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riavtnn & Montgomery. Co

Public UbrJHV


1970-71 edition

U.S. Departm ent of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Bulletin Not 1650


Pointers on Using the Handbook

To learn the contents and a rran g em e n t of this Handbook see How the Handbook is
Organized, page 4.

To locate an occupation or industry in this book, see:
Table of Contents, page xi.
Alphabetical Index, page 831.

For a general view of work and jobs in the United States, read the chapter on Tomor­
row’s Jobs, page 11.

Forecasts of the fu tu re are precarious! To interpret the statements on the outlook
in each occupation, keep in mind the points made on page 11, as well
as the methodology presented in the Technical Appendix, page 829.

The job picture is constantly changing. To find out how you can keep your informa­
tion up to date, see the chapter on Sources of Additional Information or As­
sistance, page 7.

You m ay need local inform ation too. The Handbook gives facts about each occupa­
tion for the United States as a whole. For suggestions on sources of additional
information for your own locality, see page 8.





occupational outlook handbook
1970-71 edition

Revision of Bulletin 1550

George P. S h u ltz, S e c re ta ry
G eoffrey H. M oore, C om m issioner

For Sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Price $6.25



The opportunity for every American to develop his abilities through education
and training and to engage in productive and rewarding work is one of the greatest
goals of our society. This goal cannot be won without informed career decisions. Amer­
ican youth on the threshold of career planning, war veterans returning to civilian em­
ployment, women re-entering the labor force after their children reach school age,
and many other groups, all have a great need for occupational information.
The Department of Labor’s Occupational Outlook Handbook is a guide to em­
ployment opportunities in a broad range of occupations that cover all of the principal
areas of work. It brings together information of significance for those who are plan­
ning their careers, thereby serving as a basic tool in the vocational guidance process.
The Handbook is designed for use by counselors, parents, and individuals seeking a
field of work, as well as by all others in the Nation who have an interest in matching
jobs with people.
The Department of Labor is proud to continue its leadership in the important
task of providing comprehensive information on career opportunities to our Nation’s
growing number of workers.
G eorge P. S h u l t z , Secretary of Labor

Prefatory Note

Millions of young persons will enter the labor force for the first time over the dec­
ade of the 1970’s. Because of the vast changes that characterize the American economy,
these new workers have a great need for reliable and up-to-date occupational informa­
tion to guide them in their career decisions.
The 1970-71 edition of the Occupational Outlook Handbook brings together a
variety of occupational information for use in guiding youth toward career goals. It
provides descriptions of the nature of work, education and training requirements, em­
ployment outlook, places of employment, and earnings and working conditions for
over 700 occupations that cover the entire scope of work life.
The occupational coverage of the Handbook has increased considerably since the
first edition was published in 1949. This, the ninth edition, expands the detailed occu­
pational coverage by including occupational statements on building custodians, dental
assistants, foremen, library technicians, meat cutters, merchant marine occupations,
and waste water treatment plant operators.
As part of its occupational outlook program, the Bureau of Labor Statistics also
issues the Occupational Outlook Quarterly, a periodical that provides current informa­
tion on occupational developments between editions of the Handbook, and the Occu­
pational Outlook Report Series, a set of over 100 reprints of Handbook statements.
Both of these publications provide assistance to young people seeking career informa­
In preparing the Handbook, hundreds of officials in industry, labor organizations,
trade associations, professional societies, government agencies, and other organizations
have cooperated with the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Their assistance is acknowl­
edged with gratitude.

G eoffrey H. M oore, Commissioner of Labor Statistics


Letter From the American Personnel and Guidance Association
New occupations and opportunities for personal development are emerging con­
stantly, and others are disappearing. Hence, both counselors and their clients need the
Occupational Outlook Handbook, and its companion periodical, the Occupational Out­
look Quarterly. These useful publications have served both well. We are grateful to
the Bureau of Labor Statistics for its scholarly research on occupations and for the
preparation of such well organized, readable resources.
M erle M . O h lsen , President
American Personnel and Guidance Association

Letter From the Veterans Administration
Since World War II, some 11,700,000 veterans have used the educational and
rehabilitation benefits available to them through the Veterans Administration. Such
benefits are extended now to veterans’ widows and orphans and to the wives and
children of totally and permanently disabled veterans. Veterans Administration ed­
ucational and vocational counseling services which help plan for school and work are
available to all these groups.
From the beginning of its counseling program, the Veterans Administration has
recognized the need for up-to-date, comprehensive, and accurate occupational infor­
mation as a basis for sound educational and vocational planning. To meet this need
after World War II, the Occupational Outlook Handbook was developed. Since that
time, the rapid pace of technological change and an expanding economy have made
reliable, current information about the changing structure of the world of work even
more important. The Occupational Outlook Handbook is a major source of such infor­
mation, and consequently, an indispensable tool in counseling.
The Veterans Administration is pleased to have this opportunity to express ap­
preciation for the contribution of the Handbook and to welcome the publication of
the 1970-71 edition.

D onald J ohnson

Administrator of Veterans Affairs

Letter From the United States Training and Employment Service
In March 1969, several major changes were made in the organization of the Man­
power Administration. One of the components in the new organization is the United
States Training and Employment Service (U STE S). USTES combines the major pro­
gram activities of the former United States Employment Service and Bureau of Work
Training Programs. It also incorporates the Veterans Employment Service and the
Farm Labor Service.
In fiscal year 1968, a total of 10.7 million persons sought the services of the pub­
lic employment service. Thousands of these received counseling and guidance in job
opportunities and skills requirements. A total of 265,000 persons were enrolled in In­
stitutional and On-the-Job Training during that year. Hundreds of thousands more
were served in the various work and training programs.
The Occupational Outlook Handbook has provided the Manpower Administra­
tion with an invaluable tool both in job counseling and in planning for skill training
programs. It will surely contribute to the efforts of the United States Training and
Employment Service to improve the delivery of manpower services to the Nation by
promoting more effective management and improving communications.
R obert J. B rown , Deputy Associate Manpower Administrator

U.S. Training and Employment Service
U.S. Department of Labor

Letter From the Social and Rehabilitation Service
Today, more than 200,000 disabled men and women are being rehabilitated for
useful work each year through the Federal-State vocational rehabilitation program.
For many of these, the chance to hold a job has been a life-time goal. The opportunity
for self-support through gainful work has been a motivating force throughout the reha­
bilitation process.
For the counselor guiding a disabled client in choosing a suitable vocation, or
making a selective placement taking account of the client’s talents, disability, and
aspirations, the Occupational Outlook Handbook is invaluable. Only by keeping abreast of a job market, subject to the constant changes brought about by our dynamic
technology, can the rehabilitation counselor give ultimate meaning to rehabilitation.
This publication will help achieve that purpose.

M ary E. S witzer , Administrator
Social and Rehabilitation Service
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare

Letter From the United States Office of Education
The Occupational Outlook Handbook has provided a real service over the years
to the youth of the Nation, to educators, and others vitally concerned in occupational
planning and selection. In view of the predicted shortage of manpower facing this na­
tion in the mid-1970’s, careful and systematic attention should be given to occupation­
al planning and career development for youth to assure maximum satisfaction to the
individual and the fullest possible utilization of talent in the interests of national
Choice of an occupation becomes more difficult year by year as the Nation fur­
ther expands its technology. Some educators accept the fact that youth in the schools
today are forced to prepare, in many instances, for jobs that do not exist currently;
nor can they be comprehended fully a decade from now. The latest revision of this
valuable guide to youth and their counselors provides an accurate and careful listing
of existing occupations, and estimates future needs in the various job categories.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics, and particularly the Handbook staff, should be
congratulated upon this excellent resource for youth and their advisors.
J ames E. A llen , J r., Assistant Secretary for Education

and U.S. Commissioner of Education
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare

Letter From the Department of Defense
Armed Forces education officers and counselors have been using the Occupational
Outlook Handbook for many years. It is a primary source of occupational information
used to guide members of the Armed Forces to the opportunities off-duty educational
programs offer for advancement in their military careers or in preparation for their re­
turn to civilian life.
Servicemen may participate in many off-duty educational programs throughout
their military service; they are encouraged to pursue educational goals that will help
their military careers and prepare them for future civilian careers. The Occupational
Outlook Handbook has added significantly to Armed Forces educational programs as
a source of career information for both professional and citizen servicemen.
On the basis of our experience with this valuable career guide, we commend it to
all concerned with career planning.

G eorge B enson , Deputy Assistant
Secretary of Defense for Education

The Handbook was prepared in the Bureau of
Labor Statistics, Division of Manpower and Oc­
cupational Outlook, under the supervision of Rus­
sell B. Flanders. General direction was provided
by Harold Goldstein, Assistant Commissioner for
Manpower and Employment Statistics.
The planning and coordination of the Hand­
book was done by Neal H. Rosenthal, who also
directed the research program on professional,
technical, clerical, sales, service, and related oc­
cupations. Gerard C. Smith directed the research
program on skilled trades and other manual oc­
cupations, and major industries and their occu­
The research and preparation of the individual
sections were supervised by Michael F. Crowley,
William F. Hahn, Janice N. Hedges, Jerry F.
Kursban, and Joseph J. Rooney.

Members of the Division staff who contributed
sections were: Elinor W. Abramson, Marlene
Ausmus, Priscilla M. Baker, William Barron, Delores F. Booker, Maxine M. Both, Norman J.
Coakley, Max L. Carey, Constance B. DiCesare,
Daniel E. Hecker, Kevin Kasunic, Joyce C.
Kling, LaVeme W. Lang, Annie Lefkowitz, Doug­
las R. McDaniel, Ludmilla K. Murphy, H. James
Neary, Irving P. Phillips, Michael J. Pilot, and
John Sumansky.
The statistical assistance was provided by Olive
B. Clay, Sally G. Curry, Jane K. Green, Beatrice
H. Meadows, Evelyn T. Polance, and Jean F.
Whetzel under the direction of Everett J. M c­
The chapter on Agriculture was coordinated in
the Office of Information, U.S. Department of
Agriculture, under the direction of Harold R.
Lewis, Director of Information.

Photograph Credits
The Bureau of Labor Statistics gratefully acknowledges the cooperation and assistance of the
many government and private sources that either contributed photographs or made their facilities
available to U.S. Department of Labor photographers for this edition of the Occupational Outlook


G overnm ent Sources

ment of Sanitation, Fire Department, Police De­
partment, and Public Library.

Institute; The College Placement Council, Inc.;
International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Em­
ployers and Moving Picture Machine Operators
of the United States and Canada; International
Brotherhood of Electrical Workers; International
Chiropractors Association; International Union
of Operating Engineers; Marble Institute of
America; National Association of Barber Schools;
National Association of Metal Finishers; Na­
tional Association of Sanitarians; National Asso­
ciation of Social Workers; National Committee
for Careers in Medical Technology; National
Lathing Industry’s Joint Apprenticeship Pro­
gram; National Marine Engineers’ Beneficial As­
sociation; National Maritime Union of America;
National Plastering Industries Joint Apprentice­
ship and Training Committee; Printing Industries
of America; Tile Contractor’s Association of Amer­
ica, Inc.; United Association of Journeymen and
Apprentices of the Plumbing and Pipe Fitting
Industry of the United States and Canada;
United Association of Plumbers and Pipefitters;
and United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Join­
ers of America.

Private Sources

Industry and Business. Aetna Shirt Co.; Allied

Federal. Department of Agriculture— Forest Ser­
vice; Atomic Energy Commission; Department
of Commerce— Environmental Science Services
Administration, and Maritime Administration;
General Accounting Office; General Services Ad­
ministration; Government Printing Office; De­
partment of Health, Education, and Welfare—
National Institutes of Health, and Office of Edu­
cation; Department of the Interior— Bureau of
Land Management, and Geological Survey; De­
partment of Justice— Federal Bureau of Investi­
gation; Department of Labor— Bureau of Em­
ployment Security; National Capital Planning
Commission; Department of the Navy— Naval
Observatory, and Naval Ordnance Laboratory;
Post Office Department; Smithsonian Institution;
and Department of Transportation— Federal Av­
iation Agency.

State and Local. District of Columbia— Depart­

Individuals. Jerome Footer, D.D.S.; Don Hub­
bard; and Hugh N. Jacobsen, A.I.A.

Membership Groups. American Apparel Manu­
facturers Association, Inc.; American Association
of Advertising Agencies; American Association
of Medical Record Librarians; American Dental
Association; American Federation of Teachers;
American Forest Products Industries, Inc; Am­
erican Home Economics Association; American
Occupational Therapy Association; American
Paper and Pulp Association; American Paper In­
stitute; American Podiatry Association; Amer­
ican Speech and Hearing Association; American
Trucking Association; American Veterinary Med­
ical Association; Asphalt and Vinyl Asbestos Tile

Chemical Corp.; Allstate Insurance Co.; Alumi­
num Company of America; American Airlines;
American Telephone and Telegraph Co.; Arena
Stage; Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway
Co.; Babcock and Wilcox Co.; D. Ballauf and Co.;
Beau Bogan, Inc.; Bethlehem Steel Corp.; Blake
Construction Co.; Boeing Co.; Burroughs Corp.;
Capital Cab Co.; Caterpillar Tractor Co.; Charles
of the Ritz; Charles Schwartz and Sons; Chrysler
Corp.; Cincinnati Milling Machine Co.; Cities
Service Oil Co.; Collins Radio Co.; Container
Corporation of America; Continental Trailways;
Danko Arlington, Inc; Design and Production,
Inc.; E. I. DuPont de Nemours and Co.; Eastern
Airlines; Ford Motor Co.; General Motors Corp.;
Giant Food, Inc.; Great Northern Railway; Hot
Shoppes; Humble Oil and Refining Co.; I. C.



Isaacs; Inland Steel Co.; International Business
Machines Corp.; Jack Morton Productions, Inc.;
Kaiser Engineers; Koons Ford; Litton Industries;
McLachlen Banking Corp.; Merkle Press, Inc.;
Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner, and Smith, Inc.;
New York Life Insurance Co.; Norfolk and
Western Railway; North American Aviation,
Inc.; North American Rockwell Corp.; Oxford
Paper Co.; Potomac Electric Power Co.; Radio
Corporation of America; Rand, McNally and Co.;
Reynolds Metals Co.; Rothstein Dental Labora­
tories, Inc.; Safeway Trails, Inc.; Seaboard Air
Line Railroad Co.; Sears, Roebuck and Co.;
Standard Oil Co.; Sterling Optical Co.; Union
Carbide Corp.; Union Meat Co.; Union Oil Co.;
United Airlines; United States Steel Corp.;

W ETA-TV; W TO P-TV; Washington Hilton Ho­
tel; Western Electric Co.; Westinghouse Corp.;
and Woodward and Lothrop.

Publications. Implement and Tractor Magazine;
Signs of the Times Magazine; Traffic Manage­
ment Magazine; and The Washington Star.

Schools. The George Washington University; and
United States Merchant Marine Academy.

Others. Brookhaven National Laboratory; John
F. Kennedy Institute (Baltimore); Oak Ridge
National Laboratory; and Washington Hospital

A great many trade associations, professional societies, unions, and industrial or­
ganizations are in a position to supply valuable information to counselors or young
people seeking information about careers. For the convenience of Handbook users, the
statements on separate occupations or industries list some of the organizations or
other sources which may be able to provide further information. Although these refer­
ences were assembled with care, the Bureau of Labor Statistics has no authority or
facilities for investigating organizations. Also, since the Bureau has no way of knowing
in advance what information or publications each organization may send in answer to
a request, the Bureau cannot evaluate the accuracy of such information. The listing

of an organization, therefore, does not in any way constitute an endorsement or rec­
ommendation by the Bureau or the U.S. Department of Labor, either of the organiza­
tion and its activities or of the information it may supply. Such information as each
organization may issue is, of course, sent out on its own responsibility.

The occupational statements in this Handbook are not intended, and should not be
used, as standards for the determination of wages, hours, jurisdictional matters, ap­
propriate bargaining units, or formal job evaluation systems. These descriptive state­
ments are presented in a general, composite form and, therefore, cannot be expected
to apply exactly to specific jobs in a particular industry, establishment, or locality.



Guide to the Handbook
ANCE SERVICES .................................
IZED ..........................................................
Some important facts about the oc­
cupational reports ..........................
M ATION AND A S S IS T A N C E ............
Occupational outlook service publica­
tions ....................................................
Services to jobseekers at public em­
ployment o ffice s...............................
TOM ORROW ’ S J O B S ...............................


The Outlook for Occupations
CUPATIONS ...........................................
Business administration and related
Accountants .................................
Advertising w orkers....................
Marketing research workers.......
Personnel workers ......................
Public relations workers............
Clergy ....................................................
Protestant clergymen ................
Rabbis ...........................................
Roman Catholic priests..............
Conservation occupations ..................
Foresters .......................................
Forestry a id s.................................
Range managers..........................
Counseling ...........................................
Employment counselors..............
Rehabilitation counselors ..........
School counselors........................
Aerospace .....................................
Agricultural .................................
Ceramic .........................................
Chemical .......................................
Civil ...............................................
Industrial .....................................
Mechanical ...................................
Metallurgical ...............................
M in in g...........................................


Health service occupations....................
Osteopathic physicians ..............
Dentists ...........................................
Dental hygienists........................
Dental assistants ........................
Dental laboratory technicians ...
Registered nurses........................
Licensed practical nurses............
Pharmacists .................................
Podiatrists ...................................
Chiropractors ..................................
Occupational therapists ...............
Physical therapists ........................
Speech pathologists and audiol­
ogists .........................................
Medical laboratory workers.......
Radiologic technologists ...............
Medical record librarians............
Dietitians .....................................
Hospital administrators ............
Sanitarians ...................................
Veterinarians ...............................
Mathematics and related fields.......
Mathematicians ..........................
Statisticians .................................
Natural sciences...................................
Environmental sciences..............
Geologists .............................
Geophysicists ......................
Meteorologists ....................
Oceanographers ..................
Life sciences .................................
Life scientists ......................
Biochemists ........................
Physical sciences ........................
Chemists ...............................
Physicists ............................
Astronomers ........................
Performing arts ...................................
Actors and actresses....................
Dancers .........................................
Musicians and music teachers....
Singers and singing teachers.....
Other art related occupations............
Commercial artists ....................
Industrial designers....................
Interior designers and decora­
tors ...........................................




Social sciences .....................................
Anthropologists ..........................
Economists ...................................
Geographers .................................
Historians .....................................
Political scientists ......................
Sociologists ...................................
Teaching ...............................................
Kindergarten and elementary
school teachers........................
Secondary school teachers .......
College and university teachers
Technician occupations ....................
Engineering and science..............
D raftsm en.....................................
Writing occupations............................
Newspaper reporters ..................
Technical w riters........................
Other professional and related occu­
pations .............................................
Architects .....................................
College placement officers .......
Home econom ists........................
Landscape architects..................
Law yers.........................................
Librarians .....................................
Library technicians ....................
Models .........................................
Photographers .............................
Systems analysts ........................
Programers ...................................
Psychologists ...............................
Recreation workers ....................
Social workers .............................
Surveyors .....................................
Urban planners.............................
Industrial traffic managers.......
Purchasing agents ......................
TIONS ......................................................
Bookkeeping workers ................
Cashiers .......................................
Electronic computer operating
Office machine operators............
Receptionists ...............................
Shipping and receiving clerks....
Stenographers and secretaries....
Typists .........................................
Telephone operators ..................
SALES OCCUPATIONS ..........................
Automobile parts countermen....
Automobile salesmen..................


Automobile service advisors.......
Insurance agents and brokers....
Manufacturers’ salesmen............
Real estate salesmen and brok­
ers .............................................
Retail trade salesworkers.........
Securities salesmen ....................
Wholesale trade salesworkers....


SERVICE OCCUPATIONS ....................
Barbers .........................................
Cosmetologists .............................
Cooks and c h e fs ..........................
Waiters and waitresses ..............
FBI special agen ts......................
Police officers...............................
State police officers....................
Firefighters ...................................
Hospital attendants....................
Private household workers .......
Building custodians..................


CUPATIONS ...........................................
Skilled workers.....................................
Semiskilled w orkers.............................
Unskilled workers ...............................
Foremen ................................................
Building trades.....................................
Asbestos and insulating workers
Bricklayers ...................................
Carpenters ...................................
Cement masons (cement and
concrete finishers) ..................
Construction laborers and hod
carriers .....................................
Electricians (construction) .......
Elevator constructors ................
Floor covering installers..............
Glaziers .........................................
Lathers .........................................
Mable setters, tile setters, and
terrazzo w orkers......................
Operating engineers (construc­
tion machinery operators) ....
Painters and paperhangers.........
Plasterers .....................................
Plumbers and pipefitters............
Roofers .........................................
Sheet-metal workers ..................
Structural-, ornamental-, and re­
inforcing-iron workers, rig­
gers, and machine movers.......






Driving occupations............................
Over-the-road truckdrivers.......
Local truckdrivers ......................
Routemen .....................................
Intercity busdrivers....................
Local transit busdrivers ............
Taxi drivers .................................
Machining occupations ......................
All-round machinists ..................
Machine tool operators..............
Tool and die makers....................
Instrument makers (mechan­
ical) ...........................................
Setup men (machine tools).......
Layout men .................................
Mechanics and repairmen..................
Air-conditioning, refrigeration,
and heating mechanics............
Appliance servicemen..................
Automobile body repairmen.....
Automobile mechanics................
Bowling-pin-machine mechanics
Business machine servicemen....
Diesel mechanics ........................
Electric sign servicemen..............
Farm equipment mechanics.......
Industrial machinery repairmen
Instrument repairm en................
Maintenance electricians............
Millwrights ...................................
Television and radio service
technicians ...............................
Truck mechanics and bus me­
chanics .....................................
Vending machine m echanics.....
Watch repairmen ........................
Printing (graphic arts) occupations..
Composing room occupations.....
Photoengravers ..........................
Electrotypers and stereotypers..
Printing pressmen and assist­
ants ...........................................
Lithographic occupations .........
Bookbinders and related work­
ers .............................................
Some other manual occupations.......
Assemblers ...................................
Automobile painters ..................
Automobile trimmers and instal­
lation men (automobile up­
holsterers) ...............................
Blacksmiths .................................
Boilermaking occupations .......



Some other manual occupations— Continued
Dispensing opticians and optical
mechanics .................................
Electroplaters ...............................
Furniture upholsterers................
Gasoline service station attend­
ants ...........................................
Inspectors (manufacturing) .....
Jewelers and jewelry repairmen
Meat cu tters.................................
Motion picture projectionists....
Photographic laboratory occupa­
tions .........................................
Power truck operators ..............
Production painters....................
Shoe repairmen ..........................
Stationary engineers ..................
Stationary firemen (boiler).......
Waste water treatment plant op­
erators .......................................
Welders and oxygen and arc
cutters .......................................
Some Major Industries and
Their Occupations
AGRICULTURE .......................................
Opportunities on fa rm s......................
Opportunities on specific types of
farms ..................................................
Occupations related to agriculture....
Cooperative extension service
workers .....................................
Soil scientists ...............................
Soil conservationists....................
Other professional workers.......
Farm service jo b s ........................
MINING ........................................................
Petroleum and natural gas pro­
duction and processing occu­
pations .....................................
CONSTRUCTION .....................................
M ANUFACTURING .................................
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
manufacturing ........................
Aluminum industry....................
Apparel industry ........................
Atomic energy fie ld ....................
Electronics manufacturing .......
Industrial chemical industry.....
Iron and steel industry................
Motor vehicle and equipment
manufacturing ........................





Paper, and allied products in­
dustries .....................................
Petroleum refining......................
Civil aviation .......................................
Pilots and copilots........................
Flight engineers..........................
Stewardesses ...............................
Aircraft m echanics......................
Airline dispatchers ....................
Air traffic controllers..................
Ground radio operators and tele­
typists .......................................
Traffic agents and clerks............
Electric power industry......................
Powerplant occupations ............
Transmission and distribution
occupations ...............................
Customer service occupations....
Merchant marine occupations ..........
Licensed merchant marine of­
ficers .........................................
Unlicensed merchant seamen....
Radio and television broadcasting....
Radio and television announcers
Broadcast technicians ................
Railroads .............................................
Locomotive engineers ................
Locomotive firemen (helpers)....
Conductors ...................................
Brakemen .....................................
Telegraphers, telephoners, and
towermen .................................
Station agents .............................
Clerks ...........................................
Shop trades .................................



Railroads— Continued
Signal department workers.......
Track workers .............................
Bridge and building workers.....
Telephone industry ....................
Telephone craftsm en..................
Central office craftsmen............
Central office equipment instal­
lers ...........................................
Linemen and cable splicers.......
Telephone and PBX installers
and repairmen ........................
Restaurants .........................................
ESTATE ..................................................
Banking ................................................
Bank clerk s...................................
Tellers ........................
Bank officers ...............................
Insurance business...............................
Hotels ....................................................
Bellmen and bell captains.........
Front office clerks........................
Housekeepers and assistants.....
Managers and assistants............
GOVERNM ENT .........................................
Federal civilian employment..............
Post office occupations................
Mail carriers........................
Postal clerk s........................
State and local governments..............
Armed F orces.......................................
TECHNICAL APPEN D IX ......................
DUSTRIES .............................................






stood charts and graphs. The
functional job classification sys­
tem discusses occupations of prac­
tically all workers in the United
States. A consistent format com­
pares specific occupations by in­
dicating the nature of the work;
location of employment, training
and other qualifications and ad­
vancement; employment outlook;
and earnings and working condi­
tions. Especially useful is the R e­
print Series which can be read at
Occupational Outlook Handbook. home.
Occupational Outlook
The Handbook, now in its ninth
edition, is designed for use in a Handbook is used frequently by
number of settings by persons who counselors in conferring with stu­
play a variety of roles in career de­ dents who have completed a vo­
velopment, such as counselors,- cational interest inventory and
teachers, parents, and counselor selected
educators. Settings include junior areas. A pupil may refer to a num­
and senior high schools, vocation­ ber of occupations related to his
al and technical schools, junior vocational goals. Many counselors
and community colleges, college prefer this book to other refer­
student personnel centers, college ences.
The survey of current occupa­
preparation programs, private and
public placement and counseling tions provided by the Handbook
agencies, youth opportunity cen­ serves as a broad base for career
ters, and in-service education pro­ development. Since the occupa­
tional outlook is constantly
The organization of the Hand­ changing and many future occu­
book is especially appropriate for pations have not yet evolved, a
use by persons working with student having some years of
groups. It analyzes job prospects preparation ahead may elect a
in the world of tomorrow with broad curriculum in a general area
well-designed and easily under­ of interest, such as the sciences,
The underlying premise of the
guidance service, self-guidance,
places primary responsibility for
evolving a productive and reward­
ing way of life upon the individual
himself. In long-range career de­
velopment, the individual with the
help of counselors, teachers, and
parents assesses his vocational po­
tential and explores commensur­
ate vocational alternatives. An in­
valuable resource in this explora­
tion and decision making is the


humanities, or arts. Such realiza­
tion will emphasize the need for
flexible planning for the choice of
a major interest area as well as
related occupations to which these
interests and abilities may lead.
Specialization may be delayed un­
til a later date. The further he
goes in school the better the op­
portunity for a student to select
his major field of interest. The
more familiar he is with the areas
of work, the better prepared he
will be to plan his future.
Career development is achieved
through a continuing and coher­
ent planned effort by students
and counselors. The Handbook
has demonstrated its effectiveness
as a unique instrument in this
process. It has become an indis­
pensable part of the counselor’s
and the school’s library of occu­
pational information.

Don D. Twiford, Chief
Pupil Personnel Services Branch
Frank L. Sievers, Principal
Guidance and Personnel Services
Office of Education,
U. S. Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare

The Handbook starts with three
introductory chapters designed to
help counselors and students
make effective use of the book
and to give them a general view
of the world of work.
This chapter, the Guide to the
Handbook, describes the contents
and organization of the book. It
tells how the information was as­
sembled and discusses a number
of points which need to be kept
in mind in interpreting the state­
ments. The second introductory
chapter gives suggestions regard­
ing supplementary sources of oc­
cupational information and tells
how readers can keep up to date
on developments affecting the em­
ployment outlook in different oc­
cupations. It also describes briefly
the counseling, placement, and
other services available to job ­
seekers at local offices of State
employment services affiliated
with the U.S. Training and Em­
ployment Service. The final in­
troductory chapter describes some
of the most important occupa­
tional and industrial employment
trends to provide a background
for interpreting the reports on in­
dividual occupations.

O ccupational Reports
The reports on different fields
of work make up the main body
of the book. The seven major divi­
sions of the book are: Professional
and related occupations; mana­
gerial occupations; clerical and
related occupations; sales occupa­
tions; service occupations; skilled
and other manual occupations;
and some major industries and
their occupations. Within each of
these major divisions, occupa­
tions are grouped into related
fields. The introductory state­
ment for each major industry
trends in the industry.

Indexes and Appendix
To help the readers locate in­
formation on the occupations in
which they are interested, a de­
tailed list of the occupational re­
ports by field of work, is included
in the table of contents at the
front of the book. The index at
the back of the book lists occupa­
tions and industries alphabetically. The occupations covered in

the Occupational Outlook Hand­
book also are coded according to
the occupational classification
system developed by the U.S. D e­
partment of Labor and published
in the Dictionary of Occupational
Titles. This Dictionary provides
a code number (the so-called
D.O.T. number) for each occupa­
tion included in it; the code num­
ber can be used as a filing system
for occupational information. The
code numbers of the D.O.T. are
listed in parentheses immediately
below the main occupational
group headings in the Handbook.
Volumes I and II of the D.O.T.
contain job definitions; the sup­
plement lists individual physical
demands, working conditions, and
training time data for each job
defined in the Dictionary.
The technical appendix dis­
cusses the sources and methods
used to analyze the occupational
outlook in different fields of work.
It is designed for readers wishing
more information on this subject
than is included in this chapter.

S o m e im portant fa c ts about the occupational reports
Occupations Covered
The more than 700 occupations
discussed in this Handbook gen­
erally are those of greatest inter­
est to young people. Most of the
large ones requiring long periods
of education or training are dis­
cussed, as are a number of small
but rapidly growing fields and
other occupations of special inter­

est. Altogether, the occupations
covered account for about 97 per­
cent of all workers in sales occu­
pations; about 95 percent of all
workers in professional and re­
lated occupations; about twothirds of all workers in skilled,
clerical, and service occupations,
and two-fifths of those in semi­
skilled occupations. Smaller pro­
portions of managerial workers

and laborers are discussed. The
main types of farming occupa­
tions also are discussed.
General information on many
fields of work not covered in the
occupational reports is contained
in the introductions to the major
divisions of the book. These in­
troductions are designed to aid
the reader in interpreting the re­
ports on individual occupations.


Sources of Inform ation
Information on employment
trends and outlook and the many
related topics discussed in the oc­
cupational reports was drawn
from a great variety of sources.
Interviews with hundreds of per­
sons in industry, unions, trade
associations, and public agencies
provided a wealth of the latest
information. The Bureau’s other
research programs supplied data
on employment in different indus­
tries, productivity and technolog­
ical developments, wages and
working conditions, trade union
agreements, industrial hazards,
and a number of other topics. Ad­
ditional data regarding the nature
of the work in various occupa­
tions, training and licensing re­
quirements, wages, and employ­
ment trends were provided by
other agencies of the Federal Gov­
ernment— among them, the Bur­
eau of Apprenticeship and Train­
ing and the U.S. Training and
Employment Service in the De­
partment of Labor; the Bureau of
the Census of the Department of
Commerce; the Office of Educa­
tion and the Vocational Rehabili­
tation Administration of the De­
partment of Health, Education,
and Welfare; the Veterans Ad­
ministration; the Civil Service
Commission; the Interstate Com­
merce Commission; the Civil
Aeronautics Board; the Federal
Communications Commission; the
Department of Transportation;
and the National Science Found­
ation. Many other public and
private organizations— including
State licensing boards, educa­
tional institutions, business firms,
professional societies, trade asso­
ciations, and trade unions— also
made available published and un­
published data and supplied much
helpful information through in­
After the information from
these many sources was brought


will be maintained and that no
cataclysmic events will occur,
such as a war or a severe and pro­
longed economic depression. Such
catastrophes would, of course, cre­
ate an entirely different employ­
ment situation from that likely
to develop under the assumed con­
ditions. But young people would
find it impossible to build their
lifetime plans in expectation of
such unpredictable catastrophes,
although, on the basis of historical
experience, they must be prepared
to weather economic ups and
downs during their working lives.
The basic economic assumptions
are discussed in detail in the in­
troductory section of the Hand­
book. Tomorrow’s Jobs, page 11.
T o avoid constant repetition,
the assumptions seldom are men­
tioned in the reports on the many
fields of work where the impact
of a general decline in business
or a change in the scale of mo­
bilization would probably be
about the same as in the economy
as a whole. On the other hand,
in the statements on occupations
where employment tends to be
either unusually stable or espe­
cially subject to ups and downs,
the factors affecting employment
are delineated. Even in the latter
occupations, however, long-term
trends in employment are more
important than short-run fluctua­
tions when appraising the pros­
pects of an individual in a par­
ticular occupation.
The picture of employment op­
Points To Bear in M ind in Using portunities given in this book ap­
the Reports
plies to the country as a whole
unless otherwise indicated. People
In using the information on em­ who want supplementary informa­
ployment prospects which this tion on job opportunities in their
book contains, it is important to communities should consult local
keep in mind that all conclusions sources of information, as sug­
about the economic future neces­ gested in the next chapter.
The information presented on
sarily rest on certain assumptions.
Among the assumptions which un­ earnings and working conditions,
derlie the statements on employ­ as on other subjects, represents
ment outlook in this Handbook, the most recent available when
are that high employment levels the Handbook was prepared early

together and analyzed in conjunc­
tion with the Bureau’s overall eco­
nomic model, conclusions were
reached as to prospective employ­
ment trends in the occupations.
(See the Technical Appendix,
page 829, for a discussion of the
methodology used in employment
outlook analysis.) In addition,
estimates were made of the num­
bers of job openings that will be
created by retirements and deaths
and transfers out of the occupa­
tion. The supply of new workers
likely to be available in particular
fields also was analyzed, by study­
ing statistics on high school and
college enrollments and gradua­
tions, data on the number of ap­
prentices in skilled trades, re­
entries to an occupation, and
transfers into an occupation.
Preliminary drafts of the occu­
pational reports were reviewed by
officials of leading companies,
trade associations, trade unions,
and professional societies, and by
other experts. The information
and conclusions presented in each
report thus reflect the knowledge
and judgment not only of the
Bureau of Labor Statistics staff,
but also of leaders in the field
discussed, although the Bureau, of
course, takes full responsibility
for all statements made. The tech­
nical appendix presents a more
detailed discussion of the sources
of information used in the occu­
pational reports.

in 1969. Much of the information
came from Bureau of Labor Sta­
tistics surveys, but many other
sources were utilized also. For
this reason, the earnings data pre­
sented in the various occupational
reports often refer to different
periods of time, cover varying geo­
graphic areas, and represent dif­
ferent kinds of statistical meas­
ures. Comparisons between the
earnings data for different occu­
pations should, therefore, be made
with great caution.
Reference has been made in sev­
eral occupational statements to
training programs established un­
der the Manpower Development
and Training Act (M D T A ), to


equip unemployed and underem­
ployed persons with skills needed
in today’s world of work. How­
ever, the absence of a reference
to M D TA training for a particular
occupation does not necessarily
mean that programs are not in op­
eration. In 1969, training pro­
grams (which last from several
weeks to 2 years) covered several
hundred occupations— technical
and semiprofessional, skilled and
semiskilled, clerical and sales, ser­
vice and nonagricultural. To ob­
tain information about M DTA
training offered in your area, con­
tact the local office of the State
employment service.
Finally, information on occupa­

tions and the employment oppor­
tunities they offer is only part of
that needed in making a career
decision, which means matching
a person and an occupation. The
other part relates, of course, to
the aptitudes and interests of the
potential worker himself. In as­
sessing their own abilities and in­
terests and in selecting the occu­
pation for which they are best
suited, people can obtain help
from vocational counselors in
schools and colleges, State em­
ployment service offices, Veterans
Administration regional offices
and guidance centers, and many
community agencies.

Persons using this Handbook
may want more detail on the oc­
cupations discussed in the occu­
pational reports, or information
on fields of work which are not
covered in this publication.
Suggestions as to sources of ad­
ditional information on the occu­
pations discussed are given in
most of the occupational reports.
In addition, several types of pub­
lications of the U.S. Department
of Labor (see descriptions follow­
ing index), provide further in­
formation on topics such as earn­
ings, hours of work, and working
conditions. Other sources likely
to be helpful include public li­
braries; schools; State employ­
ment services; business establish­
ments; and trade unions, employ­
ers’ associations, and professional
societies. A brief description of
each follows.

great numbers of publications on
occupations, and the librarians
may be of assistance in finding
the best ones on a particular field
of work.

ployment offices are described in
the concluding section of this

Business Establishm ents
School libraries and guidance
offices also often have extensive
reading materials on occupations.
In addition, school counselors and
teachers usually know of any local
occupational information which
has been assembled through spe­
cial surveys made by schools or
other community agencies. Teach­
ers of special subjects such as
music, printing, and shorthand
can often give information about
occupations related to the sub­
jects they teach.

S tate Em ploym ent Services

Employers and personnel offi­
cers usually can supply informa­
tion about the nature of the work
performed by employees in their
industry or business and the qual­
ifications needed for various jobs,
as well as other facts about em­
ployment conditions and oppor­
tunities. The names of local firms
in a particular industry can be
found in the classified sections of
telephone directories or can be ob­
tained from local chambers of

T rad e Unions, Em ployers’
Associations, and Professional

Public Libraries
These libraries usually have
many books, pamphlets, and ma­
gazine articles giving information
about different occupations. They
also may have several books and
current indexes which list the

Counselors in local public em­
ployment offices are in a partic­
ularly good position to supply
information about job opportuni­
ties, hiring standards, and wages
in their localities. (The services
available through the public em­

Frequently, these organizations
have local branches; their officials
can supply information relating to
the occupations with which they
are concerned.

O ccupational outlook service publications and m aterials
The Bureau of Labor Statistics
has recently published a Counsel­

or’s Guide to Manpower Informa­
tion, An Annotated Bibliography
of Government Publications. The
bibliography, as the title suggests,
lists the major occupational and
other manpower publications of

Federal and State government
agencies that will be useful to
counselors and others interested
in trends and developments that
have implications for career de­
cisions. This bulletin, No. 1598,
is available from the Superintend­
ent of Documents, Government

Printing Office, W a s h in g to n ,
D.C., 20402, at $1 a copy.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics
also issues a periodical, the Occu­
pational Outlook Quarterly, to
keep readers up to date between
editions of the Handbook, on de­
velopments affecting employment


opportunities and on the findings
of new occupational outlook re­
search. In addition, the Bureau
issues at irregular intervals occu­
pational outlook bulletins which
give much more detailed informa­
tion on various fields of work than
can be included either in the
Handbook or in the Occupational
Outlook Quarterly. Further in­
formation about these publica­
tions and directions for ordering
them will be found on page
The Bureau also has developed

a visual aid for counselors en­
titled, Looking Ahead to a Career.
It consists of a set of 36 color
slides or a filmstrip that show the
changing occupational and indus­
trial mix and trends for manpower
training. The slides and filmstrip,
which have an accompanying nar­
rative, are available directly from
the Bureau of Labor Statistics
Regional Offices; the slides cost
$10 a set, the filmstrip $5. (See
order form in back of Handbook.)

The Bureau will be glad to
place the name of any user of this
Handbook on its mailing list to
receive announcements of new
publications and releases sum­
marizing the results of new stu­
dies. Anyone wishing to receive
such materials should send the
request, with his address, to the
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S.
Department of Labor, Washing­
ton, D.C., 20212.

S e rv ic e s to jo b se e k e rs at public em ploym ent offices
Local offices of State employ­
ment services specialize in finding
jobs for workers and workers for
jobs. The State employment ser­
vices are affiliated with the U.S.
Training and Employment Ser­
vice of the U.S. Department of
Labor’s Manpower Administra­
tion and constitute a FederalState partnership. Employment
and related services are available
without charge in every State.
At each of the over 2,000 public
employment service offices across
the Nation, jobseekers are aided
in obtaining employment, and em­
ployers are assisted in finding
qualified workers.
Four basic services are provided
to workers by the public employ­
ment service: (1) Job informa­
tion; (2) employment counseling;
(3) referral to job training or
other needed service; and (4) job

Job Information. The personnel
who staff the public employment
service offices are familiar with
their areas and thus know what
kinds of workers are employed in
local industry, what jobs are avail­
able, what the hiring requirements
and the opportunities for ad­

vancement are, and the wages that
are paid. The staff conduct man­
power surveys to determine the
area’s available skills, training
needs, and future occupational op­
portunities. Through the employ­
ment service network of offices,
information is also available on
job opportunities in other areas
of the country.


Counseling. Em­
young people who are starting
their careers, as well as experi­
enced workers who wish or need
to change their occupation. The
major purposes of employment
counseling are to help people un­
derstand their actual and poten­
tial abilities, their interests, and
their personal traits; to know the
nature of occupations; and to
make the best use of their capa­
cities and preferences in the light
of available job opportunities.
The employment counselor is
specially trained and has access
to a large store of occupational
information. Most local offices
provide testing services to help
the counselor appraise the appli­
cant’s abilities, aptitudes, and
preferences. Often such tests re­

veal aptitudes the jobseeker did
not know he had. The General
Aptitude Test Battery, for in­
stance, measures basic abilities
for broad fields of work and for
specific jobs.

Referral to Training. Many in­
dividuals seek work for which
they lack some qualifications.
Sometimes the job requires basic
education or a specific skill. Be­
sides referring a jobseeker to a
job the public employment ser­
vice may suggest training so the
applicant can qualify or secure a
better job.
Jobs and job requirements
change. In today’s fast-paced
world, important considerations
when selecting a vocation are the
training required to perform the
work, and ways that training need
can be met.

Job Placement. A primary objec­
tive of the public employment
service is to place workers in jobs.
Regular contact is maintained
with local employers to learn
about their job openings. Re­
quests are received from employ­
ers for many different kinds of
workers. As a result, registered


applicants have access to a variety
of job vacancies with many em­
ployers, just as the employer has
access to many applicants. This
dual function eliminates “ hit-ormiss” job hunting.
If job openings are not avail­
able locally, applicants may ap­
ply for employment elsewhere in
the State, in another area, or even
in a foreign country. Each State
employment service prepares in­
ventories of its hard-to-fill jobs
so that other State employment
services may refer local workers
to out-of-area jobs for which they
qualify. In addition, a national
network of highly specialized pro­
fessional placement offices oper­
ates within the employment serv­
ice network to speed the match­
ing of jobs and applicants in pro­
fessional fields.

of the public employment service
system, to assist young people,
particularly school dropouts, to
prepare for and obtain jobs. YOC
representatives go into neighbor­
hoods where disadvantaged youth
live to recruit and motivate those
who do not come voluntarily for
help. These centers, established
in early 1965, provide complete
employment services and cooper­
ate closely with other community
agencies serving youth.

Special Services for Disadvan­
taged Adults. Through its human

Special Services for Youth. The

resources development program,
the employment service seeks to
improve the employability of
adults who have withdrawn from
the work force because of some
social or cultural disadavantage.
An important part of this pro­
gram is “ outreach” into slum

full range of employment services
is available to youth. Specialized
youth units have been established
in most local offices. In addition,
(YO C) have been established in
high population areas, as a part

Other Special Services. Individ­
uals with mental or physical dis­
abilities which constitute voca­
tional handicaps are given special
consideration by the employment

Veterans also receive special
services. Each local office has a
veterans’ employment representa­
tive who is informed about vet­
erans’ rights and benefits, and
seeks to develop jobs for veterans.
Middle-age and older workers
are assisted in making realistic
job choices and overcoming prob­
lems related to getting and hold­
ing jobs. Employers are encour­
aged to hire individuals on their
ability to perform the work. Sim­
ilar attention is given to the em­
ployment problems of minority
group members and all others fac­
ing special difficulties in obtain­
ing suitable employment.

Community Manpower Service.
Jobseekers, employers, schools,
civic groups, and public and pri­
vate agencies concerned with
manpower problems are invited
to utilize the service of the public
employment office in their com­
munity, and avail themselves of
the job information in that office.
The local office is listed in the
phone book as an agency of the
State government.



Choosing a career is one of the
most important decisions a person
will make in his lifetime. Plan­
ning a career calls for an evalua­
tion of an individual’s abilities
and interests and for knowledge
of employment opportunities that
will be favorable or not so favor­
able in the future. This Hand­
book provides this latter informa­
tion for counselors, teachers, par­
ents, and students themselves, as
well as other information that
furnishes a background for under­
standing the outlook, education
and training requirements, and
nature of particular occupations.
Our Nation’s vast and complex
economy offers individuals numer­
ous career choices. Thousands of
different jobs are available as well
as a huge variety of employers.
Several questions are of major
importance to young persons as
they view the variety of occupa­
tional choices open to them.
Among these questions are: What
fields look especially promising
for employment opportunities?
What competition will other
workers furnish? What type and
how much training and education
are required to enter particular
jobs? How do earnings in certain
occupations compare with earn­
ings in other occupations requir­
ing similar training? What types
of employers provide which kinds
of jobs? What are the typical en­
vironment and working conditions
associated with particular occupa­
Of importance in evaluating in­
formation that answers these and
related questions is knowledge of
the dynamic changes that are con­
tinually occurring in our economy
— the trends in the Nation’s work
force and its business, industrial,
and occupational development.
New ways of making goods, new

products, and changes in living
standards are constantly chang­
ing the types of jobs that become
available. T o throw light on the
changing characteristics of occu­
pations and to provide back­
ground for understanding the out­
look in specific occupatons, this
chapter focuses on overall pat­
terns of change in the country’s
industrial and occupational com­
position. It also discusses the im­
plications of these changes on edu­
cation and training in relation to
occupational choice.
No one can accurately forecast
the future. Nevertheless, by using
the wealth of information avail­
able, extensive economic and sta­
tistical analyses, and the best
judgment of informed experts, the
work future can be described in
broad terms. Of course, some as­
pects of the future can be pre­
dicted more accurately than
others. For example, the number
of 18-year olds in 1980 can be
estimated with a very high degree
of accuracy because individuals
6-years old in 1968 are accounted
for in our vital statistics, and the
death rate of children between 6
and 18 is extremely low and stays
about the same from year to year.
On the other hand, forecasting
employment requirements for
automobile assemblers in 1980 is
extremely difficult. Employment
of these workers can be affected
by the changing demand for
shifts in buyer’s preferences (to­
ward the compact car, for exam­
ple), changes in the ways cars
are made (more automation or
greater use of turbine engines),
and unpredictable economic de­
velopments outside of the auto­
mobile industry.
To project the demand for all
workers in the economy, specific

assumptions have to be made
about general economic move­
ments and broad national policy.
The picture of the future employ­
ment outlook reflected in the
Handbook is based on the follow­
ing fundamental assumptions:
1. Maintenance of high levels
of employment and of utilization
of available manpower in 1980;
2. that no major event will
alter substantially the rate and
nature of economic growth;
3. that economic and social
patterns and relationships will
continue to change at about the
same rate as in the recent past;
4. that scientific technological
advancement will continue at
about the same rate as in recent
years; and
5. that defense activities in
1980 in terms of expenditures will
approximate the 1963 level which
is somewhat higher than the levels
before the Viet Nam Buildup.
The Handbook's assessment of
1980 industrial and occupational
outlook assumes a projected total
labor force of 100.7 million in
1980, an Armed Forces of 2.7
million, and a resulting civilian
labor force of 98 million.
Understanding the world of
work requires knowledge of loca­
tion where the specific types of
work is done because employers
seek a wide variety of skills; for
example, many different indus­
tries employ engineers, secretaries,
and salesmen. Analyses of the
character of the economy’s indus­
trial composition show that work
locations have changed sharply
over the years and are expected to
continue to do so. These changes
greatly affect employment oppor­
tunities and occupational choices.
Industry employment and oc­
cupational requirements change
as a result of many factors. A new



W here People W ork

state and local




| federa



machine or a newly automated
process may require different oc­
cupational skills or may even
create an entirely new occupa­
tion; a change in product demand
may affect the number of workers
needed; an invention may all but
eliminate an industry or create
a new one.
To help understand the Na­
tion’s industrial composition, in­
dustries may be viewed as either

goods producing or service pro­
ducing. They may further be
grouped into 9 major divisions ac­
cording to this product or service.
(See chart 1.)
Most of the Nation’s workers
are in industries producing ser­
vices, in activities such as educa­
tion, health care, trade, repair and
maintenance, and in government
transportation, and banking and
insurance service. The production

Industries Providing Services O ffe r More Jobs
Than Those Providing G ood s
Contract construction

Transportation and
public utilities
Finance, insurance
and real estate
'w a g e a n d s a la ry w o rkers only, except the a g ricu ltu re in d u stry, w h ich also in cludes self-em ployed and unpaid fa m ily w o rkers

of goods— raising food crops,
building, extracting minerals, and
manufacturing of goods— has re­
quired less than half of the coun­
try’s workforce since the late
1940’s. (See chart 2.) In general,
job growth through the 1970’s is
expected to continue to be faster
in the service-producing industries
than in the goods-producing in­
dustries. However, among indus­
try divisions within both the
goods-producing and service-pro­
ducing sectors, the growth pattern
will continue to vary.
Service-Producing Industries.
In 1968, about 44.2 million work­
ers were on the payrolls of serviceproducing
industries— trade;
Government; services and miscel­
laneous; transportation and other
utilities; and finance, insurance,
and real estate— about 18.8 mil­
lion greater than the number em­
ployed in 1947. The major factors
underlying this rapid Post World
War II growth have been (1)
population growth; (2) increasing
urbanization, with its accompany­
ing need for more city services;
and (3) rising income and living
standards accompanying demand
for improved services, such as
health, education, and security.
These factors are expected to con­
tinue to result in rapid growth of
service industries as a group, and
to employ 59.5 million by 1980,
an increase of 35.0 percent above
the 1968 level.
Trade the largest division with­
in the service-producing indus­
tries, has expanded sharply since
1947. Wholesale and retail out­
lets have multiplied in large and
small cities to satisfy the need
of an increasingly urban society.
Employment in trade was about
14.1 million in 1968, about 57
percent above the 1947 level.
Employment in trade is ex­
pected to grow one-fourth be­
tween 1968 and 1980. (See chart
3.) Although an ever increasing
volume of merchandise will be dis-



tributed as a result of increases
in population and consumer ex­
penditures, the rate of increase in
manpower needs will be slowed by
laborsaving technology such as
the greater use of electronic data
processing equipment and auto­
mated warehousing equipment,
growth in the number of self-serv­
ice stores, and the growing use
of vending machines.
Government employment has
grown faster than any other in­
dustry division, and has more
than doubled from 5.5 million to
11.8 million between 1947 and
1968. Growth has been mostly at
the State and local levels, which
combined increased more than
150 percent. Employment growth
has been greatest in agencies pro­
viding education, health, sanita­
tion, welfare, and protective ser­
vices. Federal Government em­
ployment increased about 45 per­
cent between 1947 and 1968.
Government will continue to be
a major source of new jobs
through the 1970’s. By 1980, em­
ployment in Government may be
as much as 42 percent higher than
in 1968. Most of the growth will
be in State and local governments
in which employment needs may

rise in 1980, to 13.8 million about
52 percent higher than the 9.1
million employed in 1968. Fed­
eral Government employment is
expected to rise slowly to about 3
million in 1980, 300,000 or about
10 percent above the 1968 level
of 2.7 million.
Services and miscellaneous in­
dustries employment has in­
creased rapidly since World War
11 as a result of the growing need
for maintenance and repair, ad­
vertising, domestic, and health
care services. From 1947-68, total
employment in this industry divi­
sion doubled from slightly more
than 5.0 million to about 10.6
Service and miscellaneous in­
dustries will continue to be among
the fastest growing industries
through the 1970’s. More than
one-half again as many workers
are expected to be employed in
this industry division in 1980 as in
1968. Manpower requirements in
health services are expected to
grow rapidly due to population
growth and the increasing ability
of persons to pay for health care.
Business services including ac­
counting, data processing, and

Em ploym ent G ro w th W ill V a r y W id e ly
-3 0 -2 0 -1 0




10 20 30 40

______ I





maintenance also are expected to
grow very rapidly.

Transportation and public util­
ity employment in 1968 at 4.3 mil­
lion was only slightly higher than
in 1947. Different parts of this
industry, however, have experi­
enced different growth trends.
For example, air travel employ­
ment increased rapidly but the
railroad industry declined.
The number of jobs in trans­
portation and public utilities as a
whole is expected to continue to
increase slowly through the 1970’s
and widely differing employment
trends will continue to be experi­
enced among individual industries
within the division. Rapid in­
creases in employment are ex­
pected in air transportation and
a decline is expected to continue
in railroad employment and little
or no change is expected in water
transportation, and electric, gas,
and sanitary services. Overall em­
ployment in this industry division
is expected to increase to more
than 4.7 million in 1980, 10 per­
cent above the 1968 level.

Finance, insurance, and real
estate, the smallest of the service
producing industry divisions, has
grown about 90 percent since
World War II, from nearly 1.8
million in 1947 to nearly 3.4 mil­
lion in 1968. Employment has
grown especially rapidly in banks;
credit agencies; and security and
commodity brokers, dealers, ex­
changes and services.
Job growth in finance, insur­
ance, and real estate will keep in
step with the overall employment
increases of nonfarm employment
through the 1970’s. Finance, in­
surance, and real estate employ­
ment is expected to expand to
nearly 4.3 million by 1980, about
one-fourth above 1968 levels. The
most rapid advances will be in
banking and credit agencies,
which combined account for near­
ly two-fifths of total employment
in this industry division.


Goods-Producing Industries. Em­
ployment in the goods-producing
industries— agriculture, manufac­
turing, construction, and mining
— more than 27.5 million in 1968
— has increased slowly in recent
years. Significant gains in pro­
ductivity resulting from automa­
tion and other technological de­
velopments as well as the growing
skills of the work force have per­
mitted large increases in output
without corresponding increases
in employment. Employment in
goods-producing industries is ex­
pected to increase to about 30
million in 1980, 10 percent above
the 1968 level. However, widely
different patterns of employment
changes have occurred and will
continue among the industry divi­
sions in the goods-producing sec­
Agriculture, which until the
late 1800’s employed more than
half of all workers in the economy,
employed only 5 percent, or 3.8
million workers, in 1968. Employ­
ment in agriculture has dropped
by more than one-half since 1947.
Increases in the average size of
farms, rapid mechanization, and
improved fertilizers, feeds and
pesticides have created large in­
creases in output at the same time
that employment has fallen
Agriculture is facing a continu­
ing decline in manpower needs.
Factors resulting in past declines
will continue and the outlook is
for a 1980 farm work force 21 per­
cent lower than in 1968.
Mining employment, at about
610,000 workers in 1968, has de­
clined by nearly two-fifths since
1947, primarily because of laborsaving technological changes and
a shift to sources of power other
than coal.
This trend is likely to continue
and mining is the only nonagri1968 and 1980. Although minor
employment increases are expect­
ed in quarrying and other non­

metallic mining, they will be more
cultural industry division that is
not expected to increase between
than offset by continuing declines
in the coal mining, and in crude
petroleum and natural gas extrac­
tion industries. The job level of
the entire mining group is ex­
pected to decline about 10 per­
cent to about 550,000 between
1968 and 1980.
Contract construction employ­
ment, at nearly 3.3 million in
1968, has increased more than
three-fifths since World War II.
The Nation’s rapidly growing
need for homes, offices, stores,
highways, bridges, dams, and
other physical facilities resulted
in this sharp increase in employ­
Between 1968 and 1980, con­
tract construction is expected to
grow by more than two-fifths to
about 4.6 million. Construction
activity will be spurred by several
factors. An expanding economy
will result in more industrial
plants and commercial establish­
ments such as office buildings,
stores, and banks. The volume of
construction maintenance and re­
pair, which is now about one-third
of new construction activity, also

is expected to grow significantly
through the 1970’s. Home and
apartment building will be stimu­
lated by the increase in popula­
tion, new family formations, and
higher income levels. Also, large
government expenditures for ur­
ban renewal, school construction,
and roads are likely.
Manufacturing, the largest divi­
sion within the goods producing
sector that had about 19.8 million
workers in 1968, increased about
27 percent in employment be­
tween 1947 and 1968. New prod­
ucts for industrial and consumer
markets and the rapid growth of
the defense-space market has
spearheaded the post World War
II growth.
Manufacturing employment is
expected to increase about 11 per­
cent through the 1970’s and reach
about 21.9 million in 1980. Dur­
able goods manufacturing is pro­
jected to increase slightly faster
(12 percent) and nondurable
goods slightly slower (10 percent)
than the total. However, the rate
of growth will vary among the in­
dividual manufacturing indus­
tries. The machinery industry is
expected to have the largest need
for additional people, as employ-

Em ploym ent In M a jo r O ccupational G ro u p s, By Sex


' ''


1Includes Self-Em ployed and Unpaid Fam ily W orkers



ment grows from nearly 2.0 mil­
lion to more than 2.4 million. Pro­
ducers of rubber and plastic prod­
ucts; furniture and fixtures;
stone, clay, and glass products;
and instruments, will be among
other rapid growing manufactur­
ing industries. In contrast, em­
ployment in some manufacturing
industries may decline, for exam­
ple, leather, textile mill products,
tobacco, and petroleum refining.
Ordnance industry manpower re­

quirements in 1980 may be as
much as one-fourth lower than
1968 levels, if the Viet Nam con­
flict has ended.

O ccupational Profile
As American industries con­
tinue to grow larger, more com­
plex, and more mechanized, fund­
amental changes will take place in
the Nation’s occupational struc­

Em ploym ent has Shifted
T o w a rd W h ite-C olla r Occupations


















i t i i


Industries Differ
In The Kinds O f W orkers They Em ploy





ture. Furthermore, occupations
will become more complex and
more specialized. Thus, an impos­
ing and confusing number of oc­
cupational choices is provided to
individuals who are planning their
careers. An individual, in examin­
ing the vast number of choices
should first look at broad group­
ings of jobs that have similar char­
acteristics such as entrance re­
quirements. (See chart 4.)
Among the most significant
changes in the Nation’s occupa­
tional structure has been the shift
toward white-collar jobs. In 1956,
for the first time in the Nation’s
history, white-collar workers—
professional, managerial, clerical,
and sales— outnumbered blue-col­
lar workers— craftsmen, oper­
atives, and laborers. (See chart 5.)
Through the 1970’s, we can ex­
pect a continuation of the rapid
growth of white-collar occupa­
tions, a slower than average
growth of blue-collar occupations,
a faster than average growth
among service workers, and a fur­
ther decline of farm workers.
Total employment is expected to
increase about 25 percent between
1968 and 1980. In comparison, an
increase of about 36 percent is
expected for white-collar jobs,
and only about 13 percent for
blue-collar occupations. By 1980,
white-collar jobs will account for
more than one-half of all em­
ployed workers compared with
about 47 percent in 1968. The
rapid growth expected for whitecollar workers and service workers
reflects continuous expansion of
the service-producing industries
which employ a relatively large
proportion of these workers. (See
chart 6.) The growing demand for
workers to perform research and
development, to provide educa­
tion and health services, and to
process the increasing amount of
paperwork throughout all types
of enterprises, also will be signifi­
cant in the growth of white-collar


jobs. The slower than average
growth of blue-collar and farm
workers reflects the expanding
use of labor-saving equipment in
our Nation’s industries and the
relatively slow growth of the
goods-producing industries that
employ large proportions of bluecollar workers.
The following section describes
in greater detail the changes that
are expected to occur among the
through the 1970’s.

workers, the third largest occu­
pational group in 1968, include
among more than 10.3 million
workers such highly trained per­
sonnel as teachers, engineers, den­
tists, accountants, and clergymen.
Professional occupations will be
the fastest growing occupation
from 1968-80. (See chart 7.) Per­
sonnel in this area will be in great
demand as the Nation puts great­
er efforts toward the country’s
socio-economic progress, urban
renewal, transportation, harness­
ing the ocean, and enhancing the
beauty of the land. The quest for
scientific and technical knowledge
is bound to grow and raise the
demand for workers in scientific
and technical specialties. The
1970’s will see a continuing em­
phasis in the social sciences and
medical services. By 1980 the re­
quirements for professional, tech­
nical, and kindred workers may be
about one-half greater than 1968

Managers, officials and propri­
etors totaled about 7.8 million in
1968. As a group they will increase
more than one-fifth between 1968
and 1980, somewhat slower than
the rate of growth for all occupa­
tions. As in the past, requirements
for salaried managers are likely to
continue to increase rapidly be­
cause of the increasing depend­
ence of business organizations
and government agencies on man­
agement specialists. On the other

hand, the number of self-em­
ployed managers are expected to
continue to decline through the
1970’s as larger businesses con­
tinue to restrict growth of the
total number of firms and as su­
permarkets continue to replace
small groceries, general stores,
and hand laundries.
Clerical workers numbering
12.8 million in 1968, include work­
ers who operate computers and
office machines, keep records, take
dictation, and type. Many new
clerical positions are expected to
open up as industries employing
large numbers of clerical workers
continue to expand. The trend in
retail stores toward transferring
to clerical workers functions that
were performed by salespersons
also will tend to increase employ­
ment needs of clerical workers.
The demand will be particularly
strong for those qualified to han­
dle jobs created by the change of
clerical occupations to electronic
data processing operations. How­
ever, the use of electronic com­
puting bookkeeping machines and
other mechanical devices to do
processing and repetitive work are
expected to reduce the number of
clerks employed in jobs such as


M ore Jo b s W ill R equire Extensive Education and Tra in in g

(M EDIAN) 1968

-4 0 -3 0







filing, making up payrolls, keep­
ing tract of inventories, and bill­
ing customers. The need for cleri­
cal workers as a group is expected
to increase about one-third be­
tween 1968 and 1975.
Sales workers, accounting for
about 4.6 million workers in 1968,
are found primarily in retail
stores, wholesale firms, insurance
companies, real estate agencies,
as well as offering goods door to
door. Between 1968 and 1980
sales workers are expected to in­
crease nearly 30 percent.
Increasing sales of many new
products resulting from rapid
population growth, new product
development, business expansion,
and rising business level will be
the major reason for increasing
employment of sales workers. The
expected increase in residential
and commercial construction and
urban renewal will increase the
need for real estate agents. Con­
tinued extension of such laws as
workers compensation and auto­
mobile liability insurance should
boost the need for insurance sales­
men. The trend of stores to re­
main open longer hours should
increase the need for retail sales­
persons. However, changes in dis-















-2 0 -1 0









tribution methods, such as self
service and automatic vending
are likely to restrict the employ­
ment growth of sales workers.
Craftsmen, numbering about 10
million in 1968, include carpen­
ters, tool and die makers, instru­
ment makers, all round machin­
ists, electricians, and type setters.
Industrial growth and increasing
business activity are the major
factors expected to spur the
growth of crafts occupations
through the 1970’s. However,
technological developments will
tend to limit the expansion of this
group. Craftsmen are expected to
increase nearly one-fourth, some­
what slower than the growth of
all occupations.
Semiskilled workers (opera­
tives) made up the largest major
occupational group in 1968 with
nearly 14 million workers en­
gaged in assembling goods in
factories; driving trucks, buses
and taxis; and operating machin­
Employment for semi-skilled
workers is expected to increase
about 10 percent above the 1968
level, despite continued techno­
logical advances that will reduce
employment for some types of
creases in production generated
by rising population and rapid
economic growth, as well as the
increasing trend to motor truck
transportation of freight, are ex­
pected to be the major factors
contributing to the increasing
Laborers (excluding those in
farming and mining), who num­
bered nearly 3.6 million workers
in 1968, for the most part move,
lift, and carry materials and tools
in the Nation’s workplaces. Em­
ployment of laborers is expected
to change little between 1968 and
1980 in spite of the rises in manu­
facturing and construction which
employ most laborers. Increased
demand is expected to be offset

by rising productivity resulting
from continuing substitution of
mechanical equipment for manual
Service workers, including men
and women who maintain law and
order, assist professional nurses
in hospitals, give haircuts and
beauty treatments, serve food,
and clean and care for our homes,
totaled about 9.4 million in 1968.
This diverse group will increase
about 40 percent between 1968
and 1980 and after professional
workers will be the fastest grow­
ing group. Some of the main fac­
tors that are expected to increase
requirements for these occupa­
tions are the rising demand for
hospital and other medical care;
the greater need for protective
services as urbanization continues
and cities become more crowded;
and the more frequent use of
restaurants, beauty parlors, and
other services as income levels rise
and as an increasing number of
housewives take jobs outside the
Farm workers— including farm­
ers, farm managers, laborers, and
foreman— numbered nearly 3.5

million in 1968. Employment re­
quirements for farm workers are
expected to decline to about 2.6
million in 1980. This decrease is
anticipated, in part, because of
continued improvement in farm
technology. For example, im­
proved fertilizers, seeds, and feed,
will permit a farmer to increase
production without increasing em­

Job Openings
In considering a career, young
people should not eliminate oc­
cupations just because their pref­
erences will not be among the
most rapidly growing. Although
growth is a key indicator of fu­
ture job outlook, more jobs will be
created between 1968-80 from
deaths, retirements, and other
labor force separations than from
employment growth. (See chart
8.) Replacement needs will be
particularly significant in occupa­
tions which have a large propor­
tion of older workers and women.
Furthermore, large occupations
that have little growth may offer

Training Needs A re Determ ined
By Replacem ent Plus G ro w th



_____ i_________ i---------------!_________ 1




deaths and retirements












more openings than a fast grow­
ing small one. For example,
among the major occupational
groups, openings for operatives
resulting from growth and re­
placement combined will be great­
er than for craftsmen, although
the rate of growth of craftsmen
will be more than twice as rapid
as the rate of growth for opera­

O utlook and Education
Numerous opportunities for
employment will be available for
jobseekers during the years
ahead. Employers are seeking
people who have higher levels of
education because jobs are more
complex and require greater skill.
Furthermore, employment growth
generally will be fastest in those
occupations requiring the most
education and training. For ex­
ample, professional occupations
requiring the most education will
show the fastest growth through
the 1970’s. (See chart 7.)
A high school education has be­
come a standard for American
workers. Thus, because of per­
sonnel practices in American in­
dustries, a high school graduate
is in a better competitive position
in the job market than a non­
Although training beyond high
school has been the standard one
for sometime for many profes­
sional occupations, many other
areas of work require more than
just a high school diploma. As
new automated equipment is in­
troduced on a wider scale in of­
fices, banks, insurance companies,
and government operations, skill
requirements are rising for clerical
and other office jobs. Employers
increasingly are demanding better
trained workers to operate com­
plicated machinery.
In many areas of sales work,
new developments in machine de­

sign, use of new materials, and
the complexity of equipment are
making greater technical knowl­
edge a requirement for demon­
strators; and repairmen must be­
come familiar with even more
complicated machines.
Along with the demand for
greater education, the proportion
of youth completing high school
have increased and an even larger

proportion of high school gradu­
ates pursue higher education.
(See chart 9.) This trend is ex­
pected to continue through the
1970’s. In 1980, high school en­
rollment is expected to be 21.2
million, 14 percent above the 1968
level and college degree credit en­
rollment is projected at 10.2 mil­
lion, 50 percent above the 1968
level of 6.8 million.



The number of persons in the
labor force (including those in
the Armed Forces) is a related as­
pect of job competition. Although
the number of all workers and job­
seekers will increase about 25 per­
cent from 1968 and 1980, the
growth in the labor force is really
a story of young men and women
between 16-34 who will account
for about two-thirds of the net in­
crease in workers between 1968
and 1980. (See chart 10.) Thus,
in the 1970’s the number of young
workers will increase and these
workers will have more education
on the average than new entrants
to the labor force in previous
With so much competition from
young people who have higher
levels of education, the boy or
girl who does not get good prep­
aration for work, will find the go­
ing more difficult in the years
ahead. Employers will be more
likely to hire workers who have
at least a high school diploma.
Furthermore, present experience
shows that the less education and
training a worker has the less
chance he has for a steady job,
heaviest on the worker who has
the least education. (See chart

In addition to importance in
competing for a job, education is
highly valued in the determina­
tion of income. In 1966, men who
had college degrees could expect
to earn more than a half-million
dollars in their lifetime, or nearly
3 times the $189,000 likely to be
earned by workers who had less
than 8 years of schooling, nearly
twice that earned by workers who
had 1 to 3 years of high school,
and nearly one and three-fourths
as much as high school graduates.
Clearly the completion of high
school pays a dividend. A worker
who had only 1 to 3 years of high

have acquired a skill or good basic
education will have a better
chance at interesting work, good
wages, and steady employment.
Getting as much education and
training as one’s abilities and cir­
should be a top priority for to­
day’s youth.

school could expect to earn only
$37,000 more than workers who
had an elementary school educa­
tion, but a high school graduate
could look forward to a $94,000
lifetime income advantage over an
individual completing elementary
school. (See chart 12.)
In summary, young people who

U n em ploym e n t Rates
are Highest for Y o u n g W orkers

18 TO 24 YRS.OLD

25 TO 54 Y R S . OLD

Estimated Lifetime Earnings for Men
are Higher for Those W ith M ore Education
















Professional occupations have
many attractions for young peo­
ple choosing a career. They offer
opportunities for interesting and
responsible work, and in many
cases, lead to high earnings. How­
ever, professional work usually
can be entered only after a long
period of preparation, since a
broad and thorough knowledge of
a field is essential to success in
the professions.
More than 10.3 million persons,
or about 1 out of every 7 workers,
were in professional or related oc­
cupations in 1968. These workers
accounted for about three-tenths
of all white-collar employment in
that year.
Professional occupations are of
two major types. The larger
group, which includes engineer,
physician, and teacher, requires
specialized and theoretical knowl­
edge. Professions in this group re­
quire college graduation— and
sometimes an advanced degree—
or experience that provides com­
parable knowledge. The other
group, which includes performing
artists and athletes, places a high
premium on skill and often on
creative talent. Academic training
generally is of lesser importance
in this second group. Licenses are
required for practice in many pro­
fessions — medicine,
and pharmacy, for example— with
licensing authorities determining
the minimum qualifications for
eligibility. Professional societies
set up membership standards that
tend to define their respective
Women find many employment
opportunities in the professions.
Almost two-fifths of all profes­
sional and related jobs were filled
by women in 1968; women pre­
dominate in several large profes­

sions, including teaching, nurs­
ing, library work, and social work.
Closely related to the profes­
sions is a wide variety of technical
occupations. People in these occu­
pations work with engineers,
scientists, mathematicians, physi­
cians, and other professional per­
sonnel. Their job titles include
those of draftsman; engineering
aid; programer; and electronics,
laboratory, or X-ray technician.
Employment in these technical
occupations usually requires a
combination of basic scientific
knowledge and specialized educa­
tion or training in some particular
aspect of technology or science.
Such training may be obtained in

technical institutes, junior col­
leges, and other schools, or
through equivalent on-the-job
Many occupations in education,
health, social welfare, recreation,
library work, and other areas also
are related to the professions. R e­
lated— and supportive— occupa­
tions in these areas include teach­
er assistant, medical laboratory
assistant, social welfare technic­
ian, recreation assistant, and li­
brary technician. Training for
many supportive jobs may be ob­
tained in vocational and technical
schools, junior colleges, or some­
times on the job.
The major professional and re23


lated occupations are shown in
chart 13. As a group, these workers
increased by more than 3.3 mil­
lion during the decade 1958-68.
The rate of increase, almost 50
percent, was more rapid than for
any other occupational group,
and more than double the rate for

all occupational groups combined.
The outlook for professional and
related occupations continues to
be very favorable. Between 1968
and 1980, employment in this
group is expected to increase by
nearly one half.

Teachin g & Engineering Are The Larg est Professional O ccu p atio ns


Employment In Selected Professional and Technical Occupations






The continuing very rapid
growth in the professional worker
group is the result of develop­
ments such as expansion in re­
search and development activi­
ties; improvements in standards
of living, medical care, and educa­
tion; and the growing concentra­
tion of the population in metro­
politan areas— all of which stimu­
late requirements for highly edu­
cated workers. A unique set of
growth in any one occupation. T o
illustrate, birth rates, school at­
tendance rates, and classroom size
are the primary factors in the de­
mand for teachers, whereas pri­
mary factors underlying engineer­
ing demand include the level of
research and development activi­
ties and the complexity of indus­
trial processes. In addition, the
nature and impact of technologi­
cal advances on employment re­
quirements vary from profession
to profession. Technology in edu­
cation, such as programmed learn­
ing and instructional television, is
expected to affect the nature of
teaching rather than to exert a
strong influence on the level of
teacher requirements. In contrast,
technological advances in the en­
gineering field are expected to in­
crease requirements for engineers
and limit to some extent require­
ments for the lesser skilled among
the draftsmen. Although different
rates of growth are expected
among individual professional oc­
cupations because of the varying
influence of factors underlying
growth, the general tendency will
be for a moderate to very rapid
growth of these occupations.
Naturally scientists are expect­
ed to be among the rapidly ex­
panding professions through the
1970’s. Chemists, for example,
will be required in increasing
numbers for research and devel­
opment and for the production of
products such as plastics, man­
made fibers, drugs, and high en-


ergy and nuclear fuels for missiles
and rockets. Demands for phy­
sicists also will grow rapidly as
more are required to perform
highly complex research and de­
velopment work and to satisfy the
increasing demand for physicists
on college faculties because of the
growing importance of physics in
engineering and other science curriculums.
mathematicians are expected to
increase markedly, stimulated by
the application of systems analy­
sis and computers to a wide range
of endeavors and by the use of
mathematics in research in fields
as diverse as economics and biol­
ogy. Demands for engineers will
rise very rapidly in response to de­
fense and space programs, indus­
trial expansion, and a variety of
programs that include urban re­
newal, transportation, and envir­
onmental protection.
Most types of health workers
also are expected to increase rap­
idly, due to population growth,
rising standards of health care, in­
creasing emphasis on preventive
medicine and rehabilitation, new
drugs and techniques, and wider
participation in private health in­
surance plans and in government
programs such as Medicare and
Medicaid. In contrast, the em­
ployment effect of rising stand­
ards in education will be offset
partially as declining birth rates
begin to affect elementary and
school enrollments
significantly. However, employ­
ment requirements in certain
areas of education, such as teach­
ers trained in instructing physi­
cally and mentally handicapped
and disadvantaged students, are
expected to rise. Rapidly increas­
ing college enrollments probably
will require large increases in col­
lege and university teaching staff.
Social scientists are expected
to grow rapidly as the solution to
social problems is sought increas­
ingly through economics, sociol­


ogy, psychology, and other social
sciences. College trained manage­
ment personnel, such as account­
ants, also will be required in
larger numbers to cope with the
growth in the size and number of
firms and their increasing com­
Technicians and support per­
sonnel in many fields also will in­
crease rapidly with growing em­
phasis on improving the utiliza­
tion of professional workers by
relieving them of tasks that can
be performed by less highly train­
ed personnel.

Educational Trends
Professional occupations ac­
counted for about two-thirds of
all workers having a college edu­
cation in 1968. The proportion of
all professional workers having a
degree has been increasing. In ad­
dition to the many professions for
which a college education long has
been an entry requirement, the
demand for graduates at the en­
try level in other professional, ad­
ministrative, and related occupa­
tions is growing. College gradu-

ates are filling many positions
that formerly were held by em­
ployees who qualified through
their experience and personal
characteristics rather than by
academic studies. Graduates also
are working in many professional
jobs that did not exist a few
decades ago.
Emphasis on a college educa­
tion will be reinforced in the years
ahead as the growing complexity
of our society constantly in­
creases the amount of specialized
knowledge required for effective
performance in many professions.
Finally, a college education is be­
coming necessary for an increas­
ing proportion of jobs, and in
many professions the amount of
education needed is increasing.
A great increase in the number of
college graduates, which is the
chief source of professionally
trained workers, has accompanied
the growth in the professional and
related occupations. As a percent
of all persons 22 years of age, the
proportion of young people com­
pleting college rose from 17 per­
cent in 1958 to more than 20 per­
cent in 1968, as shown on the
inset in chart 15.

G ra d u a te s A s A Percent
O f A ll Persons 22
Y e a rs O f A g e

N u m b e r O f B achelor’s A n d
1st Professional D egrees Earned









20 %



■ H I



_____ 3
_______ 1



The rapid increase in the pro­
portion of young people graduat­
ing from college reflects a num­
ber of basic social trends. Family
incomes are higher, enabling more
young people to postpone going
to work and to meet the costs of
education. More families want a
college education for their chil­
dren. Scholarships and loans are
available for more students; parttime work opportunities also are
Since these factors probably will
continue to be influential in the fu­
ture, the proportion of young peo­
ple who graduate from college is
expected to go on increasing for
many years. The college-age
population also is growing. The
number of people age 18 to 21 is
expected to increase by nearly 2.7
million between 1968 and 1980.
These factors, considered togeth­
er, indicate a great increase in col­
lege graduations, assuming that
the Nation’s colleges and univer­
sities build the classrooms, labor­
atories, dormitories, and other
facilities and hire the faculty
needed to provide for the greatly
increased number of students.
Projections prepared by the U.S.
Office of Education indicate an
increase from about 685,000
bachelor’s degrees granted in
1968 to over one million in 1980.
The number of students in gradu­
ate school also has risen very rap­
idly during the last few decades,


and probably will continue to
mount through the 1970’s. A mas­
ter’s degree usually is earned
through 1 or 2 years of study be­
yond the bachelor’s degree. The
Ph. D. degree usually requires 3
years or more beyond the bach­
elor’s degree. As a rule, graduate
study is concentrated in the maj­
or subject field of the student’s
interest, whereas undergraduate
study is broader in content.
Chart 16 shows the vast in­
crease in graduate degrees award­
ed during the past 10 years. Mas­
ter’s degrees rose from about 66,-

000 in 1958 to almost 150,000 in
1968 and are expected to ap­
proach 300,000 in 1980, if past
trends continue. The number of
doctorates awarded increased
from about 9,000 in 1958 to about
22.000 in 1968, and may reach
48.000 by 1980.
Overall analysis of the supply
and demand for professional per­
sonnel indicates that the outlook
for these highly trained workers
continues to be excellent. Tech­
nicians and supportive personnel
generally will have very favorable


Many professional workers play
a major role in administering bus­
inesses and a wide variety of
other organizations, both private
and governmental. These workers
generally need a college degree to
qualify for jobs in their respective
fields. Though their disciplines
are oriented toward business
management, they perform func­
tions which are highly specialized
and varied. Whether their organi­

zations are small or large, employ­
ing only a few people or many
thousands, the decisions they
make and their effectiveness in
contribute greatly to the success
or failure of the enterprise.
This chapter describes a few
selected professional occupations
that are of vital importance to
Nation’s businesses— ac­
countants, advertising workers,

Accountant reviews financial report.

marketing research workers, per­
sonnel workers, and public rela­
tions workers. Workers engaged
primarily in managerial duties
are covered in the section on
Managerial Occupations found
elsewhere in the Handbook.

(D.O.T. 160.188)

N ature of the W ork
Accountants compile and ana­
lyze business records and prepare
financial reports, such as profit
and loss statements, balance
sheets, cost studies, and tax re­
ports. The major fields of employ­
ment are public, management,
and government accounting. Pub­
lic accountants are independent
practitioners who work on a fee
basis for business enterprises or
for individuals wishing to use
their services or as a member or
employee of an accountancy firm.
Management accountants, often
referred to as industrial or private
accountants, handle the financial
records of the particular firm for
which they work on a salary basis.
Government accountants work on
the financial records of govern­
ment agencies and often audit the
records of private business organi­
zations and individuals whose
dealings are subject to govern­
ment regulations.
Accountants in any field of em­
ployment may specialize in such
areas as auditing, taxes, cost ac­
counting, budgeting and control,
information processing, or sys­
tems and procedures. Probably
100 or more specialties now exist
in the accounting field. Public
accountants are likely to special­
ize in auditing— that is, in review­
ing financial records and reports
and giving opinions as to their
reliability. They also advise
clients on tax matters and other
financial and accounting prob­
lems. Most management account27


ants are involved in some aspects
of providing management with
information for decision-making.
Sometimes they specialize in
taxes, budgeting or internal aud­
iting— that is, examining and ap­
praising financial systems and
management control procedures
in their company. Many account­
ants in the Federal Government
are employed as Internal Revenue
agents, investigators, and bank
examiners, as well as in regular
accounting positions.
Places of Em ploym ent
More than 500,000 accountants
were employed in 1968, of whom
over 100,000 were certified public
accountants. Accounting is one of
the largest fields of professional
employment for men. About 2
percent of the CPA’s and less
than 20 percent of all account­
ants are women.
Nearly three-fifths of all ac­
countants do management ac­
counting work for the business
and industrial firms that employ
them. An additional one-fifth are
engaged in public accounting as
proprietors, partners, or em­
ployees of independent account­
ing firms. Over 10 percent work
for Federal, State and local gov­
ernment agencies. A small num­
ber teach in colleges and universi­
wherever business, industrial, or
governmental organizations are
located. The majority, however,
work in large metropolitan cen­
ters where there is a particularly
heavy concentration of public ac­
counting firms and central offices
of large business organizations.
Train in g , O th er Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Training in accounting can be
obtained in universities, 4-year

colleges, junior colleges, account­
ing and private business schools,
Graduates of all these institutions
are included in the ranks of suc­
cessful accountants; however, a
bachelor’s degree with a major in
accounting or a closely related
field is increasingly an asset, and
for better positions it may be re­
quired. Candidates having a mas­
ter’s degree in accounting, as well
as college training in other busi­
ness and liberal arts subjects, are
preferred by many firms. Previous
work experience also can be of
great value in qualifying for em­
ployment. A number of colleges
offer students an opportunity to
get such experience through in­
ternship programs conducted in
cooperation with public account­
ing or business firms. For begin­
ning accounting positions, the
Federal Government requires 4
years of college training (includ­
ing 24 semester hours in account­
ing) or an equivalent combina­
tion of education and experience.
Most universities require the
master’s degree or the doctorate
with the Certified Public Ac­
countancy Certificate for teach­
ing positions.
All States require that anyone
practicing in the State as a “ cer­
tified public accountant” must
hold a certificate issued by the
State board of accountancy. The
CPA examination, administered
by the American Institute of Cer­
tified Public Accountants, is used
by all states to establish certifi­
cation. In 1968, half the States
had laws that require CPA can­
didates to be college graduates.
In recent years, nearly 9 out of
10 successful CPA candidates
have been college graduates, and
a majority of the remainder have
had at least 1 year of college
training. Young people interested
in an accounting career should be
aware that recent reports by the
American Institute of Certified

Public Accountants indicate that
in the near future, some States
may require CPA candidates to
have a graduate degree. Before
the CPA certificate is issued, at
least 2 years of public accounting
experience is required by nearly
all States.
Considerably more than half
the States restrict the title “ pub­
lic accountant” to those who are
licensed or registered. Require­
ments for licensing and registra­
tion vary considerably from one
State to another. Information on
these requirements may be ob­
tained directly from individual
State boards of accountancy, or
from the National Society of Pub­
lic Accountants.
Inexperienced accountants us­
ually begin with fairly routine
work. Junior public accountants
may be assigned to detailed work
such as verifying cash balances or
inspecting vouchers. They piay
advance to semisenior positions in
1 or 2 years and to senior posi­
tions within another 1 or 2 years.
In the larger firms, those success­
ful in dealing with top industry
executives often become supervis­
ors, managers, or partners, or
transfer to executive positions in
private accounting. Some become
independent practitioners. Begin­
ners in management accounting
may start as ledger accountants,
junior internal auditors, or as
trainees for technical accounting
positions. They may rise to chief
plant accountant, chief cost ac­
countant, budget director, senior
internal auditor, or manager of
internal auditing, depending on
their specialty. Some become con­
trollers, treasurers, financial vicepresidents, or corporation presi­
dents. In the Federal Govern­
ment, beginners are hired as
trainees and usually are promot­
ed in a year or so. In colleges and
universities, those having mini­
mum training and experience may
receive the rank of instructor


without tenure; advancement and
permanent faculty status are de­
pendent upon further education.
Accountants who want to get to
the top in their profession usually
find it necessary to continue their
study of accountancy and related
problems— even though they al­
ready may have obtained college
degrees or CPA certificates. Even
experienced accountants may
spend many hours in study and
research in order to keep abreast
of legal and business develop­
ments that affect their work.
More and more accountants are
studying computer operation,
programing, mathematics, and
quantitative methods in order to
adapt accounting procedures to
new methods of processing busi­
ness data. Although advancement
may be rapid for capable account­
ants, those having inadequate
academic preparation are likely
to be assigned to routine jobs and
find themselves handicapped in
obtaining promotions.

Em ploym ent Outlook
Employment opportunities for
accountants are expected to be
excellent through the 1970’s. De­
mand for college-trained account­
ants will be stronger than the de­
mand for people without this aca­
demic background because of the
growing complexity of business
accounting requirements. How­
ever, graduates of business and
other schools which offer thor­
ough training in accounting also
should have good job prospects.
In addition, the trend toward
specialization is creating excellent
opportunities for accountants
trained in a specific phase of ac­
counting. In addition to openings
growth several thousand account­
ants will be needed annually dur­
ing this period to replace those

who retire, die, or leave the oc­
cupation for other reasons.
Accounting employment is ex­
pected to expand rapidly in the
1970’s because of such factors as
the greater use of accounting in­
formation in business manage­
ment; complex and changing tax
systems; the growth in size and
number of business corporations
required to provide financial re­
ports to stockholders; and the in­
creasing use of accounting serv­
ices by small business organiza­
The computer is having a major
effect on the accounting profes­
sion. Electronic data processing
systems are replacing manual
preparation of accounting records
and financial statements. As a re­
sult, the need for junior account­
ants at the lower level may be
reduced or eliminated. On the
other hand, computers can proc­
ess vast quantities of routine data
which will require the employ­
ment of additional accountants so
that these data can be analyzed.
Also, the computer is expected to
cause radical changes in manage­
ment information systems and
decisionmaking processes in large
companies. Additional highlytrained accountants will be re­
quired to prepare, administer and
analyze the information made
available by these systems.
Earnings and W orking Conditions
Starting salaries for bachelor’s
degree holders majoring in ac­
counting were about $8,300 a year
in 1968, according to a private
survey covering accounting posi­
tions. Information provided by
the American Institute of Certi­
fied Public Accountants indicates
that salaries vary by educational
background and size and location
of firm. Beginning accountants in
small firms earned between
$6,000 and $7,000 a year; those in

medium size firms earned between
$7,000 and $8,000; and in large
firms, beginners received between
$8,000 and $10,000 a year.
Accountants having 6 months
to 1 year of experience generally
receive salaries $500 to $1,000
higher than those having no ex­
perience. In 1968, accountants
having 1 to 3 years of experience
earned between $8,500 and
$10,000 in small firms, and from
$12,000 to $16,000 in medium and
large firms. Salary differentials
by size of firm narrowed as the
level of responsibility increased.
The average salary for a senior
accountant in a small firm was
about $14,000, whereas a senior
accountant in a large firm earned
about $16,000 a year. Annual sal­
aries of accounting operations
managers of medium and large
firms ranged from $15,000 to
$30,000 and from $16,000 to
$35,000, respectively.
Salaries are generally 10 per
cent higher for those holding a
graduate degree or a CPA certifi­
cate. Earnings also are higher for
those who are required to travel a
great deal.
The average income of a selfemployed CPA acting as a sole
practitioner was $13,000 a year
in 1967. The average income
earned by partners in CPA firms
having 2 to 15 partners and a pro­
fessional staff was $18,500 a year.
Those in firms having 16 to 35
partners and a professional staff
earned incomes that averaged
about $28,000 a year.
In the Federal Civil Service
the entrance salary for junior ac­
countants and auditors was
$6,690 in late 1968. Some candi­
dates having superior academic
records could qualify for a start­
ing salary of $7,680. Many ex­
perienced accountants in the Fed­
eral Government earned more
than $12,000 a year. Those having
earned more.


Public accountants are likely to
work especially long hours under
heavy pressure during the tax sea­
son. They do most of their work
in their client’s offices, and some­
times do considerable traveling to
serve distant clients. A few man­
agement and government ac­
countants also do much traveling
and work irregular hours, but the
majority remain in one office and
work between 35 and 40 hours a
week, under the same general
conditions as their fellow office

Sources of A d ditional Inform ation
Information; particularly on
CPA’s and on the aptitude and
achievement tests now given in
many high schools and colleges
and by many public accounting
firms, may be obtained from:
American Institute of Certified
Public Accountants, 666 Fifth
Ave., New York, N.Y. 10019.

Further information on special­
ized fields of accounting may be
obtained from:
National Association of Account­
ants, 505 Park Ave., New York,
N.Y. 10022.
National Society of Public Ac­
countants, 1717 Pennsylvania
Avenue N.W., Washington, D.C.
Financial Executives Institute, 50
West 44th St., New York, N.Y.
The Institute of Internal Audi­
tors, Inc., 170 Broadway, New
York, N.Y. 10038.

counting as a career may be ob­
tained free from:
Accounting Careers Council, Na­
tional Distribution Center, P.O.
Box 650, Radio City Station,
New York, N.Y. 10019.

(D.O.T. 050.088; 132.088; 141.081 and
.168; and 164.068 through .168)

N atu re of th e W ork
Through advertisements pub­
lished in newspapers and maga­
zines, broadcast on the radio,
shown on television, displayed on
billboards, sent through the mail,
or even written in smoke in the
sky, businessmen try to reach po­
tential customers and persuade
them to buy their products or
services. Advertising workers plan
and prepare these advertisements
and get them before the public.
They include executives responsi­
ble for planning and overall sup­
ervision, copywriters who write
the text, artists who prepare the
illustrations, layout specialists
who put copy and illustrations in­
to the most attractive arrange­
ment possible, administrative and
technical workers who are respon­
sible for the satisfactory repro­
duction of the “ ads,” and sales­
men who sell advertising space in
publications or time on radio and
television programs. In a very
small advertising organization,
one person may do all these
things. Large organizations em­
ploy specialists for research, copywriting, and layout work. They
sometimes have staff members
who specialize in writing copy for
particular kinds of products or for
one type of advertising media,
such as radio, popular magazines,
or direct mail. The following are
the specialized occupations most
commonly found in advertising
Advertising managers direct a
company’s advertising program.
They work mostly on policy ques­
tions— for example, the type of
advertising, the size of the adver­
tising budget, and the agency to
be employed. They then work
with the agency in planning and

carrying through the program.
They also may supervise the prep­
aration of special sales brochures,
display cards, and other promo­
tional materials.
The advertising manager of a
newspaper, radio station, or other
advertising medium is concerned
chiefly with selling advertising
time or space; his functions are
similar to those of the sales man­
ager in other businesses.
Account executives employed
in advertising agencies handle
relations between the agency and
its clients. An account executive
studies the client’s sales and adver­
tising problems, develops a plan
to meet the client’s needs, and
seeks his approval of the proposed
must be able to sell ideas and
maintain good relations with
clients. They must know how to
write copy and use artwork, even
though copywriters and artists
usually carry out their ideas and
Some advertising agencies have
account supervisors who oversee
the work of the account ex­
ecutives. In others, account ex­
ecutives are responsible directly
to agency heads.
Advertising copywriters create
the headlines, slogans, and text
that attract buyers. They collect
information about products and
the people who might use them.
They use p s y c h o l o g y and
writing techniques to prepare
copy especially suited for readers
or listeners and for the type of
advertising medium to be used.
Copywriters may specialize in
copy that appeals to certain
groups— housewives,
men, scientists, engineers— or
even in copy that deals with items
such as packaged goods or indus­
trial products. In advertising
agencies, copywriters work closely
with account executives, although
they may be under the super­
vision of a copy chief.



Artists and layout men are part
of a key creative group in adver­
tising work. They work closely
with advertising managers, copy­
writers, and other advertising per­
sonnel in planning and creating
visual effects in advertisements.
More information about this
group appears in the separate
statements on Commercial Artists
and on Photographers.

Places of Em ploym ent

Account executive reviews advertising copy with client’s representatives.

Advertisers and advertising
agencies employ media directors
(or space buyers and time buyers)
to determine where and when ad­
vertising should be carried to
reach the largest group of pro­
spective buyers at the least cost.
They must have a vast amount of
information about the cost of ad­
vertising in all media and the rela­
tive size and characteristics of
the reading, viewing, or listening
audience which can be reached in
various parts of the country by
specific publications, broadcast­
ing stations, and other media.
Production managers and their
assistants arrange to have the
final copy and artwork converted
into printed form. They deal with
printing, engraving, filming, re­
cording and other firms involved
in the reproduction of advertise­
ments. The production manager
must have a thorough knowledge
of various printing processes,

typography, photography, paper,
inks, and related technical mate­
rials and processes.
Research directors and their as­
sistants assemble and analyze in­
formation needed for effective ad­
vertising programs. They study
the possible uses of the product,
its advantages and disadvantages
compared with competing prod­
ucts, and the best ways of reach­
ing potential purchasers. Such
workers may make special sur­
veys of the buying habits and mo­
tives of customers, or may try out
sample advertisements to find the
most convincing selling theme or
most efficient media for carrying
the advertising message. The re­
search director is an important
executive in advertising organiza­
tions. More information on this
occupation is contained in the
statement on Marketing Research

In 1968, about 140,000 men
and women were employed in
positions requiring considerable
knowledge of advertising. More
than one-third of these workers
are employed in advertising agen­
cies, and more than half of the
agency workers are employed in
the New York City and Chicago
metropolitan areas. However,
there are many independent agen­
cies in other cities, and many
leading agencies operate branch
offices outside the major centers.
Advertising workers not em­
ployed in advertising agencies
work for manufacturing compan­
ies, stores, and other organiza­
tions having products or services
to sell; for advertising media, such
as newspapers and magazines;
and for printers, engravers, art
studios, product and package de­
signers, and others who provide
services to advertisers and adver­
tising agencies.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Most employers, in hiring ad­
vertising trainees, prefer college
graduates having liberal arts
training or majors in advertising,
marketing, journalism, or busi­
ness administration. However,
there is no typical educational
background for success in adver­
tising. In 1968, an estimated one-


fourth of all advertising workers
did not have a college degree.
Some successful advertising peo­
ple have started in such varied
occupations as engineer, teacher,
chemist, artist, or salesman.
Most advertising jobs require a
flair for language, both spoken
and written. Since every assign­
ment requires individual hand­
ling, a liking for problem-solving
also is very important. Advertis­
ing personnel should have a great
interest in people and things to
help them sell their ideas to their
superiors, to advertisers, and to
the public. They must be able to
accept criticism and to gain im­
portant points with tact.
Young people planning to enter
the advertising field should get
some experience in copywriting or
related work with their school
publications and, if possible,
through summer jobs connected
with marketing research services.
Some large advertising organiza­
tions recruit outstanding college
graduates and train them through
programs which cover all aspects
of advertising work. Most begin­
ners, however, have to locate their
own jobs by applying directly to
possible employers. Young men
sometimes begin as mail clerks or
as messengers and runners who
pick up and deliver messages and
proofs for departments and
agency clients. Some start as as­
sistants in research or production
work or as space or time buyers.
A few begin as junior copywrit­
ers. In most advertising organiza­
tions, women begin as secretaries
or, if they have the required edu­
cation, as research assistants. One
of the best avenues of entrance to
advertising work for women is
through advertising departments
in retail stores.
Employees having initiative,
drive, and talent may progress
from beginning jobs to creative,
research, or managerial work.
Management positions require ex­

perience in all phases of the ad­
vertising business including some
work with advertising agencies,
media, and advertisers.
Copywriters and account exe­
cutives can usually look forward
to rapid advancement if they
demonstrate exceptional ability
in dealing with clients, since the
success of an advertising organiza­
tion depends upon satisfied adver­
tisers. Many of these workers pre­
fer to remain in their own special­
ties and for them advancement
is to more responsible work at in­
creased pay. Some topflight copy­
writers and account executives
establish their own agencies.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment of advertising
workers is expected to increase
slowly through the 1970’s. Most
new jobs will be created in adver­
tising agencies as more and more
advertisers turn their work over
to agencies. Most openings— sev­
eral thousand each year— will re­
sult from the need to replace
those who retire, die, or leave the
occupation for other reasons.
The many young people at­
tracted to advertising will face
stiff competition for entry jobs in
this field through the 1970’s. Op­
portunities should be favorable,
however, for the highly qualified,
especially in advertising agencies.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
According to the limited in­
formation available, starting sal­
aries for beginning advertising
workers ranged from $6,000 to
$8,000 a year in 1968. The higher
starting salaries were paid most
frequently in very large firms that
recruit outstanding college gradu­
ates; the lower salaries were earn­
ed in stores and small advertising

Salaries of experienced adver­
tising workers vary according to
type of employer. In 1967 the av­
erage salary paid to advertising
people employed by advertisers
was $13,700 a year, whereas those
employed by communications
media averaged about $17,800 a
year. The average annual salary
of advertising workers employed
by advertising agencies was about
$17, 700 in 1967.
In advertising agencies, work­
ers who had 1 to 3 years of adver­
tising experience generally earned
from $10,000 to $14,000 a year;
for those who had 5 years of ex­
perience, earnings were as high as
$20,000 a year. Pay for excep­
tional individuals ranges much
higher at each level of experience;
some of the top people in charge
of large accounts make from
$50,000 to $70,000 a year.
Advertising workers frequently
work under great pressure. Work­
ing hours are sometimes irregular
because publication and broad­
cast deadlines must be met and
last minute changes are not un­
common. People in creative jobs
often work evenings and week­
ends to finish important assign­
At the same time, advertising
offers a satisfying career to peo­
ple who enjoy variety, excitement,
and a constant challenge to their
creative ability, and who can meet
workers have the satisfaction of
seeing their work in print or hear­
ing it over the radio or television
even though they remain un­
known to the public at large.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
American Advertising Federation,
1225 Connecticut Ave. N.W.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.
American Association of Advertis­
ing Agencies, 200 Park Ave.,
New York, N.Y. 10017.

Association of Industrial Adver­
tisers, 41 East 42nd Street, New
York, N.Y. 10017.

A list of schools which provide
training in advertising may be ob­
tained from:
Advertising Education Publica­
tions, 3429 Fifty-Fifth Street,
Lubbock, Texas 79413.

(D.O.T. 050.088)

N ature of the W ork
Businessmen make decisions
daily regarding the marketing of
their goods and services. Market­
ing research workers help to in­
crease the fund of information up­
on which these basic business de­
cisions are made. They act as fact­
finders— seeking out, analyzing,
and interpreting many different
kinds of information. They pre­
pare reports and recommenda­
tions to help management make
decisions on such widely differing
problems as forecasting sales; se­
lecting a brand name, package,
or design; choosing a new plant
location; deciding whether to
move goods by rail, truck, or other
method; and determining the
kinds of advertising likely to at­
tract the most business. In inves­
tigating these and other problems,
they consider expected changes in
population, income levels, and
consumer credit policies, or other
subjects relevant to marketing
Most marketing research starts
with the collection of facts from
published materials, from the
firm’s own records, and from
specialists on the subject under
investigation. For example, re­
search workers analyzing the

fluctuations in a company’s sales
may first study sales records in a
number of different cities to de­
termine periodic changes in
sales volume. They may then
compare these changes with
changes in population, income
levels, the size of the company’s
sales force, and the amounts spent
by the company for advertising
in each city and, from these com­
parisons, discover the reasons for
changes in the volume of sales.
Other marketing research workers
may study changes in the quan­
tity of company goods on store
shelves, or make door-to-door sur­
veys to learn how many company
products already are used in
Marketing research is often
concerned with the personal opin­
ions of the people who are using
company products or who might
use them in the future. For ex­
ample, a survey intended to help
management decide on the design
and pricing of a new line of tele­
vision sets may involve the use of
a questionnaire to learn from a
limited number of consumers the
price they would be willing to pay

and their preferences in such
things as the color and size of the
A survey of this kind is usually
conducted under the supervision
of marketing research workers
who specialize in research on con­
sumer goods— that is, merchan­
dise sold to the general public. In
planning the survey, the market­
ing research worker may get help
from a statistician in selecting a
group (or “ sample” ) of individ­
uals to be interviewed, in order to
be confident that the opinions ob­
tained from them represent those
held by most potential customers.
He may also consult a specialist
in “ motivational research” — an
expert in framing questions that
will produce reliable information
about the motives that lead peo­
ple to make the purchases they
do. When the investigation gets
underway, the marketing research
worker may supervise a number
of interviewers who call on con­
sumers to obtain answers to the
questions. He also may direct the
work of the office employees who
tabulate and analyze the informa­
tion collected. His report sum-

Marketing research worker plans location of test market.



marizing the survey findings also
may include other information
that company officials need in
making decisions about the new
Marketing research surveys
concerned with products used by
business and industrial firms may
be conducted somewhat differ­
ently from consumer goods sur­
veys. Because research on some
industrial products requires inter­
viewers with a technical knowl­
edge of the product involved, the
interviews are often conducted by
the marketing research worker
himself (or by several research
workers if the survey is a particul­
arly extensive one). In his inter­
views, the worker not only tries to
get opinons about the proposed
product but keeps on the lookout
for possible new ways of adapting
it to industrial needs. He must,
therefore, be a specialist both in
marketing research and in the in­
dustrial uses of the product in­

Places of Em ploym ent
More than 20,000 marketing
research workers were estimated
to be employed full time in 1968.
This number included research
assistants and others in junior
positions, as well as research sup­
ervisors and directors. The ma­
jority of these workers were men;
positions held by women were
most frequently at the junior pro­
fessional levels.
In addition to these marketing
research workers, a limited num­
ber of other professional em­
ployees (statisticians, economists,
psychologists, and sociologists)
and several thousand clerical
workers (clerks who code and tab­
ulate survey returns, typists, and
others) were employed full time
in this field. Thousands of addi­
tional workers, many of them
women, were employed on a part­

time or temporary basis as survey
Among the principal employers
of marketing research workers are
manufacturing companies and in­
dependent advertising and mar­
research organizations
which do this kind of work for
clients on a contract basis. Mar­
keting research workers also are
employed by very large stores,
radio and television firms, and
newspapers; others work for uni­
versity research centers, govern­
ment agencies, and other organi­
zations which provide informa­
tion for businessmen. Marketing
research organizations range in
size from one-man enterprises to
large firms having a hundred em­
ployees or more.
The largest number of market­
ing research workers are in New
York City, where many major ad­
vertising and independent mar­
keting research organizations are
located, and where many large
manufacturers have their central
offices. The second largest con­
centration is in Chicago. How­
ever, marketing research workers
are employed in many other cities
— wherever there are central of­
fices of large manufacturing and
sales organizations.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
A bachelor’s degree is usually
required to enter trainee positions
in marketing research. A master’s
degree in business administration
is becoming increasingly desir­
able, especially for advancement
to higher level positions. Many
people qualify for positions in
marketing research through ex­
perience gained in other kinds of
research jobs or in work related
to the field of marketing. Univer­
sity teachers of marketing re­
search or statistics sometimes are
sought by employers to head new

marketing research departments.
Among the college courses con­
sidered valuable as preparation
for work in marketing research
are marketing, statistics, English
composition, speech, psychology,
and economics. Candidates for
some marketing research posi­
tions need specialized training in
engineering or other technical
subjects, or a substantial amount
of sales experience and a thorough
knowledge of the company’s prod­
ucts. A knowledge of electronic
data-processing procedures is be­
coming important because of the
growing use of electronic comput­
ers in sales forecasting, distribu­
tion, cost analysis, and other
aspects of marketing research.
Graduate training may be neces­
sary for some kinds of work— for
example, motivational research or
sampling and other statistical
work connected with large-scale
Trainees in marketing research
usually start as research asistants
or junior analysts. At first, they
are likely to do considerable cleri­
cal work, such as copying inform­
ation from published sources, edit­
ing and coding questionnaires,
and tabulating results of ques­
tionnaires returned in surveys.
They also learn how to conduct
interviews and how to write re­
ports on survey findings.
After gaining experience, as­
sistants and junior analysts may
advance to higher level positions
and be responsible for specific
marketing research projects, or to
supervisory positions. An excep­
tionally able individual may
eventually become marketing re­
search director or vice president
in charge of marketing and sales.
Marketing research workers
must have exceptional ability in
recognizing and defining prob­
lems, and imagination and in­
genuity in applying marketing re­
search techniques to their solu­
tion. Above all, this work calls for


the ability to analyze information
and to write reports which will
convince management of the
significance of the information.

E m ploym ent O utlook
College graduates trained in
marketing research methods and
statistics are likely to find very
good job opportunities in this
growing occupation through the
1970’s. The growing complexity of
marketing research techniques
also has led to expanded oppor­
tunities for people trained in psy­
chology, economics, and related
fields. Advanced degrees are be­
coming increasingly important for
employment in marketing re­
search, and as a result, opportuni­
ties for holders of Masters and
PhD degrees will be excellent.
The demand for marketing re­
search services is expected to in­
crease very rapidly through the
1970’s. It is expected that exist­
ing marketing research organiza­
tions will expand and that many
new marketing research depart­
ments and new independent re­
search firms will be set up. Busi­
ness managers will find it increas­
ingly important to obtain the best
information possible for apprais­
ing marketing situations and
planning marketing policies. Fur­
thermore, as marketing research
techniques improve and more
statistical data accumulate, com­
pany officials are likely to turn
to marketing research workers for
information and advice with in­
creasing frequency. In addition
to growth needs, many openings
will occur each year as persons re­
tire, die or leave the field for
other reasons.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Starting salaries for market re­
search trainees averaged about

$7,300 a year in 1968 according
to the limited data available. Per­
sons having masters degrees in re­
lated fields usually started at
$8,400 to $10,800 a year.
Earnings were substantially
higher for experienced marketing
research workers who attained
positions with considerable re­
sponsibility. In 1968, earnings of
senior analysts generally ranged
between $12,000 and $15,000 a
year. Marketing research direc­
tors’ average salaries were more
than $16,000 annually; and vicepresidents in charge of marketing
received salaries well over $20,000
a year.
A private survey indicates fur­
ther that of the four management
functions (marketing, finance,
manufacturing, and research),
executives in marketing tend to
be the highest paid.
Marketing research workers
usually work in modern, centrally
located offices. Some, especially
those employed by independent
research firms, do a considerable
amount of traveling in conection
with their work. Also, they may
frequently work under pressure
and for long hours to meet dead­

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Information about specialized
types of marketing research is
contained in a report entitled
“ Selecting Marketing Research
Services” which may be obtained
Small Business Administration,
Washington, D.C. 20416.

Additional information on mar­
keting research may be obtained
American Marketing Association,
230 North Michigan Ave., Chi­
cago, 1 1 60601.



166.088 through .268 and
169.118 and .168)

N ature of the W ork
Attracting and keeping the best
employees available, and match­
ing them to jobs they can do ef­
fectively are important for the
successful operation of business
and government ( P e r s o n n e l )
workers are responsible for help­
ing their employers attain these
objectives. They develop recruit­
ing and hiring procedures and in­
terview job applicants, selecting
or recommending the ones they
consider best qualified for the
openings to be filled. In addition,
personnel workers counsel em­
ployees, deal with disciplinary
problems, classify jobs, plan wage
and salary scales, develop safety
programs, and conduct research
in personnel methods. Other im­
portant aspects of their work in­
volves employee management re­
lations, employee training, and
the administration of employee
benefit plans.
Some personnel jobs require
only limited contact with people;
others involve frequent contact
with employees, union represen­
tatives, job applicants, and other
people in and outside the com­
Business organizations with
large personnel departments em­
ploy personnel workers at varying
levels of responsibility. Usually
the department is headed by a
director who formulates personnel
policy, advises other company of­
ficials on personnel matters, and
Within the department, super­
visors and various specialists— in
wage administration, training,
safety, job classification, and
other aspects of the personnel
program— may be responsible for



trial relations, and similar sub­
Most personnel workers are em­
ployed in large cities and in the
highly industrialized sections of
the country. Almost three-fourths
of all personnel workers are men.
Many women, however, occupy
personnel positions in organiza­
tions that employ large numbers
of women workers— for example,
in department stores, telephone
companies, insurance companies,
banks, and government agencies.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent

Interviewing job applicants is an important responsibility in personnel work.

the work of staff assistants and
clerical employees. Small business
organizations employ relatively
few personnel workers. Sometimes
one person may be responsible for
all the personnel activities as well
as other types of duties.
Personnel workers in Federal,
State, and local government agen­
cies do much the same kind of
work as those employed in large
business firms. Government per­
sonnel workers however, spend
considerably more time in activi­
ties related to classifying jobs,
and in devising, administering,
and scoring the competitive ex­
aminations given to job appli­

Places of Em ploym ent
Personnel workers are employ­
ed in nearly all kinds of business
enterprises and government agen­
cies. The total number employed
in 1968 was estimated to be about
110,000. Well over half of all per­
sonnel workers were employed by
private firms. Large numbers also
were employed by Federal, State,
and local government agencies. A
small group of personnel workers
were in business for themselves,
often as management consultants
or employee management rela­
tions experts. In addition, colleges
and universities employed some
professionally trained personnel
workers as teachers of courses in
personnel administration, indus­

A college education is becoming
increasingly important for en­
trance into personnel work. Some
employers hire new graduates for
junior positions, and then provide
training programs to acquaint
them with their operations, poli­
cies, and problems.
Other employers prefer to fill
their personnel positions by trans­
ferring people who already have
firsthand knowledge of opera­
tions. A large number of the peo­
ple now in personnel work who
are not college graduates entered
the field in this way.
Many employers in private in­
dustry prefer college graduates
who have majored in personnel
graduates who have a general
business administration back­
ground. Still other employers con­
sider a liberal arts education the
most desirable preparation for
personnel work. Young people in­
terested in personnel work in gov­
ernment are advised to major in
public administration, political
science, or personnel administra­
tion; however, those having other
college majors also are eligible for
personnel positions in govern­
For some positions, more spec­
ialized training may be necessary.


Jobs involving testing or em­
ployee counseling often require a
bachelor’s degree with a major in
psychology and sometimes a grad­
uate degree in this field. An en­
gineering degree may be desirable
for work dealing with time studies
or safety standards, and a degree
with a major in industrial rela­
tions may be helpful for work in­
volving employee management re­
lations. A background in account­
ing may be useful for positions
concerned with wages or pension
and other employee benefit plans.
After the initial period of orien­
tation, through formal or on-thejob training programs, college
graduates may progress to classi­
fying jobs, interviewing appli­
cants, or handling other personnel
functions. After they have gained
experience, those with exception­
al ability may be promoted to
executive positions, such as per­
sonnel director. Personnel work­
ers sometimes advance by trans­
ferring to other employers having
larger personnel programs or from
a middle-rank position in a big
organization to the top job in a
smaller one.
Personal qualities regarded as
important for success in personnel
work include the ability to speak
and write effectively and a betterthan-average aptitude for work­
ing with people of all levels of in­
telligence and experience. In ad­
dition, the prospective personnel
worker should be the kind of per­
son who can see the employee’s
point of view as well as the em­
ployer’s, and should be able to
give advice in the best interests
of both. A liking for detail, a high
degree of persuasiveness, and a
pleasing personality also are im­
Em ploym ent O utlook
College graduates who enter
personnel work are expected to
find many opportunities through


the 1970’s. Although employment
prospects will probably be best for
college graduates who have spec­
ialized training in personnel ad­
ministration, positions will be
available also for people having
degrees in other fields. Opportuni­
ties for young people to advance
to personnel positions from pro­
duction, clerical, or subprofes­
sional jobs will be limited.
Employment in personnel work
is expected to expand very rapid­
ly as the Nation’s employment
rises. More personnel workers will
be needed to carry on recruiting,
interviewing, and related activi­
ties. Also, many employers are
recognizing the importance of
good employee relations, and are
depending more heavily on the
services of trained personnel
workers to achieve this.
Employment in some special­
ized areas of personnel work will
rise faster than others. More peo­
ple will probably be engaged in
psychological testing; the need
for workers to handle work relat­
ed problems will probably con­
tinue to increase; and the growth
of employee services, safety pro­
grams, other benefit plans, and
personnel research also is likely
to continue.

demic records or master’s degrees
began at $6,981; a few master’s
degree holders who ranked high in
their respective classes received
$8,462 a year. Federal Govern­
ment personnel workers with
higher levels of administrative re­
sponsibility and several years of
experience in the field were paid
more than $14,000; some in
charge of personnel for major de­
partments of the Federal Govern­
ment earned about $20,000 a
Employees in personnel offices
generally work 35 to 40 hours a
week. During a period of intensive
recruitment or emergency, they
may work much longer. As a rule,
personnel workers are paid for
holidays and vacations, and share
in the same retirement plans and
other employee benefits available
to all professional employees in
the organizations where they

Earnings and W orking Conditions

Information about government
careers in personnel work may be
obtained from:

A national survey indicated that
the average annual salary of
trainees employed as job analysts
in private industry was about
$7,600 in early 1968; experienced
job analysts averaged about
$12,000; directors of personnel
generally earned between $10,000
and $19,200; and some top per­
sonnel and industrial relations
executives in very large corpora­
tions earned considerably more.
In the Federal Government, in­
experienced graduates having
bachelor’s degrees started at
$5,732 a year in late 1968; those
having exceptionally good aca­

Sources of Additional In fo rm atio n
General information on person­
nel work as a career may be ob­
tained by writing to:
American Society for Personnel
Administration, 52 East Bridge
St., Berea, Ohio 44017.

Public Personnel Association, 1313
East 60th St., Chicago, 11 .

(D.O.T. 165.068)

N ature of the W ork
All organizations— both profit
and nonprofit— want to present a


favorable image of themselves to
the public. By keeping themselves
informed about the attitudes and
opinions of customers, employees,
and other groups, public relations
workers help an employer build
and maintain such a public image.
Public relations workers pro­
vide information about an em­
ployer’s business to newspapers
and magazines, radio and tele­
vision, and other channels of com­
munication. They plan the kind of
publicity that will be most effec­
tive, contact the people who may
be interested in using it, and pre­
pare and assemble the necessary
material. Many items in the daily
papers; human interest stories in
popular magazines; and pamph­
lets giving information about a
company, its product, and job op­
portunities with it, have their
start at public relations workers’
desks. These workers also may ar­
range speaking engagements for
company officials and write the
speeches they deliver. Often, they
participate in community affairs,
serving as an employer’s represen­
tative during safety campaigns
and other community projects. In
addition, showing a film at a
school assembly, staging a beauty
contest, calling a press conference,
and planning a convention may
be all part of a public relations
worker’s job.
Public relations workers tailor
their programs to an employer’s
particular needs. In a business
firm, the public relations worker
usually is concerned with his em­
ployer’s relationships with em­
ployees, stockholders, government
agencies, civic organizations, and
other community groups.
Public relations staffs in large
firms sometimes number 200 or
more. Responsibility for develop­
ing overall plans and policies may
be shared between a company
vice president or another top
executive who is responsible for
final decisions, and the director of

Public relations worker checks materials
for press release.

the public relations department.
In addition to writers and re­
search workers, public relations
departments employ specialists to
do work such as preparing mater­
ial for the differerent media or
writing reports sent to stockhold­
Public relations workers who
handle publicity for an individual
or who are in charge of a public
relations program for a university,
fraternal organization, or small
business firm may handle all
aspects of the work. They make
their own contacts with outsiders,
do the necessary planning and re­
search, prepare material for pub­
lication, and perform other duties.
Such public relations workers
may combine public relations du­
ties with advertising or othermanagerial work, and they may be
top-level officials or occupy posi­
tions of less importance.
Places of Em ploym ent
In 1968, about 100,000 public
relation workers were employed,

according to the limited data
available. Over one-fourth were
women. In recent years, an in­
creasing number of women have
entered public relations work.
The majority of public relations
workers are employed by manu­
facturing firms, stores, public
utilities, trade and professional
associations, and labor unions.
Others are employed by consult­
ing firms which provide public re­
lations services to clients on a fee
Employment in public relations
work tends to be concentrated in
big cities where press services and
other communications facilities
are readily available, and where
large corporations and trade, pro­
fessional, and other associations
have their headquarters. More
than half of the personnel and
consulting firms in the United
States are in New York City, Los
Angeles, Chicago and Washing­
ton, D.C.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Although college education
generally is regarded as the best
preparation for public relations
work, employers differ in the spe­
cific type of college background
they require of applicants. Some
seek graduates who have majors
in English, journalism, or public
relations; others prefer candidates
with a background in science or
some other field related to the
firm’s business activities.
College graduates who have
secretarial skills also are desired
by some employers, especially in
small firms, because they can
combine secretarial duties with
public relations work. After a few
years’ experience, these workers
may advance to a full-time public
relations position.
In 1968, six colleges offered a
bachelor’s degree in public rela-


tions, and six offered the master’s
degree. In addition, about 200 col­
leges offered at least one course in
public relations.
Among the college subjects con­
sidered desirable in preparing for
a career in public relations are
journalism, economics and other
social sciences, business adminis­
tration, psychology, public speak­
ing, literature, and physical
sciences. Extracurricular activi­
ties which may provide students
with some valuable experience in­
clude writing or other work con­
nected with school publications,
participation in student govern­
ment activities, and part-time or
summer employment in selling,
public relations or a related field
of work such as broadcasting. The
personal qualifications usually
considered important for work in
this field include creativity, init­
iative, drive and the ability to ex­
press thoughts clearly and simply.
Fresh ideas are so important to
effective public relations work
that some experts in this field
spend all of their time providing
ideas and planning programs but
take no active part in carrying out
the programs. In selecting new
employees, many employers pre­
fer people who have had some
previous work experience, par­
ticularly in journalism or a relat­
ed field.
Some companies— particularly
those with large public relations
programs— have formal training
programs for new employees. In
other companies, new employees
learn on the job by working under
the guidance of experienced staff
members. Beginners often main­
tain files of material about the
company and its activities, scan
newspapers and magazines for ap­
propriate articles to clip, and do
the research needed to assemble
information for speeches and
pamphlets. After gaining experi­
ence, they may be given progres­
sively more difficult assignments,

such as writing press releases,
speeches, and articles for publica­
tion. Promotion to supervisory
and managerial positions may
come as the worker demonstrates
ability to handle more difficult
and creative assignments. The
most skilled public relations
work, which involves developing
the plans and maintaining the
contacts which are essential to a
successful public relations pro­
gram usually is in the hands of
the director of the department
and his most experienced staff
members. Some experienced pub­
lic relations workers eventually
establish their own consulting
firms, and others move on to
better positions with another
Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment in this field is ex­
pected to expand very rapidly
through the 1970’s. In addition to
the new jobs created as expanding
organizations require more public
relations specialists, other open­
ings will occur because of the need
to replace workers who retire or
leave the field for other reasons.
The demand for public rela­
tions workers is expected to grow
through the 1970’s as population
increases and the general level of
business activity rises. In recent
years, there has been an increase
in the amount of funds spent on
public relations, and many or­
ganizations have newly developed
public relations departments.
This trend is expected to continue
in the years ahead.

workers who were very well quali­
fied from the standpoint of edu­
cational background and previ­
ous work experience. Many pub­
lic relations workers who have a
few years of experience earned be­
tween $8,000 and $12,000 a year.
The salaries of experienced
public relations workers generally
are highest in large organizations,
where public relations programs
are likely to be extensive. In 1968,
directors of public relations em­
ployed by medium-size firms gen­
erally earned $12,000 or more an­
nually, and those employed by
large corporations had salaries in
the $15,000 to $25,000 range, ac­
cording to the Public Relations
Society of America. Some officials,
such as vice presidents in charge
of public relations, earned from
$25,000 to $50,0000 a year or
more. Many consulting firms em­
ploy fairly large staffs of experi­
enced public relations specialists
and often pay salaries which are
somewhat higher than those paid
public relations workers in other
business organizations. In social
welfare agencies, nonprofit or­
ganizations, and universities, sal­
ary levels tend to be somewhat
The workweek for public rela­
tions workers usually is 35 to 40
hours. Irregular hours and over­
time often may be necesary, how­
ever, to prepare or deliver
speeches, attend meetings and
community functions, and make
trips out of town. On occasion,
the nature of their reular assign­
ments or special events require
that public relations workers be
on call around the clock.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Starting salaries for public re­
lations workers averaged about
$5,500 a year in 1968, according
to the limited data available. The
highest starting salaries were paid
by consulting firms in major cities
to beginning public relations

The Information Center, Public
Relations Society of America,
Inc., 845 Third Ave., New York,
N.Y. 10022.
Service Department, Public Re­
lations News, 127 East 80th
Street, New York, N.Y. 10021.



The choice of the ministry,
priesthood, or rabbinate as one’s
lifework involves considerations
that do not influence to the same
degree the selection of a career in
most other occupations. When
young people decide to become
clergymen, they do so primarily
because of their religious faith
and their desire to help others.
Nevertheless, it is important for
them to know as much as possible
about the profession and how to
prepare for it, the kind of life it
offers, and its needs for personnel.
They also should understand that
the civic, social, and recreational
activities of clergymen often are
influenced, and sometimes re­
stricted, by the customs and atti­
tudes of their community.
The number of clergymen need­
ed is broadly related to the size
and geographic distribution of the
Nation’s population and partici­
pation in organized religious
groups. These factors affect the
number of churches and syna­
gogues that are established and
thus the number of pulpits to be
filled. In addition to the clergy
who serve congregations, many
others teach in seminaries and
other educational institutions,
serve as missionaries, and perform
various other duties.
Young people considering a ca­
reer as a clergyman should seek
the counsel of a religious leader of
their faith to aid them in evaluat­
ing their qualifications for the
profession. Besides a desire to
serve the spiritual needs of oth­
ers and to lead them in religious
activities, they need a broad back­
ground of knowledge and the abil­
ity to speak and write clearly.
Emotional stability is necessary,
since a clergyman must be able to
help others in times of stress. Fur­
thermore, young people should

know that clergymen are expect­
ed to be examples of high moral
The amount of income clergy­
men receive depends, to a great ex­
tent on the size and financial
status of the congregation they
serve and usually is highest in
large cities or in prosperous subur­
ban areas. Earnings of clergymen,
as of other professional groups,
usually rise with increased experi­
ence and responsibility. Most
Protestant churches and a num­
ber of Jewish congregations pro­
vide their spiritual leaders with
housing. Roman Catholic priests
ordinarily live in the rectory of a
parish church or are provided
lodgings by the religious order to
which they belong. Many clergy­
men receive allowances for trans­
portation and other expenses nec­
essary in their work. Clergymen
receive gifts or fees for officiating
at special ceremonies such as wed­
dings and funerals. In some cases,
these gifts or fees are an impor­
tant source of additional income;
however, they frequently are do­
nated to charity by the clergy­
men. Some churches establish a
uniform fee for these services,
which goes directly into the
church treasury.
More detailed information on
the clergy in the three largest
faiths in the United States— Prot­
estant, Roman Catholic, and Jew­
ish— is given in the following
statements that were prepared in
cooperation with leaders of these
faiths. Information on the clergy
in other faiths may be obtained
directly from leaders of the re­
spective groups. Numerous other
those of the missionary, teacher,
director of youth organizations, di­
rector of religious education, edi­
tor of religious publications,

music director, church secretary,
recreation leader, and many oth­
ers— offer interesting and satisfy­
ing careers. In addition, oppor­
tunities to work in connection
with religious activities are pres­
ent in many other occupations.
Clergymen or educational direc­
tors of local churches or syna­
gogues can provide information
on the church-related occupations
and other areas offering oppor­
tunities for religious service.

(D.O.T. 120.108)

N ature of the W ork
Protestant clergymen lead their
congregations in worship services
and may administer the rites of
baptism, confirmation, and Holy
Communion. They prepare and
deliver sermons and give religious
instruction to persons who are to
be received into membership of
the church. They also perform
marriages, conduct funerals, coun­
sel individuals who seek guidance,
visit the sick and shut-in, com­
fort the bereaved, and serve their
church members in many other
ways. Protestant ministers also
may write articles for publication,
give speeches, and engage in inter­
faith, community, civic, educa­
tional, and recreational activities
sponsored by or related to the in­
terests of the church. Some
clergymen teach in seminaries,
colleges, and universities.
The types of worship services
that ministers conduct differ
among Protestant denominations
and also among congregations
within a denomination. In some
denominations, ministers follow a
traditional order of worship,


whereas in others, they adapt the
services to the needs of youth and
other groups within the congrega­
tion. Most services include Bible
reading, hymn singing, prayers,
and a sermon. Bible reading by a
member of the congregation and
individual testimonials may con­
stitute a large part of the service
in some denominations.
Ministers serving small congre­
gations generally work on a per­
sonal basis with their parishion­
ers. Those serving large congrega­
tions usually have greater admini­
strative responsibilities and spend
considerable time working with
committees, church officers, and
staff, besides performing their
other duties. They may have one
or more associates or assistants
who share specific aspects of the
ministry, such as a Minister of
Education who assists in educa­
tional programs for different age

Places of E m ploym ent
In 1968, about 244,000 minis­
ters served almost 72 million
Protestants. In addition, thou­
sands of ordained clergymen were
in other occupations closely relat­
ed to the parish ministry. The
greatest number of clergymen are
affiliated with the five largest
of churches— Baptist,
Methodist, Lutheran, Presbyter­
ian and Episcopal. Most minis­
ters serve individual congrega­
tions; some are engaged in mis­
sionary activities in the United
States and in foreign countries;
others serve as chaplains in the
Armed Forces, in hospitals, and
in other institutions. Still others
teach in educational institutions,
engage in other religious educa­
tional work, or are employed in
social welfare and related agen­
cies. Less than 5 percent of all
ministers are women; however,

about 80 denominations ordain
women. In some denominations,
an increasing number of women
who have not been ordained are
serving as pastors’ assistants.
All cities and most towns have
one or more Protestant churches
with a full-time minister. The ma­
jority of ministers are located in
cities and towns. Many others
live in less densely populated
areas where each may serve two
or more congregations. A larger
proportion of Protestants than
members of other faiths live in
rural areas.

T rain in g and O ther Q ualifications
The educational preparation re­
quired for entry into the Protest­
ant ministry has a wider range
than for most professions. Some
religious groups have no formal
educational requirements, and
others ordain persons having
varying amounts and types of
training in liberal arts colleges,
Bible colleges, or Bible institutes.
An increasingly large number of
denominations, however, require a
3-year course of professional study
in a theological school following
college graduation. After com­
pletion of such a course, the de­
gree of bachelor or master of di­
vinity is awarded.
One hundred of the theological
institutions in the Nation in 1969
were accredited by the Ameri­
can Association of Theological
Schools. Accredited institutions
admit only students who have re­
ceived the bachelor’s degree or its
equivalent from an approved col­
lege. In addition, certain charac­
ter and personality qualifications
must be met, and endorsement by
the religious group to which the
applicant belongs is required. The
American Association of Theo­
logical Schools recommends that
preseminary studies be concen­
trated in the liberal arts. Al­

though courses in English, philos­
ophy, and history are considered
especially important, the pretheological student also should
take courses in the natural and
social sciences, religion, and for­
eign languages. The standard cur­
riculum recommended for ac­
credited theological schools con­
sists of four major fields: Bibli­
cal, historical, theological, and
practical. There is a trend toward
more courses in psychology, pas­
toral counseling, sociology, reli­
gious education, administration,
and other studies of a practical
nature. Many accredited schools
require that students gain experi­
ence in church work under the
supervision of a faculty member
or experienced minister. Some in­
stitutions offer the master of the­
ology and the doctor of theology
degrees to students completing 1
year or more of additional study.
Scholarships and loans are avail­
able for students of theological
In general, each large denomin­
ation has its own school or schools
of theology that reflect its par­
ticular interests and needs; how­
ever, many of these schools are
open to students from various
denominations. Several interde­
nominational schools associated
with universities give both un­
dergraduate and graduate train­
ing covering a wide range of theo­
logical points of view.
Among the most necessary per­
sonal qualifications in a candi­
date for the ministry are a deep
religious conviction, a sense of
dedication, a genuine concern for
and love of people, a wholesome
personality, high moral and ethi­
cal standards, and a vigorous and
creative mind. Good health is a
valuable asset.
Persons who have denomin­
ational qualifications for the min­
istry usually are ordained follow­
ing graduation from a seminary.
In denominations that do not re-



quire seminary training, clergy­
men are ordained at appointed
times. Clergymen often begin
their careers as pastors of small
congregations or as assistant pas­
tors in large churches. Protestant
clergymen in many of the larger
denominations— especially those
groups that have a well-defined
church organization— often are
requested to serve in positions of
great administrative and denom­
inational responsibility.

O utlook
The demand for Protestant
ministers has been greater than
the supply in recent years. The
increase in the number of gradu­
ates of theological schools has not
been sufficient to satisfy needs
for growth and to replace clergy­
men who retire, die, or transfer
to other work.
Requirements for Protestant
clergymen probably will continue
to exceed supply through the
1970’s, especially in denomina­
tions that require many years of
formal preparation for the minis­
try. The continued growth in the
number of church members and
the continued establishment of
new congregations, particularly
in metropolitan suburbs, will be
leading factors in increasing de­
mands for clergymen. The trend
for large congregations to hire as­
sistant ministers also will be a
factor in rising demand. Increas­
ing opportunities for clergymen in
youth and family relations work,
welfare programs, religious edu­
cation, the campus ministry, and
chaplaincies in the Armed Forces,
hospitals, universities, and cor­
rectional institutions also point
toward additional needs for
clergymen. Furthermore, demand
for clergymen on the faculty of
departments of religion in both
public and private colleges and
universities is growing. As the

number of clergymen increases,
the replacement of those who re­
tire, die, or leave the ministry for
other reasons also will require an
increasing number of newly train­
ed ministers.
Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Young people who are interest­
ed in the Protestant ministry
should seek the counsel of a min­
ister or church guidance worker.
Additional information on the
ministry and other church-relat­
ed occupations also are available
from many denominational of­
fices. Information on admission
requirements may be obtained
directly from each theological

(D.O.T. 120.108)

N ature of the W ork
Rabbis are the spiritual leaders
of their congregations and teach­
ers and interpreters of Jewish law
and tradition. They conduct daily
services, and deliver sermons at
services on the Sabbath and on
Jewish holidays. Rabbis custom­
arily are available at all times for
counsel to members of their con­
gregations, other followers of
Judaism, and the community at
large. Many of the rabbis’ func­
tions— preparing and delivering
performing wedding
ceremonies, visiting the sick, con­
ducting funeral services, comfort­
ing the bereaved, helping the poor,
counseling individuals, supervis­
ing religious education programs,
engaging in interfaith activities,
and assuming community respon­
sibilities— are similar to those
performed by clergymen of other

Rabbis serving large congrega­
tions may spend considerable time
in administrative duties, working
with their staffs and committees.
Large congregations frequently
have an associate or assistant
rabbi in addition to the senior
rabbi. Many of the assistant rab­
bis serve as Educational Direc­
Rabbis serve congregations af­
filiated with 1 of the 3 wings
of Judaism— Orthodox, Conserva­
tive, or Reform. Regardless of
their particular point of view, all
Hebrew congregations preserve
the substance of Jewish religious
worship. The congregations differ
in the extent to which they fol­
low the traditional form of wor­
ship— for example, in the wearing
of head coverings or in the use of
Hebrew as the language of pray­
er, or in the use of music. The
format of the worship service and
therefore the ritual that the rab­
bis use may vary even among
congregations belonging to the
same wing of Judaism.
Rabbis also may write for re­
ligious and lay publications, and
teach in theological seminaries,
colleges, and universities.

Places of Em ploym ent
About 6,000 rabbis served al­
most 5.9 million followers of the
Jewish faith in this country in
1968. Most are Orthodox rabbis;
the rest are about equally divid­
ed between the Conservative and
Reform wings of Judaism. Most
rabbis act as spiritual leaders of
individual congregations; some
serve as chaplains in the Armed
Forces, in hospitals, and in other
institutions. Others are adminis­
trators or teachers in Jewish sem­
inaries, communal schools, and
other educational institutions or
are employed in religious educa­
tion work for organizations such

as the Hillel Foundation. Still
others are employed by Jewish
social welfare agencies.
Although rabbis serve Jewish
communities throughout the Na­
tion, they are concentrated in
those States that have large Jew­
ish populations, particularly New
York, California, Pennsylvania,
New Jersey, Illinois, Massachu­
setts, Maryland, and the Wash­
ington, D.C. metropolitan area.

T rain in g and O ther Q ualifications
To become eligible for ordination
as a rabbi, a student must com­
plete the prescribed course of
study for the rabbinate.
Entrance requirements and the
curriculum depend upon the
branch of Judaism with which
the seminary is associated. The
Hebrew Union College— Jewish
Institute of Religion is the only
seminary that trains rabbis for
the Reform wing of Judaism. The
Jewish Theological Seminary of
America is the only seminary that
trains rabbis for the Conservative
wing of Judaism. Both seminaries
require the completion of a 4-year
college course, as well as prior
preparation in Jewish studies, for
admission to the rabbinic pro­
gram leading to ordination. Al­
though 5 years normally are re­
quired to complete the rabbinic
course at the Reform seminary,
exceptionally well-prepared stu­
dents can shorten this period of
study to a minimum of 3 years.
The course at the Conservative
seminary can be completed in 4
years by student having a strong
background in Jewish studies; for
others, the course may take as
long as 6 years.
About 15 seminaries train
Orthodox rabbis. These schools
have programs of various lengths
leading to ordination. Two of the
larger Orthodox seminaries re­
quire the completion of a 4-year


college course for ordination.
However, students who are not
college graduates may spend a
longer period at these seminaries
and complete the requirements
for the bachelor’s degree while
pursuing the rabbinic course. The
other Orthodox seminaries do not
require a college degree to qualify
for ordination, although students
who qualify usually have complet­
ed 4 years of college.
In general, the curriculums of
Jewish theological seminaries pro­
vide students with a comprehen­
sive knowledge of the Bible, Tal­
mud, Rabbinic literature, Jewish
history, theology, and courses in
education, pastoral psychology,
and public speaking. The Reform
seminary places less emphasis on
the study of Talmud and Rab­
binic literature and offers a broad
course of study that includes sub­
jects such as human relations and
community organization.
Some seminaries grant advanc­
ed academic degrees in fields such
as Biblical and Talmudic re­
search. All Jewish theological
seminaries make scholarships and
loans available to students.
Newly ordained rabbis usually
begin as leaders of small congre­
gations, assistants to experienced
rabbis, directors of Hillel Foun­
dations, teachers in seminaries
and other educational institu­
tions, or chaplains in the Armed
Forces. As a rule, the pulpits of
large and well-established Jewish
congregations are filled by experi­
enced rabbis.
The choice of a career as a rab­
bi, should be made on the basis
of a fervent belief in the religious
teachings and practices of Juda­
ism, and a desire to serve the
religious needs of others. In ad­
dition to having high moral and
ethical values, the prospective
rabbi should have good judgment
and be able to write and speak

O utlook
In 1968, the number of rabbis
in this country was inadequate to
meet the expanding needs of Jew­
ish congregations and other or­
ganizations desiring their services.
This situation is likely to persist
through the 1970’s. Continued
growth in Jewish religious affilia­
tion and in the number of syna­
gogues and temples, particularly
in the suburbs of cities having
large Jewish communiities, to­
gether with increasing demands
of large congregations for assist­
ant rabbis, are expected to create
many new openings. Demand for
rabbis to work with social welfare
and other organizations connect­
ed with the Jewish faith also is
expected to increase. Although an
increase in the number of stu­
dents graduating from the Jewish
theological seminaries is antici­
pated, the number of new rabbis
probably will not be adequate to
fill new openings and to replace
the rabbis who retire or die, or
leave the rabbinate for other rea­
sons. Immigration, once an im­
portant source of rabbis, is no
longer significant. In fact, grad­
uates of American seminaries now
are in demand for Jewish congre­
gations in other countries.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Young people who are interest­
ed in entering the rabbinate
should seek the guidance of a
rabbi. Information on the work
of a rabbi and allied occupations
also is available from many of the
local Boards of Rabbis in large
communities. Information on ad­
mission requirements of Jewish
theological seminaries may be ob­
tained directly from each semi­


(D.O.T. 120.108)

N atu re of the W ork
Roman Catholic priests attend
to the spiritual, moral, and educa­
tional needs of the members of
their church. Their duties include
offering the Sacrifice of the Mass;
giving religious instructions in
the form of a sermon; hearing
confessions; administering the
Sacraments, including the sacra­
ment of marriage; visiting and
comforting the sick; conducting
funeral services and consoling
relatives and friends; counseling
those in need of guidance; and
assisting the poor.
Priests spend long hours per­
forming services for the church
and the community. Their day
usually begins with morning medi­
tation and Mass and may end
with the hearing of confessions or
an evening visit to a hospital or
a home. Many of them serve on
church committees or in civic or­
ganizations and assist in com­
munity projects. Various societies
that carry on charitable and so­
cial programs also depend upon
priests for direction.
Although all priests have the
same powers acquired through or­
dination by a bishop, they are
classified in two main categories
— diocesan and religious— by rea­
son of their way of life, the type
of work to which they are assign­
ed, and the church authority to
whom they are immediately sub­
ject. Diocesan priests (sometimes
called secular priests) generally
work as individuals in the par­
ishes to which they are assigned
by the bishop of their diocese.
Religious priests generally work
as members of a religious com­
munity in specialized activities,
such as teaching or missionary

work, assigned to them by the
superiors of the religious order to
which they belong; for example,
Jesuits, Dominicans or Francis­
Both religious and diocesan
priests hold teaching and adminis­
trative posts in Catholic seminar­
ies, universities and colleges, and
high schools. Priests attached to
religious orders staff a large pro­
portion of the institutions of
higher education and many high
schools, whereas, diocesan priests
are concerned with the parochial
churches and with diocesan high
schools. The members of religious
orders do most of the missionary
work conducted by the Catholic
Church in this country and

Places of E m ploym ent
More than 62,000 priests serv­
ed about 48 million Catholics in
the United States in 1968. There
are priests in nearly every city
and town and in many rural com­
munities; however, the majority
are in metropolitan areas, where
most Catholics reside. Catholics
are concentrated in the Northeast
and the Great Lakes regions,
with smaller concentrations in
California, Texas, and Louisiana.
A large number of priests are lo­
cated in communities near Cath­
olic educational and other insti­
tutions. Others travel constantly
on missions to local parishes
throughout the country. Some
priests serve as chaplains with
the Armed Forces or in hospitals
or other institutions. Many are
stationed throughout the world as

Train in g and O ther Q ualifications
Preparation for the priesthood
requires 8 years or more of study

beyond high school graduation.
More than 450 special schools,
called seminaries, offer education
to young men who wish to be­
come priests. Study for the priest­
hood may begin in the first year
of high school, at the college level,
or in theological seminaries after
college graduation.
High school seminaries provide
a college preparatory program
that emphasizes English gram­
mar, speech, literature, and social
studies. Two years of Latin are
required and the study of a mod­
em language is encouraged. The
seminary college offers a liberal
arts program, stressing philoso­
phy and religion; the study of
man through the behavioral
sciences and history; and the nat­
ural sciences and mathematics.
In many college seminaries, a
student may concentrate in any
of these fields.
The course of study in theo­
logical seminaries, which provide
the remaining four years of prep­
aration required for the priest­
hood, includes sacred scripture;
apologetics; dogmatic, moral, and
pastoral theology; homiletics;
church history; liturgy; and can­
on law. Diocesan and religious
priests attend different major
seminaries, where slight varia­
tions in the training reflect the
differences in the type of work
expected of them as priests. Dur­
ing the later years of his semi­
nary course, the candidate re­
ceives from his bishop a succes­
sion of orders culminating in his
ordination to the priesthood.
Most postgraduate work in the­
ology is given either at Catholic
University of America, Washing­
ton, D.C. or at the eccelestical
universities in Rome. Many
priests also do graduate work at
other universities in fields unre­
lated to theology. Priests are
commanded by the law of the
Catholic Church to continue
their studies, at least informally,


after ordination.
Young men are never denied
entry into seminaries because of
lack of funds. In seminaries for
secular priests, the bishop may
make arrangements for student
loans. Those in religious seminar­
ies often are financed by contri­
butions of benefactors.
Among the qualities considered
most desirable in candidates for
the Catholic priesthood are a love
of and concern for people, a deep
religious conviction, a desire to
spread the Gospel of Christ, at
least average intellectual ability,
capacity to speak and write cor­
rectly, and more than average
skill in working with people. Can­
didates for the priesthood must
understand that priests are not
permitted to marry and are dedi­
cated to a life of chastity.
The first assignment of a newly
ordained secular priest is usually
that of assistant pastor or curate.
Newly ordained priests of religi­
ous orders are assigned to the
specialized duties for which they
are trained. Many opportunities
for greater responsibility exist
within the hierarchy of the church.

Diocesan priests, for example,
may rise to positions such as
monsignor or bishop. Much of
their time at this level is given to
administration duties. In the re­
ligious orders which specialize in
teaching, priests may become
heads of departments or assume
other positions which include ad­
ministrative duties.

A growing number of priests will
be needed in the years ahead to
provide for the spiritual, educa­
tional, and social needs of the
growing number of Catholics in
the Nation. Although the number
of seminarians has increased
steadily in recent years, the num­
ber of ordained priests is insuffi­
cient to fill the needs of newly es­
tablished parishes and expanding
colleges and other Catholic insti­
tutions, and to replace priests who
retire or die. Although priests usu­
ally continue to work longer than
persons in other professions, the
varied demands and long hours
create a need for young priests to

assist the older ones. Also, an in­
creasing number of priests have
been serving in many diverse
areas— for example, in religious
radio, newspaper, and television
work, labor-management media­
tion; and in foreign posts, par­
ticularly in countries that have a
shortage of priests. Continued ex­
pansion of these activities, in ad­
dition to the expected further
growth of the Catholic popula­
tion, will require a steady in­
crease in the number of priests
through the 1970’s.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Young men interested in enter­
ing the priesthood should seek
the guidance and counsel of their
parish priest. Additional informa­
tion regarding different religious
orders and the secular priesthood,
as well as a list of the various
seminaries which prepare stu­
dents for the priesthood, may be
obtained from Diocesan Directors
of Vocations or from the diocesan
chancery office.


Forests, rangelands, wildlife,
and water are part of our coun­
try’s great wealth of natural re­
sources. Conservationists protect,
develop, and manage natural re­
sources to assure that they are
not needlessly exhausted, de­
stroyed, or damaged, and that fu­
ture needs for these resources will
be met.
Specialized training is gener­
ally required to work in conserva­
tion occupations. Many positions
can be filled only by those having
at least a bachelor’s degree. For
other positions, the desired train­
ing may be obtained on the job.
This chapter includes descrip­
tions of three conservation occu­
pations— forester, forestry aid,
and range manager. Soil conserva­
tionist, a related occupation, is
discussed elsewhere is this Hand­

Foresters also safeguard forests
from fire, destructive animals and
insects, and diseases. Other re­
sponsibilities of foresters include
wildlife protection and watershed
management, and the manage­
ment of camps, parks, and graz­
ing land.
Foresters usually specialize in
one area of work, such as timber
management, fire control, forest
economics, outdoor recreation,
watershed management, wildlife
management, or range manage­
ment. Some of these specialized
activities are becoming recognized
as distinct professions. The pro­
fession of range managers, for ex­
ample, is discussed in a separate


statement in this chapter. Forest­
ers also may engage in research
activities, extension work (pro­
viding forestry information to
farmers, logging companies, and
the public), forest marketing, and
college and university teaching.

Places of Em ploym ent
An estimated 25,000 persons
were employed as foresters in the
United States in 1968. About onethird were employed in private
industry, mainly by pulp and pa­
per, lumber, logging, and milling
companies. Slightly less than onethird were employed by the Fed­
eral Government, mainly in the
Forest Service of the Department
of Agriculture. Other Federal
agencies employing significant
numbers of foresters were the D e­
partments of the Interior and De­
fense. Most of the remainder were
employed by State and local gov­
ernments, colleges and universi­
ties, and consulting firms. Others
were managers of their own lands
or were in business for themselves
as consultants.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent

(D.O.T. 040.081)

N atu re of th e W ork
Forests are one of America’s
greatest natural resources. They
cover more than one-third of the
land area of the country. Forest­
ers manage, develop, and protect
these valuable lands and their re­
sources— timber, water, wildlife,
forage, and recreation areas. They
estimate the amount and value
of these resources. They plan and
supervise the harvesting and cut­
ting of trees, purchase and sale
of trees and timber, the process­
ing, utilization and marketing of
forest products, and reforestation
activities (renewing the forest
cover by seeding or planting).

Forester explains local wildlife to

A bachelor’s degree with a ma­
jor in forestry is the minimum
young persons seeking profession­
al careers in forestry. An ad­
vanced degree is generally re­
quired for teaching and research
Education in forestry leading
to a bachelor’s or higher degree
was offered in 1968 by 48 colleges
and universities of which 32 are
accredited by the Society of
American Foresters. The curriculums in most of these schools in­
clude specialized forestry courses
in five essential areas: (1) Silvi­
culture (methods of growing and
improving forest crops); (2) for­
est protection (primarily against


fire, insects, and disease); (3)
forest management (the applica­
tion of business methods and
technical forestry principles to
the operation of a forest prop­
forest economics
(study of the factors affecting the
supply of and the demand for for­
est products); and (5) forest uti­
lization (the harvesting, process­
ing, and marketing of the forest
crop and other forest resources).
The curriculums also include re­
lated courses in the management
of recreational lands, watershed
management, and wildlife man­
agement, as well as courses in
mathematics, science, engineer­
ing, economics, and the humani­
ties. Most colleges require that
students spend one summer in a
field camp operated by the col­
lege. Forestry students also are
encouraged to work other sum­
mers in jobs that will give them
firsthand experience in forest or
conservation work.
Beginning positions for forestry
graduates often involve work in a
broad range of relatively routine
forestry activities under the su­
pervision of experienced foresters.
As they gain experience, foresters
may advance to increasingly re­
sponsible positions in manage­
ment of forest lands or related
research activities.
Qualifications for success in
forestry include an enthusiasm
for outdoor work and the ability
to meet and deal effectively with
people. Many jobs also require
physical stamina and a willingness
to work in remote areas.

E m ploym ent Outlook
Employment opportunities for
forestry graduates are expected to
be favorable through the 1970’s.
Among the major factors under­
lying this anticipated demand
are the country’s growing popula­
tion and rising living standards,

which will tend to increase the
demand for forest products and
the use of forests for recreation
areas. Forestry and related em­
ployment also may be favorably
influenced by the growing aware­
ness of the need to conserve and
replenish our forest resources.
Private owners of timberland
are expected to employ increasing
numbers of foresters to realize the
higher profitability of improved
forestry and logging practices.
The forest products industries al­
so will require additional foresters
to apply new techniques for uti­
lizing the entire forest crop, to
develop methods of growing su­
perior stands of trees over a
shorter period of time, and to do
research in genetics and fertiliza­
tion. In addition, competition
from metal, plastics, and other
materials is expected to stimulate
further research to develop new
and improved wood products.
The Federal Government is
likely to offer increasing employ­
ment opportunities for foresters
in the years ahead, mainly in the
Forest Service of the Department
of Agriculture. Among the factors
expected to contribute to this ex­
pansion are the demands for the
use of national forest resources,
the trend toward more scientific
management of these lands, and
expanding research and conser­
vation programs in areas such as
outdoor recreation, watershed
management, wildlife protection,
and range management.
State government agencies also
should offer additional employ­
ment opportunities for foresters.
Forest fire control, protection
against insects and diseases, pro­
vision of technical assistance to
owners of private forest lands,
and other Federal-State coopera­
tive programs usually are chan­
neled through State forestry or­
ganizations. Growing demands for
recreation facilities in forest lands
are likely to result in expansion of

State parks and other recreational
College teaching and research
in areas such as forest genetics,
forest disease and insect control,
and reforestration
methods, forest products utiliza­
tion, and fire behavior and control
are other avenues of favorable
employment opportunity for for­
esters, but primarily for those
having graduate degrees.
In addition to new positions
created by the rising demand for
foresters, a few hundred openings
will arise each year due to retire­
ments, deaths, and transfers out
of the profession.
Opportunities for women in
outdoor forestry is somewhat lim­
ited, largely because of the strenu­
ous physical requirements of
much of the work. The few women
presently employed in forestry
are engaged chiefly in research,
administration, and educational
work; future opportunities for
women also are likely to be pri­
marily in these fields.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
In the Federal Government in
late 1968, beginning foresters hav­
ing a bachelor’s degree could start
at either $5,732 or $6,981 a year,
depending on their academic rec­
ord. Those having 1 or 2 years of
graduate work could begin at
$6,981 or 8,462; those having the
Ph. D. degree, at $10,203 or
$12,174. District rangers em­
ployed by the Federal Govern­
ment in 1968 generally earned be­
tween $8,462 and $12,174 a year.
Foresters in top level positions
earned considerably more.
Beginning salaries of foresters
employed by State governments
vary widely; but, with a few ex­
ceptions, they tend to be lower
than Federal salaries. Entrance
salaries in private industry, ac­
cording to limited data, are fairly







The salaries of forestry teach­
ers are generally the same as those
paid other faculty members. (See
statement on College and Univer­
sity Teachers.) Foresters in edu­
cational institutions sometimes
supplement their regular salaries
with income from part-time con­
sulting and lecturing and the
writing of books and articles.
As part of his regular duties,
the forester— particularly in be­
ginning positions— spends con­
siderable time outdoors under all
kinds of weather condition. Many
foresters work extra hours on
emergency duty, such as fire­

Sources of A dditional Inform ation

(D.O.T. 441.384)

N atu re of the W ork
Forestry aids, called forestry
technicians at higher career lev­
els, assist foresters in managing
and caring for forest lands and
their resources. (See statement on
Foresters earlier in this chapter.)
Their duties include scaling logs,
marking trees, and collecting and
recording data such as tree
heights, diameters, and mortality.
On simple watershed improve­
ment projects, aids install, main­
tain, and collect records from rain
gauges, streamflow recorders, and
soil moisture measuring instru­
ments. They may serve as rod-

men, chainmen, or level instrumentmen on road survey crews.
Forestry technicians have more
responsible and difficult duties,
such as supervising on-the-ground
operations in timber sales, super­
vising recreation-area use, and
performing laboratory research
activities that require the use of
practical skills and experience.
Forestry technicians also super­
vise survey crews engaged in road
building projects that make tim­
ber accessible for harvesting.
Forestry aids often are engaged
in all phases of fire prevention
and control. They instruct per­
sons using the forest in fire pre­
cautions and prevention. If a fire
does occur, they may lead fire­
fighting crews. After the fire has
been suppressed, they take in­
ventory of the burned out area
and plant new trees and shrubs.

General information about the
profession of forestry, lists of
reading material, as well as lists
of schools offering training in
forestry is available from:
Society of American Foresters,
1010 16th St. NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20036

General information
available from:



American Forest Institute, 1835
K St. NW., Washington, D.C.

A booklet entitled “ So You
Want to be a Forester” may be
obtained from:
American Forestry Association,
919 17th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20006

Information on forestry careers
in the Forest Service is available
U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Forest Service, Washington,
D.C. 20250

Forestry aid radios to headquarters from jeep.


Places of Em ploym ent
An estimated 13,000 persons
were employed as forestry aids in
1968. About 5,000 were employed
by the Federal Government; the
Forest Service of the U. S. De­
partment of Agriculture employed
approximately 3,000 of these. Ap­
proximately 2,000 were working
for State governments. About
6,000 were employed in private
industry, primarily by lumber,
logging, and paper milling com­
panies. Forestry aids also work
in tree nurseries and in foresta­
tion projects of mining, railroad,
and oil companies.
Many forestry aids are em­
ployed in the heavily forested
States of Washington, California,
Oregon, Idaho, Utah, and Mon­
tana, as well as in the forested
areas of the Great Lakes States,
the Northeast, and the South.
Train in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Young persons qualify for be­
ginning positions as forestry aids
either by completing a specialized
1- or 2-year post-secondaryschool curriculum or through
work experience. Curriculums de­
signed to train forestry aids are
offered in technical institutes,
Among the specialized courses
provided for aid training are for­
est mensuration (measurement of
the number and size of trees in
the forest), forest protection, den­
drology (identification of trees
and shrubs), wood utilization,
and silviculture (methods of
growing and improving forest
crops). In addition, the student
takes courses, such as drafting,
surveying, report writing, mathe­
matics, and first aid, and spends
time in a forest or camp operated
by the school where he obtains
experience in forestry work.

Persons who have not had post­
secondary-school training usually
must have had experience in for­
est work, such as felling or plant­
ing trees and fighting fires, to
qualify for beginning forestry aid
jobs. In the Federal Government,
the minimum experience require­
ment is two seasons of related
work. Those who had some tech­
nical experience, such as estimat­
ing timber resources, may qualify
for more responsible positions.
Qualifications considered essen­
tial for success in this field are an
enthusiasm for outdoor work,
physical stamina, and the ability
to carry out tasks without direct
supervision. The forestry aid also
should be able to work well with
others, for much of his work is
with survey crews or involves con­
tact with users of the forestlands
as well as forest owners and pro­
fessional foresters. Many jobs
also require a willingness to work
in remote areas.

ployment opportunities through
the 1970’s, mainly in the Forest
Service of the Department of
Agriculture. Similarly, State gov­
ernments probably will increase
their employment of forestry aids.
Growth in Government employ­
ment will stem from factors such
as increasing demand for recrea­
tional facilities, the trend toward
more scientific management of
forest land and water supplies,
and an increasing amount of tim­
ber cutting on Federal forest land.
Earnings and W orking Conditions

Annual earnings of forestry
aids range from about $4,000 to
over $8,400 a year; those having
high earnings usually have had
many years of experience. In the
Federal Government, beginning
forestry aids and technicians
earned between $4,231 and $6,981
a year in late 1968, depending on
the applicant’s education and ex­
perience. Beginning salaries in
private industry were similar, ac­
Em ploym ent O utlook
cording to limited data.
As part of their regular duties,
Employment opportunities for
forestry aids must spend consid­
forestry aids are expected to in­
erable time outdoors during all
crease rapidly through the 1970’s.
weather conditions. In emergen­
Prospects will be especially good
cies, such as firefighting and flood
for those having post-high-school
control, forestry aids work many
training in a forestry curriculum.
extra hours. In addition to those
As the employment of foresters
employed full time, many forestry
continues to grow, increasing
aids are hired on a seasonal basis
numbers of forestry aids will be
and work 3 to 6 months a year.
needed to assist them. Also, it is
Climatic conditions in some areas
expected that forestry aids will1
limit year-round field work and
assume some of the more routine
some jobs, such as firefighting, are
jobs now being done by foresters.
seasonal in nature.
Private industry is expected to
provide many additional employ­
ment opportunities for forestry Sources of Additional Inform ation
aids. Forest products industries
Information about a career in
are becoming increasingly aware
of the profitability of employing the Federal Government as a for­
technical persons knowledgeable estry aid is available from:
in the practical application of sci­
U.S. Department of Agriculture,
entific forest practices.
Forest Service, Washington,
D.C. 20250.
The Federal Government also
is likely to offer increasing em­



(D.O.T. 040.081)

N a tu re of the W ork
Rangelands cover more than 1
billion acres in the United States,
mostly in the Southern and West­
ern States, including Alaska.
Range managers, also called range
conservationists or range scien­
tists, are responsible for the man­
agement, development, and pro­
tection of these rangelands and
their resources. They establish
systems and plans for grazing
that will yield a high production
of livestock while preserving con­
ditions of soil and vegetation nec­
essary to meet other land-use re­
quirements— wildlife grazing, rec­
reation, growing timber, and
evaluate forage resources; decide
on the number and appropriate
type of livestock to be grazed and
the best season for grazing; re­
store deteriorated rangelands
through seeding or plant control;
and determine other range con­
servation and development needs.
Range fire protection, pest con­
trol, and grazing trespass control
also are important activities of
this occupation. In addition, mul­
tiple use of rangelands often ex­
tends the manager’s work into
such closely related fields as wild­
life and watershed management,
land classification, forest manage­
ment, and recreation.
The range manager’s activities
may include research in range
maintenance and improvement,
report writing, teaching, provid­
ing technical assistance to holders
of privately owned grazing lands,
or performing technical assign­
ments in foreign countries.

Range manager checks grass growing in “ bird cage" as part of test on open range.

Places of Em ploym ent
In 1968, an estimated 4,000
professional range managers were
employed in the United States.
The majority were employed by
Federal Government agencies,
primarily in the Forest Service
and the Soil Conservation Service
of the Department of Agriculture
and in the Bureau of Land Man­
agement of the Department of
the Interior. State governments
also employed significant num­
bers of range managers.

In private industry, range man­
agers are employed by privately
owned range livestock ranches.
Some are in business for them­
selves as managers of their own
land. Some are self-employed con­
sultants or are employed by con­
sulting firms. Others are em­
ployed by manufacturing, sales,
and service enterprises, and by
banks and real estate firms which
need rangeland appraisals. Col­
leges and universities also employ
range managers in teaching and
research positions.


T rain in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
The bachelor’s degree with a
major in range management or
range conservation is the usual
requirement for persons seeking
employment as range managers in
the Federal Government. A bach­
elor’s degree in a closely related
subject-matter field, such as
agronomy, forestry, or soil con­
servation, including courses in
range management and range con­
servation, also is accepted as ade­
quate preparation. Graduate de­
grees are generally required for
teaching and research work.
Training leading to a bachelor’s
degree with a major in range man­
agement was offered in 1968 by
25 colleges and universities, main­
ly in Western and Southwestern
States. Twenty-three of these
schools also grant the master’s
degree, and 15 award the doctor­
The essential courses for a de­
gree in range management are
botany, plant ecology, and plant
physiology; zoology; animal hus­
bandry; soils; chemistry; mathe­
matics; and specialized courses in
range management, such as iden­
tification and characteristics of
range plants, range improvement,
and range sampling and inventory
techniques. Desirable elective
courses include economics, statis­
tical methods, physics, geology,
watershed management, wildlife
management, surveying, and for­
age crops.
Federal Government agencies
— primarily the Forest Service,
the Bureau of Land Management
and the Soil Conservation Ser­
vice— hire many college juniors
and seniors for summer jobs in
range management. This experi­
ence helps students qualify for
permanent positions as range
managers when they complete

Because most range managers
must meet and deal with other
people, individually or in groups,
they should be able to communi­
cate their ideas effectively, both
in writing and speaking. Many
jobs require the stamina to per­
form vigorous physical activity
and a willingness to work in arid
and sparsely populated areas.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment opportunities for
graduates having degrees in range
management are expected to be
good through the 1970’s. The de­
mand will be especially good for
well-qualified persons having ad­
vanced degrees to fill research and
teaching positions.
Opportunities will probably be
best in Federal agencies. Favor­
able opportunities also are ex­
pected in private industry, since
range livestock producers and pri­
vate timber operators are hiring
increasing numbers of range man­
agers to improve their range hold­
ings. A few openings are expected
in developing countries of the
Middle East, Africa, and South
America where range managers
are needed to give technical as­
Among the major factors un­
derlying the anticipated growth in
demand for range managers are
population growth, increasing per
capita consumption of animal
products, and the growing use of
rangelands for hunting and other
openings are expected because of
more intensive management of
range resources due to increasing
emphasis on multiple uses of
rangelands. Range managers also
will be needed to help rehabilitate
deteriorated rangelands, improve
semiarid lands, and deal with
watershed problems.
Opportunities for women in this
profession are limited because of

the rigorous work generally re­
quired and the remote locations of
employment. However, a few
women, usually with training in
botany, work on classification and
identification of range plants.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Starting salaries for range man­
agers having the bachelor’s degree
in the Federal Government in late
1968 were either $5,732 or $6,981
a year, depending upon their col­
lege record. Beginning salaries for
those having 1 or 2 years of grad­
uate work were $6,981 or $8,462;
and for those having the Ph. D.,
$10,203 or $12,174.
Starting salaries for range man­
agers employed by State govern­
ments and private industry in
1968 were about the same as those
paid by the Federal Government.
In colleges and universities, start­
ing salaries were generally the
same as those paid other faculty
members. (See statement on Col­
lege and University Teachers.)
Range managers in educational
institutions sometimes augment
their regular salaries with income
from part-time consulting and
lecturing and from writing books
and articles.
Range managers may spend
considerable time away from
home working outdoors in remote
parts of the range.

Sources of Additional In fo rm atio n
For general information about
a career as a range manager as
well as a list of schools offering
training in the field, write to:
American Society of Range Man­
agement, 2120 South Birch
Street, Denver, Colo. 80222.

Information about career op­
portunities in the Federal Gov­
ernment may be obtained from:


Bureau of Land Management,
Denver Service Center, Federal
Center Building 50, Denver,
Colorado 80225.

Portland Service Center, 710 N. E.
Holladay Street, Portland, Ore­
gon 97208.
Forest Service, U. S. Department
of Agriculture, 1621 North Kent




Soil Conservation Service, U. S.
Department of Agriculture,
Washington, D. C. 20250.



The primary objectives of pro­
fessional counseling are to help
persons understand themselves
and their opportunities better so
that they can make and carry out
decisions and plans that hold po­
tential for a more satisfying and
productive life. Whatever the area
of counseling— personal, educa­
tional, or vocational— counselors
need a concern for individuals
combined with a capacity for ob­
jectivity; and a belief in the
worthwhileness and uniqueness of
each individual, in his right to
make and accept responsibility
for his own decisions, and in his
potential for development.
This chapter deals in detail
with three generally recognized
specialties in the field: School
counseling, rehabilitation coun­
seling, and employment counsel­
School Counselors are the larg­
est counseling group. They are
concerned with the personal and
social development of pupils and
the planning and achievement of
their educational and vocational
Rehabilitation Counselors work
with persons who are physically,
mentally, or socially handicapped.
Their counseling is vocationally
oriented but involves personal
counseling as well.
Employment Counselors are
concerned primarily with career
planning and job adjustment.
They may work with the young,
the old, the able-bodied, and the
Some people who are identified
with other professional occupa­
tions also provide counseling ser­
vices. The occupation most closely
related to counselor is counseling
psychologist. Many social workers
also provide counseling services.
These two occupations, as well as
others in which workers do some

counseling but whose primary
work is in teaching, health, law,
religion, or other fields, are de­
scribed elsewhere in the Hand­
book. For information on counsel­
ing services provided by college
and university staff members and
by personnel workers in govern­
ment and industry, see the state­
ments on College Placement Offi­
cers and Personnel Workers.

(D.O.T. 045.108)

N ature of the W ork
Employment counselors (some­
times called vocational counsel­
ors) help people to develop a
career goal that will fulfill the in­

dividual’s potential and bring per­
sonal satisfaction. They assist cli­
ents by planning with them on
how to prepare for, enter, and
progress in their careers.
The extent of the counseling
assistance available, however, dif­
fers among agencies.
Counselors interview the per­
son seeking counsel to obtain vo­
cationally significant information
related to his personal traits, in­
terests, training, work experience,
and work attitudes. They may
assist the individual in filling out
questionnaires concerning his per­
sonal history and background.
Additional data on the person’s
general intelligence, aptitudes
and abilities, physical capacities,
knowledge, skills, interests, and
values also are obtained from
tests and personal inventories
which may be administered or
recorded by the counselor or a
specialist in testing. Further in­
formation may be assembled by
the counselor or by the client
from sources such as former em­
ployers, schools, and health or
other agencies.



In subsequent interviews, coun­
selors assist the applicant in eval­
uating and understanding his own
work potential and provide him
the information he needs in mak­
ing plans appropriate to his talents
and interests. Job requirements
and employment opportunities or
training programs are discussed.
An employment plan is developed
jointly by the counselor and his
client, and a training or work pro­
gram may be developed. In some
agencies, a vocational plan may
be worked out in a staff confer­
ence— which may be attended by
supervisors, the psychologist, the
testing specialist, and a job mar­
ket or occupational analyst.
In many cases, the employment
counselor will refer the client to
another agency for physical re­
habilitation or for psychological
or other services before, or con­
current with counseling. The em­
ployment counselor must be fa­
miliar with the services available
in the community and be able to
recognize what services might be
beneficial to a particular client.
Counselor may help the client
by suggesting feasible employ­
ment sources and appropriate
ways of applying for work. In in­
stances where the client needs
further support and assistance,
the counselors may contact em­
ployers, although clients seeking
employment usually are sent to
placement interviewers following
counseling. After job placement
or entrance into training, coun­
selors may follow up to determine
if additional assistance is needed.
The expanding responsibility of
public employment counselors for
improving the employability of
disadvantaged persons has in­
creased their contacts with these
persons during training and on
the job. It also has led to group
counseling and the stationing of
counselors in neighborhood and
community centers.

Places of Em ploym ent
In early 1968, the largest num­
ber of employment counselors—
about 4,400 full time and more
than 900 part time— worked in
State employment service offices,
located in every large city and in
many smaller towns. The next
largest number— probably about
2,000— worked for various private
or community agencies, primarily
in the larger cities. In addition,
some worked in institutions such
as prisons, training schools for de­
linquent youths, and mental hos­
pitals. The Federal Government
employed a limited number of
vocational counselors, chiefly in
the Bureau of Indian Affairs and
the Veterans Administration.
Some people trained in employ­
ment or vocational counseling are
engaged in research or graduate
teaching. About half of all em­
ployment counselors are women.

Train in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
The generally accepted mini­
mum educational requirement for
employment counselors in State
employment service offices is a
bachelor’s degree, preferably with
a major in one of the social sci­
ences, plus 15 semester hours in
counseling and related courses.
An increasing number of States
are adopting a three-level coun­
selor classification system which
includes a counselor intern or
trainee, requiring a bachelor’s de­
gree with 15 hours of undergradu­
ate or graduate work in counsel­
ing related courses; a counselor,
requiring a master’s degree or 30
graduate hours in counseling re­
lated courses; and a master coun­
selor, requiring a master’s degree
and 3 years of experience, 1 of
which should be in employment
service counseling.

Minimum entrance require­
ments are not standardized
among private and community
agencies, but most of them pre­
fer, and many require, a master’s
degree in vocational counseling
or in a related field such as psy­
chology, personnel administra­
tion, education, or public admin­
istration. Most private agencies
prefer to have at least one staff
member who has a doctorate in
counseling psychology or a related
field. For those lacking an ad­
vanced degree, employers usually
emphasize experience in closely
related work such as rehabilita­
tion counseling, employment in­
terviewing, school or college coun­
seling, or teaching.
The public employment service
offices in each State provide inservice training programs for their
new counselors or trainees. Their
experienced counselors frequently
are given additional training at
colleges and universities, often
leading to a master’s degree in
counseling and guidance. Private
and community agencies also of­
ten provide in-service training
The professional educational
curriculum for employment coun­
selors generally includes, at the
undergraduate level, a basic foun­
dation in psychology with some
emphasis on sociology. At the
graduate level, requirements usu­
ally include courses in techniques
of appraisal and counseling for
vocational adjustment, group
guidance methods, placement,
counseling followup techniques,
psychological tests in vocational
counseling, educational psychol­
o g y psychology of occupations,
industrial psychology, job analy­
sis and theories of occupational
choice, administration of guid­
ance services, and some course
work in research methods and
Counselor education programs
at the graduate level are available



in about 370 colleges and univer­
sities, most frequently in the de­
partments of education or psy­
chology. T o obtain a master’s de­
gree, students must complete 1
to 2 years of graduate study. All
States require counselors in their
public employment offices to meet
State civil service or merit system
requirements that include certain
minimum educational and experi­
ence standards. They also require
a written or oral examination, or
Counselors who are well quali­
fied may advance, after consider­
able experience, to supervisory
or administrative positions in
their own or other organizations;
some may become directors of
agencies or of other counseling
services, or area supervisors of
guidance programs; some may be­
come consultants; and others,
may become professors in the
counseling field.

Em ploym ent Outlook

Employment counselors who
have a master’s degree, and those
who have recognized related ex­
perience in the field, will have ex­
cellent employment opportunities
in both public and private agen­
cies through the 1970’s. In addi­
tion, college graduates having a
bachelor’s degree and 15 hours of
undergraduate or graduate work
in counseling related courses and
who are interested in becoming
counselor trainees will find many
opportunities in State and local
employment service offices.
The employment of counselors
in State employment service of­
fices is expected to increase very
rapidly through the
Among the factors contributing
to the increasing demand for
counseling services in these offices
are four major Federal laws: the

Vocational Education Act, as
amended, which provides for vo­
cational guidance and counseling
for people who are out of school
and seeking employment; the
Training Act, as amended, which
provides for counseling in connec­
tion with the occupational train­
ing or retraining of large numbers
of unemployed workers; the Eco­
amended, which provides for
counseling to implement programs
such as Job Corps, Neighborhood
Youth Corps, Work Training,
Work Experience, and Urban and
Rural Community Action; and
the Social Security Act, as amend­
ed, which established the Work
Incentive program. State employ­
ment service offices also will em­
ploy additional counselors to
work with returning veterans,
older persons, American Indians,
and inmates of correctional insti­
tutions. Moreover, population
growth, particularly the large
number of young workers enter­
ing the labor force each year, will
be reflected in larger numbers
seeking employment counseling.
In addition to the counselors
needed to take care of growth in
the occupation, many more will
be needed each year through the
1970’s to replace workers who re­
tire, die, or leave the profession
for other reasons.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
The annual average salary of
employment counselors in State
employment service offices in
1968 was about $7,500. Salaries
often went as high as $10,000 for
highly experienced counselors.
Trainees for counseling positions
in some voluntary agencies in
large cities were being hired at
about $6,000 a year; annual sal­
aries reported for experienced

counselors ranged up to $15,000
or more in early 1969.
Most counselors work about 40
hours a week and have various
benefits, including vacations, sick
leave, pension plans, and insur­
ance coverage. Counselors em­
ployed in community agencies
may work overtime.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
General information on em­
ployment or vocational counsel­
ing may be obtained from:
National Employment Counselors
Association, 1607 New Hamp­
shire Ave., NW., Washington,
D.C. 20009.
National Vocational Guidance As­
sociation, Inc., 1607 New Hamp­
shire Ave., NW., Washington,
D.C. 20009.
United States Department of La­
bor, Manpower Administration,
U.S. Training and Employment
Service, Branch of Counseling
and Testing Services, Washing­
ton, D.C. 20210.

Information on entrance re­
quirements for positions in the
public employment service offices
may be obtained from the State
civil service or merit system office
in each State capital, or from
local employment offices.
A list of private agencies offer­
ing employment counseling serv­
that meet
criteria set forth by the American
Board on Counseling Services,
Inc., is provided in the Directory

of Approved Counseling Agencies,
1967— 68 and Supplement, avail­
able from the American Personnel
and Guidance Association, Inc.,
1607 New Hampshire Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20009, for



(D.O.T. 045.108)

N atu re of the W ork
Rehabilitation counselors are
primarily concerned with the voca­
tional and personal adjustment of
physically, mentally, and socially
handicapped persons. The coun­
selor interviews handicapped per­
sons to obtain necessary informa­
tion about their abilities, inter­
ests, and limitations. Information
developed in the interviews is
used with other medical, psycho­
logical, and social data to help the

handicapped person evaluate him­
self in relation to the kind of
work that is suitable to his physi­
cal and mental capacity, interests,
and talents. A plan of rehabilita­
tion then may be worked out
jointly by the counselor, the hand­
icapped person, and those pro­
viding medical treatment, occupa­
tional training, and other special
services. The counselor holds reg­
ular interviews with the disabled
person to discuss the program,
check on the progress made, and
help resolve problems. When the
individual is ready for employ­
ment, the counselor assists in
finding a suitable job and often
makes followup visits to be sure
that the placement is satisfactory.

An increasing number of coun­
selors specialize in a particular
area of rehabilitation; for exam­
ple, some work almost exclusively
with the blind, some with alco­
holics, and others with the men­
tally ill or retarded. Additional
specialties are expected to develop
as services for other types of dif­
ficulties are included in rehabili­
tation programs.
The time spent in the direct
counseling of each individual
varies with the person and the
nature of his disability, as well
as with the counselor’s workload.
Some rehabilitation counselors
are responsible for many persons
in various stages of rehabilitation;
on the other hand, less experi­
enced or specialized counselors
working with the severely handi­
capped may handle relatively few
cases at a time. In addition to
working with the handicapped
person, the counselor also must
maintain close contact with other
professional people working with
handicapped persons, members of
their families, other agencies and
civic groups, and private employ­
ers who hire the handicapped. The
counselor often is responsible for
related activities, such as em­
ployer education and community
publicity for the rehabilitation

Places of Em ploym ent

Counselor checks on progress of blind trainee.

About 12,000 rehabilitation
counselors were employed in
1968; more than 9,000 were full­
time counselors. About threefourths of all rehabilitation coun­
selors were employed in State and
local rehabilitation agencies fi­
nanced cooperatively with Fed­
eral and State funds. The remain­
der were employed by hospitals,
labor unions, insurance compa­
nies, special schools, rehabilita­
tion centers, sheltered workshops,
and other public and private agen-



cies that conducted rehabilitation
programs and provided job place­
ment services for the disabled. In
addition, nearly 350 counseling
psychologists in the Veterans Ad­
ministration provided rehabilita­
tion counseling.
An estimated 20 percent of all

T rain in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
A basic educational require­
ment for entry into this occupa­
tion is graduation from a college
or university with course credits
in counseling, psychology, and re­
lated fields. At present, however,
uniform requirements have not
been established. Most employers
prefer to hire people having a
master’s degree in vocational or
rehabilitation counseling or in a
related discipline such as psychol­
ogy, education, or social work; a
few require a doctorate in coun­
seling psychology. Employers are
placing increasing emphasis on
the master’s degree as the mini­
mum educational standard for the
profession. Work experience in re­
lated fields, such as vocational
counseling and placement, social
work, psychology, education, and
other types of counseling, also is
given considerable weight by
some employers, especially when
considering applicants who have
only the bachelor’s degree. Some
agencies assist employees having
bachelor’s degrees to attain grad­
uate degrees through work-study
Two years usually are required
to complete the master’s degree in
the fields of study preferred for
rehabilitation counseling. The
curriculum for the master’s degree
may include a basic foundation
in psychology and courses in med­
ical aspects of rehabilitation, cul­

tural and psycho-social aspects of
disability, survey of therapeutic
care and rehabilitation, legislative
aspects of rehabilitation, counsel­
ing theories and techniques, occu­
pational and educational informa­
tion, community resources, place­
ment and follow-up, and tests
and measurements.
To earn the doctorate in reha­
bilitation counseling or in coun­
seling psychology may require a
total of 4 to 6 years of graduate
study. Intensive training in psy­
chology, other social sciences, and
the biological sciences, as well as
research methodology, is required
for the doctorate.
In the 1968-69 school year, 69
colleges and universities offered
financial assistance to a limited
number of graduate students spe­
cializing in rehabilitation counsel­
ing through training grants pro­
vided by the U.S. Department of
Health, Education, and Welfare,
Rehabilitation Services Adminis­
tration. In these graduate pro­
grams, an internship (supervised
work in a rehabilitation setting)
is required.
In approximately three-fourths
of the State Rehabilitation Agen­
cies, applicants are required to
comply with State civil service
and merit system rules. In most
cases these regulations require ap­
plicants to pass a written compe­
titive examination, which some­
times is supplemented by an in­
dividual interview and evaluation
by a board of examiners. A few
States require counselors to be
residents of the State in which
they work.
Counselors having limited ex­
perience usually are assigned the
least difficult cases; experienced
and highly trained counselors are
assigned persons having extreme
or multiple disabilities that rep­
problems. After obtaining consid­
erable experience, rehabilitation
counselors may be advanced to

supervisory positions or to top ad­
ministrative jobs.
Among the personal qualifica­
tions needed for success in this
field are an understanding of hu­
man behavior, patience, and a ca­
pacity for working with people
in solving their problems.

Em ploym ent O utlook
The outlook for well-qualified
rehabilitation counselors is ex­
through the 1970’s. Persons who
have graduate work in rehabilita­
tion counseling or in related fields
will have the best opportunities
for employment. Opportunities
also will be available for persons
with a bachelor’s degree and re­
lated work experience.
The supply of qualified reha­
bilitation counselors was inade­
quate to meet the counseling
needs of the mentally and physic­
ally handicapped in 1968. The
Rehabilitation Services Adminis­
tration estimates that at least
3,000 new counselors will be
needed annually through the
1970’s to staff new and expand­
ing programs and to replace coun­
selors who leave the profession.
This annual demand exceeds con­
siderably the number presently
being trained at graduate levels
and entering the field. Over the
next few years, the supply of re­
habilitation counselors may be
augmented to some extent by
people from related fields, such as
psychology, social work, and
Among the factors contributing
substantially to the long-run de­
mand for the services of rehabili­
tation counselors will be popula­
tion growth, with related in­
creases in the number of handi­
capped to be served; the exten­
sion of vocational rehabilitation
to greater numbers of more se­
verely disabled persons; increas-

ing support for social welfare in
general; and the growing aware­
ness that expenditures for reha­
bilitation often are returned as
savings on the appropriations for
custodial care or health and social
welfare programs.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
According to the U.S. Depart­
ment of Health, Education, and
Welfare the beginning salaries of
ployed in State agencies generally
ranged from $6,000 to $8,500 a
year in mid-1968. Counselors hav­
ing a doctorate in psychology
working with the disabled in the
Veterans Administration were
hired in late 1968 at annual sal­
aries ranging generally from
$12,243 to $14,889, depending on
the applicant's experience and
other qualifications.
Counselors may spend only
part of their time counseling in
their offices, and the remainder in
the field working with prospective
employers, training agencies, and
the disabled person's family. The
ability to drive a car often is nec­
essary for field work.
Rehabilitation counselors gen­
erally work a 40-hour week or
less with little overtime work re­
quired; however, they often attend
community and civic meetings in
the evenings. They usually are
covered by sick and annual leave
benefits, and pension and health

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Additional information on re­
habilitation counseling as a career
may be obtained from:
American Psychological Associa­
tion, Inc., 1200 17th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

American Rehabilitation Counsel­
ing Association, 1607 New
Hampshire Ave. NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20009.
National Rehabilitation Counsel­
ing Association, 1522 K St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20005.

A list of colleges and universi­
ties that have received grants to
provide rehabilitation traineeships on a graduate level is avail­
able from:
U.S. Department of Health, Edu­
cation, and Welfare, Rehabili­
tation Services Administration,
Washington, D.C. 20201.

(D.O.T. 045.108)

N atu re of the W ork
School counselors are con­
cerned with the educational, voca­
tional, and social development of
students. In carrying out their
responsibilities, counselors work
with students individually and in
groups, with their teachers and
other school personnel, their par­
ents, and with community agen­
Counselors in secondary schools
obtain information relevant to



educational and vocational plan­
ning from student interviews,
school and other records, and
tests that assist in estimating a
student’s chances of success in a
given course of study or occupa­
tion. The counselor may supervise
or administer the tests. The coun­
selor helps the student analyze
and interpret the data and de­
velops with him, and sometimes
with his parents, a course of study
and an educational plan fitting
his abilities, interests, and voca­
tional oportunities.
In their work, counselors may
provide occupational information,
including description of the work,
training requirements, earnings,
and outlook. They maintain files
or libraries of occupational litera­
ture for students and parents to
use. They also arrange trips to
factories and business firms and
show vocational films. Many
counselors conduct “ career day”
programs. School counselors also
provide information about high
school academic and vocational
education programs and the vari­
ous opportunities for education
and vocational training beyond
high school, including 2- and 4year colleges; trade, technical and
business schools; apprenticeship
programs, and programs under
the Manpower Development and
Training Act of 1962.
Counselors in secondary schools
also may help students find parttime work while in school to en­
able them to stay in school or as
part of their vocational prepara­
tion. They also may assist stu­
dents in locating fulltime employ­
ment after leaving school or may
refer them to community employ­
ment services. Some counselors
conduct followup studies of recent
graduates and dropouts, partici­
pate in surveys of local job oppor­
tunities, and conduct or cooperate
in research concerning the effect­
iveness of the educational and
guidance programs.

Many secondary school coun­
selors help students individually
with personal and social problems
that are common to adolescence.
Counselors also lead discussion
groups on topics related to stu­
dent interests and problems.
Elementary school counselors
assist children to make maximum
use of their abilities through early
identification of their intellectual,
emotional, social, and physical
characteristics, and diagnosis of
learning difficulties. The methods
used in counseling elementary
school children necessarily differ
in many respects from those used
with older students. Classroom
observation and play activity are
among the techniques used on
children in the lower grades. Ele­
mentary school counselors spend
much of their time consulting
with teachers and parents. They
also work closely with other staff
members of the school, including
psychologists and social workers.
Some school counselors, partic­
ularly in secondary schools, may
teach classes in occupational in­
formation, social studies, or other
subjects in addition to counseling.
They also may supervise school
clubs or other extracurricular ac­
tivities, often after regular school

Places of Em ploym ent
Approximately 54,000 persons
performed some counseling func­
tions in the public secondary
schools during the 1968-69 school
year. More than 29,000 were full­
time counselors. Counseling ser­
vices in the public elementary
schools are being steadily expand­
ed. In 1968-69, about 5,500 per­
sons performed counseling duties
at this level. In addition, an in­
creasing number of counselors are
being employed in private elemen­
tary and secondary schools.

The majority of counselors are
in large schools. An increasing
number of school districts, how­
ever, are providing guidance ser­
vices to their small schools by as­
signing more than one school to
a counselor.
About one-half of all high
school counselors are women.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Most States require counselors
to have both a counseling and a
teaching certificate. (See state­
ment on Elementary and Second­
ary School Teachers for teaching
certificate requirements.) A coun­
seling certificate requires gradu­
ate level work and usually from
1 to 5 years of teaching experi­
ence. A person planning to coun­
sel should obtain the specific re­
quirements of the State in which
he plans to work, since require­
ments vary considerably among
the States and are changing
Undergraduate college stu­
dents interested in becoming
school counselors usually enroll
in the regular program of teacher
education, preferably taking ad­
ditional courses in psychology and
sociology. After graduating from
college, they may acquire the
teaching or other experience re­
quired either before or while
studying for their advanced de­
grees. A few States substitute
counseling internship for teaching
experience. In some States, teach­
ers who have completed part of
the courses required for the mas­
ter’s degree are eligible for pro­
visional certification and may
counsel under supervision while
taking additional courses. The
subject areas of the required grad­
uate level courses usually include
individual appraisal, vocational
development and informational
services, counseling theory, sta-


tistics and research, group proce­
dures, professional relations and
ethics, and program development
and management.
field experience or internship is
provided in an increasing number
of programs. Counselor education
programs at the graduate level
are available in about 370 colleges
and universities, most frequently
in the departments of education
or psychology. To obtain a mas­
ter’s degree, a student must com­
plete 1 to 2 years of graduate
study. School counselors may ad­
vance to counselor supervisors
or directors of pupil personnel
services, or to other administra­
tive positions within the school

E m ploym ent O utlook
Employment opportunities for
well-trained school counselors are
expected to be excellent through
the 1970’s. In 1968, the supply of
qualified counselors was inade­
quate to meet the existing de­
mand, and this imbalance is ex­
pected to persist in the years
ahead. Job openings for counsel­
ors are expected to increase rapid­
ly due to continued strengthening
of counseling services and some
increase in secondary school en­
rollments. The average ratio of
counselors to students as a whole
is still well below generally ac­
cepted standards, despite the fi­
nancial aid which the Federal
Government has provided to
States for school counseling pro­
grams under the National Defense
Education Act of 1958, as amend­
ed, and other legislation.

In addition to the number of
counselors needed to take care of
enrollment growth in secondary
schools and strengthening of
counseling services, many thou­
sands of new counselors also will
be required each year to replace
those leaving the profession. A c­
cording to data from the U.S. Of­
fice of Education, about 10 per­
cent of all counselors leave the
field annually because of family
responsibilities, retirement, pro­
motion to administrative jobs, or
for other reasons.
Among the factors affecting the
employment growth of school
counselors is the increasing recog­
nition of counseling as an essen­
tial educational service for all
pupils— the average, the gifted,
the slow, the disadvantaged, and
the handicapped. Moreover, re­
cent Federal legislation such as
the Elementary and Secondary
Education Act amendments of
1966, the National Defense Edu­
cation amendments of 1966, and
the Vocational Education amend­
ments of 1968 has extended sup­
port of school counseling services
to elementary schools, vocational
and technical schools, and junior
Also contributing to the in­
creased demand for counseling
services is the growing public
awareness of the value of guidance
services in helping students with
personal and social problems
which, in turn, may help reduce
the number of school dropouts.
Students also will be seeking ad­
vice from school counselors about
educational requirements for en­
try jobs, the job changes caused
by automation and other tech­

nological advances, college en­
trance requirements, and places
of employment.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
According to the U.S. Office of
Education, the average annual
salary of school counselors was
about $8,500 in the 1967-68
school year. Many school coun­
selors had annual earnings higher
than those of classroom teachers
preparation and experience. (See
statements on Kindergarten and
Elementary School Teachers and
Secondary School Teachers.)
In most school systems, coun­
selors receive regular salary in­
crements as their counseling ex­
perience increases, and as they
obtain additional education. Some
counselors supplement their in­
come by part-time consulting or
other work with private or public
counseling centers, government
agencies, or private industry.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Information on colleges and
universities offering training in
guidance and counseling, as well
as on the certification require­
ments of each State, may be ob­
tained from the State department
of education at the State capital.
Additional information on this
field of work may be obtained
American School Counselor Asso­
ciation, 1605 New Hampshire
Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.


Engineers contribute in count­
less ways to the welfare, techno­
logical progress, and defense of
the Nation. They develop com­
plex electric power, water supply,
and waste disposal systems to
meet the problems of urban liv­
ing. They design industrial ma­
chinery and equipment needed to
manufacture goods on a mass pro­
duction basis, and heating, air
equipment for the comfort of man.
Also, they develop scientific
equipment to help probe the mys­
teries of outer space and the
depths of the ocean, and design
and supervise the construction of
highways and rapid transit sys­
tems for safe and more convenient
transportation. In addition, they
design and develop consumer
products such as automobiles and
refrigerators. They also provide
the raw materials that make all
this possible.
This chapter contains an over­
all discussion of engineering, fol­
lowed by separate statements on
several branches of the field—
aerospace, agricultural, ceramic,
chemical, civil, electrical, indus­
trial, mechanical, metallurgical,
and mining engineering. Al­
though most engineers specialize
in these or other specific branches
of the profession, a considerable
body of basic knowledge and
methodology is common to most
areas of engineering. Also, unified
curriculums in engineering (with­
out specialty designation) and in
engineering science are increasing
in popularity. Therefore, young
people considering engineering as
a career should become familiar
with the general nature of engi­
neering as well as with its various

N atu re of the W ork
Engineers develop methods for
converting the raw materials and
sources of power found in nature
into useful products at a reason­
able cost in terms of time and
money. They use basic scientific
principles to solve the problems
involved in designing goods and
services and developing methods
for their production. The empha­
sis on the application of scientific
principles, rather than on their
discovery, is the main factor that
distinguishes the work of the en­
gineer from that of the scientist.
For example, a physicist may dis­
cover that the properties of a gas
change when it is converted into
a liquid at extremely low temper­
atures, but it is the engineer who
develops uses for the liquid, or
economical methods for its pro­
In designing or developing a
new product, engineers must con­
sider many factors. For example,
in designing a space capsule, they
must calculate how much heat,
radiation, air pressure, and other
forces the capsule must withstand
during its flight. Experiments
must be conducted which relate
these factors to various construc­
tion materials, as well as to the
many possible capsule sizes,
shapes, and weights. Equally im­
portant are the human needs and
limitations of the people who must
operate the equipment. In addi­
tion, the engineer must take into
account the relative cost of the
required materials and the cost
and time of the fabrication pro­
cess. Similar factors must be con­
sidered by engineers who design
and develop a wide variety of
products ranging from transistor
radios and washing machines to
electronic computers and indus­
trial machinery.

Besides design and develop­
ment, engineers are engaged in
many other activities. Many work
in inspection, quality control, and
other activities related to produc­
tion in manufacturing industries,
mines, and agriculture. Others are
in administrative and manage­
ment positions where knowledge
of engineering methods is of great
importance. A large number plan
and supervise the construction of
buildings and highways. Many are
employed in sales positions, where
they must discuss the technical
aspects of a product or assist in
planning its installation or use.
(See statement on Manufactur­
ers’ Salesmen.) Some conduct re­
search aimed at supplying the
basic technological data needed
for the design and production of
new or improved products. Some
engineers having considerable ex­
perience work as consultants. A
relatively small group teach in
the engineering schools of colleges
and universities.
Most engineers specialize in one
of the many branches of the pro­
fession. More than 25 engineering
specialties are recognized by the
profession or in engineering school
curriculums. Besides these major
branches— 10 of which are dis­
cussed separately in this chapter
— there are many subdivisions of
the branches. Structural and
highway engineering, for example,
are subdivisions of civil engineer­
ing. Engineers may also become
specialists in the engineering
problems of one industry, or in a
particular field of technology such
as propulsion or guidance sys­
tems. Nevertheless, the basic
knowledge required for all areas
of engineering often makes it pos­
sible for engineers to shift from
one field of specialization to an­
other, particularly for those be­
ginning their careers.
Engineers within each of the
branches may apply their spe­
cialized knowledge to engineering
problems in many fields. For ex­
ample, electrical engineers may


work in the fields of medicine,
missile guidance, or electric power
distribution. Because engineering
problems are usually complex, the
work in some applied fields cuts
across the traditional branches.
Thus, engineers in one field often
work closely with specialists in
other scientific and engineering

Places of E m ploym ent
Engineering is the second larg­
est professional occupation, ex­
ceeded in size only by teaching;
for men it is the largest profession.
More than 1 million engineers
were employed in the United
States in 1968.
Manufacturing industries em­
ployed more than half of all engi­
neers— about 575,000 in 1968.
The manufacturing industries em­
ploying the largest numbers of
engineers were the electrical
equipment, aircraft and parts,
machinery, chemicals, ordnance,
instruments, primary metals, fab­
ricated metal products and motor
vehicles industries. About 300,000
engineers were employed in non­
manufacturing industries in 1968,
primarily in the construction,
public utilities, engineering and
architectural services, and busi­
ness and management consulting
services industries.
Federal, State, and local gov­
ernment agencies employed an­
other large group of engineers—
more than 150,000 in 1968. Over
half of these were employed by
the Federal Government, chiefly
by the Department of Defense.
Other Federal agencies which em­
ployed significant numbers of en­
gineers were the Departments of
the Interior and Agriculture,
Transportation and the National
Aeronautics and Space Adminis­
tration. Most engineers in State
and local government agencies

were employed by highway and
public works departments.
Educational institutions em­
ployed almost 40,000 engineers in
1968, in research as well as in
teaching positions. A small num­
ber were employed by nonprofit
research organizations.
Engineers are employed in ev­

ery State, in small cities as well
as large, and in some rural areas.
The profession also offers oppor­
tunities for employment overseas.
Some branches of engineering are
concentrated in particular indus­
tries, as indicated in the state­
ments presented later in this



T rain in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
A bachelor’s degree in engineer­
ing is the generally accepted edu­
cational requirement for entrance
into engineering positions. Wellqualified graduates having train­
ing in physics, one of the other
natural sciences, or in mathemat­
ics may qualify for some begin­
ning positions in engineering.
Some persons without a degree
are able to become engineers after
long experience in a related occu­
pation— such as draftsmen or en­
gineering technician— and some
college level training.
Advanced training is being em­
phasized for an increasing number
of jobs. Graduate degrees are de­
sirable for beginning teaching and
research positions, and are help­
ful for advancement in most types
of work. Furthermore, in some en­
gineering specialties, such as nu­
clear engineering, training is gen­
erally available only at the grad­
uate level.
Education leading to a bache­
lor’s degree in engineering is of­
fered by about 265 colleges, uni­
versities, and engineering schools
located throughout the country.
Although curriculums in the larg­
er branches of engineering are of­
fered in most schools, some of the
smaller engineering specialties
are taught in relatively few insti­
tutions. A student who desires to
specialize in one of the smaller
branches should, therefore, inves­
tigate the curriculums offered by
the various schools before select­
ing his college. For admission to
an undergraduate program, engi­
neering schools usually require
high school courses in mathemat­
ics and the physical sciences and
place emphasis on the general
quality of the applicant’s high
school work.
In the typical 4-year engineer­
ing curriculum, the first 2 years
are spent mainly in studying ba­

sic science— mathematics, phys­
ics, and chemistry— and the hu­
manities, social sciences, and Eng­
lish. The last 2 years are devoted
chiefly to the engineering sci­
ences, and to engineering courses
with emphasis on the branch of
engineering in which the student
is specializing. Some engineering
programs offer only general en­
gineering training in the under­
graduate curriculum, allowing the
student to choose a specialty in
graduate school or acquire one
through work experience.
Some engineering curriculums
require more than 4 years to com­
plete. Approximately 25 institu­
tions have 5-year programs lead­
ing to the bachelor’s degree. In
addition, about 50 engineering
schools have arrangements with
liberal arts colleges whereby a
student spends 3 years in the col­
lege and 2 years in the engineer­
ing school, receiving a bachelor’s
degree from each. This type of
program usually offers the student
an opportunity for greater diver­
sification in his studies.
Some institutions have 5-or 6year cooperative plans under
which students spend alternate
periods in engineering school and
in employment in industry or gov­
ernment. Under most of these
plans, classroom study is coordi­
nated with practical industrial ex­
perience. In addition to the prac­
tical experience he gains in this
type of program, the student is
provided an opportunity to fi­
nance part of his education.
Engineering graduates usually
begin work as trainees or as as­
sistants to experienced engineers.
Many large companies have spe­
cial training programs for their
beginning engineers which are de­
signed to acquaint them with spe­
cific industrial practices. These
programs are valuable in deter­
mining the type of work for which
the individual is best suited. As
they gain experience, engineers

may move up to positions of
greater responsibility. Those with
proven ability are often able to
advance to high-level technical
and administrative positions, and
increasingly large numbers are
being promoted to top executive
All 50 States and the District
of Columbia have laws providing
for the licensing (or registration)
of those engineers whose work
may affect life, health, or prop­
erty; or who offer their services
to the public. In 1968, about
325,000 engineers were registered
under these laws in the United
States. Generally, registration re­
quirements include graduation
from an accredited engineering
curriculum, plus at least 4 years
of experience and the passing of
a State examination. Examining
boards may accept a longer period
of experience as a substitute for
a college degree.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment opportunities for
engineers are expected to be very
good through the 1970’s. Engi­
neering has been one of the fastest
growing professions in recent
years and requirements for engi­
neers are expected to increase
very rapidly. However, engineers
who are not well grounded in en­
gineering fundamentals and those
whose specialization is very nar­
row could be affected adversely
by skill obsolescence caused by
shifts in defense activities and by
There will probably be an espe­
cially strong demand for new en­
gineering graduates who have
training in the most recently de­
veloped engineering principles and
techniques, and for engineers who
can apply engineering principles
to the medical, biological, and
other sciences. New graduates
having advanced degrees will have


excellent opportunities in research
and teaching.
Among the factors underlying
the anticipated increase in de­
mand for engineers is the growth
in population, and the resulting
expansion of industry to meet the
demand for additional goods and
services. The need for engineers
probably also will rise as a result
of the increasingly larger amount
of engineering time required for
the development of complex in­
dustrial products and processes
and the increasing automation of
Another factor which will tend
to increase the demand for engi­
neers is the expected continued
growth of expenditures for re­
search and development. These
expenditures have increased ra­
pidly in past years, and it is likely
that they will continue to rise
through the 1970’s, although
somewhat more slowly than in the
past. The growth of research ac­
tivities will result in the expansion
of existing fields of work and in
the creation of new ones, especially
in the fields of automated ma­
chinery and computers.
The level of defense expendi­
tures is an important determinant
of the demand for engineers be­
cause a large proportion (about
30 percent in 1967) of all engi­
neers are engaged in activities re­
lated to national defense. The out­
look for engineers presented here
is based on the assumption that
defense activity (as measured by
expenditures) will be somewhat

higher than the level prior to the
Vietnam buildup, approximating
the level of the early 1960’s. If
defense activity should differ sub­
stantially from that level, the de­
mand for engineers will be af­
fected accordingly.
In addition to the engineers
needed to fill new positions, thou­
sands more will have to be trained
to replace those who transfer to
other occupations, retire, or die.
These losses to the profession are
expected to create more than
35,000 job openings annually
through the 1970’s.
The preceding analysis relates
to the outlook for the engineering
profession as a whole. The em­
ployment outlook in various
branches of engineering is dis­
cussed in the statements on these
branches later in this chapter.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Average starting salary offers
for engineering graduates having
the bachelor’s degree were about
$9,200 a year in private industry
during the 1967-68 academic
year, according to a survey con­
ducted by the College Placement
Council. Graduates having the
master’s degree and no experience
received offers averaging almost
$11,000 a year, while those having
the doctor’s degree averaged
about $15,000 to start.
Starting salaries for new engi­
neering graduates having the
bachelor’s degree varied some­


Aeronautical Engineering ................. ...............
Chemical Engineering ....................... ...............
Civil ..................................................... ...............
Electrical ............................................ ...............
Industrial ............................................ ...............
Mechanical .......................................... ...............
Metallurgical ...................................... ...............
1 90 percent earned more than the amount shown.
2 10 percent earned more than the amount shown.

A v e ra g e






what by branch, as shown in the
accompanying tabulation based
on the same 1968 survey.
In the Federal Government in
late 1968, engineers having the
bachelor’s degree and no experi­
ence could start at $7,456 or
$9,078 a year, depending on their
college records. Beginning engi­
neers having the bachelor’s degree
and 1 or 2 years of graduate work
could start at $9,078 or $10,154.
Those having the Ph. D. degree
could begin at $11,563 or $12,580.
In colleges and universities, the
salary of beginning engineers with
the master’s degree averaged
about $9,000 a year; and with the
Ph. D. degree, $11,500. (Also see
statement on College and Univer­
sity Teachers.)
Most engineers can expect an
increase in earnings as they gain
experience. For example, in in­
dustry in 1968, according to an
Engineering Manpower Commis­
sion Survey the average (median)
salary of engineers having 21 to
23 years of experience was about
$17,000, 80 percent higher than
beginning engineers. Only 10 per­
cent of those having 21 to 23
years of experience earned less
than $12,500 a year, and over 10
percent earned $24,000 or more.
Some in top-level executive posi­
tions had much higher earnings.
Although engineers generally
work under quiet conditions
found in modem offices and re­
search laboratories, they may be
involved in more active work— at
a missile site preceding the
launching of a space vehicle,
in a mine, at a construction site,
or at some other out-of-doors

Sources of A dditional In fo rm atio n
General information on engi­
neering careers— including stu­
dent selection and guidance, pro­
fessional training and ethics, and


salaries and other economic as­
pects of engineering— may be ob­
tained from:
Engineers’ Council for Profes­
sional Development, 345 East
47th St., New York, N.Y. 10017.
Engineering Manpower Commis­
sion, Engineers Joint Council,
345 East 47th St., New York,
N.Y. 10017.
National Society of Professional
Engineers, 2029 K St., NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20006.

Information on engineering
schools and curriculums and on
training and other qualifications
needed for entrance into the pro­
fession also may be obtained from
the Engineers Council for Profes­
sional Development. Information
on registration of engineers may
be obtained from the National
Society of Professional Engineers.
In addition to the organizations
listed above, other engineering
societies represent the individual
branches of the engineering pro­
fession; some are listed with the
branches presented later in this
chapter. Each can provide infor­
mation about careers in the par­
ticular branch of engineering.
Many other engineering organi­
zations are listed in the following
publications available in most
Engineering Societies Directory,
published by Engineers Joint
Scientific and Technical Societies
of the United States and Can­
ada, published by the National
Academy of Sciences, National
Research Council.

Some engineers are members of
labor unions. Information on en­
gineering unions may be obtained
The American Federation of
Technical Engineers (AFLCIO), 1126 16th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.


(D.O.T. 002.081)

N ature of the W ork
Aerospace engineers play a vital
role in America’s space age acti­
vities. Engineers in this branch
of the profession work on all types
of aircraft and spacecraft includ­
ing missiles, rockets, and conven­
tional propeller-driven and jetpowered planes. They are con­
cerned with all phases of the de­
velopment of aerospace products
from the initial planning and de­
sign to the final manufacture and
Aerospace engineers usually
specialize in a particular area of
work, such as structural design,
guidance and control, instrumen­
tation, propulsion, materials, test­

ing, or production methods. They
also may specialize in a particular
type of aerospace product such as
passenger planes, jet-powered
military aircraft, rockets, satel­
lites, or manned space capsules.
Engineers working in the aircraft
field are usually called aeronaut­
ical engineers. Those in the field
of missiles, rockets, and space­
craft often are referred to as astronautical engineers.
Places of Em ploym ent
Nearly 65,000 aerospace engi­
neers were employed in 1968,
mainly in the aircraft and parts
industry. Some worked for Fed­
eral Government agencies, pri­
marily the National Aeronautics
and Space Administration and
the Department of Defense. Small
numbers worked for commercial


airlines, consulting firms, and col­
leges and universities.

(D.O.T. 013.081)

E m ploym ent O utlook
Employment opportunities for
aerospace engineers are expected
to be favorable through the
1970’s. Continuing developments
in supersonic, subsonic, and verti­
cal lift aircraft, and advancement
in space and missile activities
should result in a moderate in­
crease in requirements for aero­
space engineers. Additional job
opportunities also will rise from
the need to replace engineers who
transfer to other fields of work,
retire, or die. However, engineers
who are not well grounded in en­
gineering fundamentals, and those
whose specialization is very nar­
row, could be affected adversely
by skill obsolescence caused by
shifts in defense activities and by
rapidly changing technology.
The outlook for aerospace en­
gineers presented here is based on
the assumption that defense ac­
tivity (as measured by expendi­
tures) will be somewhat higher
than the level prior to the Viet­
nam buildup, approximating the
level of the early 1960’s. If de­
fense activity should differ sub­
stantially from that level, the de­
mand for aerospace engineers will
be affected accordingly. (See in­
troductory section of this chapter
for discussion on training require­
ments and earnings. See also
chapter on Occupations in Air­
craft, Missile, and Spacecraft

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
American Institute of Aeronautics
and Astronautics, Inc., 1290
Avenue of the Americas, New
York, N.Y. 10019.

ment of Agriculture. Some are
employed by colleges and univer­
sities and a few are employed by
State and local governments.

N ature of the W ork
Agricultural engineers use basic
engineering principles and con­
cepts to develop machinery,
equipment and methods to im­
prove the efficiency and economy
of the production, processing, and
distribution of food and other
agricultural products. They are
concerned primarily with the de­
sign of farm machinery, equip­
ment, and structures; the utiliza­
tion of electrical energy on farms
and in food and feed processing
plants; the conservation and man­
agement of soil and water re­
sources; and the design and op­
eration of processing equipment
to prepare agricultural products
for market. They usually special­
ize in a particular area of work,
such as research and develop­
ment, design, testing and appli­
cation, production, sales, or

Em ploym ent Outlook
Employment of agricultural en­
gineers is expected to grow mod­
erately through
Among the factors which will con­
tribute to a greater demand for
these engineers are the growing
mechanization of farm operations,
increasing emphasis on conserva­
tion of resources, expanding pop­
ulation— with a corresponding
demand for food and fibre— and
the broadening use of agricultural
products and wastes as industrial
raw materials. Additional engi­
neers will be needed to work on
problems concerning the enor­
mous energy and power require­
ments of farms. (See introduc­
tory section of this chapter for
discussion on training require­
ments and earnings. See also

Places of Em ploym ent

Sources of A dditional Inform ation

Most of the estimated 12,000
agricultural engineers in 1968
were employed in private indus­
try, especially by manufacturers
of farm equipment and specialized
lines of field, barnyard, process­
ing, and household equipment;
electrical service companies; and
distributors of farm equipment
and supplies. Some worked for en­
gineering consultants who supply
technical or management services
to farmers and farm related in­
dustries; others were independent
The Federal Government em­
ploys about 700 agricultural en­
gineers— chiefly in the Soil Con­
servation Service and Agricultural
Research Service of the Depart­

American Society of Agricultural
Engineers, P.O. Box 229, Jo­
seph, Mich. 49085.

(D.O.T. 006.081)

N ature of the W ork
methods for processing clay, sili­
cates, and other nonmetallic min­
erals into a wide variety of ceram­
ic products, ranging from glass­
ware, cement, and bricks, to coat­
ings and refractories for missile


nose cones. They may also design
and supervise the construction of
the plant and equipment used in
the manufacture of these prod­
ucts. Many ceramic engineers are
engaged in research and develop­
ment work. Some are employed
in administration, production,
and sales; others work as consult­
ants or teach in colleges and
Ceramic engineers usually spe­
cialize in one or more products—
for example, products of refrac­
tories (fire- and heat-resistant
materials, such as firebrick);
whiteware (such as porcelain and
china dinnerware or high voltage
electrical insulators); structural
materials (such as brick, tile, and
terra cotta); electronic ceramics
(such as ferrites for memory sys­
tems and microwave devices);
protective and refractory coatings
for metals; glass; abrasives; and
fuel elements for atomic energy.
Places of E m ploym ent
Most of the estimated 10,000
ceramic engineers in 1968 were
employed in manufacturing in­
dustries— primarily in the stone,
clay, and glass industries. Others
worked in the iron and steel, elec­
trical equipment, aerospace, and
chemical industries which pro­
duce or use ceramic products.
Some were employed by educa­
tional institutions, independent
research organizations, and the
Federal Government.

having degrees in ceramic engi­
neering also is small. Thus, op­
portunities for new graduates
should be excellent.
The growth of programs related
to nuclear energy, electronics, and
space exploration will provide
many of the opportunities for
ceramic engineers. Ceramic ma­
terials which are corrosion-resist­
ant, and capable of withstanding
radiation and extremely high tem­
peratures are becoming increas­
ingly important in the develop­
ment of nuclear reactors and
space vehicles. Increasing use of
the more traditional ceramic prod­
ucts, such as whiteware and abra­
sives, for consumer and industrial
use also will require additional
ceramic engineers to improve and
adapt these products to new re­
quirements. The growing use of
structural clay and tile products
in construction will add to em­
ployment opportunities in the
production of these items. Fur­
thermore, the development of new
glasses of unusual properties and
the expanding use of conventional
glasses in the construction and
container field probably will cre­
ate additional openings for ceram­
ic engineers. (See introductory
section of this chapter for discus­
sion on training requirements and

required to manufacture chemi­
cals and chemical products. They
also determine the best combina­
tion of chemical operations that
will result in the most efficient
manufacturing process. They of­
ten test their work by designing
and operating pilot plants.
The work in this branch of
engineering is so diversified and
complex that chemical engineers
frequently become specialists in
a particular type of chemical op­
eration such as oxidation, poly­
merization, distillation, or hydro­
genation. Others specialize in the
manufacture of a specific product
such as plastics, paper, or rubber.
Chemical engineers may be en­
gaged in research and develop­
ment, production, plant opera­
tion, design, sales, management
or teaching.

Sources of Additional Inform ation
American Ceramic Society, 4055
North High St., Columbus, Ohio

Em ploym ent O utlook
The outlook is for moderate
growth in the employment of ce­
ramic engineers through the
1970’s. Although ceramic engi­
neering is a small field and the
number of openings in any one
year will be small compared with
those in the large branches of en­
gineering, the number of graduates

(D.O.T. 008.081)

N ature of the W ork
Chemical engineers design the
chemical plants and equipment

Chemical engineer checks water quality.


Places of Em ploym ent
Approximately four-fifths of
the more than 50,000 chemical
engineers in the United States in
1968 were employed in manufac­
turing industries— primarily in
the chemicals industry. Some
were employed by government
agencies and by colleges and uni­
versities. A small number worked
for independent research insti­
tutes or engineering consulting
firms, or as independent consult­
ing engineers.

chemical engineers. (See intro­
ductory section of this chapter
for discussion on training re­
quirements and earnings. See al­
so the statement on Chemists
and chapter on Occupations
Sources of A dditional Inform ation
American Institute of Chemical
Engineers, 345 East 47th St.,
New York, N.Y. 10017.

E m ploym ent O utlook

(D.O.T. 005.081)

The outlook is for rapid growth
of employment in chemical engi­
neering through the 1970’s. The
major factors underlying this ex­
pected growth are expansion of
industry— the chemicals industry
in particular— and continued high
levels of expenditures for research
and development, in which a
large portion of chemical engi­
neers are employed. The growing
complexity of chemical processes
and the automation of these proc­
esses, will require additional
chemical engineers for work re­
lated to designing, building, and
maintaining the necessary plants
and equipment. Chemical engi­
neers also will be needed in many
relatively new areas of work, such
as the design and development of
nuclear reactors and nuclear fuel
processing for industrial use, and
research aimed at developing new
and better solid and liquid fuels
for rockets. Furthermore, the de­
velopment of new chemicals for
use in the manufacture of con­
sumer goods such as fertilizers,
drugs, and paints will probably
create additional openings for

N atu re of the W ork

Civil engineers design and su­
roads, harbors, airfields, tunnels,
bridges, water supply and sewage
systems, buildings, and many
other types of structures. Civil en­
gineering is so broad that many
specialties have developed with­
in it— among them are structural,
highway, hydraulic, sanitary en­
gineering, and soil mechanics.
Many civil engineers are in su­
pervisory or administrative posi­
tions, ranging from site super­
visor of a construction project or
city engineer to top-level execu­
tive positions. Some are engaged
in design, planning, research, in­
spection, or maintenance activi­
ties. Others teach in colleges
and universities or work as

Places of Em ploym ent
Approximately 180,000 civil en­
gineers were employed in the

Civil engineer measures model for one
of its structural elements.

United States in 1968. The ma­
jority were employed by Federal,
State, and local government agen­
cies and the construction indus­
try. Large numbers were employ­
ed by consulting engineering and
architectural firms, or worked as
independent consulting engineers.
Some were employed by public
utilities, railroads, and education­
al institutions. Others worked in
the iron and steel industries
and other major manufacturing

Civil engineers work in all parts
of the country, in every State and
city— usually in or near the maj­
or industrial and commercial cen­
ters. However, since these engi­
neers are frequently called upon
to work at construction sites, they
are sometimes stationed in re­
mote areas of the United States



or in foreign countries. Further­
more, civil engineers in some po­
sitions often are required to move
from place to place to work on
different projects.
E m ploym ent O utlook
The outlook in civil engineer­
ing— one of the largest and oldest
branches of the profession— is for
continued growth through the
The expanding employment op­
portunities for civil engineers will
result from the growing needs for
housing, industrial buildings, and
highway transportation systems
created by an increasing popula­
tion and expanding economy.
Work related to the problems of
urban environment, such as water
and sewage systems, air and wat­
er pollution, and giant urban re­
development projects, may also
require additional civil engineers.
Large numbers of civil engi­
neers will also be needed each year
to replace those who retire or die.
The number of civil engineers
needed annually to fill these va­
cancies— estimated to be about
3,400 in 1968— will probably rise
slowly in the future. (See intro­
ductory section of this chapter for
discussion on training require­
ments and earnings.)
Sources of A dditional Inform ation
American Society of Civil Engi­
neers, 345 East 47th St., New
York, N.Y. 10017.

(D.O.T. 003.081, .151, and .187)

N atu re of the W ork
Electrical engineers design, de­
velop, and supervise the manu­

facture of electrical and electronic
equipment— including
motors and generators; communi­
cations equipment; electronic ap­
paratus such as television, radar,
computers, and missile guidance
systems; and electrical appli­
ances of all kinds. They also de­
sign and participate in the opera­
tion of facilities for generating
and distributing electric power.
Electrical engineers usually spe­
cialize in a major area of work
such as electronics, electrical
equipment manufacturing, com­
munications, or power. Many spe­
cialize in subdivisions of these
broad areas; for example, elec­
tronics engineers may specialize
in computers or in missile guid­
ance and tracking systems.
A large number of electrical
engineers are engaged in research,
development, and design activi­
ties. Another large group is em­
ployed in administrative and
management positions. Others are
employed in various manufactur­
ing operations or in technical
sales or teaching positions.

Places of Em ploym ent
Electrical engineering is the
largest branch of the profession.
It is estimated that approximate­
ly 230,000 electrical engineers
were employed in the United
States in 1968. They were em­
ployed chiefly by manufacturers
of electrical and electronic equip­
ment, aircraft and parts, business
machines, and professional and
scientific equipment. Many were
employed by telephone and tele­
graph and electric light and pow­
er companies. Sizable numbers
were employed by government
agencies and by colleges and uni­
versities. Others worked for con­
struction firms, for engineering
consultants, or as independent
consulting engineers.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment opportunities for
electrical engineers are expected
to increase very rapidly through
the 1970’s. An increased demand
for electrical equipment to auto­
processes, using such items as
computers and sensing devices, is
expected to be among the major
factors contributing
to this
growth. The anticipated growing
demand for electrical and elec­
tronic consumer goods also is ex­
pected to create many job open­
ings for electrical engineers.
The outlook for electrical en­
gineers presented here is based
on the assumption that defense
activity (as measured by ex­
penditures) will be somewhat
higher than the level prior to the
Vietnam build-up, approximating
the level of the early 1960’s. If
defense activity should differ
substantially from that level, the
demand for electrical engineers
would be affected accordingly.
In addition to those needed to
fill new positions, many electrical
engineers will be required to re­
place personnel lost to the pro­
fession because of retirement or
death. The number needed to fill
these vacancies, estimated to be
about 2,400 in 1968, will probably
rise slowly in the future. (See in­
troductory section of this chapter
for discussion of training require­
ments and earnings. See also
chapter on Occupations in Elec­
tronics Manufacturing.)

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Institute of Electrical and Elec­
tronic Engineers, 345 East 47th
St., New York, N.Y. 10017.



(D.O.T. 012.081, .168 and .188)

N atu re of the W ork
Industrial engineers determine
the most effective methods of us­
ing the basic factors of produc­
tion— manpower, machines, and
materials. They are concerned
with people and “ things,” in con­
trast to engineers in other speci­
alties who generally are concern­
ed more with developmental work
in subject fields, such as power,
mechanics, structures, or mate­
They may design systems for
data processing and apply opera­
tions research techniques to com­
plex organizational, production,
and related problems. Industrial
engineers also develop manage­
ment control systems to aid in
financial planning and cost analy­
sis; design production planning
and control systems to insure co­
ordination of activities and to
control the quality of products;
and may design and improve sys­
tems for the physical distribu­
tion of goods and services. Other
activities of industrial engineers
include plant location surveys,
where consideration is given to
sources of raw materials, avail­
ability of a work force, financing,
and taxes; and the development
of wage and salary administration
and job evaluation programs.
Places of E m ploym ent
More than two-thirds of the
estimated 120,000 industrial en­
gineers employed in early 1968
were in manufacturing industries.
They were more widely distribut­
ed among manufacturing indus­
tries than were those in other
branches of engineering. Some
worked for insurance companies,
construction and mining firms,

Industrial engineer works with machine tool operator to set up production job.

and public utilities. Others were
employed by retail organizations
and other large business enter­
prises to improve operating effi­
ciency. Still others worked for
government agencies and educa­
tional institutions. A few were in­
dependent consulting engineers.
Em ploym ent Outlook
The outlook is for continued
rapid growth of employment in

this branch of the profession
through the 1970’s. The increas­
ing complexity of industrial oper­
ations and the expansion of auto­
mated processes, coupled with
the continued growth of the Na­
tion’s industries, are among the
major factors expected to in­
crease the demand for industrial
engineers. Growing recognition of
the importance of scientific man­
agement and safety engineering
in reducing costs and increasing



productivity also is expected to
stimulate the demand for persons
in this branch of engineering.
Besides those needed to fill new
positions, additional numbers of
industrial engineers will be re­
quired each year to replace those
who retire or die. The number
needed to fill these vacancies, es­
timated to be approximately
1,300 in 1968, will probably rise
slowly in the future. (See intro­
ductory section of this chapter
for discussion on training require­
ments and earnings.)

Sources of A d ditional Inform ation
American Institute of Industrial
Engineers, Inc., 345 East 47th
St., New York, N.Y. 10017.

(D.O.T. 007.081, .151, .168, .181, and
.187; 011.081; and 019.187)

N atu re of the W ork
Mechanical engineers are con­
cerned with the production, trans­
mission, and use of power. They
design and develop machines
which produce power, such as in­
ternal combustion engines, steam
and gas turbines, jet and rocket
engines, and nuclear reactors.
They also design and develop a
great variety of machines which
use power— refrigeration and airconditioning equipment, eleva­
tors, machine tools, printing
presses, steel rolling mills, and
many others.
Many specialized areas of work
have developed within mechani­
cal engineering. Among these
specialties are those concerned
with motor vehicles, marine
equipment, railroad equipment,

heating, ventilating and air con­
ditioning, hydraulics or fluid me­
chanics, instrumentation, ord­
nance, and machines for special­
ized industries, such as petro­
leum, rubber and plastics, and
Large numbers of mechanical
engineers are engaged in research,
development, and design. Many
also are employed in administra­
tive and management activities.
Others work in maintenance,
sales, and activities related to
production and operations in
manufacturing industries. Some
teach in colleges and universities
or work as consultants.

Places of Em ploym ent
About 215,000 mechanical engi­
neers were employed in the Unit­
ed States in 1968. Nearly all
manufacturing and nonmanufac­
turing industries employed some
members of the profession. How­
ever, nearly three-fourths of all

mechanical engineers were em­
ployed in manufacturing indus­
tries— mainly in the primary and
fabricated metals, machinery,
transportation equipment, and
electrical equipment industries.
Others were employed in govern­
ment agencies, educational insti­
tutions, and consulting engineer­
ing firms. Some worked as inde­
pendent consulting engineers.

Em ploym ent O utlook
The outlook in mechanical en­
gineering— the second largest
branch of the profession— is for
rapid growth through the 1970’s.
The expected expansion of indus­
try with the consequent demand
for industrial machinery and ma­
chine tools, and the increasing
technological complexity of in­
dustrial machinery and processes
will be among the major factors
contributing to greater employ­
ment. Continued growth of ex­
penditures for research and de-


velopment also will be a factor in
the growth of this branch of the
profession. Moreover, newer areas
of work, such as atomic energy
and aerospace development, will
openings for large numbers of
mechanical engineers.
Besides those needed to fill new
positions, large numbers of me­
chanical engineers will be re­
quired each year to replace those
who retire or die. The number
needed to fill these vacancies,
estimated to be about 3,000 in
1968 probably will rise slowly in
the future. (See introductory sec­
tion of this chapter for discussion
on training requirements and

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
The American Society of Mechan­
ical Engineers, 345 East 47th
St., New York, N.Y. 10017.

(D.O.T. 011.081)

N ature of the W ork
Metallurgical engineers develop
methods of processing and con­
verting metals into useful prod­
ucts. These engineers usually
work in 1 of 2 main branches of
metallurgy— extractive or physi­
cal. Extractive metallurgy in­
volves the extraction of metals
from ores and their refining to
obtain pure metal. Physical
metallurgy deals with the prop­
erties of metals and their alloys,
and with methods of converting
refined metals into useful final
products. Scientists working in
this field are known as metallurg­
ists, but the distinction between
scientists and engineers in this

field is small. Persons working in
the field of metallurgy are some­
times referred to as either mate­
rials scientists or materials

ductory section of this chapter
for discussion on training require­
ments and earnings. Also see
chapter on Occupations in the
Iron and Steel Industry.)

Places of Em ploym ent

Sources of A dditional Inform ation

The metal working industries
— primarily the iron and steel
and nonferrous metals industries
— employed over one-half of the
estimated 5,000 to 10,000 metal­
lurgical engineers in 1968. Many
metallurgical engineers worked in
the machinery, electrical equip­
ment, and aircraft and parts in­
dustries. Others were employed in
the mining industry, government
agencies, consulting firms, inde­
pendent research organizations,
and educational institutions.

The Metallurgical Society of the
American Institute of Mining,
Metallurgical, and Petroleum
Engineers, 345 East 47th St.,
New York, N.Y. 10017.
American Society of Metals,
Metals Park, Ohio 44073.

(D.O.T. 010.081 and .187)

N ature of th e W ork
Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment in this small
branch of the profession is ex­
pected to grow rapidly through
the 1970’s. Increasing numbers of
metallurgical engineers will be
needed by the metal-working in­
dustries to work on problems in­
volving the development of new
metals and alloys as well as the
adaption of current ones to new
needs. For example, the develop­
ment of such products as super­
sonic jet aircraft, missiles, satel­
lites, and spacecraft has brought
about a need for lightweight
metals capable of withstanding
both extremely high and ex­
tremely low temperatures. Metal­
lurgical engineers also will be
needed to solve metallurgical
problems connected with the ef­
ficient use of nuclear energy. Fur­
thermore, as the supply of highgrade ores diminishes, more
metallurgical engineers will be
needed to find ways of processing
low-grade ores now regarded as
unprofitable to mine. (See intro­

Mining engineers are respon­
sible for the finding and extrac­
tion of minerals from the earth
and for the preparation of min­
erals for use by manufacturing
industries. They design the lay­
outs of mines, supervise the con­
struction of mine shafts and tun­
nels in underground operations,
and devise methods of transport­
ing extracted minerals to process­
ing plants. Mining engineers are
responsible for the efficient oper­
ation of mines and mine safety,
including ventilation, water sup­
ply, power, communications, and
maintenance of equipment. Some
mining engineers work with geolo­
gists, locating and appraising new
ore deposits. Others conduct re­
search to develop new mining
equipment and to devise im­
proved methods of processing
extracted minerals.
Mining engineers frequently
specialize in the extraction of
specific metal ores or coal and
other non-metallic minerals. En­
gineers who specialize in the ex-



traction of petroleum and natural
gas are usually considered mem­
bers of a separate branch of the
engineering profession— Petrol­
eum Engineering.

In addition to mining engi­
neers, many other engineers in
different branches also are em­
ployed in the mining industry.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Places of Em ploym ent
Most of the estimated 5,000
mining engineers were employed
in the mining industry in 1968.
Some worked in colleges and uni­
versities or government agencies,
or as independent consultants.
Others worked for firms produc­
ing equipment for the mining
Mining engineers are usually
employed at the location of min­
eral deposits, often near small
communities. However, those en­
gaged in research, teaching, man­
agement, consulting, or sales are
often located in large metro­
politan areas.

Employment opportunities for
mining engineers are expected to
be favorable through the 1970’s.
The number of new graduates in
mining engineering entering the
industry is expected to be fewer
than the number needed to pro­
vide for the anticipated growth
in requirements and to replace
those who retire, transfer to other
fields of work, or die.
Exploration for minerals is in­
creasing, both in the United
States and in other parts of the
world. Easily mined deposits are
being depleted, creating a grow­
ing need for engineers to mine
newly discovered mineral de­

posits and to devise more ef­
ficient methods for mining lowgrade ores. Additional employ­
ment opportunities for mining enengineer in the future. (See inment of new alloys and discovery
of new uses for metals increases
the demand for less widely used
ores. Recovery of metals from the
sea and the development of oil
shale deposits could present
major challenges to the mining
engineer in the future. (See in­
troductory section to chapter for
discussion on training require­
ments and earnings. See also
chapter on Mining.)

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
The Society of Mining Engineers
of the American Institute of
Mining, Metallurgical, and Pe­
troleum Engineers, 345 East
47th St., New York, N.Y. 10017.



Almost everyone knows some­
thing about the professional
services provided by doctors, den­
tists, and pharmacists. Many
people also have some firsthand
knowledge of the duties per­
formed by nurses, attendants, and
other workers who take care of
patients in hospitals. Less well
known, but also of great impor­
tance to the public health, is the
work of large numbers of people
employed behind the scenes in
other health service occupations,
such as laboratory or X-ray tech­
nician. Altogether, about 3.5 mil­
lion people were employed in
health related occupations in
1968. Employment in this field
has increased rapidly in recent
Nurses, physicians, pharmacists,
and dentists constituted the larg­
est professional health occupations
in 1968, and ranged from nearly
100,000 dentists to about 660,000
registered nurses. Other profes­
sional health occupations are
dietitian, veterinarian, optome­
trist, chiropractor, osteopathic
physician, and hospital admini­
strator. Other health service
workers include technicians of
various types, such as medical
technologist, medical X-ray tech­
nician, dental hygienist, and den­
tal laboratory technician. Large
numbers— more than 1.1 million
— worked as practical nurses and
auxiliary nursing workers, includ­
ing orderlies, nursing aids, hospi­
tal attendants, and psychiatric
Workers in the health field are
employed in hospitals, clinics,
laboratories, pharmacies, nursing
homes, industrial plants, public
health agencies, mental health
centers, private offices, and pa­
tients’ homes. Those employed in
health occupations work mainly
in the more heavily populated

and prosperous sections of the
Many women are employed in
the health field. Nursing, the
largest of the major health serv­
ice occupations, is second only to
teaching as a field of professional
employment for women. Other
health service occupations in
which women predominate are
practical nurse, radiologic tech­
nologist, medical technologist,
dietitian, physical therapist, oc­
cupational therapist, speech pa­
thologist and audiologist, dental
hygienist, dental assistant, and
medical record librarian. On the
other hand, most dentists, op­
tometrists, physicians, veterinari­
ans, pharmacists, hospital ad­
ministrators, and sanitarians are
The educational and other re­
quirements for work in the health
field are as diverse as the health
occupations themselves. For ex­
ample, professional health work­
ers— physicians, dentists, phar­
macists, and others— must com­
plete a number of years of pre­
professional and professional col­
lege education and pass a State
licensing examination. On the
other hand, some health service
occupations can be entered with
little specialized training.
A continued rapid expansion of
employment in the health field is
expected through the 1970’s, al­
though the rates of growth will
differ considerably among in­
dividual health ocupations. The
factors that are expected to con­
tribute to an increase in the de­
mand for health care are the fol­
lowing: The country’s expanding
population; rising standards of
living; increasing health con­
sciousness; growth of coverage
under prepayment programs for
hospitalization and medical care,
including Medicare; rapid ex­

pansion of expenditures for medi­
cal research; and increasing ex­
penditures by Federal, State, and
local governments for health care
and services. In addition, many
new workers will be needed each
year to replace those who retire,
die, or— particularly for women—
leave the field for other reasons.
Thus, many opportunities will be
available for employment in the
health services.

(D.O.T. 070.101 and .108)

N ature of th e W ork
Physicians diagnose diseases
and treat people who are ill or in
poor health. In addition, they
are concerned with preventive
medicine and with the rehabilita­
tion of people who are injured
or ill.
Physicians generally examine
and treat patients in their own
offices and in hospitals, but they
also visit patients at home when
necessary. Some physicians com­
bine the practice of medicine
with research or teaching in
medical schools. Others hold full­
time research or teaching posi­
tions or perform administrative
work in hospitals, professional as­
sociations, and other organiza­
tions. A few are primarily en­
gaged in writing and editing
medical books and magazines.
About one-third of the physi­
cians engaged in private practice
are general practitioners; the
other two-thirds are specialists in
1 of the 33 fields recognized by
the medical profession. In recent
years, there has been a marked
Among the largest specialties are
internal medicine, surgery, ob­
stetrics and gynecology, psy­
pediatrics, radiology,



and pathology.


Places of Em ploym ent
Nearly 295,000 physicians— of
whom 7 percent were women—
were professionally active in the
United States in early 1968. The
great majority— about 190,000—
were engaged in private practice.
Approximately 45,000 were in­
terns or residents in hospitals.
About 37,000 held full-time staff
positions in hospitals, nearly
three-fifths of whom were in gov­
ernment hospitals. The remainder
were employed in private indus­
try, State and local health de­

partments, medical schools, re­
search foundations, and profes­
sional organizations.
In 1968, more than 40 percent
of all physicians were in five
States: New York, California,
Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Ohio.
In general, the Northeastern
States have the highest ratio of
physicians to population and the
Southern States, the lowest. Gen­
eral practitioners are much more
widely distributed geographically
than specialists, who tend to be
concentrated in large cities.

Train in g and O ther Q ualifications
A license to practice medicine

is required in all States and the
District of Columbia. T o qualify
for a license, a candidate must
graduate from an approved medi­
cal school, pass a licensing ex­
amination, and— in 32 States and
the District of Columbia— serve a
1-year hospital internship. As of
1968, 18 States permitted a phy­
sician to be licensed immediately
after graduation from medical
school, but even in these States,
an internship is always necessary
for full acceptance by the profes­
sion. Twenty-three States and the
District of Columbia require can­
didates to pass an examination in
the basic sciences to become eli­
gible for the medical licensing
Licensing examinations are
given by State boards. The Na­
tional Board of Medical Exam­
iners also gives an examination
and the District of Columbia as
a substitute for State examinawhich is accepted by 46 States
tions. Although physicians li­
censed in one State usually can
obtain a license to practice in an­
other without further exam­
ination, some States limit this
In 1968, there were 88 ap­
proved schools in the United
States in which students could
begin the study of medicine.
Eighty-four awarded the degree
of Doctor of Medicine (M .D .) to
those completing the 4-year
course; 4 offered 2-year programs
in the basic medical sciences to
students who could then transfer
to regular medical schools for the
last 2 years of study. Five addi­
tional new schools were enrolling
medical students, but had not yet
graduated a class. Because the
number of people applying to
medical schools exceeds the be­
ginning enrollment capacity, pref­
erence is given to the most highly
qualified applicants.
Most medical schools require
applicants to have completed at


least 3 years of college education
for admision to their regular pro­
grams, and some require 4 years.
A few medical schools allow se­
lected students having excep­
tional qualifications to begin
their professional study after com­
pleting 2 years of college. The
great majority of students enter­
ing medical schools have a
bachelor’s degree.
Premedical study must include
undergraduate courses in English,
physics, biology, and inorganic
and organic chemistry in an ac­
credited college. Students should
acquire a broad general education
by taking courses in the humani­
ties, mathematics, and the social
sciences. Other factors considered
by medical schools in selecting
students include the individual’s
college record; the standing of
the college where his premedical
work was taken; and his scores
on the Medical College Admission
Test, which is taken by almost all
applicants. Consideration also is
given to the applicant’s character,
personality, and leadership quali­
ties, as shown by personal inter­
views, letters of recommendation,
and extracurricular activities in
college. In addition, many Statesupported medical schools give
preference to residents of their
particular States and, sometimes,
those of nearby States.
The first 2 years of medical
training are spent in laboratories
and classrooms, learning basic
medical sciences, such as anatomy,
biochemistry; physiology, pharm­
acology, microbiology, and pa­
thology. During the last 2 years,
students spend most of their time
in hospitals and clinics under the
supervision of experienced phy­
sicians. They learn to take case
histories, perform examinations,
and recognize diseases.
New physicians increasingly are
acquiring training beyond the 1year hospital internship. Those
who plan to be general practi­

tioners often spend an additional Those who have completed their
year or two as interns or residents internships and enter active mili­
in a hospital. T o become recog­ tary duty initially serve as cap­
nized as specialists, physicians tains in the Army or Air Force
must pass specialty board exami­ or as lieutenants in the Navy;
nations. T o qualify for these ex­ those who choose the military as
aminations, they must spend a career advance to higher ranks.
from 2 to 4 years— depending on Graduates of accredited medical
the specialty— in advanced hos­ schools are eligible for commis­
pital training as residents, fol­ sions as senior assistant surgeons
lowed by 2 years or more of prac­ (equivalent to lieutenants in the
tice in the specialty. Some doc­ Navy) in the U.S. Public Health
tors interested in teaching and Service, as well as for Federal
research take graduate work lead­ Civil Service professional medical
ing to the master’s or Ph. D. de­ positions.
gree in a field such as biochemis­
try or microbiology.
Em ploym ent O utlook
Many graduates of foreign
medical schools serve as hospital
Excellent opportunities are an­
interns and residents in this
country. In early 1968, this group ticipated for physicians through
numbered about 14,000 foreign the 1970’s. Because the number
citizens and 1,400 U.S. citizens. of new physicians being trained
To be appointed to approved is restricted by the present lim­
internships or residencies in U.S. ited capacity of medical schools,
hospitals, however, these gradu­ the employment of physicians is
ates (citizens of foreign countries expected to grow only moderately,
as well as U.S. citizens) must despite a steady increase in the
pass the American Medical Quali­ demand for their services. How­
fication Examination given by ever, some expansion in medical
the Educational Council for For­ school facilities is expected be­
cause of recent Federal legisla­
eign Medical Graduates.
Medical training is very costly tion which provides Federal funds
because of the long time required to assist in the construction of
to earn the medical degree. How­ new training facilities for phy­
ever, the Health Professions Edu­ sicians. Nonetheless, any increase
cational Assistance Act of 1963, in the supply of physicians result­
as amended, provides Federal ing from the implementation of
funds for loans and scholarships this legislation may not be signifi­
of up to $2,500 a year to help cant until the late 1970’s.
needy students pursue full-time
The expected increase in de­
study leading to the degree of mand for physicians’ services will
Doctor of Medicine.
result from factors such as the
Among the personal qualifica­ anticipated population growth;
tions needed for success in this the rising health consciousness of
profession are a strong desire to the public; and the trend toward
become a physician, above-aver­ higher standards of medical care.
age intelligence, and an interest The demand for physicians also
in science. In addition, prospec­ will increase because of the ex­
tive physicians should possess tension of prepayment programs
good judgment, be able to make for hospitalization and medical
decisions in emergencies, and be care, including Medicare and
emotionally stable.
The majority of newly qualified Government provision of medical
physicians open their own offices. care for members of the Armed

Forces, their families, and veter­
ans; and the continuing growth
in the fields of public health, re­
habilitation, industrial medicine,
and mental health. In addition,
more physicians will be needed
for medical research and to teach
in medical schools.
In addition to those needed to
fill new openings, many newly
trained doctors will be required
to replace those who retire or
die. The number needed to fill
vacancies caused by losses to the
profession is estimated at about
7,000 each year through the
T o some extent, the rise in the
demand for physicians’ services
will be offset by developments
that are enabling physicians to
care for more patients. For ex­
ample, increasing numbers of
medical technicians are assisting
physicians; new drugs and new
medical techniques are shorten­
ing illnesses; and growing num­
bers of physicians are able to use
their time more effectively by
engaging in group practice. In ad­
dition, fewer house calls are be­
ing made by physicians because
of the growing tendency to treat
patients in hospitals and physi­
cians’ offices. However, these de­
velopments are not expected to
offset the overall need for more
Earnings and W orking Conditions
New graduates serving as in­
terns in 1968 had an average an­
nual salary of $4,893 in hospitals
affiliated with medical schools
and $5,030 in other hospitals.
Residents during 1968 earned
average annual salaries of $4,755
in hospitals affiliated with medi­
cal schools and $5,532 in nonaffiliated hospitals, according to
the American Medical Associa­
tion. Many hospitals also pro­
vided full or partial room, board,
and other maintenance allow­


ances to their interns and resi­
Graduates employed by the
Federal Government in late 1968
could expect to receive an annual
starting salary of about $13,300
if they had completed their in­
ternship, and about $15,800 if
they had completed 1 year of
residency or demonstrated su­
perior achievement during their
Newly qualified physicians
who establish their own practice
must make a sizable financial in­
vestment to open and equip a
modem office. It is estimated
that during the first year or two
of independent practice, phy­
sicians probably earn little more
than the minimum needed to pay
the expenses for maintaining
their offices. As a rule, however,
their earnings rise rapidly as their
practice develops.
The net income of physicians in
private practice was generally be­
tween $23,000 and $31,000 in
1968, according to the limited in­
formation available. Earnings of
physicians depend on factors such
as the region of the country in
which they practice; the patients’
income level; and the physician’s
skill, personality, and professional
reputation, as well as his length
of experience. Physicians engaged
in private practice usually earn
more than those in salaried posi­
tions, and specialists usually earn
considerably more than general
practitioners. Many physicians
have long working days and ir­
regular hours. Most specialists
work fewer hours each week than
general practitioners. As doctors
grow older, they may not accept
new patients and tend to work
fewer hours. However, many con­
tinue in practice well beyond 70
years of age.
Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Persons wishing to practice in a
given State should find out about

the requirements for licensure di­
rectly from the board of medical
examiners of that State. Lists of
approved medical schools, as well
as general information on pre­
medical education and medicine
as a career, may be obtained from:
Council on Medical Education,
American Medical Association,
535 North Dearborn St., Chica­
go, 1 1 60610.
Association of American Medical
Colleges, 2530 Ridge Ave.,
Evanston, 1 1 60201.

(D.O.T. 071.108)

N ature of the W ork
Osteopathic physicians diag­
nose, prescribe remedies, and
treat diseases of the human body,
paying particular attention to
impairments in the musculo­
skeletal system. They emphasize
manual manipulative therapy, but
in most States, they also use sur­
gery, drugs, and all other ac­
cepted methods of medical care.
Most osteopathic physicians are
“ family doctors” who engage in
general practice. These physicians
usually see patients in their of­
fices, make house calls, and treat
patients in osteopathic and some
city and county hospitals. A few
doctors of osteopathy are engaged
primarily in research, teaching, or
writing and editing scientific
books and journals. In recent
years, there has been an increase
in specialization. The specialties
include: Internal medicine, neu­
rology and psychiatry, ophthal­
mology and otorhinolaryngology,
pediatrics, anesthesiology, physi­
cal medicine and rehabilitation,
dermatology, obstetrics and gyne­
cology, pathology, proctology,
radiology, and surgery.



Places of Em ploym ent
More than 12,000 osteopathic
physicians were practicing in the
United States in early 1968.
Nearly all of them were in private
practice. Less than 5 percent had
full-time salaried positions, main­
ly in osteopathic hospitals and
colleges. A few were employed by
private industry or government
Osteopathic physicians are lo­
cated chiefly in those States
which have osteopathic hospital
facilities. In 1968, about half of
all osteopathic physicians were
in five States: Michigan, Pennsyl­
vania, Ohio, Missouri, and Texas.
Twenty-four States and the Dis­
trict of Columbia each had fewer
than 50 osteopathic physicians.
More than half of all general
practitioners are located in towns
and cities having less than 50,000
people; specialists, however, prac­
tice mainly in large cities.

T rain in g and O ther Q ualifications
A license to practice as an
osteopathic physician is required
in all States. In early 1968, li­
censed osteopathic physicians
were qualified to engage in all
types of medical and surgical
practice in 42 States and the Dis­
trict of Columbia. The remaining
States limit in varying degrees
the use of drugs or the type of
surgery that can be performed by
osteopathic physicians.
T o obtain a license, a candidate
must be a graduate of an ap­
proved school of osteopathy and
pass a State board examination.
In 22 States and the District of
Columbia, the candidate must
pass an examination in the basic
sciences before he is eligible to
take the professional examina­
tion; 31 States and the District
of Columbia also require a period
of internship after graduation

from an osteopathic school. All
States except Alaska, California,
Florida, and Mississippi grant li­
censes without further examina­
tion to properly qualified osteo­
pathic physicians already li­
censed by another State.
Although 3 years of preosteopathic college work is the mini­
mum requirement for entry to
schools of osteopathy, 4 years is
often preferred. Osteopathic col­
leges require successful comple­
tion of 4 years of professional
study for the degree of Doctor
of Osteopathy (D .O .). Preosteopathic education must include
courses in chemistry, physics, bi­
ology, and English. During the
first 2 years of professional train­
ing, emphasis is placed on basic
sciences such as anatomy, physi­
ology, pathology and on the prin­
ciples of osteopathy; the last 2
years are devoted largely to work
with patients in hospitals and
After graduation, almost all
doctors of osteopathy serve a 12month internship at 1 of the 80
osteopathic hospitals which the
American Osteopathic Associa­
tion has approved for intern
training. Those who wish to be­
come specialists must have 2 to 5
years of additional training, fol­
lowed by 2 years of supervised
practice in the specialty.
The osteopathic physician’s
training is very costly because of
the length of time it takes to earn
the degree of Doctor of Osteo­
pathy. However, the Health Pro­
fessions Educational Assistance
Act of 1963, as amended, provides
Federal funds for loans and schol­
arships of up to $2,500 a year to
help needy students pursue full­
time study leading to the degree.
Every year, more young people
apply for admission to the five ap­
proved schools of osteopathy than
can be accepted. In selecting stu­
dents, these colleges consider
grades received in preprofessional

education, scores on medical apti­
tude tests, and the amount of
preosteopathic college work com­
pleted. In 1968, 95 percent of the
students entering osteopathic col­
leges had bachelor’s degrees. The
applicant’s desire to serve as an
osteopathic physician rather than
as a doctor trained in other fields
of medicine is a very important
qualification. The colleges also
give considerable weight to a fa­
vorable recommendation by an
osteopathic physician familiar
with the applicant’s background.
Newly qualified doctors of ostepathy usually establish their own
practice. A few work as assistants
to experienced physicians or be­
come associated with osteopathic
hospitals. In view of the variation
in State laws regulating the prac­
tice of osteopathy, the osteo­
pathic physician should study
carefully the professional and
legal requirements of the State in
which he plans to practice. The
availability of osteopathic hospi­
tals and clinical facilities also
should be considered when choos­
ing a location.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Opportunities for osteopathic
physicians are expected to be ex­
cellent through the 1970’s. Great­
est demand for their services
probably will* continue to be in
States where osteopathy is a
widely accepted method of treat­
ment, such as Pennsylvania and a
number of Midwestern States.
Generally, prospects for begin­
ning a successful practice are
likely to be best in rural areas,
small towns, and city suburbs,
where the young doctor of osteo­
pathy may encounter less compe­
tition and therefore establish his
easily than in the centers of large


The demand for the services of
osteopathic physicians is expected
to grow through the 1970’s be­
cause of factors such as the an­
ticipated population growth, the
extension of prepayment pro­
grams for hospitalization and
medical care including Medicare
and Medicaid, and the trend tow­
ard higher standards of health
care. Furthermore, there is a like­
lihood of greater public accept­
ance of osteopathy, liberalization
of certain State restrictions on
the use of drugs and surgery by
osteopathic physicians, and the
establishment of additional osteo­
pathic hospitals.
Despite the expected growth in
demand, the employment of
osteopathic physicians is expected
to increase only moderately be­
cause the number of new osteo­
pathic physicians being trained is
restricted by the limited capacity
of osteopathic colleges. Approxi­
mately half of all graduates ex­
pected each year through the
1970’s probably will be needed to
replace osteopathic physicians
who retire, die, or leave the pro­
fession for other reasons; hence
the number of new graduates will
be barely sufficient to maintain
the present ratio of osteopathic
physicians to population. Al­
though some expansion in osteo­
pathic college facilities is antici­
pated because of recent Federal
legislation, which provides Fed­
eral funds to assist in the con­
struction of new teaching facili­
ties for osteopathic physicians, no
significant increase in graduates
is expected through the 1970’s.
Women osteopathic physicians
will find good opportunities not
only in private practice but also
on faculties of osteopathic col­
leges and on the staffs of hospi­
tals and clinics. Approximately 7
percent of all osteopathic phy­
sicians are women. Women stu­
dents, however, represented only
about 3 percent of the total en­

rollment in osteopathic colleges
in 1968, although men and
women are equally eligible for
Earnings and W orking Conditions
In osteopathy, as in many of
the other health professions, in­
comes usually rise markedly after
the first few years of practice.
Earnings of individual practition­
ers are determined mainly by
such factors as ability, experi­
ence, the income level of the com­
munity served, and geographic lo­
cation. The average income above
business expenses of general prac­
titioners, in early 1968, ranged
from $18,000 to $25,000, accord­
ing to the limited data available.
Specialists usually had higher in­
comes than general practitioners.
Many osteopathic physicians
work more than 50 and 60 hours a
week. Those in general practice
work longer and more irregular
hours than specialists.
Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Persons wishing to practice in a
given State should find out about
the requirements for licensure
directly from the board of exam­
iners of that State. A list of State
boards, as well as general in­
formation on osteopathy as a ca­
reer, may be obtained from:
American Osteopathic Association,
212 East Ohio St., Chicago, 1 1

(D.O.T. 072.108)

N ature of the W ork
Dentists look for and fill cavi­
ties in the teeth, straighten teeth,

take X-rays of the mouth, and
treat gum diseases. Dentists also
extract teeth and substitute arti­
ficial dentures especially de­
signed for the individual patient.
In addition, they clean teeth and
examine the mouth for diseases.
They spend most of their time
with patients, but some time may
be devoted to laboratory work
such as making dentures and in­
lays. Many dentists, however—
particularly in large cities— send
most of their laboratory work to
commercial firms. Some dentists
employ dental hygienists to clean
patients’ teeth. (See statement
on Dental Hygienists.) They also
employ other assistants who per­
form office work and assist in
“ chairside” duties.


Most dentists are general prac­
titioners who provide many types
of dental care; only about 9 per­
cent are recognized as specialists.
About half of these specialists are
orthodontists, who straighten
teeth. The next larger number,
oral surgeons, perform operations
in the mouth and jaws. The re­
mainder specialize in periodontology (treating the tissues that
support the teeth), prosthodontics (making artificial teeth or
dentures), pedodontics (dentistry
for children), oral pathology
(diseases of the mouth), en­
dodontic (root canal therapy),
and public health dentistry.
About 3 percent of all dentists
are employed primarily in work
that does not involve “ chairside”
practice, such as teaching and re­
search. Many dentists in private
practice, however, do this work
on a part-time basis.

Places of Em ploym ent
Approximately 100,000 den­
tists were at work in the United
States in 1968. About 9 of every
ten were in private practice. Of
the remainder, about 6,800 served
as commissioned officers in the
Armed Forces; about 1,300 had
other types of Federal Govern­
ment positions— chiefly in the
hospitals and clinics of the Vet­
erans Administration and the
Public Health Service; and some­
what less than 2,000 held full­
time positions in schools, hospi­
tals, or State and local health
agencies. Women dentists repre­
sented only about 2 percent of
the profession.
Dentists tend to be concen­
trated in large cities and in popu­
lous States. In early 1968, about
a third of all dentists were lo­
cated in the four States of New
York, California, Pennsylvania,
and Illinois.

Train in g , O ther Q ualificatio ns,
and A dvancem ent
A license to practice dentistry
is required in all States and the
District of Columbia. T o qualify
for a license, a candidate must be
a graduate of an approved dental
school and pass a State board
examination. In 1968, 46 States
and the District of Columbia rec­
ognized the examination given by
the National Board of Dental Ex­
aminers as a substitute for the
written part of the State board
examinations. One State, Dela­
ware, also requires new graduates
to serve 1 year of hospital intern­
ship. Most State licenses permit
dentists to engage in both gen­
eral and specialized practice. In
10 States, however, a dentist can­
not be licensed as a “ specialist”
unless he has 2 or 3 years of
graduate education, several years
of specialized experience, and
passes a special State examina­
tion. Few States permit dentists
licensed in other States to prac­
tice in their jurisdictions without
further examination.
The minimum education re­
quirements for graduation from
an approved dental school is 2
years of predental college work
followed by 4 years of profes­
sional dental school training; 12
of the 51 dental schools in opera­
tion in the United States in 1968
required 3 years of predental
study. Predental education must
include at least a half-year course
in organic chemistry and full-year
courses in English, biology, phy­
sics, and inorganic chemistry.
In dental college, the first 2
years are usually devoted to
classroom instruction and labora­
tory work in basic sciences such
as anatomy, bacteriology, and
pharmacology. The last 2 years
are spent chiefly in the school’s
dental clinic, treating patients.
The degree of Doctor of Dental
Surgery (D.D .S.) is awarded by

most dental colleges. An equiva­
lent degree, Doctor of Dental
Medicine (D .M .D .) is conferred
by a few schools.
Competition is keen for admit­
tance to dental schools. In select­
ing students, schools give con­
siderable weight to college grades
and amount of college education;
more than half of the students
enrolling in dental schools have
bachelor’s degrees. In addition,
all dental schools participate in a
nationwide aptitude testing pro­
gram, and scores earned on these
tests are considered along with
information gathered about the
applicant through recommenda­
tions and interviews. Many Statesupported dental schools also give
preference to residents of their
particular States.
Dentists interested in research
or teaching, or in becoming spe­
cialists, often take graduate work.
Graduate training may be ob­
tained at most schools of den­
tistry, or by serving an internship
or residency at 1 of the 270 ap­
proved hospitals that offer these
Dental education is very costly
because of the length of time re­
quired to earn the dental degree.
However, the Health Professions
Educational Assistance Act of
1963, as amended, provides Fed­
eral funds for loans and scholar­
ships up to $2,500 a year to help
needy students pursue full-time
study leading to the degree.
The profession of dentistry re­
quires both manual skills and a
high level of intelligence. Dentists
should have good visual memory,
excellent judgment of space and
shape, delicacy of touch, and a
high degree of manual dexterity,
as well as scientific ability. A lik­
ing for people and a good business
sense are helpful in achieving
success in private practice.
The majority of newly qualified
dentists open their own offices or
purchase established practices.


Some start in practice with estab­
lished dentists, to gain experience
and to save the money required
to equip an office; others may en­
ter residency or internship train­
ing programs in approved hospi­
tals. Dentists entering the Armed
Forces are commissioned as cap­
tains in the Army and Air Force
and as lieutenants in the Navy,
and may progress to higher ranks.
Graduates of recognized dental
schools are eligible for Federal
Civil Service positions and for
commissions (equivalent to lieu­
tenants in the Navy) in the U.S.
Public Health Service.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Opportunities for dentists are
expected to be very good through
the 1970’s. The demand for dental
services is expected to increase
along with an expanding popula­
tion; the growing awareness of
the importance of regular dental
care; and the development of pre­
payment arrangements which
make it easier for people of mod­
erate means to obtain dental serv­
ice. Expanded dental research ac­
tivities will require more trained
personnel; dental public health
programs will need qualified ad­
ministrators; and dental colleges
will need additional faculty mem­
bers. Many dentists will continue
to serve in the Armed Forces.
Improved dental hygiene and
fluoridation of community water
supplies may prevent some tooth
and gum disorders, but such
measures— by preserving teeth
that might otherwise be extracted
— may tend to increase rather
than decrease the demand for
dental care. Other new techni­
ques, equipment, and drugs, as
well as the more extensive use of
dental hygienists, assistants, and
laboratory technicians may per­
mit individual dentists to care for
more patients. However, these de­

velopments are not expected to
offset the need for more dentists.
Newly trained dentists will be
needed not only to fill new open­
ings, but also to replace dentists
who retire or die. The number
needed to fill vacancies caused by
losses to the profession is esti­
mated at about 2,000 each year
through the 1970’s.
Despite the favorable outlook
for dentists, the number of men
and women who will be able to
enter this field will be restricted
by the present limited capacity
of dental schools. However, op­
portunities to obtain dental train­
ing are expected to increase be­
cause of recent Federal legisla­
tion which provides Federal
funds to assist in the construction
of additional training facilities for

Earnings and W orking Conditions
During the first year or two of
practice, dentists often earn little
more than the minimum needed
to cover expenses, but their earn­
ings usually rise rapidly as their
practice develops. Specialists gen­
erally earn considerably more
than general practitioners. Aver­
age income above expenses for all
self-employed dentists in 1968
was estimated at about $25,000 a
year. In the Federal Government,
new graduates of dental schools
could expect to receive starting
yearly salaries, depending on col­
lege records and other qualifica­
tions, ranging from $10,203 to
Location is one of the major
factors affecting the income of
dentists who open their own of­
fices. For example, in high-in­
come urban areas dental services
are in great demand; however, a
practice can be developed most
quickly in small towns where new
dentists easily become known and
where there may be less compe­

tition with established practi­
tioners. Although the income
from practice in small towns may
rise rapidly at first, over the long
run the level of earnings, like the
cost of living, may be lower than
that in larger communities.
Most dental offices are open 5
days a week and some dentists
have evening hours. Dentists us­
ually work between 40 and 50
hours a week, although many
spend more than 50 hours a week
in the office. Dentists often work
fewer hours as they grow older,
since the hours of work are usu­
ally determined by the dentist
himself. A considerable number
continue in part-time practice well
beyond the usual retirement
Sources of A dditional Inform ation
People wishing to practice in a
given State should get the re­
quirements for licensure from the
board of dental examiners of that
State. Lists of State boards and
of accredited dental schools, as
well as information on dentistry
as a career, may be obtained from:
American Dental Association,
Council on Dental Education,
211 East Chicago Ave., Chica­
go, 1 1 60611.
American Association of Dental
Schools, 211 East Chicago Ave.,
Chicago, 11 . 60611.

(D.O.T. 078.368)

N ature of the W ork
Dental hygienists work under
the supervision of a dentist; they
clean teeth by removing stains
and calcium deposits, polish teeth,
and massage gums. While per-



forming this work (oral prophyl­
axis), they chart conditions of
decay and disease for diagnosis
by the dentist. They also may
take and develop X-rays, mix fill­
ing compounds, apply solutions
to the teeth for the control of

dental decay, administer pre­
scribed medicaments, sterilize in­
struments, and act as chairside
assistants to the dentists. Hygien­
ists provide dental health educa­
tion, including the techniques of
mouth care and proper diet.

work part time. The large major­
ity of all dental hygienists were
employed in private dental of­
fices; others worked for public
health agencies, school systems,
industrial plants, clinics, hospi­
tals, dental hygiene schools, and
as civilian employees of the
Armed Forces.

T rain in g and O ther Q ualifications

Dental hygienists working in
school systems promote dental
health by examining children’s
teeth, assisting dentists in deter­
mining the dental treatment
needed, and reporting their find­
ings to parents. They also per­
form oral prophylaxes and give in­
struction on correct care and
brushing of teeth. Some help to
develop classroom projects or as­
sembly programs on oral health.
Dental hygienists employed by

health agencies work on dental
health projects or perform clin­
ical duties. A few assist in re­
search projects. Those having ad­
vanced training may teach in
schools of dental hygiene.

Places of Em ploym ent
Approximately 16,000 dental
hygienists were employed in 1968;
most of them were women. Many

Dental hygienists must pass an
examination to be licensed by the
State in which they wish to prac­
tice. In all States except Alabama
and Georgia, eligibility for a li­
cense is limited to graduates of
accredited dental hygiene schools.
In 1968, candidates in 44 States
could complete part of the State
licensing requirements by passing
a written examination given by
the National Board of Dental Ex­
aminers. Upon being licensed, a
hygienist becomes a Registered
Dental Hygienist (R .D .H .). In
order to practice in a different
State, a licensed dental hygien­
ist must pass that State’s
In 1968, 67 schools of dental
hygiene in the United States
were accredited or provisionally
accredited by the Council on
Dental Education of the Amer­
ican Dental Association. Most of
these schools provide a 2-year
certificate or associate degree pro­
gram. Some have 4-year programs
leading to the bachelor’s degree
in dental hygiene and others offer
both programs. Programs leading
to a master’s degree are offered
in three schools.
For dental hygienists interested
in practicing in a private dental
office, completion of the 2-year
program generally is sufficient. In
order to work in research, teach­
ing, and in public or school health
programs, the completion of a 4year program usually is required.
The minimum requirement for

admission to a school of dental
hygiene is graduation from high
school. Several schools which of­
fer the bachelor’s degree admit
students to the dental hygiene
program only after they have
completed 2 years of college.
Many schools also require that
applicants take aptitude tests
conducted by the American Den­
tal Hygienists’ Association.
The curriculum at a school of
dental hygiene consists of courses
in the basic sciences, dental sci­
ences, and liberal arts. These
schools offer laboratory work,
clinical experience, and classroom
instruction in subjects such as
anatomy, chemistry, histology,
pathology, pharmacology, and nu­
trition. The ability to work well
with people, patience, manual
dexterity, and attentiveness to
detail are essential in this field.


desire part-time positions can ex­
pect to find very good opportuni­
ties for employment.

Earnings and W orking Conditions

school systems, health agencies,
and the Federal or State govern­
ments have the same hours, vaca­
tion, sick leave, and retirement
benefits as other workers in these

Earnings of dental hygienists Sources of Additional Inform ation
are affected by the type of em­
Information about approved
ployer, education, and experience
of the individual hygienist, and schools and the educational re­
the area where the job is located. quirements needed to enter this
Dental hygienists working in pri­ occupation may be obtained from:
vate dental offices usually are
American Dental Hygienists’ As­
sociation, 211 East Chicago Ave.
salaried employees, although some
Chicago, 11 . 60611.
are paid a commission for work
performed or a combination of
Other material on opportunities
salary and commission. Those em­ for dental hygienists is available
ployed in research, administra­ from:
tive, supervisory, or teaching
Division of Dental Health, Public
positions generally earn higher
Health Service, U.S. Depart­
ment of Health, Education, and
Salaries of dental hygienists
employed full time in private of­
fices averaged about $6,700 a
Information concerning licens­
Em ploym ent O utlook
year in 1968, according to a sur­
ing requirements can be obtained
vey conducted by the American
from the State Board of Dental
Employment opportunities for Dental Association. The annual
Examiners in each State.
dental hygienists are expected to beginning salary for a dental hy­
be very good through the 1970’s. gienist employed by the Federal
Despite an anticipated rise in the Government was either $5,145 or
number of graduates from schools $5,732 in late 1968, depending on
of dental hygiene, the demand is education and experience.
Dental hygienists employed full
expected to be greater than the
(D.O.T. 079.378)
number available for employment. time in private offices usually
The demand for hygienists is work between 35 and 40 hours a
expected to increase as a result of week. They may work on Satur­
N ature of the W ork
the expanding population and the days or during evening hours.
growing awareness of the import­ Some hygienists work for two or
Dental assistants work with
ance of regular dental care. In­ more dentists.
Most dental hygienists are em­ dentists as they examine and
creasing interest in dental care
treat patients. The assistant
programs for children will lead to ployed in clean, well-lighted of­
makes the patient comfortable in
more employment opportunities. fices but may have to stand for
the dental chair, prepares him for
Increased participation in dental long periods of time. Regular
prepayment plans and more group medical checkups and strict ad­ treatment, and obtains his dental
records. As the dentist works, the
practice among dentists also may herence to established procedures
result in new jobs for dental hy­ for using X-ray equipment and assistant hands the proper instru­
gienists. In addition, a great num­ for disinfection are important ments and materials to him and
ber of job openings will be created health protections for persons in keeps the patient’s mouth clear
by using suction or other devices.
by young women leaving their this occupation.
A paid vacation of 2 or 3 weeks Dental assistants may prepare
jobs for marriage and family
is common among hygienists who impression and restorative ma­
Mature women who wish to re­ work full time in dental offices. terials for the dentists’ use, and
turn to the field, and those who Dental hygienists employed by also may expose X-rays and pro-



cess dental X-ray film as directed
by the dentists. In addition, they
sterilize and care for dental
dental assistants
spend most of their time at chairside, they also perform a variety
of other duties that do not re­
quire the dentist’s professional
knowledge and skill. Some assist­
ants perform simple technical
work in the office laboratory such
as making casts of the teeth and

mouth from impressions taken by
the dentist. These casts are used
by dentists and dental laboratory
technicians to make prosthetic de­
vices. Some dental assistants are
responsible for managing the of­
fice, and may arrange and con­
firm appointments, receive pa­
tients, keep treatment records,
send statements and receive pay­
ment, and order dental supplies
and materials.

The work of the dental assist­
ant should not be confused with
that of the dental hygienist. Den­
tal assistants do not, for instance,
perform work in the patient’s
mouth, such as oral prophylaxis
(scaling and cleaning the teeth);
this is done by hygienists. (See
statement on Dental Hygienists.)

Places of Em ploym ent

1968; practically all were women.
About one out of five assistants
were employed part-time.
Most dental assistants worked
in private dental offices, either for
individual dentists or for groups
of dentists. Many of the remain­
der were employed in dental
schools, hospital dental depart­
ments, State and local public
health departments, or private

Nearly 100,000 persons were
employed as dental assistants in

The Federal Government em­
ployed about 2,000 dental assistante in 1968, chiefly in the Public

Health Service, the Veterans Ad­
ministration, and the Department
of the Army.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Most dental assistants em­
ployed in 1968 learned their skill
on the job. In recent years, how­
ever, an increasing number of den­
tal assistants have entered the oc­
cupation through formal posthigh
school dental assisting programs.
About 130 such programs were
accredited by the Council on Den­
tal Education of the American
Dental Association (A D A ) in
mid-1968. Some of these were
supported under Federal legisla­
tion, including the Manpower De­
velopment and Training Act of
1962, the Vocational Education
Act of 1963 and the Allied Health
Professions Personnel Training
Act of 1966.
Most post high school courses
in dental assisting are given in
junior and community colleges or
in vocational or technical schools.
More than two-thirds of these pro­
grams provide a full academic
year of training leading to a cer­
tificate or diploma. Graduates of
2-year programs— offered only in
junior and community colleges—
earn an associate degree upon
completion of specialized training
and 1 year of liberal arte courses.
A few schools provide both 1- and
2-year programs. Completion of
high school or its equivalent is the
standard admission requirement
of all the approved schools that
offer courses in dental assisting.
Some schools also may require
typing or a science or business
Approved dental assisting curriculums include instruction in
both skills and related theory— in
laboratory and classroom— and
usually a general occupational
orientation. Trainees receive prac-


tical experience in an affiliated
dental school, in local clinical
facilities, or in selected dental
Two American Dental Associa­
tion approved correspondence
courses are available for employed
dental assistants who are learning
on the job, or who otherwise are
unable to participate on regular
dental assisting programs on a
full-time basis. The correspond­
ence programs are equivalent to
1 academic year of study but gen­
erally require about 2 years to
schools also offer a 4- to 6-month
course in dental assisting, but
these are not accredited by the
dental profession.
Graduates of approved dental
assisting programs who meet cer­
tain experience requirements and
who successfully complete an ex­
amination administered by the
American Dental Assistants Asso­
ciation may become Certified
Dental Assistants. Certification is
acknowledgement of an assistant’s
qualifications but is not a general
prerequisite for employment.
After working 1 or 2 years, den­
tal assistants sometimes seek to
further their skills by becoming
dental hygienists. Prospective
dental assistants who forsee this
possibility should plan carefully,
since credit earned in a dental
assistant program usually is not
applicable toward requirements
for a dental hygiene certificate.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment opportunities for
dental assistants are expected to
be excellent through the 1970’s,
especially for graduates of aca­
demic programs in dental assist­
ing. Part-time opportunities also
will be very favorable.
Growing awareness of the im­
portance of regular dental care
and the increasing ability of per­

sons to pay for care are among
the factors underlying an anti­
cipated rapid growth in the de­
mand for the services of dental
assistants. Other factors affecting
demand are an increased partici­
pation in dental prepayment
plans, and the expansion of public
programs such as Medicaid and
Head Start, which extend dental
care services to the disadvan­
taged. Another important factor
in the growing need for more
dental assistants is the slow in­
crease in the supply of dentists in
proportion to population growth,
resulting in the greater use of
auxiliary workers.
In addition to the rapid growth
of the occupation, many assist­
ants also will be needed each year
to replace the large number of
women who leave the field for
marriage and family responsibil­

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Weekly salaries of assistants
employed in private dental offices
ranged from $70 to $125 in late
1968 according to the limited data
available. Salary depends largely
on the assistant’s education and
experience, the duties and respon­
sibilities attached to the particu­
lar job, and the part of the coun­
try in which the job is located.
In the Federal Government, ex­
perience and the amount and type
of education govern entrance sal­
aries. In late 1968, a person who
had 6 months’ related experience
started at $4,231 a year; gradu­
ates of an ADA approved 1-year
training program who had an ad­
ditional year of general experience
could expect to start at $5,145 a
Although the 40-hour work­
week prevails for dental assist­
ants, the schedule is likely to in­
clude work on Saturday. A 2- or
3-week paid vacation is common.

Sick leave and other benefits are
dependent on the individual den­
tist. Dental assistants employed
by the Federal Government re­
ceive the same employee benefits
as other workers.
Dental assistants generally
work in a well-lighted, clean en­
vironment. They must exercise
caution in handling X-ray and
other equipment, where strict ad­
herence to proper procedure is in­
dispensable for safety.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Information about career op­
portunities; scholarships; accred­
ited dental assistant programs, in­
cluding the correspondence pro­
grams; and requirements for cer­
tification may be obtained from:
American Dental Assistants Asso­
ciation, 211 East Chicago Ave.,
Chicago, 1 1 60611.

Other material on opportunities
for dental assistants is available
Division of Dental Health, Public
Health Service, U.S. Depart­
ment of Health, Education, and

(D.O.T. 712.381)

N ature of the W ork
Dentures— artificial
crowns, bridges, and other dental
and orthodontic appliances— used
to be made by dentists. Now,
dental laboratory technicians do
most of this highly skilled work.
The technicians do not see pa­
tients but follow dentists’ written


In making many kinds of den­
tal appliances, dental laboratory
technicians form models in artifi­
cial stone (hard plaster) from im­
pressions of patients’ mouths
taken by dentists. They also make
metal castings for dentures, finish
and polish dentures, construct
metal or porcelain crowns or in­
lays for partially destroyed teeth,
make gold and other metal
bridges, and make appliances to
correct abnormalities such as
cleft palates.

areas such as fabricating crowns
and bridges, arranging artificial
teeth on dental appliances so that
they function properly, process­
ing plastic materials, working
with dental ceramics (porcelain),
or making castings of gold or non­
precious metal alloys used in
dentistry. In performing their
work, dental laboratory techni­
cians use small handtools, special
electric lathes and drills, highheat furnaces, and other kinds of
specialized laboratory equipment.

Places of Em ploym ent

In beginning jobs, trainees usu­
ally perform relatively simple
tasks such as mixing and pouring
plaster into casts and molds. As
they gain experience, they do
more difficult laboratory work.
Some dental laboratory techni­
cians do all types of dental labora­
tory work. Others specialize in

An estimated 27,000 dental lab­
oratory technicians were em­
ployed in 1968. Most of them
worked in commercial laborato­
ries, either as employees or as
owners of the business. Commer­
cial laboratories, which handle
orders from dentists, usually em­
ploy fewer than 10 technicians.
However, a few large laboratories
employ many technicians.
More than 4,000 dental labora­
tory technicians were employed
full-time by individual dentists.
Some worked in hospitals that
provided dental services. Others
were employed by the .Federal
Government, chiefly in the Veter­
an’s Administration hospitals and
clinics and in the Department of
the Army. Women, who account
for a little more than 10 percent
of all dental laboratory techni­
cians, worked mainly in large
commercial laboratories.
Dental laboratory technicians,
like the dentists who use their
services, are located mainly in
cities and in States that have
large populations.

T rain in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Although no minimum formal
education is needed to enter this

occupation, a high school diploma
is an asset. Most dental labora­
tory technicians learn the craft
on the job, usually in a commer­
cial laboratory, a dental office, or
a hospital offering dental services.
Typically, on-the-job training
lasts 3 or 4 years, depending on
factors such as the trainee’s pre­
vious experience, his ability to
master the techniques, and the
number of specialized areas to be
learned. Courses in dental lab­
oratory work, offered in a few
public vocational high schools and
junior colleges, may be taken in
conjunction with on-the-job train­
ing. Persons also may qualify by
enrolling in 1- or 2-year programs
in dental laboratory technology
offered by several schools. Re­
gardless of a student’s educational
background, employers consider
actual work experience to be nec­
essary for a person to qualify as
a full-fledged technician.
In 1968, 2-year educational
programs accredited by the Amer­
ican Dental Association were of­
fered by 19 schools to high school
graduates (or those with equiva­
lent education). The first year
of training in these schools in­
cludes formal classroom instruc­
tion in dental law and ethics,
chemistry, ceramics, metallurgy,
and other related subjects. Dur­
ing the second year, the student
is provided supervised practical
experience in the school or a den­
tal laboratory. After completion
of the 2-year training program,
an additional 3 years of practical
experience in a dental office or a
laboratory generally is needed to
become recognized as a well-qual­
ified dental technician.
The National Association of
Certified Dental Laboratories
sponsors a certification program
for dental laboratory technicians
who can meet certain training and
other requirements. Certification
may become increasingly import-


ant for obtaining employment as
a dental laboratory technician be­
cause many employers are likely
to regard it as evidence of the
technician's competence.
Among the personal qualifica­
tions which employers look for in
selecting trainees are a high de­
gree of manual dexterity, good
color perception, patience, and a
liking for detailed work. Prefer­
ence also may be given to young
people who have completed high
school courses in art, ceramics
and pottery, sculpturing, blue­
print reading, plastics, and metal­

Em ploym ent O utlook
Job opportunities for well-qual­
ified dental laboratory techni­
cians are expected to be very
good through the 1970's. Oppor­
tunities for trainees also should
be very favorable. In addition to
an expected rapid increase in em­
ployment, many openings for den­
tal laboratory technicians will oc­
cur because of the need to replace
technicians who transfer to other
fields of work, retire, or die.
Opportunities for salaried em­
ployment for both experienced
and trainee dental laboratory
technicians will be best in com­
mercial laboratories and in the
Federal Government. Some ex­
perienced technicians also should
be able to establish laboratories
of their own. A technician whose
work has become known to sev­
eral dentists in a community will
have the best prospect of building
a successful business.
Among the factors underlying
the expected rapid growth in de­
mand are the availability of new
dental prepayment plans and the
increasing number of older people
with an accompanying increase in
the number of persons requiring
artificial dentures. Moreover, the
number of dentists is not expected

to keep pace with the demand
for their services; hence, to devote
more time to treatment of pa­
tients, dentists will send more and
more of their laboratory work to
commercial firms.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Apprentice or trainee dental
laboratory technicians employed
in commercial laboratories in 1968
usually earned between $65 and
$75 a week. Technicians having
10 years experience or more in
commerical laboratories generally
earned between $150 and $200 a
week, depending on their skill lev­
el and experience. Ceramist tech­
nicians and crown and bridge
technicians received the highest
salaries. Foremen and managers
in large dental laboratories may
earn $250 or more per week. In
general, net earnings of self-em­
ployed technicians are higher
than those of salaried workers.
The starting salary for inex­
perienced dental laboratory tech­
nicians employed in the Federal
Government was about $100 a
week in 1968. The majority of ex­
perienced dental laboratory tech­
nicians employed in the Federal
Government generally earned be­
tween $148 and $163 a week.
Salaried technicians usually
work the standard 40-hour week,
but self-employed technicians fre­
quently work longer hours. Many
technicians in commercial labora­
tories receive paid holidays and
vacations, and some also are pro­
vided paid sick leave, bonuses,
and other fringe benefits. Techni­
cians employed by the Federal
Government have the same bene­
fits as other Federal employees.
The work of dental laboratory
technicians is not strenuous, and
most jobs can be done by handi­
capped workers provided they
have good use of their hands and

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Information about the training
and lists of approved schools are
available from:
American Dental Association,
Council on Dental Education,
211 East Chicago Ave., Chicago,
1 1 60611.

Information on career oppor­
tunities in commercial laborato­
ries, scholarships, requirements
for certification, and apprentice­
ship programs may be obtained
National Association of Certified
Dental Laboratories, Inc., 3801
Mt. Vernon Ave., Alexandria,
Va. 22305.

(D.O.T. 075.118 through .378)

N atu re of th e W ork
Nursing care plays a major role
in the treatment of persons who
are ill. Registered nurses, in carry­
ing out the medical treatment
plan prescribed by physicians, ad­
minister medications and treat­
ments; observe, evaluate, and re­
cord symptoms, reactions, and
progress of patients; assist in the
education and rehabilitation of
patients; help maintain a physical
and emotional environment that
promotes patient recovery; in­
struct auxiliary personnel or stu­
dents; and perform other duties
concerned with the care of the sick
and injured, prevention of illness,
and promotion of good health.
Nurses also engage in other ac­
tivities such as research and serv­
ing on the staffs of nursing and
community organizations.



Office nurses assist physicians,
dental surgeons, and occasionally
dentists in the care of patients in
private practice or clinics. Some­
times, they perform routine lab­
oratory and office work.
Public health nurses care for
patients in clinics or visit them in
their homes. Their duties include
instructing patients and families,
and giving periodic nursing care
as prescribed by a physician. They
instruct groups of patients in
proper diet and arrange for im­
munizations. These nurses work
with community leaders, teachers,
parents, and physicians in com­
munity health education pro­
grams. Some public health nurses
work in schools.
Nurse educators teach students
the principles and skills of nurs­
ing, both in the classroom and in
direct patient care. They also
may conduct refresher and in-ser­
vice courses for registered nurses.
Hospital nurses are the largest
group of registered nurses. Most
are staff nurses, who perform
skilled bedside nursing such as
caring for a patient after an op­
eration, assisting with blood
feedings, and giving medications.
They also supervise auxiliary
nursing workers. Hospital nurses
usually work in a specialty area
such as operating room, recovery
room, intensive care unit, coro­
nary care unit, emergency room,
medical-surgical ward, obstetrics,
or orthopedics. Others limit their
work to nursing children, the eld­
erly, or the mentally-ill. Still oth­
ers are engaged primarily in ad­
ministrative work.
Private duty nurses give indi­
vidual nursing care to patients
needing constant attention. In
hospitals, one private duty nurse
may sometimes take care of sev­
eral patients who require special
nursing care but not full-time

Occupational health or indus­
trial nurses provide nursing care
to employees in industry and gov­
ernment, and along with physi­
cians are responsibile for promot­
ing employee health. As pre­
scribed by a doctor, they treat
minor injuries and illnesses oc­
curring at the place of employ­
ment, provide for the needed
nursing care, arrange for further
medical care if necessary, and of­
fer health counseling. They also
may assist with health examina­
tions and inoculations to help
prevent or control diseases.
(Licensed practical nurses who
also perform nursing service are
discussed elsewhere in the Hand­


Places of Em ploym ent
nurses were employed in the
United States in early 1968. More
than two-thirds worked in hospi­

tals, nursing homes, and related
in s t it u t io n s . A p p r o x im a te ly
60.000 were private duty nurses
who cared for patients in hospitals
and private homes, and more than
50.000 were office nurses. Public
health nurses in government agen­
cies, schools, visiting nurse asso­
ciations, and clinics numbered
more than 40,000; nurse educa­
tors in nursing schools accounted
for about 25,000; and occupation­
al health nurses in industry, ap­
proximately 20,000. Most of the
others were staff members of pro­
fessional nurse and other orga­
nizations, State boards of nurs­
ing, or were employed by research
More than one-fourth of all
nurses employed in 1968 worked
on a part-time basis. About 1 per­
cent of all employed registered
nurses are men.
T rain in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
A license is required to practice
professional nursing in all States
and in the District of Columbia.
To obtain a license, a nurse must
have graduated from a school ap­
proved by a State board of nurs­
ing and pass a State board exam­
ination. A nurse may be licensed
in more than one State, either
by examination or endorsement
of a license issued by another
Graduation from high school is
required for admission to all
schools of nursing. Three types of
educational programs— diploma,
baccalaureate, and associate de­
gree— offer the basic education
required for careers in registered
nursing. Diploma programs are
conducted by hospital and inde­
pendent schools and usually re­
quire 3 years of training; bache­
lor’s degree programs usually re­
quire 4 years of study in a college
or university, although a few re­
quire 5 years; associate degree


programs in junior and commu­
nity colleges require approximate­
ly 2 years of nursing education.
In late 1968, about 1,300 pro­
grams of these three types were
offered in the United States. In
addition, more than 60 colleges
and universities offered master’s
and doctoral degree programs in
Programs of nursing include
classroom instruction and super­
vised nursing practice. Students
take courses in anatomy, physi­
ology, microbiology, nutrition,
psychology, and basic nursing
care. Under close supervision,
in hospitals and health facilities,
they are given clinical experience
in the care of patients who have
different types of health prob­
lems. Students in colleges offer­
ing bachelor’s degree programs
and in some of the other schools
are assigned to public health
agencies to learn how to care for
patients in clinics and in the pa­
tients’ homes. General education
is combined with nursing educa­
tion in baccalaureate and associ­
ate degree programs and in some
diploma programs.
Qualified students in need of
financial aid may obtain a nurs­
ing educational opportunity grant
or a low-interest loan under the
Nurse Training Act of 1964. Up
to 50 percent of the amount of
the loan may be cancelled at the
rate of 10 percent for each year
of full-time employment in nurs­
ing after graduation. The Nurse
traineeship funds to cover tuition,
fees, and a stipend and allowances
for nurses seeking advanced
training for positions as adminis­
trators, supervisors, nursing spe­
cialties, and nurse educators.
Desired personal qualifications
for young people considering a
nursing career include depend­
ability, good judgment, patience,
good physical and mental health,
and a desire to care for the sick

and injured.
Hospital nursing usually begins
with staff positions from which
experienced nurses may be ad­
vanced to progressively more re­
sponsible supervisory positions,
such as head nurse, supervisor,
assistant director, and director of
nursing service. A master’s degree,
however, often is required for
supervisory and administrative
positions, as well as for positions
in nursing education, clinical spe­
cialization, and research. In public
health agencies, advancement op­
portunities are usually limited for
nurses without degrees in public
health nursing.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment opportunities for
registered nurses are expected to
be very good through the 1970’s.
For nurses who have had gradu­
ate education, the outlook is ex­
cellent for obtaining positions as
administrators, teachers, clinical
specialists, public health nurses,
and for work in research.
The principal factors underly­
ing the anticipated rise in the
demand for nurses include the
country’s rising population; im­
proved economic status of the
population; extension of prepay­
ment programs for hospitalization
and medical care, including Medi­
care and Medicaid; expansion of
medical services as a result of new
medical techniques and drugs;
and increased interest in preven­
tive medicine and rehabilitation
of the handicapped. In addition
to the number of nurses required
for new positions, large numbers
will be needed to replace those
who leave the field each year be­
cause of marriage and family
Nurses wishing to return to
work will find very good employ­
ment opportunities, either fullor part-time.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Annual starting salaries of reg­
istered nurses employed by hos­
pitals in 1968 averaged about
$6,400, according to limited data
available. Salaries of industrial
nurses averaged $127.50 a week
in early 1968, according to a sur­
vey conducted by the Bureau of
Labor Statistics (B LS).
Fees for private duty nurses
generally were between $22 and
$37 for a basic 8-hour day in early
1968, according to the American
(A N A ).
Average hourly earnings of nonsupervisory nurses in nongovern­
mental nursing homes were $3.04,
according to an early 1968 BLS
Average (median) annual sal­
aries of public health nurses em­
ployed by local government agen­
cies were $7,225 in 1968, as indi­
cated by a National League for
Nursing study. Nurse educators
and administrators earned an
average (median) salary of $8,820
a year in schools of professional
nursing, according to a survey by
the American Nurses’ Association.
In late 1968, the Veterans Ad­
ministration offered inexperi­
enced nurses, who had either a
diploma or an associate degree,
an annual salary of $6,321; and
baccalaureate graduates were of­
fered $7,330. In other Federal
Government agencies, graduates
of associate programs having 1
year of experience or those having
a diploma or baccalaureate degree
entered at $5,732. The beginning
salary, in late 1968, for nurse of­
ficers (second lieutenants and en­
signs) in military service was
Those having bachelor’s degrees
who were commissioned in the
U.S. Public Health Service re­
ceived salary and allowances to­
taling $6,507 a year.
The majority of hospital nurses
receive extra pay for work on eve-


ning or night shifts. Nearly all are
provided at least 2 weeks of paid
vacation after 1 year of service.
Most hospital nurses receive from
5 to 13 paid holidays a year and
also some type of health and re­
tirement benefits.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
I n f o r m a t i o n on a p p r o v e d
schools of nursing, nursing ca­
reers, loans, scholarships, salaries,
working conditions, and employ­
ment opportunities may be ob­
tained from:
ANA-NLN Committee on Nursing
Careers, American Nurses’ Asciation, 10 Columbus Circle,
New York, N.Y. 10019.

Information about employment
opportunities in the Veterans Ad­
ministration is available from:
Department of Medicine and Sur­
gery, Veterans Administration,
Washington, D.C. 20420.


(D.O.T. 079.378)

N ature of th e W ork
Licensed practical nurses assist
in caring for medical and surgical
patients, convalescents, handi­
capped people, and others who are
physically or mentally ill. Under
the direction of physicians and
registered nurses, they provide
nursing care which requires tech­
nical knowledge but not the pro­
fessional training of a registered
nurse. (See statement on Regis­
tered Nurses.) In California and
Texas, licensed practical nurses
are known as licensed vocational

In hospitals, licensed practical
nurses provide much of the bed­
side care needed by patients such
as taking and recording tempera­
tures and blood pressures, chang­
ing dressings, administering cer­

tain prescribed medicines, and
bathing bed patients and helping
them in other ways with personal
Other duties include assisting
physicians and registered nurses
in examining patients and in car­
rying out complex nursing proce­
dures; assisting in the delivery,
care, and feeding of infants; and
helping registered nurses in re­
covery rooms by reporting any
adverse changes in patients re­
covering from the effects of anes­
thesia. Some licensed practical
nurses help in the supervision of
hospital attendants. (See state­
ment on Hospital Attendants.)
Licensed practical nurses em­
ployed in private homes care
mainly for patients whose day-today care seldom involves highly
technical procedures or compli­
cated equipment. In addition to
providing the nursing care ordered
by physicians, they prepare pa­
tients’ meals and perform other
tasks essential to patients’ com­
fort and morale. Licensed prac­
tical nurses also teach family
members how to perform simple
nursing tasks.
In doctors’ offices and in clinics,
licensed practical nurses help phy­
sicians by preparing patients for
examinations and treatments. In
addition, they make appointments
and record information about

Places of Em ploym ent
About 320,000 licensed prac­
tical nurses were employed in
1968. The great majority were
About one-half of all licensed
practical nurses were employed in
hospitals. Most of the others
worked in nursing homes, clinics,
doctor’s offices, sanitariums, and
other long-term care facilities.
Public health agencies and wel­
fare and religious organizations


also employed many licensed
practical nurses. Some worked in
the homes of their patients.

T rain in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
All States and the District of
Columbia regulate the prepara­
tion and licensing of practical
nurses. Usually, licenses are is­
sued only to those candidates
who have completed a course of
instruction in practical nursing
which has been approved by the
State board of nursing, and who
have also passed a licensing
Young people seeking to enroll
in State-approved training pro­
grams usually must be at least
17 (or 18) years old and have
completed at least 2 years of high
school or its equivalent. Physical
examinations are required and ap­
titude tests given. Some States
accept candidates who have com­
pleted only the eighth or ninth
grade. Other States require high
school graduation. Many schools
that do not require completion of
high school nevertheless give pref­
erence to graduates.
In 1968, nearly 1,200 Stateapproved
training in practical nursing.
More than one-half were offered
by public schools as a part of vo­
cational and adult education pro­
grams. Other programs were
available at junior colleges, or
were sponsored by local hospitals,
health agencies, and private edu­
cational institutions and were
usually 1 year in length. Many of
the training programs receive fi­
nancial assistance under the Man­
power Development and Training
Act and the Vocational Educa­
tion Act.
The training offered includes
both classroom study and clinical
practice. Classroom instruction
covers nursing concepts and prin­

ciples and related subjects such
as anatomy, physiology, medicalsurgical nursing, administration
of drugs, nutrition, first aid, and
community health. This work is
supplemented by laboratory prac­
tice and by supervised work in
hospitals where students apply
their skills to actual nursing
Essential personal qualities
needed in practical nursing in­
clude mental alertness, patience,
understanding, emotional stabil­
ity and dependability. Good
health is extremely important.
Opportunities for advancement
are limited, unless workers take
additional training. Through inservice educational programs,
some licensed practical nurses
may prepare for work in special­
ized areas such as rehabilitation.
Practical nurses cannot become
registered nurses, however, un­
less they undertake additional

Em ploym ent Outlook
Licensed practical nurses are
expected to be in strong demand
during the years ahead. Employ­
ment is expected to continue to
rise very rapidly through the
1970’s, and a large number of
new jobs will have to be filled
each year as health facilities con­
tinue to expand. In addition,
many workers will be needed an­
nually to replace licensed prac­
tical nurses who retire or stop
working for other reasons. Many
positions will be available for
those wishing to work part time.
Factors contributing to increased
employment are a greater need
for health services because of
growth in the population, the in­
creasing ability of persons to pay
for health care, and the continu­
ing expansion of both public and
private health insurance plans.
Also, greater utilization of li­

censed practical nurses for work
which does not require the skills
of a registered nurse is expected
to continue to create many job

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Licensed practical nurses em­
ployed in hospitals and medical
schools received average starting
salaries of about $90 a week in
1968, according to limited data
Many hospitals give licensed
practical nurses periodic pay in­
creases after specific periods of
satisfactory service. Some hospi­
tals also provide free laundering
of uniforms; less frequently, meals
and uniforms are furnished with­
out charge. A few institutions
provide free lodging. The sched­
uled work-week generally is 40
hours but often includes some
work at night and on weekends
and holidays. Provisions for paid
holidays and vacations, and for
health insurance and pension
plans are common in many
Licensed practical nurses em­
ployed full time in nongovern­
mental nursing homes and related
facilities averaged weekly earn­
ings of $85 in early 1968, accord­
ing to a Bureau of Labor Statis­
tics survey. In private homes, li­
censed practical nurses usually
are on duty for 8, 10, or 12 hours
a day and go home at night. A
few, on 24-hour duty, live at the
homes where they are employed.
The basic 8-hour fee in 1968
ranged from $13.50 to $28, ac­
cording to the American Nurses’
Salaries of licensed practical
nurses employed by public health
agencies averaged $5,063 a year in
1968. The beginning annual sal­
ary in the Federal Government
for persons having completed a
State-approved program of study



in practical nursing was $4,600 in
late 1968.

Veterans Administration hospi­
tals is available from:

Sources of A dditional Inform ation

Department of Medicine and Sur­
gery, Veterans Administration,
Washington, D.C. 20420.

A list of State-approved train­
ing programs and information
about practical nursing may be
obtained from:
Committee on American Nurses’
Association, 10 Columbus Cir­
cle, New York, N.Y. 10019.
National Association for Practical
Nurse Education and Service,
Inc., 535 Fifth Ave., New York,
N.Y. 10017.
National Federation of Licensed
Practical Nurses, Inc., 250 West
57th St., New York, N.Y. 10019.

Information about employment
opportunities in United States

(D.O.T. 079.108)

N ature of the W ork

Optometrists help people im­
prove and protect their vision.
They examine eyes, make tests to
determine defects in vision, and,
when needed, prescribe eye­
glasses, contact lenses, corrective

eye exercises, or other treatment
that does not require drugs or
surgery. Most optometrists supply
the eyeglasses prescribed, and
sometimes do minor repair work
such as straightening eyeglass
frames. Some optometrists spe­
cialize in work such as treating
visual problems of children; fit­
ting partially sighted persons
with microscopic and telescopic
lenses or other high-magnification
aids; and analyzing lighting and
other conditions that affect the
efficiency of workers. A few are
engaged in teaching, research, or a
combination of the two.
Optometrists should not be con­
fused with either ophthalmol­
ogists, sometimes referred to as
oculists, or with dispensing opti­
cians. Ophthalmologists are phy­
sicians who specialize in eye dis­
eases and injuries, perform eye
surgery, and prescribe drugs or
other treatment, as well as lenses.
Dispensing opticians fit and ad­
just eyeglasses according to pre­
scriptions written by ophthal­
mologists or optometrists; they
do not examine eyes or prescribe
treatment. (See statement on
Dispensing Opticians.)
Places of Em ploym ent
Approximately 17,000 optome­
trists were in practice in the
United States in 1968. More than
nine-tenths of all optometrists
were self-employed. Several hun­
dred served in the Armed Forces
and some taught in colleges
of optometry. The remainder
worked for established practi­
tioners, health clinics, hospitals,
optical instrument manufactur­
ers, or government agencies.
About 4 out of 10 optometrists
are located in five States— Cali­
fornia, Illinois, New York, Pen­
nsylvania, and Ohio. Many small
towns and rural areas, es­
pecially in the South, have no


T rain in g , O th er Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
A license is required to practice
optometry in all States and the
District of Columbia. Applicants
for licenses must be graduates of
an accredited school of optome­
try and pass a State board ex­
amination. In some States, only
graduates of certain schools of
optometry are admitted to these
examinations. A student planning
to become an optometrist should,
therefore, choose a school ap­
proved by the Board of Optome­
try in the State where he expects
to practice. There were 10 schools
of optometry in the country in
1968. Applicants having the nec­
essary qualifications have an ex­
cellent chance for admission to
these schools. Needy students
may obain loans and scholarships
up to $2,500 a year to pursue full­
time study leading to a degree in
optometry from Federal funds
provided by the Health Profes­
sions Educational Assistance Act
of 1963, as amended.
At least 6 years of college are
needed to become an optometrist
— 2 years of preopometry educa­
tion in an approved college, fol­
lowed by 4 years of training in
an optometry school. Preoptome­
try courses include mathematics,
physics, biology, and chemistry,
as well as English and other lib­
eral arts courses. Students in
schools of optometry have class­
room and laboratory work and
obtain professional experience in
the out-patient clinics operated
by the schools. All schools award
the degree of Doctor of Optome­
try (O .D .). Optometrists who wish
to specialize often take graduate
training. A master’s or Ph. D. de­
gree in physiological optics or in
a related field is usually required
for teaching and research work.
should have a liking for mathe­
matical and scientific work, the

ability to use delicate precision
instruments, mechanical aptitude,
and good vision. In addition, to
become a successful practitioner,
he must be able to deal with peo­
ple tactfully.
Many beginning optometrists
either set up a new practice or
purchase an established one.
Some take salaried positions to
obtain experience and the neces­
sary funds to enter their own

vision for efficiency at work and
in school; and the greater accept­
ance of the use of eyeglasses and
contact lenses to counteract eye
strain and visual defects. Al­
though expanded demand will be
met in part by opthalmologists,
optometrists will continue to sup­
ply a substantial proportion of all
eye care services.

Earnings and W orking Conditions

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment opportunities for
new optometry graduates are ex­
through the 1970’s. The demand
for optometric services is ex­
pected to increase, but the total
number of new graduates will
probably be little more than the
number needed to replace op­
tometrists who retire, die, or stop
practicing for other reasons.
Opportunities to establish a
new practice will be best gener­
ally in small towns and in resi­
dential areas of cities, where the
new optometrist can become
known easily. Communities, es­
pecially in the South, that have
no optometric services available
also will offer opportunities for
new graduates. A good office lo­
cation is of major importance for
a successful practice. The optom­
etrist should consider the number
of optometrists and ophthalmolo­
gists in the vicinity in relation to
the size, occupations, age, and in­
come level of the population in
the area.
Among the factors underlying
the expected increase in demand
for eye care services are a growing
population having larger numbers
of older people and white collar
workers, the groups most likely
to need glasses; the wider recog­
nition of the importance of good

New optometry graduates who
go into practice for themselves
generally have a low income dur­
ing the first few years. They usu­
ally earn less than new optome­
trists who take salaried positions.
After a few years of experience,
the situation is usually reversed,
since the income of independent
practitioners generally exceeds
the earnings of salaried optome­
In early 1968, starting salaries
of new optometry graduates
ranged from about $8,000 to $10,000 a year, according to the lim­
ited information available. The
average net income of experi­
enced optometrists was about
$19,000. Incomes varied greatly,
depending on location, specializa­
tion, and other factors.
Most optometrists work 40 to
49 hours a week, regardless of
whether they practice in a small
town, medium-size city, or large
city. Since the work is not strenu­
ous, optometrists can often con­
tinue to practice after the normal
retirement age.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Additional information on op­
tometry as a career is available
American Optometric Association,
7000 Chippewa St., St. Louis,
Mo. 63119.



Information on required pre­
optometry courses may be ob­
tained by writing to the optome­
try school in which the prospec­
tive student wishes to enroll. The
Board of Optometry in the capital
of the State in which the student
plans to practice will provide a
list of optometry schools ap­
proved by that State, as well as
licensing requirements.

(D.O.T. 074.181)

N atu re of th e W ork
Pharmacists dispense drugs and
medicines and provide informa­
tion on their use to help protect
people’s health. They dispense
prescriptions ordered by physi­
cians and other medical practi­
tioners, and supply and advise
people on the use of many medi­

cines that can be obtained with­
out prescriptions. Pharmacists
must understand the use, com­
position, and effect of drugs and
be able to test them for purity
and strength. Compounding— the
actual mixing of ingredients to
form powders, tablets, capsules,
ointments, and solutions— is only
a small part of present-day
pharmacists’ work, since many
drugs now are produced by manu­
facturers in the form used by the
Many pharmacists in drug­
stores or community pharmacies
have sales and managerial as well
as professional duties. Besides
dispensing drugs, these pharma­
cists buy and sell other merchan­
dise, hire and supervise store per­
sonnel, and oversee the general
operation of the store. Some
pharmacists, however, operate
prescription pharmacies that sell
only drugs, medical supplies, and
health accessories. Pharmacists in
hospitals dispense prescriptions
and advise the medical staff on
the selection and effects of drugs;
they also may make sterile solu­
tions, buy medical supplies, teach
in schools of nursing, and perform
administrative duties. An increas­
ing number of hospital pharma­
cists are “ clinical pharmacists” ,
who work in patient care areas as
active members of the medical
team. Some pharmacists, em­
ployed as medical sales represen­
tatives or “ detail men” by drug
manufacturers and wholesalers,
sell medicines to pharmacies and
inform practicing pharmacists,
doctors, dentists, and nurses
about new drugs. Others teach in
colleges, perform research, super­
vise the manufacture of pharma­
ceuticals, develop new drugs, edit
or write articles for pharmaceuti­
cal journals, or do administrative


Places of Em ploym ent
Of the more than 121,000 li­
censed pharmacists working in
1968, about 103,000 were in retail
pharmacists, almost half had their
own pharmacies or owned them in
partnership; the others were sal­
aried employees. Most of the sal­
aried pharmacists were employed
manufacturers, and wholesalers.
Others were civilian employees of
the Federal Government, working
chiefly in hospitals and clinics of
the Veterans Administration and
the U.S. Public Health Service.
Some served as pharmacists in
the Armed Forces, taught in col­
leges of pharmacy, or worked for
State and local government
Nearly every town has at least
one drugstore with one or more
pharmacist in attendance. Most
pharmacists, however, practice in
or near cities, and in those States
which have the greatest popu­
Women, who represent about 8
percent of all pharmacists, are
e m p l o y e d in all branches of
the profession. Women students
are accepted by all colleges of
pharmacy. In 1968 they consti­
tuted almost one-sixth of under­
graduate enrollments.

T rain in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
A license to practice pharmacy
is required in all States and the
District of Columbia. T o obtain
a license, one must be a graduate
of an accredited pharmacy col­
lege, pass a State Board exami­
nation and, in most States, also
have 1 year of practical experi­
ence or internship under the su­
pervision of a registered pharma­
cist. In 1968, 28 States required
that part or all of this experience

be acquired after graduation. All
States except California, Florida,
and Hawaii grant a license with­
out examination to qualified
pharmacists already licensed by
another State.
In 1968, there were 74 accred­
ited colleges of pharmacy. Some
of these were not filled to capac­
ity and qualified applicants usu­
ally could expect to be accepted.
Needy students may obtain loans
or scholarships up to $2,500 a
year to pursue full-time study
leading to a degree in pharmacy
from Federal funds provided by
the Health Professions Educacational Assistance Act of 1963,
as amended. Several scholarships
are awarded annually by drug
manufacturers, chain drug stores,
and State and National pharm­
acy associations.
To graduate from a college of
pharmacy, one must have at least
5 years of study beyond high
school. Two colleges that require
6 years award a Ph. D. degree in
pharmacy at the completion of
the program. A few colleges ad­
mit students directly from high
school and offer all the education
necessary for graduation. Most
provide 3 or 4 years of profes­
sional instruction and require all
entrants to have completed their
prepharmacy education in an ac­
credited junior college, college, or
university. A prepharmacy cur­
mathematics and basic sciences,
such as chemistry and biology,
but also includes courses in the
humanities and social science.
The bachelor’s degree in pharm­
acy is the minimum educational
qualification for most positions
in the profession. However, the
master’s or doctor’s degree in
pharmacy or a related field— such
as pharmaceutical
pharmacology (study of the ef­
fects of drugs on the body),
pharmacognosy (study of the
drugs derived from plant or ani­

mal sources), or pharmacy ad­
ministration— usually is required
for research work or college teach­
ing. Graduate study also is desir­
able for pharmacists planning to
work in hospitals. Those inter­
ested in becoming hospital phar­
macists can sometimes secure 1or 2-year internships which com­
bine graduate or advanced profes­
sional study and practical experi­
ence in a hospital pharmacy.
Prospective pharmacy students
should have a good high school
background in mathematics and
science. Orderliness and a liking
for detail are desirable qualities.
In addition, for those planning to
become community pharmacists,
the ability to deal with people
and perform managerial duties is
of special importance.
Pharmacists often begin as em­
ployees in community pharma­
cies. After obtaining some experi­
ence and the necessary funds,
they may become owners of
pharmacies. A pharmacist who
gains experience in a chain drug­
store may advance to managerial
positions and, later, to a higher
executive position within the
company. Hospital pharmacists
having the necessary training and
experience may advance to chief
pharmacist or to other admin­
istrative positions.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Most new pharmacy graduates
will find employment readily avail­
able through the 1970’s. From
3,500 to 4,000 openings will arise
each year as pharmacists retire,
die, or transfer out of the profes­
sion. These openings, together
with the anticipated gradual in­
crease in new positions for pharm­
acists, are expected to provide
enough employment opportunities
to absorb each year’s graduates.
Some employment growth for
pharmacists will result from the



establishment of new pharmacies,
particularly in residential areas
or suburban shopping centers; the
country’s expanding population;
and the rising standard of medi­
cal care. Many community pharm­
acies may hire additional pharm­
acists because of a trend towards
shorter working hours. Employ­
ment in hospitals probably will
rise with the construction of ad­
ditional facilities and the more
extensive use of pharmacists for
hospital work. Continued expan­
sion in the manufacture of
pharmaceutical products and in
research are expected to provide
more opportunities for pharma­
cists in production, r e s e a r c h ,
distribution, and sales. Pharma­
cists in production, r e s e a r c h ,
will be needed for college teach­
ing and laboratory research.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Beginning pharmacists general­
ly received salaries ranging from
$7,800 to $13,000 a year in
1968, according to the American
Pharmaceutical Association. The
entrance salary in the Federal
Civil Service in late 1968 for new
graduates of 5-year pharmacy
programs was $8,462; graduates
of 4-year programs began at
Experienced pharmacists prac­
ticing in community pharmacies
in 1968 generally were paid an­
nual salaries of between $10,000
and $14,000, according to limited
data available. Owners and man­
agers earned an average of
$15,900 a year.
Community pharmacists gener­
ally work more than the standard
40-hour workweek. Drugstores
often are open in the evenings
and on weekends, and all States
require a registered pharmacist
to be in attendance during store
hours. Despite the general trend
toward shorter hours, 48 hours is

still the basic workweek for many
salaried retail pharmacists, and
some work 50 hours or more a
week. Self-employed pharmacists
often work more hours than those
in salaried positions. Those who
teach or work for industry, gov­
ernment agencies, or hospitals
have shorter workweeks. Salaried
pharmacists usually receive paid
vacations, health insurance, and
other fringe benefits.

(D.O.T. 079.108)

N ature of the W ork
Podiatrists (sometimes


chiropodists) diagnose and treat
diseases and deformities of the
feet. They perform foot surgery,
use drugs and physical therapy,

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
General information on pharm­
acy as a career can be obtained
American Pharmaceutical Asso­
ciation, 2215 Constitution Ave.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20037.

Information about student fi­
nancial aid and chain drug stores
may be obtained from:
National Association of Chain
Drug Stores, 1625 Eye St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20006.

Information about retail pharm­
acies may be obtained from:

National Association of Retail
Druggists, 1 East Wacker Dr.,
Chicago, 1 1 60601.

A list of accredited colleges
may be obtained from:
American Council on Pharmaceu­
tical Education, 77 West Wash­
ington St., Chicago, 1 1 60602.

Current requirements for licen­
sure in a particular State may be
obtained from the Board of
Pharmacy of that State or from:
National Association of Boards of
Pharmacy, 77 West Washington
St., Chicago, 1 1 60602.

Information on college entrance
requirements, curriculums, and fiancial aid is available from the
dean of any college of pharmacy.

prescribe proper shoes, and fit
corrective devices. T o help in
diagnoses, they take X-rays of the
feet and perform blood and other
tests. Among the conditions po­
diatrists treat are corns, bunions,
calluses, ingrown toenails, skin
and nail diseases, deformed toes,
and arch disabilities. They refer
patients to medical doctors when­
ever they observe symptoms in
the feet that may be evidence of
medical disorders— such as arth­
ritis or heart or kidney trouble.
As a rule, podiatrists provide
complete foot care. Some, how­
ever, specialize in orthopedics
(bone, muscle, and joint disor­
ders), podopediatries (children’s
diseases), or foot surgery.


Places of Em ploym ent
Approximately 8,500 podia­
trists were actively engaged in
the profession in 1968; less than
4 percent were women. Nearly all
podiatrists were self-employed.
The few who had full-time salar­
ied positions worked mainly in
hospitals, podiatric colleges, or for
other podiatrists. Small numbers
were employed by the Veterans
Administration or were commis­
sioned officers in the Armed
Podiatrists practice mainly in
large cities. In 1968, nearly half
were in four of the most heavily
populated States— New York,
Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Cali­
fornia. In many small towns and
rural areas, especially in the
South and the Northwest, there
were no podiatrists.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
All States and the District of
Columbia require a license for the
practice of podiatry. T o qualify
for a license, an applicant must
be a graduate of an accredited 4year program in a college of po­
diatry and must pass a State
board examination. In addition,
three States— Michigan, New
Jersey, and Rhode Island— re­
quire applicants to serve a 1-year
internship in a hospital or clinic
after graduation from a podiatric
college; the State of Oklahoma
requires 1 year of practice under
the direct supervision of an
experienced podiatrist. Threefourths of the States grant li­
censes without further examina­
tion to podiatrists already li­
censed by another State.
The five colleges of podiatric
medicine in the United States
will admit only students who
have already completed at least
2 years of college. This education

must include courses in English,
chemistry, biology or zoology,
and, in some instances, also phy­
sics and mathematics.
The first 2 years of podiatry
education are devoted chiefly to
classroom instruction and labora­
tory work in such basic sciences
as anatomy, bacteriology, chem­
istry, pathology, and physiology.
During the final 2 years, students
spend most of their time obtain­
ing clinical experience. The de­
gree of Doctor of Podiatric Medi­
cine (D .P.M .) is awarded upon
graduation. Additional education
and experience are generally nec­
essary in order to qualify for
work in a specialized area of po­
diatry. Needy students may ob­
tain loans and scholarships up to
$2,500 a year to pursue full-time
study leading to a degree in po­
diatry from Federal funds pro­
vided by the Health Professions
Educational Assistance Act of
1963, as amended.
Among the personal qualifica­
tions considered desirable for a
career in this profession are scien­
tific aptitude, manual dexterity,
and a good business sense. The
ability to get along well with
people also is important.
Most newly licensed podiatrists
set up their own practices. Some
purchase established practices.
Others begin by obtaining salar­
ied positions to gain experience
and to save the money needed to
establish their own practices.

Em ploym ent O utlook
The employment outlook for
podiatrists is expected to be good
through the 1970,s. Although po­
diatrists are a relatively small oc­
cupational group, the number of
new graduates in podiatry also is
small. Opportunities for new grad­
uates to establish their own prac­
tices, as well as to enter salaried
positions, should continue to be

The demand for podiatrists’
services is expected to grow with
the demand for other health serv­
ices. An important factor under­
lying this anticipated growth is
an expanding population with a
greater number of older people.
This age group, the one needing
most foot care, is entitled to cer­
tain podiatrists’ services under
Medicare. Furthermore, the trend
toward providing preventive foot
care for children is increasing.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
In podiatry, as in many of the
other professions, incomes usually
rise markedly after the first years
of practice. Earnings of individual
podiatrists are determined mainly
by such factors as ability, experi­
ence, the income level of the com­
munity served, and location.
Starting salaries of new podia­
trists ranged from $8,000 to
$10,000 in 1968, according to lim­
ited information available. The
average net income of experi­
enced podiatrists was about
$17,500. Income was generally
higher in large cities.
Podiatrists generally work 40
hours a week. They may set their
hours to suit their practice.

Sources of A dditional In fo rm atio n
Applicants for licenses to prac­
tice podiatry in a particular State
may obtain information on the
requirements for licensure from
the State board of examiners in
the State capital. Information on
entrance requirements, curriculums, and scholarships is available
from the colleges of podiatric
Additional information on po­
diatry as a career, as well as a list
of colleges, may be obtained from:


American Podiatry Association,
3301 16th Street, NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20010.

(D.O.T. 079.108)

N atu re of the W ork
Chiropractic is a system of
treatment based on the principle

that a person’s health is deter­
mined largely by his nervous sys­
tem, and that interference with
this system impairs his normal
functions and lowers his resist­
ance to disease. Chiropractors
treat their patients primarily by
manual manipulation of parts of
the body, especially the spinal
Because of the emphasis of the
importance of the spine and its
position, most chiropractors use
X-ray extensively to aid in lo­
cating the source of patients’
difficulties. Many also use such

supplementary measures as water,
light, and heat therapy, and pre­
scribe diet, exercise, and rest.
Some State laws restrict the type
of supplementary treatment per­
mitted in chiropractic. Chiroprac­
tic as a system for healing does
not include the use of drugs or

Places of Em ploym ent
About 16,000 chiropractors
were employed in the United
States in 1968; about 9 percent
were women. Most chiropractors
were engaged in independent pri­
vate practice. Some were salaried
assistants of established practi­
tioners or worked for chiropractic
clinics and industrial firms. Oth­
ers taught or conducted research
at chiropractic colleges. About
45 percent of all chiropractors
were located in California, New
York, Texas, Missouri, and

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent

Chiropractor treats patient's spine.

Most States and the District of
Columbia regulate the practice of
chiropractic and grant licenses to
chiropractors who meet certain
educational requirements and
pass a State board examination.
The type of practice permitted
and the educational requirements
for licensure vary considerably
from one State to another. In
1968, the States of Louisiana and
Mississippi did not regulate the
practice of chiropractic nor issue
licenses to chiropractors.
Most States require the suc­
cessful completion of a 4-year
chiropractic course following high
school graduation. About one-half
of the States also require 1 or 2
years of preparatory college work
About half the States also require


that chiropractors pass a basic
science examination. Chiroprac­
tors licensed in one State gen­
erally may obtain a license in
another State without further
Some of the 11 chiropractic
colleges in the United States in
1968 emphasized courses in mani­
pulation and spinal adjustments,
while the others offered a broader
curriculum including such sub­
jects as chiropractic physiother­
apy and nutrition. In most chiro­
practic colleges, the first 2 years
of the 4-year curriculum are de­
voted chiefly to classroom and
laboratory work in subjects such
an anatomy, physiology, and bio­
chemistry. The last 2 years are
spent in obtaining practical ex­
perience in the colleges’ clinics.
The degree of Doctor of Chiro­
practic (D.C.) is awarded to stu­
dents completing 4 years of chiro­
practic training.
Chiropractic requires consider­
able hand dexterity but does not
call for unusual strength or en­
durance. Among the personal
qualities considered desirable for
a chiropractor is the ability to un­
derstand people sympathetically.
Most newly licensed chiroprac­
tors either set up a new practice
or purchase an established prac­
tice. Some start as salaried chiro­
practors to acquire experience
and funds necessary to establish
their own practice. A moderate
financial investment is usually
necessary to open and equip an

E m ploym ent O utlook
The employment outlook for
chiropractors is expected to be
favorable through the 1970’s.
Only a slight increase in the de­
mand for chiropractic services is
expected. However, the antici­
pated small number of new grad­

uates of chiropractic colleges
probably will be insufficient to
fill openings created by growth,
as well as to replace chiropractors
who retire, die, or stop practic­
ing for other reasons. In view of
the trend in many States toward
raising educational requirements
for chiropractic practice, oppor­
tunities may be best for those hav­
ing the most thorough training.
Opportunities for new gradu­
ates to begin their own practice
are likely to be best in those parts
of the country where chiroprac­
tic is most fully accepted as a
method of treatment. Opportuni­
ties also should be good for those
who wish to enter salaried posi­
tions in chiropractic clinics, chiro­
practic colleges, and other or­
ganizations employing chiroprac­
The expected slight growth in
demand for chiropractors’ serv­
ices will be related to an expand­
ing population and its increasing
demand for various types of
health care, including chiroprac­
tic treatment.
Women are expected to have
good opportunities in chiroprac­
tic, since some women and chil­
dren prefer to be treated by
women chiropractors. All chiro­
practic colleges accept women as

Earnings and W orking Conditions
In chiropractic, as in other
types of independent practice,
earnings are relatively low in the
beginning but rise after the first
few years. Incomes of chiroprac­
tors vary widely. Experienced
chiropractors generally had aver­
age yearly incomes ranging from
$12,000 to $25,000 in 1968, ac­
cording to the limited data

Sources of A dditional In fo rm atio n
Information on State licensing
requirements may be obtained
from the State Board of licensing
in the capital of the State in
which the individual plans to
General information on chiro­
practic as a career may be ob­
tained from:
American Chiropractic Associa­
tion, American Building, 2200
Grand Ave., P.O. Box 1535, Des
Moines, Iowa 50306.
International Chiropractors Asso­
ciation, 741 Brady St., Daven­
port, Iowa 52805.

(D.O.T. 079.128)

N ature of th e W ork
Occupational therapists plan
and direct educational, voca­
tional, and recreational activities
designed to help mentally and
physically disabled patients be­
come self-sufficient. They work
as members of a medical team
which, in addition to physicians,
may include physical therapists,
vocational counselors, nurses, so­
cial workers, and other specialists.
About one-third of the total
number of occupational thera­
pists work with emotionally
handicapped patients, and the
rest with persons having physical
disabilities. These patients repre­
sent all age groups and varying
degrees of illness.
The treatment or training goals
for patients referred for occupa­
tional therapy may include re­
gaining physical, mental or emo­
tional stability; developing maxi­
mum self-sufficiency in the rou­
tine of daily living (such as eat­
ing, dressing, writing, and using a



telephone); and, in the latter
stage of treatment, performing
jobs in a practical work situation
for eventual return to employ­
As part of the treatment pro­
gram for adults, occupational
therapists teach manual and
creative skills, such as weav­
ing, clay modeling, and leather­
working, as well as business

and industrial skills such as
typing, operating some business
machines, and using power tools.
In programs for children, they
initiate and direct activities ap­
propriate to the child’s matura­
tion level. Therapists may design
and make special equipment or
splints to aid some disabled
patients in performing their

Places of Em ploym ent
About 7,000 occupational thera­
pists were employed in 1968; more
than 9 out of 10 were women.
About three-fifths of all occu­
pational therapists work in hos­
pitals. Most of the remainder
are employed in rehabilitation
centers, custodial care and nuring homes, schools, out-patient
clinics, community mental health
centers, and research centers.
Some work in special workshops,
sanitariums, camps for handicap­
ped children, and in State health
departments. Others are em­
ployed in home-care programs for
patients unable to attend clinics
or workshops. Still others are
members of the Armed Forces.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent

Duties other than patient care
include supervising student thera­
pists, occupational therapy assist­
ants, volunteer workers, and aux­
ilary nursing workers. The chief
occupational therapist in a hos­
pital may teach medical and nurs­
ing students the principles of oc­
cupational therapy. Many occu­
pational therapists have admini­

strative duties such as directing
occupational therapy programs,
coordinating patient activities, or
acting as consultants to local and
State health departments and
mental health authorities. Some
occupational therapists are fac­
ulty members at colleges and uni­
versities offering programs in oc­
cupational therapy.

The minimum requirement for
entry into the profession is a de­
gree or certificate in occupational
therapy. In 1968, 32 colleges and
universities in the United States
offered programs in occupational
therapy which were accredited by
the American Medical Associa­
tion and the American Occupa­
tional Therapy Association. All of
these schools offer a bachelor’s
degree program for high school
graduates or transfer students
who have completed 2 years of
college. Some of the schools also
offer shorter programs leading to
a certificate in occupational ther­
apy for students having a bach­
elor’s degree in another field.
The academic work in a 4-year
program emphasizes the physical,
biological, and behavioral sciences
and the application of occupa­
tional therapy skills. In addition
to the academic work, the train­
ing includes 6 to 9 months of
supervised clinical experience in
hospitals or health agencies.
Some programs give part of the


clinical experience during the
summer or during part of the
senior year. The Armed Forces
offer programs whereby graduates
of approved schools of occupa­
tional therapy, who meet the re­
quirements to become commis­
sioned officers, may receive the
clinical part of their training
while in the service.
Upon graduation and the com­
pletion of the clinical practice
period, therapists are eligible to
take the examination given by
the American Occupational Ther­
apy Association. Those who pass
this examination may use the
initials O.T.R.
Therapist Registered).
Eight universities offer a pro­
gram for occupational therapists
leading to a master’s degree in
occupational therapy. The mas­
ter’s degree also is offered at six
universities as the first profes­
sional degree for persons holding
a baccalaureate degree in related
fields. A graduate degree often is
required for teaching, research,
or administrative work.
Newly graduated occupational
therapists generally begin as staff
therapists. After several years on
the job, they may qualify as sen­
ior therapists. Experienced thera­
pists may become directors of oc­
cupational therapy programs in
large hospitals or clinics, or may
become teachers. Some high-level
positions, such as program co­
ordinators and consultants, also
are available in large institutions
and agencies.
Personal qualifications needed
in this profession include emo­
tional stability and a sympathetic
but objective approach to illness
and disability. An ability to
teach, ingenuity, and imagination
also are needed.

E m ploym ent O utlook
Employment opportunities for

occupational therapists are ex­
pected to be excellent through
the 1970’s. Despite anticipated
increases in the number of gradu­
ates of occupational therapy pro­
grams, the demand for therapists
is expected to exceed the supply
as public interest in the rehabili­
tation of disabled persons and the
success of established occupa­
tional therapy programs in­
creases. Many occupational ther­
apists will be needed to staff the
growing number of community
health centers and extended care
facilities. There will continue to
be numerous opportunities to
children, and aged persons, as
work with psychiatric patients,
well as with persons suffering
from cerebral palsy, tuberculosis,
and heart disease. In addition to
openings that will result from
growth, many openings will arise
because of the need to replace
the high proportion of young
women who leave the field for
marriage and family responsibili­
ties. Opportunities for experi­
enced women who wish to return
to work part time after rearing
their children should be excellent.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Annual salaries of staff occu­
pational therapists ranged from
$6,500 to $13,000 in 1968, accord­
ing to the American Occupational
Therapy Association. Directors
of services, coordinators, consult­
ants, and others in top admin­
earned annual salaries of $15,000
or more in 1968.
In the Federal Government,
the beginning annual salary for
inexperienced occupational thera­
pists was $6,321 in late 1968.
About two-fifths of all occupa­
tional therapists in the Federal
Government earned $8,500 or
more a year.
Most occupational therapists

work an 8-hour day, 40-hour
week, including some evening
work required in a few organiza­
tions. Vacation leave usually
ranges from 2 to 4 weeks a year,
and many positions offer health
and retirement benefits.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
American Occupational Therapy
Association, 251 Park Avenue
South, New York, N.Y. 10010.

(D.O.T. 079.378)

N atu re of the W ork
Physical therapists help per­
sons with muscle, nerve, joint,
and bone diseases or injuries to
overcome their disabilities. They
evaluate and treat patients who
are referred to them by phy­
sicians through the use of exer­
cises, mechanical apparatus, mas­
sage, and appplications of heat
or cold, light, water, or electricity.
Most of their patients are acci­
dent victims, crippled children,
and disabled older persons.
To obtain information needed
to develop programs for treat­
ment, physical therapists perform
muscle, nerve, and other func­
tional tests. They also keep rec­
ords of their patients’ progress
during treatments and attend
conferences with physicians and
other medical personnel to dis­
cuss this progress. In many in­
stances, they help disabled per­
sons to accept their physical
handicaps and learn how to ad­
just to them. Therapists teach
patients how to perform exercises
and to use and care for braces,
crutches, and artificial limbs.
They also may show members of



About four-fifths of all physical
therapists work in general hospi­
tals; in hospitals that specialize
in the care of pediatric, ortho­
pedic, psychiatric, or chronically
ill patients; and in nursing homes.
Most of the remainder are em­
ployed by rehabilitation or treat­
ment centers, schools or societies
for crippled children, and public
health agencies. Most of these or­
ganizations provide treatment for
patients having chronic diseases,
and some have home visiting
Some therapists work in phy­
sicians’ offices or clinics, teach in
schools of physical therapy, or
work for research organizations.
Others serve as consultants in
government and voluntary agen­
cies. In addition, a few hundred
are members of the Armed Forces.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
the patients’ families how to con­
tinue treatments at home.
Physical therapists are mem­
bers of a health care team that is
directed by a physician and may
include a nurse, clinical social
worker, occupational therapist,
psychologist, vocational coun­
selor, and other specialists. Al­
though qualified physical ther­
apists may treat many types of
patients, some specialize in caring
for children, or for patients hav­
ing amputations, arthritis, or
paralysis. They also may instruct
physical therapy students, as well
as students of related professions
and other health workers.

Places of Em ploym ent
Approximately 14,000 licensed
physical therapists were em­
ployed in 1968. Nearly threefourths of all therapists were

A license is required to practice
physical therapy in 48 States and
the District of Columbia. To ob­
tain a license, an applicant must
have a degree or certificate from
a school of physical therapy and
pass a State board examination.
In the remaining two States
(Texas and Missouri), employers
require a degree or certificate
from an approved school of phy­
sical therapy. In 1968, 48 schools
of physical therapy (including the
Army Medical Service School)
were approved by the American
Medical Association and the
American Physical Therapy As­
sociation. Most of the schools
are part of large universities; a
few are operated by hospitals,
which usually have university
Most of the approved schools
of physical therapy offer bach­
elor’s degree programs. Some
schools provide 1- to 2-year pro­

grams for students who have
completed some college courses.
Other schools accept those who
already have a bachelor’s degree
and give a 12- to 16-month course
leading to a certificate in physical
therapy. Many schools offer both
degree and certificate programs.
Among the courses included in
a physical therapy program are
anatomy, physiology, pathology,
clinical medicine, psychology,
massage, therapeutic exercise,
and administration. In addition to
classroom instruction, students
are assigned to a hospital or
treatment center for supervised
clinical experience in the care of
Several universities offer the
master’s degree in physical ther­
apy. A graduate degree, combined
with clinical experience, increases
the opportunities for advance­
ment to positions of responsibil­
ity in teaching, research, and ad­
ministration, as well as in the
Because an important function
of a therapist’s job is to help pa­
tients and their families under­
stand the treatments and adjust
to their handicaps, therapists
must have patience, tact, re­
sourcefulness, and emotional sta­
bility. In addition, physical thera­
pists should have manual dex­
terity and physical stamina. For
those who wish to determine
whether they have the personal
qualities needed for this occupa­
tion, summer or part-time work
as a volunteer in the physical
therapy department of a hospital
or clinic may prove helpful.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment opportunities for
physical therapists are expected
to be excellent through the 1970’s.
The demand for qualified workers

is likely to continue to exceed the
The demand for physical thera­
pists is expected to increase very
rapidly through the 1970’s as the
result of increased public recog­
nition of the importance of re­
habilitation. Many new positions
for physical therapists are ex­
pected to be created as programs
to aid crippled children and re­
habilitation activities are ex­
panded to serve the increasing
number of disabled people who
require physical therapy. Rapid
growth in the number of nursing
homes also should result in the
need for many more physical
therapists to work as staff mem­
bers. In addition, many openings
will continue to arise each year
to replace the large number of
women who leave the profession
for marriage and family respon­
Part-time positions will con­
tinue to be available in many
communities. These positions are
particularly attractive to married
women who wish to work on a
part-time basis.
Increased demands for physical
therapy services also will result
in greater opportunities for phy­
sical therapy assistance who gen­
erally obtain their training in
junior colleges or on the job in
hospitals and other instiitutions.


tive positions earned salaries of
$12,000 or more.
In late 1968, beginning thera­
pists employed by the Federal
starting salaries of $6,321; those
having high academic standing,
however, were offered $6,981.
More than one-fourth of all physi­
cal therapists employed by the
Federal Government were earn­
ing salaries of $9,300 or more a
Most physical therapists work
40 hours a week. Almost all re­
ceive 2 weeks of vacation or more,
and the majority receive sick
leave and other fringe benefits.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
American Physical Therapy As­
sociation, 1740 Broadway, New
York, N.Y. 10019.

(D.O.T. 079.108)

N atu re of the W ork
The inability to speak or hear
clearly is a severe hardship to
persons of all ages. Children who
have difficulty speaking or hear­
ing are usually unable to play
freely with others or to partici­
pate fully in normal classroom ac­
tivities. Adults suffering from
speech or hearing impairments
often face problems of job ad­
justment. Speech pathologists
and audiologists help people hav­
ing such disorders by identifying
and evaluating their problems
and by providing treatment. In
addition, they may conduct re­
search in the speech and hearing
field. Some are engaged in train­
ing programs in speech pathology

Earnings and W orking Conditions
New physical therapy gradu­
ates received starting salaries
ranging between $6,500 and
$7,500 in 1968, according to the
American Physical Therapy As­
sociation. Annual salaries of ex­
perienced therapists generally
ranged from $8,500 to $11,000.
Physical therapists in consulta­
tive, educational, or administra­

Speech pathologist works with cerebral palsy youngster.


and audiology at colleges and
Speech pathologists are con­
cerned primarily with speech and
language disorders and audiolog­
ists with
Speech and hearing, however, are
so interrelated that to be com­
petent in either of these occupa­
tions, one must have a familiar­
ity with both. The speech path­
ologist works with children and
adults who have speech, language
and voice problems resulting from
brain injury, cleft-palate, mental
retardation, emotional problems,
foreign dialect, or other causes.
The audiologist also works with
children and adults, but concerns
himself primarily with the assess­
ment and treatment of hearing
problems such as those caused by
certain otological or neurological
The duties performed by
speech pathologists and audio­
logists vary with their education,
experience, and employment set­
ting. In a clinical capacity, they
identify and evaluate speech and
hearing disorders using various
diagnostic procedures. This is
followed by an organized program
of therapy, with the coopera­
tion of other specialists, such as
physicians, psychologists, social
counselors, and teachers. Some
perform research work, which
may consist of investigating com­
municative disorders and their
causes and improving methods
for clinical services. Others may
supervise clinical activities or
Speech pathologists and audio­
logists working in colleges or uni­
versities provide instruction in
the principles and bases of com­
munication, communication dis­
orders, and clinical techniques.
Many also participate in educa­
tional programs for physicians,
nurses, teachers, and other pro­

fessional personnel. In addition,
they may work in university
clinics and conduct research, usu­
ally at university centers.
Places of Em ploym ent
Approximately 18,000 persons
were employed as speech patho­
logists and audiologists in 1968.
Women represented about threefourths of total employment. The
majority of speech pathologists
and audiologists work in public
school systems. Colleges and uni­
versities employ the next largest
number of these specialists in
classrooms, clinics, and research
centers. The remainder are dis­
tributed among hospitals, reha­
bilitation and community speech
and hearing centers, State and
Federal Government agencies,
industry, and private practice.
T rain in g and O ther Q ualifications
Most States require a master’s
degree in speech pathology or
audiology or its equivalency for
a beginning job as a speech pa­
thologist or audiologist. In other
States, the bachelor’s degree is
required for entry positions.
speech pathology and audiology
should include course work in
anatomy, biology, physiology,
physics, and in other related
areas such as linguistics, seman­
tics, and phonetics. Some special­
ized course work in speech and
hearing, as well as in child psy­
chology and mental hygiene, also
is helpful. This training is usu­
ally available at colleges and uni­
versities offering a broad liberal
arts program.
Graduate education in speech
pathology and audiology was of­
fered at 189 colleges and univer­
sities in 1968. Professional prepa­
ration at the graduate level in­
volves extensive training in the
fundamental areas of speech and

hearing, including anatomy and
physiology, acoustics, and psy­
chological aspects of communica­
tion; the nature of speech and
hearing disorders; and the assess­
ment, evaluation, and analysis of
abilities, and auditory processes;
as well as familiarity with various
research methods used in study­
ing speech and hearing. Persons
who wish to work in public
schools should complete not only
the education and other require­
ments necessary for a teacher’s
certificate in the State in which
they wish to work, but also may
have to fulfill special require­
ments, prescribed by some States,
for people who are going to work
with handicapped children.
Many scholarships, fellowships,
assistantships, and traineeships
are available in colleges and uni­
versities; however, most of these
are at the graduate level. The
U.S. Rehabilitation Services Ad­
ministration, the Children’s Bu­
reau, the U.S. Office of Educa­
tion, and the National Institutes
of Health allocate funds for
teaching and training grants to
colleges and universities offering
graduate study in the field of
speech and hearing. The Veterans
Administration provides stipends
Speech pathologists and audio­
logists should have an interest
and liking for people, and the
ability to approach problems with
objectivity. T o work effectively
with persons having speech and
hearing disorders, one must be
sensitive, patient, and have emo­
tional stability.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment opportunities for
well-qualified speech pathologists
and audiologists are expected to
be good through the 1970’s. In-

dividuals who have completed
graduate study in speech path­
ology and audiology will have the
best employment opportunities.
Opportunities for part-time em­
ployment also will be good. Al­
though employment will be avail­
able for individuals having only
the bachelor’s degree and some
professional experience, increas­
ing emphasis is being placed on
the master’s degree as the mini­
mum educational standard for
the profession.
Many speech pathologists and
audiologists will be needed an­
nually through the 1970’s to staff
new and expanding programs in
schools, clinics, colleges and uni­
versities, and hospitals. In addi­
tion, many will be needed to re­
place those who die, retire, or
leave the profession for other
Several factors are expected to
increase demand for the services
of speech pathologists and audio­
logists during the 1970’s: Popu­
lation growth, which will result
in an increase in the absolute
number of persons having speech
and hearing problems; a length­
ening life span, which" will in­
crease the number of persons
having speech and hearing prob­
lems that are common to later
life; a rapid expansion in ex­
penditures for medical research;
the growing public interest and
awareness of the serious prob­
lems connected with speech and
hearing disorders, as illustrated
by the 1966 Title VI Amendment
to the Elementary and Second­
ary Education Act of 1965, which
provides for the education of
handicapped children; and ex­
panded Federal programs such
as Medicare and Medicaid.
Earnings and W orking Conditions
Median salaries of speech path­
ologists and audiologists em­
ployed in colleges and universi­


ties ranged from $8,300 to $15,
000 for a 9-to 10-month contract
period in 1968, according to the
American Speech and Hearing
Association. Median salaries may
be as much as $3,000 higher for
an 11- to 12-month contract.
Many experienced speech path­
ologists and audiologists in educa­
tional institutions supplement
their regular salaries by incomes
from consulting, special research
projects, and writing books and
The average annual salary for
speech pathologists and audio­
logists in elementary and second­
ary schools in 1968 was about
$8,900, according to an American
Speech and Hearing Association
survey of members employed in
these schools.
In late 1968, the annual start­
ing salary in the Federal Govern­
ment for speech pathologists and
audiologists who had completed
all requirements for the master’s
degree was $8,462. Those having
doctoral degrees were eligible to
start at $12,243.
Most speech pathologists and
audiologists work 40 hours a
week; however, personnel en­
gaged in research may work
longer hours. Almost all employ­
ment situations provide fringe
benefits such as paid vaca­
tions, sick leave, and retirement

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Information on certification re­
quirements for persons wishing to
work in public schools can be ob­
tained from the State department
of education at the State capital.
General career information and
a list of colleges and universities
that have received grants to pro­
vide traineeships at the graduate
level may be obtained from:
American Speech and Hearing
Association, 9030 Old George­

town Rd., Washington,


(D.O.T. 078.128; .168; .281; and .381)

N atu re of the W ork
Laboratory tests play an im­
portant part in the detection,
diagnosis, and treatment of can­
cer, tuberculosis, diabetes, menin­
gitis, and other diseases. Medical
laboratory workers, often called
clinical laboratory workers, in­
clude three levels of workers;
medical technologists, techni­
cians, and assistants. They per­
form these tests under the direc­
tion of pathologists (physicians
who specialize in diagnosing the
causes and nature of disease) or
other physicians or scientists
specializing in clinical chemistry,
microbiology, or the other bio­
logical sciences. Medical labora­
tory workers analyze the blood,
tissue, and fluids of the human
body using precision instruments,
such as microscopes, automatic
analyzers, electronic counters,
and spectrophotometers. Find­
ings of such tests help physicians
treat patients.
Medical technologists, who re­
quire 4 years of post-secondary
training, perform the more com­
plicated chemical, microscopic,
and bacteriological tests and pro­
cedures. These tests may include
chemical tests to determine blood
cholesterol level, or microscopic
examination of the blood to de­
tect the possibility of leukemia.
Other body fluids may be ex­
amined microscopically; cultured
to determine the presence of
bacteria, parasites, or other mi­
cro-organisms; and analyzed for
chemical content or reaction.


stained and unstained sediment.
In basal metabolism and electro­
cardiography work, they prepare
patients for tests as well as oper­
ate and maintain testing equip­
ment. In small laboratories, med­
ical laboratory assistants general­
ly work in many areas.
In addition to performing rou­
tine laboratory tests, assistants
may store and label plasma; clean
and sterilize laboratory equip­
ment, glassware, and instruments;
prepare solutions following stan­
dard laboratory formulas and pro­
cedures; keep records of tests; and
identify specimens.

Medical laboratory technicians

Medical technologist dilutes serum sample.

Technologists also may type and
cross-match blood samples.
Technologists who work in
small laboratories often perform
many types of tests. Those em­
ployed in large laboratories usu­
ally specialize in making several
kinds of related tests in areas
such as microbiology, parasit­
ology, biochemistry, blood bank­
ing, hematology (the study of
blood cells), histology (tissue
preparation), cytology (analysis
of body cells), and nuclear med­
ical technology (the use of radio­
active isotops to help detect
Most medical technologists con­
duct tests related to the examina­
tion and treatment of patients.
However, some do research on
new drugs or on the improvement
of laboratory techniques. Others
teach or perform adminstrative

Medical laboratory assistants,
who generally do not require col­
lege training, assist the medical
technologist by performing sim­
ple, routine tests and related

work that can be learned in a
relatively short time.
Medical laboratory assistants
employed in large laboratories
may concentrate in one of the
several^ areas of laboratory work.
Laboratory assistants working in
bacteriology, serology, and para­
sitology prepare and stain slides
for study, apply sensitivity disc to
culture plates and record results;
and prepare specimens for mi­
croscopic studies. Those working
in hematology collect and per­
form blood counts and perform
tests to determine bleeding time,
coagulation time, sedimentation
rate, and prothrombin time. In
clinical chemistry, assistants ana­
lyze samples of body fluids to
assist in the diagnosis and treat­
ment of diseases. Assistants
working in the blood bank carry
out slide and test tube procedures
to identify blood groups and keep
blood-bank records. They assist
in such laboratory techniques as
centrifuging urine samples, pre­
paring the samples for micro­
scopic study, and examining

having various combinations of
education and experience perform
tasks that require, in general, a
higher level of skill than is re­
quired for certain routine work
done by assistants but which d 6
not involve the technical know­
ledge of the highly trained tech­
nologists. Like technologists and
assistants, they may function as
generalists in several areas of the

Technician examines slides.


laboratory or may specialize in
one or more fields.

Places of E m ploym ent
An estimated 100,000 medical
laboratory workers were em­
ployed in 1968— two-fifths were
medical technologists. Approxi­
mately 80 to 90 percent of all
medical laboratory workers were
women. However, the number of
men in the field has been increas­
ing in recent years.
About three-fourths of all med­
ical laboratory workers are em­
ployed in hospitals. Other places
of employment include independ­
ent laboratories, physicians’ of­
fices, clinics, public health agen­
cies, pharmaceutical firms, and
research institutions.
The Federal Government em­
ployed about 1,600 medical tech­
nologists and about 3,000 medical
laboratory technicians and assist­
ants in 1968 mostly in the hospi­
tals and laboratories of the Vet­
erans Administration. The re­
mainder were employed largely
by the Armed Forces and the
U.S. Public Health Service.
T rain in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
The usual minimum educa­
tional requirement for beginning
medical technology approved by
of college plus completion of a
specialized training program in
medical technology approved by
the American Medical Associa­
tion. Undergraduate work must
include courses in chemistry, bio­
logical science, and mathematics.
Such studies give the technologist
a broad understanding of the sci­
entific principles underlying lab­
oratory work. The specialized
training usually requires 12
months of study and includes
extensive laboratory work. In

1968, such training was given in
nearly 800 hospitals and schools,
most of which were affiliated with
colleges and universities. A bache­
lor’s degree is often awarded upon
completion of the college affiliated
program. A few schools require a
bachelor’s degree for entry into
the program.
About 30 universities also offer
advanced degrees in medical tech­
nology and related subjects for
technologists who plan to special­
ize in the laboratory or in teach­
ing, administration, or research.
Medical laboratory technicians
employed in 1968 had obtained
their training in a variety of edu­
cational settings. Many had re­
ceived one or more years of post­
secondary education in junior or
4-year colleges and universities.
Some technicians have attended
private schools, which offer 12 to
18-month |
programs to high school
graduates. Some technicians have
gained experience in the Armed
Forces. The Navy, for example,
conducts a 14-month program to
train clinical laboratory and
blood bank technicians and the
Army has a 50 week “ senior
medical laboratory specialist”
program. A few technicians re­
ceived training in non-profit vo­
cational and technical schools.
Most medical laboratory assist­
ants employed in 1968 obtained
received their training on the job.
In recent years, however, an in­
creasing number have received
their training in academic pro­
grams conducted by hospitals or
by vocational schools and junior
colleges in cooperation with hos­
pitals. In the future, academic
training probably will be required
by most employers. Hospitals of­
fer the greatest number of train­
ing programs, some of which
were established under the Man­
power Development and Training
Act and the Vocational Educa­
tion Act. For entry into these
programs, graduation from high

school with courses in science and
mathematics is required gener­
ally. The programs last a year
and include classroom instruction
and practical training in the lab­
oratory. These programs often
begin with a general orientation
to the clinical laboratory and are
followed by courses in bacteri­
hematology, clinical chemistry,
blood banking, urinalysis, basal
metabolism, and electrocardi­
Medical laboratory assistant
programs in junior colleges usu­
ally last about 2 years. Students
spend the first 9 months in a
liberal arts curriculum. During
the next year they take courses
in clinical laboratory procedures,
including practical laboratory
Certification examinations, ad­
ministered by the Board of Medi­
cal Technologists of the Ameri­
can Society of Clinical Patholo­
gists (A S C P ), are available to
graduates of AM A approved
schools. Such registration is im­
portant because it indicates that
a graduate has maintained edu­
cational standards recognized by
the medical profession. ASCPregistered medical laboratory per­
sonnel are preferred by most em­
In California, Florida, Hawaii,
Tennessee, New York City, and
Puerto Rico, medical technologist
and technicians also must be
Technologists may be pro­
moted to supervisory positions in
certain areas of laboratory work
or, after several years’ experi­
ence, to chief medical technologists
in a large hospital. Graduate edu­
cation in one of the biological
sciences or chemistry usually
speeds advancement in all areas.
Technicians and Assistants may
have difficulty advancing to
medical technologists unless they
continue their education and ob-



sciousness; expanding medical $150 to $200 a month less than
services resulting from new medi­ tnose paid medical technologists.
cal techniques and drugs; ex­ Technicians
panding medical research activi­ ranging between those paid tech­
ties; and extension of prepayment nologists and assistants.
Newly graduated medical tech­
programs for medical care, in­
nologists at the baccalaureate
cluding Medicare.
Advances in technology in gen­ level employed by the Federal
eral are expected to stimulate the Government in late 1968 received
demand for workers in this oc­ $5,732. Those having experience,
cupation. Many new technologi­ superior academic achievement,
cal developments permit greater or a year of graduate study en­
numbers and more varieties of tered at $6,981. About one-fourth
tests to be performed. Newly de­ of all technologists in Federal
veloped automated equipment is Government agencies earned an­
not expected to limit the growth nual salaries of $8,462 or more.
of medical technologists. How­ Depending on the amount and
ever, the development of new type of education and experience,
automated equipment that re­ medical laboratory assistants and
duces the need for personnel to technicians in the Federal Gov­
do simple repetitive tasks may ernment earned starting salaries
tend to partially offset the growth ranging from $4,231 to $5,145 a
in demand for the services of year in late 1968.
Em ploym ent O utlook
Medical laboratory personnel
medical laboratory assistants.
In addition to medical labora­ generally work a 40-hour week.
Employment opportunities for
medical laboratory workers are tory workers who will be needed In hospitals, they can expect
expected to be excellent through to fill openings resulting from the some night or weekend duty.
the 1970’s. New graduates hav­ rapid growth of this field, large Hospitals generally provide vaca­
ing a bachelor’s degree in medi­ numbers also will be needed as tion and sick leave benefits; some
many have retirement plans.
cal technology will be sought for replacements
Laboratories are in general well
entry technologist positions in workers are young women who
may leave their jobs for marriage lighted and clean. Although un­
hospitals. A particularly strong
demand is anticipated for tech­ and family responsibilities. Op­ pleasant odors and specimens of
nologists having graduate train­ portunities for part-time employ­ many kinds of diseased tissue of­
ing in biochemistry, microbiology, ment will continue to be avail­ ten are present, few hazards ex­
immunology, and virology. Em­ able. Opportunities also should ist if proper methods of steriliza­
ployment opportunities for medi­ be good for qualified older work­ tion and handling of specimens,
materials, and equipment are
cal laboratory technicians and ers and handicapped persons.
assistants also are expected to be
very favorable.
Employment opportunities for Earnings and W orking Conditions
medical laboratory personnel are
Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Salaries of medical laboratory
expected to expand as physicians
increasingly depend upon labora­ workers vary by employer and
Information about education
tory tests in routine physical geographic location of employ­ and training for medical tech­
checkups as well as in the diag­ ment. In general, medical labora­ nologists, technicians, and labora­
nosis and treatment of disease. tory workers employed on the tory assistants meeting stand­
Also, the construction of addi­ West Coast and in large cities ards recognized by the medical
tional hospital and medical fa­ received the highest salaries.
profession and the U.S. Office of
The average starting salary for Education as well as career in­
cilities will increase the demand
for these workers. Other factors medical technologists was about formation on these fields of work
affecting growth in this field in­ $6,600 in 1968, according to lim­ may be obtained from:
clude the country’s expanding ited data available. Beginning
Registry of Medical Technologists
population; rising standards of salaries for medical laboratory as­
of the American Society of
living; increasing health con­ sistants generally ranged from
Clinical Pathologists, 710 S.

tain a bachelor’s degree in biology
or chemistry, or a degree or cer­
tificate in medical technology.
Personal characteristics impor­
tant for medical laboratory work
include accuracy, dependability,
and the ability to work under
pressure. Manual dexterity and
the ability to discriminate colors
accurately are highly desirable.
Young people interested in a
medical laboratory career should
select a training program with
considerable care. Information
should be obtained about the
kinds of jobs obtained by gradu­
ates, educational costs, the length
of time the training program has
been in operation, instructional
facilities, and faculty qualifica­






American Society of Medical
Technologists, Suite 1600, Her­
mann Professional Bldg., Hous­
ton, Tex. 77025.

Information about technician
training programs offered in pri­
vate schools may be obtained
American Medical Technologists,
710 Higgins Road, Park Ridge,
11 . 60068.
International Society of Clinical
Laboratory Technologists, 805
Ambassador Building, 411
North Seventh St., St. Louis,
Mo. 63101.

Information about employment
clinical and research hospitals
may be obtained from the De­
partment of Medicine and Sur­
gery, Veterans Administration,
Washington, D.C. 20421, and the
Clinical Center, National Insti­
tutes of Health, Bethesda, Md.,

(D.O.T. 078.368)

N atu re of the W ork
Medical X-rays play a major
role in the diagnostic and thera­
peutic fields of medicine. Radiologic technologists, also called
medical X-ray technicians, oper­
ate X-ray equipment under the
direction of physicians who are
usually radiologists (specialists
in the use of X-rays).
Most radiologic technologists
perform diagnostic work, using
X-ray equipment to take pictures
of internal parts of the patient’s
body. They may prepare chemical
mixtures, such as barium salts,

which the patient swallows to
make specific organs appear
clearly in X-ray examinations.
The technician utilizes proper
radiation protection devices and
techniques that safeguard against
possible radiation hazards. After
determining the correct voltage,
current, and desired exposure
time, the technician positions the
patient and makes the required
number of radiographs to be de­
veloped for interpretation by the
physician. The technician may
use mobile X-ray equipment at
a patient’s bedside and in sur­
gery. The technician also is usu­
ally responsible for keeping treat­
ment records.
Some radiologic technologists
perform radiation therapeutic
work. They assist physicians in
treating diseases, such as certain
cancers, by administering pre­
scribed doses of X-ray or other
forms of ionizing radiation to the
affected areas of the patient’s
body. They also may assist the

radiologist in measuring and
handling radium and other radio­
active materials.
Other technicians work in the
relatively new field of nuclear
medicine in which radioactive
isotopes are used for diagnosing
and treating diseases. Their du­
ties in assisting the radiologist
may include preparing and ad­
ministering the prescribed radio­
isotope and operating special
equipment for tracing and meas­
uring radioactivity.

Places of Em ploym ent
An estimated 75,000 radiologic
technologists were employed in
1968; about two-thirds were
Approximately one-third of all
radiologic technologists were em­
ployed in hospitals; most of the
remainder worked in medical
laboratories, physicians’ and den­
tists’ offices or clinics, Federal
and State health agencies, and
public school systems. A few
worked as members of mobile
X-ray teams, engaged mainly in
tuberculosis detection.

Train in g , O th er Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Training programs in X-ray
technology are conducted by hos­
pitals or by medical schools af­
filiated with hospitals. A program
in X-ray technology usually takes
24 months to complete. A few
schools offer 3- or 4-year pro­
grams, and 11 schools award a
bachelor’s degree in X-ray tech­
nology. Also, some junior colleges
with work experience in hospitals
in 3-year X-ray technician pro­
grams and offer an Associate of
Arts degree. In 1968, more than
1,100 schools of X-ray technology
were approved by the American


Medical Association (A M A ). In
addition to training programs in
approved schools, training also
may be obtained in the military
service. Some courses in X-ray
technology are offered by voca­
tional or technical schools.
All of the approved schools ac­
cept only high school graduates,
and a few require 1 or 2 years of
college or graduation from a nurs­
ing school. High school courses in
mathematics, physics, chemistry,
biology, and typing are desirable.
The program in X-ray tech­
nology usually includes courses in
anatomy, physiology, nursing
procedures, physics, radiation
protection, darkroom chemistry,
principles of radiographic ex­
posure, X-ray therapy, radiographic
ethics, department administra­
tion, and the operation and main­
tenance of equipment.
Registration with the Ameri­
can Registry of Radiologic Tech­
nologists is an asset in obtaining
highly skilled and specialized po­
sitions. Registration requirements
include graduation from an ap­
proved school of medical X-ray
technology and the satisfactory
tion. After registration, the title
“ Registered Technologist, R.T.
(A R R T )” may be used. To be­
come certified in radiation ther­
apy or nuclear medicine, tech­
nicians must have completed an
additional year of combined
classroom study and work ex­
Some technicians employed in
large X-ray departments may be
advanced to the job of chief
X-ray technician as openings oc­
cur, and may also qualify as in­
structors in X-ray techniques.
Good health and stamina are
important qualifications for this

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment opportunities for
radiologic technologists are ex­
pected to be very good through
the 1970’s. Part-time opportuni­
ties also will be very favorable.
Very rapid growth is expected
in the profession, primarily as a
result of the anticipated expan­
sion in the use of X-ray equip­
ment in diagnosing and treating
diseases; more workers also will be
needed to help administer radio­
therapy as new knowledge of the
medical benefits of radioactive
material becomes widespread.
X-raying of large groups of peo­
ple will be extended as part of
disease prevention and control
programs. For example, many em­
ployers now demand that chest
X-rays be taken of all employees,
and most insurance companies in­
clude a chest X-ray as part of the
physical examination required for
an insurance policy.
In addition to the radiologic
technologists needed for new
jobs, replacement demands are
expected to be high because
of the large number of women
who leave their jobs each year
for marriage or family responsi­
Earnings and W orking Conditions
Salaries of radiologic techno­
logists employed in hospitals
ranged from about $105 to $130
a week in 1968, according to the
limited information available.
New graduates of AMA-approved schools of X-ray technol­
ogy employed by the Federal
Government received an annual
salary of $5,145 in late 1968.
About one-sixth of all radiologic
technologists working for the
Federal Government in 1968,
were earning $7,000 or more a
Full-time technicians generally
work 8 hours a day and 40 hours

a week but may be “ on call” for
some night or emergency duty.
Most are covered by the same
vacation and sick leave provisions
as other workers in the same
Precautionary measures to pro­
tect radiologic technologists from
the potential hazards of radiation
exposure include the use of safety
devices such as individual instru­
ments that measure radiation,
lead aprons, leaded gloves, and
other shieldings.
Sources of A dditional Inform ation
The American Society of Radiologic Technologists, 645 North
Michigan Ave., Chicago, 1 1
The American Registry of Radiologic Technologists, 2600 Wayzata Blvd., Minneapolis, Minn.

(D.O.T. 100.388)

N ature of the W ork
medical and surgical information
on each patient, including case
histories of illnesses or injuries,
physical examination findings, re­
ports on X-rays and laboratory
tests, physicians’ orders and
notes, and nurses’ notes. These
records are necessary for correct
and prompt diagnosis and treat­
ment. In addition, they are used
for research, insurance claims,
legal actions, evaluation of treat­
ment and medications prescribed,
and for instruction in the train­
ing of medical, nursing, and re­
lated personnel. The medical in­
formation found in hospital rec­
ords is also useful in planning


community health centers and
programs and in hospital and
health care administration.
Medical record librarians plan,
prepare, maintain, and analyze
records and reports on patients’
illness and treatments. They as­
sist medical staff members in re­
search projects; develop auxiliary
records (such as indexes of phy­
sicians, diseases treated, and op­
perform ed);
statistics; make summaries or
“ abstracts” of medical records;
develop systems for documenting,
storing and retrieving medical in­
formation; direct the activities of
the medical record department;
and train auxiliary personnel.
They usually represent their de­
partment at hospital staff meet­

ings and may be called to testify
in court.
The size and type of institu­
tion employing medical record li­
brarians will affect the duties and
amount of responsibility assigned
to these workers. In large hospi­
tals, chief medical record librar­
ians supervise other medical rec­
ord librarians, medical record
technicians, and clerical workers.
In small hospitals, they may be
the only employee in the medical
record department and may per­
form clerical as well as profes­
sional duties.
should not be confused with the
medical librarians who work
chiefly with books, periodicals,
and other publications. (See
statement on Librarians.)

Places of Em ploym ent
More than 12,000 medical rec­
ord librarians were employed in
1968. Of these, about 3,800 were
Registered Record Librarians, ac­
cording to the American Associa­
tion of Medical Record Librari­
ans. In addition, about 25,000
other medical record personnel
were working in this field. Most
medical record librarians were
employed in hospitals. The re­
mainder worked in clinics, medi­
cal research centers, nursing
homes or other extended care fa­
cilities, the medical departments
of insurance companies and in­
dustrial firms, and in local and
State health departments. Al­
though most medical record li­
brarians are women, the number
of men in the occupation is
Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent

Medical record librarian analyzes microfilm of patient’s record.

In 1968, 26 schools approved
by the American Medical Asso­
ciation offered training in medi­
cal record library science or medi­
cal record administration. These
schools are located in colleges
and universities and in hospitals.
The specialized academic training
program, about 1 year in length,
has about the same curriculum
wherever offered. Prerequisites,
however, range from 2 to 4 years
of college-level work, the latter
being increasingly preferred. A
certificate is granted upon com­
pletion of the 1-year specialized
training, except when it has been
taken for credit as part of a 4year
leading to a bachelor’s degree in
medical record science.
The specialized curriculum in­
cludes both theoretical instruc­
tion and practical experience. The
required courses include anatomy,
physiology, fundamentals of med­
ical science, medical terminology,


medical record science, ethics,
management, hospital organiza­
tion and adminstration, statistics,
and data processing. Practical ex­
perience involves hospital admit­
ting and discharging procedures;
standard indexing and coding
practices; compilation of statisti­
cal reports; analysis of medical
data from clinical records; and
knowledge of medical record sys­
tems for the X-ray, pathology,
outpatient, and other hospital
Graduates of approved schools
in medical record science are eli­
gible for the national registration
examination, given by the Ameri­
can Association of Medical Rec­
ord Librarians. Upon passing this
examination, they receive profes­
sional recognition as Registered
Record Librarians.
Medical record librarians must
be accurate and interested in de­
tail. They also must be able to
communicate clearly in speech
and writing. Because medical in­
formation is of a confidential na­
ture, they must be especially dis­
creet in processing and releasing
it. Those in administrative and
supervisory positions must be
able to organize and analyze
work procedures and to work
effectively with other hospital
Medical record librarians fre­
quently occupy supervisory or ad­
ministrative positions. They may
serve as assistant director or di­
rector of a single department or
become the coordinator of medi­
cal record departments of several
hospitals. Others may advance to
faculty positions in collegiate or
university programs for medical
record librarians.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment opportunities for
medical record librarians are ex­
pected to be excellent through

the 1970’s. In addition to the po­
sitions created by growth, many
openings will occur as young
women leave the field for mar­
riage and family responsibilities.
High school gradautes will have
many opportunities to become
medical record technicians to as­
sist librarians.
The increasing number of hos­
pitals and the volume and com­
plexity of hospital records will
contribute to a growing demand
for medical record librarians.
The importance of medical rec­
ords will continue to grow rap­
idly, owing partly to the in­
creased demand for clinical data
necessary for research on dis­
eases, the use of new drugs, and
other methods of treatment. Spe­
cial interest in the health care
of the aged has necessitated re­
cording data on the conditions of
persons in nursing homes and
home care programs. More con­
sultants also will be needed to
help standardize records in these
and other areas where medical
record librarians are not avail­
able. The increasing use of com­
puters to store and retrieve medi­
cal information should permit a
greater use of medical records
and, in turn, tend to increase the
demand for medical record librar­
Earnings and W orking Conditions
The salaries of medical record
librarians are influenced by the
location, size, and type of em­
ploying institution, as well as by
the duties and responsibility of
the position. The average salary
for chief medical record librarians
(registered) in 1968 was $7,900
a year, according to the American
Association of Medical Record
Newly graduated medical rec­
ord librarians employed by the
Federal Government generally

started at $5,732 a year in late
1968; those having bachelor’s de­
grees and high academic records
were eligible to begin at $6,981.
More than one-fourth of all medi­
cal record librarians in the Fed­
eral Government had annual sal­
aries of $9,300 or more in late
Medical record librarians usu­
ally work a regular 40-hour week
and receive paid holidays and

Sources of A dditional In fo rm atio n
Information about approved
schools and employment opportu­
nities may be obtained from:
The American Association of
Medical Record Librarians, 211
East Chicago Ave., Chicago, 1 1

(D.O.T. 077.081 through .168)

N ature of th e W ork
Dietitians plan nutritious and
appetizing meals to help people
maintain or recover good health.
Their work includes planning
general and modified menus that
meet nutritional requirements for
health or for medical treatment,
supervising the personnel who
prepare and serve the meals,
managing purchases and ac­
counts, and providing guidance
on good eating habits. Adminis­
trative dietitians form the largest
group in this occupation; the
others are therapeutic dietitians,
teachers, or research workers.
Administrative dietitians apply
the principles of nutrition and
sound management to large-scale
meal planning and preparation,


such as that done in hospitals,
universities, schools, and other in­
stitutions. They supervise the
preparation of meals; select,
train, and direct food-service su­
pervisors and workers; arrange
for the buying of food, equip­
ment, and supplies; enforce sani­
tary and safety regulations; and
prepare records and reports. Die­
titians who are directors of a die­
tary department also formulate
departmental policy; coordinate
dietary service with the activities
of other departments; and are re­
sponsible for the development and
management of the dietary de­
partment budget, which in large
organizations may amount to mil­
lions of dollars annually.

Dietitian checks patient’s meal.

Therapeutic dietitians plan and
supervise the service of meals to
meet the nutritional needs of pa­
tients. They discuss food likes
and dislikes with patients and
note their intake of food. Other
duties of therapeutic dietitians in­
clude calculating modified diets,
conferring with doctors regard­

ing patients’ diets, instructing pa­
tients and their families on the
requirements and importance of
their diets, and suggesting ways
to help them stay on these diets
after leaving the hospital. In a
small institution, one person may
serve as both the administrative
and therapeutic dietitian.
Some dietitians, particularly
those in hospitals affiliated with
medical centers, teach dietetic,
medical, dental, and nursing stu­
dents such subjects as dietetics,
foods and nutrition, and diet
therapy. A few dietitians act as
consultants to commercial enter­
prises, including food processors,
equipment manufacturers, and
utility companies.
Other members of the profes­
sion, called public health nutri­
tionists, conduct studies or sur­
veys of food and nutrition. They
also take part in research proj­
ects, such as those concerned
with the nutritional needs of the
aging, persons having chronic dis­
eases, or space travelers.

T rain in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent

The minimum educational re­
quirement for dietitians is a
bachelor’s degree with a major in
foods and nutrition or institution
management. This degree can be
obtained in about 350 colleges
and universities. Undergraduate
work should include courses in
foods and nutrition, institution
management, chemistry, bacteri­
ology, and physiology, and such
related courses as mathematics,
psychology, sociology, and eco­
To qualify for professional rec­
ognition, The American Dietetic
Association recommends the com­
pletion of internship programs
lasting 12 or 18 months or 3 years
of pre-planned experience. The
programs and experience must be
approved by the Association.
Many employers prefer to hire
dietitians who have completed an
internship. An important phase
of the intern’s education is clini­
cal experience; the remainder of
the internship is devoted to class­
room study of menu planning,
Places of Em ploym ent
budgeting, management, other
advanced subjects, and to special
projects. In 1968, 65 internship
About 30,000 dietitians were programs were approved by The
employed in 1968— less than 10 American Dietetic Association—
percent were men. About two- 56 for hospitals, 8 for business
thirds of all dietitians worked in firms or colleges and universities,
hospitals and related institutions, and 1 for a food clinic.
including about 1,100 who were
Experienced dietitians may be
employed by the Veterans Ad­ advanced to assistant director or
ministration and the U.S. Public director of a dietary department
Health Service. A sizable number in a large hospital or other insti­
were employed by colleges, uni­ tution. Graduate education is
versities, and school systems as usually required for advancement
teachers or as dietitians in food- to higher level positions in teach­
service programs. Most of the ing and research. Those inter­
remainder worked for public ested in becoming public health
health agencies, restaurants or nutritionists must usually earn a
cafeterias, and large companies graduate degree in this field.
that operate food-service pro­ Graduate study in institutional
grams for their employees. Some or business administration is
dietitians were commissioned offi­ valuable to those interested in
cers in the Armed Forces.
administrative dietetics.



Qualifications needed for work
in this field are an interest in and
an aptitude for the sciences, par­
ticularly chemistry and mathe­
matics. Ability to organize and
manage work programs and to
work well with others also is

ployers increasingly are hiring
workers to assist dietitians. Op­
portunities will be favorable in
these positions for college gradu­
ates who have majored in fields
such as chemistry or the life

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Information on approved di­
etetic internship programs, schol­
arships, and employment oppor­
tunities, and a list of colleges pro­
viding training for a professional
career in dietetics, may be ob­
tained from:

Earnings and W orking Conditions

The American Dietetic Associa­
tion, 620 North Michigan Ave.,
Chicago, 11 . 60611.

In 1968, hospitals offered new
graduates of approved internship
programs annual salaries averag­
ing $7,500, according to The
American Dietetic Association.
New graduates without intern­
ship generally received lower
starting salaries. Experienced di­
etitians in hospitals were paid
between $7,500 and $15,000 a
year. Staff dietitians employed
by college and school food serv­
ices received annual salaries rang­
ing from $6,500 to $9,000.
The entrance salary in the Fed­
eral Government in late 1968 for
those who had completed intern­
ship was $6,981 a year. Beginning
dietitians who had a master’s de­
gree could start at $8,462 a year.
Most experienced dietitians em­
ployed by the Federal Govern­
ment earned between $9,500 and
$14,000 a year; a few earned over
$15,000. Dietitians employed by
State and local governments in
1968 received yearly salaries
ranging from about $7,900 to
$10,200, according to a survey
made by the U.S. Department of
Health, Education, and Welfare.
Most dietitians are employed
on a weekly work schedule of 40
hours; however, dietitians in hos­
pitals may sometimes work on
weekends, and those in commer­
cial food service have somewhat
irregular hours. Some hospitals
provide laundry service and
meals in additon to salary. Paid
vacations, holidays, and health
and retirement benefits are usu­
ally received.

The U.S. Civil Service Commis­
sion, Washington, D.C. 20415,
has information on the require­
ments for dietetic interns and
dietitians in Federal Government

E m ploym ent O utlook
Opportunities for qualified di­
etitians are expected to be excel­
lent through the 1970’s. The sup­
ply of trained dietitians is ex­
pected to be considerably less
than the demand for them. Em­
ployment opportunities are ex­
pected to be favorable for full­
time and part-time employment.
The major factors expected to
contribute to increasing oppor­
tunities for dietitians include the
expansion of hospital and nursing
home facilities, more widespread
use of hospitals and medical serv­
ices by an increasing population,
and the growth of community
health programs. An increasing
number of dietitians also will be
needed to direct food services for
schools, industrial plants, and
commercial eating places, and to
engage in food and nutrition re­
search programs. In addition,
since many women select this
field because of their interest in
food and homemaking and then
leave the profession for marriage
and family responsibilities, re­
placement needs probably will
continue to be high.
The number of men employed
as dietitians has been growing
slowly but steadily. Men are
likely to find increasing employ­
ment opportunities, especially as
administrative dietitians in col­
lege and university food services,
hospitals, and commercial eating
In an effort to provide the di­
etetic services demanded, em­

(D.O.T. 187.118)

N ature of the W ork
Hospital administrators have
the highest executive position in
a hospital, directing all adminis­
trative activities. They usually
receive general guidance from a
governing board with whom they
work closely in developing plans
and policies.
The day-to-day work of admin­
istrators involves the direction of
the many and varied activities of
the hospital. They work closely
with the medical and nursing
staffs and make available to them
the necessary personnel, equip­
ment, and auxiliary services.
They are responsible for hiring
and training personnel; preparing
and administering the budget; es­
tablishing accounting procedures;
planning current and future
space needs; insuring the proper
maintenance of buildings and
equipment; purchasing supplies
and equipment; and providing for
laundry, mail, telephone, in-


formation, and other services for
the patients and staff.
In small hospitals, typically lo­
cated in rural or suburban areas,
the administrator generally as­
sumes all management functions.
In large hospitals, he is assisted
by specialists trained in hospital
administration or in specialized

managerial skills.
Under the direction of the
governing board, administrators
may carry out large projects to
expand or develop the hospital’s
services. For example, they may
organize fund-raising campaigns
or plan new building or research

Hospital administrator confers with hospital board.

Administrators meet regularly
with their staff to discuss prog­
ress, make plans, and solve prob­
lems concerning the functioning
of the hospital. In cooperation
with the medical staff and de­
partment heads, they also may
develop and maintain teaching
programs for nurses, interns, and
other hospital staff members.
They may address community
gatherings, organize community
health campaigns, represent their
hospitals at meetings, and par­
ticipate in planning community
health care programs.

Places of Em ploym ent
About 15,000 hospital admin­
istrators were employed in hospi­
tals and related institutions in
1968. About two-thirds of them
worked in non-profit or private
hospitals and institutions, and
the remainder generally worked
in Federal, State, and local gov­
ernment hospitals. Of those em­

ployed by the Federal Govern­
ment, most were in Veterans Ad­
ministration, Armed Forces, and
Public Health Service hospitals.
About one-fifth of the total num­
ber of hospital administrators
and their assistants are women;
many are members of religious
Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Educational requirements for
hospital administrators vary from
one institution to another. Most
employers prefer persons having
at least a master’s degree in hos­
pital administration. Others look
for individuals having formal
training in social or behavioral
sciences, industrial engineering,
or business administration, and
also extensive experience in the
health field. A few require their
administrators to be physicians
or registered professional nurses.
Specialized hospitals (such as

mental or orthopedic hospitals)
may prefer administrators to be
physicians whose medical special­
ty is the same as that of the
hospital. Hospitals run by religi­
ous groups may seek administra­
tors of the same faith.
In 1968, master's degree pro­
grams in hospital administration
were offered in 27 colleges and
universities in the United States.
To enter these programs, appli­
cants must have a bachelor’s de­
gree, including courses in the
sociology, statistics, accounting,
and economics. The programs
usually consist of a year of aca­
demic study followed by a year
of administrative residency in a
selected hospital or health agen­
cy; some require 2 years of aca­
demic study. The curriculum
may include courses such as hos­
pital organization and manage­
ment, accounting
and bud­
get control, personnel adminis­
tration, public health adminis­
tration, and the economics of
health care. The residency in­
volves an orientation to all hos­
pital activities under the super­
vision of the administrator or his
assistant. A Ph. D. in hospital
administration, which is offered
in three universities, is especially
helpful for those interested in
teaching and research.
The American College of Hos­
pital Administrators provides fi­
nancial loans and scholarships to
a limited number of students for
graduate work in hospital ad­
ministration. The U.S. Public
Health Service also gives a few
awards for graduate work in this
New graduates having a mas­
ter’s degree in hospital adminis­
tration usually enter the field as
assistant administrators or de­
partment heads and occasionally
as administrators in small hospi­
tals. Some persons without a mas-


ter’s degree in hospital adminis­
tration enter the field by working
in one of the specialized adminis­
trative areas such as personnel,
records, budget and finance, or
data processing. With this experi­
ence and some graduate work,
they may be promoted to depart­
ment head, assistant administra­
tor, and eventually to adminis­
trator. The position of hospital
administrator, especially in a
large hospital, represents a career
goal, and these positions gener­
ally are filled by transfers from
smaller hospitals or by promotion
from within.
Personal qualifications needed
for success as a hospital adminis­
trator include good health and
vitality, as well as interest in
helping the sick. Skills in work­
ing with people, organizing and
directing large-scale activities,
and public speaking are impor­
tant assets.

E m ploym ent O utlook
Employment opportunities for
new graduates having the mas­
ter’s degree in hospital adminis­
tration are expected to be excel­
lent. Applicants without graduate
training will find it increasingly
difficult to enter this field. Some
positions as administrator are
likely to continue to be filled by
physicians, nurses, or persons ex­
perienced in a specialized admin­
istrative area.
The number of positions in
hospital administration is ex­
pected to grow rapidly through
the 1970’s. As health facilities and
health services are expanded to
take care of the increasing popu­
lation, more positions are likely
to be created for hospital ad­
ministrators, assistants, and de­
partment heads. Graduates of
programs of hospital administra­
tion also will find increasing em­
ployment opportunities outside of

hospitals in nursing homes and
other long-term care institutions,
rehabilitation facilities, public
health centers, health care plan­
ning agencies, and hospitalization
and health insurance programs.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Salaries of hospital adminis­
trators depend on factors such as
the size, type, and geographical lo­
cation of the hospital, and the size
of its administrative staff and
budget. Starting salaries for new
hospital administration graduates
in private hospitals generally
ranged from $8,500 to $10,000 a
year in 1968; salaries of experi­
enced administrators generally
ranged from $11,000 to $25,000,
according to the limited data
available. New graduates em­
ployed in Veterans Administra­
tion hospitals started at $8,462 a
year in late 1968; a few experi­
enced VA hospital administrators,
most of whom are physicians,
earned $28,000 a year.
Commissioned officers in the
Armed Forces working as hospi­
tal administrators hold ranks
ranging from second lieutenant
to colonel or from ensign to cap­
tain. Commanding officers of
large Armed Forces hospitals are
physicians, and they may hold
higher ranks. Hospital adminis­
trators in the U.S. Public Health
Service are physicians. They are
commissioned officers, holding
the rank equivalent to captain in
the Navy.
Hospital administrators often
work long hours. Since hospitals
operate on a round-the-clock
basis, the administrator may be
called upon to settle emergency
problems at any time of the day
or night. Fringe benefits usually
include paid vacations and holi­
days, sick leave, and pension and
insurance coverage.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Additional information about
hospital administration and a list
of colleges and universities offer­
ing this training may be obtained
American College of Hospital Ad­
ministrators, 840 North Lake
Shore Dr., Chicago, 1 1 60611.
Association of University Pro­
grams in Hospital Administra­
tion, 1642 East 56th St., Chi­
cago, 1 1 60637.

Information on Federal Gov­
ernment awards for graduate
training in hospital administra­
tion may be obtained from:
Bureau of Health Professions Edu­
cation and Manpower Training, Na­
tional Institute of Health, Bethesda,
Md. 20014.

(D.O.T. 079.118)

N ature of th e W ork
Sanitarians are specialists in
environmental health. To safe­
guard the cleanliness and safety
of the food people eat, the liquids
they drink, and the air they
breathe, sanitarians perform a
broad range of duties. They in­
spect food manufacturing and
processing plants, dairies, water
supplies, hotels and restaurants,
hospitals and schools, waste dis­
posal plants, swimming pools and
other recreation facilities, hous­
ing, and other places for health
hazards. They seek compliance
with local regulations and with
State and Federal laws relating to
public health. They also plan and
conduct sanitation programs, ad­
minister environmental health
programs, and promote the enact­
ment of health regulations and


Sanitarian tests pool for bacteria.

Sanitarians entering the pro­
fession usually begin in public
health or agriculture depart­
ments. They inspect facilities and
may collect samples of food, air,
and water to test for safety.
When necessary, they recommend
corrective action according to
health laws and regulations. As
they progress to more responsible
investigational work, they fre­
quently are required to give ad­
vice on more complex individual
and industrial sanitation prob­
Sanitarians having supervisory
duties analyze reports of inspec­
tions and investigations made by
other environmental health spe­
cialists, and advise on difficult
or unusual sanitation problems.
They also may conduct investiga­
tions and give evidence in court
cases involving public health reg­
ulations. In addition, they pro­
mote health laws and engage in
health education activities, some­
times teaching classes in hygiene
and speaking before student as­
semblies, civic groups, and other
organizations. Those in top man­
agement positions are involved
with the planning and adminis­


tration of environmental health
programs and their coordination
with programs of other agencies.
Other duties may include advis­
ing government officials on en­
vironmental health matters and
drafting health laws and regula­
Public health sanitarians work
closely with other health special­
ists in the community (such as
the health officer, sanitary engi­
neer, and public health nurse) to
investigate and prevent outbreaks
of disease, plan for civil defense
and emergency disaster aid, make
public health surveys, and con­
duct health education programs.
In large local and State health
or agriculture departments, and
in The Federal Government, sani­
tarians may specialize in a par­
ticular area of work, such as milk
and other dairy products, food
sanitation, refuse and other waste
control, air pollution, occupation­
al health, housing, institutional
sanitation, and insect and rodent
control. In rural areas and small
cities, they may be responsible
for a wide range of environmental
health activities.
The professional sanitarian
may be assisted by a sanitarian
technician during investigations
to determine compliance or lack
of compliance with health regu­
lations and laws. The technician
takes samples for testing and of­
ten performs the required tests.
Increasing numbers of sanitatarians are being employed out­
side government agencies. Many
work in industry to prevent or
minimize contamination hazards
and see that clean, healthful, and
safe working conditions exist. For
example, in a food processing
plant, the sanitarian is concerned
with the proper disposal of refuse;
the cleaning of plant equipment;
the control of micro-organisms;
and the proper maintenance of
buildings, equipment, and em­
ployee facilities.

W here Employed
An estimated 8,000 of the ap­
proximately 10,000 professional
sanitarians employed in 1968
worked for Federal, State, and
local governments. Most of the
remainder worked for manufac­
turers and processors of food
products; a small number were
teachers in colleges and universi­
ties; a few were consultants;
others worked for trade associa­
tions, in hospitals, or for other
organizations. Probably less than
1 percent of all sanitarians are
Sanitarians are employed by
public health departments in ev­
ery State, and by private indus­
try in most States. About half of
them work in 10 States: Califor­
nia, Florida, Illinois, Indiana,
New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania,
Texas, Virginia, and Wisconsin.
In addition to professional
sanitarians, about 5,000 sanitar­
ian technicians and aides were
employed in 1968.
T rain in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
A bachelor’s degree in environ­
mental health is the preferred
preparation for a beginning job
as a professional sanitarian, al­
though a bachelor’s degree in a
basic science generally is accept­
able. High level positions usually
require a graduate degree in some
aspect of public health. In some
cases, sanitarian technicians hav­
ing 2 years of college and work
experience can advance to profes­
sional sanitarian positions. How­
ever, rising hiring standards are
restricting entrance to profes­
sional positions for those without
a bachelor’s degree.
Science courses recommended
by the American Public Health
Association for the first 2 years
of college are mathematics, biolo­
gy, chemistry, physics, and ele-



mentary bacteriology. In the sec­
ond 2 years, the recommended
program includes advanced gen­
eral bacteriology, medical ento­
mology, and a series of public
health courses. Liberal arts
courses also are considered useful.
Thirty-one colleges and univer­
sities offered undergraduate pro­
grams in environmental health in
1968; graduate training in envi­
ronmental health was available in
about 100 universities. Some sti­
pends are available under Fed­
eral programs for graduate study
in this field.
Beginning sanitarians usually
start at the trainee level, where
they remain up to a year, working
under the supervision of experi­
enced sanitarians. They receive
on-the-job training in environ­
mental health practice and learn
to evaluate conditions and rec­
ommend corrective action. After
a few years of experience, they
may be promoted to minor super­
visory positions with more re­
sponsibilities. Increased responsi­
bilities usually come with addi­
tional experience; sometimes spe­
cialization begins at this level,
especially in large local health
offices. Further advancement is
possible to top supervisory and
administrative positions.
To keep abreast of new devel­
opments and to supplement their
academic training, many sanitar­
ians take specialized short-term
training courses in subjects such
as occupational health, water sup­
ply and pollution control, air pol­
lution, radiological health, milk
and food protection, metropolitan
planning, and hospital sanitation.
In 1968, 31 States had laws
providing for registration of sani­
tarians; in some States, registra­
tion is required to practice. Al­
though requirements for registra­
tion vary considerably among the
States, the minimum educational
requirement for registration usuually is a bachelor’s degree, with

emphasis on the biological, phy­
sical, and sanitary sciences.
Among the personal qualities
useful to sanitarians is the ability
to get along well with people. For
example, it is often necessary to
be tactful in securing the correc­
tion of unsanitary conditions.
Sanitarians also should be able to
speak effectively before civic
groups or in court.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment opportunities for
sanitarians are expected to be
very favorable through the 1970’s.
Young people without a college
degree with a major in one of the
physical or biological sciences or
in sanitary science will find that
obtaining professional work in the
sanitation field is increasingly
Employment of sanitarians is
expected to increase very rapidly
through the 1970’s, as State and
local health agencies expand their
activities in the field of en­
vironmental health. Radiological
health, occupational health, food
protection, water pollution, and
air pollution are expected to re­
quire the services of more trained
personnel as health dangers grow
under the stimulus of an expand­
ing, highly technological civiliza­
Air pollution is one example of
an existing environmental hazard
of public concern that is ex­
pected to increase the demand for
sanitarians. It has attracted at­
tention throughout the United
States, especially in large cities
where smog has become a prob­
lem. The discomfort and danger
of air pollution from the exhausts
of automobiles and from the
fumes of industrial plants and
other sources have been recog­
nized in legislation at all levels
of government. The possible re­
lation of respiratory ailments to

air pollution also has served to
focus attention on this problem.
The expanding population is
yet another factor that will in­
tensify the demand for more
trained sanitarians. The migra­
tion of people from rural to urban
areas, along with the growth of
industries, will place a greater
strain on the food-service, hous­
ing, water, recreational, and
waste-disposal facilities of urban
communiities. Some increase in
demand for sanitarians is ex­
pected in private industry, pri­
marily in the food industry.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Beginning sanitarians having a
college degree usually earned
from $7,000 to $7,500 in 1968,
according to the National Asso­
ciation of Sanitarians. Salaries
of experienced professional sani­
tarians generally ranged from
$8,000 to $10,000 a year; and
environmental health directors
often earned from $14,000 to
$16,000. Sanitary aides without
a college degree generally earned
from $6,000 to $8,000 in 1968.
Professional sanitarians em­
ployed in the Federal Govern­
ment began at $5,732 or $6,321
in 1968, depending on their aca­
demic records. Experienced sani­
tarians in the Federal service
generally earned from $8,500 to
Sanitarians spend considerable
time away from their desks. Some
come in contact with unpleasant
physical surroundings, such as
sewage disposal facilities and slum
housing. Transportation or gaso­
line allowances frequently are
given, and some health depart­
ments provide an automobile.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Information about careers as



sanitarians is available from the
following associations:
American Public Health Associa­
tion, 1790 Broadway, New
York, New York 10019.
International Association of Milk,
Food and Environmental Sani­
tarians, Blue Ridge Road, P.O.
Box 437, Shelbyville, Indiana
National Association of Sanitar­
ians, 1550 Lincoln Street, Den­
ver, Colorado 80203.

Information on stipends for
graduate study is available from:
Division of Allied Health Man­
power, Bureau of Health Profes­
sions Education and Manpower
Training, National Institutes of
Health, 9000 Rockville Pike,
Bethesda, Maryland 20014.

(D.O.T. 073.081 through .281)

N a tu re of the W ork
Veterinarians (doctors of vet­
erinary medicine) diagnose, treat,
and control numerous diseases
and injuries among many species
of animals. Their work is impor­
tant for the Nation’s food pro­
duction and for public health.
Veterinarians perform surgery on
sick and injured animals, and
prescribe and administer drugs,
medicines, serums, and vaccines.
Their work helps to prevent the
outbreak and spread of diseases
among animals. Because many
animal diseases can be transmit­
ted to human beings, this aspect

of their work is vital to the public
Veterinarians treat animals in
veterinary hospitals and clinics, or
on the farm and ranch. In addi­
tion, veterinarians give advice on
the care and breeding of animals.
The majority of veterinarians
are general practitioners. Of those
who are specialists, the greatest
number treat small animals or
pets. Some specialize in the health
care of cattle, poultry, sheep,
swine, or horses. Many veterinari­
ans inspect meat, poultry, and
other foods as a part of the Fed­
eral and State public health pro­
grams. Others are on the faculties
of veterinary colleges. Some vet­
erinarians do research related to
animal diseases, foods, and drugs;
other veterinarians, as part of a
medical research team, seek
knowledge about the prevention
and treatment of human disease.

Places of Em ploym ent

Zoo veterinarian treats ailing alligator.

About 24,000 veterinarians
were working in 1968; only 2 per­
cent were women. Almost twothirds of all veterinarians were in
private practice. The Federal
2,400 veterinarians, chiefly in the
U.S. Government of Agriculture;
some worked for the U.S. Public
Health Service. About 1,000 vet­
erinarians were commissioned of­
ficers in the Veterinary Corps of
the Army and the Air Force. In
addition, many worked for State
and local government agencies
and a few worked for interna­
tional health agencies. Some were
emloyed by colleges of veterinary
medicine, agricultural colleges,
medical schools, research and de­
velopment laboratories, large live­
stock farms, animal food com­
panies, and pharmaceutical com­
panies manufacturing drugs for
In 1968, more than one-third of



all veterinarians in the United
States were in six States— Cali­
fornia, New York, Texas, Illinois,
Iowa, and Ohio. Veterinarians in
rural areas chiefly treat farm ani­
mals; those in small towns usu­
ally engage in general practice;
those in cities and suburban areas
frequently limit their practice to

T rain in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
A license is required to practice
veterinary medicine in all States
and the District of Columbia. To
obtain a license, an applicant
must have the degree of Doctor
of Veterinary Medicine (D .V .M .),
awarded upon graduation from a
veterinary school approved by the
American Veterinary Medical As­
sociation; pass a State Board ex­
amination; and, in a few States,
have some practical experience
under the supervision of a li­
censed veterinarian. A limited
number of States issue licenses
without further examination to
veterinarians already licensed by
another State.
For positions in research or
teaching, the master’s or Ph. D.
degree in a field such as pathol­
ogy, physiology, or bacteriology
is usually required, in addition to
the D.V.M. degree.
The minimum requirements for
the D.V.M. degree are 2 years of
preveterinary college work fol­
lowed by 4 years of professional
study in a college of veterinary
medicine. However, most candi­
dates complete 3 or 4 years of a
preveterinary curriculum which
emphasizes the physical and bi­
ological sciences. The veterinary
college training includes consider­
able practical experience in diag­
nosing and treating animal dis­
eases and performing surgery on
sick animals, as well as laboratory
work in anatomy, biochemistry,

and other scientific and medical
There were 18 colleges of vet­
erinary medicine in the United
States in 1968. Some of the quali­
fications considered by these col­
leges in selecting students are
scholastic record, amount and
character of preveterinary train­
ing, health, and an understand­
ing and affection for animals.
Since veterinary colleges are
largely State supported, residents
of the State in which the college
is located usually are given pref­
erence. In the South and West,
regional educational plans permit
cooperating States without vet­
erinary schools to send a few stu­
dents to designated regional
schools. In other areas, colleges
accept a certain number of stu­
dents from other States and usu­
ally give priority to applicants
from nearby States which do not
have veterinary schools. The
number of women students in
veterinary colleges is relatively
small; about 8 percent of the un­
Needy students may obtain
loans and scholarships of up to
$2,500 a year to pursue full-time
study leading to the degree of
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
under provisions of the Veteri­
nary Medicial Education Act of
1966 and the Health Manpower
Act of 1968. The U.S. Depart­
ment of Agriculture offers stu­
dents who have completed their
junior year in schools of veteri­
nary medicine opportunities to
serve as trainees during the sum­
mer months.
Some veterinarians begin as
assistants to, or partners of, es­
tablished practitioners. Many
start their own practice with a
modest financial investment in
essentials such as drugs, instru­
ments, and an automobile. A
more substantial financial invest­
ment is required to open an ani­

mal hospital or purchase an estab­
lished practice. Newly qualified
veterinarians may enter the Army
and Air Force as commissioned of­
ficers. New graduates who pass
Federal civil service examinations
can qualify for Federal positions
as meat and poultry inspectors,
disease-control workers, epidemi­
ologists, and research assistants.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Veterinarians are expected to
have very good employment op­
portunities through the 1970’s.
Although an increase in the de­
mand for veterinary services is
anticipated in the years ahead,
the number of veterinarians will
be restricted by the limited ca­
pacity of schools of veterinary
medicine. However, some expan­
sion in veterinary school facilities
is expected because of the passage
of the Veterinary Medical Educa­
tion Act of 1966 which provides
funds to assist in the construction
of new educational facilities for
veterinary colleges. Nevertheless,
most of the veterinarians who will
receive degrees will be needed to
replace those who retire or die.
As a result, the demand for vet­
erinarians will probably exceed
the supply during the 1970’s.
Among the factors underlying
the increasing need for veteri­
nary services are the following:
An increase in the number of live­
stock and poultry required to
feed an expanding population; a
growing pet population resulting
from a trend toward suburban
living; and an increase in veteri­
nary research. Emphasis on scien­
tific methods of raising and
breeding livestock and poultry,
and the growth in domestic and
international public health and
probably also add to the opportu­
nities for veterinarians.
Women will continue to have

good opportunities, especially in
small animal practice, teaching,
and research.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Veterinarians beginning their
own practice generally can cover
their expenses the first year and
often add to their earnings by
working part time for government
agencies. As they gain experience,
their incomes usually increase
Newly graduated veterinarians
without experience had an annual
starting salary of $9,026 in the
Federal Government in late 1968.
Summer trainees in the U.S. De­
partment of Agriculture could re­
ceive $134 each week they worked
(representing a rate of $6,981 a
year) in 1968.
The average annual salary of
veterinarians employed as full


professors by universities was
about $20,000 m 1968, according
to the American Veterinary
Medical Association. Experienced
veterinarians working for the
Federal Government generally
earned between $12,000 and
$23,000 a year. The income of
veterinarians in private practice
usually is higher than that of
other veterinarians, according to
the limited data available.
Veterinarians sometimes are
exposed to danger of physical in­
jury, disease, and infection. Those
in private practice are likely to
have long and irregular working
hours. Veterinarians in rural
areas may have to spend much
time traveling to and from farms
and may have to work outdoors
in all kinds of weather. Veteri­
narians can continue working
well beyond the normal retire­
ment age because of the many
opportunities for part-time em­

ployment or practice.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Additional information on vet­
erinary medicine as a career, as
well as a list of schools providing
training, may be obtained from:
American Veterinary Medical As­
sociation, 600 South Michigan
Ave., Chicago, 11 . 60605.

Information on opportunities
for veterinarians in the U.S. De­
partment of Agriculture is avail­
able from:
Agricultural Research Service,
U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Hyattsville, Maryland 20782.
Consumer and Marketing Service,
U.S. Department of Agriculture,
536 South Clark St., Chicago,
1 1 60605.


Mathematics is both a profes­
sion and a tool essential for many
kinds of work. The expression of
ideas in mathematical language
provides a framework within
which these ideas can be under­
stood. Mathematics always has
been fundamental to science, en­
gineering, and human affairs. The
impact of mathematical methods
on these fields has increased
greatly because of the widespread
use of electronic computers. For
example, the use of mathematical
models made possible by the
co m p u te r , h a ve op en ed up
broad new horizons, not only in
the natural sciences and engi­
neering, but also in the social sci­
ences, medicine, and management
and administration. As a result,
employment opportunities for
persons trained in mathematics
have expanded remarkably in the
past 15 years.

(D.O.T. 020.088)

N ature of th e W ork
Mathematics is one of the old­
est and most basic sciences. Yet,
it is also one of the most dynamic
and rapidly growing professions.
Mathematicians today are en­
gaged in a wide variety of chal­
lenging activities, ranging from
the creation of new mathemati­
cal theories to the translation of
scientific and managerial prob­
lems into mathematical terms.
Mathematical work may be di­
vided into two broad classes: pure

or theoretical mathematics; and
applied mathematics, which in­
cludes mathematical computa­
tion. Theoretical mathematicians
develop mathematical principles
and discover relationships among
mathematical forms. They seek
to increase basic mathematical
knowledge without necessarily
considering its use. Yet, this
pure and abstract mathematical
knowledge has been instrumental
in many scientific and engineer­
ing achievements. For example,
a seemingly impractical nonEuclidean geometry invented by
Bernhard Riemann in 1854 be­
came an integral part of the
theory of relativity developed by
Albert Einstein more than a halfcentury later.
Mathematicians engaged in ap­
plied work develop theories, tech­
niques, and approaches to solve
problems in the physical, life, and

This chapter includes descrip­
tions of the occupations of mathe­
matician and the two closely re­
lated occupations of statistician
and actuary. Entrance into any of
these fields requires college train­
ing in mathematics. For many
types of work, graduate educa­
tion is necessary.
In addition to the professions
covered in this chapter, workers
in many other jobs use mathe­
matics extensively in performing
their work. These workers include
engineers, chemists, physicists,
astronomers, geophysicists, life
scientists, systems analysts, and
programers, each of whose work is
discussed elsewhere in the Hand­
book. Secondary school teachers
of mathematics are not covered in
this chapter but are included in
the separate statement on Sec­
ondary School Teachers.

Mathematicians often collaborate with scientists in other fields.


social sciences. They analyze the
various parts of a problem and
describe the existing relation­
ships in mathematical terms.
Their work ranges from the anal­
ysis of vibrations and stability of
rockets in outer space to studies
of the effects of new drugs on
disease. Applied and pure mathe­
matics are not always sharply
separated in practice; many im­
portant developments in theoreti­
cal mathematics have arisen di­
rectly from practical problems.
For example, in recent years,
John Von Neumann developed
the theory of games of strategy
to improve the methods of ana­
lyzing conflicts between compet­
ing interests, such as those occur­
ring in war and economics.
Mathematical statisticians use
mathematical theory to design
and improve statistical methods
for obtaining and interpreting
numerical information. They de­
velop statistical tools in areas such
as probability, experimental de­
sign, and regression analysis.
They frequently work with statis­
ticians when planning and de­
signing experimental surveys.
An important part of the work
in applied mathematics involves
using mathematical knowledge
and modem computing equip­
ment to obtain numerical answers
to specific problems. Some work
in this area, requires a very high
level of mathematical knowledge,
skill, and ingenuity. However,
much of this work may not re­
quire the advanced training and
inventiveness of the mathemati­
cian. (See statements on Pro­
gramed and Systems Analysts.)
More than one-third of all
mathematicians are involved in
research and development activi­
ties. Nearly one-fourth are pri­
marily college teachers, many of
whom do research part-time. An­
other one-fourth are in manage­
ment and administration— about
one-half of whom are concerned

with the management and admin­
istration of research and develop­
ment programs. Most of the re­
mainder are concerned chiefly
with operations research or pro­
duction and inspection (quality
control) of manufactured prod­
Places of Em ploym ent
An estimated 65,000 mathe­
maticians (including more than
4,000 engaged in actuarial work)
were employed in the United
States in 1968; about 10 percent
were women. More than one-half
of all mathematicians worked in
private industry, primarily in in­
dependent research and develop­
ment firms, and in the ordnance,
aircraft, machinery, and electrical
mathematicians were employed
as consultants.
Colleges and universities em­
ployed about one-third of all
mathematicians, some of whom
have few or no teaching duties.
Others were employed by the
Federal Government, mostly by
the Department of Defense. A
few worked for nonprofit organi­
zations and State and local gov­
Mathematicians were employed
in all States. However, they were
concentrated in States having
large industrial areas and sizable
college and university enroll­
ments. Over half of the total were
in 7 States— California, New
York, Massachusetts, Pennsyl­
vania, Illinois, Maryland, and
New Jersey. Nearly one-fourth
reside in 3 metropolitan areas—
New York, N.Y.; Washington,
D.C.; and Los Angeles-Long
Beach, Calif.
T rain in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
The minimum educational re­
quirement for most beginning po­

sitions in mathematics is the
bachelor’s degree with a major
in mathematics, or with a major
in an applied field— such as phys­
ics or engineering— and a minor
in mathematics. For many en­
trance positions, particularly in
research or teaching, graduate
training in mathematics is re­
quired. Graduate study is also
valuable for advancement to more
responsible positions in all types
of work.
The bachelor’s degree in mathe­
matics is offered by about 1,100
colleges and universities through­
out the country. The undergradu­
ate mathematics curriculum typi­
cally includes courses in analyti­
cal geometry, calculus, differen­
tial equations, probability and
statistics, mathematical analysis,
and modem algebra.
Advanced mathematics degrees
are conferred by more than 300
colleges and universities. In grad­
uate school, the student builds
upon the basic knowledge ac­
quired in the undergraduate cur­
riculum. He usually concentrates
on a specific field of mathematics,
such as algebra, mathematical
mathematics, or topology, by
conducting intensive research and
taking advanced courses in that
The bachelor’s degree is ade­
quate preparation for many posi­
tions in private industry and the
Federal Government, particularly
those connected with computer
work. Some new graduates hav­
ing the bachelor’s degree assist
senior mathematicians by per­
forming computations and solv­
ing less advanced mathematical
problems in applied research.
Others work as graduate teaching
or research assistants in colleges
and universities while working
toward an advanced degree.
Advanced degrees are required
for an ever-increasing number of


jobs in industry and Government
— in research and in many areas
of applied mathematics. The Ph.
D. degree is necessary for full
faculty status at most colleges
and universities, as well as for ad­
vanced research positions.
For work in applied mathe­
matics, training in the field to
which the mathematics will be
applied is very important. Fields
in which applied mathematics is
used extensively include physics,
engineering, and operations re­
search; other fields include busi­
ness and industrial management,
economics, statistics, chemistry,
the life sciences, and the behav­
ioral sciences. Training in nu­
merical analysis and programing is
especially desirable for mathe­
maticians working with com­
E m ploym ent O utlook
Employment opportunties for
mathematicians are expected to
be favorable through the 1970’s.
In addition to opportunities re­
sulting from the very rapid
growth expected in this field, ap­
proximately 4,500 mathemati­
cians will be needed each year
to replace those who transfer to
other fields of work, retire, or die.
As in the early and mid 1960’s,
there will be strong demand for
mathematicians holding the Ph.
D. degree for teaching and re­
search positions in colleges and
universities. N ot only is the num­
ber of students majoring in
mathematics expected to increase
sharply, but the number of stu­
dents majoring in other fields and
taking mathematics courses will
rise also. Thus, colleges and uni­
versities will continue to provide
most of the employment opportu­
nities for theoretical mathemati­
Mathematicians also will be re­
quired in substantial numbers to
solve an increasingly wide variety

of complex research and develop­
ment problems in engineering,
natural and social sciences, mili­
tary sciences, operations research,
and business management. This
work requires a high degree of
mathematical competence and a
broad knowledge of one of these
fields of application. Expenditures
to support these research and
development activities have in­
creased steadily in recent years
and are expected to continue to
rise, although somewhat more
slowly than in the past.
Between 1968 and 1980, the
number of new graduates having
degrees in mathematics is ex­
pected to nearly triple. Thus, the
number of persons seeking profes­
sional mathematics employment
is expected to rise sharply, and
competition for entry positions
graduates who have advanced de­
grees and those who have a bach­
elor’s degree and a good academic
record should find favorable em­
ployment opportunities.
The education and training
necessary for a degree in mathe­
matics is also an excellent foun­
dation for a number of other oc­
cupations, particularly in fields
that rely heavily on the applica­
tion of mathematical theories and
methods. Thus, increasing num­
bers of mathematics graduates
are likely to be hired for jobs in
high school teaching, statistics,
actuarial work, computer pro­
graming, systems analysis, eco­
nomics, engineering, physics, geo­
physics, and life sciences. Em­
ployment opportunities in these
related fields probably will be
best for those students who com­
bine their mathematics major
with a minor in one of these
Earnings and W orking Conditions
Annual starting salaries in pri­
vate industry for mathematicians

and mathematical statisticians
having a bachelor’s degree were
about $8,600 in 1968, according
to the limited information avail­
able. New graduates having the
master’s degree received starting
salaries averaging about $1,800
a year higher. Yearly salaries for
new graduates having the Ph. D.
degree, most of whom have some
experience, averaged about $15,000 in 1968.
In the Federal Government in
late 1968, mathematicians having
the bachelor’s degree and no ex­
perience could start at either
$7,265 or $8,845 a year, depend­
ing on their college records. Be­
ginning matheticians who had
completed all requirements for
the master’s degree could start at
$8,845 or $10,154; those having
the Ph. D. degree could begin at
either $11,563 or $12,580 a year.
In colleges and universities,
starting salaries for mathemati­
cians having the Ph. D. degree
who were employed as teachers in
1968 ranged from about $6,500 to
$13,000 for 9 months of teaching.
Mathematicians in educational
institutions often supplement
their regular salaries with income
from special research projects,
consulting, and writing.
The average (median) annual
salary for mathematicians in the
National Science Foundation’s
National Register of Scientific
and Technical Personnel was
$13,000 in 1968. Only 10 percent
earned less than $8,000 a year,
and about 10 percent earned
$22,300 or more.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
General information on the
field of mathematics— including
career opportunities, professional
training colleges and universities
having degree-credit programs,
and earnings— may be obtained


American Mathematical Society,
P.O. Box 6248, Providence, R.I.
Mathematical Association of
America, 1225 Connecticut Ave.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

Specific information on careers
in applied mathematics and elec­
tronic computer work may be ob­
tained from:
Association for Computing Ma­
chinery, 1133 Avenue of the
Americas, New York, N.Y.
Society for Industrial and Applied
Mathematics, 33 South 17th St.,
Philadelphia, Pa. 19103.

Information on careers in
mathematical statistics may be
obtained from:
Institute of Mathematical Statis­
tics, Department of Statistics,
California State College at Hay­
ward, Hayward, Calif. 94542.

Federal Government career in­
formation may be obtained from
any regional office of the U.S.
Civil Service Commission or from:
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil
Service Examiners for Wash­
ington, D.C., 1900 E St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20415.

Other sources of information on
related occupations, such as Stat­
isticians, Actuaries, Programers,
and Systems Analysts may be
found elsewhere in the Handbook.

(D.O.T. 020.188)

N ature of the W ork
More than ever before, the
characteristics of the world and
its inhabitants are being de­
scribed in numerical terms. Stat­
isticians collect, develop, analyze,

and interpret these data based on
their knowledge of statistics and
of a particular field, such as eco­
nomics, demography, behavioral
science, education, life science,
physical science, or engineering.
They may forecast population
growth or economic conditions,
predict and evaluate the results
of new programs, develop quality
control tests for manufactured

products, or help decision-makers
select from alternative choices.
Their studies provide govern­
ment and business officials with
the statistical information needed
to make decisions and establish
policy. Statisticians sometimes
work closely with mathematicians
and mathematical statisticians.
(See statement on Mathemati­
cians elsewhere in this chapter.)


Many statisticians plan sur­
veys, design experiments, or ana­
lyze data. Those who plan sur­
veys select the data sources, de­
termine the type and size of the
sample groups, and develop the
survey questionnaire or reporting
form. They prepare the instruc­
tions for those who will collect or
report the information and for the
workers who will code and tabu­
late the returns. Statisticians
who design experiments prepare
mathematical models that will
test a particular theory. Those
in analytical work interpret col­
lected data and summarize their
findings in tables, charts, and
written reports. Another large
group of statisticians chiefly per­
form administrative functions in
connection with statistical pro­
grams. A few are teachers who
often combine research with
teaching. The remainder are in­
volved in other activities such as
quality control, operations re­
search, production and sales fore­
casting, and market research.
Because statistics has such a
wide use, it is sometimes difficult
to distinguish statisticians from
those subject-matter specialists
making a limited use of statistics.
For example, a statistician work­
ing with data on economic condi­
tions may have the title of econo­
Places of Em ploym ent
Approximately 23,000 statisti­
cians were employed in 1968;
about one-third were women.
Statisticians are employed in
nearly all industries; about twothirds of all statisticians were
employed by private industry.
Federal, State, and local Gov­
ernment agencies employed about
one-fourth of all statisticians.
The Departments of Commerce;
Agriculture; Defense; and Health,
Education, and Welfare employed

most of those in the Federal Gov­
ernment. Colleges and universi­
ties employed some statisticians,
and several hundred were em­
ployed by nonprofit organizations
and research institutes.
Although statisticians were em­
ployed in all States and areas,
about one-third of them worked
in three metropolitan areas—
New York, N. Y.; Washington,
D.C.; and Los Angeles-Long
Beach, Calif.

Train in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
A bachelor’s degree with a ma­
jor in statistics or mathematics
is the minimum educational re­
quirement for many beginning
positions in statistics. For other
beginning positions in statistics,
however, a bachelor’s degree,
with a major in economics or some
other subject-matter field and a
minor in statistics, is preferable.
A graduate degree in mathemat­
ics or statistics is essential for
faculty positions at most colleges
and universities, as well as being
an asset for advancement to top
administrative and consulting po­
sitions. Advancement in analyti­
cal and survey work usually re­
quires graduate training in the
subject-matter field as well as in
Relatively few colleges and
universities offer training leading
to a bachelor’s degree with a ma­
jor in statistics. Most schools,
however, offer either a degree in
mathematics or a sufficient num­
ber of courses in statistics to
qualify graduates for beginning
positions. Courses essential for
statisticians include college alge­
bra, plane trigonometry, analyti­
cal geometry, differential and in­
tegral calculus, linear algebra,
and at least one course in statis­
tical methods. Other important
courses cover sampling correla­

tion and regression analysis, ex­
perimental design, probability
theory, and computer uses and
techniques. For many quality
control positions, training in en­
gineering and in the application
of statistical methods to manu­
facturing processes are desirable.
For many market research, busi­
ness analysis, and forecasting po­
sitions, courses in economics, busi­
ness administration, or a related
field are helpful.
Graduate degrees in statistics
were conferred by about 50 col­
leges and universities in 1968,
and many other schools offered
one or two graduate level statisti­
cal courses. Entrance into a grad­
uate program in statistics usually
requires a bachelor’s degree with a
good background in mathematics.
The student should attend a
school where he can pursue re­
search projects in his subjectmatter field, as well as take ad­
vanced courses in statistics.
Beginning statisticians who
have only the bachelor’s degree
often spend much of their time
performing routine statistical
work. Through experience, they
usually advance to positions of
greater technical and supervisory
responsibility. Those who have
exceptional ability and interest
may be promoted to top manage­
ment positions.
Among the personal qualifica­
tions needed by statisticians are
an interest and facility in mathe­
matics, and the ability to trans­
late problems into statistical

Em ploym ent O utlook
The employment outlook for
statisticians is expected to be
good through the 1970’s. In addi­
tion to new positions resulting
from the very rapid growth ex­
pected in the profession, hun­
dreds of statisticians will be

needed annually to replace those
who retire, die, or transfer to
other fields of work.
Statisticians will be required
in increasing numbers by private
industry in quality control work
in manufacturing. Those having
a knowledge of engineering and
physical sciences will be needed
to work with scientists and engi­
neers in research and develop­
ment. Business firms are expect­
ed to rely more heavily on statis­
ticians to forecast sales, analyze
business conditions, modernize
accounting procedures, and solve
other management problems.
Government agencies will need
statisticians for on-going and new
programs in fields such as social
security, health, education, and
economics. Others will be required
to teach the anticipated growing
numbers of college and profes­
sional school students, especially
as the more widespread applica­
tion of statistical methods makes
such courses increasingly impor­
tant to non-mathematics majors.
Along with the expected growth
in demand for statisticians, a
steady increase in the number of
statistics graduates is expected.
However, in recent years, the
number of these graduates was
barely enough to replace those
statisticians who retired or died.
Thus, employment opportunities
for new college graduates who
have degrees in statistics are ex­
pected to be very good through the

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Starting salaries for new col­
lege graduates employed as stat­
isticians in private industry gen­
erally averaged between $6,000
and $8,000 a year in 1968, ac­
cording to the limited informa­
tion available. Salaries for begin­
ning statisticians having the mas­
ter’s degree averaged about


$1,500 a year more than for
those having only the bachelor’s
In the Federal Government
service in late 1968, statisticians
who had the bachelor’s degree
and no experience could start at
either $5,732 or $6,981 a year, de­
pending on their scholastic rec­
ords. Beginning statisticians who
had completed all requirements
for the master’s degree could
start at $6,981 or $8,462. Those
having the Ph. D. degree could
begin at $10,203 or $12,174.
Statisticians employed by col­
leges and universities generally
earn somewhat less than those
employed by private industry and
the Federal Government. Some
indication of the salary levels of
statisticians employed as teachers
may be obtained from the earn­
ings data for college and univer­
sity teachers as a group. (See
statement on College and Univer­
sity Teachers.) In addition to
their regular salaries, statisticians
in educational institutions some­
times earn extra income from
outside research projects, consult­
ing, and writing.

Sources of Additional Inform ation
General information on career
opportunities in statistics may be
obtained from:
American Statistical Association,
810 18th Street, NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20006.
Society for Industrial and Applied
Mathematics, 33 South 17th St.,
Philadelphia, Pa. 19103.

Information on Federal govern­
ment careers may be obtained
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil
Service Examiners for Wash­
ington, D.C., 1900 E St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20415.

A list of reading materials on
career opportunities in the data

processing field may be obtained
Association for Computing Ma­
chinery, 1133 Avenue of the
Americas, New York, N.Y.

(D.O.T. 020.188)

N atu re of the W ork
Actuaries are responsible for
designing insurance and pension
plans and for maintaining these
programs on a sound financial
basis. They are concerned with
rates of mortality (death), mor­
bidity (sickness), injury, disabil­
ity, unemployment, retirement,
and property loss from accident,
theft, fire, and other potential
hazards. Actuaries use statistical
data and other pertinent infor­
mation to construct tables on the
probability of insured loss. They
develop and analyze estimates of
the insurer’s future earnings and
investment income, expenses, and
policyholder claims. Taking all
these factors into consideration,
actuaries determine the premium
rates and policy contract provi­
sions for each type of insurance
offered. Most actuaries specialize
in either life and health insurance
or property and liability (casu­
alty) insurance.
T o perform their duties ef­
fectively, actuaries must keep
abreast of general economic and
social trends and legislative,
health, and other developments
that may affect insurance prac­
tices. Because of their broad
knowledge of the insurance field,
actuaries frequently work on
problems arising in investment,
underwriting, group insurance,
and pension sales and service de-


partments. Actuaries in executive
positions may help determine gen­
eral company policy. In that role,
they also may testify before pub­
lic agencies on proposed legisla­
tion affecting the insurance
business or to justify intended
changes in premium rates or con­
tract provisions.
Actuaries employed by the
Federal Government usually deal
with a particular Government in­
surance or pension program, such
as social security (old-age, sur­
vivors, disability, and health in­
surance) or life insurance for
veterans and members of the
Armed Forces. Acturaries in State
government positions are in­
volved in the supervision and
regulation of insurance compa­
nies, the operation of State re­
tirement or pension systems, and
problems connected with unem­
ployment insurance or workmen’s
compensation. Consulting actuar­
ies perform services for private
companies, unions, and govern­
ment agencies, such as setting up
pension and welfare plans and
making periodic actuarial evalua­
tions of these plans.

Places of Em ploym ent
More than 4,000 persons were
engaged in actuarial work in the
United States in 1968. About
2,600 had full professional sta­
tus. Less than 3 percent of all
actuaries were women. About
one-half of all actuaries were em­
ployed in the 3 States that are
the major centers of the insur­
ance industry— New York, Con­
necticut, and Massachusetts.
Private insurance companies
employed about four-fifths of all
actuaries. The majority of this
group worked for life insurance
companies; the remainder worked
for property and liability (cas­
ualty) companies. The size of an
insurance company’s actuarial

staff depends primarily upon the
volume of its insurance work.
Large companies may employ as
many as 50 to 100 actuaries.
Small companies may have only
a few actuaries on their staffs or
rely instead on rating bureaus
or consulting firms. Consulting
firms and rating bureaus (asso­
ciations that supply actuarial
data to member companies) em­
ployed most of the remainder.
Several hundred actuaries worked
for private organizations adminis­
tering independent pension and
welfare plans or for Federal or
State Government agencies. A few
taught in colleges and universities.

the insurance business. Those
considering an actuarial career
should take the beginning exami­
nations covering general mathe­
matics while still in college. Suc­
cess in passing these first ex­
aminations helps the beginner to
evaluate his potential as an ac­
tuary. Those who pass these ex­
aminations usually have better
opportunities for employment
and a higher starting salary. The
advanced examinations, usually
taken by those in junior actuarial
positions, require extensive home
study and experience in insurance

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and Advancem ent
A bachelor’s degree with a
thorough foundation in calculus,
probability, and statistics is re­
quired for entry into actuarial
work. The new graduate having
a major in fields such as mathe­
matics, statistics, economics, or
business administration can usu­
ally qualify for beginning actu­
arial positions. The prospective
actuary should take courses in
algebra, analytical geometry, dif­
ferential and integral calculus,
courses include insurance law,
economics, investments, account­
ing, and other aspects of business
administration. Although only
about 20 colleges and universities
offer training specifically design­
ed for actuarial careers, several
hundred institutions offer the
necessary courses.
It usually takes from 5 to 10
years after entering a beginning
actuarial position to complete the
entire series of examinations re­
quired for full professional status.
These examinations cover general
mathematics, specialized actuar­
ial mathematics, and all phases of

Actuarial assistants discuss research
project with senior executive.

The 10 actuarial examinations
for the life insurance and pension
field are given by the Society of
Actuaries, and the nine for prop­
erty and liability (casualty) in­
surance by the Casualty Actuar­
ial Society. Since the first two
parts of the examination series
of either Society are the same,
the student may defer the selec­
tion of his insurance specialty


until he has acquired more fa­
miliarity with the field. “ Asso­
ciate” membership is awarded af­
ter completion of five examina­
tions in either specialty; the
designation of “ Fellow” is con­
ferred after the successful com­
pletion of the entire series of
Employers frequently give pref­
erence to applicants who have
passed one or more of the ac­
tuarial examinations, or to those
who have actuarial experience
gained in the special summer
training programs for college stu­
dents offered by some insurance
companies. A beginning actuary
usually is rotated among different
jobs to learn various actuarial
operations and to become familiar
with different phases of insurance
work. At first, his work may be
rather routine, such as preparing
calculations or tabulations for ac­
tuarial tables or reports. As he
gains experience, he may super­
vise actuarial clerks and prepare
correspondence and reports.
Advancement to more respon­
sible work as assistant, associate,
and chief actuary depends largely
upon the individuals on-the-job
performance and the number of
actuarial examinations he has
successfully completed. Many ac­
tuaries, because of their broad
knowledge of insurance and re­
lated fields, qualify for adminis­
trative positions in other com­
pany activities, particularly in
data-processing departments. A
significant number of actuaries
advance to top executive posi­

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment opportunities for
actuaries are expected to be ex­
cellent through the 1970’s. New
graduates who have the necessary
mathematical education and have
passed some actuarial examina­
tions will be in particular demand
as trainees.
Actuarial employment is ex­
pected to grow very rapidly pri­
marily because of the rising num­
bers of insurance policies of all
kinds which result, in part, from
the existence of an affluent and
more insurance-conscious popu­
lation and business community.
Actuaries will be needed to solve
the growing number of problems
arising from continuously chang­
ing and increasingly complex in­
surance and pension coverage.
The expanding number of group
health and life insurance plans
and pension and other benefit
plans will require actuarial serv­
ices. Additional actuaries will be
needed by government regulatory
agencies. Demand will continue
to be strong for actuaries capable
of working with electronic com­
puters. Some actuaries also will
be needed each year to replace
those who retire, die, or transfer
to other occupations.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Starting salaries of new college
graduates entering actuarial work
as trainees in insurance compa­
nies ranged from $7,000-10,000 a
year in 1968, depending on the
individual’s college record and

experience. Most insurance com­
panies paid $400-500 a year more
if the trainee had completed his
first actuarial examination and
another $300-500 with the com­
pletion of the second examination.
In the Federal Government
service in late 1968, new gradu­
ates who have the bachelor’s de­
gree entering actuarial work
could start at $9,078 a year, if
their college records were suf­
ficiently good. The corresponding
figure for those who have a mas­
ter’s degree is $10,154.
Beginning actuaries can look
forward to a marked increase in
earnings as they gain professional
experience and successfully com­
plete either Society’s series of
examinations. In insurance com­
panies, merit pay increases are
given to those who pass one or a
group of the examination. Fellows
of either the Society of Actuaries
or the Casualty Actuarial Society
earn over $15,000 a year and many
actuaries earn more than $25,000
a year. Those in executive posi­
tions in large companies earn over

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Information on professional op­
portunities and qualifications
may be obtained from:
Casualty Actuarial Society, 200
East 42d St., New York, N.Y.
Society of Actuaries, 208 South
LaSalle St., Chicago, 1 1 60604.


The natural sciences are con­
cerned with the physical world
and the living things in it. These
sciences may be divided into
three broad groups— physical,
life, and environmental sciences
— all of which are discussed in
this chapter. Mathematics, often
considered part of the natural
sciences, is discussed in a separ­
ate chapter elsewhere in the

The physical sciences are the
largest field of employment
among the natural sciences; over
200,000 physical scientists were
employed in 1968. Chemistry is
the largest of the physical science
specialties; more than 130,000
chemists were employed in 1968.
Smaller numbers were employed
as physicists (45,000) and as
astronomers (1,400). There were
nearly 20,000 other physical
scientists; more than half were
An estimated 170,000 life sci­
entists specialized in 1 of 3 broad
fields— agriculture, biology, or
medicine. The largest number,
more than 66,000, worked in bi­
ological sciences. Nearly 48,000
were employed as agricultural sci­
entists, and more than 54,000
worked on problems related to
medical science.
The environmental sciences are
relatively small fields of scientific
employment. In 1968, the num­
ber of environmental scientists
totaled about 39,000. Of these,
the largest group were geologists
(23,000). Smaller numbers were
employed as geophysicists (7,000)
oceanographers (5,200), and me­
teorologists (4,000).
A bachelor’s degree is the usual
minimum educational require­
ment for work in the natural sci­
ences. Graduate training is needed
for many positions, especially in
teaching and research, and is

helpful for advancement in all
types of work. In some fields, ad­
vanced degrees are needed for
most positions.
Employment in the natural sci­
ences has grown rapidly in recent
years and the outlook is for con­
tinued rapid growth through the
1970’s. In general the most im­
portant factor underlying the ex­
pected increase in employment
is the likely growth of expendi­
tures for research and develop­
ment. These expenditures have
increased rapidly in recent years
and are expected to continue to

more slowly than in the past.
Other factors contributing to the
expected employment growth in
the natural sciences are the ex­
pansion of industry, the increas­
ing complexity of industrial prod­
ucts and processes, and the sharp
increase in science enrollments
expected in college and univer­
The following chapter presents
descriptions of some of the major
occupations within the natural
sciences. In addition to these oc­
cupations, workers in many other
fields may require a strong back­
ground in the natural sciences.
Included are engineering, mathe­
matics, and health service occu­
pations, which are described else­
where in the Handbook.

Environm ental sc ie n c e s
The environmental sciences are
concerned with the history com­
position, and characteristics of
the earth’s land, water, interior,
atmosphere, and its environment
in space. A large group of the
scientists in this field explore for
new sources of mineral fuels and
ores. Some scientists perform bas­
ic research to increase scientific
knowledge. Others work mainly
in applied research use knowledge
gained from basic research to
solve practical problems. Meteor­
ologists, for example, apply sci­
entific knowledge of the atmos­
phere to forecast weather condi­
tions for specific localities and
times. Some of these scientists
teach in colleges and universities.
They also may administer scien­
tific programs and operations.
Many environmental scientists
specialize in one particular branch
of their broad occupational field.
Geophysicists, for example, may
be specialists in geodesy, hydrol­
ogy, seismology, or physical
oceanography. This chapter dis­
cusses the specialties and the em-

ployment outlook for four en­
vironmental science occupations
— geologist, geophysicist, meteor­
ologist, and oceanographer.

(D.O.T. 024.081)

N ature of the W ork
Geologists study the structure,
composition, and history of the
earth’s crust. Many geologists
spend a large amount of their
time in field work. They study
rock cores and cuttings from
deep holes drilled into the earth
and examine rocks, minerals, and
fossils found at or near the sur­
face of the earth. Geologists also
spend considerable time in lab­
oratories, where they study geo­
logical specimens, analyze geo­
logical materials under controlled
temperature and pressure, and do


other research on geological pro­
cesses. T o present the results of
their field and laboratory investi­
gations, geologists prepare re­
ports, articles, and maps of sur­
face and subsurface geological
phenomena. In their work, geol­
ogists use a variety of complex
instruments, such as the X-ray
diffractometer, which determines

the structure of minerals, and the
petrographic microscope, which
permits close study of how rocks
have been formed and modified
by earth processes.
Some geologists administer re­
search and exploration programs.
Others teach in colleges and uni­
versities, where they also may
work on research projects.

construction of roads, airfields,
tunnels, dams, harbors, and other
large structures. Stratigraphers
study the distribution and rela­
tive arrangement of sedimentary
rock layers by analyzing their
fossil and mineral content. Sedimentologists determine the proc­
esses and prodcts involved in
the formation of sedimentary
rocks, and paleontologists iden­
tify, classify, and determine the
significance of fossils found with­
in the sediments. Petrologists
classify and determine the origins
of rock masses. Mineralogists
examine, analyze, and classify
minerals and precious stones ac­
cording to their composition and
stru c tu re . Geo m orphologists
study the form of the earth’s sur­
face and the forces, such as ero­
sion and glaciation, which change
Increasing numbers of geol­
ogists specialize in new fields that
require a detailed knowledge of
both geology and one or more
other sciences. Among these spe­
cialists are geochemists, who
study the chemical composition
of and the changes in minerals
and rocks, and astrogeologists,
who use knowledge of the earth’s
geology in studies of surface
conditions on the moon and the
planets. Geological oceanograph­
ers study the sedimentary and
other rocks on the ocean floor
and continental shelf. (See state­
ment on Oceanographers else­
where in this chapter.)

Places of Em ploym ent

Research geologist pans stream sediments for heavy metals.

Geologists usually specialize in
one branch of the science. Economic geologists find and supervise the development of mineral
and fuel resources. Petroleum

geologists specialize in the discovery and recovery of oil and
natural gas. Engineering geologists apply geological knowledge
to engineering problems in the

Nearly 23,000 geologists were
employed in the United States in
1968; only about 3 percent were
women. Nearly three-fifths of all
geologists worked for private in­
dustry, mostly for petroleum and
natural gas producers. A number
of the employees of American
petroleum companies worked in



foreign countries. Geologists also
were employed by companies en­
gaged in various other types of
mining. Some geologists special­
ized in problems related to the
construction of dams, bridges,
buildings, and highways. Still
other geologists worked as inde­
pendent consultants offering spe­
cialized services to industry and
The Federal Government em­
ployed approximately 2,000 geol­
ogists, two-thirds of whom worked
for the Department of the In­
terior in the U.S. Geological Sur­
vey, the Bureau of Mines, and
the Bureau of Reclamation. State
agencies also employed geologists,
some of whom worked on surveys
conducted in cooperation with
the U.S. Geological Survey. Al­
though a few positions were in
foreign countries, most Federal
jobs were in the United States.
Colleges and universities em­
ployed more than 4,500 geologists.
A few others worked for non­
profit research institutions and

their time to geology courses,
such as historical geology, struc­
tural geology, mineralogy, petrol­
ogy, and invertebrate paleontol­
ogy. About another third of the
work is in mathematics, the re­
lated natural sciences— such as
physics, geophysics, chemistry,
and biology— and in engineering;
the remainder is in general aca­
demic subjects.
More than 200 universities
award advanced degrees in geol­
ogy. The student seeking a grad­
uate degree in geology takes ad­
vanced courses in geology, with
emphasis on the student’s area
of specialization.
The student planning a career
in exploration geology should like
outdoor activities and have the
physical stamina for geological
field work, which frequently in­
volves camping out. This is not
a requirement, even though it is
an excellent way to get training.
An increasing amount of the
work, formerly done in the field,
is now accomplished by aerial
photography. In addition, a grow­
ing number of specialties are

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Em ploym ent O utlook
Young people seeking profes­
sional careers in geology should
plan to earn an advanced degree.
The master’s degree is required
for beginning research and teach­
ing positions and for many posi­
tions in exploration. Advance­
ment in college teaching as well
as in high-level research and ad­
ministrative posts usually re­
quires the Ph. D. degree. The
bachelor’s degree is considered
adequate training for only a few
entry jobs, primarily in explora­
tion work.
About 350 colleges and uni­
versities offer the bachelor’s de­
gree in geology. In the typical
undergraduate curriculum, stu­
dents devote about one-fourth of

Employment opportunities for
geologists having advanced de­
grees are expected to be favorable
through the 1970’s. However,
those having the bachelor’s de­
gree, including those who rank
high in their class, probably will
face competition for entry posi­
tions, depending largely on the
hiring practices of petroleum com­
panies. A number of new gradu­
ates having the bachelor’s degree
may find it necessary to enter
semiprofessional positions, such
as technician or surveyor. Some
may take training to qualify as
science teachers in secondary
schools, or seek other work out­
side the field of geology.

Replacement needs are expected
to be the chief source of openings.
More than 800 new geologists
will be required each year to re­
place those who are promoted to
managerial positions or who
transfer to other fields, retire, or
As world population expands
and nations become more indus­
trialized, the demand for petro­
leum, minerals, and fresh water
will rise, and increasing numbers
of geologists will be required to
locate these resources. Geologists
will be needed to devise tech­
niques for exploring deeper with­
in the earth’s crust, both on land
and under the sea, and to work
with engineers to develop more
efficient methods of recovering
natural resources. Space-age acti­
vities will require some geologists
to analyze data on the surface
conditions of the moon and the
During the next few years, pri­
vate industry probably will em­
ploy more geologists than former­
ly. Domestic petroleum explora­
tion activities, which declined in
the late 1950’s, are expected to
continue to expand in the 1970’s.
The nature of exploration activi­
ties is such that the need for
geologists may vary widely from
one year to the next, and the
shortrun demand for geologists
occasionally exceeds the number
of persons available for these ac­
tivities. Geologists also will be
needed to help solve problems
related to construction, water
supply, and improved methods of
locating mineral resources.
Federal agency demand for
geologists is expected to grow
moderately, primarily in the U.S.
Geological Survey. Employment
of geologists by colleges and uni­
versities will probably rise slight­
ly; the need will be mainly for
those having Ph. D. degrees who
are capable of performing highlevel research.


The demand for earth science
teachers in secondary schools is
expected to increase very rapidly
in the next decade. Geology grad­
uates having the bachelor’s de­
gree, but who have had additional
training in educational methods,
should have good opportunities
in this area.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
The average (median) annual
starting salary for new geology
graduates who have a bachelor’s
degree was $7,800 in private in­
dustry in 1968, according to the
American Geological Institute’s
annual survey. New graduates
who have a master’s degree usu­
ally started at between $1,000
and $1,500 more a year than
those having the bachelor’s de­
gree. Starting salaries for those
who have doctor’s degrees aver­
aged $12,000 a year.
Depending on their college rec­
ords, new graduates who have a
bachelor’s degree could begin at
either $7,456 or $8,845 a year in
late 1968 in the Federal Govern­
ment. Those who have a master’s
degree could start at $8,845 or
$9,872, and those who have the
Ph.D. degree, at $10,883 or
Teachers often supplement
their regular salaries with income
from research, consulting, or writ­
ing. Extra allowances generally
are paid geologists for work out­
side the United States.
The work of geologists is often
active and sometimes strenuous.
When their work is outdoors,
geologists may be exposed to all
kinds of weather. Many geologists
travel a great deal and may do
fieldwork away from home for
long periods. Their hours of work
often are uncertain because their
field activities are affected by
weather and travel.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
General information on career
opportunities, training, and earn­
ings for geologists may be ob­
tained from:
American Geological Institute,
2201 M St. N W , Washington,
D.C. 20037.

Information on Federal Gov­
ernment careers may be obtained
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil
Service Examiners for Wash­
ington, D.C., 1900 E St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20415.

(D.O.T. 024.081)

N ature of th e W ork
Geophysics is an overall term
covering a number of sciences
concerned with the composition

and physical aspects of the earth
— its size and shape, interior, sur­
face, atmosphere, the land and
bodies of water on its surface and
underground, and the environ­
ment of the earth in space. Geo­
physicists study the earth’s phys­
ical characteristics, such as its
electric, magnetic, and gravita­
tional fields; the earth’s interior
heat flow and vibrations; and
solar radiation. T o conduct their
investigations, geophysicists ap­
ply the principles and techniques
of physics, geology, meteorology,
oceanography, geodesy, mathe­
matics, chemistry, and engineer­
ing. They use many instruments,
including highly complex preci­
sion ones such as the seismo­
graph, which measures and re­
cords the transmission time and
magnitude of earthquake waves
or vibrations through the earth;
the magnetometer, which meas­
ures variations in the earth’s
magnetic field; and the gravi­
meter, which measures minute
variations in gravitational at-

Geophysicist examines seismogram.



traction. In geophysical explora­
tion, increasing use is being made
of electronic computers to collect
and process pertinent data.

Ex pl or ati on ge op hysicists
search for oil and mineral depos­
its, using the knowledge of earth­
quake vibrations, the magnetic
field, gravitational attraction, and
other basic geophysical tech­
niques. Others conduct research,
usually to develop new or im­
proved techniques and instru­
ments for prospecting.
Hydrologists study the occur­
rence, circulation, distribution,
and physical properties of surface
and underground waters in the
land areas of the earth. Some
hydrologists are concerned with
water supplies, irrigation, flood
control, and soil erosion.
Seismologists study the struc­
ture of the earth’s interior and
the vibrations of the earth caused
by earthquakes and manmade
explosions. They may explore for
oil and minerals, provide informa­
tion for use in designing bridges,
dams, and buildings in earth­
quake regions, or study the prob­
lems involved in detecting under­
ground nuclear explosions.
Geodesists measure the size
and shape of the earth, determine
the positions and elevations of
points on or near the earth’s sur­
face, and measure the intensity
and direction of gravitational at­
traction. They track satellites or­
biting in outer space to study the
size and shape of the earth and
the distributions of mass within
the earth.

Geomagneticians and aeronomists are concerned with the
earth’s magnetic field— its varia­
tions, courses, and form in space
— and with many aspects of
space science.
Tectonophysicists study the
structure of mountains and ocean
basins, the properties of materials
forming the earth’s crust, and the
physical forces that formed the

mountains and the ocean basins.
Oceanographers and meteorolo­
gists, sometimes classified as geo­
physical scientists, are discussed
separately in this chapter, as is
the closely related occupation of

Places of Em ploym ent
were employed in the United
States in 1968. Private industry
employed a majority of all geo­
physicists, chiefly in the petro­
leum and natural gas industry.
Other geophysicists were em­
ployed by mining companies, ex­
ploration and consulting firms,
and research institutions. A few
were in business for themselves
as consultants and provided serv­
ices on a fee or contract basis
to companies and individuals en­
gaged in prospecting or other
activities utilizing geophysical
Geophysicists in private indus­
try were employed mainly in the
southwestern and western sec­
tions of the United States, includ­
ing the Gulf Coast, where most
of the country’s large oil and
natural gas fields and mineral
deposits are located. Some geo­
physicists employed by American
firms are assigned to work in
foreign countries for varying
periods of time.
In 1968, Federal Government
agencies employed more than
1,200 geophysicists, geodesists,
and hydrologists, mainly the U.S.
Geological Survey; the Coast and
Geodetic Survey and the Insti­
tute for Earth Sciences of the
Environmental Science Services
Administration; the Army Map
Service; and the Naval Oceano­
graphic Office. Colleges and uni­
versities, State governments, and
nonprofit research institutions
employed small numbers of geo­

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
A bachelor’s degree with a ma­
jor in geophysics or in one of the
geophysical specialties qualifies
young persons for many begin­
ning jobs in exploration geophys­
ics. A bachelor’s degree in a re­
lated science or in engineering,
including courses in geophysics,
physics, geology, mathematics,
chemistry, and engineering, also
is adequate preparation for many
beginning jobs, especially in geo­
physical exploration. Some back­
ground in electronic data proc­
essing is useful.
other than exploration, and for
the more responsible positions in
exploration work, graduate edu­
cation in geophysics or in a re­
lated physical science usually is
required. A doctor’s degree with
a major in geophysics, or in a
related science with advanced
courses in geophysics, generally
is required for teaching careers.
The Ph. D. is required frequently
for positions involving fundamen­
tal research and for advancement
in most types of geophysical
The bachelor’s degree in geo­
physics is awarded by less than
20 colleges and universities.
These undergraduate programs
provide training chiefly in explor­
ation geophysics. Other curriculums that offer the required
training for beginning jobs as
geophysicists include geophysical
neering, engineering geology, pe­
troleum geology, and geodesy.
The master’s degrees and
Ph. D. in geophysics are granted
by about 15 universities. For ad­
mission to a graduate program,
a bachelor’s degree with a good
background in geology, mathe­
matics, physics, or engineering,
or a combination of these subjects
is the usual requirement. In gen-


eral, the graduate student should
attend a school in which he can
take advanced courses and carry
out research projects in the as­
pect of geophysical science in
which he has a special interest.
Beginning geophysicists hav­
ing only the bachelor’s degree are
usually given on-the-job training
in the application of geophysical
principles to their employers’ proj­
ects. If a new employee has not
taken the courses in geophysics
needed for his job, he is taught
geophysical methods and tech­
niques on the job.
Federal Government agencies
also have training programs in
which a few geophysicists are
sent each year to universities for
graduate training. Some Federal
Government agencies provide a
few summer jobs for promising
undergraduates and make per­
manent positions available to
them after graduation.
The prospective geophysicist
should be energetic and in ex­
cellent health, since geophysicists
often have to work outdooors un­
der somewhat rugged conditions.
A willingness to travel is also im­
portant, since a geophysicist may
be required to move from place
to place in the course of his

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment opportunities for
the few new graduates having de­
grees in geophysics are expected
to be good through the 1970’s.
Opportunities will be best for
those having the master’s or doc­
tor’s degree. There also should be
favorable opportunities in geo­
physical work for well-qualified
people having degrees in other
sciences if they have had some
formal training in geophysics.
Moderate growth is expected
in this profession through the
1970’s. Federal Government agen­

cies will need geophysicists for
new or expanded geophysical pro­
grams. The petroleum and mining
industries will need geophysicists
for exploration activities which
are expected to expand in the
1970’s. Several hundred new geo­
physicists also will be needed
each year to replace those who
leave the profession, retire, or die.
Although the number of job
openings for geophysicists is not
expected to be large in any one
year, the number of new gradu­
ates having degrees in the science
also is expected to be small. As
in past years, the number of geo­
physics graduates who are seek­
ing work as geophysicists prob­
ably will be insuffiicent to meet
employers’ needs, and well-trained
persons having degrees in related
sciences and in engineering prob­
ably will continue to be hired for
geophysical positions.
Over the long run, further
growth in the profession is ex­
pected. There will be increasing
use of petroleum and mineral
products by a growing popula­
tion. As natural resources in the
more easily accessible locations
become depleted, additional ex­
ploration geophysicists will be
needed by petroleum and mining
companies to find the more con­
cealed sites of fuels and minerals.
In addition, the growing impor­
tance of basic research in the geo­
physical sciences, as well as the
continuing need to develop new
geophysical techniques and in­
struments, will create a demand
for personnel having advanced
training in hydrology, seismology,
geodesy, and other geophysical
specialties. In Federal Govern­
ment agencies, additional geo­
physicists probably will be needed
to study the problems of the
Nation’s water supplies and min­
eral resources; to work on flood
control; to do research in radio­
activity and cosmic and solar ra­
diation; and to explore the outer

atmosphere and space, using such
vehicles as sounding rockets and
artificial satellites.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
In private industry in 1968,
new graduates having bachelor’s
degrees typically received start­
ing salaries between $7,500 and
$9,000 a year, according to the
limited information available.
New graduates having master’s
degrees received about $1,500
more than those having the
bachelor’s degree. Those having
doctor’s degrees received salaries
of between $11,000 and $13,000,
depending upon individual quali­
fications. In private industry,
geophysical scientists working
outside the United States usually
receive bonuses and allowances.
In the Federal Government in
late 1968, graduates having
bachelor’s degrees and no experi­
ence could enter most types of
geophysical work at either $7,456
or $9,078 a year, depending upon
their college records. Those who
had completed all requirements
for the master’s degree could
start at $9,078 or $10,154; those
having the Ph.D. could start at
$11,563 or $12,580. In the Fed­
eral Government as in industry,
geophysicists stationed outside
the United States are paid an
additional amount.
In educational institutions,
starting salaries are generally
lower than in private industry
or in the Federal Government.
University teachers, however,
may supplement their income by
consulting, writing, or research
The work of geophysicists is
often active and sometimes stren­
uous. Exploration geophysicists
are subject to reassignment in
various locations as exploration
activities shift. Their working
hours may be irregular and fre-



quently are determined by the
requirements of field activities.

Interagency Board of U.S. Civil
Service Examiners for Wash­
ington, D.C., 1900 E St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20415.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
General information on career
opportunities for geophysicists
may be obtained from:


American Geophysical Union,
2100 Pennsylvania Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20037.

(D.O.T. 025.088)

Society of Exploration Geophys­
icists, P. O. Box 3098, Tulsa,
Okla. 74101.

N atu re of th e W ork

Information on Federal Gov­
ernment careers may be obtained

Meteorology is the study of at­
mospheric phenomena— not only
of the earth, but of all celestial
bodies. Meteorologists attempt to
describe and understand the at­

mosphere’s constituents, motions,
processes, and influences. Their
knowledge helps solve many prac­
tical problems in agriculture,
transportation, communications,
health, defense, and business.
Meteorologists usually special­
ize in one branch of the science.
Weather forecasters known pro­
fessionally as synoptic meteorol­
ogists, are the largest group of
specialists. They interpret cur­
rent weather information (such
as air pressure, temperature, hu­
midity, wind velocity) reported
by observers in many parts of
the world and by radiosondes and
weather satellites to make shortand long-range forecasts for spe­
cific regions. Climatologists an­
alyze past records on wind, rain­
fall, sunshine, temperature, and
other weather data for a specific
area to determine the general
pattern of weather which makes
up the area’s climate. Dynamic
meteorologists investigate the
physical laws governing atmos­
pheric motions. Physical meteor­
ologists study the physical nature
of the atmosphere, including its
chemical composition and elec­
trical, acoustical, and optical
properties, the effect of the at­
mosphere on the transmission of
light, sound, and radio waves;
and the factors affecting the for­
mation of clouds, precipitation,
and other weather phenomena.

Meteorological instrumentation
specialists develop the devices
that measure, record, and evalu­
ate data on atmospheric proc­
esses. Specialists in applied me­
teorology, sometimes called in­
dustrial meteorologists, study the
relationship between weather and
specific human activities, biolog­
ical processes, and agricultural
and industrial operations. For
example, they make weather fore­
casts for individual companies,
attempt to induce rain or snow
in a given area, and work on
problems such as smoke control


and air pollution abatement.
Approximately one-third of all
civilian meteorologists perform
research on ways to modify
weather, weather conditions af­
fecting the behavior of forest
fires, and other problems. An­
other one-third are engaged pri­
marily in weather forecasting,
and about one-fourth manage or
administer forecasting and re­
search programs. In both weather
forecasting and research, meteor­
ologists use electronic computers
to process large amounts of data.
A number of meteorologists
teach or do research— frequently
combining the two activities— in
universities or colleges. In col­
leges without separate depart­
ments of meteorology, they may
teach geography, mathematics,
physics, chemistry, or geology, as
well as meteorology.

Places of Em ploym ent
More than 4,000 civilian me­
teorologists were employed in the
United States in 1968; only about
3 percent were women. The En­
vironmental Science Services Ad­
ministration (E SSA ), which in­
cludes the Weather Bureau, em­
ployed by far the largest number
of civilian meteorologists— nearly
2,000— at 300 stations in all parts
of the United States, the polar
regions, Puerto Rico, Wake Is­
land, and other Pacific area sites.
A few worked for other Federal
Government agencies. The Armed
Forces employed about 300 civil­
ian professional meterologists.
worked for private industry. Com­
mercial airlines employed several
hundred to forecast weather
along flight routes and to brief
pilots on atmospheric conditions.
Others worked for private weath­
er consulting firms, which pro­
vided special weather information
for a fee, for companies that de­

signed and manufactured meteor­
ological instruments, and for large
firms in aerospace, insurance,
utilities, and other industries.
Colleges and universities em­
ployed about 800 meteorologists
in research and teaching. Several
hundred others worked for State
and local governments and for
nonprofit organizations.
In addition to these civilian
meteorologists, more than 3,000
officers and 1,500 enlisted mem­
bers of the Armed Forces were
engaged in forecasting and other
meteorological work in 1968.
About four-fifths were on active
duty in the Air Force.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
A bachelor’s degree with a ma­
jor in meteorology is the usual
minimum educational require­
ment for beginning meteorologists
in weather forecasting. However,
a bachelor’s degree in a related
science or in engineering is ac­
ceptable for many positions, pro­
vided the applicant has credit for
courses in meteorology. For ex­
ample, the Federal Government’s
minimum requirement for begin­
ning positions is a bachelor’s de­
gree with at least 20 semester
hours of study in meteorology
and with additional training in
physics and mathematics.
For research and teaching and
for many top-level positions in
other meteorological activities, an
advanced degree is essential, pref­
erably in meteorology, although
persons having graduate degrees
in other sciences also may qualify
if they have taken advance me­
teorology, physics, mathematics,
and chemistry.
Nearly 50 colleges and univer­
sities in 1968 offered degreecredit programs in meteorology
or specialized meteorological dis­
ciplines; 28 of these schools

granted Ph. D. degrees in the
atmospheric sciences. Many other
institutions offered courses in
Meteorology training is given
or supported by the Armed
Forces. In 1968, more than 350
commissioned officers received
university training in meteorol­
ogy at either the undergraduate
or graduate level. In addition,
about 100 enlisted personnel were
being sponsored in college and
university programs leading to an
undergraduate degree and an Air
Force commission. Ex-servicemen
who have experience as meteorol­
ogists frequently are qualified for
civilian meteorologist positions,
not only with the Armed Forces
but with other employers as well.
The ESS A has an in-service
training program under which
some of its meteorologists are at­
tending college for advanced or
specialized training. Some college
students preparing for careers in
meteorology may obtain summer
jobs with this agency. Promotions
for regular full-time employees
are made according to U.S. Civil
Service Commission regulations.
(See chapter on Occupations in
Airline meteorologists have
somewhat limited opportunities
for advancement. However, after
considerable work experience,
they may advance to flight dis­
patcher or to various supervisory
or administrative positions. A few
well-trained meteorologists hav­
ing a background in science, en­
gineering, and business adminis­
tration may establish their own
weather consulting services.

E m ploym ent O utlook
The employment outlook for
civilian meteorologists is expected
to be favorable through the
1970’s. In addition to job oppor­
tunities resulting from the rapid



growth expected in this profes­
sion, several hundred new meteor­
ologists will be needed each year
to replace those who transfer to
other fields, retire, or die.
Meteorologists having advanced
degrees will be in demand to con­
duct research, teach in colleges
and universities, and engage in
management and consulting work.
The advent of weather satellites,
manned spacecraft, world circling
weather balloons, new interna­
tional cooperative programs, and
the use of electornic computers
to make weather forecasts have
expanded greatly the boundaries
of meteorology and opened new
fields of activity in the study of
weather on a global scale. Me­
teorologists will be in demand to
develop and improve instruments
used to collect and process
weather data.
Employment opportunities for
meteorologists with commercial
airlines, weather consulting ser­
vices, and other private compa­
nies also are expected to increase,
as the value of weather informa­
tion to all segments of our econ­
omy receives further recognition.
This recognition also may create
opportunities in research posi­
tions with private research or­
ganizations and colleges and uni­
versities. The number of teaching
positions for meteorologists also
should rise, primarily because of
anticipated increases in total col­
lege enrollments and in meteor­
ology programs.
In addition, there will be a con­
tinuing demand for meteorol­
ogists to work in existing pro­
grams, such as weather measure­
ments and forecasts, storm and
flood forecasts, and research on
the problems of severe storms,
turbulence, and air pollution.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
In late

1968, meteorologists

having the bachelor’s degree and
no experience could start in Fed­
eral Government service at $7,456
or $9,078 a year, depending on
their college records. Meteorol­
ogists who had completed all
requirements for the master’s
degree could start at $9,078 or
$10,154; those having the Ph. D.
degree could begin at $11,563 or
$12,580. Workers stationed out­
side the United States were paid
an additional amount. Employee
benefits for Federal Government
meteorologists are the same as
for other civil service workers.
(See chapter on Occupations in
Airline meteorologists received
a starting salary of approximately
$8,500 - $9,000 a year in 1968,
according to the Air Transport
Association. Meteorologists gen­
erally receive the same benefits as
other airline employees. (See
chapter on Occupations in Civil
According to the National Sci­
ence Foundation’s National Reg­
ister of Scientific and Technical
Personnel, the average (median)
annual salary of meteorologists
in 1968 was $13,400. Only 10 per­
cent of the meteorologists earned
less than $9,600 and about 10 per­
cent earned more than $19,600.
Jobs in weather stations, which
are operated on a 24-hour, 7-day
week basis, often involve nightwork and rotating shifts. Most
stations are at airports or at
places in or near cities; some are
in isolated and remote areas.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
General information on career
opportunities, educational facili­
ties, and professional develop­
ment in meteorology may be ob­
tained from:
American Meteorological Society,
45 Beacon St., Boston, Mass.

American Geophysical Union,
2100 Pennsylvania Ave., NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20037.

Information on employment
opportunities with the ESSA
Weather Bureau and on its stu­
dent-assistance program may be
obtained from:
Personnel Division AD42, En­
vironmental Science Services
Administration, 6010 Executive
Blvd., Rockville, Md. 20852.

Information on the Air Force
meteorological training programs
may be obtained from the nearest
USAF recruiting office or from:
Commander, USAF Recruiting
Service, Wright-Patterson
AFB, Ohio 45899.

(D.O.T. 024.081 and 041.081)

N atu re of th e W ork
The ocean, which covers more
than two-thirds of the earth’s
surface, provides valuable foods
and minerals, influences the
weather, serves as a “ highway”
for transportation, and offers
many varieties of recreation.
Oceanographers study the ocean
— its characteristics, movements,
physical properties, and plant
and animal life. The results of
their studies not only extend
basic scientific knowledge, but
contribute to the development of
practical methods for use in op­
erations such as forecasting
weather, improving fisheries, min­
ing ocean resources, and defend­
ing the Nation.
Oceanographers plan extensive
tests and observational programs
and conduct detailed surveys and
experiments to obtain informa­
tion about the ocean. They may
collect and study data on the

ocean’s tides, currents, and waves;
its temperature, density, and
acoustical properties; its sedi­
ments; its subbottom; its shape;
its interaction with the atmos­
phere; and marine plants and
animals. They analyze the sam­
ples, specimens, and data col­
lected, often using electronic com­
puters. T o present the results of
their studies, they prepare maps
and charts, tabulations, reports,
and manuals, and write papers
for scientific journals.
In developing and carrying out
tests and observational programs,
oceanographers use the principles
and techniques of the natural
sciences, mathematics, and engi­
neering. They use a variety of
special instruments and devices
that measure the earth’s magne­
tic and gravity fields, the speed

Oceanographer hauls plankton net.

of sound traveling through water,
the oceans’ depths, the flow of
heat from the earth’s interior, and
the temperature and chemical
composition of the water. Spe­
cially developed cameras using
strong lights enable oceanogra­
phers to photograph marine or­


ganisms and the ocean floor; new
research vehicles transport ma­
rine scientists to the floor of the
sea. When their work requires
new oceanographic instruments
or analytical techniques, they
usually develop them.
Most oceanographers are spe­
cialists in one of the branches of
the profession. Biological ocean­
ographers (marine biologists)
study the ocean’s plant and ani­
mal life and the environmental
conditions affecting them. Phys­
ical oceanographers (physicists
and geophysicists) study the
physical properties of the ocean,
such as its density, temperature,
and ability to transmit light and
sound; the movements of the
sea; and the relationship between
the sea and the atmosphere.
Geological oceanographers (ma­
rine geologists) study the topo­
graphic features, rocks, and sedi­
ments of the ocean floor. Chem­
ical oceanographers investigate
the chemical composition of ocean
water and sediments, and chem­
ical reactions that occur in the
sea. Marine meteorologists study
the interaction of the atmosphere
and the ocean, and the processes
by which weather over the ocean
is generated. Oceanographic en­
gineers and electronic specialists
design and build the systems, de­
vices, and instruments used in
o c e a n o g r a p h i c r es e a r c h and
About 3 out of 4 oceanogra­
phers are engaged primarily in
performing or administering re­
search and development activities.
A number of oceanographers
teach in colleges and universities;
a few are engaged in technical
writing, consulting, and in the
administration of activities other
than research.
Most oceanographers work part
of the time aboard oceanographic
ships at sea. These voyages may
last from a few days to several
months. A few oceanographers

work nearly all of the time aboard
ship. On the other hand, some
oceanographers never go to sea,
but analyze data collected by
other scientists or pursue mathe­
matical or theoretical studies

Places of Em ploym ent
An estimated 5,200 oceanogra­
phers and closely related tech­
nical personnel were employed in
the United States in 1968. About
four-fifths were employed by the
Federal Government and colleges
and universities. Those Federal
agencies employing substantial
numbers of oceanographers were
the Naval Oceanographic Office,
the Bureau of Commercial Fish­
eries, and the Environmental Sci­
ence Services Administration.
A growing number of ocean­
ographers worked in private in­
dustry for firms that design and
develop instruments and vehicles
for oceanographic research. A few
worked for fishery laboratories of
State and local governments.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
The minimum educational re­
quirement for beginning profes­
sional positions in oceanography
is the bachelor’s degree with a
major in oceanography, biology,
a geo-science, one of the other
basic sciences, mathematics, or
engineering. For professional po­
sitions in research and teaching
and for advancement to highlevel positions in most types of
work, graduate training in ocean­
ography or one of the basic sci­
ences usually is required.
U n d e r g r a d u a t e t r a i n i n g in
oceanography, marine science,
ocean engineering, or fisheries
was offered by only about 15 col­
leges and universities in 1968;



and only seven institutions of­
fered the bachelor’s degree with
a major in oceanography. How­
ever, since oceanography is an
interdisciplinary field, training in
the related basic sciences, when
coupled with a strong interest in
oceanography, is adequate prep­
aration for most beginning posi­
tions in the field or for entry into
graduate school.
Im portant undergraduate
courses for the prospective ocean­
ographer are in the fields of math­
ematics, physics, c h e m i s t r y ,
geophysics, geology, meteorology,
and biology, In general, the stu­
dent should specialize in the par­
ticular science field which is
closest to his area of interest in
oceanography. For example, stu­
dents interested in chemical
oceanography should obtain a de­
gree in chemistry.
In 1968, about 35 colleges and
universities offered advanced de­
grees in oceanography, and about
30 other institutions offered ad­
vanced courses in fisheries, ma­
rine science, or oceanographic en­
gineering. The academic work of
the graduate student in ocean­
ography consists primarily of ex­
tensive training in a basic science
combined with further training
in oceanography. The graduate
student usually works part of the
time aboard ship— doing ocean­
ographic research for his disserta­
tion, and at the same time ac­
quiring familiarity with the sea
and the techniques used to ob­
tain oceanographic information.
A variety of summer courses is
offered by universities at the
various marine stations along our
coasts. These are for both under­
graduate and graduate students
and are recommended particu­
larly for students from inland
The beginning oceanographer
with the bachelor’s degree usually
starts as a research or laboratory
assistant, or in a position involv­

ing routine data collection, anal­
ysis, or computation. Most new
oceanographers receive on-the-job
training related to the specific
work at hand. The nature and
extent of the training vary with
the background and needs of the
individual. Thus, the new grad­
uate who has a degree in a basic
science rather than in oceanogra­
phy usually can be provided
enough understanding of oceano­
graphic principles to enable him to
perform adequately in this field.
Beginning oceanographers hav­
ing advanced degrees usually can
qualify for research and teaching
positions. Experienced oceanog­
raphers may be selected for ad­
ministrative positions, in which
they may supervise a research
laboratory or direct specific sur­
vey or research projects.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment opportunities for
those having degrees in oceanog­
raphy— especially the Ph.D. de­
gree— are expected to be excel­
lent through the 1970’s. Welltrained persons with bachelor’s
degrees in related sciences will
find opportunities mainly as re­
search assistants in routine an­
alytical positions.
The outlook is for very rapid
growth in this profession through
the 1970’s. Growing recognition
of the importance of the oceans
to the Nation’s welfare and se­
curity has heightened interest in
oceanography and has opened
new fields for specialists. In the
years ahead, oceanographers will
be needed for research in areas
such as underwater acoustics,
surface and subsurface ocean cur­
rents, and ocean floor topography,
all of which are important in im­
proving the Nation’s defense
against submarines and surface
vessels. There also will be a de­
mand for oceanographers to sup­

ply weather and iceberg forecasts;
to study air-sea interaction in
order to improve long-range
weather forecasts; to solve sea
mining problems; and to predict,
control, and prevent pollution and
damage caused by waves and
tides. Other oceanographers will
be needed to improve methods of
deriving foods from the oceans,
to manage fisheries, and to de­
velop economical ways to harness
the ocean for energy and to in­
crease the supply of fresh water.
The demand for oceonographers
qualified to teach in colleges and
universities also is expected to
expand. As interest in oceanog­
raphy grows and more courses in
oceanography are offered, more
teachers in the science will be
Replacement of oceanographers
who transfer to other fields, re­
tire, or die also will provide some
Since oceanography is a rela­
tively small profession, job open­
ings will not be numerous in any
one year. On the other hand, the
number of new graduates having
degrees in this science is small
and is expected to remain so.
Thus, new oceanography grad­
uates should continue to have ex­
cellent opportunities.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
In the Federal Government
service in late 1968, oceanogra­
phers having the bachelor’s de­
gree and no experience could be­
gin at $7,456 or $9,078 a year,
depending on their college rec­
ords. Beginning oceanographers
who had completed all require­
ments for the master’s degree
could start at $9,078 or $10,154;
those having the Ph. D. degree
could begin at $11,563 or $12,580.
Scientists in geological and bio­
logical specialties had somewhat
lower starting salaries.

Beginning oceanographers in
educational institutions receive
the same salary as other begin­
ning faculty members. (See state­
ment on College and University
Teachers.) In addition to their
regular salaries, many experi­
enced oceanographers in educa­
tional institutions earn extra in­
come from consulting, lecturing,
and writing activities.
Oceanographers engaged in re­
search requiring sea voyages are
frequently away from home for
weeks or months at a time, some­
times living and working in
cramped quarters. Young people
who like the sea, however, may
find these voyages very satisfying.

Service Examiners for Wash­
ington, D.C., 1900 E St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20415.

The bulletin University Cur­
ricula in the M a r i n e Sciences
may be obtained from:
Committee on Marine Research,
Education and Facilities, Bldg.
159E, Rm. 476, Washington
Navy Yard, Washington, D.C.

The booklet, Oceanography In­
formation Sources, lists the names
and addresses of many profes­
sional, research, and industrial
organizations interested in ocean­
ography. Copies, priced at $1.50
each, may be purchased from:
Printing and Publishing Office,

National Academy of Sciences,
2101 Constitution Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20418.

The bulletin, Marine Science
Affairs—A Year of Plans and
Progress, contains information on
the national oceanography pro­
gram. Copies, priced at $1,
may be obtained from:
Superintendent of Documents,
Government Printing Office,
Washington, D.C. 20402.

Some information on oceanog­
raphic specialties may be ob­
tained from professional societies
listed elsewhere in the Handbook.
(See statements on Geologists,
Geophysicists, Life Scientists,
Meteorologists, and Chemists.)

Sources of A d ditional Inform ation
General information
oceanography— including career
opportunities, professional train­
ing, colleges and universities hav­
ing applicable degree-credit pro­
grams, earnings, and the eco­
nomic significance of oceanogra­
phic activities— may be obtained
American Society for Oceanog­
raphy, 854 Main Bldg., Hous­
ton, Tex. 77002.
American Society of Limnology
and Oceanography, W.K. Kel­
logg Biological Station, Michi­
gan State University, Hickory
Corners, Mich. 49060.
Foundation, 1 Rickenbacker
Causeway, Virginia Key, Mi­
ami, Fla. 33149.
National Oceanography Associa­
tion, 1900 L St. N W , Wash­
ington, D.C. 20036.
U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office,
Washington, D.C. 20390.

Federal Government career in­
formation may be obtained from
any regional office of the U.S.
Civil Service Commission or from:
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil

Life sc ie n c e s
The life sciences encompass the biophysicists, ecologists, patholo­
study of all living organisms and gists, and pharmacologists. This
the processes that determine the chapter also contains a separate
nature of life. They are concerned statement on biochemists. More
with men and microbes, plants detailed statements for other pro­
and animals, and health and dis­ fessional workers in the life sci­
ease, as well as how these organi- ences— soil scientists, soil con­
isms relate to their environment. servationists, foresters, and range
Some scientists in this field managers— are discussed else­
perform research to expand our where in the Handbook.
understandings of living things.
Others, who teach, pass this
knowledge on to students. Many
scientists pursue both activities.
Still others apply these concepts
and principles to the solution of (D.O.T. 040.081, 041.081, 070.081, and
practical problems, such as the
development of new drugs or va­
rieties of plants.
This chapter discusses life sci­
N atu re of the W ork
entists as a group since they re­
ceive comparable basic training
Life scientists study living or­
and have similar employment and ganisms, their structure, evolu­
earning prospects. Brief descrip­ tionary development, behavior,
tions are provided about the na­ and life processes. They place
ture of the work of a number of emphasis on the relationship be­
life scientists— including botan­ tween these organisms and their
ists, zoologists microbiologists, environments. The number and


variety of plants and animals are
so vast and the life processes so
varied and complex that life sci­
entists must of necessity become
specialists. Some learn as much
as possible about a particular
kind of animal, plant, or micro­
organism. Others, interested in
how an animal or the human body
functions, study such things as
the nervous system, how food is
digested, or how organisms are
affected by disease. Some are in­
terested in the evolution of living
organisms, the mechanisms of
heredity; or the ways environ­
mental factors, such as light or
heat, affect life processes. In gen­
eral, life scientists specialize in
one of three broad areas— agri­
culture, biology, medicine.
Two-fifths of all life scientists
are engaged in research and de­
velopment. Many conduct basic
research, which is aimed at add­
ing to our knowledge of living
organisms with only secondary
regard to its application. Never­
theless, the development of in­
secticides, disease-resistant crops,
and antibiotics have resulted
from basic research in the life
sciences. Much of the basic medi­
cal knowledge of the treatment
of disease has its origin in pure
Research in the life sciences
may take many forms. A botanist
exploring the volcanic Alaskan
valleys to see what plants live in
this strange environment and a
zoologist searching the jungles of
the Amazon valley for previously
unknown kinds of animals are
both doing research; likewise, an
entomologist in a laboratory tests
various chemical insecticides for
effectiveness and possible haz­
ards to human and animal life.
Regardless of the type of re­
search in which they are engaged,
life scientists must be familiar
with fundamental research tech­
niques and the use, not only of
light and electron microscopes,

but of other complex physical and
electronic laboratory equipment.
Advanced techniques and princi­
ples from chemistry and physics
are applied widely. A knowledge
of mathematical and statistical
procedures, as well as of the op­
eration of electronic computers,
often is needed in experiments
involving a large number of vari­
able factors.
Teaching in a college or uni­
versity is the major function of
nearly one-fourth of all life scien­
tists. Many teachers combine inde­
pendent research with their regu­
lar teaching duties, and in some
large educational institutions, use
the major portion of their time
on research.
More than one-fourth of all life
scientists are engaged in manage­
ment and administrative work,

primarily the planning, super­
vision, and administration of pro­
grams of research or testing of
foods, drugs, and other products.
Others provide liaison between
the Federal Government and the
agricultural experiment stations
at State universities, assisting in
the planning, development, and
evaluation of research programs
at these stations.
The remaining life scientists
are engaged in a variety of other
types of work, such as consulting,
writing, testing, and inspection.
A few are employed in technical
sales or field service work for in­
dustrial firms; such work may
include, for example, teaching
company salesmen and prospec­
tive purchasers the value and
proper use of new chemicals.
Some are engaged in research in

Botanists study leaves of pepper plant to be launched into earth orbit.

natural history museums, zoos,
and botanical gardens.
Life scientists may be classi­
fied into three broad groups char­
acterized by the general type of
organism with which they work:
Botanists, who study plants; zo­
ologists, who are concerned with
animals; and microbiologists, who
work with micro-organisms.
Botanists study all aspects of
plant life. Plant taxonomists
identify and classify plants. Plant
ecologists study the interrelation­
ships between environmental ele­
ments and plant life and distribu­
tion. Other botanists include
plant morphologists, concerned
with the structure of plants and
plant cells; plant physiologists,
interested in the life processes of
plants; and plant pathologists,
engaged in determining the cause
and control of plant diseases.
Zoologists study animal life—
its origin, classification, behavior,
life processes, diseases, and para­
sites— and the ways in which ani­
mals influence and are influenced
by their environment. Zoologists
who specialize in the study of
certain classes of animals may use
titles that indicate the kind of
animal studied, such as ornitholo­
gists (birds), herpetologists (rep­
tiles and amphibians), ichthy­
ologists (fishes), and mammalogists (mammals).
Microbiologists investigate the
growth, structure, and general
characteristics of bacteria, vi­
ruses, molds, and other organisms
of microscopic or submicroscopic
size. Although the terms bacteri­
ology and microbiology are some­
times used interchangeably, mi­
crobiology, the broader term, is
preferable when referring to the
study of all microscopic organ­
isms. Microbiologists isolate and
make cultures of these organisms
in order to examine them with a
variety of highly specialized
equipment. Some microbiologists
pursue medical problems, such as


the relationship between bacteria
and infectious disease, or the ef­
fect of antibiotics on bacteria.
Others specialize in soil bacteri­
ology (the study of soil micro­
organisms and their relation to
soil fertility), virology (the study
of viruses), immunology (the
study of the mechanisms that
fight infection), or serology (the
study of a n i m a l and plant
fluids, including blood serums).
Life scientists also may be
classified according to the type
of approach used— some of which

are wholly within 1 of the 3 major
groupings, and others which may
be found in all 3 groups. Some
life scientists are classified ac­
cording to the specific type of or­
ganism studied. Some life sci­
entists whose work cuts across
more than one of these major
groupings, as often in the case of
college and university teachers,
simply may call themselves bi­
ologists. A description of the
work of some life scientists fol­
Agronomists are concerned with

Ecologist inspects wasp's nests made of radioactive mud.


field-crop problems. They develop
new methods of growing crops for
improved quality, higher yield,
and more efficient production.
They seek new, hardier varieties
of crops and better methods of
controlling disease, pests, and
weeds. Agronomists may special­
ize in the problems of a geographi­
cal region, a particular crop, or a
technical area, such as crop­
breeding or production methods.
Anatomists study the form and
structure of organisms. Those
who specialize in the structure of
cells are known as cytologists,
whereas those who specialize in
the structure of tissues and or­
gans are known as histologists.
Anatomists may examine struc­
tures visible to the naked eye or
of microscopic size, or those of
submicroscopic size, visible only
through the use of the electron
microscope. Many anatomists
specialize in human anatomy.
Biochemists, who are trained in
both chemistry and biology, study
the chemical processes of living
things. A more detailed descrip­
tion of their work is contained in
a separate statement elsewhere in
this chapter.
Biological oceanographers, or
marine biologists, study the plant
and animal life in the oceans and
the environmental conditions af­
fecting them. See separate state­
ment on Oceanographers else­
where in the Handbook.
Biophysicists who are trained in
both physics and biology, investi­
gate the physical principles of
living cells and organisms, and
their responses to physical forces,
such as heat, light, radiation,
sound, and electricity. They may
use the electron microscope to
make tissues visible down to the
smallest units and they may use
nuclear reactors to study the ef­
fect of radiation on cells and
Ecologists study the mutual
relationship among organisms

and between them and their en­
vironment. They are interested in
the effects of environmental in­
fluences such as rainfall, temper­
ature, altitude, and kind and
quality of food.
Embryologists study the devel­
opment of an organism from fer­
tilization of the egg through the
hatching process or gestation
period. They investigate the phys­
iological, biochemical, and genet­
ic mechanisms that control and
direct the processes of develop­
ment, how and why this control
is accomplished, and the causes
of abnormalities in development.
Entomologists are concerned
with insects and their relation to
plant and animal life. They iden­
tify and classify the enormous
number of different kinds of in­
sects. Some entomologists seek
methods of controlling harmful
insects that carry disease and
spoil food supplies. Others de­
velop ways to encourage the
growth and spread of beneficial
insects, such as honeybees.
Geneticists explore the origin,
transmission, and development of
hereditary characteristics. Genet­
icists engaged primarily in im­
proving plant and animal breeds
of economic importance— such as
cereal and tobacco crops or dairy
cattle and poultry— may be
classified as plant or animal
breeders, agronomists, or animal
science specialists. Theoretical
geneticists search for the mech­
anisms that determine inheri­
ted traits in plants, animals, or
Horticulturists work with or­
chard and garden plants, such as
fruits, nuts, vegetables, flowers
and ornamental plants, and other
nursery stocks. They develop new
or improved plant varieties and
better methods of growing, har­
vesting, storing, and transport­
ing horticultural crops. Horticul­
turists usually specialize in either
a specific plant or a particular

technical problem, such as plant
Husbandry specialists (animal)
conduct research on the breeding,
feeding, management, and dis­
eases of domestic farm animals
to improve the health and yield
of these animals.
Nutritionists examine the proc­
esses through which food is
utilized, the kinds and quantities
of food elements— such as min­
erals, fats, sugars, vitamins, and
proteins— that are essential to
build and repair body tissues and
maintain health, and how these
food elements are transformed
into body substances and energy.
Nutritionists also analyze food to
determine its composition in
terms of essential ingredients or
Pathologists study the nature,
cause, and development of dis­
ease, degeneration, and abnormal
functioning in humans, in ani­
mals, or in plants. Many special­
ize in the study of the effects of
diseases, parasites, and insect

Pathologists usually work in


pests on cells, tissues, and organs.
Others investigate genetic varia­
tions and other abnormal effects
caused by drugs. The term “ path­
ologist” is normally reserved for
specialists in human pathology
(medical pathology). Specialists
in animal pathology are usually
veterinarians. (See statement on
Veterinarians.) Those who study
plant diseases may be called plant
pathologists or phytopatholog­
ists; their work is discussed under
the section on botanists.
Pharmacologists conduct tests
to determine the effects of drugs,
gases, poisons, dusts, and other
substances on the functioning of
tissues and organs, and relate
their findings with medical data.
They may develop new or im­
proved chemical compounds for
use in drugs and medicines.
Physiologists study the struc­
ture and functions of cells, tis­
sues, and organs and the effects
of environmental factors on life
processes. They may specialize in
cellular activities or in one of the
organ systems, such as the diges­
tive, nervous, circulatory, or re­
productive systems. The knowl­
edge gained in such research of­
ten provides the basis for the
work of many other specialists,
such as biochemists, pathologists,
pharmacologists, or nutritionists.
Places of Em ploym ent
An estimated 170,000 persons
were employed in the life sciences
in 1968. About 10 percent were
women. Of this total, nearly
48.000 worked in agricultural sci­
ence, more than 66,000 worked in
biological science, and about
54.000 worked on problems re­
lated to medical science.
More than half of the total
were employed by colleges and
universities in teaching and re­
search positions. Medical schools
and their associated hospitals em­

ployed particularly large numbers
of life scientists in the medical
field. State agricultural colleges
and agricultural experiment sta­
tions operated by universities in
cooperation with Federal and
State Governments employed
sizable numbers of agronomists,
horticulturists, animal husbandry
specialists, entomologists, and
other agriculture-related special­
The Federal Government in
1968 employed about 28,000 life
scientists, two-thirds of whom
were employed in the Depart­
ment of Agriculture. The D e­
partment of the Interior em­
ployed nearly all the fish and
wildlife biologists in the Federal
Government. Other large num­
bers of life scientists were em­
ployed by the Department of the
Army and the National Institutes
of Health. State and local gov­
ernments, combined, employed
about 19,000 biologists— mostly
fish and wildlife specialists, mi­
crobiologists, and entomologists
— for work in conservation, de­
tection and control of diseases,
and plant breeding.
Approximately 26,000 life sci­
entists worked for private indus­
try in 1968. Among the major in­
dustrial employers were manu­
facturers of pharmaceuticals, in­
dustrial chemicals, and food
products. A few were self-em­
ployed. Nearly 6,000 life scien­
tists worked for privately financed
research o r g a n i z a t i o n s and
other nonprofit foundations.
Although life scientists were
employed in all States, nearly
two-fifths were located in five
States— California, New York,
Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Mary­
land. More than one-tenth of all
life scientists were located in
only two Metropolitan areas—
Washington, D.C., and New
York, N.Y.

Train in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Young people seeking profes­
sional careers in the life sciences
should plan to obtain an ad­
vanced degree— preferably a Ph.
D.— in their field of interest. The
bachelor’s degree with a major
in one of the life sciences is ade­
quate preparation for many be­
ginning jobs, but promotional op­
portunities for those without
graduate training may be limited
to intermediate level positions.
The Ph. D. degree generally is
required for higher level college
teaching positions and for inde­
pendent research. It is also nec­
essary for an increasing number
of other positions involving the,
administration of research pro­
New graduates having a mas­
ter’s degree may qualify for most
entry positions in applied re­
search and for some types of po­
sitions in college teaching and
basic research.
Those having a bachelor’s de­
gree may qualify for positions
involving testing, production and
operation work, technical sales
and service, and duties connected
with the enforcement of govern­
ment regulations. They also may
obtain positions as advanced
technicians, particularly in the
medical area. Those who gradu­
ate near the top of their class
may qualify for some research
positions, but these positions are
mostly of a routine nature or are
performed under close super­
vision. Some graduates having a
bachelor’s degree may take
courses in education and choose
a career as a high school teacher
of biology rather than one as a
life scientist. (See statement on
Secondary School Teachers.)
Training leading to a bache­
lor’s degree with a major in one
of the life science specialties is
offered by nearly all colleges and


of their class. New graduates
holding the bachelor’s degree will
find many opportunities to work
as research assistants or in tech­
nician jobs while continuing their
graduate education.
Employment in the life sci­
ences is expected to grow very
rapidly throughout the 1970’s.
In addition to e m p l o y m e n t
opportunities r e s u l t i n g from
growth, nearly 9,600 life scien­
tists will be needed each year to
replace those who transfer to
other fields, retire, or die.
One of the major factors which
will tend to increase the employ­
ment of life scientists is the an­
ticipated continued growth in re­
search and development, par­
ticularly in medical research pro­
grams sponsored by the Federal
Government and voluntary health
agencies, including those promot­
ing studies of heart disease, can­
cer, and birth defects. Research
in such relatively new areas as
space biology, radiation biology,
environmental health, biological
oceanography, and hereditary
regulation also will probably in­
Industry also is expected to in­
crease its spending for research
and development in the biological
sciences. Furthermore, the strin­
gent health standards of the Fed­
eral regulatory agencies are likely
to result in a heightened demand
for additional life scientists in
industry to perform research and
testing before new drugs, chemi­
Em ploym ent O utlook
cals, and processing methods are
Employment opportunities for made available to the public.
Another factor which should
life scientists having graduate de­
grees are expected to be very good increase employment of life sci­
throughout the 1970’s. Demand entists is the substantially larger
will be strong for those having college and university enroll­
doctorates to do research on prob­ ments expected during the 1970’s.
lems important to medicine, Although the resulting rise in de­
health, and environmental qual­ mand for teachers will be to a
ity control. Employment oppor­ large extent for Ph. D .’s, there
tunities are likely to be favorable will be many openings for quali­
for persons having bachelor’s de­ fied people holding master’s
grees who graduate near the top degrees.

universities. Courses differ great­
ly from one college to another,
and it is important that a student
determine which college program
best fits his interests and needs.
In general, liberal arts colleges
and universities emphasize train­
ing in the biological scences and
in the medical aspects of life
science. State universities and
land-grant colleges offer special
advantages to those interested in
their agricultural experiment sta­
tions provide many opportunities
for practical training and research
should obtain the broadest under­
graduate training possible in all
branches of biology and in re­
lated sciences, particularly bio­
chemistry, organic and inorganic
chemistry, physics, and math­
ematics. Courses in statistics,
calculus, biometrics and com­
puter programming analysis are
becoming increasingly essential.
Training and practice in labora­
tory techniques, in the use of lab­
oratory equipment, and in field­
work are also important.
Advanced degrees in the life
sciences also are conferred by a
large number of colleges and uni­
versities. Requirements for ad­
vanced degrees usually include
fieldwork and laboratory re­
search, as well as classroom stud­
ies and preparation of a thesis.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
In the Federal Government in
late 1968, life scientists having a
bachelor’s degree could begin at
$5,732 or $6,981 a year, depend­
ing on their college records. Be­
ginning life scientists having a
bachelor’s degree and some grad­
uate study could start at $6,981,
$8,462, or $10,203, depending up­
on academic records and previous
experience. Those having the Ph.
D. degree could begin at $10,203
or $12,174. Pharmacologists had
somewhat higher starting salaries
than other life scientists.
Life scientists having the Ph.
D. degree and employed as col­
lege and university teachers typi­
cally received starting salaries
between $7,000 and $8,500 a year
in 1968, according to the limited
information available. (For fur­
ther information, see statement
on College and University Teach­
ers.) Life scientists in educa­
tional institutions sometimes sup­
plement their regular salaries
with income from writing, con­
sulting, and special research
According to the National Sci­
ence Foundation’s Register of
Scientific and Technical Person­
nel, agricultural scientists earned
about $11,000 a year in 1968.
The average (median) annual
salary for biological scientists
was $13,000 in 1968, according
to the Register; only 10 percent
earned less than $7,500 a year,
and about 10 percent earned
$23,000 or more. In general, life
scientists in private industry tend
to have higher salaries than those
in either colleges and unversities
or Government employment.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
General information on careers
in the life sciences may be ob­
tained from:


American Institute of Biological
Sciences, 3900 Wisconsin Ave.
N W , Washington, D.C. 20016.

Specific information on Fed­
eral Government careers may be
obtained from:
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil
Service Examiners for Wash­
ington, D.C., 1900 E St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20415.

(D.O.T. 041.081)

N atu re of the W ork
The biochemist has an important
role in modem science’s research
for the basis of life and the fac­
tors that sustain life. His pro­
fessional interests range from
what determines heredity to how
living things react to space
Biochemists study the chemical
composition of living organisms.
They identify and analyze the
chemical processes related to bi­
ological functions, such as mus­
cular contraction, reproduction,
and metabolism. Bichemists in­
vestigate the effects on organisms
of such chemical substances as
foods, hormones, and drugs. They
study the chemical changes in
living tissue caused by genetic
and environmental factors.
Biochemists study a wide va­
riety of substances, ranging from
very small molecules to giant
macromolecules. They analyze
chemical compounds such as min­
erals, sugars, amino acids, pro­
teins polysaccharides, nucleic
acids, fats, and steriods. Biochem­
ists deal with problems in ge­
netics, enzymology, hormone ac­
tion, bioenergetics, and the phe­
nomena of biochemical control.
Foremost among the areas of
application of biochemistry are

Biochemist constructs molecular model.

medicine, biomedicine, nutrition,
and agriculture. In the medical
field, biochemists may investigate
the causes and cures of disease
or develop diagnostic procedures.
In the biomedical area, they con­
tribute to our understanding of
genetics, heredity, brain function,
and physiological adaption. In the
nutritional field, they may iden­
tify the nutrients necessary to
maintain good health and the ef­
fects of specific deficiencies on
various kinds of performance, in­
cluding the ability to learn. In
agriculture, biochemists investi­
gate soils, fertilizers, and plants,
and undertake studies to dis­

cover more efficient methods of
crop cultivation, storage, and
utilization, and the design and
use of pest-control agents.
Biochemists apply the princi­
ples and procedures of chemical
and physical analysis to their re­
search problems. They use a va­
riety of scientific instruments
and devices, including electron
microscopes and radioactive iso­
tope counters, and devise new in­
struments and analytical tech­
niques as needed. Biochemists
usually report the results of their
research in scientific journals and
sometimes lecture before scien­
tific groups.



chemistry by doing intensive re­
search and writing a thesis.
Some graduate schools having
extensive research facilities or a
staff highly accomplished in a
special field have gained a repu­
tation for training students in
that particular field of biochem­
Training , O ther Q ualifications,
istry. For example, a university
and Advancem ent
affiliated with a medical school
or hospital often has the facilities
The minimum educational re­ and equipment available for
quirement for beginning positions studying the biochemisty of dis­
in biochemistry is the bachelor’s ease. Therefore, a student who
degree with a major in biochem­ desires to specialize in a particu­
istry or chemistry, or with a ma­ lar field of biochemistry should
jor in biology and a minor in investigate the specialties of the
chemistry. For most entrance po­ various schools and make his se­
sitions in research and teaching, lection carefully.
graduate training in biochemistry
New graduates having the
is required. Graduate work also bachelor’s degree usually begin
is needed for advancement to work in industry or government
most high-level positions in all as research assistants. These po­
types of work.
Fewer than 40 schools award analysis. In the drug manufac­
the bachelor’s degree in biochem­ turing industry, for example, re­
istry. However, all colleges and search assistants may analyze the
universities offer a major in ingredients of a product to verify
biology or chemistry. The pros­ and maintain its purity or qual­
pective biochemist should take ity. Some graduate students be­
undergraduate courses in chem­ come research or teaching assist­
Places of Em ploym ent
biochemistry, ants in colleges and universities.
Beginning biochemists having
bio­ mathematics, and physics.
More than 100 colleges and advanced degrees usually qualify
chemists were employed in the
United States in 1968; about 15 universities offer graduate degrees for research or teaching positions.
percent were women. Biochemists in biochemistry. For entrance in­ Some experienced biochemists
were employed in both large and to a graduate program in bio­ who have Ph. D. degrees advance
chemistry, schools usually require to high-level administrative posi­
small cities, and in all States.
About half of all biochemists the student to have a bachelor’s tions and supervise research pro­
were employed by colleges and degree in biochemistry, biology, grams. Other highly qualified bio­
universities in 1968. Many of or chemistry. However, students chemists, who prefer to devote
these scientists were teaching and who have the bachelor’s degree their time to research, often be­
performing research in univer­ in another basic science but who come leaders in a particular field
sity-operated laboratories and have had several undergraduate of biochemistry.
hospitals. Another 700 biochem­ courses in chemistry usually are
ists worked for nonprofit organi­ admitted.
In graduate school, the student
Em ploym ent O utlook
zations, such as research insti­
builds upon the basic knowledge
tutes and foundations.
employed obtained in the undergraduate
The employment outlook is
several thousand biochemists. curriculum. He takes advanced likely to be very good for bio­
The largest group of these worked courses and may conduct research chemists through the 1970’s. In
in the chemical industry, primar­ in many areas of biochemistry. addition to new opportunities re­
ily for manufacturers of drugs, In completing work for the doc­ sulting from the very rapid
toral degree, he usually special­ growth expected in this field,
insecticides, and cosmetics.
About one-fifth of all bio­ izes in a particular field of bio­ about 450 new biochemists will be

About seven out of ten bio­
chemists are engaged in research.
The vast majority pursue basic
research designed to increase sci­
entific knowledge. The small
group of biochemists working in
applied research use the discov­
eries of basic research to solve
practical problems or develop
useful products. For example,
through basic research, biochem­
ists discover how a living organ­
ism forms a hormone. This
knowledge is put to use by syn­
thesizing the hormone in the lab­
oratory and then producing it on
a mass scale to enrich hormonedeficient organisms. The distinc­
tion between basic and applied
research, however, is often one of
degree; biochemists may engage
in both types of work.
Some biochemists teach in col­
leges and universities, often com­
bining research with teaching.
Small proportions are engaged in
production and testing activities
or private consulting.

chemists worked for Federal,
State, and local government
agencies. Most of these scientists
were employed by Federal agen­
cies concerned with health or


needed each year to replace work­
ers who transfer to other fields
of work, retire, or die.
The greatest demand will be
for the biochemist who has the
Ph. D. degree, to conduct inde­
pendent research or to teach.
The major factor underlying
the anticipated growth is the con­
tinued increase in expenditures
for research and development in
life sciences. These expenditures,
which have risen rapidly in re­
cent years, are expected to con­
tinue to rise, although at a some­
what slower rate.
The greatest growth in employ­
ment of biochemists is expected
in medical research as research
is expanded on health problems
such as cancer, heart disease,
muscular dystrophy, and mental
illness. Additional biochemists
will be needed to implement the
more stringent drug standards
that have been established by
Congress and the Federal regu­
latory agencies. Biochemistry
also is becoming important in
other fields, such as environmen­
tal studies.
Growing college enrollments,
especially of students majoring in
chemistry and the life sciences,
will strengthen the demand for
biochemists qualified to teach in
colleges and universities.
Although biochemistry is a
relatively small profession and
job openings will not be numer­
ous in any one year, the number
of graduates who have degrees in
this science also is fairly small
and is expected to remain small.
Thus, the employment outlook
should continue to be favorable
for biochemistry graduates.

faculty members. Biochemists in
educational institutions often
supplement their income by en­
gaging in outside research or con­
sulting work.
In 1968, the average (median)
earnings for all biochemists who
had a bachelor’s degree was
$8,600; for those having a mas­
ter’s degree, $9,900; and for those
having a Ph. D., $14,000.

Starting salaries paid to bio­
chemists employed by colleges
and universities are comparable
to those for other professional

General information on careers
in biochemistry may be obtained
American Society of Biological
Chemists, 9650 Rockville Pike,
Bethesda, Md. 20014.

Ph ysical sc ie n c e s

The physical sciences deal with
the basic laws of the physical
world. Many physical scientists
conduct basic research designed
to increase man’s knowledge of
the properties of matter and
energy. Others conduct applied
research, using the knowledge
gained from basic research to de­
velop new products and processes.
For example, chemists in applied
research use their knowledge of
the interactions of various chem­
icals to develop new fuels for
rockets and missiles. Physical sci­
entists also teach in colleges and
universities and supervise re­
search and development programs.
This chapter includes descrip­
tions of three major physical sci­
ence occupations— chemist, phys­
icist, and astronomer— and of
biochemists, one of the major
groups of chemists. Engineers,
life scientists, and earth scientists
also require a background in the
physical sciences; these occupa­
tions are described in separate
chapters elsewhere in the Hand­


Sources of A dditional Inform ation

(D.O.T. 022.081, .168, .181, and .281)

N ature of the W ork
The clothes we wear, the food
we eat, the houses in which we
live— in fact, most of the things
which help to make our lives more
comfortable, healthy, and produc­
tive— have resulted, in part, from
the chemist’s continuing search
for new knowledge. Although the
day-to-day activities of chemists
generally receive little notice,
some of their discoveries have led
to the creation of whole new in­
dustries, such as the plastics,
frozen foods, and manmade fibers
Chemists investigate the prop­
erties and composition of matter,
and the laws that govern the com­
bination of elements in a seem­
ingly endless variety of forms.
They search for new knowledge
about substances and try to util­
ize this knowledge for practical
use. In conducting studies, they
apply scientific principles and
techniques and use a variety of
specialized instruments to meas­
ure, i d e n t i f y , and evaluate
changes in matter. Chemists



Research chemists test plastic interlayer for safer automobile windshields.

maintain accurate records of their
work and prepare clear and con­
cise reports showing the results
of the tests or experiments. They
often present their findings in
scientific publications or in lec­
tures before scientific groups.
The activities of chemists are
varied. Some chemists develop
new substances, such as rocket
fuels, solids for transistors, or
vaccines. Other chemists, by ob­
serving how light is absorbed by
a substance or how X-rays or
beams of electrons are affected
when passed through it, deter­
mine the chemical composition
of a substance and the atomic
make up of its molecules. Other
chemists, are interested in the
bulk properties of matter rather
than those of individual mole­
cules; they examine the behavior
of solids, liquids, and reactions on
surfaces. Another group of chem­
ists study the rate at which mat­
ter undergoes changes in compo­

sition, ranging from the combus­
tion in a jet engine to the growth
of a living organism. A sizable
number of chemists make quali­
tative and quantitative measure­
ments of the properties of matter
and develop analytical instru­
ments and techniques. Biochem­
ists challenge the problems re­
lated to the chemistry of life proc­
esses. (See separate statement
on Biochemists elsewhere in the

Nearly one-half of all chemists
are engaged in research and de­
velopment. Many research chem­
ists work on applied research
projects to create new products or
improve or find new uses for
existing ones. Chemists in applied
research have helped to develop
a vast range of new products, in­
cluding antibiotics, plastics, syn­
thetic rubbers, detergents, insec­
ticides, and manmade fibers.
Many other chemists work on

basic research to extend scientific
knowledge rather than to solve
immediate practical problems.
Results of basic research fre­
quently apply immediately to
practical problems. For example,
basic research on polymerization
— how and why small molecules
unite to form giant molecules—
resulted in the development of
synthetic rubber, nylon, and
About one-fourth of all chem­
ists are employed in management
and administration— especially of
research and development activi­
ties. A smaller proportion of
chemists devote most of their
time to teaching, often combining
research with teaching. Analysis
and testing is another major ac­
tivity of chemists because various
kinds of tests must be made at
practically every stage in the
manufacture of a product, from
initial development to final pro­
duction. Others are employed as
marketing experts or sales repre­
sentatives of chemical companies
and other manufacturers in posi­
tions where the employee must be
familiar with the technical as­
pects of products. Some chemists
work as private consultants to
private industry firms and gov­
ernment agencies.

Places of Em ploym ent
Chemistry is by far the largest
field of employment in the phys­
ical sciences. More than 130,000
chemists were employed in the
United States in 1968; nearly 10
percent were women.
Nearly three-fourths of all
chemists were employed by pri­
vate industry in 1968. The chem­
icals manufacturing industry em­
ployed almost half of these chem­
ists. Relatively large numbers of
other chemists were found in the
industries manufacturing food,
scientific instruments, petroleum,

rubber, paper, textiles and ap­
parel, electrical equipment, and
primary metals products. Inde­
pendent laboratories and research
institutes providing consulting
services and distributors of chem­
ical, pharmaceutical, food, and
petroleum products also em­
ployed significant numbers of
Colleges and universities em­
ployed more than 20,000 chem­
ists. A smaller number worked
for nonprofit research organiza­
tions. A number of chemists were
employed by Federal Govern­
ment agencies, chiefly by the U.S.
Departments of Defense; Health,
Education, and Welfare; Agri­
culture; and Interior. Small num­
bers worked for State and local
governments, primarily in agen­
cies concerned with health or
Chemists were employed in all
States, in small as well as large
cities. However, they were usually
concentrated in large industrial
areas. Nearly one-fifth of all
chemists were located in four met­
ropolitan areas— New York, Chi­
cago, Philadelphia, and Newark.
About half of the total worked
in six States— New York, New
Jersey, California, Pennsylvania,
Ohio, and Illinois.
T rain in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
A bachelor’s degree with a ma­
jor in chemistry is usually the
minimum educational require­
ment for starting a career as a
chemist. Graduate training is es­
sential for many positions, par­
ticularly in research and college
teaching, and is helpful for ad­
vancement in all types of work.
Training leading to the bache­
lor’s degree in chemistry is of­
fered by about 1,000 colleges and
universities throughout the coun­
try. In addition to the required


chemistry courses in inorganic,
organic, and physical chemistry,
and quantitative and qualitative
a nal ys i s , t he u n d e r g r a d u a t e
c he m i s t r y major also takes
courses in mathematics (especial­
ly analytical geometry and cal­
culus) and physics.
Advanced degrees in chemistry
are awarded by nearly 300 col­
leges and universities, many of
which offer financial assistance
to students interested in gradu­
ate study. In graduate school, the
student usually specializes by
taking several courses in a par­
ticular field of chemistry. R e­
quirements for the master’s or
doctor’s degree vary by institu­
tion, but usually include lectures,
laboratory work, and a thesis.
New graduates having the
bachelor’s degree usually qualify
for beginning positions in analysis
and testing, quality control, tech­
nical service and sales, or assist
senior chemists in research and
development work. Most chemists
having only the bachelor’s degree
start their careers in industry or
government. In industry, employ­
ers often have special training
programs for new chemistry grad­
uates. These programs supple­
ment college training with spe­
cific industry techniques and help
determine the type of work for
which the new employee is best
suited. Some chemists who have
the bachelor’s degree teach or do
research in colleges and universi­
ties while working toward ad­
vanced degrees. They also may
qualify as secondary school
Chemists having the master’s
degree often qualify for applied
research positions in government
or private industry. They also
may qualify for some teaching
positions in colleges and univer­
sities and in 2-year colleges.
The Ph. D. degree generally is
required for basic research, for
higher level faculty positions in

a college or university, or for ad­
vancement to top-level positions
in administration and in other

Em ploym ent O utlook
The employment outlook fo r
chemists is expected to be very
good through the 1970’s. In ad­
dition to new opportunities re­
sulting from the very rapid
growth expected in the profes­
sion, approximately 6,500 new
chemists will be needed each year
to replace those who retire, die,
or transfer to other occupations.
Chemists will be required in
increasing numbers to perform
research and development work.
Expenditures for research and de­
velopment, which have increased
rapidly in recent years, probably
will continue to rise, although
somewhat more slowly than in
the past. These expenditures not
only create jobs for chemists in
research and development, but
also produce new products that
result in new positions for chem­
ists in other types of work.
Another factor increasing the
opportunities for chemists is the
growing demand for the products
of industry. These products in­
clude plastics, manmade fibers,
drugs, fertilizers, and high energy
and nuclear fuels for missiles and
space ships.
Because of the large increases
in college and university enroll­
ments expected through the
1970’s, requirements for chemists
to teach at these institutions are
projected to double by 1980. The
greatest demand will be for those
who have Ph. D. degrees, but
many openings, especially in 2year colleges, also should arise
for chemists who have master’s
degrees. (See statement on Col­
lege and University Teachers.)
Along with the expected growth
in demand for chemists, a rapid



rise is expected in the number
of chemistry graduates seeking
professional employment through
the 1970’s. Nevertheless, the de­
mand is expected to be somewhat
greater than the number of new
graduates who will be available
for employment. Thus, new chem­
istry graduates should continue
to have very favorable employ­
ment opportunities, a l t h o u g h
some competition may exist for
the better paying entry positions.
New graduates also will find
openings in high school teaching,
provided they have completed the
professional education courses
and other requirements for a
State teaching certificate. How­
ever, they usually are regarded as
teachers rather than as chemists.
(See statement on Secondary
School Teachers.)

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Inexperienced chemistry grad­
uates having a bachelor’s degree
had an average (median) start­
ing salary of about $8,400 a year
in private industry in 1968, ac­
cording to a survey conducted
by the American Chemical So­
ciety. Inexperienced graduates
having the master’s degree aver­
aged about $9,600 a year and
those having the Ph. D. degree,
about $13,500.
In academic institutions, the
average (median) annual start­
ing salary for the few entrants
having the bachelor’s degree and
no experience was about $6,600,
according to the American Chem­
ical Society. The average salary
for inexperienced graduates hav­
ing the master’s degree was about
$8,600, and for those having the
Ph. D. degree, $10,800. Many ex­
perienced chemists in educational
supplement their
regular salaries with income from
consulting, lecturing, and writing.
In Federal Government posi­

tions in late 1968, the annual
starting salary for inexperienced
chemists having the bachelor’s
degree was either $7,456 or
$9,078, depending on the individ­
ual’s college record. Beginning
chemists who have 1 year of
graduate study could start at
$9,078 and those who have 2
years of graduate study at
$10,154. Chemists having the Ph.
D. degree could start at $11,563
or $12,580.
The average (median) annual
salary for all chemists was
$13,500 in 1968, according to the
National Science Foundation’s
National Register of Scientific
and Technical Personnel. Only
10 percent of all chemists earned
less than $8,500 a year, and about
10 percent earned $21,000 or
Chemists spend most of their
time working in modern, wellequipped, well-lighted laborator­
ies, offices, or classrooms. Chem­
ists work with chemicals that can
be dangerous if handled careless­
ly. However, when safety regula­
tions are followed, health hazards
are negligible.

Sources of Additional Inform ation
General information on career
opportunities and earnings for
chemists may be obtained from:
American Chemical Society, 1155
16th St. NW., Washington, D.C.
Manufacturing Chemists’ Associa­
tion, Inc., 1825 Connecticut Ave.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20009.

Specific information on Federal
Government careers may be ob­
tained from:
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil
Service Examiners for Wash­
ington, D.C., 1900 E St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20415.

For additional sources of in­
formation, see statements on Bio­

chemists, Chemical Engineers,
and Industrial Chemical Indus­
try. Information on chemical
technicians may be found in the
statement on Technician Occu­

(D.O.T. 023.081 and .088)

N ature of the W ork
The flight of astronauts through
space, the probing of the oceans’
depths, or even the safety of the
family car depend in numerous
ways on research performed by
physicists. By determining basic
laws governing phenomena such
as gravity, electromagnetism,
heat flow, and radioactivity, po­
tential difficulties can be antici­
pated and overcome.
Physicists observe and analyze
the various forms of energy, the
structure of matter, and the re­
lationship between matter and
energy. From their research, phys­
icists develop theories and dis­
cover fundamental laws that de­
scribe the behavior of the forces
at work within the universe.
Their studies have continued to
broaden man’s understanding of
the physical world and have en­
abled him to make increasing use
of natural resources. Physicists
have contributed to scientific
progress in recent years in areas
such as nuclear energy, elec­
Nearly three-fifths of all phys­
icists are engaged in research and
development. Some conduct basic
research to increase scientific
knowledge with only secondary
regard to its practical applica­
tions. Some of these, called the­
oretical physicists, attempt to
describe the interactions between



Physicist studies creation of energy in fuel cell model.

matter and energy in mathemati­
cal terms. Others, called experi­
mental physicists, make careful
systematic observations and per­
form experiments to identify and
quantify these interactions. For
example, they try to identify and
measure the lifetime of tiny par­
ticles of matter which may exist
within the nucleus of the atom.
Experimental physicists use ap­
paratus such as particle accelera­
tors, X-ray spectrometers, microwave devices, lasers, and phase
and electron microscopes. When
their research requires new kinds
of instruments, they may design

them. The difference between
physicists is often merely one of
emphasis. Some members of the
profession are skilled in both
types of work.
A large number of physicists
who are engineering-oriented en­
gage in applied research and de­
velopment. They use the knowl­
edge gained from basic research
to solve practical problems or to
develop new or improved prod­
ucts. For example, the work of
physicists specializing in solidstate physics led to the develop­
ment of transistors and micro­

circuits, now used in place of vac­
uum tubes in many types of elec­
tronic equipment ranging from
hearing aids to guidance systems
for missiles.
About one-fifth of all phys­
icists teach in colleges and uni­
versities. Others are engaged in
management and adminstration,
especially of research and devel­
opment programs. A small num­
ber work in activities related to
the production of industrial prod­
ucts such as inspection and qual­
ity control. Some physicists do
consulting work.
Most physicists specialize in
one or more branches of the sci­
ence— mechanics, thermal phe­
nomena, high energy physics,
optics, acoustics, electromagnet­
ism, electronics, atomic and mo­
lecular physics, nuclear physics,
physics of fluids, solid-state phys­
ics, or classical theoretical phys­
ics. They may concentrate in a
subdivision of one of these
branches. For example, within
solid-state physics they may spe­
cialize in ceramics, crystallogra­
phy, or semiconductors, among
others. In addition, emerging
knowledge continually opens new
areas of research. For example,
the development of lasers and
masers had led to new experi­
mentation in optics and other
fields. However, since all physics
specialties rest on the same fun­
damental principles, the physi­
cist’s work often overlaps a num­
ber of specialties.
Physicists often apply the the­
ories and methodology of their
science to problems originating
in other sciences, including as­
tronomy, biology, chemistry, and
geology. Growing numbers of sci­
entists have specialized in fields
that combine physics and a re­
lated science. Thus, a number of
specialties have developed on the
borderline between physics and
other fields— astrophysics, bio­
physics, chemical physics, and



geophysics. (Information on these
occupations is continued else­
where in the Handbook.) Fur­
thermore, the practical applica­
tions of physicists’ work have in­
creasingly merged with engineer­

Places of Em ploym ent
Approximately 45,000 physi­
cists were employed in the United
States in 1968; only about 3 per­
cent were women. Private indus­
try employed about 18,000; more
than two-fifths of whom worked
in the electrical equipment, ord­
nance, and chemicals industries.
Commercial laboratories and in­
dependent research institutes
employed more than one-fourth
of the physicists in private
In 1968, colleges and univer­
sities employed almost 20,000 re­
search or teaching physicists,
many of whom combined both ac­
agencies employed approximately
6,000 physicists in 1968, nearly
three-fourths of whom worked for
the Department of Defense. The
National Bureau of Standards
and the National Aeronautics and
Space Aministration also em­
ployed significant numbers of phy­
sicists. Nonprofit organizations
employed more than 1,000 phys­
Physicists were employed in
all States. However, their em­
ployment was greatest in those
areas having industrial concen­
trations and large colleges and
universities. Nearly one-fourth of
all physicists were employed in
four metropolitan areas— Wash­
ington, D.C., Boston, New York,
and Los Angeles-Long Beach.
More than one-third of the total
were employed in three States—

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and Advancem ent
A bachelor’s degree with a ma­
jor in physics is generally the
minimum entrance requirement
for young people seeking careers
as physicists. Graduate training
is required for many entry posi­
tions and is helpful for advance­
ment in all areas of work.
A doctor’s degree usually is re­
quired for full faculty status at
colleges and universities. It usu­
ally is needed for employment in
positions involving responsibility
for research and development
with any type of employer.
Physicists having master’s de­
grees qualify for many research
jobs in private industry, educa­
tional institutions, and govern­
ment. Some also instruct in col­
leges and universities. Usually,
graduate students working to­
ward a doctor’s degree are assign­
ed to teach elementary college
courses, conduct laboratory ses­
sions, or assist senior faculty
members on research projects.
Physicists having bachelor’s
degrees qualify for a variety of
jobs in applied research and de­
velopment work in private in­
dustry or the Federal Govern­
ment. Some become research as­
sistants in colleges and univer­
sities while working toward ad­
vanced degrees. Many persons
having a bachelor’s degree in the
science do not work as physicists
but enter nontechnical work,
other sciences, or engineering.
About 800 colleges and univer­
sities offer training leading to the
bachelor’s degree in physics.
In addition, many engineering
schools offered a physics major
as part of the general curriculum.
The undergraduate program in
physics provides a broad back­
ground in the science, which
serves as a base for later spe­
cialization either in graduate
school or on the job. A few of the

physics courses typically offered
in an undergraduate program are
mechanics, electricity and mag­
netism, optics, thermodynamics,
and atomic and molecular phys­
ics. In addition, courses in chem­
istry and mathematics are re­
Approximately 300 colleges
and universities offer advanced
degrees in physics. In graduate
school, the student, with faculty
guidance, usually works in a spe­
cific field The graduate student,
especially the candidate for the
Ph.D. degree, spends a large por­
tion of his time in research.
Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment opportunities for
physicists are expected to be fa­
vorable through the 1970’s. In
addition to opportunities result­
ing from the very rapid growth
expected in this field, approxi­
mately 2,200 physicists will be
needed each year to replace those
who transfer to other fields of
work, retire, or die.
Graduate training is increas­
ingly the hallmark of full profes­
sional status in physics. As in
recent years, a strong demand is
expected for physicists who have
advanced degrees to teach in col­
leges and universities. Among the
factors contributing to the de­
mand for physics teachers are the
rapid increase in graduate en­
rollments and the growing need
for physics training in other sci­
ence and engineering programs.
Physicists also will be required
in substantial numbers to per­
form complex and demanding re­
search and development work re­
lated to physics, engineering, or
other natural sciences. Expendi­
tures for research and develop­
ment, which have increased rap­
idly in recent years, probably will
continue to rise, although some­
what more slowly than in the


New graduates also will find
opportunities in other occupa­
tions that utilize their training.
For example, they may become
high school teachers, provided
they complete the required pro­
fessional educational courses and
obtain a State teaching certifi­
cate. However, they are usually
regarded as teachers rather than
as physicists. (See statement on
Secondary School Teachers else­
where in the Handbook.)

sulting work and special research
The average (median) annual
salary for physicists was $14,000
in 1968, according to the Na­
tional Science Foundation’s Reg­
ister of Scientific and Technical
Personnel. Only 10 percent earned
less than $9,000 a year, and
about 10 percent earned $22,500
or more.

Sources of Additional Inform ation
Earnings and W orking Conditions
Starting salaries for physicists
having bachelor’s degrees were
usually about $9,000 a year in
private industry in 1968, accord­
ing to the limited information
available. Physicists having mas­
ter’s degrees received starting sal­
aries about $1,500 higher than
those having bachelor’s degrees.
Depending on specialty and ex­
perience, graduates having Ph. D.
degrees generally received en­
trance salaries of around $15,000
annually, although some were
paid considerably less.
In the Federal Government in
late 1968, physicists having the
bachelor’s degree and no experi­
ence could start at either $7,456
or $9,078 a year, depending on
their college records. Beginning
physicists who had completed all
the requirments for the master’s
degree could start at $9,078 or
$10,154. Physicists having the
Ph. D. degree could begin at
$11,563 or $12,580.
Starting salaries for physicists
having the Ph. D. degree on col­
lege and university faculties
ranged from $7,500 to $10,000
for the 1967-68 academic year.
(For further information, see
statement on College and Uni­
versity Teachers.) Many faculty
physicists supplement their regu­
lar incomes and satisfy their pro­
fessional interests through con­

satellites; and make statistical
studies of stars and galaxies. As­
tronomers also study the size and
shape of the earth and the prop­
erties of its upper atmosphere.
Astronomical observations are
valuable to navigation and the
accurate measurement of time.
In making detailed observa­
tions of the heavens, astronomers
use complex photographic tech­
niques, light-measuring instru­
ments, and other optical devices.
The telescope is the major instru­

General information on career
opportunities in physics may be
obtained from:
American Institute of Physics,
335 East 45th St., New York,
N.Y. 10017.

Information on Federal Gov­
ernment careers may be obtained
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil
Service Examiners for Wash­
ington, D.C., 1900 E St. N W ,
Washington, D.C. 20415.

(D.O.T. 021.088)

N ature of the W ork
Astronomy often is considered
the most theoretical of all sci­
ences, although it has many prac­
tical applications. Astronomers
study all the celestial bodies in
the universe. They collect and
analyze data on the sun, moon,
planets, and stars and attempt to
determine the sizes, shapes, sur­
face temperatures, chemical com­
position, and motions of these
bodies and make studies of the
gases and dust between them.
They compute the positions of
the plants; calculate the orbits of
comets, asteroids, and artificial

ment used for observation. De­
vices for making specialized ob­
servations are usually attached
to the telescope. Although most
observations are made by means
of telescopes permanently mount­
ed in observatories, astronomers
are gathering information in­
creasingly by means of rockets,
balloons, and earth satellites car­
rying various measuring devices.
In processing and analyzing the
vast amounts of data derived
from from their observations, as­
tronomers often use electronic
Astronomers usually specialize


in one of the many branches of
the science. In astrophysics, they
apply physical laws to stellar at­
mospheres and interiors. Some
astronomers work in the field of
celestial mechanics, one of the
oldest fields of astronomy that
has recently acquired new impor­
tance because it deals, in part,
with the motions of objects in the
solar system, and hence has a
particular application in the cal­
culation of the orbits of space­
craft and artificial earth satellites
and the paths of ballistic missiles.
Radio astronomy is the study of
the source and nature of celestial
radio waves by means of radio
telescopes of extraordinary sen­
sitivity. Among the other special­
ties are astrometry (measurement
of angular positions and move­
ments of celestial bodies); photo­
electric and photographic pho­
tometry (measurement of the in­
tensity of light); spectroscopy of
length analyses of radiation from
celestial bodies); and statistical
astronomy (statistical study of
large numbers of celestial objects,
such as stars, to determine their
average properties).
More than three-fifths of all
astronomers are engaged in re­
search activities. Another fifth
are primarily teachers in colleges
and universities. In some schools
not having separate departments
of astronomy or having only
small enrollments in the subject,
astronomers may teach courses in
mathematics or physics as well
as astronomy. Other members of
the profession are engaged in a
variety of activities, including ad­
ministration of research pro­
grams, development and design
of astronomical instruments, and
consultation in areas to which
astronomy is applied.
Places of E m ploym ent
Astronomy is one of the small­

est of the physical sciences; in
1968, the total number of astrono­
mers in the United States was es­
timated to be about 1,400. More
than two-fifths of all astronomers
were employed by colleges and uni­
versities. Many of these worked in
university-operated observatories,
where they usually devoted most
of their time to research, working
alone or together with other as­
tronomers. Other astronomers
worked for observatories financed
by nonprofit organizations.
The Federal Government em­
ployed about 500 astronomers in
1968. Four-fifths of these worked
for the National Aeronautics
and Space Administration. The
U.S. Naval Observatory and the
U.S. Naval Research Laboratory
also employed astronomers.
A growing number of astrono­
mers were employed in private in­
dustry, mostly by firms in the
aerospace field. A few astrono­
mers worked for museums and

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and Advancem ent
Young people seeking profes­
sional careers in astronomy
should obtain an advanced de­
gree— preferably the Ph. D. The
doctorate usually is required for
high-level positions in teaching
and research and is important for
other types of work in this field.
Although the bachelor’s degree
is adequate preparation for some
entry jobs, astronomers without
graduate work usually find that
opportunities for promotion are
leading to the bachelor’s degree
in astronomy are offered by only
about 35 colleges and universities.
The undergraduate work of the
prospective astronomer is weight­
ed heavily with courses in physics
and mathematics. Courses in

chemistry, statistics, and elec­
tronics also are useful. A few of
the courses often taken by
astronomy undergradautes are
optics, spectroscopy, atomic phys­
ics, calculus, differential equa­
tions, solar and stellar systems,
introductory astrophysics, and
The prospective astronomer is
not necessarily handicapped if
the college he has selected for his
undergraduate study does not of­
fer a major in astronomy. Wellqualified students having a bach­
elor’s degree in physics or math­
ematics with a physics minor
usually are able to enter and pur­
sue graduate programs in astron­
omy without difficulty.
Programs leading to the doc­
torate in astronomy are available
at about 30 institutions located
in various sections of the coun­
try. The academic work of the
graduate student consists pri­
marily of advanced courses in
astronomy, physics, and math­
ematics. A few of the astronomy
courses typically offered in grad­
uate schools are celestial me­
chanics, galactic structure, radio
astronomy, stellar atmospheres
and interiors, theoretical astro­
physics, and binary and variable
stars. Some schools require that
graduate students spend several
months in residence at an ob­
servatory. In most institutions,
the program of work leading to
the doctorate is flexible and al­
lows the student to take the
courses which will be of most
value to him in his astronomical
specialty or particular area of
New graduates having a bach­
elor’s or master’s degree in as­
tronomy usually begin as assist­
ants in observatories, planetar­
iums, large departments of as­
tronomy in colleges and univer­
sities, Government agencies, or



industry. Some persons, having
only the bachelor’s degree, work
as research assistants while study­
ing toward advanced degrees;
others, particularly those in Gov­
ernment employment, receive onthe-job training in the applica­
tion of astronomical principles.
New graduates having the doc­
torate can usually qualify for col­
lege teaching positions and for
research positions in educational
institutions, Government, and

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment opportunities for
astronomers having the Ph. D. de­
gree are expected to be good
through the 1970’s. Well-quali­
fied persons with only bachelor’s
or master’s degrees in astronomy
will have favorable employment
prospects, primarily as research
and technical assistants. As in
the past, however, the higher
level professional positions in as­
tronomy will be filled mainly by
persons having the doctorate.
The outlook is for a rapid
growth of this small profession
through the 1970’s. However, be­
cause astronomy is a small pro­
fession, the number of job open­
ings in any one year will not be
large. On the other hand, be­
cause relatively few college stu­
dents are expected to receive ad­
vanced degrees in astronomy each
year, those who do should have
good employment opportunities.
Among the factors underlying
the expected increase in demand
for astronomers is the progress of
the space age— the age of rockets,

missiles, manmade earth satel­
lites, and space exploration. As­
tronomers will be needed to ana­
lyze the data collected by rockets
and spacecraft. They also will be
needed to plan and give direction
to the astronomical observations
that can only be carried out by
means of equipment placed in
space vehicles.
Increased research activities in
astronomy by educational insti­
tutions, Government, and indus­
try are expected to add to the
demand for astronomers. In re­
cent years, the growth of Federal
Government-sponsored research,
in the form of grants to educa­
tional institutions and observa­
tories (for astronomical research
and for new buildings, observa­
tories, and equipment), has
opened many new positions for

Earnings and W orking Conditions
In late 1968, beginning astron­
omers having the Ph. D. were
eligible to enter Federal Govern­
ment service at a salary of
$11,563 or $12,580 a year, de­
pending on their college record.
Astronomers having the bach­
elor’s degree could start at $7,456
or $9,078 a year; those having a
bachelor’s degree and some grad­
uate study could begin at $9,078
or $10,154.
Average starting salaries for
the 1967-68 academic year for
instructors of astronomy in col­
leges and universities ranged
from about $7,500 to $10,000,
according to the limited data
available. As the astronomer ad­

vances to higher level teaching
positions, his earnings increase
significantly. Some full professors
earn over $20,000 a year. As­
tronomers in educational institu­
tions often earn extra income by
writing books and articles, lectur­
ing, or consulting.
Some astronomers are occupied
much of the time in nightwork,
making visual photographic or
photoelectric observations. Oth­
ers make observations only 4 or
5 nights each month, or even only
a few nights a year, and devote
the remainder of the time to
studying and analyzing photo­
graphic plates, photoelectric trac­
ings, and other material during
usual daytime working hours.
Observational work at a telescope
involves exposure to the outside
air through the open dome of the
observatory, sometimes on cold
winter nights. In general, how­
ever, the physical requirements
of astronomical work can be met
by a reasonably healthy person.

Sources of Additional Inform ation
General information on careers
in astronomy may be obtained
American Astronomical Society,
211 FitzRandolph Rd., Prince­
ton, N.J. 08540.

Specific information on Fed­
eral Government career opportu­
nities may be obtained from:
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil
Service Examiners for Wash­
ington, D.C., 1900 E St. NW„
Washington, D.C. 20415.


(D.O.T. 150.028 and .048)

The performing arts include
music, acting, singing, and the
dance. In these fields, the num­
ber of first-rate artists seeking
employment generally is much
larger than the number of full­
time positions available. As a
result, many performers supple­
ment their incomes by teaching,
and others work much of the
time in different types of occu­
The difficulty of earning a
living as a performer is one of the
facts young people should bear
in mind in considering an artistic
career. They should consider,
therefore, the possible advan­

tages of making their art a hobby
rather than a profession. Aspir­
ing young artists usually must
spend many years in intensive
training and practice before they
are ready for public performances.
They need not only great natural
talent but also determination, a
willingness to work long and hard,
and an overwhelming interest in
their chosen field.
The statements which follow
this introduction give detailed in­
formation on the musician, sing­
er, actor, and dancer as perform­
ing artists and in related work.

N ature of the W ork
Making a character come to
life before an audience is a job
that has great glamour and fas­
cination. It is also hard and de­
manding work that requires spe­
cial talent and involves many
difficulties and uncertainties.
Only a few of the approximate­
ly 14,000 actors and actresses in
the United States in 1968 have
achieved recognition as stars— on
the stage, in motion pictures, or
on television or radio. A some­
what larger number are wellknown, experienced performers,
who frequently are cast in sup­
porting roles. However, most are
struggling for a toehold in the
profession, and are glad to pick
up small parts wherever they can.
New actors generally start in
“ bit” parts, where they speak
only a few lines. If successful,
they may progress to larger, sup­
porting roles, of which there are
several in most stage, television,
and screen productions. Actors
who have minor parts in stage
productions also may serve as un­
derstudies for the principals. If
a leading player misses a per­
formance, the understudy has a
chance to demonstrate his acting
Actors who prepare for roles
either on the stage, in television,
or in the movies spend many
hours in rehearsal. They also
must memorize their lines and
know their cues. Radio actors
typically read their parts. They
have to be especially skilled in
expressing character and emotion
through the voice, since this is
their sole means of creating an
impersonation for their audience.
In addition to the actors with
speaking parts, “ extras,” who


have no lines to deliver, are used
in almost every motion picture
and many television shows. In
spectacular productions, a large
number of extras take part in
crowd scenes.
Some actors find jobs as dra­
matic coaches or become directors
of stage, television, radio, or mo­
tion picture productions. A few
teach in schools of acting or in
the drama departments of col­
leges and universities.

Places of Em ploym ent
Stage plays, motion pictures
(including films made especially
for television), and commercials
are the largest fields of employ­
ment for actors, although some
are employed by “ live” television
and radio.
In the winter, most employ­
ment opportunities on the stage
are in New York and other large
cities. In the summer months,
stock companies in suburban and
resort areas throughout the Na­
tion provide many opportunities
for employment. In addition,
many cities now have “ little”
theaters, which provide oppor­
tunities for local talent as well as
for professional actors and ac­
tresses from New York and other
centers. Plays that go “ on the
road,” moving from city to city,
are normally produced in New
York with casts selected there.
Although employment oppor­
tunities in motion pictures and
film television are centered in
Hollywood, a few studios are in
Long Island, N.Y., Miami, Fla.,
and other parts of the country.
In addition, many films are shot
on location, providing employ­
ment for “ extras” who live in the
area. In live television and radio,
most opportunities for actors are
at the headquarters of the main
networks— in New York, Los
Angeles, and, to a lesser extent,

Chicago. A few local television
and radio stations occasionally
employ actors.

T rain in g and O th er Q ualifications
Young people aspiring to act­
ing careers should get as much
acting experience as possible by
taking part in high school and
college plays, or working with
little theaters and other acting
groups in their home towns.
Formal training in acting is
training can be obtained at spe­
cial schools of the dramatic arts,
located chiefly in New York, and
in over 500 colleges and univer­
sities. Because college drama curriculums usually include courses
in liberal arts, speech, pantomine,
play production, and the history
of the drama, as well as practical
courses in acting, the student
develops an appreciation of the
great plays and a greater under­
standing of the roles he may be
called on to play. Graduate de­
grees in the fine arts or in drama
are necessary for college teaching
Outstanding talent for acting
and great interest and determina­
tion are essential for success in
the theater. Ability to memorize,
a good speaking voice, good
health, and the physical stamina
to work long hours are necessary.
Ability to sing and dance is also
an asset for those who seek an
acting career.
In all media, whether the stage,
motion pictures, radio, or tele­
vision, the best way to start is to
use local opportunities and to
build on the basis of such ex­
perience. Many actors who are
successful in local dramatic pro­
ductions eventually try to appear
on the New York stage. Inex­
perienced actors usually find it
extremely difficult to obtain em­
ployment in New York or Holly­

wood. The motion picture field
is especially difficult to enter,
and employment often results
from previous experience on
T o become a movie extra, one
must usually be listed by Central
Casting, a no-fee agency which
works with the Screen Extras
Guild and supplies all extras to
the major movie studios in Holly­
wood. Applicants are accepted
only when the number of people
of a particular type on the list—
for example, athletic young men,
old ladies, or small children— is
below the foreseeable need. In
recent years, only a very small
proportion of the total number
of applicants have succeeded in
being listed. Extras have very
little, if any, opportunity to ad­
vance to speaking roles in the
The length of an actor’s work­
ing life depends largely on his
skill and versatility. Great actors
and actresses can work almost
indefinitely. On the other hand,
employment opportunities be­
come increasingly limited by mid­
dle age, especially for those who
become typed in romantic, youth­
ful roles.

Em ploym ent O utlook
The overcrowding that has ex­
isted in the acting field for many
years is expected to persist. In
the legitimate theater and also in
motion pictures, radio, and tele­
vision, job applicants outnumber
by many times the jobs available.
Moreover, many actors are em­
ployed in their profession for only
a small part of the year.
The development of motion
pictures, radio, and TV has
greatly reduced employment op­
portunities for actors in the the­
ater. Although a motion picture
production may use a very large
number of actors, they are em-


ployed only during filming and
the films are widely distributed
and may be used for years. Radio
uses few actors. The number of
filmed TV dramas and commer­
cials using actors is increasing,
but not enough to offset the de­
cline in other media. Moreover,
television stations often broad­
cast “ taped” dramas rather than
live productions, and, like motion
picture films, these tapes may be
widely distributed and used many
One possibility for future
growth in the legitimate theater
lies in the establishment of yearround professional acting com­
panies in more cities. The num­
ber of communities with such
acting groups is growing. The re­
cent growth of summer stock
companies and dinner theaters
also has increased employment.
Further increases are likely also
in the employment of actors on
television. In the acting field as
a whole, however, employment
opportunities are expected to
change little through the 1970’s.
The number of new entrants to
the profession is expected to out­
number employment opportuni­
ties. Even highly talented young
people are likely to face stiff
competition and economic diffi­
culties in the profession.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Actors and actresses em­
ployed in the legitimate theater
belong to the Actors’ Equity As­
sociation. If employed in motion
films, they belong to the Screen
Actors Guild, Inc., or to the
Screen Extras Guild, Inc. If em­
ployed in television or radio, they
belong to the American Federa­
tion of Television and Radio Ar­
tists. These unions and the show
producers sign basic collective
bargaining agreements which set

minimum salaries, hours of work,
and other conditions of employ­
ment. In addition, each actor en­
ters into a separate contract
which may provide for higher
salaries than those specified in
the basic agreement.
The minimum weekly salary
for actors in Broadway Produc­
tions was $150.65 in mid-1969.
Those apearing in small “ offBroadway” theaters had consid­
erably lower earnings. For shows
on the road, the minimum rate
was $202.60 a week. Earnings for
rehearsal time were $150.65 a
week in Broadway shows and
much lower in small “ off-Broadway” theaters. All minimum sal­
aries are adjusted upward accord­
ing to increases in the cost of
living as reflected in the Bureau
of Labor Statistics Consumer
Price Index.
Motion picture actors and ac­
tresses had a minimum daily rate
of $112 in mid-1969. For extras,
the minimum rate was about $29
a day. Actors on network tele­
vision received a minimum pro­
gram fee of $165 for a single halfhour program and 10 hours of
rehearsal time; actors on radio
received $49.60 for a half-hour
performance, including 1 rehears­
al hour. To encourage more stable
employment on radio and TV,
minimum guarantees for those
actors with contracts for a series
of programs are sometimes dis­
counted below the single pro­
gram guaranteed fee. Because of
the frequent periods of unem­
ployment characteristic of this
profession, annual earnings may
be low for many of the lesser
known performers. In all fields,
many well-known actors and ac­
tresses have salary rates above
the minimums. Salaries of the
few top stars are many times the
figures cited.
Eight performances amount to
a week’s work on the legitimate
stage, and any additional per­

formances are paid for as over­
time. The basic work-week after
the opening of a show is 36
hours, including limited time for
rehearsals. Before the opening,
however, the workweek usually is
longer to allow enough time for
rehearsals. Evening work is, of
course, a regular part of a stage
actor’s life. Rehearsals may be
held late at night and on week­
ends and holidays. Traveling over
the weekend often is necessary
when plays are on the road.
Most actors are covered by a
pension fund and a growing num­
ber have hospitalization insur­
ance to which their employers
contribute. All Equity members
have paid vacations and sick
leave. Most stage actors get little
if any unemployment compensa­
tion, since they seldom have
enough employment in any State
to meet the eligibility require­
ments. Consequently, when a
show closes, they often have to
take any casual work obtainable
while waiting for another role.

(D.O.T. 151.028 and .048)

N ature of the W ork
Dancing is an ancient and
worldwide art, having many dif­
ferent forms. Professional dancers
may perform in classical ballet
or modem dance, in dance adapt­
ations for musical shows, in folk
dances, or in tap and other popu­
lar kinds of dancing. In the
classical ballet, movements are
based on certain conventional or
styled “ positions,” and women
dance “ en pointe” (on the tips
of their toes). In the modem
dance, movements are much more
varied but are nonetheless care-


fully planned and executed to
follow a pattern.
In dance productions, the per­
formers most often work together
as a chorus. However, a group of
selected dancers may do special
numbers, and a very few top ar­
tists do solo work.
Many dancers combine teach­
ing with their stage work or teach
full time in schools of the dance
or in colleges and universities.
The few dancers who become
choreographers create new ballets
or dance routines. Others are
dance directors who train dancers
in new productions.
This statement does not in­

clude instructors of ballroom and
other social dancing.

Places of Em ploym ent
In 1968, there were approxi­
mately 23,000 dancers and danc­
ing teachers in the United States.
More than half of this number
were teachers employed at schools
of the dance and in schools
and colleges. Most of the other
dancers were performers on the
stage, screen, and television. A
few teachers trained in dance
therapy were employed by hos­
pitals to work in the treatment of

mental disorders. About 80 per­
cent of all dancers are women,
but in some types of dance, par­
ticularly ballet and modern,
women constitute about one-half
of the performers.
Dancing teachers are located
chiefly in large cities, but many
smaller cities and towns have
schools of the dance. New York
City is the hub for the majority
of performing dancers; others are
situated in Los Angeles, San
Francisco, and Chicago.

T rain in g and O ther Q ualifications
Serious training for a dancing
career traditionally begins by age
12 or earlier. Girls wishing to
become ballet dancers should
begin taking lessons at the age
of 7 or 8. From 2 to 3 years of
prior preparation is needed before
the young girl should start danc­
ing “ en pointe.” Professional
training typically takes from 10
to 12 lessons a week for 11 or 12
months in the year and many
additional hours of practice. The
length of the training period
depends on the student’s ability
and physical development, but
most dancers have their profes­
sional audition by age 17 or 18.
The selection of a professional
dancing school is important for
two reasons. First, the school
must use expert judgment in
setting the pace of training, since
too early and too severe exercise
can permanently damage the legs
and feet. Second, the school’s
connections with producers may
help the students in obtaining
Because of the strenuous train­
ing program in the professional
schools, the general education
received by students in these
schools may not exceed the legal
minimum. However, a dancer’s
education should include subjects
such as music, literature, and



history to aid him in his interpre­
tation of dramatic episodes and
music. About 200 colleges and
universities confer bachelor’s de­
grees on students who have
either majored in physical edu­
cation and concentrated on the
dance, majored in a dance pro­
gram designed to prepare stu­
dents to teach dance, or majored
in a dance program designed to
prepare students as professional
dance artists. Some of these
schools also give graduate degrees.
A college education is an ad­
vantage in obtaining employment
as a teacher of professional danc­
ing or choreography. However,
dancers who postpone their first
audition for openings in classical
ballet until graduation may com­
pete at a disadvantage with
younger dancers.
A teaching position in profes­
sional schools usually requires
experience as a performer; in
colleges and conservatories, grad­
uate degrees are generally re­
quired, but experience as a per­
former often may be substituted.
Maturity and a broad educational
background are also important for
teaching positions.
Excellent health and unusual
physical vitality are necessary for
a dancing career. Height and
body build should not vary much
from the average. Good feet and
normal arches are required. These
physical qualifications must be
accompanied by a natural apti­
tude for dancing.
For women dancers, employ­
ment in ballet companies is very
difficult to obtain after the age
of 30, except for outstanding
stars. Women past 25 are rarely
hired for Broadway shows unless
they have already had experience
in such productions. Men who
are ballet dancers, and men and
women who perform in modem
dance productions, usually can
continue somewhat longer. After
the employable age as performers

has passed, some dancers teach
in colleges or conservatories, or
establish their own schools. The
few who become choreographers
or dance directors can continue
working as long as people in most
other occupations.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Opportunities in this field will
be limited both by the small
number of full-time jobs avail­
able and the relatively large
supply of applicants seeking full­
time work. The supply of trained
dancers has exceeded the demand
for many years. The irregular
employment experienced in this
profession for many years may
persist despite a few recent unionmanagement contracts aimed at
guaranteeing some dancers full or
near-full employment each year.
Among the factors affecting de­
mand are the decline in the total
number of stage productions be­
cause of competition from motion
pictures and television. Few stage
shows run more than 26 weeks
and many “ fold” after the first
week. On the other hand, the
number of shows being produced
is increasing, and there is a grow­
ing trend toward using profession­
al dancers at industrial exhibi­
tions, such as auto shows. Also,
some new professional dance com­
panies are being developed around
the country, and television will
offer some additional employment
opportunities. Civic and commu­
nity dance groups are increasing
in number, and opportunities for
dancers will expand as these de­
velop into professional groups.
Nevertheless, employment oppor­
tunities for dance performers will
remain limited, and most of the
openings for dancers in the years
ahead will stem from the need to
replace those who leave the field.
The employment outlook for
dancers who have the personal

and educational qualifications for
teaching will be much better than
for those trained only as per­
formers. The growing interest in
the dance as one of the fine arts
is contributing to the demand for
teachers of dancing. The increase
in college enrollments will be
another factor which will tend to
enlarge teaching opportunities.
(See statement on College and
University Teachers.)
Men dancers face less compe­
tition for employment than do
women dancers, since fewer men
than women seek dancing as a

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Dancers who perform profes­
sionally are members of one of
the unions affiliated with the
Associated Actors and Artistes of
America (AFL-CIO ). Dancers
who perform in opera ballets,
classical ballet, and the modem
dance belong to the American
Guild of Musical Artists, Inc.;
those who perform on television
belong to the American Federa­
tion of Television and Radio
Artists; and those who appear in
musical comedies join Actors’
Equity Association. Dancers may
also be members of other unions,
depending upon the field in which
they perform. (See statement on
Singers and Singing Teachers.)
Minimum salary rates, hours of
work, and other conditions of
employment are specified in basic
agreements signed by the unions
and the producers. The separate
contract signed by each dancer
with the producer of the show
may be more favorable than the
basic agreement regarding salary,
hours of work, and working
The minimum salary for dancers
in ballet and other stage produc­
tions was $140 a week, as of 1968.
The minimum rate for rehearsal


time was $135 a week, except in
small ballet companies which
provide $110 for a rehearsal week.
Salaries are increased when a
show goes on tour since dancers
pay their own hotel bills. The
employer pays the cost of firstclass transportation. If a dancer
signs a contract for a brief ap­
pearance in a performance on
television or a few days’ work in
a movie, the minimum rate is
higher, relative to time worked.
However, this difference is offset
by the brevity of the engagement
and the long period likely to be
spent waiting for the next one.
A few performers, of course, have
much higher salaries. For stars,
principals, and choreographers,
salaries in stage productions
ranged from $215 to over $750 a
week in 1968.
Some dancers qualified to
teach in schools of the ballet are
able to combine this work with
engagements as performers. A
much greater number of dancers
have to supplement their incomes
by other types of work.
Salaries of teachers in the
technical schools of the ballet
vary with the location and pres­
tige of the school. Dancers em­
ployed as teachers in colleges and
universities are paid on the same
basis as other faculty members.
(See statement on College and
University Teachers.)
The normal workweek is 30
hours spent in rehearsals and
matinee and evening perform­
ances. Extra compensation is paid
for hours worked outside the nor­
mal workweek. Most stage per­
formances are, of course, in the
evening, and rehearsals may re­
quire very long hours, often on
weekends and holidays. When
shows are on the road, travel­
ing over the weekend is often
Dancers are entitled to some
paid sick leave and various health
and welfare benefits provided by

their unions, to which the em­
ployers contribute.

Sources of Additional Inform ation

rants, and at special parties. The
best known bands, jazz groups,
and solo performers sometimes
give concerts and perform on

Information on colleges and
universities and conservatories of
music which give a major in the
dance or some courses in the
dance, and details on the types of
courses and other pertinent infor­
mation may be obtained from the
Dance Directory, compiled by the
American Association for Health,
Physical Education and Recrea­
tion, a division of the National
Educational Association, 1201
16th St. NW., Washington, D.C.
Information on wages and
working conditions may be ob­
tained from:
American Guild of Musical Ar­
tists, 1841 Broadway, New
York, N.Y. 10023.

(D.O.T. 152.048 and .028; 090.168;
091.168; and 092.228)

N ature of the W ork
P r o f e s s i o n a l musicians—
whether they play in a symphony
orchestra, dance band, or “ jazz
combo” — have behind them many
years of study and intensive prac­
tice. As a rule, musicians special­
ize in either popular or classical
music; only a few play both types
Musicians who specialize in
popular music usually play the
trumpet, trombone, clarinet, sax­
ophone," or one of the “ rhythm”
instruments— the piano, string
bass, drums, or guitar. Dance
bands play in nightclubs, restau­

Professional musician gives public
school students some musical pointers.

Musicians specializing in classi­
cal music play in opera and the­
ater orchestras, symphony or­
chestras, and for other kinds of
performances requiring orchestral
ments played by most of these
musicians are the strings, brass,
and wood winds. Some form small
groups— usually a string quartet
or a trio— to give concerts of
chamber music.
Many pianists accompany vo­
cal or instrumental soloists or
choral groups or provide back­
ground music in restaurants or
other places. Most organists play
in churches, often directing the
choir. A very few exceptionally
brilliant and well-known musi­
cians become concert artists. They
give their own concerts and ap­
pear as soloists with symphony
orchestras. Both classical and
popular musicians often make
recordings, either individually or
as members of a group.
A very high proportion of all



musicians teach in the Nation’s
schools and colleges and are
seldom, if ever, paid for perform­
ing. These teachers may be mem­
bers of the faculty of music
schools or conservatories or of
colleges which offer instruction
in instrumental and vocal music.
Some are music teachers in ele­
mentary or secondary schools
where they direct vocal and in­
strumental music programs, teach
general classroom music apprecia­
tion, and give group instruction
on an instrument. Private lessons
are given by many teachers em­
ployed by school systems, and
by performing musicians, either
in their own studios or in pupils’
A few musicians work in the
field of music therapy in hospi­
tals, and in music libraries.

Places of Em ploym ent
An estimated 166,000 musicians
were employed in 1968. Most pro­
fessional musicians who perform
work in large cities, principally
in New York, Chicago, and Los
Angeles, where the Nation’s en­
tertainment activities are con­
centrated. Music teachers in
e l e me nt ar y and s e c o n d a r y
schools, as well as in colleges and
universities, are employed all
over the country. Moreover, al­
most every town and city has at
least one private music teacher.
Dance bands and civic orchestras
also are located in many com­
munities, although in the smaller
towns, their members usually are
part-time musicians with other
regular jobs.
In addition to the people pri­
marily employed as musicians or
music teachers, thousands of
qualified instrumentalists have
other full-time jobs and only
occasionally work as musicians.
Most of these part-time musicians
belong to dance bands, which are

hired to play at private parties
or for special occasions. Others,
with a background in classical
music, play occasionally in an
orchestra, become conductors or
composers, or do some part-time

Train in g and O ther Q ualifications
Most people who become pro­
fessional musicians begin study­
ing an instrument at an early
age. To achieve a career as a
performer or as a music teacher,
young people need intensive
training— either through private
study with an accomplished mu­
sician, in a college or university
which has a strong music pro­
gram, or in a conservatory of
music. They need to acquire not
only great technical skill but also
a thorough knowledge of music,
and they must learn how to in­
terpret music. Before a young
person can qualify for advanced
study in a music conservatory
or in a college or university school
of music, an audition frequently
is necessary. Many teachers in
these schools are accomplished
artists who will train only prom­
ising young musicians.
Over 550 conservatories of
music and college and university
schools of music offer 4-year pro­
grams leading to a bachelor’s
degree in music education. Stu­
dents who complete these pro­
grams can qualify for the State
certificate required for elemen­
tary and secondary school posi­
tions. Conservatories and col­
legiate music schools also fre­
quently award the degree of
bachelor of music to students who
major in instrumental or vocal
music. The 4-year program lead­
ing to either of these degrees
provides not only training as a
performer but also a broad back­
ground in musical history and
theory, together with some lib­

eral arts courses. Advanced de­
grees usually are required for
college teaching positions, but
exceptions may be made for
especially well-qualified artists.
Musicians who play jazz and
other popular music must have an
understanding of and feeling for
that style of music, but skill and
training in classical styles may
expand their employment op­
portunities. As a rule, they take
lessons with private teachers
when young, and seize every op­
portunity to play in amateur or
professional performances. Some
groups of young people form
their own small dance bands. As
they gain experience and become
known, the players may have
opportunities to audition for
other local bands, and, still later,
for the better known bands and

Em ploym ent O utlook
As a field of employment,
music performance has been over­
crowded for many years, and it
is expected to remain so through
the 1970’s. Opportunities for
concerts and
recitals are not
numerous enough to provide ade­
quate employment for all the
pianists, violinists, and other in­
strumentalists qualified as concert
artists. Competition is usually
keen for positions which afford
some stability of employment—
for example, jobs with major or­
chestras and teaching positions
in conservatories and colleges and
universities. Because of the ease
with which a musician can enter
private music teaching, the num­
ber of music teachers has been
and will probably continue to be
more than sufficient to give in­
struction to all the young people
seeking lessons. Although many
opportunities for single and
short-term engagements playing
popular music in night clubs,


theaters, and other places can be
expected, the supply of qualified
musicians seeking such jobs is
likely to remain greater than the
demand. On the other hand, a
shortage of highly qualified
church organists may persist in
many communities during the
next few years; first-class, ex­
perienced accompanists and well
trained, outstanding players of
stringed instruments are likely
to remain relatively scarce; and
public school systems will prob­
ably continue to need more fully
qualified music teachers and
Employment opportunities for
performers are expected to in­
crease slightly over the long run.
Although the number of civic or­
chestras in smaller communities
has been growing steadily, many
of these orchestras provide only
part-time employment for musi­
cians who work chiefly as teach­
ers or in other occupations. More­
over, the openings created by the
establishment of these orchestras
have been more than offset by
the decline in opportunities in the
theater, radio, motion pictures,
and other places, which has re­
sulted, in part, from the greatly
increased use of recorded music.
The employment outlook in
music education for people who
are qualified as teachers as well
as musicians is considerably bet­
ter than for those qualified as
performers only. A great increase
in the numbers of young people
of high school and college age
will take place through the 1970’s.
Moreover, the number of schools
with music programs is growing
steadily, and interest in music
as an avocation is also rising, as
evidenced by the increasing sales
of musical instruments. Thus,
over the long run, an increase
can be expected in the employ­
ment of elementary and second­
ary school music teachers and
also in the teaching staffs of



university music
conservatories of

Earnings and W orking Conditions
The amount received for a per­
formance by either classical or
popular musicians depends to a
large extent on their professional
reputations. Musicians who were
members of 1 of the 28 major
symphony orchestras in the
United States had minimum sal­
aries ranging from about $4,000
to $13,000 a year in 1968, accord­
ing to the American Symphony
Orchestras League, Inc. Five
orchestras— New York, Boston,
Philadelphia, Cleveland, and Chi­
cago— have year-round seasons
and minimum salaries ranging
from $10,500 to $13,000. The
remaining 23 orchestras have sea­
sons ranging from 29 to 47 weeks.
Instrumentalists who were mem­
bers of small ensembles reported­
ly received as much as $200 a
concert. Those who played in
dance bands were paid from $60
to $300 a week in 1968, according
to the limited information avail­
The salaries of public school
music teachers are determined by
the salary schedule adopted for
all teachers. (See statements
on Elementary and Secondary
School Teachers.) However, they
earnings by giving private music
lessons and taking church posi­
tions. Earnings from private
lessons are uncertain and vary
according to the musician’s
reputation, the number of teach­
ers in the locality, the number
of students desiring lessons, and
the economic status of the
Musicians who are performers
customarily work at night and on
weekends. They must also spend
considerable time in regular daily

practice and in rehearsing new
Performers may have relatively
long periods of unemployment be­
tween jobs and, thus, the overall
level of their earnings generally
is lower than that of many other
occupations. Moreover, they do
not usually work steadily for one
employer. Consequently, some
performers cannot qualify for unployment compensation, and few
have either sick leave or vacations
with pay.
Most musicians who play pro­
fessionally belong to the Ameri­
can Federation of Musicians
(AFL-CIO ). Concert soloists also
belong to the American Guild of
Musical Artists, Inc. (AFL-CIO).

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Information about wages, hours
of work, and working conditions
for professional musicians is
available from:
American Federation of Musicians
(AFL-CIO), 641 Lexington Ave.,
New York, N.Y. 10022.

Information about the require­
ments for certification of organ­
ists and choir masters may be
secured from:
American Guild of Organists, 630
Fifth Ave., New York, N.Y.

A list of accredited schools of
music is available from:
National Association of Schools
of Music, 1424 16th St., NW„
Washington, D.C. 20036.

music teaching in elementary
and secondary schools is available
Music Educators National Con­
ference, The National Educa­
tion Association of the United
States, 1201 16th St. N W ,
Washington, D.C. 20036.



(D.O.T. 152.048 and .028; 090.168;
091.168; and 092.228)

N ature of the W ork
Professional singing is an art
that usually requires not only a
fine voice but also a highly de­
veloped technique and a broad
knowledge of music. A small
number of singing stars make
recordings or go on concert tours
in the United States and abroad.
Somewhat larger numbers of
singers obtain leading or support­
ing roles in operas and popular
music shows, or secure engage­
ments as soloists in oratorios
and other types of performances.
Most professional singers of clas­

sical music are soloists in church­
es or synagogues. Some singers
also become members of opera
and musical comedy choruses or
other professional choral groups.
Popular music singers perform in
musical shows of all kinds— in
the movies, on the stage, on radio
and television, and in nightclubs
and other entertainment places.
The best known popular music
singers make and sell many
Since most singers of both
classical and popular music have
only part-time or irregular em­
ployment as singers, they often
have full-time jobs of other types
and sing only in the evenings or
on weekends. Some give private
voice lessons. A number of singers
are employed in elementary and
secondary schools, where they are
qualified to teach general music
courses and lead choruses. Others
give voice training or direct chor­
al groups in churches, music con­
servatories, or in colleges and
universities with schools or de­
partments of music.

Places of Em ploym ent
In 1968, about 60,000 people
were employed as professional
singers or singing teachers. Op­
portunities for singing engage­
ments are mainly in New York
City, Los Angeles, and Chicago—
the Nation’s chief entertainment
centers. Nashville, Tenn., also is
a major place of employment for
singers in both “ live” perform­
ances and recordings, and for
those who specialize in folk and
country music. Persons trained
as singers who teach music in
elementary and secondary schools,
colleges, universities, and con­
servatories of music are employed
throughout the country. Many
singers are employed part-time
chiefly as church singers and
choir masters.

T rain in g and O ther Q ualifications
Young people who want to per­
form professionally as singers
should acquire a broad back­
ground in music, including its
theory and history. The ability
to dance is also helpful, since
singers are sometimes required to
dance. In addition, those inter­
ested in a singing career should
start piano lessons at an early
age. As a rule, voice training
should not begin until after the
individual has matured physic­
ally, although young boys who
sing in church choirs receive
some training before their voices
change. Moreover, because of the
work and expense involved in
voice training— which often con­
tinues for years after the singer’s
professional career has started—
it is important that a prospective
singer show great determination
and audition before a competent
voice teacher to decide whether
professional training is warranted.
Young people can prepare for
careers as singers of classical
music by enrolling in a music
conservatory, a school or depart­
ment of music connected with a
college or university, or by taking
private voice lessons. These
schools provide not only voice
training, but other training nec­
essary for understanding and
music-related training in foreign
languages and sometimes dramat­
ic training. After completing a 4year course of study, a graduate
may be awarded either the degree
of bachelor of music, bachelor of
science or arts (in music), or
bachelor of fine arts.
Young singers who plan to
teach music in public elementary
or secondary schools need at least
a bachelor’s degree with a major
in music education and must
meet the State certification re­
quirements for teachers. Such
training is available in over 550


colleges and universities through­
out the country. College teachers
usually are required to have a
master’s degree and sometimes a
doctor’s degree, but exceptions
may be made for especially wellqualified artists.
Although voice training is an
asset for singers of popular music,
many with untrained voices have
had successful careers. The typi­
cal popular song does not demand
that the voice be developed to
cover as wide a range on the
musical scale as does classical
music, and the lack of voice
projection may be overcome by
using a microphone.
Young singers of popular songs
may become known by partici­
pating in amateur and paid per­
formances in their communities.
These engagements may lead to
employment with local dance
bands and possibly later with
better known ones.
In addition to musical ability,
perseverance, an outstanding per­
sonality, an attractive appear­
ance, good contacts, and luck
often are required to achieve a
singing career. Furthermore, a
singing career is sometimes rela­
tively short, since it depends on
a good voice and public accept­
ance of the artist, both of which
may be affected by age.

Em ploym ent Outlook

The employment situation for
singers will probably remain
highly competitive through the
1970’s. Competition among popu­
lar singers will continue to be
especially keen. A great number
of short-term jobs are expected
in the entertainment field— the

opera and concert stage, movies,
theater, nightclubs, radio and
television, dance bands, and other
places— but not enough to pro­
vide steady employment for all
qualified singers. The demand for
church singers is expected to
expand because of the continued
growth in number of religious
congregations, but most of these
openings will probably be filled
either by part-time singers who
have steady employment in other
fields or by volunteers.
Little growth in overall em­
ployment opportunities for sing­
ers is likely over the long run.
The use of recorded music has
practically replaced the “ live”
singer on radio; also, the number
of television performances given
by singers is limited, although it
may increase in future years.
However, there is a growing de­
mand for singers to record popu­
lar music and commercials for
both radio and television adver­
tising. The outlook for singers
who can meet State certification
requirements for positions as
music teachers, or who can
qualify for college teaching, will
be considerably better than for
performers. The demand for
music teachers in the Nation’s
elementary and secondary schools
is expected to grow, and some
increased employment of music
teachers can be expected in col­
leges and universities. In addition,
music teachers will be needed to
replace those who will transfer
to other fields of work, retire,
or die.

Earnings and W orking Conditions

Some singers employed by
dance bands and the motion
picture industry earn as much as
$200 a week, and a few well-

known concert soloists, opera
stars, and top recording artists
of popular music may command
more than $1,000 for a perform­
ance. However, most professional
singers experience difficulty in
obtaining regular employment
and have to supplement their
singing incomes by doing other
types of work.

The salaries of public school
music teachers are determined by
the salary schedule adopted for
all teachers in their school system.
The fees that private music teach­
ers charge depend on the teacher’s
reputation, the economic status
of the families in the community,
and other factors.

Singers generally work at night
and on weekends. School teachers
have regular working hours; pri­
vate voice teachers often give les­
sons after school or business hours
or on weekends work in the
entertainment field is seasonal,
and few performers have steady

Singers who perform profes­
sionally on the concert stage or
in opera belong to the American
Guild of Musical Artists, Inc.;
those who sing on radio or tele­
vision or who make phonograph
recordings are members of the
American Federation of Tele­
vision and Radio Artists; singers
in the variety and night club field
belong to the American Guild of
Variety Artists; those who sing
in musical comedy and operettas
belong to the Actors’ Equity As­
sociation; and those who sing in
the movies belong to the Screen
Actors Guild, Inc. All of these
unions are branches of the As­
sociated Actors and Artists of
America (AFL-CIO ).


Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Information about accredited
schools and departments of music
may be obtained from:
National Association of Schools
of Music, 1424 16th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

music teaching in elementary and
secondary schools is available

Information concerning salary
and working conditions is avail­
able from:

Music Educators National Con­
ference, The National Educa­
tion Association of the United
States, 1201 16th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

American Guild of Musical Ar­
tists, 1841 Broadway, New
York, N.Y. 10023.



(D.O.T. 141.031 and .081, 970.281 and
.381, and 979.381)

N ature of the W ork
The artwork appearing in news­
paper and magazine advertise­
ments, on billboard posters, bro­
chures, catalogs, and television
commercials often is created by
a team of commercial artists. The
art director supervises a group of

artists of varying levels of skill
and diverse specializations. He
may develop the art aspects of an
advertising plan which he turns
over to a layout man for further
refinement. The layout artist
works up the construction or ar­
rangement of the elements of the
advertisement, planning the se­
lection and layout of illustrations,
photographs, and typography,
and determining color and other
elements of design. Then he pre­
pares a “ rough visual” or sketch.
After consulting with the direc­

tor, he may make changes in the
visual and complete a more com­
prehensive layout for the cus­
tomer’s consideration.
Working with the layout man
in turning out the finished prod­
uct are a variety of specialists
such as renderers, who make
rough pastel or wash drawings;
letterers, who execute appropriate
lettering either freehand or with
mechanical aids; illustrators, who
make sketches and drawings in
more finished form; and paste-up
and mechanical men, who cut and
paste together the basic parts of
the advertisement or other art­
work, using a ruling pen and
other drafting tools. Some work­
ers, called general boardmen,
spend nearly all their time at the
drawing board performing many
of these specializations. Often
supporting the general boardmen
or other specialists are appren­
tices, who engage primarily in
mechanical, routine, and noncreative functions such as sepa­
rating colors, ruling pen work,
washing paintbrushes, cutting
mats, running errands, and so
In a small office, the art direc­
tor may perform the layout and
boardwork himself, with the aid
of apprentices. In a large office,
he may be responsible for devel­
oping concepts with the copy
writer; setting standards; deal­
ing with clients; and purchasing
needed photographs, illustrations,
lettering, and other art work
from freelancers or art services.
Much of the advertising artists’
work is in creating the concept
and artwork for a wide variety of
promotional items or “ collateral
material” (including direct mail
advertising, booklets, folders, bro­
chures, catalogs, counter displays,
etc.) used to supplement news­
paper and magazine ads or tele­
vision commercials. They also
may prepare slides, film strips,
and other visual aids.
Commercial artists also create
the formats of magazines and



tions for success in the field of
commercial art, but it is essential
that these qualities be developed
by specialized training in the
techniques of commercial and
applied art. In addition, extensive
education in the fine arts— paint­
ing, sculpture, or architecture—
and in academic studies provides
a good foundation for obtaining
employment in commercial art
and is essential for promotion to
Places of Em ploym ent
higher level jobs.
An estimated 50,000 commer­
The most widely accepted
cial artists were employed in training for commercial art is the
1968; over one-third were women. instruction given in art schools
Most commercial artists are em­ or institutes that specialize in
ployed in big cities, such as New commercial and applied art. To
York, Chicago, Philadelphia, Los enter art school, a high school
Angeles, and Detroit, where the education usually, but not al­
largest users of commercial art ways, is required. Some schools
are to be found. Some, however, admit only those applicants who
are employed in nearly every city. demonstrate talent by submitting
Most commercial artists are acceptable work samples. The
employed as staff artists on a course of study, which may in­
regular salaried basis by adver­ clude some academic work, gen­
tising agencies, commercial art erally takes 2 or 3 years, and a
studios, advertising departments certificate is awarded on gradu­
of large companies, printing and ation. A growing number of art
publishing firms, textile compa­ schools, particularly those in or
nies, television and motion pic­ connected with universities, re­
ture studios, department stores, quire 4 years or more of study
sign shops, mail-order houses, and confer a bachelor’s degree—
greeting card companies, and a commonly the bachelor of fine
variety of other business organi­ arts (B.F.A.). In these schools,
zations. Many work as freelance commercial art instruction is
artists, selling their artwork to supplemented by liberal arts
any available customers— chiefly courses, such as English and his­
to the same kinds of organiza­ tory. Limited training in com­
tions that employ salaried artists. mercial art also may be obtained
Some salaried commercial artists through public vocational high
also do freelance work in their schools,
spare time. A number of commer­ schools, and practical experience
cial artists work for Federal Gov­ on the job, but supplemental
ernment agencies, principally in training usually is needed for
the Defense Department. A few advancement.
The first year in art school may
teach in art schools on a regular
be devoted primarily to the study
or part-time basis.
o f fundamentals— p e r s p e c tiv e ,
design, color harmony, composi­
tion— and to the use of pencil,
Training , O ther Q ualifications,
crayon, pen and ink, and other
and A dvancem ent
art media. Subsequent study,
Artistic ability and good taste generally more specialized, in­
are the most important qualifica­ cludes drawing from life, adver­

other publications, designing or
laying out the editorial pages and
features and producing or pur­
chasing the necessary illustrations
or artwork. Some commercial
artists specialize in fashion il­
lustrations, greeting cards, book
illustrations, or in technical draw­
ings for industry.

tising design, graphic design, let­
tering, typography, illustrations,
and other courses in the student’s
particular field of interest. Artis­
tic judgment, imagination, and
ability to visualize ideas on paper
are basic requirements for a suc­
cessful career in commercial art.
The various specialties, however,
differ in some of the specific abili­
ties required. For example, letterers and retouchers must be able
to do precise and detailed work
requiring excellent coordination,
whereas illustrators and designers
need imagination, a distinctive
art style, and, in most cases, the
ability to draw well. Some experi­
ence with photography is useful
to those interested in art direc­
tion or design. For commercial
artists engaged in freelance work,
the ability to sell both ideas and
finished work to clients is im­
portant. A knowledge of type
specifications and printing pro­
duction is very helpful. Also, a
business sense and responsibility
in meeting deadlines are assets.
Art directors need a strong edu­
cational background not only in
art and business practices but
also in the liberal arts. Advertis­
ing art directors require a special
kind of creativity— the ability to
conceive ideas that will stimulate
the sale of the clients’ products
or services.
Beginning commercial artists
usually need some on-the-job
training before they can qualify
for other than strictly routine
work. Advancement is based
largely on the individual’s artis­
tic talent, creative ability, and
education. After considerable ex­
perience, many commercial artists
leave salaried employment for
freelance work. Most illustrators
are freelancers; many of them
have an agent, or artist’s repre­
Commercial artists usually
assemble their best a r t w o r k
into a folder, or “ portfolio,” to use



in displaying their work. A good
portfolio is essential in obtaining
initial employment and freelance
assignments as well as in chang­
ing jobs.

Earnings and W orking Conditions

In 1968, beginning commer­
cial artists having no training
beyond vocational high school
typically earned $65 a week;
graduates of 2-year professional
Em ploym ent O utlook
schools generally received $75 a
Employment and advancement week; and graduates of 4-year
opportunities for talented and post-high school programs typ­
well-trained commercial artists in ically received $85 to $95 a week,
most kinds of work are expected according to the limited data
to be good through the 1970’s. available. Talented artists having
Young people having only aver­ strong educational backgrounds
age ability and little specialized and a good portfolio, however,
training, however, will encounter sometimes started at higher sal­
competition for beginning jobs aries. After a few years of experi­
and will have limited opportunity ence, qualified artists may expect
to earn $100 to $200 a week or
for advancement.
The demand for commercial more. Art directors, designers,
artists will continue to vary with executives, well-known freelance
the kind of specialization: For ex­ illustrators, and others in top
ample, demand for paste-up and positions generally have much
mechanical artists is expected to higher earnings, from $15,000 to
increase but jobs for designers, $20,000 a year or more.
art directors, and layout men are
The earnings of freelance art­
fewer, much sought after, and ists have an especially wide range,
open only to experienced, highly since they are affected by such
talented, and creative artists.
factors as the nature of the art­
Among the factors underlying work he performs, the range of
an expected slow-increase in em­ his board skills, the amount of
ployment of commercial artists artwork he sells, and the price
through the 1970’s is the upward he receives. In 1968, a freelancer
trend in business expenditures received from $25 for a single
for all kinds of visual advertis­ black and white fashion sketch
ing. Demand for television graph­ to $750 for a figure in full color
ics, packaging design, poster and with a background; from $1,000
window displays, and greeting to $2,000 for a color cover for a
cards will create some increase in national magazine; or from $75
the employment of commercial to $300 for a book jacket or
artists. In addition, the growing record album. Freelance artists
field of industrial design is ex­ may be paid for their services by
pected to require the services of the hour or an amount for the as­
more artists who are qualified to signment. Experienced pasteup
perform three dimensional work and mechanical artists may be
with engineering concepts. (See paid $4 to $8 an hour or more.
statement on Industrial Design­
Salaried commercial artists
Women having exceptional ar­ generally work 35 to 40 hours a
tistic talent will continue to find week, but sometimes they must
employment in all aspects of work additional hours and under
commercial art work, but par­ a considerable amount of pres­
ticularly in the textile industry sure in order to meet deadlines.
and as fashion illustrators in de­ Freelance artists usually have ir­
regular working hours.
partment stores.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Additional information on em­
ployment opportunities in com­
mercial art may be obtained
National Art Education Associa­
tion, National Education Asso­
ciation, 1201 16th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 142.081)

N ature of the W ork
Industrial designers combine
technical knowledge of materials,
machines, and methods of pro­
duction with artistic talent to
improve the appearance and func­
tional design of machine-made
products. Since the public has a
wide choice of styles in products
such as radios, television sets,
automobiles, refrigerators, and
furniture, a primary objective of
the industrial designer is to de­
sign his employer’s product to
compete favorably with similar
As a first step, the industrial
designer does historical research
on the product or related prod­
ucts. He studies competition in
the market and the different ways
in which the product may be
used. Then, he sketches a variety
of possible designs, which are ex­
amined by various departments.
For example, the designer con­
sults engineers, production super­
visors, and the sales and market
research staff for their opinions
on the practicability of producing
a newly designed product, or
changing the design of an old
product, and the sales potential
of the proposed designs. After the
most suitable design is selected
by company officials, a model


may be made by the designer.
The first model of a new design
is often made of clay so that it
can be altered easily to reflect
modifications. The final or work­
ing model is usually made of the
material to be used in the finished
product. If the model is approved


in this form, it is put into
Industrial designers also may
do related types of work. For
example, they may design con­
tainers and packages, prepare
small exhibits for display pur­
poses, or design the entire layout

for industrial fairs. Some also
design the interior layout of spe­
cial purpose commercial build­
ings, such as gasoline stations
and supermarkets.
Industrial designers employed
by a manufacturing company
usually find their work limited to
the one or few products made by
their employer; many senior de­
signers, however, are now given
a free hand to engage in longrange planning for new or diver­
sified products. Designers who
work as consultants to more than
one industrial firm, either as
freelance designers or as members
of consulting firms, may plan and
design a great variety of products.

Places of Em ploym ent
Most of the estimated 10,000
industrial designers in 1968 were
employed by large manufacturing
companies and by design consult­
ing firms. Of the remainder, the
greatest number did freelance
work or combined salaried em­
ployment with it. Some also
worked for architects, and a few
were on the staffs of firms of
interior designers.
Industrial designers employed
by consulting firms are located
mainly in large cities. For exam­
ple, the New York and Chicago
areas have the largest number of
design consulting organizations.
Those employed by industrial
firms are found most often in the
manufacturing plants of their

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
The completion of a course of
study in industrial design— in an
art school, an art department of
a university, or a technical col­
lege— is the usual requirement
for entering this field of work.



People from other areas, how­ stantial amount of studio practice
ever, notably engineering and in the actual design of threearchitecture, may qualify as in­ dimensional products. In the
dustrial designers if they have studio course, students learn to
appropriate experience and artis­ make working drawings and
models with clay, wood, plaster,
tic talent.
Formal education in industrial and other easily worked mate­
design at the college or university rials. In schools that have the
level usually takes at least 4 necessary machinery, students
years to complete, and a few gain experience in making models
schools require 5 years of study. of their designs while learning to
These schools award the bach­ use metalworking and woodwork­
elor’s degree in industrial design ing machinery. Some
or fine arts; about half of these require the completion of courses
schools also award the master’s in basic engineering and in the
degree for advanced study in the composition of materials. All
field. Some schools, usually pri­ schools which offer 4- or 5-year
vate art schools or those associ­ courses leading to a bachelor’s
ated with large art museums, of­ degree also include academic sub­
fer a 3-year course of study in jects, such as English, history,
industrial design which leads to psychology, economics, and sci­
a diploma. In the past few years, ence, in their curriculums.
Creative ability, skill in draw­
however, some art and museum
schools have moved toward ac­ ing, and the ability to anticipate
creditation or affiliation with a consumer needs are the most
university. If accredited or affili­ important personal qualifications
ated, they usually offer a 4- needed by young people aspiring
year program and the bachelor’s to work in this field. A mechani­
cal interest also is desirable for
Entrance to the course of study some types of work. Applicants
in industrial design is limited, for jobs will find it helpful to
with rare exceptions, to qualified have previously assembled a
high school graduates; in addi­ “ portfolio” which demonstrates
tion, some schools may require their skill in designing and their
students to present sketches and creative talent. Since industrial
other examples of their artistic designers are required frequently
ability. Some schools also require to work cooperatively with engi­
students to complete their fresh­ neers and other staff members,
man or sophomore years before the ability to work and communi­
they select an industrial design cate well with others is impor­
tant. Young people who plan to
Industrial design curriculums practice industrial designing on a
differ considerably among schools. consulting basis should have a
Some schools stress the engineer­ knowledge of business practices
ing and technical aspects of the and possess sales ability.
New graduates of industrial de­
field, and others give students a
strong cultural background in sign courses frequently start as
art. Nevertheless, most industrial assistants to other designers.
design curriculums include at They are usually given relatively
least one course in two-dimen­ simple assignments which do
sional design
(color theory, not involve making structural
spatial organization, etc.) and changes in the product. As they
one in general three-dimensional gain experience, designers may be
design (abstract sculpture and assigned to supervisory positions
art structures), including a sub­ with major responsibility for the

design of a product or a group of
products. Those who have an
established reputation in the
field, as well as the necessary
funds, may start their own con­
sulting firms.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment in this relatively
small occupation is expected to
expand moderately through the
1970’s. Employers will be actively
seeking applicants having a col­
lege degree and outstanding tal­
ent. Some employment opportu­
nities also will arise each year
from the need to replace design­
ers who retire or leave the field
for other reasons.
A number of factors will affect
employment of industrial design­
ers. Rapid obsolescence of house­
hold and commercial equipment
and the rising population will in­
crease the demand for newly
designed products. As in the past,
manufacturers will strive to hold
or increase their share of these
markets through the creation of
new products, improvements in
the design of existing ones, and
change in package designs and
other modernizations in the ap­
pearance and use of their prod­
ucts. Small companies probably
will make increasing use of serv­
ices offered by industrial design
consulting firms to compete more
effectively with larger firms. All
of these factors, in addition to
rising per capita income, will
contribute to the long-term
growth in the employment of
industrial designers. However, as
in the past, new entrants trained
specifically in industrial design­
ing are likely to encounter keen
competition for beginning jobs
from persons with engineering,
architectural, and related educa­
tional backgrounds who have
artistic and creative talent. Also,
since personnel needs in this pro-


fession are very closely related
to general business conditions,
any downturn in the economy
would tend to affect adversely
the employment outlook.

(D.O.T. 142.051)

N ature of the W ork
Starting salaries for inexperi­
enced industrial designers em­
ployed by manufacturing firms
ranged from $125 to $150 a week
in 1968, according to the limited
information available. Beginning
salaries for those employed by
consulting firms were usually
lower. Salaries of experienced
industrial designers vary greatly,
depending on such factors as
individual ability, and size and
type of firm in which employed.
According to scattered reports,
those having several years of
experience earned salaries rang­
ing from $8,000 to $14,000 an­
nually. Some large manufacturing
firms paid $25,000 or more to
experienced and talent designers.
Earnings of industrial designers
who own their consulting firms,
alone or as members of a part­
nership, may fluctuate markedly
from year to year. In recent
years, earnings of most consult­
ants were between $12,000 and
$20,000, a few outstanding in­
dustrial designers earned as much
as $200,000.

The creative work of interior
designers and decorators enhances
the attractiveness of our homes
and other buildings. Designers
and decorators plan the func­
tional arrangement of interior
space and coordinate the selec­
tion (including colors) of furni­
ture, draperies and other fabrics,
floor coverings, and interior ac­
cessories. They may work on the
interiors of residential or com­
mercial structures, as well as
ships and aircraft. Some of them
design stage sets used for motion
pictures and television. Interior
designers are more involved than
decorators in space planning and
other interior design; they often
work for clients on large design

projects such as the interior of
an entire office building. Gener­
ally, their plans include the
complete layout of the rooms
within the space allowed by the
exterior walls and other frame­
work. Sometimes they redesign
the interiors of old structures.
When their plans have been com­
pleted, the architect checks them
against his blueprints to assure
compliance with building re­
quirements and to solve struc­
tural problems. Some interior
designers also design the furni­
ture and accessories to be used
in interiors and then arrange for
their manufacture.
Many professionals in this field
have their own establishments,
either alone or as a member of
a firm with other designers and
decorators; they may sell some
or all of the merchandise with
which they work. Some work
independently or as an assistant;
others have a large staffs, some­
times including salespeople.
Many of the larger depart-

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
General information about ca­
reers in industrial design and a
list of schools offering courses and
degrees in industrial design may
be obtained from:
Industrial Designers Society of
America, 60 West 55th St., New
York, N.Y. 10019.

interior designer helps clients select fabrics.


ment and furniture stores have
separate departments of interior
decorating or interior design, or
both, to advise customers on
decorating and design plans. The
main function of these depart­
ments is to help sell the store’s
merchandise, although materials
from outside sources may be used
when they are essential to the
plans developed for the customer.
Department store decorators and
designers frequently advise the
stores’ buyers and executives
about style and color trends in
interior furnishings.
Interior designers and decora­
tors usually work directly with
clients to determine preferences
and needs in furnishings. They
may do “ boardwork,” particularly
on large assignments, which in­
cludes work on floor plans and
e le v a tio n s and c r e a tio n of
sketches, or other perspective
drawings in such media as watercolor, pastels, or tempera, so
clients can visualize their plans.
They also provide cost estimates.
After the client approves both
the plans and cost estimates, ar­
rangements are made for the
purchase of the furnishings; for
the supervision of the work of
painters, floor finishers, cabinet­
makers, carpetlayers, and other
craftsmen; and for the installation
and arrangement of furnishings.

Places of Em ploym ent
More than 15,000 people were
engaged full time in interior de­
sign and decoration in 1968.
About half of them were women.
Men, however, predominate in
interior design. Many in design
and decorating work on a parttime basis.
The majority of all workers in
this field are located in large
cities. In recent years, large de­
partment and furniture stores
have become increasingly impor­

tant sources of employment for
professional interior designers
and decorators. Some designers
and decorators have permanent
jobs with hotel and restaurant
chains. Others are employed by
architects, antique dealers, office
furniture stores, industrial de­
signers, furniture and textile
manufacturers, other manufac­
turers in the interior furnishing
field, or by peridocals that fea­
ture articles on homefumishings.
Some large industrial corpora­
tions employ interior designers
on a permanent basis.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Formal training in interior
design and decoration is becom­
ing increasingly important for
entrance into this field of work,
although many present members
of the profession achieved success
without this training. Most de­
partment stores, well-established
design and decorating firms and
other major employers will ac­
cept only professionally trained
people for beginning jobs. Usu­
ally, the minimum educational
requirement is completion of
either a 2- or 3-year course at
a recognized art school or insti­
tute specializing in interior dec­
orating and design, or a 4-year
college course leading to a bach­
elor’s degree with a major in
interior design and decoration.
The course of study in interior
design and decoration usually in­
cludes the principles of design,
history of art, freehand and me­
chanical drawing, painting, the
study of the essentials of archi­
tecture as they relate to interiors,
design of furniture and exhibi­
tions, and study of various ma­
terials, such as woods, metals,
plastics, and fabrics. A knowledge
of furnishings, art pieces, and
antiques is important. In addi­

tion, courses in salesmanship,
business arithmetic, and other
business subjects are of great
Membership in either the
American Institute of Interior
Designers (A ID ) or the National
Society of Interior Designers
(N S ID ), both professional socie­
ties, is a recognized mark of
achievement in this profession.
Membership usually requires the
completion of 3 or 4 years of posthigh school education, the major
emphasis having been on training
in design, and several years of
practical experience in the field,
including responsibility for super­
vision of all aspects of decorating
New graduates having training
in interior design and decorating
usually serve a training period,
either with decorating firms, in
department stores, or in the firm
of an established designer. They
may act as a receptionist, as a
shopper with the task of match­
ing materials or finding accesso­
ries, or as a stockroom assistant,
assistant decorator, or junior de­
signer. In most instances, from
1 to 3 years of on-the-job training
is required before a trainee is
considered eligible for advance­
ment to the job of decorator.
Beginners who do not obtain
trainee jobs often work as sales­
people for fabric, lamp, or other
interior furnishings concerns to
gain experience in dealing with
customers and to become familiar
with the merchandise. This ex­
perience often makes it easier to
obtain trainee jobs with a decor­
ating firm or department; it
also may lead to a career in
After considerable experience,
decorators and designers with
ability may advance to decorat­
ing or design department head,
interior furnishings coordinator,
or to other supervisory positions
in department stores or in large



decorating or design firms; if they
have the necessary funds, they
may open their own establish­
ments. Talented workers usually
advance rapidly.
Artistic talent, imagination,
good business judgment, and the
ability to deal with people are
important assets for success in
this field.

E m ploym ent O utlook
Talented art school or college
graduates who majored in interior
design and decoration will find
good opportunities for employ­
ment through the 1970’s. Appli­
cants who can design and plan
the functional arrangement of in­
terior space will be in strong de­
mand. Young people without
formal training will find it in­
creasingly difficult to enter the
A slow but steady increase in
employment of interior designers
and decorators is anticipated
through the 1970’s. Population
growth, larger expenditures for
home and office furnishings, the
increasing availability of welldesigned furnishings at moderate
prices, a growing recognition
among middle-income families of
the value of decorators’ services,
and increasing use of design serv­
ices for commercial establish­
ments should contribute to a
greater demand for these workers.
In addition to newly created jobs,
some openings will arise each year
from the need to replace design­

ers and decorators who die, retire,
or leave the field for other reasons.
stores are expected to employ an
increasing number of trained
decorators and designers. These
stores also are expected to share
in the growing volume of design
and decorating work for com­
mercial establishments and public
buildings, formerly handled al­
most entirely by independent
decorators. This development will
result in increased opportunities
in salaried employment. Interior
design firms also are expected to
continue to expand. However, em­
ployment of interior decorators
and designers is sensitive to
changes in general economic con­
ditions because people often defer
these kinds of expenditures when
the economy slows down.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Beginning salaries ranged gen­
erally from $70 to $90 a week in
1968 for art school or college
graduates having formal training
in interior design and decoration;
some graduates of 3 or 4-year
design schools received salaries of
$100 or more a week, according
to limited data available.
Some designers and decorators
are paid straight salaries; some
receive salaries plus commissions
which usually range from 5 to 10
percent of the value of their
sales; others receive commissions
only, which may be as much as

one-third of the value of their
Many interior decorators hav­
ing only average skill in this field
earn only moderate incomes—
from $5,000 to $7,500 a year,
even after many years of experi­
ence. Talented decorators who
are well known in their localities
may earn up to $15,000 or more.
Designers and decorators whose
abilities are nationally recognized
may earn well beyond $25,000
Self-employed decorators have
an especially wide range of earn­
ings; their profits are related to
factors such as the volume of
business, their prestige as a dec­
orator, economic level of their
clients, their own business com­
petence, and the percentage of
wholesale prices they receive from
the sale of furnishings.
Hours of work for decorators
are sometimes long and irregular.
They usually adjust their work­
day to suit the needs of their
clients, meeting with them during
the evenings or on weekends,
when necessary. Designers’ sched­
ules follow a more regular work­
day pattern.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Information about employment
and scholarship opportunities
may be obtained from:
National Society of Interior De­
signers, Inc., 315 East 62nd
Street, New York, N.Y. 10021.


The social sciences are con­
cerned with all aspects of human
society from the origins of man
to the latest election returns. So­
cial scientists, however, generally
specialize in one major field of
human relationships. Anthropol­
ogists study primitive tribes, re­
construct civilizations of the past,
and analyze the cultures and langauges of all peoples past and
present. Economists study how
man allocates resources of land,
labor, and capital. Geographers
study the distribution throughout
the world of people, types of land
and water masses, and natural re­
sources. Historians describe and
interpret the people and events
of the past and present. Political
scientists study the theories, ob­
jectives, and organizations of all
types of government. Sociologists
analyze the behavior and rela­
tionships of groups— such as the
family, the community, and mi­
norities— to the individual or to
Besides these basic social sci­
ence fields, there are a number
of closely related fields, some of
which are covered in separate
statements elsewhere in this
Handbook. (See statements on
Statisticians, Psychologists, and
Social Workers.)
More than 70,000 people were
employed professionally in the ba­
sic social sciences in 1968; about
1 out of 10 was a woman. Overlap­
ping among the basic social sci­
ence fields and the sometimes
hazy distinction between these
and related fields such as busi­
ness administration, foreign ser­
vice work, and high school teach­
ing, make it difficult to determine
the exact size of each profession.
Economists, however, are the
largest social science group, and
anthropologists the smallest.
The majority of social scien­

tists are employed by colleges
and universities. A large number
are employed by the Federal Gov­
ernment and private industry.
There is a trend in some indus­
tries toward hiring increasing
numbers of college graduates who
have majored in the social sci­
ences as trainees for administra­
tive and executive positions.
Research councils and other non­
profit organizations provide an
important source of employment
for economists, political scien­
tists, and sociologists.
Employment in the social sci­
ences has been increasing and is
expected to grow very rapidly
through the 1970’s, mainly be­
cause of the anticipated rise in
college teaching positions. The
reasons for this expected increase
are discussed in the statement
on College and University Teach­
ers. A moderate rise in employ­
ment in government also is ex­
pected. Employment in govern­
ment agencies often is greatly
affected by changes in public
policy. For example, more social
scientists will be needed to han­
dle research and administrative
functions resulting from the new
programs established by Congress
to relieve unemployment and re­
move poverty. The Economic Op­
portunity Act of 1964 and the
Appalachian Regional Develop­
ment Act of 1965 are recent pro­
grams that will increase the de­
mand for social science personnel.
A very rapid rise in employment
of social scientists in private in­
dustry and nonprofit organiza­
tions also is expected. In addi­
tion, hundreds of social scientists
will be needed each year to re­
place those who leave the field
because of retirement, death, or
other reasons.
Social scientists having doctor’s
degrees will find excellent em­

ployment opportunities through
the 1970’s in both teaching and
nonteaching positions. For those
having less training, the employ­
ment situation will differ con­
siderably among the several so­
cial science fields. These differ­
ences are discussed in the occu­
pational statements that follow.

(D.O.T. 055.088)

N ature of th e W ork
Anthropologists study man, his
origins, physical characteristics,
traditions, beliefs, customs, lan­
guages, material possessions and
his structured social relationships
and value systems. Although an­
thropologists may specialize in
any one of these aspects of man­
kind, they are expected to have
a general knowledge of them all.
Most anthropologists specialize
in cultural anthropology— usually
archeology or ethnology. Arche­
ologists excavate the places where
earlier civilizations are buried to
reconstruct the history and cus­
toms of the people who once lived
there, by studying the remains of
homes, tools, clothing, ornaments,
and other evidences of human life
and activity. For example, arche­
ologists are digging in the Pacific
Coast area between northern
Mexico and Ecuador to find evi­
dences of trade and migration in
the pre-Christian Era. Some ar­
cheologists are excavating ancient
Mayan cities in Mexico and re­
storing temples. Others are work­
ing in the Missouri River valley
to salvage remnants of Indian
villages and sites of early mili­
tary forts and trading posts. Eth­
nologists may spend long periods
living among primitive tribes or
in other communities, to learn
about their ways of life. The eth181


nologist takes detailed and com­
prehensive notes describing the
social customs, beliefs, and mate­
rial possessions of the people.
He usually learns their langauge
in the process. He may make
comparative studies of the cul­
tures and societies of various
groups. In recent years, his in­
vestigations have included com­
plex urban societies. Some cul­
tural anthropologists specialize in
linguistics, the scientific study of
the sounds and structures of lan­
guages and of the historical re­
lationships a m o n g languages.
They study the r e l a t i o n s h i p
between the language and the
social structure of a people, and
may assist archeologists in recon­
structing the prehistory of man­

ogists occasionally are employed
as consultants on projects such
as the design of driver seats,
space suits, cockpits for airplanes
and spaceships, and the sizing of
clothing. They also may consult
on projects to improve environ­
mental conditions and on crim­
inal cases.
Most anthropologists teach in
colleges and universities and of­
ten combine research with their
teaching. Some anthropologists
specialize in museum work, which
generally combines management
and administrative duties with
fieldwork and research on an­
thropological collections. A few
are engaged primarily in consult­
ing, nontechnical writing, or other
Places of Em ploym ent
About 3,000 people were em­
ployed as anthropologists in 1968.
About a fifth of them were wom­
en. Most anthropologists were
employed in colleges and univer­
sities. Several hundred worked in
private industry and nonprofit
organizations. The Federal Gov­
ernment employed a small num­
ber, chiefly in museums, national
parks, and in technical aid pro­
grams. State and local govern­
ment agencies also employed
some anthropologists, usually for
museum work or health research.
Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent

Physical anthropologists ap­
ply intensive training in human
anatomy and biology to the study
of human evolution, and to the
scientific measurement of the
physical differences among the
races and groups of mankind. Be­
cause of their knowledge of body
structure, physical anthropol­

Young people who are inter­
ested in careers in anthropology
should obtain Ph. D. degrees.
College graduates with bachelor’s
degrees can obtain temporary
positions and assistantships in
the graduate departments where
they are working for advanced
degrees. A master’s degree, plus
field experience, is sufficient for
many beginning professional posi­

tions, but promotion to top posi­
tions is generally reserved for in­
dividuals holding the Ph. D. de­
gree. In many colleges and most
universities, only anthropologists
holding the Ph. D. degree can
obtain permanent teaching ap­
Some training in both physical
and cultural anthropology is nec­
essary for all anthropologists. A
knowledge of mathematics is in­
creasingly important since sta­
tistical methods and computers
are becoming more widely used
for research in this field. Under­
graduate students may begin
their field training in archeology
by arranging, through their uni­
versity department, to accom­
pany expeditions as laborers.
They may advance to supervisors
in charge of the digging or col­
lection of material and finally
may take charge of a portion of
the work of the expedition. Eth­
nologists and linguists usually do
their fieldwork alone, without di­
rect supervision. Most anthropol­
ogists base their doctoral disser­
tations on data collected through
field research; they are, there­
fore, experienced fieldworkers by
the time they obtain the Ph. D.
Graduate departments of an­
thropology in the U.S. numbered
about 115 in 1968. Most univer­
sities having graduate programs
also offer undergraduate training
in anthropology. The choice of a
graduate school is very important.
Students interested in museum
work should select a school that
can provide experience in an as­
sociated museum having anthro­
pological collections. Similarly,
those interested in archeology
should choose a university that
offers opportunities for summer
experience in archeological field­
work or should plan to attend an
archeological field school else­
whe re d u r i n g t h e i r s u m m e r



Em ploym ent O utlook
The number of anthropologists
is expected to increase rapidly
through the 1970’s. The largest
increase in employment will be in
the college teaching field. Some
additional positions will be found
in museums, archeological re­
search programs, mental and pub­
lic health programs, and in com­
munity survey work. Opportuni­
ties in other fields are likely to
be limited largely to the replace­
ment of personnel who retire, die,
or leave their positions for other
Anthropologists holding the
doctorate are expected to have
excellent employment opportuni­
ties through the 1970’s. Employ­
ment opportunities also should be
favorable for those who have ful­
filled all requirements for the
Ph. D. degree except the disser­
tation. Graduates with only the
master’s degree, however, are
likely to face persistent competi­
tion for professional positions in
anthropology and may enter re­
lated fields of work. A few who
meet certification requirements
may secure high school teaching
positions. Others may find jobs in
public administration and in non­
profit organizations and civic
groups, which prefer personnel
with social science training as a
general background.

The average (median) salary
of anthropologists employed in
1968 was $12,700. Anthropol­
ogists employed by educational
institutions received a median
salary of $13,500 for the calendar
year or $12,000 for the academic
year, according to the National
Science Foundation’s National
Register of Scientific and Tech­
nical Personnel.
In the Federal Government,

the starting salary for anthropol­
ogists having an M.A. degree was
$8,462 in 1968. Anthropologists
having a Ph.D. degree received a
starting salary of $10,203. Many
experienced anthropologists
earned from $12,000 to $20,000
a year.
In general, anthropologists
holding the Ph. D. degree earn
substantially higher salaries than
those with the master’s degree.
Many anthropologists supple­
ment their regular salaries with
earnings from other sources.
Summer teaching and research
grants are the principal sources
of income. Anthropologists em­
ployed in colleges and universities
are the most likely to have addi­
tional earnings.

Sources of Additional Inform ation
Additional information con­
cerning employment opportuni­
ties and schools offering graduate
training in anthropology may be
obtained from the following

A s A C a reer, (25
cents) Smithsonian Institution,
Washington, D.C. 20560.

A n th r o p o lo g y

The American Anthropological
Association, 3700 Massachusetts
Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.

(D.O.T. 050.088)

N atu re of the W ork
Economists study man’s activ­
ities devoted to satisfying his
material needs. They are con­
cerned with the problems that
arise in the utilization of limited
resources of land, raw materials,
and manpower to provide goods
and services. In this connection,
they may analyze the relation
between the supply of and de­
mand for goods and services, and
the ways in which goods are pro­
duced, distributed, and consumed.
Some economists are concerned


with practical problems such as
the control of inflation, the pre­
vention of depression, and the
development of farm, wage, tax,
and tariff policies. Others develop
theories to explain the causes of
employment and unemployment
or the ways in which internation­
al trade influences world eco­
nomic conditions. Still others are
engaged in the collection and in­
terpretation of data on a wide
variety of economic problems.
Economists employed in col­
leges and universities teach the
principles and methods of eco­
nomics and conduct or direct re­
search. They frequently engage in
writing and consulting and for­
mulate many of the new ideas
that directly or indirectly in­
fluence government and industry
Economists in government plan
and carry out studies for use in
assessing economic conditions and
the need for changes in govern­
ment policy. Their work may in­
clude the collection of basic data,
analysis, and the preparation of
reports. Most government eco­
nomists are in the fields of agri­
culture, business, finance, labor,
or international trade and de­
Economists employed by busi­
ness firms provide management
with information for decision­
making on such matters as the
markets for and prices of com­
pany products, the effect of gov­
ernment policies on business or
international trade, the advis­
ability of adding new lines of
merchandise, opening new branch
operations, or otherwise expand­
ing the company’s business.

Places of Em ploym ent
Economics is the largest of the
basic social science fields. About
31,000 economists were employed
in 1968. Industry and business

employed about one-half; colleges
and universities, roughly onefourth; and government agencies
— chiefly Federal— about onefifth. Most of the remainder
worked in private research agen­
cies. A few were self-employed.
Economists are found in all
large cities and in university
towns. The largest groups are in
the New York and Washington,
D.C. metropolitan areas. Sub­
stantial numbers are employed in
foreign countries, mainly by the
U.S. Department of State, in­
cluding the Agency for Interna­
tional Development.
Most economists in private in­
dustry are employed in the home
office of large corporations.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Economists must have a thor­
ough grounding in economic
theory, economic history, and
methods of economic analysis.
An increasing number of univer­
sities also emphasize the value
of mathematical methods of eco­
nomic analysis. Since many be­
ginning jobs for economists in
government and business involve
the collection and compilation of
data, a thorough knowledge of
basic statistical procedures usu­
ally is required.
A bachelor’s degree with a ma­
jor in economics is sufficent for
many beginning research jobs in
government and private industry,
although persons employed in
such entry jobs are not always
regarded as professional econo­
mists. In the Federal Govern­
ment, candidates for entrance
positions must have a minimum
of 21 semester hours of economics
and 3 hours of statistics, account­
ing, or calculus.
Graduate training is very im­
portant for young people plan­
ning to become economists. Stu­

d e n t s i n t e r e s t e d in r e s e a r c h
should select schools that em­
phasize training in research meth­
ods and statistics and provide
good research facilities. Those
who wish to work in agricultural
economics will find good oppor­
tunities to gain experience in
part-time research work at State
universities having agricultural
experiment stations.
The master’s degree generally
is required for appointment as a
college instructor, although in
large schools graduate assistantships sometimes are awarded to
superior students working toward
their master’s degree. In many
large colleges and universities,
completion of all the require­
ments for the Ph. D. degree, ex­
cept the dissertation, is necessary
for appointment as instructor. In
government or private industry,
economists holding the master’s
degree usually can qualify for
more responsible research posi­
tions than are open to those hav­
ing only the bachelor’s degree.
The Ph. D. degree is required
for a professorship in a highranking college or university and
is an asset in competing for other
responsible positions in govern­
ment, business, or private re­
search organizations.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment of economists will
increase very rapidly through the
1970’s. Colleges and universities
will need hundreds of new in­
structors annually to handle ra­
pidly increasing enrollments and
to replace economists who retire,
die, or transfer to other fields
of work. Private industry is ex­
pected to employ many more ecoomists, as businessmen become
more accustomed to rely on scien­
tific methods of analyzing busi­
ness trends, forecasting sales, and
planning purchasing and produc-


tion operations. Employment of
economists at the Federal, State,
and local levels also will increase
rapidly to meet the need for more
extensive data collection and
analysis, and to provide the staff
for programs aimed at reducing
unemployment and poverty.
Economists having the doctor­
ate are expected to have excellent
opportunities for employment.
The demand for these economists
is expected to be considerably
greater than the supply through
the 1970’s. As a result, employ­
ment opportunities for econo­
mists having a master’s degree
will be favorable, especially for
those with good training in sta­
tistics and mathematics. Oppor­
tunities for persons having a
bachelor’s degree will continue to
be good in government agencies.
Young people having bachelors’
degrees in economics also will
find employment as management
trainees in industry and business

a year; some having greater ad­
m inistrative
earned considerably more.
Economists having Ph.D.’s are
paid the highest salaries by each
type of employer in comparison
with those that have lesser de­
grees and similar experience. A
substantial number of economists
supplement their basic salaries
by consulting, teaching, and other

nomics and related fields is given
in the following publications:
C a reers



S e rv ic e,

Agency for
International Development,
Washington, D.C. 20523. Free.

O versea s A ssig n m e n ts,

Sources of A dditional Inform ation

(D.O.T. 059.088)

American Economic Association,
Northwestern University, 629
Noyes St., Evanston, 11 . 60201.

N atu re of the W ork

Additional information on em­
ployment opportunities in eco­

Geographers study the physical
characteristics of the earth, such

According to the National Sci­
ence Foundation’s National Reg­
ister of Scientific and Technical
Personnel, the median salary of
economists employed by colleges
and universities for calendar year
1968 was $15,700. The median
salary for those in business and
industry and in non-profit organi­
zations was $18,000.
In the Federal Government,
the entrance salary in late 1968
for beginning economists having
a bachelor’s degree was $5,732;
however, those with superior aca­
demic records could begin at
$6,981. Those having 2 full years
of graduate training or experi­
ence can qualify for positions at
an annual salary of $8,462. The
majority of experienced econo­
mists in the Federal Government
earned from $10,000 to $20,000

F o r eig n

U.S. Department of State, Pub­
lication 7924, Washington, D.C.
20520. Free.

Geographer engraves road lines on film.


as its terrain, minerals, soils,
water, vegetation, and climate.
They relate these characteristics
to the patterns of human settle­
ments on the earth— where peo­
ple live, why they are located
there, and how they earn a living.
The majority of geographers
are engaged in college and uni­
versity teaching and may com­
bine teaching and research. Their
research may include the study
and analysis of the distribution
of land forms, climate, soils, vege­
tation, and mineral and water
resources, sometimes utilizing sur­
veying and meteorological instru­
ments. They also analyze the
distribution and structure of po­
litical organizations, transporta­
tion systems, and marketing sys­
tems. Many geographers spend
considerable time in field study,
and in analyzing maps, aerial
photographs, and observational
data collected in the field. There
is an increasing use of photo­
graphs and other data from re­
mote sensors on satellites. Other
graphs, and diagrams.
Most geographers specialize in
one main branch of geography or
more. Those working in economic
geography deal with the geo­
graphic distribution of economic
activities— including manufactur­
ing, mining, farming, trade, and
communications. Political georaphy is the study of the way
political processes affect geo­
graphic boundaries on subna­
tional, national, and international
scales, and the relationship of
geographic conditions to political
situations. Urban geography, a
growing field for geographers, is
concerned with the study of cities
and community planning. (See
statement on Urban Planners.)
Specialists in physical geography
study the earth’s physical char­
acteristics. Regional geography
pertains to all the physical, eco­
nomic, political, and cultural

characteristics of a particular
region or area, which may range
in size from a river basin or an
island, to a State, a country, or
even a continent. Geographers in
the field of cartography design
and construct maps, as well as
compile data for them.
Many professional workers in
the field have job titles which
describe their specialization, such
as cartographer, map cataloger,
or regional analyst, rather than
the title geographer. Others have
titles relating to the subject mat­
ter of their study such as photo­
intelligence specialist or climatol­
ogical analyst. Still others have
titles such as community planner,
market or business analyst, or in­
telligence specialist. Most of those
who teach in colleges and uni­
versities are called geographers.

Places of Em ploym ent
An estimated 3,900 geogra­
phers were employed in the
United States in 1968; about 10
percent were women.
Approximately two-thirds of
all geographers are employed by
colleges and universities. Those
teaching in institutions which do
not have separate departments of
geography usually are associated
with departments of geology, eco­
nomics, or other physical or so­
cial sciences.
The Federal Government em­
ploys a large number of geogra­
phers. Among the major agencies
employing these workers are the
United States Army Topographic
Command; the United States Air
Force Aeronautical Chart and In­
formation Center; the Central In­
telligence Agency; the Defense
Intelligence Agency; the Depart­
ment of the Interior; and the
Environmental Sciences Services
Administration. State and local
governments also employ a small
number of geographers, mostly on

city and State planning and de­
velopment commissions.
Most of the relatively small
but growing number of geogra­
phers employed by private indus­
try work for marketing research
organizations, map companies,
textbook publishers, travel agen­
cies, manufacturing firms, or
chain stores. A few geographers
work for scientific foundations
and other nonprofit organizations
and research institutes. A small
number are employed as map

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
The minimum educational re­
quirement for beginning positions
in geography usually is a bache­
lor’s degree with a major in the
field. For most positions in re­
search and teaching, and for ad­
vancement in many other types
of work, graduate training is re­
Training leading to the bache­
lor’s degree in geography was
offered by over 300 colleges and
universities in 1968. Undergrad­
uate study usually provides a
general introduction to geogra­
phic knowledge and research
methods and often includes some
field studies. Typical courses of­
fered are physiography, weather
and climate, economic geography,
political geography, urban geog­
raphy, and regional courses, such
as the geography of North Amer­
ica, Western Europe, the U.S.S.R.,
and Asia. Courses in cartography
and in the interpretation of maps
and aerial photographs are of­
fered also.
Advanced degrees in geography
are offered by a relatively small
number of schools. In 1968,
Ph. D. degrees were awarded by
about 40 institutions. For admit­
tance to a graduate program in
geography, a bachelor’s degree


with a major in geography is the
most universities admit students
with bachelor’s degrees in fields
such as economics, geology, or
history if they have a good back­
ground in geography. Require­
ments for advanced degrees in­
clude field and laboratory work,
as well as classroom studies and
thesis preparation.
New graduates having only the
bachelor’s degree in geography
usually find positions connected
with making, interpreting, or an­
alyzing maps; or in research,
either working for the govern­
ment or private industry. Others
enter beginning positions in the
planning field. Some obtain em­
ployment as research or teaching
assistants in educational institu­
tions while studying for advanced
degrees. New graduates having
the master’s degree can qualify
for some teaching and research
positions in colleges and for many
research positions in government
and private industry. The Ph. D.
degree usually is required for
high-level posts in college teach­
ing and research and may be nec­
essary for advancement to toplevel positions in other activities.

Em ploym ent Outlook
The employment outlook for
geographers is likely to be favor­
able through the 1970’s. The de­
mand will be especially strong for
geographers having graduate de­
grees to fill research and teaching
positions in colleges and univer­
sities and research jobs in indus­
try and government. Geographers
with advanced training in fields
such as economics or business
administration also will be in
strong demand.
Colleges and universities are
expected to offer the greatest
number of employment oppor­
tunities as college enrollments in­

crease very rapidly through the
1970’s. Rising interest in foreign
countries and growing awareness
of the value of geography train­
ing in several other fields of
work, such as the foreign service,
should also result in increased
enrollments in geography and in
a need for additional teachers at
the college level. A growing de­
mand for geography teachers in
secondary schools also is antici­
Employment of geographers in
government is also likely to in­
crease. The Federal Government
will need additional personnel in
positions related to regional de­
velopment; urban planning; re­
source management; planning,
construction, and interpretation
of maps; and in intelligence work.
State and local government em­
ployment of geographers also will
expand, particularly in areas such
as conservation, highway plan­
ning, and city, community, and
regional planning and develop­
The number of geographers
employed in private industry also
is expected to rise. Market re­
search and location analysis
should continue to grow rapidly.
Opportunities also should in­
crease in private area planning
and development work.
Since geography is a relatively
small field, job openings are not
expected to be numerous in any
one year. However, unless the
number of persons receiving de­
grees in the field should grow far
qualified geographers, particular­
ly those with advanced degrees,
should find employment readily
through the 1970’s.
E m p l o y m e n t p r o s p e c t s f or
women geographers will be best
in teaching, especially in junior
colleges, women’s colleges, and in
the larger co-educational institu­
tions. Government agencies also
should offer good opportunities

for women in mapping and plan­
ning work.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
In the Federal Government in
late 1968, geographers having the
bachelor’s degree and no experi­
ence could start at $5,732 or
$6,981 a year, depending on their
college record. Geographers hav­
ing 1 or 2 years of graduate teach­
ing could start at $6,981 or
$8,462; and those having the
Ph. D. degree, at $10,203.
In colleges and universities,
salaries of geographers depend on
their teaching rank. (For further
information, see statement on
College and University Teach­
ers.) Geographers in educational
institutions usually have an op­
portunity to earn income from
other sources, such as consulting
work, special research projects,
and publication of books and
and articles.
Working conditions of most
geographers are similar to those
of other teachers and office work­
ers. Geographic research fre­
quently requires extensive travel
in foreign countries, as well as
in the United States.

Sources of Additional Inform ation
Association of American Geogra­
phers, 1146 16th St. NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 052.088)

N ature of the W ork
Historians study the records of
the past and write books and arti­
cles describing and analyzing past



Places of Em ploym ent

Historian examines new museum acquisitions.

events, institutions, ideas, and
people. They may use their
knowledge of the past to explain
current events. They may spe­
cialize in the history of a specific
country or region, or in a par­
ticular period of time— ancient,
medieval, or modern— or in eco­
nomic, cultural, military, or other
phases of history. More historians
specialize in either United States
or modern European history than
in any other field; however, a
growing number are now special­
izing in African, Latin American,
Asian, and Near Eastern history.
Some are experts in fields such
as the history of the labor move­
ment, art, architecture, or other
fields of historical interest. The
number of specialties is constant­
ly growing. The history of busi­
ness and the relation between
technological changes and other

aspects of historical development
are among the newest fields.
Most historians are college
teachers who also do some re­
search, writing, and lecturing.
Some, called archivists, specialize
in identifying, preserving, and
making available documentary
materials of historical value.
Others edit historical materials,
prepare exhibits, write pamphlets
and handbooks, and give talks for
museums, special libraries, and
historical societies. A few serve
as consultants to editors, publish­
ers, and producers of materials
for radio, television, and motion
pictures. Historians employed in
government mainly do research
and administrative work in con­
nection with research projects;
they also prepare studies, articles,
and books.

About 14,000 persons were
employed as historians in 1968.
Approximately 85 percent of all
historians were employed in col­
leges and universities. About 4
percent were employed in Fed­
eral Government agencies, prin­
cipally the National Archives and
the Departments of Defense, In­
terior, and State. Small but grow­
ing numbers were employed by
other government organizations
(State, local, and international),
nonprofit foundations, research
councils, special libraries, State
historical societies, museums, and
by large corporations.
Since history is taught in all
institutions of higher education,
historians are found in all college
communities. About half the his­
torians in the Federal Govern­
ment, including three-fourths of
those working as archivists, are
employed in Washington, D.C.
Historians in other types of em­
ployment usually work in locali­
ties which have museums or li­
braries with collections adequate
for historical research.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Graduate education usually
is necessary for qualification as a
historian. A master’s degree in
history is the minimum require­
ment for appointment to the po­
sition of college instructor; in
many colleges and universities, a
Ph. D. degree is necessary. The
latter is essential for attaining
high-level college teaching, re­
search, and administrative posi­
tions in the field of history. Most
historians in the Federal Govern­
ment and in nonprofit organiza­
tions have a Ph. D. degree or the
equivalent in training and ex­
Although a bachelor’s degree



with a major in history is suffi­
cient training for some beginning
jobs in Federal, State, and local
governments, persons in such jobs
may not be regarded as profes­
sional historians. These beginning
jobs are likely to be concerned
with the collection and preserva­
tion of historical data so that a
knowledge of archival work is
helpful. An undergraduate major
in history is considered helpful
for jobs in international relations
and journalism.

high school teaching. Some also
will be able to qualify as trainees
in administrative and manage­
ment positions in government
agencies, nonprofit foundations,
civic organizations and in private

(D.O.T. 051.088)

N ature of the W ork

Political science is the study of
government— what it is, what it
does, and how and why. Political
scientists are interested in gov­
ernment at every level— local,
The median salary of historians county, State, regional, national,
employed by colleges and univer­ and international. Many of them
sities was about $11,000 in 1968. specialize in one general area of
Em ploym ent O utlook
New assistant professors teaching political science, such as political
for the first time had average theory, American political insti­
Employment in this relatively earnings of about $10,000 a year, tutions and processes, compara­
small occupation is expected to according to the American Coun­ tive political institutions and
continue to increase very rapidly cil on Education. Salaries tended processes, or international rela­
through the 1970’s. Hundreds of to be lower for those persons em­ tions and organizations. Some
new history teachers probably ployed in junior colleges and specialize in a particular type of
will be needed annually to teach teacher’s colleges. In the Federal political institution or in the poli­
new classes made necessary by Government, the starting salary tics of a specific era.
expanding college enrollments, for persons having a bachelor’s
Political scientists are em­
and to replace those faculty mem­ degree was $5,732 in late 1968. ployed most frequently as college
bers who retire, die, or leave for Those having a superior academic and university teachers. They
other types of work. The number record or a year of graduate train­ may combine research, consulta­
of positions for historians in ing were eligible for positions at tion, or administrative duties
archival work also is expected to an annual salary of $6,981. The with teaching. Some teach in
rise, although more slowly than median annual salary for histor­ foreign universities where they
the number in college teaching. ians employed by the Federal prepare students for careers in
Only a slight rise is foreseen in Government in late 1968 was
public administration and assist
the number of historians in other about $12,000.
in the development of training
types of work.
Some historians, particularly programs for government person­
Historians having doctorates those in college teaching, supple­ nel. Many political scientists are
are expected to have very ment their income by summer engaged mainly in research. They
good employment opportunities teaching or writing books or arti­ may make surveys of public
through the 1970’s. Historians cles. A few earn additional in­ opinion on political questions for
who have completed all require­ come from lectures.
private research organizations.
They may study proposed legis­
ments for the Ph. D., except the
dissertation, also are expected to
lation for State or municipal leg­
islative reference bureaus or con­
gressional committees. Others
However, those with no work be­
may analyze the operations of
yond the master’s degree prob­ Sources of Additional Inform ation
government agencies or specialize
ably will encounter considerable
in foreign affairs research, either
competition for professional posi­
Additional information on em­ for government or nongovernment
tions. College graduates having
only the bachelor’s degree will ployment opportunities for his­ organizations. Still others are en­
gaged in administrative or man­
find it difficult to obtain em­ torians may be obtained from:
agerial duties. Some work in
ployment as professional histor­
American Historical Association,
budget analysis, personnel, and
ians. On the other hand, history
400 A St. SE., Washington, D.C.
urban planning, or as legislative
majors who meet certification re­
aids to congressmen and as staff
quirements will find openings in


members of congressional com­

Places of Em ploym ent
About 11,400 political scien­
tists were employed in 1968,
largely in colleges and universi­
ties or in government agencies.
Most of the remainder worked in
research bureaus, civic and tax­
payers associations, and large
business firms.
Political scientists are em­
ployed in nearly every college in
the United States, since courses
in political science or government
are taught widely. Most other
political scientists are located in
Washington, D.C., and in other
large cities, or in State capitals.
Some are employed in overseas
jobs, mainly by the U.S. Depart­
ment of State, particularly for
positions with the Agency for In­
ternational Development and the
U.S. Information Agency.

a position in a Federal Govern­
ment agency concerned with for­
eign affairs.
Completion of all requirements
for the Ph. D. degree, except the
doctoral dissertation, is the usual
prerequisite for appointment as a
college instructor. The Ph. D.
degree generally is required for
advancement to the position of
Some young people having
only a bachelor’s degree in politi­
cal science may qualify as
trainees in public relations or
research work, or in jobs such as
budget analyst, personnel assist­
ant, or investigators in govern­
ment or industry. Many students
having the bachelor’s degree in
political science go on to study
law; others obtain graduate train­
ing in public administration, in­
ternational relations, or other
specialized branches of political

Em ploym ent O utlook
Train in g and O ther Q ualifications
Graduate training generally is
required for employment as a
political scientist. College grad­
uates having a master’s degree
can qualify for various adminis­
trative and research positions in
government and in nonprofit re­
search and civic organizations.
More than 100 colleges and uni­
versities offer graduate degrees
in political science, and over 50
offer graduate degrees in public
administration. Many of these
schools provide field training and
offer internships which enable
the student to obtain experience
in government work. Many uni­
versities award graduate degrees
in international relations, foreign
service, and area studies, as well
as political science in general. A
master’s degree in any of these
fields is very helpful in obtaining

Employment of political sci­
entists probably will increase
very rapidly throughout the
1970’s. The greatest increase will
be in colleges and universities.
The number of political scientists
in administrative jobs in govern­
ment agencies also probably will
rise because of a growing recog­
nition of the value of specialized
training in developing and plan­
ning new programs. Government
agencies concerned with foreign
affairs will continue to employ
many political scientists. A slow
growth is anticipated in employ­
ment of political scientists in pri­
vate industry. In addition to
those required to staff new posi­
tions, many political scientists
will be needed to fill positions
vacated because of retirements,
deaths, or transfers to other fields
of work.
New Ph. D. graduates will

find very good opportunities
in college teaching and good
chances for employment in other
fields as well. Those who have
completed all the requirements
for the doctorate, except the dis­
sertation, are also likely to find
favorable opportunities in college
teaching. Employment opportu­
nities for those having the mas­
ter’s degree will be more limited,
but openings will be available to
them in Federal, State, and mu­
nicipal government agencies; re­
search bureaus; political organ­
izations; and civic and welfare
agencies. For new graduates
having only the bachelor’s de­
gree, opportunities for employ­
ment in the political science field
probably will continue to be very
limited. However, those planning
to continue their studies in law,
foreign affairs, journalism, and
other related fields will find their
political science background very
helpful. Some who meet State
certification requirements will
be able to enter high school

The median salary of political
scientists was $12,000 in 1968,
according to the National Regis­
ter of Scientific and Technical
Personnel. Political scientists
employed in educational insti­
tutions earned a median salary
of $10,800 for the academic year
and $13,500 for the calendar year.
Generally, those persons hav­
ing the doctorate had the higher
In the Federal Government,
the starting salary for political
scientists having a bachelor’s de­
gree was $5,732 a year in late
1968. Those having a superior
academic record or a year of
graduate training were eligible for
positions at an annual salary of
$6,981. Most of the experienced



political scientists in the Federal
Government earned considerably
Some political scientists, par­
ticularly those in college teach­
ing, supplement their income by
doing summer teaching or con­
sulting work.

Sources of Additional Inform ation
Additional information on em­
ployment opportunities in politi­
cal science and public adminis­
tration may be obtained from the
following organization:
American Political Science Asso­
ciation, 1527 New Hampshire
Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.

(D.O.T. 054.088)

N atu re of the W ork
Sociologists study the many
groups which man forms— fami­
lies, tribes, communities, and
States, and a great variety of
social, religious, political, busi­
ness, and other organizations
which have arisen out of living to­
gether. They study the behavior
and interaction of these groups,
trace their origin and growth, and
analyze the influence of group
activities on individual members.
Some sociologists are primarily
concerned with the characteris­
tics of social groups and institu­
tions; others are more interested
in the ways in which individuals
are affected by groups to which
they belong. Many work in social
organization, social psychology,
or rural sociology. Others special­
ize in intergroup relations, family
problems, social effects of urban

living, population studies, or
analyses of public opinion. Some
concentrate on research method­
ology or the conduct of surveys.
Growing numbers apply socio­
logical knowledge and methods in
the areas of penology and cor­
rection, education, public rela­
tions in industry, and regional
and community planning. A few
specialize in medical sociology—
and study the social factors that
affect mental and public health.
Most sociologists are college
teachers, but, as a rule, these
teachers also conduct research.
Sociological research often in­
volves the collection of data,
preparation of case studies, test­
ing, and the conduct of statistical
surveys and laboratory experi­
ments. Sociologists may study in­
dividuals, families, or communi­
ties in an attempt to discover the
causes of social problems— such
as crime, juvenile delinquency, or
poverty; the normal pattern of
family relations; or the different
patterns of living in communities
of varying types and sizes. They
may collect and analyze data
from official government sources
to illustrate population trends,
including changes in age, sex,
race, and other population char­
acteristics; and also the extent
of population movement among
rural, suburban, and urban areas
and among different geographic
areas. Sociologists may conduct
surveys which add to basic socio­
logical knowledge or which may
be used in public opinion, mar­
keting, and advertising research.
Others are specialists in the use
of mass communication facilities,
including radio, television, news­
papers, magazines, and circulars.
Sociologists are sometimes ad­
m i n i s t r a t o r s — s upe rvi s ing re­
search projects or the operation
of social agencies, including fam­
ily and marriage clinics. Others
are consultants, advising on such
diverse problems as the manage­

ment of hospitals for the men­
tally ill, the rehabilitation of
juvenile delinquents, or the de­
velopment of effective advertising
programs to promote public in­
terest in particular products.

Places of Em ploym ent
It is estimated that about
10,000 persons were employed as
sociologists in 1968. Numerous
others were employed in positions
requiring some training in this
field, including many in social,
recreation, and public health
About three-fourths of all so­
ciologists are employed in colleges
and universities. The remainder
work in Federal, State, local, or
international government agen­
cies, in private industry, in wel­
fare or other nonprofit organiza­
tions, or are self-employed.
Since sociology is taught in
most institutions of higher learn­
ing, sociologists may be found in
nearly all college communities.
They are most heavily concen­
trated, however, in large colleges
and universities which offer grad­
uate training in sociology and
opportunities for employment in
research. Medical sociologists are
most often employed on the
teaching or research staffs of
medical colleges and their grad­
uate departments of public health
and preventive medicine. They
also find employment on hospital
staffs and in State and municipal
health departments. Rural so­
ciologists most frequently work at
State universities where they are
likely to have opportunities for
research at the State agricultural
experiment stations attached to
these universities. Some special­
ists in rural sociology and com­
munity development are em­
ployed in foreign countries by
U.S. Government agencies and
private foundations.


T rain in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent

A master’s degree with a major
in sociology usually is the mini­
mum requirement for employ­
ment as a sociologist. The Ph. D.
degree is essential for attaining a
professorship in most colleges or
and is common­
ly required for directors of
major research projects, impor­
tant administrative positions, or
Sociologists with master’s de­
grees may qualify for many ad­
ministrative and research posi­
tions, provided they are trained
in research methods and statis­
tics. They may perform work re­
quiring responsibility for specific
portions of a survey or for the
preparation of analyses and re­
ports under general supervision.
As they gain experience, they
may advance to supervisory po­
sitions in both public and private
agencies. Sociologists with the
master’s degree may qualify for
Most colleges, however, appoint
as instructors only people with
training beyond the master’s
level— frequently the completion
of all requirements for the Ph. D.
degree except the doctoral dis­
sertation. Outstanding graduate
students often can get teaching
or research assistantships which
will provide both financial aid
and valuable experience.
Young people with only a
bachelor’s degree in sociology are
not usually recognized by the
profession as sociologists, al­
though they may be able to se­
cure other jobs in this or related
fields. They may get jobs as in­
terviewers or as research assist­
ants working under close super­
vision. Many are employed as

caseworkers, counselors, recrea­
tion workers, or administrative
assistants in public and private
welfare agencies. Sociology ma­
jors with sufficient training in
statistics may obtain positions as
beginning statisticians. Those
who meet State certification re­
quirements may enter high school
The choice of a graduate school
is very important for people plan­
ning to become sociologists. Stu­
dents interested in research
should select schools which em­
phasize training in research
methods and statistics, and pro­
vide opportunities to gain prac­
tical experience in research work.
Professors and chairmen of so­
ciology departments frequently
aid in the placement of graduates.

Em ploym ent O utlook

Employment opportunities for
sociologists are expected to in­
crease substantially through the
1970’s. Because of expanding en­
rollments, the majority of new
positions will be in college teach­
ing. However, some openings will
result from the growing trend to
include sociology courses in the
curricula of other professions,
such as medicine, law, and educa­
tion. An estimated 450 teachers
may be needed each year, on the
average, to fill new positions and
to replace college faculty mem­
bers who leave the profession. A
substantial rise in the number of
sociologists in nonteaching fields
is anticipated to cope with social
and welfare problems and to im­
plement educational and social
legislation designed to develop
human resources.
Sociologists well trained in re­
search methods and advanced sta­
tistics will have the widest choice

of jobs. Employment opportuni­
ties are also expected to be very
good for research workers in rural
sociology, community develop­
ment, population analysis, public
opinion research, and various
branches of medical sociology.
Employment opportunities also
will increase in other applied
fields, such as the study of juv­
enile delinquency and education.
Some openings are anticipated in
a relatively new area, the soci­
ology of law.
The number of sociologists
holding the doctor’s degree is ex­
pected to rise less rapidly than
the number of positions through
the 1970’s. As a result, employ­
ment opportunities for both Ph.
D .’s, and those who have com­
pleted all requirements for the
doctorate except the dissertation
will probably be very good during
this period. Inexperienced grad­
uates with only the master’s de­
gree— with the exception of those
specifically trained in research
methods— will probably continue
to face considerable competition
for positions as professional


New assistant professors of
sociology received a median an­
nual salary of $10,200 for the
school year 1968-1969, according
to a survey of the American
Council on Education. Experi­
enced teaching faculty in soci­
ology earned a median salary of
$13,500 in 1968, and sociologists
in non-profit organizations and
industry had average salaries of
$14,500 and $15,000 respectively,
according to the National Science
Foundation. In the Federal Goverment, the beginning salary in
1968 for sociologists having a


master’s degree and a superior
academic record was $8,462 in
late 1968. Salaries of experienced
sociologists in the Federal Gov­
ernment generally ranged be­
tween $10,200 and $19,780 a

In general, sociologists with the
Ph. D. degree earn substantially
higher salaries than those with
the master’s degree. Many soci­
ologists supplement their regular
salaries with earnings from other

sources. Summer teaching and
consulting work are the principal
sources of income. Sociologists
employed by colleges and univer­
sities are the most likely to have
additional earnings.



Teaching is the largest of the
professions. About 2.5 million
men and women were full-time
teachers in the Nation’s elemen­
tary schools, secondary schools,
and colleges and universities in
the 1968-69 school year. In addi­

schools. Many other people
taught in adult education and
recreation programs.

tion, thousands taught part time,
among them were many scien­
tists, physicians, accountants,
members of other professions
and graduate students. Similarly,
large numbers of craftsmen in­
structed part time in vocational

College Enrollments W ill Show The Fastest G ro w th Rate
Between 1968 A n d 1980 f Rising To O v e r 10 M illion











Total Teaching Staff W ill Expand By O n e -F ifth To
O v e r 2.9 M illion During The 1968-80 Period

No other profession offers so
many employment opportunities
for women. About 1.6 million
women are teachers, more than
twice the number employed in
nursing, the second largest field
of professional employment for
women. Women teachers far out­
number men in kindergarten and
elementary schools and hold al­
most half the teaching positions
in secondary (junior and senior
high) schools. However, only
about one-fourth of all college
and university teachers are
The number of teachers needed
by the Nation’s schools depends
chiefly on the number of stu­
dents enrolled. At the beginning
of the 1968-69 school year, 57.1
million people— more than onefourth of the country’s total
population— were enrolled in the
Nation’s schools and colleges.
Through the 1970’s, continued
growth of the school and college
population and continued in­
creases in high school and college
attendance rates are expected to
produce a moderate increase in
school enrollments and a very
rapid rate of increase in college
enrollments. Total enrollments in
all schools and colleges combined,
according to U.S. Office of Edu­
cation estimates, may reach al­
most 63 million by 1980.
T o staff the new classrooms
that must be provided for the ris­
ing numbers of students, and to
continue to improve the studentteacher ratio, the Nation’s full­
time teaching staff in 1980 will
need to be about one-tenth or al­
most 280,000 more than in 1968.
An even larger number of teach­
ers— perhaps as many as 2.2 mil­
lion— will be required to replace
those who leave the profession.
The outlook for teachers at
each educational level— in ele­
mentary and secondary schools


and also in colleges and universi­
ties— is discussed in the following

(D.O.T. 092.228)

N ature of the W ork
Elementary school teaching is
the largest field of professional
employment for women and is
a growing field for men. In the
1968-69 school year, over 1.2 mil­
lion kindergarten and elementary
teachers were employed. In addi­
tion, an estimated 60,000 princi­
pals and supervisors were work­
ing in public and private ele­
mentary schools.
Kindergarten teachers conduct
a program of education for young
children. Most frequently, they

divide the schoolday between two
different groups, teaching a morn­
ing and an afternoon class. Some,
however, may work with one
group all day. They provide the
children with experiences in play,
music, artwork, stories, and
poetry; and introduce them to
science, numbers, language, and
social studies. In a variety of
ways, kindergarten teachers help
to develop children’s curiosity
and zeal for learning, as well as
to stimulate their ability to think.
After school hours, kindergarten
teachers may plan the next day’s
work, prepare the children’s
school records, confer with par­
ents or professional personnel
concerning individual children,
participate in teachers’ in-service
activities, and locate and become
familiar with teaching resources.
Elementary school teachers
usually work with one group of
pupils during the entire schoolday, teaching several subjects
and supervising various activities
such as lunch and play periods.
In some school systems, however,

teachers in the upper elementary
grades may teach one or two sub­
jects to several groups of children.
Many school systems also employ
special teachers to give instruc­
tion and to assist classroom
teachers in certain subjects such
as art, music, physical education,
industrial arts, foreign languages,
and homemaking. Teachers in
schools which have only a few
students, largely in rural areas,
may be required to teach all sub­
jects in several grades. Programed
instruction, including teaching
machines and “ talking typewrit­
ers,” and the increasing use of
teacher aids are new develop­
ments that are freeing growing
numbers of elementary school
and kindergarten teachers from
routine duties and allowing them
to give more individual attention
to their students.

Places of Em ploym ent
Elementary school teachers are
employed in all cities, towns, vil­
lages, and in rural areas. As a re­
sult of reorganization of school
districts, many teachers are em­
ployed in consolidated schools in
small towns. Only about 6,500
teach in one-room schools.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
All States require that teach­
ers in the public schools have a
certificate. Several States require
certification for teachers in paro­
chial and other private elemen­
tary schools.
In 1968, 46 States and the Dis­
trict of Columbia issued regular
teaching certificates only to per­
sons having at least 4 years of
approved college preparation.
Teacher certification in most
States also requires professional



States require that teachers work
toward a fifth year or master’s
degree within a certain number
of years. Some school systems
have higher educational require­
ments than those for State
In nearly all States, certificates
are issued by State departments
of education on the basis of trans­
scripts of credits and recommen­
dations from approved colleges
and universities. Certificates may
be issued to teachers from other
States if the prescribed programs
have been completed at accred­
ited colleges or if the teachers
meet the academic and other re­
quirements of the State to which
they are applying. Under certain
conditions usually related to a
shortage of qualified teachers,
most States will issue emergency
or temporary certificates to par­
tially prepared teachers. How­
ever, these certificates must be
renewed annually.
All States have certain addi­
tional requirements for public
school teaching. For example,
they may require a health certif­
icate, evidence of citizenship, or
an oath of allegiance. The pros­
pective teacher should inquire
about the specific requirements
of the area in which he plans to
work by writing to the State de­
partment of education or to the
superintendent of the local school
Most institutions of higher
education offer teacher prepara­
tion. In a 4-year teacher-prepa­
ration curriculum, prospective ele­
mentary school teachers spend
about one-fourth of the time
in professional courses— learning
about children, the place of the
school in the community, and
materials and methods of in­
struction— in c lu d in g s t u d e n t
teaching in an actual school situ­
ation; the remainder of their time
is devoted to liberal arts subjects.
Some study of the process of

learning and human behavior usu­
ally is included.
After gaining experience, teach­
ers will find opportunities for ad­
vancement through annual salary
increases in the same school sys­
tem; by transferring to a system
with a higher salary schedule
which recognizes e x p e r i e n c e
gained in another school system;
by appointment to a supervisory,
administrative, or specialized po­
sition in the school system; or by
transferring to higher levels of
teaching for which their training
and experience may qualify them.
Among the most important
personal qualifications for ele­
mentary school teaching are an
enjoyment and understanding of
children. Teachers must be pa­
tient and self-disciplined, and

have high standards of personal
conduct. A broad knowledge and
appreciation of the arts, sciences,
history, and literature also are
valuable. Civic, social, and recrea­
tional activities of teachers may
be influenced ,and sometimes are
restricted, by the customs and at­
titudes of their community.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Young people preparing to
teach in elementary schools will
find a large number of teaching
positions available— an estimated
1.2 million— between 1968 and
1980. By far the largest number
of teachers, about 1.1 million, will
be needed to replace those who
retire, die, or leave the profession
for other reasons. Although en­
rollments in 1980 are expected to
be at about the same level as in
1968, teaching positions are ex­
pected to grow by about 40,000
during the period to reduce the
pupil-teacher ratio. In addition,
about 56,500 teachers will be
needed to replace persons not
meeting certification
ments. Increasing emphasis on
the education of very young chil­
dren, children in low-income
areas, the mentally retarded, and
other groups needing special at­
tention may result in larger en­
rollments and smaller studentteacher ratios than indicated
above, with an accompanying in­
crease in the number of teachers
The number of persons quali­
fied to teach in elementary
schools may exceed the number of
openings if present enrollment
projections and trends in the
number of newly trained teachers
continues. As a result, young peo­
ple seeking their first teaching
assignment may find schools
placing great emphasis on their
academic work and the quality
of their training. Nevertheless,

employment opportunities may
be very favorable in urban ghettos,
rural districts, and in all geogra­
phic areas where teaching salaries
are low and better paying oppor­
tunities are available in other
fields in the community. The out­
look for teachers who are trained
to work with children having vari­
ous handicaps also will be

Earnings and W orking Conditions
The average salary for class­
room teachers in public elemen­
t a r y s c h o o l s , a c c o r d i n g to
National Education Association
(NEA) estimates, was $7,676 in
1968-69. In the four highest pay­
ing States (Alaska, California,
Michigan, and Illinois), teachers’
salaries averaged $8,800 or more;
in the six States having the low­
est salaries (South Dakota, North
Dakota, Mississippi, South Caro­
lina, Alabama, and Idaho), they
were less than $6,000. An in­
creasing number of States (31
in the 1968-69 academic year)
have established minimum salary
Although the average time
spent in the classroom (less than
6 hours) usually is less than the
average workday in most other
o c c u p a t i o n s , t he e l e m e n t a r y
school teacher must spend addi­
tional time each day giving indi­
vidual help, planning work, pre­
paring instructional materials,
developing tests, checking papers,
making out reports, and keeping
records. Conferences with par­
ents, meetings with school super­
visors, and other professional ac­
tivities also frequently occur after
classroom hours.
Since most schools are in ses­
sion less than 12 months a year,
teachers often take courses for
professional growth or work at
other jobs during the summer.
Some school systems, however,


are extending the teachers’ work­
ing year to 12 months, including a
1-month vacation in the summer.
Employment in teaching is
steady and usually is not affected
by changes in business conditions.
Tenure provisions protect teach­
ers from arbitrary dismissal. Pen­
sion and sick leave plans are
common, and a growing number
of school systems grant other
types of leave with pay. An in­
creasing number of teachers are
being represented by professional
teacher associations or by unions
that bargain collectively for them
on wages, hours, and other con­
ditions of employment.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Information on schools and cer­
tification requirements is avail­
able from the State department
of education at each State capital.
Information on the Teacher
Corps, internships, graduate fel­
lowships, and other information

on teaching may

be obtained

U.S. Department of Health, Edu­
cation, and Welfare, Office of
Education, Washington, D.C.
20202 .

Other sources of general in­
formation are:
American Federation of Teachers,
716 North Rush St., Chicago,
1 1 60611.
National Commission on Teacher
Education and Professional
Standards, National Education
Association, 1201 16th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 091.118 through .228)

N atu re of th e W ork
Secondary school teachers—
those employed in junior and



senior high schools— usually spe­
cialize in a particular subject.
They teach several classes every
day, either in their main subject,
in related subjects, or both. The
most frequent combinations are
English and history or other so­
cial sciences; mathematics and
general science; and chemistry
and biology or general science.
Teachers in some fields, such as
commercial subjects, driver edu­
cation, music, art, and industrial
arts, less frequently conduct
classes in other subjects. The
teaching method may vary from
formal lectures to free discus­
sions, depending on the subject
and the students’ needs and ap­
titudes. The choice of method
usually is left to the teacher.
Besides giving classroom in­
struction, secondary school teach­
ers plan and develop teaching
materials, develop and correct
tests, keep records and make out
reports, consult with parents,
supervise study halls, and per­
form other duties. The growing
use of teaching machines, pro­
grammed instruction, and teacher
aids relieves the teacher of many
routine tasks. Many teachers su­
pervise student activities, such as
clubs and social affairs— some­
times after regular school hours.
Maintaining good relations with
parents and the community is an
important aspect of their jobs.
About 940,000 teachers were
employed in the Nation’s public
and private secondary schools in
1968-69. Slightly more than half
the classroom teachers in public
secondary schools were men. Men
far outnumber women in super­
visory and administrative posi­
tions in both public and private
Places of Em ploym ent
The number of grades in sec­
ondary schools depends on how

the local school system is organ­
ized. Many secondary school
teachers are employed in 6-year
combined j u n i o r - s e n i o r high
schools (grades 7-12); others are
in separate junior high schools of
either two or three grades (7-8 or
7-9); and the remainder teach in
4-year high schools (grades 9-12)
and in senior high schools (grades

10- 12).
T rain in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
In every State, a certificate is
required for public secondary
school teaching. To qualify for
this certificate, the prospective
teacher must have at least the
equivalent of one-half year of
education courses, including prac­
tice teaching, plus professional
courses in one or more subjects
commonly taught in secondary
Ten States require a fifth year
of study or qualification for a
master’s degree within a specified
period following the teacher’s be­
ginning e m p l o y m e n t . Many
school systems, especially in large
cities, have requirements beyond
those needed for State certifica­
tion. Some systems require ad­
ditional educational preparation,
successful teaching exeperience,
or special personal qualifications.
College students preparing for
secondary school teaching usually
devote about one-third of the 4year course to their major, which
may be in a single subject or a
group of related subjects. About
one-sixth of the time is spent in
education courses— learning
about children, the place of the
school in the community, and
materials and methods of instruc­
tion— including student teaching
in an actual school situation. The
remaining time is devoted to gen­
eral or liberal arts courses. Ac­
cepted teacher-preparation curriculums are offered by universi­

ties with schools of education, by
colleges with strong education
departments and adequate prac­
tice-teaching facilities, and by
teachers’ colleges.
Although certification require­
ments vary among the States,
the person who is well prepared
for secondary school teaching in
one State usually has little trou­
ble meeting requirements in an­
other State. A well-qualified
teacher ordinarily can obtain
temporary certification in a State
while preparing to meet its addi­
tional requirements.
Qualified secondary school
teachers may advance to depart­
ment heads, supervisors, assistant
principals, principals, superin­
tendents, or other administrative
officers as openings occur. At
least 1 year of professional edu­
cation beyond the bachelor’s de­
gree and several years of success­
ful classroom teaching are re­
quired for most supervisory and
administrative positions. Often,
a doctorate is required for ap­
pointment as superintendent.
Some experienced teachers are
assigned as part- or full-time
guidance counselors or as teach­
ers of handicapped or other spe­
cial groups of children. Usually,
additional preparation and some­
times special certificates are re­
quired for these assignments.
Probably the most important
personal qualifications for sec­
ondary school teaching are an
appreciation and understanding
of adolescent children. Patience
and self-discipline are desirable
traits, as are high standards of
personal conduct. In addition to
an enthusiasm for the subjects
they teach, a broad knowledge
and appreciation of the arts, sci­
ences, history, and literature also
are desirable. Civic, social, and
recreational activities of teachers
may be influenced, and some­
times restricted, by the customs
and attitudes of their community.



Em ploym ent O utlook
About 1.2 million new second­
ary school teachers will be needed
between 1968 and 1980 for en­
rollment growth and replacement
of teachers who retire, marry, or
leave the field for other reasons.
The larger group, almost 90 per­
cent of the total, will be required
for replacement. In addition,
34,000 will be needed to replace
persons who do not meet certifi­
cation requirements.
A slowing of enrollment growth
in secondary schools is expected
to be accompanied by a simul­
taneous increase in the number
of college graduates trained for
teaching. If the total number of
degrees awarded increases as pro­
jected by the U.S. Office of Edu­
cation, and if the proportion of
graduates prepared to teach in
secondary schools continues
through the 1970’s, about the
same as in the past, the total
number of new graduates avail­
able for secondary school teach­
ing positions will increase signi­
ficantly. In addition, many wom­
en who wish to reenter teaching
after a period of full-time home­
making, will be available to fill
teacher vacancies. Thus, it is
likely that new graduates may face
increasing competition for entry
positions in secondary teaching.
Young people planning to teach,
therefore, are likely to find school
boards placing much greater em­
phasis on the type and quality
of an applicant’s professional
training and academic perform­
ance. Even with an improvement
in the supply situation, however,
opportunities will be very favor­
able in some geographic areas and
in subject fields such as the phys­
ical sciences, for which the de­
mand in private industry and
government is also great. In addi­
tion, increased demands for teach­
ers trained in the education of chil­
dren who are mentally retarded

or physically handicapped are ex­
pected. Considerable additional
demand for teachers also may be
generated by Federal legislation
that provides for supplementary
educational centers and services
and the Teacher Corps. These
extensive additions to present
teaching services will be avail­
able to both public and private
school children.
Further specialized training
may qualify many teachers who
are prepared for secondary school
teaching for positions in voca­
tional and technical schools and
in junior colleges, where demand
for teachers is expected to be
especially great in future years.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
The average annual salary for
all classroom teachers in public
secondary schools was about
$8,160 in 1968-69, according to
estimates by the National Edu­
cation Association. In Alaska,
California, Illinois, and Michigan,
average salaries were $9,500 or
more. The average was less than
$6,200 in three States, Mississip­
pi, Alabama, and South Carolina.
At the beginning of the 1968-69
academic year, 31 States had
minimum teacher salary laws.
Teachers of vocational educa­
tion, physical education, and
other special subjects often re­
ceive higher salaries than other
teachers. Under salary schedules
in effect in most school systems,
teachers in all subject fields get
regular salary increases as they
gain experience and additional
Teachers’ salaries usually are
lower in towns and small cities
than in larger cities or suburbs,
but higher educational and ex­
perience requirements are likely
to prevail in large city school sys­
tems. On the average, salaries of
principals in the largest cities,

where administrative responsibil­
ities are great, are much higher
than in towns and small cities.
Salaries of superintendents are
$30,000 or more in many large
school systems.
Teachers often add to their in­
comes by teaching in summer
school, working as camp and rec­
reational counselors, or doing
other work. Some teachers sup­
plement their incomes during the
regular school year. They may
teach in adult or evening classes,
work part-time in business or
industry, or write for publication.
Some form of retirement is pro­
vided for most teachers. Nearly
all school systems have some pro­
vision for sick leave, and an in­
creasing number grant other
types of leave with pay.
According to a recent survey,
the average workweek of second­
ary school teachers is about 46
hours a week, of which 2 3 ^
hours are spent in classroom in­
struction and the remainder in
out-of-class instruction and other
duties. An increasing number of
teachers is represented by pro­
fessional teacher associations or
by unions that bargain collective*
ly for them on wages, hours, and
other conditions of employment.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Information on schools and
certification requirem ents is
available from the State depart­
ment of education at the State
Information on the Teacher
Corps, internships, graduate fel­
lowships, and other information
on teaching may be obtained
U.S. Department of Health, Edu­
cation, and Welfare, Office of
Education, Washington, D.C.

Other sources of information


American Federation of Teachers,
716 North Rush St., Chicago,
11 . 60611.
National Commission on Teacher
Education and Professional
Standards, National Education
Association, 1201 16th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 090.168 and .228)

N ature of the W ork
About 600,000 teachers were
employed in the Nation’s 2,500
colleges and universities in the
fall of 1968. Approximately
286,000 were full-time teachers
of degree credit courses; in addi­
tion, 142,000 taught such courses
part-time. The remainder in­
cluded junior instructional staff
(primarily graduate students),
and staff who taught non-degree

courses and gave instruction by
television, radio, or mail.
Most full-time college and uni­
versity teachers instruct in the
social sciences, teacher educa­
tion, English and journalism,
fine arts, mathematics, physical
or biological sciences, engineer­
ing, or the health professions.
Teaching duties may include
preparing and delivering lectures,
leading class discussions, direct­
ing graduate students in teaching
freshman courses, preparing tests
and instruction materials, coun­
seling and assisting individual
students, and checking and grad­
ing assignments and tests. Grad­
ing sometimes is done by teach­
ing assistants or, for objective
tests, by computers. In many 4year institutions, the usual teach­
ing load is 12 to 15 hours a week.
Associate professors and full pro­
fessors— who advise graduate stu­
dents and often engage actively
in research— may spend only 6 to
8 hours a week in actual class­
room work.
In addition to teaching, many

college teachers conduct or direct
research, write for publication, or
aid in college administration.
Some act as consultants to busi­
ness, industrial, scientific, or gov­
ernment organizations.

Places of Em ploym ent
About nine-tenths of all fulland part-time teachers were em­
ployed by universities and 4-year
colleges in 1968, most of the re­
mainder were in 2-year institu­
Men predominate in college
teaching and hold more than ninetenths of the positions in engi­
neering, the physical sciences,
agriculture, and law. However,
most teachers in nursing, home
economics, and library science are
College teachers are concen­
trated in the States having the
largest college enrollments. In
the fall of 1968, resident and ex­
tension enrollments exceeded 1.1
million in California and were
over 700,000 in New York. Seven
other States had enrollments of
from 200,000 to 400,000; Illinois,
Texas, Pennsylvania, Michigan,
Ohio, Massachusetts, and Florida.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
To qualify for most beginning
positions, applicants must have
at least the master’s degree, and
for many, they must have com­
pleted all requirements for the
doctorate except the dissertation.
A number of States require State
certification to teach in public
2-year colleges. To obtain such a
certificate, the master’s degree
and certain courses in education
are required.
T o enter college teaching, spe­
cialization in some subject field
is necessary. In addition, under-

graduate courses in the humani­
ties, social sciences, natural
sciences, and the mastery of at
least one foreign language are
important. Intensive instruction
in the selected field of specializa­
tion is given in graduate school.
Outstanding graduate students
receive valuable e x p e r i e n c e
through part-time teaching assistantships. Some students develop
teaching competence by partici­
pating in informal seminars or
meetings on teaching methods.
Some prospective college teach­
ers, especially those in education
departments and junior colleges,
gain experience in high school
Most 4-year colleges and uni­
versities recognize four academic
ranks: Instructor, assistant pro­
fessor, associate professor, and
full professor. A National Educa­
tion Association survey indicates
that about one-quarter of the
teaching faculty are professors,
another quarter associate profes­
sors, over 30 percent are assistant
professors, and almost 20 percent
are instructors or lecturers.
Few institutions grant tenure
(permanent appointment) to in­
structors having less than 3 years
of service. Advancement to as­
sociate professorship generally
requires considerable teaching
experience and often a doctor’s
degree. In some institutions, re­
search and publication also may
be required. A doctor’s degree
and 7 or more years of teaching
experience usually are necessary
to become a full professor. Out­
standing achievements, generally
through research or publications,
hastens advancement.
Beginning teachers in fields
that are in strong demand, such
as engineering, mathematics, and
medicine, sometimes are ap­
pointed at higher ranks than
other teachers having comparable
experience and education. A doc­
tor’s degree is particularly re­


quired for advancement in the
biological sciences, physical sci­
ences, psychology, social sciences,
philosophy, and religion; it is
least likely to be a requirement
in business and commerce, engi­
neering, fine arts, health and
physical education, and home
Fellowships are available under
the National Defense Education
Act to candidates for doctoral
degrees who plan careers in col­
lege or university teaching. The
Education Professions Develop­
ment Act of 1967 authorizes
Federally supported fellowships
for master’s degree study for
those planning to enter or already
engaged in teaching at two-year
colleges, four-year colleges, and

E m ploym ent O utlook

College teaching opportunities
are expected to be good for those
having doctoral degrees or having
completed all requirements for
the doctorate except the disserta­
tion. Opportunities also will be
favorable for new entrants having
the master’s degree, particularly
in 2-year colleges.
A great increase in college en­
rollment is in prospect. The num­
ber of young people in the 18- to
21-year age group is expected to
rise by nearly 2.7 million between
1968 and 1980. At the same time,
larger proportions of young people
of college age will attend college
— owing to rising family income,
recent Federal legislation to help
needy college students, and
greater demand for college-train­
ed personnel. The anticipated in­
crease in the number of com­
munity colleges and schools of­
fering evening classes also will
permit more young people and
adults to attend college. If the

proportion of young people at­
tending college continues to in­
crease and facilities are available,
college enrollments for degree
credit will increase from about
6.8 million in 1968 to about 10.2
million in 1980, according to the
U.S. Office of Education.
Taking all these factors into
account, the Office of Education
estimates that the full-time col­
lege teaching staff for resident
degree credit courses will increase
from 286,000 in 1968 to 394,000
in 1980, or by 38 percent. In
addition to the teachers needed
to take care of the enrollment
growth, an annual average of
about 8,200 teachers may be
needed to replace those who re­
tire or die.
The supply of new college
teachers, which consists largely
of students receiving graduate
degrees, also is expected to grow.
The U.S. Office of Education
estimates that the number of
conferred through
1980, will average about 37,000
a year, and the number of mas­
ter’s degrees about 235,000 an­
nually. It is difficult, however,
to say how many of these will
enter teaching. Industry, govern­
ment, and nonprofit organizations
also offer employment opportuni­
ties to persons having graduate
degrees, often at higher salaries
than colleges.
The supply and quality of col­
lege teachers may be improved in
the years ahead by recent Federal
legislation that makes fellowships
available to qualifed graduate
students, and junior members of
the faculty who are interested in
teaching in colleges and univer­
sities. Nevertheless the number of
well-qualified persons available
for teaching positions probably
will continue to be insufficient to
meet the demand in some subject
fields through the 1970’s.


Earnings and W orking Conditions
The median salary of full-time
faculty who were engaged pri­
marily in teaching in 4-year in­
stitutions was estimated at
$10,885 in 1968-69 (9 m o.),
based on National Education As­
sociation data. Salaries generally
were higher in universities than
in colleges, and highest in large
universities. Highest median sal­
aries were paid in the Far West
and New England. Estimated
median salaries by rank were:
Professor .........
Associate Professor.................. 12,151
Assistant Professor .................. 10,064
Instructor or Lecturer.............. 7,905

The median salary paid full­
time faculty in public 2-year col­
leges in 1968-69 was estimated at
$9,605. Teachers in nonpublic 2year colleges received an esti­
mated median salary of $7,662.
Faculty members who teach
year round usually receive high­
er salaries than those employed
for the academic year only.
Teachers in professional schools
(medicine, dentistry, etc.) and
graduate schools generally re­
ceive higher salaries than teachers
in other colleges.
Some faculty members supple­
ment their regular salaries with
earnings from a variety of sources.
The chief source is additional
teaching (often in summer ses­

sions). Consulting work may be a
major source of extra income, par­
ticularly in engineering and phy­
sical sciences; research grants are
now common, especially in many
large, well-known universities;
fees for lecturing and royalties on
publications are other possible
sources of income. Opportunities
for additional income usually in­
crease as the faculty member
gains recognition. For most col­
lege teachers, additional income
is small.
Retirement plans differ con­
siderably among institutions, but
an increasing number are partici­
pating in the Government social
security program, often as an
accompaniment to plans of their
own. The greatest number of in­
stitutions have set 65 years as the
normal retirement age, although
most of these extend the age
limit if desired.
Many colleges and universities
provide benefits such as: Sab­
batical leaves of absence— typi­
cally, 1 year’s leave with half salar or a half-year’s leave at full
salary after 6 or 7 years of em­
ployment; other types of leave for
advanced study; life, sickness,
and accident insurance; reduced
tuition charges or cash-tuition
grants for children of faculty
members; housing allowances;
travel funds for attending pro­





Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Information on college teach­
ing as a career is available from:
U.S. Department of Health, Edu­
cation, and Welfare, Office of
Education, Washington, D.C.

American Association of Univer­
sity Professors, 1785 Massachu­
setts Ave. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.
American Council on Education,
1785 Massachusetts Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.
American Federation of Teachers,
716 North Rush St., Chicago,
1 1 60611.
National Education Association,
1201 16th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.

Professional societies in the
various subject fields will gener­
ally provide information on
teaching requirements and em­
ployment opportunities in their
particular fields. Names and ad­
dresses of societies are given
in the statements on specific
professions elsewhere in the




Technician occupations are
growing rapidly, steming from the
needs of an expanding and in­
creasingly technical economy and
the growing recognition of the
importance of technicians. This
chapter is concerned with the
technicians who work with engi­
neers and scientists, and with
draftsmen, also usually con­
sidered technicians. Information
on surveyors, often classified as
technicians, and on technical
occupations in the health field—
including dental laboratory tech­
nicians, radiological technolo­
gists, and dental hygienists— is


(D.O.T. .002 through .029)

N ature of the W ork
The term “ technician,” as used
here, refers to workers whose
jobs require both knowledge and
use of scientific and mathemati­
cal theory; specialized education
or training in some aspect of
technology or science; and who,
as a rule, work directly with sci­
entists and engineers. There is no
generally accepted definition of
the term “ technician” . For ex­
ample, it is used by employers to
refer to workers in a great variety
of jobs, requiring a wide range of
education and training. The term
is applied to employees doing
relatively routine work, to per­
sons performing work requiring
skills within a limited sphere, and
to persons doing highly technical
work, among them assistants to

engineers and scientists.
The workers’ job titles may be
descriptive of their technical level
(for example, biological aid, or
engineering technician) or their
work activity (for example),
quality-control technician, pro­
duction analyst, tool designer,
materials tester, or time-study
analyst). Some employees use the
word “ technician,” preceded by
adjectives, such as mechanical,
electrical, electronics, or chemi­
cal, which describes areas of
technology in which their per­
sonnel are employed.
The jobs of engineering and sci­
ence technicians are more limited
than those of the professional
engineer or scientist, and have a
Many technician jobs require the
ability to analyze and solve en­
gineering and science problems
and to prepare formal reports on
experiments, tests, or other proj­
ects. Most of these jobs require
some aptitude in mathematics;
others, the ability to visualize
objects and to make sketches and
drawings. Design jobs often re­
quire creative ability. Many
technician jobs require some fa­
miliarity with one or more of the
skilled trades, although not the
ability to perform as a craftsman.
Others demand extensive knowl­
edge of industrial machinery,
tools, equipment, and processes.
Some jobs held by these techicians are supervisory and require
both technical knowledge and the
ability to supervise people.
In carrying out their assign­
ments, engineering and science
technicians frequently use com­
plex electronic and mechanical in­
struments, experimental labora­
tory apparatus, and drafting in­
struments. Almost all of the tech­
nicians whose jobs are described
in this statement must be able

to use engineering handbooks and
computing devices, such as the
slide rule or calculating machine.

Technician prepares radiation study.

Technicians engage in virtually
every aspect of engineering and
scientific work. In research, devel­
opment, and design, one of the
largest areas of employment,
they conduct experiments or
tests; set up, calibrate, and oper­
ate instruments; and make cal­
culations. They also assist sci­
entists and engineers in develop­
ing experimental equipment and
models by making drawings and
sketches and, under the engi­
neer’s direction, frequently do
some design work.
Technicians also work in jobs
related to production, usually folby the engineer or scientist, but
lowing a program course laid out
often without close supervision.
They may aid in the various
phases of production operation,
such as working out specifications
for materials and methods of
manufacture, devising tests to in205

sure quality control of products, or
making time-and-motion studies
(timing and analyzing the work­
er’s movements) designed to im­
prove the efficiency of a particu­
lar operation. They also may
perform liaison work between en­
gineering and production or other
Technicians often do work that
might otherwise have to be done
by engineers. They may serve as
technical sales or field repre­
sentatives of manufacturers; adise on installation and mainte­
nance problems; or write specifi­
cations and technical manuals.
(See statement on Technical
The following sections describe
a number of technological fields
in which engineering and science
technicians are trained and em­
Aeronautical Technology. Tech­
nicians specializing in this area of
technology work with engineers
and scientists in many phases of
the design and production of air­
craft, helicopters, rockets, guided
missiles, and spacecraft. Many
aid engineers in preparing layouts
of structures, control systems, or
equipment installations by col­
lecting information, making cal­
culations, and performing many
other tasks. They work on proj­
ects involving stress analysis,
aerodynamics, structural design,
flight test evaluation, or weight
control. For example, under the
direction of an engineer, a tech­
nician might estimate weight fac­
tors, centers of gravity, and other
items affecting load capacity of
an airplane or missile. Other tech­
nicians working on engineering
projects prepare or check draw­
ings for technical accuracy, prac­
ticability, and economy.
Technicians sometimes help to
estimate the cost of the mate­
rials and labor needed to manu­
facture aircraft and missies. They
also may be responsible for liai­


son between the engineers who do
the planning and development
work, and the craftsmen who con­
vert the engineers’ ideas into fin­
ished products. For example, as
an aircraft or missile is built, the
liaison technician checks it for
conformance to specifications,
keeps the engineer informed as to
progress, and investigates any
production engineering problems
that arise. He sometimes recom­
mends minor changes in the de­
sign, the materials, or the method
of fabrication.
Other aeronautical technicians
are employed as manufacturer’s
field service representatives, serv­
ing as the link between their com­
pany and the military, commer­
cial airlines, and other customers.
Technicians often prepare in­
catalogs, and other technical ma­
terials. (See statements on Aero­
space Engineers and Airplane
Mechanics, and chapter on Occu­
pations in Aircraft, Missile, and
Spacecraft Manufacturing.)

Air-Conditioning, Heating, and
Refrigeration Technology. Airconditioning technology involves
the control of air including its
heating, cooling, humidity, clean­
liness, and movement. Techni­
cians in this field often become
specialists in one area of work,
such as refrigeration, and some­
times in a particular type of ac­
tivity, such as research and de­
velopment or design of layouts
for heating, cooling, or refrigera­
tion systems.
In the manufacture of air-con­
ditioning, heating, and refrigera­
tion equipment, technicians work
in research and engineering de­
partments, usually as aids to en­
gineers and scientists. They may
be assigned to such jobs as devis­
ing methods for testing equip­
ment or analyzing production
methods. Technically trained per­
sonnel also assist in designing the
air-conditioning, heating, or re­

frigeration systems for a partic­
ular office, store, or other loca­
tion and prepare instructions for
their installation. In designing
the layout for an air-conditioning
or heating system, they must de­
termine the cooling or heating
requirements, decide what kind
of equipment is most suitable,
and estimate costs. Technicians
employed as salesmen by equip­
ment manufacturers must be able
to supply contractors who design
and install systems with informa­
tion on such technical subjects as
installation, maintenance, operat­
ing costs, and expected perform­
ance of equipment. (See also
statement on Refrigeration and
Air-Conditioning Mechanics.)
Chemical Technology. Techni­
cians specializing in this area
work mainly with chemists and
chemical engineers in the develop­
ment, production, sale, and utili­
zation of chemical and related
products and equipment. The
field of chemistry is so broad that
chemical technicians often be­
come specialists in the problems
of a particular industry, such as
food processing, or in a partic­
ular activity such as quality
work in research and develop­
ment, testing, or other labora­
tory work. They conduct experi­
ments and tabulate and analyze
the results. In testing work, tech­
nicians make chemical tests of
materials to determine whether
the materials meet specifications
or whether particular substances
are present and, if so, in what
quantities. They may, for exam­
ple, analyze steel for carbon,
phosphorous, and sulfur content,
or water for the amount of silica,
iron, and calcium present. They
also perform experiments to de­
termine the characteristics of sub­
stances such as the specific grav­
ity and ash content of oil. Tech­
nicians employed in research or



testing laboratories often assem­
ble and use such apparatus
and instruments as dilatometers
(which measure the dilation or
expansion of a substance), analy­
tical balances, and centrifuges.
Outside the laboratory, chemi­
cal technicians are sometmes em­
ployed to supervise various opera­
tions in the production of chemi­
cal products and as technical
salesman of chemicals and chemi­
cal equipment. (See also state­
ments on Chemists and Chemical
Engineers, and chapter on Occu­
pations in the Industrial Chemi­
cal Industry.)

for example, induction or dielec­
tric heating, servomechanisms,
automation controls, or ultra­
Technicians working with engi­

neers and scientists in the field
of electronics do complex techni­
cal work that is more difficult
than routine operating and repair
work. (For additional information

Civil Engineering Technology.
Technicians trained in this area
assist civil engineers in perform­
ing many of the tasks necessary
in the planning and construction
of highways, railroads, bridges,
viaducts, dams, and other struc­
tures. During the planning stage,
technicians may help to estimate
costs, to prepare specifications for
materials, or participate in sur­
veying, drafting, detailing, or de­
signing work. Once the actual
construction work has begun,
they may assist the contractor or
construction activities or inspect­
ing the work to assure conform­
ance to bluepnrints and specifi­
cations. (See also statements on
Civil Engineers, Draftsmen, and
Electronics Technology. This
field includes radio, radar, sonar,
phony, and other forms of com­
munication; industrial and med­
ical measuring, recording, indicat­
ing, and controlling devices; navi­
gational equipment; missile and
spacecraft guidance and control
instruments; electronic comput­
ers; and many other types of
equipment ^using vacuum tubes,
transistors, semiconductors, and
printed circuits. Because the field
is so broad, technicians generally
become specialist in one area—

Engineering technician conducts heavy load test.

on broadcast technicians see
chapter on Occupations in Radio
and Television Broadcasting.)

Industrial Production Tech­
nology. Technicians trained in
this area are sometimes called

industrial technicians or produc­
tion technicians. They assist in­
dustrial engineers on problems
involving the efficient use of per­
sonnel materials and machines
in the production of goods or
services. Their work includes pre­
paring layouts of machinery and
equipment, planning the flow of
work, and making statistical stu­
dies and analyses of production
costs. The industrial technician
also may conduct time-and-motion studies.
In the course of their duties,
many industrial technicians ac­
quire experience which enables
them to qualify for other jobs.
For example, those expert in ma­
chinery and production methods
may move into the field of indus­
trial safety. Others who specialize
in job analysis may become in­
volved in the setting of job stand­
ards and in the interviewing,
testing, hiring, and training of
personnel. Still others may move
into production supervision. (See
statements on Personnel Workers
and Industrial Engineers.)
Mechanical Technology. Me­
chanical technology is a broad
term usually used to cover a large
number of specialized fields, in­
cluding automotive technology,
diesel technology, tool design,
machine design, and production
Technicians in the above areas
of mechanical technology often
assist engineers in design and de­
velopment work by making free­
hand sketches and rough layouts
of proposed machinery and other
equipment and parts. They help
to determine whether a proposed
design change in a product is
practical and how much the prod­
uct will cost to produce. They


also may be required to solve de­
sign problems such as those in­
volving tolerance, stress, strain,
friction, and vibration.
The planning and testing of ex­
perimental machines and equip­
ment for performance, durability,
and efficiency provide a large
area of work for technicians. In
the testing procedure, they re­
cord data, make computations,
plot graphs, analyze results, and
write reports. They sometimes
make recommendations for de­
sign changes to improve perform­
ance. Their jobs often require
skill in the use of instruments,
test equipment and gages, such
as dynamometers, as well as the
ability to prepare and interpret
Some mechanical technicians
are employed in manufacturing
departments to help develop
plans for testing and inspecting
machines and equipment, or to
work with engineers in eliminat­
ing production problems. Some
obtain jobs as technical salesmen.
(See statements on Mechanical
Engineers, Automobile Mechan­
ics, Manufacturers’ Salesmen,
and Diesel Mechanics.)
One of the better known spe­
cialties which may be grouped
under mechanical engineering
technology is that of tool de­
signer. The tool designer designs
tools and devices for the mass
production of manufactured arti­
cles. He originates and prepares
sketches of the designs for cutting
tools, jigs, dies, special fixtures,
and other attachments used in
machine operations. He also may
make detailed drawings of these
tools and fixtures or supervise
others in making them. Besides
developing new tools, designers
frequently redesign tools to im­
prove their efficiency.
Machine drafting, with some
designing, is another major area
of work often grouped under me­
chanical technology. The work

of technicians who are draftsmen
is described elsewhere in this
Some mechanical technicians
are employed in manufacturing
departments to help develop
plans for testing and inspecting
machines and equipment, or to
work with engineers in eliminat­
ing production problems. Some
obtain jobs as technical sales­
men. (See statements on M e­
chanical Engineers, Automobile
Mechanics, Manufacturers’ Sales­
men, and Diesel Mechanics.)
As industry becomes increas­
ingly mechanized, new technical
occupations continue to emerge.
For example, instrumentation
technology has evolved from the
introduction of automatic con­
trols and precision-measuring
devices in manufacturing opera­
tions. In industrial plants and
laboratories, instruments are used
to record data, to control and
regulate the operation of ma­
chinery, and to measure time,
weight, temperature, speeds of
moving parts, mixtures, volume,
flow, strain, and pressure. Tech­
nicians in this field work with
engineers and scientists who de­
velop and design these highly
complex devices, as well as with
those who use them for research
and development work. (See also
statement on Instrument Mak­
Another new area of work for
technicians, which has resulted
from recognition of the need for
a more scientific approach tow­
ard the reduction of industrial
hazards, is safety technology. In
the rapidly growing atomic en­
ergy field, in particular, techni­
cians work with scientists and
engineers on problems of radia­
tion safety, inspection, and de­
contamination. (See chapter on
Occupations in the Atomic En­
ergy Field.)


Places of E m ploym ent
An estimated 620,000 engineer­
ing and science technicians, not
including draftsmen and survey­
ors, were employed in 1968—
about 11 percent were women.
Nearly 450,000 of these tech­
nicians (more than 7 out of 10)
were employed by private indus­
try. The manufacturing industries
employing the largest numbers
of engineering and science tech­
nicians were electrical equipment,
chemicals, machinery, and aero­
space. In the nonmanufacturing
sector, large numbers of techni­
cians were employed in the com­
munications industry and by en­
gineering and architectural firms.
In 1968, the Federal Govern­
ment employed approximately
85,000 engineering and science
technicians; chiefly as engineer­
ing aids and technicians, elec­
tronic technicians, equipment
specialists, cartographic aids, me­
physical science technicians. Of
these engineering and science
technicians, the largest number
worked for the Department of
Defense. Most of the others were
employed by the Departments of
Agriculture, Commerce, and the
State Government agencies em­
ployed over 40,000 engineering
and science technicians in 1968
and local governments over
10,000. The remainder were em­
ployed by colleges and universi­
ties, mostly in university-oper­
ated research institutes, and by
nonprofit organizations.

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Young men and women who
wish to prepare for careers as
engineering or science technicians
can obtain the necessary training
from a great variety of educa­

tional institutions or can qualify
for their work right on the job.
Most employers, however, seek
workers who have had some form
of specialized training for more
responsible technician jobs. Spe­
cialized formal training programs
are offered in post-secondary
schools— technical institutes, ju­
nior and community colleges, area
vocational technical schools, and
extension divisions of colleges and
universities— as well as in tech­
nical and technical-vocational
high schools. Other ways in which
persons can become qualified for
technician jobs are by completing
an on-the-job training program,
through work experience and for­
mal courses taken on a part-time
basis in post-secondary or corres­
pondence schools, or through
training and experience obtained
while serving in the Armed
Forces. In addition, many engi­
neering and science students who
have not completed all the re­
quirements for a bachelor’s de­
gree, as well as some other per­
sons having a college education
in mathematics and science, are
able to qualify for technician jobs
after they obtain some additional
technical training and experience.
In general, post-secondary school
technical training is required for
a growing number of engineering
and science technician jobs.
Engineering and science tech­
nicians usually begin work as
trainees or in the more routine
positions under the direct super­
vision of an experienced techni­
cian, scientist, or engineer. As
they gain experience, they are
given more responsibility, often
carrying out a particular assign­
ment under only general super­
vision. Technicians may move in­
to supervisory positions. Those
having exceptional ability some­
times obtain additional formal
education and are promoted to
professional engineering positions.
For admittance to most schools

offering post-secondary techni­
cian training, a high school diplo­
ma is usually required. Some
schools, however, admit students
without a high school diploma if
they are able to pass special ex­
aminations and otherwise dem­
onstrate their ability to perform
work above the high school level.
All engineering and science oc­
cupations require basic training
in mathematics and science, thus
students should obtain a sound
background in these subjects
when in high school. Many post­
secondary schools have arrange­
ments for helping students make
up deficiencies in these subjects.
Programs offered by schools
specializing in post-high school
technical training require 1, 2, 3,
or 4 years of full-time study. The
majority are 2-year programs,
leading to either an associate of
arts or science degree. Evening
as well as day sessions are gen­
erally available. The courses of­
fered in science, mathematics,
and engineering are usually at
the college level. They include
instruction in laboratory tech­
niques and the use of instru­
ments, and emphasize the prac­
tical problems met on the job.
Students also are instructed in
the use of machinery and tools to
give them a familiarity with this

equipment rather than to develop
Some 4-year bachelor’s degree
programs in technology place ad­
ditional emphasis on courses in
the humanities and business ad­
ministration than the 2-year pro­
grams, while other 4-year pro­
grams emphasize additional tech­
nical training.
Because of the variety of edu­
cational institutions and the dif­
ferences in the kind and level of
education and training, persons
seeking a technical education
should use more than ordinary
care in selecting a school. In­
formation should be secured


about the fields of technology in
which training is offered, accredi­
tation, the length of time the
school has been in operation, in­
structional facilities, faculty qual­
ifications, transferability of cred­
its toward the bachelor’s degree,
and the type of work obtained by
the school’s graduates.
Briefly discussed here are some
of the types of post-secondary
educational institutions and other
sources where young people can
obtain training as technicians.
Technical Institutes. Techni­
cal institutes offer training de­
signed to qualify the graduate
for a specifc job or cluster of jobs
immediately upon graduation
with only a minimum of on-thejob training. In general, the stu­
dent receives intensive technical
training but less theoretical and
general education than is pro­
vided in curriculums leading to a
bachelor’s degree in engineering
and liberal arts colleges. A few
technical institutes and commu­
nity colleges offer cooperative
programs in which a student
spends part of his time in school
and part in paid employment
related to the occupation for
which he is preparing himself.
Some technical institutes are
operated as regular or extension
divisions of colleges and univer­
sities. Others are separate insti­
tutions operated by States or
municipalities, privately endowed
institutions, and proprietary

Junior Colleges and Commun­
ity Colleges. Many junior and
community colleges offer the nec­
essary training to prepare stu­
dents for technician occupations.
Some of these schools offer cur­
riculums that are similar to those
given in the freshman and sopho­
more years of 4-year colleges.
Graduates can transfer the junior
year into a 4-year college or
qualify for some technician jobs.
Most large community colleges

offer 2-year technical programs,
and many employers express a
preference for graduates having
this more specialized training.
Junior college courses in techni­
cal fields are often planned
around the employment needs of
the industries in their locality.

Area Voc ational-Technical
Schools. Area vocational-techni­
cal schools are post-secondary
public institutions that are estab­
lished in central locations to serve
students from several surround­
ing areas. In general, the admis­
sion requirements of vocationaltechnical schools are as rigid as
those of other schools offering
post-secondary technician train­
ing. Area school curriculums are
usually designed to train the
types of technicians most needed
in the area.
Other Training. Some large
corporations conduct training
programs to meet their need for
technically trained personnel.
This type of training is primarily
technical and rarely includes any
general studies.
Training for some occupations
in the technician category— tool
designer and electronic techni­
cian, for example— may be ob­
tained through a formal appren­
Correspondence schools provide
technician training for those who
wish to learn more about their
Technician training is offered
by all branches of the Armed
Forces. Many of the technicians
trained by the military utilize
their training in civilian employ­
ment, especially in the field of
electronics, after they leave the
Armed Forces.

Em ploym ent Outlook
Employment opportunities for
engineering and science techni­
cians are expected to be very

good through the 1970’s. The de­
mand will be strongest for grad­
uates of post-secondary school
technician training programs.
Among the factors underlying
the increase in demand for tech­
nicians are the anticipated ex­
pansion of industry and the in­
creasing complexity of modern
technology. As products and the
methods by which they are manu­
factured become more complex,
increasing numbers of technicians
will probably be required to as­
sist engineers in such activities
as production planning, main­
taining liaison between produc­
tion and engineering depart­
ments, and technical sales work.
Furthermore, as the employment
of scientists and engineers contin­
ues to grow, increasing numbers
of technicians will be needed to
assist them. The trend toward
automation of industrial process­
es and the growth of new areas
of work, such as that related to
space exploration or atomic
energy, will probably also add to
the demand for technical person­
nel. In addition to the technicians
needed to fill new positions, an
average of about 32,000 will be
needed each year through the
1970’s to replace those who re­
tire, die, or transfer to other
Another factor supporting the
expected increase in demand for
engineering and science techni­
cians is the growth anticipated in
research and development ex­
penditures. These expenditures
have increased rapidly in recent
years and are expected to con­
tinue to rise through the 1970’s,
although somewhat more slowly
than in the past. Expeditures for
the defense and space programs
also affect the demand for tech­
nical personnel because a large
number are engaged in activities
related to the defense and space
programs. The above outlook for
technicians is based on the as-



sumption that defense activity
(as measured by expenditures)
in the late 1970’s will be some­
what higher than the level prior
to the Viet Nam buildup, ap­
proximating the level of the early
1960’s. If defense activity should
differ substantially from that
level, the demand for technicians
would be affected accordingly.
Well-qualified women techninicians should continue to find
favorable employment opportuni­
ties, chiefly in designing jobs, in
chemical and other laboratory
work, and in computation and
other work requiring the appli­
cation of mathematics. Over the
longrun, it is likely that more
women will be trained and will
find employment in these and
other technician occupations.

annual salaries above $10,500 ac­
cording to a Bureau of Labor
Statistics survey.


Information on training oppor­
tunities may also be obtained
from the Engineers’ Council for
Professional Development, a na­
tionally recognized accrediting
agency for engineering technology
programs; the National Council
of Technical Schools; and the
U.S. Department of Health, Edu­
cation, and Welfare, Office of
Education, Division of Higher
Education and/or Division of V o­
cational and Technical Education,
Washington, D.C. 20202.
State departments of education
at each State capital also have
information about approved tech­
nical institutes, junior colleges,
and other educational institutions
within the State offering posthigh school training for specific
technical occupations. Other
sources include:

In general, a technician’s earn­
ings depend upon his education
and technical specialty, as well
as his ability and work experi­
ence. Other important factors
which influence his earnings are
the type of firm for which he
works, his specific duties, and the
geographic location of his job.
In Federal Government agen­
cies in late 1968, beginning engi­
neering and science technicians
were offered $4,600, $5,145 or
$5,732, depending upon the type
of job vacancy and the applicant’s
education and other qualifica­
tions. Some Federal Government
agencies hire high school grad­
uates and train them for techni­
cian jobs. Beginning salaries for
these jobs are $4,231 a year.
Most technicians can look for­
ward to an increase in earnings
as they move to higher positions.
In 1968 annual salaries of work­
ers in responsible technician posi­
tions in private industry averaged
almost $9,800 and approximately
one-fourth of the workers had

Sources of A dditional In fo rm atio n

General information on careers
for engineering and science tech­
nicians may be obtained from:
American Society for Engineering
Education, 2100 Pennsylvania
Avenue, NW.,
D.C. 20037.
Engineers’ Council for Profession­
al Development, 345 East 47th
St., New York, N.Y. 10017.
National Council of Technical
Schools, 1835 K. Street, NW.,
Room 907, Washington, D.C.

American Association of Junior
Colleges, 1315 16th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.
National Home Study Council,
1601 18th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20009.

(D.O.T. 001. through 019.)

N ature of th e W ork
In making a space capsule or
an electric iron, a nuclear sub­
marine or a television set, a bridge
or a typewriter, detailed draw­
ings are needed that give the ex­
act physical dimensions and spec­
ifications of the entire object and
each of its parts. The workers who
draw these plans are draftsmen.
Draftsmen translate the ideas,
rough sketches, specifications,
and calculations of engineers,
architects, and designers into
working plans which are used in
making a product. Draftsmen
may calculate the strength, reli­
ability, and cost of materials. In
their drawings and specifications,
they describe exactly what mate­
rials and process workers are to
use on a particular job. To pre-


pare their drawings, draftsmen
use instruments such as com­
passes, dividers, protractors, and
triangles, as well as machines that
combine the functions of several
devices. They also may use engi­
neering handbooks and tables to
assist in solving technical prob­
Draftsmen are often classified
according to the type of work
they do or their level of respon­
sibility. Senior draftsmen use the
preliminary information provided
by engineers and architects to
prepare design “ ’layouts” (draw­
ings made to scale of the object
to be built). Detailers make
drawings of each part shown on
the layout, giving dimensions,
material, and any other informa­
tion necessary to make the de­
tailed drawing clear and com­
plete. Checkers carefully examine
drawings for errors in computing
or in recording dimensions and
specifications. Under the super­
vision of draftsmen, tracers make
minor corrections and prepare
drawings for reproduction by
tracing them on transparent
cloth, paper, or plastic film.
Draftsmen also may specialize
in a particular field of work, such
as mechanical, electrical, elec­
tronic, aeronautical, structural,
and architectural drafting.
Places of E m ploym ent
An estimated 295,000 drafts­
men were employed in 1968; al­
most 4 percent were women. The
large majority of draftsmen—
about 9 out of 10— are employed
in private industry. The manu­
facturing industries that employ
large numbers of draftsmen are
the machinery, electrical equip­
ment, transportation equipment
and fabricated
metal prod­
ucts industries. Nonmanufactur­
ing industries employing large
numbers of draftsmen are engi­

neering and architectural consult­
ing firms, construction compa­
nies and public utilities.
About 22,000 draftsmen worked
for Federal, State, and local gov­
ernments in 1968. Of those em­
ployed by the Federal Govern­
ment, the large majority work for
the Departments of the Army,
Navy, and Air Force. Draftsmen
employed by State and local gov­
ernments work chiefly for high­
way and public works depart­
ments. Several thousand drafts­
men are employed by colleges and
universities and by nonprofit

Train in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Young persons interested in be­
coming draftsmen can acquire
the necessary training from a
number of sources, including
technical institutes, junior and
community colleges, extension di­
visions of universities, vocational
and technical high schools, and
correspondence schools. Other
persons may qualify for drafts­
men jobs through on-the-job
training programs combined with
part-time schooling or through 3or 4-year apprenticeship pro­
The prospective draftsman’s
training, whether obtained in
high school or post-high school
drafting programs, should include
courses in mathematics and phy­
sical sciences, as well as in me­
chanical drawing and drafting.
The study of shop practices and
the learning of some shop skills
also are helpful, since many high­
er level drafting jobs require
knowledge of manufacturing or
technical schools offer courses in
structural design, strength of ma­
terials, and physical metallurgy.
Young people having only high
school drafting training usually

start out as tracers. Those having
some formal post-high school
technical training can often
qualify as junior draftsmen. As
draftsmen gain skill and experi­
ence, they may advance to higher
level positions as checkers, de­
tailers, senior draftsmen, or su­
pervisors of other draftsmen.
Some may become independent
Furthermore, some
draftsmen who take courses in
engineering and mathematics are
able to transfer to engineering
Qualifications for success as a
draftsman include the ability to
visualize objects in three dimen­
sions and to do freehand drawing.
Although artistic ability is not
generally required, it may be very
helpful in some specialized fields.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment opportunities for
draftsmen are expected to be
favorable through the 1970’s.
Prospects will be best for those
having post-high school draft­
ing training. Well-qualified high
school graduates who have had
only high school drafting, how­
ever, also will be in demand for
some types of jobs.
Employment of draftsmen is ex­
pected to rise rapidly as a result
of the increasing complex design
problems of modem products and
processes. In addition, as growth
of engineering and scientific oc­
cupations continues, more drafts­
men will be needed as supporting
personnel. On the other hand,
photoreproduction of drawings
and expanding use of electronic
drafting equipment are eliminat­
ing some routine tasks done by
draftsmen and will probably bring
about a reduction in the need for
some less skilled draftsmen.
In addition to
needed to fill new positions, many
will be required each year to re-



place those who retire, die, or
move into other fields of work.

In private industry, persons
in beginning drafting positions
earned an average of about $410
a month in mid 1968, according
to a Bureau of Labor Statistics
survey. As they gain experience,
draftsmen may move up to higher
level positions with a substanial
increase in earnings. For exam­
ple, the earnings of senior drafts­

men averaged about $630 a
month in mid 1968.
In the Federal Civil Service in
late 1968, the entrance salary for
high school graduates without
work experience who were em­
ployed in trainee-draftsman po­
sitions was about $350 a month.
For those having post-high school
education or some experience in
drafting, entrance salaries were
higher. The majority of experi­
enced draftsmen working for the
Federal Government earned be­
tween $525 and $640 a month in
late 1968.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
General information on careers
for draftsmen may be obtained
American Institute for Design and
Drafting, 305 South Andrews
Avenue, Suite 610, Fort Lauder­
dale, Florida 33301.
American Federation of Technical
Engineers, 1126 16th Street,
NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

See also section on Sources of
Additional Information in the
statement on Engineering and
Science Technicians.



ments, sell subscriptions, and per­
form general office work.

Places of Em ploym ent

(D.O.T. 132.268)

N ature of the W ork
Newspaper reporters gather in­
formation on current events and
write stories for publication in
daily or weekly newspapers. In
covering events, they may inter­
view people, review public rec­
ords, attend news happenings,
and do research. As a rule, re­
porters take brief notes while
collecting the facts, and write
their stories upon return to the
office. Sometimes, to meet dead­
lines, they telephone their stories
to other staff members known as
“ rewrite men,” who write the
stories for them.

Large dailies frequently assign
some reporters to “ beats,” such
as police stations or the courts,
to cover news originating in these
places. Other local news, such as
a story about a lost child or an
obituary of a community leader,
is handled by general assignment
reporters. Specialized reporters,
who are well-versed in a subject
matter field as well as in writing
increasingly are interpreting and
analyzing the news in fields such
as medicine, politics, science,
education, business, labor, and
religion. Reporters on small news­
papers get broad experience; they
not only cover all aspects of local
news, but also may take photo­
graphs, write headlines, lay out
inside pages, and even write edi­
torials. On the smallest weeklies,
they also may solicit advertise-

An estimated 37,000 newspa­
per reporters were employed in
the United States in 1968. The
majority worked for daily news­
papers; most of the others worked
for weekly papers. In addition,
some reporters were employed by
press services and newspaper
Reporters work in cities and
towns of all sizes throughout the
country. Of the 1,750 daily and
9,000 weekly newspapers, the
great majority are in mediumsize towns. Large numbers of re­
porters, however, are in cities,
since big city dailies employ
many reporters, whereas a small­
town paper generally employs
only a few.

T rain in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Although talented writers who
have little or no academic train­
ing beyond high school sometimes
become reporters on city news­
papers, most reporters without
college training begin— and usu­
ally remain— on rural small-town,
or suburban papers. Most news­
papers will consider only appli­
cants having a college education,
and graduate work is increasingly
important. Some editors prefer
graduates who have a degree in
journalism, which usually pro­
vides a liberal arts education, as
well as professional training.
Other editors consider a degree
in liberal arts as equally desirable.
Professional studies leading to
a bachelor’s degree in journalism
can be obtained in more than 150
colleges; about two-thirds of
these have separate departments
or schools of journalism. The typ­
ical undergraduate journalism
curriculum is offered during the


junior and senior years of college,
and is divided about equally be­
tween cultural and professional
subjects. Among the professional
courses are reporting, copyread­
ing, editing, feature writing, and
the history of journalism.
The master’s degree in journal­
ism is awarded by 47 schools; 12
of them offer the doctor’s degree.
Young people who wish to pre­
pare for newspaper work through
a liberal arts curriculum should
take English courses that include
writing, as well as subjects such
as sociology, political science,
economics, history, psychology,
and speech. Reading and conver­
sational ability in a foreign lan­
guage and some familiarity with
mathematics also are desirable.
Those who look forward to be­
coming technical writers, or re­
porters in a special field such as
science, should concentrate on
course work in their subject mat­
ter areas to the maximum extent
possible. (See statement on Tech­
nical Writers.)
The Armed Forces also provide
some training in journalism. The
Navy maintains a School of Jour­
nalism at Navy Training Center,
Great Lakes, Illinois.
Summer internships on news­
papers that provide college stu­
dents an opportunity to learn
the rudiments of reporting or
editing are available from the
Newspaper Fund and individual
newspapers. In addition to many
loan programs, over 3,700 jour­
nalism scholarships, fellowships,
and assistantships were offered
in 1969 by universities, news­
papers, and professional organi­
Many beginners work on week­
ly or small daily newspapers.
Some college graduates are hired
as general assignment reporters;
others start on large city papers
as copy editors. Beginning report­
ers usually are assigned to minor
news events such as reporting on

civic and club meetings, summar­
izing speeches, writing obituaries,
interviewing important visitors to
the community, and covering po­
lice court proceedings. As they
gain experience, they may report
more important developments,
cover an assigned “ beat,” or spe­
cialize in a particular field of
knowledge. Newspapermen also
may advance to reporting for
larger papers or for press services
and newspaper syndicates. Some
experienced reporters become
columnists, correspondents, edi­
tors, top executives, or publish­
ers; these positions represent the
top of the field and competition
for them is keen. Other reporters
transfer to related fields such as
writing for magazines, or prepar­
ing copy for radio and television
news reports.
In competing for regular posi­
tions, it is helpful to have had
experience as a “ stringer” — one
who covers the news in a partic­
ular area of the community for a
newspaper and is paid on the
basis of the stories printed. Ex­
perience on a high school or col­
lege newspaper also may be help­
ful in obtaining employment.
Personal characteristics of im­
portance are a “ nose for news,”
curiosity, persistence, initiative,
resourcefulness, an accurate
memory, and the physical stam­
ina necessary for an active and
often fast-paced life. Skill in typ­
ing generally is required since
reporters usually must type their
own news stories. On small pa­
pers, a knowledge of news photog­
raphy also is valuable.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Well-qualified beginners with
exceptional writing talent will
find good employment opportuni­
ties through the 1970’s. In early
1969 editors of large newspapers
were actively seeking young re­

porters with exceptional talent.
Other beginners, however, were
facing competition for jobs, es­
pecially on large city dailies, and
probably will continue to do so.
In addition to seeking young re­
porters with exceptional talent,
editors also were looking for re­
porters who were qualified to
handle news about highly spe­
cialized or technical subjects.
Weekly or daily newspapers lo­
cated in small towns and subur­
ban areas will continue to offer
the most opportunities for begin­
ners entering newspaper report­
ing. Openings arise on these
papers as young people gain ex­
perience and transfer to reporting
jobs on larger newspapers or to
other types of work. Moreover,
the number of newspapers in
suburban areas is increasing, and
many of the existing ones are
expanding their staffs to satisfy
the need for more detailed com­
munity news. Preference in em­
ployment on small papers is likely
to be given to beginning reporters
who are able to help with photog­
raphy and other specialized as­
pects of newspaper work and are
acquainted with the community.
Large city dailies will provide
some openings for the inexperi­
enced with good educational
backgrounds and a flair for writ­
ing to enter as reporter trainees.
Some opportunities may continue
to be available for young people
who enter as copy boys and ad­
vance to reporting jobs.
In addition to jobs in news­
paper reporting, new college grad­
uates who have journalism train­
ing may enter related fields such
as advertising, public relations,
trade and technical publishing,
radio, and television. The broad
field of mass communication,
which has grown rapidly in recent
years, will continue to expand in
the future. Factors pointing to­
ward this continuing expansion
include rising levels of education



and income; increasing expendi­
tures for newspaper, radio, and
television advertising; and a
growing number of trade and
technical journals and various
types of company publications.
As newspapers share in this
growth, employment of reporters
is expected to increase moderate­
ly. Many job opportunities will be
found in teaching journalism. The
greatest number of job openings,
more than a thousand each year,
will continue to arise from the
need to replace reporters who are
promoted to editorial or other
positions, transfer to other fields
of work, retire, or leave the pro­
fession for other reasons.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Many daily newspapers have
negotiated, with the American
Newspaper Guild, contracts which
set minimum wages based on ex­
perience and provide for annual
salary increases. In late 1968, the
minimum starting salaries on
most daily newspapers with Guild
contracts ranged between $95
and $125 a week for reporters
having no previous experience. On
a few small dailies, the Guild mini­
mum starting salaries were less
than $80 a week; on a few large
dailies, Guild minimum rates for
beginning reporters exceeded
$140 a week. Young people work­
ing as copy boys earn less than
new reporters; minimum Guild
rates for copy boys with some ex­
perience ranged from about $60
to $100 a week.
On most dailies, minimum
Guild rates for reporters who
have some experience (usually
for those with 4 to 6 years)
ranged from $150 to $200 a week
in late 1968. Contract minimums
for experienced reporters on a
few small dailies were less than
$140 a week; on a few large
dailies, they were over $200 a

week. Papers under Guild con­
tracts often pay salaries higher
than the minimum rates called
for in their contracts. Particu­
larly successful, experienced re­
porters on city dailies may earn
over $300 a week.
Newspaper reporters on big
city papers frequently work 7 to
iy<z hours a day, 5 days a week;
most other reporters generally
work an 8-hour day, 40-hour
week. Many of those employed
by morning papers start work in
the afternoon and finish about
midnight. Many newspapers pay
overtime rates for work per­
formed after the regularly sched­
uled workday, or for more than
40 hours of work a week; they
often provide various employee
benefits such as paid vacations,
group insurance, and pension

American Council on Education
for Journalism, School of Jour­
nalism, University of Missouri,
Columbia, Missouri 65201.
Association for Education In Jour­
nalism, 425 Henry Mall, Uni­
versity of Wisconsin, Madison,
Wisconsin 53706.
Sigma Delta Chi, 35 East Wacker
Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60601.

Names and locations of daily
newspapers and a list of depart­
ments and schools of journalism
are published in the Editor and

Publisher International Year­
book, available in most large




(D.O.T. 139.288)

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Information about opportunities
with daily newspapers may be
obtained from:
American Newspaper Publishers
Association, 750 Third Ave.,
New York, N.Y., 10017.

Information on opportunities in
the newspaper field, as well as a
list of scholarships, fellowships,
assistantships, and loans avail­
able at colleges and universities,
may be obtained from:
The Newspaper Fund, Inc., Box
300, Princeton, N.J. 08540.
Theta Sigma Phi, 106 Lantern
Lane, Austin, Texas 78731.

Information on union
rates is available from:


American Newspaper Guild, Re­
search Department, 1126 16th
St. NW., Washington, D.C.

General information on jour­
nalism opportunities may be ob­
tained from:

N atu re of the W ork
The many technical and scien­
tific developments of recent years
have created a growing demand
for writers skilled in interpreting
these developments. The techni­
cal writer organizes, writes, and
edits material about science and
technology so that it is in a form
most useful to those who need
to use it— be it a technician or
repairman, a scientist or engi­
neer, an executive, or a housewife.
When writing for the nonspecial­
ist, he must present his mate­
rial in a simple, clear, and factual
manner; for the specialist, he
must include technological de­
tail, using a highly specialized
vocabulary. Regardless of what
kind of writing he does, the tech­
nical writer serves to establish
easy communication between sci­
entists, engineers, and other
technical specialists, and the
users of their information.



may work with technical illustra­
tors, draftsmen, or photographers.
Places of Em ploym ent
About 30,000 technical writers
and editors were employed in
1968. Most technical writers are
employed in the electronics and
aerospace industries. Many work
for research and development
firms or for the Federal Govern­
ment— mainly in the Depart­
ments of Defense and Agriculture
the Atomic Energy Commission,
and the National Aeronautics and
Space Administration. Some work
in firms that specialize in tech­
nical writing. Others are in busi­
ness for themselves as freelance
technical writers.
Technical writers are employed
all over the country, but primar­
ily in the Northeastern States,
Texas, and California. They are
concentrated in the Washington,
D.C., Los Angeles-Long Beach,
Chicago, New York, Boston, St.
Louis, Kansas City, Denver, and
Philadelphia metropolitan areas.

The technical writer’s product
takes many forms, such as a pub­
licity release on a company’s sci­
entific or technical ahchievement
or a manufacturer’s contract pro­
posal to the Federal Government.
It may be a manual that explains
how to operate, assemble, disas­
semble, maintain, or overhaul
components of a missile system
or a home appliance. Technical
writers also write for scientific
and engineering periodicals and
for popular magazines.
Technical writers, as defined in
this statement, include only those
people primarily employed to in­
terpret, write about, or edit tech­
nical or scientific subject matter.
It excludes those primarily em­

ployed as scientist, engineers, or
other technical specialists who
also do a considerable amount
of writing.
Before starting a writing as­
signment, a technical writer usu­
ally must research his subject.
This process involves studying re­
ports, reading technical journals,
and consulting with the engi­
neers, scientists, and other tech­
nical personnel who have worked
on the project. Then he prepares
a rough draft that may be revised
several times before it is in final
form. Technical writers usually
arrange for the preparation of
tables, charts, illustrations, and
other artwork, and in so doing

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
The bachelor’s degree is the
desirable minimum entrance re­
quirement for work in this field,
although talented and experi­
enced writers having less aca­
demic training may qualify. Em­
ployers do not agree on the most
appropriate kind of college train­
ing needed by technical writers,
but graduates usually must have
a combination of courses in writ­
ing and scientific and technical
subjects. Some employers prefer
applicants who have degrees in
engineering or science who have
had courses in writing. Others
seek graduates who majored in
English or journalism and have
taken some courses in scientific



and technical subjects. Regard­
less of the college training they
prefer, all employers place great
emphasis on writing skills.
An increasing number of
schools offer formal undergradu­
ate programs leading to a bache­
lor’s degree in technical writing
or technical journalism. Some
schools now offer graduate work
and degrees in the field. In addi­
tion, about 170 colleges and uni­
versities provide professional edu­
cation leading to a bachelor’s
degree in journalism; most of
these offer at least one course in
technical writing or technical
journalism as part of the regular
curriculum. Liberal arts colleges
and some engineering schools of­
fer English and other courses that
sharpen writing skills. Many col­
leges and universities conduct
short-term summer workshops
and seminars for technical writers.
When still in high school young
people who plan to become tech­
nical writers should supplement
the required science and math­
ematics courses with as many
elective courses in grammar and
composition as possible. They
also may gain helpful experience
by working as editors or writers
for their school papers.
In addition to the ability to
write well, technical writers must
be able to think logically. They
should have an interest in scien­
tific and technological develop­
ments and be able to work and
communicate well with others.
Beginners often assist experi­
enced technical writers by doing
library research, by editing, and
by preparing drafts of portions
of reports. Experienced writers in
organizations that have large
technical writing staffs may be­
come technical editors or progress
to supervisory and administrative
positions. After gaining experi­
ence and contacts, a few may
open their own job shops.

It also is possible to advance
by becoming a specialist in a
particular scientific or technical
subject. These writers sometimes
prepare syndicated newspaper
columns or articles for popular

Em ploym ent O utlook
Well-qualified and experienced
technical writers are expected to
find very good employment op­
portunities through the 1970’s.
Beginners who have good writing
ability and appropriate education
also should find many opportu­
nities; those who have minimum
qualifications will find stiff com­
petition for jobs. The greatest de­
mand probably will be for techni­
cal writers with backgrounds in
electronics and communications
to work in the aerospace and re­
lated industries, particularly in
research and development ac­
The employment of technical
writers is expected to increase
moderately during the 1970’s be­
cause of the need to put the in­
creasing volume of scientific and
technical information into lan­
guage that can be understood by
management for decisionmaking
and by technicians for operating
and maintaining complicated in­
dustrial equipment. Also, since
many products will continue to
be assembled from components
manufactured by different com­
panies, technical writers will be
in demand to describe, in simple
terms, the interrelationships of
these components. The growth in
this occupation also will be ac­
celerated by the need for im­
proved and simplified operating
and maintenance instructions for
new consumer products .
The demand for technical writ­
ers will continue to be related to
research and development ex­
penditures. These expenditures

are expected to remain at high
levels in the aerospace industry
and to increase somewhat in
medical and other fields.
Technical writers who have
training in journalism also will
find opportunities in other fields
that employ writers, such as ad­
vertising, public relations, trade
publishing, and radio and tele­
vision broadcasting. In addition
to new opportunities resulting
from the moderate growth ex­
pected in this profession, hun­
dreds of technical writers will be
needed each year to replace those
who retire, die, or transfer to
other occupations.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
In 1968, inexperienced techni­
cal writers having bachelor’s de­
grees were hired in private in­
dustry at starting salaries rang­
ing from $5,000 to $7,000 a year;
those who have moderate experi­
ence earned from $7,000 to $10,000 a year; highly experienced
writers earned from $11,000 to
$15,000; and those in supervisory
and management positions, up to
$20,000. Differences in the earn­
ings of experienced writers de­
pended not only on their ability
and prior experience, but also on
factors such as the type, size, and
location of their employing firms.
Earnings of freelance technical
writers vary greatly and are re­
lated to the writer’s reputation
in the field.
In the Federal Government in
late 1968, inexperienced technical
writers with a bachelor’s degree
and credit for about five science
courses could start at either
$5,732 or $6,981 a year, depend­
ing on their college records.
Those who have 2 years’ experi­
ence could begin at $8,462, and
those having 3 years’ experience
could start at $10,203 or $12,174

a year, depending on the caliber
of the experience.
Technical writers usually work
the standard 40-hour week. They
may work under considerable
overtime when a deadline has to
be met on a publication or report.


W here To Go fo r M ore Inform ation
Additional information on this
occupation, including a list of
schools offering accepted courses
of study and specific training pro­
grams in accredited colleges and
universities, may be obtained

Society of Technical Writers and
Publishers, Inc., Suite 421, 1010
Vermont Ave. NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20005.


(D.O.T. 001.081)

N atu re of th e W ork
Architects plan and design
buildings and other structures.
Their goal is to design structures
which are safe, useful, and pleas­
ing in appearance. Architects
also work with other profession­
als, such as engineers, urban plan­
ners, and landscape architects in
the designing of cities and towns
and in the planning and improve­
ment of an overall physical
When an architect receives a
commission to design a building,
he meets with the client to dis­
cuss the purpose, requirements,
and cost limitations of the struc­
ture, as well as the client’s pref­
erences as to style and plan. Sub­
sequently, the architect must
make hundreds of decisions, con­
sidering not only the require­
ments of the building, but also
local and State building codes,
zoning laws, fire regulations, and
other ordinances. For example,
in planning a school, the architect
must decide, among other things,
the amount of corridor and stair­
case space required to enable stu­
dents to move easily from one
class to another; the type and
arrangement of storage space;
and the location, size, and inter­
ior arrangements of the class­
rooms, laboratories, lunchroom,
gymnasium, and administrative
The architect makes prelimi­
nary drawings of the structure
and meets with the client to de­
velop a final design. This design
includes floor plans, as well as

details of the interior and exter­
ior of the building. The final de­
sign then is translated into work­
ing drawings, which show the ex­
act dimensions of every part of
the structure and the location of
the plumbing, heating, electrical,
air-conditioning, and other equip­
ment. Consulting engineers usu­
ally prepare detailed drawings of
the structural, plumbing, heating,
and electrical work. Engineers’
drawings are coordinated with
the architect’s working drawings,
and specifications are prepared
listing the construction materials
to be used, the equipment, and,
in some cases, the furnishings.
The architect then assists his
client in selecting a building con­
tractor and in negotiating the
contract between client and con­

tractor, and he acts as the client’s
advisor and representative in
dealings with the contractor. As
construction proceeds, the archi­
tect makes periodic visits to the
construction site to see if the de­
sign is being followed, and that
the materials specified in the con­
tract are being used. The archi­
tect’s work is not completed un­
til the project is finished, all re­
quired tests are made, and guar­
antees are received from the
Most self-employed architects
plan and design a wide variety of
structures, ranging from homes to
churches, hospitals, office build­
ings, and airports. Architects also
plan and design multibuilding
complexes for urban renewal proj­
ects, college campuses, industrial
parks, and new towns. Some
architects, however, specialize in
one particular type of structure
or project. When working on
large-scale projects or for large
architectural firms, architects fre-

Architect discusses building plans with clients.


quently specialize in one phase of
the work, such as design, draft­
ing, specification writing, or con­
struction contract administration
(insuring that a structure is built
according to plans and specifi­

Places of Em ploym ent
An estimated 34,000 registered
(licensed) architects were em­
ployed in the United States in
late 1968. In addition, many
other architectural school grad­
uates who are unlicensed were
working in positions requiring a
knowledge of architecture. About
4 percent of all architects are
Approximately two-fifths of all
either practicing individually or
as partners. Most of the others
work for architectural firms.
Some architects work for engi­
neers, builders, real estate firms,
and for other businesses having
Others are employed by govern­
ment agencies, often in fields such
as city and community planning
and urban redevelopment. About
1,500 of these are employed by
the Federal Government.
Architects are employed in all
parts of the country. However,
they are concentrated in those
States with large metropolitan
areas. Nearly half of all architects
are employed in six States— Cali­
fornia, New York, Illinois, Texas,
Pennsylvania, and Ohio.

T rain in g , O th er Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
A license for the practice of
architecture is required by law
in all States and the District of
Columbia, mainly to insure that
architectural work which may af­
fect the safety of life, health, or

property is done by qualified
architects. Requirements for ad­
mission to the licensing examina­
tion are set by the individual
States. These generally include
graduation from an accredited
professional school followed by 3
years of practical experience in an
architect’s office. As a substitute
for formal training, most States
accept longer periods of practical
experience (usually 10 to 12
years) for admission to the licen­
sing examination.
In 1968, professional training
in architecture was offered by 87
colleges and universities in the
United States, 63 of which were
accredited by the National Archi­
tectural Accrediting Board. The
great majority of these schools
offered a 5-year curriculum lead­
ing to the bachelor of architec­
ture degree. Many architectural
schools also offered graduate edu­
cation leading to the master’s
degree, and a few schools offered
the Ph. D. degree. Although grad­
uate training is not essential for
the practice of architecture, it is
often desirable for research and
teaching positions.
Most schools of architecture
admit qualified high school grad­
uates who meet the entrance re­
quirements of the college or uni­
versity with which the school of
architecture is associated. Some
schools require 1 or 2 years of
college education before admit­
ting the student to a 3- or 4-year
architectural training program. In
general, architectural schools pre­
fer that students’ preparation in­
clude mathematics, science, social
studies, language, and art. A typi­
cal curriculum includes not only
architectural courses but also
other subjects— usually English,
mathematics, physics, chemistry,
sociology, economics, and a for­
eign language.
Among the personal qualifica­
tions needed by persons planning
a career in architecture are a ca­

pacity to master technical prob­
lems, a gift for artistic creation,
and a flair for business and for
human relations. Students are
frequently encouraged to work
for architects or for building con­
tractors during summer vacations
to gain some knowledge of prac­
tical problems.
New graduates usually begin as
junior draftsmen in architectural
firms where they make drawings
and models of building projects
or draft details in the working
drawings. As they gain experi­
ence, they are given more com­
plex work. After several years,
they may progress to chief or sen­
ior draftsman, with responsibility
for all the major details of a set
of working drawings and for the
supervision of other draftsmen.
Other architects may work as de­
signers, construction contract ad­
writers. An employee who is par­
ticularly valued by his firm may
be designated an associate and
may receive, in addition to his
salary, a share of the profits. Usu­
ally, however, the-architect’s goal
is to establish his own practice.

Em ploym ent O utlook
The outlook is for continued
rapid growth of the profession
through the 1970’s. Employment
opportunities are expected to be
good both for experienced archi­
tects and for new architecture
A major factor contributing to
this favorable outlook is the ex­
pected growth in the volume of
nonresidential construction— the
major area of work for architects.
Moreover, the increasing size and
complexity of modern nonresidental buildings, as well as the
homeowners’ growing awareness
of the value of architects’ services,
are likely to bring about a greater
demand for architectural services.


Urban redevelopment and city
and community planning proj­
ects, other growing areas of em­
ployment for architects, also are
expected to increase considerably
in the years ahead. (See state­
ment on Urban Planners.) In ad­
dition, expanding college enroll­
ments will create a need for addi­
tional architects to teach archi­
tectural courses.
Besides those needed to fill new
positions due to growth, deaths
and retirements will account for
about 1,000 new openings every
Along with the anticipated rise
in demand for architects, an in­
crease is expected in the number
of architectural graduates. If
graduations in this field follow
the trend expected in all college
graduations, the number of archi­
tectural degrees awarded each
year during the 1970’s should be
considerably greater than the es­
timated 3,200 degrees awarded in
1968. However, many architectur­
al graduates utilize their training
in fields such as sales and admin­
istration in the building industry
and do not enter the profession.
Thus, those who choose to enter
the field should have good em­
ployment opportunities through
the 1970’s.
Earnings and W orking Conditions
Starting salaries of architectur­
al school graduates were generally
between $100 and $150 a week in
1968, according to available in­
formation. Draftsmen having 3
years’ experience or more earned
between $135 and $180 a week;
job captains, specification writers,
and other senior employees usual­
ly earned from $150 to $250 a
week. Senior employees often re­
ceive yearly bonuses in addition
to their salaries.
After architects have become
well established in private prac­

tice, they generally earn much
more than high-paid salaried em­
ployees of architectural firms.
The range in their incomes is very
wide, however. Some architects
that have many years of experi­
ence and good reputations earn
well over $25,000 a year. Young
architects starting their own prac­
tices may go through a period
when their expenses are greater
than their income.
Most architects work in welllighted, well-equipped offices and
spend long hours at the drawing
board. However, their routine of­
ten is varied by interviewing cli­
ents or contractors or discussing
the design, construction proce­
dures, or building materials of a
project with other architects or
engineers. Architects involved in
construction contract administra­
tion frequently work out of doors
during inspections at construction
Sources of Additional Inform ation
General information about ca­
reers in architecture is included
in a number of publications of the
American Institute of Architects;
a catalog of publications is avail­
able, as well as two free publica­
tions, “ Designing a Better Tomor­
row” and “ Your Building, Your
Architect.” They can be obtained
The American Institute of Archi­
tects, 1735 New York Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20006.

(D.O.T. 166.268)

N atu re of the W ork
College placement officers pro­
vide job placement services to stu-


Coilege placement officer and student
discuss employment offers.

dents and alumni. They interview
job applicants, analyze their edu­
cation and work records, and may
administer or arrange for voca­
tional and psychological tests to
help applicants evaluate their spe­
cial abilities. They furnish infor­
mation on full-time, part-time,
and summer job openings and ar­
range for job interviews.
College placement officers ar­
range for employer representa­
tives to visit the campus to dis­
cuss their firms’ personnel needs
and to interview qualified appli­
cants. Placement officers may
provide information about stu­
dents to employer representatives
and assist them in appraising the
qualifications of students. They
also make new contacts with em­
ployers to develop additional em­
ployment opportunities. In addi­
tion they may suggest improve­
ments in employer recruitment
literature and inform the college
staff of any change in job require­
ments that might warrant adjust­
ment in curriculum..
Many college placement offi­
cers assemble and maintain a li­
brary of career guidance informa-


tion and recruitment literature
from public and private sources
for the use of students and alum­
ni. Such material includes infor­
mation on the nature of various
occupations, together with data
on current opportunities, educa­
tional requirements, earnings, ad­
vancement, and the long-term
Placement officers may special­
ize in such areas as law, teaching,
part-time and summer work, or
other specific group placements.
However, the extent of specializa­
tion usually depends upon the
size and type of the college, as well
as the size of the placement staff.

Places of Em ploym ent
Placement services are offered
in nearly all colleges and univer­
sities. Large colleges may employ
several placement officers work­
ing under a director of placement
activities; in many institutions,
however, a combination of place­
ment functions is performed by
one officer and his clerical staff.
In some colleges, especially the
smaller ones, the functions of
placement officers may be per­
formed on a part-time basis by
members of the faculty or admin­
istrative staff. Universities fre­
quently have placement offices
for each major branch or campus.
In most universities, there is a
central office which coordinates
the work of all placement officers;
in some, each office works as a
separate unit.
An estimated 2,500 placement
officers were employed in 4-year
colleges and universities in 1968,
most of them on a full-time basis.
Of this total number, about onefourth were women. In addition,
an increasing number of place­
ment officers were being em­
ployed full time or part time in
2-year colleges.
College placement officers are

located in all parts of the country,
although they are concentrated in
the metropolitan areas where
many colleges and universities are

Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
A bachelor’s degree generally
is considered the minimum re­
quirement for entry into the field.
Important undergraduate courses
for the prospective placement of­
ficer include psychology, sociol­
ogy, counseling, and personnel ad­
ministration or related business
subjects. At present, however, no
specific educational specialty ex­
ists for college placement officers.
In 1968, more than 100 colleges
and universities offered programs
leading to a graduate degree in
college student personnel work.
These programs included such
placement oriented subjects as
vocational development theory,
techniques of interviewing, career
counseling, occupational and edu­
cational information, group dy­
namics, and college student per­
sonnel administration.
Many people enter college
placement after working in other
areas. A broad background of
business or industrial experience,
teaching experience, previous
placement training, experience in
public or private employment
agencies, or knowledge of person­
nel and guidance techniques are
all useful backgrounds for college
placement work. In some in­
stances, an alumnus who has dis­
played a strong interest in his col­
lege, and exhibits ability in work­
ing effectively with people, will be
employed as an assistant in the
placement office and may advance
to more responsible positions as
he gains experience.
A person who would like to en­
ter the college placement field
should have an interest in people,

as well as the ability to gain the
confidence of students, faculty,
and employers. The ability to de­
velop a keen insight into the em­
ployment problems of both em­
ployers and students and to main­
tain honest and confidential com­
munications also is important in
college placement work.
Advancement for college place­
ment officers usually is through
promotion to placement director,
director of student personnel ser­
vices, or to some other higher level
administrative position. However,
the extent of such opportunity
usually depends upon the type of
college or university and the size
of the staff.

Em ploym ent O utlook
The number of job opportuni­
ties in the college placement field
is expected to rise very rapidly
through the 1970’s. In general,
employment prospects will be best
for new or recent college grad­
uates seeking beginning positions,
particularly at their own alma
Among the factors expected to
contribute to the favorable out­
look for college placement officers
are the increasing number of col­
lege graduates, and the expansion
in the number of college students
from lower income families who
will seek part-time jobs during
their college years to help finance
their education. Demand for col­
lege placement officers also will
increase as a result of the trend
among colleges and universities
toward more emphasis on the stu­
dent personnel service aspect of
higher education. This emphasis
has already resulted in increased
placement activity for graduate
students and alumni, and for un­
dergraduates seeking summer and
part-time employment. The in­
creasing number of junior colleges
and technical schools— the fastest


growing segment of higher educa­
tion— also will increase the de­
mand for placement personnel.
The recent trend toward in­
creased budget allocations for
placement activities is expected
to continue, thus leading to a
growing demand for college place­
ment officers in most parts of the
country. In addition, regional col­
leg e p la c e m e n t a s s o c ia tio n s ,
through their coordinating organ­
ization, the College Placement
Council, are expanding their pro­
grams to improve operations in
existing placement offices of
member colleges and to encourage
the establishment of placement
services where none presently
Some openings also will occur
each year as placement officers
transfer to other positions, retire,
or leave the field for other reasons.

(D.O.T. 096.128)

N ature of the W ork
Improving products, services,
and practices that affect the com­
fort and well-being of the family

is the primary function of home
economists. These professional
workers have a broad knowledge
of the field or are specialists in a
particular area, such as food,
clothing and textiles, housing,
home furnishing and equipment,
child development, household
management, or family economics.
Teachers make up the largest
group of home economists. Sec­
ondary school teachers instruct
classes in food, nutrition, cloth-

Earnings and W orking Conditions
In 1967, annual earnings of
placement office directors ranged
from less than $5,000 to a high
of over $23,500, with the average
(m e d ia n ) s a la ry b e in g a b o u t
$10,600 according to a National
Education Association survey of
990 public and private colleges
and universities. In general, the
larger institutions paid the high­
est salaries.
College placement officers nor­
mally work a 40-hour week; ir­
regular hours and overtime fre­
quently are necessary during the
“ recruiting season.” Most place­
ment personnel are employed on
a 12-month basis. They are paid
for holidays and vacations, and
receive the same benefits as other
professional personnel employed
by colleges and universities.
Sources of A dditional Inform ation
The College Placement Council,
Inc., P.O. Box 2263, Bethlehem,
Pa. 18001.

Home economist gives consumer education pointers to teenagers on buying
used cars.

ing, textiles, child development,
family relations, home furnish­
ings, home management, and con­
sumer education. In addition,
they may sponsor local chapters
of Future Homemakers of Amer­
ica and conduct related activities.
Other work done by home eco­
nomics teachers is similar to that
described in the statement on
Secondary School Teachers, else­
where in this Handbook. Teachers
in adult education programs help
homemakers to increase their un­
derstanding of family relations
and to improve their homemaking
skills. They also train those who
wish to prepare for jobs requiring
skills in home economics. College
teachers may combine teaching
and research, and often specialize
in one particular area of home
Private business firms and
trade associations employ home
economists to promote the devel­
opment, use, and care of specific
home products. These home econ­
omists may do research and test
products; prepare advertisements
and booklets with instructional
materials; plan, prepare, and pre­
sent programs for radio and tele­
vision; serve as consultants; give
lectures and demonstrations be­
fore the public; and conduct
classes for such workers as sales­
men and appliance servicemen.
They also may study consumer
needs and help manufacturers
translate these needs into useful
Home economists employed by
food manufacturers often work in
test kitchens or laboratories to
improve products or help create
new products; they also may pub­
licize the nutritional value of spe­
cific foods. Those employed by
utility companies often give ad­
vice on household problems, in
addition to describing the opera­
tion and benefits of products and
services. Home economists em­
ployed by manufacturers of kitch­


en and laundry equipment may
work with engineers on product
development. Those engaged in
communications work for maga­
zines, newspapers, radio and tele­
vision stations, advertising and
public relations agencies, trade
associations, and other organiza­
tions. They usually prepare ar­
t ic le s , a d v e r tis e m e n ts , and
speeches about home products
and services. Their work may in­
clude product testing and analy­
sis, and the study of consumer
buying habits. Still other home
economists work for dress-pattern
companies, department stores, in­
terior design studios, and other
business firms that design, manu­
facture, and sell products for the
home. A small number of home
economists are employed in fi­
nancial institutions, giving cus­
tomers advice on spending, sav­
ing, and budgeting.
Some home economists are en­
gaged in research for the Federal
Government, State agricultural
experiment stations, colleges, uni­
versities, and private organiza­
tions. The U.S. Department of
Agriculture employs the largest
group of these workers, some of
whom study the buying and
spending habits of farm families
and then develop budget guides.
A few in other Federal agencies
are engaged in research on space
travel, working on such problems
as food needs in outer space.
Cooperative Extension Service
home economists conduct adult
education programs for women
and 4-H Club programs for girls
in such areas as home manage­
ment, consumer education, family
relations, and nutrition.
Home economists employed on
social-welfare programs by State,
county, city, and private welfare
agencies may act as advisers and
consultants on household budgets
and improved homemaking. They
may help handicapped home­
makers and their families adjust

to physical limitations by chang­
ing the arrangements in the home
and revising methods of work.
Other home economists in welfare
agencies supervise or train work­
ers who provide temporary or
part-time help to households dis­
rupted by illness.

Places of Em ploym ent

About 100,000 persons were
employed in home economics oc­
cupations in 1968. This figure in­
cludes an estimated 30,000 dieti­
tians and approximately 5,000 ex­
tension workers who are discussed
in separate statements on Dieti­
tians and Cooperative Extension
Service Workers in the Handbook.
About 58,000 home economists
were teachers. Approximately
40.000 were primarily secondary
school teachers. About 13,500
were adult education instructors,
some of whom also taught parttime in secondary schools. In ad­
dition, there were about 3,500 col­
lege and university teachers. The
remainder taught in elementary
schools, kindergartens, nursery
schools, recreation centers, and
other institutions. More than
5.000 home economists were in
private business firms and asso­
ciations. Several hundred were
primarily government research
workers, and a smaller group
worked in social welfare programs.
A few were self-employed.
Although home economics is
generally considered a woman’s
field, a growing number of men
are employed in home economics
positions. Most men specialize in
foods and institution manage­
ment, though some are in the
family relations and child devel­
opment field, applied arts, and
other areas.


Training , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
Approximately 400 colleges and
universities offer training leading
to a bachelor’s degree in home
economics, which qualifies grad­
uates for most entry positions in
the field. A master’s or doctor’s
degree is required for college
teaching, for certain research and
supervisory positions, for work as
an extension specialist or super­
visor, and for some jobs in the
nutrition field.
The undergraduate curriculum
in home economics gives students
a strong background in science
and liberal arts and also includes
courses in each of the areas of
home economics. Students major­
ing in home economics may spe­
cialize in various subject-matter
areas. Advanced courses in chem­
istry and nutrition are important
for work in foods and nutrition;
science and statistics for research
work; and journalism for adver­
tising, public relations work, and
all other work in the communica­
tions field. T o teach home eco­
nomics in a high school, a student
must complete the professional
education courses and other
State requirements for a teacher’s
Scholarships, fellowships, and
assistantships are available for
u n d e r g ra d u a te and g ra d u a te
study. Although colleges and uni­
versities offer most of these finan­
cial grants, government agencies,
research foundations, businesses,
and the American Home Econom­
ics Association provide additional
Home economists must be able
to work with people of various
living standards and backgrounds
and should have a capacity for
leadership, including an ability
to inspire cooperation. G ood
grooming, poise, and an interest
in people also are essential, par­

ticularly when dealing with the

Em ploym ent O utlook
Home economists are expected
to have very good employment
opportunities through the 1970’s.
The greatest demand will stem
from the need to fill teaching posi­
tions in secondary schools and in
colleges and universities. Many
business establishments also are
becoming increasingly aware of
the contributions that can be
made by professionally trained
home economists and probably
will hire more of them to promote
home products and to act as con­
sultants to customers. Increased
national focus on the needs of
low-income families may also in­
crease the demand for home econ­
omists. In addition, the need for
more home economists in research
is expected to increase because of
the continued interest in improv­
ing home products and services.
Many home economists will be
needed to replace those who die,
retire, or leave the field because
of family responsibilities or other
reasons through the 1970’s. Op­
portunities for those who leave
the profession but later wish to
return will be good, especially as
part-time teachers in adult edu­
cation programs.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Home economics teachers in
public schools generally receive
the same salaries as other teach­
ers, as most school districts have
a single-salary schedule, based on
education and experience. In
school districts of 100,000 pupils
or more, the median salary of be­
ginning teachers who have a
bachelor’s degree was $5,880 for
the school year 1967-68, accord­
ing to a National Education Asso­

ciation survey; in districts of
50,000 to 99,999 enrollment, the
m ed ia n s ta r tin g sa la ry was
$5,500; and in districts of 25,000
to 49,999 enrollment, $5,633. The
median salary of home economics
instructors teaching in colleges
and universities was about $7,458
a year in 1967-68.
In 1967, average annual sal­
aries received in the Cooperative
Extension Service were as follows:
inexperienced county extension
home economists, $6,850; experi­
enced county extension home
economists, $7,900; State super­
visory home economists, $13,000;
and State specialists, $10,800.
The Federal Government paid
inexperienced workers who have a
bachelor’s degree in home econom­
ics $5,732 or $6,981 in late 1968,
depending on their scholastic rec­
ords. For those having additional
education and experience, salaries
generally ranged from $8,500 to
$14,400 a year, depending upon
the type of position and level of
Many home economists work a
regular 40-hour week or less.
Those in teaching and extension
positions, however, frequently
work longer hours as they are ex­
pected to be available for evening
lectures, demonstrations, and
other work falling outside the reg­
ularly scheduled hours. Most
home economists receive fringe
benefits, such as paid vacation,
sick leave, retirement pay, and in­
surance benefits.

Sources of A dditional In fo rm atio n
A list of schools granting de­
grees in home economics is avail­
able from:
Home Economics Education, Bu­
reau of Adult, Vocational, and
Library Programs, Office of
Education, U.S. Department of
Health, Education, and Welfare,
Washington, D.C. 20202.


Additional information about
careers in this profession, the
types of home economic majors
offered in each school granting de­
grees in home economics, and
graduate scholarships may be ob­
tained from:
American Home Economics Asso­
ciation, 1600 20th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20009.

(D.O.T. 019.081)

N ature of the W ork
E v e r y o n e e n jo y s w a lk in g
through an attractively designed
park or taking a drive along a
scenic road. Landscape architects
plan, design, and supervise the
arrangement of these outdoor
areas for people to use and enjoy.
The attractiveness of parks, high­
ways, housing projects, campuses,
and country clubs reflects the
skill of these architects in design­
ing landscapes that are useful and
pleasing. Their knowledge of site
planning allows landscape archi­
tects to serve many types of cli­
ents, from a real estate firm em­
barking on a new suburban de­
velopment to a city preparing to
build an airport.
Landscape architects may plan
the entire arrangement of a site
and supervise the grading, con­
struction, and planting required
to carry out the plan. Whether
they perform all or only part of
these services on a particular pro­
ject, however, depends on the cli­
ent’s wishes and the available
To plan a site, landscape archi­
tects first study the nature and
purpose of the client’s project,
and the various types of struc­
tures needed. Next, they study

the site itself, observing and map­
ping features such as the slope of
the land and the position of exist­
ing buildings and trees. They also
consider the parts of the site that
will be sunny or shaded at differ­
ent times of the day, the structure
of the soil, existing utilities, and
many other factors. Then, after
consultation with the architect
and engineer working on the proj­
ect, they draw up preliminary
plans for the development of the
site. After the client approves the
preliminary plans, working draw­
ings are made which show all
existing and proposed features
such as buildings, roads, walks,
terraces, grading, and drainage
structures in planted areas. Land­
scape architects outline in detail
the methods of constructing fea­
tures such as walks and terraces
and draw up lists of materials to
be used. Landscape contractors
then are invited to submit bids
for the work.
Firms of landscape architects
usually handle a wide variety of
assignments. Some, however, spe­
cialize in projects such as parks
and playgrounds, campuses, ho­

tels and resorts, shopping centers,
roads, or public housing.

Places of Em ploym ent
An estimated 8,500 landscape
architects were employed in 1968.
The majority were self-employed
or worked for other landscape ar­
chitects in private firms. About
one-third of all landscape archi­
tects were employed by govern­
ment agencies concerned with
public housing, city planning, ur­
ban renewal, highways, and parks
and recreational areas. Some were
on the staffs of engineering firms;
others were employed by land­
scape contractors and a few
taught in colleges and universities.

T rain in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and A dvancem ent
A bachelor’s degree in land­
scape architecture is usually the
minimum requirement for enter­
ing the profession. This training
is offered in at least 30 colleges
and universities, of which 20 have


been accredited by the American
Society of Landscape Architects.
Another 30 schools offer courses
in landscape architecture but not
a complete 4-year program. The
curriculum for the bachelor’s de­
gree requires 4 to 5 years of study,
depending on the institution. Fif­
teen universities also offer mas­
ter’s degrees in landscape archi­
Entrance requirements for the
landscape architecture course are
usually the same as those for ad­
mission to the liberal arts college
of the same university. Some
schools also require completion of
a high school course in mechanical
or geometrical drawing, and most
schools advise high school stu­
dents to take courses in art and
more mathematics than the mini­
mum required for college entrance.
Courses in design, including ar­
chitecture and drawing as well as
landscape design, constitute over
half of the typical curriculum in
landscape architecture. Other ma­
jor fields of study are civil engi­
neering and horticulture. In addi­
tion, courses in English, science,
the social sciences, and mathe­
matics usually are required. A
bachelor’s degree in landscape ar­
chitecture provides a good back­
ground for graduate work in city
Young people who plan to be­
come landscape architects should
be interested in both art and na­
ture, for the profession demands
a talent for design and an under­
standing of plant life, as well as
technical ability. Successful prac­
tice as an independent landscape
architect also requires a good
business sense and the ability to
deal with people.
Working for landscape archi­
tects or landscape contractors
during summer vacations will help
the student to discover the phases
of landscape architecture that in­
terest him most and may better

qualify him for employment upon
New graduates usually begin as
junior draftsmen, or designers
tracing drawings and doing other
simple drafting work. As their
skill increases, they progress to
more responsible work. After 2 or
3 years, they are usually known
as landscape architects and are
qualified to carry a design through
a ll sta g e s, fro m p re lim in a ry
sketches to finished working
drawings. Experienced draftsmen
often handle other aspects of
landscape architects’ work also,
such as preparing specifications
and detailing methods of con­
struction. Employees who demon­
strate ability for all phases of
work may become associates of
the firm; landscape architects who
progress this far often open their
own offices.
A license is required for the in­
dependent practice of landscape
architecture in 16 States— Arizo­
na, California, Colorado, Connect­
icut, Florida, Georgia, Kansas,
Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michi­
gan, Nebraska, New York, Ohio,
Oregon, Pennsylvania, and Utah.
Candidates for the licensing ex­
amination are usually required to
have 6 to 8 years’ experience, or
a degree from an accredited school
of landscape architecture plus 2
to 4 years’ experience.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment opportunities for
graduates that have professional
training in landscape architecture
are e x p e c te d to be fa v o r a b le
throughout the 1970’s. The pro­
fession probably will continue to
expand in the years ahead as a
result of the continued growth of
metropolitan areas with their
needs for parks and recreational
areas, the growing population’s
requirements for outdoor recre­
ational facilities, the continued

increase in public construction
(including public housing), and
the rising interest in city and re­
gional planning. The expected in­
crease in homeownership, coupled
with rising per capita incomes and
living standards, also will spur the
demand for landscape architects.
Women represent between 5
and 10 percent of all landscape
architects. Well-trained and com­
petent women landscape archi­
tects can look forward to interest­
ing and worthwhile careers in the
profession, particularly as special­
ists in garden and planting design.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
In 1968, starting salaries in pri­
vate offices for new graduates
having bachelors’ degrees in land­
scape architecture ranged from
about $7,000 to $9,000 annually;
holders of master’s degrees gen­
erally earned starting salaries be­
tween $10,000 and $12,000. Ex­
perienced persons employed by
private firms typically earned
from about $12,000 to $18,000 a
year, although it was not unusual
for especially well-qualified peo­
ple to receive annual salaries of
more than $20,000.
Landscape architects in inde­
pendent practice often earn more
than salaried employees with con­
siderable experience, but their
earnings may vary widely and
may fluctuate from year to year.
In the Federal Civil Service in
late 1968, newly graduated land­
scape architects were paid annual
entrance salaries of either $7,456
or $9,078 depending on their
qualifications. Others with ad­
vanced degrees earned between
$10,154 and $12,580. The salary
schedule also provides for periodic
increases above this amount.
Salaried employees in both the
government and in landscape ar­
chitectural firms usually work
regular hours. Self-employed per-


sons often work long hours, es­
pecially during the latter stages
of a project. Salaried employees
in private firms may also work
overtime during seasonal rush

Sources of A dditional Inform ation

Additional information on the
profession and a list of colleges
and universities offering accred­
ited courses of study in landscape
architecture may be obtained
American Society of Landscape
Architects, Inc., 2013 I St., NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20006.

For information on a career as
a landscape architect in the For­
est Service, write to:
U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Forest Service, Washington,
D.C. 20250.

(D.O.T. 110.108, .118 and 119.168)

N ature of the W ork
Most people, at some time in
their lives, need legal advice and
help. Therefore, they retain law­
yers, who advise them of their
legal rights and obligations and,
when necessary, represent them
in courts of law. In addition,
lawyers (also called attorneys)
negotiate settlements out of court
and represent clients before quasi­
judicial and administrative agenices of the government, such as
the Internal Revenue Service and
the Social Security Administra­
tion. They may act as trustees,
guardians, or executors. Govern­
ment attorneys play a large part
in developing and administering
Federal and State laws and pro­
grams; they prepare drafts of pro­
posed legislation, establish law
enforcement procedures, and ar­
gue cases.

Most lawyers are engaged in
general practice, handling all
kinds of legal work for clients.
However, a significant number
specialize in one branch of law,
such as corporation, criminal, la­
bor, patent, real estate, tax, or
international law. Some attorneys
devote themselves entirely to try­
ing cases in the courts. Others
never appear in court but spend
all their time drawing up wills,
trusts, contracts, mortgages, and
other legal documents; conduct­
ing out-of-court negotiations; and
doing the investigative and other
legal work necessary to prepare
for trials. Still others are primar­
ily engaged in teaching, research,
writing, or administrative activi­
Many people who have legal
training are not employed as law­
yers but are in other occupations
where they can use their knowl­
edge of law. They may, for exam­
ple, be insurance adjusters, tax
credit investigators, or claims ex­
aminers. A legal background also
is a valuable asset to people seek­
ing or holding public office.

Places of Em ploym ent

Lawyer discusses legal rights with client.

More than 270,000 lawyers
were employed in early 1968, the
great majority working full time.
Of the total number, more than
3 out of 4 were in private prac­
tice. More than half of the pri­
vate practitioners were in prac­
tice by themselves, and about 47
percent were in partnership or
worked for other lawyers or law
Government agencies employ
the greatest number of salaried
attorneys. In 1967, approximately
16,300 attorneys worked for the
Federal Government, chiefly in
the Department of Justice, the
Department of Defense, the
Treasury Department, and the


Veterans Administration. About
7,500 attorneys were employed by
State governments, and 7,600
held positions with city or county
governments. Other salaried law­
yers are employed by private
companies, including large manu­
facturing firms, banks, insurance
companies, real estate firms, and
public utilities. Most of the re­
mainder teach in law schools.
Some lawyers in salaried legal
positions also have an independ­
ent practice; others do legal work
on a part-time basis working pri­
marily in another occupation. Al­
though lawyers practice in all
parts of the country, most of
them are in cities and in the
States which have the greatest

T rain in g , O ther Q ualifications,
and Advancem ent
Before a person can practice
law in the court of any State, he
must be admitted to the bar of
that State. In all States, appli­
cants for bar admission must pass
a written examination; however,
a few States waive this require­
ment for graduates of their own
in-State law schools. Other usual
requirements are U.S. citizenship
and good moral character. If a
lawyer has been admitted to the
bar in one State, he can usually
be admitted to practice in an­
other State without taking an
examination, provided he meets
the State’s standards of good
moral character and has a speci­
fied amount of legal experience.
The special rules of each court or
agency control the right to prac­
tice before Federal courts and
T o qualify for the bar examina­
tions in the majority of States, an
applicant must have completed a
minimum of 3 years of college
work and, in addition, must be
a graduate of a law school ap­

proved by the American Bar As­
sociation or the proper State au­
thorities. Some States will accept
study in a law office instead of,
or in combination with, study in
a law school— although this
method of training is now rare.
A few States will accept study of
the law wholly in a law office;
only two States will accept study
of the law by correspondence. A
number of States require regis­
tration and approval by the State
Board of Examiners before stu­
dents enter law school or during
the early years of legal study. In
a few States, candidates must
complete a period of clerkship in
a law office before they are ad­
mitted to the bar.
As a rule, 7 years of full-time
study after high school is neces­
sary to complete the required col­
lege and law school work. The
most usual preparation for be­
coming a lawyer is 4 years of col­
lege study followed by 3 years in
law school. However, many law
schools admit students after 3
years of college work. A few
schools may accept students after
2 years of college work. On the
other hand, an increasing number
of law schools are requiring ap­
plicants to have a college degree.
Law schools seldom specify the
college subjects which must be in­
cluded in students’ prelegal edu­
cation. However, English, history,
economics and other social sci­
ences, logic, and public speaking
are all important for prospective
lawyers. In general, their college
background should be broad
enough to give them an under­
standing of society and its insti­
tutions. Students interested in a
particular aspect of the law may
find it helpful to take related
courses; for example, engineering
and science courses would be use­
ful to the prospective patent at­
torney, and accounting would be
useful to the future tax lawyer.
Of the 167 law schools in exist­

ence in 1969, 138 were approved
by the American Bar Association
and the others— chiefly night
schools— were approved by State
authorities only. A substantial
number of full-time law schools
have night divisions designed to
meet the needs of part-time stu­
dents; some law schools have only
night classes. Four years of parttime study are usually required
to complete the night-school cur­
riculum. In 1968, about one-fifth
of all law students in ABA-approved schools were enrolled in
evening classes.
The first 2 years of law school
are generally devoted to funda­
mental courses such as contracts,
criminal law, and property. In the
third year, students may elect
courses in specialized fields such
as tax, labor, or corporation law.
Practical experience is often ob­
tained by participating in legal
aid activities sponsored by the
school, in the school’s practice
court where the students conduct
trials under the supervision of ex­
perienced lawyers, and by writ­
ing on legal issues for the school’s
law journal. Upon gradution, the
degree of juris doctor (J.D .) is
awarded by many schools, al­
though some schools confer the
bachelor of laws (LL.B.) as the
first professional degree. Ad­
vanced study is often desirable
for those planning to specialize in
one branch of the law or to en­
gage in research and law-school
Most beginning lawyers start in
salaried positions, although some
go into independent practice im­
mediately after passing the bar
examination. Young salaried at­
torneys usually act as assistants
(law clerks) to experienced law­
yers or judges. Initially, their
work is limited to research such
as checking points of law; they
rarely see a client or argue a
case in court. After several years
of progressively responsible sala-


ried employment, during which
time they can obtain experience
and funds and become better
known, many lawyers go into
practice for themselves. Some
lawyers, after years of practice,
become judges.

E m ploym ent O utlook
Graduates from widely recog­
nized law schools and those who
rank high in their classes will
have very good employment pros­
pects through the 1970’s. They
are expected to have good op­
portunities for obtaining salaried
positions with well-known law
firms, on the legal staffs of cor­
porations and government agen­
cies, and as law clerks to judges.
Graduates of the less well-known
schools and those who graduate
with lower scholastic ratings may
experience some difficulty in
finding salaried positions as law­
yers. However, numerous oppor­
tunities will be available for law
school graduates to enter a va­
riety of other types of salaried
positions requiring a knowledge
of law. Young attorneys who open
their own law offices after being
admitted to the bar will, as in
most other independent profes­
sions, generally face a period of
low earnings while they establish
their practice.
Prospects for establishing a
new practice will probably con­
tinue to be best in small towns
and expanding suburban areas. In
such communities, competition
with other lawyers is likely to be
less than in big cities; also, office
rent and other business costs may
be somewhat lower, and young
lawyers may find it easier to be­
come known to potential clients.
On the other hand, opportunities
for salaried employment will be
limited largely to big cities where
the chief employers of legal talent
— government agencies, law firms

and big corporations— are con­
centrated. For able and wellqualified lawyers, good opportu­
nities to advance will be available
in both salaried employment and
private practice.
Although the majority of em­
ployment opportunities for new
lawyers will arise from the need
to replace those who retire, die,
or otherwise leave the field, the
total number of lawyers is ex­
pected to grow moderately over
the long run. However, continuing
a recent trend, the number of
lawyers in independent practice
may remain stable or decline
somewhat. Most of the growth
will result from the continuing
expansion of business activity
and population. In addition, the
increased use of legal services by
low- and middle-income groups
will add to the long-term growth
in demand for lawyers. For exam­
ple, expansion of legal services for
low-income groups has come about
through the Community Action
Programs authorized under the
Economic Opportunity Act of
1964. The growing complexity of
business and government activi­
ties is expected to create a steadily
expanding demand for lawyers
who have extensive experience in
corporation, patent, adminstrative, labor, and international law.
Earnings and W orking Conditions
The average salary of lawyers
having 1 year’s experience em­
ployed by manufacturing and
other business firms was more
than $9,600 a year in early 1968;
those having a few years experi­
ence earned average salaries of
$11,800. Average (median) start­
ing salaries of lawyers employed
by cities and counties were about
$8,900 in early 1968; those hav­
ing experience earned average
(median) salaries of $11,000, ac­
cording to the limited data avail­

able. In the Federal Government,
the annual starting salary for at­
torneys who had passed the bar
was either $8,462 or $10,203 in
late 1968, depending upon per­
sonal qualifications.
Beginning lawyers working for
small law offices or engaged in
legal aid work usually receive
the lowest starting salaries. New
lawyers starting their own prac­
tices may earn little more than
expenses during the first few years
and may find it necessary to work
part time in another occupation.
Lawyers’ earnings generally
rise with increased experience.
Those employed on a salaried
basis receive increases as they
demonstrate their ability to as­
sume greater responsibilities. In
early 1968, the average annual
salary of attorneys in private in­
dustry who were in charge of le­
gal staffs was more than $27,000.
Incomes of lawyers in private
practice usually grow as their
practices develop. Private prac­
titioners who are partners in law
firms generally have greater aver­
age incomes than those who prac­
tice alone.
Lawyers often work long hours
and under considerable pressure
when a case is being tried. In ad­
dition, they must keep abreast of
the latest laws and court deci­
sions. However, since lawyers in
private practice are able to de­
termine their own hours and
workload, many stay in practice
until well past the usual retire­
ment age.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
The specific requirements for
admission to the bar in a particu­
lar State may be obtained from
the clerk of the Supreme Court
or the secretary of the Board of
Bar Examiners at that State capitol. Information on law schools


and on law as a career is available
The American Bar Association,
1155 East 60th St., Chicago, 1 1
Association of American Law
Schools, 1521 New Hampshire
Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.

(D.O.T. 100.118 through .388)

N ature of th e W ork
Making information available
the job of librarians. Librar­

ians select and organize collec­
tions of books, pamphlets, manu­
scripts, periodicals, clippings, and
reports, and assist readers in
their use. In many libraries, they
also may make available phono­
graph records, maps, slides, pic­
tures, tapes, films, paintings, and
braille and talking books. In ad­
dition to classifying and catalog­
ing books and other loan items,
they publicize library services,
study the reading interests of peo­
ple served by the library, and
provide a research and a refer­
ence service to various groups. Li­
brarians also may review and ab­
stract published materials and
prepare bibliographies.
In a small library, a librarian
performs a great variety of tasks.
In a large library, each librarian
may perform only a single func­
tion, such as cataloging, publiciz­
ing library services, or providing
reference service, or he may spe­
cialize in a subject area such as
science, business, the arts, or
Librarians may be classified by
the type of library in which they
are employed: Public library,
school library, college or univer­
sity library, or special library. In
each of these types, there are two
principal kinds of library work—
reader services and technical serv­
ices. Those who perform reader
services— for example, reference
librarians and children’s librar­
ians— work directly with the pub­
lic. Librarians who perform tech­
nical services, such as catalogers
or acquisition librarians, deal less
frequently with the public.
Public librarians serve all kinds
of readers— children, students,
teachers, research workers, and
others. Increasingly, librarians are
providing special materials and
services to culturally and educa­
tionally deprived people. The pro­
fessional staff of a large public
library system may include the
chief librarian, an assistant chief,

and several division heads who
plan and coordinate the work of
the entire library system. This
system also may include librarians
who supervise branch libraries,
and other librarians who are spe­
cialists in certain areas. The du­
ties of some of these specialists
are briefly described as follows:
Acquisition librarians purchase
books and other library materials
recommended by staff members,
keep a well-balanced library in
quantity and quality, make sure
that the library receives what it
orders, and maintain close contact
with book jobbers and publishers.
Catalogers classify books under
various subjects and otherwise
describe them so they may be lo­
cated through catalogs on cards
or in other forms. Reference li­
brarians aid readers in their
search for information— answer­
ing specific questions or suggest­
ing sources of information. This
work requires a thorough under­
standing of bibliographic material
and a general knowledge of li­
brary materials in various subject
fields. Children’s librarians plan
and direct special programs for
young people. Their duties in­
clude helping children find books
they will enjoy, instructing them
in the use and content of the li­
brary, giving talks on books, and
maintaining contact with schools
and community organizations.
Often, they conduct regular story
hours at the library and some­
times on radio or television. Adult
services librarians may select ma­
terials for and advise mature
readers. They are often asked to
suggest reading materials, and to
cooperate in or plan and conduct
educational programs on such
topics as community develop­
ment, public affairs, creative arts,
problems of the aging, or home
and family life. Young adult serv­
ices librarians may select books
and other materials for young
people of junior high school and


high school age and guide them in
the use of these materials. They
may arrange book or film discus­
sion groups, concerts of recorded
popular and classical music, and
other programs related to the in­
terests of young adults. They also
may help to coordinate the serv­
ices of the school libraries and
the local public library. Bookmo­
bile librarians take library ma­
terials to people who live in areas
where other public library services
are nonexistent or inadequate.
School librarians instruct stu­
dents in the use of the library and
visit classrooms to familiarize stu­
dents with library materials relat­
ing to the subjects being taught.
They also work with teachers and
school supervisors who plan the
curriculum. They prepare lists of
printed and audiovisual materials
on certain subjects; meet with
faculty members to select mate­
rials for school programs; and se­
lect, order, and organize library
materials. Many school librarians
are employed by school district
central offices as supervisors to
plan and coordinate library serv­
ices for the entire school system,
as catalogers and as librarians to
administer professional libraries
for teachers. Very large high
schools may employ several pro­
fessional librarians, each respon­
sible for a special aspect of the li­
brary program or for special sub­
ject materials.

College and university librar­
ians work with students, faculty
members, and research workers
in general reference work or in a
particular field of interest, such
as law, medicine, economics, or
music. In addition, they may
teach one or more classes in the
use of the library. Some specialize
in acquisition and cataloging. A
few librarians who are employed
in university research projects op­
erate docum entation centers.
Computers and other modem de­
vices are being increasingly used

to record and retrieve specialized

Special librarians work in li­
braries maintained by commer­
cial and industrial firms, such as
pharmaceutical companies, banks,
advertising agencies, and research
laboratories; professional and
trade associations; government
agencies; and other types of or­
ganizations such as hospitals and
museums. These librarians plan,
acquire, organize, catalog, and re­
trieve information from collec­
tions designed to provide inten­
sive coverage of information re­
sources about subjects of special
interest to the organization. The
special librarian utilizes his ex­
tensive knowledge of the subject
matter, as well as of library sci­
ence, in building library resources,
advising and assisting library
users, abstracting, and routing
available materials. Literature
searching and the preparation of
summaries, translations, bibliog­
raphies, and special reports are
among the major duties of special
librarians. These operations may
involve the use of electronic data
processing equipment.
Science information specialists,
like special librarians, work in
technical libraries maintained by
commercial and industrial firms.
However, they must possess a
more extensive technical and sci­
entific background than special li­
brarians. They not only perform
many of the duties of special li­
brarians, but they also develop
coding and programing tech­
niques for using electronic and
electromechanical in fo r m a tio n
storage devices and abstract com­
plicated information into short,
readable form, and interpret and
analyze data for a highly special­
ized clientele.
Information on a related occu­
pation, library technician, is
found in a separate statement in
the Handbook.

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102