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OCCUPATIONS IN THE ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY

the electric power industry may be
obtained from local electric utility
companies, industry trade associa­
tions, or from the local offices of
unions which have electric utility
workers among their membership.
Additional information may be ob­
tained from:
Edison Electric Institute, 750 3rd
Avenue, New York, New York
10017.
International Brotherhood of Elec­
trical Workers, 1200 15th St.
NW„ Washington, D.C. 20005.
Utility Workers’ Union of America,
1875 Conn. Ave. NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20006.

POWERPLANT
OCCUPATIONS

Nature of the Work

Operators are key workers in a
powerplant. They observe, control,
and keep records of the operation
of various kinds of powerplant
equipment. They make sure the
equipment functions efficiently and




733

detect any trouble that arises. There gages, meters, and other instru­
are four basic classes of operators ments mounted on panel boards.
—boiler, turbine, auxiliary equip­ One man may operate one or more
ment, and switch-board operators. boilers. Boiler operators, are em­
In many new steam plants, the du­ ployed only where steam is used to
ties of these operators are com­ generate electricity.
Turbine
operators
(D.O.T.
bined, and operators and their as­
sistants are known as steam opera­ 952.138) control the operation of
tors, powerplant operators, or steam- or water-powered turbines
central control room operators. Of which drive the generators. (In
increasing importance in this highly small plants, they also may operate
mechanized industry are the mainte­ auxiliary equipment or a switch­
nance men and repairmen, including board.) Modern steam turbines and
electrical, instrument, and mechani­ generators operate at extremely
cal repairmen. Other powerplant high speeds, pressures, and temper­
workers include helpers and clean­ atures; therefore, close attention
ers, and the custodial staff, includ­ must be given the pressure gages,
ing janitors and watchmen. Coal thermometers, and other instru­
handlers are employed in steam ments which show the operations of
generating plants that use coal for the turbogenerator unit. Turbine
fuel. Hydroelectric plants employ operators record the information
gate tenders who open and close the shown by these instruments and
headgates that control the flow of check the oil pressure at bearings,
water to the turbines. Supervision of the speed of the turbines, and the
powerplant operations is handled by circulation and amount of cooling
a chief engineer and by his assist­ water in the condensers which
change the steam back into water.
ants, the watch engineers.
Boiler
operators
(D.O.T. They also are responsible for start­
950.782) regulate the fuel, air, and ing and shutting down the turbines
water supply in the boilders and and generators, as directed by the
maintain proper steam pressure switchboard operator in the control
needed to turn the turbines, on the room. Other workers, such as help­
basis of information shown by ers and junior operators, assist the
turbine operators.
Auxiliary equipment operators
(D.O.T. 952.782) check and re­
cord the readings of instruments
that indicate the operating condition
of pumps, fans, blowers, con­
densers, evaporators, water condi­
tioners, compressors, and coal
pulverizers. Since auxiliary equip­
ment may break down occasionally,
these operators must be able to de­
tect trouble quickly, make accurate
judgments, and sometimes make re­
pairs. Some small plants do not em­
ploy auxiliary equipment operators;
these duties are performed by tur­
bine operators.
Switchboard operators (D.O.T.

734

952.782) control the flow of elec­
tric power in the generating station
from generators to outgoing power­
lines. They usually work in a con­
trol room equipped with switch­
boards and instrument panels.
Switches control the movement of
electricity through the generating
station circuits and onto the trans­
mission lines.
Instruments mounted on panelboards show the power demands on
the station at any instant, the
powerload on each line leaving the
station, the amount of current being
produced by each generator, and
the voltage. The operators use
switches to distribute the power de­
mands among the generators in the
station, to combine the current from
two or more generators, and to reg­
ulate the flow of the electricity onto
various powerlines to meet the de­
mands of the users served by each
line. When power requirements on
the station change, they order gen­
erators started or stopped and, at
the proper time, connect them to
the power circuits in the station or
disconnect them. In doing this
work, they follow telephone orders
from the load dispatcher who di­
rects the flow of current throughout
the system.
Switchboard operators and their
assistants also check their instru­
ments frequently to see that elec­
tricity is moving through and out of
the powerplant properly, and that
correct voltage is being maintained.
Among their other duties, they keep
records of all switching operations
and of load conditions on genera­
tors, lines, and transformers. They
obtain this information by making
regular meter readings.
In most powerplants constructed
in recent years, the operation of
boilers, turbines, auxiliary equip­
ment, and the switching required for
efficient balancing of generator out­




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

put has been centralized in a single
control room. Here, central control
room operators or power plant op­
erators, by monitoring instrument
panels and manipulating switches,
regulate all the power generating
equipment, which in older plants re­
quires specialists such as boiler and
turbine operators. Control room
operators have several assistants
who patrol the plant and check the
equipment. The central control
room operators report to the plant
superintendent or watch engineers
when equipment is not operating
properly.
Watch
engineers
(D.O.T.
950.131) the principal supervisors
in a powerplant oversee the em­
ployees who operate and maintain
boilers, turbines, generators, auxil­
iary equipment, switchboards, trans­

formers, and other machinery and
equipment. Watch engineers are su­
pervised by a chief engineer or a
plant superintendent who is in
charge of the entire plant.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

New powerplant workers gener­
ally begin at the bottom of the lad­
der—usually on cleanup jobs. Such
work gives beginners an opportunity
to become familiar with the equip­
ment and the operations of a powerplant. They advance to the more re­
sponsible job of helper, as job open­
ings occur. Formal apprenticeships
in these jobs are rare. Applicants
generally are required to have a
high school education or its equiva­
lent. Advancement on the job de-

OCCUPATIONS IN THE ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY

pends primarily on one’s ability to
master the skills required.
It takes from 1 to 3 years to be­
come an auxiliary equipment opera­
tor and from 4 to 8 years to become
a boiler operator, turbine operator,
or switchboard operator. A person
leaning to be an auxiliary equip­
ment operator progresses from
helper to junior operator to opera­
tor. A boiler operator generally
spends from 2 to 6 months as a
laborer before being promoted to
the job of helper. Depending on
openings and the worker’s aptitude,
the helper may advance to junior
boiler operator and eventually to
boiler operator, or transfer to the
maintenance department and work
his way up to boiler repairman. In
most large cities, boiler operators,
who operate high-pressure boilers,
are required to be licensed.
Powerplant workers employed in
atomic-powered electric plants must
have special training to work with
fissionable, radioactive fuel, in addi­
tion to the knowledge and skills re­
quired for conventional steam gen­
erated electric power.
Turbine operators are selected
from among auxiliary equipment
operators in many plants. The line
of advancement in other plants is
from laborer to turbine helper. The
helper then may advance either to
junior turbine operator and eventu­
ally to turbine operator, or he may
transfer to turbine repairman, de­
pending on job openings and his ap­
titude. Turbine operators in most
large cities are required to be li­
censed.
Where a system has a number of
generating plants of different size,
operators first get experience in the
smaller stations and then are pro­
moted to jobs in the larger stations
as vacancies occur. New workers in
the switchboard operators section
begin as helpers, advance to junior




operators, and then to switchboard
operators. They also may advance
from jobs in small stations to those
in larger stations where operating
conditions are much more complex.
Some utility companies promote
substation operators to switchboard
operating jobs. The duties of both
classes of operators have much in
common. Switchboard operators
can advance to work in the load dis­
patcher’s office.
Watch engineers are selected
from among experienced powerplant operators. At least 5 to 10
years of experience as a first-class
operator usually are required to
qualify for a watch engineer’s job.

Employment Outlook

The total number of jobs for
powerplant operators is expected to
show little change through the
1970’s, although the production of
electrical energy will increase at a
rapid rate. However, several
hundred job openings will occur
each year because of the need to re­
place operators who retire, die, or
leave the industry for other work.
The use of increasingly larger
and more efficient equipment is ex­
pected to make possible great in­
creases in capacity and production
with little increase in the number of
powerplant operators. For example,
one operator can control a large
modern turbogenerator as readily as
he can control a much smaller one.
Also, the growing use of more auto­
matic equipment reduces the num­
ber of operators needed, and makes
it possible to direct all operating
processes from a central control
room. However, because of the ex­
pected increased demand for elec­
tric power, it will be necessary to
build and operate many new gener­
ating stations.

735

Generally, operating a nuclearpowered plant required about the
same number of employees as run­
ning a steam-generating plant using
fossil fuels.

Earnings and Working Conditions

The earnings of powerplant
workers depend on the type of job,
the section of the country in which
they work, and many other factors.
The following tabulation shows esti­
mated average hourly earnings for
selected powerplant occupations in
privately operated utilities in 1970:
A vera g e
h o u r ly
e a r n in g s

Auxiliary equipment operator...... $4.14
Boiler operator ............................. 4.80
Control room operator................ 5.28
Switchboard operator:
Switchboard operator,
Class A ............................. 4.92
Switchboard operator,
Class B ..........:................. 4.35
Turbine operator ......................... 4.71
Watch engineer............................. 5.54

A powerplant is typically well
lighted and ventilated, clean, and
orderly, but there is some noise
from the whirring turbines.
Switchboard operators in the con­
trol room often sit at the panel
boards, but boiler and turbine oper­
ators are almost constantly on their
feet. The work of powerplant oper­
ators generally is not physically
strenuous, particularly in the newer
powerplants. Since generating sta­
tions operate 24 hours a day, 7 days
a week, powerplant employees
sometimes must work nights and
weekends.

736

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

TRANSMISSION AND
DISTRIBUTION
OCCUPATIONS

Nature of the Work

One-fifth of the workers em­
ployed by electric light and power
systems are in transmission and dis­
tribution jobs maintaining the flow
of electric power to the users. The
principal workers in transmission
and distribution jobs are those who
control the flow of electricity—load
dispatchers and substation oper­
ators—and the men who construct
and maintain powerlines—linemen,
cable splicers, troublemen, groundmen, and helpers. Linemen make
up the largest single occupation in
the industry.
Load
dispatchers
(D.O.T.
950.168) (sometimes called system
operators or power dispatchers) are
the key operating workers of the
transmission and distribution de­
partments. They control the flow of
electricity throughout the area
served by the utility. The load dis­
patcher’s room is the nerve center
of the entire utility system. From
this location, he controls the plant
equipment used to generate electric­
ity and directs its flow throughout
the system. He telephones his in­
structions to the switchboard opera­
tors at the generating plants and the
substations. He tells the operators
when additional boilers and genera­
tors are to be started or stopped in
line with the total power needs of
the system.
The load dispatcher must antici­
pate demands for electric power so
that the system will be prepared to
meet them. Power demands on util­
ity systems may change from hour
to hour. A sudden afternoon rain­
storm can cause a million lights to




be switched on in a matter of min­
utes.
He also directs the handling of
any emergency situation, such as a
transformer or transmission line
failure, and routes current around
the affected area. Load dispatchers
also may be in charge of inter­
connections with other systems, and
they direct the transfer of current
between systems as the need arises.
The load dispatcher’s source of
information for the entire transmis­
sion system centers in the pilot
board. This pilot board, which dom­
inates the load dispatcher’s room, is
a complete map of the utility’s
transmission system. It enables the

dispatcher to determine, at a glance,
the conditions that exist at any point
in the system. Lights may show the
positions of switches which control
generating equipment and transmis­
sion circuits, as well as high voltage
connections with substations and
large industrial customers. The
board also may have several record­
ing instruments which make a
graphic record of operations for fu­
ture analysis and study.
Substation operators (D.O.T.
952.782) generally are responsible
for the operation of the substation.
Under orders from the load dis­
patcher, they direct the flow of cur­
rent out of the station by means of a

OCCUPATIONS IN THE ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY

switchboard. Ammeters, voltmeters,
and other types of instruments on
the switchboard register the amount
of electric power flowing through
each line. The flow of electricity
from the incoming to the outgoing
lines is controlled by circuit break­
ers. The substation operators con­
nect or break the flow of current by
manipulating levers on the switch­
board which control the circuit
breakers. In some substations,
where alternating current is changed
to direct current to meet the needs
of special users, the operator con­
trols converters which perform the
change.
In addition to switching duties,
the substation operators check the
operating condition of all equipment
to make sure that it is in good work­
ing condition. They supervise the
activities of the other substation em­
ployees on the same shift, assign
them tasks, and direct their work.
In smaller substations, the substa­
tion operator may be the only em­
ployee.
Linemen (D.O.T. 821.381) con­
struct and maintain the network of
powerlines which carry electricity
from generating plants to consum­
ers. Their work consists of installa­
tions, equipment replacements, re­
pairs, and routine maintenance
work. Although in many companies
the installation of new lines and
equipment is important, in other
companies this work is performed
by outside contractors. When wires,
cables, or poles break, it means an
emergency call for a line crew.
Linemen splice or replace broken
wires and cables and replace broken
insulators or other damaged equip­
ment. Most linemen now work from
“bucket” trucks with pneumatic lifts
that take them to the top of the pole
or adjacent to the overhead conduc­
tor at the touch of a lever.
In some power companies, line­




men specialize in particular types of
work. Those in one crew may work
only on new construction, and oth­
ers may do only repair work. In
some instances, linemen specialize
on high voltage lines using special
“hot line” tools to avoid interrup­
tions in the flow of current.
Troublemen (D.O.T. 821.281)
are experienced linemen who are
assigned to special crews that han­
dle emergency calls for service.
They move from one special job to
another, as ordered by a central
service office which receives reports
of line trouble. Often troublemen re­
ceive their orders by direct radio
communication with the central
service office.
These workers must have a thor­
ough knowledge of the company’s
transmission and distribution net­
work. They first locate and report
the source of trouble and then at­
tempt to restore service by making
the necessary repairs. Depending on
the nature and extent of the trouble,
a troubleman may restore service in
the case of minor failure, or he may
simply disconnect and remove dam­
aged equipment. He must be famil­
iar with all the circuits and switch­
ing points so that he can safely dis­
connect live circuits in case of line
breakdowns.
Groundmen (D.O.T. 821.887)
dig poleholes and assist the linemen
and apprentices to erect the wooden
poles which carry the distribution
lines. The linemen bolt crossarms to
the poles or towers and bolt or
clamp insulators in place on the
crossarms. With the assistance of
the groundmen, they raise the wires
and cables and install them on the
poles or towers by attaching them to
the insulators. In addition, with as­
sistance from groundmen, linemen
attach a wide variety of equipment
to the poles and towers, such as

737

lightning arrestors, transformers,
and switches.
Cable splicers (D.O.T. 829.381)
install and repair single- and multi­
ple-conductor insulated cables on
utility poles and towers, as well as
those buried underground or in­
stalled in underground conduits.
When cables are installed, the cable
splicers pull the cable through the
conduit and then join the cables at
connecting points in the transmis­
sion and distribution systems. At
each connection in the cable, they
wrap insulation around the wiring.
They splice the conductors leading
away from each junction of the
main cable, insulate the splices, and
connect the cable sheathing. Many
cables have a lead sheath which re­
quires making a lead joint. Most of
the physical work in placing new ca­
bles or replacing old cables is done
by helpers.
Cable splicers spend most of their
time repairing and maintaining the
cables and changing the layout of
the cable systems. They must know
the arrangement of the wiring sys­
tems, where the circuits are con­
nected, and where they lead to and
come from. They make sure that
the conductors do not become
mixed up between the substation
and the customer’s premises. The
splicers connect the ends of the con­
ductor to numbered terminals, mak­
ing certain that they have the same
identifying number at the remote
panel box in an underground vault
as they have in the control office.
Cable splicers also make sure the
insulation on the cables is in good
condition.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Load dispatchers are selected
from among the experienced switch­

738

board operators and from operators
of the larger substations. Usually,
7 to 10 years of experience as a
senior switchboard or substation
operator are required for pro­
motion to load dispatcher. To
qualify for this job, an applicant
must demonstrate his knowledge of
the entire utility system.
Substation operators generally
begin as assistant or junior opera­
tors. Advancement to the job of op­
erator in a large substation requires
from 3 to 7 years of on-the-job
training.
Skilled linemen (journeymen)
usually qualify for these jobs after
about 4 years of on-the-job training.
In some companies, this training
consists of a formal apprenticeship
program. Under formal apprentice­
ship, there is a written agreement,
usually worked out with a labor
union, which covers the content of
the training and the length of time
the apprentice works in each stage
of the training. The apprenticeship
program combines on-the-job train­
ing and classroom instructions in
blue-print
reading,
elementary
electrical theory, electrical codes,




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

and methods of transmitting electri­
cal currents.
The apprentice usually begins his
training by helping the groundman
to set poles in place and by passing
tools and equipment up to the line­
man. After a training period of ap­
proximately 6 months, the appren­
tice begins to do simple linework
on lines having low voltage. While
performing this work, he is under
the immediate supervision of a jour­
neyman lineman or the line fore­
man. After about a year, he is as­
signed more difficult work but is still
under close supervision. During the
last 6 months of his apprenticeship,
the trainee does about the same
kind of work as the journeyman
lineman but with more supervision.
When he begins to work independ­
ently, he is first assigned simple,
routine tasks. After he acquires sev­
eral years of experience and demon­
strates a thorough knowledge of the
company’s transmission and distri­
bution systems, he may advance
from lineman to troubleman.
The training of linemen who
learn their skills on the job gener­
ally is similar to the apprenticeship
program; it usually takes about the
same length of time but does not in­
volve classroom instruction. The
worker begins as a groundman and
progresses through increasingly dif­
ficult stages of linework before be­
coming a skilled lineman.
Candidates for linework should
be strong, in good physical condi­
tion, and without fear of height.
Climbing poles and lifting lines and
equipment is strenuous work. They
also must have steady nerves and
good balance to work at the tops of
the poles and to avoid the hazards
of live wires and falls.
Most cable splicers get their
training on the job, usually taking
about 4 years to become fully quali­

fied. Workers begin as helpers and
then are promoted to assistant or
junior splicers. In these jobs, they
are assigned more difficult tasks as
their knowledge of the work in­
creases.

Employment Outlook

Several thousand job opportuni­
ties are expected to be available in
transmission and distribution occu­
pations through the 1970’s. Most
of these opportunities will occur be­
cause of the need to replace ex­
perienced workers who retire, die,
or transfer to other fields of work.
Some increase in the employment
of transmission and distribution
workers is expected, although em­
ployment trends will differ among
the various occupations in this cate­
gory. In spite of the need to con­
struct and maintain a rapidly grow­
ing number of transmission and
distribution lines, the number of
linemen and troublemen is expected
to increase only slightly because of
the use of more mechanized equip­
ment. Some increase in the number
of cable splicers is expected because
of the growing use of underground
lines in suburban areas. The need
for substation operators will be re­
duced substantially, since the intro­
duction of improved and more auto­
matic equipment makes it possible
to operate most substations by re­
mote control.

Earnings and Working Conditions

The earnings of transmission and
distribution workers depend on the
type of job they have, and the sec­
tion of the country in which they
work. The following tabulation
shows the average hourly earnings
for major transmission and distribu­

739

OCCUPATIONS IN THE ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY

tion occupations in privately oper­
ated utilities in 1970:
A vera g e
h o u r ly
e a r n in g s

Groundman ................................... $3.50
Lineman .......................................... 5.05
Load dispatcher ............................. 5.74
Substation operator ....................... 4.63
Troubleman ..................................... 5.27

Load dispatchers and substation
operators generally work indoors in
pleasant surroundings. Linemen,
troublemen, and groundmen work
outdoors and, in emergencies, in all
kinds of weather. Cable splicers do
most of their work in manholes be­
neath city streets—often in cramped
quarters. Safety standards devel­
oped over the years by utility com­
panies, with the cooperation of
labor unions, have reduced greatly
the accident hazards of these jobs.

CUSTOMER SERVICE
OCCUPATIONS

types of meters, including the more
complicated ones used in industrial
plants and other places where large
quantities of electric power are
used. Others specialize in repairing
the simpler kinds, like those in
homes. Often, some of the large
systems have meter specialists, such
as
meter
installers
(D.O.T.
821.381)
and
meter
testers
(D.O.T. 729.281). Meter installers
put in and take out meters. Meter
testers specialize in testing the small
meters on homeowners’ property
and some of the more complicated
ones used by commercial and in­
dustrial customers.
Meter readers (D.O.T. 239.588)
go to customers’ premises—homes,
stores, and factories—to read me­
ters which register the amount of
electric current used. They record
the amount of current used in a spe­
cific period so that each customer
can be charged for the amount he
used. Meter readers also watch for,
and report, any tampering with me­
ters.
District representatives usually
serve as company agents in outlying
districts which are too small to jus-

Nature of the Work

Workers in customer service jobs
include those who install, test, and
repair meters, and those who read
the meters. Also in this group are
company agents in rural areas and
appliance servicemen working in
company-operated shops which re­
pair electrical equipment owned by
customers.
Metermen (D.O.T. 729.281) (or
meter repairmen) are the most
skilled workers in this group. They
install, test, maintain, and repair
meters on customers’ premises, par­
ticularly those of large industrial
and commercial establishments.
Some metermen can handle all




tify the use of more specialized
workers. They collect overdue bills,
make minor repairs, and read, con­
nect, and disconnect meters. They
receive and send service complaints
and reports of line trouble to a cen­
tral office.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Metermen begin their jobs as
helpers in the meter testing and
meter repair departments. Young
men entering this field should have
a basic knowledge of electricity.
About 4 years of on-the-job training
are required to become a fully qual­
ified meterman. Some companies
have formal apprenticeship pro­
grams for this occupation in which
the trainee progresses according to
a specific plan.
Utility companies usually employ
inexperienced men to work as meter
readers. They generally accompany
the experienced meter reader on his
rounds until they have learned the
job well enough to go on the rounds
alone. This job can be learned in a
few weeks.
The duties of district representa­
tives are learned on the job. An im­
portant qualification for men in
these jobs is the ability to deal tact­
fully with the public in handling
service complaints and collecting
overdue bills.

Employment Outlook

Meter reader checks the amount of
electric current used.

Little change in employment in
customer service occupations is ex­
pected through the 1970’s. The
need for meter readers will be lim­
ited because of the trend toward
less frequent reading of meters.
Moreover, automatic meter reading
may become more common, and

740

new meters will require less mainte­
nance. However, some job openings
for metermen and meter readers
will occur each year to replace
those workers who retire, die, or
transfer to other fields of work.

Earnings and Working Conditions

The earnings of customer service
workers vary according to the type




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

of job they have, and the section of
the country in which they work.
The following tabulation shows the
average hourly earnings for major
customer service jobs in privately
operated utilities in 1970:
A vera g e
h o u r ly
e a r n in g s

District representative ................ $5.18
Meterman A ................................. 4.97
Meterman B ................................. 4.44

Appliance serviceman ................
Meter reader .................................

3.83
4.61

The job of the meter reader is
not physically strenuous but in­
volves considerable walking and
some stair climbing. Metermen and
appliance servicemen work indoors
under typical repair shop conditions
except when repairing or installing
meters or appliances on customers’
premises.

M E R C H A N T M A R IN E
O C C U P A T IO N S

The American merchant marine
is a vital link in the Nation’s trans­
portation system. It is our life-line
in both peace and war and links us
to every corner of the world. It
transports America’s exports and, in
return, brings imports from the rest
of the world. In time of conflict, it
carries troops, arms, and supplies to
combat areas. Seafaring employ­
ment offers a wide variety of inter­
esting and rewarding careers as well
as travel and adventure.

Atlantic Coast ports. The more than
500 freighters, on the other hand,
are employed almost exclusively in
foreign trade. More than half of the
freighters are employed in liner
service to carry relatively high
valued packaged cargoes on fixed
schedules. Freighters are of various
types, including general cargo ships,
and special purpose vessels such as
bulk carriers and roll-on-roll-off
container ships.

Places of Employment
Nature and Location of the
Industry

crews depend on the size and type
of vessel. Cargo ships and tankers
have crews varying from 36 to 65
men; passenger ships may have a
crew of 300 or more.
The work aboard ship is divided
among the deck, engine, and stew­
ard departments. The deck depart­
ment is responsible for navigation,
maintenance of the hull and deck
equipment, and the supervision of
loading, discharging, and storing of
cargo. Personnel in the engine de­
partment operate and maintain the
machinery that propels the vessel.
The steward’s department feeds the
crew and maintains living and recre­
ation areas.
About one-fourth of the jobs in
the merchant marine are filled by
officers. The remaining jobs are
filled by skilled, semiskilled, and
unskilled seamen.

The U.S. Flag Merchant Fleet
employed about 42,000 officers and
The U.S. Flag Merchant Fleet seamen in mid-1970, more than 90
consists of ocean-going vessels of percent of whom were on freighters
Training, Other Qualifications,
1,000 gross tons or over which and tankers. Many additional men
and Advancement
carry U.S. foreign and domestic wa­ were employed during the year be­
ter-borne commerce. In late 1970, cause many seamen leave their
No educational requirements are
about 7 out of every 8 of the ap­ ships at the termination of a voyage; established for jobs in the merchant
proximately 770 ships in the active some take vacations which may av­ marine industry, but a good educa­
fleet were privately owned. Govern­ erage 100 days or more each year; tion is a definite advantage. Formal
ment-owned ships are operated by others take temporary shoreside training for officers is conducted at
the Navy’s Military Sealift Com­ jobs or are unavailable for sea duty the U.S. Merchant Marine Acad­
mand (MSC) which has civilian because of illness or injury.
emy, at five State merchant marine
seafaring personnel.
Although the United States has academies, and through programs
Three broad categories of ships about 70 ports, more than half of operated by trade unions. Unions
constitute the merchant fleet: com­ the Nation’s shipping is carried on also conduct training programs to
bination passenger-cargo vessels, in 17 deep-sea ports along the At­ upgrade the ratings of seamen and,
tankers, and freighters. Ships in our lantic, Gulf, and Pacific Coasts. The to a limited degree, to train
“liner fleet” operate on regular Nation’s largest port is New York. prospective seamen for entry rat­
schedules to specific ports. “Tramp” Other major Atlantic ports are Phil­ ings.
ships, on the other hand, sail for adelphia, Baltimore, Norfolk, Bos­
To obtain an officer’s license, a
any port promising cargoes.
ton, Charleston, Savannah, Tampa, candidate must be a U.S. citizen,
This country’s 10 combination and Jacksonville. Gulf ports han­ physically fit, and pass a compre­
passenger-cargo ships carry passen­ dling substantial volumes of cargo hensive written examination admin­
gers, mail, and highly valued cargo include New Orleans, Houston, istered by the U.S. Coast Guard.
on a regularly scheduled basis. Its Galveston, Port Arthur, and Lake Seamen must also obtain a license
approximately 255 tankers carry Charles. Shipping on the West (merchant mariner’s document)
liquid bulk products, primarily pe­ Coast is concentrated in the areas of from the Coast Guard. An applicant
troleum and petroleum products, al­ San Francisco Bay, Los Angeles, must present proof that he has a job
most exclusively in the domestic Seattle, and Portland.
offer aboard a U.S. merchant vessel
trade between Gulf Coast ports and
The size and composition of and pass a physical examination.




741

742

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

The prospective mariner should
give serious thought to the depart­
ment (deck, engine, steward) in
which he would like to work. Once
a man starts up the ladder in one
department he cannot switch with­
out beginning near the bottom
again. Advancement to a higher rat­
ing depends not only upon specified
sea experience, leadership ability,
and an opening, but also upon pass­
ing a Coast Guard examination.
A young man who is considering
the merchant marine as a career
must be able to live and work with
others as a team. Although peace­
time service is relaxed, he must ad­
just to some military-like discipline,
which is essential because of the na­
ture of shipboard life.
More detailed information on
training, other qualifications, and
advancement appears in the state­
ments on Licensed Merchant Ma­
rine Officers and Unlicensed Mer­
chant Seamen.

Employment Outlook

Except during periods of war and
national emergency, there has been
a long-term decline in the number
of men and vessels in our merchant
marine, and more of the same is ex­
pected through the 1970’s. Nev­
ertheless, some job openings will
arise each year from the need to re­
place experienced men who retire,
die, or quit the sea for other rea­
sons. Competition for these open­
ings, however, will be severe be­
cause the number of men seeking
merchant marine jobs is expected to
greatly exceed the number of open­
ings.
Because of substantially higher
shipbuilding and labor costs, our
merchant fleet finds that competing
in the worldwide shipping market is
difficult. To insure that our country




has a merchant fleet operating in
regular or essential trade routes, the
Government subsidizes nearly twofifths of the active fleet or about 300
vessels.
In 1970, the Government en­
acted legislation to subsidize the
construction of 30 new ships an­
nually over a 10-year period and to
improve tax incentives for firms to
purchase new ships. The number of
new ships constructed, however, is
not expected to be as great as the
number of older ones retired from
service each year. Thus, a continued
decrease in the size of the fleet is
anticipated, unless new innovations
that cut shipping costs, such as
barge-carrying ships, improve our
competitive position in the world
market.
Future ships will be larger and
faster and will operate with fewer
men. For example, a central console
in the engineroom of the newest
ships controls engines, boilers, and
most auxiliary equipment. Data log­
gers automatically print perform­
ance information such as tempera­
tures and pressures of automated
boiler systems.
The size of the deck crew is being
reduced primarily by technological
improvements such as hydraulically
operated hatch covers, and auto­
matic tension mooring winches that
assist in docking and undocking.
Eventually a “lookout” device is
foreseen that not only will warn of a
collision but also will automatically
adjust the course to avoid a crash.
Improved efficiency on our newest
ship already has cut 11 to 14 men
from conventional manning require­
ments of about 55; still further re­
ductions are likely.
Widespread unemployment will
not necessarily accompany reduc­
tions in manpower needs. For one
thing, the dozen or so seagoing un­
ions are likely to resist substantial

cuts in the size of crews. Further,
many men began their careers when
our fleet was built during World
War II. This older work force, in
conjunction with liberalized pension
provisions and normally high depar­
ture rates for shore jobs, is expected
to result in a large outflow of men
from the industry during the years
ahead.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Earnings aboard American flag
deep-sea ships are the highest of
any Nation in the world. In few
other industries can an ambitious
man who has a high school educa­
tion or less do so well financially. A
seaman who has advanced a rung or
two in rating can receive base and
overtime earnings of nearly $800 a
month, in addition to free food and
lodging. Most officers earn over
$1,100 a month.
Wages vary not only according to
the job but also by the size and type
of vessel. They are highest on large
vessels. An outstanding characteris­
tic of the maritime industry is that
base wages represent only part of
the take-home pay. On the average,
additional payments for assuming
extra work or responsibility add
about 50 percent to base wages.
Liberal employer-financed fringe
benefits are provided. Officers and
seamen may retire on full pension
after 20 years of service, regardless
of age. Paid vacations range from
60 to 110 days a year. All men and
their dependents are covered by
comprehensive medical and welfare
benefits. (See statements on Li­
censed Merchant Marine Officers
and Unlicensed Merchant Seamen
for more information on earnings.)
The workweek for persons em­
ployed aboard ships is considerably
different from the workweek of per-

743

MERCHANT MARINE OCCUPATIONS

@

Typical crew aboard a dry-cargo ship
L masterJ
1

1
Radio -|
Operator

wages and living conditions, and
liberal fringe benefits more than
compensate for the disadvantages.

DECK DEPARTMENT

1
Chief Mate

| ENGINE DEPARTMENT
■
■■■-■...... 1 .
~~| |
Chief Engineer

1
| STEWARD’S DEPARTMENT |

1
| |

Chief Steward

Second Mate

[[

1st Assistant

j|

Chief Cook

2 Third Mates

||

2nd Assistant

| |

2nd Cook and Baker

Boatswain
II
3 3rd Assistants
----------i
.................................. ............ ...
Electrician
2 Deck Utility Men
Engine Utility Man
6 Able-Bodied Seamen
3 Oilers
3 Firemen-Water Tenders
3 Ordinary Seamen
2 Wipers

|

4 Messmen
2 Utility Men

r

Nature of the Work
1

j Officers
[Unlicensed crewmen

SOURCE: BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

sons employed on the shore. At sea,
most officers and seamen are re­
quired to stand watch. Watchstanders work 7 days a week. Generally,
they stand two 4-hour watches
(shifts) during every 24-hour pe­
riod and have 8 hours off between
each watch. Some officers and sea­
men are day workers. They work 8
hours a day, Monday through Fri­
day. Both watchstanders and day
workers are paid overtime for work
over 40 hours a week. When the
ship is in port, the basic workweek
is 40 hours.
Working and living conditions
aboard ship have improved over the
years. Mechanization has reduced
physical demands and newer vessels
contain private rooms, aircondition­
ing, television, and expanded recre­
ational facilities. However, life
aboard ship is confining. Although a
man may visit many parts of the
world, his shore time may be lim­
ited by the increasingly rapid
“turn-around” time of modern ves­
sels.
While at sea, crew members must
be able to derive satisfaction from
simple pleasures, such as reading or




LICENSED MERCHANT
MARINE OFFICERS

a chair-side hobby. Since voyages
last several weeks or months, men
are away from home and families
for substantial periods of time. Some
men tire of the lengthy separations
and choose shoreside employment.
Others become frustrated by pe­
riods of unemployment. Although
union rules recognize seniority in
hiring, a man who has long years of
sea experience does not have the
same degree of job security often
associated with seniority in shore
jobs. Available jobs are usually first
offered to workers in the highest
seniority “level,” but employment
within these levels is typically on a
first-come, first-served basis. When
jobs are scarce, the list of candidates
may be long.
The duties aboard ship are
hazardous relative to other indus­
tries. At sea, there is always a possi­
bility of injuries from falls or the
danger of fire, collision, or sinking.
In the past, sudden illness at sea
could be extremely hazardous, but
emergency air service available to­
day reduces the danger. Despite
these drawbacks, for many men, the
spirit and adventure of the sea, good

The Coast Guard licenses ship’s
professional and supervisory per­
sonnel consisting of deck, engine,
and radio officers. In command of
every ocean-going vessel is the cap­
tain (D.O.T. 197.168) or master
who is the shipowner’s sole repre­
sentative. He has complete author­
ity and responsibility for the opera­
tion of the ship, including discipline
and order, and the safety of the
crew, passengers, cargo, and vessel.
While in port, the captain may
function as the agent for the ship
owners by conferring with custom
officials. In some cases, he may act
as paymaster for the ship. Although
not technically a member of a spe­
cific department, he generally is as­
sociated with the deck department,
from whose ranks he was promoted.
Deck Department. Acting under
supervision of the captain, deck of­
ficers or “mates” as they are tradi­
tionally called, direct the navigation
and piloting of the ship and the
maintenance of the deck and hull.
American vessels are equipped with
modern navigational devices, such
as radar, sonar, and radio direc­
tional finders. Deck officers must be
familiar with these and other instru­
ments to operate ships safely and
efficiently.
While on duty, the deck officer
maintains the authorized speed and
course; plots the vessel’s position at

744

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Chief mate directs speed and course of cargo ship.

frequent intervals; posts lookouts
when required; records his watch in
the ship’s “log” of the voyage; and
immediately notifies the captain of
any unusual occurrences.
Besides acting as watch officer,
each deck officer performs other
duties. The chief mate (D.O.T.
197.133), or first mate or chief
officer, as he is also known, is the
captain’s key assistant in assigning
duties to the deck crew and main­
taining order and discipline. He also
plans and carries out the loading,
unloading, and stowing of cargo,
and assists the captain in taking the
ship in and out of port. On some




ships he also may be in charge of
first aid treatment.
By tradition, the second mate
(D.O.T. 197.133) is the naviga­
ting officer. He sees that the ship is
provided with the necessary naviga­
tion charts and that navigating
equipment is maintained properly.
The
third
mate
(D.O.T.
197.133), the most junior-rated
deck officer, is responsible for the
care and the maintenance of the
navigating bridge and the chartroom. He acts as the signal officer
and is in charge of all signaling
equipment and assists in the super­
vision of cargo loading and unload­

ing operations. Third mates fre­
quently inspect life boats and other
lifesaving equipment to be sure they
are ready for use in fire, shipwreck,
or other emergencies.
Engine Department. Marine engi­
neers operate and maintain all en­
gines and machinery aboard the
ship. The chief engineer (D.O.T.
197.130) supervises the engine de­
partment, and is responsible for the
operating efficiency of engines and
other mechanical equipment. He
oversees the operation of the main
power plant and auxiliary equip­
ment while the vessel is underway
and is responsible for the log of
equipment performance and fuel
consumption.
The first assistant engineer
(D.O.T. 197.130) supervises en­
gine room personnel and directs op­
erations such as starting, stopping,
and controlling the speed of the
main engines. He oversees and in­
spects the lubrication of engines,
pumps, electric motors, generators,
and other machinery, and with the
aid of the chief engineer, directs all
types of repairs.
As with the deck department, the
engineroom is operated on a 24hour basis. Second and third as­
sistant engineers are assigned watch
periods during which they are re­
sponsible for the operation of the
ship’s propulsion plant and auxiliary
machinery and the supervision of
engine department personnel. Ma­
rine engineers on watch must notify
the chief engineer of any unusual
occurrence and keep a record of
equipment performance.
Each member of the engineering
staff performs specific duties. The
second assistant engineer (D.O.T.
197.130) has charge of the boiler
and associated equipment such as
the water-feed system and pumps.
He is responsible for the mainte­
nance of proper steam pressure and

MERCHANT MARINE OCCUPATIONS

745

Staff Officers Association has es­
tablished a program to train pursers
to act also as pharmacist mates.
This instruction is designed to im­
prove the medical care aboard
freighters and tankers and facilitate
Public Health clearance when a ship
arrives in port. All passenger ships
must carry licensed doctors and
nurses.
Places of Employment

Nearly 11,000 officers were em­
ployed aboard U.S. Flag oceangoing
vessels during mid-1970. Deck
officers and engineering officers ac­
counted for more than four-fifths
of total employment, and radio
officers made up most of the re­
mainder.
About 70 percent of the officers
were aboard dry cargo vessels and
27 percent were aboard tankers.
The remaining 3 percent manned
passenger vessels.

Marine engineer controls running speed of main engine.

oil and water temperatures. He su­
pervises the cleaning of the boilers
and is usually responsible for their
operation and the operation of the
steam generator.
The third assistant engineer
(D.O.T. 197.130) supervises the
operation and maintenance of the
lubrication system and engineroom
auxiliaries. At least one third assist­
ant engineer is employed as a day
man (nonwatchstander) and is re­
sponsible for the electrical and re­
frigeration systems aboard ship.
Other officers. A ship maintains
contact with shore and other vessels
through its radio officer (D.O.T.
193.282), who also maintains radio
equipment. A passenger ship car­




ries three to six radio officers; the
average cargo vessel employs one.
The officer sends and receives mes­
sages by voice or Morse code. He
periodically receives and records
time signals, weather reports, posi­
tion reports, and other navigation
and technical data. The radio officer
may also maintain depth recording
equipment and electronic navigation
equipment.
Some cargo and tanker vessels
and all passenger vessels carry purs­
ers (D.O.T. 197.168). The purser
or staff officer performs the exten­
sive paperwork required to enter
and clear a ship in each port, pre­
pare payrolls, and assist passengers
as required. In recent years, the

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Persons applying for the first time
for an officer’s license in the deck
and engineering departments of
oceangoing vessels must meet cer­
tain legal requirements. Captains,
chief and second mates, and chief
and first assistant engineers must be
at least 21 years of age. The mini­
mum age for third mates, third as­
sistant engineers, and radio opera­
tors is 19. In addition, applicants
must present documentary proof of
U.S. citizenship and obtain a U.S.
Public Health Service certificate at­
testing to their vision, color percep­
tion, and general physical condition.
In addition to legal and medical
requirements, candidates for deck
officer rating must pass Coast
Guard examinations that require ex­

746

tensive knowledge of seamanship,
navigation, cargo handling, and the
operations of the deck department.
Marine engineering officer candi­
dates must demonstrate in-depth
knowledge of propulsion systems,
electricity, plumbing and steam fit­
ting, metal shaping and assembly,
and ship structure. To advance to
higher ratings, officers must pass
progressively more difficult exami­
nations.
For a Coast Guard license as a
radio officer, applicants must have a
first or second-class radiotelegraph
operator’s license issued by the
Federal Communications Commis­
sion. For a license to serve as the
sole radio operator aboard a cargo
vessel, the Coast Guard also re­
quires 6 months of radio experience
at sea.
Unlike most professions, no edu­
cation requirements have been es­
tablished for officers. A seaman
who has served for 3 years in the
deck or engine department may
apply for either a third mate’s li­
cense or for a third assistant engi­
neer’s license. However, because of
the complex machinery, naviga­
tional, and electronic equipment on
modern ships, formal training usu­
ally is needed to pass the Coast
Guard’s examination for these licen­
ses.
The fastest and surest way to be­
come a well-trained officer is
through an established training pro­
gram. Such programs are available
at the U.S. Merchant Marine Acad­
emy at Kings Point, N.Y. and at five
State merchant marine academies:
California Maritime Academy, Val­
lejo, Calif.; Maine Maritime Acad­
emy, Castine, Maine; Massachusetts
Maritime
Academy,
Hyannis,
Mass.; Texas Maritime Academy,
Galveston, Tex.; and New York
Maritime College, Fort Schuyler,
New York, N.Y. Approximately




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

600 students graduate each year example, the National Marine Engi­
Beneficial
Association
from the six schools; about one-half neers’
are trained as deck officers and (MEBA) operates the Calhoon
one-half as marine engineers. En­ MEBA Engineering School in Balti­
trance requirements for each of the more, Md., which offers high school
academies are very high. Admission graduates a 3-year apprenticeship
to the Federal academy is through training program in preparation for
nomination by a member of Con­ a third assistant engineer’s license.
gress, whereas entrance to the other The program consists of both class­
academies is made through written room instruction and sea experience
application directly to the school. and provides free room, board,
Each of the academies offers 3- medical care, and text books in ad­
or 4-year courses in nautical science dition to a monthly grant. Trainees
or marine engineering, as well as must agree to serve at least 3 years
practical experience at sea. Subjects in the U.S. Merchant Marine after
include navigation, mathematics, the 3-year training period.
Advancement for deck and en­
electronics, seamanship, propulsion
gine officers is along well-defined
systems, electrical engineering, lan­
guages, history, and shipping man­ lines and depends primarily upon
agement. Each student receives a specified sea experience, passing a
subsistence allowance and a bache­ Coast Guard examination, and
lor of science degree upon gradua­ leadership ability. Deck officers
tion. After Coast Guard examina­ start as third mates. After 1 year’s
tions are passed, licenses are issued service they are eligible to take a
for either third mate or third assist­ second mate examination. A second
ant engineer. In addition, graduates mate may apply for a chief mate’s
may receive commissions as ensigns license after 1 year of service, and a
chief mate may apply for a captain’s
in the U.S. Naval Reserve.
Because of their thorough license after 1 year of service. An
grounding in theory and its practical officer in the engine department
application, academy graduates are starts as third assistant engineer.
in the best position to move up to After 1 year of service, he may
master and chief engineer ratings. apply for a second assistant’s li­
Their well-rounded education also cense. After further experience, he
helps qualify them -for shoreside may apply for first assistant’s license
jobs such as marine superintendent, and finally a chief engineer’s li­
operating manager, or shipping ex­ cense.
Whether an officer’s best pros­
ecutive.
pects lie in the deck or the engi­
A number of trade unions in the
maritime industry provide officer neering department is a question
considerable
debate
training. These unions include the generating
International Organization of Mas­ among the unions representing these
ters, Mates and Pilots; the Seafar­ workers. It seems clear, however,
ers’ International Union; the that the present sharp craft line
Brotherhood of Marine Officers; drawn between deck and engineer­
and the National Marine Engineers’ ing jobs will become blurred. The
Beneficial Association. Most union emphasis will be on job function;
programs are designed to upgrade the newest automated equipment
experienced seamen to officer rat­ will cut across departmental lines,
ings, although some programs ac­ union jurisdictions, and present
cept inexperienced young men. For work specialties. Some jobs will be

747

MERCHANT MARINE OCCUPATIONS

entirely new, and both officers and
seamen will require a new inventory
of skills to hold them. For example,
experience gained by standing
watch in an engineroom of a con­
ventional vessel may be secondary
compared with basic courses in
electronics.
In anticipation of this trend, the
U.S. Merchant Marine Academy
now selects 10 percent of the ap­
proximately 300 men who enter the
academy each year to be trained as
“omnicompetent” officers. They are
taught both navigational and techni­
cal skills so they can work in either
department.

Employment Outlook

Employment of ship officers is
expected to decline moderately dur­
ing the 1970’s. However, some jobs
will arise each year from the need
to replace experienced officers who
retire, die, or take shoreside em­
ployment.
The primary factors responsible
for the expected employment de­
cline are the continued decrease in
the size of the fleet and the smaller
crews on new vessels which result
from mechanization. Future em­
ployment requirements in the final
analysis will depend upon govern­
ment policy with respect to the level
of U.S. flag participation in water­
borne foreign commerce. (See in­
troductory statement on Merchant
Marine Occupations for additional
information on employment out­
look.)

Earnings and Working Conditions

Earnings of officers depend upon
rank and the size and type of ship.
Wages are highest on large ships.
The accompanying tabulation shows




monthly base wages for officers
aboard an average freighter. Addi­
tional payments for overtime, sup­
plemental pay and “penalty pay”
generally average about 50 percent
of base pay. A monthly sum in lieu
of overtime is paid to captains, chief
mates, chief engineers and first and
third assistant engineers who do not
stand watch. The officer’s rank and
the type of ship determine the
monthly sum, which ranged from
$218 to $700 in 1970.
B ase p a y 1

Captain .......................................... $2,305
First m a te............................. 1,271
Second m ate.........................
901
Third mate ...........................
809
Radio officer.........................
996
Purser ...................................
2 743
Chief engineer ..................... 2,126
First assistant engineer........ 1,271
Second assistant engineer....
901
Third assistant engineer......
809
1 East Coast wages in August 1970 aboard a
12,000-17,000 power ton single screw ship.
2 Purser/pharmacist mate, $806.

Officers and their dependents
enjoy substantial benefits from non­
contributory pension and welfare
plans. For example, deck officers
are eligible for a monthly pension of
$325 after 20 years of service, and
up to one-half their monthly rate
after 25 years of service. Men
forced to retire prematurely due to
a permanent disability receive par­
tial pensions. Comprehensive medi­
cal care and hospitalization are pro­
vided for officers and their families
through union programs.
Aboard ship, each officer has a
private room with hot and cold run­
ning water, and his room is cleaned
daily by a steward. Officers eat in a
dining salon separate from the
messhall in which seamen eat.
A number of labor organizations
represent merchant marine officers.
The two largest are the Interna­
tional Organization of Masters,

Mates and Pilots representing deck
officers and the National Marine
Engineers’ Beneficial Association
representing engineering officers.
Unions for Officers may require
initiation fees as high as $1,000.
The Brotherhood of Marine
Officers represents deck and engine
officers on about 30 vessels. The
Staff Officers Association represents
pursers on all Atlantic and Gulf
Coast passenger vessels and certain
freighters. Radio officers are repre­
sented by the American Radio As­
sociation and the Radio Officers
Union. In addition, a number of in­
dependent unions represent officers
on tankers.
(See introductory statement on
Merchant Marine Occupations for
more information on earnings and
working conditions.)
Sources of Additional Information

General information about jobs
in the merchant marine may be ob­
tained from:
Office of Maritime Manpower, Mari­
time Administration, U.S. De­
partment of Commerce, Washing­
ton, D.C. 20235.

Information about job openings,
qualifications for employment, wage
scales and other particulars can be
obtained from local maritime un­
ions. If no seafaring union is listed
in a local telephone directory, infor­
mation may be obtained from the
following:
International Organization of Mas­
ters, Mates and Pilots, 39 Broad­
way, New York, N.Y. 10006.
National Marine Engineers’ Benefi­
cial Association, 17 Battery Place,
New York, N.Y. 10004.

748

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

men. Dry cargo and tanker vessels
usually have six able seamen, two of
whom are assigned to each watch.
These skilled workers must have a
thorough knowledge of all parts of
Nature of the Work
the ship and be able to handle all
Unlicensed seamen make up gear and deck equipment. They act
most of a ship’s crew and do most as helmsmen or quartermasters to
of the manual labor. Employment is steer the ship. Usually, they each
along craft lines with varying skill take 2-hour turns at the wheel, and
levels and includes the following de­ as lookouts report sightings to the
partments: Deck, engine, and stew­ watch officer. Able seamen on pas­
senger ships perform many of the
ard’s department.
same functions as those on freight­
DECK DEPARTMENT. Ordi­
nary Seamen (D.O.T. 911.887), ers and tankers.
Able seamen are also responsible
the entry rating in the deck depart­
ment, scrub decks, coil and splice for rigging, overhauling, and stow­
ropes, chip rust, paint, clean per­ ing cargo-handling and other gear.
sonnel quarters of the deck depart­ They must be able to tie common
ment, and do other general mainte­ knots and handle mooring lines
nance work. Ordinary seamen also when the ship is docking or depart­
may relieve the helmsman and look­ ing. In addition to their more
out. All freighters and tankers cus­ skilled tasks, they perform general
tomarily employ three ordinary sea­ deck maintenance work similar to
men; each man is assigned a watch that performed by ordinary seamen.
Because of the ever-present dan­
at sea.
Able Seamen (D.O.T. 911.884) ger of fire at sea, able seamen must
constitute about one-fifth of the sea­ be familiar with approved methods
of five prevention and control. They
participate in periodic boat drills
and are trained in all operations
connected with launching lifeboats
and life rafts, and handling of the
boats and commanding boat crews.
The boatswain (D.O.T. 911.131),
or bosun, is a day worker (nonwatchstander) and the highest rank­
ing able seaman. As foreman in
charge of the deck crew he relays
the deck officers’ orders and sees
that such orders are carried out.
The boatswain assists the chief mate
in assigning work for crew members
not on watch duty and directs gen­
eral maintenance operations such as
cleaning decks and polishing metal­
work. When the ship docks or an­
chors, he supervises the deck crew
in handling the lines used for moor­
ing.
Most cargo vessels carry one to
UNLICENSED MERCHANT
SEAMEN




three deck utilitymen (D.O.T.
911.884), day workers who main­
tain the deck department under the
direct supervision of the boatswain.
Deck utilitymen must qualify as
able seamen so that in emergencies
they may stand watch. They deter­
mine the condition of bilges
(compartments in the bottom of
the hull), overhaul blocks, and do
general maintenance work.
Some vessels carry a ship’s car­
penter (D.O.T. 860.281) who se­
cures cargo hatches and ports, and
braces (shores) cargo. He may op­
erate winches that hoist and drop
the anchor and seal the hawsepipes
(steel pipes through which anchor
chains pass) when anchor and
chains are not in use. Because of
mechanization, newer ships are sail­
ing with fewer carpenters and deck
utilitymen.
ENGINE DEPARTMENT. The
engineering staff consists of a variety
of occupational specialties requiring
varying degrees of skill from the
entry rating of wiper to specialized
skilled jobs such as reefer engineer.
Wipers (D.O.T. 699.887) are day
workers who keep the engine
room and machinery clean. Most
cargo vessels carry two or three
wipers. Oilers (D.O.T. 911.884)
lubricate moving parts or wearing
surfaces of mechanical equipment.
They make regular rounds of ship
machinery to check oil pressures
and flow. They inspect the machin­
ery for overheating, fuel supply, and
apply proper grades of grease or oil
to all machinery. Oilers may help
overhaul and repair main and auxil­
iary engines. Firemen/watertenders
(D.O.T. 951. 885) check and regu­
late the amount of water in the boil­
ers; inspect gauges; regulate fuel oil
gauges to keep steam pressure con­
stant; and change and clean burner
nozzles. They also check the
operation of evaporators and con-

749

MERCHANT MARINE OCCUPATIONS

partment. These beginning jobs re­
quire little skill. Generally, utilitymen carry food supplies from the
storeroom and iceboxes; prepare
vegetables; wash cooking utensils
and scour galley equipment. Messmen set tables, serve meals, clean
tables, wash dishes, and care for liv­
ing quarters.
Places of Employment

densers and test water for salt con­
trol; clean oil burning equipment;
remove, clean, and replace burners;
and clean strainers used to filter
dirt from oil.
The ship’s electrician (D.O.T.
825.281) takes orders from the
chief engineer. He repairs and
maintains electrical equipment, such
as generators and motors. He tests
wiring for short circuits and re­
moves and replaces fuses and defec­
tive lights. Many vessels carry a sec­
ond electrician to help maintain and
repair electricial equipment and ma­
chinery.
All automated vessels carry
deck-engine mechanics of whom
one usually is classified as a day
worker and three as watchstanders.
Mechanics replace the oilers and
firemen-watertenders on conven­
tional vessels. Certain types of ships
require men who have special skills,
such as refrigeration engineers
(D.O.T. 950.782) who operate re­
frigerator compartments for perish­




able cargoes such as meat and vege­
tables.
STEWARD’S DEPARTMENT.
The
chief
steward
(D.O.T.
350.138) supervises the operation
and maintenance of the living quar­
ters of officers, crew, and passen­
gers. He directs and supervises all
the department’s personnel, orders
and purchases food supplies, in­
spects and stores supplies, and su­
pervises the preparation and serving
of meals and the care and upkeep of
living quarters. The chief cook
(D.O.T. 315.131) and assistant
cooks prepare meals. The chief
cook helps the steward plan meals
and draw pantry supplies from the
storeroom. He also supervises the
other galley
(ship’s kitchen)
workers and is responsible for keep­
ing the galley clean and orderly.
The chief cook may be assisted by a
cook baker (D.O.T. 315.381).
Utilitymen (D.O.T. 318.887) and
messmen (D.O.T. 350.878) com­
plete the crew in the steward’s de­

Seamen employed aboard U.S.
oceangoing vessels numbered about
31,000 in mid-1970. Skilled deck
and engine seamen made up about
one-half of the work force and
skilled personnel in the steward’s
department, one-sixth. The stew­
ard’s department employs the great­
est concentration of unskilled
workers, about one-fifth of total
seamen.
About 65 percent of the seamen
were aboard dry cargo ships, and
about 28 percent were aboard tank­
ers. The remaining 7 percent
manned passenger ships.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Although not required, previous
sea experience in the Coast Guard
or Navy provides a good back­
ground for entering the merchant
marine. Applicants must possess
health certificates. In addition,
every person going to sea for the
first time must obtain seaman’s pa­
pers from the U.S. Coast Guard.
Seaman’s papers, however, do not
guarantee a job. They merely qual­
ify a person to be considered for a
job when the supply of regular
workers has been exhausted. To get
a job, a man must be present at the
hiring hall when the opening be­
comes available. In good shipping
times an opening may come within

750

a few days or weeks; in less pros­
perous times an opening may never
appear.
An inexperienced man usually
gets a job by applying for work at a
central hiring hall in one of the
chief ports of the country. These
hiring halls are operated by unions
for commercial vessels and by the
Navy’s Military Sealift Command
(MSC) for government operated
ships. In most ports along the At­
lantic and Gulf Coasts and Great
Lakes, the National Maritime
Union or Seafarers’ International
Union operate hiring halls. The
Sailors Union of the Pacific operates
hiring halls in many ports of the
West Coast. MSTS employment
offices are located at Brooklyn,
N.Y.; New Orleans, La.; and Oak­
land, Calif.
The jobseeker is given a shipping
card when he registers at the hiring
hall. The shipping companies send
job orders to the hiring hall and the
applicant unemployed the longest is
entitled to the first preference on a
job for which he is qualified. The
applicant must be present at the hall
when the job is announced and he
may lose his place if he is not pres­
ent, or has turned down three job
offers.
A seaman advances in the deck
and engine departments by serving
a designated period in a rating and
by successfully completing a Coast
Guard examination which tests the
seaman’s ability to use and maintain
the equipment in his department.
For example, after serving a mini­
mum of 1 year, the ordinary seaman
may apply to the Coast Guard for
limited endorsement as an able sea­
man. For full endorsement, the ap­
plicant must be 19 years of age and
pass an examination to test his
knowledge of seamanship and abil­
ity to carry out all the duties re­
quired of an able seaman. Seamen




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

who have the ability to supervise
may advance to boatswain after
years of service.
Advancement to higher positions
in the steward’s department is by
recommendation of the chief stew­
ard to the captain. A messman or
utilityman can advance to third
cook, to cook/baker, to chief
cook, and finally to chief steward.
Most training programs in the in­
dustry are designed to help experi­
enced men upgrade their ratings.
However, the Seafarers’ Interna­
tional Union of North America op­
erates the Harry Lundeberg School
for seamanship at Piney Point, Md.
that accepts and trains in general
seamanship skills a limited number
of young men who have no previous
sea experience. Upgrading courses
for seamen are offered by the Sea­
farers’ Union; the National Mari­
time Union of America, and a num­
ber of other organizations.

Employment Outlook

Workers seeking employment as
seamen will face keen competition
during the 1970’s as the total num­
ber of ships declines and crews are
reduced. The total number of sea­
men is expected to decline moder­
ately. Demand for men in entry rat­
ings will be especially limited. How­
ever, some jobs will arise each year
from the need to replace experi­
enced seamen who retire, die, or
quit the sea for other reasons.
Many of the merchant vessels
now operating in the U.S. fleet are
of World War II vintage and are ap­
proaching obsolescence. New ships
and refitted ships are equipped with
mechanized features which limit
manpower requirements, particular­
ly in the unskilled ranks. (See
introductory statement on Merchant
Marine Occupations for additional

information on employment out­
look. )
Earnings and Working Conditions

Crew members of American mer­
chant ships enjoy excellent pay and
fringe benefits. Most jobs provide
60 days’ paid vacation each year,
some even longer. Earnings depend
on job assignments and type of ves­
sel. Basic monthly pay for a cross
section of ratings on a typical
freighter is illustrated in the accom­
panying tabulation:
B ase p a y 1

Able seaman ............................... $499
Ordinary seaman ......................... 389
Deck utilityman ........................... 557
Carpenter ...................................... 603
Electrician ...................................
771
Oiler .............................................. 499
Fireman/watertender ................
499
Wiper ............................................ 463
Chief steward ............................... 655
Cook/baker .................................
567
Messman/utilityman ..................
306
1 East Coast wages in August 1970 aboard a
12,000-17,000 power ton single screw ship.

Monthly earnings are supple­
mented by premium pay for over­
time and other factors. On the aver­
age, premium earnings are equal to
about 50 percent of base wages. For
example, an oiler with a monthly
base pay of $499 may regularly
earn about $750 each month.
A person working in the engine
room must be able to withstand
high temperatures. A deckworker
must adapt to both the bitter cold
and hot sun.
Accommodations for seamen
aboard U.S. merchant vessels are
generally good, but not luxurious.
Meals are served in a mess hall,
which often doubles as a recreation
room where the crew can read,
write letters, play cards, and social­
ize. Crewmen generally share quar-

751

MERCHANT MARINE OCCUPATIONS

ters aboard older ships and have lit­
tle privacy, but most new ships have
single rooms.
Seamen are represented by a
number of labor organizations; the
two largest are the National Mari­
time Union of America and the Sea­
farers’ International Union of North
America.
(See introductory statement on
Merchant Marine Occupations for
more information on earnings and
working conditions.)




Sources of Additional Information

General information about jobs
in the merchant marine may be ob­
tained from:
Office of Maritime Manpower, Mari­
time Administration, U.S. Depart­
ment of Commerce, Washington,
D.C. 20235.

Information about job openings,
qualifications for employment, wage
scales and other particulars can be

obtained from local maritime un­
ions. If no seafaring union is listed
in a local telephone directory, infor­
mation may be obtained from:
National Maritime Union of Ameri­
ca, 36 Seventh Avenue, New York,
N.Y. 10011.
Seafarers’ International Union of
North America, 675 Fourth Ave­
nue, Brooklyn, N.Y. 11232.

R A D IO A N D T E L E V IS IO N
B R O A D C A S T IN G O C C U P A T IO N S

The glamor and excitement asso­
ciated with radio and television
make careers in broadcasting attrac­
tive to many young people. The
electronic technology involved in
transmitting programs and the busi­
ness aspects of operating a broad­
casting station or network also are
attractions. In 1970, 112,000 full­
time and 26,000 part-time staff
were employed in broadcasting; al­
together, approximately 60 percent
were employed in radio. Staff em­
ployees work for a broadcasting sta­
tion or network on a regularly
scheduled and continuous basis. In
addition to staff employees, several
thousand freelance performers, such
as actors, musicians, dancers, come­
dians and top-level announcers
work on specific assignments from
stations, networks, and other pro­
gram producers. (Several thousand
other employees work for independ­
ent program producers in activities
closely related to broadcasting, such
as the preparation of filmed and
taped programs and commercials
for broadcasting.)
Women make up almost a fourth
of broadcasting staff employment.
They frequently work as production
assistants, producers, newswriters,
continuity writers, casting direc­
tors, and costume or set designers.
They also work in the many office
occupations often filled by women.
A job as secretary is frequently a
good entry job for women interested
in the programing and administra­
tive areas of broadcasting.
Broadcasting stations offer a vari­
ety of interesting jobs in all parts of
the country. Opportunities for entry
jobs are best at stations in small
communities. Generally, the most
752



specialized and best paying jobs are
in large cities, especially those with
national network stations. Neverthe­
less, the talented individual will
have many opportunities to advance
to good paying jobs in stations lo­
cated in smaller communities.

Nature and Location of the
Industry

In 1970 about 6,400 commercial
radio stations were in operation in
the United States. Of these, approxi­
mately 4,300 were AM stations;
and approximately 2,100 were FM
stations. During this same period,
about 690 commercial television
stations were in operation.
Most commercial radio broad­
casting stations are small, independ­
ent businesses. In 1969, the aver­
age commercial radio station had
about 11 full-time employees and 3
part-time workers. Television sta­
tions were generally larger, and on
the average, they employed about
60 full-time and 7 part-time em­
ployees.
Commercial radio stations are
served by seven nationwide net­
works and a large number of re­
gional networks. Stations can
affiliate with networks by agreeing
to broadcast their programs on a
regular basis. National radio net­
works have affiliated stations in al­
most every large metropolitan area,
although only a minority of all radio
stations are affiliated with national
networks. Regional radio networks
have fewer affiliated stations, and
their activities usually consist of ar­
ranging for the sale of advertising
time, and interconnecting member
stations for special events such as

baseball and football games. Re­
gional networks have few full-time
employees because their program­
ing is conducted by staff employees
of the affiliated stations. The seven
national radio networks, together,
employed approximately
1,150
workers in 1969.
Most television stations depend
on one of the three national televi­
sion networks for programs that
would be too expensive for individ­
ual stations to originate—for exam­
ple, sports events such as world se­
ries baseball games, or newscasts of
national and international signifi­
cance. These networks, in turn, can
offer national coverage to sponsors.
Since some small cities have only
one or two television stations, these
stations often carry the programs of
two or three networks to offer their
viewers a wider variety of pro­
grams. A typical network television
show may be carried by up to 200
stations across the country. In 1969
the three national television net­
works employed about 13,000
workers, or 3 of every 10 staff em­
ployees in television. Practically all
large broadcasting stations are lo­
cated in metropolitan areas. About
one out of four broadcasting jobs
are in New York and California be­
cause New York City and Los An­
geles are the two major centers for
origination of network programs. In
addition, one out of three broad­
casting jobs are in Texas, Pennsyl­
vania, Illinois, Ohio, Florida, Michi­
gan, North Carolina, Tennessee,
Georgia, and Indiana. The balance
of broadcasting jobs are distributed
throughout the other States.
In addition to commercial broad­
casting stations, there were over
400 noncommercial radio stations
(mainly FM), and approximately
190 noncommercial television sta­
tions, both VHF and UHF, in 1970.
These stations are operated by
non-profit organizations, principally
educational agencies such as State

RADIO AND TELEVISION BROADCASTING OCCUPATIONS

commissions; local boards of educa­ also the owner, may act as business
tion; colleges and universities; and and sales manager, or perhaps as
special community educational tele­ program director, announcer, and
vision organizations. According to a copywriter. Announcers in small
private survey for fiscal ’69, these stations may do their own writing,
stations employed approximately often operate the studio control
5,500 full-time and 2,600 part-time board, and may even act as sales­
workers accounting for about one men. The engineering staff may
consist of only one full-time broad­
out of 20 in broadcasting.
cast technician assisted by workers
from the other departments. Small
low-powered stations, which do not
Broadcasting Occupations
use a directional antenna, may em­
Employees of broadcasting sta­ ploy a chief engineer part-time and
tions generally specialize in one of share his services with similar sta­
the following four major areas: pre­ tions in the community. In large
paring and producing programs; op­ radio and television stations, jobs
erating and maintaining electronic are more specialized and usually are
equipment (for transmitting sounds confined to one of the four depart­
and pictures to home receivers); ments. The kinds of jobs found in
selling broadcast time and develop­ each of these departments are de­
ing publicity and promotional mate­ scribed below.
rial; and handling general business
matters (including accounting, pay­ Programing Department. Staff em­
roll, public relations, personnel ad­ ployees produce the daily and
ministration, and the clerical work). weekly shows, assign personnel to
Nearly half of all staff employees cover special events, and provide
in broadcasting hold professional
and technical jobs such as staff an­
nouncer, newsman, continuity writ­
er, or broadcast technician. About
one-fourth hold managerial jobs
such as producer, manager, or
director. Clerical workers accounted
for about one of every seven
workers, and sales workers for only
slightly more than one of every 20
jobs in broadcasting. Of the remain­
ing workers in broadcasting, skilled
mechanics, such as radio and televi­
sion repairmen, and skilled mainte­
nance personnel, such as carpenters
and electricians, were the largest
groups of workers employed.
Job duties vary greatly between
small and large stations. In small
radio stations, a large proportion of
broadcast time consists of recorded
music and weather and news an­
nouncements. In small stations, the
station manager, who frequently is




753

general program services such as
sound effects and lighting. In addi­
tion to these staff employees, free­
lance actors, comedians, singers,
dancers, some well-known announc­
ers, and other entertainers are
hired for specific broadcasts or a se­
ries of broadcasts or for special as­
signments. These performers work
on a contract basis for the station,
network, advertising agency, spon­
sor, or an independent company
and specialize in producing pro­
grams.
The size of a station’s programing
department depends on the extent
to which its broadcasts are live, re­
corded, or received from a network.
In small stations, the program func­
tions are handled by a few people
who make commercial announce­
ments, read news and sports sum­
maries, select and play recordings,
and introduce network programs. A
large television station, on the other
hand, may have a program staff
consisting of a large number of peo-

754

pie in a wide variety of specialized
jobs.
Responsibility for the overall
program schedule of a large station
rests with a program director. He
arranges for a combination of pro­
grams that he believes will be most
effective in meeting the needs of ad­
vertisers who buy the station’s serv­
ices and will at the same time be
most attractive and interesting to
members of the community served
by the station.
Daily schedules of programs are
prepared by a traffic manager, who
also keeps a record of broadcasting
time available for advertising. A
continuity director is responsible for
the writing and editing of all scripts.
He may be assisted by a continuity
writer, who prepares Announcers’
Books (“copy”). These books con­
tain the script and commercials for
each program along with their se­
quence and length.
Individual programs or series of
programs are planned and super­
vised by a director. In large sta­
tions, he may work under the super­
vision of a producer, who assumes
responsibility for selection of
scripts, financial control, and other
overall problems of production.
Many times these functions are
combined in the job of producerdirector. The director’s major func­
tions include selecting appropriate
artists and studio personnel, sched­
uling and conducting rehearsals,
coordinating the efforts of all the
people involved in the show to
produce effective entertainment,
and directing the on-the-air show.
He may be assisted by an associate
director, who takes over such tasks
as working out detailed schedules
and plans, arranging for distribution
of scripts and changes in scripts to
the cast, and assisting in directing
the on-the-air show. Some stations
employ program assistants to aid in




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

carrying out the orders of the direc­
tor and his assistants. The assistants
help assemble and coordinate the
various parts of the show. They ar­
range for obtaining props, makeup
service, art work, and film slides.
They assist in timing the on-the-air
show, preparing cue cards from the
scripts, and using them to cue the
performers. Education and public
affairs directors act as a link be­
tween the station and schools,
churches, and civic and charitable
institutions. They supervise and edit
most noncommercial programs.
Announcers are the largest and
best known group of program
workers. In radio and television sta­
tions of all sizes, the announcer in­
troduces programs, guests, and mu­
sical selections, and delivers most of
the live commercial messages. (Fur­
ther information on broadcast an­
nouncers is given later in this
chapter.)
Music is an important part of
radio programing. Both small and
large stations use recordings and
transcriptions to provide musical
programs and background music for
other shows. Large stations, which
have extensive music libraries, some­
times employ a music librarian, who
maintains the music files and an­
swers requests for any particular se­
lection or type of music. In addition
to recorded music, a few of the larg­
est stations have specialized person­
nel who plan and arrange for musi­
cal services. The musical director
selects, arranges, and directs suit­
able music for programs on general
instructions from the program direc­
tor. He selects musicians for live
broadcasts and directs them during
rehearsals and broadcasts. Musi­
cians are generally hired for par­
ticular assignments on a freelance
basis, although a few stations em­
ploy staff musicians full-time.
News gathering and reporting is

an increasingly important aspect of
radio and television programing. In
addition to daily coverage of the
news, sports, weather, and, in rural
areas, farm reports, the news de­
partment also presents special pro­
grams covering such events as con­
ventions and disasters. The news
director plans and supervises the
overall news and special events cov­
erage of a station. A newscaster
broadcasts daily news programs and
reports special news events on the
scene. A newswriter selects and
writes news copy to be read on the
air by the newscasters. In small sta­
tions the jobs of newscaster and
newswriter frequently are com­
bined.
Stations that originate live televi­
sion shows must have staff members
capable of handling staging jobs.
The studio supervisor plans and su­
pervises the setting up of scenery
and props. The floor or stage man­
ager plans and directs the actors’
positions and movements on the set
in accordance with the director’s in­
structions. The jobs of studio super­
visor and floor manager often are
combined. Floormen set up props,
hold cue cards, and do the unskilled
chores around the studio. (This job
is frequently held by a beginner in
the
production
department.)
Makeup artists prepare personnel
for broadcasts by applying proper
makeup. Scenic designers plan and
design settings and backgrounds for
programs. They select furniture,
draperies, pictures, and other prop­
erties to help convey the desired
visual impressions. Sound effects
technicians operate special equip­
ment to simulate sounds, such as
gunfire or falling water.
About half of all television pro­
graming is on film, about 15 percent
is live, and the remainder is re­
corded on magnetic video tape.
Video tape recording is done by

RADIO AND TELEVISION BROADCASTING OCCUPATIONS

News writers revise information for clearance and editing.

broadcast technicians on electronic
equipment that permits instanta­
neous playback of a television per­
formance. It can be used either to
record a live show being broadcast
or to prerecord a program for fu­
ture broadcast. For filmed pro­
grams, the role of the station’s pro­
graming staff is limited to editing
the film and timing and scheduling
the show. Many stations employ
specialized staff members to take
care of filmed program material.
The film editor edits and prepares
all film for on-the-air presentation.
This includes screening all films re­
ceived as well as cutting and splic­
ing feature films to insert commer­
cials. He also edits all locally
produced film. The film librarian




catalogs and maintains the station’s
files of motion picture film.
Engineering Department. The
main tasks of the engineering staff
are positioning microphones, adjust­
ing levels of sound, keeping trans­
mitters operating properly, moving
and adjusting television cameras to
produce clear, well-composed pic­
tures, and lighting television scenes
and performers. The staff also in­
stalls, maintains, and repairs the
many types of electrical and elec­
tronic equipment required for these
operations.
Broadcast technicians in the engi­
neering department perform a vari­
ety of jobs in the radio or television
station. For example, they control
the operation of the transmitter to

755

keep the output level and frequency
of the outgoing broadcast within
legal requirements. They also set
up, operate, and maintain equip­
ment in the studio and in locations
from which remote broadcasts are
to be made. (Further information
on broadcast technicians is given
later in this chapter.)
Most stations employ a chief en­
gineer, who has responsibility for all
engineering matters, including su­
pervision of other technicians. In
small stations, he also may work a
regular shift at the control board.
Large stations have engineers who
specialize in fields such as sound re­
cording, maintenance, and lighting.
Networks employ a few develop­
ment engineers to design and de­
velop new electronic apparatus to
meet special problems.
Sales Department. Time sales­
men, the largest group of workers in
this department, sell time on the air
to sponsors, advertising agencies,
and other buyers. They must have a
thorough knowledge of the station’s
operations and the characteristics of
the area it serves that are of most
interest to advertisers. The latter in­
clude population, number of radio
and television sets in use, income
levels, and consumption patterns.
Time salesmen in large stations
often maintain close relationships
with particular sponsors and adver­
tising agencies by selling time and
acting as general consultants and
advisers in matters pertaining to ad­
vertising through the station. In
very small stations, the time sales­
man also may handle other func­
tions. Many stations sell a substan­
tial part of their time, particularly to
national advertisers, through inde­
pendent sales agencies known as
station representatives, which act as
intermediaries for time buyers and
stations or groups of stations.
Large stations generally have

756

several workers who do only sales
work. The sales manager supervises
his staff of time salesmen. He also
may handle a few of the largest ac­
counts personally. Some large sta­
tions employ statistical clerks and
research personnel to assist the
sales staff by analyzing and report­
ing market data relating to the com­
munity served.
Business Management. In a very
small station, the owner and his sec­
retary may handle all the record­
keeping, accounting, purchasing,
hiring, and other more routine office
work. Where the size of the station
warrants the employment of full­
time specialists, the business staff
may include accountants, publicity
specialists, personnel workers, and
other professional workers. They
are assisted by office workers such
as stenographers, typists, bookkeep­
ers, clerks, and messengers. Build­
ing maintenance men are employed
to keep the facilities in good condi­
tion.




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A high school diploma is the min­
imum educational requirement for
entry jobs in broadcasting, although
for many jobs some college training
is increasingly preferred. A liberal
arts education is a good qualifica­
tion for the beginner because broad­
casting needs broadly educated peo­
ple with knowledge and interests in
many areas. Work in television pro­
graming for networks and large in­
dependent stations generally re­
quires a college degree and some
experience in the broadcasting field.
Training in specialized areas such
as writing, public speaking, dramat­
ics, designing, makeup, or electron­
ics may be required of beginners in
these specialties, even though work
experience usually is not necessary.
Some young people without special­
ized training or experience get their
start in broadcasting in such jobs as
clerk, typist, floorman, or assistant
to an experienced worker. As these
new workers gain knowledge and

experience, they have the chance to
advance to more responsible jobs.
Young people are sometimes hired
on the basis of their potentialities
rather than for any specific training
or experience, but the more skills,
education, and varied background
these beginners have, the better will
be their chances for advancement.
A few young people get started in
broadcasting with temporary jobs in
the summer when regular workers
go on vacations, and broadcast
schedules of daylight hours stations
are increased.
Technical training in electronics
is required for entry jobs in engi­
neering departments. In addition,
anyone who operates or adjusts a
broadcast transmitter must have a
Federal Communications Commis­
sion (FCC) Radiotelephone First
Class Operator License. To obtain
this license, an applicant must pass
a series of technical examinations
given by the FCC. Small radio sta­
tions with only a few employees
sometimes prefer to have as many
personnel as possible legally quali­
fied to operate their transmitters.
Because of this, nontechnicians,
especially announcers, will have a
better chance of getting a job in
radio if they have a first class li­
cense. A course in electronics at a
recognized technical institute is
probably the best way to prepare
for the FCC test.
Specific training or experience
usually is not required for entry jobs
as announcers in small stations, but
an applicant must have a good
voice, a broad cultural background,
and other characteristics that make
him a dramatic or attractive person­
ality. Qualifications for adminstrative and sales jobs in broadcasting
are similar to those required by
other employers; a business course
of study in high school or college is
good preparation for such jobs.

RADIO AND TELEVISION BROADCASTING OCCUPATIONS

Most beginners start out in small
stations. Although these stations
cannot pay high salaries, they offer
new workers opportunities to learn
many different phases of broadcast­
ing work because they generally use
their personnel in “combination”
jobs. For example, in addition to his
regular duties, an announcer may
perform some of the duties of a
broadcast technician.
People in the engineering depart­
ment tend to remain in this area of
work, where thorough training in
electronics is essential. Program
employees usually remain in pro­
graming work, although sometimes
transfers from and to the sales and
business services departments are
made. Transfers are easier between
sales and administrative depart­
ments because of their close work­
ing relationship; in fact, in the small
stations, they are often merged into
one department. Although transfers
of experienced workers between de­
partments are limited to the extent
noted, these distinctions are less im­
portant in the beginning jobs and
also in the top-level jobs. At the
higher levels, a station executive
may be drawn from top-level per­
sonnel of any department. Many
top-level administrative jobs are
filled by people with sales experi­
ence.

Employment Outlook

Employment in the broadcasting
industry is expected to grow at a
moderate pace for the balance of
the 1970’s. More job opportunities
will result from replacement, as
thousands of job openings become
available as workers transfer to
other fields of work, retire, or die.
Retirements and deaths alone will
provide an estimated 3,800 job
openings annually.




New radio stations will be estab­
lished over the period, primarily in
small communities, and will offer
opportunities for some additional
workers. Also, cable television
(CATV) has emerged as a power­
ful new force in communications
and some additional job opportuni­
ties for professional, technical, and
maintenance personnel will be
created as CATV systems increas­
ingly originate and transmit pro­
grams. By using coaxial cables in­
stead of airwaves, CATV can bring
to subscribers a large selection of
over-the-air signals plus many addi­
tional programs originated for cable
television.
The number of educational
broadcasting stations is expected to
increase as private and governmen­
tal groups continue to expand this
medium as an educational tool. The
growth of educational television sta­
tions, particularly, should increase
the number of job opportunities,
especially in programing, engineer­
ing, and station management.
In existing radio stations, em­
ployment probably will remain
about the same. Continued intro­
duction of equipment that permits
the control of transmitters from the
studio will eliminate the need for a
technical crew at the transmitter
site. Automatic programing equip­
ment permits radio stations to pro­
vide virtually unattended program­
ing service. As the smaller television
stations acquire the capability to
originate local color telecasts, there
may be a small expansion in the
number of technical workers to han­
dle and operate the more complex
equipment.
Competition will be very keen for
entry jobs in broadcasting in the
years ahead, especially in the large
cities, because of the attraction this
field has for young people, and the

757

relatively few beginning jobs that
will be available.

Earnings and Working Conditions

In 1970, earnings of nonsupervisory broadcasting workers averaged
$147.45 a week or $3.86 an hour
for an average 38.2-hour week.
There is a wide range of salaries
among various occupations in the
industry and among locations. Em­
ployees in large cities generally earn
much more than those in the same
kinds of jobs in small towns. Wages
also tend to be higher in large sta­
tions than in small ones and higher
in television than in radio.
Working conditions in broadcast­
ing stations are usually pleasant.
The work is done in clean, attrac­
tive surroundings. It is performed
indoors, except where remote pick­
ups are involved. Jobs in program­
ing are particularly attractive to
young people interested in the per­
forming arts, both because of the
glamour attached to this field of
work, and the opportunities it af­
fords for high earnings and artistic
expression.
Most full-time broadcasting em­
ployees have a scheduled 40-hour
workweek. However, employees in
many small stations have a longer
workweek. Sales and business serv­
ices employees generally work in
the daytime hours common to most
office jobs. However, program and
engineering employees must work
shifts which may include evenings,
nights, weekends, and holidays. To
meet a broadcast deadline, program
and technical employees in the net­
works may have to work contin­
uously for many hours under great
pressure.
Many unions operate in the
broadcasting field. They are most
active in the network centers and

758

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

large stations in metropolitan areas.
The National Association of Broad­
cast Employees and Technicians
and the International Brotherhood
of Electrical Workers both organize
all kinds of broadcasting workers,
although most of their members are
technicians. The International Alli­
ance of Theatrical Stage Employees
and Moving Picture Machine Oper­
ators organizes various crafts, such
as stagehands, sound and lighting
technicians, wardrobe attendants,
makeup men, and cameramen.
Many announcers and entertainers
are members of the American Fed­
eration of Television and Radio
Artists. The Directors Guild of
America, Ind. (Inc.) organizes pro­
gram directors, associate directors,
and stage managers. The Screen
Actors Guild Inc., represents the
majority of talent personnel who
appear on films made for television.

RADIO AND TELEVISION
ANNOUNCERS
(D.O.T. 159.148)

Nature of the Work

Radio and television staff an­
nouncers present news and live
commercial messages, introduce
programs, describe sporting events,
act as masters of ceremonies, con­
duct interviews, and identify sta­
tions. In small stations, they may
perform additional duties such as
operating the control board, selling
time, and writing commercial and
news copy. In large stations, their
duties are confined to the program­
ing department.
Many announcers act as disc
jockeys, introducing selections of




recorded music and commenting on
the music and other matters of in­
terest to the audience. Disc jockeys
“ad-lib” much of the commentary,
working without a detailed script.

About 17,000 staff announcers
were employed on a regularly
scheduled, full-time basis in radio
and television broadcasting stations
in 1970. More than 80 percent of
them were employed in radio. The
average radio station employed 2
announcers; larger stations em­
ployed 4 or more. Most television
stations employed 2 staff announc­
ers, although larger stations some­
times employed 3 or more. In addi­
tion to staff announcers, several
thousand freelance announcers sell
their services for individual assign­
ments to networks and stations, or
to advertising agencies and other in­
dependent producers, for both pro­
grams (news, sports, disc jockey,
etc.) and commercials. Some an­
nouncers become well-known and
highly paid personalities.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

To succeed as an announcer, one
must have a pleasant and well-con­
trolled voice, a good sense of tim­
ing, and excellent pronunciation. In
addition, a thorough knowledge of
correct English usage and a knowl­
edge of dramatics, sports, music,

and current events improve chances
for success. In television, rather
high standards of personal appear­
ance also must be met. When on the
air, an announcer must be able to
react quickly and imaginatively in
unusual situations. He also must be
a convincing salesman when pre­
senting commercials. In addition to
all the above qualifications, the
most successful announcers have a
combination of personality and
showmanship that makes them at­
tractive to audiences. Therefore,
anyone considering a career as an
announcer should judge his chances
of success realistically. Most an­
nouncers are men, but there are a
few opportunities for women.
High school courses in English,
public speaking, dramatics, and for­
eign languages, plus sports and
music hobbies, are valuable back­
ground for prospective announcers.
A number of vocational schools
offer training in announcing, and
some universities offer courses of
study in the broadcasting field. A
college liberal arts education also
provides an excellent background
for an announcer.
Most announcers get their first
broadcasting jobs in small stations.
Because announcers in small sta­
tions sometimes operate transmit­
ters, prospective announcers often
obtain an FCC Radiotelephone First
Class Operator License which en­
ables them legally to operate a
transmitter and, therefore, makes
them much more useful to these
stations. Announcers more fre­
quently operate control boards, for
which only a Third Class license is
required. (For information on how
to obtain such licenses, see p. 756.)
Announcers usually work in sev­
eral different stations in the course
of their careers. After acquiring ex­
perience at a station in a small com­
munity, an ambitious and talented

759

RADIO AND TELEVISION BROADCASTING OCCUPATIONS

announcer may move to a better
paying job in a larger community.
He also may advance by getting a
regular program as a disc jockey,
sportscaster, or other specialist. In
the national networks, competition
for announcing jobs is intense, and
an announcer usually must be a col­
lege graduate and have several
years of successful announcing ex­
perience before he will be given an
audition.

Employment Outlook

The employment of announcers
is expected to increase moderately
in the 1970’s, as new radio and tele­
vision stations are licensed. The
gains in employment resulting from
these openings during this period,
however, will be reduced slightly by
the increased use of automatic pro­
graming. Some job openings in this
relatively small occupation will also
result from transfers to other fields
of work and from retirements and
deaths.
It will be easier to get an entry
job in radio than in television be­
cause of the greater number of
radio stations, especially small sta­
tions which hire beginners. How­
ever, the great attraction this field
has for young people and its rela­
tively small size will result in keen
competition for entry jobs.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Earnings of staff announcers vary
and depend upon whether the an­
nouncer works in radio or televi­
sion, in a large or small station, or
in a large or small community. As a
general rule, wages increase with
the size of the community and the
station. Earnings of an announcer in




television tend to be somewhat
higher than those in radio.
The earnings of many better paid
announcers include fees in addition
to the salaries received from sta­
tions. Such fees are larger and more
common in television than in radio.
In small radio stations, announcers
generally are paid a fixed weekly or
monthly salary. Announcers who
work in regular shows, such as disc
jockeys or announcers who become
identified with popular network
radio or television programs, earn
considerably more than other staff
announcers.
Most announcers in large stations
work a 40-hour week and receive
overtime for work beyond 40 hours.
In small stations, many announcers
work 2 to 8 hours of overtime each
week. Evening, night, and weekend
work occurs frequently since many
stations are on the air 24 hours a
day, 7 days a week. Announcers’
working hours consist of both time
on the air and time spent in prepar­
ing for broadcasts. Working condi­
tions are usually pleasant because of
the variety of work and the many

personal contacts which are part of
the job. Announcers also receive
some satisfaction from becoming
well known in the area their station
serves.

BROADCAST TECHNICIANS
(D.O.T. 194.281, .282, and .782;
957.282; and 963.168 through .887)

Nature of the Work

Broadcast technicians set up, op­
erate, and maintain the electronic
equipment used to record or trans­
mit radio and television programs.
They work with microphones,
sound recorders, lighting and sound
effects devices, television cameras,
magnetic video tape recorders, and
motion picture projection equip­
ment. In the control room, broad­
cast technicians operate equipment
that regulates the quality of sounds
and pictures being recorded or

760

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

*****

Broadcast technician controls quality of transmission.

broadcast. They also operate con­
trols that switch broadcasts from
one camera or studio to another,
from film to live programing, or
from network to local programs. By
means of hand signals and, in televi­
sion, by use of telephone head­
sets, they give technical directions to
personnel in the studio. When
working on disc jockey programs,
they sometimes operate phonograph
record turntables. Other control
room duties may include operating
movie projectors, making record­
ings of live shows, and keeping an
operation log of all broadcasts.




As a rule, broadcast technicians
in small stations perform a wide va­
riety of duties. In large stations and
in networks, technicians are more
specialized, although specific job as­
signments may change from day to
day. Broadcast technicians who spe­
cialize may be given titles such as
transmitter technician (monitors
and logs outgoing signals and is re­
sponsible for proper operation of
the transmitter), maintenance tech­
nician (sets up, maintains, and re­
pairs electronic broadcasting equip­
ment), audio control technician
(operates controls that regulate

sound pickup, transmission, and
switching), video control technician
(operates controls that regulate the
quality, brightness, and contrast of
television pictures), lighting techni­
cian (directs lighting of television
programs), field technician (sets up
and operates broadcasting equip­
ment for programs originating out­
side the studio), recording techni­
cian (operates and maintains sound
recording equipment), and video
tape recording technician (operates
and maintains magnetic video tape
recording equipment). Sometimes
the term “engineer” is substituted
for technician in the above titles.
Installing and maintaining com­
plex electronic equipment is the
most technically difficult work of
broadcast technicians. Most techni­
cians do at least occasional mainte­
nance, but large stations usually
have one or two experienced men
who repair and maintain electronic
equipment under supervision of the
chief engineer. In small radio sta­
tions, the chief engineer frequently
does all maintenance and repair
work himself.
When events taking place outside
the studios are to be broadcast,
technicians go to the site of the
pickup and set up, test, and operate
the necessary equipment. They also
make emergency repairs. After the
broadcast, they dismantle the equip­
ment and return to the station.
In 1970, over 22,000 nonsupervisory broadcast technicians were
employed in radio and television
stations. Most radio stations employ
fewer than four technicians, al­
though a few large radio stations
may employ more than 10. Nearly
all television stations employ at
least five broadcast technicians. Sta­
tions located in large metropolitan
areas average about 30 technicians.
Many broadcast technicians work in
communities of more than 250,000

RADIO AND TELEVISION BROADCASTING OCCUPATIONS

population. The highest paying and
most specialized jobs are concen­
trated in New York, Los Angeles,
and Washington, D.C.—the origi­
nating centers for most of the net­
work programs.
In addition to the nonsupervisory
technicians, several thousand super­
visory personnel with job titles such
as chief engineer, assistant chief en­
gineer, director of engineering,
technical director, and supervisory
technician work in engineering de­
partments. These workers supervise
personnel who operate, maintain,
and repair all electronic equipment
in the studio, at the transmitter, and
on remote broadcasting sites. They
may also do maintenance and repair
work, design and build new equip­
ment, purchase equipment for the
station, and help lay out plans for
building new studios, transmitters,
relay equipment, and towers.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A young man interested in be­
coming a broadcast technician
should plan to get a Radiotelephone
First Class Operator License from
the FCC. Federal law requires that
anyone who operates or adjusts
broadcast transmitters in television
and radio stations must hold such a
license. Some stations require all
their broadcast technicians, includ­
ing those who do not operate
transmitters, to have this license.
Applicants for the license must pass
a series of written examinations
covering the construction and op­
eration of transmission and receiv­
ing equipment, the characteristics
of electromagnetic waves, and Fed­
eral Government and international
regulations and practices governing
broadcasting. Information about
these examinations and guides to




study for them may be obtained
from the FCC, Washington, D.C.
20036.
High school courses in algebra
and trigonometry, and in physics
and other sciences, provide valuable
background for young men antici­
pating careers in this occupation.
Building and operating an amateur
radio station is also good training. A
good way to acquire the knowledge
necessary for becoming a broadcast
technician is to take an electronics
course in a technical school. Many
schools give courses especially de­
signed to prepare the student for the
FCC first-class license test. Training
at the technical school or college
level is a distinct advantage for
those who hope to advance to su­
pervisory positions or to the more
specialized jobs in large stations and
in the networks.
Young men with FCC first-class
licenses who get entry jobs are in­
structed and advised by the chief
engineer or other experienced tech­
nicians concerning the work proce­
dures of the station. In small sta­
tions, they may start by operating
the transmitter and handling other
technical duties after a brief instruc­
tion period. As they acquire more
experience and skill, they are as­
signed to more responsible jobs.
Men who demonstrate above-aver­
age ability may move into the toplevel technical positions, such as
supervisory technician and chief
engineer. A college degree in engi­
neering is becoming increasingly
important for advancement to su­
pervisory positions.

Employment Outlook

The number of broadcast techni­
cians is expected to increase only
slightly during the 1970’s. Retire­
ments, deaths, and transfers to

761

other jobs will result in some addi­
tional job openings.
Some job opportunities for tech­
nicians will be provided by the new
radio and television stations ex­
pected to go on the air during this
period. In addition, color television
broadcasting may slightly increase
the need for technicians. Color tele­
vision pickup and transmitting
equipment is much more compli­
cated than black and white equip­
ment and requires more mainte­
nance and technical know-how.
However, other technical advances,
such as automatic switching and
programing, automatic operation
logging, and remote control of
transmitters will limit the increase
in job opportunities in the new sta­
tions and replacement needs in ex­
isting stations.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Earnings of broadcast technicians
vary greatly depending on such fac­
tors as the size and location of the
community a station serves, the size
of the station, whether he works in
a radio or television station, and the
experience of the individual. As a
rule, technicians’ wages are highest
in large cities and in large stations.
Technicians employed by television
stations usually are paid more than
those working for radio stations be­
cause television equipment is gener­
ally more complex.
Most technicians in large stations
work a 40-hour week with overtime
pay for work beyond 40 hours.
Many broadcast technicians in the
larger cities work a 37-hour week.
In small stations, many technicians
work 2 to 8 hours of overtime each
week. Evening, night, and weekend
work is frequently necessary since
many stations are on the air as
many as 24 hours a day, 7 days a

762

week. Network technicians may oc­
casionally have to work contin­
uously for many hours and under
great pressure in order to meet
broadcast deadlines.




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Broadcast technicians generally
work indoors in pleasant surround­
ings. The work is interesting, and
the duties are varied. When remote
pickups are made, however, techni­

cians may work out of doors at
some distance from the studios,
under less favorable conditions.

R A IL R O A D

Philadelphia, Cleveland, and St.
Louis.

O C C U P A T IO N S

Railroad Occupations

The railroads, with their network
of more than 200,000 miles of rail
line reaching into all parts of the
country, are one of the Nation's
largest employers. Over 500,000
railroad workers were employed in
1970, operating trains, maintaining
and repairing facilities and equip­
ment, and performing hundreds of
other activities. These involve jobs
requiring different kinds of skills
and levels of education. In most
railroad occupations, a worker
starts at the bottom and works his
way up by learning his job, proving
his ability, and acquiring seniority.

Nature and Location of the
Industry

The railroad industry is made up
of “line-haul” railroad companies
which transport freight and passen­
gers between cities and towns, and
switching and terminal companies
which operate facilities at stations,
at freight yards, and at other termi­
nal points.
The Class I line-haul railroads,
which include all the large, wellknown companies, handle about 95
percent of the railroad industry’s
business and employ about 92 per­
cent of all railroad workers.
Equipped with nearly 27,000 loco­
motive units, about 12,800 passen­
ger cars, and about 1.4 million
freight cars, they transported more
than 1.4 billion tons of freight and
nearly 300 million passengers in
1970. Employment and Earnings
data used in this chapter are for
jobs on Class I line-haul railroad
industry.
Of the various transportation
services provided by the railroads,
shipment of freight, in terms of




commodities—like coal, ore, grain,
lumber, and manufactured products
—account for most railroad revenue
and employment. Passenger service,
though important, has declined sub­
stantially during the past 25 years.
As a result, most job openings in the
near future are likely to be related
to railroad freight, rather than pas­
senger, service.
Railroad workers are employed
in every State except Hawaii and in
both large and small communities,
but the greatest number work at ter­
minal points where the railroads
maintain their central offices, freight
yards, and maintenance and repair
shops. The metropolitan area of
Chicago, where the great eastern
and western railroad systems meet,
is the hub of the Nation’s railroad
network and has more railroad
workers than any other area. Other
places where particularly large
numbers of railroad workers are
employed are areas around New
York City, Los Angeles, Pittsburgh,

The work force of the railroad in­
dustry can be divided into five main
groups—employees who (1) oper­
ate trains, (2) handle communica­
tions, station, and office work, (3)
build and maintain locomotives,
cars, and other rolling stock, (4)
build and maintain tracks, struc­
tures, and other railroad property,
and (5) handle luggage, prepare
and serve food, and provide other
personal services to passengers. In
1970, 94 percent of the workers in
railroad jobs were men. Most
women employed by the railroads
work in offices.
Chart 34 shows the number of
employees in some of the principal
railroad occupations. Other occupa­
tions range from unskilled laundry
and cleaning jobs to professional
positions such as accountant, engi­
neer, and statistician. (Information
about some of these jobs is given
elsewhere in the Handbook.)
The workers directly engaged in
running the trains, known as “oper-

Employment in selected railroad occupations

i/

Workers, 1970 (in thousands)
0

20

Clerks

40

80

60

100

X

Shop trades

ZD

Brakemen
Track workers
Conductors

3

Locomotive engineers
Locomotive firemen
Telegraphers, telephoners, and towermen
Signal department workers

I

Bridge and building workers

....'"
1

Station agents
y ESTIMATED
SOURCE: BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

763

764

ating employees,” represent more
than one-fourth of all railroad
workers. Class I line-haul railroads
employed approximately 165,000
operating employees in 1970. In­
cluded are locomotive engineers,
firemen, conductors, brakemen,
and, on some passenger trains, bag­
gagemen. These men work together
as train crews, operating trains ei­
ther out on the “run” or at the ter­
minals and railroad yards. Here, in
the yards, freight is loaded and un­
loaded, freight cars received and
switched, and trains are broken up
and put together. Others who work
in the yards include switchtenders,
who assist conductors (or foremen)
and brakemen (or switchmen) by
throwing the track switches. Hos­
tlers fuel locomotives, check their
operating condition, and deliver
them to the engine crews.
Another one-fourth of all rail­
road workers consists of “commu­
nications, station, and office”
employees who regulate train
movements and handle the railroads’
business affairs. In 1970, Class I
line-haul railroads employed about
14,000 persons in these jobs.
Communications are handled by
dispatchers who coordinate the
movement of trains and issue train
orders. Then telegraphers, teleph­
ones, and towermen either pass
on these train orders—and other in­
structions—to the train crews or
else execute them by setting signals
and track switches. Agents are in
charge of the railroad stations’ busi­
ness affairs. Railroad clerks work
either in these stations or in com­
pany offices, doing secretarial and
other kinds of office work, assisting
station agents, dealing with custom­
ers, selling tickets, tending baggage
rooms, keeping records, and per­
forming related tasks. Also included
in this “office, communication, and
station” group of railroad workers




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

are claims investigators, account­
ants, lawyers, motor vehicle opera­
tors, patrolmen, and watchmen.
More than one-fifth of all rail­
road workers are employed in rail­
road yards, carshops, and engine
houses, houses maintaining and re­
pairing locomotives, cars, and other
railroad rolling stock. Class I linehaul roads employed about 124,000
workers in this group in 1970. Car­
men perform a variety of repair and
maintenance tasks necessary to keep
railroad freight and passenger cars
in good operating condition. Elec­
trical workers, machinists, boiler­
makers, blacksmiths, and sheet
metal workers, also are employed
in carshops.
A considerably smaller group of
railroad workers—about one-sixth
of the total—maintains and con­
structs tracks, bridges, stations, sig­
nals, and other railroad property.
The Class I line-haul railroads em­
ployed about 87,000 in work of this
kind in 1970. Trackmen and other
maintenance-of-way workers main­
tain, construct, and repair tracks
and roadbeds. Bridge and building
mechanics construct and maintain
bridges, tunnels, and many other
kinds of structures along the com­
pany’s right-of-way. Signal workers
install the railroad’s vast network of
train and crossing signals and main­
tain it in working order.
Another small group of railroad
workers provides personal services
to passengers at stations and aboard
trains. With 5,600 employees in
1970, it is the smallest of the five
major railroad occupational groups.
Included in this group are porters
and attendants who perform many
kinds of personal service for passen­
gers, as well as cooks and waiters
who prepare and serve food. (Ad­
ditional information about cooks

and waiters is given elsewhere in
the Handbook.)

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

For most jobs, particularly those
on the trains, in the yards, and
around the stations, training is given
on the job. The new employee usu­
ally learns by working and by re­
ceiving instructions from experi­
enced men. For some office and
maintenance jobs, training may be
obtained in high schools and voca­
tional schools. In addition, universi­
ties and technical schools offer
courses in engineering, transporta­
tion, traffic management, and other
subjects valuable to professional
and technical workers.
New employees in some occupa­
tions—principally those connected
with train or engine service—start
as “extra board” men. That is, their
names are placed on an “extra list”
for individual occupations. From
these lists, the workers are called to
fill vacancies that arise from vaca­
tions, days off, or illnesses of men
on regular jobs. They may be called
for extra work because of an in­
crease in railroad traffic, as well.
When regular job assignments be­
come available, extra board workers
who have gained experience and
seniority are assigned to regular
positions. The time spent on extra
board work varies with type of job
and number of available openings.
In some cases, workers may not re­
ceive regular assignments for a
number of years, if regular openings
do not develop as a result of de­
creased traffic, increased mechani­
zation, and the like.
Apprenticeship programs are lim­
ited chiefly to trainees in the rail­
road shop crafts. Many of these
programs are planned and operated

RAILROAD OCCUPATIONS

jointly by the companies and the a limited area or “seniority district”
railroad workers’ unions. Of the of the railroad system for which he
men who were taking this kind of works. In some cases, seniority
training in 1970, the majority were rights may apply only to one shop,
“regular” apprentices (usually high locality, or office. Among train and
school graduates with no previous engine personnel, seniority rights
work experience, who were working may be limited either to road serv­
and receiving instruction in their ice or yard service. In such cases,
chosen trades for a 4-year period). workers may bid only for positions
Others were “helper” apprentices, in the particular type of service in
with some previous experience as which they have been employed.
railroad workers, who were receiv­
In addition to determining his
ing the same kind of training, usu­ right to advance, the worker’s sen­
ally for a 3-year period.
iority also determines how much
Applicants who have a high choice he has about working condi­
school education or its equivalent tions. A beginning telegrapher, for
are preferred by railroad companies instance, may have to work several
for most kinds of nonprofessional years on a night shift in an out-ofpositions. Good physical condition the-way location until he accumu­
is required for most jobs, and al­ lates enough seniority to get an as­
most all large railroads require ap­ signment without these disadvan­
plicants to pass physical examina­ tages.
tions before they are hired; in some
(Later sections of this chapter
jobs, physical examinations are re­ contain more complete information
quired periodically. Excellent hear­ about the training and other qualifi­
ing and eyesight are essential for cations for selected occupations in
train and engine service jobs, and the railroad industry.)
color blindness is an absolute bar to
employment in work involving the
interpretation of railroad signals.
Employment Outlook
Promotions of qualified workers
The longrun decline in railroad
to jobs covered by union-manage­
ment agreements are made on the employment is expected to con­
basis of seniority. Most job va­ tinue, but at a decreasing rate in the
cancies are listed on a bulletin immediate years ahead. Technologi­
board, and all workers interested cal innovation and changing pat­
may “bid” for them. The job goes terns of transportation and produc­
to the qualified applicant whose tion have resulted in a substantial
length of service places him highest decline in railroad employment in
on the seniority list. Often, before recent years. Developments such as
workers can qualify for promotion, the use of larger, more powerful
they must pass written and perform­ diesel locomotives and extensive use
ance tests. For occupations in train of machines for roadway upkeep
and engine service, there are well- have had a considerable impact on
established avenues of promotion. railroad employment. The railroad
Engineers usually are chosen from work force has declined also as rail­
the ranks of the firemen, and con­ road passenger travel has dropped
ductors from the list of brakemen. steeply and freight traffic has shown
A railroad worker’s seniority usu­ relatively little growth because of
ally entitles him to promotion only gains in competititve modes of
automo­
for job openings which occur within transportation—notably




765

biles, tracks, buses, airplanes, and
pipelines.
Most of the factors which have
led to reduced employment in the
past are expected to continue to in­
fluence railroad employment during
the decade ahead. In addition,
mergers of connecting or parallel
railroads could reduce railroad em­
ployment further by eliminating fa­
cilities such as those at terminals,
and by combining accounting and
other functions. Some mergers have
occurred in recent years and, on the
basis of present developments, oth­
ers are likely.
Despite prospects of declining
employment, job opportunities will
be available annually for thousands
of new railroad workers, as the rail­
roads have one of the largest work
forces in American industry. Since a
high proportion are older workers,
many jobs will become vacant be­
cause of retirements, deaths, pro­
motions, and transfers to other
fields of work. Since these jobs are
filled within the ranks through sen­
iority, they will leave some open­
ings at entrance levels as incum­
bents are promoted.
Future job opportunities for ap­
plicants probably will be most nu­
merous in construction and mainte­
nance work along rights-of-way, in
operating jobs for brakemen, and in
office work. However, because of
the seasonality of railroad construc­
tion and maintenance work, and a
seniority system under which new
workers are laid off first and re­
called last, many new workers can
expect to have less than full-time
employment during the first few
years on the job.
The number and type of job
openings for applicants hired by an
individual railroad will be influ­
enced by the rapidity of the rail­
road’s adoption of new equipment
and new methods of operation, and

766

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

its geographical location in relation
to changing marketing conditions.
An increased need may be felt for
professional and technical personnel
to handle new mechanical and
electrical equipment, to find better
means of utilizing equipment and
personnel, to apply data processing
to a wide range of accounting and
statistical activities, and to explore
new ways of meeting competition
through industrial development and
marketing.
Railroad freight traffic is ex­
pected to rise through the 1970’s
because of the high rate of growth
anticipated in the economy. The
shipment of highway trailers and
large containers on railroad flat cars,
and the use of larger, special-pur­
pose freight cars should increase
freight traffic significantly by im­
proving rail carriers’ ability to com­
pete.
New interest also has been shown
in the use of rapid rail transit for in­
tercity and intra-urban passenger
movement. Studies of the best
methods for moving passengers
within and between urban areas are
progressing, and may result in a sig­
nificant resurgence of rail passenger
transportation.
Recently the Department of
Transportation established Amtrak
(National Railroad Passenger Corportation), a program to save and
revive passenger service. Through
Amtrak the government will give
the industry the money and author­
ity to reorganize the entire railroad
system. It will take years to de­
termine the effectiveness of this
program, but it should result in re­
taining a national railroad passenger
network.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Average

earnings




of

railroad

workers are higher than those of
workers in most manufacturing in­
dustries. Employees of Class I linehaul railroads, exclusive of execu­
tive and administrative personnel,
averaged $3.89 an hour or $171.94
a week in 1970, whereas production
workers in all manufacturing indus­
tries averaged $3.60 an hour or
$133.73 a week.
The earnings of individual rail­
road workers vary greatly because
of the great variety of occupations
and skill requirements. Geographic
differences in wage levels are con­
siderably less than in most other in­
dustries, since wage scales specified
in many railroad labor-management
contracts are identical throughout
the country. (Earnings in some of
the principal occupations are dis­
cussed in later sections of this chap­
ter.)
Most railroad workers are trade
union members, and many of the
conditions under which they work
are regulated by collective bargain­
ing agreements, dealing with wage
rates, hours, vacation pay, seniority,
and other matters. (The principal
unions representing each occupa­
tional group are listed in the sec­
tions of this chapter which deal with
individual occupations.)
The work schedules of railroad
employees and the conditions under
which they are paid for overtime
work depend upon the type of oper­
ation in which they are employed.
The great majority of railroad em­
ployees work at terminals—in
yards, stations, and railroad offices,
where, in 1970, the “basic” work­
week of most workers was a 5-day
week of 40 hours. Premium pay,
amounting to time and one-half the
regular wage rate, usually was paid
for any time worked over 8 hours a
day.
In freight and passenger road
service, the basic workday for train

and engine crews is established dif­
ferently. Generally, when a member
of the train or engine crew has cov­
ered a specified number of miles, or
has worked a certain number of
hours—whichever occurs first—he
receives a day’s pay at his regular
wage rate. He receives extra pay for
any additional miles covered or
hours worked on that day.
The basic hours of employees
who serve the needs of passengers
aboard trains— dining car cooks and
waiters, Pullman porters, and train
attendants—are set on a monthly
basis. Some of these workers re­
ceive time and one-half pay for
hours worked over 184 a month,
and those employed on regular as­
signments are guaranteed at least
174 hours of work a month.
Because freight shippers and the
traveling public must be served 24
hours a day, train and engine crews,
hostlers, telegraphers and telephon­
e s , and station agents must often
work nights, weekends, and on holi­
days. Irregular work schedules are
particularly common for extra
board workers without regular as­
signments who may be called any
time of the day or night. Other rail­
road workers, like bridge and build­
ing mechanics and certain track and
road maintenance workers, are re­
quired to work away from home for
days at a time.
Practically all railroad employees
receive 1 week’s paid vacation after
1 year on the payroll, 2 weeks after
3 years, 3 weeks after 10 years, and
4 weeks after 20 years. On most
roads, employees receive pay for 8
holidays a year.
Under the federally administered
Railroad Retirement Act of 1935,
all employees having more than 10
years of service in the railroad in­
dustry receive pensions upon retire­
ment. They receive full pensions
when they reach age 65 and re­

767

RAILROAD OCCUPATIONS

duced pensions at age 62. Those
who have worked for the railroads
at least 30 years may retire on a re­
duced pension at age 60. Employees
with 10 years service or more who
become disabled and are unable to
work, as well as dependent wives
and husbands of railroad workers
who have died, also receive pen­
sions. In early 1970, the average
pension paid to railroad workers
who retired because of age and dis­
ability was about $192 a month.
Another Federal law, the Rail­
road Unemployment Insurance Act,
provides benefits for railroad
workers who become unemployed.
Unemployment benefits are paid for
a period up to 26 weeks, but
workers having 10 years service or
more can receive benefits for a
longer period.
Under the Railroad Unemploy­
ment Insurance
Act, railroad
workers also receive compensation
for workdays lost because of sick­
ness or injury.
Other insurance programs are
operated under agreements with
trade unions and provide group life
insurance to employees and com­
prehensive hospital and medical in­
surance to these employees and
their dependents.
Sources of Additional Information

Additional information about oc­
cupations in the railroad industry
can be obtained from railroad
offices in your locality. General in­
formation about the railroad indus­
try can be obtained from:
Association of American Railroads,
American Railroads Building, 1920
L St. NW., Washington, D.C.
20036.




LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

(D.O.T. 910.383)

Nature of the Work

The engineer is responsible for
running the locomotive safely and
efficiently. He operates the throttle,
air brakes, and other controls, and
he supervises the work of the fire­
man (helper) who may work in the
cab with him. Engineers work either
in railroad yards or else on the
road; in the latter case, in passenger
or freight service.
The engineer in yard service op­
erates the locomotive or switch-en­
gine, used to move freight and pas­
senger cars when trains are being
put together before a run or broken
up after one, or when cars are being
switched for loading or unloading.
The engineer in passenger or freight
service operates the locomotive
which moves trains over the road
according to either train orders for
each run or else any instructions re­
ceived enroute.
Before and after each run, the
engineer checks on the condition of
the locomotive. He then either has
minor adjustments made on the spot
or else reports to the engine fore­
man mechanical defects needing at­
tention. While operating his locomo­
tive, he must observe track signals
and comply with speed restrictions
at all hours and in all weather con­
ditions. To do this he must be thor­
oughly familiar with the characteris­
tics of the road over which he is op­
erating. He must also be constantly
alert, especially for obstructions on
the track or other emergencies.
In 1970, about 35,000 engineers
were employed by Class I line-haul
railroads, and a few thousand more
by short-line railways and switching
and terminal companies.

Vacancies in engineer positions
generally have been filled by fire­
men (helpers) who have qualified
for promotion. Selection is on a sen­
iority basis. To qualify, the appli­
cant must pass comprehensive ex­
aminations on the train’s mechani­
cal and electrical equipment, and on
fuel economy, safety, timetables,
train orders, and other operating
rules and regulations. He also must
be able to operate any kind of loco­
motive in service on his road.
Engineers are required to take
physical examinations at regular in­
tervals. They must have good eye­
sight and hearing. If they fail at any
time to meet all the physical stand­
ards, they may be restricted to
working as engineers only in certain
types of service, or they may be
transferred to other kinds of work
where physical standards are less
exacting.

Diesel engineer checks track
conditions by radio.

Young people planning careers as
locomotive engineers should have
mechanical ability and good eyehand coordination. They should be
able to concentrate on detail in

768

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

order to operate the complicated
control system of a locomotive. The
aspiring engineer must be capable
of working in a confined area since
the cab of the locomotive is small.
Engineers should be willing to com­
ply with irregular working hours.
The seniority system often re­
quires the railroad employee to
wait many years before he can
move into the job he prefers. He
must typically work some years as
brakeman and fireman, in turn, first.
Therefore, the person who wants to
be engineer should be willing to
work at other jobs until seniority
entitles him to his chosen position.
A newly promoted engineer starts
out as an extra board man without
any regular assignment. It may be
several years before he receives
such an assignment. During this pe­
riod, he works on temporary assign­
ments whenever an engineer is
needed. An experienced engineer
may advance to a supervisory posi­
tion, such as foreman of engines for
his road.

Employment Outlook

Employment of locomotive engi­
neers is expected to decline slowly
during the 1970’s. However, open­
ings will arise from the need to fill
positions left vacant by engineers
who retire, die, or otherwise leave
the occupation.
The number of engineers em­
ployed by the railroads has been de­
clining for some years because of
the decrease in railroad passenger
business and because of multipleunit operation of diesel locomotives.
Introduction of technological inno­
vations has also lowered employ­
ment levels. (These include the use
of remote- and automatically-controlled devices for freight car classi­
fication and for signal control, as




well as other changes in equipment
and operating methods.)
The decline in the number of
engineers may be somewhat slower
in the 1970’s if rapid transit rail
systems are developed on a large
scale.

Earnings and Working Conditions

The earnings of engineers depend
on the class of locomotive operated
and the kind of service in which the
engineer is employed. In 1970, en­
gineers in yard service for Class I
line-haul railroads (including extra
board men) earned, on the average,
about $1,070 a month; in road
freight service, $960 a month; in
passenger service, $1,226 a month.
In 1968, the standard workweek
at straight-time rates for yard engi­
neers varied from 5 days on some
railroads and railroad divisions to 7
days on others. All yard engineers
worked basic 8-hour days with time
and one-half paid for work over 8
hours. Under certain circumstances,
they may be paid on an hourly basis
or on a miles-hour basis.
On many roads, the amount a
road engineer may earn in a single
month is governed by mileage limi­
tations agreed upon by the unions
and the railroad companies. When­
ever an engineer on one of these
roads reaches this maximum num­
ber of miles, his assignment for the
rest of the month is taken over by
another engineer—usually an extra
board man.
The engineer in road service,
even on regular assignments, often
is scheduled to work nights, week­
ends, and holidays at straight-time
rates. Like other workers in road
service, he must often “lay over” at
the end of a run before he makes
the return trip back to his home ter­
minal.

The assignments of engineers on
the extra board may be very irregu­
lar; these men may be called to
work at any time of the day or
night. Also, the amount of traffic
varies from one season to another
on many roads. Extra board engi­
neers are likely to have less work
and lower earnings than those men
having regular assignments.
On all major railroads, wages and
the conditions under which engi­
neers work are agreed upon by em­
ployers and unions. The great ma­
jority of engineers are respresented
by the Brotherhood of Locomotive
Engineers (Ind.). Some are repre­
sented by the United Transportation
Union.

LOCOMOTIVE FIREMEN
(HELPERS)
(D.O.T. 910.383)

Nature of the Work

The locomotive fireman (helper)
works with the engineer either in
the railroad yards or in road serv­
ice. At the beginning of his run,
the fireman (helper) checks to
make sure that the locomotive is
supplied with the fuel, sand, and
water needed, that the engine is in
proper working order, and that the
flagging equipment, classification
markers, and tools needed by the
engine crew are on hand and ready
to use. During the run, he makes
mechanical and electrical adjust­
ments as needed. On passenger
trains, he also is responsible for op­
erating the equipment which sup­
plies heat to the cars.
From his position at the left side

769

RAILROAD OCCUPATIONS

of the cab, the fireman (helper) as­
sists the engineer by acting as look­
out for obstructions on tracks and at
road crossings, and by checking
wayside signals which indicate the
speed at which the train is to pro­
ceed. In addition, he inspects the
train as it rounds curves because
this view of the train enables him to
spot smoke, sparks, fire, and other
signs of defective equipment.
Class I line-haul railroads em­
ployed about 17,000 firemen in
1970.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

For the relatively few firemen
(helper) positions being filled at
present, most railroads prefer that
applicants be 21 to 35 years of age.
A high school education or its
equivalent is desired. Good health is
important, and firemen must be able
to pass periodic physical examina­
tions. Standards for eyesight and
hearing are particularly high.
A beginning fireman first makes a
series of trial trips in the railroad
yard or on the road, working under
the direction of an experienced en­
gineer or fireman who instructs him
about future duties and railroad
rules and regulations. This training
period lasts a few days on some
roads and as long as 3 weeks on
others. After the newly hired fire­
man has satisfactorily demonstrated
his ability on the trial trips, and
passed examinations on railroad
rules and regulations, his name is
placed on the firemen’s extra board.
He then becomes subject to call for
temporary work assignments. He
may remain on extra board work up
to several years before he obtains
his first regular assignment. On
some roads, beginning assignments
are in yard service, and the fireman




advances first to road freight service
and then to road passenger service.
On other railroads, firemen usually
remain either in yard service or in
road service throughout their rail­
road careers.
Young people who want to be lo­
comotive firemen should be able to
follow instructions and they should
be capable of being thorough and
paying attention to detail. Major re­
quirements of the job include good
eye-hand coordination, manual dex­
terity, mechanical aptitude, aboveaverage eyesight and color vision,
quick reflexes, and general good
health.
Firemen who have sufficient ex­
perience and seniority—usually at
least 3 or 4 years—can become eli­
gible for promotion to engineer by
passing qualifying examinations
covering the mechanical and electri­
cal equipment on trains, air brake
systems, fuel economy, timetables,
train orders, and other operating
rules and regulations. As engineers
are needed, qualified firemen who
have the longest seniority are placed
on the engineers’ extra board. Pro­
motion to engineer, however, de­
pends on availability of openings, as
well as time spent on the extra
board waiting for a regular assign­
ment.

Employment Outlook

Job openings for work as loco­
motive firemen (helpers) have been
extremely limited since May 1964,
the effective date of a compulsory
arbitration award designed to elimi­
nate, eventually, all but a relatively
few firemen (helper) positions in
road freight and yard locomotive
service. Fireman (helper) positions
on locomotives in passenger service
(which has been declining) were
not affected by this award, nor were

any positions of firemen (helpers)
for any class of locomotive service
operating where State law requires
the employment of firemen on loco­
motives.
The national arbitration award
expired in April 1966, and since no
general agreement had been
reached between the parties in the
dispute by early 1971, the outlook
for job opportunities in this occupa­
tion cannot be anticipated with any
degree of certainty, although it ap­
pears that employment opportuni­
ties for new applicants will continue
to be minimal.

Earnings and Working Conditions

The earnings of firemen depend
on the class of locomotive on which
they work and the type of service
for which the locomotive is oper­
ated. Firemen in yard service for
Class I line-haul railroads (includ­
ing extra board men) averaged
$793 a month in 1970. Freight serv­
ice firemen averaged $960 monthly
on freight trains. Road passenger
firemen averaged $1,030 monthly.
In 1970, firemen in yard service
worked a basic 8-hour day and 40hour week, and 1Vi times the basic
hourly rate was paid for work be­
yond these hours. On many roads,
the amount that firemen in road
service could earn in a single month
was governed by mileage limitations
agreed upon by the unions and the
railroad companies. Whenever a
fireman on one of these roads
reached this limit, his assignment
for the rest of the month was taken
over by another fireman—usually a
man on the extra board.
Firemen often must work at night
and on weekends and holidays be­
cause train schedules require 24hour-a-day service. Road service
often requires that they be away

770

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

from their home stations for varying
periods of time. Irregular working
hours are particularly common
among men on the extra board and
in road freight service. Extra board
men tend to have less work and
therefore lower incomes than fire­
men with regular assignments. On
many roads, the amount of work
varies from one season of the year
to another.
Workers in this occupation on all
major roads are covered by union
contracts. The great majority of fire­
men are represented by the United
Transportation Union. Some are
members of the Brotherhood of Lo­
comotive Engineers (Ind.).

CONDUCTORS

proper time for departure. As the
superior officer on the train, the
conductor takes charge in any emer­
gency that may occur during the
run and all members of the train
crew are subject to his instructions.
On freight trains, the conductor
keeps a record of contents and des­
tination of each car and sees that
freight cars are picked up and set
out along the route. On passenger
trains, the conductor collects tickets
and cash fares.
Yard conductors, often called
“yard foremen,” direct the work of
the switching crews who put trains
together and break them up. In
mechanized yards, yard conductors
operate consoles that electrically
control the alinement of track
switches. Class I line-haul railroads
employed about 37,800 conductors
in 1970.

(D.O.T. 198.168)

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Nature of the Work

Conductors are responsible for
seeing that railroad trains are
moved according to train orders or
other instructions. They are re­
sponsible for the safety of their pas­
sengers and cargoes, and they su­
pervise the work of the train and
engine crews.
Before a freight or passenger
train leaves the terminal, the con­
ductor receives the train orders
from the dispatcher and confers
with other crew members to make
sure they understand the orders.
During the run, he sees that the
train cars are inspected periodically
and, if problems are reported, ar­
ranges either for repair of mechani­
cal breakdowns while the train is on
its run, or for defective cars to be
removed on the nearest siding. At
stops, he signals to the engineer the




Openings for conductors are
filled on a seniority basis by promo­
tion of qualified brakemen. To qual­
ify for promotion, a man usually
must have several years’ experience
as a brakeman and pass examina­
tions covering signals, air brakes,
timetables, operating rules, and re­
lated subjects. On some roads, those
who have qualified for promotion
are first given temporary assign­
ments as conductors while still
working as brakemen; on other
roads, they are put on the extra
board as conductors and given tem­
porary assignments as men are
needed. In either case, as regular
conductor assignments become
available, these are assigned to men
having the greatest seniority.
On most roads, conductors in
yard service and in road service
have separate seniority lists, and

they usually remain in one of these
two types of service throughout
their careers. A few roads, however,
start conductors on yard assign­
ments and then move them to
freight service and finally to passen­
ger service.
Young men planning a career as
a railroad conductor must have a
background of honesty and be able
to accept responsibility. Physical
stamina is needed because of the
long hours spent standing and walk­
ing. The aspiring conductor should
have the patience and ability to
work in other positions while aquiring the necessary seniority for a
conductor’s position. Promotion to
conductor is limited by the availa­
bility of such positions.
The conductor is the member of
the train crew who has the most di­
rect contact with the public, and it
is important that he be able to act
effectively as the railroad’s repre­
sentative. Conductors who show
special ability of this kind may ad­
vance to managerial positions such
as trainmaster, if available.

771

RAILROAD OCCUPATIONS

Employment Outlook

There will be a moderate number
of opportunities for brakemen to be
promoted to jobs as conductors dur­
ing the 1970’s. Since conductors
compose one of the oldest age
groups in the Nation’s work force,
job openings will develop to replace
those who retire, die, or leave rail­
roading for some other reason.
The number of conductors has
been declining for a number of
years because of the decline of pas­
senger traffic, the trend toward
longer freight trains, and the mech­
anization of yard operations. Al­
though more yard work will be
speeded up by the use of the new
devices (such as electric and elec­
tronic car classification systems and
communications equipment) little
change is expected in the number of
conductors needed during the
1970’s as expected growth in rail­
road freight traffic compensates for
increased mechanization.

Earnings and Working Conditions

The type of service in which they
are employed and the number of
cars in their trains determine the
basic earnings of conductors. In
1970, yard conductors employed by
Class I line-haul railroads earned an
average of $904 a month. In road
freight service, conductors averaged
$1,132 monthly. The average for
passenger conductors was $1,095
and for assistant passenger conduc­
tors and ticket collectors $985 a
month.
In 1970, conductors in yard serv­
ice worked a basic 8-hour day and
5-day week. For work beyond these
hours, they were paid IV2 times
their basic wage rates. Since the
pay received by passenger and
freight conductors is based on a




combination of miles traveled and
hours worked, these conductors may
receive more than their basic day’s
pay for a trip.
Like all other road crew mem­
bers, conductors in freight or pas­
senger service often are scheduled
to work nights, weekends, and on
holidays. Conductors on extra board
work often have irregular hours.
They also may work less time than
conductors with regular assignments
and, therefore, earn less.
Conductors on every major rail­
road are covered by union contracts
negoitiated by the United Transpor­
tation Union.

BRAKEMEN
(D.O.T. 910.364 and .884)

Nature of the Work

Brakemen work with conductors
as members of the train crews on
freight and passenger trains; they
work also in railroad yards. One
brakeman (or “flagman” ) generally
is stationed in the rear of each
freight and passenger train. His du­
ties include seeing that proper flags,
warning lights, and other signals are
displayed at the rear of the train to
protect it while it is in motion and at
stops. Most freight and passenger
trains carry at least one other
brakeman stationed in the front end
of the train; his duties include set­
ting out signals to protect the front
of the train at unexpected stops.
Class I line-haul railroads employed
about 74,000 brakemen in 1970.
Before their train leaves the sta­
tion, these brakemen in road service
check the air brake equipment on
the cars for proper functioning and

see that tools and other equipment
are in their proper places. During a
run, they make frequent visual
inspections of their train from their
positions at both the head and rear
end of the train, looking for smoke,
sparks or other indications of stick­
ing brakes, overheated car bearings,
or other equipment malfunctions.
At stops during the run, they make
“walking inspections” of cars in the
train; when necessary, they couple
and uncouple cars and air hoses and
help the conductor in setting out
and switching cars at industrial sid­
ings. They are responsible for regu­
lating air-conditioning, lighting, and
heating equipment in passenger
cars. In passenger service, brakemen (also known as “trainmen” )
sometimes assist the conductor by
collecting tickets and generally
looking after the needs of the pas­
sengers. Yard brakemen (fre­
quently called “switchmen” or
“helpers” ) assist in putting together
and breaking up trains by throwing
switches, coupling and uncoupling
freight and passenger cars, and
applying or releasing handbrakes on
cars to control their movement.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A brakeman starting out as a new
worker first makes several trial trips
with an experienced brakeman or
conductor, during which he famil­
iarizes himself with the road and
receives instructions about his du­
ties. After he has demonstrated his
ability on trial trips, the new brakeman is put on “extra board” work
and given temporary assignments as
men are needed. Brakemen gener­
ally must work at least a year on the
extra board before they learn the
job thoroughly, and several more
years before a vacancy occurs and

772

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

for new workers to obtain jobs as
brakemen will develop through the
1970’s, almost entirely as a result of
retirements and deaths and because
some brakemen will be promoted to
jobs as conductors or transfer to
other work.

they acquire enough seniority to
move on to regular assignments.
Employers prefer as applicants
high school graduates or the equiva­
lent, 18 years of age (21 on some
roads) to 35. Applicants must be
able to pass physical examinations
with particularly strict requirements
as to eyesight and hearing.
Young persons who wish to be­
come brakemen should also have
mechanical ability and be able to
concentrate on detail and follow a
certain amount of routine. Physical
stamina is required of brakemen
who do much standing, climbing
and walking and are exposed to all
kinds of weather conditions.
Yard brakemen may advance to
yard conductors; usually they stay
in yard service throughout their rail­
road careers. On some roads,
brakemen in road service may move
from freight service to passenger
work, usually considered more de­
sirable because it is less strenuous
than freight service and sometimes
involves shorter working hours.
With sufficient seniority, brakemen in road service may advance to
conductors. Less frequently, they
take positions as baggagemen. Con­
ductor positions are almost always
filled by promoting brakemen who
have passed written and oral exami­
nations on signals, timetables, brake
systems, and operating rules. Pro­
motions take place according to sen­
iority rules, 10 years or more may
be required for a brakeman to get
his first assignment as a conductor.
Advancement is of course limited
by number of jobs available as con­
ductors, and the number of jobs as
conductor has been declining for a
number of years.

The number of brakemen em­
ployed has declined for a number of
years. During the early 1970’s,
work in railroad yards is expected
to become increasingly mechanized,
using automatic car retarders, auto­
matic switching, and other devices.
These developments are expected to
result in a further decline in the em­
ployment of brakemen during this
period.

Employment Outlook

Earnings and Working Conditions

Brakeman signals freight train
through the yards.

and the type of service in which he
is employed determine the earnings
of a freight brakeman. The average
monthly earnings of yard brakemen
employed by Class I line-haul rail­
roads were $746 in 1970. Brakemen on freight trains averaged $931
a month. The monthly average for
passenger train brakemen was $844
in 1970.
In 1970, brakemen in yard serv­
ice had a 5-day, 40-hour basic
workweek; for work beyond this,
they were paid 1Vi times their regu­
lar hourly rates. In addition, brakemen in road, passenger, or freight
service earned extra pay under cer­
tain conditions; for example, when
they traveled more than 100 miles
on a freight run or 150 miles on a
passenger run.
Like other members of train and
engine crews, brakemen often are
scheduled to work nights, week­
ends, and holidays. Brakemen on
the extra board and employed by
the railroad for only a short time
have less steady work and lower
earnings than they would have on
regular assignments; they also may
work more irregular hours. Yard
and freight brakemen face greater
accident risks than most other rail­
road workers.
Brakemen are represented by the
United Transportation Union.

TELEGRAPHERS,
TELEPHONERS, AND
TOWERMEN
(D.O.T. 236.588 and 910.782)

Nature of the Work

Several thousand opportunities




The number of cars in the train

Telegraphers, telephones, and
towermen control movement of

773

RAILROAD OCCUPATIONS

trains according to instructions is­
sued by train dispatchers. Telegra­
phers and telephoners receive train
orders from the dispatchers and
pass them on to the train crews.
Towermen operate controls which
throw track switches; they also set
signals to route traffic according to
either train schedules or special
orders. To some extent, the three
jobs are interchangeable. For ex­
ample, many towermen also act as
telegraphers and telephoners in
transmitting orders, or spend part of
their time operating signals. Teleg­
raphers, telephoners, and tower­
men work in towers located in
yards, terminals, and other impor­
tant junction points. Often, at the
larger facilities and signal towers, a
chief telegrapher, a chief telephoner,
or wire chief, or a chief towerman
(train director) is in charge of the
work.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most receive their training on the
job, working under the supervision
of experienced telegraphers, station
agents, or towermen to learn their
future responsibilities, including op­
erating rules, train orders, and sta­
tion operations. On most roads,
trainees must pass examinations on
train operating rules, as well as
practical tests on other duties relat­
ing to their future assignments be­
fore they can qualify.
Most roads place newly qualified
workers on the extra board, where
they serve on temporary assign­
ments as men are needed. After ac­
quiring sufficient seniority, they bid
for regular assignments as telegra­
phers, towermen, clerk-telegra­
phers, and station agent telegra­
phers.
Most railroads prefer applicants




to be high school graduates between
21 and 30 years of age. Applicants
must pass physical examinations
which have strict eyesight and hear­
ing requirements. They may not be
colorblind. Manual dexterity and
good eye-hand coordination are
necessary for operation of the many
switches and keys.
Applicants for these positions
should be able to accept responsibil­
ity. They should be mentally alert
and capable of working efficiently in
emergency or pressure situations.
The ability to organize one’s
thoughts and actions is important.
Also, the capacity to work in con­
fined areas may be required.
A man with the necessary qualifi­
cations may advance to station agent
or train dispatcher.

clerk-telephoners on Class I linehaul railroads in 1970 were $3.53;
telegraphers, telephoners, and tow­
ermen averaged $3.58. Chief teleg­
raphers and telephoners and train
directors averaged, respectively,
$4.00 and $5.07 an hour.
Telegraphers worked a basic 40hour week of five 8-hour days in
1970, with time and one-half paid
for overtime. Under Federal law,
telegraphers, whose duties involve
the movement of trains, are prohib­
ited from working more than 9
hours in any one day, except in
emergencies.
Telegraphers, telephoners, and
towermen are members of the
Brotherhood of Railway, Airline
and Steamship Clerks.

Employment Outlook

There will be some opportunities
for new workers to become student
operators each year through the
1970’s. The openings that occur will
result primarily from the need to re­
place experienced workers who re­
tire or die.
Employment of Class I line-haul
railroads telegraphers, telephoners,
and towermen has declined for
many years and in 1970 was about
12,000. The mechanization of yard
operations, the use of dispatcherto-train radio hookups and other
new communications devices, and
the extension of centralized traffic
control and other automatic signal­
ing systems are reducing the num­
ber of workers needed to help con­
trol the movement of trains.

Earnings and Working Conditions

The average straight-time hourly
earnings of clerk-telegraphers and

STATION AGENTS
(D.O.T. 211.468 and 910.138)

Nature of the Work

Station agents are the railroads’
official representatives in dealing
with the public at railroad stations.
Most agents work at small stations
where they perform a variety of
tasks. These include selling tickets,
checking
baggage,
calculating
freight and express charges, and
loading and unloading freight and
express packages. They may serve
also as telegraphers and telephon­
ers, receiving and delivering train
orders and other messages. At sta­
tions where supervisory agents are
employed, some of this work may
be done by clerks, telegraphers, and
others working under the agent’s su­
pervision. In major freight and pas­
senger stations the duties of the sta­

774

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

tion agent are primarily administra­
tive and supervisory.
About 9,600 station agents were
employed by Class I line-haul rail­
roads in 1970. Many of them acted
as telegraphers and telephoners in
addition to their other duties. The
short-line railways employed several
hundred other agents, chiefly at
small stations.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Agents in small stations or assist­
ant agents in larger ones have usu­
ally been advanced from telegra­
phers jobs. In addition to the neces­
sary seniority, an agent should have
a knowledge of train schedules and
routes, rates, bookkeeping methods,
and details of other railroad busi­
ness transacted at wayside stations.
Station agents may advance from
small to larger stations or from as­
sistant agents to agents. They may
be promoted to supervisory posi­
tions such as station-master or
inspector.

Employment Outlook

A limited number of opportuni­
ties will arise each year through the
1970’s, principally because of the
need to replace experienced agents
who retire or die. For several years
the number of station agents em­
ployed by Class I line-haul railroads
has been declining, principally be­
cause some local passenger and
freight services have been consoli­
dated or discontinued. Further cuts
or consolidation may affect passen­
ger and freight services over the
next decade, resulting in employ­
ment of fewer station agents. How­
ever, if rapid transit rail systems are
developed on a large scale, this
trend may be slowed.




transactions. These include collect­
ing bills, adjusting claims, and trac­
The earnings of station agents ing shipments. Today, however,
vary. In 1970, agents who also clerks do much of this work with
served as telegraphers and teleph­ computers and other electronic
oners on Class I line-haul roads business machines. In small offices
averaged $3.60 an hour; other and stations, one man may perform
agents at small stations who did not duties related to several of these
act as telegraphers averaged $3.94 jobs; but in large offices, a specific
an hour. Agents at major stations job.
earned a straight-time average of
A second group, totaling 16,000
$4.77 an hour.
in 1970, consists of secretaries, ste­
Agents are paid either by the nographers, typists, and operators
hour or by the month; those in non- of calculating, bookkeeping, and
supervisory positions have a basic other kinds of office machines. They
40-hour workweek and time and perform duties like those of workers
one-half is paid for overtime work. in the same kinds of jobs in other
Station agents, except for some industries. (Information about the
supervisory agents, are members of nature of the duties of employees in
the Brotherhood of Railway and these clerical jobs may be found
Steamship Clerks.
elsewhere in the Handbook.)
About 8,800 other railroad clerks
were in higher grade “senior” jobs
involving more responsible or tech­
nical work. Some prepare statistics
on employment, traffic, and other
CLERKS
matters relating to railroad opera­
(D.O.T. 219.388 and .488; 222.368
through .687; 229.368; 231.682; 249.- tions. Others, called “cashiers,”
368; 910.368; 910.688; 913.168; and deal with customers on matters such
919.138)
as uncollected freight bills. Still oth­
ers account for their companies’ use
of terminals and other facilities
owned jointly by several roads.
Nature of the Work
A fourth group are the supervi­
Railroad clerks handle the huge sory and chief clerks, who num­
volume of paper work necessary to bered about 11,200 supervising the
account for each piece of the com­ work of other railroad clerks and
pany’s rolling stock, and to transact assuming responsibility for clerical
business with freight shippers and activities of entire departments.
the traveling public. They work in
railroad stations, freight houses,
yards, terminals, and company
Training, Other Qualifications,
offices, making up the largest single
and Advancement
group of railroad employees. Class I
Beginning railroad clerk positions
line-haul railroads employed about
90,000 of these workers in 1970 often are filled by hiring newcomers
and short-line railways, thousands or by promoting existing workers. A
high school education is usually re­
more.
The majority of railroad clerks quired, and clerical aptitude tests
—54,000 on Class I line-haul rail­ sometimes given. Railroads prefer
roads in 1970—handle business workers who have had training or
Earnings and Working Conditions

775

RAILROAD OCCUPATIONS

some experience in working with fig­
ures. In some clerical positions—
yard clerk for instance—beginning
workers may be assigned to extra
board work, until regular assign­
ments become available.
In many offices, a railroad clerk
may advance to assistant chief clerk
or to a higher administrative posi­
tion; in others, to work requiring
special knowledge of such subjects
as accounting or statistics. Eventu­
ally he may become an auditor or
statistician or be promoted to traffic
agent, buyer, storekeeper, or ticket
or station agent.

with time-and-one-half paid for
overtime.
The Brotherhood of Railway,
Airlines, and Steamship Clerks,
Freight Handlers, Express and Sta­
tion Employees represents the rail­
road clerks on all major roads.

SHOP TRADES

Nature of the Work

only in specialties such as upholster­
ing, car painting, and patternmak­
ing. Many carmen work in railroad
yards and stations as car inspectors
examining cars for defects that
might lead to accidents or delays.
Machinists are the second largest
group of skilled shop workers.
About 17,000 were employed in
1970, maintaining and overhauling
locomotives and machinery used by
the railroads. Electrical workers,
who numbered about 11,500 in
1970, install and maintain wiring
and electrical equipment in locomo­
tives, passenger cars, and cabooses,
as well as in railroad buildings. An­
other group of electrical workers
employed mainly away from the
shop, lay power and communica­
tions lines for equipment used by
the railroads. Sheet-metal workers,
numbering about 5,200 in 1970, in­
stall and maintain light sheet-metal
parts and do pipefitting on locomo­
tives and other equipment. Boiler­
makers, of whom there were about
1,550 in 1970, maintain and repair
stationary boilers, tanks, and other
parts made of sheet iron or heavy
sheet steel. Other craftsmen em­
ployed in the shops include black­
smiths, molders, stationary firemen,
oilers, and stationary engineers
(steam). (More information about
the nature of the work of most of
the above shop trades may be found
elsewhere in the Handbook. )

The skilled workers employed by
the railroads to build, maintain, and
repair rolling stock and other equip­
Several thousand job opportuni­ ment may be classified in six main
ties for new railroad clerks will be “shop crafts” : Carmen (D.O.T.
available each year through the 622.381), machinists, electrical
1970’s to replace workers who re­ workers, sheet-metal workers, boil­
tire, die, or transfer to other fields ermakers, and blacksmiths. They
work on rolling stock and other
of work.
Employment in this occupational equipment in railway shops, enginegroup has been declining for a num­ houses, yards and terminals.
In 1970, about 82,500 journey­
ber of years. A continued decrease
is expected during the 1970’s, as men mechanics in these six crafts
electronic business machines do were employed by Class I line-haul
more work formerly done by rail­ railways. Working with them were
6,300 gang foremen and leaders,
road clerks.
7,100 helpers, and 3,500 appren­
tices. Several thousand more
workers in the same occupations
Earnings and Working Conditions
were employed by short-line rail­
Employees of Class I line-haul ways.
railroads who had clerical jobs in­
Carmen, who numbered about
volving work such as billing opera­ 45,000 on Class I line-haul rail­
tions, filing, and inventory control, roads in 1970, are by far the largest
Training, Other Qualifications,
received average straight-time pay group. They do many different
and Advancement
of $3.60 an hour in 1970. Secre­ kinds of work, building, maintain­
Apprenticeship training is a com­
taries, stenographers, typists, and ing, and repairing both freight and
office machine operators averaged passenger cars. They also work on mon way of entering the shop
$3.71 an hour; senior clerks and both locomotives and small vehicles trades; others are upgraded from
specialists averaged $4.20 an hour; —motor-driven cars that transport the ranks of helpers and laborers, or
and supervisory and chief clerks, workers along the tracks. Some car­ enter the industry as shop crafts­
$4.45 an hour. Railroad clerks in men are skilled in carpentry and can men.
Apprentices are trained in all
nonsupervisory positions work a use power equipment as well as
basic 8-hour day and 40-hour week, handtools. A few others are skilled branches of their respective trades;
Employment Outlook




776

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Shop worker checks for flaws in locomotive axles.

standards, in many cases, are in­
cluded in agreements between trade
unions and railroad companies. Be­
ginners with no previous experience
in their chosen trades train as regu­
lar apprentices to be certified as
qualified journeymen. Men with at
least 2 years of previous work expe­
rience train as helper apprentices
for a 3-year period.
To become an apprentice, the ap­
plicant must be between 16 and 21
years of age; helpers, entering the




3-year apprentice training, usually
are no older than 35. On some
roads, applicants for apprentice
training must pass mathematical and
mechanical aptitude tests.
Workers in the shop trades may
advance to supervisory positions as
foremen in shops, enginehouses and
powerplants.
Employment Outlook

Nationwide there will be only a

few hundred opportunities for new
workers to obtain jobs as helpers or
as apprentices in the shop crafts
each year during the next decade.
Openings in the skilled shop
crafts will result primarily from the
need to replace experienced crafts­
men who retire, die, or transfer to
other fields of work, rather than
from employment growth.
The number of journeymen me­
chanics employed in these crafts has
declined for a number of years, and
some further decline appears likely
through the 1970’s, although more
rolling stock may be needed to han­
dle the anticipated increase in
freight traffic. Railroads now handle
a given amount of work in shops
with a smaller work force than for­
merly because of: the use of assem­
bly-line techniques in repair work;
greater specialization of labor; and
use of better designed and con­
structed rolling stock. Also, fewer
equipment maintenance employees
are needed because some railroads
send diesel locomotives, requiring
major overhaul, to the manufacturer
for rebuilding or replacement by
more highly powered new or rebuilt
units.
Employment trends for individual
shop crafts are not affected equally
by changes in equipment and oper­
ating methods.
Some increase in employment of
electrical workers may occur
through the 1970’s because of in­
stallation of more complex electrical
and electronic equipment in loco­
motives, railroad cars, and com­
munication systems. During this
same period, declines in employ­
ment of carmen, machinists, and
boilermakers are expected.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Straight-time

average

hourly

111

RAILROAD OCCUPATIONS

earnings of journeymen employed
by Class I line-haul railroads in the
shop trades in 1970 were: Carmen,
$4.14; machinists, $4.22; electrical
workers,
$4.22;
sheet-metal
workers,
$4.22;
boilermakers,
$4.22; and blacksmiths, $4.17.
Straight-time earnings of helpers in
all shop crafts averaged $3.48 an
hour. Regular apprentices, who
spend part of their time in class­
room instruction and the rest on the
job, averaged $3.16 an hour; and
helper-apprentices,
who
also
worked on the same basis, averaged
$3.58 an hour. Gang foremen and
gang leaders averaged $4.79 an
hour. Most shop workers have a
basic 40-hour workweek of five 8hour days and are paid time and
one-half for overtime.
Major repairs on locomotives and
cars are generally made indoors in
the enginehouse or the car repair
shop. Minor adjustments, inspec­
tion, and emergency repairs may be
performed out-of-doors.
Most shop workers are members
of unions. Among the unions in this
field are: Brotherhood Railway
Carmen of America; International
Association of Machinists and
Aerospace Workers; International
Brotherhood of Electrical Workers;
Sheet Metal Workers’ International
Association; International Brother­
hood of Boilermakers, Iron Ship­
builders, Blacksmiths, Forgers and
Helpers; and the International
Brotherhood of Firemen and Oilers.
In collective bargaining, these un­
ions usually negotiate their labor
contracts through the Railroad Em­
ployees’ Department of the AFLCIO.




SIGNAL DEPARTMENT
WORKERS
(D.O.T. 822.281 and .884)

Nature of the Work

Workers in railroad signal de­
partments work with the signaling
systems which control movement of
trains and assure safety of railroad
travel. Tasks involve constructing,
installing, maintaining, and repair­
ing these systems.
One group of skilled workers,
known as signal maintainers, keep
wires, lights, switches, and other
controlling devices in good operat­
ing condition. The work requires a
thorough practical knowledge of

electricity and considerable me­
chanical skill, and, for work on the
newer signaling systems, a knowl­
edge of electronics.
A second skilled group, known as
signalmen, generally has the same
skills and knowledge but constructs
and installs new signals and signal
systems. Signalmen work as mem­
bers of crews (which also include
semiskilled workers) that travel
from one part of the road to an­
other, wherever construction work
is underway. In constructing a sig­
nal system, crews often build forms
for concrete, mix and pour cement,
weld metal, and do many other
types of work in addition to electri­
cal work.
In 1970, Class I line-haul rail­
roads employed about 12,000 men

Microwave installations are part of the up-to-date communications systems.

778

in this kind of work; included were
about 8,000 signalmen and signal
maintainers, about 1,150 semi­
skilled assistants, and 7,000 helpers.
Several hundred workers in these
groups also were employed by the
short-line railways and by switching
and terminal companies.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

ment workers has declined for a
number of years. These occupations
are expected to continue to decline
slowly in the 1970’s, as improved
signaling and communications sys­
tems require less maintenance and
repair.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

The average straight-time hourly
earnings of signalmen and signal
Railroads prefer that applicants maintainers employed by Class I
be between 18 and 35 years of age line-haul railroads in 1970 were
and have a high school education or $3.92. Assistant signalmen and sig­
its equivalent. Knowledge of elec­ nal maintainers averaged $3.34 and
tricity and mechanical skill are as­ helpers, $3.25 an hour. Signal
sets.
workers have a basic 8-hour day
New employees start as helpers and 5-day week, and are paid time
under the direction of experienced and one-half for work beyond 8
men, or with previous experience as hours a day.
assistants. Helpers, after about 1
Since the amount of work re­
year of training, usually advance to quired for maintaining railroad sig­
assistant. Openings for signalmen nal systems is not affected greatly
and signal maintainers are filled by by variations in traffic or by the
promoting qualified assistants, ac­ seasons, signalmen and other crew
cording to seniority rules. At least 4 members may have less-than-fullyears are usually required.
time work during especially bad
Both signalmen and signal main­ weather. For both groups, the work
tainers may be promoted to more is done mostly outdoors and main­
responsible positions such as inspec­ tainers must make repairs regard­
tors or testmen, gang foremen, lead­ less of time of day or weather con­
ing signalmen, or leading signal ditions. Both maintainers and sig­
maintainers. A few may advance nalmen must often climb poles and
eventually to assistant supervisors work near high-tension wires and
or signal engineers.
unguarded tracks.
In working on construction and
installation, signalmen and other
Employment Outlook
crew members frequently work
away from their homes; many rail­
There will be some opportunities
roads provide camp cars for living
for new workers to obtain entry jobs
quarters while the men pay for their
as helpers or assistants during the
own food. Signal maintainers gener­
1970’s, mostly from the need to re­
ally are able to live at home, main­
place existing workers who retire,
taining signals over only a limited
die, or transfer to other fields of
stretch of track.
work. Job openings will be limited,
Most signal workers are members
because men laid off in recent years
of the Brotherhood of Railroad Sig­
will be recalled before new men are
nalmen.
hired.
Employment of signal depart­




TRACK WORKERS
(D.O.T. 182.168; 859.883; 869.887;
910.782; and 919.887)

Nature of the Work

Trackmen and portable equip­
ment operators construct, maintain,
and repair railroad tracks and road­
ways. Many work in section crews
which patrol and maintain a limited
section of the railroad’s right-ofway. Other trackworkers are em­
ployed with highly mechanized
crews to cover longer stretches of
the right-of-way. Still others are em­
ployed in “extra” crews, performing
seasonal maintenance and repair
work, such as replacing rails.
After some track workers make
regular inspections of the right-ofway, (looking for cracked rails,
weak ties, washed out ballast, and
other track and roadway defects),
trackmen and portable equipment
operators make necessary repairs.
Roadway maintenance machines—
such as multiple tie tampers, power
wrenches, and ballast cleaners—
have been displacing gradually the
use of such handtools as picks,
shovels, and spike hammers. More
and more railroads are using road­
way machines, which require skilled
operators in place of trackmen
using hand or pneumatically-pow­
ered tools.
In 1970, an average of 56,000
track workers were employed by
Class I line-haul railroads. They in­
cluded 35,600 trackmen working in
crews, 9,800 portable equipment
operators and helpers, and 10,500
gang foremen. Additional thousands
were employed by the short-line rail­
roads. The size of this work force
varies considerably during the year
because many construction and re­
pair jobs are done in summer.

RAILROAD OCCUPATIONS

779

nized equipment has created a lim­
ited number of maintenance-of-way
jobs as operators of roadway ma­
chines. These trends are expected to
continue.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Modern machines make track maintenance a production-line operation.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most track workers are trained
on the job. To acquire the necessary
skills requires up to 2 years. Ma­
chine operating jobs are assigned to
qualified trackmen on the basis of
seniority.
Most roads prefer workers be­
tween the ages of 21 and 45, who
must be able to read and write and
to do heavy work. Applicants often
are required to take physical ex­
aminations. A high school educa­
tion is desirable to advance to porta­
ble equipment operator and gang
foreman.
Trackmen and portable equip­
ment operators who have the neces­
sary seniority and qualifications may




advance to gang or assistant fore­
man, then to a supervisory maintenance-of-way position such as track
supervisor.
Employment Outlook

Several thousand new workers
will be hired each year in track
maintenance occupations during the
1970’s, mostly for the seasonal rush
during the summer months. Com­
paratively few openings will offer
steady year-round employment.
For some years, the use of mech­
anized equipment and new kinds of
materials in roadway construction
has been reducing substantially the
number of men employed. At the
same time, however, use of mecha­

Track workers are among the
lowest paid groups in the railroad
industry. Men employed in section
and other kinds of crews on Class I
line-haul railroads had straight-time
average earnings of $3.59 an hour
in 1970. Portable equipment opera­
tors and helpers averaged $3.53 and
crew foremen averaged $3.67 an
hour in 1970. A basic 5-day, 40hour week was in force for most
classes of track workers. Time
worked over 8 hours a day was paid
for at time and one-half rates.
Since most section men inspect
and maintain only a few miles of
track, they usually live at home.
However, the section crew is giving
way rapidly to the mechanized
“floating” crew, who with their port­
able equipment usually travel from
place to place, generally living in
camp cars or trailers provided by
the railroads and paying for their
own food.
Most maintenance-of-way work­
ers are members of the Brotherhood
of Maintenance of Way Employes.

BRIDGE AND BUILDING
WORKERS

Nature of the Work

These workers construct, main­
tain, and repair the tunnels, bridges,
stations, railway shops, and other
structures owned by the railroads.

780

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

In 1970, Class I line-haul railroads
employed about 8,300 skilled
craftsmen, 2,440 helpers, and 2,140
foremen in this kind of work.
Among the skilled craftsmen were
4,680 carpenters working as all­
round mechanics in a variety of
construction trades in addition to
carpentry; about 2,700 masons,
bricklayers, plasterers, and plumb­
ers; and about 500 painters and
365 ironworkers. The short-line
railways employed several hundred
more workers in the same occupa­
tions. (Information about the na­
ture of the work done by these
craftsmen can be found elsewhere
in the Handbook.)
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

New employees usually receive
their training as helpers. As open­
ings occur in skilled mechanics’
Employment by Class I line-haul
jobs, they are filled by helpers who railroads of skilled craftsmen, help­
have qualified for promotion and ers, and foremen on bridge and
have the necessary seniority.
building work has decreased for a
Skilled workers who have the number of years. This trend is ex­
necessary experience may advance pected to continue because of the
to positions as foremen, inspectors, increased use of power tools and
or bridge and building supervisors. other laborsaving equipment, and of
new materials which require less
maintenance and repair. Another
Employment Outlook
cause has been lack of new building
in the industry.
A small number of job openings
in the bridge and building work
force will arise each year during the
1970’s. Retirements, deaths, and Earnings and Working Conditions
transfers of existing workers to
The average straight-time hourly
other fields of work will provide
earnings of carpenters employed by
some job opportunities for new
workers. Most jobs available will be Class I line-haul railroads in bridge
as beginners or helpers, where turn­ and building work in 1970 were
$3.51. Masons, bricklayers, plaster­
over rates are relatively high.




ers, and plumbers averaged $3.78;
iron-workers, $3.80; painters, $3.55;
helpers, $3.19; and foremen, $3.75
an hour in 1970. Bridge and build­
ing workers work a 5-day, 40-hour
week and are paid time-and-onehalf for work beyond 8 hours a day;
they may receive double time for
work over 16 continuous hours.
If bridge and building men are
away from home during their work­
week, they usually live in camp cars
supplied by the railroads, but pay
for their own food.
The Brotherhood of Maintenance
of Way Employes represents the
bridge and building workers on
most roads.

T E L E P H O N E IN D U S T R Y
O C C U P A T IO N S

As our population and economy
grow and technology advances, the
need for communication increases.
More than 460 million local and
long-distance telephone calls are
made daily in the United States, and
overseas. In early 1970, approxi­
mately 935,000 employees were re­
quired to provide this service.
The telephone industry offers
men and women steady, year-round
work in many different jobs. Some
jobs, such as telephone operator
and file clerk, can be learned in a
few weeks; other jobs, such as in­
staller and repairman, require many
months.
More than half of all telephone
workers are women employed
mostly as clerks or telephone opera­
tors. Men usually are employed to
install, repair, and maintain tele­
phone equipment.

Nature and Location of the
Industry

Providing telephone service for
the many millions of residential,
commercial, and industrial custom­
ers is the main work of the Nation’s
telephone companies. More than
120 million telephones were in use
in the United States in 1970.
Telephone jobs are found in al­
most every community in the
United States. Most telephone
workers, however, are employed in
large cities where concentrations
of industrial and business establish­
ments are located. Nearly threefifths of them work in the 10 States
which have the largest number of
telephones: California, New York,
Pennsylvania, Illinois, Ohio, Texas,
Michigan, New Jersey, Florida, and




Massachusetts. The nerve center of
the local telephone system is the
central office, containing the switch­
ing equipment through which a tele­
phone may be connected with any
other telephone. Every telephone
call made, whether by dialing di­
rect or signaling the operator, trav­
els from the caller through wires
or micro-wave radio and cables to
the cable vault in the central office.
Thousands of pairs of wires fan out
from the cable vault to a distribut­
ing frame where each set of wires is
attached to switching equipment.
Electromechanical, switching equip­
ment and to a lesser-but-growing
extent electronic switching equip­
ment make connections automati­
cally. In a few remaining switch­
boards and in unusual situations an
operator makes the connection man­
ually.
Long-distance calls are dialed by
the customer or an operator and
connected with the telephone called
through switching equipment. Dur­
ing 1970, over 90 percent of all
telephone users could dial long-dis­
tance calls directly. Information
needed to bill the customer may be
recorded automatically or, on oper­
ator handled calls, is entered on a
ticket by the operator.
Some customers make and re­
ceive more calls than can be han­
dled on a single telephone line. For
these calls, a system somewhat simi­
lar to a miniature central office may
be installed on the subscriber’s
premises. This system is the private
branch exchange (PBX), usually
found in places such as apartment
and office buildings, hotels, depart­
ment stores, and other business
firms.

A new type of service is called
CENTREX, in which incoming
calls can be dialed direct to any ex­
tension without an operator’s assist­
ance, and outgoing and intercom
calls can be dialed direct by the ex­
tension users. The equipment for
this service can be located either on
telephone company premises or on
the customer’s premises.
Other communications services
provided by telephone companies
include conference equipment in­
stalled at a PBX to permit conver­
sations among several telephone
users simultaneously; mobile radio­
telephones in automobiles, boats,
airplanes, and trains; and tele­
phones equipped to answer calls au­
tomatically and to give and take
messages by recordings.
Telephone companies also build
and maintain the vast network of
cables and radio-relay systems for
communication services, including
those joining the thousands of
broadcasting stations all over the
Nation. These services are leased to
networks and their affiliated stations.
Telephone companies also operate
teletype and private-wire services
which they lease to business and
government offices.
About 5 out of 6 of the Nation’s
domestic telephones are owned by
the Bell System. The independents
serve the remainder. There are ap­
proximately 1,900 independent tele­
phone companies in the United
States. General Telephone and
Electronics Corporation in New
York City, United Utilities, Inc. in
Kansas City, and Continental Tele­
phone Corporation in St. Louis ac­
count for about 3 out of every 5
telephones serviced by independent
telephone companies.

Telephone Occupations

Although the telephone industry
requires workers in many different
781

782

(34)

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Telephone craftsmen and operators make up more than
one-half of all workers employed in the telephone industry
Telephone craftsmen

-All other workers

Telephone operators
SOURCE: BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

occupations, telephone craftsmen
and operators make up more than
one-half of all workers (see chart
34).
Telephone craftsmen install, re­
pair, and maintain telephones, ca­
bles, switching equipment, and mes­
sage accounting systems. These
workers can be grouped by the type
of work they perform: (1) con­
struction people place, splice, and
maintain telephone wires and ca­
bles; (2) installers and repairmen
place, maintain, and repair tele­
phones and private branch ex­
changes (PBX) in homes and
offices and other places of business;
and (3) central office craftsmen
test, maintain, and repair equipment
in central offices.
Operators make telephone con­
nections; assist customers in special­
ized services, such as reverse-charge
calls; and give telephone informa­
tion. Telephone craftsmen are dis­
cussed in detail later in this chapter.
A detailed discussion of telephone
operators and operators of private
branch exchanges (PBX opera­
tors) is presented in a separate




statement elsewhere itt the Hand­
book.
Central office equipment pur­
chased by a telephone company,
usually is installed by employees of
the equipment manufacturers. A
few central office equipment install­
ers work for telephone companies
or private firms specializing in in­
stallation work. Although most of
these skilled workers are not em­
ployed in telephone operating com­
panies, they are discussed in this
chapter because their work is so
closely connected with the Nation’s
telephone system.
Many other occupations in the
telephone industry, such as clerical
and administrative, are found in
other industries as well. They are
described in detail elsewhere in the
Handbook in the sections covering
individual occupations.
More than one-fifth (21 percent)
of all telephone industry employees
are clerical workers. These include
stenographers, typists, bookkeepers,
office machine and computer opera­
tors, keypunch operators, cashiers,
receptionists, file clerks, accounting
and auditing clerks, and payroll

clerks. These clerical workers, most
of whom are women, keep records
of services, make up and send bills
to customers, and prepare statistical
and other reports. A growing
amount of this record-keeping and
statistical work is being done by
electronic data-processing equip­
ment.
About 14 percent of telephone
company employees are business
and sales representatives, who han­
dle orders for new telephone serv­
ices, and administrative and pro­
fessional workers; these include ac­
countants,
attorneys, personnel
specialists, purchasing agents, public
relations employees, training spe­
cialists, and statisticians.
Approximately 4 percent of the
industry’s employees are scientific
and technical personnel such as en­
gineers and draftsmen. Most of
these workers plan and design new
buildings, the expansion of existing
ones, and solve engineering prob­
lems. Engineers are employed in
sales development work. Many top
supervisors and administrators are
men having engineering back­
grounds. Basic research in commu­
nications systems and the develop­
ment of new and improved equip­
ment are not done by employees of
telephone operating companies, but
mainly by specialists in affiliated
laboratories.
About 3 percent of the industry’s
workers maintain buildings, offices,
and warehouses; operate and serv­
ice motor vehicles; and do other
maintenance and service jobs in
offices and plants. Skilled mainte­
nance craftsmen include stationary
engineers, carpenters, painters,
electricians, and plumbers. Other
workers employed by the telephone
industry are janitors, porters,
watchmen, elevator operators, and
guards.

TELEPHONE INDUSTRY OCCUPATIONS

Employment Outlook

Tens of thousands of new
workers will be required by tele­
phone operating companies each
year throughout the 1970’s, mainly
to replace the large number of
women telephone operators and
clerical workers who leave the in­
dustry. Many new workers, how­
ever, will be needed for craft jobs to
replace skilled workers who die, re­
tire, or shift to other work. Job
turnover also will create openings
for administrative, sales, profes­
sional, technical, and scientific per­
sonnel.
Despite an anticipated strong
growth in service, total employment
is expected to grow only moderately
because technological improve­
ments such as electronic switching
equipment permit more calls to be
made without assistance. However,
operators will continue to handle
complex
calls.
Technological
changes are expected to restrict the
total number of clerks and skilled
craftsmen. Occupational groups in
which employment is expected to
grow as business increases are sales,
administrative, professional, techni­
cal, and scientific personnel.
Part of the expansion in tele­
phone service will result from ex­
pected increases in number of
households and business establish­
ments. The remaining households in
the United States without tele­
phones will be another factor in the
demand for telephone service, espe­
cially as incomes rise.
Other factors also are expected to
increase demand for telephones.
For example, in private homes dif­
ferent styles and color and tele­
phone extensions are increasing.
The recently-developed push-button
instrument enables the user to call
in half the time required by a dial
phone. It may provide many new




services, including the transmission
of data, remote control of appli­
ances, or remote access to elec­
tronic computers. Also growing is
the use of specialized equipment on
telephone instruments, such as vol­
ume controls that compensate for
impaired hearing and housespeakers
that permit “hand free” conversa­
tion.
For industrial and commercial
users, high speed transmission of
large quantities of computer-proc­
essed and other data via telephone,
teletypewriter, telephotograph, or
facsimile are becoming important.
Because of high speed of data trans­
mission, for example, the same
newspaper can be published simul­
taneously in two widely separated
cities. To meet the increasing de­
mand for overseas communications,
transoceanic service will continue to
expand as more undersea cables are
laid and communication satellites
come into wider commercial use.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Since wage rates in the telephone
industry are geared to those for
comparable work in the locality,
earnings of telephone workers de­
pend not only on the type of job
and the worker’s previous training
and experience, but also on location
and character of the community.
Because of differences in rates
among regions and communities,
considerable variation exists in the
rates paid for any given telephone
occupation. In general, telephone
wage rates are highest in the Pacific
and Middle Atlantic States and low­
est in the Southeast.
For the Nation as a whole, aver­
age basic hourly wage rates in De­
cember 1969 for all telephone em­
ployees, except officials and mana­
gerial assistants, were $3.62. Rates

783

for these workers ranged from an
average of $2.16 an hour for tele­
phone operator trainees and $2.55
for experienced telephone opera­
tors, to $6.39 for professional and
semiprofessional workers. Clerical
workers in non-supervisory posi­
tions averaged $2.79 an hour. Con­
struction, installation, and mainte­
nance employees averaged $4.01 an
hour.
A telephone employee usually
starts at the minimum wage for his
particular job. Advancement from
the starting rate to the maximum
rate generally takes from 4 to 6
years and involves from 10 to 14
pay grades.
More than two-thirds of the
workers in the industry, mainly tele­
phone operators and craftsmen, are
members of labor unions. The Com­
munications Workers of America
represents the largest number of
workers in the industry, but many
other employees are members of the
13 independent unions which form
the Alliance of Independent Tele­
phone Unions. Others are members
of the International Brotherhood of
Electrical Workers.
Wage rates, wage increases, and
the amount of time required to ad­
vance from one step to the next are
governed for most telephone
workers by union-management con­
tracts. The contracts also call for
extra pay for work beyond the nor­
mal tour of 6 to 8 hours a day or 5
days a week, and for all Sunday and
holiday work. Most contracts pro­
vide a pay differential for night
work.
Travel time between jobs is
counted as worktime for craftsmen
under some contracts. Overtime
work sometimes is required in the
telephone industry, especially dur­
ing emergencies, such as floods,
hurricanes, or bad storms. During
an “emergency call-out,” which is a

784

short-notice request to report to
work during non-scheduled hours,
workers are guaranteed a minimum
period of pay at the basic hourly
rate.
In addition to these provisions
which affect the pay envelope di­
rectly, other benefits are provided.
Annual vacations with pay are
granted to workers according to
their length of service. Usually, con­
tracts provide for a 1-week vacation
beginning with 6 months of service;
2 weeks for 2 to 10 years; 3 weeks
for 11 to 19 years; 4 weeks for 20
to 24 years; and 5 weeks for 25
years and over. Depending on local­
ity holidays range from 8 to 12
days a year. Most telephone
workers are covered by paid sick
plans and group insurance which
usually provide sickness, accident,
and death benefits, and retirement
and disability pensions.
The telephone industry has
achieved one of the best safety rec­
ords in American industry. The
number of disabling injuries has
been consistently well below the av­
erage.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK
United States Independent Telephone
Association, 438 Pennsylvania
Building, Washington, D.C. 20004.

TELEPHONE CRAFTMEN

Nearly three-tenths of the em­
ployees in the telephone industry
are craftsmen engaged in construc­
tion, installation, and maintenance
activities necessary to operate the
vast amount of mechanical, electri­
cal, and electronic equipment vital
to the far-reaching network of our
modern communications systems.
About 1 out of 7 of these workers
are foremen, many of whom have
advanced to supervisory positions
from a craft job.

CENTRAL OFFICE
CRAFTMEN

Nature of the Work
Where To Go for More Information

Additional information about
jobs in the telephone industry may
be obtained from the local tele­
phone company or from local un­
ions with telephone workers among
their membership. If no local union
is listed in the telephone directory,
information may be obtained from
the following:
Alliance of Independent Telephone
Unions, Room 302, 1422 Chest­
nut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 19102.
Communication Workers of Ameri­
ca, 1925 K St., NW„ Washington,
D.C. 20006.
International Brotherhood of Elec­
trical Workers, 1200 15th St.,
NW., Washington, D.C. 20005.




Central office craftsmen test,
maintain, and repair mechanical,
electrical, and electronic switching
equipment and other central office
equipment. They maintain this
equipment in operating condition
and locate potential trouble before
service is affected. Telephone com­
panies employed about 92,000 cen­
tral office craftsmen in 1970, in­
cluding approximately 21,000 test
boardmen and 66,000 central office
repairmen, helpers, and framemen.
Frameman (D.O.T. 822.884) is usu­
ally the beginning job from which a
worker may advance to a more
skilled central office craft job. Much
of the frameman’s job involves run­

ning, connecting, and disconnecting
wires according to plans prepared
by line assigners, another small
group of workers.
Central office repairmen (D.O.T.
822.281), often called switchmen,
maintain and repair switching
equipment and automatic message
accounting systems in central
offices. They check switches and re­
lays, using special tools and gauges.
They also locate and repair trouble
on customers’ lines in central office
equipment as reported by testboardmen.
Testboardmen (D.O.T. 822.281)
check customers’ lines to determine
the cause of breakdowns or interfer­
ence in telephone service. They
work at special switchboards com­
prising electrical testing instruments
and test for, locate, and analyze
trouble spots reported on custom­
ers’ lines. If repairs are needed and
the breakdown is outside the central
office, they direct the repair activi­
ties of line and cable crews or in­
staller repairmen or of central office
repairmen (if the trouble is inside).

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Telephone companies usually
train inexperienced men for skilled
jobs in central offices. Applicants
must have at least a high school or
vocational school education. A
knowledge of the basic principles of
electricity and electronics generally
is desired. Telephone training and
experience in the armed services or
technical training beyond high
school may be helpful in obtaining
jobs as telephone craftsmen; men
with such training may be brought
in above the entry level. Preemploy­
ment aptitude tests usually are given
to prospective employees.
Young persons considering ca-

785

TELEPHONE INDUSTRY OCCUPATIONS

men start as installers or linemen
and many, with additional training,
transfer to jobs as central office
craftsmen. They may then be pro­
moted to engineering assistant or
administrative staff worker.
Employment Outlook

During the 1970’s many oppor­
tunities will result for central office
craftsmen from the need to replace
workers who retire, die, or transfer
to other jobs. Retirements and
deaths alone may result in several
thousand job openings each year.
The total number of central office
craftsmen is expected to increase
rapidly during the 1970’s, mainly as
a result of the increasing demand
for telephone service and data com­
munication systems. However, re­
cent technological developments,
such as electronic switching and
various automatic testing devices,
will tend to restrict employment
growth.

reers as central office craftsmen
should have manual dexterity, good
eyesight—no color blindness, and
an aptitude for mechanics and read­
ing diagrams and blueprints. He
should be able to work with others
for many times teamwork is essen­
tial to solve a complex problem.
Employees frequently work shifts or
overtime to maintain constant tele­
phone service. Central office crafts­
men should be adaptable to changes
brought about by rapid advances in
communications technology.
Most telephone companies give
classroom instruction and on-thejob training to new central office
craft employees. Usually they are
assigned to the starting job of
frameman and work with experi­
enced framemen under the direction




of a supervisor or foreman. As they
gain experience they may advance
to central office repairmen or testboardmen to receive additional
training.
Instruction
includes
courses in the maintenance of the
particular type of central office
equipment used by the company.
Throughout their careers, the
telephone company trains office
craftsmen. As new types of equip­
ment and tools and new mainte­
nance methods are introduced, they
may be sent to school for short pe­
riods. Usually at least 6 years are
necessary for workers to reach the
top pay rate for central office re­
pairmen or testboardmen.
Many workers move into central
office craft jobs from other types of
telephone work. For example, some

Earnings and Working Conditions

Central office craftsmen are
among the highest paid skilled
workers in the telephone industry.
In December 1969, average basic
hourly rates of pay in large tele­
phone companies in the United
States were $4.04 for testboardmen
and $3.77 for central office repair­
men; average basic hourly rates
ranged from $3.80 to $4.38 for test­
boardmen and from $3.46 to $3.81
for central office repairmen, de­
pending on locality and length of
service.
Earnings increase considerably
with length of service in central
office jobs. According to a 1970 union-management contract in one of
the higher pay scale cities, craft em­
ployees start at $105.50 for a 40-

786

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

hour week. Framemen can work up
to a maximum of $166 after 4
years and 11 months. If a vacancy
occurs and the worker is qualified, a
frameman can move into the job of
central office repairman or testboardman with a higher pay sched­
ule. Central office repairmen and
testboardmen can earn a maximum
of $193 a week after 6 years of pe­
riodic increases.
Since the telephone industry gives
continuous service to its customers,
central offices operate 24 hours a
day, 7 days a week. Some central
office craftsmen, therefore, have
work schedules for which they re­
ceive extra pay. Central office
craftsmen are covered by the same
provisions governing overtime pay,
vacations, holidays, and other bene­
fits that apply to telephone workers
generally. (See discussion earlier in
this chapter.) Employees in central
offices work in clean and welllighted surroundings.

CENTRAL OFFICE
EQUIPMENT INSTALLERS

Nature of the Work

Central office equipment install­
ers set up complex switching and
dialing equipment in central offices
of telephone companies. They as­
semble, wire, adjust, and test this
equipment to have it comform to
the manufacturer’s standards for ef­
ficiency and dependability. They
may install a new central office, add
equipment in an expanding local
office, or replace outmoded equip­
ment.
About 22,000 installers were em­
ployed in 1970. Unlike other crafts-




Centrai office equipment installer
wires switching equipment.

men discussed in this chapter, most
installers work for manufacturers of
central office equipment rather than
for telephone companies. A few in­
cluding about 1,600 in the New
England area, work directly for
telephone companies; some are em­
ployed by private contractors who
specialize in large-scale installa­
tions.
Central office equipment install­
ers generally are assigned to areas
which include several States to in­
stall a switchboard in a central
office in a small community, where
they may work with only one or two
other installers. On a large job, such
as a long-distance toll center in a
big city, he may work with hundreds
of other installers.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Young persons who wish to be­

come installers must have a high
school or vocational school educa­
tion. Individuals with some college
education, especially engineering
majors often are hired. Preemploy­
ment tests generally determine the
applicant’s mechanical aptitudes. A
physical examination is required.
Young persons considering ca­
reers as central office craftsmen
should have manual dexterity, good
eyesight—no color blindness, and
an aptitude for mechanics and read­
ing diagrams and blueprints. He
should be able to work with others
for many times teamwork is essen­
tial to solve a complex problem.
Employees frequently work shifts or
overtime to maintain constant tele­
phone service. Central office crafts­
men should be adaptable to changes
brought about by rapid advances in
communications technology.
New employees receive on-thejob training and classroom instruc­
tion. They attend classes the first
few weeks to learn basic installation
methods before starting on-the-job
training. After several years of ex­
perience, they may qualify as skilled
installers. Training on the job, how­
ever, continues even after they be­
come skilled workers. Additional
courses are given from time to time
to improve their skills and to teach
new techniques in installing tele­
phone equipment. Installers may
advance to engineering assistant
jobs, especially those workers who
have had some technical training
beyond the high school level.

Employment Outlook

Employment of central office
equipment installers is expected to
increase at a moderate rate during
the 1970’s to install equipment in
thousands of new central offices and
to replace obsolete equipment. A

787

TELEPHONE INDUSTRY OCCUPATIONS

few hundred job openings a year
are expected to replace office equip­
ment installers who transfer to other
work, retire, or die.
Increasingly complex central
office and toll equipment, including
advanced PBX systems and data
and computer networks, will require
more highly skilled manpower in
electronics. Installers, perhaps more
than other telephone craftsmen are
subject to possible employment fluc­
tuations in the short run because of
changes in business conditions.
When the business outlook is de­
pressed, there is less likelihood new
central offices will be built and ex­
isting offices enlarged or modern­
ized. When business is prospering,
installations, additions, and modifi­
cations of central offices may occur
at an above-average pace.

Earnings and Working Conditions

According to a major union con­
tract in 1970, rates for inexperi­
enced installers, depending on the
locality, start at $2.50 to $2.69 an
hour. The contract provides for pe­
riodic increases, and employees may
reach rates of $4 to $4.82 an hour
after 6 years of experience. Time
and a half is paid for work over 8
hours a day or 40 hours a week,
and double time is paid for Sundays
and holidays.
Travel and expense allowances
also are given. Depending on local­
ity installers receive 8 to 12 paid
holidays a year. Length of service
determines paid vacations.
The Communications Workers of
America represents most central
office equipment installers, includ­
ing those servicing the Bell System.
The International Brotherhood of
Electrical Workers represents some
installers employed directly by New
England telephone companies, by




manufacturers supplying the nonBell or independent segment of the
telephone industry, and others, em­
ployed by large installation contrac­
tors.

LINEMEN AND CABLE
SPLICERS

Nature of the Work

The vast network of wires and
cables that connect telephone cen­
tral offices to the millions of tele­
phones and switchboards in custom­
ers’ homes and buildings is con­
structed and kept in good operating
order by linemen and cable splicers
and their helpers. Telephone com­
panies employed over 44,000 of
these workers in early 1970, 15,000
linemen, 25,000 cable splicers, and
4,000 helpers, laborers, and other
workers.
In constructing new telephone
lines, linemen (D.O.T. 822.381)
place wires and cables leading from
the central office to customers’
premises. They use. power-driven
equipment to dig holes and set in
telephone poles which support ca­
bles. Linemen climb the poles to at­
tach the cables, usually leaving the
ends free for cable splicers to con­
nect later. In cities where telephone
lines are below the streets, linemen
place cables in underground con­
duits. Construction linemen usually
work in crews of two to five men. A
foreman directs the work of several
of these crews.
Linemen repair and maintain ex­
isting lines. When wires or cables
break or a pole is knocked down,
linemen make emergency repairs.
The line crew foreman keeps in

close contact with the testboard
foreman who directs him to trouble
locations on the lines. Some linemen
periodically inspect sections of lines
in rural areas and make minor re­
pairs and line changes.
After linemen place cables on
poles or in underground conduits,
cable splicers (D.O.T. 829.381)
generally complete the line connec­
tions. Splicers work on aerial plat­
forms, in manholes, or in basements
of large commercial buildings. They
connect individual wires within the
cable by matching colors of wires so
as to keep each circuit continuous.
Cable splicers also rearrange pairs
of wires within a cable when lines
have to be changed. At each splice,
they either wrap insulation around
the wires and seal the joint with a
lead sleeve or cover the splice with
some other type of closure. Some­
times, they fill the cable sheathing
with compressed air to keep out

788

moisture. Cable splicers also main­
tain and repair cables. The preven­
tive maintenance work that they do
is extremely important because a
single defect in a cable may result in
a serious interruption in service.
Many trouble spots are located
through air pressure or electric
tests.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

training, some trainees are assigned
to a line crew to work on the job
with experienced men under the su­
pervision of a line foreman. About
6 years are required for linemen to
reach the top pay for the job. Other
trainees acquire the skills of the
trade by working with experienced
cable splicers to whom they are as­
signed.
Line construction craftsmen con­
tinue to receive training throughout
their careers to qualify for more dif­
ficult assignments and to keep up
with technological changes in the in­
dustry. Those having the necessary
qualifications find many additional
advancement opportunities in the
telephone industry. For example, a
lineman may be transferred to tele­
phone installer and later to tele­
phone repairman or other higher
rated jobs.

Telephone companies hire inex­
perienced men to train for jobs as
linemen or cable splicers. Appli­
cants for these jobs must have a
high school or vocational school ed­
ucation and must pass a physical ex­
amination. Knowledge of the basic
principles of electricity, and espe­
cially electronics, is helpful. Preem­
ployment tests often are given to
help determine the applicant’s apti­
tudes. Some line and cable work is
Employment Outlook
strenuous, requiring workers to
climb poles and lift lines and equip­
Employment of linemen and
ment. Applicants for these positions cable splicers is expected to in­
must be physically qualified for such crease only at a slow rate, despite
work. Manual dexterity and the anticipation of a continuing high
ability to distinguish color also are level of activity in line and cable in­
important qualifications. Men who stallation, maintenance, and repair.
have received telephone training However, hundreds of job openings
and experience in the armed serv­ for these craftsmen as a group are
ices frequently are given prefer­ expected to become available dur­
ence for job openings and may be ing the 1970’s because of the need
brought in above the entry level. to replace workers who transfer to
For these jobs, telephone companies other jobs, retire, or die.
have training programs which in­
Employment trends will differ
clude classroom instruction as well among individual occupations. Only
as on-the-job training. Classrooms moderate growth is expected in the
are equipped with actual telephone number of cable splicers because of
apparatus, such as poles, cable sup­ technological developments that in­
porting clamps, and other fixtures to crease worker efficiency, such as de­
simulate working conditions as vices that permit splicing of wires
closely as possible. Trainees learn without the need to remove insula­
to climb poles and are taught safe tion; color code for identifying types
working practices to avoid contact wires in cables; and use of air pres­
with power wires and falls.
sured cables whose failure can be
After a short period of classroom pinpointed by detecting devices.




These developments, furthermore,
are expected to reduce drastically
the need for cable splicers’ helpers,
continuing the rapid decline in em­
ployment in this occupation in re­
cent years. Little or no change is
expected in the number of linemen
because of the increasing use of me­
chanical improvements, such as
trucks with derricks and pole-lifting
equipment, earth-boring tools, light­
weight ladders, and “skybuckets,”
which have eliminated much of the
physical work of the line crews, and
is causing a substantial reduction in
the regular size of a line crew.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Cable splicers have higher earn­
ings than linemen. In December
1969 in the United States as a
whole, cable splicer’s basic rates av­
eraged $3.77 an hour, and line­
men’s rates averaged $3.07. Aver­
age hourly rates ranged from $3.43
to $4.02 for cable splicers and from
$2.51 to $3.33 for linemen, with
variations in earnings depending on
locality.
Pay rates within the jobs also de­
pend to a considerable extent upon
length of service. For example, ac­
cording to a 1970 union-manage­
ment agreement, new workers in
line construction jobs in one of the
higher pay scale cities begin at
$105.50 for a 40-hour week. Line­
men can reach the maximum of
$190 after 6 years service. The
maximum basic weekly rate for
cable splicers is $193 based upon a
combined total of at least 6 years of
work in a plant craft job, as a helper
and as a splicer, or in related craft
jobs. Linemen and cable splicers are
covered by the same contract provi­
sions governing overtime pay, vaca­
tions, holidays, length of service,
and other benefits that apply to tele­

TELEPHONE INDUSTRY OCCUPATIONS

phone workers generally. (See dis­
cussion earlier in this chapter.)
Linemen and cable splicers work
outdoors. They must do a consider­
able amount of climbing. They also
work in manholes, often in stooped
and cramped positions. Safety
standards, developed over the years
by telephone companies with the
cooperation of labor unions, have
greatly reduced the hazards of these
occupations. When severe weather
conditions damage telephone lines,
linemen and cable splicers may be
called upon to work long and ir­
regular hours to repair damaged
cable facilities and to restore serv­
ice. Because of the nature of their
work, some linemen and cable
splicers, by the time they reach their
midfifties, transfer to other jobs such
as installers and repairmen or cen­
tral office craftsmen.

TELEPHONE AND PBX
INSTALLERS AND
REPAIRMEN

Nature of the Work

Telephone and private branch
exchange (PBX) installers and re­
pairmen (sometimes called service­
men) install and service telephone
and PBX systems on the customers’
property and make necessary re­
pairs on the equipment when trou­
ble develops. These workers travel
to customers’ homes and offices in
trucks equipped with telephone
tools and supplies. When telephone
customers move or request new
types of service, installers relocate
telephones or make changes on cus­
tomers’ existing equipment. For ex­
ample, they may install a PBX sys-




tern in an office or change a twoparty line to a single-party line in a
residence. Installers also may fill a
customer’s request to add an exten­
sion in another room or to replace
an old telephone with a newer
model.
Telephone and PBX installers
and repairmen are the largest group
of telephone craftsmen; about
102,000 were employed in 1970.
Most of these men mainly install
telephones or private branch ex­
changes, and about 23,000 repair
and maintain this equipment. The

789

jobs of installing and repairing tele­
phones and PBX systems are dis­
cussed below as separate jobs, but
many telephone companies combine
two or more of these jobs.
Telephone installers (D.O.T.
822.381) install and remove tele­
phones in homes and places of busi­
ness. They connect newly installed
telephones to outside service wires
which are on nearby buildings or
poles. Installers often must climb
poles to make these connections.
Telephone installers are sometimes
called station installers.

790

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

maintain associated equipment such
as batteries, relays, and power
plants. Some PBX repairmen main­
tain and repair equipment for radio
and television broadcasts, mobile
radiotelephones, and teletypewri­
ters. Sometimes the jobs of PBX in­
stallers and PBX repairmen are
combined into the job of PBX in­
staller-repairmen .

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

PBX installer tests PBX equipment.

PBX installers (D.O.T. 822.381)
perform the same duties as tele­
phone installers, but they specialize
in more complex switchboard in­
stallations. They connect wires from
terminals to switchboards and make
tests to check their installations.
Some PBX installers also set up
equipment for radio and television
broadcasts, mobile radiotelephones,
and teletypewriters.
Telephone repairmen (D.O.T.
822.281), with the assistance of




testboardmen in the central office,
locate trouble on customers’ equip­
ment and make repairs to restore
service. Sometimes the jobs of tele­
phone repairmen and telephone in­
stallers are combined and the
workers are called telephone install­
er-repairmen.
PBX
repairmen
(D.O.T.
822.281), with the assistance of
testboardmen, locate trouble on
customers’ PBX systems and make
the necessary repairs. They also

Telephone companies train expe­
rienced men for telephone and PBX
installation and repair jobs. Since
much of the work requires personal
contact with customers, applicants
who have a pleasing appearance
and the ability to deal effectively
with people are preferred. Appli­
cants for these skilled jobs must
have a high school or vocational
school education. Preemployment
tests usually are given to help deter­
mine an applicant’s aptitude for me­
chanics and reading diagrams and
blueprints. Installers and repair­
men should have manual dexterity,
good eyesight (corrected), and
telephone and PBX installers and
repairmen should be able to adapt
to the changes brought about by
new communications technology.
New workers are given on-thejob training and instruction in class­
rooms equipped with telephone
poles, lines and cables, and terminal
boxes, as well as models of typical
residential construction to simulate
actual working conditions. Trainees
practice installing telephones and
making connections to service wires
just as they would in the field. After
a few weeks of such training, new
workers continue to learn by watch­
ing and helping experienced men on
the job.
Telephone and PBX installers

TELEPHONE INDUSTRY OCCUPATIONS

and repairmen continue to receive
training throughout their careers to
qualify for more responsible work
and to keep up with technological
changes. A new worker may start as
lineman, move to telephone installer
or repairman, and later advance to
either PBX installer or repairman.
Employment Outlook

Employment of telephone and
PBX installers and repairmen is ex­
pected to increase very rapidly
through the 1970’s due to a growing
demand for more telephones, and
PBX and CENTREX systems.
Many opportunities will also result
from the need to replace workers
who transfer to other telephone
jobs, leave the industry, retire, or
die. Some job openings may be
filled by workers transferring from
other telephone craft jobs, such as
linemen and cable splicers, but
many will be open to new entrants
to the labor force.




Expansion is anticipated in the
volume of service handled by tele­
phone and PBX installers and re­
pairmen because of the expanding
number of telephones to be serviced
and repaired and the increased use
of specialized types of phone equip­
ment, as well as, the development of
improved but more complex equip­
ment. Technological changes which
have increased the efficiency of in­
dividual installers or repairmen will
limit the employment increase. Ex­
amples of such changes include im­
proved designs for telephone instru­
ments, wires, and cables, and the
development of removable compo­
nents which can be returned to fac­
tory or service shop for repair.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In December 1969 the average
basic hourly rate for PBX repair­
men was $3.96 and the rate for
telephone and PBX installers was
$3.62.

791

The effect of length of service on
wage rates is illustrated by a 1970
union-management agreement in
one of the higher pay scale cities.
Under this agreement, telephone in­
stallers and repairmen have a start­
ing rate of $105.50 for a 40-hour
week, with periodic pay increases
until a maximum of $190 a week is
reached after about 6 years. Install­
ers and repairmen are covered by
the same provisions governing over­
time pay, vacations, holidays, and
other benefits that apply to tele­
phone workers generally. (See dis­
cussion earlier in this chapter.)
Telephone and PBX installers
and repairmen work indoors and
outdoors in all kinds of weather.
Outdoor work includes climbing
poles to place and repair telephone
wires leading from poles to cus­
tomers’ premises. Installers and re­
pairmen may work extra hours
when breakdowns occur in lines or
equipment.

O C C U P A T I O N S IN T H E
T R U C K IN G IN D U S T R Y

In 1970, the trucking industry
employed approximately 1 million
workers—more than the rail, air,
and pipeline transportation indus­
tries combined. The industry fur­
nishes many jobs for young persons
who do not plan to attend college.
Nearly 90 percent of its employees
handle freight, drive or maintain
trucks, and do clerical or other
work that requires no more than a
high school education.

Nature and Location of the
Industry

The trucking industry is made up
of firms that furnish local and long­
distance hauling and storage on a
for-hire basis. Trucking terminals
located in various cities for the dis­
tribution and pickup of freight and
the maintenance of trucking equip­
ment also are part of the industry.
Local trucking companies serve a
single city and its suburbs. All oth­
ers are long-distance carriers and
usually travel through many States.
Some firms specialize in the type of
goods carried, for example, they
may carry oil, grain, livestock, auto­
mobiles, or furniture that usually re­
quire special truck rigging and load­
ing and unloading equipment.
Trucking companies operate as ei­
ther contract or common carriers.
Contract carriers haul commodities
of one or a few shippers exclusively;
common carriers serve the general
public.
The industry’s employment is
concentrated in a relatively small
number of large companies. Fewer
than 10 percent of the trucking
companies in interstate commerce
have annual revenues of $1 million
792



or more, but account for almost half
of the employment. However, a
large proportion of the companies
are small, particularly those which
serve a single city. Many are own­
er-operated, and the owner does the
driving.
Trucking industry employees
work in cities and towns of all sizes
and are distributed much the same
as the Nation’s population. About
half of them work in seven States:
California, New York, Illinois,
Pennsylvania, Ohio, Texas, and
New Jersey. Chicago, Los Angeles,
and New York are the hubs of the
Nation’s trucking networks.

Occupations in the Industry

About three-fourths of all truck­
ing industry employees have bluecollar jobs. Included in this occupa­
tional group are about 580,000
truckdrivers, who represent over

half the industry’s total employ­
ment. About 10 percent are mate­
rial handlers. Other important
blue-collar occupations are mechan­
ics, washers and lubricators, and
foremen. Most white-collar em­
ployees are clerical workers, such as
secretaries and rate clerks, and ad­
ministrative personnel, such as ter­
minal managers and accountants.
Men hold 9 out of every 10 jobs
in the industry. Nearly all women
employees are clerical workers.
The duties and training require­
ments of some of the important oc­
cupations are described briefly in
the following sections. Detailed dis­
cussions of many of these occupa­
tions are given elsewhere in the
Handbook under individual occupa­
tions.
Truckdriving Occupations. More
than half of the industry’s em­
ployees are truckdrivers. Over-theroad drivers (D.O.T. 904.883) op­
erate large tractor-trailers or single
unit trucks long distances, and
spend nearly all of their working
hours behind the wheel. They trans­
port goods of great value which
must be delivered safely and on
time. Some drivers load and unload

OCCUPATIONS IN THE TRUCKING INDUSTRY

their trucks, but usually other em­
ployees do this work.
Local drivers (D.O.T. 906.883)
operate trucks over short distances,
usually within a city and its suburbs.
They deliver goods from trucking
terminals to wholesalers, retailers,
and other businesses in the area.
They also pick up goods for deliv­
ery to terminals where loads are
made up for long trips.
Clerical occupations. About 1 out
of every 7 of the industry’s em­
ployees is a clerical worker. Many
have general clerical jobs, such as
secretary or clerk-typist, which are
common to all industries. Others
have specialized jobs. For example,
dispatchers
(D.O.T.
919.168)
coordinate the movement of trucks
and freight into and out of termi­
nals; make up loads for specific des­
tinations; assign drivers and develop
delivery schedules; handle custom­
ers’ requests for pickup of freight;
and provide information on deliv­
eries.
Rate
clerks
(D.O.T.
219.388) calculate shipping charges
according to tariff regulations.
Claims clerks (D.O.T. 241.368)
handle claims for freight lost or
damaged during transit. Manifest
clerks (D.O.T. 222.488) prepare
forms that list details of freight ship­
ments. Parts-order clerks (D.O.T.
223.389) supply mechanics with re­
placement parts for trucks; they also
take care of most of the clerical du­
ties necessary for maintaining a
truck repair shop.
Administrative and Related Oc­
cupations. More than 1 out of 10
employees is an administrator. Top
executives manage companies and
make policy decisions. Middle man­
agers supervise the operation of in­
dividual departments, terminals, or
warehouses. A small number of ac­
countants and lawyers are in staff
positions. The industry also employs




sales representatives to solicit
freight business.
Material Handling Occupations.
About 1 out of 10 employees moves
materials into and out of trucks and
warehouses. Much of this work is
done by material handlers (D.O.T.
909.887) who work in gangs of
three or four under the supervision
of a dock foreman or gang leader.
Material handlers load and unload
freight with the aid of handtrucks,
conveyors, and other devices.
Heavy items are moved by power
truck operators (D.O.T. 922.883)
and crane operators (D.O.T.
921.280). Gang leaders determine
the order in which items will be
loaded so that the cargo is balanced
and items to be unloaded first are
near the back of the truck. Truckdrivers’ helpers (D.O.T. 905.887)
travel with drivers to unload and
pick up freight. Occasionally, help­
ers may do relief driving.
Truck Maintenance Occupations.
About 1 out of every 20 employees
maintains the industry’s operating
equipment.
Truck
mechanics
(D.O.T. 620.281) keep trucks and
trailers in good running condition.
Much time is spent in preventive
maintenance to assure safe opera­
tion, to check wear and damage to
parts, and to reduce breakdowns.
When breakdowns do occur, they
determine the cause and make the
necessary repairs. Truck mechanic
helpers (D.O.T. 620.884) and ap­
prentices assist experienced me­
chanics in inspection and repair
work. Lubrication men and washers
(D.O.T. 915.887 and 919.887)
clean, lubricate, and refuel trucks,
change tires, and do other routine
maintenance.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

New workers in blue-collar occu­

793

pations usually are hired at the un­
skilled level, as material handlers,
truck drivers’ helpers, or lubrication
men and washers. No formal train­
ing is required for these jobs, but
many employers prefer high school
graduates. Applicants must be in
good physical condition. New em­
ployees work under the guidance of
experienced workers and foremen
while learning their jobs, which usu­
ally takes no more than a few
weeks. As vacancies occur, they ad­
vance to higher rated blue-collar
jobs, such as power truck operators
and truckdrivers. Qualifications for
promotion are the ability to do the
job and length of service with the
firm. Material handlers who demon­
strate supervisory ability can be­
come gang leaders or dock foremen.
Qualifications for truckdriving
jobs vary and depend on individual
employers, the type of truck, and
other factors. Every driver must
have a chauffeur’s license, a com­
mercial driving permit obtained
from State Motor Vehicle Depart­
ments. The U.S. Department of
Transportation establishes minimum
qualifications for over-the-road
drivers. The driver must be at least
21 years old, able-bodied, have
good hearing, and vision of at least
20/40 with or without glasses. He
also must be able to read and speak
English and have at least 1 year of
driving experience and a good driv­
ing record. Many firms will not hire
over-the-road drivers under 25;
they also may specify limitations on
height and weight.
Young persons interested in pro­
fessional driving should take the
driver-training courses offered by
many high schools. A course in au­
tomotive mechanics is also helpful
because it provides a knowledge of
the mechanical operations of a
truck. Private truckdriving training
schools offer another opportunity to

794

prepare for a driving job. However,
completion of such a course does
not assure immediate employment
as a driver. Graduates frequently
must start as material handlers or
drivers’ helpers and advance to
driving jobs. Prospective students
should enroll only in truckdriving
courses offered by schools which
have been certified by the State.
Most truck mechanics learn their
skills informally on-the-job as help­
ers to experienced mechanics. Oth­
ers complete formal apprenticeship
programs which generally last 4
years and include on-the-job train­
ing and related classroom instruc­
tion. Unskilled workers, such as lu­
brication men and washers, fre­
quently are promoted to helpers and
apprentices. However, many firms
will hire inexperienced young peo­
ple for helper or apprentice jobs,
especially those who have com­
pleted courses in automotive me­
chanics.
Completion
of
commercial
courses in high school or business
school is uaually adequate for entry
into general clerical occupations,
such as secretary or typist. Addi­
tional on-the-job training is needed
for specialized clerical occupations,
such as rate or claims clerk.
Generally, no specialized educa­
tion is necessary for dispatcher jobs.
Openings are filled by truck drivers,
rate clerks, or other workers who
know their company’s operations
and are familiar with State and Fed­
eral driving regulations. A candi­
date may improve his qualifications
by taking college or technical school
courses in transportation.
Administrative and sales positions
frequently are filled by college grad­
uates who have majored in business
administration, marketing, account­
ing, industrial relations, or transpor­
tation. Some companies have man­
agement training programs for col­




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

lege graduates in which trainees
work for brief periods in various de­
partments to get a broad picture of
trucking operations before they are
assigned to a particular department.
High school graduates may be
promoted to administrative and
sales positions.

Employment Outlook

Employment in the trucking in­
dustry is expected to grow rapidly
through the 1970’s. New jobs re­
sulting from employment growth, as
well as jobs that must be filled as
experienced workers retire, die, or
transfer to other fields are expected
to account for tens of thousands of
openings each year.
Demand for trucking is expected
to rise very rapidly in response to
general economic growth. Also sig­
nificant are additional segments of
the national interstate and defense
highway systems to be completed
over the next decade. These roads
have more lanes, fewer curves and
other improvements which have
resulted in reduction of State limita­
tions of truck weight, size, and
speed. In addition, many new facto­
ries and other businesses are located
in suburban or rural areas where
rail facilities are extremely limited
or nonexistent.
Employment will not increase as
fast as demand for trucking because
technological developments and a
continued trend to larger, more
efficient firms will increase output
per worker. As a result of these de­
velopments, rates of growth will
vary among occupations. Employ­
ment of material handlers, for ex­
ample, is expected to increase
slowly because of more efficient
freight handling methods—such as
conveyors and draglines to move
freight in and out of terminals and

warehouses, and cargo cages to
combine less-than-truckload ship­
ments. In contrast, employment of
truckdrivers is expected to increase
rapidly, although improved high­
ways and vehicles will result in big­
ger loads at higher speeds and fewer
drivers will be required for each ton
of freight.
Compared with small organiza­
tions, large companies have higher
proportions of accountants, person­
nel workers, clerks, sales workers,
truck mechanics, and foremen. Em­
ployment in most of these occupa­
tions is expected to increase very
rapidly as a result of the trend to
larger trucking companies. On the
other hand, terminal managers
make up a greater proportion of
employment in small firms, since
they perform many of the tasks that
are assigned to other workers in
large organizations. Thus, the de­
mand for terminal managers will
grow slowly as employment be­
comes more concentrated in large
firms.

Earnings and Working Conditions

In 1970, nonsupervisory workers
in the trucking industry averaged
$169.32 a week or $4.08 an hour
compared with $121.73 a week or
$3.29 an hour for nonsupervisory
workers in all private nonagricultural industries. Earnings are rela­
tively high in the trucking industry
because drivers represent a large
proportion of employment; many
over-the-road drivers earn more
than $200 a week.
Most employees are paid an
hourly rate or a weekly or monthly
salary. However, truckdrivers on
the longer runs generally are paid
on a mileage basis for driving time.
For all other work time, they are
paid an hourly rate. Most em­

OCCUPATIONS IN THE TRUCKING INDUSTRY

ployees receive premium pay for
overtime, Sundays, and holidays.
Paid vacations are almost univer­
sal in the trucking industry. Typi­
cally, employees receive a 1 week
vacation after 1 year of service, 2
weeks after 3 years, 3 weeks after
10 years, and 4 weeks after 15
years. Nearly all workers receive
paid holidays. Insurance and pen­
sion plans, financed at least partially
by employers, cover most workers,
and include life, sickness, hospital­
ization, and surgical insurance.
Working conditions vary greatly
among occupations in the industry.
Truckdriving is both physically and
mentally demanding, but conditions
have improved as a result of better
highways, more comfortable seat­




ing, power steering, and air-condi­
tioned cabs. Over-the-road drivers
frequently work at night and spend
time away from home. Local drivers
usually work only during the day.
Material handlers and truckdriver’s
helpers have strenuous jobs. In re­
cent years, conveyor systems, mo­
torized hand trucks, power tail
gates, and other freight handling
equipment have reduced some of the
heavier lifting and made the work
safer. Although their duties are not
physically strenuous, truck mechan­
ics and other maintenance person­
nel may have to work in awkward
or cramped positions while servicing
vehicles. Most maintenance shops
are well lighted, heated, and venti­
lated. Mechanics occasionally make

795

repairs outdoors where breakdowns
occur. Many large organizations op­
erate around the clock and require
some material handling and mainte­
nance personnel to work evenings
and nights.
A large number of trucking in­
dustry employees are members of
the International Brotherhood of
Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehouse­
men and Helpers of America (Ind.)
Sources of Additional Information

Information on career opportuni­
ties may be obtained from:
American Trucking Association,
1616 P St., N W , Washington,
D.C. 20036.




W H O LE S A LE AND R ETA IL TR A D E
Wholesaling and retailing are the
final stages in the process of trans­
ferring goods from producers to
consumers. Wholesalers assemble
goods in large lots and distribute
them to retail stores, industrial
firms, and institutions such as
schools and hospitals. Retailers sell
goods directly to housewives and
other consumers in a variety of
ways—in stores, by mail, or through
door-to-door selling. A list of the
items sold by wholesale and retail
businesses would include almost
every item produced by American
industry—automobiles,
clothing,
food, furniture, and countless oth­
ers.
In 1970, nearly 15 million per­
sons (not counting an estimated 2
million self-employed and unpaid
family workers) worked in whole­
sale and retail trade. Retail trade
accounted for the largest number of
workers— 11.1 million—or about
three-fourths of the employment in
the broad industry group. The ma­
jority of these workers are em­
ployed in department stores, in food
stores, and in restaurants and other
eating places. About 3.8 million
persons worked in wholesale trade.
Wholesale and retail businesses
are a major source of job opportu­
nities for women. In 1970, for exam­
ple, nearly one-half of the workers
employed in retail trade were
women. They represented about
one-fifth of all workers employed in
wholesale trade. Many of the
women employed in retail stores
work part time.
Workers with a wide range of ed­
ucation, training, skill, and ability
are employed in wholesale and re­
tail trade. In 1970, white-collar
workers accounted for more than 3




out of 5 persons employed in the
major industry group, as shown in
the accompanying table. Sales
workers, the largest single group,
make up nearly one-fourth of total
industry employment. Managers
and proprietors, the second largest
group of workers, account for about
one-fifth of the industry’s work
force. Many managers and proprie­
tors own and operate small whole­
sale houses or retail businesses such
as food stores and gasoline service
stations. Clerical workers account
for roughly one-sixth of the work
force; many are employed by retail
stores as cashiers, especially in su­
permarkets and other food stores.
Other important clerical occupa­
tions in retail trade include secre­
taries, stenographers and typists,
office machine operators, and book­
keepers and accounting clerks.
Large numbers of shipping and re­
ceiving clerks are employed in both
wholesale and retail trade.
Blue-collar workers (craftsmen,
operatives, and laborers) accounted
for nearly one-fourth of all employ­
ment in the industry group in 1970.
Many are employed as mechanics
and repairmen, gasoline service sta­
tion attendants, drivers and deliv­
erymen, meat cutters, and materials
handlers. Most mechanics work for
motor vehicle dealers and gasoline
service stations. A large number of
meat cutters are employed in whole­
sale grocery establishments and in
supermarkets and other food stores.
Service
workers,
employed
mostly in retail trade, accounted for
roughly 1 out of 7 workers in the
industry group. Food service
workers, such as waitresses and
cooks, made up by far the largest
concentration of service workers.

Other large groups of service
workers were janitors, charwomen
and cleaners, and guards and watch­
men.

M a j o r o c c u p a tio n a l g r o u p

E s t i m a te d
e m p lo y m e n t,
1970
(p e r c e n t
d is tr ib u tio n )

All occupational groups..........
Professional, technical,
and kindred workers....
Managers, officials, and
proprietors ....................
Clerical and kindred
workers .........................
Sales workers ..................
Craftsmen, foremen,
and kindred workers....
Operatives and kindred
workers .........................
Service workers................
Laborers ...........................

100
2
21
17
23
7
11
14
5

N ote : Due to rounding sum of individual
items may not equal total.

Employment in wholesale and re­
tail trade is expected to increase
moderately through the 1970’s. The
major factors contributing to the ex­
pected growth of employment are
increasing population and consumer
expenditures, continuation of the
population movement from rural to
urban areas and from city to sub­
urbs, and the trend toward keeping
stores open longer hours. Growth in
employment requirements is ex­
pected to be slowed somewhat by
the increasing applications of laborsaving technology. For example,
technological change may effect em­
ployment because of improvements
in materials-handling methods,
packaging innovations, the growing
use of computers for inventory con­
trol and billing operations, the in­
creasing use of mechanized equip­
ment in supermarkets, and the con­
tinued growth in the number of
stores using self-service operations.
797

798

Within retail trade, employment
in department stores, drug stores,
restaurants, auto dealerships, and
service stations is expected to rise
fastest. Among wholesale establish­
ments, the rates of employment
growth are likely to be highest in
businesses that distribute auto parts,




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

and in firms selling industrial ma­
chinery, equipment, and supplies.
The statement that follows covers
the major occupations in restau­
rants, where, for example, large
numbers of waiters and waitresses,
and cooks and chefs are employed.
More detailed information about

occupations that cut across many in­
dustries appears elsewhere in the
Handbook. These include salesmen,
office workers, shipping and receiv­
ing clerks, maintenance trades, and
many others. (See index in the back
of the book.)

RESTAURANT

In 1970, about 2.5 million people
were employed in establishments
whose main business was serving
food and beverages. Many other
food-service workers were em­
ployed in establishments that serve
meals in connection with some
other activity—for example, drug
and department stores, hotels, hos­
pitals, school and college lunch­
rooms, and factory cafeterias. Com­
mercial airlines, railroads, and ship­
lines also employ food-service
workers.

Nature and Location of the
Industry

Establishments catering to the
custom of “eating out” range from
small diners to luxurious and expen­
sive restaurants. The kind of food
offered and the way it is served de­
pend upon the size, location, and
financing of the restaurant, as well
as the type of customer it seeks to
attract. For example, cafeterias lo­
cated in office buildings, factories,
or suburban shopping centers em­
phasize rapid service and inexpen­
sive meals. In contrast, some restau­
rants cater to customers who have
the time to eat in a leisurely manner
and, thus, they serve elaborate
meals which may include unusual
dishes or “specialties of the
house.”
Most restaurants are small and
have fewer than 10 paid employees;
many of these are operated by their
owners who have no paid help or
have only 1 or 2 part-time workers.
An increasing proportion of all res­
taurants are run by firms owning
more than one restaurant.
Although restaurant employment
is concentrated in the States with




IN D U S T R Y

the largest populations, and particu­
larly in large cities, even very small
communities have luncheonettes
and roadside diners.

Restaurant Workers

About three-fourths of all restau­
rant employees prepare and serve
food or do other kinds of related
service work. The two largest occu­
pations in this group are waiters and
waitresses, and cooks and chefs.
Also included are counter attend­
ants who serve food to customers in
cafeterias; bartenders who mix and
serve drinks to customers; busboys
and busgirls who clear tables, carry
soiled dishes back to the kitchen,
and sometimes set tables; kitchen
workers who wash dishes and pre­
pare vegetables; pantrymen and
pantrywomen who prepare salads
and certain other dishes; and jani­
tors and porters who dispose of
trash and garbage, sweep and mop

floors, and do other cleaning jobs.
Some of these workers operate me­
chanical equipment such as powerdriven dishwashers, floor polishers,
vegetable slicers and peelers, and
garbage disposal equipment. These
specialized service jobs, however,
are likely to be found only in the
largest restaurants. In many small
eating places, waiters and waitresses
clear and set up tables, sometimes
prepare certain kinds of dishes, and
help in the kitchen when they are
not busy with customers. (Detailed
information on cooks and chefs,
waiters and waitresses, and bartend­
ers is given elsewhere in the Hand­
book. See index for page numbers.)
Another large group of restaurant
workers— about one-sixth of the to­
tal—are managers and proprietors.
Many are owners and operators of
small restaurants and, in addition to
acting as managers, may do cooking
and other work. Some are salaried
employees managing restaurants for
others.
All other restaurant workers
combined account for less than
one-tenth of total industry employ­
ment. They are employed princi­
pally in large restaurants. Most are

799

800

clerical employees—cashiers who
receive payments and make change
for customers; food checkers who
total the cost of the meals selected
by cafeteria customers; and book­
keepers, stenographers, typists, and
other office workers. Dietitians plan
menus, supervise the preparation of
meals, and enforce sanitary regula­
tions. Some large restaurants also
employ mechanics and other main­
tenance workers, accountants, ad­
vertising or public relations direc­
tors, personnel workers, and musi­
cians or other entertainers.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Experience and skill require­
ments for workers employed in res­
taurants vary widely and depend on
the particular occupation and type
and size of the restaurant. For ex­
ample, employees in inexpensive
diners and luncheonettes generally
require less training than those em­
ployed in expensive restaurants.
Entry requirements for some res­
taurant jobs are minimal. Young
people who have less than a high
school education and no previous
experience often can qualify for em­
ployment as kitchen workers, dish­
washers, or busboys. Previous expe­
rience, and in some cases special
training, may be required for cooks
and chefs, waiters and waitresses,
and other occupations.
Newly hired restaurant workers
receive on-the-job training. A
kitchen worker, for example, may
learn how to operate a dishwasher
or other mechanical kitchen equip­
ment. Waiters and waitresses may
be taught how to set tables, take or­
ders from customers, and how to
serve food in a courteous and
efficient manner. In a great many
small restaurants, new employees




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

receive their training under the
close supervision of an experienced
employee or the proprietor. In larger
restaurants and some chain restau­
rant operations, training programs
are likely to be more formal, and
beginners may be required to attend
training sessions for a few days or
longer.
Many vocational schools—both
public and private—provide train­
ing that is helpful to persons inter­
ested in restaurant work. Vocational
education programs provide courses
in food preparation and cooking,
catering, restaurant management,
and related subjects. Similar train­
ing programs for a variety of restau­
rant occupations, ranging from a
few months to 2-years or more in
length, are available through restau­
rant associations and trade unions,
technical schools, junior and com­
munity colleges, and 4-year col­
leges. Many young people, for ex­
ample, prepare for supervisory jobs
by completing 2 year programs in
food service management offered by
junior and community colleges lo­
cated throughout the country.
Classroom and on-the-job train­
ing programs for unemployed and
underemployed workers seeking
employment in restaurants are in
operation in a large number of cities
under the Manpower Development
and Training Act (MDTA). Train­
ing under the MDTA is provided
for cooks and cook apprentices,
waiters and waitresses, food service
supervisors, and cook helpers.
These programs last approximately
12 to 15 weeks.
Handicapped workers are being
trained in a number of programs for
employment in restaurants. Recent
projects have resulted in the em­
ployment of many mentally re­
tarded persons in occupations such
as dishwasher and kitchen helper.
Employers look for applicants

who have good health and physical
stamina because restaurant workers
are required to work long hours—
often under considerable pressure.
Neatness, a pleasant manner, and
an even disposition also are impor­
tant, particularly for waiters and
waitresses and other employees who
deal with the public.
Restaurants, particularly large
chain operations, offer promotion
opportunities to workers having ini­
tiative and ability. A young person
who begins as a busboy or dish­
washer can be promoted to a better
paying job such as waiter or cook’s
helper. Through additional training,
he can advance to cook or chef,
baker, or bartender. A restaurant
hostess may work her way up to as­
sistant manager. Experience as a
maitre d’ hotel may lead to a posi­
tion as director of food and bever­
age services in a large chain organi­
zation. Assistant managers, particu­
larly those with college training,
may be promoted to manager and
eventually managing director.

Employment Outlook

Employment in the restaurant in­
dustry is expected to rise rapidly
through the 1970’s as the volume of
restaurant business increases. In ad­
dition to job openings created by
employment growth, an even
greater number will result from
turnover. Most openings will be for
waitresses and kitchen helpers—
both because of high turnover and
because these workers make up a
very large proportion of all restau­
rant employees. Employment op­
portunities also are expected to be
favorable for skilled cooks and sala­
ried restaurant managers. The num­
ber of openings in clerical jobs, such
as cashier and bookkeeper, will be
relatively small. A few openings will

801

RESTAURANT INDUSTRY

occur in specialized positions, such
as food manager and dietitian.
A growing population, increasing
leisure time, and higher income lev­
els will raise the demand for restau­
rant services. More people will “eat
out” as large numbers of house­
wives take outside employment and
more people travel. However, em­
ployment will not increase as
rapidly as the demand for restau­
rant services because worker pro­
ductivity is rising. Restaurants—
particularly those serving hundreds
of meals daily—have increased the
efficiency of their operations in
recent years, as managers have cen­
tralized the purchase of food sup­
plies, introduced self-service and
used precut meats and modern
equipment. Further improvements
of this kind are expected during the
1970’s.

Earnings and Working Conditions

The location, size, and type of
restaurant affect earnings of restau­
rant workers. Other significant fac­
tors include the tipping practice for
some occupations and the degree of
unionization.
In 1970, average earnings of
nonsupervisory employees in the
restaurant industry (excluding tips)
were $57.72 a week or $1.85 an
hour for a 31.2-hour workweek,
compared with $82.47 a week or
$2.44 an hour for a 33.8-hour
workweek for workers in all retail
trade establishments.
Limited data from union-man­
agement contracts in effect in 1970,
covering eating and drinking places
in several large cities, indicate
straight-time hourly pay rates for
various types of restaurant workers
ranged as follows:




Waiters and waitresses..........$0.82-$2.15
Busboys and busgirls.............. 1.01- 2.26
Dishwashers............................. 1.32- 2.60
Pantry workers ......
1.46- 3.33
Assistant cooks ....................... 1.47- 3.86
Porters ..................................... 1.48- 2.60
Kitchen helpers...................... 1.53- 3.20
Cashiers ................................... 1.57- 2.47
1.57- 2.73
Checkers ............................
Cooks ..................................... 2.02- 4.12
Bartenders ............................... 2.09- 3.87
Chefs ....................................... 2.22- 4.65

Salaries of managerial employees
have a wide range, mainly because
of differences in duties and respon­
sibilities. Many college graduates
who have specialized training in res­
taurant management received start­
ing salaries ranging from $7,000 to
$10,000 annually in 1970. Mana­
gerial trainees without this back­
ground often started at lower sala­
ries. Many experienced restaurant
managers receive salaries between
$10,000 and $25,000 a year, de­
pending on size, location, and type
of restaurant. Salaries below this
range may be paid to managers of
small restaurants.
In addition to wages, restaurant
employees usually receive at least
one free meal a day and often are
provided with uniforms. Waiters,
waitresses, and bartenders also re­
ceive tips. Paid vacations and holi­
days are common, and various types
of health and insurance programs
also are available. Most full-time
restaurant workers have work
schedules of 40 to 48 hours a week.
Many work on split shifts, which
means they are on duty for several
hours during one meal, take some
time off, and then return to work
during the next period of heavy ac­
tivity. Scheduled hours may include
work in the late evenings and on
holidays and weekends.
Many restaurants are air-condi­
tioned, have convenient work areas,

and are furnished with the latest
equipment and laborsaving devices.
In other restaurants—particularly
small ones—working conditions
may be less desirable. In all restau­
rants, workers spend long periods
on their feet, may be required to lift
heavy trays and other objects, or
work near hot ovens or steam ta­
bles. Work hazards include the pos­
sibility of burns; injury from knives,
broken glass or china, or mechani­
cal equipment; and slips and falls on
wet floors.
The principal union in the restau­
rant industry is the Hotel & Restau­
rant Employees and Bartenders In­
ternational Union (AFL-CIO).
The proportion of workers covered
by union contracts varies greatly
from city to city.
Sources of Additional Information

Additional information about ca­
reers in the restaurant industry may
be obtained from:
Educational Director, National Res­
taurant Association, 1530 North
Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, 111.
60610.

A list of public and private
schools and colleges offering
courses which train restaurant em­
ployees may be obtained from:
Council on Hotel, Restaurant and
Institutional Education, 1522 K
Street, NW., Washington, D.C.
20005.

Information on courses relating
to restaurant work may be obtained
from the local Director of Voca­
tional Education, the Superintend­
ent of Schools in the local commu­
nity, or the State Director of Voca­
tional Education in the Department
of Education in the State capital.

.

'

'




FIN A N C E, IN S U R A N C E , AND REAL E S TA TE
Nearly every individual or organ­
ization uses the diverse and com­
plex services provided by the
finance, insurance, and real estate
industry. Financial institutions—
banks, savings and loan associa­
tions, consumer credit organiza­
tions, and others—make banking
and credit facilities available to in­
dividuals and businesses. The types
of services they offer range from
providing simple financial services
such as personal checking and sav­
ings accounts to acting as the broker
and salesman in the buying and sell­
ing of stocks and bonds needed by
giant corporations for investment
capital. Insurance firms provide
protection against losses due to fire,
accident, sickness, death, and many
other contingencies. Real estate or­
ganizations act as intermediaries in
the sale of houses, buildings, and
other property, and often manage
large office and apartment buildings.
In 1970, nearly 3.7 million
workers were employed in the
finance, insurance, and real estate
industry. Finance, employing 1.6
million persons, made up the largest
sector. The next largest concentra­
tion of employment was in insur­
ance where over 1.3 million
workers were employed. The re­
maining workers—about one-sixth
of the total—were employed in real
estate.
Finance, insurance, and real es­
tate firms are a major source of job
opportunities for women, who made
up over half of the industry’s work




force in 1970. Their proportion
ranged from about 35 percent in
real estate to over 60 percent in
banking.
As shown in the accompanying
tabulation, 93 percent of the
workers in the industry held whitecollar jobs in 1970. Clerical
workers alone made up 48 percent
of the industry’s work force. Many
clerical workers were employed in
specialized banking and insurance
occupations such as bankteller,
checksorter, and insurance claim
adjuster. Other large clerical occu­
pations include stenographer, typ­
ist, secretary, and office machine
operator—occupations also found
in most other industries. Sales
workers constituted 17 percent of
the work force. Most of them were
insurance and real estate agents and
brokers. A relatively small number
of the sales workers sold stocks and
bonds.
Managers and officials—bank of­
ficials, office managers, and others
—made up 23 percent of the indus­
try’s work force in 1970. Profes­
sional and technical workers, such
as accountants, programmers, and
business research analysts, ac­
counted for 5 percent of the work
force. Most of them were employed
by financial institutions.
Employment in the finance, in­
surance, and real estate industry is
expected to increase moderately
through the 1970’s as a result of
population growth, increasing busi­
ness activity, and rising personal in-

Estimated
employment,
1970

Major occupational group

(percent
distribution)

All occupational groups..
Professional, technical, and
kindred workers ...............
Managers, officials, and
proprietors.............................
Clerical and kindred workers..
Sales workers ...........................
Craftsmen, foremen, and
kindred workers ..................
Operatives and kindred
workers .................................
Service workers .......................
Laborers .......

100
5
23
48
17
3
O
4
1

1 Less than 0.5 percent.
N ote : Due to rounding sum of individual
items may not equal total.

comes. However, increasing use of
computers for routine clerical and
recordkeeping functions may limit
employment growth to some extent.
Employment is expected to increase
more rapidly in the financial sector
than in insurance and real estate.
In addition to job openings from
employment growth, many thou­
sands of openings will result as
women leave work to assume family
responsibilities. Replacements also
will be needed to fill vacancies
created by deaths and retirements
and by transfers of workers out of
the industry.
The statements that follow cover
major occupations in the banking
and insurance fields. More detailed
information about occupations that
exist in many industries appears
elsewhere in the Handbook. (See
index in the back of the book.)

803

O C C U P A T IO N S

Banks have been described as
“department stores of finance” be­
cause of the variety of services they
offer. Their services range from in­
dividual checking accounts to letters
of credit to finance world trade.
They safeguard money and valu­
ables; administer trusts and per­
sonal estates; and lend money to
business, educational, religious and
other organizations. Banks also lend
money for the purchase of homes,
automobiles, and household items,
and to cover unexpected financial
needs. Banks continually strive to
serve their customers’ needs. In re­
cent years, for example, they have
offered revolving check credit plans,
charge cards, travel services, ac­
counting and billing services, and
money management counseling. Fa­
cilities to handle charge accounts in
retail stores, and convenient
“drive-up” windows also are availa­
ble.
Banks and Their Workers

Banks employed more than a

804



IN

B A N K IN G

million workers in 1970; about
two-thirds were women. Most of
these bank employees work in com­
mercial banks, where a wide variety
of services are offered. Other bank
employees work in mutual savings
banks, which offer a more limited
range of services—mainly savings
deposit accounts, mortgage loans,
safe-deposit rentals, trust manage­
ment, money orders, travelers
checks, and passbook loans. Still
others work in the 12 Federal Re­
serve Banks (or “bankers’ banks” )
and their 24 branches; and in for­
eign exchange firms, clearing house
associations, check cashing agen­
cies, and other organizations doing
work closely related to banking.
In addition, many people are em­
ployed by savings and loan associa­
tions, personal credit institutions,
and related institutions.
In 1970, commercial banks proc­
essed more than 20 billion checks
and handled an enormous amount
of paperwork. Clerks who do this
work account for nearly two-thirds
of all employees. Many of these

workers are tellers or clerks who
process the thousands of deposit
slips, checks, and other documents
which banks handle daily. Banks
also employ many secretaries, ste­
nographers, typists, telephone oper­
ators, and receptionists.
Bank officers are the second larg­
est group in the industry. Approxi­
mately 1 out of 5 employees is an
officer—a president, vice president,
treasurer, comptroller, or other
official. Much smaller occupations
include accountants, lawyers, per­
sonnel directors, marketing and
public relations workers, statisti­
cians, economists, and other profes­
sional workers, as well as guards,
elevator operators, cleaners, and
other service workers.
This chapter describes three large
occupations unique to banking—
clerks, tellers, and officers.

Places of Employment

In 1970, there were more than
35,000 commercial banks and
branch banks and more than 1,400
mutual savings banks and branches.
Bank employment is concentrated,
to a considerable extent in a rela­
tively small number of very large
banks and their branches. Thus, in
1969, the 500 largest commercial
banks in the country, each having
total deposits of $100 million or
more, employed more than one-half
of all commercial bank employees,
whereas over 8,000 small commer­
cial banks (having total deposits of
$10 million or less) employed only
about 10 percent of all commercial
bank workers.
Bank employees work mainly in
heavily populated areas. Approxi­
mately half of all bank employees
are located in New York, Califor­
nia, Illinois, Pennsylvania, and
Texas. New York City, the financial
capital of the Nation, has far more
bank employees than any other city.

805

OCCUPATIONS IN BANKING

Training

Professional and managerial bank
personnel usually have completed
college; most clerks have completed
high school; guards and building
service personnel may have less
than a high school education.
Most new employees undergo
some form of in-service training re­
garding bank policies and proce­
dures. Banks also provide other nu­
merous opportunities for workers to
broaden their knowledge and skills.
Additional information about the
educational requirements which
apply to bank clerks, tellers, and
bank officers, and the training given
them, is provided in the statements
that follow.
Many banks encourage em­
ployees to take courses at local col­
leges and universities. In addition,
banking associations sponsor a
number of educational programs,
sometimes in cooperation with col­
leges and universities. Many banks
pay all or part of the costs for those
who successfully complete courses.
Bank employees can also prepare
for better jobs by enrolling in
courses offered by the American In­
stitute of Banking in many cities
throughout the country. The Insti­
tute, which has 375 chapters and
162 study groups, also offers cor­
respondence study for bank em­
ployees. The Institute offers a broad
range of courses and assists local
banks in conducting cooperative
training programs for various bank
positions.
Bank employees should enjoy
working with numbers. They also
must be able to accept the responsi­
bility of handling large amounts of
money. They should present a good
image to customers; often they are
encouraged to participate in com­
munity activities.




ers needed to handle the increase
in banking activities may be offset
Employment in banks is expected somewhat by the continued conver­
to rise moderately through the sion of many major banking activi­
1970’s. New jobs resulting from ties to electronic data processing.
employment growth, as well as jobs Even so, employment growth is
that must be filled as employees re­ expected to continue but at a slower
tire, die, or stop working for other pace. Electronic data processing is
reasons are expected to account for likely to change bank employment
tens of thousands of jobs each patterns by reducing the number of
year. Still other openings will occur workers in some occupations while
as employees leave their positions creating other jobs which are new to
to enter other types of employment. banks. The effect of these develop­
Most openings will be for clerks. ments will vary from one occupa­
In addition, an increasing number tion to another, as indicated in the
of trainee jobs, which may lead to statements on specific banking occu­
officer positions, will probably be­ pations which follow.
come available for college gradu­
Bank employees can anticipate
ates. Many openings for profes­ steadier employment than workers
sional and specialized personnel in many other fields because their
such as accountants and auditors, employment is less likely to be af­
economists, statisticians, and elec­ fected by layoffs during periods
tronic computer personnel also will when business activity is low. Even
occur.
when a bank is sold or merged there
Population growth and increased is little likelihood that workers will
production, sales, and income are lose their jobs. When bank officials
expected to produce more financial find it necessary to curtail employ­
transactions which banks will han­ ment, they usually do so by not re­
dle for individuals, businesses, and placing employees who retire or
governments. Branch banks will leave their jobs for other reasons.
continue to grow as banks bring
services closer to residents of sub­
urban business centers. More jobs Earnings and Working Conditions
will be created as banks continue to
expand their services. These services
Earnings of bank clerks, tellers,
include the handling of accounts in and officers are discussed in the
retail stores; bank charge cards; statements which follow. In addition
savings plans for travel and educa­ to their salaries, bank workers re­
tion; estate planning and adminis­ ceive fringe benefits which are gen­
tration; “on premise” banking facili­ erally somewhat more liberal than
ties where large numbers of people those provided by other types of
work in one building; and the man­ businesses. For example, most
agement of employee pension funds. banks offer their workers some type
Approximately 1,500 banks had of profit sharing or bonus plan; sick
electronic data processing in 1970 leave; 5 to 12 paid holidays a year;
and provided conventional record­ and vacations with pay, generally
keeping services to other banks and 2 weeks for those who have com­
institutions. They also provided pleted 1 year of service, 3 weeks
services such as account reconcilia­ after 10 to 15 years of service, and
tion and payroll preparation.
4 weeks after 20 to 25 years of
The number of additional work­ service. In addition, group plans
Employment Outlook

806

that provide life insurance, hos­
pitalization and surgical benefits,
and retirement income are common­
place fringe benefits for many bank
employees. Sometimes free or pre­
ferred banking services, such as
checking accounts or safe deposit
boxes, also are provided.
The workweek in banks is gener­
ally 40 hours or less; in a few locali­
ties, a workweek of 35 hours is
common. Tellers and some other
types of employees may work at
least one evening a week when
banks remain open for business.
Certain check processors and op­
erators of electronic computing
equipment may work on evening
shifts.
Generally, bank work is done in
modern, clean, well-lighted, and
air-conditioned offices.

Sources of Additional Information

Local banks and State bankers’
associations can furnish specific in­
formation about job opportunities in
local banking institutions. General
information about banking occupa­
tions, training opportunities, and the
banking industry itself is available
from:
American Bankers Association, Per­
sonnel Administration and Man­
agement Development Committee,
1120 Connecticut Avenue, NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.
National Association of Bank Wom­
en, Inc., National Office, 111 E.
Wacker Dr., Chicago, 111. 60601.
National Bankers Association, 4310
Georgia Ave., NW., Washington,
D.C. 20011.

Information on career opportuni­
ties in consumer finance can be ob­
tained from:
The National Consumer Finance
Association, 1000 16th St., NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Information about career oppor­
tunities as a bank examiner can be
obtained from:
Federal Deposit Insurance Corpora­
tion, Director of Personnel, 550
17th St., NW., Washington, D.C.
20429.

BANK CLERKS

Nature of the Work

Bank clerks handle much of the
paperwork associated with checking
and savings accounts, loans to indi­
viduals and business firms, and
other bank business. Because of the
nature of banking, some of their
work differs from the work done by
clerks in other kinds of businesses.
(Secretaries, office machine opera­
tors, receptionists, and other clerical
workers whose jobs are much the

same in banks as in other businesses
are discussed in the chapter on
Clerical and Related Occupations.)
The specific duties that must be
performed in a particular bank de­
pend on the size of the bank and the
nature and scope of the services of­
fered. In a small bank, for example,
one clerk may perform a variety of
tasks such as sorting checks, totaling
debit and credit slips, and preparing
monthly statements for mailing to
depositors. However, in a large
bank, each clerk usually is assigned
one kind of work and frequently has
a special job title.
Bank clerks known as sorters
(D.O.T. 219.388) separate bank
documents—checks, deposit slips,
and other bank items—into differ­
ent groups and tabulate each
“batch” so they may be charged to
the proper account; often they use
canceling and adding machines in
their work. Many banks also em­
ploy proof machine operators
(D.O.T. 217.388) who use equip-

807

OCCUPATIONS IN BANKING

ment that, in one operation, sorts
items and adds and records the
amount of money involved.
The bookkeeping workers who
keep records of depositors’ accounts
and of bank transactions such as
loans to business firms or the pur­
chase and sale of securities are the
largest single group of bank clerks.
Bookkeeping machine operators
(D.O.T. 215.388) use either con­
ventional bookkeeping machines or
electronic posting machines espe­
cially designed for bank work; in
most other respects, their work is
similar to that of bookkeeping
machine operators in other types of
establishments. In banks, these
workers are sometimes known as
account clerks, posting machine op­
erators, or recording clerks. Book­
keepers (D.O.T. 210.388) are also




employed in banks, usually to keep
special types of financial records.
The job titles of many bank book­
keepers are related to the kinds of
records on which they work—
among them, Christmas club book­
keeper, discount bookkeeper, inter­
est-accrual bookkeeper, trust book­
keeper, and commodity loan clerk.
Thousands of bookkeeping and ac­
counting clerks (D.O.T. 219.488)
are also employed in bookkeeping
departments to do routine typing,
calculating, and posting related to
bank transactions. Included in this
group are reconcilement clerks, who
process statements from other
banks to expedite the auditing of
accounts; and trust investment
clerks who post the daily investment
transactions of bank customers.
Other clerical employees whose

duties and job titles are unique to
banking include country collection
clerks (D.O.T. 219.388) who sort
the thousands of pieces of mail
which come in daily to a city bank
and determine which items must be
held at the main office and which
should be routed to branch banks or
out-of-city banks for collection.
Also employed are transit clerks
(D.O.T. 217.388) who sort bank
items such as checks and drafts on
other banks, list and total the
amounts involved, and prepare the
documents so that they can be
mailed for collection; exchange
clerks (D.O.T. 219.388) who serv­
ice foreign deposit accounts and
determine charges for cashing or
handling checks drawn against such
accounts; interest clerks (D.O.T.
219.388) who maintain records re­
lating to interest-bearing items
which are due to or from the bank;
and mortgage clerks (D.O.T.
209.388) who type legal papers af­
fecting title to real estate upon
which money has been loaned, and
maintain records relating to taxes
and insurance on such properties.
New clerical occupations which
have been created by electronic
data-processing and which are
unique to banks, include those of
the electronic reader-sorter operator
who operates electronic check sort­
ing equipment; the check inscriber
or encoder who operates machines
that print information on checks
and other documents in magnetic
ink to prepare them for machine
reading; and the control clerk who
keeps track of the large volume of
documents flowing in and out of the
computer division. Other occupa­
tions include card-tape converter
operator, coding clerk, console op­
erator, data typist, data converting
machine operator, data examination
clerk, high speed printer operator,
tape librarian, teletype operator,

808

and verifier operator. These workers
are employed in an increasing num­
ber of banks that use this kind of
equipment.
Banks employed more than
500,000 clerical employees of all
kinds in 1970; about 9 out of every
10 were women.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

High school graduation is ade­
quate preparation for most begin­
ning clerical jobs in banks. For the
majority of jobs, courses in book­
keeping, typing, business arthmetic,
and office machine operation are
desirable. Applicants may be given
short employment and clerical apti­
tude tests to determine their ability
to work rapidly and accurately, and
to communicate effectively with oth­
ers. Bank clerks work independ­
ently and should enjoy attending to
details. The nature of the work and
the equipment used require bank
clerks to follow an established rou­
tine.
Beginners may be hired as file
clerks, keypunch operators, transit
clerks, clerk-typists, or for related
work. Some are trained by the bank
to operate various office machines.
A few start as inside messengers.
A clerk in a routine job may be
promoted to a minor supervisory
position, to teller or credit analyst,
and eventually to senior supervisor.
Opportunities for advancement to
bank officer positions also exist for
outstanding clerks who have had
college training or have taken spe­
cialized courses in banking.
Additional education obtained
while employed—particularly the
courses offered by the American In­
stitute of Banking—may be helpful
in preparing workers for advance­
ment. (See introduction to this




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

chapter for further information on
the Institute’s educational pro­
gram.)

Employment Outlook

Employment of bank clerks is ex­
pected to increase slowly through
the 1970’s. New jobs created by
growth, as well as replacements for
those who retire, die, or stop work­
ing for other reasons, are expected
to result in thousands of openings
each year. Turnover is high in
banks, as in other industries which
employ many women in clerical po­
sitions. Jobs for clerks will arise as
established banks expand their serv­
ices and new banks are opened. In
those banks which install modern
electronic equipment, however,
fewer opportunities can be expected
for check sorters and bookkeeping
machine operators. Most employees
affected by the changeover will
probably be retrained and reas­
signed, either to new jobs created
by the change in equipment and
processing methods, or to other du­
ties related to the many new func­
tions and services which banks are
introducing. Overall, the growth in
the volume of work created by new
bank facilities and services is ex­
pected to be so great that the total
number of clerical workers will con­
tinue to rise for some years to come,
although much less rapidly than in
the recent past. The sharpest in­
creases in employment are expected
in occupations related to electronic
data processing.

Earnings

According to a Bureau of Labor
Statistics survey, clerical workers
employed in financial institutions,
including banks, usually earned be­

tween $70 and $130 a week in
1969. Men’s weekly salaries gener­
ally ranged between $80 and $130;
women earned between $70 and
$120 a week.
Among men, Class A accounting
clerks and Class A tabulating
machine operators—generally expe­
rienced employees—received the
highest average salaries: $123 and
$131, respectively. The highest paid
occupation for women was Class A
tabulating machine operator, $120.
The lowest average weekly salary
among men was earned by office
boys, $77. Among women, Class C
file clerks—generally beginners—
earned the least, $70 a week.
Bank clerks are covered under
the Fair Labor Standards Act, a
Federal law which provides for a
minimum wage. In 1970, the mini­
mum was $1.60 an hour; thus, any
clerk who worked a 40-hour week
would earn at least $64.
See introductory section of this
chapter for information on Places of
Employment and Sources of Addi­
tional Information; and for addi­
tional information on Training, Em­
ployment Outlook, and Earnings
and Working Conditions.

TELLERS
(D.O.T. 212.368)

Nature of the Work

Every bank, no matter how
small, has at least one teller who re­
ceives and pays out money and re­
cords these transactions. In a very
small bank, one teller—often
known as an all-around teller—may
handle transactions of all kinds, but
in larger banks different kinds of

809

OCCUPATIONS IN BANKING

simultaneously post the transaction
to the bank’s ledger.
After banking hours, tellers count
cash on hand, list the currency-re­
ceived tickets on a settlement sheet,
and balance the day’s accounts.
They also do other tasks such as
sorting checks and deposit slips.
Paying and receiving tellers may
supervise one or more clerks.
Approximately 150,000 tellers of
all kinds were employed in 1970. A
considerable number worked part
time; about 9 out of 10 were
women.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

transactions usually are assigned to
different tellers. A Christmas Club
teller accepts and records deposits
made to Christmas Club savings ac­
counts, for example, and a note
teller handles certain transactions
for clients who have made loans.
Other tellers who have special job
titles include commercial (or paying
and receiving), savings, foreign ex­
change, payroll, discount, and se­
curities tellers. Commercial tellers
are the most common. They cash
customers’ checks, and handle de­
posits and withdrawals from check­
ing and savings accounts. Before
cashing a check, the teller must
verify the identity of the person to
whom payment is made and be cer­
tain that the payee’s account has
sufficient funds to cover the pay­
ment. When accepting a deposit, the
teller checks the accuracy of the
deposit slip and enters the total in
a passbook or on a deposit receipt.
Tellers may use machines to make
change and to total deposits. Tellers
handling savings accounts may use
a “window” posting machine to
print a receipt, record the transac­
tion in the customer’s passbook, and




In hiring tellers, banks prefer
high school graduates experienced
in clerical work. Maturity, neatness,
tact, and courtesy are important
qualifications because customers
deal with tellers far more frequently
than with other bank employees.
Since tellers handle large sums of
money and are bonded, they must
meet the standards established by
bonding companies.
New tellers usually observe expe­
rienced workers for a few days be­
fore doing the work themselves
under close supervision. Training
may last from a few days to 3 weeks
or longer. A beginner usually starts
as a commercial teller; in large
banks which have a separate savings
teller’s “cage,” he may start as a
savings teller.
After gaining experience, a com­
petent teller in a large bank may ad­
vance to head teller and eventually
to bank officer if he has had some
college or specialized training of­
fered by the banking industry. (See
introduction to this chapter for in­
formation about the educational
program of the American Institute
of Banking.)

Employment Outlook

The number of bank tellers is ex­
pected to increase very rapidly
through the 1970’s, as banks ex­
pand their services. An increasing
proportion of tellers, however, will
work part-time during peak hours to
accommodate those customers who
transact business during the noon
hour and in the evenings. Thou­
sands of openings will occur each
year as a result of the increase in
employment, and the need to re­
place tellers who retire, die, or stop
working for other reasons. Turnover
is high among the many thousands
of women who work as tellers.
Although increased use of me­
chanical and electronic equipment
may eliminate some routine work
and speed other work tellers now
perform, total employment is un­
likely to be adversely affected.

Earnings

According to a Bureau of Labor
Statistics survey, the earnings of
nonsupervisory workers, including
tellers, averaged about $100 a week
in 1970. The range between the
lowest and highest salaries depends
on factors such as experience, the
specific position, and location and
size of the bank.
Bank tellers are covered under
the Fair Labor Standards Act, a
Federal law which provides for min­
imum wages. In 1970, the minimum
was $1.60 an hour; thus, tellers who
worked a 40-hour week would earn
at least $64.
See Introduction for Places of
Employment and Sources of Addi­
tional Information, and for general
information on banking occupa­
tions.

810

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

BANK OFFICERS
(D.O.T. 186.118, .138, .168, and .288;
161.118; 189.118 and .168)

Nature of the Work

Practically every bank has a pres­
ident who directs operations; one or
more vice presidents who either act
as general managers or have charge
of bank departments such as trust,
or credit; and a comptroller or cash­
ier who (unlike cashiers in stores
and other businesses) is an execu­
tive officer generally responsible
for all bank property. Large banks
also may have treasurers and other
senior officers, as well as assistant
officers, to supervise the various
sections within different depart­
ments. Banking institutions em­
ployed almost 175,000 officers in
1970; women represented about
one-tenth of the total.
A bank officer makes decisions
within a framework of policy set by




the board of directors and existing
laws and regulations. He must have
a broad knowledge of business ac­
tivities, which he can relate to the
operations of his particular depart­
ment. For example, each time a
loan officer considers an applica­
tion, he analyzes the collateral and
uses his broad knowledge of busi­
ness activities. He also evaluates
carefully the credit analysis on the
individual or business firm applying
for a loan. Similarly, the trust officer
must understand each account he
administers. He must invest wisely
to manage trust funds which were
established for such purposes as
supporting families, sending young
people to college, or paying pen­
sions to retired workers. Besides
supervising financial services, bank
officers advise individuals and
businessmen and participate in
many different kinds of community
projects.
Because of the variety of services
offered by banks, a wide choice of

officer careers is available for those
who wish to specialize in different
areas of banking. For example, the
loan officer must be familiar with
economics, production, distribution,
merchandising, and commercial
law. He also must have the ability
to analyze financial statements and
know the operations and customs of
businesses to which the bank ex­
tends credit. Careers in lending in­
clude: installment loan officer, com­
mercial loan officer, credit depart­
ment loan officer, real estate
mortgage loan officer, and agri­
cultural loan officer. In trust serv­
ices, the trust officer manages assets
belonging to individuals, families,
corporations, and institutions. Trust
management requires specialization
in fields such as financial planning
and investment. Specialized careers
in trust management include estate
administration, trust administration,
and investment research. The oper­
ations officer plans, coordinates,
and controls the work flow, updates
systems, and strives for bank
efficiency. He also trains and super­
vises a large number of people.
Careers in the bank operations
area include: Customer services,
electronic data processing, and in­
ternal services.
Other career specialties include
correspondent bank officer, who is
responsible for relations with other
banks; branch bank manager, who
is responsible for all functions of a
branch office; and international offi­
cer, who is financial advisor to cus­
tomers in the United States and
abroad. A working knowledge of a
foreign language and knowledge of
a foreign country’s geography, poli­
tics, history, and economic growth
can help those interested in interna­
tional banking. Other career fields
for bank officers are auditing, eco­
nomics, personnel administration,

811

OCCUPATIONS IN BANKING

public relations, and operations re­
search.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Bank officer positions may be
filled by management trainees or by
promoting experienced clerical em­
ployees. Outstanding bank clerks
may be selected for promotion even
though their academic background
is limited, but college graduation is
the usual requirement for manage­
ment trainees. A business adminis­
tration major in finance or a liberal
arts curriculum including account­
ing, economics, commercial law, po­
litical science, and statistics serve as
excellent preparation for officer
trainee positions. Valuable experi­
ence may be gained through sum­
mer employment programs offered
by some banks.
Most large city banks have wellorganized officer-training programs
usually ranging from 6 months to 1
year. Trainees may start as credit or
investment analysts or rotate among
bank departments to get the “feel”
of banking; bank officers then can
better determine the position for
which each employee is best suited.
Banks too small for formal officertrainee programs provide other
forms of training that enable train­
ees to understand bank operations.
Advancement to officer positions
may come slowly in small banks
where the number of these positions




is limited. In large banks having
special training programs, promo­
tions may come more quickly. For a
senior officer position, however,
many years of experience are usu­
ally necessary before an employee
can acquire the necessary knowl­
edge of the bank’s operations and
customers and of the community.
Although experience, ability, and
leadership receive great emphasis
when bank employees are consid­
ered for promotion to office posi­
tions, advancement also may be ac­
celerated by special study. Courses
in every phase of banking are of­
fered by the American Institute of
Banking, a long-established, indus­
try-sponsored school (See introduc­
tion to this chapter for more infor­
mation on the Institute’s program
and other training programs spon­
sored jointly by universities and
local bankers’ associations.)

Employment Outlook

The number of bank officers is
expected to increase rapidly through
the 1970’s as banking activities ex­
pand. Increased use of electronic
computers enables banks to analyze
and plan banking operations more
extensively and to provide new
kinds of services. In addition, be­
cause bank officers are somewhat
older, on the average, than most
employee groups, a large number of
additional officers will be needed
each year to replace those who re­

tire or leave their jobs for other rea­
sons. Several thousand workers will
be needed annually because of em­
ployment growth and the need to
replace bank officers who retire or
die. Many other openings will arise
as bank officers transfer to other
types of employment.
Although college graduates who
meet the standards for executive
trainees should find good opportuni­
ties for entry positions, many officer
positions will be filled by promoting
people already experienced in bank­
ing operations. Competition for
these promotions, particularly in
large banks, is likely to be keen.

Earnings

According to a private survey
conducted in 1969, large banks, in­
surance companies, and other finan­
cial institutions paid salaries ranging
from about $580 to $750 a month
to new executive trainees who were
college graduates.
The salaries of senior bank
officers may be several times as
great as these starting salaries. For
officers, as well as for other bank
employees, salaries are likely to be
lower in small towns than in big
cities.
See Introduction for Places of
Employment and Sources of Addi­
tional Information, and for general
information on banking occupa­
tions.

IN S U R A N C E

O C C U P A T IO N S

Insurance is a multibillion dollar
business which offers many employ­
ment opportunities for young peo­
ple recently graduated from high
school or college and for experi­
enced workers.
There are about 1,800 life insur­
ance companies and more than
3,000 property and liability (some­
times called property and casualty)
insurance companies. They conduct
their business in main offices, com­
monly called “home” offices, and in
thousands of local sales offices in
cities and towns throughout the
country. Local offices may be
branches operated by an insurance
company or they may be operated
by independent agents and brokers.

Nature of the Business

Insurance policies are classified
into three broad categories: life,
health, and property and liability in­
surance. Some companies sell all
lines of insurance; others specialize
in one type or more. An increasing
number of life insurance companies
also sell equities, such as mutual
fund shares and variable annuities
(contracts yielding periodic pay­
ments that fluctuate with the value
of securities or other variable fac­
tors).
Life insurance companies sell
policies which provide not only
basic life insurance protection, but
also several other kinds of protec­
tion. Under some policies, for ex­
ample, policyholders receive an in­
come when they reach retirement
age or if they become disabled and
stop working; other life insurance
policies may help to pay the costs of
educating children when they reach
college age, or may give extra finan­
812



cial protection when the children
are young. Life insurance is used in­
creasingly to protect business inter­
ests and to guarantee employee ben­
efits.
Property and liability insurance
provides financial protection against
loss or damage to policyholders’
property and protects the policy­
holder when he is responsible for
injuries to others or damage to
other people’s property. This insur­
ance includes protection against
hazards such as fire, theft, and
windstorm, as well as workmen’s
compensation and other liability in­
surance. Both life and property and
liability companies may sell acci­
dent and health insurance, which
assists policyholders in paying medi­
cal expenses, and may furnish other
benefits for an injury or illness.
An increasing number of insur­
ance policies are written to cover
groups—from a few individuals to
many thousands. Group policies
usually are issued to employers for
the benefit of their employees. They

@

most often provide retirement in­
come and life or health insurance,
although some furnish automobile
or homeowners coverage. In 1968,
group life insurance protected about
43 million workers; the number of
policies in force was double the
number 10 years earlier.

Insurance Workers

The insurance business provided
jobs for about 1.4 million people in
1970. The great majority were cler­
ical and sales workers. (See chart
35.)
Almost half of all insurance com­
pany employees are in clerical and
related jobs— a much larger propor­
tion than in most other industries.
These workers keep records of pre­
mium payments, services, and bene­
fits rendered to policyholders. The
majority are secretaries, stenogra­
phers, and typists; operators of
bookkeeping and other kinds of
office machines; or general office
clerks. They do much the same kind
of work in insurance companies as
in other types of business enter­
prises.
Other clerical workers occupy

Among the approximately 1.4 million^workers employed in the
insurance business almost one-half are in clerical occupations
Percent
Clerical
Sales

Managerial
Professional
All other
^ESTIMATED, 1970

SOURCE: BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

h

:m

a

813

INSURANCE OCCUPATIONS

positions of responsibility which re­
quire extensive knowledge of one
phase of insurance or more. This
group includes claim adjusters
(D.O.T. 241.168) and claim exam­
iners (D.O.T. 249.268) who decide
whether claims are covered by the
policy, see that payment is received
on each claim, and when necessary,
investigate the circumstances which
initiated the claim. (See the state­
ments on Claim Adjusters and
Claim Examiners later in this chap­
ter.)
Salesmen are a key group of
workers in insurance companies.
About one-third of all insurance
workers are sales persons—chiefly
agents, brokers, and others who sell
policies directly to individuals and
business firms. Agents and brokers
usually are responsible for finding
their own customers or “prospects,”
and for seeing that each policy they
sell provides the special kind of pro­
tection required by the policy­
holder. (A statement on Insurance
Agents and Brokers is included in
the chapter on Sales Occupations.)




About 1 out of 8 insurance
workers is in a managerial position.
Managers in charge of local offices,
through which most insurance pol­
icies are sold, often spend part of
their time in sales work. Others,
who work in home offices, are com­
pany officials or administrators in
charge of actuarial calculations, pol­
icy issuance, accounting, invest­
ments, loans, and additional office
work. The large-scale investment
activities of many insurance compa­
nies make financial administration a
particularly important area of em­
ployment.
Professionals, employed mainly
at home offices, represent about 1
out of 25 insurance workers. These
specialists, working closely with the
managerial personnel in insurance
companies, study insurance risks
and coverage problems, analyze in­
vestment possibilities, prepare finan­
cial reports, and do other profes­
sional work. Included among them
is the actuary (D.O.T. 020.188),
whose job is unique to the insurance
field. Actuaries make statistical

studies relating to various kinds of
risks and, on the basis of these stud­
ies, determine how large the pre­
mium rate on each type of policy
should be. (See statement on Actu­
aries.) Another specialist is the un­
derwriter (D.O.T. 169.188), who
reviews insurance applications to
evaluate the degree of risk involved.
Underwriters decide whether to ac­
cept or reject an application for in­
surance; they also determine which
premium rate should apply for each
policy issued. (A statement on un­
derwriters is included in this chap­
ter.)
The work of most other profes­
sional employees in insurance com­
panies is fundamentally the same as
in other industries. Accountants, for
example, analyze insurance com­
pany records and financial problems
relating to premiums, investments,
payments to policyholders, and
other aspects of the business. Engi­
neers work on problems connected
with policies covering industrial
work accidents, damage to in­
dustrial plants and machinery, and
other technical matters. Lawyers in­
terpret the regulations which apply
to insurance company operations,
handle the settlement of some kinds
of insurance claims, and do other
legal work. Investment analysts
evaluate real estate mortgages and
new issues of bonds and other se­
curities, analyze current investments
held by their companies, and make
recommendations on when to hold,
buy, or sell. As more electronic
computers are installed to handle
office records, an increasing number
of data processing specialists, in­
cluding programers and systems an­
alysts, are being employed. Many
companies also employ editorial,
public relations, sales promotion,
and advertising specialists.
About 1 out of 50 workers in the
insurance business performs mainte­

814

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

nance or custodial work similar to
that required by other large busi­
ness organizations.
Additional information about
many of these professional, clerical,
and maintenance occupations is
contained elsewhere in this Hand­
book.

Places of Employment

Large numbers of insurance
workers are employed in California,
Connecticut, Illinois, Massachusetts,
New Jersey, New York, and Texas,
where the home offices of some of
the largest insurance companies are
located. Many insurance workers
also are employed in agencies, bro­
kerage firms, and other sales offices
in cities and towns throughout the
country. Almost all sales personnel
work out of local offices, whereas
the majority of professional and
clerical workers are employed in
company home offices.
More than half of all insurance
workers are employed by life insur­
ance companies and agencies; in­
cluded in this group are some large
companies with thousands of em­
ployees. Companies which deal
mainly in property and liability in­
surance, although more numerous
than the life insurance companies,
generally have fewer employees.
Many local agencies and sales
offices are also small, regardless of
the type of insurance they handle.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Insurance offers job opportunities
for people having very different ed­
ucational backgrounds and talents.
Some positions require much mana­
gerial and administrative experience
and ability; others require college




training in mathematics, accounting,
and engineering; but still others in­
volve only routine duties which can
be learned on the job.
Graduation from high school or
business school is regarded as ade­
quate preparation for most begin­
ning clerical positions. Courses in
typing, business arithmetic, and the
operation of office machines may be
valuable. These special skills often
are required for jobs in insurance
company offices, and this kind of
training provides a background of
information which helps employees
advance to more responsible posi­
tions.
Engineering, accounting, and
other professional positions in in­
surance companies usually require
the same kinds of college training as
they do in other business firms. Col­
lege-trained people also are pre­
ferred for managerial positions,
many of which are filled by promo­
tion from within. In professional
and managerial work requiring con­
tact with the public, as well as in
sales work and claim adjusting, the
employee should have a pleasant
disposition and an outgoing person­
ality. Since insurance companies
often encourage participation in
community organizations, he should
enjoy working with others in a so­
cial situation. An employee whose
work requires frequent contact with
policyholders should inspire confi­
dence in his ability to protect the
customer’s interests.
Insurance companies and associa­
tions of companies and agents offer
several kinds of training programs
to help employees prepare for bet­
ter jobs. The Insurance Institute of
America, for example, has home
study courses for property and lia­
bility insurance adjusters, claim ex­
aminers, underwriters, loss preven­
tion specialists, managerial person­
nel, and salesmen. The Institute

awards certificates to those who
pass their examinations. The Amer­
ican College of Life Underwriters,
the National Association of Life
Underwriters, and the Life Under­
writer Training Council offer life in­
surance courses that stress the serv­
ices agents may provide to policy­
holders. Other courses, especially
designed to help clerical employees
gain a better understanding of life
insurance and life insurance com­
pany operations, relate to the or­
ganization and operation of both
home and field offices. They are
given under the auspices of the Life
Office Management Association
which also provides programs for
the development of supervisory and
managerial personnel.

Employment Outlook

Employment in the insurance in­
dustry is expected to rise moder­
ately through the 1970’s. New jobs
to be filled, plus openings that occur
as employees retire or stop working
for other reasons, are expected to
total many thousands each year.
Turnover is particularly high in this
industry because of the many young
women in clerical jobs who work
only for a few years and then leave
to care for their families. Still other
openings will occur as insurance
workers leave their jobs for employ­
ment in other industries.
The expected increase in employ­
ment will result mainly from a
rapidly increasing volume of insur­
ance business. A growing popula­
tion will purchase more life insur­
ance, as well as more insurance
which provides retirement income
and funds for their children’s educa­
tion. Others who do not presently
have insurance may become policy­
holders; for example, advances in
medical science are making life in-

815

INSURANCE OCCUPATIONS

surance available to persons who
were formerly rejected as poor in­
surance risks. The need for prop­
erty and liability insurance also will
increase as a rising standard of liv­
ing enables more individuals and
families to own one automobile or
more, buy homes, and make other
major purchases which are usually
insured. In the business world more
insurance of this kind also will be
required as new plants are built,
new equipment is installed, and
more goods are shipped throughout
the country and the world. Further­
more, as the coverage of State
workmen’s compensation laws is
broadened, more employers may
need workmen’s compensation in­
surance.
Insurance employment probably
will rise at a somewhat slower rate
than the volume of business handled
by insurance companies. As addi­
tional types of coverage become
available through group contracts
and more multiple-line policies are
issued (those which cover a variety
of insurance risks formerly covered
in separate policies), the workload
of sales personnel in local offices
will be reduced. As more companies
install electronic computers and
other equipment to process some of
the routine paperwork now done by
clerks, changes in insurance com­
pany employment will occur. The
total number of insurance company
clerical jobs probably will continue
to rise, especially those jobs that re­
quire special training, but the pro­
portion of routine jobs is likely to
decline.
Insurance workers have better
prospects of regular employment
than workers in many other indus­
tries. Most businessmen regard
property and liability insurance as a
necessity, both during economic re­
cession and in boom periods, and
private individuals also attempt to




retain as much basic financial pro­
tection as possible, even when their
incomes decline.

Earnings and Working Conditions

A 1968-69 survey of nonsupervisory employees in insurance compa­
nies, banks, and related businesses
showed a wide range of salaries
among the individuals in the compa­
nies surveyed.
Some clerical
workers in beginning, routine jobs
earned less than $70.00 a week;
some experienced employees in
more responsible positions earned
up to twice that amount. Employees
in beginning jobs as junior file
clerks averaged $71.50 a week and
office girls, $73.00. Switchboard op­
erators averaged between $87.50
and $99.00, depending upon skill
and experience. General stenogra­
phers averaged $88.00 a week and
senior
stenographers
averaged
$100.50. Typists, one of the largest
groups covered in the survey, aver­
aged $79.00 for beginning jobs and
$90.50 for experienced workers.
The average for accounting clerks
ranged from $84.50 to $123.50, de­
pending on experience and skill.
To some extent, these differences
in salary levels may be due to dif­
ferences in the specific job duties of
the employees involved, and in the
firms for which they worked. Salary
levels in different parts of the coun­
try also vary; earnings are generally
lowest in southern cities and highest
in northeastern and western metro­
politan areas. (See chapter on Cler­
ical and Related Occupations for
additional information about the
earnings of workers in other office
occupations found in insurance
companies.)
Starting salaries for professional
workers are generally comparable
with those for similar positions in

other industries and businesses. Ac­
cording to limited information avail­
able from a private survey of life in­
surance companies, 1970 college
graduates were paid starting salaries
ranging between $7,475 and $8,590
a year. Specialists having several
years’ experience in insurance may
receive annual salaries of $10,000
to $15,000; many earn $25,000 a
year or more. Unlike salaried pro­
fessional workers, agents and bro­
kers earn commissions on the pol­
icies they sell. (See the statement
on Insurance Agents and Brokers.)
Based on limited data, annual
salaries for supervisors in life in­
surance companies ranged from
$8,900 to $18,870, depending upon
the type of company operation.
Salaries for supervisors in property
and liability companies ranged from
$9,200 to $19,050 a year.
Except for agents and brokers,
who must sometimes extend their
working hours to meet with
prospective clients, insurance com­
pany employees usually work be­
tween 35 and 40 hours a week. The
number of paid holidays is some­
what greater than in many other in­
dustries. Two-week paid vacations
generally are granted employees
after 1 year of service; in most com­
panies, vacations are extended to 3
weeks after 10 years and, in some,
to 4 weeks after 20 years. Practi­
cally all insurance company workers
share in group plans providing life
and health insurance, as well as re­
tirement pensions.

Sources of Additional Information

General information on employ­
ment opportunities in the insurance
business may be obtained from the
personnel departments of major in­
surance companies or from insur­
ance agencies in local communities.

816

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Other information on careers in the
insurance field is available from:
Institute of Life Insurance, 277 Park
Ave., New York, N.Y. 10017.
Insurance Information Institute, 110
William St., New York, N.Y.
10038.
National Association of Insurance
Agents, 96 Fulton St., New York,
N.Y. 10038.
American Mutual Insurance Alli­
ance, 20 North Wacker Dr., Chi­
cago, 111. 60606.

For additional information on the
salaries of clerical workers in
finance industries, including insur­
ance, see:
Area Wage Surveys, Metropolitan
Areas, United States and Regional
Summaries, 1968-69 (BLS Bulle­
tin 1625-91, 1970). Superintend­
ent of Documents, U.S. Govern­
ment Printing Office, Washington,
D.C. 20402.

CLAIM ADJUSTERS

ing to the claim, using a variety of
sources such as records, reports,
physical data, and witnesses. From
an analysis of the facts he draws a
conclusion about the extent, if any,
of the insurance company’s obliga­
tion. Sometimes his investigative
work may be aimed at determining
the extent of a third party’s liability.
In the event that a third party bears
some responsibility in a loss, the ad­
juster’s company may collect a por­
tion of the payment made to the
policyholder from this third party or
his insurance company.
When the adjuster determines
that his company is liable, his job is
to negotiate with the claimant and
settle the case. A claims man must
avoid making settlements unduly
large in relation to the real value of
a loss; at the same time, he must see
that valid claims are paid promptly.
Some adjusters have the authority
to issue a draft on company funds.
Others submit a report of their find­
ings to the insurance company
which then pays the claim.

Some adjusters work with all
lines of insurance. Others specialize
in handling claims such as those
arising from damage to property by
fire; ocean marine losses; automo­
bile damage; workmen’s compensa­
tion losses; or bodily injury.
There are two major areas of
specialization in claim adjusting:
Property claims that result from loss
or damage; and claims resulting
from bodily injury. Bodily injury
negotiations involve specialized
knowledge of law and medicine. A
claims man frequently advances to
this type of adjusting after several
years’ work in another adjusting line
or as an all-lines adjuster.
Most of an adjuster’s job is car­
ried on outside his office. He may
have to work at a construction site
where an accident has occurred, or
at the location of a fire or burglary.
While the adjuster may spend the
greater portion of a working day
driving from place to place investi­
gating claims, this travel usually is
within a single city or regional area.

(D.O.T. 241.168, 191.268)

Nature of the Work

Claim adjusters investigate, nego­
tiate, and settle claims regarding a
policy made by those who have suf­
fered a loss. Most adjusters work
for companies that sell property and
liability insurance, although some
are assigned claims arising under
accident or health insurance pol­
icies. (See the statement on Claim
Examiners for a discussion of
claim settlement in life insurance.)
Upon receipt of an insurance
claim, the adjuster must determine
if the loss is in fact covered by the
policy; if so, it is his job to decide
the amount of the loss. The adjuster
investigates all circumstances relat­




Adjuster discusses loss with claimant.

817

INSURANCE OCCUPATIONS

An adjuster is responsible for plan­
ning his own schedule of activities
necessary to the proper disposal of
a claim. He also must keep a careful
record of his expenses so that his
employer can reimburse him.
Adjusters increasingly use porta­
ble tape recorders in their work.
These have the advantage of short­
ening the amount of time an adjust­
er must spend in personally inter­
viewing a witness or claimant.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A variety of educational back­
grounds are adaptable to success in
claim adjusting. Although the trend
is toward the employment of college
graduates and some companies re­
quire a degree, men without college
training are accepted by many firms.
Specialized job experience might
qualify an individual for employ­
ment as an adjuster. For example, a
person experienced in automobile
repair work may qualify as an auto
Places of Employment
adjuster. It is likely, however, that
An estimated 114,000 claim ad­ an adjuster who lacks college train­
justers were employed in 1970; ing will be slower in advancing to
most were men. Adjusters are em­ senior or supervisory positions.
ployed by adjustment bureaus (or­
No specific field of college study
ganizations formed by several insur­ is recommended; many successful
ance companies to settle claims), by adjusters have general liberal arts
insurance companies, and by inde­ backgrounds. An adjuster whose
pendent adjusting firms. Some are background is in business subjects
self-employed. “Staff” adjusters are or accounting might choose to spe­
on the payrolls of insurance compa­ cialize in loss from business inter­
nies; independent adjusters may be ruption or damage to stocks of mer­
hired by independent adjusting chandise. A man with college train­
firms or may contract their services ing in engineering or law will find
privately for a fee.
his education helpful in adjusting
A small number of public adjust­ casualty claims. Legal training is de­
ers represent the insured rather sirable, although few employers de­
than the insurance company. These mand that beginning adjusters have
adjusters usually are retained by a law degree.
banks, financial organizations, and
Although insurance company ad­
other business firms to handle fire justers frequently are exempt from
and allied losses to property. They State licensing provisions, nearly
negotiate claims against insurance three-fourths of the States and
companies and deal with the adjust­ Puerto Rico require adjusters to be
ers for such companies.
licensed or to pay occupational fees.
The beginning adjuster can look State licensing regulations vary
forward to working in almost any widely. However, applicants usually
area of the United States, since
must comply with one or more of
claims must be settled locally in all
the following requirements: Pass a
parts of the country. Occasionally,
the adjuster may be required to written examination covering the
travel to the scene of a disaster, fundamentals of adjusting; furnish
such as a hurricane or a riot, to character affidavits; be 20 or 21
work with local adjusting personnel. years of age and fulfill certain State
Some cases result in travel outside residency qualifications; offer proof
that they have completed an ap­
the United States.




proved course in insurance or loss
adjusting; and file a surety bond.
Many insurance companies and
adjustment firms offer programs for
beginning adjusters that combine
on-the-job training with home study
courses. The Insurance Institute of
America also offers an educational
program for adjusters leading to the
Institute’s Diploma in Insurance
Loss and Claim Adjusting. This
six-semester study program is open
to all adjusters, and the Institute’s
diploma is awarded upon success­
ful completion of six national exam­
inations. Adjusters can prepare to
take these examinations by inde­
pendent home study, through com­
pany or public classes, or by formal
college courses in insurance. A pro­
fessional Certificate in Insurance
Adjusting also is available from the
College of Insurance in New York
City.
Regardless of place of employ­
ment, most adjusters begin their
training with an orientation course
in general insurance principles. A
beginning adjuster is assigned to
work on small claims under supervi­
sion of an experienced adjuster.
This training may be given at one of
the metropolitan training centers
maintained by some large insurance
companies or by assignment to a
field office. As the trainee adjuster
learns more about claim investiga­
tion and settlement, both through
home study and supervised experi­
ence, he gradually assumes respon­
sibility over claims that are more
difficult to settle or higher in loss
value.
Because an adjuster’s work
brings him into contact with claim­
ants, witnesses, and policyholders,
he must be skillful in adapting to a
variety of persons and situations.
He should enjoy working with peo­
ple from different backgrounds and
be able to gain their respect and co­

818

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

operation. When an adjuster’s eval­
uation of a claim differs from that of
the person who has suffered the
loss, he must exercise considerable
tact and diplomacy in explaining the
reasons for his conclusions. An ad­
juster should be able to converse
easily with the persons from whom
he seeks information in settling a
claim; he must “speak the lan­
guage” of the police detective, the
auto damage appraiser, and the
medical specialist, to name a few.
Habits of keen observation and
careful attention to details are valu­
able to an adjuster in his work,
which demands that he gather all
facts pertinent to a claim and weigh
them together in making a decision.
Promotions to senior or chief ad­
juster depend upon an individual’s
demonstrated performance in han­
dling his claim assignments, the
evaluations of his supervisors, and
his progress in any of the study
courses available through his com­
pany, insurance associations or local
educational institutions. The adjust­
er who demonstrates administrative
skills may be promoted to supervi­
sory responsibilities in the claims
department of a field office. With
continued evidence of his ability to
organize work flow and make deci­
sions, he may advance to a mana­
gerial position in a branch office or
in the home office organization. An
adjuster who boasts a background
in law might be promoted to trial
attorney or legal manager in his
firm’s home office.

Employment Outlook

Employment of claim adjusters is
expected to increase at a rapid rate
through the 1970’s. In addition to
openings as a result of growth in the
occupation, many jobs will become
available each year from the need to




replace experienced claim adjusters
who die, retire, or transfer to other
fields.
The expected rapid growth in
employment opportunities for ad­
justers reflects anticipated expan­
sion in total volume of insurance
sales and resulting claims, especially
by property and liability insurance
companies which employ most ad­
justers. Various factors expected to
contribute to an expanded volume
of insurance sales include continued
population growth, rising personal
incomes, and changing patterns of
consumer demand for goods and
services. A rapid rate of new family
formation should result in increased
purchases of consumer durables,
such as household furnishings and
appliances, that require insurance
protection. Automobile insurance,
accounting for nearly half the total
volume of property and liability
sales in recent years, should grow
rapidly as more families purchase
second and third vehicles. In addi­
tion, greater population density will
increase the risk of accidents, fires,
and thefts, with the effect of stimu­
lating demand for these types of in­
surance coverage.
Since much of an adjuster’s time
is spent in personal contact with
claimants and others who must be
interviewed regarding a loss, the
greater volume of claims should re­
sult in a substantial increase in em­
ployment requirements for claim
adjusters. Because the nature of an
adjuster’s work usually demands
on-the-scene investigation of facts
and events, it is unlikely that con­
solidation of field operations will
significantly reduce the number of
claim adjusters assigned locally.

Earnings and Working Conditions

According to an American Insur­

ance Association/American Mu­
tual Insurance Alliance survey of
companies selling property and lia­
bility insurance, the average annual
salary of an all-lines adjuster was
$9,100 in 1970; salaries generally
ranged from $7,300 to $11,800 a
year. Adjusters who specialized in
ocean marine and cargo claims aver­
aged $10,200 a year, and their sala­
ries ranged from $8,300 to $12,600
annually.
Adjusters having supervisory re­
sponsibilities earned average annual
salaries of $11,400; their earnings
ranged from $9,200 to $14,600.
Some supervisory adjusters earned
as much as $18,000 annually. Most
public adjusters are paid a percent­
age of the amount of the loss adjust­
ment—generally 10 percent. An ad­
juster also may be furnished a com­
pany car or reimbursed for use of
his own vehicle during business
hours.
Claim adjusting is not a desk job.
It requires that a person be physi­
cally fit since a substantial portion
of his day may be spent in driving
from one place to another, walking
about out of doors, and climbing
stairs. An adjuster may be required
to work evenings or weekends in
order to interview witnesses and
claimants when they are available.
Since most companies provide both
immediate and 24-hour claim serv­
ice to their policyholders, some ad­
justers always must be on call. A
complicated claim can result in an
adjuster’s working long and unusual
hours.
Claim adjusting is a demanding
job and at the same time a challeng­
ing one that requires imagination
and the ability to weigh a group of
facts to reach a conclusion. No
claim is precisely like any other, so
an adjuster’s work offers the stimu­
lus of continual variety as well as

819

INSURANCE OCCUPATIONS

the satisfaction of helping someone
who has suffered a loss.

Sources of Additional Information

Information about licensing re­
quirements for claim adjusters may
be obtained from the department of
insurance in each State. General in­
formation about a career as a claim
adjuster is available from the home
office of many property and liability
insurance companies. Information
regarding claim adjusters also may
be obtained from:
Insurance Information Institute, 110
William Street, New York, N.Y.
10038

Information about a career as a
public insurance adjuster is availa­
ble from:
National Association of Public In­
surance Adjusters, 1613 Munsey
Building, Baltimore, Md. 21202

CLAIM EXAMINERS
(D.O.T. 168.288 and 249.268)

Nature of the Work

Although policyholders expect
their insurance claims to be honored
promptly, a number of important
questions must be answered first. A
claim examiner, who also may be
known as a claim representative or
claim reviewer, investigates details
of an insurance loss to provide these
answers. His investigation may in­
clude reviewing claim applications
to check completeness and accu­
racy; interviewing policyholders or
medical specialists; consulting pol­
icy files to verify information on a




claim; and calculating benefit pay­
ments.
The claim examiner’s duties vary,
depending on the type of insurance
sold by his employer. When this is
life, accident, and disability insur­
ance, claim examiners usually are
assigned to particular types of
claims, such as group or health and
disability. These examiners investi­
gate and approve payment on all
claims up to a certain dollar
amount. Claims beyond this amount
are referred to a senior examiner
who has a higher approval limit.
In property and liability insur­
ance companies most of the investi­
gating is done by claim adjusters.
(See the statement on Claim Adjust­
ers for a discussion of claim settle­
ment in property and liability insur­
ance.) In these companies the claim
examiner usually is a home office
employee who reviews insurance
claims to determine whether adjust­
ers are following proper procedures
in claim handling. Some property
and liability firms employ claim
workers to handle small claims,
such as those arising over minor
property damage to an automobile.
These workers are called “inside
adjusters” or “desk adjusters.”
In both life insurance and prop­
erty and liability insurance compa­
nies, some claim examiners process
only unusual or questionable claims,
referred from field or regional
offices to the home office. These ex­
aminers may be responsible also for
reviewing routine claims settled by
the regional office staffs. This re­
view involves determining validity
of the claim and correctness of the
decision already made by the
branch office that handled it. The
examiner makes this determination
by comparing data on the processed
claim application, death certificate,
or physician’s statement with the
policy file.

Regardless of the type of insur­
ance sold, all claim examiners must
develop a thorough knowledge of
their company’s settlement proce­
dures and basic policy provisions.
They can refer to company claim
manuals describing this information
in detail, but efficient handling of
several claims a day demands that
an examiner be familiar enough
with the manuals to make constant
referral unnecessary. A claim exam­
iner must be well acquainted also
with company records and forms
since he frequently works with data
furnished by other company divi­
sions. Besides verifying a claim and
approving its payment, a claim ex­
aminer also maintains claim records
and prepares claim reports. As a re­
sult, a portion of his time may be
spent in the preparation and sub­
mission of data to his company’s
data processing section.
To correct errors or omissions on
a claim form or to verify question­
able facts, a claim examiner may
need to correspond with investigat­
ing companies, field managers,
agents, and policyholders. Occa­
sionally, he travels to a field loca­
tion where he obtains this informa­
tion by personal interview. The ex­
aminer who has advanced to this
level of responsibility may be asked
also to serve on committees, con­
duct surveys of claim practices
within his company, and help to de­
vise more efficient systems for proc­
essing claims. He may have contact
with State insurance departments
and other companies regarding
claim policies and practices in his
firm. At this level, the claim exam­
iner’s job demands some knowledge
of Federal and State insurance laws
and regulations, and he also may
appear in court to furnish testimony
on contested claims.

820

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

ployees can anticipate promotion to
senior claim representative or claim
An estimated 29,000 claim ex­ examiner positions after a year or
aminers were employed in the in­ more; high school graduates usually
surance industry in 1970; about half need several years’ experience be­
were women. Claim examiners are fore advancing to one of these posi­
employed by all types of insurance tions. Advancement to most super­
companies, life as well as property visory claim examiner jobs demands
and liability.
a college education. Although expe­
Claim examiners work in insur­ rience can sometimes be substituted
ance company home offices, in re­ for a part of the work leading to a
gional offices, and in field offices. college degree, the employee who
The latter frequently are located in lacks formal college training gener­
small towns and cities where the ally advances at a slower rate.
The beginning claim examiner is
companies sell and service their in­
surance products. Large regional given on-the-job training under the
offices and home offices are orga­ direction of an experienced claim
nized along similar lines; they have manager. If the trainee is a college
separate departments for underwrit­ graduate, his on-the-job training
ing, claims, and other major func­ may be combined with courses in
tions. Although jobs as claim exam­ insurance fundamentals or person­
iners are available in most areas of nel management designed to pre­
the United States, higher level jobs pare him for supervisory claim
generally are found in regional or work. Many property and liability
insurance companies follow a prohome offices.
motion-from-within policy in select­
ing claim examiners from the ranks
of former claim adjusters. The latter
Training, Other Qualifications,
have received much of their training
and Advancement
for examiner positions through onAlthough many employers prefer the-job experience in adjusting
to hire college graduates for claim claims.
examiner positions, applicants hav­
The Life Office Management As­
ing good high school records are ac­ sociation (LOMA) cooperates with
cepted by many firms if they have the International Claim Association
additional experience in clerical in offering a Claims Education Pro­
work or some college training. gram for life and health insurance
However, the type of work per­ claim examiners. The program is
formed in entry level positions dif­ part of the LOMA Institute Insur­
fers. The employee who has a high ance Education Program leading to
school education begins in a clerical the professional designation of
job, perhaps as a claim processor in FLMI (Fellow, Life Management
a group life or health department. Institute) upon successful comple­
College graduates, or those having 2 tion of eight written examinations.
years or more of college training, Most insurance companies encour­
may begin work as junior claim ex­ age study by making educational
aminers. Although courses in insur­ materials available to employees en­
ance, economics, or other business rolled in the LOMA Institute Pro­
subjects are helpful, a major in al­ gram. Many firms offer classroom
most any college field is adequate instruction in preparation for the
preparation. College-trained em­ annual examinations.
Places of Employment




Certain aptitudes and skills are
helpful to the examiner. Since he
must communicate, by letter and
telephone, with his company’s sales
force, field managers, and policy­
holders, a claim examiner should be
able to express himself clearly. Be­
cause he has written and spoken
communication with persons of dif­
ferent educational backgrounds, he
must be flexible in adapting his
manner of writing or speaking to
the circumstances. In addition, since
he has frequent contact with the
company’s medical and legal de­
partments, he needs a knowledge of
medical and legal terms and prac­
tices. Because the claim examiner
may need to check premium pay­
ments, policy values, and other nu­
merical items in processing a claim,
some skill in performing mathemati­
cal calculations is an asset. This is
not a good job choice for a person
who overlooks details or one who
has a poor memory for facts.
Advancement may come by dif­
ferent routes. The individual who
shows unusual competence in claim
work sometimes can advance within
the claim department—either to the
position of claim approver or to an­
other supervisory claim job. A
claim supervisor may have as many
as 50 to 60 employees under his di­
rection, and devotes much of his
time to administrative duties and to
final approval of unusual claims.
Though supervisory claim positions
are available in field as well as re­
gional and home offices, many ex­
aminers find promotion to a super­
visory job requires transfer either to
a larger branch office or to the com­
pany home office. A claim examiner
with a college education should find
opportunity for advancement. It
may exist either within the claim
department or in a related area of
company operations, such as under­

INSURANCE OCCUPATIONS

821

writing, data processing, or adminis­
tration.

nies ranged between $7,700 and
$13,050 in 1970. Salaries in the
Western United States and in
smaller companies were among the
lowest. Most claim examiners hired
Employment Outlook
as trainees by life companies earned
Employment requirements for $6,400 a year or more; claim super­
examiners are not expected to in­ visors for these companies had min­
crease over the 1970-80 period. imum annual salaries of about
Although rapid population growth, $10,300. Some supervisors earned
new family formations, and rising $16,000 a year or more.
personal income should stimulate
An American Insurance Associa­
growth in insurance sales, the in­ tion/ American Mutual Insurance
creased volume of claims is not Alliance survey of property and
likely to involve comparable in­ liability companies provided earn­
creases in examiner manpower. ings data for their claim examiners.
Electronic data processing methods In 1970, property and liability claim
and equipment will enable propor­ examiners had average annual earn­
tionately fewer claim examiners to ings of $7,700, and many earned
process an increased volume of more than $9,800 a year. Claim
claims, especially those of a routine supervisors employed by these com­
nature and many that arise under panies had annual earnings which
group life and health insurance cov­ ranged from $9,200 to $14,600.
erage. Besides, as smaller banch
Claim examiners usually perform
office operations continue to be con­ their duties in the pleasant work
solidated, economies of scale will surroundings of large, well-venti­
enable insurance companies to proc­ lated office buildings. Most claim
ess a rapidly expanding volume of examiners work 35 to 40 hours a
claims with a relatively stable work week, although an examiner may
force.
work longer hours at times of peak
Although openings resulting from claim load or when quarterly and
employment growth are expected to annual statements are being pre­
be limited, some positions will be­ pared. (See the statement on In­
come available each year of the surance Occupations for additional
next decade as claim examiners die, information on working conditions
retire, or transfer to other fields. and employee benefits.)
These will be found in metropolitan
centers where insurance employ­
ment is concentrated. Competition Sources of Additional Information
for the relatively few supervisory
claim openings is expected to be
General information about a ca­
keen.
reer as a claim examiner is available
from the home office of many life
insurance and property and liability
insurance companies and also from:
Earnings and Working Conditions
Earnings vary by type of com­
pany and location. According to
limited information available, an­
nual salaries for claim examiners
employed by life insurance compa­




Institute of Life Insurance, 277 Park
Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10017
Insurance Information Institute, 110
William Street, New York, N.Y.
10038

UNDERWRITERS
(D.O.T. 169.188)

Nature of the Work

Insurance companies assume mil­
lions of dollars in risks each year,
by transferring chance of loss from
their policyholders to themselves.
The policyholder pays for this serv­
ice through regular premiums. An
underwriter’s primary function is to
select the risks his company will in­
sure. (The term underwriter some­
times is used in referring to an in­
surance salesman; see the statement
on Agents and Brokers elsewhere
in the Handbook for a discussion of
that occupation.)
An underwriter decides the ac­
ceptability of various types of risks
by analyzing information contained
in insurance applications, reports of
safety engineers, and actuarial stud­
ies (reports describing the probabil­
ity of insured loss). In making a de­
cision, the underwriter also checks
his company’s established practice.
When working in an area not cov­
ered by rule or precedent, however,
he must exercise considerable per­
sonal judgment. If an underwriter is
too conservative in appraising risks,
his company may lose business to a
competitor. On the other hand, if
his underwriting actions are too lib­
eral, his firm may have to pay too
many claims in the future.
When deciding that a policy is an
acceptable risk, an underwriter may
outline the terms of the contract, in­
cluding the amount of premium.
Certain underwriters may perform
other duties as well. In a small com­
pany, for example, they may have
duties such as policy issuance or
sales management. Underwriters
frequently correspond with policy­
holders, agents, and management

822

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

staff members who deal with sales­
men and policyholders.
Most underwriters specialize in
one of the three major categories of
insurance: life, property and liabil­
ity, or health. In turn, life under­
writers may specialize in one varia­
tion or more of life insurance, such
as group or individual life policies.
These underwriters must thoroughly
evaluate medical statistical studies
and the applicants’ credit reports in
reaching their decisions.
The property and liability under­
writer’s specialty is differentiated by
“line” of risk insured, such as fire,
automobile, marine, and workmen’s
Underwriter discusses information on
compensation. Fire underwriting
a customer’s insurance application.
demands extensive contact with rat­
ing bureaus (organizations sup­
personnel about policy cancellation ported by insurance companies to
or requests for information. In addi­ develop premium rates). An auto­
tion, they sometimes accompany mobile underwriter, on the other
salesmen on appointments with hand, devotes a significant share of
his time to analyzing past experi­
prospective customers.
Another of the underwriter’s ence as revealed by company statis­
tasks is to judge the need for issuing tics. Some underwriters handle
a policy at a higher than standard “multi-peril” business insurance ex­
premium because extra risk is in­ clusively. These specialists, who are
volved. In general, the premium called commercial account under­
rate is figured for an average risk. writers, must evaluate a firm’s entire
On a life insurance policy, for ex­ operation in appraising the degree
ample, the rate is based on persons of risk involved in approving an
in good health who work in occupa­ insurance application.
A group insurance policy insures
tions where there are no substantial
all persons in a specified group
hazards. A policy can be issued to
those whose health is below normal through a single contract. One duty
or whose occupation involves some of the group underwriter is to ana­
risk if the underwriter charges a lyze the overall composition of the
group insured to be certain that
higher premium as compensation.
As underwriters gain experience, total risk involved is not excessive.
they are given more difficult cases Some group underwriters perform
to evaluate and policies bearing other functions similar to those of
larger face value. In addition, they an insurance salesman (such as
assume the difficult task of review­ meeting with union or employer
ing applications to renew policies on representatives to discuss the types
which losses already have occurred. of policies available to their group).
More experienced underwriters also
help conduct formal or informal
Places of Employment
training sessions for junior under­
writers and may supervise clerical
An estimated 55,000 underwrit­




ers were employed in the insurance
industry in 1970. About threefourths were property and liability
underwriters, who worked in field
or home offices of insurance compa­
nies.
In contrast to the property and li­
ability part of the business, most life
insurance underwriting is performed
by home office employees. Some
life insurance underwriters work in
large regional offices organized
along much the same lines as the
company home office, that have
separate departments for group, in­
dividual life, and health insurance.
Most underwriters are men.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

College graduates are sought in­
creasingly for entry-level positions
in underwriting. Employers usually
look for candidates who have de­
grees in liberal arts or business ad­
ministration, although a major in al­
most any college field provides a
good general background. Although
high school graduates are not
barred, their opportunities for ad­
vancement are limited. They gener­
ally begin in clerical positions, per­
haps as underwriting clerks. High
school graduates who perform sat­
isfactorily in such jobs, and demon­
strate an aptitude for underwriting
tasks, then may be trained on the
job as underwriters.
The entry-level job for a college
graduate is generally that of under­
writing trainee or junior underwrit­
er. A beginning underwriter usually
goes through a training period when
he participates in a program of
study at the office, and carries out
assignments under the direction of
an experienced risk appraiser. Dur­
ing this training period, the beginner

823

INSURANCE OCCUPATIONS

may learn from claim files the fac­
tors associated with certain types of
losses and from renewal underwrit­
ing decisions the experience of the
risks his company has insured in the
past.
Many underwriters supplement
their on-the-job training by home
study courses and instruction at
home office schools or at local col­
leges and universities. Although
most companies do not require it,
this supplemental training helps in
gaining advancement. Underwriters
have a choice of several inde­
pendent study programs available
through insurance associations such
as the American Institute for Prop­
erty and Liability Underwriters; the
American College for Life Under­
writers; the Home Office Life Un­
derwriters Association and the
Institute of Home Office Underwrit­
ers; and the Life Office Manage­
ment Association. Many firms pay
tuition and the cost of books for
those employees who satisfactorily
complete courses in underwriting.
Some companies also offer salary
increases as an incentive.
Underwriting can be a satisfying
career for a young man or woman
who is patient with details and who
enjoys relating and evaluating facts.
The young person who dislikes
being tied to a desk and prefers
working with people rather than
evaluating facts should consider
other career fields. In addition to
powers of analysis and good judg­
ment, an underwriter must be imag­
inative and aggressive, especially
when need arises to obtain addi­
tional information from outside
sources.
As an underwriter’s skills de­
velop, he may be promoted to sen­
ior underwriter or supervisory un­
derwriter approving policies with
substantial face values and perform­
ing certain training and administra­




tive functions. An underwriter who
demonstrates competence and who
completes available study courses
may advance further to a position as
chief underwriter or underwriting
manager of a department. An un­
derwriting manager may move on to
a senior managerial appointment
after several years.

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
underwriters are expected to grow
moderately during the 1970’s.
Many will arise in metropolitan cen­
ters where insurance workers now
are concentrated; others will result
from a demand for underwriters to
work in field offices, especially in
property and liability insurance. In
addition to positions created by em­
ployment growth, many job open­
ings will result from the need to re­
place workers who die, retire, or
transfer to other fields.
Several factors point to an ex­
panding market for insurance sales
through the 1970’s and a resulting
need for underwriters. Continued
population growth and higher per­
sonal incomes should stimulate pur­
chases of life insurance. Property
and liability insurance sales should
expand with increased purchases of
automobiles and other consumer
durables. Both spending for new
home construction and the Ameri­
can public’s growing security con­
sciousness should contribute to de­
mand for more extensive insurance
protection. Heightened competition
among insurance companies and
changes in regulations affecting in­
vestment profits also are expected
to increase the industry’s need for
competent men and women to work
in underwriting.
Although mechanized handling of
routine policy applications may re­

duce employment opportunities for
underwriting clerks, the effect on
total employment of underwriters
should be negligible.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Salaries of life insurance under­
writers ranged from $7,360 to
$12,500 a year in 1970, according
to a Life Office Management Asso­
ciation survey of 79 U.S. compa­
nies. Earnings differed substantially
by area; employees in the South and
West averaged lower salaries than
those in the Eastern and Central
States. Experienced life insurance
underwriters employed by compa­
nies located in metropolitan New
York earned annual salaries be­
tween $10,600 and $15,620; super­
visors of underwriting in life compa­
nies earned $11,620 to $21,140 a
year. For all levels of life insurance
underwriter, salaries were highest in
large companies.
An American Insurance Association/American Mutual Insurance
Alliance survey of companies en­
gaged in selling property and liability
insurance revealed that underwriters’
annual earnings ranged from $8,560
to $10,300 in 1970. Earnings varied
by line of underwriting specialty;
ocean marine underwriters earned
the highest annual salaries. Under­
writing supervisors in property and
liability insurance companies aver­
aged $11,730 annually; some earned
nearly $15,000 a year.
Most underwriters have desk jobs
that require no unusual physical ac­
tivity. Underwriting is performed in
pleasant, quiet surroundings; in gen­
eral, insurance company offices are
spacious and air conditioned during
the summer months. Some under­
writers may work irregular hours
when traveling to advise field per­
sonnel or attending underwriting

824

seminars, or at times of peak load in
policy applications. The average
work week for an underwriter is 35
to 40 hours, and most insurance
companies have liberal paid vaca­
tion policies and offer other em­
ployee benefits. Since relatively few
underwriting decisions are reviewed
at a higher level, the underwriter
holds a job of considerable respon­
sibility.




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Sources of Additional Information

General information about a ca­
reer as an insurance underwriter is
available from the home office of
many life insurance and property
and liability insurance companies.
Information about career opportu­
nities as an underwriter also may be
obtained from:

Institute of Life Insurance, 277 Park
Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10017
Insurance Information Institute, 110
William Street, New York, N.Y.
10038
American Mutual Insurance Alli­
ance, 20 North Wacker Drive,
Chicago, 111. 60606

S E R V IC E AND M IS C E L L A N E O U S
The long-term growth in the
American economy has created a
growing demand for services of all
kinds. A growing share of our na­
tional wealth and manpower is
being devoted to services as a result
of greater emphasis on medical
care, education, personal services,
and recreation. In many ways, this
rapid growth reflects the country’s
aspirations for a better and fuller
life for all of its citizens.
In today’s job market, the service
industries represent an important
source of employment to new as
well as experienced workers, and
offer job opportunities to persons
having various levels of skills, train­
ing, and education.
In 1970, about 21.9 million
workers were employed in service
industries. Approximately one-half
were wage and salary workers em­
ployed by private firms, 6.3 million
were
government
employees
(mainly in educational and medical
services), and 2.1 million were
self-employed persons. The remain­
der, accounting for 1.8 million per­
sons, were employed in private
households.
Educational services, including
public and private elementary and
secondary schools and institutions
of higher education, make up the
largest sector of the service industry
and account for nearly one-third of
its work force. Hospitals and other
establishments that provide health
services constitute the next largest
sector, and account for one-fifth of
the workers. In both of these
service
industries,
government
workers (mainly local and State)
make up a large share of the work
force. Other service industries em­
ploying many workers are hotels,
laundries, and other personal serv­




ices, private households, business
and repair services, and entertain­
ment.
In 1970, women accounted for
about three-fifths of total employ­
ment in the service industry. Their
employment ranged from less than
one-tenth of total employment in
automobile and other repair busi­
nesses to nine-tenths in private
households. Women workers also
accounted for an especially high
proportion of total employment in
hospitals, educational services, ho­
tels, and establishments that provide
personal services such as beauty
shops and laundries.
In 1970, as shown in the accom­
panying tabulation, white-collar
workers (professional, managerial,
clerical, and sales workers) ac­
counted for nearly three-fifths of the
service industry’s employment. The
industry employs the highest pro­
portion of professional, technical,
and kindred workers of any major
industry and they account for over
one-third of the industry’s employ­
ment. By far the largest concentra­
tion of professional personnel is
represented by teachers employed
in educational services. Other major
employers are medical and health
services—where doctors, dentists,
and nurses constitute a large share
of the work force, and professional
services where large numbers of
lawyers, accountants, engineers, and
architects are employed. Self-em­
ployment is typical for most male
professional workers in health serv­
ices. By comparison, women in this
field—typified by registered nurses
—mainly are salaried workers.
Clerical workers account for 1 out
of 6 service industry employees.
Most of them are stenographers,
typists, secretaries, and office ma­

chine operators. Managers, officials,
and proprietors, including hospital
administrators, make up a relatively
small fraction of the industry’s em­
ployment.
Service workers represent nearly
one-third of the industry’s employ­
ment. The major service occupa­
tions are private household worker,
practical nurse, hospital attendant,
charwoman, janitor, waiter, wait­
ress, cook, and protective service
worker.
Blue-collar
workers,
mainly
skilled craftsmen and semiskilled
workers (operatives), constitute
only obe-eighth of the industry’s em­
ployment. Many of the craftsmen
are employed as mechanics in auto­
mobile and other repair service in­
dustries or as maintenance workers
in hotels, schools, and other estab­
lishments. Motion picture projec­
tionists are especially important in
the entertainment industry. Opera­
tives are employed mainly in laun­
dries, auto repair shops, and other
types of repair businesses. Most of
the relatively few laborers in this in­
dustry work in auto repair shops, on
golf courses, and in bowling alleys.

M a j o r o c c u p a tio n a l g r o u p

E s tim a te d
e m p lo y m e n t,
1970
(p e r c e n t
d is tr ib u tio n )

All occupational groups.. 100
Professional, technical, and
kindred workers ..................
35
Managers, officials, and
proprietors .............................
6
Clerical and kindred workers..
16
Salesworkers .............................
1
Craftsmen, foremen, and
kindred workers ..................
5
Operatives and kindred
workers .................................
5
Service Workers .......................
31
Laborers ...................................
2
N ote : Because of rounding, individual items
may not add to total.

825

826

Employment in the service indus­
try is expected to increase rapidly
through the 1970’s. Major factors
contributing to the sharp growth in
the demand for services are ex­
pected to stem from population
growth, expanding business activity,
rising personal incomes, and the
general awareness of the benefits
that educational, health, and other
services can provide. The fastest
growing components of the service
industry will be educational serv­




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

ices, medical health services, and
among firms that provide computer
services and laboratory research fa­
cilities.
The necessity for extensive person-to-person contact in the many
service functions tends to limit the
effect of technological innovations
on employment requirements. Al­
though automatic data-processing
equipment may moderate growth in
some areas—for example, in ac­
counting and bookkeeping—techno­

logical change is not expected to
limit the demand for workers in the
service industry.
The statements that follow dis­
cuss job opportunities in the hotel
and laundry and drycleaning indus­
tries. More detailed information
about occupations that cut across
many industries appears elsewhere
in the Handbook. (See index in the
back of the book.)

H O T E L O C C U P A T IO N S

Throughout the United States,
hotels and motels provide travelers
with a “home-away-from-home.”
More than 870,000 people worked
in hotels and motels in 1970. The
great majority were employed in
hotels and motor hotels located
chiefly in urban areas. The remain­
der worked in motels and tourists
courts located on the outskirts of
large cities, along major highways,
and in resort areas. About one-half
of the employees in hotels and re­
lated businesses are women.
Some hotel occupations can be
entered with little or no specialized
training. In many kinds of hotel
work, however, the demand for spe­
cially trained people is increasing.
Hotels are complex organizations
and need specialized personnel to
direct and coordinate operations
which may involve thousands of
guests annually and millions of dol­
lars of property and equipment.
This chapter deals with employ­
ment opportunities in hotels and
motels, and includes separate state­
ments on several hotel occupations.

The Hotel Business and its
Workers

Hotels are of three general types
—commercial, residential, and re­
sort. The vast majority are commer­
cial hotels, which cater chiefly to
travelers seeking a room for a brief
stay. A small number are residential
hotels, which generally accommo­
date people for long periods, ranging
from a few months to many years.
Others are resort hotels, which
provide lodging for vacationers.
Motor hotels, motels, and tourist
courts also cater to vacationers and
other travelers seeking accommoda­




tions for a short time. Commercial
and residential hotels generally op­
erate the year round. Although
some resort hotels, motor hotels,
and motels are open for only part of
the year—for example, during the
winter season in Florida or the sum­
mer months in northern parts of the
country—an increasing number are
remaining open the full year.
Hotels range in size from those
which have fewer than 25 rooms
and only a few employees to some
which have 1,000 rooms or more
and many hundreds of workers.
Many of the motor hotels built in
recent years have large staffs. Many
motels, however, are relatively
small, including a sizable number
which are run by the owners with
few, if any, paid employees.
Most hotels have restaurants,
ranging from simple coffee shops to
vast dining rooms, with wine cellars
and elaborate kitchens. Large hotels
and motor hotels also may have
banquet rooms, exhibit halls, and
spacious ballrooms. Many hotels
and motels, especially in resort
areas, have recreational facilities
such as swimming pools, boating fa­
cilities, golf courses, and tennis
courts. Hotels also may provide in­
formation about interesting places
to visit, sell tickets to theaters and
sporting events, and even call in ba­
bysitters. Their facilities often in­
clude newsstands, gift shops, barber
and beauty shops, laundry and valet
services, and railroad and airline
ticket reservation offices. Although
motels and tourist courts usually
offer fewer services than hotels, the
number with restaurants, swimming
pools, and other conveniences for
guests is steadily increasing.
Because of the many services
they offer, hotels need workers in a

wide variety of occupations. One of
the largest groups of hotel em­
ployees is in the housekeeping de­
partment. Many thousands of
maids, porters, housemen, linen
room attendants, and laundry room
workers are employed by hotels and
motels to make beds, clean rooms
and halls, move furniture, hang dra­
peries, provide guests with fresh
linens and towels, operate laundry
equipment, and mark and inspect
laundered items. Women usually
are employed for the lighter house­
keeping tasks, whereas men have
jobs requiring more strenuous phys­
ical effort such as washing walls and
arranging furniture. Large hotels
and motor hotels usually employ ex­
ecutive housekeepers to supervise
these workers, and some hotels also
may have a special manager in
charge of laundry operations.
In most hotels, a uniformed staff
performs guest services in the
lobby. This staff includes the bell­
men who carry baggage for guests
and escort them to their rooms.
Doormen are also a part of the uni­
formed staff, as are elevator opera­
tors.
The front office staff work as
room clerks, key clerks, mail clerks,
and information clerks. Their chief
duties are to greet guests, assign
rooms, and furnish information.
More than half of the hotel clerical
workers are front office employees.
The remainder, mainly women, are
employed in a variety of office occu­
pations such as bookkeeper, cash­
ier, telephone operator, and secre­
tary. These occupations are dis­
cussed elsewhere in the Handbook.
Hotel managers and their assist­
ants have the highly important task
of supervising operations and mak­
ing them profitable. A general man­
ager is in charge of all hotel opera­
tions. Some general managers have
assistants in charge of various
phases of hotel management. Some
assistants may be responsible for
827

828

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

specific operations; for example,
food-service managers operate the
dining rooms and other eating facili­
ties, and sales managers are re­
sponsible for attracting more busi­
ness to hotels and motels.
In addition, hotels also employ
workers who are found in other in­
dustries. Among these are account­
ants, personnel workers, entertain­
ers, recreation workers, waiters,
chefs, and bartenders. Maintenance
workers, such as carpenters, electri­
cians, stationary engineers, plumb­
ers, and painters, also work for ho­
tels. Still other types of workers em­
ployed in hotels include detectives,
barbers, beauty salon operators,
valets, seamstresses, and gardeners.
Most of these occupations are dis­
cussed elsewhere in the Handbook.

Employment Outlook

A rapid increase in employment
is likely in this industry through the
1970’s. In addition, thousands of
workers will be required each year
to replace those who retire or die.
Other openings will result from the
need to replace workers who transfer
to positions in other industries.
Most of the anticipated employ­
ment growth in the industry will
stem from the need to staff the new
hotels, motor hotels, and motels
being built in urban areas, as well as
the additional facilities being built
in resort areas. Limited expansion
will take place in older hotels that
try to meet the challenge of increas­
ing competition for business by
modernizing their facilities and ex­
panding their services. Hotels that
are unable to modernize their facili­
ties are likely to experience low oc­
cupancy rates and may be forced to
reduce overhead costs by eliminat­
ing services and workers. Thou­
sands of temporary jobs will con­




tinue to be available each year in
resort hotels, motels, and other es­
tablishments which are open only
part of the year or have more busi­
ness in some seasons than others.
The demand for lodging is ex­
pected to increase through the
1970’s as the country’s population
grows and travel for business and
pleasure increases. Jet air travel,
which permits businessmen and oth­
ers who travel frequently to make a
trip to a distant city, complete their
business, and return home the same
day, may somewhat limit this in­
crease. Employment is likely to rise
most rapidly in motels and motor
hotels catering to motorists. This
trend has been evident for some
time and will continue, as the Fed­
eral highway building program fur­
ther stimulates both automobile
travel and the building of motels
and motor hotels. In motels, most of
the additional employees will be
housekeeping and
food-service
workers.
Most of the job openings in ho­
tels will continue to be for workers
who need little specialized training
such as maids, porters, housemen,
and some dining room employees.
These jobs account for a large pro­
portion of all hotel workers and
have high turnover rates. When
general employment conditions are
good, people in these jobs find it
relatively easy to shift to other kinds
of work. Also, many of the workers
are women, who often leave their
jobs to care for their families. In a
few of these occupations, technolog­
ical changes may limit the number
of openings. For example, the in­
creased use of automatic dishwash­
ers, vegetable cutters and peelers,
and other mechanical kitchen
equipment is likely to reduce the
need for kitchen helpers.
A number of people also will be
needed every year in front office

jobs to replace workers who are
promoted to managerial posts, as
well as to fill new jobs in the in­
creasing number of hotels and mo­
tels. People in these occupations are
less subject than many other
workers in the industry to changes
in general economic conditions. In
addition, there will be openings for
other clerical workers, although the
increasing use of office machines
may affect adversely clerical em­
ployment in some hotels. Opportu­
nities are expected to be favorable
for young people who acquire the
training and experience necessary to
qualify for jobs as cooks and food
managers. (Food service workers
and office workers are discussed
elsewhere in the Handbook.)

Earnings and Working Conditions

The location, size, and type of
hotel affect earnings of hotel
workers. Other significant factors
include the tipping practice for the
occupation and the degree of union­
ization. About one-half of all hotel
workers are now covered by the
Fair Labor Standards Act, a Fed­
eral statute which sets minimum
wages. In 1970, hotel workers cov­
ered by the law received at least
$1.60 an hour, non-tipped em­
ployees receiving $1.60 an hour in
wages; and tipped employees earn­
ing at least 80 cents an hour in tips,
receiving 80 cents an hour in wages.
In addition, more than half the
States have their own wage and
hour laws that cover hotel workers.
Salaries of hotel employees in
managerial positions have an espe­
cially wide range, mainly because of
great differences in duties and re­
sponsibilities. Hotel manager train­
ees who are graduates of specialized
college programs start at yearly sal­
aries ranging from $8,000 to

829

HOTEL OCCUPATIONS

$12,000 and are usually given peri­ ice. Paid holidays—ranging from
odic increases for the first year or 1 to 8 days a year—are provided
two. Experienced managers may for about half of the nonsupervisory
earn several times as much as be­ hotel employees.
ginners; a few, in top jobs, earn
The Hotel & Restaurant Em­
$50,000 a year or more. In addition ployees and Bartenders Interna­
to salary, hotels customarily furnish tional Union is the major union in
managers and their families with the hotel business. Uniformed per­
lodging in the hotel, meals, parking sonnel, such as bellmen and eleva­
facilities, laundry, and other serv­ tor operators, may be members of
ices.
the Building Service Employees’ In­
Wage rates of nonsupervisory ho­ ternational Union.
tel workers vary greatly from occu­
pation to occupation and in different
parts of the country. For example, Sources of Additional Information
nonsupervisory hotel workers in the
Information on careers in hotel
Western part of the United States
work may be obtained from:
usually have higher hourly earnings
than those working in the South. In
American Hotel and Motel Associa­
tion, 888 7th Avenue, New York,
addition to regular earnings, bell­
N.Y. 10019.
men, maids, and housekeepers may
receive tips from hotel or motel
Additional information on hotel
guests. According to a recent Bureau training opportunities and a direc­
of Labor Statistics survey that in­ tory of schools and colleges offering
cluded larger hotels and motels, courses and scholarships in the
earnings of bellmen averaged $1.18 hotel field may be obtained by writ­
an hour. Practically all bellmen sur­ ing to:
veyed were classified as tipped em­
Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and
ployees, receiving more than $20 a
Institutional Education, 1522 K
Street NW., Washington, D.C.
month in tips.
20005.
Since hotels are open round the
clock, workers may be employed on
Information on housekeeping in
any one of three shifts. Usually, hotels, including a list of schools of­
more people are employed during fering courses in housekeeping, may
the day than at night, and additional be obtained from:
compensation may be paid for
National Executive Housekeepers
work during late hours. Managers
Association, Inc., Business and
Professional Building, Gallipolis,
and housekeepers who live in the
Ohio 45631.
hotel usually have regular work
schedules, although managers may
be called on at any time.
Waiters and waitresses, cooks,
pantry workers, dishwashers, and
other kitchen workers commonly
receive meals; in a few hotels,
maids, elevator operators, and room
clerks also receive meals. Most non­
supervisory employees are covered
by paid vacation provisions, the du­
ration of the vacation usually
being determined by length of serv­




BELLMEN AND BELL
CAPTAINS
(D.O.T. 324.138 and .878)

Nature of the Work

Bellmen, also called bellboys or
bellhops, carry the baggage of in­
coming hotel guests while escorting
them to their rooms. The bellman
checks to see that everything is in
order in the room. He may suggest
the use of various hotel services, in­
cluding the dining room and valet
service. Bellmen also handle room
service, perform errands, and de­
liver packages. In 1970, more than
30,000 such workers were em­
ployed in the Nation’s lodging

830

places. In large hotels, special bag­
gage porters usually carry baggage
for guests who are checking out. In
smaller hotels, bellmen carry bag­
gage for outgoing as well as incom­
ing guests, and also may relieve the
elevator operator or switchboard
operator.
Bell captains are employed in
large and medium-size hotels to su­
pervise the bellmen. They assign
work, keep time records, and in­
struct new bellmen in their duties.
They also may give guests transpor­
tation information and send a bag­
gage porter or a bellman to pick up
the tickets. In addition, they handle
complaints from guests regarding
the work of their department, and
take care of requests for unusual
services. At times, bell captains also
may perform the duties of bellmen.
Superintendents of service—
found in only a few hotels with
large service departments—super­
vise elevator operators, doormen,
and washroom attendants, as well as
bellmen and bell captains.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

No specific educational require­
ments exist for bellman jobs. Grad­
uation from high school, however,
enhances a bellman’s opportunities
for promotion to front office clerical
jobs. (See statement on Front Office
Clerks in this chapter.)
In many hotels, bellman jobs are
filled by promoting elevator opera­
tors. In the service department of
the hotel, the line of promotion is
from bellman to bell captain to su­
perintendent of service. Some of the
factors which may affect a bellman’s
chances for advancement are a fa­
vorable work record showing few
complaints by guests, good work
habits, initiative, and leadership




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

qualities. Since there is only one
bell captain position in each hotel, a
number of years may pass before an
opening occurs. Opportunities for
advancement to superintendent of
service are even more limited.
Since bellmen are in frequent
contact with the public, it is impor­
tant that they be neat, tactful, and
courteous. A knowledge of the at­
tractions and geography of the local
community is an asset. They also
must be able to stand for long pe­
riods and to carry heavy baggage.

built, and additions are made to ex­
isting hotels. The fast growing motel
business also will provide some ad­
ditional jobs; however, because of
the type of construction and the em­
phasis on informality, relatively few
motels employ bellmen.
See introductory section to this
chapter for information on Earnings
and Working Conditions, Sources of
Additional Information, and for ad­
ditional information on Employ­
ment Outlook.

Employment Outlook

Nearly a thousand openings for
bellmen are expected each year
through the 1970’s, due to growth,
deaths, and retirements. Many addi­
tional openings also will be created
as bellmen transfer to other occupa­
tions. Since many hotels promote
from within by advancing men ele­
vator operators to bellman jobs,
chances for outsiders to enter yearround jobs as bellmen will be best
in hotels which employ women as
elevator operators, and in the in­
creasing number of hotels which
have automatic elevators. Many op­
portunities for temporary jobs also
will arise in resort hotels which are
open only part of the year and hire
college students and other young
men. Beginners also will be needed
in small hotels to replace experi­
enced bellmen who shift to jobs in
luxury hotels where earnings from
tips may be higher. Competition
among employed bellmen for the
relatively few bell captain jobs that
will become available in the future
is expected to remain keen.
The number of bellmen em­
ployed is expected to increase
slowly through the 1970’s. Some
additional jobs will be created as
new hotels and motor hotels are

FRONT OFFICE CLERKS
(D.O.T. 242.368)

Nature of the Work

Hotels and motels employ front
office clerks to rent the rooms and
perform related operations. These
include greeting the guests, issuing
keys, and handling mail. More than
60,000 such workers were em­
ployed in the Nation’s lodging places
in 1970. By working “up front,”
they deal directly with the public
and help build an establishment’s
reputation for courteous and
efficient service. In small hotels and
in many motels, a front office clerk
(who may be the owner) may also
do some bookkeeping and act as
cashier or telephone operator. On
the other hand, large hotels usually
employ several front office clerks,
who may be assigned to different
kinds of jobs.
Room or desk clerks rent the
available rooms. Customarily, they
are the first of the front office cleri­
cal staff to greet guests. In assigning
rooms, they must be aware of ad­
vance registrations, consider any
preferences guests may express, and

HOTEL OCCUPATIONS

831

motels, front office clerks may be
responsible for a combination of
these various duties. They may have
other duties as well, particularly
when they work on late evening
shifts. For example, the night room
clerk may perform bookkeeping
functions or assist cashiers with
their clerical work.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

at the same time try to obtain maxi­
mum revenues for the hotel. These
clerks give information about rates
and the types of services available,
and see that guests fill out registra­
tion forms properly. After registra­
tion is completed, room clerks sig­
nal bellmen to carry guests’ luggage.
Reservation clerks acknowledge
room reservations, type out registra­
tion forms, and notify the room
clerk when guests are due to arrive.
To keep room assignment records
current, rack clerks insert or re­
move forms indicating the time




when rooms become occupied or
vacant, or when they are closed for
repairs. They also keep house­
keepers, telephone operators, and
other personnel informed about
changes in room occupancy. Other
special clerks, such as key, mail, and
information clerks, are employed in
some large hotels. In the largest ho­
tels, floor supervisors or floor clerks
are assigned to each floor to handle
the distribution of mail and pack­
ages and perform other incidental
duties.
In all but the largest hotels and

High school graduates who have
some clerical aptitude and the per­
sonal characteristics necessary for
dealing with the public may be
hired for beginning jobs as mail, in­
formation, or key clerks. Neatness,
a courteous and friendly manner,
and ease in dealing with people are
important personal traits for front
office clerks. Typing and bookkeep­
ing courses given in high school may
be helpful, particularly for nightshift
work where additional clerical du­
ties often are performed, or for jobs
in smaller hotels and motels, where
the front office clerks often have a
variety of duties. Although educa­
tion beyond high school generally is
not required for front office work,
hotel employers are attaching
greater importance to college train­
ing in selecting personnel who may
be advanced later to managerial po­
sitions. Front office clerks may im­
prove their opportunities for pro­
motion by taking home study
courses, such as those sponsored by
the Educational Institute of the
American Hotel and Motel Associa­
tion.
Inexperienced workers learn
about the front office routine mainly
through on-the-job experience.
They usually have a brief initial
training period during which their
duties are described, and they are
given information about the hotel,

832

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

such as the location of rooms and
the types of services offered. After
new employees begin working, they
receive help from the assistant man­
ager or some experienced front of­
fice worker.
Front office workers usually start
as key clerks or mail clerks, or in
other fairly routine jobs. Occasion­
ally, employees in other types of re­
lated work—for example, bellmen
or elevator operators—may be
transferred to front office jobs. Most
hotels have a promotion-fromwithin policy for front office
workers. A typical line of promo­
tion might be from key or rack clerk
to room clerk, to assistant front
office manager, and later to front
officer manager. (See statement on
Hotel Managers and Assistants in
this chapter.)

and for additional information on
Employment Outlook.

HOTEL HOUSEKEEPERS
AND ASSISTANTS
(D.O.T. 321.138)

Nature of the Work

Hotel housekeepers are responsi­
ble for keeping hotels clean and at­
tractive. They account for furnish­
ings and supplies; and hire, train,
and supervise the maids, linen and
laundry workers, housemen, seam­
stresses, and repairmen. In addition,
they keep employee records and
perform other duties which vary by

size and type of hotel. Those em­
ployed in middle-size and small ho­
tels not only supervise the cleaning
staffs but also may do some of their
work. In large hotels and smaller
luxury-type hotels, the duties of ex­
ecutive or head housekeepers are
primarily administrative. Besides
supervising a staff which may num­
ber in the hundreds, they prepare
the budget for the housekeeping de­
partment; make regular reports to
the manager on the condition of
rooms, needed repairs, and sug­
gested improvements; purchase or
assist in purchasing supplies; and
have responsibility for interior dec­
orating work. Some executive
housekeepers employed by large
hotel chains may have special as­
signments such as reorganizing
housekeeping procedures in an es­
tablished hotel or setting up the

Employment Outlook

Employment in this occupation is
expected to increase rapidly through
the 1970’s. Many openings will re­
sult from the need to replace
workers who are promoted to
higher level jobs or transfer to other
occupations. In addition, new front
office jobs will be created in the
hundreds of hotels, motels, and
motor hotels expected to open or
expand in the next decade.
A front office clerk has relatively
stable employment. Employment in
this occupation does not contract as
sharply with changes in general eco­
nomic conditions as does employ­
ment in many other hotel occupa­
tions. However, the introduction of
computerized reservation systems
may change the duties of some front
office clerks.
See the introductory section to
this chapter for information on
Earnings and Working Conditions,
Sources of Additional Information,




Housekeepers check linen supplies.

833

HOTEL OCCUPATIONS

housekeeping department in a new
or newly acquired hotel.
In many hotels, executive house­
keepers are assisted by floor house­
keepers who supervise the work on
one or more floors. Large hotels
also may employ assistant executive
housekeepers. More than 30,000
hotel housekeepers were employed
in 1970, most of them women.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Although no specific educational
requirements exist for house­
keepers, most employers prefer ap­
plicants who have at least a high
school diploma. Experience is also
an asset in obtaining a hotel house­
keeping job.
Specialized training in hotel ad­
ministration, including courses in
housekeeping, was available at sev­
eral colleges in 1970. Some univer­
sities offer short summer courses or
conduct evening classes in coopera­
tion with the National Executive
Housekeepers Association. In addi­
tion, the Educational Institute of the
American Hotel and Motel Associa­
tion also offers housekeeping ori­
ented courses for class or individual
home study. The most helpful
courses are those emphasizing
housekeeping procedures, personnel
management, budget preparation,
interior decorating, and the pur­
chase, use, and care of different
types of equipment and fabrics.

Employment Outlook

Several thousand openings for
hotel housekeepers and their assist­
ants are expected annually through
the 1970’s. Some openings will re­
sult from the need to replace
workers who retire or leave the oc­




cupation for other reasons. How­
ever, many new positions for house­
keepers will become available in
newly built hotels and the growing
number of large motor hotels and
luxury motels. In established hotels,
most openings for assistant house­
keepers will be filled from within by
promoting maids. Similarly, va­
cancies for executive housekeepers
often will be filled by promoting as­
sistant housekeepers. However,
since only one top job as executive
housekeeper exists in each hotel,
many years may pass before an
opening of this kind occurs in a
given hotel. Experienced hotel
housekeepers also will find employ­
ment opportunities in hospitals,
clubs, college dormitories, and a va­
riety of welfare institutions.
See introduction to this chapter
for information on Earnings and
Working Conditions, Sources of
Additional Information, and for ad­
ditional information on Employ­
ment Outlook.

departments, such as housekeeping,
accounting, personnel, purchasing,
publicity, and maintenance. They
make decisions on room rates, es­
tablish credit policy, and have final
responsibility for dealing with many
other kinds of problems that arise in
operating their hotels or motels.
Like other managers of business en­
terprises, they also may spend con­
siderable time conferring with busi­
ness and social groups and partici­
pating in community affairs.

HOTEL MANAGERS
AND ASSISTANTS
(D.O.T. 163.118 and 187.118 and .168)
Manager checks convention
reservations.

Nature of the Work

Hotel and motel managers are re­
sponsible for operating their estab­
lishments profitably and, at the
same time, providing maximum
comfort for their guests. Of the
more than 190,000 hotel and motel
managers employed in 1970, about
90.000 were salaried and more than
100.000 were owner-managers.
Managers direct and coordinate the
activities of the front office, kitchen,
dining rooms, and the various hotel

In small hotels, the manager also
may perform much of the front
office clerical work. In the smallest
hotels and in many motels, the own­
ers—sometimes a family team—do
all the work necessary to operate
the business.
The general manager of a large
hotel may have several assistants
who manage one department or
more and assume general adminis­
trative responsibility when the man­
ager is absent. Because preparing

834

and serving food is important in the
operation of most large hotels, a
special manager usually is in charge
of this department. Managers of
large hotels usually employ a special
assistant, known as a sales manager,
whose job is to promote maxi­
mum use of hotel facilities. The
sales manager spends much time
advertising the facilities his hotel can
offer for meetings, banquets, and
conventions.
Since large hotel chains often
centralize activities such as purchas­
ing supplies and equipment and
planning employee training pro­
grams, managers in these hotels
may have fewer duties than manag­
ers of independently owned hotels.
Hotel chains may assign managers
to help organize work in a newly ac­
quired hotel, or may transfer them
to established hotels in different cit­
ies or in foreign countries.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Since most hotels promote from
within, individuals who have proven
their ability, usually in front office
jobs, may be promoted to assistant
manager positions and eventually to
general manager.
Although successful hotel experi­
ence is generally the first considera­
tion in selecting managers, em­
ployers increasingly emphasize a
college education. Many believe the
best educational preparation is pro­




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

vided by colleges offering a special­
ized 4-year curriculum in hotel and
restaurant administration. Special­
ized courses in hotel work, available
in a few junior colleges, and study
courses given by the Educational
Institute of the American Hotel and
Motel Association are also helpful.
In colleges offering a specialized
4-year curriculum in hotel manage­
ment, the courses include hotel ad­
ministration, hotel accounting, eco­
nomics, food service management
and catering, and hotel maintenance
engineering. Students are encour­
aged to spend their summer vaca­
tions working in hotel or restaurant
jobs. The experience gained in these
jobs and the contacts with em­
ployers may enable young people to
obtain better hotel positions after
graduation. In addition, students are
encouraged to study foreign lan­
guages and other subjects of cul­
tural value such as history, philoso­
phy, and literature.
College graduates who have ma­
jored in hotel administration usually
begin their hotel careers as front
office clerks; after acquiring the
necessary experience, they may ad­
vance to top managerial positions.
An increasing number of employers
require some experience in food op­
erations. Hotel chains may offer
better opportunities for advance­
ment than independent hotels, since
vacancies may arise in any hotel of
the chain, as well as on the central
management staff.

Some large hotel organizations
have established special programs
for management trainees who are
college graduates or for less highly
trained personnel promoted from
within. These programs consist
mainly of on-the-job training assign­
ments in which the trainee is rotated
among jobs in the various hotel de­
partments. Some large hotels pro­
vide financial assistance to outstand­
ing employees for college study.
Employment Outlook

Well-qualified young people will
find favorable opportunities through
the 1970’s to obtain entry positions
that offer the possibility of promo­
tion to managerial work. Young ap­
plicants who have college degrees in
hotel administration will have an
advantage in seeking entry positions
and later advancement. Many open­
ings for management personnel also
will result from the need to fill va­
cancies resulting from turnover.
The number of hotel managers is
expected to increase moderately
during the 1970’s. New positions
will arise as additional hotels are
built, and as the number of motor
hotels and luxury motels expands.
See the introductory section of
this chapter for information on
Earnings and Working Conditions,
Sources of Additional Information,
and for additional information on
Employment Outlook.

O C C U P A T I O N S IN L A U N D R Y
A N D D R Y C L E A N IN G P L A N T S

In 1970, approximately 630,000
persons were engaged in laundering
and drycleaning garments, house­
hold furnishings, and institutional
linens and uniforms. These workers
are located in every State, in every
city, and probably in every neigh­
borhood. About two-thirds of them
are women.
Drycleaning firms accounted for
more than 40 percent of the indus­
try’s workers, and laundries (in­
cluding coin-operated laundromats)
accounted for another 35 percent.
Most of the remainder worked for
firms that specialized in renting and
cleaning uniforms, towels, diapers,
and similar items. A small propor­
tion of the total were employed in
valet shops.
Most employment is concentrated
in firms that have 20 or more em­
ployees. Many firms, however, are
owner-operated and have only a few
employees. In 1970, about one-sev­
enth of the industry’s workers were
self-employed.

@

Nature of the Work

One way to describe the work
done in this industry is to follow an
imaginary bundle of clothes through
the plant. (See chart 36.) The bun­
dle consists of some men’s shirts, a
business suit, and bed linens. A
route salesman or driver (D.O.T.
292.358) picks up the bundle and
leaving a receipt, takes the bundle
to the plant. After the items have
been cleaned, the route salesman
delivers them and collects payment;
or the owner of the bundle may in­
stead leave them at the plant or
drive-up store. In this case, a coun­
ter clerk (D.O.T. 369.887) makes
out a receipt and turns the bundle
over to a marker. Either the
routeman or the counter clerk sorts
the items in the bundle into laundry
and dry cleaning.
The bundle is turned over to
markers (D.O.T. 369.887), who
put an identifying symbol on each
item so it may be matched with the

How work flows through a laundry and drycleaning plant

Counter
clerks

Counter
clerks
Washmen - * • 0] ^ t c f r s —* Finishers — |

Sorters
and
markers

Drycleaners Tll
„
and
— Tumbler — Finishers
spotters
operators
Routemen

SOURCE: BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




Inspectors

Seamstresses

Assemblers
and
baggers

Inspectors
Routemen

customer’s receipt at some later
time. The markers then send the
shirts and sheets to the washroom
and the suit to the drycleaning
room.
A washman (D.O.T. 361.885)
puts several hundred pounds of
sheets in a huge washing machine.
Likewise, he loads shirts in another
washer. These machines are con­
trolled automatically, but the washman must understand how to oper­
ate the controls—water temperature,
suds level, time cycles, additives,
and the amount of agitation for dif­
ferent fabrics. When the washing
cycle is completed, the laundry is
transferred to an extractor that re­
moves about half the water. This
stage is similar to the “spin” cycle
on a home washer. Conveyors move
the laundry to conditioners, dryers,
or tumblers where dry, heated air
removes some of the remaining
moisture.
The sheets go from the drying
area to flatwork finishers (D.O.T.
363.886) who shake out folds and
creases, spread the sheets on mov­
ing belts, and feed them into large
flatwork ironing machines for iron­
ing and partial folding. When the
sheets come out of the machine,
other finishers complete the folding
and stacking.
Shirts go directly from the extrac­
tor to shirt finishers (D.O.T.
363.782) who usually work in
teams of two or three. One finisher
puts the sleeves of the shirt on two
armlike forms called a “sleever.” A
second operator then puts the shirt
on a “triple-head” press that irons
the collar and two cuffs at the same
time. She then puts the shirt on a
“bosom” press that irons the front
and back simultaneously. The first
finisher either folds the shirt or
places it on a hanger, whichever the
customer prefers. A third finisher
may do the folding. In some laun­
dries, one shirt finisher performs all
these operations.
835

836

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

ric construction and selects the pro­
per time cycle for each load. He
may apply special solutions called
“reagents” to spots and stains be­
fore placing the garments in the
drycleaning machine. After clean­
ing, he transfers the clothes to an
extractor to remove the solvent, and
then places them in a tumbler or
hot-air cabinet to dry. The spotter
(D.O.T. 362.381) will use chemical
reagents and steam to remove stub­
born stains.

Counter clerk prepares customer’s receipt.

Men’s suit finisher sprays jacket.

Washman empties washer load into bins.

The jobs of the drycleaner
(D.O.T. 362.782) and washman
are similar, but the cleaning solution
for drycleaning is a chemical solvent




instead of water, and the machine
holds only 30-100 pounds. The
drycleaner sorts the clothes according to color, fiber content, and fab­

A men's suit finisher (D.O.T.
363.782) puts the pants on a special
“topper and legger” press. The
jacket is placed on a body form that
may have a second part that comes
down to press and shape the shoul­
ders and collar of the jacket while
the steam is forced from the inside.
Final finishing touches are done on
a steam heated pressing head and
“buck,” a flat surface covered in
fabric.
An inspector (D.O.T. 369.687)

837

OCCUPATIONS IN LAUNDRY AND DRYCLEANING PLANTS

checks finished items to see that the
quality standards of the plant have
been maintained. Any item in need
of recleaning or refinishing may be
returned to the appropriate depart­
ment. Occasionally, she may work
on them herself. Repair work may
be forwarded to a seamstress
(D.O.T. 782.884) who sews on
buttons, mends tears, and resews
seams. Finally, assemblers (D.O.T.
369.687) collect the linens and
shirts by matching the sales invoice
with the identification marks. An­
other assembler does the same with

personnel develop new customers
for the plant’s services. Foremen su­
pervise production workers in the
plant. Mechanics and repairmen
keep equipment and machinery op­
erating properly. Some service
workers clean, guard, and otherwise
maintain the plant; others plan and
serve food to plant workers. Labor­
ers lift and carry heavy loads to
machines. (Discussion of many of
these occupations can be found
elsewhere in the Handbook.)

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Many workers in this industry get
their first jobs without previous
training. Basic laundry and drycleaning skills may be learned on
the job in a short time. Some jobs
such as folding towels and feeding
pillowcases and sheets into a flat-

work ironer may require only 1 or 2
days to learn. Other jobs, such as
counter clerk, marker, inspector,
and assembler, may require several
weeks to learn. Some finishing jobs
—pants presser, shirt finisher—may
require less than a week’s training.
Several months or more are needed
to train a drycleaner or a ladies’ ap­
parel finisher. Because of the vari­
ety of fibers and fabrics, spots and
stains, and chemical reagents of
which he must have knowledge, a
spotter may need 6— 12 months to
learn his skill.
Some preemployment training in
finishing and drycleaning/spotting
skills is available in vocational high
schools and trade schools. Similar
training is available in programs ad­
ministered by the U.S. Department
of Labor under the Manpower De­
velopment and Training Act as well
as in the Job Opportunities in the

Bagger collects and bags
customer’s clothes.

the suit. Either they or baggers
(D.O.T. 920.887) may remove tags
before putting the items in bags or
boxes for storage until called for or
delivered.
Many other workers are found in
laundry and drycleaning plants. A
manager or proprietor is responsible
for seeing that the work of the plant
is performed efficiently. Office
workers keep records, handle corre­
spondence, and prepare bills. Sales




Spotter treats garment with special chemicals and steam.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

838

Business Sector program carried out
by the National Alliance of Busi­
nessmen. Some Opportunities In­
dustrialization Centers—self-help
programs for unemployed and un­
deremployed ghetto youth—sponsor
training for these same jobs. Home
study courses are available from the
National Institute of Drycleaning.
Most people find jobs in laundry
and drycleaning plants through
newspaper
advertisements
or
friends who work in these plants.
Employers look for workers who
are dependable and who have good
physical stamina, manual dexterity,
and keen eyesight. Workers must be
able to adjust to the repetition char­
acteristic of many laundry and drycleaning jobs.
Advancement for most workers
in this industry is limited. Many re­
main permanently in the same job.
Few supervisory positions are avail­
able. Nevertheless, employers occa­
sionally send promising employees
to technical or managerial training
programs given by the National In­
stitute of Drycleaning in Silver
Spring, Md., or by the American In­
stitute of Laundering in Joliet, 111.
Some men’s suit finishers become
skilled enough on the job to do la­
dies’ apparel finishing. Markers and
assemblers interested in finishing
work usually are given an opportu­
nity to move up to this job. Fore­
men and managers frequently are
chosen from experienced employees
already in the industry. Some
drycleaners/spotters establish their
own drycleaning plants.

through the 1970’s. Additional op­
portunities will develop as experi­
enced workers retire, die, or trans­
fer to other fields. Retirements and
deaths alone will result in many
thousands of job openings each
year.
The principal reasons for in­
creases in the demand for laundry
and drycleaning services will be ris­
ing population and incomes. With
more people who have more money
to spend, demand for personal serv­
ices will rise. Also, as more women
seek careers outside the home,
working wives may have the addi­
tional income to afford outside serv­
ices. Offsetting some of the in­
creased demand for laundry and
cleaning services resulting from ris­
ing population and incomes, will be
the easier care of the new fabrics
and finishes. Many persons who
have not previously laundered at
home may consider doing so. How­
ever, drycleaning in the home prob­
ably will not be practical for many
years.
These factors will result in in­
creased employment in all occupa­
tions in the laundry and drycleaning
industry except route salesmen and
spotters. The number of route sales­
men probably will decrease as more
people take their clothes to the
neighborhood plant or drive-up
stores for quicker, more economical
service. Employment of spotters
may decline over the next decade as
technological innovations in fibers
and finishes make fabrics less stainable.

Employment Outlook

Earnings and Working Conditions

Employment in this industry is
expected to grow moderately

Wage levels in the laundry and
drycleaning industry are not high.




However, workers have recently
come under the protection of the
Federal Minimum Wage Law. Since
February 1971, no worker in this
industry may be paid less than
$1.60 per hour nor work more than
40 hours per week without receiving
premium overtime pay, usually 1Vi
times the base hourly rate. How­
ever, many workers receive more
than this minimum. In 1970, the
hourly average wage for all nonsupervisory workers in this industry
was $2.16. Men usually earn more
than women, primarily because they
predominate in the more highly
skilled occupations such as drycleaner, spotter, and washman.
Modern laundry and drycleaning
plants are clean and well lighted.
Because of the heat, hot air, and
steam of the cleaning processes, the
plant may be uncomfortably hot
during warm months. However,
large modern laundries usually have
high ceilings—often three stories
high—and numerous windows that
may be opened for ventilation.
Many new, small drycleaning opera­
tions are air conditioned in the
office and customer areas and air
cooled in the machinery areas. In
addition, new machinery operates
with a minimum of noise.

Sources of Additional Information

The local office of the State em­
ployment service may have addi­
tional information on training and
employment opportunities in this
field.

GOVERNMENT
Government service, one of the
Nation’s largest fields of employ­
ment, provided jobs for 12.6 million
civilian workers in 1970, about 1
out of 6 persons employed in the
United States. Nearly four-fifths of
these workers were employed by
State or local governments (county,
city, town, village, or other local
government division); and more
than one-fifth worked for the Fed­
eral Government, in the continental
United States. In addition, a rela­
tively small number of U.S. citizens
worked for the Federal government
overseas. Rapid growth is expected
in State and local government em­
ployment, continuing the trend in
the post-World War II period. Fed­
eral employment is expected to
grow slowly. Large numbers of job
opportunities will arise in Federal,
State, and local governments from
the need to replace workers who re­
tire, or die, or leave government
service. Hundreds of thousands of
individuals will be needed each year
for jobs in a wide variety of occupa­
tions.
Government employees are a sig­
nificant part of the nonagricultural
work force in every State. Their
jobs are found not only in capital
cities, county seats, and metropoli­
tan areas, but also in small towns
and villages, and even in remote
and isolated places such as light­
house installations and forest ranger
stations.

schools and colleges supported by
State and local governments. In ad­
dition to teachers, employees in this
field included administrative and
clerical
workers,
maintenance
workers,
librarians,
dietitians,
nurses, and counselors. The great
majority of workers in educational
services were employed in elemen­
tary and secondary schools.
In 1970, 1.2 million government
workers were engaged in national
defense activities. This number in­
cluded civilians working in the De­
partment of Defense and a few
other defense-related agencies such
as the Atomic Energy Commission.
Within this group were administra­
tive and clerical employees, doctors,
nurses, teachers, engineers, scien­
tists, technicians, and craftsmen and
other manual workers. Employees
in this group worked in offices, re­
search laboratories, navy yards, ar­
senals, and missile launching sites,
and in hospitals and schools run by
the military services.
Another 1.2 million government

M ajor areas of government employment
Employment, 1970
1
National defense &
International relations
Health & hospitals




2
State & local governments
Federal government

Postal service
Highways

General control fcjit 11
Natural resources |
Financial administration Q

Two-fifths of all government
workers in 1970 were engaged in
providing
educational
services
(chart 37); the majority are in

(in m illions)

Education

Police protection

Government Activities and
Occupations

workers were employed in health
services and hospitals. Large con­
centrations of employees also were
found in the postal service, and
highway work. Workers were em­
ployed also by government agencies
in activities such as housing and
community development, police and
fire protection, social security and
public welfare services, transporta­
tion and public utilities, conserva­
tion of natural resources, tax en­
forcement and other financial
functions, as well as in general ad­
ministrative, judicial, and legislative
activities.
Most employees in the health and
hospital fields, in highway work,
and in police and fire protection ac­
tivities worked for State and local
government agencies. On the other
hand, jobs in national defense and
in the postal service were Federal,
as were over half the jobs con­
cerned with natural resources, such
as those in the National Park and
Forest Service.
Although the many different gov-

Comprises
legislative bodies,
courts,
ch ief executives,
& cen tral
sta ff agencies
of governm ents

All other
SOURCE: BUREAU OF THE CENSUS

839

840

ernmental activities require a diver­
sified work force having many dif­
ferent levels of education, training,
and skill, the majority of govern­
ment employees are white-collar
workers.
‘
Among the largest white-collar
occupational groups are teachers,
administrators, postal clerks, and
office workers such as stenogra­
phers, typists, and clerks.
Some important occupations and
occupational groups among service,
craft, and other manual workers are
aircraft and automotive mechanics
and repairmen; policemen; firemen;
truckdrivers; skilled maintenance
workers (for example, carpenters,
painters, plumbers, and electri­
cians); custodial workers; and la­
borers.
The wide variety of government
functions requires employees in




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK
m any different occupations. B ecause of the special character of
m any governm ent activities, the occupational distribution of em ploy-

m ent is very different from that in
private industry, as show n in the
distributions o f em ploym ent in 19 7 0
w hich follow s:
P ercen t o f —
N on govern m en t
G overn m en t
e m p lo y m e n t1
e m p lo y m e n t

1

100
Total....................................................... .................
White-collar workers ...................................... .................
66
Professional and technical..................... .................
36
Managers, officials, and proprietors.... .................
6
Clerical ..................................................... ..................
24
Sales ......................................................... ..................
(2)
Blue-collar workers ......................................... .................
16
Craftsmen, foremen ................................ .................
7
Operatives ................................................. ..................
5
Nonfarm laborers.................................... .................
4
Service workers ............................................... .................
18
Farm workers ................................................... .................
n
1Data excluded overseas Federal employment.
2Less than 0.5 percent.
Note: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
The

follow ing

chapters

100
45
10
12
16
7
39
14
20
5
11
5

discuss

of the A rm ed Forces. A separate

opportunities for civilian employ­
ment in the major divisions of government and in the various branches

chapter gives information on post
office occupations.

F E D E R A L C IV IL IA N
GOVERNMENT

The Federal Government, the
largest employer in the United
States, had about 2.7 million civil­
ian workers in 1970. In addition, it
employed about 60,000 U.S. citi­
zens abroad. Federal employees are
engaged in occupations representing
nearly every kind of job in private
employment, as well as some unique
to the Federal Government such as
postal clerk, border patrolman, im­
migration inspector, foreign service
officer, and Internal Revenue agent.
Practically all Federal employees
work for the departments and agen­
cies that make up the executive
branch of the government. The oth­
ers are employed in the legislative
and judicial branches.
The executive branch includes
the Office of the President, the 11
departments with cabinet represen­
tation, and a number of independent
agencies, commissions, and boards.
This branch is responsible for activ­
ities such as administering Federal
laws, handling international rela­
tions, conserving natural resources,
treating and rehabilitating disabled
veterans, delivering the mail, con­
ducting scientific research, main­
taining the flow of supplies to the
Armed Forces, and administering
other programs to promote the
health and welfare of the people of
the United States.
The Department of Defense,
which includes the Departments of
the Army, Navy, and Air Force, is
the largest agency; it employed
about 1 million civilian workers in
the United States in 1970; the Post
Office Department employed about
780,000. The Veterans Administra­
tion, the Department of Agriculture,
and the Department of Health, Ed­
ucation, and Welfare each had more




than 100,000 workers. The remain­
ing employees of the executive
branch were distributed among
more than 80 departments, agen­
cies, commissions, offices, and
boards. There were about 30,000
employees in the legislative branch,
which includes the Congress, the
Government Printing Office, the
General Accounting Office, and the
Library of Congress. Almost 7,000
persons were employed by the judi­
cial branch, which includes the Su­
preme Court and the other U.S.
courts.
The Federal Government em­
ploys over 2 million white-collar
workers, including postal workers.
Entrance requirements for whitecollar jobs vary widely. Entrants
into professional occupations are re­
quired to have highly specialized
knowledge in a specified field, as evi­
denced by completion of a pre­
scribed college course of study or,
in many cases, the equivalent in ex­
perience. Occupations typical of this
group are attorney, physicist, and
engineer.
Entrants into administrative and
managerial occupations usually are
not required to have knowledge of a
specialized field, but rather, they
must indicate by graduation from a
4-year college or by responsible job
experience that they have potential
for future development. The entrant
usually begins at a trainee level and
learns the duties of the job after he
is hired. Typical jobs in this group
are budget analyst, claims examiner,
purchasing officer, administrative
assistant, and personnel officer.
Technician, clerical, and aid-as­
sistant jobs have entry level posi­
tions that usually are filled by per­
sons having a high school education

or the equivalent. For many of
these positions, no earlier experi­
ence or training is required. The
entry level position is usually that of
trainee, where the duties of the job
are learned and skill is improved.
Persons having junior college or
technical school training or those
having specialized skills may enter
these occupations at higher levels.
Jobs typical of this group are engi­
neering technician, supply clerk,
clerk-typist, and nursing assistant.
Because of its wide range of re­
sponsibilities, the Federal Govern­
ment employs white-collar workers
in a great many occupational fields.
About 150,000 Federal workers are
employed in engineering and related
fields. Included in this total are
about 85,000 engineers, represent­
ing virtually every branch and spe­
cialty of the profession. There are
also large numbers of technician po­
sitions in areas such as engineering,
electronics, surveying, and drafting.
Almost two-thirds of all engineering
positions are in the Department of
Defense.
Of the 115,000 workers em­
ployed in accounting and budgeting
work, 33,000 are professional ac­
countants and Internal Revenue
agents. Among administrative and
managerial occupations in the ac­
counting and budgeting field are tax
technician and budget administra­
tor. There are also large numbers of
clerical positions involving special­
ized accounting work. Accounting
workers are employed throughout
the Government, particularly in the
Department of Defense, the Trea­
sury Department, and the General
Accounting Office.
More than 90,000 Federal
workers are employed in medical,
dental, public health, and hospital
work. Professional occupations in
this field include medical officer,
nurse, dietitian, medical technolo­
gist, and physical therapist. Among
technician and aid jobs are medical
841

842

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

technician, medical laboratory aid, Health, Education, and Welfare.
and nursing assistant. Employees in Positions in the computer field are
this field work primarily in the Vet­ found in most Federal agencies.
In the field of law are more than
erans Administration; others are in
the Defense Department and De­ 11.000 employees in professional
partment of Health, Education, and positions, such as attorney, and oth­
ers in administrative positions such
Welfare.
About 40,000 workers are em­ as claims examiner. There are also
ployed in the biological and agricul­ many clerical positions involving
tural sciences. Large numbers of claims examining work. Workers in
professional workers are engaged in the legal field are employed
forestry and soil conservation work. throughout the Federal Govern­
Others administer farm assistance ment.
In the social science field there
programs. Technicians and aid-as­
sistant occupations include biology are professional positions for econo­
technician, forest and range fire mists throughout the government;
control technician, soil conservation psychologists and social workers,
technician, and forestry technician. primarily in the Veterans Adminis­
Most of these workers are employed tration, and foreign affairs and in­
by the Departments of Agriculture ternational relations specialists in
the Department of State. Among so­
and Interior.
In the physical sciences, the Fed­ cial science administrative workers
eral Government employs profes­ are social insurance administrators
sional workers such as physicians, in the Department of Health, Edu­
chemists, meteorologists, cartogra­ cation, and Welfare, and intelli­
phers, and geologists. Aids and gence specialists in the Department
technicians in this field include of Defense.
The Federal Government em­
physical science technician, meteor­
ological technician, and carto­ ploys approximately 60,000 persons
graphic technician. Four-fifths of in investigating and inspection
the 44,000 workers in the physical work. Large numbers of these
sciences are employed by the De­ workers engage in administrative
partment of Defense, National activities such as criminal investiga­
Aeronautics and Space Administra­ tion and food and customs inspec­
tion, the Department of Agriculture, tion. These jobs are primarily in the
the Department of Health, Educa­ Defense, Treasury, Justice, and Ag­
tion, and Welfare, and the Com­ riculture Departments.
Jobs concerned with purchasing,
merce Department.
Within the mathematics field are cataloging, storing, and distribution
professional mathematicians and of supplies for the Federal Govern­
statisticians, and mathematics tech­ ment provide employment for about
nicians and statistical clerks. There 76.000 workers. This field includes
are also a number of administrative many managerial and administrative
positions in the related field of com­ positions, such as supply manage­
puter programing. Mathematics ment officer, purchasing officer and
workers are employed primarily by inventory management specialist, as
the Defense Department, the Na­ well as large numbers of specialized
tional Aeronautics and Space Ad­ clerical positions. Most of these jobs
ministration, the Department of Ag­ are in the Department of Defense.
Some 450,000 general clerical
riculture, the Commerce Depart­
ment, and the Department of workers are employed in virtually




every department and agency of the
Federal
Government.
Included
within this group are office machine
operator, secretary, stenographer,
clerk-typist, mail and file clerk, tele­
phone operator, and other related
workers. In addition, there are
several hundred thousand postal
clerks employed by the Federal
Government.
Blue-collar jobs—service, craft,
and manual labor—provided em­
ployment to over 540,000 workers
in 1970. The majority of these
workers were in establishments such
as naval shipyards, arsenals, air
bases, or army depots; or they
worked on construction, harbor,
flood-control, irrigation, or reclama­
tion projects. Approximately threefourths of these workers were
employed by the Department of De­
fense. Others worked for the Veter­
ans Administration, Post Office,
General Services Administration,
Department of the Interior, Tennes­
see Valley Authority, and Depart­
ment of Agriculture. Within this
group are a wide range of occupa­
tions, including many of the service,
craft, and manual occupations
found in industry.
The largest single group of bluecollar workers consists of operators
and mobile equipment mechanics.
Among these jobs are forklift oper­
ator, chauffeur, truckdriver, and au­
tomobile mechanic. The next largest
group of workers are general labor­
ers, who perform a wide variety of
manual jobs.
The Federal Government em­
ploys many workers in machinery
operation and repair occupations,
such as boiler and steam plant oper­
ator, machinist, machinery repair­
man, maintenance electrician, elec­
tronics equipment repairman, and
aircraft mechanic.
Skilled construction workers also
are utilized widely throughout the

843

FEDERAL CIVILIAN GOVERNMENT

Federal Government. Included in
these fields are jobs such as carpen­
ter, painter, plumber, steamfitter
and pipefitter, and sheetmetal
worker. Other large blue-collar oc­
cupations include warehouseman,
food service worker, and printer.
Many skilled occupations may be
entered through apprenticeship pro­
grams. To qualify, experience nor­
mally is not required, but a test may
be given to indicate whether an ap­
plicant has an aptitude for the occu­
pation. There are also jobs as help­
ers for skilled workers such as car­
penter’s helper and machinist’s
helper.
(Detailed descriptions of the
work duties of most white-collar,
service, craft, and manual labor jobs
mentioned above are provided in
other sections of the Handbook.)
Federal employees are stationed
in all parts of the United States and
its territories and in many foreign
countries. Although most Govern­
ment departments and agencies
have their headquarters offices in
the Washington, D.C. metropolitan
area, only 1 out of 9 (about
316,000) Federal workers were
employed in that area in 1970. Cali­
fornia had more than 300,000
workers, and New York, Pennsylva­
nia, Texas, and Illinois each had
more than 100,000. About 39,000
U.S. citizens were employed in for­
eign countries; and about 21,000
worked in U.S* territories.

The Merit System

Approximately 9 out of 10 jobs
in the Federal Government in the
United States are covered by the
Civil Service Act, which the U.S.
Civil Service Commission adminis­
ters. This act was passed by the
Congress to ensure that Federal em­
ployees are hired on the basis of in­




dividual merit and fitness. It pro­
vides for competitive examinations
and the selection of new employees
from among those who make the
highest scores. The Commission,
through its network of 65 Civil Serv­
ice Commission Area Offices, is
responsible for examining and rat­
ing applicants and supplying Fed­
eral departments and agencies with
names of persons eligible for the
jobs to be filled.
Some Federal jobs are excepted
from Civil Service requirements ei­
ther by law or by action of the Civil
Service Commission. However,
most of the excepted positions are
under separate merit systems of
other agencies such as the Foreign
Service of the Department of State,
the Department of Medicine and
Surgery of the Veterans Adminis­
tration, the Federal Bureau of In­
vestigation, the Atomic Energy
Commission, and the Tennessee
Valley Authority. These agencies
establish their own standards for the
selection of new employees.
Civil service competitive exami­
nations may be taken by all persons
who are citizens of the United
States, or who owe permanent alle­
giance to the United States (in the
case of residents of American
Samoa). To be eligible for appoint­
ment, an applicant must meet mini­
mum age, training, and experience
requirements for the particular posi­
tion. A physical handicap will not in
itself bar a person from a position if
it does not interfere with his per­
formance of the required duties.
Examinations vary according to the
types of positions for which they are
held. Some examinations include
written tests; others do not. Written
examinations test the applicant’s
ability to do the job applied for or
his ability to learn how to do it. In
nonwritten examinations, applicants
are rated on the basis of the experi­

ence and training described in their
applications and any supporting evi­
dence required.
Applicants are notified as to
whether they have achieved eligible
or ineligible ratings, and the names
of eligible applicants are entered on
a list in the order of their scores.
When a Federal agency requests
names of eligible applicants for a
job vacancy, the area office sends
the agency the names at the top of
the appropriate list. The agency can
select any one of the top three
available eligibles. Names of those
not selected are restored to the list
for consideration for other job
openings.
Appointments to civil service
jobs are made without regard to an
applicant’s race, color, religion, na­
tional origin, politics, or sex.

Employment Trends and Outlook

Federal employment is expected
to grow at a relatively slow rate dur­
ing the 1970’s.
A number of factors will tend to
limit employment in many clerical
and blue-collar occupations. Among
these factors are the Federal Gov­
ernment’s increasing use of laborsaving electronic data-processing
and materials-handling equipment
and the introduction of improved
data-transmission and communica­
tions systems.
The manpower requirements of
the Federal Government will, in
general, tend to reflect the demand
for services of an increasing popula­
tion and the country’s domestic and
international programs. These de­
mands are expected to be reflected
in rapidly rising requirements for
professional, administrative, and
technical workers.
Population expansion will lead to
an increased employment of

844

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

<§)

retire, or die. Thus, many job op­
portunities will occur in occupations
where total employment is relatively
stable, as well as in those in which it
is rising.

Trends in federal government employment

Millions of workers^

Earnings, Advancement, and
Working Conditions

1 /ANNUAL AVERAGES
SOURCE: BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

workers such as social security
claims examiners, accounting and
budget workers, and business and
industry specialists. Laws providing
new or expanded services to the
public should result in increased
employment of food and drug
inspectors, highway engineers, and
education personnel. Employment
in legal and kindred occupations
also may increase mainly because of
the existence of more laws and reg­
ulations to interpret, administer,
and enforce; and more claims to ex­
amine for payment of retirement,
disability, and death benefits.
Federal employment gains in sci­
ence, engineering, and other fields
will reflect the demands of vigorous
national research and development
efforts in a variety of programs such
as urban development, military
weapons, nuclear energy, medicine
and health, transportation, and nat­
ural resource development. The em­
ployment of engineers and engineer­
ing technicians will continue to
grow rapidly. Employment of scien­
tists, as well as that of technicians
working with them, also will in­
crease, and the number of medical




personnel employed also should
continue to rise.
In addition to new opportunities
due to growth in employment, many
thousands of job opportunities will
become available because of the
need to replace employees who
transfer out of the Federal service,

Federal civilian employees are
paid under several pay systems.
Pay rates of employees under the
General Schedule are set by Con­
gress and are nationwide.
These pay rates are reviewed an­
nually to insure that they are kept
comparable with salaries in private
industry. This General Schedule
provides a pay scale for employees
in professional, administrative, tech­
nical, and clerical jobs, and for em­
ployees such as guards and messen­
gers. General Schedule jobs are
classified and arranged in 18 pay
grades according to difficulty of the
duties, and the responsibilities,
knowledge, experience, or skill re-

Distribution of all full-time Federal employees under the General Schedule by grade
level, June 30, 1970, and salary scale, effective December 28, 1969
Employees
General schedule grade

Number

Salaries

Percent

Total...........................

1,286,948
2,277
24,515
115,931
178,068
158,069
77,856
114,420
25,223
140,155
18,067
147,060
121,908
93,135
43,217
22,293
3,391
982
381

.2
1.9
9.0
13.8
12.3
6.0
8.9
2.0
10.9
1.4
11.4
9.5
7.2
3.4
1.7
.3
.1

Periodic
increases Maximum

100.0

1..............................................
2..............................................
3......... ....................................
4..............................................
5..............................................
6..............................................
7..............................................
8.............................................
9..............................................
10..............................................
11..............................................
12..............................................
13..............................................
14..............................................
15..............................................
16..............................................
17..................................... ........
18..............................................

Entrance

1 Less than 0.05 percent.
S o u r c e : U .S. Civil Service Commission.

C)

$4,125
4,621
5,212
5,853
6,548
7,294
8,098
8,956
9,881
10,869
11,905
14,192
16,760
19,643
22,885
26,547
30,714
35,505

$134
154
174
195
218
243
270
299
329
362
397
473
559
655
763
885
1,024

$5,358
6,007
6,778
7,608
8,510
9,481
10,528
11,647
12,842
14,127
15,478
18,449
21,449
25,538
29,752
33,627
34,810

845

FEDERAL CIVILIAN GOVERNMENT

quired. The distribution of Federal
white-collar employees by grades,
the entrance and maximum salaries,
and the amount of periodic in­
creases for each grade are listed in
the accompanying table.
Employees in all grades except
GS-18 receive within-grade in­
creases after they have completed
the required service periods, if their
work is determined to be of an ac­
ceptable level of competence.
Within-grade increases also may be
given in recognition of high-quality
service.
High school graduates who have
no related work experience usually
are appointed to GS-2 positions, but
some having special skills begin at
grade GS-3. Graduates of 2-year
junior colleges and technical schools
often can begin at the GS-4 level.
Most young people appointed to
professional and administrative po­
sitions enter at grades GS-5 or GS7, depending on their academic re­
cord. Those who have a master’s
degree or the equivalent in educa­
tion or experience usually enter at
grade GS-7 or GS-9. In addition,
the Federal Government also ap­
points very well-qualified, experi­
enced people at the GS-11 level and
above. These appointments are for
positions such as psychologist, stat­
istician, economist, writer and edi­
tor, budget analyst, accountant, and
physicist.
New appointments usually are
made at the minimum rate of the
salary range for the appropriate
grade. However, appointments in
hard-to-fill positions frequently are
made at a higher rate. For example,
in 1970 engineers, accountants,
mathematicians, certain physical
scientists, and those in a few other
specialized occupations were being
recruited at above minimum rates.
Advancement depends upon abil­
ity, work performance, and gener­




ally, upon openings in jobs at higher
grades.
Craft, service, and manual
workers employed by the Federal
Government in the United States
are paid under the Coordinated
Federal Wage System. The pay
rates for these workers are fixed on
the basis of “prevailing” rates paid
for similar work by private em­
ployers in the areas where they
work. The accompanying tabulation
of regular pay rates for selected oc­
cupations illustrates hourly wage
rates in 1970.
Employees in agencies with sepa­
rate merit systems are paid under
acts other than those already men­
tioned.
Many of the occupations found in
the Federal Government are dis­
cussed in greater detail elsewhere in
the Handbook, and many include
data on earnings in the Federal
Government.
The standard workweek for Fed­
eral Government employees is 40
hours, and the pay schedules are
based on this workweek. If an em­
ployee is required to work overtime,
he is either paid overtime rates for

the additional time worked or given
compensatory time off at a later
date. Most employees usually work
8 hours a day and 5 days a week,
Monday through Friday, but in
some cases, the nature of the work
may call for a different workweek.
Annual earnings for most full-time
Federal workers are not affected by
seasonal factors.
Federal employees earn 13 days
of annual (vacation) leave during
each of their first 3 years of service,
then 20 days each year until they
have completed 15 years; after 15
years, they earn 26 days of leave
each year. In addition, they earn 13
days of paid sick leave a year. Nine
paid holidays are observed an­
nually. Employees who are mem­
bers of military reserve organiza­
tions also are granted up to 15 days
of paid military leave a year for
training purposes. A Federal em­
ployee who is laid off is entitled to
unemployment compensation simi­
lar to that provided for employees
in private industry.
Other benefits available to most
Federal employees include: A con­
tributory retirement system; op-

C o o r d in a te d F e d e r a l W a g e S y s te m h o u r ly p a y r a te s , s e l e c t e d o c c u p a tio n s a n d
lo c a tio n s , 1 9 7 0

L o c a tio n

Labor
( h e a v y ) E le c tr ic ia n

Atlanta, Ga .................................................................... . $2.67
Boston, Mass .................................................................. . 3.28
Chicago, 111 .................................................................... . 3.12
Denver, Colo .................................................................. . 3.46
Norfolk-Portsworth-Newport News-Hampton, Va.. 2.68
Houston-Galveston-Texas City, Texas ....... ............. . 3.07
Los Angeles, Calif ....................................................... . 3.46
New Orleans, La ............................................................ . 2.75
New York, N.Y.............................................................. . 3.07
Pensacola, Fla ............................................................... . 2.70
Philadelphia, Pa ............................................................ . 3.41
Seattle-Everett-Tacoma, Wash .................................. . 3.64
San Francisco, Calif ..................................................... . 3.69
St. Louis, Mo ................................................................ . 3.58
Washington, D.C............................................................ . 3.10

$4.31
4.18
4.40
4.50
3.93
4.42
4.68
3.98
4.15
4.36
4.43
4.61
4.95
4.78
4.41

T o o l, d ie a n d
guage m aker

$5.02
4.67
4.96
4.95
4.50
5.00
5.20
4.59
4.61
5.07
4.86
5.03
5.45
5.31
5.03

Source: Coordinated Federal Wage System; rates are for the second step of a
3-step pay range.

846

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

tional participation in low-cost
group life and health insurance
programs supported in part by the
Government; and training programs
to develop maximum job profi­
ciency and help employees achieve
their highest potential. These train­
ing programs may be conducted in
Government facilities or in outside
educational facilities at Government
expense.

stop information service so that all
interested citizens may learn of
local and nationwide employment
opportunities in the Federal Gov­
ernment service.
Information about a specific
agency also may be obtained by
contacting the agency directly.

Sources of Additional Information

POST OFFICE OCCUPATIONS

Information on Federal employ­
ment opportunities is available from
a number of sources. For college
students, the college placement
office is often a good source of such
information. High school students in
many localities may obtain informa­
tion from their high school guidance
counselors. Additional information
may be obtained from State em­
ployment service offices and many
post offices.
The Area Offices operated by the
U.S. Civil Service Commission are
located in population centers
throughout the country. These
offices announce and conduct exam­
inations and evaluate and refer eli­
gible applicants to employing agen­
cies for their geographic areas.
They also provide a complete one-

The mailman, carrying the famil­
iar leather pouch over his shoulder,
and the clerk, standing behind the
stamp window in the Post Office,
are the two employees of the Fed­
eral Government most familiar to
the general public. Although we all
receive or send mail almost every
day, few people realize how many
workers are employed by the Post
Office and exactly what they do.
In early 1971, more than
730,000 postal service workers—
about 19 percent of whom were
women—were employed in 43,000
separate installations throughout the
Nation. These workers collected
and distributed over 85 billion let­
ters, post cards, newspapers, maga­
zines, parcels, and other items of
mail. They also provided special




mail services such as registration
(giving evidence of mailing and de­
livery), insurance, and c.o.d. (the
collection of the price of an article,
and the cost of postage from a cus­
tomer upon delivery). Other serv­
ices performed by these workers
included selling United States sav­
ings stamps and money orders.
Although many postal jobs are
located in small communities and in
rural areas, postal employment is
concentrated in large centers of
population. Nearly 73,000 postal
service workers, or 10 percent of all
post office employees work in the
metropolitan area of New York
City. Other large centers of postal
employment include the Chicago,
Los Angeles, Boston, Philadelphia,
Washington, D.C., San Francisco,
Detroit, and Cleveland metropolitan
areas.
The Post Office Department is in
the process of being converted to
the U.S. Postal Service under the
Postal Reorganization Act. (PL-91375) of August 12, 1970. Rates of
pay, hours of work, and other con­
ditions of employment were subject
to change at the time this statement
was prepared and therefore were
excluded. Those desiring timely and
accurate information regarding em­
ployment in the U.S. Postal Service
should contact their local post
office.

S T A T E A N D LOCAL
GOVERNM ENTS

State and local governments
provide a very large and growing
source of job opportunities in many
different occupational fields. In
1970, about 9.9 million workers
were employed in State and local
government
agencies.
Almost
three-fourths of these workers were
with units of local governments,
such as counties, municipalities,
towns, and school districts, and
more than one-fourth were em­
ployed in State government agen­
cies.
Nearly 5.3 million employees, or
over half of all State and local gov­
ernment workers, were employed in
public schools, colleges, or other
educational services in 1970.
In addition to almost 3.0 million
classroom and college teachers,
school systems, colleges, and uni­
versities also employ administrative
personnel,
librarians,
guidance
counselors,
nurses,
dieticians,
clerks, and maintenance workers.
Three-fourths of employment in the
field of education is in elementary
and secondary schools, which are
administered largely by local gov­
ernments. State employment in edu­
cation is concentrated chiefly in in­
stitutions of higher learning.
The next two largest fields of
State and local government employ­
ment in 1970 were in health and
hospital work and highway work.
The 1 million persons employed in
health and hospital work include
physicians, nurses, medical labora­
tory technicians, and hospital at­
tendants. More than 600,000
workers were employed in highway
activities such as construction and
maintenance of roads, highways,
city streets, toll turnpikes, bridges,
and tunnels. Among these em­




ployees are civil engineers, survey­
ors, operators of construction ma­
chinery and equipment, truckdrivers, concrete finishers, carpenters,
and construction laborers.
In 1970, more than 600,000
workers were employed in general
and financial control activities—
most of them at the local level.
General and financial control func­
tions include the activities of chief
executives and their staffs and legis­
lative bodies; the administration of
justice; tax enforcement and other
financial work; and general adminis­
trative work. These functions re­
quire the services of individuals
such as lawyers, judges, and other
court officials, city managers, prop­
erty assessors, budget analysts, ste­
nographers, and clerks.
Protective services, such as those
provided by police and fire depart­
ments, is another large field of State
and local government employment.
Almost 510,000 people were em­
ployed in police work in 1970, prin­
cipally by local governments. Em­
ployment in police work includes
administrative, clerical, and cus­
todial personnel, as well as uni­
formed and plainclothes policemen.
All of the 266,000 firemen, many of
whom are part-time employees, are
employed by local governments.
Other State and local government
employees are engaged in a wide
variety of fields—local utilities
(such as water, electricity, transpor­
tation, and gas supply systems);
natural resources; public welfare;
parks and recreation; sanitation;
correction; local libraries; sewage
disposal; and housing and urban re­
newal. These activities require
workers in many different occupa­
tions such as economist, electrical

engineer, electrician, pipefitter,
clerk, forester, and busdriver.
Clerical, administrative, mainte­
nance, and custodial workers consti­
tute a significant proportion of all
employees in many areas of govern­
ment activity. Among the larger
groups of workers engaged in these
occupations are clerk-typists, ste­
nographers, secretaries, office man­
agers, fiscal and budget administra­
tors, bookkeepers, accountants, car­
penters, painters, plumbers, guards,
and janitors. (Detailed discussions
of most occupations in State and
local governments are given else­
where in the Handbook, in the sec­
tions covering the individual occu­
pations.)

Employment Trends and Outlook

The long-range employment
trend in State and local govern­
ments has been steadily upward.
(See chart 39.) Much of this growth
has occurred because of the need to
provide services for increasing num­
bers of younger and older persons,
and because of population move­
ments from rural to urban areas.
City development has required
more street and highway facilities;
police and fire protection; and
public health, sanitation, welfare,
and other services. Population
growth and increasing personal in­
come have generated demands for
more and improved education,
housing, and hospital and other serv­
ices provided by State and local
governments.
Much of the increase in State and
local government employment in
the 1958-70 period was due to in­
creased employment of teachers and
other educational personnel. Expan­
sion in health and hospital services,
highway programs, and protective
(police and fire) services also con­
tributed to the increase.
Rapid growth in State and local
847

848

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

(§ )
Employees

Trends in state and local government employment
(in m illio n s)!/

10 -----------------------

SOURCE: BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
V ANNUAL AVERAGE

government employment is ex­ such as engineers, scientists, social
pected through the 1970’s. Employ­ workers, counselors, teachers, doc­
ment of elementary and secondary tors, and librarians.
school teachers, however, is ex­
In addition to job opportunities
pected to increase more slowly than resulting from the expected overall
in the past, as the areas of rapid growth in State and local govern­
school enrollment growth shift to ment employment, large numbers of
higher education. This shift will employees will be needed to replace
create greater needs for college and workers who transfer to other fields
university teachers and administra­ of work, retire, or die.
tors.
Most positions in State and local
A larger State and local work governments are filled by perma­
force also will be needed to provide nent residents of the State or local­
improved public transportation sys­ ity. Often, however, it is necessary
tems; more urban planning and re­ for State and local governments to
newal programs; increased police recruit outside their areas if short­
protection; better measures to guard ages of particular skills exist in
against air and water pollution; and their areas.
expanded natural resource develop­
ment programs and hospital facili­
Earnings and Working Conditions
ties.
New or recently expanded Fed­
Earnings of State and local gov­
eral-State programs in education, ernment employees vary widely, de­
vocational training, medicine, and pending upon occupation and local­
other fields will increase greatly the ity. Salaries from State to State tend
requirements of local and JState gov­ to reflect differences in the general
ernments for professional, adminis­ wage level in various localities.
trative, and technical personnel Clerical and blue-collar earnings in




State and local governments gener­
ally are comparable to those of
workers in similar occupations in
private industry. Earnings of admin­
istrative and professional employees
in many areas tend to be somewhat
lower than those for workers in sim­
ilar occupations in private industry.
The Handbook statements for in­
dividual occupations often give sal­
ary information for State and local
government employment. Salary in­
formation also can be obtained from
the appropriate agency in each State
and locality.
A majority of State and local
government positions are filled
through some type of formal civil
service test, and personnel are hired
and promoted on the basis of merit.
In some areas, broad groups of em­
ployees, such as teachers, firemen,
and policemen, have separate civil
service coverage which applies only
to their specific groups.
Most State and local government
employees are covered by retire­
ment systems or by the Federal So­
cial Security program. They usually
work a 40-hour week; overtime pay
or compensatory time benefits often
are granted for hours of work in ex­
cess of the standard workweek.

Sources of Additional Information

People interested in working for
State or local government agencies
should contact the appropriate
agencies in the State, county, or
city. Local school boards, city
clerks, school and college counse­
lors or placement offices, and local
offices of State employment services
also will have further information.

ARMED

When planning their careers,
young men must consider their mili­
tary service obligation. By knowing
the choices available for fulfill­
ment of this obligation, they can
better fit their service period into
their occupational plans. In many
instances, the service activities
provide valuable vocational training
which is helpful in obtaining civilian
jobs later on. The Armed Forces
also offer many opportunities to
qualified young men and young
women for lifetime service careers
in many occupations.
The Armed Forces are main­
tained through voluntary enlistment,
supplemented by a Selective Service
System which drafts young men be­
tween I 8 V2 and 26. A young man
may enlist in any one of a variety of
programs involving different combi­
nations of active service and reserve
duty; or he may wait to be drafted
for a 2-year period of active duty,
followed by 4 years in the reserves;
or, if qualified, he may enter one of
several officer training programs and
discharge his obligation in a com­
missioned status.
Additional choices for fulfilling a
military obligation are available in
reserve programs. One of these
choices allows a young man to ful­
fill his military obligation by enlist­
ing in the reserves for 6 years, at
least 4 months of which are spent in
active duty training. These enlist­




FO RCES

ment choices and the draft, how­
ever, are subject to change at any
time by congressional action. The
alternative choices described here in
a general way serve only to illus­
trate a few possibilities. Detailed
up-to-date information can be ob­
tained from local Armed Forces re­
cruiting stations or from publications
available at high schools, colleges,
and State employment service
offices.
In 1970, military personnel were
distributed among the various serv­
ices as follows: Army, 1,231,000;
Air Force, 755,000; Navy, 645,000;
Marine Corps, 230,000; and Coast
Guard, 38,000. A majority of all
enlisted jobs in the Armed Forces
require special in-service school
training; on-the-job training is given
for the remainder. It is possible for
a young man, during his military
service, to receive training in elec­
tronics, aircraft maintenance, metal­
working, or other skilled work.
In addition to specific on-the-job
training, the Armed Forces provide
military personnel with a wide
choice of voluntary off-duty aca­
demic and technical training pro­
grams. Military personnel may en­
roll in (1) the U.S. Armed Forces
Institute (USAFI), (2) the Resi­
dent Center Program, (3) the
Group Study Program, or (4) the
Military Extension Correspondence
Course Program. USAFI offers ap­

proximately 235 correspondence
courses ranging from elementary
school through the second year of
college. In addition, approximately
6,000 courses are offered by col­
leges and universities under contract
with USAFI. In the Resident Center
Program, civilian institutions offer
courses leading to high school diplo­
mas and college degrees. These
courses may be taken either on the
military installation or on a nearby
campus. The Group Study Program
is offered on military installations
where local civilian classes are not
available. The Military Extension
Correspondence Course Program
provides technical courses in mili­
tary specialties which are designed
to advance career capabilities.
The Armed Forces also offer
training to many servicemen during
their final 6 months of service to
prepare them for job opportunities
in civilian life. The Transition Pro­
gram provides counseling, training,
education, and placement services
to the combat-disabled, those hav­
ing no civilian work experience, and
those, including many combat veter­
ans, who did not acquire civilian-re­
lated skills while in the service or
had no opportunities to achieve high
school graduation equivalency di­
plomas during their service.
Each of the services publishes
handbooks describing entrance re­
quirements, training, advancement,
and other aspects of their career
fields. These publications are availa­
ble at all recruiting stations and at
most State employment service
offices, high schools, colleges, and
public libraries.

849

.




T E C H N IC A L A P P E N D IX
This appendix is designed for readers
who wish to know more about proce­
dures followed in developing employ­
ment outlook than is presented in
preceding reports.

Employment Outlook Conclusions
The employment outlook in the oc­
cupational reports is based on extensive
economic and statistical analyses and in­
formation from many sources. Although
sources and analyses among occupations
and industries differed, the same general
pattern was followed. To insure con­
sistency of individual occupations and
industries, the economy, based on an as­
sumption of relatively full employment,
was analyzed. Projections were made of
the population, labor force, gross na­
tional product, average weekly hours,
employment in major industries, and re­
lated economic measures and the individ­
ual reports were tied to these projections.
Many studies were based heavily on
an analysis of past and prospective popu­
lation trends, including expected changes
in school and college enrollment, em­
ployment of women, and urban and
suburban population. Population influ­
ences employment requirements in fields,
such as teaching and health, and is of
great importance in many industries—for
example, residential construction, baking,
telephone communication, and retail
trade.
Many factors besides population size
and composition affect employment in
business and industry. Consumer purchas­
ing patterns change as income levels
shift and new products are developed.
Technology brings changes in raw ma­
terials and equipment needed in produc­
tion and influences the size, occupation,
and skill of the work force. Research
and development and government poli­
cies, such as defense and space programs,
also bring about changes in occupations.
Each industry was analyzed and de­




mands for its products or services were
projected. These projections then were
translated into estimates of numbers and
kinds of workers needed to produce serv­
ices and products. Taken into account
were employment trends of total employ­
ment, different occupations, productivity
trends, and possible further reductions in
the workweek.
Population and labor force trends are
from the decennial Censuses of Popula­
tion and the monthly labor force surveys
conducted by the Bureau of the Census
for the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data
also were drawn from the Censuses of
Manufactures and Business conducted by
the Census Bureau.
Information also was utilized from a
variety of sources. Among the major
sources were licensing agencies, labor
unions, professional and trade associa­
tions, and special surveys.
Statistics on employment in nonagricultural establishments provided monthly
data on employment, hours of work,
earnings, and labor turnover, based on
reports for the past quarter-century or
more* from a sample of industrial, com­
mercial, and governmental establish­
ments which employed approximately 31
million workers in March 1969.
Also contributing to the analysis of
future trends was the Bureau’s series of
studies of productivity and technological
development, information obtained in
cooperation with the National Science
Foundation about employment of sci­
entists and engineers in research and
other activities, and the Occupational In­
dustry Matrix. The matrix consists of a
set of tables for 116 industries, each
showing a percentage distribution of
employment among 160 of the most im­
portant occupations. The matrix was
valuable in appraising the effects of
changing employment levels in different
industries, in specific occupations, and in
each occupation.
*See E m p l o y m e n t a n d E a r n in g s , U .S. Depart­
ment of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Conclusions based on an analysis of
these various sources generally show in­
creased employment, but these expected
gains do not indicate the number of job
openings. In most occupations, more
workers are needed yearly to replace
those who retire, die, or leave the occu­
pation than are needed for growth. Con­
sequently, even declining occupations
may offer employment opportunities to
many young people. To estimate the
number of possible openings in an oc­
cupation, the Bureau has developed ta­
bles, similar to the actuarial tables of life
insurance companies, to assess future
rates of replacement from deaths and re­
tirement. In occupations in which men
are predominant, the rate of replacement
for death and retirement is generally be­
tween 1.5 and 2.5 percent compared with
3.5 and 4.5 percent for women because
so many women leave paid employment
for marriage or family responsibilities.
Information so far in this section re­
lates to the demand for workers. To
appraise prospective employment oppor­
tunities in an occupation, information on
the probable future supply of personnel
is important. Statistics on high school
and college enrollments and graduations,
compiled by the U.S. Office of Educa­
tion, are the chief sources of information
on the potential supply of personnel in
the professions and other occupations re­
quiring extensive formal education. Data
on numbers of apprentices from the U.S.
Department of Labor’s Bureau of Ap­
prenticeship and Training provides some
information on new entrants into skilled
trades.
Many of the sources and approaches
referred to earlier have been developed
in recent years. Economic forecasting is
still in the developmental stage and at
best is difficult and uncertain. Basic as­
sumptions and underlying projections
(enumerated on p. 13) should be kept in
mind. Within the framework of assump­
tions, basic employment trends can be
discerned with sufficient accuracy to meet
the needs of young people preparing for
careers.

851




Index to Occupations and Industries

Page

Page

Able seamen, see: Unlicensed merchant seamen 748
Accelerator operators, atomic energy............... 636
Account clerks, see: Bank clerk s..................... 807
Account executives, advertising....................... 32
Account executives, see: Securities salesmen .. 324
Accountants ...................................................... 29
See also: Insurance business..................... 813
Accounting-bookkeeping machine servicemen . 479
Accounting clerks, see: Bookkeeping workers . 285
Acidizers, petroleum and natural g a s ............. 597
Acquisition librarians........................................ 249
Actors and actresses ...................................
181
Actuaries ........................................................... 144
See also: Insurance business..................... 813
Adding machine operators............................... 293
Adding machine servicemen ........................... 479
Adjusters, claim, insurance............................. 816
Administrators, hospital.................................... 131
Adult services librarians.................................... 250
Advertising artists and layout m e n ................. 33
Advertising copywriters .................................... 32
Advertising m anagers........................................ 32
Advertising production managers ................... 32
Advertising w orkers.......................................... 32
Aeronautical engineers, see: Aerospace en­
gineers ........................................................... 67
Aeronautical technicians .................................. 221
Aeronomists, see: Geophysicists....................... 152
Aerospace engineers.......................................... 67
See also: Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
manufacturing ...................................... 607
Agents, see:
Insurance agents and brokers................... 314
Real estate salesmen and b ro k ers........... 319
Agents, air traffic, civil aviation....................... 728
Agricultural cooperativew orkers..................... 591
Agricultural economists.................................. 589
Agricultural engineers ..................................... 68
Agricultural managementspecialists............... 590
Agriculture ......................................................... 579
Agriculture, occupations related to ............... 586
Agriculture teachers, vocational....................... 590
Agronomists ...........................
11
See also: Agriculture............................... 589
Air-conditioning and refrigeration mechanics . 463
See also:
Electronics manufacturing............... 656

Office machine and computer manu­
facturing ........................................ 696
Air-conditioning, heating, and refrigeration
technicians .................................................... 221
Air-conditioning, refrigeration, and heating me­
chanics ........................................................... 463
Air-route traffic controllers, civil aviation . . . . 725
Air traffic controllers, civil aviation............... 725
Air transportation occupations, see: Civil
aviation ........................................................ 713
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manufacturing,
occupations in .............................................. 605
Aircraft mechanics, civil aviation................... 721
See also: Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
manufacturing ...................................... 610
Airframe mechanics, civil aviation................. 722
Airline dispatchers, civil aviation................... 724
Airline traffic agents and clerks, civil aviation . 728
Airplane mechanics, aircraft m echanics........ 721
See also: Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
manufacturing ...................................... 610
Airplane pilots, civil aviation ......................... 713
Airport traffic controllers, civil aviation........ 725
Aluminum industry .......................................... 614
Ampoule examiners, drug industry................... 648
Ampoule fillers, drug industry ....................... 648
Ampoule sealers, drug industry....................... 648
Analysts, chemical, see:
Aluminum industry ................................. 618
Paper and allied products....................... 703
Analysts, system s.............................................. 257
Analysts, investment, see: Insurance business . 813
Analytical chemists, see: Drug industry........ 646
Anatomists ......................................................... 163
Animal physiologists and animal husbandmen,
see: Agriculture ............................................ 589
Annealers, see:
Aluminum industry .................................. 616
Foundry industry..............
661
Announcers, radio and television........ .......... 758
Anode men, aluminum industry..................... 615
Anodizers, electronics manufacturing............. 655
Anthropologists ................................................ 199
Apparel industry, occupations in t h e ............... 621
Appliance servicemen ...................................... 466
Appraisers, real e s ta te ...................................... 319
Arc cutters, see: Welders ............................... 572
Archeologists, see: Anthropologists................. 199




853

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

854
Page

Architects ...........................................................
Architects, landscape........................................
Archivists, see: H istorians...............................
Armament assemblers, aircraft, missiles, and
spacecraft ......................................................
Armed Forcees...................................................
Art directors, see: Commercial artists.............
Artists, see:
Advertising w orkers..................................
Commercial a rtis ts ........ ...........................
Asbestos and insulating w orkers.....................
Assemblers .........................................................
See also:
Apparel industry .............................
Electronics manufacturing...............
Laundry and dry cleaning plants . . .
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing ........................................
Office machine and Computer manu­
facturing ........................................
Assemblers, bench ............................................
Assemblers, floor ..............................................
Assembly inspectors, aircraft, missiles, and
spacecraft .......................................................
Assistant engineers, see: Licensed merchant
marine officers ..............................................
Associate-directors, radio and television........
Astrogeologists ..................................................
Astronomers.......................................................
Astronautical engineers, see: Aerospace en­
gineers ...........................................................
Astrophysicists, see: Astronomers ...................
Atomic energy field, occupations in t h e ...........
Attendants, gasoline service statio n.................
Attendants, hospital ........................................
Attendants, p ark in g ..........................................
Attorneys ..........................................................
Audio-control technicians, radio and television
Audiologists ......................................................
Automatic pin setting machine mechanics . . .
Automatic transmission specialists, see: Auto­
mobile mechanics..........................................
Automobile air-conditioning specialists, see:
Automobile mechanics ................................
Automobile body repairmen ...........................
Automobile-glass mechanics, see: Automobile
mechanics ....................................................
Automobile manufacturing occupations, see:
Motor vehicle and equipment manufacturing
Automobile m echanics......................................




237
244
206
609
849
192
33
192
377
529
623
654
837
689
696
529
529
610
744
754
149
175
67
176
630
630
354
556
246
760
120
475
472
473
469
473
685
471

Page

Automobile painters..........................................
Automobile parts counterm en.........................
Automobile-radiator mechanics, see: Auto­
mobile mechanics..........................................
Automobile salesm en........................................
Automobile service advisors ...........................
Automobile trimmers and installation men . .
Automobile upholsterers ..................................
Auxiliary equipment operators, see: Electronic
computer operating personnel.....................
Auxiliary equipment operators, electric power
Auxiliary nursing workers, see: Hospital at­
tendants .........................................................
Aviation occupations, see: Civil aviation........

530
308
473
310
312
532
532
289
733
354
713

Babysitters, see: Private household workers . . 356
Backtenders, paper and allied products........... 702
Bakers, all ro u n d .....................
641
Baking industry ................................................ 640
Baggers, laundry and dry cleaning................... 837
Bacteriologists, see: Drug industry................... 646
Ballet dancers.................................................... 184
Bank clerks......................................................... 806
Bank managers, b ra n c h .................................... 810
Bank officers .................................................. . 810
Bank tellers ...................................................... 808
Banking occupations ........................................ 805
Bankmen, printing (graphic arts) ................. 517
Bar boys, see: Bartenders.................................. 341
B arb ers............................................................... 332
Barker operators, paper and allied products . . 701
Bartenders ......................................................... 341
See also: Restaurants ............................. 799
Bartender h elpers.............................................. 341
Beater engineers, paper and allied products . . . 701
Beauticians ......................................................... 335
Beauty operators .............................................. 335
Bell captains, hotel .......................................... 829
Bellboys, hotel .................................................. 829
Bellmen and bell captains, h o te l..................... 829
Bench assemblers.............................................. 529
Bench hands, b ak in g ........................................ 641
Bench molders, foundry industry ................... 666
Benchmen, optical mechanics ......................... 540
Bill clerks, see: C ashiers.................................. 286
Billing machine operators.................................. 292
Biochemists ....................................................... 166
See also:
Chem ists............................................ 170
Drug industry.................................... 646

INDEX TO OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRIES

855
Page

Life scientists....................................
Biological aides, see: Food processing tech­
nicians .............................................................
Biological aides ................................................
Biological oceanographers, see:
Life scientists............................................
Oceanographers ........................................
Biologists, see: Drug industry.........................
Biomedical engineers ........................................
Biophysicists ....................................................
Blacksmiths .......................................................
Blockers, printing (graphic arts) ...................
Blowers, iron and s te e l....................................
Boardmen, general, see: Commercial artists . .
Boatswains, see: Unlicensed merchant seamen
Body repairmen, autom obile...........................
Boiler operators, electric power .....................
Boilermakers ....................................................
See also:
Iron and steel industry.....................
Railroad and shop trad e s.................
Boilermaking occupations ...............................
Bookbinders and related w orkers...................
Bookkeepers ....................................................
See also: Bank clerks .............................
Bookkeeping and accounting clerks ...............
See also:
Bank clerks........................................
Bookkeepers......................................
Bookkeeping machine operators, see:
Bank C le rk s..............................................
Office machine operators.........................
Bookkeeping machine servicemen...................
Bookkeeping w orkers........................................
Bookmobile librarians ......................................
Botanists ...........................................................
See also: Drug industry...........................
Bowling-pin-machine mechanics .....................
Box office cashiers ..........................................
Brake mechanics, see: Automobile mechanics .
Brakemen, railroad............................................
Branch bank managers ....................................
Bricklayers .........................................................
See also:
Aluminum in d u stry .........................
Iron and steel industry.....................
Brickmasons.......................................................
Bridge and building workers, railroad...............
Broadcast technicians, radio and television . . .
Broadcasting occupations, radio and television




163
228
220
163
158
646
69
163
535
521
676
192
748
469
733
536
681
775
536
527
285
807
285
807
285
807
292
479
285
250
162
646
475
286
473
771
810
379
618
680
379
779
759
752

Page

Brokers, insurance............................................
Brokers, real estate............................................
Building custodians ..........................................
Building laborers ..............................................
Building tra d e s...................................................
Bulldozer operators, see: Operating engineers .
Bundlers, ap p are l..............................................
Bus boys and girls, restaurant.........................
Bus mechanics ..................................................
Busdrivers, intercity..........................................
Busdrivers, local tra n sit....................................
Bushelmen, apparel ..........................................
Business administration and related professions
Business machine operators.............................
Business machine servicemen .........................
Butlers, see: Private household w orkers...........

314
319
358
388
372
405
623
799
505
436
439
625
29
292
477
357

Cabdrivers .........................................................
Cable splicers, see:
Electric power industry ...........................
Telephone industry....................................
Cable-tool drillers, petroleum and natural gas .
Calculating machine operators .......................
Calculating machine servicemen.....................
Cameramen, printing (graphic arts), see:
Lithographers .....................................
Photoengravers..........................................
Captain, see: Licensed merchant marine officers
Captain, see: Pilots and copilots.....................
Car parkers, parking attendants.......................
Card-to-tape converter operators, see: Elec­
tronics computer operating personnel...........
Career counselors, college................................
Career planning counselors, college.................
Caretakers, see: Private household workers . . .
Carmen, railroad s h o p ......................................
Carpenters .........................................................
See also: Foundries ..................................
Carpet layers, see: Floor covering installers . .
Cartographers, see: Geographers.....................
Casework aides, see: Social service aid es........
Caseworkers, social ..........................................
Cash accounting clerks, see: C ashiers.............
Cash register servicemen..................................
Cashiers .............................................................
Cashiers, see: Parking attendants.....................
Cashiers, restau ran t..........................................
Casting inspectors, foundry industry...............
Casting operators, see: Aluminum industry . . .
Catalogers, see: Librarians................................

442
737
787
596
293
479
525
521
743
715
556
289
239
239
357
775
382
661
394
204
360
267
286
479
286
557
800
661
616
249

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

856
Page

Catholic priests ................................................
Cement finishers ..............................................
Cement masons ................................................
Cementers, petroleum and natural g a s .............
Central office craftsmen, telephone.................
Central office equipment installers, telephone .
Central office operators, telephone.................
Central office repairmen, telephone.................
Central office supervisors, see: Telephone op­
erators ...........................................................
Ceramic engineers ............................................
Certified public accountants.............................
Chainmen, see: Surveyors..................................
Chaplains, see: Clergymen................................
Check encoders, see: Bank c le rk s...................
Check inscribers, see: Bank clerks...................
Check-out clerks, see: C ashiers.......................
Checkers, apparel industry...............................
Checkers, see: D raftsm en..................................
Checkers, motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing .........................................................
Chefs, see: Cooks and chefs ...........................
Chemical analyst, see:
Aluminum industry ..................................
Paper and allied products.........................
Chemical engineers ..........................................
See also:
Aluminum industry .........................
Drug industry....................................
Industrial chemical industry ...........
Paper and allied products industry . .
Petroleum refining...........................
Chemical mixers, see: Photographic laboratory
occupations ..................................................
Chemical oceanographers ...............................
Chemical operators, industrial chem ical........
Chemical technicians ........................................
Chem ists.............................................................
See also:
Aluminum industry...........................
Atomic energy fie ld .........................
Drug industry....................................
Electronics manufacturing...............
Industrial chemical industry.............
Iron and steel industry.....................
Paper and allied products...............
Petroleum refining...........................
Chief cooks, see: Unlicensed merchant seamen .
Chief drillers, petroleum and natural gas . . . .




45
385
385
597
784
786
304
784
304
69
30
270
42
807
807
286
624
226
690
336
618
703
70
618
647
670
703
708
559
158
670
221
169
618
635
646
652
670
681
702
708
749
596

Page

Chief engineers, see: Licensed merchant marine
officers ...........................................................
Chief engineers, radio and television...............
Chief mates, see: Licensed merchant marine
officers ...........................................................
Chief mechanics, aircraft, missile, and space­
craft ...............................................................
Chief stewards, see: Unlicensed merchant sea­
men ...............................................................
Child psychologists............................................
Child welfare workers, see: Social workers . .
Children’s librarians..........................................
Chippers, foundry industry................................
Chippermen, paper and allied products...........
Chiropodists, see: Podiatrists............................
Chiropractors .....................................................
Choreographers, see: D an cers..........................
Christmas club bookkeepers, see: Bank clerks .
Christmas club tellers, see: Bank tellers...........
Cindermen, iron and s te e l................................
City managers.....................................................
City planners .....................................................
Civil aviation occupations..................................
Civil engineering technicians...........................
Civil engineers ...................................................
See also: Iron and steel industry...............
Civil service workers, Federal Government . . .
Civil service workers, State and local govern­
ment ...............................................................
Civilian government, F ed eral...........................
Claim adjusters, insurance................................
Claim examiners, insurance..............................
See also: Insurance business...................
Claim representatives, insurance.....................
.......
Claim reviewers, insurance
Claim workers, insurance ................................
Claims clerks, see: Truckingindustry................
Cleaners, see: Building custodians...................
Clergymen .........................................................
Clerical and related occupations.....................
Clerk-typists .......................................................
Clerks, see:
Account clerks, bank clerk s.....................
Accounting clerks, bookkeeping workers .
Airline traffic agents and clerks, civil
aviation ................................................
Bank clerks.................................................
Bill clerks, cashiers....................................
Bookkeeping and accounting clerk s.........
Cash accounting clerks, cashiers.............

744
755
744
610
749
262
267
249
661
701
110
Ill
184
806
809
676
277
272
713
222
71
681
841
847
847
816
819
813
819
819
819
793
358
42
283
303
807
285
728
806
286
285
286

INDEX TO OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRIES

857
Page

Page

Check-out clerks, cashiers.......................
Claim clerks, trucking industry.........................
Clerk-typists ..............................................
Commodity loan clerks, bank clerks . . . .
Control clerks, bank c le rk s.....................
Counter clerks, laundry and drycleaning .
County collection clerks, bank clerks . . . .
Disbursement clerks, cashiers...................
Exchange clerks, see: Bank clerk s..........
Floor clerks and supervisors, h o te l..........
Interest clerks, bank c le rk s.....................
Law clerks, law yers.................................
Mail clerks, post office.............................
Manifest clerks, trucking industry...........
Mortgage clerks, bank clerks .................
Mortgage clerks, typists...........................
Parts-order clerks, trucking industry . . . .
Postal clerk s..............................................
Rack clerks, h o te l......................................
Railroad clerks..........................................
Rate clerks, trucking industry...................
Receiving clerks, shipping and receiving
clerks ....................................................
Reconcilement clerks, bank clerk s..........
Recording clerks, bank c le rk s.................
Reservation agents and clerks, civil avia­
tion .........................................................
Reservation clerks, h o te l.........................
Room and desk clerks, h o te l...................
Sales clerks, retail tra d e .............................
Shipping and receiving clerks...................
Stock clerks ..............................................
Stock clerks, motor vehicle and equipment
manufacturing ......................................
Traffic agents and clerks, civil aviation . .
Transit clerks, bank clerks .....................
Trust investment clerks, bank clerks . . . .
Waybill clerks, typists...............................
Climatologists, see: Meteorologists...................
Clinical laboratory w orkers.............................
Clinical psychologists........................................
Clothing industry occupations, see: Apparel in­
dustry .............................................................
Coil winders, electronics manufacturing........
Coder operators, aluminum industry...............
Collar pointers, ap p arel....................................
College and university teachers.......................
College career planning and placement coun­
selors .............................................................
College librarians..............................................




286
793
303
807
807
835
807
286
807
831
807
247
846
793
807
303
793
846
831
774
793
296
807
807
728
831
830
321
296
298
690
728
807
807
303
154
122
262
621
655
616
625
216
239
250

College placement officers................................
Color technicians, see: Photographic laboratory
occupations ..................................................
Commercial account underwriters...................
Commercial a rtists............................................
Commercial photographers...............................
Commercial tellers, banking.............................
Commodity loan clerks, see: Bank clerks........
Companions, see: Private household workers . .
Composing room occupations, printing (graphic
arts) ...............................................................
Composition roofers..........................................
Compositors, hand, printing (graphic arts) . .
Compounders, see: Drug industry...................
Compressors, see: Drug industry.....................
Compressor-station engineers, petroleum and
natural gas ....................................................
Compressor-station operators, petroleum and
natural gas ....................................................
Computer geologists..........................................
Computer manufacturing..................................
Computer operators, see: Electronic computer
operating personnel ......................................
Computer programers, see: Paper and allied
products industry..........................................
Computers prospecting, petroleum and natural
gas .................................................................
Computer salesmen, office machine and com­
puter manufacturing......................................
Concrete finishers ............................................
Conductors, railroad ...................................... .
Conservation occupations..................................
Conservationists, range, see: Range managers .
Conservationists, s o i l ........................................
Console operators, see: Electronic computer
operating personnel ......................................
Construction...............................
Construction electricians ..................................
Construction laborers and hod carriers .........
Construction machinery operators, see: Op­
erating engineers............................................
Consulting engineers, see: Architects...............
Continuity directors, radio and television . . . .
Continuity writers, radio and television...........
Control clerks, see: Bank clerk s.......................
Control room operators, electric p o w e r........
Converter operators, see: Electronic computer
operating personnel ......................................
Cooks/bakers, see: Unlicensed merchant seamen
Cooks, see: Private household w orkers...........

239
558
822
192
255
809
807
357
517
416
517
647
647
597
597
149
694
288
703
595
696
385
770
48
52
588
289
601
390
388
504
237
754
754
807
734
289
749
356

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

858
Page

Cooks and ch efs................................................
Cooks’ helpers, see: Private household workers
Cooperative extension service home economists
Cooperative extension service w orkers..........
Copilots, civil aviation......................................
Copying machine servicemen...........................
Copywriters, advertising....................................
Core assemblers, foundry industry .................
Coremakers, foundry ........................................
Core-oven tenders, foundry industry .............
Coremakers, see: Motor vehicle and equipment
manufacturing ..............................................
Coresetters, foundry industry...........................
Corn and wheat farm ers....................................
Correspondent bank officers, banking.............
Corrugator operators, paper and allied products
Cosmetologists ..................................................
Cotton farm ers..................................................
Counseling .........................................................
Counseling psychologists, see: Psychologists . .
See also: Rehabilitation counselors........
Counselers, see:
Employment counselers...........................
Rehabilitation counselers.........................
School counselers ....................................
Counter attendants, restaurant.........................
Counter clerks, laundry and drycleaning........
Counters, paper and allied products...............
Country collection clerks, see: Bank clerks . . .
County extension workers, agricultural...........
County home economics agents.......................
Court reporters ................................................
Craftsmen, foreman, and kindred workers . . .
Crane operators, see:
Foundry industry ......................................
Motor vehicle and equipment manufac­
turing ....................................................
Operating engineers ..................................
Trucking industry......................................
Cranemen, see: Forge shop occupations........
Credit cashiers, see: Cashiers...........................
Crew chiefs, aircraft, missile, and spacecraft . .
Crop specialty farm ers......................................
Crystal finishers, electronics manufacturing . . .
Crystal grinders, electronics manufacturing . . .
Cultural anthropologists....................................
Custodians, building ........................................
Customer service occupations, electric power .
Customers’ brokers, see: Securities salesmen . .
Cutters, apparel ................................................




336
357
242
586
715
480
32
661
667
661
689
661
584
810
702
335
584
55
262
58
55
58
60
799
835
702
807
586
586
300
365
661
690
405
793
446
286
610
585
655
655
199
358
739
324
623

Page

Cutters, fur, apparel..........................................
Cutters, m e a t.....................................................
Cutters, motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing .........................................................
Cutting room occupations, a p p are l.................

625
552
689
622

Dairy farm ers..................................................... 582
Dampproof workers, see: R o o fer..................... 417
Dancers ............................................................... 184
Dark-room technicians, see: Photographic lab­
oratory occupations ........................................ 558
Data-processing equipment servicemen........... 480
Data typists, see: T ypists................................... 303
See also: Electronic computer operators . 288
Deck-engine mechanics, see: Unlicensed mer­
chant seam en .................................................. 749
Deck officers, see: Licensed merchant marine
officers ..........................................
Deck utilitymen, see: Unlicensed merchant sea­
men ................................................................. 748
Decontamination men, atomic en erg y .............. 636
Decorators, interior designers and ................... 196
Dehydration-plant operators, petroleum and
natural g a s ...................................................... 597
Deliverymen, see: R outem en........................... 434
Dental assistants................................................... 87
Dental hygienists ................................................. 85
Dental laboratory technicians.............................. 89
Dentists ................................................................ 82
Derrick operators, see: Operating engineers . . . 405
Derrickmen, petroleum and natural g a s ........... 596
Derrickmen, see: Stonemasons ......................... 421
Designers, apparel .............................................. 621
Designers, industrial............................................ 194
Designers, interior .............................................. 196
Designers, scenic, television............................... 754
See also: Interior designers and decorators 196
Designers, tool and machine, see: Mechanical
technicians .....................................
Designing room occupations, apparel................ 621
Desk adjusters, claim exam iners....................... 819
Detail men, see: Pharmacists....................... .. . 107
Detailers, see: Draftsmen ................................. 226
Detectives, p o lic e ................................................ 347
Developers, see: Photographic laboratory oc­
cupations ........................................................ 558
Development engineers, radio and television . . 755
Developmental psychologists ............................. 262
Dictating-machine servicemen........................... 480

INDEX TO OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRIES

859
Page

Page

Die makers, see:
Aluminum industry....................................
Electronics manufacturing.......................
Paper and allied products.......................
Die makers, tool-and........................................
See also listing under Tool-and-die makers.
Die sinkers, forge s h o p ....................................
Diesel mechanics ..............................................
Dietitians ...........................................................
See also: Restaurant industry...................
Digester operators, paper and allied products .
Directors, art, see: Commercial artists.............
Directors, education, radio and television . . . .
Directors, program, radio and television........
Directors, public affairs, radio and television .
Directory assistance operators.........................
Disbursement clerks, see: C ashiers.................
Disc jockeys, radio and television...................
Discount bookkeepers, see: Bank clerks...........
Discount tellers, banking..................................
Dispatchers, see:
Civil aviation ............................................
Trucking industry......................................
Dispensing opticians and optical mechanics . . .
See also: Optometrists................................
District representatives, electric pow er.............
Dividermen, baking industry...........................
Doctors, medical ..............................................
Domestic workers, see: Private household
workers .........................................................
Dough molders, b a k in g ....................................
Draftsmen .........................................................
See also:
Aluminum industry...........................
Electronics manufacturing...............
Iron and steel industry................
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing . . . ..................................
Petroleum and natural gas production
and processing ...........................
Petroleum refining...........................
Drama teachers, see: Actors and actresses . . .
Dressmakers, ap p arel........................................
Driver-salesmen, see:
Baking industry ........................................
R outem en..................................................
Drivers, intercity b u ses......................................
Drivers, local transit b u ses................................
Drivers, local tru ck s..........................................




618
655
702
456
447
483
129
800
701
192
754
754
754
304
286
758
807
809
724
793
539
104
739
640
77
356
640
226
618
653
681
687
595
709
182
625
642
434
436
439
431

Drivers, over-the-road tru c k s............................. 427
Drivers, t a x i ........................................................ 442
Driving occupations............................................ 427
Drug industry, occupations in the ................. 645
Druggists ........................................................... 107
Drycleaners, laundry and drycleaning................ 836
Drycleaning p la n ts .............................................. 835
Drycleaning routemen......................................... 434
Duplicating and copying machine servicemen . 480
Duplicating machine operators ......................... 293
Dynamic meteorologists .....................................154
Earth-boring machine operators, see: Operating
engineers ........................................................
Ecologists, see: Life scientists.........................
Economic geographers.......................................
Economic geologists..........................................
Econom ists..........................................................
Economists, agricultural.....................................
Editors, film, television.......................................
Education directors, radio and television . . . .
EEG technicians ..............................................
EKG technicians ..............................................
Electric power linem en.......................................
Electric power industry, occupations in the . . .
Electric sign servicemen....................................
Electrical appliance servicemen.......................
Electrical assemblers, aircraft, missile, and
spacecraft ........................................................
Electrical engineers ..........................................
See also:
Aluminum industry.............................
Electronics manufacturing................
Industrial chemical industry ............
Iron and steel industry.......................
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing .........................................
Paper and allied products industry . .
Electrical repairmen, maintenance electricians .
Electrical repairmen, see: Iron and steel industry
Electrical workers, see: Shop trades, railroads .
Electricians, construction..................................
Electricians, maintenance..................................
See also listing under Maintenance elec­
tricians.
Electrocardiographic technicians .....................
Electroencephalographic technicians ...............
Electronic assembly inspectors, see:
Electronics manufacturing.......................

405
163
203
148
201
589
755
754
99
100
737
730
486
466
610
71
618
652
671
681
687
703
495
681
775
390
495

100
99
656

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

860
Page

Office machine and computing manufac­
turing ....................................................
Electronic computer operating personnel . . . .
Electronic computer program ers.....................
Electronic reader-sorter operators, see: Bank
clerks .............................................................
Electronic specialists, see: Oceanographers . . .
Electronics checkout men, aircraft, missile,
and spacecraft ..............................................
Electronics engineers, see: Electronics manufac­
turing .............................................................
Electronics manufacturing occupations..........
Electronics mechanics, aluminum.....................
Electronics repairmen, iron and steel...............
Electronics subassembly inspectors, office ma­
chine and computer manufacturing.............
Electronics technicians......................................
See also:
Electronics manufacturing...............
Office machine and computer manu­
facturing ........................................
Electroplaters .....................................................
See also: Electronics manufacturing . . . .
Electro typers and stereotypers, printing (graphic
arts) ...............................................................
Elementary school teachers.............................
Elevator constructors........................................
Elevator mechanics ..........................................
Embossing machine operators.........................
Embryologists....................................................
Employment aides, see: Social service aides . . .
Employment counselors....................................
Endodontic, see: D entists..................................
Engine mechanics, aircraft, missile, and space­
craft ...............................................................
Engineer aides, petroleum and natural gas . . .
Engineering .......................................................
Engineering aides, see: Electronics manufactur­
ing .................................................................
Engineering and science technicians...............
Engineering geologists ......................................
Engineering psychologists, see: Psychologists . .
Engineering technicians......................................
Engineers, see:
Aeronautical engineers.............................
Aerospace engineers..................................
Agricultural engineers .............................
Astronautical engineers .............................
Biomedical engineers ...............................
Ceramic engineers ....................................




697
288
259
807
158
610
652
651
618
681
697
222
653
696
542
655
522
211
393
393
293
163
361
55
82
610
597
63
653
220
148
262
618
67
67
68
67
69
69

Page

Chemical engineers.................................... 70
Civil engineers .......................................... 71
Electrical engineers .................................... 71
Electronics engineers ................................ 652
Industrial engineers .................................. 73
Mechanical engineers................................ 73
Metallurgical engineers.............................. 74
Mining engineers ...................................... 75
Oceanographic engineers ......................... 158
Petroleum engineers, petroleum and nat­
ural g a s ................................................... 595
Engineers, compressor-station, petroleum and
natural gas ..................................................... 597
Engineers, development, radio and television . 755
Engineers, flight, civil av iatio n....................... 718
Engineers, insurance.......................................... 813
767
Engineers, locomotive ..........
Engineers, operating, building trades ............. 405
Engineers, packaging, paper and allied products 703
Engineers, petroleum ........................................ 595
Engineers, stationary ........................................ 565
Enginemen, petroleum and natural g a s ........... 596
Entomologists.................................................... 163
See also: Agriculture.................................. 590
Envelope-machine operators, paper and allied
products ......................................................... 702
Environmental sciences .................................... 147
Etchers, printing (graphic arts) ..................... 521
Etching equipment operators, electronics manu­
facturing ......................................................... 655
Ethnologists, see: Anthropologists................... 199
Exchange clerks, see: Bank clerk s................... 807
Exhaust operators, electronics manufacturing . 655
Experimental machinists, see: Instrument mak­
ers (mechanical) .......................................... 458
Experimental physicists .................................... 173
Experimental psychologists ............................. 262
Exploration geophysicists.................................. 151
Extension service w orkers............................... 586
Extras, see: Actors and actresses................... 181
Extrusion press operators, aluminum industry 617
Fabrication inspectors, aircraft, missile, and
spacecraft ....................................................... 610
Family service workers,see: Social workers . . 267
Farm equipment mechanics............................. 489
Farm housekeepers, see: Private household
w orkers........................................................... 356
Farm managers................................................... 590

INDEX TO OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRIES

861
Page

Farm service jobs ............................................ 592
Farmers, see: Agriculture ............................... 579
Fashion models.................................................. 362
FBI Special Agents .......................................... 345
Federal civilian government............................. 841
Federal Government occupations..................... 841
Field technicians, radio and television............. 760
File clerks........................................................... 291
Film editors, television .................................... 755
Film librarians, television ............................... 755
Film numberers, see: Photographic laboratory
technicians .................................................... 558
Film strippers, see: Photographic laboratory
technicians .................................................... 559
Finance, insurance, and real e sta te ................. 803
Finishers, flatwork, laundry anddrycleaning . 835
Finishers, men’s suit, laundry anddrycleaning . 836
Finishers, shirt, laundry and drycleaning . . . . 835
Finishers, fur, ap p arel...................................... 625
Finishers, optical mechanics............................. 540
Finishers, printing (graphic a r t s ) ..................... 521
Firefighters ........................................................ 352
Firemen, see: Firefighters.................................. 352
Firemen (helpers), railroad............................. 768
Firemen, stationary (boiler) ........................... 567
Firemen/watertenders, see: Unlicensed mer­
chant seamen ................................................ 748
Firers, hydrogen furnace, electronics manufac­
turing ............................................................. 655
Fitters, apparel ................................................ 623
Fitup men, boilermaking occupations ........... 537
Flagmen, railroad ............................................ 771
Flame cutters, see: W elders............................. 572
Flatwork finishers, laundry and drycleaning . . 835
Flight attendants, civil aviation....................... 720
Flight engineers, civil aviation ....................... 718
Flight service station specialists, civil aviation . 727
Flight superintendents, see: Airline dispatchers,
civil aviation ................................................ 724
Floor assemblers................................................ 529
Floor clerks and supervisors, h o te l................. 831
Floor coremakers, foundry............................... 667
Floor covering installers.................................... 394
Floor covering mechanics.................................. 394
Floor layers, see: Floor covering installers . .. 394
Floor managers, radio and television............... 754
Floor molders, foundry industry..................... 666
Floormen, television.......................................... 754
Food checkers, restaurant.................................. 800
Food processing technicians ........................... 228




Page

Food scientists ..................................................
Foreign exchange tellers, banking...................
F o rem en .............................................................
Foresters ...........................................................
See also:
A griculture........................................
Paper and allied products.................
Forestry aids ....................................................
Forestry technicians, see: Forestry a id s ...........
Forge shop occupations....................................
Forklift truck operators, see:
Electronics manufacturing.......................
Office machine and computer manufactur­
ing ...........................................................
Power truck operators.............................
Foundry industry ..............................................
Framemen, telephone central office craftsmen .
Free-lance artists, see: Commercial artists . . . .
Free-lance photographers, see:
Models ...........................................
Photographers ..........................................
Front-end mechanics, see: Automobile mechan­
ics ...................................................................
Front office clerks, h o te l....................................
Fur cutters, ap p are l..........................................
Fur finishers, ap p arel........................................
Fur machine operators, app arel................
Fur nailers, ap p arel..........................................
Fur shop occupations, apparel.........................
Furnace installers (heating mechanics) ........
Furnace operators, foundry.............................
Furniture upholsterers ......................................
Gagers, petroleum and natural g a s .................
Garage mechanics, see: Automobile mechanics
Gas appliance servicemen................................
See also: Air-conditioning, refrigeration,
and heating mechanics .......................
Gas burner m echanics......................................
Gas fitters, see: Plumbers and pipefitters . . . .
Gas welders .......................................................
Gas-compressor operators, petroleum and nat­
ural g a s ...........................................................
Gasoline-plant engineers, petroleum and nat­
ural g a s ...........................................................
Gasoline-plant operators, petroleum and natural
gas .................................................................
Gasoline service station attendants.................
Gasoline station salesmen..................................
Gasoline station servicemen ............................

178
809
370
48
580
703
50
50
445
656
697
560
660
784
192
362
255
473
830
625
625
625
625
625
464
661
544
597
471
464
464
464
413
572
597
597
597
546
546
546

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

862
Page

General boardmen, see: Commercial artists . .
General bookkeepers ........................................
General maids, see: Private household workers
General practitioners, see: Physicians...............
Geneticists .........................................................
See also: A griculture................................
Geochemists, see: Geologists...........................
Geochronologists, see: Geologists ...................
Geodesists, see: Geophysicists.........................
Geodetic surveyors ..........................................
Geographers .......................................................
Geological oceanographers................................
See also: Oceanographers.........................
Geologists...........................................................
See also: Petroleum and natural gas pro­
duction and processing.........................
Geomagneticians, see: Geophysicists...............
Geomorphologists, see: Geologists...................
Geophysicists ....................................................
See also: Petroleum and natural gas pro­
duction and processing.........................
Glass blowers, electronics manufacturing . . . .
Glass lathe operators, electronics manufacturing
Glaziers .............................................................
Governesses, see: Private household workers .
Government occupations, F ed eral...................
See also: Post office ................................
Government occupations, State and local . . . .
Government, occupations in ...........................
Grain farmers, see: Corn and wheat farmers . .
Granulator-machine operators, see: Drug in­
dustry ................. . ........................................
Grid lathe operators, electronics manufacturing
Grinders, forge s h o p .............................
Grocery checkers, see: Cashiers.......................
Ground radio operators and teletypists, civil
aviation...........................................................
Ground water geologists....................................
Groundmen, electric pow er...............................
Guards and watchm en......................................
Guidance counselors..........................................
Hairdressers .......................................................
Hairstylists, see: B arbers........ ...........................
Hammermen, see:
Forge s h o p ................................................
Motor vehicle and equipment manufactur­
ing .........................................................
Hammersmiths, forge s h o p ................
Hand compositors, printing (graphic arts) . . .




Page

192
285
356
78
163
589
148
149
151
270
203
149
158
147

Hand icers, b ak in g ....................................... 642
Hand molders, foundry industry................... 661
Hand sewers, apparel................................... 624
Hand spreaders, apparel............................... 623
Handymen, see: Private household workers . . . 357
Health insurance ag en ts........ ........................... 314
Health physicists, atomic energy.................. 635
Health physics technicians, atomic energy . . . 635
Health service occupations........................... 77
Heat treaters, see:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manufac­
turing ..................................................... 609
Forge s h o p ............................................ 447
Foundry in d u stry................................. 661
Heaters, see:
Forge s h o p ............................................ 446
Iron and steel industry......................... 668
Heating mechanics....................................... 464
Heavy equipment mechanics, see: Operating en­
gineers ........................................................... 405
Helpers, baking ........................................ ] . . . 641
Helpers, iron and steel .................................... 674
High school teachers ........................................ 214
High speed printer operators, see: Electronic
computer operating personnel.................. 289
Highway patrolmen, see: State police officers . 349
Highway surveyors....................................... 270
Historians ........................................................... 206
Hod carriers.................................................. 388
See also:
Bricklayers ........................................ 380
Plasterers .......................................... 411
Home economists.......................................... 241
Home housekeepers, see: Private household
w orkers...................................................... 356
Horticulturists ................................................... 163
Hospital administrators .................................... 131
Hospital attendants .......................................... 354
Hospital nurses ................................................ 92
Hospital recreation w orkers......................... 264
Hot-cell technicians, atomic energy............ 636
Hot metal cranemen, see: Aluminum industry . 615
Hotel managers ................................................ 833
Hotel occupations.......................................... 827
Household workers, see: Private household
workers ......................................................... 356
Housekeepers, see: Private household workers . 356
Housekeepers and assistants, h o te l............ 832
Housemen, see: Private household workers . . . 357
Human nutritionists, see: Agriculture........ 590

594
152
149
151
595
655
655
397
357
841
846
847
839
584
647
655
447
286
727
149
737
343
60
335
333
446
689
446
517

INDEX TO OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRIES

863
Page

Husbandry specialists (animal) ....................... 163
Hydrogen furnace firers, electronics manufac­
turing ............................................................. 655
Hydrologists, see: Geophysicists....................... 152
Hygienists, d e n ta l.............................................. 85
Icing mixers, baking.......................................... 642
Illustrators, see: Commercial artists................. 192
Independent adjusters........................................ 817
Industrial chemical industry, occupations in the 669
Industrial designers ............................................. 194
See also: Electronics manufacturing . . . . 652
Industrial engineers ............
73
See also:
Aluminum industry ......................... 618
Apparel industry ............................. 625
Drug industry.................................... 647
Electronics manufacturing............... 652
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing ........................................ 687
Industrial machinery repairmen ..................... 491
Industrial meteorologists ................................. 154
Industrial n urses................................................ 92
Industrial photographers ................................. 255
Industrial psychologists...................................... 262
Industrial recreation w orkers................
264
Industrial salesmen............................................ 317
Industrial technicians........................................ 222
Industrial traffic m anagers............................... 279
Infants’ nurses, see: Private household workers 356
Informal models .............................................. 362
Infrared oven operators, electronics manufac­
turing ............................................................. 655
Ingot strippers, iron and s te e l......................... 677
Inhalation therapists.......................................... 102
Inside adjusters, claim exam iners................... 819
Inspectors, laundry and drycleaning................. 836
Inspectors (manufacturing) ............................. 548
See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
manufacturing............................... 610
Apparel industry............................... 624
Electronics manufacturing............... 655
Forge s h o p ........................................ 446
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing ........................................ 689
Paper and allied products industry . . 703
Installation men, see: Automobile trimmers
(automobile upholsterers) ........................... 533




Page

Installers and repairmen, telephone and PBX .
Installers, floor covering ..................................
Installers, telephone central office equipment . .
Instrument makers (m echanical).....................
Instrument men, see: Instrument repairmen . .
Instrument repairm en........................................
See also:
Drug industry....................................
Industrial chemical industry.............
Paper and allied products industry . .
Petroleum and natural gas production
and processing.............................
Instrument technicians, see: Mechanical tech­
nicians ............................................................
Instrumentmen, see: Surveyors.........................
Insulating workers ............................................
Insurance agents and brokers...........................
Insurance business, occupations in t h e ...........
Insurance salesmen, underwriters.....................
Intercity busdrivers............................................
Intercity truckdrivers ........................................
Interest-accrual bookkeepers, see: Bank clerks
Interest clerks, see: Bank clerks................
Interior designers and decorators.....................
International officers, banking ..........................
Intertype machine operators, printing (graphic
arts) ...............................................................
Interviewers, marketing research.....................
Investigators, F B I ..............................................
Investment analysts, see: Insurance business .
Iron and steel industry, occupations in the . . . .
Iron workers, building trad e s...........................

790
394
786
458
492
492
648
670
702
597
223
270
377
314
812
821
436
427
807
807
196
810
518
35
345
813
674
423

Janitors, see:
Building custodians ..................................
Restaurant industry ..................................
Jewelers and jewelry repairm en.......................
Jig and fixture builders, aircraft, missile, and
spacecraft ......................................................

608

Keepers, iron and ste e l......................................
Keypunch operators..........................................
Kindergarten teachers ......................
Kitchen workers, restaurant.............................

676
288
211
799

358
799
549

Laboratory assurance technicians, see: Food
processing technicians.................................... 228
Laboratory analysts, see: Food processing tech­
nicians ............................................................. 228

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

864
Page

Laboratory technicians......................................
See also:
Aluminum industry...........................
Drug industry....................................
Electronics manufacturing...............
Industrial chemical industry.............
Iron and steel industry.....................
Petroleum refining ...........................
Paper and allied products industry . .
Laboratory technicians, d en tal.........................
Laboratory technicians, o p tic a l.......................
Laborers and hod carriers, building trades . . .
Ladle cranemen, iron and steel.........................
Land surveyors..................................................
Landmen, petroleum and natural g a s ...............
Landscape architects ........................................
Larrymen, iron and steel....................................
Lathers ...............................................................
Laundresses, see: Private household workers . .
Law clerks, see: Law yers..................................
Laundry and drycleaning p la n ts.......................
Lawyers .............................................................
See also: Insurance....................................
Layout artists, see: Commercial artists..........
Layout men, advertising....................................
See also: Commercial a rtists...................
Layout men, Boilermaking occupations...........
Leasemen, petroleum and natural g a s .............
Lens grinders, see: Optical mechanics...............
Letterers, see: Commercial a rtists...................
Librarians...........................................................
Librarians, medical re c o rd ...............................
Librarians, tape, see: Electronic computer op­
erating personnel ..........................................
Librarians, television film ...............................
Library technicians ..........................................
Licensed merchant marine officers...................
Licensed practical n u rses..................................
Licensed vocational nurses................................
Life insurance agen ts........................................
Life sciences......................................................
Life scientists....................................................
Lighting technicians, television.......................
Line-haul truckdrivers ......................................
Line maintenance mechanics, civil aviation . .
Linemen, see:
Electric power industry.............................
Telephone industry....................................
Linemen and cable splicers, telephone.............
Linotype operators, printing (graphic arts) ..




220
618
647
653
671
681
708
703
89
539
388
677
270
595
244
676
399
356
247
835
246
813
192
33
192
537
595
540
192
248
127
289
755
253
743
94
94
314
161
161
760
427
722
737
787
787
518

Page

Lithographic artists, printing (graphic arts) ..
Lithographic occupations, printing (graphic
arts) ...............................................................
Livestock farm ers..............................................
Load dispatchers, electric p o w e r.....................
Loan officers, banking......................................
Local government occupations.........................
Local transit busdrivers....................................
Local truckdrivers, see:
Driving occupations..................................
Trucking industry......................................
Locomotive engineers, railro ad .......................
See also: Iron and steel industry.............
Locomotive firemen (helpers), railroad...........
Long distance operators, telephone...................
Long-haul truckdrivers......................................
Lubrication men, see: Trucking industry . . . .

525

Machine coremakers, foundry.........................
Machine designers, see: Mechanical technicians
Machine icers, baking ......................................
Machine molders, see:
Foundry in d u stry ......................................
Motor vehicle and equipment manufactur­
ing ...........................................................
Machine movers, see: Riggers and movers . ..
Machine spreaders, ap p are l.............................
Machine tool operators......................................
See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
manufacturing ..............................
Electronics manufacturing...............
Foundry industry..............................
Iron and steel industry.....................
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing ........................................
Office machine and computer manu­
facturing ........................................
Machined parts inspectors, see:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft...............
Office machine and computer manufactur­
ing .........................................................
Machinery repairmen, industrial.....................
Machining occupations......................................
See also: Motor vehicle and equipment
manufacturing ......................................
Machinists, all-round........................................
See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
manufacturing ..............................

667
222
642

525
583
736
810
847
439
431
793
767
681
768
304
427
793

665
689
424
623
454
608
655
661
680
688
696
610
696
491
449
688
452

608

INDEX TO OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRIES

865
Page

Baking industry ...............................
Drug industry....................................
Electronics manufacturing...............
Foundry industry.............................
Instrument makers (mechanical) . . .
Iron and steel industry.....................
Office machine and computer manu­
facturing ........................................
Railroad shop tra d e s.......................
Maids, see: Private household w orkers...........
Mail clerks, post office......................................
Mail preparing and mail handling machine op­
erators, office machine operators ...............
Mailing equipment servicemen.........................
Mailmen, post office..........................................
Maintenance electricians ..................................
See also:
Aluminum industry...........................
Baking industry ................................
Drug industry....................................
Electronics manufacturing...............
Industrial chemicals industry...........
Iron and steel industry.....................
Paper and allied products industry . .
Petroleum and natural gas production
and processing.............................
Railroad shop tra d e s .......................
Maintenance machinists, see:
Aluminum industry ..................................
Electronics manufacturing.......................
Industrial chemicals industry...................
Office machine and computer manufactur­
ing ...........................................................
Paper and allied products industry..........
Maintenance mechanics, see: Industrial ma­
chinery repairmen ........................................
Maintenance technicians, radio and television .
Maintenance welders, see: Electronics manufac­
turing .............................................................
Makeup artists, television ...............................
Makeup men, printing (graphic arts) ...........
Managerial occupations....................................
Managers, branch b a n k ....................................
Managers, city ..................................................
Managers, industrial traffic...............................
Managers, ra n g e ................................................
Managers, restaurant ........................................
Managers, sales, see: Radio and television
broadcasting ..................................................
Managers and assistants, hotel .......................




Page

643
648
655
661
458
680

Manifest clerks, see: Trucking industry........... 793
Manipulator operators, iron and steel............... 679
Manufacturers’ salesmen .................................. 317
Manufacturing .................................................. 603
Marble setters, tile setters, and terrazzo workers 401
Marine biologists, see: Oceanographers........... 158
Marine geologists, see: Oceanographers........... 158
Marine meteorologists, see: Oceanographers . 158
Markers, apparel .............................................. 623
Markers, laundry and drycleaning................... 835
Marketing research w orkers............................. 34
Masons, b ric k .................................................... 379
Masons, cement andconcrete............................. 385
Masons, stone
............................................... 421
Master, see: Licensed merchant marine officers 743
Material handlers,ap p arel................................. 624
Materials handlers, see:
Motor vehicle and equipment manufactur­
ing ......................................................... 690
Trucking industry...................................... 793
Mates, see: Licensed merchant marine officers . 743
Mathematical assistants, electronics manufactur­
ing ................................................................. 653
Mathematical statisticians.................................. 139
See also: Statisticians ............................. 142
Mathematicians ................................................ 139
See also:
Electronics manufacturing............... 652
Office machine and computer manu­
facturing ........................................ 695
Statisticians........................................ 142
Mathematics and related fields ....................... 139
Meat cu tters....................................................... 552
Mechanical engineers ........................................ 73
See also:
Aluminum industry ......................... 618
Electronics manufacturing............... 652
Industrial chemical industry............. 671
Iron and steel industry..................... 681
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing ........................................ 687
Office machine and computer manu­
facturing ........................................ 695
Paper and allied products industry . . 703
Mechanical technicians...................................... 222
Mechanic-attendants, see: Gasoline service sta­
tion attendants.............................................. 546
Mechanics, see:
Air-conditioning mechanics ..................... 463

696
775
356
846
293
481
846
495
618
643
648
656
670
681
702
597
775
618
656
670
697
702
491
760
656
754
517
275
810
277
279
52
799
756
823

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

866
Page

Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manufac­
turing .................................................... 610
Aircraft mechanics.................................... 721
Automobile mechanics .............................. 471
Bowling-pin-machine mechanics............... 475
Bus mechanics .......................................... 505
Diesel mechanics ...................................... 483
Dispensing opticians and optical mechanics 539
Farm equipment mechanics..................... 489
Gas burner m echanics............................. 464
Heating m echanics.................................... 464
Motorcycle mechanics ............................. 499
Oil burner mechanics............................... 464
Refrigeration mechanics........................... 463
Truck mechanics ...................................... 505
Vending machine mechanics..................... 507
See also listing under Servicemen and
Repairmen.
Mechanics and repairmen................................. 462
Media directors, advertising ........................... 32
Medical assistants ............................................ 95
Medical laboratory assistants........................... 122
Medical laboratory technicians ....................... 122
Medical laboratory w orkers............................. 122
Medical record librarians ............................... 127
Medical sales representatives,see: Pharmacists 107
Medical social workers ......................................267
Medical technologists........................................ 122
Medical X-ray technicians............................... 126
Melters, see:
Foundry industry...................................... 661
Iron and steel industry ........................... 677
Motor vehicle and equipment manufac­
turing .................................................... 689
Men’s suit finishers, laundry and drycleaning . . 836
Mental health occupations, see:
Nurses ...................................................... 94
Physicians (psychiatrists).......... .............. 77
Psychiatric aides (hospital attendants) . .. 354
Psychologists ............................................ 261
Social workers .......................................... 266
Merchant marine occupations ......................... 741
Merchant marine officers, licensed................. 743
Messmen, see: Unlicensed merchant seamen . 749
Metal finishers, motor vehicle and equipment
manufacturing .............................................. 689
Metal patternmakers, foundry industry........... 663
Metal roofers .................................................... 416




Page

Metallurgical engineers......................................
See also:
Drug industry....................................
Iron and steel industry.....................
Metallurgists, see:
Aluminum industry ..................................
Electronics manufacturing.......................
Iron and steel in d u stry ...........................
Motor vehicle and equipment manufactur­
ing .........................................................
Meteorological instrumentation specialists . . . .
Meteorologists ..................................................
Meter installers, electric p o w e r.......................
Meter readers, electric p o w e r.........................
Meter repairmen, electric p o w e r.....................
Meter testers, electric pow er.............................
Metermen, electric p o w er..................................
Microbiologists, See:
A griculture................................................
Drug industry............................................
Life sciences..............................................
Millwrights .........................................................
See also:
Aluminum industry...........................
Foundry industry.............................
Iron and steel industry.....................
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing ........................................
Paper and allied products industry . .
Mineralogists, see:
Geologists..................................................
Petroleum and natural g a s .......................
Mining ...............................................................
Mining engineers ..............................................
Ministers, Protestant..........................................
Missile assembly mechanics, aircraft, missile,
and spacecraft................................................
Missile manufacturing occupations .................
Missionaries, see: Clergymen...........................
Mixers, b ak in g ..................................................
Models ...............................................................
Modelmakers, see:
Instrument makers (mechanical) ...........
Motor vehicle and equipment manufactur­
ing .........................................................
Molders’ helpers, foundry industry...................
Molders, see: Foundry industry.......................
Molding machine operators, baking industry . .

74
647
681
618
653
681
687
154
154
739
739
739
739
739
590
646
162
498
618
661
681
690
702
148
595
593
75
42
609
605
42
640
362
458
686
661
665
640

INDEX TO OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRIES

867
Page

Page

Monitors, radiation, atomic energy.................
Monotype caster operators, printing (graphic
arts) ...............................................................
Monotype keyboard operators, printing (graphic
arts) .....................................
Mortgage clerks, see:
Bank clerks................................................
Typists ......................................................
Mothers’ helpers, see: Private household work­
ers ...................................................................
Motion picture projectionists...........................
Motorcycle mechanics ......................................
Motor vehicle and equipment manufacturing
occupations ..................................................
Motor vehicle body repairm en.........................
Music directors, radio and television...............
Music librarians, radio and television.............
Musicians and music teachers...........................

685
469
754
754
186

Nailers, fur, apparel..........................................
Natural gas production and processing..........
Natural sciences................................................
Neighborhood workers, see: Social service aides
Neon sign servicemen ......................................
News directors, radio and television...............
Newscasters, radio and television...................
Newspaper reporters..........................................
News writers, radio and television...................
Note tellers, banking.........................
Nuclear reactor operators, atomic energy . . . .
Nurse aides, see: Hospital attendants...............
Nurse educators, see: Registered nurses..........
Nurse maids, see: Private household workers .
Nurses, industrial..............................................
Nurses, licensed practical..................................
Nurses, licensed vocational...............................
Nurses, registered ...............................................
Nursing assistants, see: Hospital attendants . ..
Nutritionists ......................................................
See also: Dietitians ..................................

625
593
147
361
486
754
754
231
754
809
636
354
92
356
92
94
94
91
354
163
129

Observers, petroleum and natural g a s .............
Occupational health nurses...............................
Occupational therapists ....................................
Occupational therapists assistants...................
Oceanographers ................................................
Oceanographic engineers, see: Oceanographers
Odd-job men, see: Private household workers .
Office machine and computer manufacturing .
Office machine operators..................................

595
92
113
115
157
158
357
694
292




635
518
518
807
303
356
554
499

Office machine servicemen................................
Office nurses.......................
Oil burner mechanics........................................
Oilers, see: Unlicensed merchant seamen . . . .
Operating engineers, construction machinery .
Operating room technicians.............................
Operations agents, civil aviation.....................
Operations officers, banking.............................
Operatives, see: Semiskilled workers, industrial
Operators, resistance welding .........................
Operators, telephone . . ..................................
Ophtholmologists, see: Optometrists,...............
Optical laboratory technicians .......................
Optical mechanics ............................................
Opticians, dispensing........................................
Optometric assistants........................................
Optometrists......................................................
Oral pathology, see: D entists...........................
Oral surgeons, see: D entists.............................
Orderlies, see: Hospital attendants.................
Ordinary seamen, see: Unlicensed merchant
seamen ...........................................................
Organic chemists, see: Drug industry...............
Ornamental-iron workers, building trades . . . .
Orthodonists, see: D entists................................
Osteopathic physicians......................................
Outreach workers, see: Social service aides . . .
Outside production inspectors, aircraft, missile,
and spacecraft ..............................................
Ovenmen, b ak in g ..............................................
Over-the-road truckdrivers, see:
Driving occupations..................................
Trucking occupations................................
Oxygen cu tte rs..................................................
Packaging engineers, paper and allied products
Painters, automobile ........................................
Painters, production..........................................
See also listing under Production painters.
Painters and paperhangers................................
Paleonclimatologists, see: Meteorologists . . . .
Paleomagneticians, see: Geophysicists.............
Paleontologists, see:
Geologists..................................................
Petroleum and natural g a s .......................
Pantrymen and pantry women, restaurants . . . .
Paper and allied products industries.................
Paper inspectors, paper and allied products . .
Paper machine operators, paper and allied prod­
ucts ..................

477
92
464
748
405
97
728
810
367
572
303
104
539
539
539
106
104
82
82
354
748
646
424
82
80
361
610
641
427
792
572
703
530
562
407
154
152
149
595
799
700
703
701

868

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK
Page

Page

Paper sorters and counters, paper and allied
products ........................................................
Paper testers, paper and allied products . . . .
Paperhangers ....................................................
Parking attendants ............................................
Parole officers, see: Social w orkers...................
Parts changers, electronics manufacturing . . .
Parts countermen, automobile.........................
Parts-order clerks, see: Trucking industry . . . .
Paste-up men, see:
Commercial a rtis ts ....................................
Printing (graphic arts) occupations........
Pastors, see: Clergymen....................................
Pathologists .......................................................
See also:
Drug industry....................................
Medical laboratory w orkers.............
Pathologists, sp eech ..........................................
Patrolmen, see:
Police officers............................................
State police officers....................................
Pattern graders, apparel....................................
Patternmakers, apparel ....................................
Patternmakers, see:
Foundry industry ......................................
Motor vehicle and equipment manufactur­
ing .........................................................
Paying and receiving tellers, banking...............
Payroll tellers, banking ....................................
PBX installers and repairmen, telephone . . . .
PBX operators, see: Telephone operators . . . .
Peanut farm ers..................................................
Pedodontics, see: D entists...............................
Perforator operators, petroleum and natural gas
Performing artists and other related occupations
Periodontology, see: D entists...........................
Personal maids, see: Private household workers
Personnel workers ............................................
Petroleum and natural gas production and
processing.......................................................
Petroleum engineers, see: Petroleum and natural
gas production and processing.....................
Petroleum geologists ........................................
See also: Petroleum and natural gas pro­
duction and processing .......................
Petroleum refining............................................
Petrologists, geologists ......................................
See also: Petroleum and natural gas pro­
duction and processing.........................




702
703
407
556
268
656
308
793
192
519
42
163
646
122
120
347
349
622
622
663
689
809
809
790
304
584
82
597
181
82
356
37
593
595
148
594
707
148
595

Pharmacists .......................................................
See also: Drug industry.............................
Pharmacist mates, see: Licensed merchant ma­
rine officers ..................................................
Pharmaceutical chemists, see: Drug industry .
Pharmaceutical operators, see: Drug industry .
Pharmacologists, see:
Drug industry............................................
Life scientists............................................
Photocheckers and assemblers, see: Photo­
graphic laboratory occupations ...................
Photo-journalists, see: Photographers .............
Photoengravers, printing (graphic a r t s ) ...........
Photogeologists, see: Petroleum and natural gas
production and processing...........................
Photogrammetric surveyors .............................
Photograph retouchers, see: Photographic lab­
oratory occupations ......................................
Photographers ...................................................
Photographic laboratory occupations...............
Photographic models, see: M odels...................
Phototypesetting machine operators, printing
(graphic a r t s ) ................................................
Physical anthropologists....................................
Physical chem ists..............................................
Physical geographers ........................................
Physical metallurgists, see: Aluminum industry
Physical meteorologists......................................
Physical oceanographers ..................................
Physical scientists..............................................
Physical-science aides, see: Food processing
technicians .....................................................
Physical therapists ............................................
Physical therapy assistants................................
Physicians .........................................................
Physicists ...........................................................
See also:
Atomic energy fie ld .........................
Electronics manufacturing...............
Office machine and computer manu­
facturing ........................................
Physicists, health, atomic energy ...................
Physicists, radiological, atomic energy ...........
Physiologists, see:
Drug industry ..........................................
Life scientists............................................
Picklers, forge s h o p ..........................................
Piercer machine operators, iron and steel . . . .
Pill and tablet coaters, drug industry...............
Pilots and copilots, civil aviation.....................

107
646
745
646
647
646
164
559
255
521
595
270
558
254
558
362
519
200
646
204
618
154
158
169
228
116
118
77
173
634
652
695
635
635
646
164
447
680
648
715

INDEX TO OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRIES

869
Page

Pinsetting machine mechanics, see: Bowlingpin-machine mechanics ...............................
Pipefitters ...........................................................
See also:
Drug industry....................................
Industrial chemical industry.............
Iron and steel industry.....................
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing ........................................
Paper and allied products industry . .
Placement counselers, see: College placement
officers ...........................................................
Plainclothesmen, see: Police officers...............
Planetologists, see: Geophysicists ...................
Planning counselors, college ...........................
Planners, urban ................................................
Plant facilities technicians, see: Food processing
technicians ....................................................
Plant quarantine and plant pest control inspec­
tors, see: Agriculture......................................
Plant scientists, see: Agriculture.......................
Plasterers ...........................................................
Platemakers, printing (graphic arts) .............
Platers, electroplaters........................................
See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
manufacturing .............................
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing ........................................
Plumbers and pipefitters .................................
See also:
Aluminum industry .........................
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing ........................................
Podiatrists .........................................................
Police officers....................................................
Policemen, see:
Police officers ..........................................
State police officers....................................
Policewomen ....................................................
Policy writers, see: Typists .............................
Polishers, motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing ........................................................
Political geographers ........................................
Political scientists..............................................
Portable equipment operators, see: Track work­
ers, railroad ..................................................
Porters, restaurant ............................................
Portrait photographers......................................
Post office occupations......................................




475
413
648
670
681
690
702
239
347
152
239
272
228
590
590
410
526
542

609
689
413
618
690
110
346
347
349
347
303
689
203
207
778
799
255
846

Page

Postage and mailing equipment servicemen . . .
Postal clerk s.........................
Posting machine operators, see: Bank clerks .
Pot liners, see: Aluminum industry.................
Potmen, see: Aluminum industry.....................
Poultry farmers ................................................
Pourers, see:
Foundry industry......................................
Iron and steel industry ...........................
Power brake operators, aircraft, missile, and
spacecraft ......................................................
Power dispatchers, electric p o w e r...................
Power hammer operators, aircraft, missile, and
spacecraft ......................................................
Power linemen, electric p o w er.........................
Powerplant installers, aircraft, missile, and
spacecraft ......................................................
Powerplant operators, see: Drug industry . . . .
Power truck operators......................................
See also:
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing ........................................
Trucking industry.............................
Powerplant mechanics, civil aviation...............
Powerplant occupations, electric p o w e r........
Power shear operators, aircraft, missile, and
spacecraft ......................................................
Practical nurses ................................................
Press feeders, printing (graphic arts) ..........
Press operators, forge sh o p ...............................
Press photographers..........................................
Pressers, apparel................................................
Pressing occupations, apparel...........................
Pressmen, printing (graphic arts) ...................
Priests, Roman Catholic ..................................
Print developers, machine, see: Photographic
laboratory occupations..................................
Printer operators, see: Photographic laboratory
occupations.....................................................
Printer-slotter operators, paper and allied prod­
ucts .................................................................
Printers, see: Photographic laboratory occupa­
tions ...............................................................
Printers, printing (graphic arts) .....................
Printing (graphic arts) occupations...................
Printing pressmen and assistants, printing
(graphic arts) ..............................................
Private duty nurses ..........................................
Private household workers .............................
Private outdoor recreation farm ers...................

481
846
807
615
615
583
661
677
608
736
608
737
610
648
560

690
793
722
733
608
94
524
446
255
625
625
523
45
559
559
702
558
521
513
523
92
356
585

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

870
Page

Probation and parole officers, see: Social work­
ers ................................................................. 268
Process metallurgists, see: Aluminum industry . 618
Producers, program radio and television . . . . 754
Producer-directors, program, radio and tele­
vision ............................................................. 754
Production managers, advertising ................... 32
Production painters .......................................... 562
See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
manufacturing.......................... 609
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing ........................................ 689
Production planners, aircraft, missile, and
spacecraft ...................................................... 607
Production technicians, see: Industrial engineer­
ing technicians .............................................. 222
Professional and related occupations.......... 25
Profile cutting machine operators, aircraft, mis­
sile, and spacecraft................................... 608
Program assistants, radio and television... 754
Program directors, radio and television...... 754
Program, producer-directors, radio and tele­
vision ............................................................. 754
Programers, electronic computer ................... 259
See also:
Insurance .......................................... 813
Office machine and computer manu­
facturing ........................................ 695
Paper and allied products............ 703
Projectionists, see: Motion pictures............ 554
Proof machine operators, see: Bank clerks . . . 806
Proofers, printing (graphic arts) ................... 521
Proofreaders, printing (graphic arts) ............. 517
Property and liability insurance agents and
brokers ........................................................... 314
Prosthodontics, see: D entists...................... 82
Protestant ministers .......................................... 42
Psychiatric aides, see: Hospital attendants ... 354
Psychiatric social w orkers............................. 267
Psychologists .................................................... 261
Public affairs directors, see: Radio and television 754
Public adjusters, claim adjusters................ 817
Public health nurses ........................................ 92
Public health nutritionists, see: Dietitians . . . . 130
Public health sanitarians, see: Sanitarians . . . . 134
Public librarians........................................... 249
Public relations w orkers............................... 39
Public stenographers..................................... 300
Pulp testers, paper and allied products...... 703




Page

Pumpers, petroleum and natural g a s ...............
Pumpmen, petroleum refining............................
Punch press operators, see:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manufac­
turing .....................................................
Motor vehicle and equipment manufactur­
ing .........................................................
Purchasing agents..............................................
Pursers, see: Licensed merchant marine officers

597
708

608
689
281
745

Quality assurance technicians, see: Food proc­
essing technicians.......................................... 228
Rabbis ...............................................................
Rack clerks, hotel ............................................
Radiation monitors, atomic energy...................
Radio and television announcers.....................
Radio and television broadcasting occupations
Radio officers, see: Licensed merchant marine
officers ...........................................................
Radio operators, ground, civil aviation........
Radio service technicians..................................
Radiochemists, see: Drug industry.................
Radiographers, see:
Aluminum industry....................................
Atomic en erg y .......................
Radioisotope-production operators, atomic en­
ergy .................................................................
Radiologic technologists....................................
Radiological physicists, atomic energy.............
Railroad bridge and building workers ...........
Railroad clerk s..................................................
Railroad conductors..........................................
Railroad occupations........................................
Ranchers ...........................................................
Range conservationists, see: Range managers .
Range m anagers................................................
Range scientists, see: Range managers .........
Rate clerks, see: Trucking industry.................
Real estate salesmen and brokers....................
Realtors .............................................................
Receiving clerks, see: Shipping and receiving
clerks .............................................................
Receiving inspectors, aircraft, missile, and
spacecraft .......................................................
Receiving tellers, banking..................................
Receptionists .....................................................
Reconcilement clerks, see: Bank clerk s...........
Recording clerks, see: Bank clerk s...................

44
831
635
758
752
745
727
502
646
617
636
636
126
635
779
774
770
763
583
52
52
52
793
319
319
296
610
809
295
807
807

INDEX TO OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRIES

871
Page

Page

Recording technicians, radio and television . . 760
Recreation workers....................................... 264
Reference librarians..................................... 249
Refinery mechanics, petroleum refining.... 708
Refrigeration engineers, see: Unlicensed mer­
chant seam en........................................... 749
Refrigeration mechanics............................... 463
Regional geographers................................... 204
Regional planners......................................... 272
Registered n u rses......................................... 91
Registered representatives, see: Securities sales­
men ............................................................... 324
Rehabilitation counselors ................................ 58
Rehabilitation workers, see: Social workers .. 268
Reinforcing-iron workers, building trades . . . . 424
Remelt operators, see: Aluminum industry . . . 615
Renderers, see: Commercial artists.............. 192
Repairmen, see:
Aircraft mechanics............................... 723
Automobile body repairmen................ 469
Central office repairmen, telephone.... 786
Industrial machinery repairm en.......... 491
Instrument repairm en........................... 492
Jewelry repairmen .................................... 549
Shoe repairmen ........................................ 563
Telephone and PBX repairm en.......... 789
Television and radio service technicians . 502
Vending machine operators................ 507
Watch repairm en................................. 510
See also listings under Mechanics and
under Servicemen.
Reporters, newspaper................................... 231
Reporting stenographers .................................. 300
Research and development technicians, see:
Food processing technicians......................... 228
Research directors, advertising......................... 32
Research workers, marketing....................... 34
Reservation agents and clerks, civil aviation . 728
Reservation clerks, hotel ............................... 831
Reservation control agents................................ 728
Resilient floor layers, see: Floor covering instal­
lers ................................................................. 394
Resistance-welding operators....................... 572
Restaurant industry .......................................... 799
Retail trade salesworkers ............................... 321
Reviewers, claim ............................................ 819
Rewrite men, see: Newspaper reporters...... 231
Rig builders, petroleum and natural g a s .... 595
Riggers and machine movers, building trades . 424
Riveters, aircraft, missile, and spacecraft.... 609




Rocket assembly mechanics, aircraft, missile,
and spacecraft ..............................................
Rodmen, see: Reinforcing-iron w orkers...........
Rodmen, see: Surveyors....................................
Roll turners, iron and steel................................
Rollers, iron and s te e l......................................
Rolling mill operators, see: Aluminum industry
Roman Catholic Priests ..................................
R oofers...............................................................
Room and desk clerks, h o te l.............................
Rotary drillers, petroleum and natural gas . .
Roustabouts, petroleum and natural g a s .........
Route salesmen, see: Routem en.......................
Route salesmen and drivers, laundry and drycleaning .........................................................
Route supervisors, b ak in g ................................
R outem en...........................................................
See also: Baking in d u stry .......................
Routers, printing (graphic arts) .....................
Rural sociologists, agriculture.........................
Sales clerks, retail tr a d e ....................................
Sales engineers, see: Manufacturers’ salesmen .
Sales managers, see:
Hotels ......................................................
Radio and television broadcasting...........
Sales occupations..............................................
Salesworkers, see:
Automobile parts countermen...................
Automobile salesm en...............................
Automobile service advisors.....................
Insurance agents and brokers...................
Manufacturers’ salesmen .........................
Radio and television salesm en.................
Real estate salesmen and b ro k ers...........
Retail trade salesworkers.........................
Securities salesm en....................................
Wholesale trade salesworkers .................
Sample stitchers, ap p arel..................................
Sample-taker operators, petroleum and natural
gas .................................................................
Sand mixers, foundry industry .......................
Sandblasters, forge s h o p ....................................
Sanitarians .........................................................
Savings tellers, b an k in g ....................................
Scalemen, see: Aluminum industry.................
Scalper operators, see: Aluminum industry ..
Scenic designers, television................................
See also: Interior designers and decorators
School counselors ............................................

609
424
270
681
679
616
45
416
830
596
596
434
835
642
434
642
521
590
321
317
833
756
307
308
310
312
319
317
755
319
321
324
327
622
597
661
447
133
809
615
616
754
196
60

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

872

A

Page

Page

School media specialists, see: Librarians........
School psychologists..........................................
School recreation w orkers...............................
School social w orkers........................................
School teachers, see: Agriculture.....................
School teachers, see: Teachers .......................
Science aids .......................................................
Science information specialists, see: Librarians .
Science technicians ..........................................
Scientists, environmental ..................................
Scientists, l i f e ....................................................
Scientists, n a tu ra l..............................................
Scientists, physical ............................................
Scientists, range ................................................
Scientists, s o il.....................................................
Sealers, electronics manufacturing...................
Seamstresses, laundry and drycleaning.............
Seat-cover installers, see: Automobile trimmers
and installation m e n ......................................
Second assistant engineers, see: Licensed mer­
chant marine officers......................................
Second electricians, see: Unlicensed merchant
seamen ...........................................................
Second mates, see: Licensed merchant marine
officers ...........................................................
Secondary school teachers................................
See also: Home economists.....................
Secretaries .........................................................
Securities salesm en............................................
Securities tellers, banking ...............................
Sedimentologists, see: Geologists.....................
Seismologists, see: Geophysics.........................
Semiskilled workers, industrial.........................
Service advisors, see: Automobile service ad­
visors ....................................................
Service and miscellaneous ...............................
Service occupations ..........................................
Service salesmen, see: Automobile service ad­
visors .............................................................
Service station attendants, see: Gasoline service
station attendants ........................................
Service station mechanic-attendants ...............
Service writers, see: Automobile service advi­
sors .................................................................
Servicemen, see:
Appliance servicemen .............................
Business machine servicemen...................
Electric sign servicemen .........................
Gas appliance servicemen.......................
Neon sign servicemen................................




250
262
264
267
590
211
220
250
220
147
161
147
169
52
587
655
837
533
744
749
744
214
241
300
324
809
149
151
367
312
825
331
312
546
546
312
466
477
486
464
486

Telephone and PBX servicemen...............
Television and radio service technicians .
Setup men (machine tools) ............................
Sewage plant operators......................................
Sewers, hand, apparel........................................
Sewing machine operators, see:
Apparel industry ......................................
Motor vehicle and equipment manufactur­
ing .........................................................
Sewing room occupations, ap p a re l.................
Shakeout men, see:
Foundry in d u stry ......................................
Motor vehicle and equipment manufactur­
ing .........................................................
Shearmen, iron and steel....................................
Sheet-metal w orkers..........................................
See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
manufacturing ..............................
Railroad shop tra d e s .......................
Shipping and receiving clerk s...........................
Ship’s carpenters, see: Unlicensed merchant sea­
men .................................................................
Ship’s electricians, see: Unlicensed merchant
seamen ...........................................................
Shirt finishers, laundry and drycleaning.........
Shoe repairmen ................................................
Shooters, petroleum and natural g a s ...............
Shop trades, railro ad ........................................
Shotblasterers, see:
Forge s h o p ................................................
Foundry industry......................................
Shothole drillers, petroleum and natural gas .
Shothole drillers, helpers, petroleum and natural
gas .................................................................
Showroom models ............................................
Signal department workers, railro ad ...............
Signal maintainers, railro ad ..............................
Signalmen, railroad ..........................................
Silk screen printers, electronics manufacturing .
Singers and singing teachers.............................
Skilled and other manual occupations.............
Skilled w orkers...................................................
Skipmen, iron and steel......................................
Slaggers, iron and s te e l....................................
Slate roofers, building trades .........................
Slicing-and-wrapping machine operators, baking
Slide mounters, see: Photographic laboratory
occupations.....................................................
Soaking pit cranemen, iron and steel ...........

789
502
460
569
624
624
689
623
661
689
679
419

608
775
296
748
749
835
563
595
775
447
661
595
595
362
777
777
777
655
189
365
365
676
676
417
641
559
678

INDEX TO OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRIES

873
Page

Page

Soaking pit operators, alum inum .....................
Social caseworkers............................................
Social psychologists ..........................................
Social scientists ................................................
Social secretaries ..............................................
Social service aid es............................................
Social workers ..................................................
Sociologists.........................................................
Sociologists, rural, see: Agriculture.................
Soil conservationists..........................................
Soil scientists ....................................................
Sorters, see: Bank clerk s..................................
Sorters, see: Paper and allied products indus­
tries ...............................................................
Sorting machine operators...............................
Sound effects technicians, radio and television
Spacecraft manufacturing occupations ...........
Special agents, see: FBI Special A gents...........
Special librarians ..............................................
Specialty farm operators....................................
Specifications writers, see: Electronics manufac­
turing .............................................................
Speech pathologists ..........................................
Spot welders, electronics manufacturing........
Spotters, laundry and drycleaning...................
Sprayers, motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing ........................................................
Spreaders, apparel industry...............................
Sprinkler fitters, see: Plumbers and pipefitters .
Staff adjusters, claim adjusters .......................
Staff officers, see: Licensed merchant marine
officers ...........................................................
Stage managers, radio and television..............
State and local government occupations . . . .
State extension workers .................................
State highway patrolm en................................
State police officers .........................................
Station agents, civil aviation.............................
Station agents, railroad ....................................
Station installers, telephone.............................
Stationary engineers..........................................
See also:
Aluminum industry...........................
Baking industry ...............................
Paper and allied products.................
Stationary firemen (boiler) .............................
Statisticians.........................................................
See also:
Electronics manufacturing...............




616
267
262
199
300
360
266
209
590
588
587
806
702
293
754
605
345
250
582
653
120
655
836
689
623
413
817
745
754
847
586
349
349
728
773
789
565
618
643
702
567
142
652

Office machine and computer manu­
facturing ........................................
Steamfitters, see: Plumbers and pipefitters . . . .
Steel industry occupations................................
Steel pourers, iron and s te e l...........................
Stenographers and secretaries...........................
Stereotypers, printing (graphic arts) .............
Stewardesses, civil aviation................................
Stillmen, petroleum refining.............................
Stock chasers, motor vehicle and equipment
manufacturing ..............................................
Stock clerks.........................................................
Stock clerks, motor vehicle and equipment
manufacturing ..............................................
Stock house larrymen, iron and s te e l...............
Stock house men, iron and s te e l...................
Stonehands, printing (graphic arts) ...............
Stonemasons .......................................................
Stove tenders, iron and s te e l...........................
Stratigraphers, see: Geologists .......................
See also: Petroleum and natural gas pro­
duction and processing .......................
Stretcher-leveler-operators, aluminum industry
Strippers, printing (graphic a r t s ) .....................
Structural-iron workers, building tra d e s ........
Structural-, ornamental-, and reinforcing-iron
workers, riggers, and machine movers . . . .
Studio supervisors, radio and television........
Stylists, motor vehicle and equipment manufac­
turing .............................................................
Substation operators, electric p o w e r...............
Supercalendar operators, paper and allied prod­
ucts .................................................................
Surfacers, optical mechanics ...........................
Surgical technicians ..........................................
Surveyors ...........................................................
See also: Petroleum and natural gas pro­
duction and processing.........................
Switchboard operators, electric p o w e r...........
Switchboard operators, telephone.....................
Switchers, petroleum and natural g a s ...............
Switchmen, railro ad ........................................
Switchmen, telephone........................................
Synoptic meteorologists ....................................
Systems analysts................................................
See also:
Insurance ..........................................
Office machine and computer manu­
facturing ........................................
Paper and allied products industry ..

695
413
674
677
299
522
720
708
690
298
690
676
676
517
421
676
149
595
617
525
423
423
754
686
736
702
540
97
269
595
733
304
597
771
784
154
257
813
695
703

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

874
Page

Tablet coaters, drug industry .........................
Tablet testers, drug industry.............................
Tabulating machine operators .......................
Tailoring occupations, ap p arel.........................
Tailors, apparel ................................................
Tape librarians, see: Electronic computer op­
erating personnel ..........................................
Tape perforating machine operators, printing
(graphic a r t s ) ................................................
Tape perforator typists, see: T ypists...............
Tape-to-card converter operators, see: Elec­
tronic computer operating personnel ........
Tappers, see: Aluminum industry...................
Taxi drivers .......................................................
Teachers, college and university.....................
Teachers, dancing..............................................
Teachers, d ram a................................................
Teachers, high school........................................
Teachers, home econom ists.............................
Teachers, kindergarten and elementary school .
Teachers, m u sic ................................................
Teachers, secondary sch o o l.............................
See also: Home economists.......................
Teachers, singing ..............................................
T eaching.............................................................
Technical illustrators, see:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manufac­
turing ....................................................
Electronics manufacturing.......................
Technical stenographers....................................
Technical writers ..............................................
See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
manufacturing .............................
Electronics manufacturing...............
Technician occupations ....................................
Technicians, broadcasting, radio and television
Technicians, dental laboratory.........................
Technicians, drug industry................................
Technicians, engineering and science...............
See also:
Petroleum refining ...........................
Paper and allied products industry . .
Technicians, forestry, see: Forestry a id s ...........
Technicians, medical X -ra y .............................
Technicians, optical laboratory
.................
Technicians, sound effects, radio andtelevision
Technicians, surgical ........................................




648
648
293
625
625
289
519
303
289
615
442
216
184
182
214
241
211
186
214
241
189
211

607
653
300
233

607
653
220
759
89
647
220
708
703
50
126
539
754
97

Page

Technicians, television and radio service........
Tectonophysicists, see: Geophysicists...............
Telegraphers, telephoners, and towermen, rail­
road ...............................................................
Telephone and PBX installers and repairmen
Telephone central office equipment installers . .
Telephone craftsmen ........................................
Telephone industry occupations.......................
Telephone installers..........................................
Telephone installers-repairmen.........................
Telephone linemen and cable splicers...............
Telephone operators..........................................
Telephone repairm en........................................
Telephone servicemen ......................................
Telephoners, railro ad ........................................
Teletypists, civil aviation ................................
Television announcers ......................................
Television broadcasting occupations.................
Television and radio service technicians...........
Tellers, banking ................................................
Tellers, cash ier..................................................
Terrazzo workers, building trad es.....................
Test-set operators, see: Office machine and
computer manufacturing ..............................
Testers, electronics manufacturing .................
Testing machine operators, office machine and
computer manufacturing................................
Testboardmen, telephone..................................
Theoretical physicists........................................
Therapeutic dietitians........................................
Therapists, inhalation........................................
Therapists, occupational....................................
Therapists, occupational assistants .................
Therapists, physical ..........................................
Thermal cutters, see: W elders.........................
Third assistant engineers, see: Licensed mer­
chant marine officers....................................
Third mates, see: Licensed merchant marine
officers ...........................................................
Ticket agents, civil aviation ...........................
Ticket sellers, see: C ashiers..............................
Tile roofers, building trades ...........................
Tile setters, building tra d e s ..............................
Time salesmen, radio and television...............
Tinners, electronics manufacturing.................
Tobacco farm ers.................................................
Tool-and-die makers ........................................
See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
manufacturing ..............................

502
152
772
789
786
784
781
789
790
787
303
790
789
772
727
758
752
502
808
286
401
696
655
696
784
173
130
102
113
115
116
572
745
744
728
286
416
401
755
655
584
456

608

INDEX TO OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRIES

875
Page

Page

Electronics manufacturing............... 655
Iron and steel industry..................... 680
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing ........................................ 688
Office machine and computer manu­
facturing ........................................ 696
Tool designers, see: Mechanical technicans . . . 223
Tool pushers, petroleum and naturalgas . . . . 596
Toolmakers, electronics manufacturing.......... 655
Topographic surveyors...................................... 270
Towermen, railro ad .......................................... 773
Toxicologists, drug industry ........................... 646
Tracers, see: Draftsmen.................................... 226
Track workers, railroad .................................... 778
Trackmen, railroad............................................ 778
Traffic agents and clerks, civil aviation.......... 728
Traffic controllers, air-route ........................... 725
Traffic controllers, a irp o rt............................... 725
Traffic managers, industrial............................. 279
Traffic managers, radio and television.......... 754
Traffic representatives, civil aviation............... 728
Train directors, railroad ................................. 773
Trainmen, see: Brakemen, railro ad ................. 771
Transcribing machine operators, see: Typists . . 303
Transit clerks, see: Bank clerk s....................... 807
Transmission and distribution occupations, elec­
tric p o w er...................................................... 736
Transmitter technicians, radio and television . . 760
Transportation, communication, and public
utilities ........................................................... 711
Treaters, see:
Petroleum and natural g a s ....................... 597
Petroleum refining .................................... 708
Treatment plant operators, wastewater.......... 569
Trimmers, hand, ap p are l.................................. 625
Trimmers, forge s h o p ........................................ 447
Trimmers, automobile (automobile upholster­
ers) ............................................................... 532
Trimmers, motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing ........................................................ 690
Troopers, see: State police officers................... 349
Troublemen, electric p o w e r............................. 737
Truck mechanics .............................................. 505
See also: Trucking industry....................... 793
Truckdriver’s h elp ers........................................ 793
Truckdrivers, see:
Baking industry ........................................ 642
Drug industry............................................ 648
Office machine and computer manufactur­
ing ......................................................... 697




Trucking industry......................................
Truckdrivers, lo c a l............................................
Truckdrivers, over-the-road.............................
Trucking industry ............................................
Trust investment clerks, see: Bank clerks . . . .
Trust officers, banking......................................
Tube benders, aircraft, missile, and spacecraft .
Tumbler operators, foundry industry...............
Tune-up men, see: Automobile mechanics . . .
Turbine operators, electric pow er.....................
Type inspectors, office machine and computer
manufacturing................................................
Typesetters, hand, printing (graphic arts) . . .
Typesetting machine operators, printing
(graphic a r t s ) ................................................
Typewriter servicemen......................................
Typists ...............................................................

793
431
427
792
807
810
609
661
472
733
697
517
517
478
302

Understudies, see: Actors and actresses...........
Underwriters, insurance....................................
See also: Insurance....................................
United States Government occupations ........
University librarians..........................................
Unlicensed merchant seamen .........................
University teachers............................................
Unskilled workers, laborers.............................
Upholsterers, see:
Automobile trimmers and installation men
Furniture upholsterers .............................
Upsetters, forge s h o p ........................................
Urban geographers............................................
Urban planners..................................................
Utilitymen, see: Unlicensed merchant seamen .

181
821
813
839
250
748
216
369

Valets, see: Private household w orkers...........
Vending machine mechanics ...........................
Vending machine routemen, see: Routemen . .
Veterinarians .....................................................
See also: Agriculture..................................
Video-control technicians, television...............
Video-tape recording technicians, television . . .
Virologists, see: Drug in d u stry.......................
Vocational agriculture teachers, see: Agriculture
Vocational counselors, see: Employment coun­
selors .............................................................
Vocational n u rses..............................................
Volcanologists, see: Geologists.........................

357
507
434
136
589
760
760
646
590

532
544
446
203
272
749

55
94
149

Waiters and waitresses...................................... 339
Washers, see: Trucking industry..................... 793

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

876
Page

Washmen, laundry and drycleaners.................
Waste disposal men, atomic energy ...............
Waste-treatment operators, atomic energy . . . .
Waste treatment engineers and technicians, see:
Petroleum refining ........................................
Wastewater treatment plant operators.............
Watch engineers, electric pow er.......................
Watch repairmen ..............................................
Watchmakers ....................................................
Watchmen .........................................................
Waterproof workers, see: R oofers...................
Waybill clerks, see: Typists...............................
Weather forecasters, see: Meteorologists........
Welders, petroleum and natural g a s .................
Welders and oxygen cu tters.............................
See also:
Aluminum industry .........................
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
manufacturing .............................
Iron and Steel industry...................
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing ........................................
Natural gas processing.....................




Page

709
569
734
510
510
343
417
303
154
597
571

Welders, g a s .......................................................
Welding operators, resistance............................
Well pullers, petroleum and natural g a s ........
Wheat farmers ..................................................
Wholesale and retail trade................................
Wholesale m odels..............................................
Wholesale trade salesworkers...........................
Wipers, see: Unlicensed merchant seamen . . . .
Wire chiefs, railroad..........................................
Wire draw operators, aluminum.......................
Wire drawers, iron and s te e l...........................
Wood patternmakers, foundry industry...........
Writers, technical..............................................
See also listing under Technical writers.
Writing occupations...........................................

572
572
597
584
797
362
327
748
773
617
680
663
233

618

X-ray technicians, m edical...............................

126

609
681

Yard foremen, railroad .................................... 770

835
636
636

689
597

231

Zoologists, see:
Drug industry............................................ 646
Life scientists............................................ 162

O C C U P A TIO N A L O U TLO O K R E P R IN T S E R IE S
B u lle tin
N o.

1

P r ic e
(c e n ts )

Tomorrow’s Jobs................... .................

15

PROFESSIONAL, MANAGERIAL, AND
RELATED OCCUPATIONS

2
3

4
5

Business Administration and Related
Professions
Accountants ..............................................
Advertising Workers,Marketing Re­
search Workers, Public Relations
Workers ................................................
Personnel Workers .................................
Industrial Traffic Managers,
Purchasing Agents
........................

Bulletin
No.
26

27

28
10

15
10

9
10
11
12
13
14

15
16

Physicians, Osteopathic Physicians.......
Dentists ...............................................
Dental Hygienists, Dental Assistants,
Dental Laboratory Technicians .......
Registered Nurses, Licensed Practical
Nurses, Hospital Attendants.............
Optometrists, Optometric Assistants....
Pharmacists .........................................
Podiatrists ...........................................
Chiropractors .....................................
Occupational Therapists, Occupa­
tional Therapy Assistants, Physical
Therapists, Physical Therapy
Assistants ............... ...................... ..
Speech Pathologists and Audiologists....
Medical Assistants, Surgical Techni­
cians, EEG Technicians, EKG

10

29
30
31

10
10

32

15

33

15
10
10
10
10

15
10

Technicians, Inhalation Therapists....

17
18
19
20
21
22
23

10
10
10
10
10
10
10

25

35
36
37
38
39

Engineers
Aerospace, Agricultural, Bio­
medical, Ceramic, Chemical,
Civil, Electrical, Industrial,
Mechanical, Metallurgical,
Mining ..........................................
Environmental Scientists
Geologists, Geophysicists, Me­
teorologists, Oceanographers ....




40

Life Scientists, Biochemists ..........
Physical Scientists
Chemists, Physicists, Astrono­
mers, Food Scientists ................
Technicians
Engineering and Science,
Draftsmen, Food Processing.....

Architects ................................................
City Managers .......................................
Clergymen
Protestant Clergymen, Rabbis,
Roman Catholic Priests ............
Commercial Artists, Industrial De­
signers, Interior Designers and
Decorators ............................................
Conservation Occupations
Foresters, Forestry Aids, Range
Managers .....................................
Counseling and Placement Occupations
School Counselors, Rehabilita­
tion Counselors, Employment
Counselors, College Career
Planning and Placement
Counselors ...................................
Home Economists...................................
Landscape Architects .............................
Lawyers ....................................................
Librarians, Library Technicians ..........
Mathematics and Related Fields
Mathematicians, Statisticians,
Actuaries ..............................................

15

15

15

10
10

15

15

15

15
10
10
10
15

15

Performing Arts Occupations

43
44

Actors and Actresses, Dancers,
Musicians and Music Teach­
ers, Singers and Singing
Teachers .....................................
Photographers, Photographic Lab­
oratory Occupations ...... .'...................
Programers, Systems Analysts, Elec­
tronic Computer Operating Per­
sonnel ..................................................
Psychologists ............................................
Recreation Workers
......................

45

Social Sciences

41

Scientific and Technical Occupations
24

34

15

Medical Laboratory Workers .............
Radiologic Technologists ....................
Medical Record Librarians ................
Dietitians .............................................
Hospital Administrators ....................
Sanitarians ...........................................
Veterinarians .......................................

Life Science Occupations

Other Professional and Related Occupations

Health Service Occupations

6
7
8

P r ic e

(cents)

42

15
15

15
10
10

20

20

Anthropologists, Economists,
877

Bulletin
No.

Price
(cents)

74

Social Sciences— (Cont’d)

46
47
48

49
50

Geographers, Historians, Po­
litical Scientists, Sociologists.....
Social Workers, Social Service Aides....
Surveyors ..................................................
Teachers
Kindergarten and Elementary
School Teachers, Secondary
School Teachers, College and
University Teachers ..................
Urban Planners .......................................
Writing Occupations
Newspaper Reporters, Technical
Writers .........................................

B u lle tin
N o.

15
15
10

75
76
77
78
79

15
10

15

CLERICAL AND RELATED
OCCUPATIONS

80
81
82
83

P r ic e
( c e n ts )

Bricklayers, Stonemasons, Marble
Setters, Tile Setters, Terrazzo
Workers ................................................
Carpenters, Painters and Paperhangers, Glaziers ........................................
Cement Masons, Lathers, Plasterers......
Construction Laborers and Hod
Carriers ................................................
Electricians (Construction) ..................
Elevator Constructors, Structural-,
Ornamental-, and Reinforcing-Iron
Workers, Riggers, Machine
Movers ..............................................
Floor Covering Installers.......................
Operating Engineers (Construction)....
Plumbers and Pipefitters .......................
Roofers, Sheet-Metal Workers ............

10
15
15
10
10

10
10
10
10
10

Mechanics and Repairmen
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58

Bookkeeping Workers, Office Machine
Operators ......................................................
Cashiers .............................................................
File Clerks ......................................................
Receptionists ....................................................
Shipping and Receiving Clerks......................
Stenographers and Secretaries, Typists........
Stock Clerks ....................................................
Telephone Operators .....................................

10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10

SALES OCCUPATIONS
59
60
61

62
63

Automobile Salesmen .....................................
Insurance Agents and Brokers......................
Retail Trade Salesworkers, Wholesale
Trade Salesworkers, Manufacturers’
Salesmen ......................................................
Real Estate Salesmen and Brokers................
Securities Salesmen .......................................

85
10
10

15
10
10

SERVICE OCCUPATIONS
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71

72

Barbers, Cosmetologists .................................
Building Custodians .......................................
Cooks and Chefs, Waiters and Waitresses,
Bartenders ....................................................
FBI Special A gents.........................................
Firefighters ......................................................
Guards and Watchmen .................................
Models ...............................................................
Police Officers, State Police Officers............
Private Household Workers..........................

10
10

Building Trades
Asbestos and Insulating Workers..........

878



86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95

15
10
10
10
10
15
10

SKILLED AND OTHER MANUAL
OCCUPATIONS

73

84

96

Station Attendants ..................
Air-Conditioning, Refrigeration, and
Heating Mechanics ..........................
Appliance Servicemen ........................
Bowling-Pin-Machine Mechanics.........
Business Machine Servicemen .............
Diesel Mechanics, Farm Equipment
Mechanics ................................
Electric Sign Servicemen ....................
Maintenance Electricians, Industrial
Machinery Repairmen, Millwrights..
Motorcycle Mechanics..........................
Instrument Repairmen ........................
Jewelers and Jewelry Repairmen,
Watch Repairmen ............................
Television and Radio Service
Technicians .....................................
Vending Machine Mechanics .............

20
10
10
10
15
10
10
15
10
10
15
10
10

Other Manual Occupations
97
98
99
100

10

Automobile Service Occupations
Automobile Body Repairmen,
Automobile Mechanics, Truck
and Bus Mechanics, Automo­
bile Trimmers and Installation
Men (Automobile Upholster­
ers), Automobile Parts Coun­
termen, Automobile Service
Advisors, Gasoline Service

Blacksmiths ..................
Boilermaking Occupations ..................
Dispensing Opticians, Optical
Mechanics .................................
Driving Occupations
Over-the-road Truckdrivers,
Local Truckdrivers, Routemen, Intercity Busdrivers,

10
10
10

Bulletin

Price

Bulletin

N o.

(c e n ts )

N o.

Other Manual Occupations— (Cont’d)

101

102
103
104
105

106
107
108
109

110
111
112
113

Local Transit Busdrivers,
Taxi Drivers ...............................
Factory Operatives
Assemblers, Electroplaters, Inspectors, Power Truck Operators, Production Painters ..........
Forge Shop Occupations ......................
Foremen ..................................................
Furniture Upholsterers...........................
Machining Occupations
All-round Machinists, Machine
Tool Operators, Tool and Die
Makers, Instrument Makers
(Mechanical), Setup Men
(Machine Tools) ......................
Meat Cutters ............................................
Motion Picture Projectionists................
Parking Attendants .................................
Printing Occupations
Composing Room Occupations,
Photoengravers, Electrotypers
Photoengravers, Electrotypers
and Stereotypers, Printing
Pressmen and Assistants, Lithographic Occupations, Bookbinders and Related Workers....
Shoe Repairmen .....................................
Stationary Engineers, Stationary Firemen (Boiler) .......................................
Waste Water Treatment Plant
Operators ..............................................
Welders, Oxygen and Arc Cutters........

20

124
125
126
127

15
10
10
10

128
129

130
15
10
10
10

131

132

133
20
10
10
10
10

134

SOME MAJOR INDUSTRIES AND THEIR
OCCUPATIONS
114

115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123

Agriculture
Cooperative Extension Service Workers, Soil Scientists, Soil Conservationists, Other Professional
Workers, Farm Service Jobs ............
Petroleum and Natural Gas Production
and Processing, Petroleum Refining..........
Aircraft, Missile, and Spacecraft
Manufacturing ............................................
Aluminum Industry .......................................
Apparel Industry..............................................
Atomic Energy Field .....................................
Baking Industry ..............................................
Drug Industry ..................................................
Electronics Manufacturing.............................
Foundries
Patternmakers, Molders, Coremakers..




135
136
137
15

138

15
15
15
15
15
10
15
15
15

139

140
141

Price
(cents)
Industrial Chemical Industry.........................
10
Iron and Steel Industry .................................
15
Motor Vehicle and Equipment
Manufacturing ............................................
15
Office Machine and Computer
Manufacturing ............................................
15
Paper and Allied ProductsIndustries............
15
Civil Aviation
Pilots and Copilots, Flight Engineers,
Stewardesses, Aircraft Mechanics,
Airline Dispatchers, Air Traffic
Controllers, Ground Radio Opera­
tors and Teletypists, Traffic Agents
and C lerks...................................
20
Electric Power Industry
Powerplant Occupations, Transmis­
sion and Distribution Occupations,
Customer Service Occupations..........
15
Merchant Marine Occupations
Licensed Merchant Marine Officers,
Unlicensed Merchant Seamen ..........
15
Radio and Television Broadcasting
Radio and Television Announcers,
Broadcast Technicians ......................
15
Railroads
Locomotive Engineers, Locomotive
Firemen (Helpers), Conductors,
Brakemen, Telegraphers, Tele­
phones,
Towermen,
Station
Agents, Clerks, Shop Trades, Sig­
nal Department Workers, Track
Workers, Bridge and Building
Workers ................................................
20
Telephone Industry
Central Office Craftsmen, Central
Office Equipment Installers, Line­
men and Cable Splicers, Telephone
and PBX Installers and Repairmen..
15
Trucking Industry ..........................................
10
Restaurants ......................................................
10
Banking
Bank Clerks, Tellers, Bank Officers.....
15
Insurance
Claim Adjusters, Claim Examiners,
Underwriters ........................................
15
Hotels
Bellmen and Bell Captains, Front
Office Clerks, Housekeepers and
Assistants, Managers and Assistants..
15
Laundry and Drycleaning Plants..................
10
Government (Except Post Office)
Federal Civilian Employment, State
and Local Governments, Armed
Forces ............................................
15

U . S . G O V E R N M E N T P R I N T I N G O F F I C E : 197 2 O— 4 2 7 - 4 5 S

879




V isu a l A i d fo r V o c a tio n a l C o u n s e lo rs . . .

JOBS FOR THE 1970’S
A set of color slides describing the occupational composition of today’s work force and the changes anticipated
during the 1970’s. The series graphically shows:
—Current employment by occupation and industry,
—The kinds of jobs which will open during the 1970’s,
—Fields of work which are especially promising,
—The impact of technology on manpower needs,
—The changing characteristics of the work force.
JOBS FOR THE ’70’S updates an earlier Bureau of Labor Statistics slide series, Looking Ahead to a Career.
The series has been revised completely to reflect 1970 employment data and occupational projections
through 1980.
JOBS FOR THE ’70’S consists of 40 slides (35 mm, 2x2 inches) and accompanying narrative booklet. Price:
$10 a set.
JOBS FOR THE 1970’S
ORDER
FORM

NAME_____________________________________________________________
STREET ADDRESS_________________________________________________
CITY, STATE_____________________________________________ZIP CODE
NUMBER OF slide sets____ at $10 each. TOTAL AMOUNT______

Make check or money order payable to the BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. Enclose with order
blank and mail to the Bureau of Labor Statistics Regional Office nearest you:
1603-A Federal Bldg.
Boston, Mass. 02203

341 Ninth Ave., Rm. 1025
New York, N.Y. 10001

1317 Filbert St.
Philadelphia, Pa. 19107

1371 Peachtree St., NE.
Atlanta, Ga. 30309

219 S. Dearborn St.
Chicago, 111. 60604

911 Walnut St.
Kansas City, Mo. 64106

1100 Commerce St., Rm. 6B7
Dallas, Texas 75202

450 Golden Gate Ave.
San Francisco, Calif. 94102







JOBS
T h a t’s w hat the O c c u p a t i o n a l O u t l o o k
Q u a r t e r l y is all about. It’s a h o w -to -d o -it
m agazine covering new and em erg in g jobs,
training and ed u c atio n al opp ortun ities,
salary trends, job prospects to 1980 . . . the
facts young peop le need to plan careers
with a future.
The Q u a r t e r l y is “ m ust” reading for
counselors, e d u c a to rs , and o th e r m an p o w er
specialists w ho w ant to keep ab re a s t of
occupational d evelo p m en ts betw een biennial
editions of the O c c u p a t i o n a l O u t l o o k
Handbook.

Look to the Q u a r t e r l y for new perspectives
on em ploym ent problem s and changing
technology, for b ib lio g rap h ies of inexp ensive
new G overnm ent pub lications on m anp ow er
and career o p p ortun ities, and for sum m aries
of the latest B ureau of Labo r S tatistics
studies of em ploym ent trends and
occupational outlook.
To get all the facts about to m o rro w ’s jobs,
subscribe to the Q u a r t e r l y today. It’s
published 4 tim es a y ear by the U.S.
D epartm ent of Labor. P rice: $3.00 for a
2-year subscription.

the
Occupational
Outlook
Quarterly
i

Today’s
Magazine
for
Tomorrow’s
Jobs






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U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
WASHINGTON, D.C.

20212

O F F I C I A L B U SIN ESS
P E N A L T Y F O R P R IV A T E U S E, $ 3 0 0

THIRD CLASS MAIL
POSTAGE AND FEES PAID

U S DEPARTMENT OF LABOR


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