to these employees,
keep their time records, and in­
struct new bellmen in their du­
ties. They also may help guests
arrange for transportation by giv­
ing them information on train
and plane schedules and sending
a baggage porter or a bellman to
pick up the tickets. In addition,
they handle complaints from
guests regarding the work of their
department, and take care of re­
quests for unusual services. At
times, bell captains also may per­
form the duties of bellmen.
Superintendents of service—
found in only a few hotels with
large service departments— su­
pervise elevator operators and
starters, doormen, and washroom
attendants, as well as bellmen
and bell captains.




Train in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
No specific e d u c a t i o n a l re­
quirements exist for bellman
jobs. Graduation from high
school, however, enhances a bell­
man’s opportunities for promo­
tion to front office clerical jobs.
(See statement on Front Office
Clerks in this chapter.)
In many hotels, bellman jobs
are filled by promoting elevator
operators. In the service depart­
ment of the hotel, the line of pro­
motion is from bellman to bell
captain to superintendent of serv­
ice. Some of the factors which
may affect a bellman’s chances
for advancement are a favorable
work record showing few com­
plaints by guests, good work hab­
its, and leadership qualities.
Since there is only one bell cap­
tain’s position in each hotel, a
number of years may pass before
an opening occurs. Opportunities
for advancement to superintend­
ent of service are even more
limited.
Since bellmen are in frequent
contact with the public, it is im­
portant that they be neat, tact­

Nearly a thousand openings for
bellmen are expected each year
through the 1970’s, due to growth
deaths, and retirements. Many
additional openings also will be
created as bellmen transfer to
other occupations. Since many
hotels promote from within by
advancing men elevator operators
to bellman jobs, chances for out­
siders to enter year-round jobs
as bellmen will be best in hotels
which employ women as elevator
operators, and in the increasing
number of hotels which have au­
tomatic elevators. Many opportu­
nities for temporary jobs also will
arise in resort hotels which are
open only part of the year and
hire college students and other
young men. Beginners also will be
needed in small hotels to replace
experienced bellmen who shift to
jobs in luxury hotels where earn­
ings from tips may be higher.
Competition among employed
bellmen for the relatively few
bell captain jobs that will become
available in the future is expect­
ed to remain keen.
The number of bellmen em­
ployed is expected to increase
slowly through the 1970’s. Some
additional jobs will be created as
new hotels and motor hotels are
built, and additions are made to
existing hotels. The fast growing
motel business also will provide
some additional jobs; however,
because of the type of construc­
tion and the emphasis on infor­
mality, relatively few motels em­
ploy bellmen.
See introductory section to this
chapter for information on Earn-

805

HOTEL OCCUPATIONS

perform bookkeeping functions or
assist cashiers with their clerical
work.

ings and Working Conditions,
Sources of Additional Informa­
tion, and for additional informa­
tion on Employment Outlook.

Train in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent

FRONT OFFICE CLERKS
(D.O.T. 242.368)

N ature of th e W ork
Hotels and motels employ
front office clerks to greet guests,
rent rooms, handle mail, and do
other work related to assigning
rooms. More than 50,000 such
workers were employed in the
Nation’s lodging places in 1968.
By working “ up front,” they deal
directly with the public and help
build an establishment’s reputa­
tion for courteous and efficient
service. In small hotels and in
many motels, a front office clerk
(who may be the owner) may not
only rent rooms, issue keys, sort
mail, and give information, but
also do some bookeeping and act
as cashier. On the other hand,
large hotels usually employ sev­
eral front office clerks, who may
be assigned to different kinds of
jobs.
Room or desk clerks rent the
available rooms. Customarily,
they are the first of the front of­
fice clerical staff to greet guests.
In assigning rooms, they must be
aware of advance registrations,
consider any preferences guests
may express, and at the same
time try to obtain maximum reve­
nues for the hotel. Room clerks
give information about rates and
the types of services available,
and see that guests fill out regis­
tration forms properly. After reg­
istration is completed, room
clerks signal bellmen to carry
guests’ l u g g a g e . Reservationclerks acknowledge room reser­




vations by mail or telephone,
type out registration forms, and
notify the room clerk when
guests are due to arrive. To keep
room assignment records current,
rack clerks insert or remove forms
indicating the time when rooms
become occupied or vacant, or
when they are closed for repairs.
They also keep housekeepers,
telephone operators, and other
p e r s o n n e l informed about
changes in room occupancy.
Other special clerks, such as key,
mail, and information clerks, are
employed in some hotels. In the
largest hotels floor supervisors or
floor clerks are assigned to each
floor to handle the distribution
of mail and packages and per­
form other incidental duties.
In all but the largest hotels
and motels, front office clerks
may be responsible for a com­
bination of these various duties.
They may have other duties as
well, particularly when they work
on late evening shifts. For ex­
ample, the night room clerk may

High school graduates who
have some clerical aptitude and
the personal characteristics nec­
essary for dealing with the public
may be hired for beginning jobs
as mail, information, or key
clerks. Neatness, a courteous and
friendly manner, and ease in
dealing with people are impor­
tant personal traits for front of­
fice clerks. Typing and bookkeep­
ing courses given in high school
may be helpful, particularly for
nightshift work where additional
clerical duties often are perform­
ed, or for jobs in smaller hotels
and motels, where the front office
clerks often have a variety of
duties. Although education be­
yond high school generally is not
required for front office work, ho­
tel employers are attaching
greater importance to college
training in selecting personnel
who may be advanced later to
managerial positions. Front office
clerks may improve their oppor­
tunities for promotion by taking
home study courses, such as those
sponsored by the Educational In­
stitute of the American Hotel and
Motel Association.
Inexperienced workers learn
about the front office routine
mainly through on-the-job ex­
perience. They usually have a
brief initial training period dur­
ing which their duties are de­
scribed, and they are given infor­
mation about the hotel, such as
the location of rooms and the
types of services offered. After
new employees begin working,
they receive help from the assist­
ant manager or some experienced
front office worker.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

806
Front office workers usually
start as key clerks or mail clerks,
or in other fairly routine jobs.
Occasionally, employees in other
types of related work— for exam­
ple, bellmen or elevator operators
— may be transferred to front of­
fice jobs. Most hotels have a promotion-from-within policy for
front office workers. A typical
line of promotion might be from
key or rack clerk to room clerk,
to assistant front office manager,
and later to front office manager.
(See statement on Hotel Man­
agers and Assistants later in this
chapter.)

E m ploym ent O utlook

Employment in this occupation
is expected to increase moderate­
ly through the 1970’s. Many
openings will result from the
need to replace workers who are
promoted to higher level jobs or
transfer to other occupations. In
addition, new front office jobs
will be created in the hundreds
of motels and motor hotels ex­
pected to open or expand in the
next decade.
A front office clerk has rela­
tively stable employment. Em­
ployment in this occupation does
not contract as sharply with
changes in general economic con­
ditions as does employment in
many other hotel occupations.
However, the introduction of
computerized reservation systems
may change the duties of some
front office clerks.
See the introductory section to
this chapter for information on
Earnings and Working Condi­
tions, Sources of Additional In­
formation, and for additional in­
formation on Employment Out­
look.




HOTEL HOUSEKEEPERS AND
ASSISTANTS
(D.O.T. 321.138)

N atu re of th e W ork
Hotel housekeepers are respon­
sible for keeping hotels clean and
attractive. They account for furn­
ishings and supplies; and hire,
train, and supervise the maids,
linen and laundry workers,
housemen, seamstresses, and re­
pairmen. In addition, they keep
employee records and perform
other duties which vary with the
size and type of the hotel. Those
employed in middle-size and
small hotels not only supervise
the cleaning staffs but also may
do some of their work. In large
hotels and smaller luxury-type
hotels, the duties of executive or
head housekeepers are primarily
administrative. Besides supervis­

ing a staff which may number in
the hundreds, they prepare the
budget for the housekeeping de­
partment; make regular reports
to the manager on the condition
of rooms, needed repairs, and
suggested improvements; pur­
chase or assist in purchasing sup­
plies; and have responsibility for
interior decorating work. Some
executive housekeepers employed
by large hotel chains may have
special assignments such as re­
organizing housekeeping proced­
ures in an established hotel or
setting up the housekeeping de­
partment in a new or newly ac­
quired hotel.
In many hotels, executive
housekeepers are assisted by floor
housekeepers who supervise the
work on one or more floors. Large
hotels also may employ assistant
executive housekeepers. More
than 25,000 hotel housekeepers
were employed in 1968, most of
them women.

Housekeepers check linen supplies.

807

HOTEL OCCUPATIONS

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Although no specific educa­
tional requirements exist for
housekeepers, most employers
prefer applicants who have at
least a high school diploma. Ex­
perience is also an asset in ob­
taining a hotel housekeeping job.
Specialized training in hotel
administration, including courses
in housekeeping, was available at
several colleges in 1968. Some
universities offer short summer
courses or conduct evening classes
in cooperation with the National
Executive Housekeepers Associa­
tion. In addition, the Educational
Institute of the American Hotel
and Motel Association also offers
housekeeping oriented courses for
class or individual home study.
The most helpful courses are
those emphasizing housekeeping
procedures, personnel manage­
ment, budget preparation, inter­
ior decorating, and the purchase,
use, and care of different types of
equipment and fabrics.

Em ploym ent O utlook
More than 2,000 openings for
hotel housekeepers and their as­
sistants are expected annually
through the 1970’s. Most open­
ings will result from the need to
replace workers who retire or
leave the occupation for other
reasons. However, some new po­
sitions for housekeepers will be­
come available in newly built ho­
tels and the growing number of
large motor hotels and luxury
motels. In established hotels,
most openings for assistant
housekeepers will be filled from
within by promoting maids. Sim­
ilarly, vacancies for executive
housekeepers often will be filled
by promoting assistant house­
keepers. However, since only one
top job as executive housekeeper




exists in each hotel, many years
may pass before an opening of
this kind occurs in a given hotel.
Experienced hotel housekeepers
also will find employment oppor­
tunities in hospitals, clubs, col­
lege dormitories, and a variety
of welfare institutions.
See introduction to this chap­
ter for information on Earnings
and Working Conditions, Sources
of Additional Information, and
for additional information on Em­
ployment Outlook.

HOTEL MANAGERS AND
ASSISTANTS
(D.O.T. 163.118 and 187.118 and .168)
Manager checks convention
reservations.

N atu re of th e W ork
Hotel and motel managers are
responsible for operating their
establishments profitably and at
the same time, providing maxi­
mum comfort for their guests. Of
the more than 150,000 hotel and
motel managers employed in
1968, about 70,000 were salaried
and more than 80,000 were own­
er-managers. Managers direct
and coordinate the activities of
the front office, kitchen, din­
ing rooms, and the various hotel
departments, such as housekeep­
ing, accounting, personnel, pur­
chasing, publicity, and mainte­
nance. They make decisions on
room rates, establish credit pol­
icy, and have final responsibility
for dealing with many other kinds
of problems that arise in operat­
ing their hotels or motels. Like
other managers of business enter­
prises, they also may spend con­
siderable time conferring with
business and social groups and
participating in community af­
fairs.

In small hotels, the manager
also may perform much of the
front office clerical work. In the
smallest hotels and in many mo­
tels, the owners— sometimes a
family team— do all the work
necessary to operate the business.
The general manager of a large
hotel may have several assistants
who manage one department or
more and assume general admin­
istrative responsibility when the
manager is absent. Because pre­
paring and serving food is impor­
tant in the operation of most
large hotels, a special manager
usually is in charge of this de­
partment. Managers of large ho­
tels usually employ a special as­
sistant, known as a sales man­
ager, whose job it is to promote
maximum use of hotel facilities.
The sales manager spends much
time traveling about the country
explaining to various groups the
facilities his hotel can offer for
meetings, banquets, and conven­
tions.

808
Since large hotel chains often
centralize activities such as pur­
chasing supplies and equipment
and planning employee training
programs, managers of these ho­
tels may have fewer duties than
managers of independently own­
ed hotels. Hotel chains may as­
sign managers to help organize
work in a newly acquired hotel,
or may transfer them to establish
hotels in different cities or in
foreign countries.

T rain in g , O th er Q ualificatio ns,
and A dvancem ent
Since most hotels promote
from within, individuals who
have proven their ability, usually
in front office jobs, may be pro­
moted to assistant manager posi­
tions and eventually to general
manager.
Although successful hotel ex­
perience is generally the first con­
sideration in selecting managers,
employers increasingly emphasize
a college education. Many believe
the best educational preparation
is provided by the colleges which
offer a specialized 4-year cur­
riculum in hotel and restaurant
administration.
Specialized
courses in hotel work, available in
a few junior colleges, and study
courses given by the Educational
Institute of the American Hotel
and Motel Association, are also
helpful.




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

In colleges offering a special­
ized 4-year curriculum in hotel
management, the courses include
hotel administration, hotel ac­
counting, economics, food service
management and catering, and
hotel maintenance engineering.
Students are encouraged to spend
their summer vacations working
in hotel or restaurant jobs— for
example, as busboys or bellmen,
room clerks, or assistant man­
agers. The experience gained in
these jobs and the contacts with
employers may enable young
people to obtain better hotel po­
sitions after graduation. In addi­
tion, students are encouraged to
study foreign languages and other
subjects of cultural value such as
history, philosophy, and litera­
ture.
College graduates who have
majored in hotel administration
usually begin their hotel careers
as front office clerks; after ac­
quiring the necessary experience,
they may advance to top man­
agerial positions. An increasing
number of employers require some
experience in food operations.
Hotel chains may offer better op­
portunities for advancement than
independent hotels, since vacan­
cies may arise in any hotel of the
chain, as well as on the central
management staff.
Some large hotel organizations
have established special programs
for management trainees who
are college graduates or for less

highly trained personnel pro­
moted from within. These pro­
grams consist mainly of on-thejob training assignments in which
the trainee is rotated among jobs
in the various hotel departments.
In addition, some large hotels
provide financial assistance to
outstanding employees for college
study.
E m ploym ent O utlook
Well-qualified young people
will find favorable opportunities
through the 1970’s to obtain en­
try positions that offer the pos­
sibility of promotion to manage­
rial work. Young men applicants
who have college degrees in hotel
administration will have an ad­
vantage in seeking such entry
positions and later advancement.
Many openings for management
personnel also will result from the
need to fill vacancies resulting
from turnover.
The number of hotel managers
is expected to increase moderate­
ly during the 1970’s. New posi­
tions will arise as additional ho­
tels are built, and as the number
of motor hotels and luxury motels
expand.
See the introductory section of
this chapter for information on
Earnings and Working Condi­
tions, Sources of Additional In­
formation, and for additional in­
formation on Employment Out­
look.

GOVERNMENT

Government service, one of the
Nation’s largest fields of employ­
ment, provided jobs for 12.2 mil­
lion civilian workers in 1968—
about 1 out of 6 persons employ­
ed in the United States. More
than three-fourths of these work­
ers are employed by State or
local governments (county, city,
town, village, or other local gov­
ernment division); and almost
one-fourth work for the Federal
Government, in the continental
United States. In addition, a rela­
tively small number of U.S. citi­
zens work for the Federal govern­
ment overseas. Rapid growth is ex­
pected in State and local govern­
ment employment, continuing the
trend in the post-World War II
period. Only a small increase is
expected in Federal employment.
Large numbers of job opptunities
will arise in Federal, State, and
local governments from the need
to replace workers who retire, or
die, or leave government service.
Hundreds of thousands of in­
dividuals will be needed each

year for jobs in a wide variety of
occupations.
Government employees are a
significant part of the nonagricultural work force in every
State. Their jobs are found not
only in capital cities, county
seats, and metropolitan areas, but
also in small towns and villages,
and even in remote and isolated
places such as lighthouse install­
ations and forest ranger stations.
Governm ent Activities and
O ccupations
More than one-third of all gov­
ernment workers are engaged in
providing educational services
(chart 37); the majority are in
schools and colleges supported by
State and local governments. In
addition to teachers, employees
in this field include administra­
tive and clerical workers, mainte­
nance workers, librarians, dieti­
tians, nurses, and counselors. The
great majority of workers in edu­
cational services are employed in
elementary and s e c o n d a r y
schools.

M ajor Areas O f G o vernm ent Em ploym ent
MILLION EMPLOYEES, 1968
2
3

________ I
EDUCATION
NATIONAL DEFENSE &
INTERNAT’L RELATIONS
HEALTH & HOSPITALS
POSTAL SERVICE
HIGHWAYS
POLICE PROTECTION
NATURAL RESOURCES
GENERAL CONTROL
FINANCIAL ADMIN.
ALL OTHER
SOURCE: BU REAU OF TH E C EN SUS




STATE & LOCAL
GOVERNMENTS

FEDERAL
GOVERNMENT

The second largest group of
government workers is engaged in
national defense activities. This
group, numbering more than a
million employees, includes ci­
vilians working in the Depart­
ment of Defense and a few other
defense-related agencies such as
the Atomic Energy Commission.
Within this group are adminis­
trative and clerical employees,
doctors, nurses, teachers, engi­
neers, scientists, technicians, and
craftsmen and other manual
workers. Employees in this group
work in offices, research labora­
tories, navy yards, arsenals, and
missile launching sites, and in
hospitals and schools run by the
military services.
Large concentrations of em­
ployees are found in health serv­
ices and hospitals, the postal
service, and highway work. Work­
ers are employed also by govern­
ment agencies in activities such
as housing and community devel­
opment, police and fire protec­
tion, social security and public
welfare services, transportation
and public utilities, conservation
of natural resources, tax enforce­
ment and other financial func­
tions, as well as in general ad­
ministrative, judicial, and legis­
lative activities.
Most employees in the health
and hospital fields, in highway
work, and in police and fire pro­
tection activities work for State
and local government agencies.
On the other hand, jobs in na­
tional defense and in the postal
service are Federal, as are over
half the jobs concerned with nat­
ural resources, such as those in
the National Park and Forest
Service.
Although the many different
governmental activities require a
diversified work force having
many different levels of educa809

810
tion, training, and skill, the ma­
jority of government employees
are white-collar workers.
Among the largest white-collar
occupational groups are teachers,
administrators, postal clerks, and
office workers such as stenog­
raphers, typists, and clerks.
Some important occupations
and occupational groups among
service, craft, and other manual
workers are aircraft and automo­
tive mechanics and repairmen;
policemen; firemen; truckdrivers;
skilled maintenance workers (for
example, carpenters, painters,
plumbers, and electricians); cus­
todial workers; and laborers.
The wide variety of govern­




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

ment functions requires em­
ployees in many different occu­
pations. Because of the special
character of many government
activities, the occupational dis­
tribution of employment is very
different from that in private in­
dustry, as shown in the distribu­
tions of employment in 1968
which follow:
Percent of —
Gov- Nongov­
ernment ernment
employ- employ­
ment1
ment

Total ................
White-collar workers. . 6
Professional and
technical ...........
Managers, officials,
and proprietors
Clerical ................
Sales ....................

100
6

100

37

10

44

6

11

23
(2)

16
7

Percent of —
Gov- Nongov­
ernment ernment
employ- employ­
ment1
ment

Blue-collar workers .... 16
Craftsmen,
foremen ............
7
Operatives ...........
5
Nonfarm laborers
4
Service workers............. 18
(2)
Farm workers ............

40
14
21

5
11

5

1 Data excluded overseas Federal employment.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.
N ote: Because o f rounding, sums o f individ­
ual items m ay not equal totals.

The following chapters discuss
opportunities for civilian employ­
ment in the major divisions of
government and in the various
branches of the Armed Forces. A
separate chapter gives detailed
information on post office occu­
pations.

F E D E R A L C IV IL IA N G O V E R N M E N T

The Federal Government, the
largest employer in the United
States, had about 2.7 million ci­
vilian workers in 1968. In addi­
tion, it employed about 60,000
U.S. citizens abroad. Federal em­
ployees are engaged in occupa­
tions representing nearly every
kind of job in private employ­
ment, as well as some unique to
the Federal Government such as
postal clerk, border patrolman,
immigration inspector, foreign
service officer, and Internal
Revenue agent. Practically all
Federal employees work for the
departments and agencies that
make up the executive branch of
the government. The others are
employed in the legislative and
judicial branches.
The executive branch includes
the Office of the President, the
12 departments with cabinet rep­
resentation, and a number of in­
dependent agencies, commissions,
and boards. This branch is re­
sponsible for activities such as
administering Federal laws, han­
dling international relations; con­
serving natural resources, treat­
ing and rehabilitating disabled
veterans, delivering the mail,
conducting scientific research,
maintaining the flow of supplies
to the Armed Forces, and ad­
ministering other programs to
promote the health and welfare
of the people of the United States.
The Department of Defense,
which includes the Departments
of the Army, Navy, and Air
Force, is the largest agency; it
employed about 1.1 million ci­
vilian workers in the United
States in 1968; the Post Office
Department
employed
about
735,000. The Veterans Adminis­
tration, the Department of Agri­
culture, and the Department of
Health, Education, and Welfare
each had more than 100,000




workers. The remaining em­
ployees of the executive branch
were distributed among more
than 80 departments, agencies,
commissions, offices, and boards.
There were about 28,000 em­
ployees in the legislative branch,
which includes the Congress, the
Government Printing Office, the
General Accounting Office, and
the Library of Congress. Almost
7,000 persons were employed by
the judicial branch, which in­
cludes the Supreme Court and
the other United States courts.
The Federal Government em­
ploys almost 2 million whitecollar workers, including postal
workers. Entrance requirements
for white-collar jobs vary widely.
Entrants into professional oc­
cupations are required to have
highly specialized knowledge in
a specified field, as evidenced by
completion of a prescribed col­
lege course of study or, in many
cases, the equivalent in experi­
ence. Occupations typical of this
group are attorney, physicist, and
engineer.
Entrants into administrative
and managerial occupations usu­
ally are not required to have
knowledge of a specialized field,
but rather, they must indicate by
graduation from a 4-year college
or by responsible job experience
that they have potential for fu­
ture development. The entrant
usually begins at a trainee level
and learns the duties of the job
after he is hired. Typical jobs
in this group are budget analyst,
claims examiner, purchasing offi­
cer, administrative assistant, and
personnel officer.
Technician, clerical, and aidassistant jobs have entry level
positions that usually are filled
by persons having a high school
education or the equivalent. For
many of these positions, no prior

experience or training is required.
The entry level position is usu­
ally that of trainee, where the
duties of the job are learned and
skill is i m p r o v e d . Persons
having junior college or technical
school training or those having
specialized skills may enter these
occupations at higher levels. Jobs
typical of this group are engineer­
ing technician, supply clerk,
clerk-typist, and nursing assistaant.
Because of its wide r a n g e
of responsibilities, the Federal
Government employs white-col­
lar workers in a great many oc­
cupational fields. About 145,000
Federal workers are employed in
engineering and related fields. In­
cluded in this total are 80,000
engineers, representing virtually
every branch and specialty of the
profession. There are also large
numbers of technician positions
in areas such as engineering, elec­
tronics, surveying, and drafting.
More than 60 percent of all en­
gineering positions are in the De­
partment of Defense.
Of the 115,000 workers em­
ployed in accounting and budget­
ing work, more than 30,000 are
professional accountants and In­
ternal Revenue agents. Among
administrative and managerial
occupations in the accounting
and budgeting field are tax tech­
nician and budget administrator.
There are also large numbers of
clerical positions involving spe­
cialized accounting work. Ac­
counting workers are employed
throughout the Government, par­
ticularly in the Department of
Defense, the Treasury Depart­
ment, and the General Account­
ing Office.
About 95,000 Federal workers
are employed in medical, dental,
public health, and hospital work.
Professional occupations in this
field include medical officer,
nurse, dietitian, medical tech­
nologist, and physical therapist.
Among technician and aid jobs
are medical technician, medical
811

812
laboratory aid, and nursing as­
sistant. Employees in this field
work primarily in the Veterans
Administration; others are in the
Defense Department and Depart­
ment of Health, Education, and
Welfare.
More than 40,000 workers are
employed in the biological and
agricultural sciences. Large num­
bers of professional workers are
engaged in forestry and soil con­
servation work. Others adminis­
ter farm assistance programs.
Technicians and aid-assistant oc­
cupations include biology tech­
nician, forest and range fire con­
trol technician, soil conservation
technician, and forestry techni­
cian. Most of these workers are
employed by the Departments of
Agriculture and Interior.
In the physical sciences, the
Federal Government employs pro­
fessional workers such as physi­
cians, chemists, meteorologists,
cartographers, a n d geologists.
Aids and technicians in this field
include physical science techni­
cian, meteorological technician,
and cartographic technician. Most
of the 42,000 workers in the phys­
ical sciences are employed by the
Department of Defense, National
Aeronautics and Space Adminis­
tration, the Department of Agri­
culture, the Department of
Health, Education, and Welfare,
and the Commerce Department.
Within the mathematics field
are professional mathematicians
and statisticians, and mathemat­
ics technicians and statistical
clerks. There are also a number
of administrative positions in the
related field of computer pro­
graming. Mathematics workers
are employed primarily by the
Defense Department, the Na­
tional Aeronautics and Space Ad­
ministration, the Department of
Agriculture, the Commerce De­
partment, and the Department of
Health, Education, and Welfare.




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Positions in the computer field
are found in most agencies.
In the field of law are more
than 11,000 employees in profes­
sional positions, such as attor­
ney, and others in administrative
positions such as claims examin­
er. There are also many clerical
positions involving claims exam­
ining work. Workers in the legal
field are employed throughout
the Federal Government.
In the social science field there
are professional positions for
economists throughout the gov­
ernment; psychologists and so­
cial workers, primarily in the
Veterans Administration, and
foreign affairs and international
relations specialists in the De­
partment of State. Among social
science administrative workers
are social insurance administra­
tors in the Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare, and in­
telligence specialists in the De­
partment of Defense.
The Federal Government em­
ploys approximately 55,000 per­
sons in investigating and inspec­
tion work. Large numbers of
these workers engage in admin­
istrative activities such as crim­
inal investigation and food and
customs inspection. These jobs
are primarily in the Defense
Treasury, Justice, and Agricul­
ture Departments.
Jobs concerned with purchas­
ing, cataloging, storing, and dis­
tribution of supplies for the Fed­
eral Government provide employ­
ment for about 80,000 workers.
This field includes many man­
agerial and administrative posi­
tions, such as supply manage­
ment officer, purchasing officer
and inventory management spe­
cialist, as well as large numbers
of specialized clerical positions.
Most of these jobs are in the De­
partment of Defense.
Some 450,000 general clerical
workers are employed in virtually
every department and agency of

the Federal Government. Includ­
ed within this group are office
m a c h i n e operator, secretary,
stenographer, clerk-typist, mail
and file clerk, telephone operator,
and other related workers. (In
addition, there are several hun­
dred thousand postal clerks em­
ployed by the Federal Govern­
ment. See the following section
on Post Office occupations for
further information.)
Blue collar jobs— service, craft,
and manual labor— provided em­
ployment to over 600,000 work­
ers in 1968. The majority of these
workers were in establishments
such as naval shipyards, arsenals,
air bases, or army depots; or
they worked on construction,
harbor, flood-control, irrigation,
or reclamation projects. Approx­
imately three-fourths of these
workers were employed by the
Department of Defense. Others
worked for the Veterans Admin­
istration, Post Office, General
Services Administration, Depart­
ment of the Interior, Tennessee
Valley Authority, and Depart­
ment of Agriculture. Within this
group are a wide range of occupa­
tions, including many of the serv­
ice, craft, and manual occupa­
tions found in industry.
The largest single group of
blue-collar workers consists of
mobile equipment operators and
mechanics. Among these jobs are
forklift o p e r a t o r , chauffeur,
truckdriver, and automobile me­
chanic. The next largest group
of workers are general laborers,
who perform a wide variety of
manual jobs.
The Federal Government em­
ploys many workers in machin­
ery operation and repair occupa­
tions such as boiler and steam
plant operator, machinist, ma­
chinery repairman, maintenance
electrician, electronics equipment
repairman, and aircraft mechanic.
Skilled construction workers
also are utilized widely through-

FEDERAL CIVILIAN GOVERNMENT

out the Federal Government. In­
cluded in these fields are jobs
such as c a r p e n t e r , painter,
plumber, steamfitter and pipe­
fitter, and sheetmetal worker.
Other large blue-collar occupa­
tions include warehouseman, food
service worker, and printer.
Many skilled occupations may
be entered through apprentice­
ship programs. To qualify, expe­
rience normally is not required,
but a test may be given to indi­
cate whether an applicant has an
aptitude for the occupation.
There are also jobs as helpers for
skilled workers such as carpen­
ter’s helper and machinist’s
helper.
(Detailed descriptions of the
work duties of most white-collar,
service, craft, and manual labor
jobs mentioned above are pro­
vided in other sections of the

Handbook.)
Federal employees are sta­
tioned in all parts of the United
States and its territories and in
many foreign countries. Although
most Government departments
and agencies have their head­
quarters offices in the Washing­
ton, D.C. metropolitan area, only
1 out of 9 (about 310,000) Fed­
eral workers were employed in
that area in 1968. California had
more than 300,000 workers, and
New York, Pennsylvania, Texas,
and Illinois each had more than
100,000. About 40,000 U.S. cit­
izens were employed in foreign
countries; and about 20,000
worked in U.S. territories.

The M e rit System
Approximately 9 out of 10 jobs
in the Federal Government in the
United States are covered by the
Civil Service Act, which the U.S.
Civil Service Commission admin­
isters. This act was passed by
the Congress to ensure that Fed­




eral employees are hired on the
basis of individual merit and fit­
ness. It provides for competitive
examinations and the selection
of new employees from among
those who make the highest
scores. The Commission, through
its network of 65 Interagency
Boards of Civil Service Exam­
iners, is responsible for examin­
ing and rating applicants and
supplying Federal departments
and agencies with names of per­
sons eligible for the jobs to be
filled.
Some Federal jobs are excepted
from Civil Service requirements
either by law or by action of the
Civil Service Commission. How­
ever, most of the excepted posi­
tions are under separate merit
systems of other agencies such as
the Foreign Service of the De­
partment of State, the Depart­
ment of Medicine and Surgery of
the Veterans Administration, the
Federal Bureau of Investigation,
the Atomic Energy Commission,
and the Tennessee Valley Au­
thority. These agencies establish
their own standards for the selec­
tion of new employees.
Civil service competitive exam­
inations may be taken by all per­
sons who are citizens of the
United States, or who owe per­
manent allegiance to the United
States (in the case of residents
of American Samoa). To be eli­
gible for appointment, an appli­
cant must meet minimum age,
training, and experience require­
ments for the particular position.
A physical handicap will not in
itself bar a person from a posi­
tion if it does not interfere with
his performance of the required
duties. Examinations vary ac­
cording to the types of positions
for which they are held. Some
examinations i n c l u d e written
tests; others do not. Written ex­
aminations test the applicant’s
ability to do the job applied for

813
or his ability to leam how to do
it. In nonwritten examinations,
applicants are rated on the basis
of the experience and training
described in their applications
and any supporting evidence re­
quired.
Applicants are notified as to
whether they have achieved eli­
gible or ineligible ratings, and the
names of eligible applicants are
entered on a list in the order of
their scores. When a Federal ag­
ency requested names of eligible
applicants for a job vacancy, the
interagency board sends the ag­
ency the names at the top of the
appropriate list. The agency can
select any one of the top three
available eligibles. Names of
those not selected are restored
to the list for consideration for
other job openings.
Appointments to civil service
jobs are made without regard to
an applicant’s race, color, reli­
gion, national origin, politics, or
sex.

Em ploym ent Trends and O utlook
Assuming defense activities ap­
proximate the level of the early
1960’s, prior to the Vietnam
build-up, it is anticipated that
Federal employment will grow at
a relatively slow rate during the
1970’s.
A number of factors will tend
to limit employment in many
clerical and blue-collar occupa­
tions. Among these factors are
the Federal Government’s in­
creasing use of laborsaving elec­
tronic data-processing and materials-handling equipment and the
introduction of improved datatransmission and communications
systems.
The manpower requirements
of the Federal Government will,
in general, tend to reflect the de­
mand for services of an increas-

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

814

ing population and the country’s
domestic and international pro­
grams. These demands are ex­
pected to be reflected in rapidly
rising requirements for profes­
sional, administrative, and tech­
nical workers.
Population expansion will lead
to an increased employment of
workers such as social security
claims examiners, accounting and
budget workers, and business and
industry specialists. Laws pro­
viding new or expanded services
to the public should result in in­
creased employment of food and

drug inspectors, highway engi­
neers, and education personnel.
Employment in legal and kindred
occupations also may increase
mainly because of the existence
of more laws and regulations to
interpret, administer, and en­
force; and more claims to ex­
amine for payment of retirement,
disability, and death benefits.
Federal employment gains in
science, engineering, and other
fields will reflect the demands of
vigorous national research and
development efforts in a variety
of programs such as space ex­

ploration, urban development,
military weapons, nuclear energy,
medicine and health, transporta­
tion, and natural resource de­
velopment. The employment of
engineers and engineering tech­
nicians will continue to grow rap­
idly. Employment of scientists, as
well as that of technicians work­
ing with them, also will increase,
and the number of medical per­
sonnel employed also should con­
tinue to rise.
Job openings resulting from
retirements and deaths alone are
estimated at about 70,000 each
year during the 1970’s. In addi­
tion to new opportunities due to
growth in employment, many job
opportunities will become avail­
able because of the need to re­
place employees who transfer out
of the Federal service, retire, or
die. Thus, many job opportuni­
ties will occur in occupations
where total employment is rela­
tively stable, as well as in those
in which it is rising.

Earnings, A dvancem ent, and
W orking Conditions
Federal civilian employees are
paid under several pay systems.
Pay rates of employees under
the General Schedule are set by

D is t r ib u t io n o f A l l F u l l -T im e F e d e r a l E m p l o y e e s U n d e r t h e G e n e r a l S c h e d u l e
b y G r a d e L e v e l , J u n e 30, 1967, a n d S a l a r y S c a l e , E f f e c t iv e J u l y 14, 1968
General schedule grade

Em ployees
Number
Percent

T otal...........................................................................

1,251,603
4,039
56,498
157,986
181,367
154,662
59,377
109,044
17,661
134,165
15,623
128,699
101,536
75,090
34,455
17,003
3,129
903
366

.3
4.5
12.6
14.5
12.4
4.7
8.7
1.4
10.7
1.2
10.3
8.1
6.0
2.8
1.4
.2
.1
(*)

Salaries
Periodic
increases

Maximum

130
141
152
171
192
209
233
257
282
310
340
406
480
565
659
761
875

$ 5,057
5,501
5,981
6,684
7,456
8,221
9,078
10,012
11,000
12,087
13,263
15,828
18,729
22,031
25,711
28,923
29,764

100.0

1............................................................................................
2............................................................................................
3............................................................................................
4............................................................................................
5............................................................................................
6............................................................................................
7............................................................................................
8............................................................................................
9............................................................................................
1 0 ...........................................................................................
11............................................................................................
12............................................................................................
13............................................................................................
14............................................................................................
15............................................................................................
16............................................................................................
17............................................................................................
18............................................................................................

Entrance

1 Less than 0.05 percent.
Source: U .S. Civil Service Commission.




$ 3,889
4,231
4,600
5,145
5,732
6,321
6,981
7,699
8,462
9,297
10,203
12,174
14,409
16,946
19,780
22,835
26,264
30,239

815

FEDERAL CIVILIAN GOVERNMENT

Congress and are nationwide.
This General Schedule provides
a pay scale for employees in pro­
fessional, administrative, techni­
cal, and clerical jobs, and for em­
ployees such as guards and mes­
sengers. General Schedule jobs
are classified and arranged in 18
pay grades according to difficulty
of the duties, and the responsi­
bilities, knowledge, experience, or
skill required. The distribution of
Federal white-collar employees
by grades, the entrance and max­
imum salaries, and the amount of
periodic increases for each grade
are listed in the accompanying
table.
Employees in all grades except
GS-18 receive within-grade in­
creases after they have completed
the required service periods, if
their work is determined to be of
an acceptable level of compe­
tence. Within-grade increases also
may be given in recognition of
high-quality service.
High school graduates who
have no related work experience
usually are appointed to GS-2
positions, but some having special
skills begin at grade GS-3. Grad­
uates of 2-year junior colleges
and technical schools often can
begin at the GS-4 level. Most
young people appointed to pro­
fessional and administrative po­
sitions enter at grades GS-5 or
GS-7, depending on their aca­
demic record. Those who have a
master’s degree or the equivalent
in education or experience usual­
ly enter at grade GS-7 or GS-9.
In addition, the Federal Govern­
ment also appoints very wellqualified, experienced people at
the GS-11 level and above. These
appointments are for positions
such as psychologist, statistician,
economist, writer and editor,
budget analyst, accountant, and
physicist.
New appointments usually are
made at the minimum rate of the




salary range for the appropriate
grade. However, appointments in
hard-to-fill positions frequently
are made at a higher rate. For
example, in 1968 engineers, ac­
countants, mathematicians, cer­
tain physical scientists, and
those in a few other specialized
occupations were being recruited
at above minimum rates.
Advancement depends upon
ability, work performance, and
generally, upon openings in jobs
at higher grades
Craft, service, and manual
workers employed by the Federal
Government in the United States
are paid under the Coordinated
Federal Wage System. The pay
rates for these workers are fixed
on the basis of “ prevailing” rates
paid for similar work by private
employers in the areas where
they work. The accompanying
tabulation of Army-Air Force
Wage Board pay rates for se1 e c t e d occupations illustrates
hourly wage rates in late 1968
for workers paid under the wage
board system.
Employees in agencies with
separate merit systems are paid
under acts other than those al­
ready mentioned.
Many of the occupations found
in the Federal Government are
discussed in greater detail else­

where in the Handbook, and
many include data on earnings
in the Federal Government.
The standard workweek for
Federal Government employees is
40 hours, and the pay schedules
are based on this workweek. If
an employee is required to work
overtime, he is either paid over­
time rates for the additional time
worked or given compensatory
time off at a later date. Most
employees usually work 8 hours
a day and 5 days a week, Mon­
day through Friday, but in some
cases, the nature of the work
may call for a different work­
week. Annual earnings for most
full-time Federal workers are not
affected by seasonal factors.
Federal employees earn 13
days of annual (vacation) leave
during each of their first 3 years
of service, then 20 days each
year until they have completed
15 years; after 15 years, they
earn 26 days of leave each year.
In addition, they earn 13 days
of paid sick leave a year. Eight
paid holidays are observed annu­
ally. Employees who are members
of military reserve organizations
also are granted up to 15 days of
paid military leave a year for
training purposes. A Federal em­
ployee who is laid off is entitled
to unemployment compensation

Army—Air Force Wage Board Hourly Pay Rates, Selected Occupations and Locations, Late 1968
Location

j

Laborer

Atlanta, Ga.................................................................. $2.24
Boston, Mass............................................................... 2.52
Chicago, 11
1.................................................................. 2.86
Denver, Colo............................................................... 2.68
Hampton Roads, Va............................................
2.24
Houston-Galveston, Texas ....................................... 2.55
Los Angeles, Calif..................................................... 2.89
New Orleans, La.......................................................... 2.50
New York, N.Y. - Newark, N.J................................ 2.87
Pensacola, Fla.....................................................
2.24
Philadelphia, Pa.......................................................... 2.77
Puget Sound, Wash.................................................... 2.87
San Francisco, Calif.................................................... 2.98
St. Louis, Mo.............................................................. 2.79
Washington, D.C......................................................... 2.73

Electrician

$3.38
3.45
3.89
3.40
3.30
3.49
3.78
3.58
3.65
3.63
3.51
3.66
3.78
3.76
3.55

Toolmaker

$3.81
3.92
4.33
3.73
3.65
3.87
4.13
4.04
4.01
4.03
3.87
4.03
4.34
4.12
3.92

SOURCE: A rm y-Air-Force W age Board, U .S. Department of Defense. Rates are for the second
step of a 3-step pay range.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

816
similar to that provided for em­
ployees in private industry.
Other benefits available to
most Federal employees include:
A contributory retirement sys­
tem; optional participation in
low-cost group life and health in­
surance programs supported in
part by the Government; and
training programs to develop
maximum job proficiency and
help employees achieve their
highest potential. These training
programs may be conducted in
Government facilities or in out­
side educational facilities at Gov­
ernment expense.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation

Information on Federal em­
ployment opportunities is avail­
able from a number of sources.
For college students, the college
placement office is often a good
source of such information. High
school students in many locali­
ties may obtain information from
their high school guidance coun­
selors. Additional information
may be obtained from State em­
ployment service offices and
many post offices.
The Interagency Boards oper­

ated by the U.S. Civil Service
Commission are located in popu­
lation centers throughout the
country. These boards announce
and conduct examinations and
evaluate and refer eligible appli­
cants to employing agencies for
their geographic areas. They also
provide a complete one-stop in­
formation service so that all in­
terested citizens may learn of
local and nationwide employment
opportunities in the Federal Gov­
ernment service.
Information about a specific
agency also may be obtained by
contacting the agency directly.

P o st office occupations
The mailman, carrying the fa­
miliar leather pouch over his
shoulder, and the clerk standing
behind the stamp window in the
Post Office, are the two em­
ployees of the Federal Govern­
ment most familiar to the gen­
eral public. Although we all
receive or send mail almost every
day, few people realize how many
workers are employed by the Post
Office Department and exactly
what they do.
In early 1969, more than 720,000 postal service workers—
about 17.5 percent of whom were
women— were employed in 44,000
separate installations throughout
the Nation. These workers col­
lected and distributed over 82
billion letters, post cards, news­
papers, magazines, parcels, and
other items of mail. They also
provided special mail services
such as registration (giving evi­
dence of mailing and delivery),
insurance, and c.o.d. (the collec­
tion of the price of an article,
and the cost of postage from a
customer upon delivery). Other




services performed by these work­
ers included selling United States
savings stamps and money orders.
Although many postal jobs are
located in small communities and
in rural areas, postal employment
is concentrated in large centers
of population. About 56,000 post­
al service workers, or 8 percent
of all post office employees work
in the metropolitan area of New
York City. Other large centers
of postal employment include the
Chicago, Los Angeles, Boston,
Philadelphia, Washington, D.C.,
San Francisco, D e t r o i t , and
Cleveland metropolitan areas.
O ccupations in the Postal Service
Clerks are the largest group of
postal workers. Day and night,
mail moves from unloading plat­
forms through the workrooms
and out to loading platforms. In
the workrooms, mail is sorted ac­
cording to type and destination.
Other clerks who work behind
the windows in the lobbies of post
offices sell stamps and money

orders, register and insure mail,
and accept parcel post. In early
1969, about 300,000 postal clerks
were employed throughout the
country.
The city carriers, the second
largest group of postal workers
(about 200,000 in early 1969).
These workers collect mail from
street boxes and deliver mail to
households and businesses. Rural
carriers collect and deliver mail in
the country and provide some ad­
ditional services such as selling
stamps and money orders. In
early 1969, t h e r e were about
31,000 of these workers. Both
city and rural carriers cover as­
signed routes on regular sched­
ules. Some city carriers may work
exclusively delivering parcel post
or collecting mail. A detailed de­
scription of the duties, training,
qualifications, employment out­
look, earnings, and working con­
ditions for clerks and carriers ap­
pears in later sections of this
chapter. A relatively small num­
ber of postal employees deliver
only special delivery mail.

FEDERAL CIVILIAN GOVERNMENT

The “ Star” route carrier trans­
ports mail under contract with
the Post Office Department and
is not an employee of the Depart­
ment. There were approximately
12,500 “ Star” route contracts in
early 1969. The length of the
routes varied considerably. Most
of these carriers use trucks to
carry the mail, but in certain re­
mote areas where there are no
roads, some use horses or boats.
In all post offices, bulk mail in
large, heavy sacks must be load­
ed, unloaded, and moved about.
In small post offices, clerks per­
form this work; in large post of­

fices, mail handlers do most of
it. Besides handling sacked mail,
mail handlers separate the mail
into parcel post, paper mail, and
letter mail, and bring the mail
to distribution clerks for proc­
essing. They also pick up proc­
essed mail and put it into sacks.
In early 1969, there were approx­
imately 46,000 mail handlers.
About 36,000 postal supervis­
ors and 11,000 postmasters di­
rected the work of more than a
half million clerks, carriers, and
mail handlers in large post offices.
About 21,000 additional post­

Mail handlers are employed primarily in large post offices.




817
masters were employed in small
post offices.
Approximately 24,000 mainte­
nance service employees were
concerned with the operation,
maintenance, and protection of
post office buildings and equip­
ment. About 15,000 of these em­
ployees were janitors, building
guards, elevator operators, and
laborers. The remainder were me­
chanics or craftsmen, such as
electricians, c a r p e n t e r s , and
painters.
The Post Office Department
employed nearly 7,000 motor ve­
hicle operators who drove trucks
transporting bulk mail. About
5,500 •other employees main­
tained the trucks driven by the
motor vehicle operators as well
as the rest of the post office ve­
hicle fleet, including more than
69,000 trucks and other delivery
vehicles driven by carriers.
More than 1,000 postal inspec­
tors are employed in the oldest
investigative agency in the Fed­
eral Government— the Post Of­
fice Inspection Service. These
employees inspect post offices to
be sure they are operated effi­
ciently, that funds are spent
properly, and that postal laws
and regulations are observed.
Other principal duties include the
prevention and d e t e c t i o n of
crimes, such as theft, forgery,
and fraud involving use of the
mail.
Another important group of
employees is made up of the sev­
eral hundred workers who service
semiautomatic and automatic
mail processing equipment. As
the mechanization of the Post
O f f i c e Department continues,
many more of these employees
will be needed.
The post offices are under the
supervision of 15 regional offices
located in major cities through­
out the United States. Approxi­
mately 3,000 employees in these

818
regional offices supervise opera­
tions, transportation, and person­
nel and other functions of the post
office. In addition, approximately
1,500 employees in 6 Postal Data
Centers perform centralized pay­
roll, time keeping, and other fi­
nancial functions. Other support
installations include the Postal
Service Management Institute
that trains supervisors and em­
ployees; the Supply Centers that
fill requisitions for supplies; and
the mail bag repair center and
mail equipment shops that repair
mail bags and equipment.
The Post Office Department
also employs a small number of
engineers, accountants, lawyers,
and clerical and office workers,
such as typists, stenographers,
file clerks, a n d p e r s o n n e l
assistants.

T rain in g , O th er Q ualificatio ns,
and A dvancem ent
To qualify for a job in the Post
Office Department, an applicant
must be a citizen, pass a civil
service examination, and meet
the minimum age requirements.
Generally, the minimum age for
post office employment is 18. For
high school graduates, the mini­
mum age is 16, except for jobs
that may be considered hazard­
ous or may require operation of
a motor vehicle.
Post office examinations have
no residence requirements. Ap­
plicants may specify four offices
where they would like to work.
Before deciding on a permanent
career in the Post Office Depart­
ment, young men and women
may apply for summer employ­
ment by taking the Civil Service
Commission’s Summer Jobs ex­
amination. Applications are ac­
cepted from November until Jan­
uary and the examinations are
conducted from December until
March for the following summer.




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

The clerk-carrier and mail han­
dler civil service examinations
do not require formal education
or prior experience.
As in other civil service exam­
inations, an h o n o r a b l y dis­
charged war veteran has 5 extra
points added to his passing grade
and a disabled veteran receives
10 extra points. Veterans with
compensable
disabilities
a re
placed at the top of the list. Cer­
tain jobs (guards, elevator op­
erators, laborers, janitors, etc.)
are reserved for veterans.
The names of applicants who
pass an examination are placed
on a register in the order of their
scores. The appointing officer se­
lects one of the top three avail­
able applicants to fill a job va­
cancy. Those not selected are put
back on the list for consideration
for the next job opening. Ap­
pointments to jobs are made
without regard to an applicant’s
race, color, sex, marital status,
national origin, or religion. Postal
employees, like all other Federal
workers, are subject to an inves­
tigation of their moral character
and loyalty. Before an applicant
may be appointed, he must pass
a physical examination. Specific
physical requirements differ ac­
cording to the nature of the work
in the various jobs.
Many jobs in the post office
r e q u i r e considerable physical
stamina. Mail handler applicants
are required to take a special
weight-lifting test. T o sort mail
rapidly, clerks must have a good
memory for streets and numbers.
Window clerks and carriers are
expected to be pleasant and tact­
ful when dealing with the public.
Distribution clerks in the large
post offices have little contact
with the public. However, since
they work in large groups in close
quarters, they are expected to get
along well with co-workers.

New postal employees serve a
probationary period of 1 year.
During this period the employee’s
conduct and performance are
evaluated. If after training and
counseling, his performance or
conduct is not satisfactory, he
may be dismissed.
The amount of training given
to a new employee varies depend­
ing on his job and the size of the
post office. On-the-job training
generally is provided by the su­
pervisor or an experienced em­
ployee. The new employee per­
forms the simpler tasks of his job
from the very first day. T o be­
come proficient in all phases of
his work, however, takes much
longer. The new clerk or carrier
must practice sorting mail to get
the necessary speed and accu­
racy. In addition, he must learn
postal regulations, schemes, and
routes. (A scheme is a group of
places consisting of States, cities,
zones, or streets and numbers
arranged for the convenient de­
livery of mail.)
Career postal employees are
classified as regulars or substi­
tutes. Most workers begin as sub­
stitutes. The positions of clerk,
city carrier, special delivery mes­
senger, mail handler, and posi­
tions in the vehicle service are
initially filled by substitute ap­
pointment from the civil service
register. Substitutes replace regu­
lar employees who are absent and
also supplement the regular work
force. As vacancies occur, substi­
tutes advance to regulars accord­
ing to seniority.
Some jobs, even at the same
salary level, may be considered
more desirable than others be­
cause of the type of work per­
formed, the hours of work, or for
other reasons. A vacancy is post­
ed and employees in the occupa­
tional group may submit “ bids”
(written requests for assignment
to the vacancy). A preferred as­
signment is given to the bidder

819

FEDERAL CIVILIAN GOVERNMENT

who meets the qualification re­
quirements and has the most
seniority. Bidding also takes place
for a few nonsupervisory jobs at
higher salary levels.
For promotion to most higher
level positions, however, merit,
not seniority, is the controlling
factor. Qualifications for promo­
tion may include experience,
training or education, aptitude as
measured by a written examina­
tion or performance test, work
record, and personal character­
istics. (The last mentioned is par­
ticularly important in supervis­
ory positions.) If the leading
candidates are equally qualified,
length of service also is consid­
ered.
Opportunities for advancement
in the postal service are limited.
Most employees start as postal
clerks and carriers and continue
in those categories. However,
they can receive preferred assign­
ments or routes as their seniority
increases. Although opportunities
for promotion to supervisor in
smaller post offices are limited, the

Department under its Merit Pro­
motion Program permits quali­
fied individuals in an area to
apply for promotional vacancies
in a larger area.
Em ploym ent Outlook
The Post Office Department
will hire many thousands of
young workers each year through
the 1970’s. Most job opportuni­
ties will arise from the need to
replace employees who retire, die,
or transfer to other occupations.
Deaths and retirements alone
should provide more than 17,000
job openings annually.
In addition, some job openings
will result from an expected mod­
erate increase in post office em­
ployment.
As in the past, the volume of
mail is expected to grow rapidly
during the 1970’s, largely as a
result of an expanding popula­
tion and rising business activity.
Employment, however, is ex­
pected to grow at a slower rate
than mail volume because of

E m p l o y m e n t a n d S a l a r ie s i n

the

modernization of postal facilities
and equipment that increases the
amount of mail an individual em­
ployee can handle. In advanced
stages of development and in act­
ual use at a few post offices,
are a variety of electromechanical
and electronic devices and con­
trols that receive, process, and
dispatch mail at a considerable
saving in postal clerk manpower.
Ten optical character readers
which read addresses and sort let­
ter mail are in operation at eight
post offices.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Almost all postal employees
are paid under the Postal Field
Service Compensation Act, under
which three separate pay sched­
ules are provided. One schedule
determines the salaries of rural
carriers and is based primarily
on route length. Another sched­
ule covers fourth-class postmas­
ters, whose compensation is based
on the number of daily work
hours. Salaries of all other postal

P o s t a l F ie l d S e r v ic e

Employment1

Salary schedules *

Level
Number
Total employees under PFS pay schedule 3 .......

673,374

Percent
of total
100.0

Entrance

Periodic
increases

Maximum

848
6,209
35,874
59,524
471,084

0.1

.9
5.3
8.8
70.0

$ 4,522
4,889
5,286
5,735
6,176

$151
163
176
190
206

$ 6,183
6,682
7,222
7,805
8,442

37,138
12,808
18,426
11,087
8,732

5.5
1.9
2.7
1.7
1.3

6,675
7,216
7,802
8,434
9,101

223
241
260
281
303

9,128
9,867
10,402
10,963
11,828

15............................................................................................

1,233
2,582
1,413
1,347
965

.6
.4
.2
.2
.1

10,110
11,233
12,473
13,864
15,404

337
374
416
462
513

13,143
14,599
16,222
18,022
20,021

18...........................................................................................
19............................................................................................
20...........................................................................................

593
237
130
58
21

.1
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)

17,114
19,011
21,122
23,467
26,071

570
634
704
782
869

22,244
24,717
27,458
30,505
32,154

21............................................................................................

15

<
4>

28,976

966

32,840

1 On June 30, 1968.
* In effect July 1969.
* Does not include 47,900 rural carriers or 7,200 postmasters of 4th
class post offices.
4 Less than .05 percent.




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

820
field service employees are de­
termined under the third sched­
ule, the Postal Field Service
Schedule (P F S ). The grade level
of a position under this schedule
depends upon the duties and re­
sponsibilities, and the knowledge,
experience, or skill required.
In all three pay schedules, em­
ployees receive periodic “ step”
increases, up to a specified maxi­
mum, if their job performance is
satisfactory. A distribution of
employees by PFS level, together
with the entrance and maximum
salary, as well as the amount of
the periodic increases for each
grade, is shown in the accom­
panying table.
Most regular postal employees
work an 8-hour day, 5 days a
week. If a regular employee
works more than 8 hours in a
day or 40 hours in a week, he is
paid at
times the regular
rate for the extra hours worked.
A substitute employee receives
overtime pay if he works more
than 40 hours in a week.
Postal employees, both sub­
stitutes and regular, receive the
same vacation, sick leave, and
other benefits available to Fed­
eral employees generally. They
earn 13 days’ annual (vacation)
leave during each of their first
3 years of service, then 20 days
each year until they have com­
pleted 15 years of service; and
after that, 26 days of leave a
year. In addition, they earn 13
days of paid sick leave a year.
Other benefits include: Retire­
ment and survivorship annuities,
optional participation in low-cost
group life insurance and health
insurance programs supported in
part by the Federal Government,
and compensation to employees
injured in the performance of
duty.
Postal workers are covered by
the civil service system and en­
joy a maximum of job security.




Most postal employees have fre­
quent contact with the public or
other employees. Prospective em­
ployees may choose between out­
door work (carrier) and indoor
work (postal clerk).
Some of the work requires
physical exertion, such as walk­
ing, reaching, lifting, and carry­
ing heavy sacks of mail. Much
of the work is also of a routine
nature.
Most postal employees are
members of unions. More than a
dozen unions represent postal
employees.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Information on post office em­
ployment opportunities and civil
service competitive examinations
for postal jobs may be obtained
from the local post office, the
regional offices of the Civil Serv­
ice Commission, or state employ­
ment service offices.

MAIL CARRIERS
(D.O.T. 233.388)

N atu re of the W ork
Most carriers or mailmen, as
they are commonly known, travel
predetermined routes delivering
and collecting mail. Some city
carriers (usually new workers),
however, only collect mail from
street letter boxes and from office
mail chutes. Other carriers drive
trucks and deliver parcel post;
still others— called rural carriers
— deliver and collect mail along
routes usually located outside the
city limits. In addition, rural
carriers may sell stamps and
money orders and accept parcel
post, letters, and packages to be

registered or insured. All carriers
answer questions about postal
regulations and service and pro­
vide change of address cards and
other postal forms when re­
quested.
The carrier begins his work
early in the morning. He spends
a few hours at the post office and
arranges the mail in the order it
will be delivered. He readdresses
mail to be forwarded and marks
the mail of persons who have
moved without leaving forward­
ing addresses to show how it
should be handled. He also pre­
pares reminders for special mail,
such as insured mail that requires
a signature by the person receiv­
ing it. He signs receipts for post­
age due and c.o.d. mail.
When the mail has been ar­
ranged, it is assembled into bun­
dles. The carrier’s mail is gen­
erally too heavy for all of it to be
carried at one time. (Thirty-five
pounds is the maximum carried.)
He therefore makes up larger

FEDERAL CIVILIAN GOVERNMENT

bundles of mail— called “ relays”
— which are transported in trucks
by other carriers and placed in
storage (relay) boxes at intervals
along the route.
The carrier starts his route
with the mail in a large leather
bag, which is carried over his
shoulder or in a mail cart. In
some cities, a carrier who is as­
signed an outlying residential
route may use a light weight mo­
tor vehicle.
On his route, the carrier goes
from door to door and places mail
in boxes or through door slots.
Mail is delivered throughout resi­
dential areas and office buildings
served by elevators; however, in
apartment houses, the mail usu­
ally is deposited in the boxes
located near the front entrances.
The carrier collects charges on
postage-due and c.o.d. mail and
obtains receipts for registered
and certain insured mail.
When the carrier completes his
route, he returns to the post of­
fice and brings with him the let­
ters left in mail boxes for mailing,
and the mail he has collected
from street letter boxes. He then
arranges the letters he brought
back so that stamps can be easily
canceled and turns in the money
and receipts he has collected dur­
ing the day.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
T o be considered for a carrier
position, an applicant must be a
citizen, meet the minimum age
requirements, and pass a civil
service examination. To be eli­
gible for employment, most post
offices require carrier applicants
to be at least 18 years of age and
pass a road test.
The same written civil service
examination is given to appli­
cants interested in either city




carrier or postal clerk jobs. The
written test consists of four
p a rts. T h e fir s t p a rt te s ts
the a p p l i c a n t ’ s reading ac­
curacy by requiring him to com­
pare addresses arranged in pairs
and to indicate whether they are
the same or different. The second
part tests the applicant’s ability
to follow oral directions. Part
three is a test of general intelli­
gence, including questions on vo­
cabulary and reading compre­
hension. The fourth part deter­
mines the applicant’s ability to
do simple arithmetic problems.
Sample questions are sent to ap­
plicant’s with their notices of ad­
mission to the written tests.
Persons being considered for
appointment as carriers are given
a road test in which they must
demonstrate their ability to han­
dle, under various driving con­
ditions, vehicles of the type and
size they may be required to
operate as carriers. At the time
of appointment, the applicant
must have a valid driver’s license.
Applicants must pass a rigor­
ous physical examination. Unless
a Federal medical officer is avail­
able, applicants are required to
obtain a physical examination at
their own expense. They must be
able to stand for long periods,
lift and handle sacks of mail
weighing as much as 80 pounds,
and walk considerable distances.
Applicants who have a history of
disability require special review
to determine their acceptability.
In addition to good health and
physical stamina, a carrier should
have a good memory to arrange
mail on his route. He also must
memorize many postal rules and
regulations. Other desirable qual­
ities for a carrier are a pleasant
manner and a neat appearance.
City carriers begin as substi­
tutes and become regulars in
order of seniority as vacancies
occur. New carriers are taught

821
the procedures for casing mail.
Substitute city carriers may be
assigned to postal-clerk duties
and sometimes may be required
to pass examinations on schemes
of city “ primary distribution”
(first sorting by destination).
As their seniority increases,
carriers may apply for carrier
technician, carrier foreman, and
route examiner. When they have
sufficient service, they may take
the supervisory written exami­
nation.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Many thousands of job open­
ings for mail carriers through the
1970’s will result from the need
to replace carriers who die, retire,
or transfer to other occupations.
Deaths and retirements alone are
exected to provide about 4,800
job opportunities annually. Ad­
ditional job openings will result
from an expected rapid in­
crease in mail carrier employ­
ment.
Most job openings will be for
city carriers. Employment of city
carriers is expected to increase
rapidly as population continues to
grow and spread out into subur­
ban areas. However, such innova­
tions as the increasing use of mo­
tor vehicles probably will limit
employment growth.
Employment of rural carriers
is expected to show little or no
change in future years. Although
new rural routes will be estab­
lished to provide service in areas
where fourth-class post offices are
discontinued, many rural routes
near large cities will be con­
nected to city routes as the sub­
urbs continue to spread.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Almost all city carriers begin
as substitutes and in July 1969

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

822
received $3.07 an hour. They re­
ceive an increase of 10 or 11 cents
an hour each year for the first
6 years, and every 3 years there­
after, up to a maximum of $4.20
an hour, if their work is satisfac­
tory. Regular city carriers were
paid on an annual basis, begin­
ning at $6,176 and increasing
$206 each year for the first 6
years, and every 3 years there­
after, up to a maximum of $8,442
after 21 years of service. Approx­
imately 9,500 carrier technicians
were employed at a beginning
rate of $6,675 a year with in­
creases at intervals to a maximum
of $9,128. City carriers receive
an allowance for the postal uni­
forms they are required to wear.
Rural carriers are paid a salary
based on a combination of fixed
annual compensation and the
number of miles in their routes.
In addition, they receive a main­
tenance allowance of 12 cents a
mile for the use of their automo­
biles. A carrier with a 61-mile
route (the average route length)
in July 1969 received $6,651 a
year in his first year and $7,887
in his seventh year. The allow­
ance for the use of his automo­
bile gives him an additional $7.32
a day.
A substitute rural carrier re­
ceives a base pay for the days he
works, and, in addition, receives
the same mileage compensation
and automobile maintenance al­
lowance as the regular carrier
whose route he is covering.
The regular city carrier usu­
ally works an 8-hour day, 5 days
a week. If he works more than 8
hours a day or 40 hours a week,
he is paid 1% times his regular
rate for the extra hours worked.
A substitute city carrier receives
overtime pay if he works more
than 40 hours a week. Both reg­
ular and substitute city carriers
receive 10-percent additional pay
for work between 6 p.m. and
6 a.m.




Most carriers begin work early
in the morning. In some cities,
carriers with routes in the busi­
ness district report to the post
office at 6 a.m. The carrier must
cover his route within a certain
time limit.
Most carriers have to do a
great deal of walking with a mail
bag slung over the shoulder. Even
the carriers who drive vehicles
have to do considerable walking
and lift heavy sacks of parcel post
when loading their vehicles. They
also may carry heavy packages
in making deliveries to business
establishments or homes.

POSTAL CLERKS
(D.O.T. 232.368)

N atu re of th e W ork
Most post office clerks— called
distribution clerks— work behind
the scenes and are never seen by
the public. These workers sort
incoming and outgoing mail in
post offices. Other clerks— called
window clerks— sell stamps and
money orders, and provide other
services. In small post offices, the
same clerks may do both types
of work.
After the carriers collect the
mail, they bring it into the post
office workroom and dump it on­
to long tables. Here distribution
clerks (and sometimes mail han­
dlers) separate the mail into par­
cel post, paper mail, and letter
mail. They then “ face” (stamps
down and facing the same direc­
tion) the letter mail and feed it
into stamp canceling machines.
(Many large post offices have
machines
that
automatically
“ find” and cancel stamps.) Par­
cel post and paper mail are can­
celed by hand. After the stamps
have been cancelled, the mail is

taken to different sections where
other clerks begin a series of sort­
ings according to destination.
Clerks who process letter mail
separate it into even finer group­
ings. They begin by making a
“ primary
distribution”
(first
sorting by destination) of the
letters. The letters are sorted into
a “ letter case” (an upright box
with compartments) which usu­
ally has one or two compartments
for local mail, a number of com­
partments for groups of distant
States, a compartment for each
of the nearby States, one for each
of the largest cities in the coun­
try, and others.
The primary distribution is fol­
lowed by one or more “ second­
ary” distributions in which the
mail from each compartment in
the primary case is sorted in
greater detail. For example,
clerks gather the local mail from
the appropriate compartment in
each primary case and combine
it with the local mail which has
come in from outside the city to
be sorted in a secondary case.
The clerks who sort local mail
must know the streets and street
numbers that are included in
each postal zone, branch, or sta­
tion. Mail sometimes is separated
further by sections within postal
zones so that when it arrives at
a neighborhood post office, it is
almost ready for immediate de­
livery by carriers.
Parcel post is sorted in the
same way as letter mail. How­
ever, clerks use chutes, convey­
ors, slides, tables, and bags or
other containers instead of letter
cases when sorting parcels.
Distribution clerk ( machines)
is a relatively new post office oc­
cupation. Clerks in this occupa­
tion are employed in some of the
large post offices and operate
electronic machines that distrib­
ute mail automatically. For ex­
ample, a clerk using an electronic
sorting machine merely pushes

FEDERAL CIVILIAN GOVERNMENT

823
Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent

Postal workers sort letters rapidly with high speed machines.

buttons to direct letters auto­
matically to the proper compart­
ments. These clerks must know
distribution schemes, as do the
clerks who sort mail by hand.
Distribution clerks have to
work quickly because mail must
be delivered as speedily as pos­
sible. Accuracy also is important
because placing a letter in the
wrong compartment of a case will
result in delayed delivery.
Window clerks weigh letters
and parcels and determine the
amotint of postage required. They
check packages and envelopes to
see if their sizes, shapes, and
condition are acceptable. They
register and insure mail and sell




the postage or collect the charges
required for the service.
Window clerks also sell and
cash money orders, distribute
general delivery mail and parcels
and other undeliverable mail be­
ing held at the post offices, and
rent post office boxes. They an­
swer questions about rates, mail­
ing restrictions, and other postal
matters. Occasionally, a window
clerk helps someone file a claim
for mail that has been damaged.
In large post offices, a window
clerk will perform only one or
two of these services. Thus, in
these offices there may be regis­
try, stamp, and money order
clerks.

Some of the requirements for
entry as a postal clerk are the
same as for any post office job
and are discussed earlier in this
chapter. The written civil service
examination and physical re­
quirements are the same as for
carrier applicants and are dis­
cussed on page — . A special type
of examination, including a ma­
chine aptitude test, is given to
applicants for distribution clerk
(machines).
Good health and a good mem­
ory are essential for those who
want to be postal clerks. The work
requires much stretching and
lifting, walking and standing, and
throwing of packages of mail as
well as handling of heavy sacks
of mail. Clerks have to memorize
distribution schemes and many
postal rules and regulations.
They also need good eye-hand co­
ordination, and the ability to
read rapidly.
The distribution clerk works
closely with other clerks, fre­
quently under the tension and
strain of meeting mailing dead­
lines and should, therefore, be
even-tempered.
The
window
clerk is in constant contact with
the public, and considerable tact
may be required in his replies to
questions and complaints.
Most postal clerks begin as
substitutes and become regulars
in order of seniority as vacancies
occur. New clerks receive orien­
tation and training needed to
carry out their work assignments.
Before distribution clerks are as­
signed a secondary (carrier sta­
tion) scheme, they are given
either a city or State mail dis­
tribution scheme, which they
must learn primarily on their own
time. Most large post offices pro­
vide classroom assistance during
official working hours to help
employees learn their schemes.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

824
All distribution clerks are re­
quired periodically to demon­
strate that they can adequately
work the scheme for which they
are responsible.
As their seniority increases,
clerks may apply for preferred
assignments such as the day shift
or a window clerk job. When they
have the required length of serv­
ice they are eligible to apply for
and take the written supervisory
examination. In addition, they
may apply for certain higher level
nonsupervisory positions. They
also may apply for any position
for which they are qualified under
the Merit Promotion Plan.

E m ploym ent O utlook
There will be many thousands
of job openings for postal clerks
through the 1970’s. Most of these
openings will result from the need
to replace clerks who retire, die,
or transfer to other fields of work.
Deaths and retirements alone
should provide nearly 7,500 job
opportunities annually. Addition­
al opportunities will result from




an expected rapid increase in pos­
tal clerk employment.
Employment requirements for
postal clerks are expected to in­
crease mainly as a result of a
substantial increase in the vol­
ume of mail, arising from in­
creases in population and busi­
ness activity. However, employ­
ment is expected to grow at a
slower rate than the volume of
mail because of technological de­
velopments that are increasing
the amount of mail a clerk can
handle.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Most postal clerks have the
same grade level as city carriers
and the earnings information for
clerks is, therefore, the same as
that presented on page — . Clerks
working on the night shift receive
10-percent additional pay. The
clerks in large post offices receive
higher salaries than those in the
small (third-class) post offices.
The working conditions of post
office clerks differ according to
the specific work assignment and

the amount and kind of laborsav­
ing machinery in the particular
post office. Generally, distribu­
tion clerks work in close contact
with each other and often there
is a spirit of friendliness and co­
operation within a group. Much
of the work is routine, however,
and may become boring unless
the clerk accepts the challenge of
improving his speed and accur­
acy. The clerk has to do consider­
able walking, throwing, and
reaching. He is on his feet much
of the time and may handle heavy
sacks of mail.
The work of the window clerk
requires less physical exertion
than work on the mailroom floor.
This preferred assignment also is
more varied, and has frequent
contact with the public, because
the work is performed during the
day. The window clerk is respon­
sible for his cash drawer and
stock of stamps. He also must
keep abreast of changes in postal
regulations that affect rates, for­
eign mail, classes of mail, money
orders, registry, and other rules
governing the mails and special
services.

ST A T E AND LO CA L G O VERN M EN TS

State and local governments
provide a very large and growing
source of job opportunities in
many different o c c u p a t i o n a l
fields. In 1968, about 9.5 million
workers were employed in State
and local government agencies.
Three-fourths of these workers
were with units of local govern­
ments, such as counties, munici­
palities, towns, and school dis­
tricts, and one-fourth were em­
ployed in State government
agencies.
About 4.8 million employees,
or over half of all State and local
government workers, were em­
ployed in public schools, colleges,
or other educational services in
1968.
In addition to more than 2.8
million classroom and college
teachers, school systems, colleges,
and universities also employ ad­
ministrative personnel, librarians,
guidance counselors, nurses, die­
ticians, clerks, and maintenance
workers. More than 75 percent
of employment in the field of
education is in elementary and
secondary schools, which are ad­
ministered largely by local gov­
ernments. State employment in
education is concentrated chiefly
in institutions of higher learning.
The next two largest fields of
State and local government em­
ployment in 1968 were in health
and hospital work and highway
work. The 935,000 persons em­
ployed in health and hospital
work include physicians, nurses,
medical laboratory technicians,
and hospital attendants. Nearly
600,000 workers were employed
in highway activities such as con­
struction and maintenance of
roads, highways, city streets, toll
turnpikes, bridges, and tunnels.
Among these employees are civil
engineers, surveyors, operators of
construction
machinery
and




equipment, truckdrivers, concrete
finishers, carpenters, and con­
struction laborers.
In 1968, about 570,000 workers
were employed in general and fi­
nancial control activities— most
of them at the local level. Gen­
eral and financial control func­
tions include the activities of
chief executives and their staffs
and legislative bodies; the ad­
ministration of justice; tax en­
forcement and other financial
work; and general administrative
work. These functions require the
services of individuals such as
lawyers, judges, and other court
officials, city managers, property
assessors, budget a n a l y s t s ,
stenographers, and clerks.
Protective services, such as
those provided by police and fire
departments, is another large
field of State and local govern­
ment employment. Almost 465,000 people were employed in po­
lice work in 1968, principally by
local governments. Employment
in police work includes adminis­
trative, clerical, and custodial
personnel, as well as uniformed
and plainclothes policemen. All
of the 255,000 firemen, many of
whom are part-time employees,
are employed by local govern­
ments.
Other State and local govern­
ment employees are engaged in a
wide variety of fields— local utili­
ties (such as water, electricity,
transportation, and gas supply
systems); natural resources; pub­
lic welfare; parks and recreation;
sanitation; correction; local libra­
ries; sewage disposal; and housing
and urban renewal. These activi­
ties require workers in many diferent occupations such as econ­
omist, electrical engineer, electri­
cian, pipefitter, clerk, forester,
and busdriver.

Clerical, administrative, main­
tenance, and custodial workers
constitute a significant propor­
tion of all employees in many
areas of government activity.
Among the larger groups of work­
ers engaged in these occupations
are clerk-typists, stenographers,
secretaries, office managers, fiscal
and budget administrators, book­
keepers, accountants, carpenters,
painters, plumbers, guards, and
janitors. (Detailed discussions of
most occupations in State and
local governments are given else­
where in the Handbook, in the
sections covering the individual
occupations.)

Em ploym ent Trends and O utlook
The long-range employment
trend in State and local govern­
ments has been steadily upward.
(See chart.) Much of this growth
has occurred because of the need
to provide services for increasing
numbers of younger and older per­
sons, and because of population
movements from rural to urban
areas. City development has re­
quired more street and highway
facilities; police and fire protec­
tion; and public health, sanita­
tion, welfare, and other services.
Population growth and increas­
ing personal income have gener­
ated demands for more and im­
proved education, housing, and
hospital and other services pro­
vided by State and local govern­
ments.
Much of the increase in State
and local government employ­
ment in the 1958-68 period was
due to increased employment of
teachers and other educational
personnel. Expansion in health
and hospital services, highway
programs, and protective (police
and fire) services also contributed
to the increase.
Rapid growth in State and local
government employment is ex­
pected to continue through the
825

826

1970’s. Employment of elemen­
tary and secondary school teach­
ers, however, is expected to in­
crease more slowly than in the
past, as the areas of rapid school
enrollment growth shift to higher
education. This shift will create
greater needs for college and uni­
versity teachers and administra­
tors.
A larger State and local work
force also will be needed to pro­
vide improved public transporta­
tion systems; more urban plan­
ning and renewal programs; in­
creased police protection; better
measures to guard against air and
water pollution; and expanded
natural resource development pro­
grams and hospital facilities.
New or recently expanded Fed­
eral-State programs in education,
vocational training, medicine, and
other fields will increase greatly
the requirements of local and
State governments for profession­
al, administrative, and technical
personnel such as engineers, scien­
tists, social workers, counselors,




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

teachers, doctors, and librarians.
In addition to job opportunities
resulting from the expected over­
all growth in State and local gov­
ernment employment, large num­
bers of employees will be needed
to replace workers who transfer to
other fields of work, retire, or die.
Most positions in State and lo­
cal governments are filled by
permanent residents of the State
or locality. Often, however, it is
necessary for State and local gov­
ernments to recruit outside their
areas if shortages of particular
skills exist in their areas.

parable to those of workers in
similar occupations in private in­
dustry. Earnings of administra­
tive and professional employees in
many areas tend to be somewhat
lower than those for workers in
similar occupations in private in­
dustry.
The Handbook statements for
individual occupations often give
salary information for State and
local government employment.
Salary information also can be
obtained f r o m the appropriate
agency in each State and locality.
A majority of State and local
government positions are filled
through some type of formal civil
service test, and personnel are
hired and promoted on the basis
of merit. In some areas, broad
groups of employees, such as
teachers, firemen, and policemen,
have separate civil service cover­
age which applies only to their
specific groups.
Most State and local govern­
ment employees are covered by re­
tirement systems or by the Fed­
eral Social Security program.
They usually work a 40-hour
week; overtime pay or compen­
satory time benefits often are
granted for hours of work in
excess of the standard workweek.

Sources of A d ditional Inform ation
Earnings and W orking Conditions
Earnings of State and local gov­
ernment employees vary widely,
depending upon occupation and
locality. Salaries from State to
State tend to reflect differences
in the general wage level in vari­
ous localities. Clerical and bluecollar earnings in State and local
governments generally are com­

People interested in working for
State or local government agen­
cies should contact the appropri­
ate agencies in the State, county,
or city. Local school boards, city
clerks, school and college coun­
selors or placement offices, and
local offices of State employment
services also will have further
information.

A RM ED F O R C E S

When planning their careers,
young men must consider their
military service obligation. By
knowing the choices available for
fulfillment of this obligation, they
can better fit their service period
into their occupational plans. In
many instances, the service activi­
ties provide valuable vocational
training which is helpful in ob­
taining civilian jobs later on. The
Armed Forces also offer many op­
portunities to qualified young
men and young women for life­
time service careers in many
occupations.
The Armed Forces are main­
tained through voluntary enlist­
ment, supplemented by a Selec­
tive Service System which drafts
young men between the ages of
18 ^ and 26. A young man may
enlist in any one of a variety of
programs involving different com­
binations of active service and
reserve duty; or he may wait to
be drafted for a 2-year period of
active duty, followed by 4 years
in the reserves; or, if qualified, he
may enter one of several officer
training programs and discharge
his obligation in a commissioned
status.
Additional choices for fulfilling
a military obligation are available
in reserve programs. One of these
choices allows a young man to
fulfill his military obligation by
enlisting in the reserves for 6
years, at least 4 months of which
are spent in active duty training.
These enlistment choices and the
draft, however, are subject to
change at any time by congres­
sional action. The alternative
choices described here in a general
way serve only to illustrate a few
possibilities. Detailed up-to-date
information can be obtained from
local Armed Forces recruiting
stations or from publications
available at high schools, colleges,




and State employment service
offices.
In 1968, military personnel
were distributed among the vari­
ous services as follows: Army,
1,463,000; Air Force, 887,000;
Navy, 745,000; Marine Corps,
313,000; and Coast Guard, 37,000. A majority of all enlisted
jobs in the Armed Forces require
special in-service school training;
on-the-job training is given for
the remainder. It is possible for a
young man, during his military
service, to receive training in elec­
tronics, aircraft maintenance,
metalworking, or other skilled
work (See chart 40.)
In addition to specific on-thejob training, the Armed Forces
provide military personnel with a
wide choice of voluntary off-duty
academic and technical training
programs. Military personnel may
enroll in (1) the U.S. Armed
Forces Institute (U S A F I), (2)
the Resident Center Program,
(3) the Group Study Program, or
(4) the Military Extension Cor­
respondence Course Program.

USAFI offers approximately 200
correspondence courses ranging
from elementary school through
the second year of college. In ad­
dition,
approximately
6,000
courses are offered by colleges
and universities under contract
with USAFI. In the Resident
Center Program, civilian institu­
tions offer courses leading to high
school diplomas and college de­
grees. These courses may be tak­
en either on the military installa­
tion or on a nearby campus. The
Group Study Program is offered
on military installations where
local civilian classes are not avail­
able. The Military Extension
Correspondence Course Program
provides technical courses in
military specialties which are de­
signed to advance career capa­
bilities.
The Armed Forces also offer
training to many servicemen dur­
ing their final 6 months of service
to prepare them for job opportu­
nities in civilian life. The T r a n ­
sition Program provides counsel­
ing, training, education, and
placement services to the combatdisabled, those having no civilian
work experience, and those, in­
cluding many combat veterans,
who did not acquire civilian-re-

Types O f W o rk Performed. By Enlisted M en
In The Arm ed Forces, 1967
PERCENT
0

5

ELECTRICAL/MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT REPAIRMENautomotive, aircraft mechanics, etc.
ADMINISTRATIVE SPECIALISTS & CLERKSsupply, communications, personnel workers, etc.
ELECTRONICS- electronics equipment repairmen,
radio operators, aircraft controllers, etc.
GROUND COMBATinfantry, artillery, tank crews, etc.
SERVICESfood service, security, motor transport, etc.
OTHER TECHNICALmedical specialists, intelligence, draftsmen, etc.
CRAFTSMENprinting, metal working, construction, etc.
SOURCE: U .S . DEP A R TM EN T OF DEFENSE

827

828
lated skills while in the service
or had no opportunities to
achieve high school graduation
equivalency
diplomas
during
their service.




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Each of the services publishes
handbooks describing entrance
requirements, training, advance­
ment, and other aspects of their
career fields. These publications

are available at all recruiting sta­
tions and at most State employ­
ment service offices, high schools,
colleges, and public libraries.

TECHNICAL APPENDIX

This appendix is designed for read­
ers who wish more information on the
procedures followed in developing the
conclusions on employment outlook
than is presented in the preecding
reports on individual occupations and
industries.

Em ploym ent O utlook Conclusions
The sections on employment outlook
in the occupational reports present
conclusions based not only on informa­
tion compiled from many sources but
also on extensive economic and statis­
tical analyses. Although the sources
used and the methods of analysis dif­
fered among occupations and indus­
tries, the same general pattern of re­
search was followed in all of the out­
look studies.
In preparing the employment out­
look studies, overall projections of the
economy to 1980 were developed to
insure that individual occupational
and industry studies were consistent.
This general analytical framework in­
cluded projections of the population,
labor force, gross national product,
average weekly hours of work, em­
ployment in major industries, and re­
lated economic measures. All studies
of separate occupations and industries
were tied in with the projections of
the entire economy. The projections
are based on the assumption of a
relatively full-employment economy.
Many individual occupational and
industry studies were based heavily on
an analysis of past and prospective
population trends, including the
changes expected in population of
school and college age, in numbers of
older people, in employment of women,
and in the concentration of population
in urban and suburban areas. In fields
such as teaching, the health profes­
sions, and many personal services, pop­
ulation factors have a direct and ob­
vious influence on employment require­
ments. They are also of great import­
ance in many industries—for example,
residential construction, baking, tele­
phone communications, apparel, and
retail trade.
Many factors besides the size and
composition of the population may
affect the volume of business and em­
ployment in a given industry. Con­




sumer purchasing patterns change with
shifts as income levels shift and as new
products which cut into the market for
old ones are developed. Technological
developments not only bring changes
in the raw materials and equipment
needed in production, but also influ­
ence the size of the required work force
and the kinds of occupations and skills
needed. Government policies, such as
the size of the defense and space pro­
grams, and expenditures for research
and development, also bring about
changes in the types of occupations
required.
In studying the outlook in each in­
dustry, the factors having the greatest
influence were analyzed and projec­
tions were made of demand for the intry’s products or services. These pro­
jections were then translated into
estimates of the numbers and kinds of
workers required to produce the in­
dicated amounts of products or ser­
vices. Taken into account were em­
ployment trends in industry’s total
employment and in different occupa­
tions, productivity trends, possible fur­
ther reductions in the workweek, and
other factors.
The basic data on population and
labor force trends, used to project over­
all employment and to study individual
occupations and industries, are from
the decennial Censuses of Population,
and from the monthly labor force sur­
veys conducted by the Bureau of the
Census for the Bureau of Labor Sta­
tistics. Data also were drawn from the
Censuses of Manufactures and Busi­
ness conducted by the Census Bureau.
Information also was utilized from a
variety of sources such as licensing
agencies, labor unions, professional and
trade associations, and special surveys.
Equally essential to the studies of
employment trends in major industries
were the statistics on employment in
nonagricultural establishments, com­
piled by the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
These estimates provide monthly data
on employment, hours of work, earn­
ings, and labor turnover, based on re­
ports from a sample of industrial, com­
mercial, and governmental establish­
ments which together employed about
29 million workers in March 1967.
They are available for a great number
of different industries for the past
quarter-century or more.*
* S e e Employment and Earnings and Monthly
Report on the Labor Force.

Another Bureau program which con­
tributed to the analysis of future em­
ployment trends was its series of stu­
dies of productivity and technological
developments. In converting the pro­
jections of demand for the products of
a given industry into estimates of the
number of workers who will be needed
in that industry, allowances were made
for anticipated productivity trends and
technological changes. Information on
employment of scientists and engineers
in research and other activities, ob­
tained from surveys conducted by the
Bureau in cooperation with the Na­
tional Science Foundation, also were
utilized extensively.
Still another Bureau project which
had a major role in the development
of estimates of future employment re­
quirements in different occupations is
the Occupational Industry Matrix. The
matrix consists of a set of tables for
116 industry sectors which represent
the entire economy of the United
States. For each industry sector, the
tables show a percentage distribution
of employment among about 160 of the
most important occupations. The ma­
trix was valuable in appraising the
effects of changing employment levels
in different industries on employment
in specific occupations. It also was
useful in estimating the numbers of
workers currently employed in each
occupation.
Conclusions based on the analysis of
information from these many sources
generally indicate increases in employ­
ment and, hence, openings for new
workers. Expected gains in employ­
ment, however, are by no means an
adequate indication of the total num­
bers of job openings that will need to
be filled. In most occupations, more
workers are needed yearly to fill posi­
tions left vacant by those who leave the
occupation (to enter other occupations
or because of retirement or death) than
are needed to staff new positions cre­
ated by growth of the field. Conse­
quently, even occupations which are
declining in size may offer employ­
ment opportunities to many young
people.
To estimate the number of openings
likely to arise in an occupation, the
Bureau of Labor Statistics has studied
occupational mobility among selected
groups of workers, and of tables of
working life, also developed by the
829

830
Bureau. The tables, which are similar
to the actuarial tables of life expec­
tancy used by insurance companies,
provide a basis for assessing future
rates of replacements resulting from
deaths and retirements. The lat­
ter is affected by differences in sex
and average age of the workers in vari­
ous occupations. In occupations where
men constitute the great majority of
workers, the rate of replacement for
death and for retirement is generally
between 1.5 and 2.5 percent. The rate
is usually somewhat higher in women’s
occupations, generally between 3.5 and
4.5 percent, because so many women
leave paid employment to get married
and assume family responsibilities.




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK
The types of information mentioned
so far in this section all relate to the
demand for workers. To appraise pro­
spective employment opportunities in
an occupation, information on the prob­
able future supply of personnel is im­
portant. The statistics on high school
and college enrollments and gradua­
tions compiled by the U.S. Office of
Education are the chief source of in­
formation on the potential supply of
personnel in the professions and other
occupations requiring extensive formal
education. Data on numbers of appren­
tices from the U.S. Department of
Labor’s Bureau of Apprenticeship and
Training provide some information on
new entrants into skilled trades.

Many of the statistical sources and
analytical approaches referred to above
have been developed within compara­
tively recent years. The reader should
bear in mind that economic forecasting
is still in an early stage of development
and that at best, it is difficult and un­
certain. It is necessary to keep in mind
also the basic assumptions underlying
the forecasts (enumerated on p.
).
The Bureau believes that, within this
general framework of assumptions, the
basic trends affecting employment can
be discerned with sufficient accuracy to
meet the needs of young people pre­
paring for careers.

Index to O ccu p atio n s and Industries
Page

Page

Able seamen, see: Unlicensed merchant
seamen ......................................................
Accelerator operators, atomic energy.......
Account clerks, see: Bank clerks.... ...........
Account executives, advertising................
Account executives, see: Securities sales­
men .......................................................
Accountants .................................................
See also: Insurance business..............
Accounting-bookkeeping machine service­
men ............................................................
Accounting clerks, see: Bookkeeping
workers ......................................................
Acidizers, petroleum and natural gas.......
Acquisition librarians .................................
Actors and actresses.....................................
Actuaries........................................................

728
635
786
30
314
27
794
465
274
594
234
161
130

See also:
Insurance business ....................
Mathematicians ..........................
Adding machine operators..........................
Adding machine servicemen........................
Adjusters, claim, insurance........................
Administrators, hospital ............................
Adult services librarians.............................
Advertising artists and layout men............
Advertising copywriters...............................
Advertising managers .................................
Advertising production managers..............
Advertising w orkers.....................................
Aeronautical engineers, see: Aerospace
engineers ....................................................
Aeronautical technicians............................
Aerospace engineers.....................................
See also: Aircraft, missile, and space­
craft manufacturing........................
Aerospace products manufacturing, see:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manu­
facturing ...................................................
Agents, see:
Insurance agents and brokers...........
Real estate salesmen and brokers.....
Agents, air traffic, civil aviation................
Agricultural agents, county................
Agricultural economists ............................
Agricultural engineers .................................
See also: Agriculture............................
Agricultural finance workers......................




794
125
280
464
795
117
234
31
30
30
31
30
67
206
67
604

601
304
308
708
579
583
68
583
585

Agricultural research workers....................
Agricultural workers ...................................
Agriculture ....................................................
Agriculture, occupations related to ...........
Agriculture teachers, vocational................
Agronomists .................................................
See also: Agriculture..........................
Air-conditioning and refrigeration me­
chanics ......................................................
See also: Electronics manufacturing..
Air-conditioning, heating, and refrigera­
tion technicians .......................................
Air-conditioning, refrigeration, and heat­
ing m echanics...........................................
Air-route traffic controllers, civil aviation
Air traffic controllers, civil aviation.........
Air transportation occupations, see: Civil
aviation ......................................................
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manufac­
turing, occupations in..............................
Aircraft mechanics, civil aviation..............
See also: Aircraft, missile, and space­
craft manufacturing........................
Airframe mechanics, civil aviation..............
Airline dispatchers, civil aviation..............
Airline traffic agents and clerks, civil
aviation ......................................................
Airplane mechanics, aircraft mechanics....
See also: Aircraft, missile, and space­
craft manufacturing ......................
Airplane pilots, civil aviation......................
Airport traffic controllers, civil aviation ...
Aluminum industry .....................................
Analysts, chemical, see:
Aluminum industry .............................
Paper and allied products....................
Analysts, systems .......................................
Analysts, investment, see: Insurance busi­
ness ............................................................
Analytical statisticians ...............................
Anatomists ....................................................
Animal physiologists and animal husband­
men, see: Agriculture .............................
Annealers, see: Aluminum industry.........
Announcers, radio and television................
Anode men, aluminum industry................
Anodizers, electronics manufacturing.......
Anthropologists ...........................................
831

585
584
569
579
584
146
583
448
645
206
448
704
704
691
601
700
606
701
703
708
700
606
693
704
611
615
681
244
794
128
147
583
614
740
612
644
181

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

832
Page

Apparel industry, occupations in the.......
Appliance servicemen .................................
See also: Electric power......................
Appraisers, real estate.................................
Arc cutters, see: Welders.............................
Arc w elders....................................................
Archeologists, see: Anthropologists............
Architects ......................................................
See also: Interior designers and deco­
rators ..................................................
Architects, landscape...................................
Archivists, see: Historians ........................
Armament assemblers, aircraft, missiles,
and spacecraft .........................................
Armed F o rce s................................................
Art directors, see: Commercial artists.......
Art related occupations...............................
Artists, see:
Advertising workers ..........................
Commercial artists...............................
Artists, lithographic, printing (graphic
arts) ..........................................................
Asbestos and insulating workers..............
Assemblers ....................................................

619
451
719
308
562
562
181
221
178
228
188
606
827
173
173
31
173
512
362
517

See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
manufacturing ........................
Apparel industry ........................
Electronics manufacturing .......
Motor vehicle and equipment
manufacturing ........................
Assemblers, bench .......................................
Assemblers, floor .........................................
Assembly inspectors, aircraft, missiles,
and spacecraft .........................................
Assembly mechanics, aircraft, missiles,
and spacecraft .........................................
Assistant engineers, see: Licensed mer­
chant marine officers...............................
Associate-directors, radio and television....
Assorters, iron and steel...............................
Astrogeologists .............................................
Astronomers ..................................................
Astronautical engineers, see: Aerospace
engineers ....................................................
Astrophysicists, see: Astronomers ............
Atomic energy field, occupations in the....
Attendants, gasoline service station.........
Attendants, hospital ...................................
Attorneys ......................................................
Audio-control technicians, radio and tele­
vision ..........................................................
Audiologists .................................................
Auditors, see: A ccountants........................




605
622
643
671
517
517

Page

Automatic pin setting machine mechanics
Automatic-rolling-mill attendants, iron
and steel ....................................................
Automatic screw machine operators, see:
Machine tool operators.............................
Automatic transmission specialists, see:
Automobile m echanics.............................
Automobile air-conditioning specialists,
see: Automobile m echanics....................
Automobile body repairmen......................
Automobile-glass mechanics, see: Auto­
mobile m echanics...................................
Automobile manufacturing occupations,
see: Motor vehicle and equipment
manufacturing .........................................
Automobile mechanics ...............................
Automobile painters ...................................
Automobile parts countermen ..................
Automobile-radiator mechanics, see: Au­
tomobile mechanics .................................
Automobile salesmen...................................
Automobile service advisors ....................
Automobile trimmers and installation
men ............................................................
Automobile upholsterers .............................
Automotive technicians, see: Mechanical
technicians ................................................
Auxiliary equipment operators, see: Elec­
tronic computer operating personnel....
Auxiliary equipment operators, electric
p o w e r..........................................................
Auxiliary nursing workers, see: Hospital
attendants ................................................
Aviation occupations, see: Civilaviation

460
661
438
457
458
454
458

667
457
519
296
458
298
301
521
521
208
278
712
340
691

606
605
725
735
662
134
158
604
158
629
535
340
230
742
106
27

Babysitters, see:
Private household
workers ......................................................
Backtenders, paper and allied products....
Baggage porters, hotel.................................
Ballet dancers................................................
Bank clerks....................................................
Bank managers, branch...............................
Bank officers ................................................
Bank tellers ..................................................
Banking occupations ...................................
Bankmen, printing (graphic arts)............
Barbers ..........................................................
Barker operators, paper and allied
products ....................................................
Bartenders, restaurant ...............................
Beater engineers, paper and allied
products ....................................................
Beauticians ....................................................
Beauty operators .........................................

342
679
803
163
786
790
789
788
783
504
321
678
778
679
323
323

833

INDEX TO OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRIES

Page

Page

Bell captains, hotel .....................................
Bellboys, hotel .............................................
Bellmen and bell captains, hotel................
Bench assemblers.........................................
Benchmen, optical mechanics....................
Bill clerks, see: Cashiers...............................
Billing machine operators............................
Bindery workers, printing (graphic arts)
Biochemists .................................................
See also: Life scientists........................
Biological aids .............................................
Biological oceanographers, see:
Life scientists ...............................
Oceanographers ..........................
Biophysicists ...............................................
Blacksmiths .................................................
Blanking machine operators, electronics
manufacturing .........................................
Blockers, printing (graphic arts)..............
Blowers, iron and steel.................................
Boardmen, general, see: Commercial art­
ists ..............................................................
Boatswains, see: Unlicensed merchant
seamen ......................................................
Body repairmen, automobile .....................
Boiler operators, electric power................
Boilermakers ...............................................

804
803
803
517
529
275
280
514
150
147
205
147
142
147
523
644
508
659
173
729
454
712
525

See also:
Aluminum industry ....................
Iron and steel industry................
Brickmasons .................................................
Bridge and building workers, railroad.....
Broadcast technicians, radio and televi­
sion ............................................................
Broadcasting occupations, radio and tele­
vision ..........................................................
Brokers, insurance .......................................
Brokers, real estate .....................................
Building custodians .....................................
Building laborers .........................................
Building trades.............................................
Bulldozer operators, see: Operating engi­
neers ..........................................................
Bundlers, apparel.........................................
Bus boys and girls, restaurant..................
Bus mechanics .............................................
Busdrivers, intercity ...................................
Busdrivers, local transit ............................
Bushelmen, apparel .....................................
Business administration and related pro­
fessions ......................................................
Business machine operators ......................
Business machine servicemen....................
Butlers, see: Private household workers ...

615
662
364
762

Cabdrivers ...................................................
Cable splicers, see:
Electric power industry......................
Telephone industry ............................
Cable-tool dressers, petroleum and natural
gas ..............................................................
Cable-tool drillers, petroleum and natural
gas ..............................................................
Calculating machine operators ................
Calculating machine servicemen................
Cameramen, printing (graphic arts), see:
Lithographers .......................................
Photoengravers ...................................
Captain, see: Licensed merchant marine
officers ......................................................
Card-to-tape converter operators, see:
Electronics computer operating person­
nel ..............................................................
Caretakers, see: Private household work­
ers ..............................................................
Carmen, railroad s h o p .................................
Carpenters ....................................................
See also: Railroad bridge and build­
ing w orkers.......................................
Carpet layers, see: Floor covering in­
stallers ........................................................

430

741
733
304
308
344
374
357
392
622
778
489
425
427
622
27
279
462
343

See also:
Iron and steel industry..............
Railroad shop trades..................
Boilermaking occupations..........................
Bookbinders and related workers..............
Bookkeepers .................................................
See also: Bank clerks ........................
Bookkeeping and accounting clerks....

662
758
525
515
273
786
274

See also:
Bank clerks .................................
Bookkeepers .................................
Bookkeeping machine operators, see:
Bank Clerks .........................................
Office machine operators ..................
Bookkeeping machine servicemen ............
Bookkeeping workers .................................
Bookmobile librarians .................................
Boring machine operators, see: Machine
tool operators...........................................
B otanists........................................................
Bowling-pin-machine m echanics................
Box office cashiers.......................................
Brake mechanics, see: Automobile me­
chanics ......................................................
Brakemen, railroad .....................................
Branch bank managers ...............................
Bricklayers ...................................................




786
274
786
280
465
273
234
438
146
460
275
458
753
790
364

716
770
593
593
280
465
512
507
724

277
343
757
367
762
381

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

834
Page

Cartographers, see: Geographers ..............
Caseworkers, social .....................................
Cash accounting clerks, see: Cashiers.......
Cash register servicemen............................
Cashiers ........................................................
Cashiers, restaurant.....................................
Casting operators, see: Aluminum indus­
try ..............................................................
Casualty insurance agents ........................
Catalogers, see: Librarians........................
Catholic priests ...........................................
Cement finishers .........................................
Cement masons ...........................................
Cementers, petroleum and natural gas....
Central office craftsmen, telephone.........
Central office equipment installers, tele­
phone ..............
Central office operators, telephone...........
Central office repairmen, telephone.........
Central office supervisors, see: Telephone
operators ....................................................
Ceramic engineers .......................................
Certified public accountants ....................
Chainmen, see: Surveyors ........................
Chaplains, see: Clergy.................................
Charging machine operators, iron and
steel ............................................................
Check encoders, see: Bank clerks..............
Check inscribers, see: Bank clerks............
Check-out clerks, see: Cashiers ................
Checkers, apparel industry........................
Checkers, see: D raftsm en..........................
Checkers, insurance policy ........................
Checkers, motor vehicle and equipment
manufacturing .........................................
Chefs, see: Cooks and chefs........................
Chemical analyst, see:
Aluminum industry .............................
Paper and allied products..................
Chemical engineers .....................................

185
255
275
465
275
778
613
304
234
45
370
370
594
766
768
290
766
291
68
28
258
41
659
787
787
275
622
211
795
672
325
615
681
69

See also:
Aluminum industry ....................
Atomic energy fie ld ....................
Industrial chemical industry.....
Paper and allied products indus-.
try .............................................
Chemical mixers, see: Photographic labo­
ratory occupations...................................
Chemical oceanographers ..........................
Chemical operators, industrial chemical....
Chemical technicians...................................
Chemists ........................................................

615
631
652
681
548
142
650
206
152

See also:
Aluminum industry ....................




615

Page

Atomic energy field ....................
Electronics manufacturing .......
Industrial chemical industry.....
Iron and steel industry................
Motor vehicle and equipment
manufacturing ........................
Paper and allied products.........
Petroleum and natural gas pro­
duction and processing............
Petroleum refining......................
Chief cook, see: Unlicensed merchant sea­
men ............................................................
Chief engineers, see: Licensed merchant
marine officers .........................................
Chief engineers, radio and television......
Chief mate, see: Licensed merchant ma­
rine officers................................................
Chief mechanics, aircraft, missiles, and
spacecraft ..................................................
Chief operators, telephone..........................
Chief steward, see: Unlicensed merchant
seamen ......................................................
Child psychologists .....................................
Child welfare workers, see: Social workers
Children’s librarians ...................................
Chippermen, paper and allied products....
Chiropodists, see: Podiatrists....................
Chiropractors ................................................
Choreographers, see: Dancers....................
Christmas club bookkeepers, see: Bank
clerks ..........................................................
Christmas club tellers, see: Bank tellers....
Cindermen, iron and steel ........................
City carriers, post office...............................
City planners ................................................
Civil aviation occupations...........................
Civil engineering technicians ..................
Civil engineers .............................................

634
641
652
663
670
680
591
686
730
725
735
725
606
291
730
250
255
234
678
99
101
164
786
788
659
820
261
691
207
70

See also:
Atomic energy fie ld ....................
Iron and steel industry..............
Civil service workers, Federal Govern­
ment ..........................................................
Civil service workers, State and local gov­
ernment ................................
Civilian government, Federal ..................
Claim adjusters, insurance ........................
Cleaners, see:
Building custodians.............................
Thread trimmers, apparel industry....
Clergy, the ..................................................
Clerical and related occupations...............
Clerk-typists ..................................................
Clerks, banking ...........................................

631
663
813
825
811
795
344
622
41
271
289
786

835

INDEX TO OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRIES
Page

Clerks, civil aviation ...................................
Clerks, insurance .........................................
Clerks, post office .......................................
Clerks, railroad.................................................
Clerks, reservation, civil aviation.................
Clerks, shipping and receiving.......................
Climatologists, see: Meteorologists............
Clinical pharmacists .......................................
Clinical laboratory workers............................
Clinical psychologists .................................
Clothing industry occupations, see: Ap­
parel industry..............................................
Coil winders, electronics manufacturing....
Coder operators, aluminum industry.......
Collar pointers, apparel ................................
College and university teachers................
College librarians............................................
College placement officers ............................
College professors ..........................................
Color technicians, see: Photographic labo­
ratory occupations......................................
Combination w elders............ .........................
Commercial artists ...................................
Commercial photographers............................
Commercial tellers, banking..........................
Commodity loan clerks, see: Bank clerks....
Companions, see: Private household
Workers .......................................................
Composing room occupations, printing
(graphic arts) ............................................
Composition roofers ...................................
Compositors, hand, printing (graphic
arts) .............................................................
Compressor-station engineers, petroleum
and natural g a s ............................................
Compressor-station operators, petroleum
and natural g a s ............................................
Computer operators, see: Electronic com­
puter operating personnel .......................
Computers, see:
Paper and allied products.....................
Petroleum and natural gas produc­
tion and processing .........................
Concrete finishers .......................................
Conductors, railroad ......................................
Conservation occupations ..........................
Conservationists, range, see: Range man­
agers ..........................................................
Conservationists, soil ....................................
Console operators, see: Electronic com­
puter operating personnel .......................
Construction.....................................................
Construction electricians ..............................
Construction laborers and hod carriers....




Construction machinery operators, see:
Operating engineers ...............................
Construction trades, see: Building trades
Continuity directors, radio and television
Continuity writers, radio and television ...
Contractors, building trades ....................
Control clerks, see: Bank clerks................
Control room operators, electric power. ..
Controllers, air ro u te ...................................
Controllers, airport traffic ........................
Converter operators, see: Electronic com­
puter operating personnel ....................
619
644
Cook/baker, see: Unlicensed merchant
seamen ......................................................
614
Cooks, see: Private household workers....
623
201
Cooks and c h e fs ...........................................
234
Cooks’ helpers, see: Private household
223
workers ......................................................
Cooperative extension service workers.....
202
Copilots, civil aviation ...............................
547
Copying machine servicemen ....................
561
Copywriters, advertising............................
173 Coremakers, see: Motor vehicle and equip­
241
ment manufacturing ..............................
788
Com and wheat farmers ..........................
786
Correspondent bank officers, banking.....
Corrugator operators, paper and allied
343
products ....................................................
Cosmetologists .............................................
503
Cotton grow ers.............................................
404
Counseling ....................................................
Counseling psychologists, see: Psychol­
504
ogists ..........................................................
See also: Counseling............................
593
Counselers, see:
Employment counselers ....................
593
Rehabilitation counselers ..................
School counselers.................................
277
Counter attendants, restaurant................
Counters, paper and allied products.........
681
Country collection clerks, see: Bank
clerks ...................... •..................................
591 County agricultural agents ......................
370
County home economics agents................
752
Court reporters.............................................
47
Craftsmen, foreman, and kindred workers
Crane operators, see:
51
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
582
facturing ...........................................
Operating engineers............................
277
Cranemen, iron and steel ..........................
597
Credit cashiers, see: Cashiers....................
376
Crew chiefs, aircraft, missile, and space­
373
craft ............................................................

707
794
822
756
707
284
189
97
108
250

Page

392
357
735
735
357
787
713
704
704
277
730
342
325
342
579
693
466
30
671
575
790
680
332
576
55
250
55
55
58
60
778
680
786
579
579
286
347

672
392
659
275
606

836

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK
Page

Crop reporters .............................................
Crop specialty farmers ...............................
Crystal finishers, electronics manufactur­
ing ..............................................................
Crystal grinders, electronics manufactur­
ing ..............................................................
Cultural anthropologists ............................
Custodians, building ...................................
Customer service occupations, electric
p o w e r..........................................................
Customers’ brokers, see: Securities sales­
men ....................................... ....................
Cutters, apparel.................
Cutters, fur, apparel ...................................
Cutters, m e a t ...............................................
Cutters, motor vehicle and equipment
manufacturing .........................................
Cutting room occupations, apparel...........
Cytologists, see: Anatomists......................
Dairy farmers ...............................................
Dancers ...........................................
Dark-room technicians, see: Photographic
laboratory occupations ..........................
Data-processing equipment servicemen....
Data typists, see: T y p ists..........................
See also: Electronic computer opera­
tors ..............................................
Day workers, see: Private household
workers ......................................................
Deck-engine mechanics, see: Unlicensed
merchant seamen .....................................
Deck officers, see: Licensed merchant ma­
rine officers...............................................
Deck utilitymen, see: Unlicensed mer­
chant seamen ...........................................
Decontamination men, atomic energy.....
Decorators, interior designers and...........
Dehydration-plant operators, petroleum
and natural gas .......................................
Deliverymen, see: Routemen ....................
Dental assistants ..............
Dental hygienists.........................................
Dental laboratory technicians....................
Dentists ........................................................
Derrick operators, see: Operating engi­
neers ................................................
Derrickmen, petroleum and natural gas....
Derrickmen, see: Stonemasons ................
Designers, apparel .............................
Designers, industrial ...................................
See also listing under Industrial de­
signers.
Designers, interior .......................................




585
576
644
644
182
344
718
314
622
623
542
672
621
147
573
163
546
465
289
277
342
730
725
729
635
178
593
422
86
84
88
82
392
592
409
619
175

Page

Designers, scenic, television ......................
See also: Interior designers and deco­
rators ..................................................
Designers, tool and machine, see: Me­
chanical technicians ...............................
Designing room occupation, apparel.......
Detail men, see: Pharmacists....................
Detailers, see: Draftsmen ..........................
Detectives, p o lic e .........................................
Developers, see: Photographic laboratory
occupations ................................................
Development engineers, radio and tele­
vision ..........................................................
Developmental psychologists ....................
Dictating-machine servicemen ..................
Die makers, paper and allied products.....
Die makers, tool-a n d ...................................
See also listing under Tool-and-die
makers.
Diesel mechanics .........................................
Deisel technicians, see: Mechanical tech­
nicians ........................................................
Dietitians ......................................................
See also: Home economists ..............
Digester operators, paper and allied prod­
ucts ............................................................
Directors, art, see: Commercial artists.....
Directors, college placement, see: College
placement officers ...................................
Directors, education, radio and television
Directors, program, radio and television....
Directors, public affairs, radio and tele­
vision ..........................................................
Disbursement clerks, see: Cashiers............
Disc jockeys, radio and television..............
Discount bookkeepers, see: Bank clerks ...
Discount tellers, banking ........................
Dishwashers, restaurant .............................
Dispatchers, see:
Civil aviation .......................................
Railroads .............................................
Dispatchers, load, electric light and power
Dispensing opticians and optical me­
chanics ......................................................
Distribution clerks, post office..................
District representatives, electric power....
Doctors, medical .........................................
Domestic workers, see: Private household
workers ......................................................
Doormen, h o te l.............................................
Draftsmen ....................................................

737
178
208
619
97
211
333
547
737
250
466
680
439

469
208
115
225
678
173
224
735
735
735
275
740
786
788
778
703
746
715
528
822
718
77
342
801
211

See also:
178

Aluminum industry ....................
Atomic energy fie ld ....................

615
631

837

INDEX TO OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRIES

Page

Page

Electronics manufacturing .......
Iron and steel industry................
Petroleum and natural gas pro­
duction and processing............
Petroleum refining......................
Drama teachers, see: Actors and actresses
Dressmakers, apparel ....................................
Drill press operators, see: Machine tool
operators .......................................................
Drillers, petroleum and natural gas.........
Driver-salesmen, see: Routemen .................
Drivers, intercity buses...............................
Drivers, local transit buses........................
Drivers, local trucks.....................................
Drivers, over-the-road trucks......................
Drivers, taxi .................................................
Driving occupations........................................
Druggists ..........................................................
Drycleaning and laundry routemen.........
Duplicating and copying machine ser­
vicemen .........................................................
Duplicating machine operators.....................
Dynamic meteorologists ................................
Earth-boring machine operators, see: Op­
erating engineers ........................................
Ecologists, see: Life scientists.......................
Economic geographers....................................
Economic geologists........................................
Economists .......................................................
Economists, agricultural ................................
Editors, film, television ................................
Editors, newspaper ........................................
Education directors, radio and television
Electric-arc w elders........................................

642
663
591
686
162
622
438
592
422
425
427
419
415
430
415
97
422
466
280
139

392
147
185
134
183
583
737
215
735
562

See also: Motor vehicle and equip­
ment manufacturing .........................
Electric power linemen..................................
Electric power industry, occupations in
the .................................................................
Electric sign servicemen..................................
Electrical appliance servicemen...................
Electrical assemblers, aircraft, missiles,
and spacecraft ............................................
Electrical engineers .....................................

671
716
709
472
451
606
71

See also:
Aluminum industry .......................
615
Atomic energy field.......................
631
Electronics manufacturing ...........
641
Industrial chemical industry.....
652
Iron and steel industry.................
663
Motor vehicle and equipment
manufacturing ............................
670




Paper and allied products in­
dustry .......................................
Electrical repairmen, maintenance elec­
tricians ......................................................
Electrical workers, see: Shop trades, rail­
roads ..........................................................
Electricians, construction ..........................
Electricians, maintenance..........................
See also listing under Maintenance
electricians.
Electronic assembly inspectors..................
Electronic computer operating personnel
Electronic computer programers................
Electronic reader-sorter operators, see:
Bank clerk s...............................................
Electronic specialists, see: Oceanogra­
phers ..........................................................
Electronics checkout men, aircraft, mis­
siles, and spacecraft.................................
Electronics engineers, see:
Atomic energy field..............................
Electronics manufacturing ................
Electronics manufacturing occupations....
Electronics mechanics, aluminum............
Electronics repairmen, iron and steel.......
Electronics technicians ..............................

681
481
758
376
481

645
277
246
787
142
607
631
641
639
614
662
207

See also:
Atomic energy field......................
Electronics manufacturing .......
Electroplaters ...............................................

631
641
531

See also: Electronics manufacturing
Electrotypers and stereotypers, printing
(graphic arts) .....................................
Elementary school teachers........................
Elevator constructors .................................
Elevator mechanics .....................................
Embossing machine operators ..................
Embryologists ...........
Employment counselors .............................
Engine lathe operators ...............................
Engine mechanics, aircraft, missiles, and
spacecraft ..................................................
Engineering ..................................................
Engineering aids .........................................

644

See also: Electronics manufacturing
Engineering and science technicians.......
Engineering geologists ...............................
Engineering psychologists, see: Psychol­
ogists ..........................................................
Engineering technicians .............................
Engineers, aeronautical, see: Engineers,
aerospace .................................................
Engineers, aerospace ...................................

642
205
134

509
196
379
379
280
147
55
438
606
63
205

250
205
67
67

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

838
Page

See also: Aircraft, missile and space­
craft manufacturing ......................
Engineers, agricultural ...............................
See also: Agriculture............................
Engineers, astronautical, see: Engineers,
aerospace ..................................................
Engineers, ceram ic.......................................
Engineers, chem ical.....................................
See also listing under Chemical engi­
neers.
Engineers, c iv il.............................................
See also listing under Civil engineers.
Engineers, compressor-station, petroleum
and natural gas .......................................
Engineers, development, radio and tele­
vision ..........................................................
Engineers, electrical ..............
See also listing under Electrical engi­
neers.
Engineers, electronics, see listing under
Electronics engineers.
Engineers, flight, civil aviation...............
Engineers, gasoline-plant, petroleum and
natural gas ...............................................
Engineers, industrial .............
See also listing under Industrial engi­
neers.
Engineers, locomotive ..........
Engineers, m echanical.................................
See also listing under Mechanical en­
gineers.
Engineers, metallurgical ......
See also listing under Metallurgical
engineers.
Engineers, mining .......................................
Engineers, oceanographic, see: Oceanog­
raphers .............................
Engineers, operating, building trades.....
Engineers, packaging, paper and allied
products ....................................................
Engineers, petroleum .............................
See also listing under Petroleum en­
gineers.
Engineers, stationary .................................
See also listing under Stationary en­
gineers.
Engineers, watch, electric power................
Enginemen, petroleum and natural gas....
Entomologists .................(...........................
See also: Agriculture............................
Envelope-machine operators, paper and
allied products .........................................
Environmental sciences ...............................
Etchers, printing (graphic arts)................




604
68
583
67
68
69

70

593
737
71

697
593
72

749
73

74
74
142
392
681
593

554

713
592
147
584
680
133
507

Page

Etching equipment operators, electronics
manufacturing .........................................
Ethnologists, see: Anthropologists............
Exchange clerks, see: Bank clerks............
Exhaust operators, electronics manufac­
turing ........................................................
Experimental machinists, see: Instrument
makers (mechanical) .............................
Exploration geophysicits.............................
Extension agents, 4 - H .................................
Extension service workers...........................
Extras, see: Actors and actresses................
Extrusions press operators, aluminum in­
dustry ........................................................
Fabrication inspectors, aircraft, missiles,
and spacecraft .........................................
Family service workers, see: Social work­
ers ..............................................................
Farm equipment mechanics ......................
Farm housekeepers, see: Private house­
hold workers ...........................................
Farm managers ...........................................
Farm service jo b s .........................................
Farmers, see: Agriculture ..........................
Fashion illustrators, see: Commercial art­
ists ..............................................................
Fashion models ...........................................
FBI Special Agents .....................................
Federal civilian governm ent......................
Federal Government occupations..............
Field technicians, radio and television.....
Film editors, television.................................
Film librarians, television.............................
Film numberers, see: Photographic labo­
ratory technicians ...................................
Film strippers, see: Photographic labora­
tory technicians .......................................
Final assemblers, aircraft, missiles, and
spacecraft ..................................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate.........
Finance workers, agricultural....................
Finishers, crystal, electronics manufactur­
ing ..............................................................
Finishers, fur, apparel.................................
Finishers, optical mechanics......................
Finishers, printing (graphic arts)..............
Firefighters ....................................................
Firemen, petroleum and natural gas.........
Firemen, see: Firefighters ........................
Firemen (helpers), railroad........................
Firemen, stationary (boiler) ....................
Firemen/watertenders, see: Unlicensed
merchant seamen .....................................

644
181
787
644
441
137
579
579
161
614

606
255
475
342
584
587
569
174
238
330
811
811
742
737
737
547
547
605
781
585
644
623
529
508
338
592
338
750
556
730

839

INDEX TO OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRIES

Page

Page

Firers, hydrogen furnace, electronics man­
ufacturing .................................................
Fitup men, boilermaking occupations.......
Flagmen, railroad...................
Flame cutters, see : Welders........................
Flight attendants, civil aviation................
Flight checkout occupations, see: Aircraft,
missile, and spacecraft manufacturing
Flight engineers, civil aviation....................
Flight superintendents, see: Airline dis­
patchers, civil aviation............................
Floor assemblers .........................................
Floor boys and girls, see: Work distribu­
tors, apparel industry...............................
Floor clerks and supervisors, hotel............
Floor covering installers.............................
Floor covering mechanics ..........................
Floor layers, see: Floor covering installers
Floor managers, radio and television.......
Floormen, rotary, petroleum and natural
gas .................................................................
Floormen, television ......................................
Food checkers, restaurant ............................
Food service managers, see: Hotels.........
Foreign exchange tellers, banking...........
Foremen ...........................................................
Foresters ............................................................

See also: Air-conditioning, refrigera­
644
526
753
562
698
606
697
703
517
622
805
381
381
381
736
592
736
778
802
788
353
47

See also:
Agriculture ......................................
Paper and allied products...........
Forestry aids ....................................................
Forestry technicians, see: Forestry aids....
Forklift truck operators, see:
Electronics manufacturing ................
Power truck operators............................
Framemen, telephone central office crafts­
men ...............................................................
Free-lance artists, see: Commercial artists
Front-end mechanics, see: Automobile
mechanics .................................................
Front office clerks, hotel............................
Fur cutters, apparel........................................
Fur finishers, apparel ....................................
Fur machine operators, apparel...................
Fur nailers, apparel........................................
Fur shop occupations, apparel.......................
Furnace installers (heating mechanics)....
Furniture upholsterers ..................................

584
681
49
49
645
549
766
174
458
805
623
623
623
623
623
449
533

Gagers, petroleum and natural gas............
593
Garage mechanics, see: Automobile me­
chanics ......................................................
457
Gas appliance servicemen................................
451




tion, and heating mechanics............
Gas burner m echanics.................................
Gas fitters, see: Plumbers and pipefitters
Gas plant operators, petroleum and nat­
ural gas ....................................................
Gas welders .................................................
See also: Motor vehicle and equip­
ment manufacturing ......................
Gas-compressor operators, petroleum and
natural gas ...............................................
Gasoline-plant engineers, petroleum and
natural gas ...............................................
Gasoline-plant operators, petroleum and
natural gas ...............................................
Gasoline service station attendants.........
Gasoline station salesmen ........................
Gasoline station servicemen......................
General boardmen, see: Commercial art­
ists .................................................................
General bookkeepers ......................................
See also: Bank clerks..............................
General maids, see: Private household
workers ......................................................
General practitioners, see: Physicians.....
Geneticists .......................................................
See also: Agriculture................................
Geochemists, see: Geologists .......................
Geodesists, see: Geophysicists.......................
Geodetic surveyors .....................................
Geographers .....................................................
Geological oceanographers ............................
See also: Oceanographers .....................
Geologists .........................................................
See also: Petroleum and natural gas
production and processing............
Geomagneticians, see: Geophysicists.......
Geomorphologists, see: Geologists............
Geophysicists ...................................................
See also: Petroleum and natural gas
production and processing.................
Glass blowers, electronics manufacturing
Glass lathe operators, electronics manu­
facturing .......................................................
Glaziers .............................................................
Governesses, see: Private household work­
ers .................................................................
Government occupations, Federal.................
See also: Post office............................
Government occupations, State and local
Government, occupations in......................
Grain farmers, see: Corn and wheat farm­
ers .................................................................

449
449
401
593
562
671
593
593
593
535
535
535
173
273
786
342
77
147
584
134
137
258
185
134
142
133
591
137
134
136
591
644
644
384
343
811
816
825
809
575

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

840

Page

Page

Gravure pressmen, printing (graphic
arts) ..........................................................
Grid lathe operators, electronics manufac­
turing ........................................................
Grinding machine operators, see: Machine
tool operators ...........................................
Grocery checkers, see: Cashiers................
Ground radio operators and teletypists,
civil aviation .............................................
Groundmen, electric power........................
Guidance counselors .....................................
Hairdressers ..................................................
Hammermen, see: Motor vehicle and
equipment manufacturing ....................
Hand compositors, printing (graphic arts)
Hand cutters, apparel.................................
Hand sewers, apparel...................................
Hand spreaders, apparel...............................
Hand trimmers, apparel .............................
Handymen, see: Private household work­
ers ..............................................................
Health physicists, atomic energy..............
Health physics technicians, atomic energy
Health service occupations........................
Heat treaters, see: Aircraft, missile, and
spacecraft manufacturing ......................
Heaters, see: Iron and steel industry.......
Heating mechanics .....................................
Helpers, iron and steel.................................
Helpers, petroleum and natural gas.........
High school teachers ...................................
High speed printer operators, see: Elec­
tronic computer operating personnel....
Highway patrolmen, see: State police of­
ficers ..........................................................
Highway surveyors .....................................
Historians ......................................................
Hod carriers ..................................................

511
644
438
275
706
716
60
323
671
504
622
622
621
622
343
634
634
77
605
661
448
659
591
198

335
258
187
373
365
399
225

See also:
Cooperative extension service
workers .....................................
Dietitians .....................................
Home housekeepers, see: Private house­
hold workers .............................................
Home office underwriters, insurance.......
Horticulturists .............................................
Hospital administrators .............................
Hospital attendants.....................................
Hospital nurses.............................................




Illustrators, see: Commercial artists.........
Illustrators, technical, see listing under
Technical illustrators.
Industrial chemical industry, occupations
in t h e ..........................................................
Industrial designers.....................................
See also: Electronics manufacturing
Industrial engineers ...................................

97
252
746
635
612
659
807
801
342
342
806
343
801
584
147
644
137
84
173

649
175
641
72

See also:
278

See also:
Bricklayers ...................................
Plasterers .....................................
Home econom ists.........................................

Hospital pharmacists .....................................
Hospital recreation workers ......................
Hostlers, railroad.........................................
Hot-cell technicians, atomic energy.........
Hot metal cranemen, see:
Aluminum industry .............................
Iron and steel in du stry......................
Hotel managers ...........................................
Hotel occupations .......................................
Household workers, see: Private house­
hold w orkers.............................................
Housekeepers, see: Private household
workers ......................................................
Housekeepers and assistants, hotel.......
Housemen, see: Private household work­
ers ..............................................................
Housemen, hotel .........................................
Human nutritionists, see: Agriculture.....
Husbandry specialists (anim al)...................
Hydrogen furnace firers, electronics man­
ufacturing ..................................................
Hydrologists, see: Geophysicists .................
Hygienists, dental ...........................................

579
115
342
794
147
117
340
91

Aluminum industry ....................
Electronics manufacturing .......
Motor vehicle and equipment
manufacturing ........................
Industrial machinery repairmen................
Industrial meteorologists ...........................
Industrial nurses .........................................
Industrial photographers.............................
Industrial production technicians..............
Industrial psychologists .............................
Industrial recreation w orkers....................
Industrial salesmen .....................................
Industrial technicians .................................
Industrial traffic managers ......................
Infants’ nurses, see: Private household
workers ......................................................
Informal models .........................................
Infrared oven operators, electronics man­
ufacturing ..................................................
Ingot strippers, iron and steel.......................
Inspectors (manufacturing) ........................

615
641
670
477
139
91
242
208
250
252
306
208
265
342
239
644
660
537

841

INDEX TO OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRIES

Page

Page

See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
manufacturing ........................
Apparel industry ........................
Electronics manufacturing .......
Iron and steel industry................
Motor vehicle and equipment
manufacturing ........................
Paper and allied products indus­
try .............................................
Installation men, see: Automobile trim­
mers (automobile upholsterers)............
Installers and repairmen, telephone and
P B X .............................................................
Installers, floor covering................................
Installers, meter, electric power...................
Installers, telephone central equipment....
Instrument maintenance men, see: In­
strument repairmen ..................................
Instrument makers (mechanical).................
Instrument mechanics, see: Instrument
repairmen .....
Instrument men, see: Instrument repair­
men ............................................................
Instrument repairm en.................................

606
622
645
662
671
681
521
773
381
718
768
479
441
479
479
479

See also:
Industrial chemical industry.....
652
Paper and allied products in­
dustry .......................................
680
Instrumentation technicians .......................
208
Instrumentmen, see: Surveyors...................
258
Insulating w orkers..........................................
362
Insurance agents and brokers.......................
303
Insurance business, occupations in the.....
793
Insurance checkers ........................................
795
Insurance clerk s..............................................
794
Intercity busdrivers.....................................
425
Intercity truckdrivers .................................
415
Interest-accrual bookkeepers, see: Bank
clerks .............................................................
786
Interest clerks, see: Bank clerks...................
787
Interior designers and decorators.................
178
International officers, banking.....................
790
Intertype operators, printing (graphic
arts) .............................................................
504
Interviewers, marketing research..............
34
330
Investigators, FBI ..........................................
Investment analysts, see: Insurance busi­
ness ...............................................................
794
Iron and steel industry, occupations in the
657
Iron workers, building trades.......................
410
Janitors, see:
Building custodians ..............................




344

Restaurant industry ..............................
778
Jewelers and jewelry repairmen...................
539
Jig and fixture builders, aircraft, missiles,
and spacecraft .........................................
604
Junior high school teachers, see: Sec­
ondary school teachers ..............................
198
Keepers, iron and steel.................................
659
Keypunch operators........................................
280
See also: Electronic computer oper­
ating personnel ..................................
277
Kindergarten teachers....................................
196
Kitchen workers, restaurant.........................
778
Laboratory technicians ...............................

205

See also:
Aluminum industry ....................
Electronics manufacturing .......
Industrial chemical industry.....
Iron and steel industry...................
Petroleum refining ....................
Paper and allied products indus­
try ................................................
Laboratory technicians, dental ....................
Laboratory technicians, optical ....................
Laboratory workers, medical..........................
Laborers and hod carriers, building trades
Ladle cranemen, iron and steel..................
Land surveyors.................................................
Landmen, petroleum and natural gas.......
Landscape architects......................................
Larrymen, iron and steel............................
Lathe operators, see: Machine tool oper­
ators ..........................................................
Lathers ..........................................................
Laundress, see: Private household work­
ers .................................................................
Laundry room workers, hotel.......................
Lawyers ...........................................................
Layout artists, see: Commercial artists....
Layout men, advertising............................
See also: Commercial artists..............
Layout men (machine tools).......................
See also: Boilermaking occupations
Leasemen, petroleum and natural gas.......
Legal secretaries...............................................
Lens grinders, see: Optical mechanics.....
Letterers, see: Commercial artists...........
Letterpress pressmen, printing (graphic
arts) ..........................................................
Librarians .........................................................
Librarians, medical record..........................
Librarians, tape, see: Electronic computer
operating personnel ....................................

615
642
652
663
686
681
88
528
108
373
660
258
592
228
658
438
385
342
801
230
173
31
173
443
525
592
287
529
173
511
233
113
278

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

842

Page

Page

Librarians, television film..........................
Library assistants .......................................
Library technicians .....................................
Licensed merchant marine officers.........
Licensed practical nurses.............................
Licensed vocational nurses........................
Life insurance agents...................................
Life sciences ..................................................
Life scientists................................................
Lighting directors, television......................
Lighting technicians, television..................
Line-haul truckdrivers.................................
Line maintenance mechanics, civil avi­
ation ..........................................................
Linemen, see:
Electric power industry......................
Telephone industry .............................
Linemen and cable splicers, telephone.....
Linen room attendants, hotels....................
Linotype operators, printing (graphic
arts) ..........................................................
Lithographic artists, printing (graphic
arts) ..........................................................
Lithographic
occupations,
printing
(graphic arts) .........................................
Lithographic pressmen, printing (graphic
arts) ..........................................................
Livestock farmers .......................................
Load dispatchers, electric power..............
Loan officers, banking ...............................
Local government occupations..................
Local transit busdrivers...............................
Local truckdrivers .......................................
Locomotive engineers, railroad..................
Locomotive firemen (helpers), railroad....
Long distance operators, telephone.........
Long-haul truckdrivers ............................
Machine designers, see: Mechanical tech­
nicians ........................................................
Machine molders, see: Motor vehicle and
equipment manufacturing ....................
Machine movers, see: Riggers and movers
Machine spreaders, apparel ......................
Machine tenders, see: Paper machine op­
erators, paper and allied products.......
Machine tool operators...............................

737
237
237
724
93
93
304
144
144
742
742
415
701
716
770
770
801
504
512
512
513
573
715
789
825
427
419
749
750
290
415
208
671
411
621
679
438

See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
manufacturing ........................
Electronics manufacturing .......
Iron and steel industry................
Motor vehicle and equipment
manufacturing ........................




604
643
662
670

Machined parts inspectors, aircraft, mis­
siles, and spacecraft.................................
Machinery repairmen, industrial................
Machining occupations ...............................
See also: Motor vehicle and equip­
ment manufacturing ......................
Machinists, all-round .................................

606
477
433
670
436

See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
manufacturing ........................
Atomic energy field......................
Electronics manufacturing ........
Instrument makers (mechani­
cal) ...........................................
Railroad shop trades..................
Maids, see: Private household workers....
Maids, hotel .................
Mail carriers, post office...........................
Mail clerks, post office...............................
Mail handlers, post office.........................
Mail preparing and mail handling ma­
chine operators, office machine op­
erators ........................................................
Mailing equipment servicemen..................
Mailmen, post office.....................................
Maintenance electricians.............................

604
631
643
441
758
342
801
820
816
822

280
466
820
481

See also:
Aluminum industry ....................
Electronics manufacturing .......
Industrial chemicals industry....
Paper and allied products in­
dustry .......................................
Railroad shop trades..................
Maintenance machinists, see:
Aluminum industry .............................
Electronics manufacturing ................
Industrial chemicals industry............
Paper and allied products industry....
Maintenance mechanics, see: Industrial
machinery repairmen .............................
Maintenance technicians, radio and tele­
vision ..........................................................
Maintenance welders, see:
Aluminum industry .............................
Electronics manufacturing ................
Makeup artists, television..........................
Makeup men, printing (graphic arts).....
Managerial occupations .............................
Managers, advertising.................................
Managers, branch bank...............................
Managers, food-service, hotel....................
Managers, industrial traffic........................
Managers, range .........................................
Managers, restaurant .................................

614
645
651
680
758
614
645
651
680
477
742
515
645
736
504
263
30
790
802
265
51
778

INDEX TO OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRIES

843
Page

Managers, sales, see:
Hotels ....................................................
Radio and television broadcasting. ..
Managers and assistants, hotel..................
Manipulator operators, iron and steel.....
Manual workers ...........................................
Manufacturers’ salesmen ..........................
Manufacturing .............................................
Marble setters, tile setters, and terrazzo
workers ......................................................
Marine biologists, see: Oceanographers....
Marine geologists, see: Oceanographers ...
Marine meteorologists, see: Oceanogra­
phers ..........................................................
Markers, apparel .........................................
Market news reporters.................................
Marketing research workers......................
Masons, b r ic k ...............................................
See also: Iron and steel industry.....
Masons, cement and concrete.....................
Masons, stone ................................................
Master, see: Licensed merchant marine
officers .........................................................
Material handlers, apparel..............................
Materials handlers, motor vehicle and
equipment manufacturing .......................
Mathematical assistants, electronics man­
ufacturing .....................................................
Mathematical statisticians ............................
Mathematicians ...............................................

807
738
807
661
417
305
599
388
142
142
142
621
585
33
364
662
370
409
724
622
672
642
129
125

See also:
Actuaries ........................................
Electronics manufacturing ...........
Statisticians ....................................
Mathematics and related fields.....................
Meat cu tters.....................................................
Mechanical engineers .................................

125
641
125
125
542
73

See also:
Aluminum industry .......................
615
Atomic energy field.......................
631
Electronics manufacturing ...........
641
Industrial chemical industry.....
652
Iron and steel industry.................
663
Motor vehicle and equipment
manufacturing ............................
670
Paper and allied products indus­
try ................................................
681
Mechanical technicians ..................................
208
Mechanic-attendants, see: Gasoline ser­
vice station attendants ..............................
535
Mechanics, see:
Air-conditioning mechanics .................
448
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft man­
ufacturing ............................................
606




Page

Aircraft mechanics ............................
Automobile mechanics ......................
Bowling-pin-machine mechanics.......
Bus mechanics .....................................
Diesel mechanics .................................
Dispensing opticians and optical me­
chanics .............................................
Electronics manufacturing ................
Farm equipment mechanics................
Floor covering installers......................
Gas burner mechanics........................
Heating mechanics ............................
Oil burner mechanics..........................
Refrigeration mechanics ....................
Truck mechanics .................................
Vending machine mechanics..............
See also listing under Service­
men and Repairmen.
Mechanics and repairmen..........................
Media directors, advertising......................
Medical laboratory assistants....................
Medical laboratory technicians..................
Medical laboratory workers........................
Medical record librarians............................
Medical sales representatives, see: Phar­
macists .....................................................
Medical secretaries .....................................
Medical social workers.................................
Medical technologists ..........................
Medical X-ray technicians..........................
Melters, see:
Iron and steel industry........................
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing ...........................................
Mental health occupations, see:
Nurses ...................................................
Physicians (psychiatrists) ................
Psychiatric aids (hospital attend­
ants) ..................................................
Psychologists .......................................
Social workers .....................................
Merchant marine occupations....................
Merchant marine officers, licensed............
Messmen, see: Unlicensed merchant sea­
men ............................................................
Metal cranemen, iron and steel..................
Metal finishers, motor vehicle and equip­
ment manufacturing ...............................
Metal pourers, motor vehicle and equip­
ment manufacturing ...............................
Metal roofers ...............................................
Metallurgical engineers...............................

700
457
460
489
469
528
645
475
381
449
448
449
448
489
492

447
31
109
109
108
113
97
287
255
108
112
659
671
90
77
340
240
254
721
724
730
659
672
671
405
74

See also:
Atomic energy field....................

631

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

844

Page

Page

Iron and steel industry................
Metallurgists, see:
Aluminunj industry ............................
Electronics manufacturing ................
Iron and steel industry......................
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing ...........................................
Meteorological instrumentation special­
ists ..............................................................
Meteorologists .............................................
Meter installers, electric power..................
Meter readers, electric power....................
Meter testers, electric power......................
Metermen, electric power............................
Microbiologists .............................................

663
615
641
663
670
139
139
718
718
718
718
146

See also:
Agriculture ...................................
Life sciences .................................
Milling machine operators, see: Machine
tool operators ...........................................
Millwrights ....................................................

584
146
438
484

See also:
Aluminum industry ....................
Iron and steel industry................
Motor vehicle and equipment
manufacturing ........................
Paper and allied products in­
dustry .......................................
Mineralogists, see:
Geologists .................................................
Petroleum and natural gas.....................
Mining .............................................................
Mining engineers .........................................
Ministers, Protestant .................................
Missile assembly mechanics, aircraft, mis­
siles, and spacecraft................................
Missile manufacturing occupations.........
Missionaries, see: Clergy.............................
Models .............................................................
Modelmakers, see: Instrument makers
(mechanical) ...............................................
Molders, see: Motor vehicle and equip­
ment manufacturing ..................................
Monitors, radiation, atomic energy............
Monotype caster operators, printing
(graphic arts) ............................................
Monotype keyboard operators, printing
(graphic arts) ............................................
Mortgage clerks, see:
Bank clerks ............................................
Typists ......................................
Mothers’ helpers, see: Private household
workers .........................................................
Motion picture projectionists.......................




614
662
673
680
134
591
589
74
41
605
601
41
238
441
671
634
504
504
787

342
544

Motor vehicle and equipment manufactur­
ing occupations.........................................
Motor vehicle body repairmen....................
Motor vehicle operators, post office.......
Music directors, radio and television.......
Music librarians, radio and television.....
Musicians and music teachers....................
Nailers, fur, apparel.....................................
Natural gas processing occupations..........
Natural sciences...........................................
Neon sign servicemen.................................
News directors, radio and television.......
Newscasters, radio and television............
Newspaper reporters ...................................
See also: Technical writers................
Newswriters, radio and television............
Note tellers, banking...................................
Nuclear physicists .......................................
Nuclear reactor operators, atomic en­
ergy ............................................................
Nurse educators, see: Registered nurses....
Nurse maids, see: Private household
workers ......................................................
Nurses, industrial .......................................
Nurses, licensed practical..........................
Nurses, licensed vocational........................
Nurses, registered .......................................
Nursing aides, see: Hospital attendants....
Nursing assistants, see: Hospital attend­
ants ............................................................
Nutritionists ..................................................

667
454
820
736
736
166
623
593
133
472
736
736
215
219
736
788
155
631
91
342
91
93
93
90
340
340
147

See also:
Dietitians .....................................
Home econom ists........................
Observers, petroleum and natural gas.....
Occupational health nurses........................
Occupational therapists .............................
Oceanographers ...........................................
Oceanographic engineers, see: Oceanogra­
phers ..........................................................
Odd-job men, see: Private household
workers ......................................................
Office machine operators.............................
Office machine servicemen..........................
Office nurses..................................................
Oil burner mechanics .................................
Oilers, see: Unlicensed merchant seamen
289
Operating engineers, construction ma­
chinery ......................................................
Operations agents, civil aviation..............
Operations officers, banking......................

115
225
591
91
102
141
142
343
279
463
91
449
730
392
707
790

845

INDEX TO OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRIES

Page

Page

Operatives, see: Semiskilled workers, in­
dustrial ......................................................
Operators, compressor-stationpetroleum
and natural gas.........................................
Operators, resistance welding....................
See also: Motor vehicle and equip­
ment manufacturing ......................
Operators, telephone ...................................
Optical laboratory technicians..................
Optical mechanics .......................................
Opticians, dispensing...................................
Optometrists ...............................................
Orderlies, see: Hospital attendants.........
Ordinary seamen, see: Unlicensed mer­
chant seamen ...........................................
Ornamental-iron workers, building trades
Osteopathic physicians ...................................
Outside production inspectors, aircraft,
missiles, and spacecraft..........................
Over-the-road truckdrivers........................
Oxygen cu tters..... .......................................
Packaging engineers, paper and allied
products ...............................
Painters, automobile ...................................
Painters, production ...................................
See also listing under Production
painters.
Painters and paperhangers........................
Paleontologists, see:
Geologists .................................................
Petroleum and natural gas.....................
Pantrymen and pantrywomen, restau­
rants .............................................................
Paper and allied products industries.......
Paper inspectors, paper and allied prod­
ucts ...............................................................
Paper machine operators, paper and allied
products ...................................................
Paper sorters and counters, paper and
allied products .........................................
Paper testers, paper and allied products
Paperhangers ...............................................
Parcel post carriers, post office................
Parole officers, see: Social workers.........
Parts changers, electronics manufacturing
Parts countermen, automobile....................
Paste-up men, see:
Commercial artists..................................
Printing (graphic arts) occupations
Pastors, see: C lergy.....................................
Pathologists .....................................................
See also: Medical laboratory workers
Pathologists, speech ......................................




350
593
562
671
290
528
528
528
95
340
728
411
80
606
415
562

681
519
550

395
134
591
778
677
681
679
680
681
395
820
256
645
296
173
505
41
147
108
106

Patrolmen, see:
Police officers .....................................
State police officers............................
Pattern graders, apparel............................
Patternmakers, apparel ............................
Patternmakers, motor vehicle and equip­
ment manufacturing ...............................
Paying and receiving tellers,banking. ..
Payroll tellers, banking..............................
P B X installers and repairmen, telephone
PBX operators, see: Telephone operators
Peanut growers ...........................................
Perforator operators, petroleum and nat­
ural gas ....................................................
Performing arts, t h e ....................................
Personal maids, see: Private household
workers ......................................................
Personnel workers .......................................
Petroleum and natural gas production and
processing .................................................
Petroleum engineers, see:
Mining engineers .................................
Petroleum and natural gas................
Petroleum geologists ...................................
See also: Petroleum and natural gas
production and processing..............
Petroleum refining.......................................
Petrologists, see: Geologists......................
Pharmacists .................................................
Pharmacist mates, see: Licensed mer­
chant marine officers..............................
Pharmacologists ...........................................
Photocheckers and assemblers, see: Pho­
tographic laboratory occupations.........
Photo-journalists, see: Photographers.....
Photoengravers, printing (graphic arts)
Photogrammetric surveyors ......................
Photograph retouchers, see: Photographic
laboratory occupations ..........................
Photographers .............................................
See also listing under Cameramen,
printing (graphic arts).
Photographic laboratory occupations.....
Photographic models, see: Models............
Phototypesetting
machine
operators,
printing (graphic arts) ..........................
Physical anthropologists............................
Physical geographers...................................
Physical meteorologists...............................
Physical oceanographers ............................
Physical sciences .........................................
Physical therapists .....................................
Physicians ......................................................
Physicists ......................................................

333
335
620
620
671
788
788
773
291
576
594
161
342
35
590
74
593
134
591
685
134
97
726
148
548
242
507
258
547
241

546
239
505
182
185
139
142
152
104
77
155

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

846

Page

Page

See also:
Atomic energy field....................
Electronics manufacturing .......
Physicists, health, atmoic energy..............
Physicists, radiological, atomic energy....
Physiologists ...............................................
Piercer machine operators, iron and steel
Pilots and copilots, civil aviation..............
Pinchasers, see: Bowling-pin-machine me­
chanics ......................................................
Pinsetting machine mechanics, see: Bowl­
ing-pin-machine m echanics....................
Pipefitters ......................................................

634
641
634
634
148
662
693
461
460
400

See also:
Industrial chemical industry....
Iron and steel industry................
Motor vehicle and equipment
manufacturing ........................
Paper and allied products indus­
try .............................................
Placement directors, see: College place­
ment officers.............................................
Placement officers, see: College place­
ment office rs.............................................
Plainclothesmen, see: Police officers.......
Planetable operators, petroleum and nat­
ural gas ......................................................
Planners, urban ...........................................
Plant quarantine and plant pest control
inspectors, see: Agriculture....................
Plant scientists, see: Agriculture................
Plasterers ......................................................
Platemakers, printing (graphic arts).......
Platers, electroplaters .................................

651
662
673
680
224
223
333
591
260
584
584
398
513
531

See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
manufacturing ........................
Motor vehicle and equipment
manufacturing ........................
Plumbers and pipefitters............................

605
672
400

See also:
Aluminum industry ....................
Motor vehicle and equipment
manufacturing ........................
Podiatrists ....................................................
Policemen, see:
Police officers............................
State police officers............................
Policewomen .................................................
Policy change clerks, insurance................
Policy writers, see:
Insurance business ............................
Typists .................................................




615
673
99
332
335
332
794
794
289

Polishers, motor vehicle and equipment
manufacturing .........................................
Political geographers ...................................
Political scientists .......................................
Portable equipment operators, see: Track
workers, railroad .....................................
Porters, baggage, h o t e l...............................
Porters, railroad...........................................
Porters, restaurant.......................................
Portrait photographers ...............................
Post office occupations ...............................
Postage and mailing equipment service­
men ............................................................
Postal clerks ................................................
Postal inspectors .........................................
Posting machine operators, see: Bank
clerks ..........................................................
Postmasters ..................................................
Pot liners, see: Aluminum industry.........
Potmen, see: Aluminum industry..............
Poultry farmers ...........................................
Pourers, see:
Iron and steel industry......................
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing ...........................................
Power brake operators, aircraft, missiles,
and spacecraft ...................................
Power dispatchers, electric power..............
Power hammer operators, aircraft, mis­
siles, and spacecraft ...............................
Power linemen, electric power..................
Power truck operators.................................

672
185
189
760
803
746
778
241
816
466
822
817
786
817
612
612
573
660
671
604
715
604
716
549

See also: Motor vehicle and equip­
ment manufacturing ......................
Powerplant installers, aircraft, missiles,
and spacecraft .........................................
Powerplant mechanics, civil aviation.......
Powerplant occupations, electric power....
Power shear operators, aircraft, missiles,
and spacecraft .........................................
Practical nurses ...........................................
Press feeders, printing (graphic arts).....
Press photographers ...................................
Pressers, apparel .........................................
Pressing occupations, apparel....................
Pressmen, printing (graphic arts)............
Priests, Roman Catholic ..........................
Print developers, machine, see: Photo­
graphic laboratory occupations..............
Printer operators, see: Photographic labo­
ratory occupations .................................
Printer-slotter operators, paper and allied
products ....................................................

672
606
701
712
604
93
511
242
623
622
510
45
547
547
680

847

INDEX TO OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRIES

Page

Page

Printers, see: Photographic laboratory
occupations .................................................
Printers, printing (graphic arts).................
Printing (graphic arts) occupations.........
Printing pressmen and assistants, print­
ing (graphic arts) ......................................
Private duty nurses.....................................
Private household workers........................
Private outdoor recreation farmers.........
Probation and parole officers, see: Social
workers ......................................................
Producers, program radio and television
Producer-directors, program, radio and
television .......................................................
Production managers, advertising............
Production painters........................................

547
507
499
510
91
342
576
256
735
735
31
550

See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
manufacturing ........................
Motor vehicle and equipment
manufacturing ........................
Production planners, aircraft, missiles,
and spacecraft .........................................
Production technicians, see: Industrial
engineering technicians..........................
Professional and related occupations.......
Professors, college .......................................
Professors, university .................................
Profile cutting machine operators, air­
craft, missiles, and spacecraft................
Program assistants, radio and television
Program directors, radio and television....
Program, producer-directors, radio and
television .................................................
Programers, electronic computer................

605
672
604
208
23
202
202
604
735
735
735
246

See also:
Insurance business ....................
Paper and allied products............
Projectionists, see: Motion pictures.......
Proof machine operators, see: Bank clerks
Proofers, printing (graphic arts)..............
Proofreaders, printing (graphic arts).....
Property and liability insurance agents
and brokers .............................................
Prospecting drillers, petroleum and nat­
ural gas ......................................................
Prospecting geophysicists ........................
Protestant clergymen .................................
Psychiatric aids, see: Hospital attend­
ants ............................................................
Psychiatric social workers..........................
Psychologists ...............................................
See also: Counseling............................




794
681
544
786
508
504
304
591
137
41
340
246
249
250

Public affairs directors, see: Radio and
television ....................................................
Public health nurses ...................................
Public health sanitarians, see: Sanitarians
Public librarians .........................................
Public relations workers............................
Public stenographers ...................................
Pullman conductors, railroads....................
Pulp testers, paper and allied products....
Pumpers, petroleum and natural gas.......
Pumpmen, petroleum refining....................
Punch press operators, see:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft man­
ufacturing .........................................
Electronics manufacturing ................
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing ...........................................
Purchasing agents ........ *
..............................
Pursers, see: Licensed merchant marine
officers ......................................................
Rabbis ............................................................
Rack clerks, hotel .....................................
Radiation monitors, atomic energy............
Radio and television announcers..............
Radio and television broadcasting occupa­
tions ................................
Radio officers, see: Licensed merchant
marine officers .........................................
Radio operators, ground, civil aviation....
Radio service technicians............................
Radiographers, see:
Aluminum in du stry.............................
Atomic energy .....................................
Radioisotope-production operators, atom­
ic energy ....................................................
Radiologic technologists .............................
Radiological physicists, atomic energy....
Railroad bridge and building workers.....
Railroad clerk s.............................................
Railroad conductors ...................................
Railroad occupations .................................
Ranchers ........................................................
Range conservationists, see: Range man­
agers ..........................................................
Range managers .........................................
Range scientists, see: Range managers....
Real estate salesmen and brokers............
Realtors ........................................................
Rehabilitation social workers....................
Receiving clerks, see: Shipping and re­
ceiving clerks ...........................................
Receiving inspectors, aircraft, missiles,
and spacecraft .........................................

735
91
120
233
37
286
746
681
593
686

604
644
670
268
726
43
805
634
740
733
726
706
486
614
635
635
112
634
762
746
752
745
573
51
51
51
308
308
256
284
606

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

848

Page

Page

Receiving tellers, banking..........................
788
Receptionists ................................................
283
Reconcilement clerks, see:Bank clerks....
786
Recording clerks, see: Bankclerks.............
786
Recording technicians, radio and tele­
vision ..........................................................
742
Recreation workers .....................................
252
Redcaps, railroad .........................................
746
Reefer engineers, see: Unlicensed mer­
chant seamen ...............................................
730
Reference librarians.....................................
234
Refinery mechanics, petroleum refining....
686
Refrigeration mechanics .............................
448
Regional geographers ....................................
185
Regional planners ..........................................
261
Registered nurses.........................................
90
Registered representatives, see: Securi­
ties salesmen ...............................................
314
Rehabilitation counselors ...........................
58
Rehabilitation workers, see: Social work­
ers ..............................................................
256
Reinforcing-iron workers, building trades
411
Remelt operators, see: Aluminum indus­
try ..................................................................
613
Renderers, see: Commercial artists.........
173
Repairmen, see:
Automobile body repairmen..............
454
Central office repairmen, telephone
766
Industrial machinery repairmen.......
477
Instrument repairmen........................
479
Jewelry repairmen ..................................
539
Shoe repairmen........................................
552
Telephone and P B X repairmen.......
772
Television and radio service tech­
486
nicians ......
Vending machine operators................
492
Watch repairmen .................................
495
See also listings under Mechan­
ics and under Servicemen.
Reporters, newspaper .................................
215
Reporting stenographers ..............................
286
Research directors, advertising..................
31
Research workers, agricultural.....................
585
Research workers, marketing....................
33
Reservation agents and clerks, civil avi­
ation .............................................................
707
Reservation clerks, hotel.............................
805
Resilient floor layers, see: Floor covering
installers .......................................................
381
Resistance-welding operators .......................
562
Restaurant industry ......................................
777
Retail trade salesworkers................................
311
Rewrite men, see: Newspaper reporters....
215
Rig builders, petroleum and natural gas....
592




Riggers and machine movers, building
trades ........................................................
Riveters, aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft
Rocket assembly mechanics, aircraft, mis­
siles, and spacecraft ...............................
Rodmen, see: Reinforcing-iron workers....
Rodmen, see: Surveyors...............................
Rodmen, petroleum and natural gas.......
Roll turners, iron and steel.........................
Rollers, iron and steel..... ...........................
Rolling mill attendants, iron and steel....
Rolling mill operators, see: Aluminum in­
dustry ........................................................
Roman Catholic Priests...............................
Roofers ..........................................................
Room and desk clerks, hotel......................
Rotary drillers, petroleum and natural gas
Rotary floormen, petroleum and natural
gas ..............................................................
Roughnecks, petroleum and natural gas
Roustabouts, petroleum and natural gas
Route salesmen, see: Routemen................
Routemen ......................................................
Routers, printing (graphic arts)..............
Rural carriers, post office...........................
Rural sociologists, agriculture..................
Sales clerk, retail trade...............................
Sales engineer, see: Manufacturers’ sales­
men ............................................................
Sales managers, see:
Hotels ....................................................
Radio and television broadcasting....
Sales occupations.........................................
Salesworkers, see:
Automobile parts countermen.........
Automobile salesmen ........................
Automobile service advisors..............
Insurance agents and brokers............
Manufacturers’ salesmen ..................
Radio and television.............................
Real estate salesmen and brokers.....
Retail trade salesworkers....................
Securities salesmen .............................
Wholesale trade salesworkers............
Sample stitchers, apparel.............................
Sample-taker operators, petroleum and
natural gas ................................................
Sanitarians ....................................................
Savings tellers, banking...............................
Scalemen, see: Aluminum industry............
Scalper operators, see: Aluminum indus­
try ..............................................................
Scenic designers, television........................

411
605
605
411
258
591
662
661
661
614
45
404
705
592
592
592
592
422
422
508
820
584
311
306
807
738
295
296
298
301
304
305
738
308
311
314
316
620
594
119
788
613
613
737

INDEX TO OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRIES

849
Page

See also: Interior designers and deco­
rators .................................................
School counselors .......................................
School librarians .........................................
School psychologists ...................................
School recreation workers..........................
School social workers...................................
School teachers, see: Agriculture................
School teachers, see: Teachers..................
Science aids .................................................
Science information specialists, see: Li­
brarians ......................................................
Science technicians .....................................
Scientists, environmental ..........................
Scientists, l i f e ...............................................
Scientists, natural .......................................
Scientists, physical .....................................
Scientists, soil .............................................
Scouts, petroleum and natural gas............
Sealers, electronics manufacturing............
Seat-cover installers, see: Automobile
trimmers and installation men..............
Second assistant engineers, see: Licensed
merchant marine officers........................
Second mates, see: Licensed merchant
marine officers .........................................
Secondary school teachers..........................
Secretaries ...................................................
Securities salesmen .....................................
Securities tellers, banking..........................
Sedimentologists, see: Geologists..............
Seismologists, see: Geophysics..................
Semiskilled workers, industrial..................
Service advisors, see: Automobile service
advisors ......................................................
Service and miscellaneous..........................
Service occupations .....................................
Service salesmen, see: Automobile service
advisors ......................................................
Service station attendants, see: Gasoline
service station attendants......................
Service station mechanic-attendants.......
Service writers, see: Automobile service
advisors .....................................................
Servicemen, see:
Appliance servicemen ........................
Business machine servicemen............
Electric sign servicemen....................
Gas appliance servicemen....................
Neon sign servicemen..........................
Telephone and PBX servicemen.......
Television and radio service techni­
cians .................................................
Setup men (machine tools)........................




178
60
234
250
252
255
584
195
205
234
205
133
144
133
152
580
592
644
521
726
725
198
286
314
788
134
137
350
103
799
319
301
535
535
301
451
463
472
449
472
772
486
443

Page

Sewage plant operators...............................
Sewers, hand, apparel...................................
Sewing machine operators, see:
Apparel industry .................................
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing ...........................................
Sewing room occupations, apparel............
Shakeout men, see: Motor vehicle and
equipment manufacturing ....................
Shapers, apparel .........................................
Shear operators, electronics manufactur­
ing ..............................................................
Shearmen, iron and steel............................
Sheet-metal workers.....................................

558
622
622
672
622
671
622
644
661
406

See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
manufacturing ........................
Electronics manufacturing .......
Railroad shop trades..................
Shipping and receiving clerks....................
Ship’s carpenters, see: Unlicensed mer­
chant seamen ...........................................
Ship’s electricians, see: Unlicensed mer­
chant seamen ...........................................
Shoe repairmen ...........................................
Shooters, petroleum and natural gas.......
Shop trades, railroad .................................
Showroom models .......................................
Signal department workers, railroad.......
Signal maintainers, railroad ......................
Signalmen, railroad .....................................
Silk screen printers, electronics manufac­
turing ........................................................
Singers and singing teachers......................
Skilled and other manual occupations.....
Skilled w orkers.............................................
Skipmen, iron and steel...............................
Slaggers, iron and steel.................................
Slate roofers, building trades......................
Slide mounters, see: Photographic labora­
tory occupations .....................................
Soaking pit cranemen, iron and steel.......
Soaking pit operators, aluminum..............
Social caseworkers .......................................
Social psychologists.....................................
Social sciences .............................................
Social secretaries .........................................
Social workers .............................................
Sociologists ....................................................
Sociologists, rural, see: Agriculture.........
Soil conservationists ...................................
Soil scientists ................................................
Sorters, see: Bank clerks............................
Sorting machine operators..........................

604
643
758
284
729
730
552
591
757
239
759
759
759
644
169
347
347
659
659
404
548
661
613
255
250
181
287
254
191
584
582
580
786
281

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

850

Page

Page

Sound effects technicians, radio and tele­
vision ..........................................................
Spacecraft manufacturing occupations....
Special agents, see: FBI Special Agents....
Special delivery carriers, post office.......
Special librarians .........................................
Specialty farm operators..............
Specifications writers, see: Electronics
manufacturing .........................................
Speech pathologists .....................................
Sprayers, motor vehicle and equipment
manufacturing .............
Spreaders, apparel industry........................
Staff officers, see: Licensed merchant ma­
rine officers .............................................
Stage managers, radio and television.......
Star route carriers, post office....................
State and local government occupations
State highway patrolmen...........................
State police officers.....................................
Station agents, civil aviation....................
Station agents, railroad...............................
Station installers, telephone......................
Stationary engineers ...................................

737
601
330
816
234
573
642
106
672
621
726
736
817
825
335
335
708
755
772
554

See also:
Aluminum industry ....................
Paper and allied products..........
Stationary firemen (boiler)......................
Statisticians ..................................................

615
680
556
128

See also:
Actuaries .......................................
Electronics manufacturing .......
Mathematicians ..........................
Steamfitters, see: Plumbers and pipefit­
ters ............................................................
Steel industry occupations........................
Steel pourers, iron and steel......................
Stenographers and secretaries....................
Stereotypers, printing (graphic arts).......
Stewardesses, civil aviation........................
Stillmen, petroleum refining......................
Stock chasers, motor vehicle and equip­
ment manufacturing ...............................
Stock clerks, motor vehicle and equip­
ment manufacturing ...............................
Stock house larrymen, iron and steel.....
Stock house men, iron and steel................
Stonehands, printing (graphic arts).......
Stonemasons ................................................
Stove tenders, iron and steel....................
Stratigraphers, see: Geologists..................
Stretcher-leveler-operators, aluminum in­
dustry ........................................................
Strippers, printing (graphic arts)............




130
641
125
401
657
660
286
509
698
686
672
672
658
658
504
409
659
134
614
512

Structural-iron workers, building trades
Structural-, ornamental-, and reinforcingiron workers, riggers, and machine
movers ......................................................
Studio supervisors, radio and television....
Substation operators, electric power.......
Supercalendar operators, paper and allied
products ....................................................
Surfacers, optical mechanics......................
Survey statisticians .....................................
Surveyors ...........'..........................................
Switchboard operators, electric power.....
Switchboard operators, telephone..............
Switchers, petroleum and natural gas....
Switchmen, railroad ...................................
Switchmen, telephone .................................
Switchtenders, railroad .............................
Synoptic meteorologists .............................
Systems analysts .........................................

410

410
736
716
680
528
129
257
712
291
593
753
766
746
139
244

See also:
Insurance business......................
Paper and allied products..........

794
681

Tabulating machine operators....................
Tailoring occupations, apparel..................
Tailors, apparel ...........................................
Tape librarians, see: Electronic computer
operating personnel .................................
Tape perforating machine operators,
printing (graphic arts) .........................
Tape perforator typists, see: Typists.....
Tape-to-card converter operators, see:
Electronic computer operating person­
nel ..............................................................
Tappers, see: Aluminum industry............
Taxi drivers ..................................................
Teachers, college and university................
Teachers, dancing .......................................
Teachers, drama .........................................
Teachers, high school...................................
Teachers, junior high school, see: Sec­
ondary school teachers.............................
Teachers, kindergarten and elementary
school ........................................................
Teachers, music ...........................................
Teachers, secondary school........................
Teachers, singing .........................................
Teaching ........................................................
Technical illustrators, see:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft man­
ufacturing .........................................
Electronics manufacturing ................
Technical stenographers .............................
Technical writers .........................................

281
622
622
278
505
289

278
612
430
201
164
162
198
198
196
166
198
169
195

604
642
286
217

INDEX TO OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRIES

851
Page

See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
manufacturing ........................
Electronics manufacturing .......
Newspaper reporters ..................
Technician occupations...............................
Technicians, broadcasting, radio and tele­
vision ........................................................
Technicians, dental laboratory..................
Technicians, engineering and science.......

604
642
216
205
741

88
205

See also:
Atomic energy field......................
Dispensing opticians and optical
mechanics .................................
Electronics manufacturing .......
Iron and steel industry................
Petroleum refining ....................
Paper and allied products in­
dustry .......................................
Technicians, forestry, see: Forestry aids
Technicians, medical X-ray......................
Technicians, optical laboratory................
Technicians, sound effects, radio and
television ..................................................
Technicians, television and radio service
Tectonophysicists, see: Geophysicists.......
Telegraphers, telephones, and towermen,
railroad ......................................................
Telephone and PBX installers and repair­
men ............................................................
Telephone central office craftsmen.........
Telephone central office equipment in­
stallers ........................................................
Telephone craftsmen .................................
Telephone industry occupations....... ........
Telephone installers and repairmen.......
Telephone linemen and cable splicers.....
Telephone operators ...................................
Telephone repairmen .................................
Telephone servicemen .................................
Telephoners, railroad .................................
Teletypists, civil aviation............................
Television announcers .................................
Television broadcasting occupations.......
Television and radio service technicians
Tellers, banking ...........................................
Terrazzo workers, building trades............
Testers, electronics manufacturing.........
Testboardmen, telephone .......... ...............
Therapeutic dietitians ...............................
Therapists, occupational ..........................
Therapists, physical ...................................
Thermal cutters, see: Welders..................




631
528
641
663

686
681
49

112
528
737
486
137
754
772
766
768
763
763
773
770
290
772
772
754
706
740
733
486
788
388
644
766
116

102
104
562

Page

Third assistant engineers, see: Licensed
merchant marine officers........................
Third mates, see: Licensed merchant ma­
rine officers .............................................
Thread trimmers and cleaners, apparel ...
Ticket agents, civil aviation......................
Ticket sellers, see: Cashiers......................
Tile roofers, building trades......................
Tile setters, building trades......................
Time salesmen, radio and television.......
Tinners, electronics manufacturing.........
Tobacco growers .........................................
Tool-and-die makers ...................................

726
725
622
707
275
404
388
738
644
576
439

See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
manufacturing ........................
Aluminum industry ....................
Electronics manufacturing .......
Iron and steel industry..............
Motor vehicle and equipment
manufacturing ........................
Tool designers, see: Mechanical techni­
cians ..........................................................
Tool pushers, petroleum and natural gas
Toolmakers, electronics manufacturing....
Topographic surveyors ...............................
Towerman, railroad .....................................
Tracers, see: Draftsmen............................
Track workers, railroad...............................
Trackmen, railroad .....................................
Traffic agents and clerks, civil aviation....
Traffic controllers, air-route......................
Traffic controllers, airport..........................
Traffic managers, industrial......................
Traffic managers, radio and television....
Traffic representatives, civil aviation.....
Train directors, railroad.............................
Train dispatchers.........................................
Trainmen, see: Brakemen, railroad............
Transcribing machine operators, see:
Typists ......................................................
Transit clerks, see: Bank clerks................
Transmission and distribution occupa­
tions, electric power...............................
Transmitter technicians, radio and tele­
vision ..........................................................
Transportation, communication, and pub­
lic utilities ...............................................

689

Treaters, see:
Petroleum and natural gas................
Petroleum refining .............................
Treatment plant operators, wastewater....
Trimmers, apparel .....................................

593
686
558
622

604
615
643
662
670
208
592
643
258
754
211
760
760
707
704
704
265
735
708
754
746
753
289
786
715
742

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

852

Page

Page

Trimmers, automobile (automobile up­
holsterers) ................................................
Trimmers, motor vehicle and equipment
manufacturing .........................................
Troopers, see: State police officers.........
Troublemen, electric p ow er........................
Truck mechanics ...................
Truckdrivers, local .....................................
Truckdrivers, motor vehicle operators,
post office ................................................
Truckdrivers, over-the-road ......................
Trust bookkeepers, see: Bank clerks.......
Trust investment clerks, see: Bank clerks
Trust officers, banking.................................
Tube benders, aircraft, missiles, and
spacecraft ..................................................
Tune-up men, see: Automobile mechanics
Turbine operators, electric power............
Typesetters, hand, printing (graphic arts)
Typesetting machine operators, printing
(graphic arts) ..........................................
Typewriter servicemen ...............................
Typists ..........................................................

521
672
335
716
489
419
820
415
786
786
790
605
458
712
504
504
464
288

Understudies, see: Actors and actresses ...
Underwriters, insurance .............................
United States Government occupations....
University librarians ...................................
University professors...................................
Unlicensed merchant seamen....................
University teachers .....................................
Unskilled workers, industrial....................
Upholsterers, see:
Automobile trimmers and installa­
tion men ...........................................
Furniture upholsterers ......................
Urban geographers .....................................
Urban planners ...........................................
Utilitymen, see: Unlicensed merchant sea­
men ............................................................

161
794
809
234
202
728
201
351

Valets, see: Private household workers....
Vending machine mechanics......................
Vending machine routemen, see: Routemen ............................................................
Veterinarians ................................................
See also: Agriculture..........................
Video-control technicians, television.......
Video-tape recording technicians, tele­
vision ........................................................

343
492




521
533
185
260
730

423
122
583
742
742

Vocational agriculture teachers, see: Agri­
culture ........................................................
Vocational counselors, see: Employment
counselors ..................................................
Vocational nurses.........................................
Waiters and waitresses...............................
Waste disposal men, atomic energy..........
Waste-treatment operators, atomic en­
ergy ............................................................
Wastewater treatment plant operators....
Watch engineers, electric power...................
Watch repairmen .......................................
Watchmakers ................................................
Waybill clerks, see: Typists......................
Weather forecasters, see: Meteorologists
Welders and oxygen cutters..........................

584
55
93
328
635
635
558
713
495
495
289
139
561

See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
manufacturing ..v./ .................
Iron and Steel industry..............
Natural gas processing...................
Welders, electric-arc ...................................
See also: Motor vehicle and equip­
ment manufacturing ......................
Welders, gas ..................................................
See also: Motor vehicle and equip­
ment manufacturing ......................
Welding operators, resistance....................
See also: Motor vehicle and equip­
ment manufacturing ......................
Well pullers, petroleum and natural gas
Wheat farmers ..............................................
Wholesale and retail trade...........................
Wholesale salesmen .....................................
Window clerks, post office...........................
Wipers, see: Unlicensed merchant seamen
Wire chiefs, railroad.....................................
Wire draw operators, aluminum................
Wire drawers, iron and steel......................
Writers, technical.........................................
See also listing under Technical
writers.
Writing occupations.....................................
X-ray technicians, medical............................
Yard foremen, railroad...............................
Zoologists .........................................................

605
662
593
562
671
562
671
562
671
594
575
775
775
822
730
754
614
662
217

215
112
752
146

B L S O ccupational Outlook S e rv ice for C o u n selo rs
To help the professional community concerned with youth keep up to date on
occupational developments that have significant implications for young people, and to
assist counselors in making occupational information available to their clients, the
Bureau of Labor Statistics supplements the Occupational Outlook Handbook with the
following publications:

O C CU PA TIO NA L O U TLO O K QUARTERLY: Handbook users will want to consult the Oc­
cupational Outlook Quarterly to make sure they have up-to-date, authorita­
tive occupational information between editions of the Handbook. Published
four times a year (spring, summer, fall, winter), the Quarterly presents the
latest occupational outlook studies by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and in­
terprets the guidance implications of Government and other authoritative
research in the economic, educational, demographic, and technological fields.
A 2-year subscription for the Occupational Outlook Quarterly is $3.00 do­
mestic, $4 foreign; 1 year is $1.50 domestic and $2 foreign; single copies are
45 cents each. Order from Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C.
20402. See order form on back cover.

O C CU PA TIO NA L O U TLO O K R E P R IN T SERIES: The reports in the Handbook are repro­
duced in this series of reprints, each of which covers a single occupation, an
industry, or a group of related occupations. The reprints enable counselors to
make occupational information available to more students interested in spe­
cific careers. Teachers can use these reprints as motivational aids in relating
school subjects to earning a living. Librarians who keep a file of occupational
information will find these reprints helpful in extending their resources to
greater numbers of young people. Single reprints of a full set of 128 reprints
can be ordered. A list of reprints , with prices is shown on pages 857-859.

FREE O C CU PA TIO NA L O U TLO O K P U B LIC A TIO N : These include motivational pamphlets
and reprints of articles from the Quarterly. Especially useful for secondary
school students, the motivational pamphlets describe the relationship between
academic subjects and careers. Reprints from the Quarterly deal with the
employment outlook in new occupational areas, the impact of technological
changes, and other subjects of interest to young people, counselors, and
teachers. Free publications are announced in the Quarterly, and many of
these are distributed to schools, organizations, and individuals on the occupa­
tional outlook mailing list. Write to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. De­
partment of Labor, Washington, D.C. 20212, to have your name placed on
the mailing list.

C O U N SE LO R ’S G U ID E TO M AN PO W ER IN FO R M A TIO N , AN A N N O TA TED BIBLIO G R APHY
OF SELECTED G O VE R N M E N T PU B LIC A TIO N S: This bibliography lists the major occupa­
tional and other manpower publications of Federal and State government
agencies that will be useful to counselors and others interested in trends and
developments that have implications for career decisions. The bulletin, No.
1598 is available from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Print­
ing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402; $1 a copy.




853

O th er B L S Publications U seful to C o u n se lo rs
Information on employment, unemployment, occupation trends, earnings, and
other labor force developments can be obtained from the following publications:

E M P LO Y M E N T A N D EAR NING S: Monthly reports featuring timely analysis of current
developments in employment, unemployment, hours, and earnings for the
Nation. Contains statistics on employment, earnings, hours of work, and
labor turnover by industry for the Nation and by industry division for each
State and 202 metropolitan areas. Also, contains detailed statistics on the
labor force including characteristics of the employed and unemployed, such
as age, marital status, color, industry, and occupational attachment. Annual
subscription, $7.50 domestic, $9.50 foreign. Statistics for earlier years are con­
tained in Employment and Earnings Statistics for the United States, 1909-69
(BLS Bulletin 1312-6, price $5.75 and Employment and Earnings Statistics
for States and Areas, 1939-68 (BLS Bulletin 1370-6) price $5.25.

SPECIAL LABOR FORCE REPO RTS: Reports based on special surveys of the labor force
are issued several times a year. They include statistics and analysis of
selected characteristics of the labor force, such as educational attainment,
employment of school dropouts and recent high school graduates, work ex­
perience during the year, and marital and family status. Published in the
Monthly Labor Review, which may be available in your school library, these
reports are also available (as long as the supply lasts) without charge, upon
written request to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor,
Washington, D.C. 20212.
AREA WAGE SURVEYS: These reports include figures on average earnings and employ­
ment in selected occupations and in major industries and labor market areas.
Weekly working hours for some groups of workers and customary practices
regarding pensions, vacations, holidays, and sick leave are also reported. A
list of surveys, are listed in the Directory of Area Wage Surveys, which may
be obtained free from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of
Labor, Washington, D.C. 20212. Individual survey bulletins may be purchased
from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, D.C. 20402.

U N IO N WAGE SCALES: Annual bulletins and releases on minimum wage scales and
maximum hours of work at straight-time rates for cities of 100,000 or more
population— 69 cities in the printing industry, 68 cities in the construction
and local trucking industries, and 67 cities in the local transit industry. Quar­
terly releases on surveys in seven major building trades in 100 cities cover
averages and increases in wage scale by trade, and wage trends for the in­
dustry as a whole. These releases are available from the Bureau of Labor
Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, D.C. 20212, or any of the
regional offices.
854



855
M O N T H L Y LABOR REVIEW : The Bureau of Labor Statistics issues the Monthly Labor
Review which contains articles that can help counselors keep abreast of the
changing social, economic, and demographic scene. In addition to providing
a statistical section on labor force and employment, labor turnover, earnings
and hours, consumer and wholesale prices, and work stoppages, the Monthly
Labor Review publishes special articles by experts on subjects such as the
impact of technological change on employment, occupational counseling, and
manpower planning. The Monthly Labor Review can be ordered from the
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington,
D.C. 20402 or from any of the Bureau’s regional offices listed below. Annual
subscription $9 domestic; $11.25 foreign. Single issue, 75 cents.
Priced publications mentioned above can be ordered from the Superintendent of
Documents, Washington, D.C. 20402. Both priced and free publications are available
(as long as the supply lasts) from the regional offices of the Bureau of Labor Statistics,
U.S. Department of Labor, at the following addresses:
341 Ninth Ave., New York, N.Y. 10001.
1371 Peachtree St. NE., Atlanta, Ga. 30309.
911 Walnut St., Kansas City, Mo. 64106.
1603-A Federal Building, Government Center, Boston, Mass. 02203.
219 S. Dearborn St., Chicago, 11 . 60604.
1
450 Golden Gate Ave., Box 36017, San Francisco, Calif. 94102.
1317 Filbert Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19108.
411 North Akard Street, Dallas, Texas 75201.







O C C U P A T IO N A L O U T L O O K R E P R IN T S E R I E S
Bulletin
No.

Price
(cents)

1650-1

Tomorrow’s Jobs ..........................

1650-2
1650-3
1650-4
1650-5

Business Administration and Related
Professions
Accountants .................................
Advertising Workers, Marketing
Research Workers, Public Re­
lations Workers ........................
Personnel Workers ......................
Industrial Traffic Managers, Purchasing Agents ..........................

1650-28
1650-29
10
1650-30
15
10

1650-7
1650-8
1650-9
1650-10
1650-11
1650-12
1650-13
1650-14
1650-15
1650-16
1650-17
1650-18
1650-19
1650-20
1650-21
1650-22

Physicians, Osteopathic Physicians ...........................................
Dentists .........................................
Dental Hygienists, Dental Assistants, Dental Laboratory
Technicians ...............................
Registered
Nurses,
Licensed
Practical Nurses, Hospital At­
tendants .....................................
Optometrists .................................
Pharmacists ...................................
Podiatrists .....................................
Chiropractors ...............................
Occupational Therapists, Physical Therapists ..........................
Speech Pathologists and Audiologists .......................................
Medical Laboratory Workers.......
Radiologic Technologists ............
Medical Record Librarians........
Dietitians .......................................
Hospital Administrators ..............
Sanitarians ...................................
Veterinarians ...............................

1650-31
10
10
15
15
10
10
10
10

1650-24

1650-25
1650-26
1650-27

Engineers
Aerospace, Agricultural, Ce­
ramic, Chemical,
Civil,
Electrical, Industrial, Me­
chanical,
Metallurgical,
Mining ...............................
Environmental Scientists
Geologists,
Geophysicists,
Meteorologists, Oceanogra­
phers ...................................
Life Science Occupations
Life Scientists, Biochemists..
Physical Scientists
Chemists, Physicists, Astron­
omers .................................
Technicians
Engineering and Science,
Draftsmen ..........................




1650-33
1650-34
1650-35
1650-36
1650-37

10

1650-38
1650-39

10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10

1650-40
1650-41
1650-42
1650-43
1650-44

Scientific and Technical Occupations
1650-23

1650-31

10

Health Service Occupations
1650-6

Other Professional and Related
Occupations

15

PROFESSIONAL, MANAGERIAL, AND
RELATED OCCUPATIONS

15

1650-45
1650-46
1650-47

15
15
15
15

Price
( cents)

Bulletin
No.

1650-48
1650-49

Architects .....................................
Clergymen
Protestant Clergymen, Rab­
bis,
Roman
Catholic
Priests ...............................
Commercial Artists, Industrial
Designers, Interior Designers
and Decorators ..........................
Conservation Occupations
Foresters, Forestry Aids, Range
Managers ...................................
Counseling and Placement
Occupations
School Counselors, Rehabilita­
tion Counselors, Employment
Counselors, College Place­
ment Officers ........................
Home Economists ........................
Landscape Architects ..................
Lawyers .........................................
Librarians, Library Technicians..
Mathematicians and Related Oc­
cupations
Mathematicians,
Statisti­
cians, Actuaries ................
Models ...........................................
Performing Arts Occupations
Actors and Actresses, Danc­
ers, Musicians and Music
Teachers,
Singers
and
Singing Teachers ..............
Photographers,
Photographic
Laboratory Occupations ..........
Programers, Systems Analysts,
Electronic Computer Operating
Personnel ...................................
Psychologists .................................
Recreation Workers ....................
Social Scientists
Anthropologists, Economists,
Geographers,
Historians,
Political Scientists, Soci­
ologists ................................
Social Workers ..............................
Surveyors .......................................
Teachers
Kindergarten and Elemen­
tary School Teachers, Sec­
ondary School Teachers,
College and University
Teachers ............................
Urban Planners ............................
Writing Occupations
Newspaper Reporters, Tech­
nical Writers ....................
857

10

15

15
15

15
10

10
10

15

15
10

15
15
15
10
10

15
10
10

15
10

15

O C C U P A T IO N A L O U T L O O K R E P R IN T S E R I E S — (C o n t’d)
Price
( cents)

Bulletin
No.

CLERICAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS
1650-50
1650-51
1650-52
1650-53
1650-54
1650-55

Bookkeeping Workers, Office Machine Operators ........................
Cashiers .........................................
Receptionists .................................
Shipping and Receiving Clerks
Stenographers and Secretaries,
Typists .......................................
Telephone Operators ..................

10
10
10
10
10
10

1650-80

10
10

1650-81
1650-82
1650-83
1650-84

15

1650-85
1650-86

SALES OCCUPATIONS
1650-56
1650-57
1650-58
1650-59
1650-60

Automobile Salesmen ................
Insurance Agents and Brokers
Retail
Trade
Salesworkers,
Wholesale Trade Salesworkers,
Manufacturers’ Salesmen .......
Real Estate Salesmen and Brokers ...............................................
Securities Salesmen ....................

10
10

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS
1650-61
1650-62
1650-63
1650-64
1650-65
1650-66
1650-67

Barbers, Cosmetologists ..............
Building Custodians......................
Cooks and Chefs, Waiters and
Waitresses .................................
FBI Special Agents......................
Firefighters ...................................
Police Officers, State Police Officers ...........................................
Private Household Workers........

1650-87
1650-88
1650-89

10
10
10
10
10
15
10

1650-90

1650-91
1650-92
1650-93

SKILLED AND OTHER MANUAL
OCCUPATIONS

1650-70
1650-71
1650-72
1650-73
1650-74

1650-75
1650-76
1650-77
1650-78

Building Trades
Asbestos and Insulating Workers
Bricklayers, Stonemasons, Marble
Setters, Tile Setters, Terrazzo
Workers .....................................
Carpenters, Painters and Paperhangers, Glaziers ......................
Cement Masons, Lathers, Plasterers ...........................................
Construction Laborers and Hod
Carriers .....................................
Electricians (Construction) ........
Elevator Constructors, Structural-Ornamental and Reinforcing-Iron Workers, Riggers, Machine Movers..............................
Floor Covering Installers..............
Operating Engineers (Construetion) ...........................................
Plumbers and Pipefitters............
Roofers, Sheet-Metal Workers....

15
1650-95
20
20
20

1650-96
1650-97
1650-98

15
15

15
15
15
15
15

1650-99
1650-100
1650-101

Mechanics and Repairmen
1650-79

Automobile Service Occupations
Automobile Body Repairmen,
Automobile
Mechanics,
Truck Mechanics and Bus

858



Mechanics,
Automobile
Painters, A u t o m o b i l e
Trimmers and Installation
Men (Automobile Uphols t e r e r s ) , Automombile
Parts Countermen, Automobile Service Advisors,
Gasoline Service Station
Attendants ..........................
Air-Conditioning, Refrigeration,
and Heating Mechanics............
Appliance Servicemen ................
Bowling-Pin-Machine Mechanics
Business Machine Servicemen....
Diesel Mechanics, Farm Equipment Mechanics ......................
Electric Sign Servicemen............
Maintenance Electricians, Industrial Machinery Repairmen,
Millwrights ................................
Instrument Repairmen ..............
Jewelers and Jewelry Repairmen,
Watch Repairmen ....................
Television and Radio Service
Technicians ................................
Vending Machine Mechanics.......

20
10
10
10
15
10
10
15
10
15
10
10

Other Manual Occupations

1650-94

1650-68
1650-69

Price
( cents)

Bulletin
No.

1650-102

Blacksmiths ...................................
Boilermaking Occupations ..........
Dispensing Opticians, Optical
Mechanics .................................
Driving Occupations
Over-the-road Truckdrivers,
Local Truckdrivers, Routemen, Intercity Busdrivers,
Local Transit Busdrivers,
Taxi Drivers ......................
Factory Operatives
Assemblers,
Electroplaters,
Inspectors, Power Truck
O p e r a t o r s , Production
Painters ..............................
Foremen .......................................
Furniture Upholsterers ..............
Machining Occupations
All-round Machinists, Machine Tool Operators, Tool
and Die Makers, Instrument Makers (Mechanical), Setup Men (Machine Tools), Layout Men
Meat Cutters .................................
Motion Picture Projectionists.....
Printing Occupations
Composing Room Occupations,
Photoengravers,
Electrotypers and Stereotypers, Printing Pressmen
and A s s i s t a n t s , Lithographic Occupations, Bookbinders and Related Workers .......................................
Shoe Repairmen ..........................

10
10
10

20

15
10
10

15
10
10

20
10

O C C U P A T IO N A L O U T L O O K R E P R IN T S E R I E S — (C o n t’d)
Bulletin
No.

Price
( cents)

1650-119

Other Manual Occupations— (Cont’d)
1650-103
1650-104
1650-105

Stationary Engineers, Stationary
Firemen (Boiler) ......................
Waste Water Treatment Plant
Operators ...................................
Welders, Oxygen and Arc Cut­
ters .............................................

10
10

1650-107
1650-108
1650-109
1650-110
1650-111
1650-112
1650-113
1650-114
1650-115
1650-116
1650-117

1650-118

Agriculture
Cooperative Extension Ser­
vice Workers, Soil Scien­
tists, Soil Conservationists,
Other Professional Work­
ers, Farm Service Jobs.......
Petroleum and Natural Gas Pro­
duction and Processing, Petro­
leum Refining ............................
Aircraft, Missile, and Spacecraft
Manufacturing ..........................
Aluminum Industry .......................
Apparel Industry ...........................
Atomic Energy Field.....................
Electronics Manufacturing ..........
Industrial Chemical Industry........
Iron and Steel Industry................
Motor Vehicle and Equipment
Manufacturing ..........................
Paper and Allied Products In­
dustries .......................................
Civil Aviation
Pilots and Copilots, Flight
Engineers,
Stewardesses,
Aircraft Mechanics, Air­
line Dispatchers, Air Traf­
fic Controllers, Ground Ra­
dio Operators and Tele­
typists, Traffic Agents and
Clerks .................................
Electric Power Industry
Powerplant
Occupations,
Transmission and Distri­
bution Occupations, Custo­
mer Service Occupations. ..




1650-120

10

SOME MAJOR INDUSTRIES AND THEIR
OCCUPATIONS
1650-106

Price
(cents)

Bulletin
No.

1650-121

20
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15

1650-122

1650-123
1650-124

Merchant Marine Occupations
Licensed Merchant Marine
Officers, Unlicensed Mer­
chant Seamen ..................
Radio and Television Broadcast­
ing
Radio and Television An­
nouncers, Broadcast Tech­
nicians ...............................

15

15

Railroads
Locomotive Engineers, Loco­
motive Firemen (Helpers),
Conductors,
Brakemen,
Telegraphers, Telephones,
Towermen, Station Clerks,
Clerks, Shop Trades, Sig­
nal Department Workers,
Track Workers, Bridge and
Building Workers ............
Telephone Industry
Central Office Craftsmen,
Central Office Equipment
Installers, Linemen and
Cable Splicers, Telephone
and PBX Installers and
Repairmen ..........................
Restaurants ...................................
Banking
Bank Clerks, Tellers, Bank
Officers ................................

20

15
10

15

Insurance Business ......................

10

1650-126

Hotels
Bellmen and Bell Captains,
F r o n t O f f i c e Clerks,
Housekeepers and Assist­
ants, Managers and Assist­
ants .....................................

15

1650-127

Government (Except Post Office)
Federal Civilian Employ­
ment, State and Local Gov­
ernments, ArmedForces....

15

1650-128

20

1650-125

Post Office Occupations
Mail Carriers, Postal Clerks

15

15

☆

U .S . G O V E R N M E N T P R IN TIN G O F F I C E :

1 97 0 O ----- 3 5 3 - 6 3 0

859




A Visual Aid
for Teachers and Counselors

LOOKING AHEAD TO A CAREER
describes tomorrow’s world of work for young people choosing a career and tells
• What changes are ahead in the world of work
• What kinds of jobs will be open in the next 10 years
• What industries will provide these openings
Available with an accompanying narrative in
• A set of 36 color slides (2 inch by 2 inch, 35mm.).................................................$10 per set
• A filmstrip............................................................................................................................ $ 5 each
T o order, fill out order blank below, enclose check or money order, and mail as directed.

LOOKING AHEAD TO A CAREER
O RDER
FORM

N AM E____________________________________________________
STR EET A D D R E SS____________________________________________________
CITY, STA TE ____________________________________________________
AND ZIP CODE
NUMBER OF filmstrips_______@ $5 each.
TO TAL AM OUNT______
NUMBER OF color slide sets_______ @ $10 per set. TO TAL AMOUNT

Make check or money order payable to BUREAU O F LABOR STATISTICS. Enclose with order blank
and mail to the Bureau of JLabor Statistics Regional Office nearest you:
1603-A Federal Bldg.
Boston, Mass. 02203

341 Ninth Ave.
New York, N.Y. 10001

406 Penn Square Bldg.
1317 Filbert St.
Philadelphia, Pa. 19107

1371 Peachtree St., NE.
Atlanta, Ga. 30309

219 S. Dearborn St.
Chicago, 11 . 60604
1

911 Walnut St.
Kansas City, Mo. 64108

411 N. Akard St.
Dallas, Tex. 75201

450 Golden Gate Ave., Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102










THE
OCCUPATIONAL
OUTLOOK *
QUARTERLY

o
O
CM
cm

o
Q
c
2 LU
0 X
5
£ iJ= „
| 8
5

LL

® '
o z:
it ®

o

o
<
/>
z

c

<
E
c

£

1
c
©
>

<
D
a

+
-*

o

o

CD

c
a
>
£
3

D
O

-J
.. 8
oa
<
o fr O

ac

CD

LU
0C

CC

LU

a oL
LL
L
□ □
O
o

3

to

The
Quarterly
is an
essential
companion
to the
Occupational
Outlook
Handbook

o
o
CM
<0
z

CD

o P

LL

2 1 a
cc 5r, 8
U®
J
Q c S
cc c
O ®o
Z

LU

<
%
o
K
O

a

a

(/) «
cc tr
<
LU
>■

<
UJ
>-

CM

A

□ □

(/
>

C ity , S tate, and

A
TODAY
MAGAZINE
FOR
TOMORROW’S
JOBS

A
TODAY
MAGAZINE
FOR
TOMORROW’S
JOBS




THE
OCCUPATIONAL
OUTLOOK
QUARTERLY

The Q u a rte rly , an e s s e n tia l companion to
the O ccu p atio n al O utlook Handbook
• keeps readers up to date on d evelo p ­
ments in the fie ld of manpower and
occupational inform ation
• reports prom ptly on new occupational
research results
• te lls about le g is la tiv e , ed u catio n ,
and tra in in g developm ents th a t w ill
help young people w ith th e ir
career plans
Published four tim es a year
by the U .S . D epartm ent
o f Labor, Bureau of
Labor S ta tis tic s

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU O F LA B O R STATISTICS
W A S H IN G T O N , D.C.

20212

O F F IC IA L B U S IN ES S




P O S TA G E A N D FEES PAID
U.S. D EPARTM EN T O F LA BO R

TH IR D CLASS M A IL


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102