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PERFORMING ARTISTS

in the opera and concert stage,
movies, theater, nightclubs, radio
and television, dance bands, and
other areas—but not enough to pro­
vide steady employment for all quali­
fied singers. Singers who can meet
State certification requirements may
find postions as music teacher.
Employment of singers is ex­
pected to increase at a moderate rate
through the 1980’s. Recorded music
has replaced the “live” singer on
radio; television performances by
singers are limited. However, the de­
mand is growing for singers who
record popular music and do com­
mercials for both radio and tele­
vision advertising. Additional em­
ployment opportunities are expected
from the expanded use of cable TV
(pay TV) and wider use of video
cassettes.
A singing career is sometimes rel­
atively short, since it depends on a
good voice and public acceptance of
the artists, both of which may be af­
fected by age. Due to these circum­
stances, singers may be subject to un­
stable employment conditions and
the pressure of unreliable financial
circumstances.




585

Earnings and Working
Conditions

Except for a few well-known con­
cert soloists, opera stars, top record­
ing artists of popular music, and
some singers regularly employed by
dance bands, the motion picture in­
dustry, and commercial advertising,
most professional singers experience
difficulty in obtaining regular em­
ployment and have to supplement
their singing incomes by doing other
types of work.
Singers generally work at night
and on weekends. Work in the enter­
tainment field is seasonal and few
performers have steady jobs.
Singers who appear on 1/2 hour
TV programs received a minimum of
$192 in 1972. Singers in opera
choruses received between $35-45 per
performance.
Singers who perform profes­
sionally usually belong to a branch of
the AFL —
CIO union, the As­
sociated Actors and Artists of
America. Singers who perform on
the concert stage or in opera belong
to the American Guild of Musical
Artists, Inc.; those who sing on radio

or live television or who make
phonograph recordings are members
of the American Federation of Tele­
vision and Radio Artists; singers in
the variety and nightclub field be­
long to the American Guild of Varie­
ty Artists; those who sing in musical
comedy and operettas belong to the
Actors’ Equity Association; and
those who sing in the movies belong
to the Screen Actors Guild, Inc.
Sources of Additional
Information

Information about accredited
schools and departments of music is
available from:
National Association of Schools of
Music, One Dupont Circle, NW .,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

For information about music
teaching in elementary and second­
ary schools contact:
Music Educators National Confer­
ence, The National Education As­
sociation, 1201 16th St. N W .,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

DESIGN OCCUPATIONS

also must conform to local and State
building codes, zoning laws, fire
regulations, and other ordinances.
The architect then prepares work­
ing drawings showing the exact di­
mensions of every part of the struc­
ture and the location of plumbing,
heating units, electrical outlets, and
air conditioning. Architects also
specify the project’s building mate­
rials, construction equipment, and in
some cases, the interior furnishings.
After all drawings are completed,
the architect assists the client in
selecting a c o n tra cto r and in
negotiating the contract. As con­
struction proceeds, there are peri­
odic visits to the building site to in­
sure that the contractor is following
the design and using the specified
materials. The job is not completed
until construction is finished, all re­
quired tests are made, and guaran­
tees are received from the con­
tractor.
Architects design a wide variety of
structures such as houses, churches,
hospitals, office buildings, and air­
ports. They also design multi-build­
ing complexes for urban renewal
projects, college campuses, indus­
trial parks, and new towns. Besides
designing structures, architects also
may help in selecting building sites,
preparing cost and land use studies,
and long range planning for site
development.
When working on large projects or
for large architectural firms, archi­
tects often specialize in one phase of
the work such as designing, draft­
ing, specification writing, or ad­
ministering construction contracts.
This often requires working with
engineers, urban planners, land­
scape architects, and other design
personnel.

Good design can improve the ap­
ARCHITECTS
pearance and usefulness of the prod­
ucts that we use and the places where
(D.O.T. 001.081)
we live. It also helps merchants to in­
crease sales by improving the “eye
Nature of the Work
appeal” of their product, show­
Attractive buildings improve the
room, or advertising.
physical environment of a com­
Different design careers require
varying levels of training and educa­ munity. But buildings also must be
tion. For example, floral designers safe and allow people both inside and
may learn their duties on the job and around them to properly perform
do not need a high school diploma, their duties. Architects design build­
but architects must have at least 5 ings that successfully combine these
years of college and professional ed­ elements of attractiveness, safety,
ucation. Regardless of the amount of and usefulness.
Most architects provide profes­
formal training they have, it is es­
sential that people in design occupa­ sional services to clients planning a
tions have creativity and artistic building project. These services begin
talent, the ability to communicate in the early stages of the project’s
ideas through their designs, and good development and continue until all
business sense. Some design workers, work is completed.
The architect and client first dis­
such as displaymen and industrial de­
signers, need manual dexterity for cuss the purposes, requirements, and
cost of a project, as well as any
performing their duties.
Job opportunities in design occu­ preference on design that the client
pations are expected to increase may have. The architect then
through the mid-1980’s, because per­ prepares a rough design drawing to
sonal income and population are show the scale and structural rela­
growing and the more affluent pub­ tionships of the building.
After making preliminary draw­
lic is becoming more design con­
ings and discussing them with the
scious.
This chapter describes eight de­ client, the architect develops a final
sign occupations: architects, com­ design showing the floor plans and
mercial artists, displaymen, floral the structural details of the project.
designers, industrial designers, inte­ Architectural design requires many
rior designers, landscape architects, decisions. For example, in designing
and urban planners. (Other jobs that a school, the architect must decide
may require design skills—for exam­ on the amount of corridor and stair­
ple, engineers—are described else­ way space that students need to move
safely and easily from one class to
where in the Handbook.)
another; the type and arrangement of
storage space, the location and size
Places of Employment
of classrooms, laboratories, lunch­
room or cafeteria, gymnasium, and
About 37,000 registered (licensed)
administrative offices. The design architects were employed in 1972;
586



587

DESIGN OCCUPATIONS

fewer than 5 percent were women.
Many other unlicensed architectural
school graduates work in positions
requiring knowledge of architecture,
for example, as supervisory or sales
personnel with firms in the building
industry.
About two-fifths of all architects
are self-employed, either practicing
individually or as partners. Most of
the others work for architectural
firms. However, architects also work
for builders, real estate firms, and for
other businesses that have large con­
struction programs. Some work for
government agencies, often in city
and community planning or urban
redevelopment. About 1,400 archi­
tects work for the Federal Govern­
ment, mainly for the Departments of
Defense, Housing and Urban
Development, Interior, and the
General Services Administration.




Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

All States and the District of
Columbia require a license for the
practice of architecture, mainly to in­
sure that architectural work which
may affect the safety of life, health or
property is done by qualified archi­
tects. Requirements for admission to
the 2-day licensing examination
generally include graduation from an
accredited architectural school, fol­
lowed by 3 year’s experience in an
architect’s office for those with a
bachelor’s degree, and 2 years of ex­
perience for those with a master’s
degree. As a substitute for formal
training, most States accept longer
periods of experience (usually 12
years) and successful completion of
an equivalency test for admission to
the licensing examination.
In 1972, 73 of the 89 schools offer­

ing professional degrees in archi­
tecture were accredited by the
National Architectural Accrediting
Board. Most of these schools offer a
5- year curriculum leading to a
Bachelor of Architecture degree or a
6- year curriculum leading to a
Master of Architecture degree.
Many architectural schools also
offer graduate education for those
who already have their first profes­
sional degree. While such training is
not essential for practicing archi­
tects, it is often desirable for those in
research and teaching. Besides
professional schools, many junior
and community colleges offer 2-year
programs in architecture that enable
students to transfer to professional
degree programs.
Most professional schools of
architecture admit qualified high
school graduates who meet the en­
trance requirements of the college or
university with which the school is
associated. As a general guideline,
high school courses should include 4
years of mathematics and English, 3
years of science, 2 years of social
sciences and a foreign language, and
1 year of history. A typical college
architectural program includes
courses in English, mathematics,
chemistry, sociology, economics, a
foreign language, as well as courses
in architectural theory, design,
graphics, engineering and urban
planning.
Persons planning careers in archi­
tecture should be able to work inde­
pendently, have a capacity for solv­
ing technical problems, and be inclin­
ed toward artistic creation. They also
must be prepared to work in the
competitive environment of business
where leadership and ability to work
with others are important. A person
planning a career in architecture
should be interested in social studies
and have a strong desire to serve the
public since architectural work af­
fects people’s life, health, and safety.

588

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Architect constructs a model of building.

Working for architects or building
contractors during summer vaca­
tions also is useful to gain knowl­
edge of the practical problems of the
profession.
New graduates usually begin as
junior draftsmen in architectural
firms, where they make drawings
and models of structures under the
direction of a registered architect.
After several years of experience,
they may advance to chief or senior
draftsmen responsible for all major
details of a set of working drawings
and for supervising other draftsmen.
Others may work as designers, con­
struction contract administrators, or
specification writers who prepare
directions explaining the architect’s
plan to the builder. Employees who
are particularly valued by their firm
may become associates and receive,
in addition to a salary, a share of the
profits. Usually, however, the archi­




tect’s goal is to establish a private
practice.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for ar­
chitects are expected to be favor­
able through the mid-1980’s. Several
thousand openings will occur an­
nually due to very rapid growth of
the profession and to replace those
who die, retire or transfer to other
fields of work. Job opportunities are
expected to increase most rapidly
in new areas of work because of
expanded need in business and gov­
ernment for people with professional
design training. Openings for posi­
tions with established architectural
firms and opportunities for start­
ing a private practice are expected
to grow more slowly.
A major factor contributing to the
prospective rapid increase of

employment for architects is the ex­
pected growth of nonresidential con­
struction—the major area of work
for architects. Architects will be re­
quired not only because of growth in
nonresidential construction but also
because of the increasing size and
complexity of modern buildings.
Homeowners’ growing awareness of
the value of architects’ services and
the increasing involvement of archi­
tects in planning and designing resi­
dential communities also should in­
crease openings for architects. Since
enrollments in college architectural
programs are projected to rise in
the years ahead, there should be ad­
ditional requirements for architects
to teach in colleges and universities.
Growing public concern about the
quality of physical environments is
expected to increase the demand for
urban redevelopment and city and
community environmental planning
projects. This demand should create
new job opportunities for architects
in a wider range of fields than in the
past. Some may be needed in re­
search to develop new tools, mate­
rials, and systems for the con­
struction industry. Still others may
find employment in manufacturing
and construction companies in areas
such as design, sales, and administra­
tion. Government agencies also will
provide opportunities for architects
as they become more involved in en­
vironmental design and planning.
(See statement on Urban Planners
elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Earnings and Working
Conditions

In private industry, starting
salaries for new architectural school
graduates are generally between
$125 and $175 a week in 1972, ac­
cording to the limited information
available. Draftsmen with 2 or more
years of experience earned between
$160 and $260 a week, and job cap­

DESIGN OCCUPATIONS

tains (supervisors), specification
writers, and other senior employees
usually earned between $245 and
$330 a week. Senior employees often
receive yearly bonuses in addition to
their salaries.
Architects with well-established
private practices generally earn
much more than high-paid salaried
employees of architectural firms. Al­
though the range in their incomes is
very wide, some architects with
many years of experience and good
reputations earn well over $25,000 a
year. Young architects starting their
own practices may go through a
period when their expenses are
greater than their incomes.
Depending on their college rec­
ords, architects having a bachelor’s
degree and no experience could
start in the Federal Government at
either $150 or $185 a week in early
1973. Architects who have com­
pleted all requirements for the
master’s degree can start at $225
and those with a Ph.D. at $320 a
week.
Most architects work in wellequipped offices and spend long
hours at the drawing board. An
architect sometimes has to work
overtime to meet a deadline. The
routine often is varied by inter­
viewing clients or contractors, and
discussing the design, construction
procedures, or building materials of
a project with other architects or
engineers. Those involved in con­
tract administration frequently work
outdoors during inspections at con­
struction sites.
Sources of Additional
Information

General information about ca­
reers in architecture including a
catalog of publications can be ob­
tained from:
The American Institute of Archi­
tecture, 1735 New York A ve.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.




589

Information about schools of
architecture and a list of junior col­
leges offering courses in architecture
are available from:
The Association of Collegiate Schools
of Architecture, Inc., 1735 New
York A ve., W ashington, D.C.
20036.

COM M ERCIAL ARTISTS
(D.O.T. 141.031 and .081, 970.281
and .381, and 979.381)
Nature of the Work

A team of commercial artists
often creates the artwork in news­
papers and magazines and on bill­
boards, brochures, catalogs, and
television commercials. The art di­
rector supervises this team of artists
with varying skills and special­
izations. He develops the artistic
aspects of an advertising plan. He
then turns it over to a layout man for
further refinement. The layout artist
constructs or arranges elements of
the advertisement. He also selects

and lays out illustrations and photo­
graphs, plans use of typography, and
determines color and other elements
of design. He then prepares a “rough
visual” or sketch. After consulting
with the director, he may change the
visual and complete a more com­
prehensive layout for the customer.
A variety of specialists work with
the layout man to turn out the finish­
ed product. These include renderers,
who use magic markers to make
rough drafts; letterers, who execute
appropriate lettering either freehand
or with mechanical aids; illus­
trators, who sketch and draw in more
finished form; and paste-up and
mechanical men, who cut and paste
basic parts of the advertisement or
other artwork by using a ruling pen
and other drafting tools. Some
workers, called general boardmen,
spend nearly all their time at the
drawing board performing many of
these specializations. Apprentices
help general boardmen or other
specialists by doing routine jobs such
as separating colors and cutting
mats.
In a small office, the art director
may perform the layout and board-

590

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

work with the aid of apprentices. In a
large office, the art director devel­
ops concepts with the copywriter;
sets standards; deals with clients; and
purchases needed photographs, il­
lustrations, lettering, and other art
work from freelancers.
Advertising artists create the con­
cept and artwork for a wide variety
of items. These include direct mail
advertising, catalogs, counter dis­
plays, slides, and film strips. They
also design or lay out the editorial
pages and features and produce or
purchase the necessary illustrations
or artwork. Some commercial artists
specialize in producing fashion il­
lustrations, greeting cards, or book
illustrations, or in making technical
drawings for industry.
Places of Employment

About 60,000 persons, two-fifths
of them women, worked as com­
mercial artists in 1972. Although
some commercial artists can be
found in nearly every city, the ma­
jority work in large cities, such as
New York and Chicago, where the
largest users of commercial art are
located.
Most commercial artists work as
staff artists for advertising agencies,
commercial art studios, advertising
departments of large companies,
printing and publishing firms, textile
companies, television and motion
picture studios, department stores,
and a variety of other business
organizations. Many are selfemployed or freelance artists. Some
salaried commercial artists also do
freelance work in their spare time.
About 2,500 commercial artists
work for Federal Government agen­
cies, principally in the Defense
Department. A few teach in art
schools.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Artistic ability and good taste are




the most important qualifications for ability to visualize ideas on paper are
success in commercial art. How­ basic requirements for a successful
ever, these qualities must be devel­ career in commercial art.
oped by specialized training in the
The various specialities, however,
techniques of commercial and differ in some of the specific abilities
applied art. Education in the fine required. For example, letterers and
arts—painting, sculpture, or archi­ retouchers must do precise and de­
tecture—and in academic studies tailed work that requires excellent
generally provides a good founda­ coordination, whereas illustrators
tion for obtaining employment in and designers need imagination, a
commercial art, and may be es­ distinctive art style, and, in most
sential for promotion.
cases, the ability to draw well. Some
The most widely accepted train­ experience with photography,
ing for commercial art is the instruc­ typography, and printing produc­
tion given in art schools or institutes tion is useful in art direction or
that specialize in commercial and design. Freelance commercial artists
applied art. To enter art school, an must sell both ideas and finished
applicant must usually have a high work to clients. A knowledge of type
school education. Some schools ad­ specifications and printing produc­
mit only applicants who submit tion methods is very helpful. A busi­
acceptable work samples. The course ness sense and responsibility in meet­
of study, which may include some ing deadlines are assets, also. Art
academic work, generally takes 2 or directors need a strong educational
3 years, and a certificate is awarded background in art and business prac­
on graduation. A growing number of tices and the liberal arts. Advertis­
art schools, particularly those in or ing art directors require a special
connected with universities, require 4 kind of creativity—the ability to con­
years or more of study and confer a ceive ideas that will stimulate the
bachelor’s degree—commonly the sale of the client’s products or ser­
bachelor of fine arts (B.F.A.). In vices.
Beginning commercial artists
these schools, commercial art in­
usually need some on-the-job train­
struction is supplemented by liberal
art courses, such as English and ing to qualify for other than strictly
history. Limited training in com­ routine work. Advancement is based
mercial art also may be obtained largely on the individual’s artistic
through public vocational high talent, creative ability, and educa­
schools and practical experience on the tion. After considerable experience,
job. However, supplemental training many salaried commercial artists
leave to do freelance work. Most il­
usually is needed for advancement.
The first year in art school may be lustrators are freelancers; many of
devoted primarily to the study of them have an agent.
Commercial artists usually assem­
fundamentals—perspective, design,
ble their best artwork into a “port­
color harmony, composition—and to
the use of pencil, crayon, pen and folio,” to display their work. A good
ink, and other art media. Sub­ portfolio is essential in obtaining in­
sequent study, generally more itial employment and freelance
specialized, includes drawing from assignments as well as for job
life, advertising design, graphic changes.
Usually, commercial artists are
design, lettering, typography, il­
able to see the results of their work.
lustrations, and other courses in the
Employment Outlook
student’s particular field of interest.
Artistic judgment, imagination, and
Talented and well-trained com­

DESIGN OCCUPATIONS

mercial artists are expected to have
favorable opportunities for employ­
ment and advancement in most kinds
of work through the mid-1980’s.
However, young people with only
average ability and little specialized
training probably will encounter
competition for beginning jobs and
have limited opportunity for ad­
vancement.
Employment of commercial artists
is expected to increase moderately
through the 1980’s, however. One
reason is an anticipated increase in
business expenditures for visual
advertising such as television
graphics, packaging design, and
poster and window displays. The ex­
panding field of industrial design
also is expected to require more
qualified artists to do three-dimen­
sional work with engineering con­
cepts. (See statement in Industrial
Designers.) In addition, several thou­
sand jobs for commercial artists are
expected to be open each year
through the mid-1980’s as a result of
employment growth and to replace
workers who will die, retire, or leave
the field for other reasons.
The demand for commercial ar­
tists is expected to vary by special­
ization. For example, demand for
pasteup and mechanical artists is ex­
pected to increase slightly; jobs for
designers, art directors, and layout
men will be fewer, much sought
after, and open only to experienced,
highly talented, and creative artists.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

In 1972, beginning commercial ar­
tists having no training beyond voca­
tional high school typically earned
from $80 to $85 a week; graduates of
2-year professional schools, about
$90 a week; and graduates of 4-year
post-high school programs, $90 to
$100 a week, according to the limited
data available. Talented artists who




591

had strong educational backgrounds
and good portfolios, however,
started at higher salaries. After a few
years of experience, qualified artists
may expect to earn $125 to $200 a
week or more. Art directors,
designers, executives, well-known
freelance illustrators, and others in
top positions generally have much
higher earnings, from $300 to $400 a
week or more.
Earnings of freelance artists vary
widely, since they are affected by fac­
tors such as skill level, variety, and
popularity of work. In general, in
1972, freelancers received from $25
for a single black-and-white fashion
sketch to $750 for a figure in full
color with a background; from $1,000 to $2,000 for a color cover for a
national magazine; or from $75 to
$300 for a book jacket or record
album. Freelance artists may be paid
by the hour or by the assignment.
Experienced pasteup and mechani­
cal artists may earn between $4 and
$8 an hour.
Salaried commercial artists gener­
ally work 35 to 40 hours a week, but
sometimes they must work addi­
tional hours and under a con­
siderable amount of pressure in order
to meet deadlines. Freelance artists
usually have irregular working
hours.
Sources of Additional
Information

Information on employment op­
portunities in commercial art is
available from:
National Art Education Association,
National Education Association,
1201 16th St. NW ., Washington,
D.C. 20036.

DISPLAYMEN
(RETAIL TRADE)
(D.O.T. 298.081)
Nature of the Work

It happens every shopping day: A
woman browsing through a clothing
store notices a mannequin wearing
an attractive pants suit and without
having planned to, takes a similar
outfit home. A fishing enthusiast
sees a display of angling equipment
in a sporting goods store window,
goes in, and buys a new reel. A young
mother is attracted by a colorful
pyramid of lunch boxes in a drug­
store window and decides to buy one
for her son.
Incidents like these show how dis­
plays in stores and store windows can
attract customers and encourage
them to buy. Knowing the effective­
ness of this form of advertising, some
stores allot a large share of their pub­
licity budget to displays.
Displaymen specialize in design­
ing and installing such exhibits.
Their aim is to develop attractive,
eye-catching ways of showing store
merchandise to best advantage. To
create a setting that enhances the
merchandise, displaymen need imag­
ination as well as knowledge of
color harmony, composition, and
other fundamentals of art. They
m ay, for ex am p le, choose a
theme—a beach setting to advertise
swimming suits and surfing equip­
ment—and design an eye-catching
display around this theme. After the
design has been approved by the
store’s management, displaymen ob­
tain the props and other accessories
needed for the display. This is where
their craft skills come into play.
Displaymen construct many of the
props themselves. They use saws,
pliers, stapling guns, hammers, and
other tools to build props and paint
them with brushes or spray guns.
They may be assisted in these tasks

592

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

ty of tasks that require both artistic
talents and craft skills.
Geographically, employment is
distributed much like the Nation’s
population, with most jobs in larger
towns and cities.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Displayman arranges items in aisle display.

by a helper or store maintenance
men. Displaymen may also use props
out of storage, designed for previous
displays. They may order additional
props from firms which specialize in
them. The displaymen install the
props, background settings, and
lighting equipment; dress man­
nequins; and add other finishing
touches. Periodically, they dis­
mantle old displays and replace them
with new ones.
In large stores that employ several
displaymen, each may specialize in a
particular activity such as car­
pentry, painting, making signs,
installing displays, or dressing
mannequins. Overall planning and
admistration in large stores is usually
the responsibility of a display direc­
tor who supervises and coordinates
the activities of the department. The
director confers with other execu­
tives, such as advertising and sales




managers, to select merchandise to
be promoted and to design displays.
Places of Employment

About 33,000 displaymen worked
in retail stores in 1972; nearly half
were women. Most worked for
department, clothing, and home­
furnishing stores, others in variety,
drug, and shoe stores and in book
and gift shops. Several thousand
additional freelance or self-employed
displaymen serviced small stores that
needed professional window dress­
ing but that could not afford full­
time displaymen. Freelancers are
among the most highly-skilled
workers in this field.
While major department stores
may have as many as 30 or 40 dis­
playmen, most stores have only one
or two. Freelance displaymen and
those on small staffs perform a varie­

Most displaymen learn their trade
through informal on-the-job train­
ing. Beginners are hired as helpers to
dismantle displays, carry props, and
do other routine tasks. Gradually,
they are given the opportunity to do
more difficult work such as building
props and, if they show artistic
talent, planning simple designs. A
beginner usually can become a skill­
ed displaymen in 2 to 3 years. Train­
ing time varies, however, depending
on the beginner’s ability and the
variety and complexity of displays
that the employer requires.
When hiring inexperienced work­
ers, most employers will consider
only applicants who have finished
high school. Courses that provide
helpful training for display work in­
clude art, woodworking, mechanical
drawing, and merchandising. Some
employers prefer applicants who
have completed college courses in
art, interior decorating, fashion de­
sign, advertising, and related sub­
jects. College training improves the
worker’s opportunities for advance­
ment to managerial jobs.
Creative ability, manual dexterity,
and mechanical aptitude are among
the most im p o rtan t personal
qualifications needed in this field.
Good physical condition and agility
are needed to carry equipment, climb
ladders, and work in close quarters
without upsetting props.
Advancement may take several
forms. A displayman with super­
visory ability might become display
director in a large store. A display
director might in turn progress to

593

DESIGN OCCUPATIONS

sales promotion director and, per­
haps, ev en tu ally , to g en eral
manager.
Freelance work is another avenue
of advancement. Some moonlight at
this work until they have enough
clients for full-time work. Relatively
little money is needed to start a free­
lance business, but since this is a
highly competitive field, self-employ­
ment is likely to involve a struggle.
The displayman’s skills could lead
to work in other art-related occupa­
tions like interior decoration or
photography. These occupations,
however, require additional training.
Employment Outlook

A moderate rise in the employ­
ment of displaymen is expected
through the mid-1980’s. In addition
to employment growth, many open­
ings will arise each year to replace
experienced workers who retire, die,
or transfer to other occupations.
The chief spur to employment
gains is expected to be the con­
struction of additional stores as pop­
ulation grows. Also, many stores are
placing greater emphasis on window
and interior displays as a means to
stimulate sales. Employment growth,
however, may be slowed by the in­
creasing use of prefabricated props
and permanent background settings.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

According to many large em­
ployers, weekly salaries for be­
ginners ranged from $75 to $100 in
1972. Beginners who have com­
pleted college courses in art, interior
decorating, or related subjects
generally receive higher starting sala­
ries. Experienced displaymen’s sala­
ries range from $120 to $175 a week,
the variation depending largely on
experience and ability. Most display
directors earn more than $10,000 a




year, and some more than $15,000.
The earnings of freelance displaymen depend on their talent and pres­
tige, on the number and kinds of
stores they service, and on the
amounts of time they devote to the
work. Many freelancers earn more
than $15,000 a year, and some earn
more than $30,000.
Many displaymen enjoy the
satisfaction of doing creative work.
Developing an original design and
transforming it into reality can be a
highly rewarding experience.
Large stores usually provide
benefits that include paid vacations,
holidays, and sick leave. Most stores
also allow employees to buy mer­
chandise at a discount. Many pro­
vide employee retirement plans.
Displaymen usually work 35 to 40
hours a week. During busy seasons,
such as Christmas and Easter, they
may be asked to work nights and
weekends to prepare special dis­
plays. Those who work overtime re­
ceive either additional pay or else an
equal amount of time off during slow
periods.
Physical requirements must be
kept in mind when considering this
field. Constructing and installing
props frequently requires prolonged
standing, bending, stooping, and
working in awkward positions.
Displaymen risk injury from falls off
ladders, from contact with sharp or
rough materials, and from the use of
power tools, but serious injuries are
uncommon.
Sources of Additional
Information

Details on career opportunities
can be obtained from local retailers,
such as department stores, and from
local offices of the State employ­
ment service.

FLORAL DESIGNERS
(D.O.T. 142.081)
Nature of the Work

Floral designers assemble loose
flowers into arrangements for gifts
and decorations. These may range
from cheerful designs for hospital
patients to more traditional bridal
bouquets. Because flowers are gen­
erally used to express a customer’s
thoughts or sentiments, designers
must create arrangements appropri­
ate for the purpose.
Designers usually work from writ­
ten instructions which indicate the
customer’s preference for color and
type of flower, as well as the cost,
date, time and place the arrange­
ments are to be delivered. For most
orders, designers select a standard or
stock design.
Even with standard orders, de­
signers have a chance to use their
creative talents. For example, they
may select carnations in place of
chrysanthemums or white tulips for
calla lilies. To make these choices,
designers must understand the phys­
ical qualities of the flowers con­
cerned. For instance, some flowers
wither more quickly than others, and
some flowers can be sprayed with
dies that will shrivel others.
A standard order for a funeral de­
sign may read “red and white fu­
neral spray, $15.00.” Floral de­
signers know the customer expects
the flowers to be fixed to a stand,
rather than placed in a vase. They
choose appropriate flowers, for in­
stance, white gladioli and red carna­
tions. These flowers are right for the
occasion and within the cost limits of
the order. For the foundation, de­
signers use a block of styrofoam
slightly smaller than a telephone
book attached near the top of a
three-legged wire stand. The wide
surface of the styrofoam, facing the

594

viewer, is to be the center of the
arrangement.
Designers now choose among the
gladioli and carnations in the stor­
age refrigerator and take them to
their work tables. They cut the glad­
ioli stems to size and wire a small
wooden stake to each, slightly below
the bottom of the petals. They then
straighten the carnation stems with
wire inserted into the base of the
blossom and twisted around the
stem. These preparations ensure that
the gladioli stems will penetrate the
styrofoam and that the carnation
stems will remain rigid.
To make a frame and background
for the flowers, they insert green
leafy branches, such as fern, into the
styrofoam. Designers then add the
gladioli, making sure that they are
evenly spaced and that the tips of the
flowers approximate a circle. The
carnations are placed between the
gladioli to form a smaller circle and




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

lend color contrast. Designers make
a bow and place it in the center of the
arrangement. They add more foli­
age as needed to fill in spaces and to
give uniform texture. The order is
completed in about 15 minutes.
Special orders take more of the de­
signer’s time and creative effort. In
these cases, designers normally dis­
cuss the order with the customer. If
the customer, as a house guest, wants
an arrangement as a gift for his host­
ess, designers need to know whether
to make, for example, a dining table
centerpiece or living room decora­
tion. They ask, also, if one specific
flower or color scheme is preferred.
Finally, they need to know how
much the customer wishes to spend.
With this information in mind, de­
signers are ready to go to work. Cus­
tomers usually prefer designers to
use their own judgement to assem­
ble the arrangement. For this reason,
special orders give designers a better
chance to display their style and orig­
inality than do standard orders. Be­
cause they have wide latitude, the de­
sign may be one they have used pre­
viously, a new twist to a standard de­
sign, or completely original.
Some designers spend most of
their time Filling special orders. Be­
cause most retail florist shops sell
fewer arrangements than can be pre­
pared in a day, floral designers usual­
ly have other duties. They assist cus­
tomers in selecting flowers and
plants and other gifts and floral ac­
cessories available in the store. Oc­
casionally, they may order flowers
and supplies from dealers, trim and
water flowers for storage, and help
with the cleaning. In larger florist
shops, however, designers devote
most of their time to making
arrangements.
Places of Employment

About 30,000 floral designers were
employed in 1972. About three-fifths

were women. Nearly all designers
worked in the retail flower shops
common to large cities, suburban
shopping centers, and small towns.
The remaining few worked for large
grocery and variety stores. Most
shops employed only one or two
floral designers. Geographically, em­
ployment was distributed much the
same as population.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most floral designers are trained
on the job. Beginners usually are
hired as helpers. They prepare
flowers for storage, deliver orders,
and do general cleanup work. Shop
managers look for bright, eager
helpers, who have pleasant person­
alities and a neat appearance neces­
sary to deal effectively with cus­
tomers. After a few weeks, helpers
learn enough about flowers, potted
plants, and gift items to assist cus­
tomers in making selections.
Young people who want to be­
come floral designers usually take a
job with the understanding that they
will be trained in floral design by the
manager or an experienced floral de­
signer employed in the shop. Ini­
tially they copy simple arrange­
ments, that use one type of flower. If
they demonstrate manual dexterity
and a sense of balance for color and
shape instruction in more complex
arrangements is given. As experi­
ence is gained, original designs re­
quired for special orders can be at­
tempted. Two years of on-the-job
training usually are required in order
to become a fully qualified floral
designer.
Good color vision, manual dex­
terity, and an artistic sense of bal­
ance in line and color, are primary
qualifications for this occupation. A
high school diploma generally is not
required, but applicants must be able
to write legibly and do simple arith­

595

DESIGN OCCUPATIONS

fully qualified designers earned be­
tween $2.50 and $5.00 an hour in
1972. Beginning rates for trainees
ranged from $1.60 to $2 an hour. Be­
sides earning money, floral de­
signers achieve the satisfaction of do­
ing creative work and seeing their
ideas transformed into reality.
In small shops, floral designers
usually work 8 hours a day, Monday
through Saturday. In many large
shops, designers who work Saturday
get a day off during the week.
Most designers receive holiday
and vacation pay. Generally, they re­
ceive 2 week’s paid vacation after 3
years on the job, and 3 weeks after 10
years. Because most shops are small
other fringe benefits are limited.
Some employers pay part of the cost
of group life and health insurance but
few contribute to retirement plans
other than social security. Floral de­
signers in a few cities are members of
the Retail Clerks International
Association.
Floral designers must have the
stamina to work in a standing posi­
tion for long periods. Work areas are
kept cool and humid to preserve the
flowers. Designers are exposed to
sudden temperature changes when
entering or leaving storage refriger­
Employment Outlook
ators. Aside from the possibility of
Employment of floral designers is small cuts from knives or scratches
expected to increase very rapidly from flower thorns there are few haz­
through the mid-1980’s. Population ards in this occupation.
growth and rising levels of personal
income should result in a substantial
Sources of Additional
increase in orders for flowers and
Information
thus more designers will be needed.
Additional information about
In addition to job openings created
by employment growth, many open­ careers in floral design and ad­
ings will arise each year as workers dresses of schools offering courses in
retire, die, or change occupations this field can be obtained from:
and as women leave their jobs to
Society of American Florists and Or­
namental Horticulturists, 901 N.
marry or tend to family respon­
Washington St., Alexandria, Va.
sibilities.

metic in order to write up bills for
customers. High school courses in
business arithmetic, salesmanship,
and other business subjects are help­
ful. While still in school, a student
may work as a part-time helper in a
flower shop. Such jobs frequently be­
come available before holiday sea­
sons such as Christmas and Easter
when orders for floral arrangements
increase sharply.
An increasing number of floral de­
signers take courses in floral ar­
rangement in public and private
schools. Some courses are offered at
the junior college level. However,
whether they last from 6 weeks to 2
years, courses are not a substitute for
on-the-job training and experience.
The longer courses provide training
in flower marketing and shop man­
agement for floral designers who
plan to operate their own shops.
Only applicants with high school di­
plomas are accepted.
Floral designers have limited ad­
vancement possibilities. Those with
supervisory ability may advance to
manager in large flower shops. Man­
agers who have the necessary capital
may open their own shops.

22314.

Earnings and Working
Conditions

Limited information indicates that




INDUSTRIAL DESIGNERS
(D.O.T. 142.081)
Nature of the Work

When someone buys a product,
whether it’s a home appliance, a new
car, or a ball point pen, he wants it to
be attractive as well as useful. In­
dustrial designers combine artistic
talent with knowledge of marketing,
materials, machines, and methods
of production to improve the ap­
pearance and functional design of
products.
Since the consuming public has
wide choices of styles in products
such as radios, television sets, and
furniture, a primary objective of the
industrial designer is to design a
product that competes favorably
with similar goods on the market. A
successfully designed consumer
product must have an attractive ap­
pearance, be easy to use, and co­
ordinate well with related products
while having its cost of manufacture
as low as possible. Besides consumer
products, industrial designers work
with industrial, medical, and sci­
entific equipment. Frequently, they
redesign these products to make
them easier to use.
As the first step in their work, in­
dustrial designers study the product
and competing products to de­
termine the different ways in which
the product may be used. Then they
sketch a variety of possible designs
and consult with others, such as en­
gineers, production supervisors, and
sales and market research person­
nel, for their opinions on the practi­
cability and sales appeal of each
idea.
After company officials select the
most suitable design, a model is
made. In some firms this model is
made by the industrial designer, in
others by professional modelers. The
first model of a new design is often
made of clay so the designer can easi-

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK
596

terials. In schools that have the nec­
ly change it. The final or working Training, Other Qualifications,
essary machinery, students gain ex­
and Advancement
model is usually made of the mate­
perience in making models of their
rial to be used in the finished prod­
Completing a course of study in designs while learning to use metal­
uct. If the model is approved in this industrial design in an art school, the working and woodworking machin­
form, it is put into production.
design or art department of a uni­ ery. Students also take basic and ab­
Some industrial designers seek to versity, or a technical college is the stract art and sculpture courses.
create favorable public images for usual requirement for entering this Some schools require courses in
companies and for government-pro­ field of work. Persons from other basic engineering and composition of
vided services such as transporta­ fields, however, notably engineer­ materials. Courses in business ad­
tion, by developing trademarks or ing, architecture, and fine arts, may ministration and merchandising can
symbols that appear on the firm’s qualify as industrial designers if they be helpful in getting a job.
product, advertising, brochures, and have appropriate experience and ar­
Industrial designers must have cre­
stationery. Some design containers tistic talent. Most of the large manu­ ative talent, drawing skills, and the
and packages which must both pro­ facturing firms will only hire indus­ ability to see familiar objects in new
tect and promote their contents. trial designers who have a bache­ ways. They must also understand the
Others prepare small exhibits for dis­ lor’s degree in the field.
needs and tastes of the public, rather
play purposes or design the entire
In 1972, over 60 colleges and art than design only to suit their own ar­
layout for industrial fairs. Some de­ schools offered programs or courses tistic sensitivity. Designers should
sign the interior layout of special in industrial design. The Industrial not be easily discouraged when their
purpose commercial buildings such Designers Society of America rec­ ideas are rejected—often designs
as restaurants and supermarkets.
ognizes 25 of these programs as ef­ must be resubmitted many times be­
Industrial designers employed by a fective in preparing average students fore one is accepted. Since industrial
manufacturing company usually for em ploym ent as in dustrial designers are required to cooperate
work only on the products made by designers.
with engineers and other staff
their employer, but this too can vary
Formal education in industrial de­ members, the ability to work and
from filling the day-to-day design sign at the college or university level communicate well with others is im­
needs of the company to long-range usually takes 4 years to complete; a portant. Those who plan to practice
planning for new products. De­ few schools require 5 years of study. industrial designing on a consulting
signers who work as consultants to These schools award a bachelor s basis should understand business
more than one industrial firm may degree in industrial design or fine practices and have sales ability.
plan and design a great variety of arts; some also award a master s
Applicants for jobs should assem­
ble a “ portfolio” that demonstrates
products.
degree.
Entrance to a course of study in in­ their creative talent and ability to
Places of Employment
dustrial design is limited, with rare communicate ideas through draw­
About 10,000 persons—mostly exceptions, to qualified high school ings and sketches.
New graduates of industrial de­
men—worked as industrial de­ graduates; in addition, some schools
require students to present sketches sign courses frequently start as as­
signers in 1972. Most worked for
large manufacturing companies or and other examples of their artistic sistants to experienced designers.
They are usually given relatively sim­
design consulting firms. Others did ability.
Industrial design programs ditter ple design assignments. As they gain
freelance work, or were on the staffs
of architectural and interior design considerably among schools. Some experience, designers may be as­
stress the engineering and technical signed to supervisory positions with
firms.
Industrial designers in consulting aspects of the field, while others give major responsibility for the design of
firms work mainly in large cities. For students a strong background in art. a product or a group of products.
example, New York, Chicago, Los In a typical industrial design pro­ Those who have an established repu­
Angeles, and San Francisco have the gram much time is spent in the major tation in the field, as well as the nec­
largest number of design consulting design lab, where the student can essary funds, may start their own
organizations. Those in industrial practice designing objects in three consulting firms.
firms work in the manufacturing dimensions. In the studio course, stu­
Employment Outlook
plants of their companies, which dents learn to make working draw­
ings and models with clay, wood,
often are located in small—and
New entrants trained specifically
plaster, and other easily worked ma­
medium—size cities.




DESIGN OCCUPATIONS

in industrial designing may face
competition for beginning jobs from
persons with engineering, architec­
tural, and related backgrounds who
have artistic and creative talent. Em­
ployers, however, will actively seek
applicants with a design degree and
outstanding talent.
Employment in this relatively
small occupation is expected to ex­
pand slowly but steadly through the
mid-1980’s. Growing population and
rising incomes will create markets
for newly designed products. This
creates jobs for industrial designers
because as in the past, manu­
facturers will strive to increase their
sales through creating new products,
improving existing ones, and im­
proving the packaging and appear­
ance of their products.
Frequent redesign of household
products, automobiles, and indus­
trial equipment has always created a
need for designers. However, recent­
ly there has been some indication of
a trend away from annual style
changes which may somewhat lessen
demand for industrial designers.
Small companies probably will
make increasing use of services
offered by industrial design consult­
ing Firms to compete more effec­
tively with larger Firms. However,
some of these services, such as trade­
mark and package design, could be
offered by advertising agencies as
well as industrial design consultants.
Some employment opportunities
also will arise each year from the
need to replace designers who die, re­
tire, or leave the Field.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

Starting salaries for inexperi­
enced industrial designers with a
bachelor’s degree generally ranged
from $7,000 to $10,000 a year in
1972, according to limited data.
After several years experience, it is




597

possible to earn $10,000 to $15,000 a
year. Salaries of those with many
years of experience averaged about
$20,000 a year, but varied greatly de­
pending on factors such as individ­
ual talent and the size and type of
Firm in which they work.
Earnings of industrial designers
who own their consulting firms,
alone or as members of a partner­
ship, may fluctuate markedly from
year to year. In recent years, earn­
ings of most consultants were
between $20,000 and $30,000 and
heads of large well-known firms
earned considerably more. '
Sources of Additional
Information

A brochure about careers and a
list of schools offering courses and
degrees in industrial design are avail­
able, for 50 cents from:
Industrial D esigners Society o f
America, 1750 Old Meadow Rd.,
McLean, Va. 22101.

INTERIOR DESIGNERS
(D.O.T. 142.051)
Nature of the Work

The creative work of interior
designers, sometimes called interior
decorators, helps make our living,
working, and playing areas more at­
tractive and useful. Interior design­
ers plan and supervise the design and
arrangement of building interiors
and furnishings. They help clients
select furniture, draperies, other
fabrics, floor coverings, and acces­
sories. They also estimate what any
work or furnishings will cost. Inte­
rior designers may do “ boardwork”, particularly on large assign­
ments. This boardwork includes
work on floor plans and elevations

and the preparation of sketches or
other perspective drawings so clients
can visualize their plans. After the
client approves both the plans and
the cost, the designer may make
arrangements for buying the furnish­
ings; for supervising the work of
painters, floor finishers, cabinet
makers, carpet layers, and other
craftsmen; and for installing and
arranging the furnishings.
Many large department and furni­
ture stores have separate design
departments to advise their cus­
tomers on decorating and design
plans. The main purpose of the
designers in these departments is to
help sell the store’s merchandise, al­
though m aterials from outside
sources may be used occasionally
when they are essential to the plans
developed for the customer. Depart­
ment store designers frequently ad­
vise the store’s buyers and execu­
tives about style and color trends in
interior furnishings.
Interior designers may work on
private homes or commercial build­
ings. Those who specialize in com­
mercial structures often work for
clients on large design projects such
as the interiors of entire office build­
ings, hospitals, and libraries. Gener­
ally their plans include the complete
layout of the rooms within the space
allowed by the exterior walls and
other framework. Sometimes they
redesign or renovate the interiors of
old buildings. When their plans have
been completed, an architect checks
them against building plans to as­
sure compliance with building re­
quirements and to solve structural
problems. Some interior designers
also design the furniture and acces­
sories to be used in interiors, and
then arrange for their manufacture.
A few interior designers have un­
usual jobs such as designing inte­
riors of ships and aircraft, while
others design stage sets used for mo­
tion pictures or television.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

598

textile manufacturers, or other
manufacturers in the interior fur­
About 18,000 persons—half of nishing field.
them men—worked as interior
Interior designers may work for
designers in 1972. Additional per­ magazines that feature articles on
sons worked in this field on a part- home furnishings. Some large indus­
time basis. Most workers in this oc­ trial corporations employ interior
cupation are employed in large cities. designers on a permanent basis.
Some interior designers own their
own establishment, either alone or as
members of a firm with other design­ Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
ers. Many sell some or all of the
Formal training in interior design
merchandise with which they work.
Designers may work independently is becoming increasingly important
or as assistants and sometimes have for entrance into this field of work.
large staffs, including salespersons. Most department stores, well estab­
Other interior designers work in lished design firms, and other major
large department or furniture stores, employers will accept only profes­
and a few have permanent jobs with sionally trained people for begin­
hotel and restaurant chains. Some ning jobs. In 1972, 15 schools offered
work for architects, furniture sup­ 2-year programs leading to an
pliers, antique dealers, furniture and Associate Degree in Interior Design,
Places of Employment




seven schools had 3-year programs,
66 colleges and universities offered a
bachelor’s degree in the field, and 23
had programs leading to a master’s
degree or the Ph.D. The course of
study usually includes the principles
of design, history of art, freehand
and mechanical drawing, painting,
study of the essentials of archi­
tecture as they relate to interiors, de­
sign of furniture and exhibitions, and
study of various materials, such as
woods, plastics, metals, and fabrics.
A knowledge of furnishings, art
pieces, and antiques is important. In
addition, courses in salesmanship,
business procedures, and other busi­
ness subjects are valuable.
M em bership in e ith e r the
American Institute of Interior
Designers (AID) or the National
Society of In terio r Designers
(NSID), both professional societies,
is a recognized mark of achievement
in this profession. Membership usu­
ally requires the completion of 3 or 4
years of post-high school education;
the major emphasis should be on
training in design. Another require­
ment is several years of practical ex­
perience in the field, including super­
visory work.
Young people starting in interior
design usually serve a training
period, either with design firms, in
department stores, or in furniture
stores. They may act as reception­
ists, as shoppers with the task of
matching materials or finding acces­
sories, or as stockroom assistants,
assistant decorators, or junior
designers. In most instances, from 1
to 5 years of on-the-job training is re­
quired before a trainee is considered
eligible for advancement to the job of
designer. Beginners who do not get
trainee jobs often work selling fabric,
lamp, or other interior furnishings to
gain experience in dealing with cus­
tomers and to become familiar with
the merchandise. This experience
often makes getting trainee jobs in

599

DESIGN OCCUPATIONS

design easier; it also may lead to a
career in merchandising.
After considerable experience,
designers with ability may advance
to design department head, interior
furnishings coordinator, or to other
supervisory positions in department
stores or in large design firms. If they
have the necessary funds, they may
open their own establishments. Ex­
ceptionally talented people can ad­
vance rapidly.
Artistic talent—color sense, good
taste, imagination—, good business
judgement, and the ability to deal
with people are important assets for
success in this field. Interior design­
ers should be able to work with de­
tail. An advantage to interior design
as a career is the satisfaction of see­
ing the results of one’s work.
Employment Outlook

Persons seeking beginning jobs in
interior designing probably will face
competition through the mid-1980’s.
Interior designing is a competitive
field that requires talent, training,
and business ability, and many appli­
cants vie for the better jobs. Tal­
ented art school or college graduates
who major in interior design will find
good opportunity for employment.
Those with less talent or without for­
mal training will find it increasingly
difficult to enter this field.
Employment of interior designers
is expected to increase moderately
through the mid-80’s. Population
growth, more families with high in­
comes, larger expenditures for home
and office furnishings, the increas­
ing availability of well-designed fur­
nishings at moderate prices, a grow­
ing recognition among middle-in­
come families of the value of design
services, and increasing use of these
services by commercial establish­
ments should contribute to a greater
demand for these workers. In addi­
tion to new jobs, some openings will



be created by the need to replace
designers who die, retire, or leave the
field.
Department and furniture stores
are expected to employ an increas­
ing number of designers. These
stores also are expected to share in
the growing volume of design work
for commercial establishments and
public buildings, formerly handled
almost entirely by independent
designers. This development will re­
sult in increased opportunities for
salaried jobs. However, some stores
prefer giving design courses to their
salesworkers instead of hiring train­
ed persons. Interior design firms also
are expected to continue to expand.
Employment of interior designers,
however, is sensitive to change in
general economic conditions, be­
cause people often forego design
services when the economy slows
down.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

Earnings of interior designers vary
greatly depending on the parts of the
country and the types of firms in
which they work. Beginning salaries
ranged generally from $75 to $100 a
week in 1972 for an art school or col­
lege graduate having formal train­
ing in interior design; some gradu­
ates of 3— or 4—
year programs re­
ceived salaries between $125 and
$150 a week, according to the lim­
ited data available.
Some interior designers are paid
straight salaries. Some receive sala­
ries and commissions which usually
range from 5 to 10 percent of the
value of their sales. Others receive
commissions only, which may be as
much as one-third of the value of
their sales.
Many persons who have only aver­
age skill in this field earn only
moderate incomes—from $5,000 to
$10,000 a year, even after many

years of experience. Talented design­
ers who are well-known in their
localities may earn up to $15,000 or
more. Designers who have nation­
ally recognized ability may earn over
$25,000 yearly.
The earnings of self-employed
designers vary widely depending on
the volume of business, their profes­
sional prestige, the economic levels
of their clients, their own business
competence, and the percentage of
wholesale prices they receive from
the sale of furnishings.
Hours of work for designers are
sometimes long and irregular.
Designers usually adjust their work­
day to suit the needs of their clients,
meeting with them during the eve­
nings or on weekends, when
necessary.
Sources of Additional
Information

For information about careers in
interior design and a list of schools
offering programs in this field, con­
tact:
National Society of Interior Design­
ers, Inc., 312 East 62nd St., New
York, N .Y . 10021.
American Institute of Interior Design­
ers, 730 Fifth Ave., New York,
N.Y . 10019.
Foundation for Interior Design Educa­
tion Research, 1750 Old Meadow
Rd., McLean, Va. 22101.

LANDSCAPE
ARCHITECTS
(D.O.T. .019.081)
Nature of the Work

Everyone enjoys attractively de­
signed outdoor areas that have an
abundance of trees and shade along
with grassy open spaces, ponds, and

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

600

walkways free from dangerous traf­
fic. This attractiveness reflects the
skills of landscape architects who see
that commercial and recreational
areas have useful and natural-look­
ing landscapes.
Landscape architects assist many
types of organizations in planning
and designing a project, from a real
estate firm starting a new suburban
development to a city building an air­
port or park. They help plan and de­
sign the arrangement of trees, shrub­
bery, walkways, open spaces, and
other features of a project’s site, and
also may supervise the grading, con­
struction, and planting required to
carry out the plan.
In planning a site, landscape archi­
tects first study the nature and pur­
pose of the project, the funds avail­
able for the job, and the various
types of proposed buildings. Next
they study the site itself, observing
and mapping features such as the
slope of the land and the position of
existing buildings and trees. They
also consider the parts of the site that
will be sunny or shady at different
times of the day, the structure of the
soil, existing utilities, and many
other factors affecting a landscape’s
design. Then, after consultation with
the architect or engineer working on
the project, they draw up plans for
the development of the site. If the
plan is approved, landscape archi­
tects prepare working drawings
showing all existing and proposed
features such as buildings, roads,
walkways, terraces, grading, and
drainage structures in planted areas.
Landscape architects outline in de­
tail the methods of constructing fea­
tures and draw up lists of building
materials. They then may invite
landscape contractors to bid for the
work.
Landscape architects help design
and supervise a wide variety of proj­
ects. Some, however, specialize in
certain types of projects such as



parks and playgrounds, campuses,
hotels and resorts, shopping centers,
roads, or public housing. Still others
may specialize in certain services
such as regional planning and re­
source management, site selection,
feasibility and cost studies, or site
construction.
Places of Employment

About 12,000 persons worked as
landscape architects in 1972; 10 to 15
percent were women. Most land­
scape architects are self-employed or
work for private architectural, land­
scape architectural, or engineering
firms. Government agencies con­
cerned with public housing, city plan­
ning, urban renewal, highways,
parks, and recreation, employed
about 40 percent of all landscape
architects. The Federal Government
employed about 600 landscape archi­
tects, mainly in the Departments of
Agriculture, Defense, Interior, and
Housing and Urban Development.
Some landscape architects were em­
ployed by landscape contractors, and
a few taught in colleges and univer­
sities.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A bachelor’s degree in landscape
architecture is usually the minimum
educational requirement for enter­
ing the profession. At least 64 col­
leges and universities offer this train­
ing; 28 of these have accreditation
from the American Society of Land­
scape Architects. Another 36 schools
offer courses in landscape archi­
tecture, but not complete degree pro­
grams. The curriculum for a bache­
lor’s degree requires 4 to 5 years of
study depending on the institution.
Twelve universities offer a master’s
degree in landscape architecture.
Entrance requirements for land­
scape architecture programs are usu­

ally the same as those for admission
to a liberal arts college. Some col­
leges require completion of a high
school course in mechanical or geo­
metrical drawing, and most schools
advise high school students to take
courses in art, botany, and more
mathematics than the minimum re­
quired for college entrance.
College courses include such tech­
nical subjects as surveying, land­
scape and architectural design, land­
scape construction, plant materials
and design, sketching, recreational
and city planning, co n tracts,
specifications, cost estimates, and
business practices. Other courses in­
clude horticulture and botany as well
as English, science, social sciences,
and mathematics. Most college pro­
grams also include Field trips to view
and study examples of landscape
architecture.
Twenty-six States require a license
for independent practice of land­
scape arc h ite c tu re —A labam a,
Arizona, California, Colorado,
Connecticut, Florida, Georgia,
Hawaii, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky,
L ouisiana, M aryland, M assa­
chusetts, Michigan, Nebraska, New
York, N orth C arolina, Ohio,
Oregon, Pennsylvania, Tennessee,
Texas, Utah, Washington, and West
Virginia. Admission to the licensing
examination usually requires a de­
gree from an accredited school of
landscape architecture plus 2 to 4
years of experience. For admission to
the licensing examination, lengthy
apprenticeship training (6-8 years)
under an experienced landscape
architect may be substituted for col­
lege training, however, this method is
slow and not always acceptable to
public agencies.
Persons planning careers in land­
scape architecture should be inter­
ested in art and nature since the work
requires a talent for design and an
understanding of plant life. Self-em­
ployed landscape architects also

DESIGN OCCUPATIONS

must understand business practices
and be able to deal with others since
it is often necessary to bid for con­
tracts. Working for landscape archi­
tects or landscape contractors dur­
ing summer vacations helps a per­
son to understand the practical prob­
lems of the profession, and the ex­
perience may be helpful for gaining
employment after graduation.
New graduates usually begin as
junior draftsmen, tracing drawings
and doing other simple drafting
work. After gaining experience, they
may help prepare specifications and
details of construction procedures
and handle other aspects of land­
scape architecture. After 2 or 3 years
they usually become qualified to
carry a design through all stages of
its development. Those who work for
private firms and demonstrate excep­
tional ability in all phases of the
work may become associates of the
firm; landscape architects who pro­
gress this far, however, often open
their own office.




601

standards along with increased
homeownership will also increase the
Employment opportunities for demand for landscape architects.
graduates with professional training
in landscape architecture are ex­
Earnings and Working
pected to be favorable through the
Conditions
mid-1980’s. Very rapid growth is ex­
pected for the profession and addi­ In 1972, starting salaries in pri­
tional workers will be needed to re­ vate firms for new graduates having
place those who die or retire.
a bachelor’s degree in landscape
A major factor underlying the in­ architecture ranged from about $8,creased demand for landscape archi­ 000 to $12,000 annually; holders of a
tects is the growing interest in city master’s degree generally earned
and regional environmental plan­ starting salaries between $9,500 and
ning. Metropolitan areas will re­ $13,500. Earnings of experienced
quire landscape architects to help landscape architects in private firms
plan the development of land for the were very high—$16,000 to $21,000
efficient and safe use of their grow­ a year in 1972—compared to aver­
ing populations. Legislation to pro­ age earnings of nonsupervisory
mote environmental protection could workers in private industry, except
spur demand for landscape archi­ farming.
tects to participate in planning and Landscape architects in inde­
designing a growing number of pendent practice often earn more
public and private construction proj­
with con­
ects, particularly for housing, trans­ than salaried employees their earn­
siderable experience, but
portation, and outdoor recreation. ings may fluctuate widely from year
Rising average incomes and living to year.
The Federal Government, in early
1973, paid new graduates with a
bachelor’s degree annual salaries of
$7,694 or $9,520 depending on their
qualifications. Those with advanced
degrees had starting salaries ranging
from $11,614 to $16,682 a year.
Salaried employees both in
government and in landscape archi­
tectural firms usually work regular
hours. Self-employed persons often
work long hours. Salaried employ­
ees in private firms may also work
overtime during seasonal rush peri­
ods or to meet a deadline.
Employment Outlook

Sources of Additional
Information

Additional information including
a list of colleges and universities
offering accredited courses of study
in landscape architecture may be ob­
tained from:

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

602
American Society of Landscape Archi­
tecture, Inc., 1750 Old Meadow
Rd., McLean, Va. 22101.

For information on a career as a
landscape architect in the Forest
Service, write to:
U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Forest Service, Washington, D.C.
20250.

P H O TO G R AP H ER S

(D.O.T. 143.062, .282 and .382)
Nature of the Work

Photographers use their cameras
and other equipment to portray peo­
ple and events on Film. Skillful por­
trait photographers, for example,
take pictures that are natural look­
ing, attractive, and expressive of an
individual’s personality. Those who
photograph sporting and news events
try to show the exciting action as it is
occurring.
Although their work varies, all
photographers use the same basic
equipment and materials. These in­
clude a variety of still and motion
picture cameras equipped with
different types of light Filters and
lenses. Photographers select Film and
Filters according to the type of pic­
ture being taken, the camera, and the
lighting. Because the procedures for
taking motion pictures differ from
those used in still photography, most
photographers restrict themselves to
one Field or the other. When taking
pictures indoors or after dark,
photographers use flash bulbs or
electronic flashes, floodlights, reflec­
tors, or other special lighting equip­
ment. They also use various chemi­
cal and mechanical processes to
develop, enlarge, and print pictures.
In small shops and photographic
departments, the photographer often
does all this technical work; in large



studios photographic technicians do
the needed laboratory work. (See
statement on Photographic Labora­
tory Occupations.)
In addition to knowing how to use
photographic equipment and mate­
rials, photographers must know how
to arrange their subjects properly
against a setting, and how to use
makeup and props.
Many photographers specialize in
areas such as portrait, commercial,
or industrial photography. Portrait
photographers usually work in their
own studios, although they also take
pictures in people’s homes and other
places. Commercial photographers
generally take pictures to advertise
real estate, furniture, food, apparel,
and other items. The work of indus­
trial photographers is used in com­
pany publications and to advertise
company products or services. These
photographers also may take motion
pictures of workers operating equip­
ment and machinery for manage­
ment’s use in simplifying production
or work methods.
Other photographic specialties in­
clude press photography (photo­
journalism that combines a “nose for
news” with photographic ability);
aerial photography; instrumentation
photography; educational photog­
raphy (preparing slides, Filmstrips,
and movies for use in the class­
room); and science and engineering
photography (the development of
photographic techniques for use in
space research and related Fields).
Places of Employment

Approximately 77,000 peo­
ple—over three-fourths of them
men—worked as photographers in
1972. About one-half worked in
commercial studios, either in busi­
ness for themselves or as salaried
employees. Large numbers also were
employed by industry, government
agencies, camera stores, and news­

papers and magazines. In addition,
some photographers taught in high
schools or colleges, sold photo­
graphic equipment and supplies, or
produced documentary Films. Still
others worked freelance, taking pic­
tures to sell to advertisers, maga­
zines, and other customers.
Jobs for photographers are found
in small towns as well as cities, but
most are concentrated in heavily
populated States such as California,
New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and
Illinois.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Young people may prepare for
work as professional photographers
through 2 or 3 years of on-the-job
training in a commercial studio.
Trainees generally start in the dark­
room where they learn to develop
film and to do photo-printing and en­
larging. Later they may set up lights
and cameras, or help an experienced
photographer take pictures.
Photographic training also is
available in many colleges, univer­
sities, junior colleges, and art

DESIGN OCCUPATIONS

schools. About 134 colleges and uni­
versities offer 4-year curriculums
leading to a bachelor’s degree in
photography and related subjects.
These curriculums include liberal
arts subjects as well as courses in
professional photography. Master’s
and doctor’s degrees in specialized
areas, such as color photography,
also are granted by some colleges
and universities. In addition, a few
colleges have 2-year curriculums
leading to a certificate or an associ­
ate’s degree in photography. Art
schools offer useful training in de­
sign, although they usually do not
provide the technical training needed
for camera work. (See statement on
Commercial Artists.)
The Federal Government spon­
sors programs to train unemployed
and underemployed workers for en­
try positions as photographers under
provisions of the Manpower
Development and Training Act and
other legislation. Many young people
also learn photographic skills while
serving in the Armed Forces.
The kind and amount of training
people have influence the type of
photographic work for which they
can qualify. While amateur experi­
ence is helpful in getting an entry job,
considerable post-high school train­
ing and experience usually are need­
ed for industrial, news, or scientific
photography. Photographic work in
scientific and engineering research
generally requires a background in
science and engineering, as well as
skill in photography.
Prospective photographers should
have manual dexterity, good eye­
sight and color vision and some ar­
tistic ability. They also should like to
work with detail, and should have a
pleasant and courteous manner.
Some forms of photography require
additional qualities; a photographer
in commercial or freelance work
must be imaginative and original in
his thinking. One in press photog­



603

raphy should be able to judge what
would make a good news picture and
act quickly on his judgment.
Newly hired photographers take
relatively simple still and motion pic­
tures. After gaining experience they
may advance to higher-paying jobs
that require artistic ability. Many
press photographers, for example,
advance from filming real estate to
covering national news events.
Others join staffs of news maga­
zines. Photographers with excep­
tional ability may be promoted to ex­
ecutive positions, such as director of
scientific and engineering photog­
raphy or graphic arts.
Employment Outlook

Hundreds of talented and welltrained people will be needed each
year through the mid-1980’s to fill
new positions created by an ex­
pected growth in the photographic
field, and to replace those who re­
tire, die, or stop working for other
reasons. Those with limited ability
and training, however, are likely to
face competition and find few oppor­
tunities for advancement.
Job opportunities in technical
work, such as industrial photogra­
phy, are expected to increase mod­
erately as more photographers are
needed in research and business, and
as industry uses more visual aids.
Those seeking work as scientific
photographers or photojournalists
also will find good opportunities as
these specialties grow in impor­
tance. Competition for employment
as portrait and commercial photog­
raphers, however, is expected to be
keen. These fields are easily entered
since a photographer can go into
business for himself with a modest
financial investment, or work part
time while holding another job.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

Beginning photographers gener­

ally earned from $80 to $125 a week
in 1972, according to the limited in­
formation available.
Inexperienced photographers em­
ployed by most daily newspapers
that have contracts with the
American Newspaper Guild started
at salaries ranging from $125 to $175
a week. For photographers em­
ployed by a few small daily news­
papers, the Guild starting salaries
were less than $100 a week; on a few
large dailies, Guild minimums for
beginning photographers were $200 a
week or more.
Minimum rates for newspaper
photographers with some experience
(usually 4 to 6 years) averaged about
$240 a week in 1972. Contract min­
imums for experienced photogra­
phers on a few small dailies were
less than $180 a week; on a few large
dailies, they ranged from $290 to
$355 a week. Photographers who had
a science or engineering background
usually received beginning salaries
between $9,000 and $10,000 a year.
Depending on their level of experi­
ence, newly hired photographers in
the Federal Government earned
from $6,880 to $9,520 a year in early
1973. Most experienced photog­
raphers in the Federal Government
earned between $11,600 and $16,680
a year; a few earned over $17,000 an­
nually.
Many experienced photographers
with established reputations earn
salaries that are above the average
for nonsupervisory workers in pri­
vate industry, except farming. Al­
though self-employed photog­
raphers generally earn more than
salaried workers, their earnings are
affected greatly by business condi­
tions and other factors such as the
type and size of community and
clientele.
Photographers who have salaried
jobs usually work the standard 5day, 40-hour week and receive bene­
fits such as paid holidays, vacations,

604

and sick leave. Those in business for
themselves frequently work longer
hours. Freelance, press, and com­
mercial photographers may travel
frequently.
Sources of Additional
Information

Career information on photog­
raphy is available from:
Professional Photographers of
America, Inc., 1090 Executive
Way, Oak Leaf Commons, Des
Plaines, 111. 60018.

URBAN PLANNERS

(D.O.T. 199.168)
Nature of the Work

Urban planners, sometimes called
regional or community planners, de­
velop programs to provide for future
growth and revitalization of urban
communities. They try to remedy
problems such as deteriorating busi­
ness and residential areas, inade­
quate park and recreation facilities,
and air pollution.
Planners examine community
facilities such as health clinics and
schools to be sure these facilities can
meet the demands placed upon them.
They also keep abreast of the legal
issues involved in community
development and redevelopment and
any changes in housing and building
codes. Because suburban growth has
increased the need for better ways of
traveling to the urban center, the
planner’s job often includes design­
ing new transportation and parking
facilities.
Urban planners project future con­
ditions that may develop as a result
of population growth or social and
economic change, and estimate, for
example, the community’s long


range needs for housing, transporta­
tion, and business and industrial
sites. Working within a framework
set by the community government,
they analyze and propose alter­
native ways to achieve more effi­
cient and attractive urban areas.
Before drawing plans for longrange community development, ur­
ban planners prepare detailed stud­
ies that show the current use of land
for residential, business, and com­
munity purposes. These reports pre­
sent information such as the arrange­
ment of streets, highways, and water
and sewer lines, and the location of
schools, libraries, and playgrounds.
They also provide information on the
type of industry in the community,
characteristics of the population, and
employment and economic trends.
With this information, urban plan­
ners propose ways of using unde­
veloped land and design the layout of
recommended buildings and other
facilities such as subways. They also
prepare materials that show how
their programs can be carried out
and the approximate costs.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Urban planners often confer with
private land developers, civic lead­
ers, and officials of public agencies
that do specialized planning. They
may prepare materials for commu­
nity relations programs, speak at
civic meetings, and appear before
legislative committees to explain and
defend their proposals.
In small organizations, urban
planners must be able to do several
kinds of work. In large organiza­
tions, planners usually specialize in
areas such as physical design, com­
munity relations, or the reconstruc­
tion of run-down business districts.
Places of Employment

About 12,000 persons—over 90
percent of them men—were urban
planners in 1972. Most work for
city, county, or regional planning
agencies. A growing number are
employed by States or by the Fed­
eral Government.
Many planners do consulting
work, either part time in addition to
a regular job, or full time working

Urban planners discuss community plans.

DESIGN OCCUPATIONS

for a firm that provides services to
private developers or government
agencies. Urban planners also work
for large land developers or research
organizations and teach in colleges
and universities.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Employers often seek workers who
have advanced training in urban
planning. Two years of graduate
study in city planning, or the equiva­
lent in work experience, are required
for most entry jobs in Federal, State,
and local government agencies.
However, some people who have
bachelor’s degrees in city planning,
architecture, landscape architecture,
or engineering may qualify for begin­
ning positions.
In 1972, about 60 colleges and un­
iversities gave a master’s degree in
urban planning. Although students
holding a bachelor’s degree in archi­
tecture or engineering may earn a
master’s degree after 1 year, most
graduate programs in urban plan­
ning require 2 or 3 years to complete.
Graduate students spend consider­
able time in workshops or laboratory
courses learning to analyze and
solve urban planning problems. Stu­
dents often are required to work in a
planning office part time or during
the summer while they are earning
the graduate degree.
Candidates for urban planner jobs
in Federal, State, and local govern­
ment agencies frequently must pass
civil service examinations to become
eligible for appointment. These ex­
aminations usually are advertised na­
tionally and have no residence
restrictions.
Planners must be able to think in
terms of spatial relationships and to
visualize the effects of their plans and
designs. They should be flexible in
their approaches to problems. Plan­
ners have to cooperate with others



and reconcile different viewpoints to
achieve the desired goals.
After a few years’ experience, ur­
ban planners may advance to assign­
ments where they exercise a high de­
gree of independent judgment such
as outlining proposed studies or
designing the physical layout of a
large development. Some are pro­
moted to jobs as planning directors,
who spend much time meeting with
officials in other organizations,
speaking to civic groups, and super­
vising other professionals. Further
advancement is more difficult at this
level and often occurs through a
transfer to a large city, where the
problems are more complex and the
responsibilities greater.
Employment Outlook

605

slum clearance and urban renewal
also will stimulate the demand for
urban planners.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

In 1972, the average salary for in­
experienced urban planners with the
bachelor’s degree was $9,000 a year;
those with the master’s degree earn­
ed average salaries of $11,000. Plan­
ners with the master’s degree and 3
to 4 years’ experience had median
earnings of $15,000 a year.
Salaries of directors of planning
depend largely on the size of the city
where they work. In 1972, the aver­
age salary for a planning director in
a city of 10,000 to 25,000 people was
$15,600 a year; in cities of over 250,000, the average was $24,000. Con­
sultants earn fees that vary accord­
ing to their reputation and previous
experience.
In early 1973, the usual entrance
salary for urban planners in the Fed­
eral Government was $11,600 a year.
In a few cases, individuals having less
than 2 years of graduate work or the
equivalent were hired as interns at
yearly salaries of $7,700 or $9,500.
Most planners have sick leave and
vacation privileges and are covered
by retirement and health plans. Al­
though most city planners have a
scheduled workweek of 40 hours,
they sometimes work in the evenings
and on weekends to attend meetings
with citizens’ groups.

Employment opportunities for col­
lege graduates who major in city and
regional planning are expected to be
very good through the mid-1980’s.
Although the number of graduates
has been rising in recent years, the
shortage of well-qualified planners is
expected to continue. The American
Society of Planning Officials esti­
mated that in 1972 over 10 percent of
all positions in city, county, and
metropolitan areas (city and sub­
urbs) were vacant. Although most
openings will be for new jobs, some
positions will result from the need to
replace planners who leave the
profession, retire, or die.
This occupation will grow through
the 1980’s as more communities seek
Sources of Additional
professional planning help in solving
Information
problems created by urbanization
and population growth. As urban Facts about careers in planning
communities continue to spill into and a list of schools offering train­
neighboring areas, open spaces for ing are available from:
recreation will tend to disappear,
of Planners, 917
smog and traffic problems will multi­ AmericanSt.Institute Washington, D.C.
15th
NW.,
ply, and the need for more and better
20005.
planned facilities will become acute.
American Society of Planning Offi­
The construction of new cities and
cials, 1313 East 60th St., Chicago,
111. 60637.
towns and Federal assistance for

COMMUNICATIONS RELATED OCCUPATIONS
Communication is important
among people, either individually as
citizens, workers, or employers, or
collectively as a group, organiza­
tion, or government. It enables them
to express their thoughts and ideas,
and in turn to understand and
interpret thoughts and ideas of
others. This section of the Hand­
book describes four occupations that
specialize in communications—in­
terpreters, technical writers, news­
paper reporters, and radio and tele­
vision announcers.
Interpreters and technical writers
work as intermediaries translating
messages for people to understand:
Interpreters help people understand
languages foreign to them, technical
writers help people understand tech­
nical information. Newspaper re­
porters and radio and television an­
nouncers inform people about
current events and happenings that
might interest or affect them. News­
paper reporters gather information
on events which they describe,
analyze, and interpret in newspapers
for rapid dissemination to large
numbers of people. Radio and tele­
vision announcers use electronic
communications equipment to tell
people of products and services they
might obtain, current happenings,
and other items of interest.

606



IN TER PR ETER S

(D.O.T. 137.268)
Nature of the Work

Interpreters help people of differ­
ent nations and different cultures
overcome the language barriers that
separate them by orally translating
what has been said by one person
into a language that can be under­
stood by others.
There are two basic techniques of
interpretation: simultaneous and
consecutive. In simultaneous inter­
pretation, the interpreter orally
translates what is being said as the
speaker continues to talk. This tech­
nique requires quickness and fluency,
and it is made possible by the use of

electronic equipment. Conference in­
terpreters often work in a glass-en­
closed booth from which they can see
the speaker. While listening through
earphones to what is being said, they
simultaneously give the translation
by speaking into a microphone. Peo­
ple attending the conference who do
not understand the language being
spoken may tune in to an in­
terpreter’s translation by simply
pushing a button or turning a dial to
get the translation in the language
they know. Simultaneous interpreta­
tion is generally preferred for large
conferences, and the development of
portable equipment has extended its
use to situations outside of the for­
mal conference setting.
Consecutive interpretation also in­
volves oral translation. However, the
speaker and the interpreter take
turns speaking. A consecutive inter­
preter must have a good memory and
generally needs to take notes of what
is said to be certain to give a com­
plete translation. The chief draw­
back of consecutive interpretation is
that the process is very time-consum­

COMMUNICATIONS RELATED OCCUPATIONS

ing, since the speaker must wait for
the translation before proceeding.
Since interpreters are needed
whenever and wherever people find
language a barrier, their work may
involve a variety of topics and situa­
tions. They may be used, for exam­
ple, to explain to a group of foreign
visitors various aspects of the Ameri­
can way of life, such as points of
political or social interest, or they
may be required to interpret highly
technical speeches and discussions
for medical or scientific gatherings.
They may work at the United Na­
tions, or find themselves in a court­
room or escorting foreign leaders or
businessmen visiting the United
States.
Places of Employment

An estimated 150 persons worked
full-time as interpreters in the United
States in 1972. The largest single
concentration of interpreters was at
the United Nations in New York
where nearly 80 people held full-time
posts. Various other international
organizations, located primarily in
Washington, D.C., also employed
regular staff interpreters. Within the
Federal Government, the Depart­
ments of State and Justice were the
major employers of full-time in­
terpreters.
An estimated 450 persons worked
as free-lance interpreters. Free-lance
interpreters may work for various
employers under short-term con­
tracts. About four-fifths were under
contract on a temporary basis to the
Department of State and the Agen­
cy for International Development to
serve as escort interpreters for
foreign visitors to the United States.
Some of these interpreters worked a
great portion of the year; others
worked for only a few days. The re­
mainder of the free-lance interpret­
ers constituted the free-lance con­
ference field. These interpreters pro­



vided for both the supplementary
needs of the international and Fed­
eral agencies as well as for periodic,
short-term needs of various inter­
national conferences which are held
in this country. Besides persons who
work strictly as interpreters, there
are many who in the course of their
jobs may do some interpretation
work.
About one-half of the Nation’s
conference interpreters are women;
most who work as escort free­
lances, however, are men.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A complete command of two or
more languages is the primary requi­
site for becoming an interpreter.
Interpreters must be able to call to
mind instantaneously words or
idioms corresponding to the foreign
ones. An extensive working
vocabulary and absolute ease in
making the transition from one
language structure to another are
necessary.
Students who want to become in­
terpreters should acquire expertise in
several languages. Interpreters who
work at the United Nations, for ex­
ample, must know at least three of
the five official U.N. languages,
which are English, French, Spanish,
Russian, and Chinese. Portuguese
and, to some extent, Japanese and
German are also of value to inter­
preters in the United States.
Two schools in the United States
offer programs specifically geared to
interpreter training. Both require
foreign language proficiency upon
entry. The Georgetown University
School of Languages and Lin­
guistics in Washington, D.C. has a 1or 2-year course of study leading to
a Certificate of Proficiency. Appli­
cants to Georgetown University
must qualify on the basis of an oral
aptitude test and satisfactory per­

607

formance in a basic first-year college
program. The Monterey Institute of
Foreign Studies in Monterey, Cal­
ifornia, offers a 2-year program lead­
ing to a master’s degree in Lan­
guage and International Studies and
a certificate from the Department of
Translation and Interpretation.
Applicants to the Monterey Insti­
tute must have a bachelor’s degree
with a language major, or its equiva­
lent. Students also must pass a quali­
fying examination for the Inter­
preters Certificate Program.
Many individuals qualify for posi­
tions as interpreters principally on
the basis of their foreign back­
grounds. Consecutive interpreters,
for example, employed by the Im­
migration and Naturalization Serv­
ice of the U.S. Department of Justice
serve primarily in interpreting legal
proceedings, such as hearings for
aliens. Extensive experience and a
broad education are not as crucial in
the performance of their duties as
these same factors are for other types
of interpretation.
Besides being thoroughly com­
petent in languages, interpreters are
expected to be generally well in­
formed on a broad range of subjects,
often including technical subjects
such as medicine or scientific or in­
dustrial technology. Work as a
translator may serve as a useful
background in maintaining an up-todate vocabulary in various special­
ized or technical areas. The experi­
ence of living abroad also is very im­
portant for an interpreter.
Although there is no standard re­
quirement for entry into the profes­
sion, a university education usually is
considered essential.
People interested in becoming in­
terpreters should be articulate
speakers and have good hearing. The
tensions of the job dictate that they
have emotional stamina. The exact­
ing nature of this profession de­
mands quickness, alertness, and con­

608

stant attention to accuracy. Work­
ing with all types of people requires
good sense and tact. It is essential
that interpreters maintain con­
fidentiality in their work and that
they give honest interpretations.
Advancement in the interpreting
field is generally based on satis­
factory service. There is some ad­
vancement from escort-level inter­
preting to conference level work.
Employment Outlook

Employment of full-time inter­
preters is expected to remain stable
through the mid-1980’s. Past experi­
ence has shown that any slight or
sporadic increase in the demand for
interpreters could be met by the ex­
isting flexible pool of free-lances. Al­
most all new openings for inter­
preters, therefore, should result from
the need to replace those who retire,
die, or leave the field for other
reasons. Interpreters may expect to
face competition for the limited
number of positions. Only those who
are highly qualified will find favor­
able employment opportunities.
Qualified interpreters also may
find work abroad. For example, the
demand for interpreters in Europe,
where language represents a signifi­
cant barrier to communications, is
greater than in the U.S.
People who have linguistic abilities
also may find employment oppor­
tunities as translators. In fact, many
interpreters find the ability to do
translation work, if not requisite, an
occupational asset. Foreign lan­
guage competence also is important
for careers in the fields of foreign
service, international business, and
language education.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

Salaries of interpreters depend
upon the type of interpreting done as



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

well as the ability and performance
of the individual. The tax-free annual
starting salary for conference inter­
preters at the United Nations was
$9,274 in early 1973. Outstanding
U.N. interpreters could expect to
earn more than $20,000. Beginning
salaries for interpreters in various
other international organizations
were about $9,000 a year, according
to the limited information available.
In addition, international organiza­
tions often paid supplementary living
and family allowances.
Junior interpreters who worked
for the U.S. Department of State re­
ceived salaries ranging from $9,520
to $11,614 a year in early 1973. Start­
ing salaries ranged somewhat lower
for Government interpreters with
limited education, experience, or in­
terpreting skills.
In the free-lance field, inter­
preters are paid on a daily basis.
Conference interpreter salaries rang­
ed from about $80 to $100 a day in
early 1973, depending on experi­
ence. The U.S. Department of State
paid a daily salary of $90. The pay
for interpreters at technical and
scientific conferences, which gener­
ally convene only once a year for a
few days, ranged from $100 to $125 a
day.
Free-lance escort interpreters re­
ceived salaries ranging from about
$30 to over $50 a day, based on the
individual’s skill and prior per­
formance. Interpreters on assign­
ment usually could expect to be paid
for a 7-day week. Interpreters are
paid transportation expenses by the
employing agency and also receive a
subsistence allowance to cover the
cost of accommodations, meals, and
other expenses incidental to their
assignments.
The conditions under which inter­
preters work vary widely. In free­
lancing, there is little job security
because of demand fluctuations, and
the duration of various free-lance

assignments ranges from a few days
for a typical conference to several
weeks for some escort assignments.
Although the hours interpreters
work are not necessarily long, they
are at times irregular. In some in­
stances, especially for escort free­
lances, a great deal of travel to a
wide variety of locations is required.
Sources off Additional
Information

Information on the interpreting
profession is available from:
The American Association of Language
Specialists, 1000 Connecticut Ave.
NW., Suite 9, Washington, D.C.
20036.
American Society of Interpreters, 1010
Vermont Ave. NW., Room 917,
Washington, D.C. 20005.

For information on entry require­
ments and courses of study at the two
schools offering specialized pro­
grams for interpreters contact:
Division of Interpretation and Transla­
tion, School of Languages and
Linguistics, Georgetown Universi­
ty, Washington, D.C. 20007.
Department of Translation and Inter­
pretation, Monterey Institute of
Foreign Studies, P.O. Box 1978,
Monterey, Calif. 93940.

Information about employment
opportunities is available from:
Language Services Division, U.S.
Department of State, Washington,
D.C. 20520.
Secretariat Recruitment Service,
United Nations, New York, N.Y.
10017.

COMMUNICATIONS RELATED OCCUPATIONS
NEW SPAPER REPORTERS

(D.O.T. 132.268)
Nature of the Work

Newspaper reporters gather infor­
mation on current events and use it
to write stories for publication in dai­
ly or weekly newspapers. In cover­
ing events, they may interview peo­
ple, review public records, attend
news events, and do research. As a
rule, reporters take notes or use elec­
tronic recording devices while
collecting facts, and write their
stories upon return to the office.
Sometimes, to meet deadlines, they
telephone their information or
stories to other staff members known
as “rewrite men”, who write or tran­
scribe the stories for them them.
Large dailies frequently assign
some reporters to “beats,” such as
police stations or the courts, to
gather news originating in these
places. General assignment re­
porters handle various types of local
news, such as a story about a lost
child or an obituary of a community




leader. Specialized reporters with a
background in a particular subject
interpret and analyze the news in
fields such as medicine, politics,
science, education, business, labor
and religion.
Reporters on small newspapers
may not only cover all aspects of
local news, but also may take photo­
graphs, write headlines, lay out
pages, and write editorials. On some
small weeklies, they also may solicit
advertisements, sell subscriptions,
and perform general office work.
Places of Employment

About 39,000 persons, two-fifths
of them women, worked as news­
paper reporters in 1972. The ma­
jority of reporters work for daily
newspapers; others work for weekly
papers, press services, or for a group
of newspapers called a syndicate.
Reporters work in cities and towns
of all sizes. Of the 1,750 daily and 7,600 weekly newspapers, the great
majority are in medium-sized towns.
However, most reporters work in
cities, since big city dailies employ
many reporters, whereas a small­
town paper generally employs only a
few.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most newspapers will consider
only applicants who have a college
education. Graduate work is in­
creasingly important. Many editors
prefer graduates who have a degree
in journalism, which usually provides
a liberal arts education along with
professional journalism training.
Some editors consider a liberal arts
degree sufficient. Other editors
prefer applicants who have a liberal
arts bachelor’s degree and a Master’s
degree in journalism. Although
talented writers having little or no
academic training beyond high
school sometimes become reporters

609

on city newspapers, most reporters
without college training begin on
rural, small-town, or suburban
papers.
Bachelor’s degree programs in
journalism are available in over 200
colleges; about two-thirds of these
schools have separate departments
or schools of journalism. About
three-fourths of the courses in a
typical undergraduate journalism
curriculum are in liberal arts. Jour­
nalism courses include reporting,
copyreading, editing, feature writing,
and the history of journalism.
More than 250 junior colleges
offer journalism programs. Credit
secured in most is transferable to a 4year college program in journalism.
Some junior colleges also offer
programs especially designed to pre­
pare the student directly for employ­
ment as a general assignment re­
porter on a weekly or small daily
newspaper. The Armed Forces also
provide some training in journalism.
A graduate degree in journalism
was offered by 78 schools in 1972.
Many of them offer a doctor’s degree
in mass communications.
Young people who wish to prepare
for newspaper work through a liberal
arts curriculum should take English
courses that include writing, as well
as subjects such as sociology,
political science, economics, history,
psychology, and speech. Ability to
read and speak a foreign language
and some familiarity with mathe­
matics also are desirable. Those who
look forward to becoming technical
writers or reporters in a specialized
field such as science, should concen­
trate on course work in their subjectmatter areas. (See statement on
Technical Writers). Skill in typing
generally is desirable since reporters
usually must type their own news
stories. On small papers, knowledge
of news photography also is valuable.
The Newspaper Fund and in­
dividual newspapers offer summer

610

internships that provide college stu­
dents with an opportunity to practice
the rudiments of reporting or editing.
In addition, more than 2,150 journal­
ism scholarships, fellowships, assistantships, and loans were awarded to
college journalism students by uni­
versities, newspapers, and pro­
fessional organizations in 1972.
News reporting involves a great
deal of responsibility, since what a
reporter writes frequently influences
the opinion of the reading public. Re­
porters should be dedicated to serv­
ing the public’s need for accurate
and impartial news. Although re­
porters work as part of a team, they
have an opportunity for selfexpression. Important personal char­
acteristics include a “nose for news,”
curiosity, persistence, initiative,
resourcefulness, an accurate
memory, and the physical stamina
necessary for an active and often
fast-pace life.
Some who compete for full-time
reporter jobs find it is helpful to have
had experience as a “stringer”—a
part-time reporter who covers the
news in a particular area of the com­
munity for a newspaper and is paid
on the basis of the stories printed.
Experience on a high school or
college newspaper also may be help­
ful in getting a job.
Many beginners start on weekly or
on small daily newspapers where
they acquire a broad range of re­
porting experience. Some college
graduates are hired by large city
papers as general assignment re­
porters while others start as copy
editors. Beginning reporters usually
are assigned duties such as reporting
on civic and club meetings, sum­
m arizing speeches, w riting,
obituaries, interviewing important
visitors to the community, and cover­
ing police court proceedings. As they
gain experience, they may report
more important events, cover an as­
signed “beat,” or specialize in a par­
ticular field.



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Newspaper reporters may advance
to reporting for larger papers or
press services and newspaper syn­
dicates. Some experienced reporters
become columnists, correspondents,
editorial writers, editors, or top ex­
ecutives; these positions represent
the top of the field and competition
for them is keen. Other reporters
transfer to related fields such as
public relations, writing for
magazines, or preparing copy for
radio and television news programs.
Employment Outlook

Beginners with exceptional writing
talent are expected to find favorable
employment opportunities through
the mid-1980’s. Others, however, will
face strong competition for jobs, es­
pecially on large city dailies.
Employment opportunities for re­
porters able to handle news about
highly specialized or technical sub­
jects are expected to be favorable.
Weekly or daily newspapers lo­
cated in small towns and suburban
areas are expected to continue to
offer the most opportunities for be­
ginners entering newspaper report­
ing. Openings arise on these papers
as reporters gain experience and
transfer to reporting jobs on larger
newspapers or to other types of
work. Beginning reporters able to
help with photography and other
specialized aspects of newspaper
work and who are acquainted with
the community are likely to be given
preference in employment on small
papers.
Inexperienced persons with good
educational backgrounds and a flair
for writing may find some openings
as reporter trainees on large city
dailies. Some opportunities may con­
tinue to be available for young peo­
ple to enter clerical jobs and ad­
vance to reporting. In addition to
jobs in newspaper reporting, recent
college graduates who have journal­

ism training may enter related fields
such as advertising, public relations,
trade and technical publishing, and
radio and television. Some job op­
portunities also will be found in
teaching journalism.
The broad field of mass com­
munication, which has grown rapidly
in recent years, is expected to con­
tinue to expand due to rising levels of
education and income; increasing ex­
penditures for newspaper, radio, and
television advertising; and a growing
number of trade, technical journals,
and various types of company pub­
lications. As newspapers share in this
growth, employment of reporters is
expected to increase moderately.
Most job openings, however, will
continue to arise from the need to re­
place reporters who are promoted to
editorial or administrative posi­
tions, transfer to other fields of
work, retire, or leave the profession
for other reasons.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

Reporters working for daily
newspapers having contracts negoti­
ated by The Newspaper Guild
averaged starting salaries of $7,600
in late 1972. Starting annual salaries
ranged from less than $5,200 at the
large metropolitan dailies. In
general, earnings of newspaper re­
porters in 1972 were above average
earnings received by nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
farming.
Minimum salaries of reporters
having 4 or 5 years experience who
worked for daily newspapers with
Guild contracts averaged $12,300 in
1972. The minimums ranged from
$8,800, paid by the smallest dailies,
to more than $15,600 paid by the
largest. Many reporters were paid
salaries higher than these minimums,
however. Reporters working for
national wire services received an­
nual salaries of at least $14,000.

611

COMMUNICATIONS RELATED OCCUPATIONS

Most newspaper reporters
generally work a 5-day, 35 or 40
hour week. Reporters working for
morning papers usually start work in
the late afternoon and finish at about
midnight. Most reporters also re­
ceive benefits such as paid vacations,
group insurance, and pension plans.
Sources of Additional
information

Names and locations of daily
newspapers and a list of schools and
departments of journalism are
published in the Editor and Publisher
International Yearbook, available in
public libraries and in most large
newspaper offices.

Information about opportunities
for reporters with daily newspapers
is available from:

RADIO AND TE LE V IS IO N
A N N O U N CER S

American Newspaper Publishers’
Association, P.O. Box 17407,
Dulles International Airport,
Washington, D.C. 20041.

Most radio announcers act as disc
jockeys, introducing recorded music,
presenting news and commercials,
and commenting on other matters of
interest to the audience. They “ad­
lib” much of the commentary, work­
ing without a detailed script. They
also may operate the control board,
sell time for commercials, and write
commercial and news copy. In large
stations, however, other workers
handle these jobs. (See statement on
the radio and television broadcast­
ing industry elsewhere in the Hand­
book.)
Announcers employed by tele­
vision stations and large radio sta­
tions usually specialize in particular
kinds of programs such as sports,
news, or weather. They must be thor­
oughly familiar with their areas of
specialization. If a written script is
needed for parts of the program, the
announcer may do the research and
writing. Announcers frequently par­
ticipate in community activities. A
sportscaster, for example, might be
the master of ceremonies at a touch­
down club banquet or greet cus­
tomers at the opening of a new sport­
ing goods store. Some announcers
become well-known and highly-paid
personalities.

Information on opportunities in
the newspaper field and starting sala­
ries of journalism graduates, as well
as a list of journalism scholarships,
fellowships, assistantships, and loans
available at colleges and universities
is available from:
The Newspaper Fund, Inc., Box 300,
Princeton, N.J. 08540.

Information on union wage rates
is available from:
The Newspaper Guild, Research
Department, 1125 15th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20005.

For general information about

jobs in journalism contact:

American Council on Education for
Journalism, School of Journalism,
University of Missouri, Columbia,
Mo. 65201.
Association of Education in Jour­
nalism, 5172 Vilas Community
Hall, University of Wisconsin,
Madison, Wise. 53706.
Sigma Delta Chi, 35 East Wacker Dr.,
Chicago, 111. 60601.

Information on the opportunities
for women in newspaper reporting
and other communications fields is
available from:
Women In Communications, Inc.,
8305 A Shoal Creek Blvd., Austin,
Tex. 78758.




(D.O.T. 159.148)

were employed full-time by commer­
cial radio and television broadcast­
ing stations in 1972. More than 80
percent of them worked in radio
broadcasting. The average commer­
cial radio or television station em­
ployed 2 announcers, although larger
stations sometimes employed 4 or
more. In addition to staff announc­
ers, several thousand freelance an­
nouncers sell their services for in­
dividual assignment to networks and
stations, or to advertising agencies
and other independent producers.

Nature of the Work
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Announcers must have a pleasant
and well-controlled voice, a good
sense of timing, and excellent
pronunciation. Correct English
usage and a knowledge of dra­
matics, sports, music, and current
events improve chances for success.
The most successful announcers have
a combination of personality and
showmanship that makes them at­
tractive to audiences.
High school courses in English,
public speaking, dramatics, and
foreign languages, plus sports and
music hobbies, are valuable back­
ground for prospective announcers.
A number of vocational schools offer
training in announcing, and many
universities offer courses of study in
the broadcasting field. A college
liberal arts education also provides
an excellent background for an an­
nouncer.
Most announcers get their first
broadcasting jobs in small stations.
Because announcers in small sta­
tions sometimes operate trans­
mitters, prospective announcers
often obtain an FCC Radiotele­
phone First Class Operator License
which enables them to operate a
transmitter and, therefore, makes
Places of Employment
them much more useful to these sta­
About 17,000 staff announcers tions. Announcers more frequently

612

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

operate control boards, for which
only a Third Class License is re­
quired. (For information on how to
obtain such licenses, see the state­
ment on broadcast technicians else­
where in the Handbook.)
Announcers usually work in sev­
eral different stations in the course of
their careers. After acquiring experi­
ence at a station in a small com­
munity, an ambitious and talented
announcer may move to a better­
paying job in a large city. An an­
nouncer also may advance by get­
ting a regular program as a disc
jockey, sportscaster, or other special­
ist. In the national networks, compe­
tition for jobs is intense, and an­
nouncers usually must be college
graduates and have several years of
successful announcing experience be­
fore they are given an audition.

from about $140 to $200 a week in
1972, and those of experienced an­
nouncers ranged from about $175 to
$260, according to information from
a small number of union contracts.
Some well-known announcers earn
much more. As a rule, salaries in­
crease with the size of the com­
munity and the station, and salaries
in television are higher than those in
radio. Announcers employed by
educational broadcasting stations
generally earn less than those who
work for commercial stations.
Most announcers in large stations
work a 40-hour week and receive
overtime pay for work beyond 40
hours. In small stations, many an­
nouncers work 2 to 8 hours of over­
time each week. Working hours con­
sist of both time on the air and time
spent in preparing for broadcasts.
Evening, night, weekend, and holi­
day duty occurs frequently since
many stations broadcast 24 hours a
day, 7 days a week.
Most announcers receive paid
vacations. Typically, vacations range
from 1 to 4 weeks, based on length of
service.
Working conditions are usually
pleasant because of the variety of
work and the many personal con­
tacts that are part of the job. An­
nouncers also receive some satis­
faction from becoming well known in
the area their station serves.

expected to increase moderately
through the mid-1980’s as new radio
and television stations are licensed.
Employment growth, however, will
be limited by the increased use of
automatic programing. Most job
openings in this relatively small oc­
cupation will result from the need to
replace experienced announcers who
transfer to other occupations, retire,
or die.
It will be easier to get an entry job
in radio than in television because of
Sources of Additional
Information
the greater number of radio sta­
tions, especially small stations, that General career information may
hire beginners. However, the great be obtained from:
attraction of this field for young per­
National Association of Broadcasters,
sons, and its relatively small size will
1771 N St. NW„ Washington, D.C.
result in keen competition for entry
20036.
jobs.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

Salaries of beginning announcers
The employment of announcers is in commercial television ranged
Employment Outlook




Corporation for Public Broadcasting,
888 16th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20006.

COMMUNICATIONS RELATED OCCUPATIONS
TE C H N IC A L W RITERS

(D.O.T. 139.288)
Nature of the Work

The many technical and scientific
developments and new consumer
products of recent years have created
a need for skilled writers to interpret
these developments and write in­
structions for their use. Technical
writers organize, write, and edit
materials about science and tech­
nology in order to establish clearer
communication between scientists,
engineers, and other technical
specialists, and the users of their in­
formation—technicians, repairmen,
scientists, engineers, executives, or
housewives. Their writing must
always be clear and easy to follow,
and when it is to be used by special­
ists it often must include technical
detail and a highly specialized
vocabulary. Technical writers usu­
ally arrange for the preparation of
tables, charts, illustrations, and other
artwork, and may work with tech­
nical illustrators, draftsmen, or
photographers.
Before starting a writing assign­
ment, technical writers usually learn
as much as they can about their sub­
ject. This process involves studying
reports, reading technical journals,
and consulting with the engineers,
scientists, and other technical per­
sonnel who have worked on the proj­
ect. Then they prepare a rough draft
that may be revised several times be­
fore it is accepted in final form.
The technical writer’s product
takes many forms, such as publicity
releases on a company’s scientific or
technical achievements, or on
manufacturers’ contract proposals to
the Federal Government. It may be
manuals that explain how to oper­
ate, assemble, disassemble, main­
tain, or overhaul components of a
missile system or a home appliance.



613

Technical writers may also write for sities offered 4-year programs lead­
scientific and engineering peri­ ing to a bachelor’s degree in tech­
odicals and for popular magazines. nical writing, technical communi­
cation, or technical journalism; three
schools offered graduate work and
Places of Employment
degrees in the field. In addition,
many schools provide professional
An estimated 20,000 technical education leading to a bachelor’s de­
writers and editors were employed in gree in journalism; most of these of­
1972. Most technical writers are em­ fer at
one course in technical
ployed in the electronic and aero­ writingleast part of the regular cur­
as
space industries. Many work for re­ riculum. Almost all colleges, and
search and development firms or for
schools, offer
the Federal Government—mainly in some engineering sharpen writing
English courses to
the Departments of Defense and skills. Some conduct summer work­
Agriculture, the Atomic Energy shops and short-term seminars for
Commission, and the National Aero­ technical writers. Young people who
nautics and Space Administration. plan to enter this field can gain valu­
Some work in firms that specialize in able experience while still in school
technical writing. Others are in busi­ by working as editors or writers for
ness for themselves as freelance tech­ their high school or college
nical writers.
newspapers.
Technical writers are employed all Besides having writing skills, tech­
over the country, but primarily in the nical writers should think logically
Northeastern States, Texas, and and like to do detailed and accurate
California. They are concentrated in work. They should be able to work
the Washington, D.C., Los Angeles- and talk with others, since they often
Long Beach, Houston, Fort Worth- work as part of a team. At other
Dallas, Chicago, New York, Boston, times, however, technical writers
St. Louis, Kansas City, Denver, and must work alone with little or no
Philadelphia metropolitan areas.
supervision, so they should be able to
accept responsibility. Technical
writers also should like working with
Training, Other Qualifications,
ideas and seeing the results of their
and Advancement
work.
A bachelor’s degree is generally Beginners often assist experienced
required in order to begin work in technical writers by doing library re­
this field, although talented and ex­ search, and by editing and preparing
perienced writers who have less aca­ drafts of reports. Experienced
writers in organizations that have
demic training may qualify.
Some employers prefer applicants large technical writing staffs may ad­
with degrees in engineering or vance to positions of technical edi­
science who have had courses in tors or other supervisory and ad­
writing. Others seek graduates who ministrative positions. After gaining
majored in English or journalism, experience and contacts, a few may
and who have taken some courses in go into business for themselves. It
science and technical subjects. also is possible to advance by becom­
Regardless of which major they pre­ ing a specialist in a particular scien­
fer, all employers require a knowl­ tific or technical subject. These
edge of science and technology and writers sometimes prepare syndi­
place great empasis on writing skills. cated newspaper columns or articles
In 1972, 10 colleges and univer­ for popular magazines.

614

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Technical writers often work as part of a team.

Employment Outlook

Employment of technical writers is
expected to increase moderately
through the mid-1980’s. Additional
opportunities will result from the
need to replace those who die, retire,
or transfer to other occupations. Ex­
perienced technical writers and
beginners who have good writing
ability and the appropriate educa­
tion should find opportunities for
employment. Those with only mini­
mum qualifications, however, may
face stiff competition for beginning
jobs.



Requirements for technical writers
are expected to increase because of
the need to put the growing amount
of scientific and technical informa­
tion into language that can be under­
stood by managers for decision­
making and by technicians for oper­
ating and maintaining complex in­
dustrial equipment. Since many
products will continue to be assem­
bled from components manufac­
tured by different companies, tech­
nical writers also will be needed to
describe, in simple terms, how the
components fit together. Others will
be needed to improve and simplify

operating and maintenance instruc­
tions for consumer products.
However, since many technical
writers work in defense- and spacerelated activities, including research
and development, future job oppor­
tunities are related to government
expenditures in these areas. Through
the mid-1980’s, R&D expenditures
of Government and industry are ex­
pected to increase, although at a
slower rate than during the 1960’s,
reflecting the reduced importance of
the space and defense components of
R&D expenditures.
Technical writers, as discussed in
this statement, include only those
persons whose primary job is to write
about, interpret, and edit technical
subject matter. Those primarily
employed as scientists, engineers or
other technical specialists who may
do a considerable amount of writing
are not covered here. As technology
becomes increasingly complex, more
writing assignments may require
technical and scientific knowledge
equivalent to that of an engineer or
scientist.
Technical writers who have train­
ing in journalism may find oppor­
tunities in other fields that employ
writers such as advertising, public
relations, trade publishing, and tele­
vision and radio broadcasting.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

Technical writers had high earn­
ings in 1972, compared with average
earnings for nonsupervisory work­
ers in private industry, except farm­
ing. Inexperienced technical writers
having bachelor’s degrees received
starting salaries ranging from $6,000
to $8,500 a year; those with moder­
ate experience earned from $8,500 to
$12,000 a year; highly experienced
writers earned from $12,000 to $16,000; and those in supervision and

COMMUNICATIONS RELATED OCCUPATIONS

management, $20,000 or more. Sala­
ries of technical writers depend not
only on ability and previous experi­
ence, but also on the type, size, and
location of their employing firm.
Earnings of freelance writers vary
greatly and depend on the writer’s
ability and reputation.
In the Federal Government in ear­
ly 1973, inexperienced technical writ­
ers with a bachelor’s degree and




615

about five science courses could start
Sources of Additional
at either $7,694 or $9,520 a year, de­
Information
pending on their college grades. For information about careers in
Those with two years of experience technical writing, contact:
could start at $11,614 and with three
years of experience, $13,996.
Society for Technical Communica­
tions, Inc., Suite 421, 1010 Ver­
Technical writers may work under
mont Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.
considerable pressure, frequently
20005.
working overtime when a deadline
has to be met on a publication or
report.




THE OUTLOOK FOR INDUSTRIES







AGRICULTURE
The United States is in the midst
of an agricultural revolution with a
tremendous impact on the employ­
ment outlook in agriculture.
In brief, fewer and fewer farmers
and farmworkers are producing
more and more of America’s farm
products. Employment on U.S.
farms has declined from 7.2 million
in 1950 to 3.4 million in 1972 of
whom about one in five was a
woman. By the mid-1980’s only 1.9
million persons are expected to be
working on U.S. farms. Less than a
million of those positions will be fill­
ed by hired workers.
The reason is simply that the typi­
cal farmer today can produce far
more than his predecessors. A
modern corn farmer, for instance,
will use six-row or eight-row field
equipment, including tractors, cost­
ing a total of about $22,000, along
with trucks with field implements
costing about $18,000, a self-pro­
pelled combine harvester worth $18,000, and grain drying equipment
valued at about $18,000. To make
this high-capacity equipment profit­
able, he may need to grow 600 to 1,000 acres of corn. His father, using
2-row equipment, probably earned a
good living from 320 acres. His
grandfather, using horsedrawn
equipment, could work only about
120 acres.
Accompanying this expansion of
farms and equipment, there has been
a vast reduction in the number of
man-hours required to produce most
major farm commodities. In 1910, it
took 135 man-hours to produce 100
bushels of corn; today it takes 7
hours. Man-hours needed to pro­



duce 100 bushels of wheat dropped
similarly from 106 to 9, in the same
period. Though it took 31 hours to
produce 100 pounds of turkey in
1910, it takes only 1.1 today.
Although employment on farms
will continue to decline, oppor­
tunities for employment in agribusi­
ness related occupations is expected
to increase. As farms increase in size
and complexity, more and more
custom services will be used by the
remaining farmers. Operating the
equipment and providing other serv­
ices to the farmer often requires spe­
cial training and skills. Thus, there
will continue to be a wide range of
occupations requiring technical
knowledge below that acquired at the
college level.
At the college level, persons with
degrees in agriculture will be needed
to fill jobs as buyers for packers
and processors, in advertising and
public relations work, market re­
porting, and in managerial positions
in farm cooperatives, food chains,
dairy product distributors, agri­
chemical manufacturers, and farm
credit agencies. College graduates
also will have opportunities to work
as teachers of vocational agricul­
ture, agricultural extension agents,
and rural development planners.
Opportunities on Farms

Since productivity in farm produc­
tion is growing so rapidly, the num­
ber of jobs in farming is declining
steadily. The increasing productivity
of our farmers has been a boon to
consumers and the nonfarm econ­
omy—but today farmers find them­

selves in an industry that requires
ever-larger farms, more investment,
and better management to stay in
business.
Management is the key to success
in modern farming. Today’s farmer
needs a much higher level of knowl­
edge and skills than did his prede­
cessor. For example, the dairy
farmer used to feed each cow an
amount of grain based on the
amount of milk she had produced the
previous day or week. The modern
dairyman feeds his cows on the basis
of their potential—“pushing” poten­
tial high-performance cows to their
limits, cutting back on expensive feed
for cows that already have peaked
out. Figuring the potential is a much
more difficult technique than weigh­
ing milk.
Similar management problems
face the modern farmer in most
areas—which is why college training
is becoming the rule rather than the
exception for the young “commer­
cial” farmer. It gives him the tech­
nical basis that he needs to keep up
with new developments in research
and technology and to apply them
intelligently on his own farm.
Biology, engineering, chemistry, and
agronomy—not to mention eco­
nomics marketing and accounting—
are part of the necessary kit of
tools for a successful farmer today.
Capital requirements form an­
other barrier the beginning farmer
must overcome. The average com­
mercial farm in 1969 had 530 acres,
with a value of more than $103,000
in land and buildings alone. Region­
ally, the value of commercial farms
varies from an average of $46,000 in
619

620

Appalachia to nearly $300,000 in the
Pacific region.
For the person who has the train­
ing, the capital, and the manage­
ment ability, the modern farm can
offer much higher incomes than the
old-style farm ever did.
About 222,000 large farms in the
United States sold farm products
valued at $40,000 or more during
1969, averaging $37,503 in net in­
come. Another 331,000 medium­
sized farms sold farm products at an
average income of $20,000 to $39,999 in 1969, averaging $10,466 in net
income.
Together, these two groups—the
large- and the medium-sized—made
up nearly 20 percent of U.S. farms
and accounted for nearly 72 percent
of U.S. farm sales in 1969. These two
groups represent the expanding sec­
tor of U.S. agriculture.
Although an additional 395,000
small-sized farms had gross sales of
$10,000 to $19,999 in 1969, these
averaged only $6,481 in net income.
Most of these farm owners would
need to expand their operations or
else supplement their incomes with
off-farm work to equal the income
they could get in some other type of
employment.
Agriculture production still offers
challenging and rewarding careers,
with larger incomes and better living
conditions than it used to—but it of­
fers them to fewer and fewer people.
Many people, of course, prefer liv­
ing in the country, and modern trans­
portation and communications,
public services, and household and
farming appliances have eliminated
most of the disadvantages that at­
tended rural living a generation or
two ago.
Although the number of oppor­
tunities in farming is shrinking, the
number of jobs is increasing in farmrelated industries that supply prod­
ucts and services to the farmer and
that handle the processing and mar­



keting activities for farm products.
These industries have a continuing
need for young people who have a
farming background—plus training
for their specialized functions.
Training Opportunities
Available for Farming

A good initial background in
farming can be obtained by growing
up on a successful farm. Necessary
experience also may be gained by
working as a closely supervised te­
nant or hired worker on a successful
farm. In addition, college training in
agriculture and in agricultural busi­
ness management are of substantial
value to the modern farmer.
Several types of vocational train­
ing are available under federally as­
sisted programs. Training is offered
in the following ways:
1. High school courses in agriculture.
2. Short courses for young farmers at
colleges of agriculture, including inten­
sive training in farm planning, farm
structures, construction, welding and
related shop and repair work, as well as
instruction in crop production, live­
stock feeding and management,
recordkeeping, and other aspects of
farming.
3. Adult evening classes (or day classes
in off-seasons) that provide intensive
instruction in subjects such as land and
soil management, crop and livestock
production, new technology and equip­
ment, and financial management.

The most significant sources of in­
formation and guidance available to
farmers are the services provided by
the land-grant colleges and univer­
sities and the U.S. Department of
Agriculture. These services include
research, publications, teaching, and
extension work. The county agricul­
tural agent is often the best contact
for the young person seeking advice
and assistance in farming. The
Farmers’ Home Administration sys­
tem of supervised credit is one exam­
ple of credit facilities combined with
a form of extension teaching. Organ­

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

ized groups, such as the Future
Farmers of America and the 4-H
Clubs, also furnish valuable training
to young farm people.
Opportunities on Specific
Types of Farms

Although the number of farms and
farm jobs is decreasing, desirable
and rewarding opportunities oc­
cur in agriculture production and
related pursuits. The decision to
enter farming may be made simply
because an opening exists on the
family farm or on a farm nearby. To
be successful, a young person should
appraise carefully the requirements
in specific types of farm operations,
and the prospects for success in
them, taking into consideration apti­
tudes, interests, preferences, experi­
ence, knowledge, and skills in direct­
ing labor and handling livestock and
machinery. Young people also must
consider family labor supply and
financial resources, as the labor and
capital requirements for an oper­
ation of adequate size vary widely
from one type of farm to another.
A realistic decision to go into
farming can be made only in terms of
a particular area or community. This
section evaluates, from an occupa­
tional standpoint, some of the more
common types of farm. The accom­
panying table gives illustrative data
on size of farm, capital require­
ments and net farm incomes re­
ceived by operators of typical or
representative farms in various parts
of the country. Many farms are
larger than these and offer more re­
turn than is shown here. Some are
smaller and offer the operator little
income or opportunity to improve
his status without major changes. On
most of the farms, the major part of
the work is done by the farm oper­
ators and their families. Whereas,
some of the smaller farms hire work­
ers only during the peak labor sea­

AGRICULTURE

son, large ones often use hired labor
the whole year.
The figures in the table on capital
invested mean that the operator con­
trols or uses resources valued at that
amount. Many farmers supplement
their own capital with borrowed
funds; others rent part or all of the
land they use, thus reserving more of
their funds for the purchase of live­
stock, feed, machinery, and equip­
ment. Still others have partners who
provide most of the working capital.
For example, many farmers who
raise broilers are in partnership with
a feed dealer.
No brief general statement can be
made about specialization versus
diversification in farming oper­
ations that would apply in all parts of
the country. The general trend favors
more specialized farming. Farms
that produced many products a
generation ago now may produce
only two or three. Efficient produc­
tion of most farm products requires a
substantial investment in specialized
equipment. If the farm operator is to
receive the full benefit from his in­
vestment, he must produce on a large
scale. Two other factors contrib­
uting to specialization are the in­
creased emphasis on quality of farm
products, and the greater knowledge
and skill required for effective
production. Few farmers, however,
find it advantageous to produce only
one product. The main reasons for
producing more than one product are
the desirability of spreading price
and production risks, the more effec­
tive use of labor (particularly family
labor), and the fuller utilization of
most other resources than can be
realized in a one-product system.
Dairy Farms

Dairy farms are common in most
parts of the country. Despite modern
methods of processing and trans­
porting milk, production is still con­



621

centrated near the large population
centers particularly in the Northeast
and the Great Lakes States. How­
ever, many areas in the far West and
the South are becoming large pro­
ducers of dairy products. Many of
the newer type large dairy farms are
“drylot” or barn operations with lit­
tle or no pasture land. Some are
cooperatively operated. However, on
typical dairy farms in the Lake
States, and to a lesser extent in the
Northeast, crops are important,
often requiring operators to hire or
exchange labor at harvest time.
There is work every day throughout
the year on dairy farms, so that
effective use can be made of labor,
and a regular force can be occupied
most of the time.
Though cows have to be milked
daily, most people do not like to be
“tied down” 7 days a week. As a re­
sult, the current practice in many
areas is to arrange work schedules so
each person can have some time off
during the month. Dairying is also a
good choice for the person who likes
to work with mechanical equipment.
Dairy farmers who produce much of
their own feed find variety in the
many different jobs that must be
done.
The dairyman’s sales and income
are distributed more evenly through­
out the year than other farmers’.
Moreover, the prices he receives are
less subject to year-to-year fluctua­
tions than are prices received by
operators in most other types of
farming. The accompanying table
shows the average net farm income
on dairy farms in central and south­
eastern Wisconsin for 1970—71.
Compared with farmers in most
other areas, dairy farmers in the
more concentrated milksheds of the
Northeast (such as the dairy farms in
the Central Northeast shown in the
table) generally have larger herds,
purchase a larger proportion of their
feed, and buy rather than raise their

herd replacements. In the most
highly specialized producing area
near Los Angeles, dairy farms are
drylot operations. They are quite
small in acreage, but large in milk
production and number of cows
milked. No crops are produced;
these dairy operators buy their en­
tire feed requirements from outside
the area. Most of the cows are
bought at freshening time and are re­
placed when their lactation period is
completed.
Net farm income represents the re­
turn to the farm operator and his
family for their labor as well as the
return on the capital invested in the
farm business—provided the oper­
ator owns his land and is free from
debt. If he rents part or all his farm,
not all the net farm income is avail­
able for family living; part of it must
be used for rent. Similarly, the
farmer who is in debt must deduct in­
terest costs and payments on the
principal.
Livestock Farms
and Ranches

A general livestock farm is a good
choice for the farmer who is inter­
ested in working with livestock and
mechanical equipment and is appro­
priately skilled. Many farmers pre­
fer general livestock farms—such as
the hog-beef feeding farms in the
Corn Belt (see table)—because dur­
ing much of the year they require
fewer chores than dairy farms. The
timing of daily hog and beef cattle
farm chores also is more flexible
than the milking schedule on dairy
farms. Practically all of the regular
labor on most general livestock
farms is provided by the operator
and his family. During some seasons
of the year, full-time or part-time
work exists for several members of
the family, but, these are usually off­
set by slack labor periods when there
is time for leisure or nonfarm ac­
tivities.

622

The livestock farmer’s income is
not as well distributed throughout
the year as the dairyman’s, and it is
less likely to be uniform from year to
year, as well. Financial and manage­
ment problems result, increasing the
risks of operation. Moreover, on
farms of limited acreage—often
found in the Eastern States—the
level of income from general live­
stock farming is usually lower than
from a dairy herd on similar acreage.
Most hog producers have their
own breeding stock, and raise the
pigs they fatten for market. Some
farmers who fatten cattle and sheep
also raise their own stocks of calves
and lambs. But most of the cattle and
sheep fattened and marketed by the
livestock farmer are bred and raised
originally by someone else—usually
the livestock rancher of the West.
The accompanying table includes
data for four types of Western live­
stock operations: Northern Plains
and Northern Rocky Mountain cat­
tle ranches, sheep ranches in UtahNevada, and cattle ranches in the
Southwest. In these areas of low
rainfall, the main source of feed is
range grass, and several acres are re­
quired to provide enough pasture for
their stock; ranchers spend much of
their time in the saddle, truck, or
jeep managing their herds. Much of
this range comes from the public do­
main. Except where irrigation is
available, feed crops usually are not
grown.
Poultry Farms

One-third of the farmers in the
United States raise some poultry,
but in 1969, about 2 percent were
classified as poultry farmers. Many
poultry farms concentrate on egg
production. Most of the larger and
more specialized of these farms are
in the Southeast, in the Northeast and
in California. Many highly concen­
trated centers of broiler production



are east of the Mississippi River, and
a few are on the West Coast. Turkey
producers also are specialized. A
concentration of specialized produc­
ers of ducks is located in Suffolk
County, Long Island, New York.
Most specialized poultry pro­
ducers, particularly those who pro­
duce broilers or large laying flocks,
produce crops for sale. They pur­
chase supplies of special poultry
feeds and laying mash. Commercial
poultry farmers in New Jersey, for
example, buy all their feed. The typi­
cal broiler producer in Maine, the
Delmarva (Delaware, Maryland,
Virginia) peninsula, and Georgia de­
votes almost all his capital and labor
to the production of broilers.
Poultry farming requires special­
ized skill in handling birds, espe­
cially on the part of the operator.
The combination of bulk handling of
feed and mechanical feeding, a wide­
spread practice, requires little physi­
cal strength. For these reasons, poul­
try farms make considerable use of
family help.
Data on average capital invest­
ment and net farm income for repre­
sentative egg producers in New
Jersey and broiler operators in
Georgia for 1968-69 are given in the
table. These averages do not reveal
the sharp year-to-year fluctuations in
income that occur. Because they
have a high proportion of cash costs
and a thin margin of profit, rela­
tively small changes in prices of feed,
broilers, and eggs can bring about
sizable fluctuations in net farm in­
come.
The incomes of most broiler pro­
ducers, however, are fairly stable be­
cause they produce “under con­
tract.” Contract production is more
widespread in broiler production that
in any other major type of farming.
Under these arrangements, the
financing agency (usually a feed
dealer) furnishes the feed, chicks,
and technical supervision—almost

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

everything except the buildings,
equipment, and the direct produc­
tion labor. The grower receives a
stipulated amount per 1,000 birds
marketed, and often a bonus for
superior efficiency. Many turkey
producers operate under similar con­
tracts, but these arrangements are
not nearly so universal for the
production of turkeys as for broilers.
Corn and Wheat Farms

For the man who likes working
with crops and farm machinery, cash
grain farming (growing soybeans,
corn, or wheat for sale, not for use as
feed) has much to offer. Many peo­
ple dislike being tied down with daily
responsibilities the year around, as
with livestock chores. They prefer,
instead, to work long days with large
laborsaving equipment during the
busy seasons, as in soil preparation,
planting, and harvesting, and then to
have some free time in slack periods.
The table shows the investment re­
quired and the recent income experi­
ence of some representative cash
grain farms. Farms of this type in­
clude cash grain farms in the Corn
Belt, spring wheat-fallow farms in
the Northern Plains, and winter
wheat-fallow farms in the Pacific
N o rth w est. Some of these
farms—particularly in the Northern
Plains—raise some beef cattle for
sale as feeders, and a small number
keep a few milk cows. However, this
livestock production is usually of sec­
ondary importance. Many of these
cash crop farmers do not raise any
livestock.
Two of the main risks faced by the
commercial wheat grower are un­
favorable weather and low prices.
However, crop insurance has re­
duced the risk of low yields, and
Government price support pro­
grams have lessened the risk of low
prices.

AGRICULTURE
Cotton, Tobacco,
and Peanut Farms

In terms of number of farmers,
production of cotton, tobacco, and
peanuts makes up a large part of the
agriculture .in the Southeastern and
South Central States. These prod­
ucts are grown on farms that range
from very small operating units to
comparatively large ones. Market
competition in these crops has been
keen, and many growers have been
forced to diversify and enlarge their
farms—adjustments which require
capital investment. Competition
from cotton growers in irrigated
areas of the West and Southwest has
forced many farmers in the South­
east to discontinue cotton produc­
tion. Some of them have diversified
their operations, and others have

623

found better opportunities in obtained only through experience.
Enterprises of this kind should be un­
southern industrial expansion.
dertaken only by persons with con­
siderable experience and some of the
Crop Specialty Farms
special skills and techniques re­
quired.
apti­
Many farmers throughout the tude forAn individual having an learn
these skills usually can
country have unique background, them by working a few years as a
skills, resources, or other advan­ hired hand on such a specialty farm
tages for particular kinds of farming or as a tenant for a landlord who can
chiefly because of their location, give direction and assistance.
home training, or neighborhood
practices. They may specialize in the Annual returns from these spe­
production of a single crop—such as cialty farms usually vary greatly
grapes, oranges, potatoes, sugar­ from year to year because of the
cane, or melons—or a combination vagaries of nature and the changes in
prices. Operators of these farms who
of related specialty crops.
Operators of these enterprises usu­ keep abreast of production and
ally employ many seasonal workers marketing conditions are usually
and require relatively expensive well-rewarded for their ability to
specialized equipment. They need manage, produce, and market their
specific skills many of which can be products.

Table 1. Average size of farm by product and location, capital invested, and net farm income on commercial farms, 1970-71

Type of farms and location

Size of farm as
measured by

Capital invested in —
Land Machinery Live­
Crops
and
and
stock
buildings equipment

Total

Net
farm
income1

Dairy farms:
$ 40,000 $18,930 $20,440 $ 8,130 $ 87,500 $16,632
Central New York..................... 40 milk cows.....................
8,900 129,410 20,290
78,570 19,860 22,080
Southeastern Wisconsin .......... 40 milk cows.....................
8,330
0
54,380 10,592
2,730
43,320
Egg-producing farms, New Jersey2 . 5,550 layer chickens........
4,940
860
160
27,600
1,973
21,640
Broiler farms, Georgia2 ..................... 44,600 produced annually
Corn Belt farms:
21,000 233,000 22,500
148.000 21,000 43,000
Hog-beef feeding....................... 280 acres of cropland
0
3,000 317,000 21,500
280.000 34,000
Cash grain crop ......................... 375 acres of cropland
Cotton farms:2
0
0 530,200 48,700
453.750 76,450
Mississippi D elta....................... 900 acres of cropland
Southern High Plains, Texas
0
0 454,700 20,350
413,700 41,000
Irrigated............................. 870 acres of cropland
0
0 209,850 20,950
193.750 16,100
Nonirrigated ..................... 860 acres of cropland
Tobacco farms, Coastal Plain,
5,520
680
690
50,750
5,888
43,860
North Carolina2............................. 50 acres of cropland........
Tobacco-livestock farms, Bluegrass
2,290 142,820 10,998
7,020
10,520
123.000
area, Kentucky2 ............................. 64 acres of cropland........
Wheat-fallow farms:
0
0 238,500 23,425
198.500 40,000
Northern Plains......................... 1800 acres of cropland ...
0
0 288,000 31,930
248.000 40,000
Central Plains ........................... 1800 acres of cropland . . .
0
0 408,500 29,485
358.500 50,000
Pacific Northwest ..................... 1800 acres of cropland ...
Cattle ranches:
5,170 454,960 28,791
335,460 20,670 93,660
Northern Plains......................... 307 beef cow s...................
10,040 340,850 29,378
223,850 19,620 87,340
314 beef cow s...................
Northern Rocky Mountain
8,859
0 535,000
443,370 12,260 79,370
Southwest................................... 278 beef cows . . . .
Migratory-Sheep Ranches,
1,380 230,540 16,956
134,360 15,150 79,650
Utah-Nevada ............................... 2025 breeding ewes
1 The information presented here is on an owner-operated basis,
2 Refers to 1968-69, latest data available.
Source: Prepared in the Farm Production Economics Division
primarily for comparability between types of farm. Net farm in­
come is the combined return to total capital plus return to operator Economic Research Division, U.S. Department of Agriculture.
and other unpaid members of the family for their labor and manage­
ment. No allowance has been made for payment of rent, interest, or
mortgage.




624

hunters during the game season and
mechanics and service engineers for
watercraft. Guides are also in de­
Public demand for outdoor recrea­ mand for nature trails and scenic
tion is far in excess of the existing tours.
and projected supply of public facil­
ities. The public sector is not flexible
Other Specialties
enough to supply the specialized
types of recreation or services de­ Other highly specialized oper­
manded by smaller groups. The pri­ ations, such as fur farms, apiaries,
vately-owned outdoor recreation greenhouses, nurseries, and flower
enterprise, particularly the farm- farms, require special knowledge and
base type, is in a unique position to skilled management. Special skills
supply these types of recreation serv­ and equipment are required, and
risks are high. Even with the high
ices and activities to the public.
The 1969 Census of Agriculture risk, from the standpoint of capital
reported over 2.7 million farms in the invested and income, the venture is
United States. Of this total, about often rewarding to individuals who
30,400 earned money from some have the ability and the resources to
engage in it.
type of recreation activity.
Many farm operators in the vicin­
ity of national, State, and local
Sources of Additional
parks, or near wildlife preserves have
Information
taken advantage of their location in
establishing recreation businesses. Additional information may be
The average amount received from obtained from the U.S. Department
this activity was about $1,630 per of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
20250; the Department of Com­
farm reporting.
These farmers sell hunting or fish­ merce, Washington, D.C. 20230;
ing rights to individuals, form hunt­ and from Colleges of Agriculture.
ing clubs, or establish private camp­
grounds. They absorb the overflow
from public campgrounds or cater to
the individuals who want more
privacy in their camping. Vacation A G R IC U LTU R E-R E LA TED
PR OFESSIONAL
farms cater to family groups during
W ORKERS
the summer and allow hunting later
in the year when children are in
school. Many farmers enlarge and
Nature of the Work
improve their ponds or irrigation
reservoirs. They stock ponds for fish­ The discussion that follows deals
ing and have swimming areas in the primarily with job categories that are
summer and skating in the winter. generally termed professional fields.
Old farm buildings, sheds, and barns These occupations generally require
are converted into riding stables or at least a bachelor’s degree, and
horse boarding stables, or a com­ master’s and Ph.D. degrees are be­
bination of both. Shore and back­ coming increasingly valuable both
water areas are used to dock pri­ from the standpoint of salary level
vately owned craft. In making such and of performing the functions re­
facilities available, many farmers quired on the job. Some of these jobs
have converted a liability into an are discussed more fully elsewhere in
asset. Farmers become guides for the Handbook. (See index.)
Private Outdoor
Recreation Farms




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Agricultural economists (D.O.T.
050.088) deal with problems related
to production, financing, pricing,
and marketing of farm products both
in the United States and in several
foreign countries. These economists
are factfinders, evaluators, analysts,
and interpreters who provide eco­
nomic information to farmers,
policymakers, and other interested
persons. They provide cost-benefit
analyses for evaluating farm pro­
grams at the National, State, and
farm level. They study the effects of
mechanization, technological ad­
vances, and other developments that
influence the supply and demand for
farm products and the accompany­
ing effects on costs and prices of
farm products.
Agricultural engineers (D.O.T.
013.081) develop new and improved
farm machines and equipment, deal
with the physical aspects of soil and
water problems in farming; design
and supervise installation of irriga­
tion systems, watershed protection,
flood prevention, and related works;
devise new techniques for harvesting
and processing farm products; and
design more efficient farm buildings.
Agronomists (D.O.T. 040.081) are
concerned with growing, breeding,
and improving field crops such as
cereals and grains, legumes and
grasses, tobacco, cotton, and others.
They do research also in the funda­
mental principles of plant sciences
and study and develop seed propa­
gation and plant adaption.
Animal physiologists and animal
husbandmen (D.O.T. 040.081) study
and do research in the environ­
mental influences in relation to effi­
cient management of farm animals;
they are concerned also with the
breeding, growth, nutrition and
physiology of livestock.
Veterinarians (D.O.T. 073.081) in­
spect livestock at public stockyards
and points of entry into the United

AGRICULTURE

States; inspect establishments that
produce veterinary biological sup­
plies; administer tests for animal dis­
eases; conduct programs for the con­
trol and eradication of animal dis­
ease; research livestock diseases and
vaccines for disease control; work di­
rectly with farmers in protection or
restoration of livestock health; and
provide services for the care of small
animals and pets. (See statement on
veterinarians elsewhere in the Hand­
book for additional information.)
Geneticists (D.O.T. 041.081) try
to develop strains, varieties, breeds,
and hybrids of plants and animals
that are better suited than those pres­
ently available for the production of
food and fiber.
Microbiologists (D.O.T. 041.081)
study bacteria and the relation of
other micro-organisms to human,
plant, and animal health and the
function of these micro-organisms in
the making of products such as vita­
mins, antibiotics, amino acids,
sugars, and polymers.
Plant scientists (D.O.T. 041.081)
study plant diseases and their nature,
cause, and methods of control. They
also study the structure of plants and
the growth-related factors in plants.
Methods of improving fruits, vege­
tables, flowers, and ornamentals,
and means by which improvements
may be made by better manage­
ment, environment, and propaga­
tion are also of major concern.
Plant quarantine and plant pest
control inspectors (D.O.T. 041.081)
who are trained in the biological sci­
ences, supervise and perform profes­
sional and scientific work in enforc­
ing plant quarantine and pest con­
trol laws. Plant Quarantine In­
spectors inspect ships, planes, trucks,
and autos coming into the country to
keep out dangerous insect pests.
Plant Pest Control Inspectors con­
duct programs to protect the crops of
the country by prompt detection,
control, and eradication of plant



625

pests.
Entomologists (D.O.T. 041.081)
study insects, both beneficial and
harmful to farming. They are con­
cerned particularly with identifying
the populations and distributions of
insects that injure growing crops and
animals; that harm human beings;
and that damage agricultural com­
modities during shipping, storage,
processing, and distribution. These
concerns are involved particularly
toward finding means by which these
insects may be controlled.
Foresters (D.O.T. 040.081) are
concerned with the protection, pro­
duction, processing, and distribu­
tion of our timber resources. They
also study means by which wood
may be seasoned, preserved, and
given new properties.
Human nutritionists (D.O.T.
077.128) study the means by which
the human body utilizes food sub­
stances.
Rural sociologists (D.O.T.
054.088) study the structure and
functions of the social institutions
(customs, practices, and laws) that
are a part of rural society and/or
affect it.
School teachers (D.O.T. 091.228)
in vocational agriculture and related
fields supervise and give instructions
in farm management, communica­
tions, mechanics, engineering, and
related fields.
Farm managers, including agri­
culture management specialists,
supervise and coordinate the pro­
duction, marketing, and purchasing
and credit activities of one farm or a
group of farms.
Places of Employment

Persons trained in these special­
ties work in various capacities that
relate to agriculture. Government
agencies, colleges, agricultural ex­
periment stations, and private busi­
nesses that deal with farmers hire

many research workers. They also
hire people to take technical and ad­
ministrative responsibilities in public
agencies involving farmers or
programs affecting farmers. Agri­
businesses, farmer cooperatives, pri­
vate business, commercial, and fi­
nancial companies that buy from,
sell to, or serve farmers also employ
many professionals with agriculture
related training. State, county, and
municipalities hire many who serve
as vocational agriculture teachers
and workers in agricultural commu­
nications, in farmers’ organizations,
or in trade associations whose mem­
bers deal with farmers.
The number of research activities
related to agriculture has increased
very rapidly. The largest agencies in
this field are the State agricultural
experiment stations connected with
the land-grant colleges and the
various research branches of the
U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Such agricultural specialists work
for other research organizations in
independent research, and in com­
panies that finance farming opera­
tions, market farm products, or pro­
duce chemicals, equipment, and
other supplies or services for
farmers. The U.S. Department of
Agriculture employs workers in re­
search positions in various parts of
the country: in Washington, D.C.; at
the Agricultural Research Center at
Beltsville, Md.; and at land-grant
colleges. Other Government depart­
ments also have many agricultural
research jobs.
Various independent research or­
ganizations, foundations, and pri­
vate business groups in many parts of
the country recently have initiated
research related to agriculture. They
tend to be located either in indus­
trial centers or in areas of high agri­
cultural activity, and include pro­
ducers of feed, seed, fertilizer, and
farm equipment; and of insecticides,
herbicides, and other chemical dusts

626

and sprays.
Public and private lending institu­
tions, which make loans to farmers,
employ men with broad training in
agriculture, and business. These
workers ordinarily are required to
have had practical farm experience,
as well as academic training in agri­
culture, economics, and other sub­
jects. Making financially sound loans
involves careful analysis of the farm
business and proper evaluation of
farm real estate and other farm
property. These workers are em­
ployed by the cooperative Farm
Credit Administration in its banks
and in associations operating under
its supervision throughout the coun­
try; by the Farmers Home Adminis­
tration in its Washington, State, and
county offices throughout the coun­
try; by rural banks; and by in­
surance companies that have sub­
stantial investments in farm
mortgages.
The Federal and State Govern­
ments also employ various special­
ists in activities relating to agricul­
ture. These specialists have techni­
cal and managerial responsibilities in
activities such as programs relating
to the production, processing, mar­
keting, inspection, and grading of
farm products; prevention and spread
of plant pests, animal parasites, and
diseases; and management and con­
trol of wildlife.
Large numbers of professionally
trained persons are employed by co­
operatives (businesses owned and run
by the farmers) and business firms
that deal with farmers. Employment
in these organizations may be ex­
pected to expand, as farmers rely in­
creasingly on them to provide farm
supplies, machinery, equipment, and
services, and to market farm prod­
ucts. The size of the organization and
the types of services it offers de­
termine the number of its employees
and the nature of their jobs. Large
farm supply cooperatives and busi­



nesses, for example, may have
separate divisions for feed, seed, fer­
tilizer, petroleum, chemicals, farm
machinery, public relations, and
credit, each supervised by a depart­
ment head. In smaller businesses and
cooperatives, such as local grain­
marketing elevators, the business is
run almost entirely by the general
manager who has only two or three
helpers.
Agricultural communications is
another expanding area of special­
ization. Crop reporters and market
news reporters are employed by the
U.S. Department of Agriculture in
field offices throughout the United
States. Crop reporters gather in­
formation on crop production dur­
ing all stages of the growing season.
Market news reporters collect in­
formation on the movement of agri­
cultural produce from the farm to
the market. Radio and TV farm di­
rectors are employed by many radio
and TV stations to report prices,
sales, grades, and other agricultural
information to farm residents. Agri­
cultural reporters and editors com­
pile farm news and data for farm
journals, bulletins, and broadcasts.
The nationwide, federally aided
program of vocational education
offers employment for persons tech­
nically trained in agriculture and re­
lated subjects. Teachers of voca­
tional agriculture not only teach high
school students interested in farm­
ing, but provide organized instruc­
tion to assist young farmers in be­
coming satisfactorily established in
farming and in becoming com­
munity leaders. They also provide
organized instruction for adult
farmers, giving individual consulta­
tion at their farms to keep them
abreast of modern farm technology.
The qualifications of workers in all
of these fields ordinarily include a
college education and special train­
ing in a particular line of work. In
most of these fields, the demand for

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

workers exceeds the supply. In recent
years, the demand has been in­
creased because of the need to recruit
professional personnel to staff agri­
cultural missions to other countries
and to give technical aid to agricul­
tural institutions and farmers there.
Sources of Additional
Information

Opportunities in Research. Ad­
ditional information at land-grant
colleges may be obtained from the
dean of agriculture at the State landgrant college. Information on em­
ployment in the U.S. Department of
Agriculture is available from the
USD A recruitment representatives
at land-grant colleges and from the
Office of Personnel, U.S. Depart­
ment of Agriculture, Washington,
D.C. 20250.
The following publications will be
valuable:
Profiles-Careers in the U.S. Depart­
ment of Agriculture U.S. Department
of Agriculture, October 1968. Super­
intendent of Documents, Washington,
D.C. 20402. Price $3.25.
Careers in Agriculture and Natural Re­
sources—Agriculture American Asso­
ciation of Land-Grant Colleges and
State Universities, Washington, D.C.
1966. Copies can be obtained free from
State Agricultural Colleges.

Opportunities in Agricultural Fi­
nance. Inquiries on employment op­
portunities in agricultural finance
may be directed to the following:
Farm Credit Administration, Wash­
ington, D.C. 20578.
Farm Credit District—Springfield,
Mass.; Baltimore, Md.; Columbia,
S.C.; Louisville, Ky.; New Orleans,
La.; St. Louis, Mo.; St. Paul,
Minn.; Omaha, Nebr.; Wichita,
Kans.; Houston, Tex.; Berkeley,
Calif.; Spokane, Wash.
Farmers Home Administration, U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Wash­
ington, D.C. 20250.

AGRICULTURE
Agricultural Director, American
Bankers Association, 90 Park Ave.,
New York, N.Y. 10016.

627

— Marketing positions—jobs
ranging from responsibility for har­
vesting, transporting, assembling,
grading, storing, and selling raw
products to processing, packaging,
selling, and distributing farm prod­
ucts to retail outlets.
—Farm supply positions—jobs
ranging from those in petroleum re­
fineries, and feed mills, or fertilizer
manufacturing plants, to those work­
ing on the floor of a supply center.
—Farm service positions—jobs
such as those of field men who ad­
vise farmers on soil, seeds, and fer­
tilizer usage, and who do soil test­
ing; bulk feed deliverymen, machine
operators who deliver supplies direct
to farms, spread fertilizer on the
field, or haul products to market for
the farmer.
— Personnel adm inistration
positions—jobs such as those inter­
viewers, position classifiers, coun­
selors, and placement specialists.
—Research positions—jobs cover­
ing product development, product
testing, quality evaluation of prod­
ucts, and economics research.
—Transportation—jobs such as
physical distribution specialists,
truck drivers, garage mechanics,
traffic managers.
—Office positions—jobs such as
secretaries, typist, clerks, recep­
tionists.
Requirements for the jobs vary
widely. Some demand college or
graduate degrees, others high school
education. Still others require no for­
mal educational background, but do
require basic skills such as those for
writing up an invoice or handling a
forklift truck in a warehouse.

Opportunities with Cooperatives.
About 22,000 cooperatives serve
rural people in every area of the
United States. These include mar­
keting and farm supply coopera­
tives, rural electric telephone as­
sociations, rural credit unions, farm
credit cooperatives, mutual irriga­
tion and insurance associations, and
artificial breeding associations.
They range from small local co­
operatives serving one area to the
large regional cooperatives made up
of local cooperatives and their
farmer members in several States.
The locals usually have their head­
quarters in small towns, the re­
gional in larger towns or cities.
Some regionals hire from 3,000 to
4,000 employees.
Cooperatives in the individual
communities are a good source of in­
formation on jobs either in their own
organizations or in other coopera­
tives. Most States have a State coun­
cil or association of cooperatives that
can provide information on co­
operative locations and some job in­
formation.
The Cooperative Foundation, 59
East Van Buren Street, Chicago, 111.,
60605, has a publication, Careers in
Cooperatives. It describes about 100
different kinds of jobs available in
these businesses.
Among the several hundred thou­
sand jobs these cooperatives provide
are included:
—Management positions—jobs
ranging from managing small local
grain elevators to managing co­
operatives that do several hundred
million dollars worth of business a Opportunities for Agricultural Econ­
omists. For additional information
year.




about opportunities in agricultural
economics, check with the Depart­
ment of Agricultural Economics at
State land-grant colleges. For in­
formation on Federal employment
opportunities, applicants may get in
touch with USDA recruitment rep­
resentatives at the State land-grant
college or write directly to the Office
of Personnel, U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
20250.
Opportunities as Vocational Agri­
culture Teachers. As salaries, travel,
and programs of vocational agricul­
ture teachers vary slightly among
States, prospective teachers should
consult the Head Teacher Trainer in
Agriculture Education at the landgrant college or the State Super­
visor of Agricultural Education at
the State Department of Public In­
struction in their respective States.
FARM SER VIC E JO B S

In almost every type of agricul­
ture, farmers require specialized
services which can be learned and
performed readily by other workers.
A person can enter many of these
services, either as an independent
operator or as an employee. Some
services require an extensive outlay
of capital, and others require very lit­
tle. Some are highly seasonal; others
are performed year round. These
services and the operation of a small
farm can sometimes be combined.
Services that provide year-round
employment include the following:
Cow testing, artificial breeding, live­
stock trucking, whitewashing, well
drilling, fencing, and tilling.




MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRY
The mining and petroleum in­
dustry provides most of the basic raw
materials and energy sources for in­
dustrial and consumer use. Metal
mines provide iron, copper, gold, and
other ores. Quarrying and other nonmetallic mining yield many of the
basic materials such as limestone and
gravel for schools, offices, homes,
and highways. Nearly all of our
energy for industrial and personal
use come from oil, gas, and coal.
Few products from mines reach the
consumer in their own natural state;
nearly all require further processing.
The mining and petroleum in­
dustry employed about 607,000 wage
and salary workers in 1972. About
four-tenths of these worked in the ex­
ploration and extraction of crude pe­
troleum and natural gas. Coal min­
ing accounted for almost one-fourth
of the industry’s workers, and
quarrying and nonmetallic mineral
mining nearly one-fifth. The re­
maining workers were in metal min­
ing.
As shown in the accompanying
tabulation, nearly seven-tenths of all
workers in the industry hold bluecollar jobs, primarily as operatives.
Included in the operative group are
oil well drillers, mining machinery
operators, and truck and tractor
drivers.
Skilled craftsmen and foremen
constitute the second largest occu­
pational group. Mechanics and re­




pairmen maintain the complex
equipment and machinery used in
mining and oil well drilling. Many
heavy equipment operators, such as
power shovel and grader operators,
work in open pit mining. Large
numbers of pumpers, gagers, and enginemen hold jobs in the extraction
and transportation of petroleum and
natural gas. Foremen also constitute
an important part of the industry’s
work force.
The industry’s white-collar em­
ployees are divided nearly equally
among three occupat ional
groups—professional and technical,
clerical, and managerial workers.
Taken together, these groups com­
pose the remaining three-tenths of
the industry’s employment. Profes­
sional, technical, and kindred
workers are concentrated largely in
petroleum and gas extraction. Most
are engineers, geologists, or techni­
cians engaged in exploration and re­
search. Two out of three clerical em­
ployees work in petroleum and gas
extraction. Most are secretaries, of­
fice machine operators, and typists.
Major
occupational group
All occupational
groups...................
Professional, technical,
and kindred workers___
Managers, officials,
and proprietors.................

Estimated
employment,
1972
(percent
distribution)
100
12
7

Clerical and
kindred workers...............
10
Sales workers...............................
(')
Craftsmen, foremen,
and kindred workers ___
27
Operatives and kindred
workers2 ...........................
39
Service workers...........................
1
Laborers........................................
4
1 Less than .5 percent.
2 Includes mine laborers.
N o t e : Because of rounding, sums of
individual items may not equal total.

Employment in the mining and pe­
troleum industry is expected to de­
cline slowly through the mid-1980’s,
despite increases in output. In­
creased demand for mining products
will be met largely through im­
proved equipment operated by a
highly skilled work force. Even
though employment as a whole is ex­
pected to decline, different growth
patterns are likely within the in­
dustry. Employment in metal min­
ing and petroleum and natural gas
extraction is expected to decline.
Quarrying and nonmetallic mining,
on the other hand, are expected to in­
crease.
The statements that follow pro­
vide information on employment op­
portunities in the petroleum and
natural gas extraction industry and
the coal mining industry. More de­
tailed information about occupa­
tions in the mining and petroleum in­
dustries appears elsewhere in the
Handbook.

629

COAL MINING
Nature of the Industry

When most people think of coal
they usually think of it in an old pot­
bellied stove heating a one room
schoolhouse, small home, or coun­
try store. But today, coal is used for
many purposes. Coal is an impor­
tant ingredient in steel, chemicals,
cosmetics and for the all important
electric power.
Coal is usually divided into two
major classes, bituminous and
anthracite. Bituminous, or “soft”
coal is the most widely used and the
most plentiful, and accounts for most
coal production. Production of
anthracite, or “hard” coal, on the
other hand, is steadily declining due
to dwindling reserves. Other forms of
coal, such as lignite and peat, are
classified in the subbituminous cate­
gory, and are used in limited
amounts.
Most of the Nation’s coal is mined
in the Appalachian area which ex­
tends from Pennsylvania through
Eastern Ohio, West Virginia,
Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, and
Alabama. A large amount of coal
also is produced in Indiana, Illinois,
and in the Rocky Mountain States.

and location of the coal seam.
Underground mines are used to
reach coal that lies deep below the
surface. An entry tunnel must be dug
so that miners and equipment can
reach the seam and coal can be car­
ried out. Depending on the depth of
the coal seam, the entry may be ver­
tical (shaft mine), horizontal (drift
mine), or at an angle (slope mine).
(See chart 20). Shaft mines are used
to reach coal lying far below the sur­
face. Drift and slope mines are usu­
ally not as far underground as shaft
mines.
After the coal seam has been
reached, nearly all underground
mines are constructed the same way.
Miners make a network of intercon­
necting tunnels so that the mine
resembles a maze with passageways
going off in all directions, some­
times stretching over many miles. As
coal is removed, the tunnels become

longer and longer. A significant
amount of coal is left between the
tunnels to support the roof. When
miners reach the end of the com­
pany’s property, they start working
back toward the entrance. Some of
the remaining coal is dug and the
roof is then caved in as they retreat.
If the coal seam is not too far be­
low ground, a surface mine is used.
Two types of surface mines are strip
and auger. At strip mines, huge
machines tear the earth away and dig
out the coal. Auger mining is used to
remove coal from hillsides. A large
auger (drill) bores into the hill and
pulls the coal out.
Occupations In the
Industry

In 1972 about 145,000 people
worked in the coal mining industry.
About 85 percent were the produc­
tion workers who mined and proc­
essed coal. Different types of mining
jobs range from helpers who load
coal with a shovel, to experienced
miners who operate equipment worth
several hundred thousand dollars.
Jobs available in a mine, however,

Four Types of Bituminous Coal Mines
Shaft Mine

Drift Mine

Types of Mines

Coal is either mined underground
or dug from the earth’s surface.
Underground mines produce about
half of the bituminous coal and em­
ploy most of the miners. Surface
mines account for the remaining
coal, but employ only a small
proportion of the industry’s workers.
The type of mine a company
decides to build depends on the depth
630



Surface Mine
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics.

20

631

COAL MINING

vary by type and method of mining.
Mining Occupations. Two basic
methods of mining underground
coal, conventional and continuous,
account for 96 percent of total under­
ground production. A third method,
longwall, makes up the remaining.
Conventional mining is the oldest
method and requires the most work­
ers and procedures. In conventional
mining, a long strip is first cut under­
neath the coal seam to control the
direction of falling coal when it has
been blasted. The cutting is done by
the cutting machine operator
(D.O.T. 930.883), who runs a huge,
electric chain saw, with a cutter rang­
ing in length from 9 to 15 feet. Next
the drilling machine operator
(D.O.T. 930.782) drills holes into the
coal where the shot firer (D.O.T.
931.782) places explosives. After the
blast the loading machine operator
(D.O.T. 932.883) scoops up and
dumps the coal into small railroad
cars, which are run by the shuttle car
operator (D.O.T. 932.883). These
cars take the coal to a conveyor belt
where the conveyor man (D.O.T.
630.381) controls the movement of
coal to the main entry or to the sur­
face.
The continuous mining method
eliminates the drilling and blasting
operations of conventional mining.
The continuous-mining machine
operator (D.O.T. 930.883) runs a
machine that cuts or rips out the coal
and loads it onto a conveyor or shut­
tle cars.
Longwall mining is basically an
extension of continuous mining. In
this method one machine, run by the
longwall machine operator digs and
loads coal and at the same time rein­
forces the roof.
Many other workers are required
to run a safe and efficient under­
ground mine. A foreman, called a
face boss (D.O.T. 939.138) super­
vises all operations at the work site



Miner at control* of continuous
mining machine.

where coal is actually mined. Before
miners are allowed to enter, the fire
boss (D.O.T. 939.387) inspects the
work area for dangerous gases and
adequate ventilation. Coal dust is ex­
tremely explosive, and interferes
with breathing. The rock-dust
machine operator (D.O.T. 939.887)
sprays limestone on the mine walls
and ground to hold down the dust.
Roof falls always pose a serious
threat in a mine, so the work of the
roof bolter (D.O.T. 930.883) is ex­
tremely important. This worker
operates a machine to install roofsupport bolts. The brattice man
(D.O.T. 869.884) constructs doors,
walls or partitions in the passage­
ways to force air through the tunnels
to working areas.
Most surface miners operate the

large machines that remove the earth
above the coal, and dig and load the
coal. In a strip mine the overburden
is first drilled and blasted. Then the
overburden stripping operator or
dragline operator (D.O.T. 859.883)
scoops the earth away to expose the
coal. Next the coal loading machine
operator (D.O.T. 932.833) loads the
coal onto trucks to be driven to the
preparation plant. In auger mines,
the auger operator (D.O.T. 930.782)
runs the machine that pulls the coal
from sides of hills. Tractor oper­
ators (D.O.T. 929.883) drive bull­
dozers to move materials or pull out
imbedded boulders or other objects.
Helpers assist in operating these
machines.
Skilled repairmen, called fitters
(D.O.T. 801.281) fix all types of min­
ing machinery, and electricians
check and install electrical wiring.
Carpenters construct and maintain
benches, bins, and the wooden bodies
of mine cars. Helpers may be sta­
tioned in any work area to aid ex­
perienced miners and to learn the
trade. Many mechanics and elec­
tricians assemble, maintain, and re­
pair the machines used in mines.
Truck drivers haul, the coal to
preparation plants.
Preparation Plant Occupations.
Rocks and other impurities must be
removed before coal is crushed, sized
or blended, to meet the buyer’s
wishes. These processes take place at
the preparation plant.
Many preparation plants are
located next to the mine. The plant’s
size and number of employees vary
by the amount of coal processed and
degree of mechanization. Some
plants have all controls centrally lo­
cated and require only one worker to
oversee all washing, separating and
crushing operations. This worker is
known as a preparation plant cen­
tral control operator (D.O.T.
549.138). At each step other plants

632

that are not as mechanized need
workers such as the wash box attend­
ant (D.O.T. 541.782) and separation
tender (D.O.T. 934.885). Wash box
attendants operate equipment to size
coal and separate impurities from it.
Using currents of water, the separa­
tion tender operates a device that
further cleans coal.
Administrative, Professional, Cleri­
cal and Technical Occupations. The
coal industry employs a wide range
of administrative, professional, tech­
nical and clerical workers. At the top
of the administrative group execu­
tives make all policy decisions. Deci­
sion making requires a staff of
specialists such as accountants, at­
torneys, and market researchers.
Clerical and secretarial workers
assist the administrative staff. They
may keep records on personnel, pay­
roll, sales, production and other
paper work.
Although most of our coal seams
have been discovered, they must still
be examined for purity and depth.
The type of mine to be built also
must be determined. This work
generally is done by the mining engi­
neer (D.O.T. 010.081 and .187) who
is involved in all aspects of building
and maintaining a safe mine. Sur­
veyors (D.O.T. 018.188) also may be
called in to help map out the mining
area.
Many other types of engineering
and scientific personnel also are em­
ployed. Mechanical engineers over­
see the installation of equipment,
such as centralized heat and water
systems. Safety engineers attempt to
prevent or correct hazardous condi­
tions in the mines. Involved in re­
search such as converting coal into a
gas or a liquid are physicists, chem­
ists, and geologists.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

helpers to experienced workers and
learn mining skills on the job. Some
companies supplement on-the-job
training with formal programs, but
training varies from company to
company. For example, some com­
panies have training mines where
skills are taught; others give class­
room instruction for a few weeks be­
fore allowing workers into a mine.
Many courses also are available
on health and safety procedures,
mining techniques, and mining
machinery. The U.S. Bureau of the
Mines, coal companies, and the
United Mine Workers of America
conduct classes on health, safety and
mining methods. Mine machinery
manufacturers offer courses in
machine operation and maintenance.

As miners gain more experience
they can move to higher-paying jobs.
When a vacancy occurs, an an­
nouncement is posted and all work­
ers who believe they are qualified
may bid for the job. A mining
machine operator’s helper, for exam­
ple, may become an operator. The
position is filled on the basis of sen­
iority and ability to do the work. A
small number of miners advance to
supervisory positions and, in some
cases, to administrative jobs in the
office.
Miners must be at least 18 years
old and in good physical condition. A
high school diploma is not required.
All miners should be able to work in
close areas and have quick reflexes in
cases of emergencies.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most young people start out as



Rock dusting machine operator sprays powdered limestone to control coal dust.

COAL MINING

Scientists and engineers should
have at least a Bachelor’s Degree.
Requirements for administrative and
clerical jobs are similar to those in
other industries. College graduates
are preferred for jobs in advertising,
personnel, accounting, and sales. For
clerical and secretarial jobs, employ­
ers usually hire high school gradu­
ates who have training in areas such
as stenography and typing.
Employment Outlook

As the Nation’s demand for elec­
tric power grows, more coal will be
mined to fuel electric power plants.
More coal also will be needed to
make steel, chemicals, and other
products, or for conversion into fuel
oil or natural gas. Most job open­
ings, however, will arise as experi­
enced miners retire, die, or transfer
to other Fields of work. Retirements
and deaths alone are expected to
create several thousand openings
each year through the mid-1980’s.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

Union wage rates for miners in
late 1972 ranged from $4.80 an hour




633

to $5.75 an hour. In comparison,
production workers in manufac­
turing averaged $3.81 an hour. On
the average, workers in under­
ground mines earn slightly more
than those in surface mines or
preparation plants.
Because underground miners
spend much time traveling from the
mine entrance to their working
areas, they have a slightly longer
working day than surface workers.
Those in surface occupations work a
7-1/4 hour day (36-1/2 hour week),
while underground miners work in 8hour day (40 hour week).
Many mines operate around the
clock so some miners work on after­
noon or night shifts for slightly
higher wages.
Most miners receive 9 holidays
and 14 days of paid vacation each
year. As their length of service in­
creases, they gain extra vacation
days up to a total of 24. Union work­
ers also receive benefits from a wel­
fare and retirement fund, and work­
ers suffering from pneumoconiosis
(black lung) receive federal aid.
Miners have unusual and harsh
working conditions. Underground
mines are damp, dark, noisy and

cold. At times, several inches of
water may be on tunnel floors. Al­
though mines have electric lights,
many areas are illuminated only by
the lights on the miners’ caps. Work­
ers in mines with very low roofs have
to work on their knees, backs, or
stomachs in cramped areas.
Though safety conditions have im­
proved considerably, miners must
constantly be on guard for hazards.
There is also the risk of developing
pneumoconiosis (black lung) from
coal dust and silicosis from the rock
dust generated by the drilling in the
mines. Surface mines and prepara­
tion plants are less hazardous than
underground mines.
Sources of Additional
Information

For details about job oppor­
tunities in mining contact individual
coal companies. General informa­
tion on mining occupations can be
obtained from:
United Mine Workers of America, 900
15th St. NW., Washington, D.C.
20005.
Bituminous Coal Operator’s Associ­
ation, 918 16th St. NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20006.

OCCUPATIONS IN
PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS
PRODUCTION AND GAS PROCESSING
Nature and Location
of the Industry

Petroleum is one of the fuels form­
ed by the decay of living matter. It is
extracted mainly in the form of crude
oil and natural gas. This :-chapter
deals with workers who are em­
ployed in the United States to find
oil and gas and bring them to the
earth’s surface and to convert gas to
usable products. In 1972, about 260,000 workers were engaged in these
activities. Occupations in oil refin­
ing are discussed in a separate chap­
ter elsewhere in the Handbook.
Crude oil and natural gas produc­
tion covers three broad fields of
work: exploration, drilling, and oper­
ation and maintenance of wells.
Firms that specialize in these activ­
ities under contract to oil companies
employ almost one-half of all work­
ers in petroleum production. Major
oil companies employ most of the re­
mainder. Gas processing involves
removing water, sulfur compounds
and other inpurities from natural
gas, and separating liquid gases such
as ethane and propane.
Since oil and gas are difficult to
find, exploration and drilling are key
activities in the petroleum industry.
After scientific studies indicate the
possible presence of oil, the com­
pany selects a well site and installs a
towerlike steel rig to support the
drilling equipment. A hole is bored
deeper and deeper into the earth until
oil is struck or the company decides
to write the effort off as a loss. Al­
though a few large oil companies do
634



customers. These liquids—chiefly
ethane, propane, butane, and natural
gasoline—are important raw mate­
rials for refineries and chemical
plants. Some are widely used as heat­
ing fuels in rural areas.
Although drilling for oil and gas is
done in about three-fourths of the
States, about 90 percent of the indus­
try’s workers are employed in 10
States. Texas leads in the number of
oilfield jobs, followed by Louisiana,
California, Oklahoma, Kansas, New
Mexico, Wyoming, Mississippi,
Colorado, and Illinois. Thousands of
additional Americans employed by
oil companies work in foreign coun­
tries, particularly the Middle East,
Africa, Western Europe, South
America, and Indonesia.

their own drilling, more than 95 per­
cent is done by contractors.
When oil or gas is discovered,
pipes, valves and other equipment
are installed to control the flow of
these raw materials from the well.
There were more than 600,000 wells
in this country in 1972, and about
half of all the petroleum industry’s
production workers were needed to
operate and maintain them.
Oil and gas are transported to
Occupations In the
refineries by pipeline, ship, barge, or
Industry
truck. Many refineries are thou­
sands of miles from oil fields, but gas Workers with a wide range of
processing plants usually are near the education and skills are needed to
fields so that liquid compounds can drill, operate, and maintain wells and
be removed before the gas is piped to to process natural gas.

Production geologist studies core sample at well site.

OCCUPATIONS IN PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION AND GAS PROCESSING

Exploration. Exploring for oil is the clude draftsmen (D.O.T. 010.281)
first step in petroleum production. and surveyors (D.O.T. 018.188), who
Small crews of specialized workers assist in surveying and mapping
travel to remote areas to search for operations.
geological formations likely to con­ Most geophysical exploration is
tain oil. Exploration parties, led by a done by seismic prospecting. The
petroleum geologist (D.O.T. seismograph is a sensitive instru­
024.081) , study the surface and sub­ ment that records natural and man­
surface of the earth. Geologists seek made earthquakes. Artificial earth­
clues to the possibility of oil traps by quakes in petroleum exploration are
examining types of rock formations made by detonating explosives in the
on and under the earth’s surface. ground. The time it takes for sound
Besides making detailed ground sur­ waves to reach an underground rock
veys, petroleum geologists depend on layer and return indicates the depth
aerial exploration and magnetic sur­ of the layer. By setting off explo­
veys for a broad picture of the area. sions at a number of locations, scien­
Subsurface evidence is collected by tists can map underground forma­
boring and bringing up core samples tions with considerable accuracy,
of the rocks, clay, and sands that thus providing a clue to the where­
form the layers of the earth. From abouts of traps that may contain oil.
these examinations geologists draw A geophysicist (D.O.T. 024.081)
cross-section maps of the under­ usually leads a seismograph crew
ground formations to pinpoint areas that may include prospecting com­
where oil or gas may be located. In puters (D.O.T. 010.288), who per­
offshore exploration, they also may form the calculations and prepare
obtain rock samples from the bot­ maps from the information re­
tom of the sea in their search for corded by the seismograph; observ­
ers (D.O.T. 010.168) who operate
clues to oil-bearing formations.
Many geologists work in district and maintain electronic seismic
offices of oil companies or explora­ equipment; shothole drillers (D.O.T.
tion firms where they prepare and 930.782) and their helpers (D.O.T.
study geological maps. They also 930.886), who operate portable drill­
study samples from test drilling to ing rigs to make holes into which ex­
plosives are placed; and shooters
find any clues to oil.
(D.O.T. 931.381) who place and
In addition to the petroleum
geologist, exploration parties may detonate explosives.
include other geology specialists: Before geophysical exploration the
Paleontologists (D.O.T. 024.081) oil company must obtain permission
study fossil remains in the earth to to use the land. The landman or
locate oil-bearing sands; mineralo­ leaseman (D.O.T. 191.118) makes
gists (D.O.T. 024.081) study physi­ the necessary business arrangements
cal and chemical properties of min­ with landowners or with owners of
eral and rock samples; stratig- mineral rights.
raphers (D.O.T. 024.081) determine
the rock layers most likely to con­ Drilling. Exploration methods are
tain oil and natural gas; photogeolo­ used to find likely oil fields but only
gists (D.O.T. 024.081) examine and drilling can prove the presence of oil.
interpret aerial photographs of land Overall planning and supervision of
surfaces; and petrologists (D.O.T. drilling usually are the responsibil­
024.081) investigate the history of ities of the petroleum engineer.
the formation of the earth’s crust. Wells are almost always started in
Exploration parties may also in­ the same way. Rig builders (D.O.T.



635

869.884) and a crew of helpers
(D.O.T. 869.887) install a portable
drilling rig to support the machinery
and equipment that raises and low­
ers the drilling tools.
In one method called rotary drill­
ing, a revolving steel bit bores a hole
in the ground by chipping and cut­
ting rock. Most drilling is done by
the rotary method. The bit is at­
tached to a length of pipe (drill stem)
which is rotated by a diesel engine or
an electric motor. As the bit cuts
through the earth, the drill stem is
lengthened by more pipe screwed on
at the upper end. A stream of mud is
continuously pumped into the hol­
low pipe and comes out through
holes in the drill bit. This mud, a
mixture of clay, chemicals, and
water, cools the drill bit, plasters the
walls of the hole to prevent cave-ins,
and carries the cuttings to the sur­
face.
A typical rotary drilling crew con­
sists of a driller and three to five
helpers. Divided into three crews, 15
to 20 workers generally operate a rig
24 hours a day, 7 days a week. A
rotary driller (D.O.T. 930.782) oper­
ates machinery that controls speed
and pressure, selects the proper drill
bit, and records operations. The
driller must be prepared to meet
emergencies such as a breakdown of
equipment or a fire.
A derrickman (D.O.T. 930.782),
who is second in charge, works on a
small platform high on the rig to help
run a pipe in and out of the well
opening. The derrickman also oper­
ates pumps that circulate mud
through the pipe.
Other members of the drilling
crew include rotary helpers (D.O.T.
930.884) , also known as rough­
necks, who guide the lower end of the
pipe to and from the well opening
and connect and disconnect pipe
joints and drill bits. An engineman
(D.O.T. 950.782) may be added to

636

operate the engines that provide
power for drilling and hoisting.
The tool pusher or chiefdriller
(D.O.T. 930.130) is the foreman of
one or more drilling rigs and sup­
plies materials and equipment to rig
builders and crews. Roustabouts
(D.O.T. 869.884) or general labor­
ers, though not considered part of a
drilling crew, do general oil field
maintenance and construction work.
They clean tanks, build roads, and
help welders and other craftsmen.
Well operation and maintenance.
When oil is found, the drill pipe and
bit are pulled from the well, and cas­
ing is lowered and cemented in place.
The upper ends of the tubing and cas­
ing are fastened to a system of valves
called a “Christmas tree.” Pressure
in the well forces crude oil and gas to
the surface, through the Christmas
tree, and into gas traps and storage
tanks. If natural pressure is not great



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

enough to force the oil to the sur­
face, pumps are used.
Petroleum production engineers
generally plan and supervise well
operation and maintenance. To pre­
vent waste, they decide the rate of oil
flow and anticipate performance of
oil reservoirs by analyzing informa­
tion such as pressure readings from
the wells. Engineers are increasingly
using computers for analytical work.
Some engineers specialize in over­
coming effects of corrosion on well
casings, in the selection and design of
production equipment and proc­
esses, or in the prevention of pollu­
tion. Some companies hire engineer
aides to make tests, keep records,
post maps, and otherwise assist
engineers.
Pumpers (D.O.T. 914.782) and
their helpers operate and maintain
motors, pumps, and other equip­
ment to force oil from wells. Their

chief duty is to regulate the flow of
oil according to a schedule set up by
the petroleum engineer and produc­
tion foreman. Generally, a pumper
operates a group of wells. Switchers
work in fields where oil flows under
natural pressure and does not re­
quire pumping. They open and close
valves to regulate the oil flow from
wells to tanks or into pipelines, and
gaugers (D.O.T. 914.381) measure
and record the flow and take sam­
ples to check quality. Treaters
(D.O.T. 541.782) test the oil for
water and sediment and remove
these impurities by opening a drain
at the tank’s base or by using special
chemical or electrical equipment. In
some fields, pumping, switching,
gaging, and treating operations are
automatic.
Many skilled workers are em­
ployed in maintenance operations.
Welders, pipefitters, electricians, and
machinists repair and install pumps,
gages, pipes, and other equipment.
Natural gas processing. Most proc­
essing workers control equipment.
The dehydration-plant operator
(D.O.T. 541.782) tends an auto­
matically controlled treating unit
which removes water and other im­
purities from natural gas. The gaso­
line-plant operator (D .O.T.
914.132), operates compressors that
raise the pressure of the gas for
transmission in the pipelines. The
gas-compressor operator (D.O.T.
950.782) assists either of the two
employees named above.
Many workers in the larger
natural gas processing plants are em­
ployed in maintenance activities. The
instrument repairman and the elec­
trician are two key workers needed
to maintain the instruments that con­
trol automatic equipment. Welders
and their helpers also do much main­
tenance work in the processing plant.
Other maintenance workers include
engine repairmen, roustabouts, help­
ers, or laborers.

OCCUPATIONS IN PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION AND GAS PROCESSING

In numerous smaller natural gas These offshore operations require the
plants, workers combine skills, usu­ same type of drilling crews as are
ally of operator and maintenance employed on land operations. In
man. Many small plants are so addition, offshore operations re­
highly automated they are virtually quire radio operators, cooks, sail­
unattended. They are checked by ors, and pilots for work on drilling
maintenance workers or operators at platforms, crewboats, barges, and
periodic intervals, or they are check­ helicopters.
ed continuously by instruments (Detailed discussions of profes­
which automatically report prob­ sional, technical, mechanical, and
lems and shut down the plant if an other occupations found not only in
the petroleum and natural gas
emergency develops.
production industry, but in other in­
Other oilfield services. Companies dustries as well, are given elsewhere
that offer services on a contract basis in the Handbook in the sections
provide another important source of covering individual occupations.)
employment. Among these employ­
ees are skilled workers such as cementers (D.O.T. 930.281), who mix Training, Other Qualifications,
and pump cement into the space be­
and Advancement
tween steel casings and well walls to Most workers in nonprofessional
prevent cave-ins; acidizers (D.O.T.
with
crew begin
930.782) , who force acid into the bot­ jobshelpersan exploration into one of
as
and advance
tom of the well to increase the flow the specialized jobs. Their training
of oil; perforator operators (D.O.T.
931.782) , who use subsurface “guns” may vary from several months to
workers usually
to pierce holes in drill pipes or cas­ several years. New by the crew chief
are hired in the field
ings to make passages for oil to flow or by local
representa­
through; sample-taker operators tives. College company majoring in
students
(D.O.T. 931.781), who take samples physical or earth sciences or in
of soil and rock formations from engineering often
wells to help geologists determine the summer with an work part-time or
exploration crew.
presence of oil; and well pullers They may work into a full-time job
(D.O.T. 930.883), who remove pipes, after graduation.
pumps, and other subsurface devices Members of drilling crews usually
from wells for cleaning, repairing, or begin as roughnecks. As they ac­
salvaging.
quire experience they may advance
Offshore operations. Most explora­ to more skilled jobs. For example, a
tion, drilling, and producing activ­ worker may be hired as a rough­
ities are on land but an increasing neck, advance to derrickman and,
amount of this work is done off­ after several years, become a driller.
shore, particularly in the Gulf of A driller can advance to the job of
Mexico off the coasts of Louisiana tool-pusher in charge of one or more
and Texas. Some additional off­ drilling crews. Crew members usu­
shore work is being done in the ally are between the ages of 20 and
Pacific Ocean off California, 40, since the work requires heavy
Oregon, Washington, and Alaska labor. Some companies, however, re­
and in many foreign locations such port that their best drillers are over
as the Persian Gulf, Bass Strait, and 50 and even in their sixties, for this
North Sea. Some wells have been job requires good judgment and ex­
drilled over 100 miles from shore and perience rather than physical labor.
in water more than 1,000 feet deep. Companies generally hire people



637

who live near operating wells for well
operation and maintenance jobs.
They prefer applicants who have
mechanical ability and a knowledge
of oil-field processes. Because this
type of work is less strenuous and
offers the advantage of a fixed locale,
members of drilling crews or ex­
ploration parties who prefer not to
travel often transfer to well oper­
ation and maintenance jobs. New
workers may start as roustabouts
and advance to jobs as switchers,
gaugers, or pumpers. Training usu­
ally is acquired on the job; at least 2
years of experience are needed to be­
come an all-round pumper.
For scientists, such as geologists
and geophysicists, college training
with at least a bachelor’s degree is re­
quired. The preferred educational
qualification for a petroleum engi­
neer is a degree in engineering with
specialization in courses on the
petroleum industry. However, col­
lege graduates having degrees in
chemical, mining, civil, or mechan­
ical engineering, or in geology, geo­
physics, or other related sciences,
often are hired for petroleum engi­
neering jobs. Petroleum engineering
aides include people with 2-year
technical degrees as well as former
roustabouts or pumpers who have
been promoted.
Scientists and engineers usually
start at junior levels, and after sev­
eral years of experience can advance
to managerial or administrative jobs.
Scientists and engineers who have re­
search ability, particularly those with
advanced degrees, may transfer to
research or consulting work.
Information on training, quali­
fications, and advancement in
natural gas processing plants is simi­
lar to that for petroleum refining. A
statement on petroleum refining can
be found elsewhere in the Handbook.
Employment Outlook

Employment in petroleum and

638

natural gas production is expected to
decline slowly through the mid1980’s. Nevertheless, many job open­
ings will be available to replace ex­
perienced workers who retire, die, or
leave their jobs for other reasons.
Employment may decline in most
established oil fields in the United
States because of diminished oil
reserves in these fields. However,
the need for additional resources
to meet fuel shortages is likely to
cause employment increases in some
areas. More exploration and
drilling, for example, is expected
in Alaska, at some offshore loca­
tions, and in other remote and
unexplored areas of the world. In
workers who have electrical or
mechanical training to maintain and
repair its increasingly complex
machinery.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

In 1972 nonsupervisory employ­
ees in oil and gas extraction aver­
aged $3.97 an hour. In comparison,
the average for nonsupervisory




workers in all industries, except
farming, was $3.65 an hour.
Most oilfield employees work out­
doors in all kinds of weather. Oil­
fields often are far from populated
areas, sometimes in swamps or
deserts. Increasingly, oilfield
employees are involved in offshore
operations. Drilling employees may
expect to move from place to place
since their work in a particular field
may be completed in less than a year.
Exploration field personnel may be
required to move even more fre­
quently. They may be away from
home for weeks or months at a time
and live in a trailer or tent. Well
operation and maintenance workers
often remain in the same location for
long periods.
In offshore operations, earnings
usually are higher than those in land
operations. Except for drilling activ­
ity that is close to shore, workers’ liv­
ing quarters are on platforms held
fast to the ocean bottom or on ships
anchored nearby. In offshore opera­
tions many work 7 days, 12 hours a
day, and then have 7 days off.
Most workers in natural gas proc­
essing plants do not have to travel.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Their jobs require only moderate
physical effort although some work­
ers must climb stairs and ladders to
considerable heights. Some employ­
ees in natural gas processing have
unusual working conditions. They
travel rough, unpaved terrain in all
kinds of weather to check small,
unattended automated plants in iso­
lated locations. These maintenance
jobs may be very satisfying to those
who like working alone outdoors.
Sources of Additional
Information

Further information about jobs in
the petroleum industry may be avail­
able from the personnel offices of in­
dividual oil companies. Information
on scientific and technical jobs may
be obtained from:
American Association of Petroleum
Geologists, P. O. Box 979, Tulsa,
Okla. 74101.
Society of Petroleum Engineers of
AIME, 6200 North Central Ex­
pressway, Dallas, Tex. 75206.
American Geological Institute, 2201 M
St. NW„ Washington, D.C. 20037.

CONSTRUCTION
The activities of the construction
industry touch nearly every aspect of
our daily lives. The houses and apart­
ments in which we live; the factories,
offices, and schools in which we
work; and the roads on which we
travel are examples of some of the
products of this important industry.
The industry includes not only new
construction projects, but also ad­
ditions, alterations, and repairs to
existing structures.
In 1972, about 3.5 million people
worked in the contract construction
industry. An additional 1.3 million
workers are estimated to be either
self-employed—mostly owners of
small building firms—or are State
and local government employees
who build and maintain our Nation’s
vast highway systems.
The contract construction in­
dustry is divided into three major
segments. About half of the job
holders work for electrical, air con­
ditioning, plumbing, and other spe­
cial trade contractors. Almost onethird work for the general building
contractors that do most residen­
tial, commercial, and industrial con­
struction. The remaining one-fifth
build dams, bridges, roads, and
similar heavy construction projects.
As illustrated in the accompany­
ing tabulation, workers in blue-collar
occupations make up 80 percent of
the construction industry employ­
ment. Craftsmen and foremen alone
account for 55 percent of the total




employment in this industry—a
much higher proportion than that of
any other major industry. Most of
these skilled workers hold jobs as
carpenters, painters, plumbers and
pipefitters, construction machinery
operators, and bricklayers, or in one
of the other construction trades.
Laborers are the next largest occu­
pational group and account for 17
percent of employment. They pro­
vide materials, scaffolding, and gen­
eral assistance to the craftsmen at
the worksite. Semiskilled workers
(operatives and kindred workers),
such as truck drivers, welders and
apprentices, represent about 8 per­
cent of the industry’s work force.
Managers, officials, and proprie­
tors—mostly self-employed—ac­
count for about the same share of
employment. Professional and tech­
nical workers make up about 4 per­
cent of the work force. Engineers and
engineering technicians, draftsmen,
and surveyors account for most of
the employment in this occupational
group. Clerical workers, largely
typists, secretaries, and office
machine operators, constitute
another 7 percent of the industry’s
employment.
Major
occupational group

Estimated
employment
1972
(percent
distribution)

All occupational
groups.........................

100

Professional, technical,
and kindred workers . . . .
4
Managers, officials,
10
and proprietors......
Clerical and
kindred workers....
7
Sales workers............
(')
Craftsmen, foremen,
and kindred workers . . . .
55
Operatives and kindred
workers..................
8
Service workers.......
(')
Laborers....................
17
Less than 0.5 percent.
NOTE: Due to rounding, sums of individual
items may not add to total.

Construction industry employ­
ment is expected to rise rapidly
through the mid-1980’s, as popula­
tion and income growth create a de­
mand for more houses, schools, fac­
tories and other buildings. Likewise,
the number of construction workers
employed by State and local high­
way departments should increase as
the country’s highway systems ex­
pand. Because of laborsaving im­
provements in tools, materials, and
work methods, however, employ­
ment will not grow as rapidly as con­
struction activity.
Contract construction is the major
source of employment for skilled
craftsmen such as bricklayers,
painters, and carpenters. For in­
formation on these and other con­
struction crafts, see the chapter on
Construction Occupations else­
where in the Handbook. For in­
formation on occupations that are
found in many other industries, see
the index in the back of the book.

639




MANUFACTURING
Manufacturing is a key activity of
our Nation’s economy. The prod­
ucts of the manufacturing industries
range in complexity from simple
plastic toys to intricate electronic
computers, and in size from minia­
ture electronic components to gi­
gantic aircraft carriers. Manufac­
turing involves many diverse proc­
esses. Workers process foods and
chemicals, print books and news­
papers, spin and weave textiles,
make clothing and shoes, and pro­
duce the thousands of other prod­
ucts needed for our personal and na­
tional welfare.
About 18.9 million people worked
in manufacturing—the largest of the
major industries—in 1972. About
three-fifths of all manufacturing em­
ployees worked in plants that pro­
duced durable goods, such as steel,
machinery, automobiles, and house­
hold appliances. The rest worked in
plants that produced food, clothing,
chemicals, and other non-durable
goods.
In 1972, nearly 5.4 million women
worked in manufacturing, which ac­
counted for more than one-fifth of all
women workers. Women represent a
large proportion of the production
workers in some industries, particu­
larly the apparel, textiles, tobacco,
and leather products industries.
As illustrated in the accompany­
ing table, blue-collar workers (crafts­
men and foremen, operatives, and
laborers) make up about two-thirds
of manufacturing employment.
Operatives and kindred workers
alone account for over four-tenths of
the work force; many of these are
spinners and weavers, sewing ma­



chine operators, machine tool opera­
tors and welders, or operators of the
specialized processing equipment
used in the food, chemical, paper,
and petroleum industries.
Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred
workers make up the next largest
group of workers and account for
nearly one-fifth of employment in
manufacturing. Many of these skill­
ed workers install and maintain the
wide assortment of machinery and
equipment required in all factories.
Others are employed in skilled pro­
duction occupations. Machinists, for
example, are especially important in
the metalworking industries, as are
skilled inspectors and assemblers. In
the printing and publishing in­
dustries, compositors, typesetters,
photoengravers, lithographers, and
pressmen make up a large share of
the work force.
White-collar workers (profes­
sional, managerial, clerical, and sales
workers) account for nearly onethird of manufacturing employ­
ment. Clerical workers, such as sec­
retaries and office machine opera­
tors, are the largest white-collar
group. Clerical workers hold about 1
out of every 8 jobs in manufacturing.
Professional, technical, and kin­
dred workers account for about 1 out
of every 10 jobs in manufacturing.
Engineers, scientists, and techni­
cians represent a large share of the
professional workers. These highly
trained workers not only oversee and
guide the production processes, but
also carry out the extensive research
and development activities needed in
the aerospace, electronics, chemical,
petroleum, and other industries.

Major
occupational group

Estimated
employment
1972
(percent
distribution)

All occupational groups _____ 100
Professional, technical, and
kindred workers............................
9
Managers, officials, and
6
proprietors....................................
Clerical and kindred workers ..
12
Salesworkers ..................................
2
Craftsmen, foremen, and
kindred workers............................
19
Operatives and kindred
workers..........................................
44
Service workers..............................
2
Laborers...........................................
5
N oth: Because of rounding, sums of indi­
vidual items may not add to total.

Population growth, rising per­
sonal income, and expanding busi­
ness activity will create a substantial
increase in the demand for manufac­
tured products through the mid1980’s. Employment in manufactur­
ing, however, is expected to increase
at a slower pace than production.
The application of modern technol­
ogy to manufacturing processes will
make possible substantial increases
in production of goods without a cor­
responding increase in the work
force. Although the average rate of
employment growth will be slow,
employment trends of individual in­
dustries will vary widely. In the
rubber and miscellaneous plastics
products and furniture and fixtures
industries, employment should in­
crease about one-third, far above the
average increase. Employment in
several other industries—including
machinery, instruments, and stone,
clay, and glass—should increase
more rapidly than the average for all
641

642

manufacturing. On the other hand,
employment in some manufacturing
industries is expected to decline,
Tobacco, food, and lumber and
wood products all may decrease in




employment through the mid-1980’s,
The statements that follow pro­
vide information on employment opportunities in several of the manufacturing industries. More detailed

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

information about occupations that
are found in manufacturing as well
as in many other industries appears
elsewhere in the Handbook. (See in­
dex in the back of the book.)

OCCUPATIONS IN AIRCRAFT, MISSILE,
AND SPACECRAFT MANUFACTURING
Firms that manufacture and as­
semble aircraft, missiles, and space­
craft make up what is known as the
“aerospace” industry. In 1972, more
than three quarters of a million peo­
ple worked in the industry: about
500,000 in manufacture and assem­
bly of complete aircraft, aircraft
engines, propellers, and auxiliary
parts and equipment; 90,000, mis­
siles and spacecraft; and 160,000 in
companies that make electronic
equipment and instruments for air­
craft, missiles, and spacecraft. Thou­
sands of workers in other industries
produced parts, machinery, and
equipment used in the manufacture
of aerospace vehicles. Also, thou­
sands of Federal workers were en­
gaged in aerospace related work,
since the Government is a major pur­
chaser of the industry’s products.
They worked primarily in the
National Aeronautics and Space Ad­
ministration (NASA) and in the De­
partment of Defense.
Aerospace jobs exist in almost
every State. The largest concentra­
tion is in California. Other States
with large numbers of aerospace jobs
include New York, Washington,
Connecticut, Texas, Florida, Ohio,
Missouri, Pennsylvania, Massa­
chusetts, Kansas, Alabama, Mary­
land, New Jersey, and Georgia.
Nature of the Industry

Although there are many kinds of
aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft,
they all have the same basic com­
ponents: a frame to hold and sup­
port the rest of the vehicle, an engine
to propel the vehicle, and a guidance



and control system. Missiles and
spacecraft reach into space at speeds
many times that of sound, while air­
craft fly in the earth’s atmosphere at
much slower speeds. Missiles are
powered by either jet or rocket
engines; spacecraft are rocketpowered only. Aircraft are powered
by piston, jet, or rocket engines.
Types of aircraft vary from small
personal or business planes that cost
not much more than an automobile,
to multi-million dollar jumbo trans­
ports and supersonic Fighters. Most
aircraft (in dollar value) are manu­
factured for military use; however,
those made for commercial and pri­
vate use have been increasing.
Missiles are chiefly for military
use and generally carry destructive
warheads. Some are capable of
traveling only a few miles, such as
those that support ground troops and
defend against low flying aircraft.
Others have intercontinental ranges
of 7,000 miles or more. Some mis­
siles are launched from land or un­
derground; others from aircraft, sub­
marines, or ships.
Most of the country’s spacecraft
are built for NASA and the Depart­
ment of Defense to explore outerspace or to monitor conditions
within the earth’s atmosphere (for
example, weather conditions). They
carry instruments that record and
transmit to earth stations scientific
data. On manned flights, a cabin
capsule carries the astronauts. Some
spacecraft probe the space environ­
ment and then fall back to earth.
Others may enter into earth orbit
and become artificial satellites. Still
others may orbit or land on the moon

and on distant planets.
Major aircraft, missile and space­
craft firms contract with govern­
ment or private business to produce
an aerospace vehicle. As con­
tractors, they are responsible for
managing and coordinating the en­
tire project. This involves much plan­
ning and decision making. The firm’s
engineering department prepares
final design drawings and specifica­
tions for the product, which then go
to the production department where
planners work on the many details
regarding machines, materials, and
operations needed to manufacture
the vehicle. Production includes de­
signing and producing the tools and
fixtures needed to produce thou­
sands of parts and accessories that
make up an aerospace vehicle. Parts
and components must be inspected
and tested many times before being
assembled, and completed systems
are examined for conformance to
specifications. Before a finished ve­
hicle is delivered, it is checked out by
a team of mechanics, or flight-tested
if it is an aircraft.
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
manufacturers generally make many
components of a craft and do final
assembly work. However, because
there are so many components that
make up aircraft, missiles, and
spacecraft, much of the work is sub­
contracted to outside firms. There
are thousands of subcontractors in­
volved in the production of parts that
go into aerospace vehicles. Some
subcontractors make parts or sup­
plies such as bearings, rocket fuels,
or special lubricants. Others pro­
duce subassemblies such as com­
munication or guidance equipment,
or jet engines. Some of the firms may
even depend on other subcon­
tractors to supply parts for their subassemblies.
Because of the complex and
changing nature of aerospace tech­
nology, firms need workers with
643

644

many different job skills that vary
according to their fields of work. Re­
search and development labora­
tories employ mainly engineers, sci­
entists, and supporting technicians
and craftsmen. Production opera­
tions, on the other hand, require as­
semblers, inspectors, machinists, and
other plant workers.
Major jobs in aerospace manu­
facturing are described under three
main categories: professional and
technical; administrative, clerical,
and related occupations; and plant
occupations. Many of these jobs are
in other industries as well and are
discussed in greater detail elsewhere
in the Handbook.
Professional and Technical Occupa­
tions. Research and development
(R&D) are vital to the aerospace in­
dustry. Efforts are being made to de­
velop vehicles with greater speeds,
ranges, and reliability. Engines with
more power and new sources of
rocket propulsion such as nuclear
and electric energy are being inves­
tigated and may be available in the
future. Metals and plastics are con­
tinually being explored for wider ca­
pabilities, as are electronic guidance
and communication systems. The
pace of discovery in aerospace tech­
nology is so rapid that much equip­
ment becomes obsolete while still in
an experimental stage or soon after
being put into production.
Emphasis on R&D makes the aer­
ospace industry an important source
of jobs for technical personnel. In
1972, almost one-fourth of all em­
ployees were engineers, scientists,
and technicians, a considerably
higher proportion than in most other
manufacturing industries.
Engineers, scientists, and techni­
cians work together in developing de­
signs for aircraft, missiles, and
spacecraft. Before an engineering de­
partment can approve a design for
production, it must conduct tests to
determine whether various design



possibilities meet the conditions un­
der which the vehicle will be operat­
ing. A scale model is made from a
preliminary design. It is tested in
wind, temperature, and shock tun­
nels and in other testing areas that
simulate actual flight conditions. The
next step is to build a full-sized ex­
perimental model, or prototype,
which is thoroughly tested in the air
and on the ground. If the test results
are satisfactory, production may
begin. The design is modified many
times during the course of develop­
ment, and often after production has
started.
Many kinds of engineers and sci­
entists work in the aerospace in­
dustry. Electronic, electrical, aero­
space, chemical, nuclear, mechani­
cal, and industrial engineers are
among the larger engineering classi­
fications. Scientists in the industry
include physicists, mathematicians,
chemists, metallurgists, and astron­
omers. Aerospace engineers and sci­
entists work in a wide and varied
range of applied fields such as mate­
rials and structures, energy and
power systems, and space sciences.
Among the many types of workers
assisting scientists and engineers are
technicians such as draftsmen, math­
ematics aides, and engineering and
science technicians who do technical
work that otherwise might have to be
done by scientists and engineers. En­
gineers and scientists also work with
other technical personnel such as
production planners (D.O.T.
012.188), who plan the layout of ma­
chinery, movement of materials, and
sequence of operations for efficient
manufacturing processes; and tech­
nical illustrators (D.O.T. 017.281),
who help prepare manuals and other
technical literature describing the
operation and maintenance of aero­
space products.
Administrative, Clerical, and Re­
lated Occupations. Managerial and
administrative jobs generally are

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

comparable to similar jobs in other
industries, except that they are often
filled by engineers, scientists, and
other technical personnel. Personnel
in these jobs include executives re­
sponsible for the direction and super­
vision of research and production,
and officials in departments such as
sales, purchasing, accounting, and
industrial relations. The industry
also employs many thousands of
clerks, secretaries, stenographers,
typists, tabulating machine and com­
puter operators, and other office per­
sonnel.

Plant Occupations. About one-half
of all workers in the aerospace in­
dustry have plant- or production-re­
lated jobs. Plant jobs can be classi­
fied in the following groups: Sheetmetal work; machining and tool fab­
rication; other metal-processing; as­
sembly and installation; inspecting
and testing; flight checkout; and ma­
terials handling, maintenance, and
custodial.
Sheet-Metal Occupations. Follow­
ing blueprints and other engineering
information, sheet-metal workers
(D.O.T. 804.281) shape complicated
parts from sheets of thin metal by
hand or machine methods. Hand
methods include the shaping of parts
by pounding them with mallets and
by bending, cutting, and punching
them with handtools. Machine
methods involve the use of power
hammers and presses, saws, tube
benders, and drill presses.
Less skilled workers do the more
routine metal-shaping work. Among
these are workers who specialize in
the use of a single machine and fab­
ricate parts required in large
numbers. Some of these workers are
punch press opera to rs
(D.O.T. 615.782), power hammer
operators (D.O.T. 617.782) and
power shear operators (D.O.T.
615.782 and .885).

OCCUPATIONS IN AIRCRAFT, MISSILE, AND SPACECRAFT MANUFACTURING

Sheet metal workers sometimes shape complicated parts using hand tools.

Machining and Tool Fabrication Oc­
cupations. Another important group
of workers engaged in shaping and
finishing metal parts with machine
tools includes machinists (D.O.T.
600.280 and .281) and machine tool
operators (D.O.T. 609.885). These
workers represent a higher-thanaverage proportion of the work force
in engine and propeller plants, which
are basically metal-working estab­
lishments, than in plants assembling
complete aerospace vehicles.
The most skilled machinists are
the all-round or general machinists
who lay out the work and set up and
operate several types of machine
tools. They perform highly varied,
nonrepetitive machining operations,
frequently in departments making
experimental and prototype vehicles.
Machine tool operators produce
metal parts in large volume. They
generally operate a single type of
machine tool such as a lathe, drill
press, or milling machine. Skilled
operators set up work on a machine
and handle difficult and varied jobs.
Less skilled operators do more re­
petitive work.
Skilled metal workers also
produce jigs, fixtures, tools, and dies



required for the production and as­
sembly of parts for aerospace vehi­
cles. On the basis of information re­
ceived from an engineering depart­
ment, jig and fixture builders
(D.O.T. 693.280) plan the sequence
of metal-machining operations for
making a jig and carry the job
through to completion. Tool and die
makers (D.O.T.601.280) make the
cutting tools and fixtures used in
machine tool operations, and the dies
used in forging and punch press
work.
Other Metal-Processing Occupa­
tions. Some of the many other metal­
working occupations include tube
benders (D.O.T. 709.884), who form
tubings used for oil, fuel, hydraulic,
and electrical conduit lines; and
riveters (D.O.T. 800.884) and
welders (D.O.T. 810.782 and .884;
81 1.782 and .884; 812.884 and
813.380 and .885), who use me­
chanical and electrical devices to join
fabricated parts. Metal-working jobs
also are in foundry plants where
workers produce castings by pour­
ing molten metal into molds.
Many aircraft, missile, and space­
craft parts are chemically-treated

645

and heat-treated during their manu­
facture to clean, change, or protect
their surfaces or structural condi­
tion. For example, sheet-metal parts
are heat-treated to keep the metal
soft and malleable for metal-shap­
ing work. The surfaces of parts often
require many other treatments such
as painting and plating. Workers in
these metal-processing jobs have
titles such as heat treater (D.O.T.
504.782), painter (D.O.T. 845.781),
and plater (D.O.T. 500.380).
Assembly and Installation Occupa­
tions. Practically all plants in the
aerospace industry employ assem­
bly and installation workers. Some
work in the assembly of engines,
electronic equipment, and auxiliary
components, but most assemble
complete aircraft or spacecraft. They
do final assembly work such as the
fitting together of major subassem­
blies and installing major compon­
ents. In an aircraft, for example, this
work involves joining wings and tails
to the fuselage and installing the
engine and auxiliary equipment such
as the fuel system and flight con­
trols. Assemblers perform tasks such
as riveting, drilling, bolting, and
soldering.
A large proportion of assemblers
are semiskilled and do repetitive
work. However, many are skilled
mechanics and installers who read
blueprints and interpret other en­
gineering specifications as they take
apart, inspect, and install complex
mechanical and electronic assem­
blies. Some, such as final assem­
blers of complete aircraft (D.O.T.
806.781) and missile or rocket as­
sembly mechanics (D.O.T. 625.281),
do general assembly work, and often
work on experimental, prototype, or
special craft. Other skilled as­
semblers work in plants that pro­
duce relatively large numbers of air­
craft and missiles rather than a few
experimental types. These assem­
blers often specialize in one field of

646

work; for example, armament as­
semblers (D.O.T. 801.381) special­
ize in installing weapons and related
equipment in aircraft. Assemblers
also specialize in other systems such
as power plants, electrical wiring,
heating and ventilation, and plumb­
ing.
Inspecting and Testing Occupa­
tions. Because aircraft, missiles, and
spacecraft are extremely complex
and affect the life and safety of peo­
ple, firms employ workers to con­
duct thousands of painstaking in­
spections and tests as each compo­
nent and part moves through the pro­
duction and assembly stages. The
final product also is thoroughly
tested before delivery. Inspections,
which often involve the use of com­
plex equipment, are made not only
by employees of the manufacturers
but also by employees of Federal



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

semblies and installations such as fu­
selage, wing, and nose sections to in­
sure their proper fitting. They also
check the functioning of hydraulic,
plumbing, and other systems. Less
skilled inspectors usually check subassemblies.
Flight Checkout Occupations.
Checking-out every part of an air­
craft or spacecraft before its first
flight requires a team of mechanics
having different levels and types of
skills. The crew chief is the most
skilled mechanic of the team, and di­
rects other workers in the entire
checking-out operation. Among the
other workers in the team are engine
mechanics specializing in checking
out the powerplant of a craft, in­
cluding the engine, propellers, and
oil and fuel systems; and electronics
checkout men who do the final
operational checkout of radio, radar,
automatic pilot, fire control, and
electronic guidance, and other sys­
tems. Sometimes the checking-out
process requires making minor re­
pairs sometimes it involves return­
ing the craft to the plant when it
needs extensive repairs.
Materials Handling, Maintenance,
and Custodial Occupations. Aero­
space plants employ large numbers
of materials handlers such as truck
drivers, shipping clerks, and tool­
room attendants. Maintenance
workers who keep equipment and
buildings in good operating condi­
tion and make changes in the layout
of the plant, include maintenance
mechanics, electricians, carpenters,
and plumbers. Guards, firemen, and
janitors make up a major portion of
the plant’s protective and custodial
employees.

agencies and commercial firms that
have contracted for the equipment.
Inspectors generally specialize in a
certain area of aerospace manufac­
turing. Among the most skilled in­
spectors, especially in final as­
sembly plants, are outside produc­
tion inspectors (D.O.T. 806.381) who
examine machined parts, subassem­
blies, and tools and dies ordered
from other firms. They also serve as
a “link” between their own en­
gineering department and supplying
companies. Among the inspectors in
production are machined parts in­
spectors (D.O.T. 609.381) and fab­
rication inspectors (D.O.T. 807.381)
who examine machined parts and
fabricated sheet-metal respectively
to see if they meet engineering speci­
fications. As parts are fitted to­ Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
gether, they are examined by assem­
bly inspectors (D.O.T. 806.381), who A college degree in engineering or
usually inspect complete major as­ in one of the sciences usually is the

OCCUPATIONS IN AIRCRAFT, MISSILE, AND SPACECRAFT MANUFACTURING

minimum requirement for working
as an engineer or scientist in the aero­
space industry. A few workers ob­
tain these jobs without a college
degree, but only after years of work
experience and some college-level
training. An undergraduate prepar­
ing for a career as an aerospace en­
gineer or scientist should get as solid
a background as possible in mathe­
matics and physics. More special­
ized fields of the industry require
graduate school education or on-thejob training.
An increasing number of techni­
cal occupations such as draftsmen
and electronics technicians require
two years of formal education in a
technical institute or junior college.
Others may qualify through several
years of diversified work experience.
Plant jobs require many skill
levels. Some less skilled jobs that re­
quire repetitive work can be filled by
workers with little or no training and
learned quickly on the job. On the
other hand, more skilled jobs re­
quire some combination of job re­
lated experience, high school or vo­
cational education, and on-the-job
training. Many workers often start at
trainee level positions and work their
way up to the more skilled oc­
cupations.
Skilled assemblers often need 2 to
4 years of plant experience in addi­
tion to a high school or vocational
school education. They must be able
to read and interpret engineering
blueprints, schematic diagrams, and
production illustrations.
Skilled inspectors often have sev­
eral years of machine shop experi­
ence. They must be able to install
and use various kinds of testing
equipment and instruments, read
blueprints and other specifications,
and use shop mathematics. New
workers who have little or no experi­
ence in shop trades also may obtain
training for less skilled inspecting
jobs.



Mechanics who do final checkout
of aircraft and spacecraft qualify for
their job in several ways. Many gain
experience working in earlier stages
of the production line; others receive
all their training in checkout work or
as “line maintenance” mechanics
with commercial airlines.
Chief mechanics usually need 3 to
5 years of experience in the manu­
facture of aircraft, missiles, and
spacecraft, including at least 1 year
as a checkout mechanic. Specialized
mechanics, working under the super­
vision of a chief mechanic, usually
need at least 2 years’ experience.
Less experienced helpers or assist­
ants learn on the job through plant
training courses.
Apprenticeship programs are
sometimes available for craftsmen
such as machinists, tool and die
makers, sheet-metal workers, air­
craft mechanics, or electricians. The
programs vary in length from 3 to 5
years depending on the trade and
during this time the apprentice
handles work of progressively in­
creasing difficulty. Besides on-thejob training, the apprentice receives
classroom instruction in subjects re­
lated to the craft. Such instruction
for a machinist apprentice, for exam­
ple, includes courses in blueprint
reading, mechanical drawing, shop
mathematics, trade theory, physics,
and other subjects.
Because complex and rapidlychanging products require highly
trained workers, aerospace plants
sometimes support formal training
to supplement day-to-day experi­
ence and help workers advance more
rapidly. Most are short-term
programs to meet immediate needs.
Some major producers conduct
training classes or pay tuition and re­
lated costs for outside courses. Some
classes are held during working
hours; others may be after working
hours. Training programs generally
cover many skills and areas, for ex­

647

ample, blueprint reading, drafting,
welding, aircraft maintenance, and
electronic data processing.
Employment Outlook

Employment in the aerospace in­
dustry is expected to rise above re­
cent levels by the mid-1980’s. The
number of people working in this in­
dustry, however, probably will re­
main below the peak levels of the late
1960’s.
Thousands of jobs will open each
year because of the growth expected
in the industry, and to replace
workers who retire, die, and transfer
to jobs in other industries. Job op­
portunities should be most favorable
for highly-trained workers such as
engineers and technicians. Some jobs
will become available for skilled
plant workers. However, employ­
ment of semiskilled and unskilled
workers is expected to decrease,
since many aerospace products are
custom made.
A large proportion of aerospace
products are primarily for national
defense and to advance the Nation’s
goals in space. Therefore, the in­
dustry’s future depends largely on
the level of Federal expenditures.
Changes in these expenditures usual­
ly have been accompanied by sharp
fluctuations in aerospace employ­
ment. For example, aerospace em­
ployment declined sharply from the
high levels of the late 1960’s partly
because of decreased aircraft re­
quirements for Vietnam and re­
duced expenditures for space explora­
tion. The current outlook for this in­
dustry is based on the assumption
that defense spending will be slightly
below the levels of the late 1960’s and
R&D spending will be above current
levels. If they should differ sub­
stantially, the outlook will be af­
fected accordingly.
Growing demand for civilian air­
craft products also is an important

648

element underlying the expected in­
crease in aerospace employment.
The increasing mobility of the popu­
lation should encourage expanded
use of large wide-bodied commer­
cial aircraft and development of
rapid air-taxi operations between
major urban centers. Increased busi­
ness flying, expanded use of
helicopters for such tasks as medical
evacuation and traffic reporting, and
exports of aircraft to foreign nations
are some of the other major factors
influencing the growth of civilian air­
craft manufacturing.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

Plant workers’ earnings in the aer­
ospace industry are higher than those
in most other manufacturing in­
dustries. In 1972, for example, pro­
duction workers in plants making
aircraft and parts averaged $192 a
week, or $4.60 an hour; production
workers in all manufacturing in­
dustries as a whole averaged about
$135 a week, or $3.60 an hour.
The following tabulation indi­
cates an approximate range of hourly
wages for selected occupations in
1972 obtained from the collective
bargaining agreements of a number
of major aerospace companies; these
rates do not include incentive earn­
ings. The ranges in various jobs are
wide, partly because wages within an




occupation vary according to
workers’ skills and experience, and
partly because wages differ from
plant to plant, depending upon type
of plant, locality, and other factors.
Aircraft mechanics ........
Assemblers.......................
Electronics technicians ..
Heat treaters ...................
Inspectors and testers ...
Jig and fixture builders ..
Machinists .......................
Maintenance craftsmen ..
Riveters ...........................
Tool and die makers . . . .
Welders.............................

$4.00—5.70
$3.25-5.00
$4.50-6.00
$3.50—4.90
$3.30—5.75
$4.60—5.80
$3.70—5.70
$3.70—5.80
$3.50-4.20
$4.10—5.90
$3.50—5.25

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

are represented by several unions in­
cluding the International Associa­
tion of Machinists and Aerospace
Workers; the International Union,
United Automobile, Aerospace, and
Agricultural Implement Workers of
America; and the International
Union of Electrical, Radio, and Ma­
chine Workers. Some craftsmen,
guards, and truck drivers are
members of unions that represent
their specific occupational groups.
Sources of Additional
Information

Fringe benefits in the industry
usually include 2 weeks of paid va­ Additional information about
cation after 1 or 2 years of service, careers in the aerospace Field is avail­
and 3 weeks after 10 to 12 years. able from:
Employees generally get eight to
Ad­
twelve paid holidays a year and 1 National Aeronautics and SpaceD.C.
ministration, Washington,
week of paid sick leave. Other major
20546.
benefits include life insurance; medi­ Electronics Industries Association,
cal, surgical, dental, and hospital in­
2001 Eye St. NW., Washington,
surance; accident and sickness in­
D.C. 20006.
surance; and retirement pensions.
Most employees work in modern For specific information about an
factory buildings that are clean, well- occupation contact:
lit and ventilated. Some work out­
International Union, United Auto­
doors. Operations such as sheetmobile, Aerospace, and Agricul­
metal processing, riveting, and weld­
tural Implement Workers of
ing may be noisy, and some assem­
America, 8000 East Jefferson Ave.,
blers may work in cramped quarters.
Detroit, Mich. 48214.
Aerospace plants, however, are rela­ International Union of Electrical
tively safe plants in which to work.
Radio, and Machine Workers,
Most plant workers in the aero­
AFL-CIO, CLC 1126 16th St.
space field are union members. They
NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

OCCUPATIONS IN THE ALUMINUM INDUSTRY
Aluminum was once considered a
specialty metal having limited appli­
cations. Today it is produced in
quantities second only to iron and
steel. It is used in products that range
from household appliances and
cooking utensils to automobiles, air­
craft, and missiles. In recent years,
many new uses for aluminum have
been developed, including house sid­
ing, containers, and electrical cables.
In 1972, the industry produced about
8.2 billion pounds of primary alumi­
num, or twice the output of only 10
years earlier.
This chapter describes occupa­
tions in plants that produce primary
aluminum and aluminum alloys. It
also describes occupations in plants
that roll, draw, and extrude alumi­
num and aluminum-base alloys. Oc­
cupations concerned with casting,
forging, stamping, machining, and
fabricating of aluminum are dis­
cussed separately in the Handbook
statements dealing with forge shop,
foundry, and metalworking oc­
cupations.
The South Central area of the
country, including Alabama, Arkan­
sas, Louisiana, Tennessee, and Tex­
as, leads in the production of pri­
mary aluminum, although the State
of Washington is the Nation’s larg­
est producer. Plants within its
borders represent about one-fifth of
national primary aluminum capac­
ity. The North Central area, con­
sisting of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan,
Ohio, and Kentucky, is the center for
aluminum rolling, drawing, and ex­
truding plants.
More than 95,000 persons worked
in the aluminum industry in 1972.



Employment was concentrated
mainly in the rolling and extruding
sector, although individual primary
reduction plants in some cases em­
ployed more workers than rolling
and extruding plants.
Occupations in the
Industry

Employment in the aluminum in­
dustry falls into several categories.
First, there is a wide assortment of
jobs directly concerned with smelt­
ing (reduction) and transforming
aluminum into industrial and con­
sumer products. Workers in another
group of occupations maintain and
service the complex machinery and
equipment used in the manufac­
turing process. These two large
groups include about three-fourths of
the industry’s workers. The remain­
ing one-fourth are in clerical, sales,
professional, technical, adminis­
trative, and supervisory positions.
Women make up about 2 percent
of the work force in primary alumi­
num plants and are mostly in secre­
tarial and other clerical occupa­
tions. In rolling and drawing plants,
however, women make up 10 per­
cent of the work force, and are found
in occupations such as sorter and in­
spector, as well as in clerical jobs.
Processing Occupations. The largest
proportion of employees in the
aluminum industry are in factory
jobs processing the metal. To illus­
trate the types of processing occupa­
tions found in the industry, a descrip­
tion of the major steps in the produc­
tion and fabricating of aluminum
follows.

Reduction. Aluminum is obtained
from alumina, a dry, fine white
powder processed from bauxite ore.
The alumina is made into a solution
in deep rectangular steel cells or
“pots” lined with carbon. The pots
contain molten cryolite (sodium
aluminum fluoride). Carbon blocks
suspended in the solution or “bath”
act as one pole (anode) and the car­
bon lining the pot as the other pole
(cathode). Direct electrical current is
sent through the solution, causing the
alumina to change form (be re­
duced) to aluminum and accumulate
in the bottom of the cell. Oxygen that
has been driven from the alumina is
converted to carbon dioxide.
Anode men (D.O.T. 630.884)
maintain the anodes on the reduc­
tion cells. They pull pins from the
anodes by means of hydraulic pull­
ers, and clean scales from the pins
using a sandblasting device. They
may replace the pins using a steel
driver.
Pot liners (D.O.T. 519.884) re­
build the anodes and reline the reduc­
tion furnaces when burned out. To
line the pot, they loosen the sedi­
ment with water and dig out the
material using jackhammers or dig­
gers. Then they lay a brick base,
drop carbon mix into the cell, line the
walls and floor with carbon blocks,
and finally tamp carbon paste into
cracks using a pneumatic hammer.
Potmen (D.O.T. 512.885) see that
the pots operate continuously. Each
potman tends a number of different
cells. During the operation of the
pot, the alumina gradually is con­
sumed. As the alumina content in the
cells decreases, the potman breaks
the crust of the “bath” and stirs in
additional alumina.
Every 24 to 72 hours, molten
aluminum is siphoned from the bot­
tom of the reduction cells into huge
cast-iron pots or “crucibles.” The
tapper (D.O.T. 514.884) and tapper
helper (D.O.T. 514.887) signal the
649

650

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Rolling mill operator oversees
computerized cold rolling.

hot-metal crane operator (D.O.T.
921.883) to place the overhead crane
near the pot. Using an automatic pot
puncher, they break a hole in the
crust. One end of a curved cast iron
tube is inserted into the pot, the other
into a crucible. After a compressed
air hose is attached to the siphon, the
molten metal is drawn into the cruci­
ble. After several tappings, an over­



head crane moves the loaded cruci­
ble to a remelting or holding furnace.
A scaleman (D.O.T. 502.887)
weighs and samples the molten metal
for laboratory analysis and sepa­
rates alloys to be blended with
molten aluminum. Workers oper­
ating overhead cranes pour the
molten metal in the crucible into a
remelting furnace. A remelt oper­

ator (D.O.T. 512.885) adds portions
of aluminum scrap, other molten
metal, and alloys to obtain desired
properties. Finally, a hand skimmer
removes aluminum oxides forced to
the surface of the molten metal by a
fluxing compound.
The metal is then transferred to
the second or holding compartment
of the furnace until a sufficient sup­
ply is obtained for pouring. The d.c.
casting operator (D.O.T. 514.782)
has charge of the pouring station
where the molten metal is cast into
ingots—large blocks of metal. The
operator controls the cooling condi­
tions of the casting unit by main­
taining a constant level of metal in
the molds and operates a series of in­
struments that spray water against
the molds to produce ingots of uni­
form quality.
Rolling and Finishing. Aluminum
products such as plate, sheet, and
strip are produced by rolling. The
first step in rolling is to remove sur­
face impurities from the ingot. The
scalper operator (D.O.T. 605.782)
manipulates levers of a scalper
machine and cuts thin layers of metal
from the ingots. Heat treating brings
the ingots to proper working
temperatures for rolling. Workers
operating overhead cranes lower
them into furnaces, or “soaking
pits,” where they are kept sealed for
12 to 18 hours. The soaking pit oper­
ator (D.O.T. 613.782) manages the
furnace and controls the temper­
ature and heating time.
The huge ingots are positioned on
the “breakdown” or hot rolling mill
where they are converted into elon­
gated slabs. Rolling mill operators
(D.O.T. 613.782) manipulate the in­
gots back and forth between power­
ful rollers until they are reduced in
thickness to about 3 inches. The
slabs then move down the line on the
rollers to additional hot mills that
work them down to a thickness of

651

OCCUPATIONS IN THE ALUMINUM INDUSTRY

about one-eighth of an inch. At the
end of the hotline, a coiler operator
(D.O.T. 613.885) tends a coiler that
automatically winds the metal onto
reels.
The coiled aluminum cools at
room temperature before being cold
rolled still thinner. Cold rolling pro­
duces a better surface finish and in­
creases the metal’s strength and
hardness. Since continuous cold-roll­
ing could make the metal too brittle,
an annealer (D.O.T. 504.782) occa­
sionally heat treats (anneals) the
metal.
After annealing, the metal may be
further cold rolled to a specified
thickness and again heat treated to
soften it for future fabrication.
Stretcher-leveler-operators (D.O.T.
619.782) and stretcher-leveler-operator helpers (D.O.T. 619.886) then
position the finished plate or sheet in
a stationary vise, determine the
stretch required to remove surface
contours, and operate the machine
that pulls the metal from end to end.
During both the production and
fabricating processes, workers and
machines inspect the metal to assure
quality. Radiographers (D.O.T.
199.381) operate various types of Xray equipment to inspect the metal.
Computers monitor operations and
automatically adjust metal tempera­
ture and mill speed.
In the rod and bar mill, square
castings called “blooms” are heated
to make them softer and then rolled
through progressively smaller open­
ings, until the desired size is reached.
To produce wire, hot rolling con­
tinues until the rod is about threeeighths of an inch in diameter. Then,
wire draw operators (D.O.T.
614.782) operate machines that cold
draw the wire through a series of dies
that gradually reduce its diameter.
The machine also automatically coils
it on revolving reels.
Structural shapes such as I-beams



and angles may be hot-rolled or ex­
truded. Hot rolled structural are
made by passing a square bloom with
rounded corners between grooved
rolls that gradually reduce the thick­
ness and change the shape of the
metal.
Extrusion. Extruding of metal often
is compared with squeezing tooth­
paste from a tube. Extruded alumi­
num shapes are produced by placing
heated billets (bars) in an enclosed
cylinder in a powerful press. A hy­
draulic ram that usually has a force
of several million pounds pushes the
metal through a die at the other end
of the cylinder. The metal takes the
contour of the die in cross-section
and then may be cut into desired
lengths. By designing different dies,
almost any shape of aluminum prod­
uct may be formed. An extrusion
press operator (D.O.T. 614.782)

regulates the rate at which the metal
is forced through the press.
Maintenance, Transportation, and
Plant Service Occupations. Large
numbers of workers in the alumi­
num industry keep machines and
equipment operating properly.
Others move materials, supplies, and
finished products throughout the
plants; still others are in service oc­
cupations such as guard, policeman,
and custodian. Many of these oc­
cupations are common to other in­
dustries. (See index to the Hand­
book.)
Since electricity is vital in the
reduction process, the industry needs
many electricians to install elec­
trical fixtures, apparatus, and con­
trol equipment. Electronics mechan­
ics repair computers, industrial con­
trols, and other complex electronic
gear.

Mill worker operates machine that makes aluminum cable.

652

Millwrights move, maintain, and
repair mechanical equipment.
Maintenance machinists make and
repair mechanical parts for plant
machinery. Stationary engineers
operate and maintain the powerplants, turbines, steam engines, and
motors used in aluminum plants.
Diemakers lay out, assemble, and
repair dies used in aluminum metal­
working operations. Bricklayers
build, rebuild, and reline boilers, fur­
naces, soaking pits, and similar in­
stallations. Plumbers and pipefitters
lay out, install, and maintain piping
and piping systems for steam, water,
and industrial materials used in
aluminum manufacture. Main­
tenance welders join metal parts by
hand or machine riveting and by
resistance welding and electric arc
and gas welding.
Professional, Technical, Adminis­
trative, and Clerical Occupations.
Engineers, scientists, and tech­
nicians make up a significant propor­
tion of the industry’s workers in
other types of activities.
Companies employ quality con­
trol chemists to analyze the alumi­
num and the raw materials used in its
production. Process metallurgists
determine the most efficient methods
of producing aluminum from raw
materials. Physical metallurgists test
aluminum and aluminum alloys to
determine their physical character­
istics. They also develop new alloys
and new uses for aluminum.
Chemical engineers and mechan­
ical engineers design and supervise
the construction and operation of
reduction and fabricating facilities.
Most mechanical engineers work in
the fabricating sectors of the indus­
try, where they may design, regu­
late, and improve rolling mills and
related equipment. Electrical engi­
neers plan and oversee the instal­
lation, operation, and maintenance
of the electric generators and trans­



mission and distribution systems
used in the manufacture of alumi­
num. Industrial engineers conduct
work measurement studies and de­
velop management control systems
to aid in financial planning and cost
analysis.
Engineering technicians, labora­
tory technicians, and chemical ana­
lysts assist engineers and chemists in
research and development work.
Draftsmen prepare the working
drawings that are required for the
manufacture and repair of reduction
and fabricating machinery.
A wide range of other profes­
sional and administrative workers
are needed in the manufacture of
aluminum. Top executives manage
the companies and determine policy.
Middleline managers and super­
intendents direct individual depart­
ments, offices, and operations. The
industry also employs other adminis­
trative personnel and accountants,
lawyers, statisticians, economists,
and mathematicians. Clerical work­
ers, including bookkeepers, secre­
taries, stenographers, clerk typists,
and keypunch and computer oper­
ators keep company records and do
other routine office work.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Aluminum companies generally
hire and train inexperienced work­
ers for processing and maintenance
jobs. A bachelor’s degree is required
for most professional jobs, and
graduate degrees in science or engi­
neering are preferred for research
and development work. Adminis­
trative and managerial positions usu­
ally are filled by workers who have
engineering or science backgrounds
and have been promoted to these
jobs. Some new graduates who have
degrees in business administration or
liberal arts may fill entry level ad­
ministrative jobs. Sales positions

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

often are filled by persons with tech­
nical backgrounds.
Applicants and current employees
who demonstrate an aptitude for
technical work have opportunities to
qualify as technicians, laboratory
assistants, and other semi-profes­
sionals. Some college background in
engineering and science or gradu­
ation from a technical institute or
community college is required for
many technical jobs.
An unskilled worker begins his
career in a labor pool and substi­
tutes for absent workers until he be­
comes eligible for a permanent posi­
tion in a shop or department. As
these workers acquire additional
skills and seniority with the com­
pany, they usually move to more
responsible and better paying posi­
tions. Former production and main­
tenance workers fill many foreman
and supervisory jobs.
Craftsmen usually are trained on
the job. A number of companies,
particularly the larger ones, have
craftsmen apprenticeship programs
that include classroom or home
study courses, as well as on-the-job
training. Generally, candidates for
these programs are chosen from
promising young workers already
employed by the company. The
length of the apprenticeship varies
according to the craft, although most
requires 3 to 4 years. Examples of
crafts that can be learned through
apprenticeship are: electrician,
welder, brickmason, carpenter,
machinist, maintenance mechanic,
pipefitter, and general maintenance
mechanic.
Employment Outlook

Employment in the industry is ex­
pected to rise moderately through
the mid-1980’s, although the amount
of aluminum produced annually is
likely to increase much more rapidly.
Most job opportunities will stem

OCCUPATIONS IN THE ALUMINUM INDUSTRY

from the need to replace workers
who retire, die, or leave the industry
for other reasons.
Demand for aluminum is ex­
pected to continue to grow as popu­
lation increases and consumers have
more money to spend on products
made from aluminum. Industries
that represent major markets for
aluminum are growing industries
with potential for new product
development. For example, alumi­
num is being used widely in the con­
struction of large office and institu­
tional buildings and for residential
construction and remodeling.
Furthermore, the aluminum indus­
try supports a strong research and
development program and an aggres­
sive marketing program which
should continue to develop new al­
loys, processes, and products. As a
result, the number of engineers,
scientists, and technical personnel is
expected to increase as a proportion
of total employment. On the other
hand, larger cell and plant capaci­
ties and technological develop­
ments, such as continuous casting
and computer controlled rolling
operations, will limit employment
growth among some production oc­
cupations.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

Hourly earnings of plant workers
in the aluminum industry are higher
than the average for manufacturing
industries. In 1972, production work­
ers in primary aluminum plants aver­
aged $4.95 an hour, and those in
aluminum rolling and drawings
plants averaged $4.44. In compari­
son, production workers in manu­
facturing industries as a whole aver­
aged $3.81 an hour.
Skilled operators and skilled
maintenance and craft workers hold
the highest-paying plant jobs. Hourly
rates in 1972 for selected occupa­



653

tions in a number of plants covered tures. The potroom is often hot, dus­
by one major union-management ty, and smoky. Working conditions
contract are shown below.
in reduction plants have been im­
proved as a result of fume control
Hourly
Occupation
wage rate programs and other projects. The
Reduction:
fabricating side of the industry offers
Anode m an........................... $ 4.16
more favorable work conditions
Pot liner ...............................
4.61
though workers in certain jobs are
Potman.........................
4.46
subject to heat, noise, and other dis­
4.68
Tapper .................................
Scaleman .............................
4.09
comforts. Because aluminum reduc­
tion is a continuous operation, some
Fabricating:
workers have to work nights and
Scalper operator .................
4.68
weekends.
Soaking pit operator...........
4.31
The industry stresses safe work­
Hot mill operator, junior ... 4.61
ing conditions and conducts safety
Continuous mill operator .. 5.12
Annealer........................
4.31
education programs. Reduction
Sheet stretcher-leveler
plants have had a consistently lower
operator ...........................
4.24
rate of injuries per manhour than
Inspector........................
4.31
plants that smelt and refine other pri­
Extrusion press operator ...
4.75
mary nonferrous metals, such as cop­
per and zinc. For example, in 1970
Maintenance:
the injury-frequency rate in alumi­
Boiler Fireman .....................
4.53
num reduction plants was about oneBricklayer.....................
5.12
third of the rate in copper smelting
Welder, pipefitter,
millright ...........................
5.05
plants and less than half the average
Electrician, machinist..........
5.27
rate for all manufacturing. The rate
Aluminum workers receive many in aluminum rolling and drawing
fringe benefits, such as paid vaca­ plants, however, is about one-fourth
tions and holidays, retirement bene­ higher than the average rate for all
fits, life and health insurance, shift manufacturing.
differentials, supplemental jury-duty Most process and maintenance
pay, and supplemental unemploy­ workers in the aluminum industry
ment benefits. Most workers receive belong to labor unions. In addition,
paid vacations ranging from 1 to 4 labor organizations represent some
weeks, depending on length of serv­ office and technical personnel. The
ice. In addition, there are extended unions having the greatest number of
vacation plans that provide a 13- members in the industry are United
Steelworkers of America; Alumi­
week vacation every 5 years.
Salaried personnel generally re­ num Workers International Union;
ceive benefits comparable to those and International Union, United
for hourly employees. Starting sala­ Automobile, Aerospace and Agricul­
ries are determined by the job being tural Implement Workers of
filled, the applicant’s qualifications, America.
comparable area and industry wage
scales, and the structure of the hour­
Sources of Additional
ly pay scale at the plant. Graduates
Information
of accredited colleges receive good
starting salaries, and engineering Information on aluminum produc­
graduates usually receive the highest tion and uses, as well as careers, may
be obtained from:
offers.
The reduction of alumina to The Aluminum Association, 750 Third
Ave., New York, N.Y. 10017.
aluminum requires high tempera­

OCCUPATIONS IN THE APPAREL INDUSTRY
The apparel industry is an impor­
tant source of jobs for workers who
have widely different skills and inter­
ests. Many of these jobs can be learn­
ed in a few weeks; others take sev­
eral years.
Nature and Location
of the Industry

About 1.3 million people were em­
ployed in the apparel industry in
1972. Approximately 585,000 pro­
duced women’s and children’s ap­
parel and about 490,000 men’s. The
rest made various items including fur
goods, gloves, hats, curtains, and
draperies.
The apparel industry is the largest
employer of women in manufactur­
ing. Four out of Five workers in the
industry are women.
Although apparel factories are lo­
cated in nearly all States, about 80
percent of the workers are employed
in 15 States: New York, Pennsyl­
vania, California, North Carolina,
New Jersey, Georgia, Texas, Ten­
nessee, Massachusetts, South Caro­
lina, Alabama, Mississippi, Vir­
ginia, Missouri, and Illinois.
Some of the important North­
eastern apparel manufacturing
centers are in the New York CitySuburban New Jersey, Boston, and
Philadelphia industrial areas, and in
smaller cities in Pennsylvania such as
Wilkes-Barre, Hazelton, and Allen­
town. Leading Midwestern and
Western centers include Chicago, St.
Louis, Dallas, El Paso, San An­
tonio, and Los Angeles. Apparel
manufacturing in the Southeast
tends to be widely dispersed. North
654



Carolina, for example, has plants in
about 80 of its 101 counties.
Most apparel plants are small.
Only about 1 out of every 7 employs
more than 100 workers. Plants that
manufacture standard garments such
as work pants usually are larger than
those making expensive dresses and
other items that are subject to rapid
style change.
Occupations In the
Industry

The major operations in making
apparel are designing the garment,
cutting the cloth, sewing the pieces
together, and pressing. Generally,
high grade and style-oriented ap­

parel is more carefully designed and
involves more handwork than
cheaper, more standardized items.
For example, much hand-detailing
goes into a fashionable cocktail dress
or a high-priced suit or coat, while
apparel such as undershirts and over­
alls usually are sewn entirely by ma­
chine. To make the many different
kinds of garments, workers with
various skills and educational back­
grounds are needed.
Designing Room Occupations: Typ­
ically, the manufacturing process
begins with the designer (D.O.T.
142.081), who creates new types and
styles of apparel. Inspiration for a
new design may come from any of a
variety of experiences: traveling, ob­
serving life styles, and seeing the
work of other designers, to name but
a few. In addition to creativity, de­
signers must have practical knowl­
edge of the apparel business so that
they can translate their ideas into
styles that can be produced at corn-

OCCUPATIONS IN THE APPAREL INDUSTRY

petitive prices. They must, for exam­
ple, be familiar with labor costs for
various factory operations such as
cutting, sewing, and pressing.
A large manufacturer generally
has a head designer and several as­
sistants. Many small firms, how­
ever, do not employ designers but
purchase ready-made designs or
patterns.
A designer usually works with one
type of apparel, such as suits or
dresses, although some work with
several. For a high-quality dress, de­
signers start by drawing sketches and
choosing fabrics, trim, and colors.
Using these sketches as guides, de­
signers and their assistants make an
experimental dress. They cut mate­
rials and pin, sew, and adjust the
dress on a form or a live model until
it matches the sketch.
Sample makers (D.O.T. 785.385)
use this experimental dress as a guide
in cutting and sewing fabrics to make
a finished sample of the dress. After
management has approved the sam­
ple, a pattern maker (D.O.T.
781.381) constructs a master pat­
tern. Working closely with the de­
signer, the pattern maker translates
the sketch or sample dress into paper
or fiberboard pieces, each one repre­
senting a part of the garment. A
pattern grader (D.O.T. 781.381)
measures the pieces that make up
this master pattern, and modifies
them to fit various sizes. Some large
plants use computers to reduce the
time needed to draw up the patterns
for each size.
Styles for many items, such as
men’s suits and jackets, do not
change significantly from year to
year; thus, some of the steps de­
scribed above are not required. A de­
signer may alter the style of a suit,
for example, by simply making
minor changes on the master pat­
tern. Before making such changes,
however, the designer must be able to
sketch or mentally picture how the



total appearance of the suit will be
affected.
Cutting Room Occupations.
Workers in the cutting room prepare
cloth for sewing. There are five basic
operations in the cutting depart­
ment: spreading, marking, cutting,
assembling, and ticketing. Small
shops may combine two or more of
these operations into a single job.
Hand spreaders (D.O.T. 781.887)
lay out bolts of cloth into exact
lengths on the cutting table. Ma­
chine spreaders (D.O.T. 781.884) are
aided by machines in laying the cloth
evenly across the table.
Markers (D.O.T. 781.484) trace
the fiberboard pattern pieces on
large sheets of paper, and may make
several carbons of these tracings. In
some cases they trace the pattern
pieces with chalk directly on the
cloth itself, rather than on paper. To
get the greatest number of garments
from a minimum quantity of cloth,
markers arrange pattern pieces so
that there is just enough distance be­
tween them for the cutter to work.
A cutter (D.O.T. 781.884) cuts out
the various garment pieces from

655

layers of cloth. Sometimes these
layers are as high as 9 inches. The
cutter follows the outline of the pat­
tern on the cloth with an electrically
powered knife which cuts through all
the layers at once. The work of a
cutter and a marker frequently is
combined into a single job.
The pieces of cloth that have been
cut are prepared for the sewing room
by another group of specialized
workers. Assemblers, sometimes
called bundlers or fitters (D.O.T.
781.687), bring together and bundle
the pieces and accessories (linings,
tapes, and trimmings) needed to
make a complete garment. They
match color, size, and fabric design
and use chalk or thread to mark lo­
cations for pockets, buttonholes, but­
tons, and other trimmings. They
identify each bundle with a ticket,
which is also used to figure the earn­
ings of workers who are paid ac­
cording to the number of pieces they
produce. The bundles are then routed
to the various sections of the sewing
room.

Cutter directs electrically powered
knife through many layers of cloth.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

656

Sewing Room Occupations: About 2
out of every 5 apparel workers are
handsewers and sewing machine
operators. Expensive garments and
finishing touches on moderate-priced
clothing may need much hand sew­
ing. Most sewing, however, is done
with machines.
Sewing machine operators
(D.O.T. 787.782) use machines that
are heavier and run faster than the
ones found in the home. These
workers generally specialize in a
single operation such as sewing
shoulder seams, attaching cuffs to
sleeves, or hemming blouses. Some
make sections such as pockets, col­
lars, or sleeves; others assemble and
join these completed sections to the
main parts of the garment.
Sewing machine operators gen­
erally are classified by type of ma­
chine they use, such as single-needle
sewing machine operator or blindstitch machine operator, and by the
type of work performed, such as
collar stitcher or sleeve finisher.
Most hand sewing is done on
better quality or highly-styled
dresses, suits, and coats. Hand
sewers (D.O.T. 782.884) use needle
and thread to perform various opera­
tions ranging from simple sewing to
complex stitching. Many hand
sewers specialize in a single opera­
tion, such as lapel-basting or liningstitching.
Instead of being sewn, parts such
as collars and lapels may be “fused”
together by heat and pressure. A fus­
ing machine operator places the gar­
ment part on a loading platform of a
fusing press which is adjusted to app­
ly the precise amount of pressure and
temperature needed for a permanent
bond.
In a typical apparel plant, bundles
of cut garment pieces move through
the sewing department, where the
garments take form as they pass
through a series of sewing opera­
tions. Each operator performs one or



Sewing machine operator on special
machine.

two assigned tasks on each piece in
the bundle and then passes the bun­
dle to the next operator. Many plants
employ material handlers (D.O.T.
929.887) often called floor boys or
floor girls who move garment
bundles from one sewing operation
to another.
At various stages of the sewing
operations, inspectors and checkers
(D.O.T. 789.687) examine garments
for proper workmanship. They mark
defects, such as skipped stitches or
bad seams, which are repaired be­
fore the garments are passed on to
the next sewing operation. Inspec­
tors sometimes make minor repairs.
Trimmers, hand (D.O.T. 781.887),
often called thread trimmers and
cleaners, remove loose threads, bast­
ing stitches, and lint from garments.
This is called “in-process inspec­
tion.”
Tailoring Occupations. Tailors
(D.O.T. 785.261 and.381) and dress­
makers (D.O.T. 785.361) are skilled
workers who do difficult kinds of

hand and machine sewing. Most of
them are employed in making ex­
pensive clothing that needs precise
shaping and finishing. Although
some tailors and dressmakers make
complete garments, most specialize
in a few operations such as collar set­
ting and lapel padding.
Bushelmen (D.O.T. 785.281) are
tailors who repair defects in finished
garments rejected by the inspector.
They alter parts that have not been
sewn correctly, rearrange padding in
coats and suits, and do other sewing
necessary to correct defects.
Pressing Occupations. The shape and
appearance of the finished garments
depend, to a large extent, on the
pressing that is done during and after
sewing operations.
Pressers (D.O.T. 363.782, .884,
and .885) use various types of steam
pressing machines, and may work
with manikins and body forms, or
use hand irons to flatten seams and
to shape parts and finished gar­
ments. There are two basic types of
pressers—underpressers and finish
pressers. Underpressers specialize on
particular garment parts, such as
collars, shoulders, seams, or pockets.
Their duties vary from simple
smoothing of cloth and flattening of
seams to skillful shaping of garment
parts. Finish pressers generally do
final pressing and ironing at the end
of the sewing operations.
Fur Shop Occupations. Because furs
are expensive and difficult to work
with, each operation in making a fur
garment requires an experienced
craftsman. Many of these workers
have special skills not found in plants
that make other types of apparel.
The most skilled craftsman in a
fur garment plant is the cutter, who
also may be the foreman. A fur
cutter (D.O.T. 783.781) selects and
matches enough fur skins to make a
single garment, such as a coat or

OCCUPATIONS IN THE APPAREL INDUSTRY

jacket, and arranges and cuts the
skins on pattern pieces so that the
choice sections of fur are placed
where they will show. Following the
sewing instructions given by the
cutter, fur machine operators
(D.O.T. 787.782) stitch these pelts
together to make garment sections.
A fur nailer (D.O.T. 783.884) wets
the sewn garment sections, stretches
them by hand, and nails them on a
board so that they will cover the pat­
tern. When the sections are dry, this
worker removes the nails and trims
the fur exactly along the outline of
the pattern. The fur machine opera­
tor then Finishes sewing the various
sections to complete the garment.
Fur finishers (D.O.T. 783.381) sew in
the lining, tape edges, make pockets,
and sew on buttons and loops.
Administrative, Sales, and Mainte­
nance Occupations. Most adminis­
trative positions in an apparel plant
are in the production department.
Production managers are respon­
sible for estimating production costs,
scheduling the flow of work, hiring
and training workers, controlling
quality, and supervising the overall
production activities of the plant. In
some small apparel Firms, the pro­
duction manager also is a designer.
Industrial engineers advise man­
agement about the efficient use of
machines, materials, and workers.
(Further discussion of industrial en­
gineers is included elsewhere in the
Handbook.)
Clerks, bookkeepers, stenogra­
phers, and other office workers make
up payrolls, prepare invoices, keep
records, and attend to other paper­
work. In some large plants, many
clerical functions are handled with
computers. This requires keypunch
operators, computer programmers
and operators, and systems analysts.
Salesmen, purchasing agents,
models, accountants, and sewing ma­
chine mechanics are among other



types of workers in the apparel in­
dustry. (Discussions of many of these
jobs can be found elsewhere in the
Handbook.)
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most production (plant) workers
in the apparel industry pick up their
skills on the job by helping and ob­
serving experienced workers. Train­
ing time ranges from a few weeks to
several years, depending on the type
of occupation, the worker’s apti­
tude, and the employer’s training
programs. A relatively small number
of employees are trained in formal
apprenticeship programs for highly
skilled occupations, such as cutter
and tailor. Apprenticeships include
both classroom and on-the-job train­
ing. Some private and public schools
in apparel manufacturing centers
offer courses in patternmaking, cut­
ting, and tailoring, as well as ma­
chine and hand sewing. Students who
complete these courses, however,
usually need additional on-the-job
training.
Many production occupations are
well suited for the handicapped and
the aged, because the work is done
while the worker is seated. Little
physical effort is required. Good eye­
sight and manual dexterity, how­
ever, usually are required.
Entry into beginning hand or ma­
chine-sewing jobs is relatively easy,
since there are few restrictions re­
garding education and physical con­
dition. New workers start by sewing
straight seams, under the super­
vision of a skilled worker or fore­
man, and progress to more compli­
cated sewing as they gain experi­
ence. Many large companies have
special on-the-job training pro­
grams for sewing machine opera­
tors. The operator is taught how to
perform each operation with mini­
mal Finger, arm, and body move­

657

ment. The ability to do routine work
rapidly is essential, since nearly all
sewers are paid by the number of
pieces they produce. Some sewers
advance to other jobs in the plant,
such as tailor or dressmaker; others
become foremen. Most sewers, how­
ever, stay on the same general opera­
tion throughout their working lives
and can look forward only to mov­
ing from simple sewing tasks to more
complicated ones that pay higher
piece rates.
New workers usually enter the cut­
ting room by taking jobs as assem­
blers (bundlers or Fitters). Patience
and the ability to match colors are
necessary for these jobs. An assem­
bler may be promoted to spreader,
and after a few years, to marker or
cutter.
Pattern graders usually are se­
lected from employees working in
the cutting room or in other plant
jobs. Training in drafting is helpful
since much of the work requires the
use of drafting tools and techniques.
Most patternmakers pick up the
skills of the trade by working for sev­
eral years as helpers to experienced
patternmakers. Cutters and pattern
graders are occasionally promoted to
patternmaking. Patternmakers must
be able to visualize from a sketch or
model the size, shape, and number of
pattern pieces required for a partic­
ular garment. They also must have a
knowledge of fabrics, body propor­
tions, and garment construction.
For beginning tailor and dress­
making jobs, many employers prefer
to hire vocational school graduates
who have had courses in these sub­
jects. With a few years of additional
apprenticeship or informal on-thejob training, graduates can qualify as
skilled craftsmen. Some of these
workers eventually become de­
signers or supervisors. They can also
transfer to jobs outside the apparel
manufacturing industry as Fitters and
alteration tailors in clothing stores

and drycleaning shops.
Pressers usually begin as underpressers, working on simple seams
and garment parts. Underpressing
can be learned in a short time, and
the worker can progress to the more
difficult job of finish presser. These
workers also can transfer to press­
ing jobs in drycleaning shops.
Many apparel firms prefer to re­
cruit designers from colleges that
offer specialized training in this field.
Young graduates usually start as as­
sistant designers. Some designers,
however, have come up through the
ranks by advancing from cutting,
patternmaking, or tailoring jobs.
Designers should have a thorough
knowledge of fabrics, a keen sense of
color, and the ability to translate de­
sign ideas into a finished garment.
They should also acquaint them­
selves with garment making tech­
niques by working briefly in various
plant jobs, such as sample making,
cutting, and machine sewing. De­
signers should know how to sketch.
A production manager usually be­
gins as a management trainee, and
an industrial engineer as a junior en­
gineer. A college education increas­
ingly is being required for these jobs.
For those without college, many
years of on-the-job training in all
production processes, ranging from
selection of fabrics to shipment of
finished apparel, are required to
qualify as a production manager.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

job openings each year are expected
from retirements and deaths alone.
Demand for apparel in the years
ahead is expected to increase as pop­
ulation and incomes continue to
grow. The industry’s greater empha­
sis on styling also may stimulate de­
mand. Because of imported cloth­
ing, however, domestic production
probably will not rise as fast as de­
mand.
Employment in the industry is not
expected to keep up with the pro­
duction of apparel, because new
mechanized equipment and im­
proved methods of production and
distribution are expected to result in
greater output per worker. Ex­
amples of laborsaving equipment in­
clude sewing machines that can posi­
tion needles and trim threads auto­
matically; devices that automati­
cally position fabric pieces under the

needle and remove and stack com­
pleted pieces; and computer-con­
trolled pattern making, grading, and
cutting. Computers also are improv­
ing managerial control over sales, in­
ventories, shipping, and production.
Despite technological advances in
equipment, apparel manufacturing
operations will continue to require
much manual labor. Most employ­
ment opportunities will be for sew­
ing machine operators, because this
occupational group is the largest in
the industry. Some job openings also
will arise for pressers and designing
and cutting room workers.
Opportunities will be numerous
for engineers, fabric buyers, produc­
tion managers, salesmen, and sew­
ing machine mechanics. Young peo­
ple who plan to become designers
will face keen competition, because
the number of people trying to get

Employment Outlook

Apparel industry employment is
expected to grow slowly through the
mid-1980’s. Most job openings, how­
ever, will arise because of the need
to replace workers who leave the in­
dustry. About 80 percent of the in­
dustry’s employees are women, a
large proportion of whom leave their
jobs to marry or raise families. Also,
a large number of the employees are
near retirement age. Thousands of



Sewing machine operators in garment shop.

OCCUPATIONS IN THE APPAREL INDUSTRY

into this field exceeds the number of
available jobs.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

In 1972, production workers in the
apparel industry averaged $2.61 an
hour, compared with $3.81 an hour
for those in all manufacturing in­
dustries. Production workers in the
apparel industry worked fewer hours
per week than those in manufactur­
ing as a whole.
Average hourly earnings of pro­
duction workers in 1972 varied
among different kinds of apparel
plants, ranging from $2.16 in plants
that made men’s and boys’
workclothing to $3.26 in those that
made men’s and boys’ suits and
coats. Earnings of apparel workers
also varied by occupation and geo­
graphical area. For example, aver­
age earnings of cutters and markers
in almost all areas were higher than
those of sewing machine operators;
and earnings of all apparel workers
generally were lower in the South
than in the Northeast. The ac­
companying tabulation gives esti­
mated average hourly earnings in
1971 for selected occupations and ge­
ographical areas in one segment of
the apparel industry.
Because most production workers
in the apparel industry are paid for
the number of pieces they produce,
their total earnings depend upon
speed as well as skill.
Many apparel workers are union
members, particularly those who
work in metropolitan areas. The
Women’s and Misses dresses
All production workers.....................................
Cutters and markers .................................
Pressers, hand ............................................
Sewers, hand ..............................................
Sewing machine operators,
section system .......................................
Sewing machine operators,
single hand (tailor)
system......................................................



major unions in this industry are the
International Ladies’ Garment
Workers’ Union, the Amalgamated
Clothing Workers of America, and
the United Garment Workers of
America. Some of these unions spon­
sor health care and child day care
centers, cooperative housing, and va­
cation resorts for the benefit of their
members.
Workers may be laid off for sev­
eral weeks during slack seasons, par­
ticularly in plants that make sea­
sonal garments, such as women’s
coats and suits. Employment is
usually more stable in plants that
produce standardized garments, such
as pajamas and men’s shirts, which
are worn all year. In many plants,
the available work during slack
periods is divided so that all workers
can be assured of at least some earn­
ings.
While many plants are housed in
old buildings, others are located in
modern buildings that have ample
work space, good lighting, and air
conditioning.
Because most employees sit when
they sew, the work is not physically
strenuous, but the pace is rapid and
many tasks are monotonous. A
sewer may occasionally pierce a
finger with a needle, but serious ac­
cidents are rare.
Working conditions in cutting and
designing rooms are pleasant. These
rooms often are in a separate area of
the plant, away from the hustle and
bustle of the sewing and pressing
operations. Designing and cutting
jobs are more interesting and less

Estimated average hourly earnings
Los AngelesLong Beach
Dallas New York City
$ 3.79
. S 2.55
$ 2.19
4.19
3.04
5.23
2.67
1.92
7.12
2.14
2.03
3.22
2.33

2.22

3.45

2.65

2.04

3.78

659

monotonous than most other ap­
parel jobs.
Sources of Additional
Information

Information on vocational and
high schools that offer training in de­
signing, tailoring, and sewing may be
obtained from the Division of Voca­
tional Education of the Department
of Education in each State capital.
Information on apprenticeships
may be obtained from the Ap­
prenticeship Council of the State
Labor Department or the local of­
fices of State employment services.
Some local Employment Service of­
fices give tests to determine apti­
tudes that are important for many
apparel industry jobs.
General information on jobs in the
industry may be obtained from the
following sources:
Amalgamated Clothing Workers of
America, 15 Union Square, New
York, N.Y. 10003.
American Apparel Manufacturers As­
sociation, 1611 North Kent St.,
Arlington, Va. 22209.
Associated Fur Manufacturers, Inc.,
101 West 30th St., New York,
N.Y. 10001.
Clothing Manufacturers Association of
U.S.A., 135 West 50th St., New
York, N.Y. 10020.
National Outerwear and Sportswear
Association, Inc., 347 Fifth Ave.,
New York, N.Y. 10016.
International Ladies’ Garment
Workers’ Union, 1710 Broadway,
New York, N.Y. 10019.
United Garment Workers of America,
31 Union Square, New York, N.Y.
10003.
International Association of Clothing
Designers, 12 South 12th St., Phila­
delphia, Pa. 19107.
National Board of the Coat and Suit
Industry, 450 Seventh Ave., New
York, N.Y. 10001.
National Dress Manufacturers’ As­
sociation, Inc., 570 Seventh Ave.,
New York, N.Y. 10018.

atomic energy is in the use of radio­
isotopes which decay or disintegrate
spontaneously. These radioisotopes
emit radiation that special instruments’ u ^
OCCUPATIONS IN THE ATOMIC ENERGY detect, s c as Sickness gauges, can
and are valuable research
FIELD
tools in environmental studies,
agriculture, medicine, and industry.
Atomic energy is a source of heat eliminating refueling, nuclear
How Atomic Energy
and radiation that can be used for propulsion extends the range and
Is Produced
peaceful as well as military pur­ mobility of our naval forces.
poses. Although peaceful applica­ Although existing reactors al­ Although there are several proc­
tions have been expanding more ready generate huge quantities of esses for producing atomic or
rapidly in recent years, they are still power from a small amount of urani­ nuclear energy, the most common
in the early stages of development, um, more efficient reactors may be method used today is the fusion
and continuing research and develop­ operational by the mid-1980’s. process. It involves splitting ura­
ment programs will be needed dur­ Scientists have produced uncon­ nium or plutonium nucleus under
ing the next several decades to find trolled fusion in the hydrogen bomb, neutron bombardment. When neu­
new and more efficient ways of utiliz­ but have not yet produced a con­ trons emitted from this fission proc­
trolled fusion reaction on a rela­ ess bombard other nuclei, further fis­
ing this energy.
sion takes place and, under proper
In 1972, more than 235,000 people tively small scale.
conditions, results in a “chain” reac­
worked in atomic energy activities. As part of the U.S. Atomic
Large numbers did research and Energy Commission’s (AEC) “Plow­ tion. This reaction releases energy
development work. Others worked in share” program, research is under­ which is converted into power. The
industries that manufacture nuclear way to develop peaceful uses for detonation of an atomic bomb is an
weapons and other defense mate­ nuclear explosives. The program has application of the explosive release
rials, nuclear reactors, and nuclear potential applications in areas such of atomic energy. However, this
fuels. Most atomic energy workers as gas and oil recovery, and the ex­ energy must be controlled for com­
are scientists, engineers, tech­ cavation of harbors, canals, and mercial uses.
mountain passes.
nicians, and craftsmen.
Controlled fission is the essential
Another significant application of feature of a nuclear reactor. The reApplications of
Atomic Energy

One significant use of atomic
energy is the production of commer­
cial electricity by nuclear reactors.
(See chart—.) Steam produced by re­
actors now generates electricity for
several communities. These reactors
have become competitive with sys­
tems that use fossil fuels (such as
coal and oil), and approximately 160
nuclear facilities will be built by the
mid-1980’s. Dual-purpose nuclear
power-desalting plants, which would
provide at the same time both a new
source of fresh water and electric
power, are being studied.
Nuclear reactors also power sub­
marines and surface vessels. By
660



Nuclear Reactor Generating Electricity

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics.

21

OCCUPATIONS IN THE ATOMIC ENERGY FIELD

actor is like a furnace, and needs fuel
to operate. The principal source
material for reactor fuel is uranium
235. Uranium in its natural state
contains less than 1 percent of read­
ily fissionable material, uranium U235. Although natural uranium is
sometimes used as reactor fuel, a
more concentrated and enriched fuel
is produced and used by increasing
the proportion of U-235 isotopes
through a process called gaseous dif­
fusion. The rate of fission and energy
produced in a nuclear reactor usu­
ally is controlled by inserting special
neutron-absorbing rods into the fuel
chamber or “core.”
When atomic energy is used com­
mercially for power, the heat gener­
ated must be converted to electricity
by conventional equipment. The
major difference between nuclear
and conventional thermal electric
power stations is that the steam to
drive turbines comes from a nuclear
reactor rather than from a conven­
tional one.
Fission releases nuclear radiation
that ruins equipment and is danger­
ous to unprotected personnel. There­
fore, special radiation resistant
materials are used in reactors and
caution is taken to protect personnel.
Nature of the Atomic
Energy Field

Many kinds of research and indus­
trial activities are required for the
production and use of nuclear
energy. These processes include the
mining, milling, and refining of ura­
nium-bearing ores; the production of
nuclear fuels; the manufacture of
nuclear reactors, reactor compo­
nents, and nuclear instruments; the
production of special materials for
use in reactors; the design, engineer­
ing, and construction of nuclear
facilities, the operation and main­
tenance of nuclear reactors; the dis­
posal of radioisotopes; the produc­



tion of nuclear weapons; and re­
search and development work.
These activities take place in
plants, laboratories, and other facil­
ities. Some work, such as mining and
milling, manufacturing heat transfer
equipment, and constructing facil­
ities, differs little from similar work
in other Fields. Other activities, how­
ever, such as producing fuels needed
to run reactors, are unique to the
atomic energy Field.
The Federal Government sup­
ports most of the basic atomic
energy activities even though private
support has been increasing. The
U.S. Atomic Energy Commission
directs the Federal Government’s
atomic energy program and regu­
lates the use of nuclear materials by
private organizations. The oper­
ation of AEC-owned facilities, in­
cluding laboratories, uranium proc­

661

essing plants, nuclear reactors, and
weapons manufacturing plants, is
contracted to private organizations.
More than half of all workers in the
atomic energy Field are employed in
government-owned facilities. Pri­
vately owned facilities do all types of
atomic energy work except for the
development and production of mili­
tary weapons and certain nuclear
fuel-processing operations. A large
amount of research and develop­
ment work is carried out in AECowned laboratories, university and
college laboratories, nonproFit in­
stitutions, and industrial organiza­
tions under AEC contracts.
Occupations in the
Atomic Energy Field

Engineers, scientists, technicians,
and craftsmen account for a higher

662

proportion of total employment in
this field than in most others, mainly
because much of the work is still in
the research and development phase.
Office personnel in administrative
and clerical jobs represent another
large group. Most of the remainder
are semiskilled and unskilled work­
ers involved in production oper­
ations, plant protection, and services.
Although many engineers work­
ing in the atomic energy field are
trained in nuclear technology, engi­
neers in all other fields are em­
ployed. Mechanical engineers are the
largest single group but many elec­
trical and electronic, chemical, civil,
and metallurgical engineers also are
employed. Many of these engineers




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

do research and development work;
others design nuclear reactors,
nuclear instruments, and other
equipment.
Research laboratories and other
organizations that do atomic energy
work employ scientists in basic and
applied nuclear research. Most are
physicists and chem ists, but
mathematicians, biological scien­
tists, and metallurgists also do
atomic energy research.
Large numbers of technicians
assist engineers and scientists in re­
search and development and in
designing and testing equipment and
materials. These workers include
draftsmen, engineering and physical
science technicians, and radiation

monitors.
Many highly-skilled workers build
equipment for experimental and pilot
work and maintain the complex
equipment and machinery. Mainte­
nance mechanics and all-round
machinists work in most atomic
energy activities, as do electricians,
plumbers, pipefitters, and other
craftsmen and chemical process
operators.
Activities in the
Atomic Energy Field

The following briefly describes
some important atomic energy activ­
ities and their workers.
Uranium Exploration and Mining.
The 6,500 people employed in ura­
nium exploration and mining in 1972
had jobs similar to those in mining of
other metallic ores. They mainly
work in the Colorado Plateau area of
the Far West, in the States of New
Mexico, Wyoming, Utah, Colorado,
and Arizona. A relatively few mines
account for the bulk of production
and employment. Most workers in
uranium mines are in production
jobs such as miners and drillers in
underground mines, and truck driv­
ers, bulldozer operators, and
machine loaders at open pit mines.
About 1 out of 8 employees in ura­
nium exploration and mining is in a
professional job, such as mining
engineer or geologist.
Uranium Ore Milling. In uranium
mills, metallurgical and chemical
processes are used to extract ura­
nium from mined ore. Uranium
mills, located primarily in the
Colorado Plateau, employed about
1,600 workers in 1972.
These mills employ skilled
machinery repairmen, millwrights,
pipefitters, carpenters, electricians,
and chemical process operators. A
small proportion of those working in

OCCUPATIONS IN THE ATOMIC ENERGY FIELD

milling operations are scientists and
engineers.
Uranium Refining and Enriching.
Milled uranium is chemically proc­
essed to remove impurities and con­
verted to metal or intermediate
chemical products for reactor fuel
preparation. Conventional chemical
and metallurgical processes are used,
but they must meet more exacting
standards than in most other indus­
tries. The output of refining plants
may be further processed to obtain
enriched uranium.
Activity in this segment of the
atomic energy field is centered in
Ohio, Tennessee, Kentucky, and
Illinois. In 1972 uranium refining
and enriching plants employed about
7,200 workers.
Maintenance craftsmen, particu­
larly in the highly automated ura­
nium enriching plants, account for a
large proportion of skilled workers.
Large numbers of chemical process
operators also are employed. Chemi­
cal engineers and chemists account
for more than a third of the engi­
neers and scientists. Many of the
technicians work in the chemical
laboratories associated with produc­
tion processes.
Reactor Manufacturing. About 23,500 people were employed in the de­
sign and manufacturing of nuclear
reactors and reactor parts in 1972.
Reactor manufacturers do extensive
development work on reactors and
auxiliary equipment, design the reac­
tor, and generally build most of the
intricate components, such as fuel
elements, control rods, and reactor
cores.
More than two-fifths of the
employees in firms that design and
manufacture reactors are scientists,
engineers, and technicians. Engi­
neers alone represent more than onequarter of the employment. Most are
mechanical engineers and reactor
engineers who specialize in reactor



663

Workmen load cylinders of enriched uranium for shipment.

technology. Most of the scientists are
physicists, but many chemists,
mathematicians, and metallurgists
also are employed. Assisting these
engineers and scientists are many
draftsmen, engineering aids, and
physical science technicians.
Skilled workers, mostly all-round
machinists, are employed by reactor
manufacturers in experimental,
production, and maintenance work.
Other craftsmen such as sheet metal
workers, instrument makers,
machinery repairmen, instrument
repairmen, and electricians also are
employed. Reactor manufacturers
employ nuclear reactor operators to
operate experimental and test reac­
tors.
Reactor Operation and Main­
tenance. Almost 4,800 workers oper­

ated and maintained nuclear reac­
tors in 1972. Nuclear power stations
employ mechanical, electrical and
electronic engineers, instrument and
electronic technicians, radiation
monitors, reactor operators, and
other plant operators and attend­
ants. Machinery and instrument
repairmen, electricians, and pipe­
fitters maintain and repair the reac­
tors.
Research and Development Facil­
ities. A number of research' and
development laboratories are oper­
ated for the AEC by universities and
industrial concerns. These facilities
are major centers for basic and ap­
plied nuclear research in engineer­
ing, physical and the life sciences,
and in the development of nuclear
reactors and other nuclear equip­

664

ment. More than half of the 42,500
employed in AEC research and
development facilities are engineers,
scientists, and supporting tech­
nicians, including radiation
monitors.
Administrative and clerical work­
ers account for a large proportion of
employment. Skilled workers in­
clude large numbers of machinists,
electricians, machinery repairmen,
and millwrights, and many tool and
die makers, instrument makers, and
pipefitters. Nuclear reactor oper­
ators operate research and test re­
actors and many service workers are
employed in plant protection and
security operations.
Although most nuclear energy re­
search is in AEC research and
development facilities, additional re­
search is done in privately owned re­
search laboratories of educational in­
stitutions, other nonprofit institu­
tions, and industrial concerns. Like
the AEC facilities, these labora­
tories employ a large proportion of
workers, nearly 3 out of 4, in scien­
tific, engineering, and other tech­
nical jobs.
Production of Nuclear Weapons and
Other Defense Materials. Establish­
ments that produce nuclear weapons
and weapon components, pluto­
nium, and other defense materials
employed more than 32,000 people
in 1972. Skilled workers include
large numbers of machinery repair­
men and millwrights, chemical proc­
ess operators, machinists, elec­
tricians, instrument repairmen, pipe­
fitters, tool and die makers, and in­
strument makers.
Among the large number of scien­
tists and engineers employed at these
facilities are chemists, physicists, and
mechanical, chemical, and electrical
and electronic engineers. Many engi­
neering and physical science aids,
draftsmen, radiation monitors, and



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

electronic technicians assist scien­
tists and engineers.
Other Atomic Energy Activities.
Nearly 1,400 workers produce spe­
cial materials such as beryllium, zir­
conium, and hafnium for use in reac­
tors. About 6,000 workers are in
companies that make reactor con­
trol instruments, radiation detection
and monitoring devices, and other in­
struments. Production of these in­
struments is similar to other instru­
ment manufacturing. Large num­
bers of engineers and technicians are
employed in these industries.
More than 800 people were em­
ployed by manufacturers of particle

accelerators and their specialized
components. Particle accelerators
enable scientists to study the struc­
ture and properties of elementary
particles in the nucleus of an atom.
Workers employed in the design and
manufacture of these machines in­
clude mechanical, electrical and elec­
tronic engineers, physicists, drafts­
men, electronic technicians, and
machinists.
Other workers process and pack­
age radioisotopes, produce radiog­
raphy units and radiation gauges and
package and dispose of radioactive
wastes.
Government Employment. The
Atomic Energy Commission, which

Plant ecologists investigate radio-activity in the soil.

OCCUPATIONS IN THE ATOMIC ENERGY FIELD

directs the Federal Government’s
atomic energy program, employed
more than 7,200 workers in its head­
quarters and Field offices in 1972.
About 1,800 were scientists and engi­
neers. Since the AEC is primarily an
adimistrative and regulatory agency,
nearly 9 out of 10 employees are in
administrative, professional, or cleri­
cal jobs. Several thousand employ­
ees are engaged in atomic energy
work in other Federal agencies and
in regulatory and promotional activ­
ities of State and local governments.
Unique Atomic Energy Occupa­
tions. Most of the occupations dis­
cussed in the preceding sections are
similar to those found in other indus­
trial activities, although they may
have job titles unique to the atomic
energy Field (such as nuclear engi­
neer, radiation chemist, and nuclear
reactor operator) and require some
specialized knowledge of atomic
energy. (A detailed discussion of the
duties, training, and employment
outlook for most of these occupa­
tions appears elsewhere in the Hand­
book.)
The health physics occupations,
which are unique to the atomic
energy Field, and some other occupa­
tions that require training in the
Field, or in the handling and use of
radioactive materials or radiationproducing equipment, are discussed
briefly in the following sections.
Health physicists (sometimes call­
ed radiation or radiological physi­
cists or chemists) detect radiation
and apply safety standards to con­
trol exposure to it. In 1972 nearly 1,200 health physicists were employed
in radiation protection work, re­
search, or teaching.
Health physicists are responsible
for planning and organizing radio­
logical health programs at atomic
energy facilities. They establish in­
spection standards and determine
procedures for protecting employees
and eliminating radiological haz­



ards. Some supervise the inspection
of work areas with potential radia­
tion hazards and prepare instruc­
tions covering safe work procedures.
Health physicists also plan and
supervise training programs dealing
with radiation hazards and advise
others on methods of dealing with
them. In some cases, they are em­
ployed on research projects dealing
with the effects of human exposure to
radiation and may develop proce­
dures for using radioactive materials.
Radiation monitors (also called
health-physics technicians) gener­
ally work under the supervision of
health physicists. An estimated 1,800
radiation monitors were employed in
the atomic energy Field in 1972. They
use special instruments to monitor
work areas and equipment to detect
radioactive contamination. Soil,
water, and air samples are taken fre­
quently to determine radiation levels.
Monitors also may collect and ana­
lyze radiation detectors, such as Film
badges and pocket detection cham­
bers, worn by workers.

665

Radiation monitors inform their
supervisors when a worker’s ex­
posure to radiation or the level of
radiation in a work area approaches
a maximum limit and recommend
work stoppage. They calculate the
amount of time that personnel may
work in contaminated areas, consid­
ering maximum radiation exposure
limits and the radiation level. Moni­
tors also give instructions in radia­
tion safety procedures and prescribe
special clothing requirements and
other safety precautions for workers
entering radiation zones.
Nuclear reactor operators per­
form work in nuclear power stations
similar to that of boiler operators in
conventional ones, however, the con­
trols operated are different. In addi­
tion, they may assist in the loading
and unloading of reactor cores.
Nuclear reactor operators who work
with research and test reactors check
reactor control panels and adjust
controls to maintain specified oper­
ating conditions within the reactor.
Nearly 1,500 people worked as

Health physics technician counting routine smear surveys obtained from plant site.

666

nuclear reactor operators in 1972.
Accelerator operators set up and
coordinate the operation of particle
accelerators. They adjust machine
controls to accelerate electrically
charged particles, based on instruc­
tions from the scientist in charge of
the experiment, and set up target
materials that are to be bombarded
by the particles. They also may help
maintain equipment.
Radiographers take radiographs
of metal castings, welds, and other
objects by adjusting the controls of
an X-ray machine, or by exposing a
source of radioactivity to the object
to be radiographed. They select the
proper type of radiation source and
film and use standard mathematical
formulas to determine exposure dis­
tance and time. While taking radio­
graphs, they use radiation detection
instruments to monitor the work
area for potential radiation hazards.
Radiographers also may remove and
develop the film plates and assist in
their analysis.
Hot-cell technicians operate
remote-controlled equipment to test
radioactive materials that are placed
in hot cells—rooms enclosed with
radiation shielding materials such as
lead and concrete. By controlling
“slave manipulators” (mechanical
devices that act as a pair of arms and
hands) from outside the cell and ob­
serving their actions through the cell
window, these technicians perform
standard chemical and metallurgical
operations with radioactive mate­
rials. Hot-cell technicians also may
enter the cell wearing protective
clothing to set up experiments or to
decontaminate the cell and equip­
ment. Decontamination men have
the primary duty of decontaminat­
ing equipment, plant areas, and
materials exposed to radiation. They
use radiation-detection instruments
to locate the contamination; elimi­
nate it by the use of special equip­
ment, detergents, and chemicals; and



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

then verify the effectiveness of the
process. Waste-treatment operators
operate heat exchange units, pumps,
compressors, and other equipment to
decontaminate and dispose of radio­
active waste liquids. Waste-disposal
men seal contaminated wastes in
concrete containers and transport the
containers to a burial ground.
Radioisotope-production oper­
ators use remote control manipu­
lators and other equipment to pre­
pare radioisotopes for shipping and
perform chemical analyses to ensure
that radioisotopes conform to
specifications.
Training and Other Qualifications

Training and education require­
ments and advancement oppor­
tunities for most workers in the
atomic energy field are generally
similar to those doing comparable
jobs in other industries. These are
discussed elsewhere in the Hand­
book under the specific occupation.
However, specialized training is re­
quired for many workers because the
field requires exacting work stand­
ards in both its research and produc­
tion activities, and has unique health
and safety problems.
Engineers and scientists at all
levels of professional training work
in the atomic energy field. Many
have advanced training, particularly
those doing research, development,
and design work. About one-fourth
of the scientists and engineers em­
ployed in research and development
by major AEC contractors have a
Ph.D. degree. The proportion of
engineers with Ph.D. degrees is
smaller than that of scientists. How­
ever, graduate training is preferred
for an increasing number of both
scientific and engineering jobs.
Training in nuclear engineering, al­
though increasing at the under­
graduate level, is mostly at the
graduate level.

The specialized knowledge of
nuclear energy essential for most
scientific and engineering positions
can be obtained at a college or un­
iversity or sometimes through onthe-job experience.
Colleges and universities have ex­
panded their facilities and curriculums to provide training in nuclear
energy. Engineers and scientists
planning to specialize in the atomic
energy field should take graduate
work in nuclear energy, although in­
troductory or background courses
may be taken at the undergraduate
level. Some colleges and universities
award graduate degrees in nuclear
engineering or nuclear science.
Others offer graduate training in
these fields, but award degrees only
in the traditional engineering or
scientific fields.
Health physicists should have at
least a bachelor’s degree in physics,
chemistry, or engineering, and a year
or more of graduate work in health
physics. A Ph.D. degree often is re­
quired for teaching and research.
Craftsmen doing some jobs in the
atomic energy field need more train­
ing than those doing similar work in
other industries. High skill require­
ments are often needed, because of
the exact precision required to in­
sure efficient operation and mainte­
nance of complex equipment and
machinery. For example, pipefitters
may have to fit pipe to tolerances of
less than one ten-thousands of an
inch and work with pipe made from
rare and costly metals. Welding also
may have to meet higher reliability
standards than in most fields. These
craftsmen generally obtain the re­
quired specialized skills on the job.
Many AEC installations also have
apprentice-training programs to
develop craft skills.
High school graduates with
courses in mathematics, physics, and
chemistry can qualify for on-the-job
training as radiation workers. They

OCCUPATIONS IN THE ATOMIC ENERGY FIELD

must become familiar with char­
acteristics of radiation, maximum
permissible radiation exposure
levels, and methods of calculating
exposure periods. They also must
learn how to calibrate the instru­
ments they use.
Nuclear power reactor operators
need a basic understanding of re­
actor theory and a working knowl­
edge of reactor controls. Most oper­
ator trainees are high school gradu­
ates. Trainees usually are selected
from conventional power plant per­
sonnel with experience operating
boiler, turbine, or electrical machin­
ery. Preference may be given to those
who complete college level courses in
science and engineering. Workers
operating nuclear reactor controls
must be licensed by the AEC. To
qualify for a license, the trainee must

Technicians placing low level irradiated
materials in hot cells through a
special pass-through drawer.




pass an operating and written test
given by the AEC, along with a
medical examination.
An accelerator operator usually
needs a high school education that
includes courses in mathematics and
physics to qualify for on-the-job
training. Accelerator operators re­
ceive several months of on-the-job
training covering operating, repair,
and safety procedures. To qualify for
on-the-job training as a radiog­
rapher, a high school education in­
cluding courses in mathematics,
chemistry, and physics usually is suf­
ficient.
High school graduates who have
some mechanical experience can
qualify for on-the-job training as
hot-cell technicians and decon­
tamination men. The training may
last several months. Radioisotopeproduction operators usually re­
quire a high school education with
courses in chemistry. These gradu­
ates may also qualify as waste-treat­
ment operators, since experience in
reading electronic instruments or
working in a chemical laboratory is
desirable. High school graduates also
can qualify for employment as
waste-disposal men. They receive onthe-job training in operating equip­
ment and avoiding radiation
hazards.
Other workers in the atomic
energy field also need special train­
ing because of potential radiation
hazards. Employees who work in the
vicinity of such hazards are always
given on-the-job training in the
nature of radiation and the proce­
dures to follow in case of its acci­
dental release.
Individuals who handle classified
data (restricted for reasons of
national security) or who work on
classified projects in the atomic
energy field must have a security
clearance based on an investigation
of a person’s character, loyalty, and
associations.

667

The Atomic Energy Commission,
at its contractor-operated facilities,
supports on-the-job and specialized
training programs to help prepare
scientists, engineers, technicians, and
other workers for the atomic energy
field.
Additional educational and train­
ing opportunities are offered in
cooperative programs arranged by
AEC laboratories with colleges and
universities. Temporary employ­
ment at these laboratories is avail­
able to faculty members and stu­
dents. Undergraduate and graduate
engineering students may work at
laboratories and other Commission
facilities on a rotation basis, and
many graduate students do their
thesis work at AEC laboratories.
Many Commission contractors
provide employees with training at
their own plants or at nearby col­
leges and universities.
Employment Outlook

Job opportunities in the atomic
energy field are expected to increase
moderately through the mid-1980’s
as uses of atomic energy are ex­
panded and new ones developed. In
addition, others will be needed to re­
place workers who retire, die, or
transfer to other occupations or in­
dustries.
Many factors point to a long-term
expansion in this field. Increased ex­
penditures for research and develop­
ment should increase opportunities
in both research and production ac­
tivities. The use of nuclear reactors
in electric power generating stations
will become more widespread as the
demand for electricity increases and
other fuels become more scarce.
Greater use of nuclear reactors for
propulsion of surface ships and
rockets is anticipated, although
progress in this area may not be as
rapid as in electric power generation.
Employment opportunities are ex­

668

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

pected to rise significantly for work­
ers who design and manufacture
nuclear power reactors and instru­
ments, and who process and pack­
age radioisotopes. As more nuclear
reactors are built and put into oper­
ation, opportunities will increase
both in operation and maintenance
jobs, and in related activities such as
the fabrication and reprocessing of
reactor fuel elements and the dis­
posal of radioactive wastes. Employ­
ment in mining, milling, refining,
and enrichment of uranium will in­
crease as the demand for nuclear fuel
increases. As more nuclear power is
developed, additional regulatory
workers will be needed to insure its
safe use. Expansion in these areas of
atomic energy should create favora­
ble opportunities for trained profes­
sional and technical workers and for
skilled craftsmen.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

In 1972 blue-collar workers em­
ployed by contractors at AEC
laboratories and other installations
had average hourly earnings of
$4.63; blue-collar workers in all




manufacturing industries had aver­
age earnings of $3.62 an hour.
Professional workers employed at
AEC installations averaged $16,600
a year in 1972, and other white-collar
workers (largely clerical and other
office personnel) averaged nearly
$8,100 a year. (Earnings data for
many of the occupations found in the
atomic energy field are included in
the statements on these occupations
elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Working conditions in uranium
mining and milling, instrument and
auxiliary equipment manufacturing,
and facilities construction are gener­
ally similar to those in other indus­
tries, except for radiation safety pre­
cautions. All uranium mines are
equipped with mechanical ventila­
tion systems that reduce the concen­
tration of radioactive radon gas—a
substance that can cause lung injury
if inhaled over a number of years. Ef­
forts to eliminate this hazard are
continuing. In the other atomic
energy activities working conditions
generally are very good. Buildings
and plants are well lighted and venti­
lated. Equipment, tools, and
machines are modern and the most
advanced of their type. Only a small

proportion of employees in the
atomic energy field actually work in
areas where direct radiation dangers
exist. Even in these areas, shielding,
automatic alarm systems, and other
devices and clothing give ample
protection to the workers. In some
cases, plants are located in remote
areas.
Extensive safeguards and oper­
ating practices protect the health and
safety of workers, and the AEC and
its contractors have maintained an
excellent safety record. The AEC
regulates the possession and use of
radioactive materials, and inspects
nuclear facilities to insure compli­
ance with health and safety require­
ments. Constant efforts are being
made to provide better safety stand­
ards and regulations.
Most hourly paid plant workers
belong to unions that represent their
particular craft or industry.
Sources of Additional
Information

Additional information about the
atomic energy field is available from:
U.S. Atomic Energy Commission,
Washington, D.C. 20545.

OCCUPATIONS IN THE BAKING INDUSTRY
One of the largest food-process­
ing employers in the United States,
the baking industry provides steady,
year-round employment for thou­
sands of workers throughout the
country. Jobs exist to suit a wide va­
riety of interests, skills, and talents.
Bakery workers make, wrap, pack,
sell and deliver products. Mechanics
maintain and repair plant ma­
chinery and service delivery trucks.
Managers and sales specialists direct
operations and clerical workers per­
form regular office duties.
Nature and Location
of the Industry

Almost every community has at
least one bakery, but nearly half of
all industrial bakery employees work
in California, Illinois, New Jersey,
New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania and
Texas.
Nearly 60 percent of the indus­
try’s employees are production
workers. They do the actual baking,
handle raw materials, maintain
equipment, wrap and pack products,
and keep the bakeries sanitary.
Another 20 percent of the em­
ployees deliver the industry’s prod­
ucts. Most of them are driver-sales­
men who sell to retail stores. Other
drivers with no sales duties deliver
bakery products to distribution
centers, hotels, restaurants, and
stores. The remaining 20 percent of
the work force are in administrative,
professional, technical, and clerical
jobs.
About one-fifth of the workers are
women, most of them office workers
such as secretaries or bookkeepers.
Some have production jobs, such as
slicing machine operator, wrapping
machine operator, or pie and cake
packer, but few women are bakers.
In addition to the industrial baker­
ies described, over 12,000 single-shop
retail bakeries employed about 100,000 men and women including shop
owners. Most retail shops had only 5
or 6 workers, but some had 20 or
more. Because many operations in
retail shops are done by hand rather
than by machine, these shops offer
skilled baking craftsmen many op­
portunities not available in indus­
trial bakeries.

The baking industry includes large
wholesale bakeries that sell to retail
stores, restaurants, hotels, and other
large customers; bakeries owned and
operated by grocery chains; and cen­
tral baking plants of companies each
operating several retail bake shops.
In 1972, the industry employed
271,000 workers in about 3,700
bakeries. Nearly 85 percent of these
workers were employed in bakeries
that produced perishable goods such
as bread, rolls, pies, cakes and
doughnuts. Most of these bakeries
serve only local markets and employ
an average of 50 workers; however,
improvements in the highway system
have allowed many to expand their
markets and the size of their plants.
The remaining workers were
employed in bakeries producing
“dry” goods such as cookies, crack­
ers, pretzels, and ice cream cones.
These bakeries serve regional or even
national markets and employ an
average of 120 workers per plant. Production Occupations. Although



not all baked goods are made in ex­
actly the same way, most bakery
production jobs are similar. Pro­
duction workers blend, sift, and mix
ingredients to form a dough; shape
and bake the dough; and wrap and
pack the final product.
Since bread is the primary prod­
uct of the industry, occupations de­
scribed here are those found in a
bread bakery. Jobs may be some­
what different in a bakery which
makes other products or is more
automated.
The first step in baking is to com­
bine the ingredients needed to make
dough. Mixers (D.O.T. 520.885)
load blending machines with the ex­
act amounts of flour, water, and
yeast needed for the bread. Using in­
struments, they carefully control the
temperature, timing, and mixing
speed of the machines to insure a un­
iform, well-blended dough. After the
dough is mixed, it is dropped into a
trough and pushed to a warm proof­
ing room for the yeast to ferment and
the dough to rise. The risen dough is
poured back into the blender and
sugar, salt, shortening, and more
flour and water are added. The
dough is allowed to rise again before
it is shaped into loaves.
Dividermen (D.O.T. 526.728)
operate machines which divide and
roll the dough into loaf-size balls. A
conveyor carries the balls of dough
to dough molders or molding ma­
chine operators (D.O.T. 520.885)
who press out the air bubbles, form
the balls into loaves, and drop the
loaves into pans. If fancy shaped
bread or rolls are to be made, bench
hands (D.O.T. 520.884) knead and
form the dough by hand and place it
in the pans.
The pans containing the dough go
back to the proofing room for about
an hour before being placed in the
oven. Ovenmen (D.O.T. 526.885)
load and unload the ovens and adjust
the temperature and timing of the
669

670

ovens to make sure that the bread is
properly baked.
Some bakeries use an automatic
process called “continuous mix” that
eliminates many of the steps de­
scribed above. With this process all
ingredients are mixed at once and the
dough is divided, shaped, put into
pans, and then proofed only once be­
fore baking.
In small bakeries, all-round
bakers (D.O.T. 526.781), assisted by
helpers, usually do all the steps need­
ed to turn out finished baked prod­
ucts. In large bakeries, all-round
bakers are employed as working
foremen. They supervise the em­
ployees in their department and co­
ordinate their activity with that in



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

slicing and wrapping operations, ad­
just the machines, and keep them
supplied with bags and labels. A con­
veyor then takes the wrapped loaves
to the shipping platform.
Bakery employees in icing depart­
ments give finishing touches to
cakes, pastries, and other sweet
goods following special formulas of
the bakery. Icing mixers (D.O.T.
520.885) prepare cake icings and fill­
ings. They weigh and measure in­
gredients and mix them by machine.
They also prepare cooked fillings for
pies, tarts, and other pastries. Hand
icers (D.O.T. 524.884) are skilled
craftsmen who decorate special
products such as wedding cakes,
birthday cakes, and fancy pastries.
When the product is uniform or re­
quires no special decoration, the
frosting may be applied by machine
icers (D.O.T. 524.885).
Bakeries also employ many work­
ers in storage, warehousing, and
shipping departments. Receiving and
stock clerks check, record, and
deliver incoming supplies and in­
gredients to various departments.
Packers and checkers make up
orders of bakery products for
delivery by driver-salesmen.

other departments to meet pro­
duction schedules.
A considerable number of helpers
(D.O.T. 526.886) are employed in
baking operations. They may assist
all-round bakers and other workers.
They have job titles such as dough
mixer helper, and ovenman helper.
Helpers also perform such jobs as
greasing pans, removing bread from
pans, pushing troughs and racks, and
washing pans.
After baked goods leave the oven
and are cooled, several types of
workers prepare them for delivery to
customers. Slicing-and-wrapping ma­
chine operators (D.O.T 521.885)
feed loaves of bread onto conveyors
leading to the machines, watch the

Maintenance Occupations. Bakeries
employ skilled maintenance work­
ers such as machinists, electricians,
and stationary engineers to keep ma­
chinery and equipment in good con­
dition. Large plants need many of
these workers because their baking
operations are highly mechanized.
Many bakeries also employ truck
mechanics to service their fleets of
delivery trucks.
Sales and Driving Occupations. Sell­
ing and delivering finished baked
foods to customers requires many
thousands of workers. Some sell
baked goods, some drive trucks, and
many do both.
Driver-salesmen, also called route-

OCCUPATIONS IN THE BAKING INDUSTRY

men (D.O.T. 292.358), work for
wholesale bakeries. They deliver, and
collect payment for baked foods to
grocery stores along their routes. At­
tracting new customers and urging
old customers to buy more prodducts are a major part of their job.
Driver-salesmen arrange their baked
goods on shelves or display racks in
grocery stores and may restock
shelves several times a day in busy
stores. They also list items they think
grocers will buy the next day that are
used to make up production sched­
ules for the next morning.
Route supervisors assign delivery
routes and check delivery schedules.
A large bakery may employ several
of these workers, each in charge of 6
to 10 driver-salesmen. In a smaller
bakery, one supervisor may be in
charge of all salesmen. Route super­
visors also train new driver-sales­
men, and many temporarily replace
salesmen who are absent.
Chain grocery store bakeries and
multioutlet retail bakeries employ
truckdrivers rather than driver-sales­
men to deliver baked foods to each of
their company’s stores. Stock clerks
or sales clerks arrange the display, of
baked foods in the stores.

Administrative, Clerical, and Pro­
fessional and Technical Occu­
pations. Administrators in large
bakeries and owners of small baker­
ies coordinate all baking activities,
from the purchase of raw materials
to the production and delivery of fin­
ished products. In large firms, ac­
tivities are divided into separate
departments or functions and are
supervised by plant managers, comp­
trollers, sales managers, and other
executives. Some administrative em­
ployees specialize in fields such as ac­
counting, purchasing, advertising,
personnel and industrial relations.
Bakeries employ many types of cleri­
cal workers, including bookkeepers,
cashiers, clerks, business machine



operators, typists, and switchboard
operators. A large proportion of
these office workers are women.
Some large baking companies have
laboratories and test kitchens where
chemists, home economists, and
their assistants test ingredients and
prepare formulas and recipes. (De­
tailed discussion of the duties, train­
ing, and employment outlook for
maintenance, sales, driving, adminis­
trative, clerical, and technical per­
sonnel appear elsewhere in the Hand­
book.)
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Training requirements for occu­
pations in the baking industry range
from a few days on the job to several
years of experience or advanced edu­
cation. Slicing and wrapping ma­
chine operators can learn their job in
a few days, but skilled workers, such
as all-round bakers, mixers, ovenmen and other baking specialists,
need three or four years of training.
Professional personnel and some ad­
ministrative workers must have a
college degree or considerable ex­
perience in their specialty.
Most inexperienced production
workers in the baking industry are
hired as helpers (utility workers).
They are usually assigned such tasks
as carrying ingredients to mixing
machines, or pushing troughs of
dough to the proofing room. Help­
ers are often able to learn more ad­
vanced baking skills while working
alongside experienced bakers, and
may be selected to enter an appren­
ticeship program. Employers usu­
ally require an apprentice to be be­
tween 18 and 26 years of age and to
have a high school or vocational
school diploma. Apprenticeship pro­
grams last 3 or 4 years, and include
on-the-job training in all baking
operations and classroom instruction
in related subjects.

671

Some workers take courses in vo­
cational school or learn baking in the
Armed Forces. Such training may
not qualify a person as a skilled
baker, but it may help him to be­
come an apprentice and perhaps
shorten his apprenticeship.
Training programs for unemploy­
ed and underemployed workers seek­
ing entry jobs as bakers or cake dec­
orators are in operation in several
cities under provisions of the Man­
power Development and Training
Act.
Bakers may be promoted to jobs
such as working or department fore­
men. Some bakers who have devel­
oped special skill in fancy cake­
making or piemaking may find jobs
in hotel or restaurant bakeries. All­
round bakers with some business
ability sometimes open their own
bakeshops.
Bakery employees must be in good
health because most States require a
health certificate indicating that the
worker is free from contagious dis­
eases. Good health also is important
because of the irregular working
hours and high temperature in
bakeries.
Some bakeries have apprentice­
ship programs for maintenance jobs
such as machinists, electricians, and
mechanics. Other plants hire inex­
perienced workers as mechanics’
helpers, who gain experience and
know-how while working with skilled
mechanics. Some bakeries hire only
skilled maintenance men.
For jobs as driver-salesmen or
truckdrivers, baking firms generally
hire inexperienced young men with a
high school education. These work­
ers often begin as stock clerks, pack­
ers, or checkers, and are promoted to
driving jobs. Applicants must be able
to get a chauffeur’s license and are
sometimes tested by the baking com­
panies to determine whether they are
safe drivers. Classroom instruction
in sales, display, and delivery proce-

672

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

process. In addition, bakeries can
prepare a week’s baked foods at one
time and store them in the freezer
until ready for sale.
Despite the anticipated decline in
the number of production workers,
employment in some occupations
is expected to increase. More truck
drivers will be needed as suburban
developments spread and sales ter­
ritories expand. As bakeries become
more mechanized additional main­
tenance workers will be needed to
keep equipment in operating order.
Some increase may occur in the
number of clerical workers as bak­
eries become larger.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

dures is sometimes given to new
driver-salesmen, but most training is
given on the job by route super­
visors. Driver-salesmen may be pro­
moted to route supervisor and sales
manager.
Administrative jobs are usually
filled by upgrading personnel already
employed in the firm. Some owners
and production managers of baker­
ies have come from the ranks of bak­
ing craftsmen and some began their
careers in sales occupations. In re­
cent years, large baking firms have
required their new administrative
workers to have a college degree in
an administrative field, such as
marketing, accounting, labor rela­
tions, personnel, or advertising. Kan­
sas State University at Manhattan
offers a bachelor of science degree in
baking science and management.
The American Institute of Baking
conducts a school of baking for per­
sons with a bachelor’s degree who
wish to qualify for managerial posi­
tions.
Young persons who have com­
pleted ^ commercial course in high



school, junior college, or a business
school usually are preferred for
secretarial, stenographic, and other
clerical jobs.
Employment Outlook

Employment in the baking in­
dustry is expected to decline slowly
through the mid-1980’s. Neverthe­
less, several thousand job openings
are anticipated each year because of
the need to replace workers who
retire, die, or transfer to other fields
of work.
Despite a growing demand for
bakery products due to population
growth, fewer production workers
will be needed because processes are
becoming more efficient. Pneumatic
handling systems and pumps can
transfer ingredients from trucks or
railroad cars to storage containers
quickly and easily. The “continuous
mix’’ process eliminates dough mix­
ing and proofing operations, and
conveyor systems can be used to
move panned dough from ovens to
labeling machines in one continuous

In 1972, earnings of production
workers in the baking industry
averaged $147.31 a week, or $3.72 an
hour, which is slightly less than the
average for all manufacturing indus­
tries. Bakeries producing perishable
products generally offer higher
wages than those producing “dry’’
products. Wage rates also tend to be
higher in the West and North than in
the South and Southwest.
According to union contracts
covering employees in 24 wholesale
bakeries producing bread and re­
lated products, minimum hourly
rates in major occupations in 1972
were as follows:
Baking foremen and
all-round bakers.......... $4.35-5.79
Molders and dividers and
molding and dividing
machine operators___
3.23—5.34
Mixers (dough or icing) ..
3.42-5.34
Ovenmen .........................
3.42—5.34
Benchmen.........................
3.42—5.25
leers and decorators . . . .
3.70-4.54
Wrapping machine
operators .....................
3.42-4.48
Utilitymen (general
helpers).........................
2.66—4.12
Porters and cleaners . . . .
3.13—4.74

Some plant employees work night

OCCUPATIONS IN THE BAKING INDUSTRY

shifts and weekends because many
plants do baking around the clock.
Workers receive extra pay for night
work. Some bakeries are elimi­
nating the night shift since baked
goods can be frozen and stored until
needed. Most plant workers are on a
40-hour workweek, but some work
35 or 37-1/2 hours, and others 44 to
48 hours regularly.
Driver-salesmen usually receive a
guaranteed minimum salary plus a
percentage of their sales. According
to limited information from union
contracts, driver-salesmen for whole­
sale bakeries had minimum weekly
salaries of from $98 to $189 in 1972.
By selling more baked products to
more customers, driver-salesmen can
increase their earnings. Companies
generally pay for uniforms and their
maintenance.
Working conditions in bakeries
are generally good. However, many
jobs involve some strenuous physi­
cal work, despite the considerable
mechanization of baking processes.




Work near ovens can be hot, es­
pecially in the summer.
Nearly all employees of industrial
baking firms get paid vacations,
which usually range from 1 to 5
weeks according to length of service.
Employees also get from 5 to 11 paid
holidays, depending on the locality.
Most baking firms have life and
health insurance programs and
retirement pension plans. Many em­
ployees are covered by joint unionindustry plans which are paid for en­
tirely by the employer.
Most bakery workers belong to
labor unions. Bakers and other plant
workers are organized by the Bakery
and Confectionary Workers’ Inter­
national Union of America, and
driver-salesmen and transport
drivers usually are members of the
International Brotherhood of
Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Ware­
housemen and Helpers of America
(Ind.). Some maintenance workers
are members of craft unions such as
the International Association of Ma­

673

chinists and Aerospace Workers and
the International Union of Oper­
ating Engineers.
Sources of Additional
information

Information on local baking jobs
and training opportunities may be
obtained from bakeries in the com­
munity, local offices of the State
employment service, or locals of the
labor unions noted previously.
General information on job oppor­
tunities in the industry and on
schools which offer courses or
degrees in baking science and
technology may be obtained from:
American Bakers Association, 1700
P en n sy lv a n ia A ve. N W .,
Washington, D.C. 20006.

Information on opportunities in
retail bakeries may be obtained
from:
Associated Retail Bakers of America,
731-735 W. Sheridan Rd., Chicago,
111. 60613.

OCCUPATIONS IN THE DRUG INDUSTRY
References to potions and spells
for the cure and prevention of pain
and disease are numerous in medical
folklore. But twentieth-century
science has created a supply of drugs
undreamed of by even the most im­
aginative apothecaries of the past.
More than 10,000 prescription
drugs are available to today’s physi­
cian. These drugs have resulted in the
control of cardiovascular disease,
malaria, pneumonia, and even some
forms of cancer. Hormones have re­
lieved the pain and crippling effects
of arthritis and other diseases. Tran­
quilizers and other drugs have done
much to reduce the severity of men­
tal illness. Vaccines have reduced
dramatically the toll of polio,
whooping cough, and measles. Dis­
coveries in veterinary medicine have
increased animal productivity and
controlled various diseases, some of
which are transmissible to man.
The American drug industry has
risen to a position of worldwide
prominence in its record of research
and development in new drugs,
spending a higher proportion of its
funds for research than any other
American industry. A large pharma­
ceutical firm may test 4,000 or more
substances a year and spend mil­
lions of dollars to develop one new
drug.
Although the drug industry looks
to its many scientific and technical
personnel to carry out its vast re­
search programs, 3 out of every 5
jobs in the industry do not require
more than a high school education.

674



Nature and Location
of the Industry

In 1972, nearly 150,000 persons
worked in the drug industry. About
120,000 of these worked in plants
that made pharmaceutical prepara­
tions (finished drugs), such as tran­
quilizers, antibiotics and analgesics.
Another 17,000 worked in plants
that produced bulk medicinal chemi­
cals and botanicals used in making
finished drugs; and about 13,000
worked in plants that made bio­
logical products, such as serums and
vaccines.
Drug manufacturing plants typi­
cally employ large numbers of work­
ers. About two-thirds are in plants
having more than 500 workers, and
some of the largest plants employ
more than 5,000.
Nearly three-fourths of the indus­
try’s workers were employed in six
States: New Jersey, New York, In­
diana, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and
Michigan. Large plants are located
in Indianapolis, Ind.; Chicago, 111.;
N utley and Rahway, N .J.;
Philadelphia, Pa.; Detroit and
Kalamazoo, Mich.; and Pearl River,
N.Y.
One of the industry’s most strik­
ing characteristics is the emphasis on
discovery of new products, number­
ing more than 150 in the last ten
years. Because of this emphasis, the
drug industry has an above-average
concentration of its employees in re­
search and development activities.
For testing new drugs, a primary
research method is used, called
screening. In screening an anti­
biotic, for example, a sample is plac­
ed in a bacterial culture. If positive

Research is important to the drug
industry.

results follow, the antibiotic is next
tested on infected laboratory
animals. Promising compounds are
studied further for evidence of use­
ful—and harmful—effects. A new
drug will be selected for testing in
man only if it promises to have thera­
peutic advantages over comparable
drugs already in use, or if it offers the
possibility of being safer.
After laboratory screening, a clini­
cal investigation, or trial of the drug
on human patients, is made. Sup­
plies of the drug are given to a small
circle of doctors who administer it to
carefully selected consenting
patients. The patients are then ob­
served closely and special studies
made to determine the drug’s effect.
If a drug proves useful, arrange­
ments are made for more tests with a
larger group of physicians, including
some in private practice.
Once a drug has successfully pass­
ed animal and clinical tests and has
been approved by the Food and Drug
Administration (FDA), problems of
production methods and costs must
be worked out before manufac-

675

OCCUPATIONS IN THE DRUG INDUSTRY

turing begins. If the original labora­
tory process of preparing and com­
pounding the ingredients is complex
and expensive, pharmacists, chem­
ists, packaging engineers, and
production specialists are assigned to
develop processes economically
adaptable to mass production.
Drug manufacturers have de­
veloped a high degree of automation
in many production operations. Mill­
ing and micronizing machines (which
pulverize substances into extremely
fine particles) are used to reduce bulk
chemicals to the required size. These
finished chemicals are combined and
processed further in mixing
machines. The mixed ingredients
may then be mechanically capsulized, pressed into tablets, or made
into solutions. One type of machine,
for example, automatically fills,
seals, and stamps capsules. Other
machines fill bottles with capsules,
tablets, or liquids, and seal, label,
and package the bottles.
Drug products are inspected at
various stages during the manufac­
turing process to insure that they
conform to specifications. Although
some inspection operations are
mechanized, many are performed
manually.
Occupations in the
Industry

Workers with many different
levels of skill and education work in
the drug industry. More than half are
in white-collar jobs (scientific, tech­
nical, administrative, clerical, and
sales); most of the remainder are in
plant jobs (processing or produc­
tion, maintenance, transportation,
and custodial). Two-fifths of the
drug industry’s workers are women,
larger than the proportion in most
other manufacturing industries.
The duties of some of the impor­
tant occupations are described brief­
ly below. (Detailed discussion of



Quality control is a vital part of the drug production process.

professional, technical, clerical and
other occupations found in drug
manufacturing, as well as in other in­
dustries, are given elsewhere in the
Handbook, in the sections covering
individual occupations.)
Scientific and Technical Occupa­
tions. About 1 out of every 5 employ­
ees in the industry is a scientist,
engineer, or technician—a far
greater proportion than in most
other industries. The majority re­
search and develop new drug prod­
ucts. Others work to streamline
production methods and improve
quality control.
Chemists (D.O.T. 022.081) com­
prise the largest number of scientific
and technical personnel in the indus­
try. Organic chemists combine new
compounds for biological testing.
Physical chemists separate and iden­
tify substances, determine molec­
ular structure, help to create new

compounds and improve manu­
facturing processes. Biochemists
study the action of drugs on body
processes. Radiochemists trace the
course of drugs through body organs
and tissues. Pharmaceutical chem­
ists set standards and specifications
for form of product and storage con­
ditions and see that labeling and
literature meet the requirements of
State and Federal laws. Analytical
chemists test raw and intermediate
materials and finished products for
quality.
Several thousand biological scien­
tists (D.O.T. 041.081, .181) work in
the drug industry. Biologists and
bacteriologists study the effect of
chemical agents on infected animals.
Microbiologists grow strains of
microorganisms which produce anti­
biotics. Physiologists investigate the
effect of drugs on body functions and
vital processes. Pharmacologists and
zoologists study the effect of drugs

676

on animals. Virologists grow virus­
es, develop vaccines, and test them in
animals. Botanists, with their spe­
cial knowledge of plant life, contrib­
ute to the discovery of botanical in­
gredients for drugs. Some other bio­
logical scientists include patholo­
gists, who study normal and abnor­
mal cells or tissues, and toxicolo­
gists, who are concerned with the
safety, dosage levels, and the com­
patibility of different drugs. Pharma­
cists perform research in product
development, studying many forms
of medicines at various stages of
production. Some set specifications
for the purchase and manufacture of
materials, and handled correspond­
ence relating to products. Drug
manufacturers also employ physi­
cians and veterinarians.
Engineers make up a small frac­
tion of scientific and technical
employment. Chemical engineers
(D.O.T. 008.081) design equipment
and devise manufacturing processes.
Industrial engineers (D.O.T.
012.081, .168, .187, .188, and .281)
plan equipment layout and workflow to maintain efficient use of
plant facilities. Mechanical engi­
neers (D.O.T. 007.081, .151, .181,
and .187) coordinate the installation
and maintenance of sterilizing, heat­
ing, cooling, humidifying, and venti­
lating equipment.
Technicians (D.O.T. 073.381,
078.128, .168, .281, .381, and .687)
represent about one-fourth of the
drug industry’s scientific and tech­
nical workers. Laboratory tests play
an important part in the detection
and diagnosis of a disease and in the
discovery of medicines. Laboratory
technicians perform these tests under
the direction of scientists in such
areas as bacteriology, biochemistry,
microbiology, virology (the study of
viruses), and cytology (analysis of
cells).
Administrative, Clerical, and Re­



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

lated Occupations. About 1 out of
every 3 workers in drug manufactur­
ing is in an administrative, clerical,
or other office job. At the top of the
administrative group are the execu­
tives who make policy decisions con­
cerning matters of finance, market­
ing, and types of products to re­
search and develop. Other adminis­
trative and executive workers are ac­
countants, lawyers, purchasing
agents, personnel and industrial rela­
tions workers, and advertising and
marketing research workers. Cleri­
cal employees keep records on per­
sonnel, payroll, raw materials, sales,
shipments, and plant maintenance.
Pharmaceutical detail men
(D.O.T. 266.158) represent a smajl
but important group of drug indus­
try employees. Detail men promote
their companies products. They visit
practicing and teaching physicians,
pharmacists, dentists, and hospital
administrators to provide informa­
tion on the latest drugs.
Plant Occupations. Nearly half of
the industry’s employees work in
plant jobs. The majority of these
workers can be divided into three
major occupational groups: produc­
tion or processing workers who oper­
ate the drug producing equipment;
maintenance workers who install,
maintain, and repair this equip­
ment; and shipping clerks, truck
drivers, and material handlers who
help transport the drugs.
Pharmaceutical operators (D.O.T.
559.782) control machines that pro­
duce tablets, capsules, ointments,
and medicinal solutions. Granulator
machine operators (D.O.T. 559.782)
tend milling and grinding machines
that reduce mixtures to designated
sized particles. Compounders
(D.O.T. 550.885) tend tanks and
kettles in which solutions are mixed
and compounded to make up
creams, ointments, liquid medica­
tions, and powders. Compressors
(D.O.T. 556.782) operate machines

that compress ingredients into tab­
lets. Pill and tablet coaters (D.O.T.
554.782) control a battery of ma­
chines that apply coatings to tablets
to flavor, color, preserve, add
medication, or control disinte­
gration time. Tablet testers (D.O.T.
559.687) inspect tablets for hard­
ness, chippage, and weight to assure
conformity with specifications.
Ampoule fillers (D.O.T. 559.885)
operate machines that fill small glass
containers with measured doses of
liquid drug products. Ampoule
examiners (D.O.T. 559.687) exam­
ine the ampoules for discoloration,
foreign particles, and flaws in the
glass.
After the drug product is pre­
pared and inspected, it is bottled or
packaged. Most of the packaging
and bottle filling jobs are done by
semiskilled workers who operate
machines that measure exact
amounts of the product and seal con­
tainers.
The drug industry employs many
skilled maintenance workers to as­
sure that production equipment is
operating properly and to prevent
costly breakdowns. Included among
maintenance workers are power
plant operators who are responsible
for high pressure boilers, turbo
generators, compressors, refriger­
ation equipment, and plant water
systems; electricians who install,
maintain and repair the various types
of electrical equipment; pipefitters
who install and maintain heating,
plumbing, and pumping systems;
machinists who make and repair
metal parts for machines and equip­
ment; and instrument repairmen who
periodically inspect instruments and
controls and repair or replace mal­
functioning parts.
Plant workers who do not operate
or maintain equipment perform a
variety of other tasks. Some drive
trucks to make deliveries to other
parts of the plant; some load and un-

OCCUPATIONS IN THE DRUG INDUSTRY

Medications are packaged on this production line.

load trucks and railroad cars; others
keep inventory records. The indus­
try also employs custodial workers,
such as guards and janitors, whose
duties are similar to those of such
workers in other industries.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

The training requirements for jobs
in the drug industry range from a few
hours of on-the-job training to years
of preparation.
For production and maintenance
occupations, drug manufacturers
generally hire inexperienced work­
ers and train them on the job; high
school graduates are preferred by
most Firms. Beginners in production
jobs assist experienced workers,
while learning the operation of the
processing equipment. With experi­
ence, an employee may advance to
more skilled jobs in his department.
Most maintenance jobs are Filled by
people who start as helpers to elec­



677

workers begin as laboratory helpers
or aids, performing routine jobs such
as cleaning and arranging bottles,
test tubes, and other equipment.
The experience required for higher
levels of technician jobs varies from
company to company. Generally, a
minimum of one year of experience
is required for assistant technician
jobs, 3 years for technicians, 6 years
for senior technicians, and 10 years
for technical associates. Some com­
panies require senior technicians and
technical associates to complete jobrelated college courses.
For most scientific and engineer­
ing jobs, a bachelor of science de­
gree is the minimum requirement.
Some companies have formal train­
ing programs for young college
graduates with engineering and
scientiFic backgrounds. These train­
ees work for brief periods in the vari­
ous divisions of the plant to gain a
broad knowledge of drug manufac­
turing operations before being as­
signed to a particular department. In
other Firms, newly employed scien­
tists and engineers are immediately
assigned to a specific activity such as
research, process development,
production, or sales.
Job prospects and advancement
are usually best for professionals
with advanced degrees. Some com­
panies offer training programs to
help scientists and engineers keep
abreast of new developments in their
Fields and to develop administrative
skills. These programs may include
meetings and seminars with consult­
ants from various Fields. Many com­
panies encourage scientists and engi­
neers to further their education;
some provide Financial assistance for
this purpose. Publication of scien­
tific papers is also encouraged.

tricians, pipeFitters, machinists, and
other craftsmen.
Many companies encourage
production and maintenance work­
ers to take courses related to their
jobs in local schools and technical in­
stitutes, or to enroll in corre­
spondence courses. Some com­
panies reimburse the workers for
part, or all, of the tuition. Skilled
production and maintenance work­
ers with leadership ability may ad­
vance to supervisory positions.
For technicians in the drug indus­
try, methods of qualifying for jobs
vary in many ways. Most tech­
nicians enter the Field with a high
school education and advance to jobs
of greater responsibility with experi­
ence and additional formal educa­
tion. However, companies prefer to
hire men and women who are gradu­
ates of technical institutes or junior
colleges, or those who have com­
Employment Outlook
pleted college courses in chemistry,
biology, mathematics, or engineer­ Drug manufacturing employment
ing. In many Firms, inexperienced is expected to grow very rapidly

678

through the mid-1980’s. In addition
to the jobs produced by employment
growth, many openings will result
from the need to replace experi­
enced workers who retire, die, or
transfer to other fields of work.
The demand for drug products is
expected to grow very rapidly. De­
mand will be stimulated primarily by
the expected increase in popu­
lation—particularly the growing
number of older people and chil­
dren. Other factors which are ex­
pected to increase the demand for
drugs include greater personal in­
come, the rising health conscious­
ness of the general public, growth of
coverage under health insurance pro­
grams and Medicare, and the dis­
covery of new drugs to treat illnesses
not yet responding to therapy. A
continued rise in drug sales to other
countries also is anticipated.
The industry’s employment will
not increase as rapidly as the de­
mand for drug products, because
technological improvements in
production methods will increase
output per worker. The more wide­
spread use of automatic processing
and control equipment in operations
formerly done by hand will tend to
reduce labor requirements, particu­
larly in plants where common drugs
are mass-produced.
Rates of employment growth will
vary among occupations. The num­
bers of scientists, engineers, detail
men, technicians, and maintenance
workers are expected to increase
faster than those of other occupa­
tional groups in the industry. De­
mand for scientists, engineers, and
technicians will be spurred by con­
tinued expansion of research and
development activities. The increas­
ingly technical nature of the detail
man’s job and the rising sales of drug
products are expected to make this
one of the most rapidly growing oc­
cupations in the industry. More skill­
ed maintenance men (such as elec­



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

tricians, machinists, pipefitters, and
instrument repairmen) will be needed
to service the growing amount of
automatic processing and control
equipment. Employment of adminis­
trative and clerical workers is ex­
pected to increase moderately; how­
ever, most semiskilled plant occupa­
tions are expected to increase slowly,
as more processes are adapted to
automatic equipment.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

Earnings of plant workers in the
drug industry are higher than the
average for manufacturing indus­
tries. For example, in 1972, produc­
tion workers in the drug industry
averaged $3.98 an hour, while those
in manufacturing as a whole aver­
aged $3.81 an hour.
National wage data are not avail­
able for individual occupations in the
drug industry. However, statements
on specific occupations, such as
chemist, pharmacist, and tech­
nician, in other parts of the Hand­
book, will give general earnings in­
formation.
Some employees work in plants
that operate around the clock—three
shifts a day, 7 days a week. In most
plants, workers receive extra pay
when assigned to second or third
shifts. Drug production is subject to
little seasonal variation so work is
steady.
Paid vacations and holidays are
typical benefits in this industry.
Workers generally receive 2 weeks of
vacation after 1 year, and progres­
sively longer vacations based on
length of employment. Most work­
ers also receive health and life insur­
ance and pension benefits, financed
at least partially by their employers.
Employee stock-purchase plans are
available in many firms.
Working conditions in drug plants
are better than in most other

manufacturing plants. Much empha­
sis is placed on keeping equipment
and work areas clean because of the
danger of contamination to drugs.
Plants are usually air-conditioned,
well-lighted, and quiet. Ventilation
systems protect workers from dust,
fumes, and disagreeable odors. Spe­
cial precautions are taken to protect
the relatively small number of
employees who work with infectious
cultures and poisonous chemicals.
With the exception of work per­
formed by materials handlers and
maintenance workers, most jobs re­
quire little physical effort. The fre­
quency of injuries in drug manufac­
turing has been about half the aver­
age for all manufacturing industries
in recent years.
Many of the industry’s employees
are members of labor unions. The
principal unions in the industry are
the Oil, Chemical and Atomic
Workers International Union; the
International Chemical Workers
Union; and District 50, United Mine
Workers of America (Ind.).
Sources of Additional
Information

Further information about careers
in drug manufacturing may be ob­
tained from the personnel depart­
ments of individual drug manu­
facturing companies and from:
Pharm aceutical M anufacturers
Association, 1155 Fifteenth St.
NW„ Washington, D.C. 20005.
National Pharmaceutical Council,
Inc., 1030 15th St. NW„ Wash­
ington, D.C. 20005.

Occupations in the
Industry

ELECTRONICS
An astronaut, a doctor, and a busi­
nessman all have something in com­
mon; without electronic devices they
would be unable to do much of their
work. We would never have reached
the moon without the thousands of
men and women working in elec­
tronics research and production. Nor
would doctors be able to diagnose
and treat many diseases without
modern electronic machines. Busi­
nessmen also owe a lot to elec­
tronics. Electronic computers for ex­
ample, have helped them in such
areas as inventory control, market
research, and production schedules.
Nature and Location
of the Industry

The birth of the electronics in­
dustry dates back to the early 1920’s
when the first radios were produced.
By the end of World War II the in­
dustry had diversified its production
to include defense equipment. With
the development of television and the
computer, the electronics industry
expanded even further to manufac­
ture a wide range of products.
Today the industry is broken into
four main market areas: govern­
ment products, industrial products,
consumer products, and compo­
nents. Products sold to the govern­
ment make up a large portion of
total electronic sales. Included in
government purchases are widely dif­
ferent products such as missile and
space guidance systems, commu­
nications systems and other elec­
tronic goods used in medicine, edu­
cation, crime detection and traffic
control.
Electronic products have become



an important part of daily business
operations. Industrial purchases in­
clude computers, radio and tele­
vision broadcasting equipment, and
production control equipment.
Consumer products are probably
the most familiar types of electronic
products. Every day thousands of
people buy television sets, radios,
m icrowave ovens, and tape
recorders.
Components are needed to manu­
facture and repair electronic prod­
ucts. Some of the most well-known
components are transistors, tele­
vision picture tubes, and amplifiers.
About 1.3 million workers were
employed in the electronics industry
in 1972. About 960,000 worked in
plants that produce end products for
government, industrial and con­
sumer use. The rest worked in plants
that made electronic components.
Electronics m anufacturing
workers can find jobs throughout the
country, but the majority of the jobs
in 1972 were in eight States: Califor­
nia, New York, New Jersey, Illi­
nois, Massachusetts, Ohio, Pennsyl­
vania, and Indiana. Metropolitan
areas with large numbers of elec­
tronics manufacturing workers in­
clude Chicago, Los Angeles, New
York, Philadelphia, Newark,
Boston, Baltimore, and Indianapolis.
In addition to employees in elec­
tronics manufacturing plants, elec­
tronics workers were employed by
the Federal government in activities
such as research, development, and
contract negotiations. Universities
and nonprofit research centers em­
ployed a relatively small number of
electronic workers.

A wide variety of jobs were in the
electronics manufacturing industry.
About half of all workers are in plant
jobs that include production, mainte­
nance, transportation, and service
occupations. The rest were scien­
tists, engineers and other technical
workers, and administrative, cleri­
cal, and sales workers.
More than two-fifths of the elec­
tronics manufacturing workers are
women. In some plants, women ac­
count for half or more of total
employment.
Professional and Technical Occupa­
tions. The electronics industry is very
dependent on research and develop­
ment. As a result, a large proportion
of its workers are in engineering, sci­
entific, and other technical jobs. En­
gineers and scientists alone repre­
sent about 1 out of every 9 elec­
tronics workers.
Electrical and electronics en­
gineers, the largest group of en­
gineers in the industry, work on re­
search and development and pro­
duction and quality control prob­
lems. Most of these engineers are
highly specialized, however, and may
work in only one specific area such
as data systems, space exploration,
or radar.
Mechanical engineers help de­
velop new products and design tools
and equipment. Industrial engineers
work on production problems or on
efficiency, methods or time studies.
Chemical, metallurgical and ce­
ramic engineers also work for elec­
tronics companies.
Physicists work on research-anddevelopment projects such as de­
signing more simplified circuits used
in many color television sets.
Chemists and metallurgists work
mainly in research and in materials
preparation and testing. Mathema­
ticians and statisticians help engi­
679

680

neers and scientists on complex
mathematical and statistical prob­
lems, especially in the design of mili­
tary and space equipment and com­
puters. Statisticians also are em­
ployed in quality control, produc­
tion scheduling, and sales analysis
and planning. Industrial designers
are concerned with the design of elec­
tronic products and the equipment
used to manufacture them.
Technicians—such as electronics
technicians, draftsmen, engineering
aids, laboratory technicians, and
mathematical assistants—represent
about 1 out of every 20 electronics
manufacturing workers. Many elec­
tronics technicians help engineers de­
sign and build experimental models.
They also set up and repair elec­
tronic equipment for customers.
Other electronics technicians do
complex inspection and assembly
work. Draftsmen prepare drawings
from sketches or specifications furn­
ished by engineers.
Engineering aids assist engineers
by making calculations, sketches,
and drawings, and testing electronic
components and systems. Labora­
tory technicians help physicists,
chemists, and engineers in labora­
tory analyses and experiments.
Mathematical assistants follow pro­
cedures outlined by mathematicians
to solve problems. They also operate
test equipment to develop com­
puters and other electronic products.
Technical writers prepare training
and technical manuals that describe
the operation and maintenance of
electronic equipment. They also
prepare catalogs, product literature,
and contract proposals. Technical il­
lustrators draw pictures of elec­
tronic equipment for technical pub­
lications and sales literature.
Administrative, Clerical, and Re­
lated Occupations. About 1 out of 5
workers in electronics manufactur­
ing has an administrative or other of­
fice job. Administrative workers in­



clude purchasing agents, sales exec­
utives, personnel specialists, adver­
tising workers, and market re­
searchers. Secretaries, typists, and
business machine operators are
among the thousands of other office
workers employed by electronics
firms. A growing proportion of these
office workers operate computers.
Plant Occupations. About half of
electronics manufacturing em­
ployees work in plant operations: as­
sembly, inspecting, machining, fab­
ric a tin g , p ro cessin g , and
maintenance.
Assembly Occupations (D.O.T.
729.884; 720.884; 726.781 and .884).
Assemblers, most of whom are semi­
skilled workers, make up the largest
group of employees. Most end prod­
ucts are assembled by hand with

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

small tools, soldering irons, and light
welding machines. Assemblers use
diagrams to guide their work. Some
assembly is done by following in­
structions presented on color slides
and tape recordings. Color slide pro­
jectors flash a picture of an as­
sembly sequence on a screen, while
the assembler listens to recorded
directions.
Precision assemblers and elec­
tronics technicians install compo­
nents and subassemblies in complex
products such as missiles. They also
help make experimental models.
Most of these workers are employed
in the manufacture of military and
industrial electronic equipment.
Machines are used in some as­
sembly work. For example, in put­
ting together circuit boards, auto­
matic machines often are used to
position components on boards and

ELECTRONICS

to solder connections. Here the as­
semblers work as machine operators
or loaders. Most components are put
together by machines, since their as­
sembly involves simple and repeti­
tive operations. Even some types of
miniaturized semiconductors and
other components, made with parts
small enough to pass through a
needle’s eye, are assembled by
machines.
Hand assembly is needed for some
items, such as receiving tubes and
some types of resistors and diodes.
Hand assemblers may do only a
single operation as components
move down the production line, but
some put together complete compo­
nents. Tiny parts often are as­
sembled under magnifying lenses or
microscopes. Precision welding
equipment may be used to weld con­
nections in microminiature compo­
nents and circuit assemblies.
Machining Occupations. Machining
workers are needed in most elec­
tronics manufacturing plants, par­
ticularly for military, space, and in­
dustrial products. Machine-tool
operators and machinists make
precise metal parts. Toolmakers con­
struct and repair jigs and fixtures
that hold metal while it is being
stamped, shaped, or drilled. Diemakers build metal forms (dies) used
in stamping and forging metal.
Fabricating Occupations. Fabricat­
ing workers are employed in many
electronics manufacturing plants,
but most are in plants that make in­
dustrial products. Sheet-metal
workers make frames, chassis, and
cabinets. Glass blowers and glass
lathe operators (D.O.T. 674.782)
make tubes for experimentation and
development work.
In electron tube manufacturing,
special fabricating workers are
employed. For example, grid lathe
operators (D.O.T. 725.884) wind fine
wire around two heavy parallel wires



to make grids (devices in tubes that
control the flow of electrons). Other
fabricating workers include coil
winders (D.O.T. 724.781 and .884),
crystal grinders and finishers
(D.O.T. 726.884), and punch press
operators (D.O.T. 617.885).
Processing Occupations. Many elec­
tronic workers process or prepare
parts for assembly. Electroplaters
and tinners (D.O.T. 501.885) coat
parts with metal; anodizers (D.O.T.
501.782) treat these parts in electro­
lytic and chemical baths to prevent
corrosion. Other processing workers
also coat electronic components with
waxes, oils, plastics, or other mate­
rials. Some operate machines which
encase microminiature components
in plastic. Silk screen printers
(D.O.T. 726.887) print patterns on
circuit boards and on parts of elec­
tronic components. Etching equip­
ment operators (D.O.T. 590.885) do
chemical etching of copper on cir­
cuit boards.
Another group of processing
workers operate furnaces and ovens
to harden ceramics and eliminate
contamination by gases and foreign
materials. Operators of infrared
ovens and hydrogen furnaces
(D.O.T. 590.885) rid tubes of foreign
deposits. In tube manufacturing, ex­
haust operators (D.O.T. 725.884)
and sealers (D.O.T. 692.885) oper­
ate gas flame machines that clear the
tube of impurities, exhaust the gas,
and seal the tube.
Inspection Occupations. Inspection
begins when raw materials enter the
plant and continues through manu­
facturing. Some inspection jobs re­
quire electronics technicians who
have years of experience. These jobs
are commonly found in complex pro­
duction work such as the manufac­
ture of computers and spacecraft.
Most inspectors, however, do not
need extensive technical training.
Some inspectors check incoming

681

parts and components supplied by
other firms. They may have job titles
such as incoming materials inspec­
tor or plating inspector that indicate
the work they do.
During manufacturing, compo­
nents are either checked manually by
workers using test meters or routed
mechanically through automatic test
equipment. Although many of these
workers simply are called testers,
others have job titles such as trans­
former-tester or coil-tester, that re­
flect the type of components they in­
spect. Some automatic equipment
can check components, produce a
punched tape of the results, and sort
the components into batches for
shipping. Workers who feed or
monitor automatic equipment often
are called test-set operators or test­
ing-machine operators.
Electronic assembly inspectors
(D.O.T. 722.281) examine as­
sembled products to make certain
that they conform to blueprints and
specifications. They inspect wiring,
electrical connections, and other
critical items to make sure every­
thing will work properly.
Maintenance occupations. Many
workers repair machinery and equip­
ment. Skilled electricians are re­
sponsible for the proper operation of
electrical equipment. Machine and
equipment repairmen make me­
chanical repairs. Maintenance ma­
chinists and welders build and repair
equipment and fixtures. Air-condi­
tioning and refrigeration mechanics
work in air-conditioned plants that
have special refrigerated and dustfree rooms to protect sensitive parts.
Painters, plumbers, pipefitters, car­
penters, and sheet-metal workers
also are employed in electronics
plants.
Other plant occupations. Many
workers move and handle materials.
Forklift operators stack crates in
warehouses, and load and unload

682

trucks and boxcars. Truckdrivers
move freight outside the plant. The
industry also employs guards, watch­
men, and janitors.
(Detailed discussions of profes­
sional, technical, mechanical, and
other occupations, found not only in
electronics manufacturing plants,
but also in other industries, are given
elsewhere in the Handbook in sec­
tions covering the individual oc­
cupations.)
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Training requirements for jobs in
electronics manufacturing plants
range from a few hours of on-the-job
training to years of specialized prep­
aration. Beginning engineering jobs
usually are filled by recent college
graduates, but some positions call
for advanced degrees. A small
number of workers without college
degrees, however, are upgraded to
professional engineering classifica­
tions from occupations such as en­
gineering assistant and electronics
technician. Workers who become en­
gineers in this way usually take ad­
vanced electronics courses in night
school or in other training pro­
grams. To keep up with new de­
velopments and to qualify for pro­
motion, professional and technical
personnel obtain additional train­
ing, read technical publications, and
attend lectures and technical
demonstrations.
Almost all mathematicians, phys­
icists, and other scientists employed
in electronics manufacturing have
college degrees; many have ad­
vanced degrees. Job prospects are
usually better for scientists who have
at least a master’s degree.
Technicians generally need spe­
cialized training to qualify for their
jobs. Most electronics technicians at­
tend either a public, private, or Arm­
ed Forces technical school. Some
complete 1 or 2 years of college in a



scientific or engineering field, and
some receive training through a 3or 4-year apprenticeship program.
High school graduates who have had
courses in mathematics and science
are preferred for apprenticeship
programs.
Some workers advance to elec­
tronics technicians positions from
jobs such as tester or laboratory as­
sistant. A relatively small number of
plant workers become technicians.
Opportunities for advancement are
improved by taking courses in
company-operated classes, night
school, junior college, technical
school, or by correspondence.
Electronics technicians need good
color vision, manual dexterity, and
good eye-hand coordination. Some
technicians who test radio transmit­
ting equipment must hold licenses
from the Federal Communications
Commission as first- or second-class
com m ercial radio-telephone
operators.
Draftsmen usually take courses in
drafting at a trade or technical
school; a few have completed a 3- or
4-year apprenticeship. Under an in­
formal arrangement with their
employers, some qualify for both onthe-job training and part-time
schooling. Because many draftsmen
in this industry must understand the
basic principles of electronic cir­
cuits, they should study basic elec­
tronic theory.
Technical writers must have a flair
for writing and usually are required
to have some technical training.
Employers prefer to hire those who
have had some technical institute or
college training in science or en­
gineering. Many, however, have col­
lege degrees in English or journal­
ism and receive their technical train­
ing on the job and by attending com­
pany-operated evening classes. Tech­
nical illustrators usually have at­
tended art or design schools.
Many tool and die makers, ma­

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

chinists, electricians, and other
craftsmen learn their trades by com­
pleting a 4- or 5-year apprentice­
ship; others are upgraded from
helpers’ jobs.
Formal training is not necessary
for workers entering plant jobs, but a
high school diploma or its equiva­
lent is frequently required. Job ap­
plicants may have to pass aptitude
tests and demonstrate skill for par­
ticular types of work. A short period
of on-the-job training generally is
provided for inexperienced workers.
Assemblers, testers, and inspectors
need good vision, good color percep­
tion, manual dexterity, and patience.
Requirements for administrative
and other office jobs are similar to
those in other industries. Some be­
ginning administrative jobs are open
only to college graduates with
degrees in business administration,
law, accounting, or engineering. For
clerical jobs, employers usually
prefer high school graduates with
training in stenography, typing,
bookkeeping, and office machines.
Employment Outlook

Employment in electronics manu­
facturing is expected to increase very
rapidly through the mid-1980’s. In
addition to the jobs from employ­
ment growth, large numbers of open­
ings will arise as experienced workers
retire, die, or take jobs in other in­
dustries.
The employment outlook pre­
sented here assumes relatively full
employment, and strong growth in
the economy. It also assumes that
defense spending, an important de­
terminant of electronics manufac­
turing employment, will be lower
than the level during the Vietnam
conflict in the late 1960’s. If the
Nation’s economic activity and de­
fense spending should differ sub­
stantially from the assumed levels,
employment will be affected accor­
dingly.

ELECTRONICS

Production of electronic products
will increase as business-men buy
more computers and other elec­
tronic equipment to automate paper
work and production processes.
Business spending for electronic
communication and testing equip­
ment also will grow. The demand for
consumer goods such as television re­
ceivers and stereo systems, will rise
as population and personal incomes
grow. Government purchases for de­
fense will continue to account for a
large proportion of electronics
manufacturing output. An increas­
ing share of government purchases,
however, is likely to be for elec­
tronic equipment used in medicine,
education, pollution abatement, and
other fields.
The rates of employment growth
will vary among occupational groups
and individual occupations. For ex­
ample, employment of skilled
maintenance workers is expected to
rise at a more rapid rate than total
employment, because of the need to
repair the increasing amounts of
complex machinery. On the other
hand, employment of assemblers
probably will rise at a slower rate,
because of the growing mechaniza­
tion and automation of assembly line
operations.
Employment of engineers, sci­
entists, and technicians is expected to
increase faster than total employ­
ment, because of continued high ex­
penditures for research and develop­
ment and the manufacture of more
complex products. Among profes­
sional and technical workers, the
greatest demand will be for en­
gineers, particularly those who have
a background in certain specialized
fields, such as quantum mechanics,




and solid-state circuitry, product de­
sign, and industrial engineering.
Many opportunities also will be
available for engineers in sales de­
partments because the industry’s
products will require salesmen with
highly technical backgrounds. The
demand for mathematicians and
physicists will be particularly good
because of expanding research in
computer and laser technology.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

As shown in the accompanying
table, in 1972 electronics production
workers who made government and
industrial end products had higher
average hourly earnings than pro­
duction workers in all types of manu­
facturing. Those making other elec­
tronic products, however, made less
than the average for all manufactur­
ing industries.
Type of product

Production
workers’
average
hourly
earnings,
1972

All manufacturing
$3.81
industries ............
Major electronics manufacturing
industries
Government and industrial
electronics end products. 4.06
Radio and television
receiving sets, and
phonographs............
3.33
Electron tubes ............
3.64
Semiconductors and other
components, except tubes. 2.99

Electronics workers generally re­
ceive premium pay for overtime
work and for work on Sundays and
holidays. Virtually all plants pro­
vide extra pay for evening and night

683

shift work.
Many workers in electronics
manufacturing plants receive 2 or 3
weeks’ vacation with pay and from 6
to 8 paid holidays a year. Almost all
electronics workers are covered by
health and life insurance plans; many
are covered by pension plans and
other fringe benefits.
Working conditions in electronics
manufacturing compare favorably
with those in other industries. Plants
are usually well-lighted, clean, and
quiet. Many plants are relatively
new, and are located in suburban and
semirural areas. The work in most
occupations is not strenuous but as­
sembly line jobs may be monot­
onous.
The injury rate in electronics
manufacturing is far below the aver­
age in manufacturing as a whole, and
injuries usually are less severe.
Many workers in electronics
manufacturing are union members.
The principal unions involved are the
International Union of Electrical,
Radio and Machine Workers; In­
ternational Brotherhood of Electri­
cal Workers; International Associa­
tion of Machinists and Aerospace
Workers; and the United Electrical,
Radio and Machine Workers of
America (Ind.).
Sources of Additional
Information

Further information about careers
in this field can be obtained from the
public relations departments of elec­
tronics manufacturing companies,
the unions listed, and from the Elec­
tronic Industries Association, 2001
Eye St. NW., Washington, D.C.
20006.

OCCUPATIONS IN FOUNDRIES
Metal castings produced by foun­
dry workers are essential for thou­
sands of products ranging from mis­
siles to cooking utensils. In 1972,
about 310,000 people worked in the
foundry industry. Thousands of
others worked in the foundry de­
partments of plants in other in­
dustries, such as automobile and ma­
chinery manufacturing.
Casting is a method of forming
metal into intricate shapes. To cast
metal, a mold is prepared with a
cavity shaped like the object to be
cast. Metal is then melted and
poured into the mold to cool and so­
lidify. The strength of metal which
has been cast makes it suitable for
many household and industrial
items.
Nature and Location
of the Foundry Industry

Nearly three-fourths of the foun­
dry industry’s employees work in
iron and steel foundries. The re­
mainder work in plants that cast
nonferrous metals, such as alu­
minum and zinc. Foundries usually
specialize in a limited number of
metals, because different methods
and equipment are needed to melt
and cast various alloys.
There are six principle methods of
casting, each named for the type of
mold used. In the most common
method, green-sand molding, a spe­
cial sand is packed around a pattern
in a boxlike container called a flask.
After the pattern is withdrawn,
molten metal is poured into the mold
cavity to form the desired metal
shape. Sand molds can be used only
once. A second method, called per­
684



manent molding, employs a metal
mold that can be used many times.
Permanent molding is used chiefly
for casting nonferrous metals. Pre­
cision investment casting, a third
method (often called the lost wax
process), uses ceramic molds. A wax
or plastic pattern is coated with
refractory clay; after the coating
hardens, the pattern is melted and
drained so that a mold cavity is left.
Castings produced from these molds
are precise and require little machin­
ing.
Shell molding, a fourth process, is
becoming increasingly important. In
this method, a heated metal pattern
is covered with sand coated with
resin. The sand forms a thin shell
mold that, after curing, is stripped
from the pattern. Castings produced
from these molds are precise and
have a smooth surface. Die casting, a
fifth process, is done mostly by
machines. Molten metal under high
pressure is forced into dies from
which the castings are later auto­
matically ejected or removed by
hand. A sixth method, centrifugal
casting, is used to make pipe and
other products that have cylindrical
cavities. Molten metal is poured into
a spinning mold where centrifugal
force distributes the metal against
the walls of the mold.
Most foundries are small. More
than 90 percent employ fewer than
250 workers, although several of the
largest employ more than 5,000
workers.
Small foundries generally pro­
duce a variety of castings in small
quantities. They employ hand and
machine molders and coremakers
(the key foundry occupations) and a

Machine molder produces sand molds.

substantial number of unskilled
laborers. Large foundries are often
highly mechanized and produce great
quantities of identical castings.
These shops employ relatively few
unskilled laborers, because cranes,
conveyors, and other types of equip­
ment replace hand labor in the mov­
ing of materials, molds, and cast­
ings. Since much of the casting in
large shops is mechanized, they also
employ proportionately fewer skilled
molders and coremakers than small
shops. However, many skilled
maintenance workers, such as mill­
wrights and electricians, are
employed to service and repair the
large amount of machinery.
Though every State has some
foundry employment, jobs are con­
centrated in States which have con­
siderable metalworking activity; for
example, in Michigan, Ohio, Penn­
sylvania, Illinois, Indiana, and
Wisconsin.
Foundry Occupations

Most of the industry’s 310,000 em­
ployees in 1972 were plant workers.

OCCUPATIONS IN FOUNDRIES

More than half of the plant workers ling. In this process, the castings to­
were in occupations not found in gether with an abrasive material and
other industries. To illustrate more sometimes water are placed in a bar­
clearly the duties of these workers, a rel which is rotated. The man who
brief description of the jobs involved controls the barrel is called a tumbler
in the most common casting operator (D.O.T. 599.885). Sand­
blasters and tumbler operators may
process—sand casting—follows:
After the casting is designed, the also operate a machine that both
patternmaker (D.O.T. 600.280 and tumbles and blasts the castings. A
661.281) makes a wood or metal pat­ chipper (D.O.T. 809.884) and a
tern in the shape of the casting. Next, grinder (D.O.T. 809.884) use
a hand molder (D.O.T. 518.381) pneumatic chisels, powered abrasive
makes sand molds by packing and wheels, powersaws, and handtools,
ramming sand, specially prepared by such as chisels and files, to remove
a sand mixer (D.O.T. 579.782), excess metal and to finish the
around the pattern. A molder’s castings.
helper (D.O.T. 519.887) may assist Castings are frequently heatin these operations. If large numbers treated in furnaces to strengthen the
of identical castings are to be made, metal; a heattreater, or annealer
machines may be used to make the (D.O.T. 504.782), operates these fur­
molds at a faster speed than is pos­ naces. Before the castings are packed
sible by hand. The operator of this for shipment, a casting inspector
equipment is called a machine (D.O.T. 514.687) checks them to
make sure they are structurally
molder (D.O.T. 518.782).
A coremaker (D.O.T.518.381 and sound and meet specifications.
.885) shapes sand into cores (bodies Many foundry workers are em­
of sand that make hollow spaces in ployed in occupations that are com­
castings). Most cores are baked in an mon to other industries. For ex­
oven by a core-oven tender (D.O.T. ample, maintenance mechanics, ma­
518.885). Core sections are put to­ chinists, carpenters, and millwrights
gether by a core assembler (D.O.T. maintain and repair foundry equip­
518.887) . After the cores are ment. Crane and derrick operators
assembled, they are placed in the and truckdrivers move materials
molds by core setters (D.O.T. from place to place. Machine tool
518.884) or molders. Now, the molds operators finish castings. Foundries
also employ thousands of workers in
are ready for the molten metal.
A furnace operator (D.O.T. unskilled jobs, such as guard, janitor,
512.782) controls the furnace that and laborer.
melts the metal which a pourer About a sixth of all foundry
(D.O.T. 514.884) lets flow into workers are employed in profes­
molds. When the castings have so­ sional, technical, administrative,
lidified, a shakeout man (D.O.T. clerical, and sales occupations. Of
519.887) dumps them, and sends these personnel, the largest number
them to the cleaning and finishing are clerical workers, such as secre­
taries, typists, and accounting clerks.
department.
Dirty and rough surfaces of cast­ Foundries also employ substan­
ings are cleaned and smoothed. A tial numbers of professional workers.
shotblaster (D.O.T. 503.887) Engineers and metallurgists do re­
operates a machine that cleans the search; design machinery and plant
castings by blasting them with air layout; control the quality of cast­
mixed with metal shot or grit. The ings; or supervise plant operations
castings may be smoothed by tumb­ and maintenance. In recent years,



685

Coresetter places cores in the mold.

many of these workers have been
hired to sell castings and to assist
customers in designing cast parts.
Most foundry technicians are con­
cerned with quality control. For ex­
ample, they may test molding and
coremaking sand, make chemical
analyses of metal, and operate ma­
chines that test the strength and
hardness of castings.
Administrative workers em­
ployed in foundries include office
managers, personnel workers, pur­
chasing agents, and plant managers.
The foundry work force is pre­
dominately male, since much of the
work is strenuous. Women are em­
ployed primarily in office jobs,
although some are employed in pro­
duction occupations such as core­
maker. Women also assemble wax
and plastic patterns in investment
casting foundries.
Detailed discussions of three prin­
cipal foundry occupations—patternm ak ers, co rem ak e rs, and
molders—appear elsewhere in the
Handbook.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most workers start in unskilled
jobs, such as laborer or helper, and,

686

after receiving on-the-job training
from a foreman or experienced
worker, gradually learn more skilled
jobs. This is the usual practice, in
training workers for casting process
jobs such as melter, chipper, and
grinder.
Some sk illed foundry
workers—particularly hand molders,
hand coremakers, and pattern­
makers—learn their jobs through
formal apprenticeship. In this train­
ing, young workers receive super­
vised on-the-job training for 4 to 5
years, usually supplemented by class­
room instruction. Management
prefers workers who have completed
an apprenticeship, because they have
a greater knowledge of all foundry
operations and are therefore better
qualified to fill supervisory jobs.
An increasing number of skilled
foundry workers learn their jobs
through a combination of trade
school and on-the-job training; in
some cases, trade school courses may
be credited toward completion of
formal apprenticeships. Some foun­
dries and the American Foundry So­
ciety Training and Research Insti­
tute conduct training programs to
update and upgrade the skills of ex­
perienced workers.
Employment Outlook

Employment in the foundry in­
dustry is expected to show little or no
change through the mid-1980’s.
Nevertheless, thousands of job open­
ings will become available each year
because of the need to replace expe­
rienced workers who retire, die, or
transfer to other fields of work.
Population growth and higher in­
comes will create a demand for more
automobiles, household appliances,
and other consumer products that
have cast parts. More castings also
will be needed for industrial machin­
ery as factories expand and moder­
nize. However, technological devel­



opments will enable foundries to
meet the increased demand for cast­
ings without increasing employment
significantly. Continued improve­
ments in production methods will
result in greater output per worker.
Although foundry employment as
a whole is not expected to change sig­
nificantly through the mid-1980’s,
employment will rise in some occu­
pations. For example, employment
of scientists and engineers is ex­
pected to increase because of ex­
panding research and development
activities. Technicians also will be
needed in greater numbers to help
improve quality control and produc­
tion techniques. More maintenance
workers will be hired to keep the in­
dustry’s growing amount of machin­
ery in working order. In contrast,
machine molding and coremaking
will be substituted for hand
processes, and will limit the need for
additional hand molders and hand
coremakers. As more machinery for
materials handling is introduced, em­
ployment of laborers and other un­
skilled workers will decline.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

Production workers in foundries
have higher average earnings than
those in manufacturing as a whole.
In 1972, production workers in iron
and steel foundries averaged $4.34 an
hour, and those in nonferrous foun­
dries averaged $3.92. By com­
parison, production workers in all
manufacturing industries averaged
$3.81 an hour.
Contracts between foundry com­
panies and unions generally provide
for fringe benefits, such as holiday
and vacation pay, life and health in­
surance, and retirement pensions.
Working conditions in foundries
have improved in recent years. Many
foundries have changed plant layout
and installed modern ventilating

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

systems to reduce heat, fumes, and
smoke. Although the injury rate in
foundries is higher than the average
for manufacturing, employers and
unions are attempting to reduce in­
juries by promoting safety training.
Foundry workers belong to many
unions, including the International
Molders’ and Allied Workers’
Union; the United Steelworkers of
America; the International Union,
United Automobile, Aerospace and
Agricultural Implement Workers of
America; and the International
Union of Electrical, Radio and
Machine Workers. Many pattern­
makers are members of the Pattern
Makers’ League of North America.
Sources of Additional
Information

Further information about work
opportunities in foundry occupa­
tions may be obtained from local
foundries, the local office of the
State employment service, the near­
est office of the State apprenticeship
agency or the Bureau of Apprentice­
ship and Training, U.S. Department
of Labor. Information also is avail­
able from the following organ­
izations:
American Foundrymen’s Society, Golf
and Wolf Rds., Des Plaines, 111.
60016.
Cast Metals Federation, Cast Metals
Federation Building, 20611 Center
Ridge Rd., Rocky River, Ohio
44116.
Foundry Educational Foundation,
1138 Terminal Tower, Cleveland,
Ohio 44113.
International Molders’ and Allied
Workers’ Union, 1225 East
McMillan St., Cincinnati, Ohio
45206.

OCCUPATIONS IN THE INDUSTRIAL
CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
Industrial chemical products are
the raw materials for all kinds of
everyday items, from nylon stock­
ings to automobile tires. Chemicals
are also used to treat drinking water,
to propel rockets, and to make steel,
glass, explosives, and thousands of
other items. The discovery of nylon,
plastics, and other new products has
helped the manufacture of industrial
chemicals become one of the
Nation’s most important industries.
About 520,000 people in many
different occupations worked in the
industrial chemical industry in 1972.
Training varies from a few days on
the job for some plant workers, to
college degrees for engineers and
chemists.
Nature of the Industry

The industrial chemical industry
produces organic and inorganic
chemicals, plastics, and man-made
rubber and fibers. Unlike drugs,
paints, and other chemical products
sold directly to consumers, other in­
dustries use “industrial chemicals”
to make their own products.
Chemical products are made from
coal, petroleum, limestone, mineral
ores, and many other raw materials.
After these materials go through
chemical reactions, the finished
products are vastly different from the
original ingredients. Some plastics,
for example, are made from natural
gas.
In a modern chemical plant
automatic equipment controls the
dissolving, heating, cooling, mixing,
filtering, and drying processes that
convert raw materials to finished



products. This equipment regulates
the combination of ingredients, flow
of materials, and the temperature,
pressure, and time for each process.
Materials are also moved auto­
matically from one part of the plant
to another by conveyors or pipes.
Because of this automatic equip­
ment, relatively few workers can pro­
duce tons of chemicals in one con­
tinuous operation.
About two-thirds of the 3,000 in­
dustrial chemical plants in the
United States have fewer than 50
workers. Over half of the industry’s
employees, however, are concen­
trated in large plants with more than
500 workers.
Chemical plants are usually close
to manufacturing centers or near the
sources of raw material. Many plants
that produce chemicals from petrole­
um, for example, are near the oil
fields of Texas, California, and
Louisiana. Although industrial
chemical workers are employed in
almost every state, about half of
them work in Tennessee, New
Jersey, Texas, Virginia, West Vir­
ginia, Ohio, and South Carolina.
Occupations in the
Industry

Workers with many different skills
and levels of education work in the
industrial chemical industry. Re­
search scientists, engineers, and tech­
nicians develop products, and design
equipment and production processes.
Workers with many skills are in
processing, maintenance, and other
plant jobs. Administrators, profes­
sionals, and clerical workers handle

financial and business matters, keep
records, and advertise and sell
chemical products. About 1 out of 8
workers in the industry is a woman.
Scientific and technical occu­
pations. The industrial chemical in­
dustry is one of the Nation’s major
employers of scientific and technical
workers: 1 out of 5 of its employees a
scientist, engineer, or technician.
Many of them work in research and
testing laboratories. An even larger
number are administrators, sales­
men, or production supervisors.
Chemists are the largest and most
important group of scientists in the
industry. Through basic and applied
research, chemists learn about the
properties of chemicals to find new
and improved products and pro­
duction methods. Their efforts have
led to the discovery of plastics,
nylon, man-made rubber, and many
other items.
Chemists also work in activities
other than research and develop­
ment. A large number supervise
plant workers or analyze and test
chemical samples to insure the quali­
ty of the final product. Others work
as administrators, marketing ex­
perts, chemical salesmen, and techni­
cal writers.
Engineers are another important
group of industrial chemical work­
ers. Using their knowledge of both
chemistry and engineering, chemical
engineers convert laboratory
processes into large scale produc­
tion methods. They design chemical
plants and processing equipment,
and sometimes supervise con­
struction and operation. Chemical
engineers also fill sales, customer
service, market research, plant
management and technical writing
jobs.
Mechanical engineers design
power and heating equipment. They
also work with chemical engineers to
design processing equipment, and
supervise its installation, operation,
687

688

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

ers operate Or maintain equipment or
do other plant jobs.
Skilled chemical operators
(D.O.T. 558.885 and 559.782) and
their helpers are the largest group of
plant workers. They set dials, valves,
and other controls on automatic
equipment to insure that the right
temperature, pressure, and amounts
of material are used. As chemicals
are processed, operators read instru­
ments that measure pressure, flow of
materials, and other conditions.
They also use instruments to test
chemicals or send chemical samples
to the testing laboratory. Operators
keep records of instrument readings
Plant Occupations. About 3 out of and test results and report equip­
every five industrial chemical work­ ment breakdowns. Chemical oper­

and maintenance. Electrical engi­
neers design electric and electronic
instruments and control devices, and
facilities for generating and distrib­
uting electric power.
Many technical workers assist
scientists and engineers. Laboratory
technicians conduct tests and record
the results in charts, graphs, and
reports which are used by chemists
and chemical engineers. Their work
may range from simple routine tests
to complicated analyses. Draftsmen
provide engineers with specifi­
cations and detailed drawings of
chemical equipment.




ators are sometimes called filterers,
mixers, or some other title, depend­
ing on the kinds of equipment they
operate.
To keep production processes run­
ning smoothly, instruments must
give accurate measurements and
equipment must withstand cor­
rosion, damaging chemicals, high
temperatures, and pressure. Many
skilled maintenance workers keep
this equipment in good condition.
Pipefitters and boilermakers lay out,
install, and repair pipes, vats, and
pressure tanks; maintenance ma­
chinists make and repair metal parts
for machinery; electricians maintain
and repair wiring, motors, and other
electrical equipment; and instru­
ment repairmen install and service
instruments and control devices. In
some chemical plants one worker
may do several of these jobs. Plant
workers are also employed in many
other jobs. They drive trucks, keep
inventory of stock and tools, load
and unload trucks, ships, and rail­
road cars, keep the plant and office
clean, and do many other kinds of
work.
Administrative, clerical, and related
occupations. About 1 out of 4 indus­
trial chemical workers holds an ad­
ministrative, clerical, or other nonscientific white-collar job. High-level
managers generally are trained in
chemistry or chemical engineering.
These executives decide what prod­
ucts to manufacture, where to build
plants, and how to handle the com­
pany’s finances. Executives depend
on specialized workers including ac­
countants, sales representatives,
lawyers, industrial and public rela­
tions workers, market researchers,
computer programmers, and person­
nel and advertising workers. Many
secretaries, typists, payroll and ship­
ping clerks and other clerical em­
ployees work in offices and plants.
(Individual statements elsewhere
in the Handbook give detailed dis-

OCCUPATIONS IN THE INDUSTRIAL CHEMICAL INDUSTRY

Engineers review model of chemical plant.

cussions of many scientific, techni­
cal, maintenance, and other occu­
pations found in the industrial
chemical industry, as well as other
industries.)
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Jobs in the industrial chemical in­
dustry require from a few days onthe-job training to many years of
preparation. Some plant workers can
learn their jobs in a day or two.
Scientists, engineers, technicians,
and chemical operators, on the other



hand, spend several years learning
their skills.
Engineers and scientists must have
at least a bachelor’s degree in engi­
neering, chemistry, or related
science. Some research jobs, how­
ever, require advanced degrees or
specialized experience. Many scien­
tists and engineers attend graduate
courses at company expense.
Some firms have formal training
programs for newly hired scientists
and engineers. Before they are as­
signed to a particular job, these em­
ployees work briefly in various
departments to learn about the com­

689

pany’s overall operation. In other
firms, junior scientists and engineers
are assigned immediately to a
specific job.
Technicians qualify for their jobs
in many ways. Graduates of techni­
cal institutes, junior colleges, or
vocational technical schools have the
best opportunities. Companies also
hire students who have completed
part of the requirements for a college
degree, especially if they have
studied mathematics, science, or
engineering. High school graduates
with courses in chemistry can quali­
fy through on-the-job training and
experience. Many technicians re­
ceive additional technical school or
undergraduate training through
company tuition-refund programs.
Laboratory technicians usually
start as trainees or assistants, and
draftsmen begin as copyists or
tracers. As they gain experience and
show ability to work without close
supervision, these technicians ad­
vance from routine work to more dif­
ficult and responsible jobs.
Industrial chemical firms general­
ly hire and train inexperienced high
school graduates for processing and
maintenance jobs. Equipment oper­
ators and other processing workers
usually start out in a labor pool where
they are assigned jobs such as filling
barrels or moving materials. A work­
er may be transferred from the labor
pool to fill a vacancy in one of the
processing departments. As he gains
experience he moves to more skilled
processing jobs. Thus, a worker may
advance from laborer to chemical
operator helper, and then to chemi­
cal operator. Skilled processing
workers are rarely recruited from
other plants.
Most maintenance workers are
trained on the job. Chemical com­
panies often have formal mainte­
nance training programs, including
some classroom instruction, which
may last from a few months to

690

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

several years. Instrument repairmen
sometimes attend training programs
offered by instrument manu­
facturers. Maintenance workers and
trainees are encouraged to take jobrelated courses at local vocational or
technical schools. Their employers
may pay part or all of the tuition.
Administrative jobs are usually
filled by men and women with
college degrees in business adminis­
tration, accounting, economics,
statistics, marketing, industrial rela­
tions, and other fields. Chemists and
engineers also hold administrative
jobs. Some companies have ad­
vanced training programs for new
administrative employees.
Secretaries, bookkeepers, and
other clerical workers generally have
had commercial courses in high
school or business school.
Employment Outlook

Production of industrial chemi­
cals will increase rapidly through the
mid-1980’s. However, continued
shortages of petroleum, the raw
material for many chemical prod­
ucts, will limit production. Employ­
ment will grow slowly as new
chemical plants, improved equip­
ment, and better production methods
help workers produce more chemi­
cals with less effort. The industry
will still need many new workers
each year, mainly to replace em­
ployees who retire, die, or transfer
to other industries. Job openings
from deaths and retirements alone
will average several thousand a
year.
Some groups of workers will grow
faster than others. The number of
administrative, professional, techni­
cal and clerical workers will grow
faster than the number of plant
workers. Because of the industry’s
emphasis on research and develop­
ment, the largest increase will be for
chemists, engineers, and science and



engineering technicians.
Most of the additional plant jobs
will be for instrument repairmen,
pipefitters, electricians, and other
craftsmen needed to care for new and
more complex equipment. Process
equipment operators, however, will
remain the largest group of workers
in the industry.

industrial chemicals industry. How­
ever, in 1972 hourly wages in a few
union-management contracts were as
follows:

Earnings and Working
Conditions

Industrial chemical workers re­
ceive many fringe benefits, including
sick leave, retirement plans, and life,
health, and accident insurance. Most
workers also receive paid vacations
ranging from 2 weeks after 1 year of
employment, to 5 weeks after 20
years.
Because chemical plants usually
operate around the clock—three
shifts a day, 7 days a week—process­
ing workers can expect to work the
second or third shift, usually for ex­
tra pay. Shift assignments are
rotated, so an individual may work

Production workers in the indus­
trial chemical industry have rela­
tively high earnings because a large
proportion of them are in skilled
jobs. In 1972 they averaged $4.60 an
hour in plants making organic and
inorganic chemicals, and $4.10 an
hour in plants making plastics and
man-made rubber and fibers. The
average for production workers in all
manufacturing was $3.81 an hour.
National wage data is not availa­
ble for individual occupations in the

Hourly rates
Chemical operators.................. $4.10—5.25
Instrument repairmen............ 4.50—5.40
Pipefitters, boilermakers, and
sheet-metalworkers............ 4.30—5.25
Laboratory technicians........... 4.30—5.25
Laboratory assistants ............. 4.00—4.30

OCCUPATIONS IN THE INDUSTRIAL CHEMICAL INDUSTRY

days one week and nights the next.
Maintenance workers usually work
only the day shift.
Most industrial chemical jobs, ex­
cept those for laborers or materials
handlers, are not strenuous. Equip­
ment operators are on their feet most
of the time. Some workers must
climb stairs or ladders to con­
siderable heights, or work outdoors
in all kinds of weather. Workers may
be exposed to dust, disagreeable
odors, or high temperatures, al­
though most plants have ventilating
or air-conditioning systems.




Many chemicals are dangerous to
touch or breathe, but the industrial
chemical industry has one of the best
safety records in the Nation. Protec­
tive clothing, eye glasses, showers,
and eye baths near hazardous work
stations and other safety measures
help prevent serious injuries.
Many production workers in the
industrial chemical industry belong
to labor unions including the Inter­
national chemical Workers Union;
Oil, Chemical, and Atomic Workers
International Union; and the United
Steelworkers of America.

691
Sources of Additional
Information

Further information on careers in
the industry may be obtained from
employment offices of industrial
chemical companies, locals of the un­
ions mentioned above, and from:
American Chemical Society, 1155 16th
St. NW„ Washington, D.C. 20036.
Manufacturing Chemists’ Association,
Inc., 1825 Connecticut Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20009.

parts of the United States. The heart
of U.S. steel manufacturing is a tri­
angular area, about 250 miles on a
side, marked off by Johnstown, Pa.,
Buffalo, N.Y., and Detroit, Mich.
Included in this area are major steel
producing centers such as Pitts­
burgh, Pa., and Cleveland and
Youngstown, Ohio. Large plants
also are located on the south shore of
Lake Michigan near Chicago. The
Nation’s two largest steel plants are
located at Gary, Ind., and Sparrows
Point, Md. (near Baltimore). Much
of the steelmaking in the South is in
the vicinity of Birmingham, Ala.,
and Houston, Tex. Other steelmak­
ing facilities are located in the Far
West at Pueblo, Colo.; Provo, Utah;
and Fontana and near San Fran­
cisco, Calif.
About 7 out of 10 of the industry’s
workers are employed in five
States—Pennsylvania, Ohio, In­
diana, Illinois, and New York. Penn­
sylvania alone accounts for nearly 3
out of 10.

OCCUPATIONS IN THE
IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY
Steel is the backbone of any in­
dustrialized economy. There is hard­
ly a product in daily use that has not
been made from steel or processed by
machinery made of steel. In 1971,
U.S. steelmakers produced approxi­
mately 120 million tons of raw
steel—about one-fifth of the world’s
output.
About 573,000 wage and salary
workers were on the payrolls of the
iron and steel industry’s more than
940 plants in 1972. Employees work
in a broad range of jobs that require
a wide variety of skills. Many of
these jobs are found only in iron and
steelmaking or finishing.
The iron and steel industry, as dis­
cussed in this chapter, consists of
blast furnaces, steelmaking furnaces,
and rolling mills. The mining and the
processing of raw materials used to
make steel and the fabrication of
steel are not described. (Employ­
ment opportunities in foundry, forg­
ing, and machining occupations are
discussed elsewhere in the Hand­
book.)
Blast furnaces make iron from
iron ore, coke, and limestone. Steel­
making furnaces refine the iron into
steel. Mills shape the steel into
sheets, plates, bars, strips, and
various other basic products. Many
mills also produce finished items,
such as pipe and wire. Most basic
steel products, however, are shipped
to the plants of other industries.
The leading steel-consuming in­
dustries manufacture automobiles,
construction materials, machinery
and machine tools, containers, and
household appliances. Steel sheets
692



are made into automobile bodies, ap­
pliances, and furniture. Steel bars
are used to make parts for machin­
ery and to reinforce concrete in
building and highway construction.
Steel plates become parts of ships,
bridges, railroad cars, and storage
tanks. Strip steel is used to make
pots and pans, razor blades, toys,
and many other items.
Individual plants in the iron and
steel industry typically employ a
large number of workers. About 80
percent of the industry’s employees
work in plants which have more than
2,500 employees. A few plants have
more than 20,000. Many plants,
however, have fewer than 100 em­
ployees, particularly those plants
Occupations in the
which make highly specialized steel
Industry
products.
Iron and steel plants are located Workers in the iron and steel in­
mainly in the northern and eastern dustry hold more than 1,000 differT h e Steelm aking Process

22

4*

blast I k hJ f u n
olast ( M I furnace

R aw material

/ ■ I B ____Iron

T . *4 %
Iron & scrap

o p e e a r t h

furnace

scrap
metal

7 ----------------------T

basic j S * oxygen furnace
'►oxvaen

Steel_____ *j||l

electric^**/furnace
electricc ^ r v ^^fT un c
u rn

stripping

t e c m i n g E j ing<

► flpfll)

To rolling mills
sla b s.
plate, sheet & strip

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics.

^ ^ ^ ^ b l o o m s .structural steel
^

soaking

3

^^**billets .ro d s, bars, seam less
C==^ p >
- pipes & tubes

OCCUPATIONS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY

ent types of jobs. Many workers are
directly engaged in making iron and
steel and converting it into semifin­
ished and finished products. Others
maintain the vast amount of ma­
chinery used in the industry, operate
cranes and other equipment that
move raw materials and steel prod­
ucts about the plants, or perform
other kinds of production jobs. In
addition, many workers are needed
to do clerical, sales, professional,
technical, administrative, and super­
visory work.
Men constitute 95 percent of all
employees in the industry, and an
even higher proportion of the pro­
duction workers. About two-thirds
of the women employed in the in­
dustry work in supervisory, admin­
istrative, technical, research, and
clerical jobs. Women in production
departments work in jobs such as assorter and inspector.
Processing Occupations. The majori­
ty of the workers in the industry are
employed in the many processing
operations involved in converting
iron ore into steel and then into semi­
finished and finished steel products.
To provide a better understanding of
the types of jobs, brief descriptions of
the major steelmaking and finishing
operations and of the more impor­
tant occupations connected with
them are given below.
Blast furnaces. The blast furnace, a
large steel cylinder lined with heatresistant brick, is used to reduce iron
ore to molten iron. A mixture of ore,
coke, and limestone (called a
“charge”) is fed into the top of the
furnace, and hot air blown in the bot­
tom from giant stoves produces in­
tense heat, thus melting the charge.
Molten iron trickles down through
the charge and collects in a pool at
the bottom of the furnace. At the
same time, the intense heat causes
the limestone to combine with silica
and other impurities in the ore and



693

Pouring molten iron into molds.

coke to form “slag”, a byproduct
that is used for making cement and
insulating materials, and other pur­
poses. The slag, too, trickles down
through the charge and floats on top
of the heavier molten iron. Every 3
or 4 hours, the furnace is cast to re­
move the molten iron; slag is re­
moved more frequently.
A blast furnace operates con­
tinuously, 24 hours a day, 7 days a
week, unless it is shut down for re­
pairs or for other reasons. A single
furnace may produce up to 7,500
tons of iron in a 24-hour period.
The raw materials used in blast
furnaces are stored in a stockhouse
below furnace level. Here stockhouse men or stockhouse larrymen
(D.O.T. 919.883) load traveling larry
cars with iron ore, coke, and lime­
stone. They weigh these raw mate­
rials into various amounts de­
termined by the kind of hot metal
desired. The loaded stock cars are

emptied into waiting “skip cars,”
which carry the materials up tracks
to the top of the blast furnace, where
they are automatically dumped.
Other stockhouse men, or skipmen
(D.O.T. 921.883), stationed on the
ground below, control the skip cars
through electric and pneumatic con­
trols. Stove tenders (D.O.T. 512.782)
and their assistants operate the
stoves which heat air for the blast
furnace. They regulate valves to con­
trol the heat of the stoves and the
flow of air to the furnace.
The persons responsible for the
quantity and quality of iron pro­
duced are called blowers (D.O.T.
519.132). They direct the operation
of one or more blast furnaces, in­
cluding loading and tapping the fur­
nace and regulating the air blast and
furnace heat. Blowers carefully
check the metal produced, periodi­
cally sending samples of the molten
iron and slag to the laboratory where

694

quality tests are made. Keepers
(D.O.T. 502.884), under the direc­
tion of the blower, are responsible
for tapping the furnace. They direct
their helpers and cindermen or stag­
gers (D.O.T. 519.887) in lining (with
special heat-resistant sand) the
troughs and runners through which
the molten iron and slag are run off
into waiting ladles.
Some iron is made into finished
products such as automobile engine
blocks and plumbing pipes. Most of
it, however, is used to make steel.
Because steel is stronger than iron
and can be hammered and bent with­
out breaking, it can be used for a
much larger variety of products.
Steel furnaces. Steel is made by re­
fining iron to remove some of the
carbon and impurities and adding
scrap steel and alloying agents such
as copper and manganese. This is
done in several types of furnaces:
basic oxygen, open hearth, and elec­
tric.
More than half of all domestic
steel is made in basic oxygen fur­
naces (BOF’s), and about a third in
open hearth furnaces. Both produce
similar kinds of steel, but BOF’s do
the job faster and are expected to re­
place many of the open hearths now
in operation. Electric furnaces pri­
marily are used to produce high
quality metals such as tool and stain­
less steel.
A melter (D.O.T. 512.132) is re­
sponsible for the quality and quantity
of the steel produced in a furnace.
The melter makes the steel to the de­
sired specifications by varying the
proportions of iron, scrap steel, and
limestone in the furnace, and by add­
ing small amounts of other mate­
rials such as manganese, silicon,
copper or other alloy additives.
Those working with open hearth fur­
naces supervise three grades of
helpers—-first (D.O.T.512.782), se­
cond (D.O.T. 502.884), and third



(D.O.T. 519.887). Melters in charge
of BOF’s supervise BOF operators
(D.O.T. 512.782). Helpers and
operators prepare the furnaces for
each batch of steel, regulate furnace
temperatures, take samples of
molten steel for laboratory tests,
direct the adding of various alloying
materials, and tap the molten steel
from the furnace into a ladle. The
BOF operators also regulate the
shooting of oxygen through a nozzle
to the furnace.
When the batch of steel is ready to
be tapped from an open hearth fur­
nace, the furnace crew knocks out a
plug in the furnace with a “jet
tapper” (small explosive charge fired
into the plug) which allows the
molten metal to flow into a ladle.
The slag floats to the top of the ladle
and overflows into a slag pot. The

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

crew taps steel from a BOF by tilt­
ing the furnace on its side and pour­
ing out the steel through a nozzle or
lip at the top.
The molten steel is made into large
bars called “ingots.” A ladle crane­
man (D.O.T. 921.883) operates an
overhead crane which picks up the
ladle of molten steel and moves it
over a long row of ingot molds rest­
ing on flatbottom cars. The steel
pourer (D.O.T. 514.884) operates a
stopper on the bottom of the ladle or
tilts the ladle to let the steel flow into
these molds. As soon as the steel has
solidified sufficiently, an ingot
stripper (D.O.T. 921.883) operates
an overhead crane, which removes
the molds from the ingots.
Rolling andfinishing. The three prin­
cipal methods of shaping steel are

Melter takes sample of molten steel to test quality.

OCCUPATIONS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY

rolling, casting, and forging. About
three-fourths of all steel products are
shaped by the rolling process. In this
method, heated steel ingots are
squeezed longer and flatter between
two cylinders or “rolls.” Before in­
gots of steel are rolled, they are
heated to the temperature specified
by the plant’s metallurgist. The heat­
ing is done in large furnaces called
“soaking pits,” located in the plant
floor. A heater (D.O.T. 613.782)
controls the soaking pit operation.
He directs helpers in heating the in­
gots to the specified temperature
and, with the help of control equip­
ment, determines when they are
ready for rolling. A soaking pit
craneman (D.O.T. 921.883) operates
an overhead crane, by means of elec­
trical controls, to lift the ingots from
small rail-cars and place them into
the soaking pit. When the ingots are
hot enough, the heater opens the fur­
nace covers and the craneman re­
moves the ingots and places them on
an ingot buggy, which carries them
to the first rolling mill, sometimes
called a “break down” mill. Here,
the ingots are rolled into smaller,
more easily handled semifinished
shapes called blooms, slabs, and
billets. Blooms are generally be­
tween 6 and 12 inches wide and 6 and
12 inches thick. Slabs are much
wider and thinner than blooms.
Billets are the smallest of these three
shapes.
The rolling of blooms illustrates
the semifinishing process. In the
blooming mill, as in other rolling
mills, the ingot moves along on a
roller conveyor to a machine which
resembles a giant clothes wringer. A
“two-high” blooming mill has two
grooved rolls which revolve in op­
posite directions. The rolls grip the
approaching ingot and pull it
between them, squeezing it thinner
and longer. When the ingot has made
one pass through the rolls, the rolls
are reversed, and the ingot is fed



back through them. Throughout the
rolling operation, the ingot is peri­
odically turned 90 degrees by
mechanical devices called “manipu­
lators,” and passed between the rolls
again so that all sides are rolled. This
operation is repeated until the ingot
is reduced to a bloom of the desired
size. The bloom then is ready to be
cut to specified lengths.
A blooming mill roller (D.O.T.
613.782), the man in charge of the
mill, works in a glass-enclosed con­
trol booth, located above or beside
the roller line. His duties, which
appear to consist principally of mov­
ing levers and pushing buttons, look
relatively simple. However, the
quality of the product and the speed
with which the ingot is rolled de­
pends upon his skill. The roller regu­
lates the opening between the rolls
after each pass. Long experience and
a knowledge of steel characteristics
are required for a worker to become
a roller. A manipulator operator
(D.O.T. 613.782) sits in the booth be­
side the roller and coordinates his
controls over the ingot’s position
with those of the roller.
Upon leaving the rolling mill, the
red-hot bloom moves along a con­
veyor to a place where a shearman
(D.O.T. 615.782) controls a heavy
hydraulic shear which cuts the steel
into desired lengths.
In a blooming mill that has auto­
matic controls, a rolling mill attend­
ant is given a card that has been
punched with a series of holes. The
holes represent coded directions as to
how the ingot is to be rolled. The at­
tendant inserts the card into a card
“reader” then presses a button that
starts the automatic rolling se­
quence. When this process is used,
the roller’s job is shifted from oper­
ating the controls to directing and
coordinating the rolling process.
Of increasing use in steel shaping
is the continuous casting process,
which eliminates the necessity of pro­

695

ducing large ingots that in turn must
be put through huge blooming and
slabbing mills. In the continuous
casting process, molten steel is
poured into a water-cooled mold of
the desired product shape, such as
slab or billet shape. As the mold is
filled, the steel cools and solidifies
along the bottom and lower sides,
and passes down through a chamber
where it is further cooled by a water
spray. Pinch rolls control its descent
and support its weight, and the mold­
ed slab or billet of steel is cut into
lengths as it emerges from the rolls.
After the steel is rolled or cast into
semifinished shapes, most of it is put
through semifinishing operators.
Slabs, for example, can be reduced
and shaped into plates and sheets.
Rods can be reduced to wire, and
wire can be processed into nails,
fencing, and other end products.
Equipment operator, inspector,
and assorter are among the major
occupations in finishing operations;
women frequently are employed in
these jobs. Wire drawer (D.O.T.
614.782) and piercer-machine
operator (D.O.T. 613.885) are ex­
amples of equipment operating oc­
cupations. The wire drawer controls
equipment that pulls a steel rod
through a die. The die has a tapered
hole, one end of which is smaller
than the rod. As the rod passes
through the tapered hole, it is made
thinner and longer and becomes
wire. The piercer-machine operator
controls machinery that makes
seamless pipe from solid billets of
steel. The operator passes a heated
billet between two barrel-shaped
rolls which spin the billet and force
one end of it against a sharp plug or
“mandrel.” The mandrel smooths
the inside wall of the billet and
makes the diameter of the hole un­
iform.
Maintenance, Transportation, and
Plant Service Occupations. Large

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

696

buildings and offices. Pipefitters lay
out, install, and repair piping that is
used to carry the large amounts of
liquids and gases used in steel­
making. Boilermakers test, repair,
and rebuild heating units, storage
tanks, stationary boilers, and con­
densers. Locomotive engineers and
other train crew members operate
trains that transport materials and
products in the vast yards of iron and
steel plants. Other skilled workers
operate the various boilers, turbines,
and sw itchboards in factory
powerplants.
Other types of maintenance and
service workers include carpenters,
oilers, painters, instrument repair­
men, scale mechanics, welders,
loaders, riggers, janitors, and guards.
Many laborers are employed to load
and unload materials and do a varie­
ty of cleanup jobs.

Operators tend tandem rolling mill.

numbers of workers are required in
steel plants to support processing ac­
tivities. Some maintain and repair
machinery and equipment, and
others operate the equipment which
provides power, steam, and water.
Other groups of workers move ma­
terial and supplies and perform a
variety of service operations.
Machinists and machine tool
operators make and repair metal
parts for production equipment. Diemakers use machine tools to form
dies, such as those used to make
wire. Roll turners (D.O.T. 613.780)
use lathes, grinders, and other
machine tools to finish the steel rolls
used in the rolling mills.
Millwrights overhaul machinery
and repair and replace defective
parts. Electricians install wiring and



fixtures and hook up electrically
operated equipment. Electrical re­
pairmen (motor inspectors) keep wir­
ing, motors, switches, and other elec­
trical equipment in good operating
condition.
Electronic repairmen install,
repair, and adjust the increasing
number of electronic devices and
systems used in steel manufacturing
plants. Typically, this equipment in­
cludes communication systems such
as closed-circuit television; elec­
tronic computing and data record­
ing systems; and measuring, proc­
essing, and control devices such as
X-ray measuring or inspection
equipment.
Bricklayers repair and rebuild the
brickwork in furnaces, soaking pits,
ladles, and coke ovens, as well as mill

Administrative, Clerical, and Tech­
nical Occupations. Professional, ad­
ministrative, clerical, and sales
workers account for about one-fifth
of the industry’s total employment.
Of these, the majority are clerical
workers, such as secretaries, stenog­
raphers, typists, accounting clerks,
and general office clerks.
Engineers, scientists, and techni­
cians make up a substantial propor­
tion of the industry’s white-collar
employment. Several thousand of
these workers perform research and
development work to improve exist­
ing iron and steel products and proc­
esses, and to develop new ones.
Among the technical specialists
employed in steelmaking are
mechanical engineers, whose prin­
cipal work is the design, construc­
tion, and operation of mill machin­
ery and material handling equip­
ment. Metallurgists and metallur­
gical engineers work in laboratories
and production departments where
they have the important task of spe­
cifying, controlling, and testing the

OCCUPATIONS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY

quality of the steel during its manu­
facture. Civil engineers are engaged
in the layout, construction, and
maintenance of steel plants, and the
equipment used for heat, light, and
transportation. Electrical engineers
design, lay out, and supervise the
operation of electrical facilities that
provide power for steel mill opera­
tion.
Chemists work in the labora­
tories, doing chemical analyses of
steel and raw materials. Laboratory
technicians do routine testing and
assist chemists and engineers.
Draftsmen prepare working plans
and detailed drawings required in
plant construction and maintenance.
Among the employees in adminis­
trative, managerial, and supervisory
occupations are office managers,
labor relations and personnel
managers, purchasing agents, plant
managers, and industrial engineers.
Working with these personnel are
several thousand professional
workers, including accountants,
nurses, lawyers, economists, statisti­
cians, and mathematicians. The in­
dustry also employs several thou­
sand sales workers.
(Detailed discussions of profes­
sional, technical, mechanical, and
other occupations found in the iron
and steel industry, as well as in many
other industries, are given elsewhere
in the Handbook.)
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

New workers in processing opera­
tions usually are hired as unskilled
laborers. Openings in higher-rated
jobs usually are filled by promoting
workers from lower grade jobs. Fac­
tors considered when selecting
workers for promotion are ability to
do the job, physical fitness, and
length of service with the company.
Training for processing occupa­
tions is done almost entirely on the



job. Workers move to operations re­
quiring progressively greater skill as
they acquire experience. A crane­
man, for example, first is taught how
to operate relatively simple cranes,
and then he advances through several
steps to cranes much more difficult
to run, such as the hot-metal crane.
To help them advance in their
work, many employees take parttime courses in subjects such as
chemistry, physics, and metallurgy.
In some cases, this training is pro­
vided by the steel companies and
may be given within the plant. Other
workers take evening courses in high
schools, trade schools, or univer­
sities in their communities or enroll
in correspondence courses.
Workers in the various operating
units usually advance along fairly
well-defined lines of promotion
within their departments. Examples
of possible lines of advancement in
the various operating units are de­
scribed in the next paragraph.
To become a blast furnace blower,
a worker generally starts as a la­
borer, advancing to cinderman or
slagger, keeper’s helper, keeper,
blower’s helper, and finally to
blower. In the steel furnace depart­
ment, a man may begin by doing
general cleanup work around the fur­
nace and then advance to third
helper, second helper, first helper,
and eventually to melter. A possible
line of job advancement for a roller
in a finishing mill might be pitman,
roll hand, manipulator, rougher, and
finish roller. Workers may be trained
for skilled jobs, such as blower,
melter, and roller, which are among
the highest rated steelmaking jobs, in
a minimum of 4 or 5 years, but
usually they have to wait much
longer before openings occur.
Although many maintenance
workers start as helpers and pick up
their skills from experienced
workers, apprenticeship is the best
way to learn a maintenance trade.

697

Apprenticeship programs usually are
of 3 or 4 years’ duration and consist
mainly of shop training in various as­
pects of the particular jobs. In addi­
tion, classroom instruction in re­
lated technical subjects usually is
given, either in the plant or in local
vocational schools.
Steelmaking companies have dif­
ferent qualifications for apprentice
applicants. Generally, employers re­
quire applicants to have the equiva­
lent of a high school or vocational
school education. In most cases, the
minimum age for applicants is 18
years. Some companies give apti­
tude and other types of tests to ap­
plicants to determine their suit­
ability for the trades. Apprentices
generally are chosen from among
qualified young workers already em­
ployed in the plant.
The minimum requirement for en­
gineering and scientific jobs is usual­
ly a bachelor’s degree with an ap­
propriate major. Practically all the
larger companies have formal train­
ing programs for college-trained
technical workers. In these pro­
grams, the trainees work for brief
periods in various operating and
maintenance divisions to get a broad
picture of steelmaking operations
before they are assigned to a par­
ticular department. In other com­
panies, the newly hired scientist or
engineer is assigned directly to a spe­
cific research, operating, mainte­
nance, administrative, or sales unit.
Engineering graduates frequently are
hired for sales work and many of the
executives in the industry have en­
gineering backgrounds. Engineering
graduates, as well as graduates of
business administration and liberal
arts colleges, are employed in jobs in
sales, accounting, and labor-man­
agement relations, as well as in man­
agerial positions.
Completion of a business course in
high school, junior college, or busi­
ness school usually is preferred for

698

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Earnings and Working
tion and scholarship assistance.
entry into most of the office occupa­
Conditions
tions. Office jobs requiring special
Working conditions vary by de­
knowledge of the steel industry gen­ Earnings of production workers in partment. Maintenance shops gen­
erally are filled by promoting per­ iron and steelmaking are among the erally are clean and cool. Rolling
sonnel already employed in the in­ highest in manufacturing. In 1972, mills and furnaces are hot and noisy.
dustry.
they averaged $5.04 an hour, while Some plants have developed methods
production workers in manufactur­ to reduce job discomfort. The use of
remote control, for example, enables
ing as a whole averaged $3.81.
Employment Outlook
employees to work outside the im­
Agreements between most steel
Employment in the iron and steel companies and the United Steel­ mediate vicinity of processing opera­
industry is not expected to increase workers of America include some of tions. In other instances, the cabs in
significantly in the long run (1972- the most liberal benefits in industry. which the men sit while operating
85). Nevertheless, many workers will Most workers receive vacation pay mechanical equipment, such as
be hired to replace those who retire, ranging from 1 to 4 weeks, depend­ cranes, are air-conditioned. Because
die, or transfer to other fields. The ing on length of service. A worker; in certain processes are operated con­
total number hired may fluctuate the top 50 percent of a seniority list tinuously, many employees are on
from year to year, because the in­ receives a 13-week vacation every 5 night shifts or work on weekends.
dustry is sensitive to changes in busi­ years; the remaining workers re­ The iron and steel industry has
ness conditions and defense needs. ceive 3 extra weeks vacation once in been a leader in the development of
Production of iron and steel is ex­ a 5-year period. Professional and ex­ safety programs for workers, em­
pected to increase moderately as ecutive personnel in some com­ phasizing the use of protective cloth­
population and business growth panies receive similar benefits.
ing and devices on machines to pre­
create a need for more automobiles, Workers may retire on company- vent accidents. In recent years, steel
household appliances, industrial ma­ paid pensions after 30 years of serv­ plants had an average injury fre­
chinery, and other products that re­ ice, regardless of age. Employees quency rate (injuries per million
quire large amounts of these metals. having 2 years or more of service are hours of work) that was less than half
Because of laborsaving technology, eligible to receive supplemental un­ the rate of all manufacturing.
however, employment is not ex­ employment benefits for up to 52 Most plant workers in the iron and
pected to keep pace with increases in weeks. Some other benefits are steel industry are members of the
production. Open hearth furnaces, health and life insurance, and educa­ United Steelworkers of America.
for example, will continue to be re­
placed with more efficient basic ox­
Basic straight-time hourly earnings' of
workers in selected occupations in basic iron and steel
ygen furnaces, thus increasing the
establishments, mid-1972
amount of steel produced per
Hourly earnings
worker. The greater use of com­ Blast furnaces:
puters to control plant equipment
Larrymen...............................................................................................
$4.26
and process business records also will
Stock unloaders.....................................................................................
3.70
Basic oxygen furnaces:
increase efficiency.
Steel pourers .........................................................................................
4.83
Employment trends will differ
Furnace operators.................................................................................
5.30—5.58
among occupations. The number of Open hearth furnaces:
engineers, metallurgists, laboratory
Charging machine operators................................................................
4.83
technicians, and other technical
First helpers...........................................................................................
5.58
workers will increase as a result of Bloom, slab, and billet mills:
Soaking pit cranemen ...........................................................................
4.73
the industry’s expanding research
Manipulators.........................................................................................
4.54
and development programs. Employ­ Continuous hot-strip mills:
ment of computer programers and
Chargers.................................................................................................
3.89
operators also will increase. Em­
Coilers ...................................................................................................
4.36
ployment in processing occupations, Maintenance:
Bricklayers.............................................................................................
4.92
on the other hand, is expected to de­
Millwrights.............................................................................................
4.83
cline slightly as more efficient plant 1 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. In­
machinery and equipment is in­ centive payments, such as those resulting from piecework or production bonus systems and costtroduced.
of-living allowances are included.




OCCUPATIONS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY
Sources of Additional
American Iron and Steel Institute,
Information
1000 16th St- NW-’ Washington,
D.C. 20036.

Additional information about
careers in the iron and steel industry
may be obtained from the following
organizations:




699
United Steelworkers of America, 1500
Commonwealth Building, Pitts­
burg, Pa. 15222.

OCCUPATIONS IN LOGGING
AND LUMBER MILLS
Young people who have a high
school education and a love for the
outdoors and wildlife may find
rewarding careers in the logging and
lumber industry. Logging camps
and sawmills provide many job op­
portunities in the South and Pacific
Northwest, the Nation’s major
timber-producing regions. Because
the building and furnishing of homes,
hospitals, schools, stores, and most
other structures depend upon lum­
ber and wood products, thousands of
job openings will be available each
year through the mid-1980’s.

elsewhere in the Handbook.
Lumber production has followed
the same basic process for many
years. A stand of timber is harvested
in the forest, moved to a central lo­
cation or “landing” accessible to
transportation, and then carried by
truck or rail to a mill for processing.
Logging crews typically consist of
from 5 to 15 workers. Several crews,
each working at a different location,
may be needed to supply logs for a
single mill. The crew moves from

time to time through the forest as
one area after another is harvested.
Years ago these workers lived in
camps close to the cutting site. With
better roads, most of them can now
live at home and commute to work.
In the sawmill, logs are debarked,
rough-sawn into various widths and
lengths, and then seasoned (dried) so
the wood will not warp. A small
amount of rough lumber is sold
without further processing, but the
rest must be sent to a planing mill
before it goes to market. In this mill,
rough boards are finished to give
them a smooth surface. Boards also
are made into flooring, siding,
moulding and other forms of build­
ing trim. Since logs cost more to ship
than lumber, sawmills usually are lo­
cated near tree harvesting areas.
Some of these mills are small, porta-

Nature and Location
of the Industry

In 1972, nearly 70,000 wage and
salary workers were employed in
logging to help harvest trees and re­
move them from forests. A much
larger number—about 217,000—
worked in sawmills and planing mills
where logs are converted into lum­
ber. In addition, more than 50,000
workers were self-employed, most of
them in logging. Because of the
heavy physical labor involved, about
5 percent of the industry’s employ­
ees were women, most of whom
worked in clerical occupations.
This statement deals with activi­
ties and jobs involved in cutting and
removing timber from forests, and in
the processing of logs into rough and
finished lumber. It excludes the
manufacture of paper, plywood,
veneer, and other wood products
such as furniture and boxes. Occu­
pations in paper manufacturing are
discussed in a separate statement
700



Sawmill deckmen roll log to carrier.

OCCUPATIONS IN LOGGING AND LUMBER MILLS

ble operations that can be moved
about from week to week as the
harvest progresses, but the large ones
are permanent. Planing mills may be
near sawmills or hundreds of miles
away. About three-fourths of all
mills employ fewer than 20 workers,
but some have more than 100.
Although some logging and
lumber mill workers are employed in
nearly every State, the following 7
account for about half of the indus­
try’s employment: Oregon, Washing­
ton, California, Alabama, North
Carolina, Arkansas, and Georgia.
Logging. Before a stand of timber is
harvested, a professionally trained
forester (D.O.T. 040.081) decides
which trees to cut. Foresters also
map the cutting areas, plan and
supervise the cutting, and plant seed­
lings to replace the trees that were
removed. Timber cruisers (D.O.T.
449.287) estimate the volume and
grade of standing timber and help
foresters make maps. Heavy equip­
ment operators build access roads
and trails to the cutting and loading
areas so that they can be reached by
logging crews.
The initial harvesting task—“fall­
ing and bucking”—is the process of
cutting the tree to the ground and
further cutting (bucking) it into logs
for easier handling. Falters (D.O.T.
940.884), working singly or in pairs,
cut down trees marked by the
forester. Using a chain saw, the faller
first makes a wedge shaped cut on
the side of the tree toward which he
wants it to fall. Next, he makes a
“backcut” on the opposite side of the
tree. As the tree starts to fall, he
quickly dislodges the saw so that it
will not be damaged and scrambles
away from the stump. Expert fallers
can usually drop a tree in the exact
spot where they want it, making sure
other trees are not injured in the
process. As soon as the tree is down,
buckers (D.O.T. 940.884) use chain



saws to remove the limbs and saw the
trunk into logs.
The next task—“skidding”—is a
method of removing logs from the
cutting area. A choker (steel cable) is
noosed around the log by chokermen (D.O.T. 942.887) and then at­
tached to a tractor which drags the
log to the landing. A rigging slinger
(D.O.T. 942.884) supervises and
assists chokersetters and tractor
drivers. In rough terrain where logs
must be moved up or down steep
slopes or across ravines, the “highlead” method is used instead of trac­
tor skidding. This method is some­
what like a fisherman’s rod and reel.
Steel cables run from a dieselpowered winch (reel) through pul­
leys at the top of a large steel tower
(rod) and down to the cutting area
which may be hundreds of feet away
from the tower. Chokersetters noose
the end of the cable around a log and
a yarder engineer (D.O.T. 942.782)
operates the winch to pull the log
into the landing. Experiments are
now being made with heavy duty
helicopters. Hovering above a log­
ging site, the helicopters can lift
and move logs weighing several tons.
After logs reach the landing, they
are loaded on a truck trailer and
hauled to a mill. A loader engineer
(D.O.T. 921.883) operates a ma­
chine that picks up logs and places
them on the trailer. A second loader
(D.O.T. 949.884) directs the posi­
tioning of logs on the trailer. Al­
though trucks usually are used, logs
are sometimes carried by railroad
cars.

Sawmills and Planing Mills. At the
sawmill incoming logs are stacked on
the ground (cold decking) or dumped
into a pond to await cutting. Water
storage protects the wood from
shrinking, insect damage, and fire.
Cold-decking, on the other hand,
permits greater storage volume per
acre, and some hardwoods such as

701

oak must be stored this way because
they will sink in water. Scalers
(D.O.T. 941.488) measure logs and
look for defects, such as knots and
splits, to estimate the amount and
quality of lumber available. Pondmen (D.O.T. 921.886) wearing spik­
ed boots walk about on logs in the
pond, and use long poles to sort the
logs so that all of one kind or size go
into the mill together.
A bull-chain operator (D.O.T.
921.885) controls a conveyor that
pulls logs up a chute into the saw­
mill. A barkerman (D.O.T. 533.782)
operates machinery to remove bark
and foreign matter that could
damage saws. One kind of machine
has rough metal bars or knives that
rub or chip the bark away. Another
kind tears it off with the high pres­
sure force of water. The removed
bark may be processed into garden
mulch.
As a log enters the sawing area, a
deckman (D.O.T. 667.887) rolls it
onto a platform called a “carriage,”
and a block setter (D.O.T. 667.885)
aligns the log and locks it into posi­
tion. The carriage, which moves back
and forth on rails, carries the log into
the teeth of a large bandsaw, and
each time it passes the saw a board is
sliced off. This operation is con­
trolled by a head sawyer (D.O.T.
667.782) , who is one of the most ex­
perienced workers in the mill. The
quantity and quality of lumber ob­
tained from logs depends largely on
his skill and knowledge.
After leaving the carriage, the
lumber moves to an edger saw, con­
sisting of two or more circular
blades. Operated by an edgerman
(D.O.T. 667.782), the edging ma­
chinery cuts the lumber to the de­
sired width. For example, the
production run may be cutting
boards to a 4 inch width. Next, a
trimmer saw operator (D.O.T.
667.782) , using a series of circular
cross-cut saws, cuts the lumber to

702

various lengths, such as 8, 10, or 12
feet.
When all sawing is completed, a
conveyor system moves the rough
lumber into a sorting shed, where
graders (D.O.T. 669.587) examine
each board carefully and determine
its grade. After grading, sorters
(D.O.T. 922.887) pull and stack
boards according to type, grade, and
dimension.
At this stage, the lumber is still
green and must be seasoned so that it
will not warp. It may be stacked out­
doors where the sun and wind will remove the moisture. More fre­
quently, however, it is placed in a
specially heated building (dry-kiln).
Dry-kiln operators (D.O.T. 563.381)
control temperature, humidity, and
ventilation in kilns. They also direct
workers who stack lumber in kilns
and remove it after drying.
Some seasoned lumber is ready for
use without further processing,
primarily in the construction indus­
try. The remainder must pass
through a mill before being shipped
to market. In this mill, the rough
dried lumber is run through a set of
rotating knives controlled by a
planer operator (D.O.T. 665.782).
Some knife heads produce smooth
surfaces, while others tongue-andgroove the boards for flooring,
siding, or paneling. Similarly, a wide
variety of moulding or other build­
ing trim may be cut. The dressed or
finished lumber is usually graded
again before storage or shipment by
a planer mill grader (D.O.T.
669.587).
In addition to occupations de­
scribed in the logging and milling
processes, many other occupations
require a broad range of training and
skills. Maintenance mechanics in­
stall and repair saws and related ma­
chinery. Saw filers sharpen and
repair saws, and electricians main­
tain and repair wiring, motors, and
other electrical equipment. Truck



drivers transport logs to the mills
and deliver the finished lumber prod­
ucts to wholesalers.
Many workers are employed in
clerical, sales, and administrative
occupations. For example, many
firms employ office managers,
purchasing agents, personnel manag­
ers, salesmen, office clerks, stenogra­
phers and typists, bookkeepers, and
business machine operators. Also,
the industry employs professional
and technical workers, such as civil
and industrial engineers, draftsmen
and surveyors, and accountants. (De­
tailed discussion of professional,
technical, and mechanical occu­
pations, found not only in logging
and milling but in other industries as
well, are given elsewhere in the
Handbook in sections covering in­
dividual occupations.)
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most loggers and mill hands get
their first jobs without previous
training. Employers prefer high
school graduates, but applicants with
less education frequently are hired.
Entry level jobs usually can be learn­
ed in a few weeks by observing and
helping experienced workers. A
beginner on a logging crew may start
by helping chokermen or buckers. In
the mill, a beginner may be assigned
to a labor pool to do odd jobs, such
as stacking and sorting lumber. As
workers gain experience, and as
vacancies occur, they can advance to
higher paying jobs. A chokerman,
for example, who has an aptitude for
operating machinery may become a
truck or tractor driver, or a yarder
engineer. Mill hands also can learn
various kinds of machine operating
jobs, such as bull-chain operator and
edgerman.
Mechanics, electricians, and
others who repair and maintain the
industry’s equipment are trained on

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

the job under the guidance of super­
visors and experienced workers. In
some firms, this training is sup­
plemented by classroom instruction.
Maintenance trainees frequently are
selected from workers already em­
ployed in mills or logging crews.
Many firms, however, will hire inex­
perienced young people who have
mechanical aptitude. Generally, it
takes a trainee 3 to 4 years to qualify
as a skilled craftsmen in one of the
maintenance jobs.
Workers who have leadership
ability and years of experience can
advance to supervisory positions in
mills and logging crews. As in other
industries, however, opportunities
for promotion are limited because
relatively few of these positions exist.
Loggers and mill workers must be
in good physical condition. Al­
though modern equipment has re­
duced some of the heavy labor,
stamina and agility are still impor­
tant qualifications, particularly for
loggers. Because of the danger in­
volved in operating and working
around heavy machinery, workers
should be alert and well coordinated.
A bachelor’s degree usually is the
minimum educational requirement
for forester, engineer, accountant,
and other professional occupations.
Completion of commercial courses
in high school or business school is
usually adequate for entry into cleri­
cal occupations, such as secretary,
typist, and bookkeeper.
Employment Outlook

Employment in logging and
lumber mills is expected to decline
moderately through the mid-1980’s
despite increases in wood production
to meet the Nation’s population and
industrial growth. Nevertheless,
the industry will need several thou­
sand new workers each year to re­
place those who retire, die, or leave
the industry for other reasons.

OCCUPATIONS IN LOGGING AND LUMBER MILLS

Laborsaving machinery will make
it possible for logging contractors
and mills to harvest and process
more lumber with fewer employ­
ees. More workers, however,
will be needed in some occupa­
tions. Additional mechanics, for
example, will be needed to main­
tain the growing stock of logging
equipment, trucks, and mill ma­
chinery. More foresters will find jobs
in this industry as forest replanting
and conservation programs receive
greater attention. Engineers will be
in greater demand as the industry’s
production methods become more
complex. Most job openings, how­
ever, will be for logging crewmen and
mill hands; because these workers
make up a very large proportion of
the industry’s total employment,
replacement needs are high.
Reduction in the size of logging
crews is not likely, but improved
equipment will speed-up the harvest­
ing operations, thus reducing the
number of crews. Sawmills and
planing mills may reduce employ­
ment requirements by installing new
machinery and improving plant
layouts. In the kiln area, for ex­
ample, a stacking machine operated
by 2 or 3 men can replace 6 men who
stack by hand.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

In 1972, production workers in
logging averaged $4.11 an hour;
those in sawmills and planing mills
averaged $3.20. In comparison,
production workers in manu-




703
Logging

Deck men ..............................................
Pondmen ..............................................
Sorters ..................................................
Trimmermen .......................................
Chokermen............................................
Block setters..........................................
Edgermen..............................................
Lumber stackers .................................
Truckdrivers..........................................
Planer operators .................................
Graders, planed lumber.......................
Tractor drivers, skidding...................
Head-saw operators, circular saw ...
Head-saw operators, band saw ..........
Fallers and buckers, power.................

facturing industries as a whole aver­
aged $3.81 an hour.
Wage rates vary considerably by
occupation, size of firm, machines
and equipment used and, above all,
by geographic area. Average hourly
rates for selected occupations in
West Coast and Southern logging
operations and mills in 1972 are
shown in the accompanying tabula­
tion.
Most logging jobs are outdoors.
The forest may be wet, muddy, and
hot, with annoying insects during the
summer; conversely, working condi­
tions may be difficult and time lost
because of snow, sleet, and low
temperature during the winter. Saw­
mills and planing mills may be noisy
and dusty, and uncomfortably warm
during the summer. Moreover, work
at logging sites and in mills is more
hazardous than in most manu­
facturing plants. For many persons,
however, the opportunity to work
and live in forest regions away from
crowded cities more than offsets
these disadvantages.

Hourly Rates
South West Coast
$3.90
$2.00
2.30
3.90
2.00
3.90
2.10
4.10
2.15
4.25
2.25
4.35
4.40
2.15
2.00
4.40
2.25
4.45
2.90
4.65
2.40
4.70
2.40
5.00
3.00
5.35
4.00
5.80
2.50
7.10

The major unions in this industry
are the International Woodworkers
of America and the United Brother­
hood of Carpenters and Joiners of
America, both AFL-CIO affiliates.
A recent survey showed that threefifths of the industry’s production
workers on the West Coast were cov­
ered by union-management con­
tracts. On the other hand, only onesixth of those in the South were
covered.
Sources of Additional
Information

Further information about job op­
portunities and working conditions
in this industry is available from the
following organizations:
American Pulpwood Association, 605
Third Ave., New York, N.Y.
10016.
International Woodworkers of Ameri­
ca, 1622 N. Lombard St., Portland,
Oreg. 97217.
National Forest Products Asso­
ciation, 1619 Mass. Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

MOTOR VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT
MANUFACTURING OCCUPATIONS
Few products are as important to
everyday life as the automobiles,
trucks, buses, and other vehicles built
by the motor vehicle and equipment
manufacturing industry (or auto­
mobile industry). In 1972, 4 out of 5
families owned at least one car, and
nearly 1 family out of 3 owned two or
more. A total of about 118 million
cars, trucks, and buses traveled the
Nation’s streets and highways.
The widespread use of motor ve­
hicles has made significant contribu­
tions to the Nation’s economy. The
automobile industry (SIC 371)
employs more workers than any
other single manufacturing in­
dustry. Moreover, it is a major con­
sumer of steel, rubber, plate glass,
and other basic materials. Many
businesses, including repair shops,
gas stations, highway construction,
and truck and bus transportation fa­
cilities, have been created because of
motor vehicles.
To build the more than 11 million
vehicles produced in 1972, the auto­
mobile industry employed 860,000
workers. In addition to workers dis­
cussed in this chapter, thousands of
persons work in other industries that
produce automobile glass, auto­
motive stampings, lighting systems,
storage batteries, tires, and many
other components.
Like other large industries, the
automobile industry employs men
and women with widely different ed­
ucation and training. Job require­
ments vary from a college degree for
engineers and other professional and
technical workers, to a few hours of
on-the-job training for some as­
704



semblers, materials handlers, and
custodians.
Most of the automobile industry’s
employees work in factory (plant)
jobs. Plant occupations range from
the highly skilled tool and die maker,
millwright, and electrician, to the un­
skilled machine tender, power truck
operator, and custodian. A large
number of people also work in office
and administrative jobs as clerks,
business machine operators, stenog­
raphers, purchasing agents, and per­
sonnel specialists.
Nature and Location
of the Industry

The automobile industry is able to
produce millions of vehicles because
of mass production of standardized
parts and assembly line manufactur­
ing. Parts plants make thousands of
interchangeable parts. At the as­
sembly plants workers put these
parts together to build a complete ve­
hicle. New cars are driven off the as­
sembly line at the rate of about one a
minute.
The industry has about 2,800
plants, ranging from small parts
plants with only a few workers to
huge assembly plants that employ
several thousand. About 85 percent
of the industry’s employees work in
plants with 500 or more workers.
About 44 percent of all auto­
mobile industry employees work in
plants that assemble complete vehi­
cles. Another 43 percent work in
parts and accessories plants that pro­
duce brakes, transmissions, and
other components. The remainder

work in plants that make bodies and
truck trailers.
Over two-thirds of the automobile
industry’s employees work in the
Great Lakes region, including
Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois,
Wisconsin, and western New York.
Michigan alone has almost 40 per­
cent of the total, with half of these
workers in the Detroit metropolitan
area. Other important automobile
industry centers in the Great Lakes
area are Flint and Lansing, Michi­
gan; Cleveland and Warren, Ohio;
Indianapolis and Ft. Wayne, In­
diana; Buffalo, New York; and
Chicago, Illinois.
Major automobile manufacturing
centers are also found in other parts
of the country, including Los
Angeles, San Francisco, Kansas Ci­
ty, St. Louis, A tlanta, and
Philadelphia.
How Automobiles are Made

There are three stages in produc­
ing an automobile: designing, en­
gineering, and testing; production of
parts and subassemblies; and Final
assembly. (Although the rest of this
statement discusses only auto­
mobiles, the same information ap­
plies to trucks, buses, and other
motor vehicles.)
Designing, Engineering, and Testing.
About 2 to 3 years of designing, en­
gineering, and testing precede the ac­
tual production of a new car.
First, executives decide what kind
of car to produce—a sports car, com­
pact, or luxury car—and approve
basic specifications for the car’s size
and cost. Stylists design the car’s
body and interior. From the stylists’
sketches and drawings, skilled model
makers make scale and full-size clay
and Fiberglass models of the car. The
models are used to reFine the styling,
to evaluate safety features, and Final­
ly to make master dies for produc-

MOTOR VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURING OCCUPATIONS

ing the car.
Engineers design the car’s engine,
transmission, suspension, and other
parts. Their designs must meet safety
and pollution control standards, as
well as pass cost and performance
tests. They work with physicists,
chemists, metallurgists and other sci­
entists to research and develop new
parts, stronger and lighter metal al­
loys, ways to use plastic and fiber­
glass, and thousands of other im­
provements. Engineers also work
with draftsmen who draw up blue­
prints and specifications.
Each new design and improve­
ment is thoroughly tested in the la­
boratory and on the road. Engines
are run thousands of miles under
nearly all driving conditions. Safety
features are tested in the laboratory
and in actual crashes. Components
that fail must be redesigned before
the car can be produced.

Production of Parts. Once the car is
finally designed and tested, the thou­
sands of parts that are needed to as­
semble complete vehicles must be
produced. Parts are made from a
variety of materials, including steel,
copper, aluminum, glass, rubber,
plastic and fabric.
Several different methods are used
to make metal parts. The casting
process is used for bulky parts such
as engine blocks. Axles and other
parts that must withstand great
stress are forged. Body panels are
stamped out of sheet metal by huge
presses. Most rough cast, forged, and
some stamped parts are then ma­
chined to exact dimensions. Some
parts are made entirely by machine.
These metalworking processes are
explained more fully under plant oc­
cupations.
Other parts are produced by a
variety of manufacturing processes.

705

Plastic and glass parts are molded
and cut, seat cushions are sewn, and
many parts are painted. Parts are
also assembled into units or “subassemblies” , such as complete
transmissions.
Throughout production many in­
spections and tests are made to in­
sure that the assembled car will meet
quality and safety standards.
Final Assembly. After many months
of designing, testing, and producing
parts, the car is finally assembled. A
conveyor carries the chassis along
the assembly line, workers attach the
parts and subassemblies in the right
order. Axles are attached; the engine
and transmission are mounted; body
panels are welded together, painted,
and joined to the chassis; instrument
panels and seats are installed. Near
the end of the line, hubcaps, mir­
rors, and other finishing touches are
added. Gasoline is pumped into the
fuel tank, headlights and wheels are
aligned, and the car is inspected and
driven off the line. The whole final
assembly process may take as little
as 90 minutes.
Assembling hundreds of cars a day
requires expert timing and co­
ordination. Parts and subassemblies
are delivered according to produc­
tion schedules arranged months in
advance. They are fed continually to
workers from storage areas along the
assembly line. Instructions for the
color and special equipment for each
car are transmitted along the line.
This system allows cars of different
colors and types to follow each other
on the assembly line—a blue sedan
may follow a red station wagon. In­
spections are made at many as­
sembly stations to make sure the car
is put together correctly.
Occupations in the
Industry

Engineers use mannikin to plan auto interior.




The automobile industry employs

706

workers in hundreds of occupations.
Semiskilled plant workers, includ­
ing assemblers and inspectors, make
up about one half of all employees.
An additional one-quarter are fore­
men, machinists, tool and die
makers, mechanics, and other skilled
craftsmen. Clerical workers make up
another one-tenth of the total. The
rest are professionals, technicians,
sales workers, managers, guards, and
unskilled workers.
About 9 percent of the industry’s
employees are women. About half of
them are assemblers, inspectors, and
other production workers. The rest
are in clerical and other office jobs,
including research and technical
jobs.
Some of the important occupa­
tions are described briefly below. De­
tailed discussions of many of the pro­
fessional, technical, craft, and plant
jobs may be found elsewhere in the
Handbook.
Professional and Technical Occupa­
tions. The modern automobile is the
product of the research, design, and
development work of thousands of
engineers, chemists, draftsmen, and
other professional and technical
workers.
Nearly 30,000 engineers worked in
the automobile industry in 1972.
Most of them were mechanical, elec­
trical or industrial engineers. Me­
chanical engineers design improve­
ments for engines, transmissions,
and other working parts. Electrical
engineers design the car’s electrical
system, especially the ignition system
and accessories. Industrial engineers
concentrate on plant layout, work
standards, scheduling, and other pro­
duction problems. The industry also
employs metallurgical, civil,
chemical, and ceramic engineers.
The industry employed over 3,000
m athem aticians, physicists,
chemists, and other physical sci­
entists in 1972. Most of them work



on research and development proj­
ects such as finding ways to reduce
air pollution and studying the be­
havior of metals under certain con­
ditions. Mathematicians and sta­
tisticians design quality control
systems and work with research sci­
entists and engineers. Some sci­
entists supervise technical phases of
production. Metallurgists, for ex­
ample, supervise melting and heat­
ing operations in the casting and
forging departments.
Draftsmen are the largest group of
technical workers. They work closely
with engineers and stylists to draft
blueprints and specifications for each
part of the car. Engineering aids, la­
boratory assistants, and thousands of
other technicians also assist en­
gineers and scientists.
Administrative, Clerical, and Re­
lated Occupations. Executives decide
what kind of vehicles to produce,
what prices to charge, where to build
plants, and whether to manufacture
or buy certain parts. They are
assisted by lawyers, market ana­
lysts, economists, statisticians, in­
dustrial relations experts and other
professionals, who may also super­
vise plant or office staffs. Purchas­
ing agents, personnel managers, and
other administrative workers direct
special phases of the company’s
business.
Secretaries, bookkeepers, ship­
ping clerks, keypunch and business
machine operators, typists, and other
clerical employees work in the in­
dustry’s plants and offices.
Plant Occupations. About threefourths of the automobile industry’s
employees work in the plant. Most of
them make parts or work on the
assembly line. Others service and
repair machinery and equipment.
Foundry Occupations. Engine blocks
and many other parts are “cast” or
molded from melted metal. Pattern­

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

makers, coremakers, and machine
molders make sand molds which
have a hollow space inside in the
shape of the part. Workers called
melters and pourers melt the metal in
electric furnaces or cupolas, and
pour it into the mold. After it cools
and hardens into the shape of the
part, shakeout men remove the cast­
ing from the mold.
Forging Occupations. Axles, driveshafts, and other forged parts are
made by pounding metal into dies.
Workers called heaters heat the
metal in a furnace and place it in a
forging die. Hammermen then use a
drophammer to pound the metal into
the shape of the die. Other forge shop
workers clean, finish, heat-treat, and
inspect forged parts.
Machining and other Metalworking
Occupations. Most rough cast, forg­
ed, and some stamped parts must be
machined to exact dimensions before
they can be used. Machine tool
operators, representing one of the in­
dustry’s largest metal working occu­
pations, run machine tools that cut
or grind away excess metal from
rough parts. Most operators use only
one kind of machine tool and are
called lathe operators, milling
machine operators or some other
special title. Operators on some
machines make simple tool changes
and gauge machined areas of the
parts.
Some machine tools are auto­
matic and can be linked together to
do a series of machining operations.
A rough engine block, for example,
can be moved through hundreds of
automatic drilling, cutting, and
grinding operations with little or no
manual labor. Some of the inspec­
tion is also automatic. Workers must
monitor a control panel to spot inter­
ruptions and breakdowns.
Assembly Occupations. (D.O.T.
806.887) The largest group of
workers in the automobile industry

MOTOR VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURING OCCUPATIONS

are the assemblers. They put to­
gether small parts to make subassemblies, and put subassemblies
together to build a complete vehicle.
Each assembler has a job to do as the
vehicle passes his work station. For
example, one worker mounts a tire
and the next worker tightens the nuts
with a power wrench. Most assem­
bly jobs are repetitive and require
limited skills. However, they do re­
quire good coordination, and may be
strenuous.
Finishing Occupations. “Finishing”
includes painting, polishing, uphol­
stering, and other operations that
protect the car’s surface and add to
the car’s comfort and appearance.
Electroplaters (D.O.T. 500.885) coat
bumpers, grills, hubcaps, and trim
with chrome. Metal finishers
(D.O.T. 705.884) File and polish
rough metal surfaces in preparation
for painting. Sprayers (D.O.T.
741.887) apply primers and paint
with power spray guns. Polishers
(D.O.T. 705.884) polish Finished sur­
faces by hand or with a power bufFing wheel.
Several different kinds of workers
combine their skills to make the car’s
upholstery. Working from a pat­
tern, cutters (D.O.T. 781.884) cut
fabric or leather with hand or elec­
tric shears. Sewing machine opera­
tors (D.O.T. 787.782) sew the pieces
together into seat covers or head­
liners. Cushion builders (D.O.T.
780.884) fasten springs, padding, and
foam rubber to the seats and other
upholstered areas and install the
covers.
Inspection Occupations. (D.O.T.
806.281, .283, .381, .382, .387, .684,
and .687). Throughout the manu­
facture and assembly of a new car,
inspectors inspect certain parts for
defective materials and workman­
ship. They inspect raw materials,
examine parts during manufactur­
ing, check the quality and uniformity
of subassemblies, and test drive



the new car. Inspectors need various
skills, depending on the part of
process they inspect. Many of them
use micrometers, gauges, testing
instruments, and read blueprints
and specifications.
Other Plant Occupations. Many
other workers help keep the plant
operating by delivering materials and
parts, repairing equipment, and
cleaning and guarding the plant.
Assembly line production re­
quires an elaborate materials han­

707

dling and delivery system. Materials
handlers load and unload raw mate­
rials and parts from trucks, ships,
and railroad cars. Overhead crane
operators move heavy machinery
and raw steel. Power truck operators
move parts and materials about the
plant. Checkers, stock chasers, and
stock clerks make sure parts and
tools are delivered to the assembly
line at the right time. They receive
and distribute materials and keep
records of shipments.
A large staff of workers set up the

Inspector uses gauges to check engine parts.

708

plant’s equipment and keep it in
good condition. Skilled mainte­
nance mechanics and electricians
service and repair complex me­
chanical hydraulic, electrical, and
electronic equipment. Millwrights
move and install heavy machinery.
Plumbers and pipefitters lay out, in­
stall, and repair piping, valves,
pumps, and compressors. Car­
penters, stationary engineers, and
sheet metal workers also work in
automobile plants.
The industry also employs many
protective and custodial workers, in­
cluding guards, gatemen, janitors,
and porters.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Engineers and scientists must have
at least a bachelor’s degree with an
appropriate major. Advanced
degrees or specialized experience are
sometimes required for research and
development jobs. About a dozen
colleges offer undergraduate or
graduate courses in automotive en­
gineering, and many companies have
training programs in automotive spe­
cialties for engineers and scientists.
Most companies also offer grants,
loans, or tuition refund plans to their
employees for advanced study. En­
gineers and scientists may become
supervisors of research or produc­
tion units, and sometimes enter ad­
ministrative or executive positions.
Most automotive stylists are
graduates of art institutes or have
bachelor’s degrees in industrial
design. Stylists should have a back­
ground in practical applications,
such as model-building, as well as
in design theory and techniques.
Most engineering aids, laboratory
assistants, draftsmen and other tech­
nicians in the automobile industry
are graduates of technical institutes
or junior colleges. Others are trained
on the job, at company schools, or at
company expense at local technical
schools or junior colleges. Techni­



cians sometimes advance to en­
gineering jobs through experience
and study toward an engineering
degree.
Although a college education is
not always required, administrative
jobs are usually filled by men and
women with degrees in business ad­
ministration, engineering, market­
ing, accounting, industrial relations,
and similar fields. Some companies
offer advanced training in these
specialties.
For semiskilled jobs, the industry
seeks people who can do routine
work at a steady pace. Most as­
sembly jobs can be learned in a few
hours, and the less skilled machine
operating jobs in a few weeks. Plant
workers should be in good health and
have good coordination and ability
to do mechanical work.
Tool and die makers, pattern­
makers, electricians, and some other
craftsmen in the automobile in­
dustry need at least 4 years of train­
ing. Although many workers learn
their skills by working with experi­
enced craftsmen, apprenticeship
training is the best way to learn a
skilled trade. Automobile manufac­
turers, working with labor unions,
offer apprenticeships in many crafts.
Applicants for apprenticeship
usually must be high school, trade, or
vocational school graduates, or have
equivalent training. Training should
include mathematics, science, me­
chanical drawing, and shop courses.
Apprentices must pass physical ex­
aminations, mechanical aptitude
tests and other qualifying tests.
Apprenticeship includes both
classroom and on-the-job instruc­
tion. Shop math, blueprint reading,
shop theory, and such special sub­
jects as electronics and hydraulics
are studied in the classroom. In the
shop apprentices learn the tech­
niques of their trade and how to use
tools and machinery.
Foremen usually are selected from
employees already employed in the
firm, especially if they have appren­

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

ticeship training and considerable ex­
perience. Newly promoted foremen
usually go through a special training
program.
Training for many of the produc­
tion, clerical and technical jobs in the
automobile industry is available un­
der the Manpower Development and
Training Act. These training
programs for unemployed and un­
deremployed workers may last up to
a year. Trainees in some programs
may need further on-the-job or ap­
prenticeship training.
Employment Outlook

Employment in the automobile in­
dustry is not expected to increase sig­
nificantly in the long run (19721985). Nevertheless, many workers
will be hired to replace those who
retire, die, or transfer to other in­
dustries. The total number hired will
fluctuate from year to year because
the industry is sensitive to changes in
general business conditions, con­
sumer preferences, availability of
credit, and defense activity.
The demand for motor vehicles
will grow substantially during the
next decade as population and in­
come increase. More automobiles
will be needed as families move from
the cities to the suburbs, and to re­
place cars that wear out. More
trucks and buses will be needed to
carry freight and passengers.
Because of labor-saving technol­
ogy, however, employment in the in­
dustry will not keep pace with pro­
duction. Automobile companies will
use more automated and computer­
ized equipment for machining, as­
sembling, and inspecting. A recent
example is the versatile “industrial
robot” which can be programmed to
weld body panels, feed parts into ma­
chine tools, and do a variety of other
tasks. More efficient processes, such
as electron beam welding and elec­
trical discharge machining will be
more widely used. Also, new or

MOTOR VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURING OCCUPATIONS

modernized plants will have the
latest conveyor equipment for mov­
ing parts and materials.
Many other changes will also
reduce the amount of labor needed to
produce a vehicle. For example,
more parts will be made of plastics,
which can be molded in one piece
and need less machining and Finish­
ing than do metal parts.
Some of the industry’s increased
efficiency, however, will be offset by
other developments. More workers
will be needed to design, test, and
build additional safety and exhaust
control equipment. Although the
variety of models built is declining
slowly, more cars will have air-con­
ditioning, power brakes, and other
special equipment.
Changes in the kinds of vehicles
built and how they are produced will
affect the type as well as the number
of workers employed in the auto­
mobile industry. More engineers, sci­
entists, technicians, and other pro­



fessionals will be employed to meet
the industry’s research and develop­
ment needs, especially to design new
engines, exhaust systems, and safety
equipment. The use of computers
will increase the need for systems
analysts and programmers, but will
limit employment growth in many
clerical occupations.
The employment of skilled
workers, as a group, may decline
slightly, mainly because fewer ma­
chinists and welders will be needed as
more efficient processes are intro­
duced. Some skilled occupations will
grow, including electricians, mill­
wrights, pipefitters, and machine
repairmen. Overall, the number of
semiskilled workers will remain
about the same.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

Production workers in the auto­
mobile industry are among the

709

highest paid in manufacturing. In
1972 they averaged $5.11 an hour,
compared to $3.81 an hour for pro­
duction workers in all manufactur­
ing industries.
Besides wages and salaries, auto­
mobile workers receive a wide range
of fringe benefits. They are paid one
and one-half times their normal wage
for working more than 8 hours a day,
40 hours a week or working Satur­
day. They receive premiums for
working late shifts, and double the
normal wage for Sundays and holi­
days. Most workers get paid vaca­
tions (or payment instead of vaca­
tions) and 12 paid holidays a year.
Most companies provide annual
wage increases, plus automatic in­
creases when the cost of living rises.
Life, accident, and health insurance
are provided, also.
A great majority of the industry’s
workers are covered by companypaid retirement plans. Retirement
pay varies with the length of service.
Many plans provide for retirement at
age 55, or after 30 years service re­
gardless of age.
Most wage workers and some sal­
aried employees receive sup­
plemental unemployment benefit
plans, paid for entirely by their em­
ployers. These plans provide pay
during layoff and short work week
benefits when workers are required
to work less than a full week. Dur­
ing layoff, provisions are included
for life, accident, and health in­
surance; survivor income benefits;
relocation allowances; and separa­
tion payments for those laid off 12
continuous months or more.
Most wage workers and some sal­
aried workers are required to join a
union, usually within 40 days after
they are hired. Most production and
maintenance workers in assembly
plants, and a majority in parts plants
belong to the International Union,
United Automobile, Aerospace and
Agricultural Implement Workers of

710

America. In some parts plants, the
International Union, Allied In­
dustrial Workers of America is the
bargaining agent. Other workers
belong to the International Associa­
tion of Machinists and Aerospace
Workers; the Pattern Maker’s
League of North America; the Inter­
national Molders’ and Allied
Worker’s Union of North America;
the Metal Polishers Buffers, Platers,
and Helpers International Union;
the International Union, United
Plant Guard Workers of America
(Ind.); the Mechanics Educational
Society of America; the Inter­
national Brotherhood of Electrical
Workers; the International Union of
Electrical, Radio, and Machine
Workers; and the International Die
Sinkers’ Conference (Ind.).
Most automobile industry em­
ployees work in plants that are rela­




tively clean and free of dust, smoke,
and fumes. Some work areas, how­
ever, are hot, noisy, and filled with
dust and fumes. These conditions
have been greatly improved by the
introduction of better ventilation and
noise control systems.
Automobile plants are compara­
tively safe places to work, although
safety conditions vary among indi­
vidual shops or plants. The rate of
disabling injuries in automobile
plants has been less than half that in
all manufacturing in recent years.
Some plants have fully equipped
medical facilities with doctors and
nurses.
Sources of Additional
Information

Further information on employ­

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

ment and training opportunities in
the automobile industry can be ob­
tained from local offices of the State
employment service; employment of­
fices of automobile firms; locals of
the unions listed above; and from:
International Union, United Auto­
mobile, Aerospace and Agricul­
tural Implement Workers of Amer­
ica. 8000 East Jefferson Ave.,
Detroit, Mich. 48214.
Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Asso­
ciation of the U.S., Inc., 320 New
Center Building, Detroit, Mich.
48202.

Information on careers in auto­
motive engineering and a list of
schools offering automotive en­
gineering courses are available from:
Society of Automotive Engineers, 2
Pennsylvania Plaza, New York,
N.Y. 10001.

Seven States account for twothirds of the employment in plants
manufacturing conventional busi­
ness machines and scales: Ohio, New
York, California, Illinois, Connect­
icut, New Jersey, and Kentucky. The
OFFICE MACHINE AND COMPUTER
following areas are some of the im­
MANUFACTURING OCCUPATIONS
portant manufacturing centers:
Dayton, Toledo, and Euclid, Ohio;
the New York-Northeastern New
During the last decade, employ­ specialize in software or that rent or
ment in the office machine and com­ lease computers and provide related Jersey industrial area; Hartford and
Stamford, Conn.; Chicago, 111.;
puter industry grew four times faster services.
than employment in manufacturing In 1972, more than 70,000 people Detroit, Mich.; and Lexington, Ky.
as a whole. Growth was spear­ were employed in factories that pro­
headed by a rapid expansion in the duced conventional office machines
Occupations in the
Industry
production of computers. For many and scales. Of this total, about 30,years, the industry’s chief products 000 produced desk calculators, cash
were typewriters, adding machines, registers, coin and ticket counters, ingA avariety of occupations, requir­
broad range of training and
calculators, and other conventional and adding, accounting, and voting skills, are found in plants that make
machines; another 27,000 produced
office machines. Today, plants that
make computers account for more industrial and household scales and office machines and computers.
More
than half of the industry’s produc­ miscellaneous office machines, in­ workersthan half of the industry’s
are in white-collar
tion.
cluding items as diverse as postage (engineering, scientific, technical,jobs
meters and dictating machines; and ministrative, sales, and clerical); ad­
the
the rest produced typewriters.
others are in plant jobs (assembly, in­
Nature and Location
Large plants account for most of spection, maintenance, transporta­
of the Industry
the employment in office machine tion and service).
In 1972, the office machine and and computer manufacturing. About
White-collar workers represent a
computer manufacturing industry 7 out of every 10 of the industry’s significantly larger proportion of
employed 245,000 workers in ap­ employees are in plants that have 1,- total employment in the computer
proximately 870 plants. About 7 out 000 or more employees; several com­ industry than in most other manufac­
of every 10 of them worked in plants puter plants have more than 5,000 turing industries.
that produced computer equipment, employees.
Some of
in
the remainder in plants that pro­ New York, California, and this industrythe key occupations in
are described briefly
duced conventional office machines Minnesota have about two-thirds of the following section. (Detailed dis­
and scales and other weighing computer manufacturing employ­ cussions of professional, technical,
devices.
ment, and the following States ac­
and
Computer equipment manufac­ count for most of the remainder: skilled,officeother occupations found
in the
machine and
turing plants employed about 172,- M assachusetts, Pennsylvania, industry, as well as in manycomputer
other in­
000 workers in 1972. These plants Florida, Arizona, and Colorado. In dustries, are given elsewhere in the
manufacture general purpose com­ New York, the lower Hudson River Handbook, in sections
puters as well as those used for spe­ Valley area has many important dividual occupations.) covering in­
cial applications, such as space ex­ computer manufacturing centers:
ploration and missiles. They also Poughkeepsie, East Fish Kill, and Engineering and Scientific Occupa­
manufacture related equipment such Kingston. Large manufacturing tions. Nearly 1 out of every 10 work­
as machines that read magnetic num­ plants also are located in Rochester ers in the office machine and com­
bers on bank checks. In addition to and Utica, N.Y., and in the Boston, puter industry is an engineer or
computers and related equipment, Mass., and Philadelphia, Pa. areas. scientist—a much greater propor­
plants may furnish “software” (com­ The leading center in the Midwest tion than in most industries. Most of
puter programs and operating sys­ is Minneapolis-St. Paul. The Los them work at computer plants.
tems). Thousands of people whose Angeles industrial area is the most The largest group of engineers
employment is not included in this important computer manufacturing work with electricity or electronics.
chapter are employed outside center in the West, followed by Most are engaged in research and
manufacturing plants by Firms that Phoenix, Ariz.; and San Jose, Calif. development, although many work in



711

712

production. The industry also em­
ploys large numbers of mechanical
and industrial engineers. Some
mechanical engineers are engaged in
product development and tool and
equipment design. Others are con­
cerned with the maintenance, lay­
out, and operation of plant equip­
ment. Industrial engineers deter­
mine the most effective means of
using the basic factors of produc­
tion—labor, machines, and mate­
rials.
Chemists make up the largest
group of scientists in office machine
and computer manufacturing. Their
work is primarily in chemical proc­
essing of printed circuits used in
computers. Mathematicians make
up another large group of scientists.
Their work on complex mathe­
matical problems is important in
designing computers. Physicists are
employed in research and develop­
ment work on items such as mini­
aturized components and circuits.
Statisticians work in fields such as
quality control and production
scheduling.
The industry also employs sys­
tems analysts and computer pro­
grammers, many of whom have sci­
entific or engineering backgrounds.
Systems analysts primarily devise
new information processing tech­
niques and improve existing tech­
niques. Programmers design and test
computer programs. Some analysts
and programmers specialize in scien­
tific and engineering problems, while
others process accounting, inven­
tory, sales, and other business data.
Systems analysts and programmers
may assist salesmen in determining
data processing needs of customers.
Technical Occupations. More than 1
out of every 20 workers in the indus­
try is a technician. Most specialize in
electronics and assist engineers and
scientists in research and develop­
ment, testing and inspecting elec­
tronic components, and doing com­
plex assembly work. Some elec­
tronics technicians specialize in



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Technicians testing and debugging computers.

repairing computers. Chemical con­
trol technicians prepare solutions
used in the etching of circuit boards.
Photographic technicians set up
cameras and other equipment used in
the tracing process to create copper
etchings on circuit boards. Drafts­
men prepare drawings from sketches
or specifications furnished by engi­
neers. Engineering aids assist engi­
neers by making calculations,
sketches, and drawings, and by con­
ducting performance tests on com­
ponents.
Administrative and Sales Occupa­
tions. About 1 out of every 13 work­
ers is an administrator. Included are

top executives who manage com­
panies and determine policy deci­
sions and middle managers who
direct departments such as adver­
tising and industrial relations. Other
administrative employees in staff
positions include accountants, law­
yers, and market researchers.
Sales personnel hold about 1 out
of every 25 jobs in the industry.
Salesmen of conventional office
machines usually work on their own.
Computer salesmen, on the other
hand, are assisted by a host of tech­
nical experts, such as engineers and
systems analysts. Because com­
puters are complex and expensive,
computer salesmen may have to

OFFICE MACHINE AND COMPUTER MANUFACTURING OCCUPATIONS

spend several months to complete a
sale.
Clerical Occupations. Nearly 1 out
of every 6 workers in the industry is
in a clerical job. Included in this
group are secretaries, clerk-typists,
file clerks, bookkeepers, and busi­
ness machine operators, as well as
computer personnel such as key­
punch and computer operators.
Plant Occupations. Nearly half of
this industry’s employees are plant
(blue-collar) workers. Most plant
workers are engaged directly in mak­
ing computers and office machines.
These workers include assemblers,
inspectors or testers, machinists,
machine tool operators, and the fore­
men who supervise them. Truckdrivers, material handlers, power
truck operators, guards, and jani­
tors move materials and perform
custodial duties, and plumbers and
pipefitters, electricians, carpenters,
and other workers maintain produc­
tion machinery and building
facilities.
Assembly Occupations. (D.O.T.
590.885; 692.782; 706.884; 726.781
and .884) Workers who assemble
computers and office machines have
many different skills, and make up
the largest group of plant workers.
Assemblers may put together
small parts to make components or
components to make sub-assemblies
or the finished product. Much of
their work is done by hand. Some
hand assemblers do a single oper­
ation as components move down the
assembly line. The assembly of type­
writers, for example, is divided into
many simple operations. Each
assembler does one job as the type­
writer passes the work station. Some
assembly jobs are difficult and re­
quire great skill, while others are
relatively simple. Skilled electronics
assemblers, for example, use dia­
grams as guides to wire complex
memory and logic panels for com­
puters. Machines are used for many



assembly operations. Automatic
wire-wrapping machines, for exam­
ple, wire panels and plugboards.
Operators feed these machines and
remove and inspect finished items.
Electronic technicians usually do
the most difficult hand assembly
work. In research laboratories, they
put together experimental equip­
ment. In plants, they put together
complex items that require a knowl­
edge of electronics theory.
Assemblers commonly use screw
drivers, pliers, snippers, and solder­
ing irons and they use special de­
vices to position and hold parts dur­
ing assembly. Some assemblers use
precision equipment to weld connec­
tions in circuit assemblies.
Machining Occupations. Most office
machine and computer manufac­
turing plants employ metal machin­
ing workers who operate powerdriven machine tools to produce
metal parts for computers, type­
writers, accounting machines, calcu­
lators, and other products. Numer­
ical control machine operators tend
machines that have been pro­
grammed to perform machining
operations automatically. Toolmakers construct and repair equip­
ment used to make and assemble
parts. Diemakers specialize in metal
forms (dies) used in punch and power
presses that shape metal parts.
Inspection and Testing Operations.
Testing and inspection begin when
raw materials enter the plant and
continue throughout the assembly
process. Finished parts and products
are tested and inspected thoroughly.
Some inspectors examine individ­
ual parts; others inspect components
during subassembly; still others in­
spect completed office machines and
computers. Many inspecting jobs re­
quire highly skilled workers. On the
other hand, relatively unskilled peo­
ple can run some automatic test
equipment. Workers who feed or
monitor the equipment are called
test-set operators or testing machine

713

operators.
Job titles indicate the work many
inspectors do. Machined parts in­
spectors (D.O.T. 609.381) use preci­
sion testing instruments to deter­
mine whether parts have been
machined properly. Type inspectors
(D.O.T. 706.687) use a magnifying
glass to examine typewriter type for
defects. Electronic subassembly in­
spectors (D.O.T. 726.384) use micro­
scopes, meters, and various measur­
ing devices to examine circuits and
other electronic subassemblies. Elec­
tronic assembly inspectors (D.O.T.
722.281) use special instruments to
test electronic systems such as com­
puter memory units.
In plants that manufacture con­
ventional office machines, final in­
spection is relatively simple. Inspec­
tors operate the machines, look for
defects, and refer malfunctioning
machines to repairmen. The final in­
spection or “debugging” of com­
puters, on the other hand, is very
complex. Electronic technicians in­
spect new computers under the
supervision of electronic engineers.
They use complex equipment to run
tests and detailed drawings and in­
structions to find causes of malfunc­
tions.
Maintenance Occupations. Many
maintenance workers with different
types of training take care of the in­
dustry’s production machinery and
equipment. Skilled electricians are
responsible for the maintenance of
electrical equipment. Machine and
equipment repairmen make mechan­
ical repairs. Maintenance machin­
ists and welders build and repair
equipment. Air-conditioning and
refrigeration mechanics are em­
ployed in plants which are air-condi­
tioned and have special refrigerated
and dust-free rooms. Painters,
plumbers, pipefitters, carpenters,
sheet-metal workers, and other
building maintenance craftsmen also
are employed.
Other Plant Occupations. Many

714

truckdrivers are employed to make
deliveries to various parts of plants.
Laborers load and unload trucks and
boxcars and do general clean-up
work. Some other plant occupations
are boiler operator, stationary engi­
neer, guard, and janitor.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A bachelor’s degree in engineer­
ing or one of the sciences is usually
required for engineering and scien­
tific jobs. For research and develop­
ment work, applicants with ad­
vanced degrees generally are pre­
ferred. Some companies have train­
ing programs designed to give young
college graduates a broad picture of
manufacturing operations before
they are assigned to a particular
department. Because of the highly
technical nature of computers, many
of the industry’s executives have
backgrounds in engineering or
science.
Engineers and scientists, as well as
graduates of business adminis­
tration and liberal arts colleges, are
employed as salesmen, program­
mers, and systems analysts. Most
business and liberal arts graduates,
however, are employed in account­
ing, labor-management relations,
and other administrative activities.
Technicians qualify for their jobs
in a number of ways. Some obtain
training in either a public, private, or
Armed Forces technical school.
Others have one or more years of
scientific or engineering training, but
have not completed all of the require­
ments for a degree. Still other tech­
nicians are promoted from lower
grade jobs in the plant. A few wellqualified technicians have advanced
to engineering jobs, after com­
pleting courses in mathematics, engi­
neering, and related subjects.
People who complete commercial
courses in high school or business
school are preferred in clerical jobs
such as stenographer or office



machine operator. For computer
operators, most firms prefer appli­
cants who have some college or tech­
nical training in data processing.
With additional training, some com­
puter operators and clerical workers
advance to programmer jobs.
In selecting workers for plant jobs,
firms generally prefer high school or
vocational school graduates, who are
then trained through on-the-job in­
struction and experience that varies
from a few days to years. Some
plants also conduct classroom train­
ing of short duration. Skilled crafts­
men, such as machinists and tool and
die makers, may spend 3 to 4 years in
learning their jobs and some firms
have formal apprenticeship pro­
grams, which include both on-the-job
training and classroom instruction
related to the particular craft. Fre­
quently, openings for skilled jobs are
filled by qualified young workers al­
ready in the plant.
Workers who have little or no
previous experience or training are
hired for less skilled inspection,
assembly, and machining jobs.
Applicants may have to pass apti­
tude tests and demonstrate ability for
particular types of work. Most
assembly and inspection jobs re­
quire good eyesight and color
perception, manual dexterity, and
patience.
Experienced plant workers have
opportunities to advance to jobs with
higher pay. Assemblers, for example,
can become semiskilled inspectors,
and eventually skilled inspectors.
Machine tool operators can move to
skilled machinist jobs. Craftsmen
and skilled inspectors can become
technicians, after completing courses
in company-operated schools, junior
colleges, or technical schools. Fore­
men jobs are open to well-qualified
plant workers who have supervisory
ability.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

pected to increase rapidly through
the mid-1980’s. In addition to the job
openings that result from employ­
ment growth, many openings will
arise as experienced workers retire,
die, or transfer to jobs in other in­
dustries.
Employment growth is expected to
be concentrated in plants that pro­
duce electronic computer equipment
as the demand for computers and re­
lated equipment continues to in­
crease. As the economy expands and
becomes more complex, computers
will become increasingly useful to
business, government agencies, and
other organizations. Demand also
will be stimulated as new uses for
computers are developed. Growth in
the number of computers will be ac­
companied by a need for additional
computer-related equipment—input
and output, storage, and communi­
cation devices.
Employment in plants that pro­
duce conventional office machines is
expected to grow slowly. Most job
openings will result from the need
to replace experienced workers who
retire, die, or transfer to other
industries. The demand for most
types of office machines is ex­
pected to rise rapidly as business and
government organizations grow and
the volume of paperwork increases.
However, imported machines have
been gaining a greater share of the
office machinery market and this
trend may continue. Moreover,
technological improvements in
production methods are expected to
increase output per worker. For ex­
ample, increasing mechanization of
operations formerly done by hand
will tend to reduce labor require­
ments, particularly in plants where
products are mass-produced, such as
typewriters and calculators.
Some occupational groups in the
office machine and computer
manufacturing industry are ex­
Employment Outlook
pected to grow faster than others.
Employment in this industry is ex- For example, the number of profes-

OFFICE MACHINE AND COMPUTER MANUFACTURING OCCUPATIONS

sional and administrative workers,
particularly engineers, scientists,
technicians, systems analysts, and
programmers, is expected to increase
more rapidly than the number of
clerical and plant workers. Demand
for these workers will be spurred by
continued high levels of research and
development expenditures to im­
prove production processes, ad­
vance machine capabilities, and
broaden the use of computers.
Secretaries, stenographers, typ­
ists, and computer operating person­
nel will account for most of the
growth in clerical occupations. More
extensive use of computers in rou­
tine paperwork may result in a de­
cline in the employment of book­
keepers and file clerks.
Semiskilled production workers,
such as assemblers and inspectors,
will continue to account for most of
the work force in plant occupations,
despite the growing use of auto­
mated and mechanized assembly line
equipment.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

Earnings of plant workers in the
office machine and computer indus­
try are higher than the average for
other manufacturing industries. In
1972, they averaged $4.13 an hour,




compared with $3.81 an hour for
plant workers in manufacturing in­
dustries as a whole.
National wage data are not avail­
able for individual occupations in the
office machine and computer indus­
try. However, the following tabula­
tion, based on data obtained from a
small number of union contracts,
provides an example of the range in
hourly wage rates for selected oc­
cupations in 1972:
Hourly rale ranges
Assemblers..................... $2.16—3.74
3.50-4.15
Machinists ......................
Inspectors........................
2.16—4.29
Wire-wrapping machine
operators ....................
3.14-4.38
Tool and die makers.
4.01—4.39
Electricians.............
3.60-4.61

Some employees work night shifts
and weekends because many plants
operate around the clock. Employ­
ees working second or third shifts, or
more than 8 hours a day or 40 hours
a week generally receive extra pay.
Paid vacations and holidays are al­
most universal in this industry. Most
employees receive 1 to 4 weeks of
vacation, depending on length of
service. They also receive insurance
and pension benefits at least par­
tially financed by the employer. Em­
ployee stock purchase plans are
available in many firms.
In general, the work surroundings
in office machine and computer

715

plants are more favorable than those
in most other types of factories.
Work stations usually are welllighted and clean, and free from dust,
fumes, and loud noises. Many com­
puter factories are relatively new and
are located in suburban areas.
Some plant jobs are repetitious,
but very few require great physical
effort. Fewer and less severe injuries
take place in office machine and
computer manufacturing than the
average for all manufacturing.
Many plant workers are covered
by union contracts. The principal un­
ions in this industry are the Inter­
national Association of Machinists
and Aerospace Workers; the Inter­
national Union, United Auto­
mobile, Aerospace and Agricultural
Implement Workers of America; the
International Union of Electrical,
Radio and Machine Workers; and
the International Brotherhood of
Electrical Workers.
Sources of Additional
Information

Computer and Business Equipment
Manufacturer’s Association 1828 L. St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.
American Federation of Information
Processing Societies, Inc., 210
Summit Ave., Montvale, N.J.
07645.

OCCUPATIONS IN THE PAPER
AND ALLIED PRODUCTS INDUSTRIES
In 1972, the paper and allied prod­
ucts industry employed about 700,000 people to produce many differ­
ent kinds of paper and paperboard
products. The industry employs
workers in occupations ranging from
unskilled to highly specialized
technical and professional jobs,
many found only in the paper in­
dustry.
About 140,000 women worked in
this industry in 1972 Many worked
in office jobs; others worked in plant
jobs, mainly as machine operators
and inspectors.
Nature and Location
of the Industry

The paper industry is highly
mechanized. Pulp, paper, and many
finished paper products are manu­
factured by machines—some as long
as a football field—in a series of
nearly automatic operations that re­
quire very little handling of mate­
rials by workers. Manufacturing
plants in the paper industry are
engaged in one or more of three
different operations: the production
of pulp (the basic ingredient of
paper) from wood, reused fibers, or
other raw materials; the manu­
facture of paper or paperboard (thick
paper) from pulp; or the conversion
of rolls or sheets of paper or paperboard into finished products.
The largest group of employees in
the industry work in mills that pro­
duce pulp, paper, or paperboard. The
next largest group work in plants
that make boxes and containers; and
the remainder in plants that make a
716



variety of other paper products.
More than 80 percent of the indus­
try’s employees work in factories
employing 100 workers or more
each.
Workers in this industry are lo­
cated throughout the country, al­
though about half are employed in
eight States: New York, Pennsyl­
vania, Ohio, Illinois, Wisconsin,
Massachusetts, New Jersey, and
California, Other States having large
numbers of paperworkers are Michi­
gan, Georgia, Washington, Maine,
Florida, Texas, North Carolina, and
Alabama.
Occupations In the
Industry

Employees in the paper industry
work in a variety of occupations, re­
quiring a broad range of training and
skills. Many workers operate and
control specialized papermaking,
finishing, and converting machines.
Some workers install and repair
papermaking machinery. Truck
drivers make deliveries, and other
workers load and unload trucks, rail­
road cars, and ships. Other workers
keep inventory records of stock and
tools.
The industry employs many work­
ers in clerical, sales, and adminis­
trative occupations. For example, it
employs purchasing agents, person­
nel managers, salesmen, office
clerks, stenographers, bookkeepers,
and business machine operators.
Also, because of the complex proc­
esses and equipment used, the indus­
try employs many professional and

technical workers, including chemi­
cal and mechanical engineers, chem­
ists, laboratory technicians, and pulp
and paper testers. (Detailed dis­
cussions of professional, technical,
and mechanical occupations, found
not only in the paper industry but in
other industries, are given elsewhere
in the Handbook in sections cover­
ing individual occupations.
Production Jobs. In 1972, more than
three-fourths of all employees in the
industry worked in production jobs.
The simplified description of paper­
making occupations and processes
that follows applies to a plant which
combines the production of pulp,
paper, and finished paper products
into one continuous operation. (See
chart 23.)
After logs are received at the pulp
mill, the bark is removed. One ma­
chine used for this operation is a
large revolving cylinder known as a
“ drum barker.” Logs are fed
mechanically into this machine by a
semiskilled worker called a barker
operator (D.O.T. 533.782). The ma­
chine cleans bark from the logs by
tumbling them against each other
and also against the rough inner sur­
face of the drum. Next, pulp fibers in
the logs are separated from other
substances by a chemical or
mechanical process, or both, depend­
ing on the type of wood used and the
grade of paper desired.
In the mechanical process, pulpwood is held against a fast-revolving
grindstone that separates the fibers.
In the more commonly used chemi­
cal process, pulpwood is carried on
conveyor belts to a chipper machine
operated by a chipperman (D.O.T.
668.885). The machine cuts the pulpwood into chips about the size of a
quarter. These wood chips are
“cooked” with chemicals under high
temperature and pressure in a
“digester,” a kettlelike vat several
stories high. The digester is oper-

OCCUPATIONS IN THE PAPER AND ALLIED PRODUCTS INDUSTRIES

Th e Paperm aking Process__________________ 23

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics.

ated by a skilled worker called a
digester operator (D.O.T. 532.782).
He determines the amount of chemi­
cals to be used and the cooking
temperature and pressure; he also
directs the loading of the digester
with wood chips and chemicals. By
checking an instrument panel he
makes certain that proper condi­
tions are being maintained. When
the pulp fibers are removed from the
digester, they are washed to remove
chemicals, partially cooked chips,
and other impurities. These fibers,
called pulp, resemble wet, brown cot­
ton.
To turn pulp into paper, the pulp is
mixed thoroughly with water and
further refined in a machine oper­
ated by a skilled worker called a
beater engineer (D.O.T. 530.782).
The kind and amount of chemicals
and dyes he uses and the length of
time he “beats” the solution deter­
mines the color and strength of the
paper.
The pulp solution, now more than
99 percent water, is turned into paper
or paperboard by machines which
are among the largest in American
industry. The machines are of two
general types. One is the Fourdrinier
machine, by far the most commonly



used; the other is the cylinder ma­
chine used to make particular types
of paper, such as building and con­
tainer board. In the Fourdrinier, the
pulp solution pours into a con­
tinuously moving and vibrating belt
of fine wire screen. As the water
drains, millions of pulp fibers adhere
to one another, forming a thin wet
sheet of paper. After passing through
presses that squeeze out more water,
the newly formed paper passes
through the dryer section of the

717

papermaking machine to evaporate
remaining water.
The quality of the paper produced
largely depends on the skill of the
paper machine operator (D.O.T.
539.782). He controls the “wet-end”
of the papermaking machine to form
paper of specified thickness, width,
and physical strength. He checks
control-panel instruments to make
sure the flow of pulp and the speed of
the machine are coordinated. The
paper machine operator also deter­
mines whether the paper meets re­
quired specifications by interpreting
laboratory tests or, in some in­
stances, by visually checking or feel­
ing the paper. He supervises the less
skilled workers of the machine crew
and, with their help, keeps the paper
moving smoothly through the
machine. The backtender (D.O.T.
532.885), who is supervised by the
paper machine operator, controls the
pressure and temperature of
machinery that dries and finishes the
paper and gives it the correct thick­
ness. He inspects the paper for im­
perfections, and makes sure that it is
being wound tightly and uniformly
into rolls. The backtender also ad­
justs the machinery that cuts the rolls

718

into smaller rolls and, with the help
of assistants, may weigh and wrap
the rolls for shipment.
Paper mills that produce a fine
grade of paper for books, maga­
zines, or stationery usually have
finishing departments. Most workers
in these departments are either semi­
skilled or unskilled. One semiskilled
worker, the supercalendar operator
(D.O.T. 534.782), aided by several
helpers and by mechanical handling
equipment, places huge rolls of paper
onto a machine that gives the paper a
smooth and glossy finish. He also in­
spects the finished paper to make
sure that specifications have been
met. Another semiskilled worker, the
paper sorter and counter (D.O.T.
649.687), inspects sheets of paper for
tears, dirt spots, and wrinkles; counts
them; and may fill customer orders.
In converting plants, machines
operated by semiskilled or skilled




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

workers convert paper and paperboard into envelopes, napkins, cor­
rugated shipping containers and
other paper products. Occupations in
converting plants differ widely,
depending largely on the product be­
ing manufactured. An example of a
semiskilled worker is the envelope
machine operator (D.O.T. 641.885)
who feeds and tends an automatic
machine that makes envelopes from
either rolls of paper or prepared
envelope blanks. One of the few skill­
ed workers in a converting plant is
the printer-slotter operator (D.O.T.
651.782) who controls a machine
that cuts and creases paperboard
sheets and prints designs or lettering
on them.
Converting plants employ thou­
sands of workers to print designs and
lettering on bags, labels, wallpaper,
and other paper products. Among
these are compositors who set type,

and pressmen who prepare and
operate printing presses.
Maintenance Jobs. The paper indus­
try employs many skilled mainte­
nance workers to care for its com­
plex machinery and electrical equip­
ment. Millwrights install and repair
machinery. They also take apart and
reassemble machines when they are
moved about the plant. Instrument
repairmen install and service instru­
ments that measure and control the
flow of pulp, paper, water, steam,
and chemical additives. The job of
instrument repairman is becoming
increasingly important with the
greater use of automatic control
equipment.
Other important maintenance em­
ployees include electricians, who re­
pair wiring, motors, control panels,
and switches; maintenance ma­
chinists, who make replacement
parts for mechanical equipment; and
pipefitters, who lay out, install, and
repair pipes.
Stationary engineers are em­
ployed to operate and maintain
powerplants, steam engines, boilers,
air compressors, and turbines.
Professional and Technical Occu­
pations. The complexity of pulp and

paper manufacturing requires thou­
sands of workers who have engi­
neering, chemical, or other technical
training. Approximately 15,000
scientists and engineers and 7,000
technicians were employed by the
paper industry in 1972.
Many chemists are employed to
control the quality of the product by
supervising the testing of pulp and
paper. In research laboratories,
chemists study the influence of
various chemicals on pulp and paper
properties. In addition, some chem­
ists and engineers are employed as
salesmen, supervisors of plant
workers, or as administrators in
positions requiring technical knowl­
edge.

OCCUPATIONS IN THE PAPER AND ALLIED PRODUCTS INDUSTRIES

Chemical and mechanical engi­
neers transform new pulp and paper­
making techniques into practical
production methods. Some chemi­
cal engineers supervise the produc­
tion process. Electrical engineers
supervise the operation of power­
generating and distributing equip­
ment and instruments.
Packaging engineers design and
supervise the production of con­
tainers and packages. A few box
manufacturers also employ artists
who develop letterings, designs, and
colors for containers.
Foresters manage large areas of
timberland and assist in the wood­
buying operations of pulp and paper
companies. They map forest areas,
plan and supervise the harvesting,
and seed or plant new trees to assure
continuous production of timber.
Systems analysts and computer
programmers are becoming in­
creasingly important to this industry
due to the greater use of com­
puterized controls in the production
process. They analyze business and
production problems and convert
them to a form suitable for solution
by computer.
Frequent tests are performed dur­
ing the manufacture of pulp or paper
to determine whether size, weight,
strength, color, and other properties
meet standards. Some testing is done
by machine operators, but in many
mills testing technicians are em­
ployed. These employees, who have
job titles such as laboratory techni­
cian, pulp tester, and chemical
analyst, also assist engineers and
chemists in research and develop­
ment activities.
Administrative, Clerical and Related
Occupations. The paper industry em­
ploys many administrative, clerical,
and other office personnel. Execu­
tives plan and administer company
policy. To work effectively, execu­
tives require information from a



wide variety of personnel, including
accountants, sales representatives,
lawyers, and personnel in industrial
relations, transportation, market re­
search, and other activities. Book­
keepers, secretaries, shipping clerks,
and other clerical workers keep
records of personnel, payroll, inven­
tories, sales, shipments, and plant
maintenance.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Paper and pulp companies
generally hire and train inexperi­
enced workers for production and
maintenance occupations. Many
companies prefer to hire high school
graduates between the ages of 18 and
25. Inexperienced workers usually
start as laborers or helpers and ad­
vance along fairly well-defined paths
to more skilled jobs.
Some large plants have formal ap­
prenticeship programs for mainte­
nance workers. Under these pro­
grams, which usually last 3 to 4
years, young people are trained for
jobs, such as machinist, electrician,
millwright, and pipefitter. General­
ly, an applicant is given a physical
examination, mechanical aptitude
tests, and similar qualifying tests.
Apprenticeship includes both on-thejob training and classroom instruc­
tion related to the occupation. The
machinist apprentice, for example,
receives classroom instructions in
mathematics, blueprint reading, and
shop theory.
A bachelor’s degree is usually the
minimum educational requirement
for scientists, engineers, foresters,
and other specialists. For research
work, persons with advanced degrees
are preferred. Many engineers and
chemists (called process engineers
and paper chemists) have special­
ized training in paper technology. A
list of schools offering such training
is available from the American

719

Paper Institute, 260 Madison Ave.,
New York, N.Y. 10016. Many com­
panies have summer jobs for college
students specializing in paper­
making, and upon graduation fre­
quently hire them on a permanent
basis. Some associations, colleges,
and individual companies offer
scholarships in pulp and paper­
making technology.
Some companies have formal
training programs for college gradu­
ates with engineering or scientific
backgrounds. These employees
before being assigned to a particular
department may work for brief
periods in various parts of the plant
to gain a broad knowledge of pulp
and paper manufacturing. Other
firms immediately assign junior
chemists or engineers to a specific re­
search, operation, or maintenance
unit.
Generally, no specialized edu­
cation is required for laboratory
assistants, testing technicians, or
other kinds of technicians. Some em­
ployers, however, prefer to hire
technical institute or junior college
graduates. Beginning technicians
start in routine jobs and advance to
positions of greater responsibility
after they acquire experience and can
work with minimum supervision.
Administrative positions usually
are filled by men and women who
have college degrees in business ad­
ministration, marketing, account­
ing, industrial relations, or other
specialized business fields. A knowl­
edge of paper technology is helpful
for administrators and sales occu­
pations. This is true especially for
salesmen who give customers techni­
cal assistance. Most pulp and paper
companies employ clerks, book­
keepers, stenographers, and typists
who have had commercial courses in
high school or business school.
For production workers, promo­
tion generally is limited to jobs with­
in a “work area,” which may be a

720

department, section, or an operation
on one type of machine. To become a
paper machine tender, for example,
the worker may start as a laborer,
wrapping and sealing finished rolls of
paper as they come off the paper­
making machine. As he gains experi­
ence and skill, he moves to more dif­
ficult assignments, finally he may be­
come a machine tender in charge of
operating a machine. These pro­
motions may take years, depending
on the availability of jobs. Experi­
ence gained within a work area usu­
ally is not transferable; unskilled or
semiskilled workers who transfer to
jobs outside their seniority area or to
other plants usually must start in en­
try jobs.
Many plant foremen and super­
visors are former production
workers. In some plants, qualified
workers may be promoted directly to
foremen or other supervisory posi­
tions. In others, workers are given
additional training before they are
eligible for promotion. This training
often is continued after the worker is
promoted—through conferences,
special plant training sessions, and
sometimes courses at universities or
trade schools. Most firms provide
some financial assistance for em­
ployees who take courses outside the
plant.
Employment Outlook

Employment in the paper and
allied products industry is expected
to grow moderately through the mid1980’s. Most openings, however, will
stem from the need to replace experi­
enced workers who retire, transfer to
jobs in other industries, or die.
Paper production is expected to in­
crease substantially as population
and businesses grow and new uses for
paper are developed. Rising popula­
tion, for example, will create a
greater demand for textbooks,



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK
Hourly rate
writing papers, magazines, and news­
ranges
papers. Business expansion will Production occupations:
heighten the need for paper prod­
Barker operator, drum ... $3.08-4.57
ucts, such as business forms and
Chipperman............ 2.87-4.03
packaging. Employment will grow at
Digester operator
(cook) ............................. 3.37-5.11
a slower rate than production, how­
Head stock preparer
ever, because of the increasing use of
(beater engineer) ........... 3.66-5.13
laborsaving machinery.
Beaterman ......................... 3.12-4.62
Occupational groups in the indus­
Paper machine tender . . . . 3.02-7.50
try are expected to grow at different
Backtender.............. 3.51-7.12
Supercalendar operator ... 3.52-4.74
rates. The numbers of engineers,

scientists, technicians, and mainte­
nance workers are expected to in­
crease faster than other occu­
pational groups in the industry.
More scientific and technical person­
nel will be needed as research and
development activities expand, and
more maintenance workers will be
required to service the growing in­
ventory of complex machinery.
Employment of administrative and
clerical workers also is expected to
rise at a faster pace than total
employment. The number of produc­
tion workers, on the other hand, may
decline slightly as more laborsaving
machinery is introduced. Never­
theless, replacement needs will create
many job openings for production
workers.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

Production workers in the paper
industry had average earnings of
$3.94 an hour in 1972. In the same
year, production workers in all
manufacturing industries averaged
$3.81 an hour.
The following tabulation, based on
information from a score of unionmanagement contracts in the paper
industry, illustrates the approximate
range of hourly wage rates for
selected production and mainte­
nance occupations in 1972. Local
rates within these ranges depend on
geographic location, type and size of
mill, kinds of machines used, and
other factors.

Maintenance occupations:
Pipefitter.................. 3.06-5.38
Machinists.............. 3.48-5.25
Electrician ......................... 3.11-5.21
Millwright ......................... 4.15-5.22

Most pulp and paper plants oper­
ate around the clock—three shifts a
day, 7 days a week. Production
workers can expect to work on eve­
ning or night shifts from time to time.
Maintenance workers usually are
employed on the regular day shift.
In most plants the standard work­
week is 40 hours; in a few it is 36
hours or less. Workers normally
have year-round employment be­
cause paper production is not subject
to seasonal variations.
Paid vacations and holidays are al­
most always provided. Pension plans
and life and health insurance usually
are financed completely or partially
by paper companies. Employee
stock-purchase and savings plans, to
which the company makes con­
tributions, are also available in some
firms.
Most pulp and papermaking jobs
do not require strenuous physical ef­
fort. Some employees, however,
work in hot, humid, and noisy areas.
They also may be exposed to dis­
agreeable odors from chemicals in
the papermaking process. The rate of
disabling injuries in this industry has
been about the same as the rate for
all manufacturing in recent years.
A majority of the production
workers are members of trade un­
ions. A large number belong to the

OCCUPATIONS IN THE PAPER AND ALLIED PRODUCTS INDUSTRIES

721
National Paper Box Manufacturers
Association, Inc., 121 North Broad
St., Philadelphia, Pa. 19107.
Paper Industry Management Associa­
tion, 2570 Devon Ave., Des Plaines,
111. 60018.

Sources of Additional
International Brotherhood of Pulp,
Information
Sulphite and Paper Mill Workers;
the United Papermakers and Paper- Further information about job op­
workers; or the Association of portunities in this industry is availa­
Western Pulp and Paper Workers. ble from local offices of the State
Many printing workers belong to the
Information on job opportunities
and from:
International Printing Pressmen and employment service Institute, 260 for paper and paper products sales­
American Paper
Assistants’ Union of North America.
men may be obtained from:
Madison Ave., New York, N.Y.
Some maintenance workers and
10016.
National Paper Trade Association,
other craftsmen belong to various
Fibre Box Association, 224 South
Inc., 420 Lexington Ave., New
craft unions.
Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. 60604.
York, N.Y. 10017.




OCCUPATIONS IN THE
PETROLEUM REFINING INDUSTRY
The petroleum and natural gas in­
dustries provide about 75 percent of
all the energy fuels consumed in this
country. Crude oil products supply
the fuels and lubricants used for
motor vehicles, locomotives, air­
craft, and ships. Oil and gas provide
much of the heat for homes, fac­
tories, and stores, as well as the fuel
for over one-quarter of the electric
power generated in this country. In
addition, basic petroleum com­
pounds are used to manufacture hun­
dreds of everyday products such as
synthetic rubber and plastics.
In 1972 about 150,000 workers,
who have a wide range of educa­
tional backgrounds and skills, were
employed in the petroleum refining
industry. This chapter deals only
with occupations and activities in­
volved in refining oil. Occupations in
petroleum and natural gas produc­
tion and processing are discussed in a
separate chapter elsewhere in the
Handbook.

refining consists of heating crude oil
as it flows through a series of pipes in
a furnace. The vapors from the
heated oil pass into a tower where the
various “fractions,” or parts, of the
oil are condensed. The heaviest parts
(for example, heavy fuel oils and
asphalt) are drawn off along the bot­
tom of the tower where tempera­
tures are highest; lighter parts, jet
fuel and diesel fuel are drawn off
along the middle of the tower; and
the lightest (gasoline and gases) are
taken off at the top where tempera­
tures are lowest. Further processing
by more complicated methods com­
bines or modifies compounds ob­
tained through fractionating. Treat­
ing units are used to remove water,
sulfur compounds, and other im­
purities.

About 250 refineries were in
operation in this country in 1972.
They ranged in size from plants with
fewer than 50 employees to those
with several thousand. Although
many States have refineries, about
80 percent of the crude oil was re­
fined in only 10 States: Texas, Cali­
fornia, Louisiana, Illinois, Pennsyl­
vania, Indiana, New Jersey, Ohio,
Oklahoma, and Kansas. Refineries
usually are located near oil fields, in­
dustrial centers, or deepwater ports
where tankers can dock.
Occupations In the
Industry

About 1 out of every 5 workers in
refineries is an operator. A key
worker in converting crude oil into
usable products is the Stillman
(D.O.T. 542.280), or chief operator,
who is responsible for one or more
processing units. The Stillman, with
help from assistant operators, makes
adjustments for changes in tempera­
ture, pressure, and oil flow. In the
modern refineries, operators can
watch instruments on panels that

Nature and Location
of the Industry

A modern refinery is a compli­
cated plant made up of tanks and
towers connected by a maze of pipes.
From the time crude oil enters the re­
finery to the shipment of finished
products, the flow of production is
almost continuous. Operators use in­
struments to measure and regulate
the flow, volume, temperature, and
pressure of liquids and gases going
through the equipment. Manual han­
dling of materials is virtually
eliminated.
Briefly, the first step in petroleum
722



Petroleum industry workers observing the control center of a refinery.

OCCUPATIONS IN THE PETROLEUM REFINING INDUSTRY

show the entire operation of all proc­
essing units in the refinery. From
time to time, they patrol units to
check their operating condition and
to test samples.
Other plant workers include
pumpmen or pumpers (D.O.T.
549.782) and their helpers (D.O.T.
549.884), who maintain and operate
pumps that circulate petroleum
products, chemicals and water; and
treaters (D.O.T. 549.782), who oper­
ate equipment to remove impurities
from gasoline, oil, and other
products.
Many refineries employ large
numbers of maintenance workers to
repair, rebuild, and clean equip­
ment. In other plants, maintenance
work is contracted to companies out­
side the petroleum industry. Mainte­
nance workers are needed because
high heat, pressure, and corrosion
quickly wear out the complex refin­
ing equipment. Included are skilled
boilermakers, electricians, instru­
ment repairmen, machinists, pipe­
fitters, sheetmetal workers, and
welders. Helpers and apprentices
also are in these trades. Some skilled
workers have a primary skill in one
craft as well as the ability to handle
closely related crafts. For example, a
pipefitter also may be a boilermaker
and welder. Maintenance workers
who have such combined jobs are
sometimes called refinery mechanics.
Plant workers who do not operate
or maintain equipment do many
other tasks. Some workers drive
delivery trucks; some load and un­
load materials on trucks, trains, or
ships; and others keep stock and tool
inventory records. The industry also
employs custodial workers such as
guards and watchmen.
About 14 percent of the workers in
petroleum refining are scientists,
engineers, and technicians. Among
these are chemists, chemical engi­
neers, mechanical engineers, waste
treatment engineers, laboratory tech­



nicians, and draftsmen. Chemists
and laboratory technicians control
the quality of petroleum products by
making tests and analyses to deter­
mine chemical and physical proper­
ties. Some chemists and chemical
engineers develop and improve prod­
ucts and processes. Laboratory tech­
nicians assist chemists in research
projects or do routine testing and
sample taking. Some engineers de­
sign chemical processing equipment
and plant layout, and others super­
vise refining processes. Waste treat­
ment engineers and technicians
supervise and improve treatment and
disposal of refinery waste waters and
gases. Draftsmen prepare plans and
drawings needed in refinery con­
struction and maintenance.
Refining companies employ many
administrative, clerical, and other
white-collar personnel. Adminis­
trative workers include managers,

723

accountants, purchasing agents, law­
yers, and personnel and training
specialists. Typists, secretaries,
bookkeepers, and business machine
operators assist administrative work­
ers. (Detailed discussions of profes­
sional, technical, mechanical, and
other occupations found not only in
petroleum refining but also in other
industries are presented elsewhere in
the Handbook.)
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

New plant workers usually begin
as aides in a labor pool where they
move materials, pack cartons, fill
barrels and do maintenance work.
They may be transferred to the proc­
essing department or maintenance
shop when a vacancy occurs. Apti­
tude testing and interviewing fre­
quently are used in selecting appli­
cants for plant jobs.

Oil industry scientists conduct experiments in oil company research.

724

Workers newly assigned to a proc­
essing department learn to operate
equipment under experienced oper­
ators. Helpers may advance to assist­
ant operator and then to chief oper­
ator. Formal training courses fre­
quently are given in plant operation.
A foreman trains inexperienced
workers in the maintenance shop.
Some refineries have classroom in­
struction related to particular work.
After 3 or 4 years, a person may ad­
vance from helper to skilled crafts­
man in one of the maintenance jobs.
Some large refineries train workers
in several crafts. For example, a
qualified instrument repairman may
be given electrician or machinist
training.
For scientists and engineers a
bachelor’s degree in an appropriate
field usually is the minimum educa­
tional requirement. Scientists and
engineers with advanced degrees are
preferred for research work. For
most laboratory assistant jobs, 2year technical school training is re­
quired.
Laboratory assistants begin in
routine jobs and advance to posi­
tions of greater responsibility as they
acquire experience and learn to work
without close supervision. Inexperi­
enced draftsmen begin as copyists or
tracers, and can advance to more
skilled drafting jobs.
Administrative positions gener­
ally are filled by men and women
who have college degrees in science
and engineering, accounting, indus­
trial relations, or other specialized
fields. For positions as clerks, book­
keepers, secretaries, and typists,
most refineries employ persons who
have had commercial courses in high
school or business school. For oc­
cupations associated with com­
puters, educational requirements
range from a high school level for
key punch operators to a college de­
gree in the physical science field for
analysts.



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK
Employment Outlook

Employment in petroleum refining
is expected to decline slowly through
the mid-1980’s. Nevertheless, job
openings will result from the need to
replace workers who retire, die, or
transfer to jobs in other industries.
Refinery output will rise rapidly to
meet the Nation’s growing demand
for petroleum products. Improved
methods of refining crude oil and
larger plants with greater capacity,
however, will increase output per
worker, and thus reduce employment
needs.
Most jobs will be for professional,
administrative, and technical work­
ers, particularly chemical and
mechanical engineers and tech­
nicians for research and develop­
ment. More maintenance workers,
such as electricians, pipefitters, and
instrument repairmen also will be
needed to take care of the increasing
amount of automated equipment and
complex control instruments.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

Refinery workers are among the
highest paid employees in manufac­
turing. In 1972 production workers
in petroleum refining averaged $5.25
an hour, compared with an average
of $3.81 an hour for production
workers in manufacturing industries
as a whole. Refinery workers have
better-than-average earnings be­
cause a large proportion are skilled.
Entry salaries for chemical engi­
neers in the petroleum refining indus­
try were among the highest in
American industry, according to a
survey conducted by the American
Chemical Society in 1972. The aver­
age monthly salary for chemists who
have a bachelor’s degree and no ex­
perience was $800, and for chemical
engineers $950.
Most petroleum refinery workers
receive a 2-week vacation with pay

after 1 year of service; 3 weeks after
5 years; 4 weeks after 10 years; and 5
weeks after 20 years. Refinery work­
ers also receive paid holidays. Most
refineries have health and life insur­
ance and pension plans for their
employees. Employee stock-purchase and savings plans, to which the
employer makes contributions, are
offered by many firms.
Because petroleum is refined
around-the-clock, operators may be
assigned to any one of the three
shifts, or they may be rotated on
various shifts. Some operators work
weekends and get days off during the
week. Employees usually receive
additional pay for shift work. Most
maintenance workers are on duty
during the day. The industry has lit­
tle seasonal variation and regular
workers have year-round jobs.
Most refinery jobs require only
moderate physical effort. A few
workers, however, have to open and
close heavy valves and climb stairs
and ladders to considerable heights.
Others may work in hot places or
may be exposed to unpleasant odors.
Refineries are relatively safe. The in­
jury frequency rate has been less than
half the rate for manufacturing as a
whole.
Most refinery workers are union
members and belong to the Oil,
Chemical and Atomic Workers
International Union. Some refinery
workers are members of AFL-CIO
craft unions or of various independ­
ent unions.
Sources off Additional
Information

More information on job oppor­
tunities in the petroleum refining in­
dustry may be obtained from the per­
sonnel offices of individual oil com­
panies. General information on jobs
in the industry is available from:
National Petroleum Refiners Associa­
tion, 1725 DeSales St. NW„ Wash­
ington, D.C. 20036.

O C C U P A TIO N S IN TH E
PRINTING IN D U S TR Y

Printing is both an art and one of
our chief means of communication.
In 1972, the printing and publishing
industry employed about 1.1 million
workers. Government agencies and
private firms that do their own print­
ing, such as banks and insurance
companies, also employed thou­
sands of printing workers.
Nature and Location
of the Industry

Included in the industry are the
printing and publishing of news­
papers, magazines, books, and
advertising matter; the production of
business forms; the production of
greeting cards and gift wrappings;
commercial or job printing; book­
binding; and the provision of type­
setting, photoengraving, platemak­
ing, and other printing services, pri­
marily for printing establishments.
In 1972, the largest division in
terms of employment was news­
paper printing and publishing, with
over 375,000 employees. Most daily
and many weekly newspapers
throughout the Nation do their own
printing. Although some major
newspapers have more than 2,000
employees many have fewer than 20.
Commercial printing shops, the
second largest division of the indus­
try employed about 344,000 work­
ers. These shops produce a variety of
materials, including advertising
matter, business cards, calendars,
catalogs, labels, maps, and pam­
phlets. They also print limited-run
newspapers, books, and magazines.
Many commercial shops have sev­
eral hundred workers, but employ­



ment is concentrated in smaller
shops.
Printing jobs are found through­
out the country. Almost every town
has at least one printing shop—fre­
quently, a small newspaper plant
that also may do other printing.
However, more than half of the
Nation’s printing employees are in
five States—New York, Illinois,
California, Pennsylvania, and Ohio.
Within these States, most printing
activities are in or near manufac­
turing, commercial, or financial
areas such as New York, Chicago,
Los Angeles, Philadelphia, San
Francisco-Oakland, Cincinnati, and
Cleveland. Other leading centers of
printing employment are Boston,
Detroit, Minneapolis-St. Paul,
Washington, D.C., St. Louis, and
Baltimore. Employment in book and
magazine printing is highly concen­
trated in these areas. A much larger
proportion of employment in news­
paper plants is found outside these
centers because of the great number
of small local newspapers.
Printing Methods

Printing is a means of transfer­
ring ink impressions of words and
pictures to paper, metal, or other
materials and printing methods have
common characteristics. A plate of
metal, wood, linoleum, rubber, or
plastic is prepared so that part of it
can be covered with ink. The ink is
then transferred to a sheet of paper
or other material that is pressed
against the plate.
In relief printing, the letters and
images stand up from the rest of the

printing plate. Ink is rolled over the
raised surface and then paper is
pressed against it. In gravure print­
ing, the image is etched into the sur­
face of the plate. The whole surface
is covered with ink and then wiped
off; ink is left only in the sunken or
etched areas. When paper is pressed
against the surface, the ink is lifted
out and appears on the paper. In
lithography (offset printing), the
printing plate surface is smooth, with
both image and nonimage areas on
the same level. Lithography is based
on the principle that grease and
water do not mix. The plate’s image
areas are coated with a substance to
make the greasy printing ink stick to
the plate and then moistened with
water so that only the image areas
take up the ink. The inked image is
transferred from the plate to a
rubber blanket and then to the paper.
Screen printing is a method in
which inks or other materials such as
paint and varnish are forced through
a stencil mounted on a finely woven
screen. The shape of the stencil open­
ings determines the design to be
printed. This process may be ap­
plied to a variety of surfaces such as
paper, glass, metal, plastic, and tex­
tiles.
Printing Occupations

Production of printed materials
requires workers in a wide variety of
occupations. Printing craftsmen
represent a large segment of these
employees. They usually specialize in
one area of printing operations: type
composition, photography, plate­
making, presswork, or binding.
Their training generally is confined
largely to only one of the basic print­
ing methods—letterpress, lithog­
raphy, or gravure. Some of the prin­
cipal printing crafts are briefly de­
scribed below. Detailed information
on these crafts is presented in the sec­
tion on printing occupations, else­
where in the Handbook.
725

726

The printing process begins in a
composing room where manuscript
copy is set in type, proofed, and
checked for errors. Machine and
handset type and other materials
such as photoengravings are assem­
bled there and prepared for the
pressroom.
In 1972, about 40 percent of all
printing craftsmen—170,000—were
employed in composing room oc­
cupations. This group includes com­
positors (D.O.T. 973.381) who set
type by hand or machine; typesetter
perforator operator (D.O.T.
208.588) who punch tapes used to
operate some typesetting machines;
bankmen (D.O.T. 973.381) who
assemble type in shallow trays called
“galleys” and make trial copy of this
type; proofreaders (D.O.T. 209.688)
who check the trial copy with the
original copy for errors; and make­
up men (D.O.T. 973.381) who
assemble type and photoengravings.
Electrotypers and stereotypers
(D.O.T. 974.381 and 975.782) make
duplicate press plates of metal, rub­
ber, and plastic for letterpress print­
ing. These plates are made from the
metal type forms prepared in the
composing room. Electrotypes are
used mainly in book and magazine
work. Stereotypes, which are less
durable, are used chiefly in news­
paper work.
Photoengravers (D.O.T. 971.381)
make metal printing plates of illus­
trations and other copy that cannot
be set up in type. The printing sur­
faces on these plates stand out in re­
lief above the nonprinting spaces, as
do the letters and the accompanying
type. Similarly, gravure photo­
engravers (D.O.T. 971.381), a
specialized type of photoengraver,
make gravure plates in which the im­
age is etched below the surface for
use in reproducing pictures and type.
The actual printing operation is
performed in the pressroom. Print­
ing pressmen (D.O.T. 651.782, .885



and .886) “makeready” (prepare)
type forms and press plates for final
printing and tend the presses while
they are in operation. Small com­
mercial shops generally have small
and relatively simple presses that
often are fed paper by hand. At the
other extreme are the enormous
presses used by the larger news­
paper, magazine, and book printing
plants. They automatically print the
paper and cut, assemble, and fold the
pages. These machines are operated
by crews of pressmen assisted by less
skilled workers.
Lithography (offset printing) is
growing in importance. Practically
all items printed by other processes
also can be produced by lithog­
raphy. Lithography is a process of
photographing the matter to be
printed, making a printing plate
from the photograph and pressing
the inked plate against a rubber
blanket which in turn presses it onto
the paper. Several operations are in­
volved in lithography, and each is
performed by a specialized group of
workers. The main group of litho­
graphic workers are cameramen
(D.O.T. 972.382), artists and letterers (D.O.T. 971.281), strippers
(D.O.T. 971.381), platemakers
(D.O.T. 972.381), and pressmen
(D.O.T. 651.885).
Because of the increasingly com­
plex and highly mechanized printing
equipment in use today, the need is
growing for technically trained peo­
ple in all areas of printing manage­
ment and production. For example,
an increasing number of production
technicians (D.O.T. 019.281) are em­
ployed to see that the standards for
each printing job are met.
Many printed items, such as
books, magazines, pamphlets, busi­
ness forms, and calendars, must be
folded, sewed, stapled, or bound
after they leave the printing shops.
Much of this work is done by skilled
bookbinders. In many binderies,

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

however, the work is done mostly by
semiskilled assemblers.
Besides printing craftsmen, the in­
dustry employs people in a variety of
other occupations. Many mailroom
workers are employed in news­
papers and magazine plants to ad­
dress, bundle, and tie the printed
matter for distribution. Modern
mailroom processes are mechanized
to a considerable extent. Mailers
operate addressing, stamping, stack­
ing, bundling, and tying machines.
Many large printing firms employ
mechanics and machinists to repair
and adjust typesetting machines,
printing presses, and other equip­
ment.
Printing firms employ a great
many people as executives, sales­
men, accountants, engineers, com­
puter programers, stenographers,
clerks, and laborers. Newspapers
and other publishers employ a con­
siderable number of reporters,
editors, and photographers. These
occupations are discussed elsewhere
in the Handbook.
Training and Other Qualifications

Most training authorities recom­
mend apprenticeship as the best way
to learn printing trades. A sub­
stantial number of people, however,
learn these trades by working as
helpers or through a combination of
work experience and schooling.
Printing apprenticeships usually
last from 4 to 6 years, depending on
the occupation and shop or area
practices. The apprenticeship pro­
grams cover all phases of a particu­
lar trade and generally include class­
room or correspondence study in re­
lated technical subjects and on-thejob training. Apprenticeship appli­
cants generally are required to be be­
tween 18 and 30 years of age and
must pass a physical examination.
However, in many printing crafts
there is no maximum age limit for
applicants.

OCCUPATIONS IN THE PRINTING INDUSTRY

Most employers prefer applicants
to have a high school education or its
equivalent. A thorough knowledge of
spelling, punctuation, the funda­
mentals of grammar, and basic
mathematics is essential in many of
the printing trades. A knowledge of
the basic principles of chemistry,
electronics, and physics is becoming
increasingly important because of
the growing use of photomechanical
and electronic processes in printing.
An artistic sense also is an asset since
the finished product should be pleas­
ing in balance and design. Most
printing crafts require people with
good eyesight, about average physi­
cal strength, and a high degree of
manual dexterity. Mental alertness,
patience, and the ability to work with
others are also necessary. The abil­
ity to distinguish colors is important
in areas of printing where color is us­
ed. Many employers require appli­
cants to take one or more aptitude
tests developed for printing oc­
cupations. Apprentices often are
chosen from among the young people
already employed in various un­
skilled jobs in printing plants.
About 4,000 schools — high
schools, vocational schools, tech­
nical institutes, and colleges—offer
courses in printing. These courses
may help a young person to be
selected for apprenticeships or other
job openings in the printing and
publishing industry.
Administrative jobs are usually
filled by upgrading experienced peo­
ple. Many owners and production
managers of printing firms have
come from the ranks of printing
craftsmen. In recent years, however,
more firms are filling administrative
positions with people who have col­
lege degrees in business adminis­
tration, marketing, accounting, in­
dustrial relations, or other special­
ized business fields. Most firms hire
clerks, bookkeepers, stenographers,
and typists who have completed



commercial courses in high school or
business school.
Although many computer pro­
grammers in the printing industry
have technical school training, many
learn their skills on the job. Also,
many compositors and typesetters
are being taught computer program­
ming skills, and the International
Typographic Union has established a
training center for this purpose.
Employment Outlook

Employment in the printing and
publishing industry is expected to
grow moderately through the mid1980’s. In addition to the job open­
ings that will result from employ­
ment growth, many openings will oc­
cur from the need to replace experi­
enced workers who retire, die, or
transfer to other industries.
The volume of printed material is
expected to increase rapidly because
of population growth, the increas­
ingly high literacy level of the popu­
lation, and the trend to greater use of
printed materials for information,
packaging, and various industrial
and commercial purposes. Employ­
ment will grow at a slower rate than
the volume of printing, however, be­
cause of laborsaving technological
changes in printing methods.
Occupational groups in the indus­
try are expected to increase at differ­
ent rates. Employment of adminis­
trative, technical, maintenance, and
clerical workers will increase at a
faster pace than total employment.
Employment growth will vary
among the printing crafts. The num­
ber of lithographic craftsmen, for ex­
ample, is expected to increase be­
cause of the growing use of lithog­
raphy. On the other hand, since
lithography does not require photo­
engraving, employment of photo­
engravers is expected to decline. The
trend to computerization of typeset­
ting operations will reduce the need

727

for some machine operators in com­
posing rooms while creating a de­
mand for more computer pro­
gramed. More mechanics will be
hired to maintain the industry’s in­
creasingly complex machinery.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

Earnings of production workers in
the printing and publishing industry,
including unskilled and semiskilled
workers and printing craftsmen, are
among the highest in manufac­
turing. In 1972 production workers
in this industry averaged $4.48 an
hour, while those in manufacturing
industries as a whole averaged $3.81.
The accompanying tabulation
shows the average union minimum
hourly rates for selected printing oc­
cupations in 1972 based on a survey
of 69 large cities. These are the mini­
mum basic rates for daywork, and do
not include overtime, other special
payments, or bonuses.
Most printing craftsmen who are
covered by union contracts work
fewer than 40 hours a week. Some
contracts specify a standard work­
week of less than 35 hours, but most
fall within a 35 to 37-1/2 hour range.
Time and a half generally is paid for
overtime. Work on Sundays and
holidays is paid for at time and onehalf or doubletime rates in most
commercial printing firms. In news­
paper plants, however, the crafts­
men’s workweek often includes Sun­
days. Time and one-half or double
time is paid for these days only when
they are not part of the employee’s
regular shift. Night-shift workers
generally receive pay differentials
above the standard day rates.
The starting wage rates of appren­
tices are generally from 40 to 50 per­
cent of the basic rate for journey­
men in the shop. Wages are in­
creased periodically, usually every 6
months, until the apprentice reaches
the journeyman rate.

728

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK
A verage minimum hourly rate
July I, 1972
Newspaper_________ Book andjob shops
$ 5.86
Bookbinders..............................................
—
Compositors:
$ 5.94
6.06
Hand......................................................
6.06
5.99
Machine operators...............................
5.58
Electrotypers ............................................
6.46
Photoengravers ........................................
5.80
Pressmen (journeymen)...........................
5.92
Pressmen (cylinder).............................
5.49
Pressmen (platen) ...............................
5.72
5.85
Stereotypers..............................................
5.55
Mailers......................................................
—

—
—

—
—

obtained from local employers, such
as newspapers and printing shops,
local offices of the unions men­
tioned above, or the local office of
State employment services. Some
State employment service offices
screen applicants and give aptitude
tests.
General information on the print­
ing industry may be obtained from
the following organizations:

—

Most employers provide paid
vacation ranging from 1 to 4 weeks,
depending on the employee’s length
of service. Other benefits, such as
paid holidays, retirement plans, and
life and health insurance, also are
common.
The injury-frequency rate in the
printing industry is somewhat lower
than the average for all manufac­
turing industries.
A large proportion of the printing
trades workers are members of un­
ions affiliated with the AFL-CIO.
The largest printing trades unions
are the Graphic Arts Union, the
International Printing Pressmen and
Assistants’ Union of North America,
the International Typographical




Union, and the Lithographers and
Photoengravers Union. Other print­
ing trades unions include the Inter­
national Brotherhood of Book­
binders, the International Stereo­
typers’ and Electrotypers’ Union of
North America, and the Inter­
national Mailers Union (Ind.). Most
unionized lithographic workers are
in plants under contract with the
Graphic Arts Union, which includes
both printing craftsmen and other
lithographic workers.

American Newspaper Publishers
Association, 750 Third Ave., New
York, N.Y. 10017.
Graphic Arts Technical Foundation,
4615 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa.
15213.
Gravure Technical Institute, 60 East
42d St., New York, N.Y. 10020.
International Typographical Union,
P.O. Box 157, Colorado Springs,
Colo. 80901.
Printing Industries of America, Inc.,
1730 North Lynn St., Arlington,
Va. 22201.

(See the section on Printing Oc­
cupations elsewhere in the Hand­
Sources of Additional
book for names of labor organiza­
Information
tions and trade associations that can
Details about employment oppor­ provide more information on spe­
tunities and apprenticeships may be cific printing trades.)

TRANSPORTATION, COMMUNICATIONS, AND
PUBLIC UTILITIES
The transportation, communica­
tions, and public utility industries
produce most of the energy that
powers, heats, and lights our fac­
tories and homes. The transporta­
tion industry moves goods and peo­
ple by air, rail, water, and highway;
the communications industry pro­
vides communications systems such
as telephones and radio and TV
broadcasting. Other public utilities
supply the Nation with electricity,
gas, and sanitation services.
Transportation, communications,
and public utility firms are semi­
public in character. Some State and
local governments operate their own
transit lines or electric companies as
well as other types of utilities. Pri­
vately owned transportation and
public utility firms are regulated
closely by commissions or by other
public authorities to make sure they
operate in the public interest.
In 1972, 4.5 million people worked
in the transportation, communica­
tions, and public utility industry
group. In addition, more than onehalf million persons held jobs with
State and local governments in pub­
licly owned transit and utility sys­
tems. Almost half of the workers in
this major industry group worked in
two industries: the communications
industry, with 1.1 million workers
(including telephone, telegraph, and
radio and TV broadcasting); and the
motor freight industry, with 1
million workers (including local and
long-distance trucking). Electric,
gas, and sanitary services companies
employed about 720,000 workers
and railroads about 575,000. Other



industries employing a significant
number of workers were air trans­
portation and local and interurban
passenger transit. The remaining
workers were employed by firms that
provide water and pipeline transpor­
tation and transportation services.
As shown in the accompanying
tabulation, blue-collar workers made
up 60 percent of all workers in the
transportation, communications,
and public utility industry group in
1972. Operatives alone accounted for
26 percent of the total. Most of these
semiskilled workers are truck, bus,
and taxi drivers, and railroad brakemen and switchmen. Craftsmen,
foremen, and kindred workers made
up another 22 percent. Among the
major occupations in this group are
airplane mechanic, motor vehicle
mechanic, telephone lineman, and
locomotive engineer. Another 9 per­
cent were laborers, such as material
handlers and truckdrivers’ helpers.
Forty percent of the industry
group’s employees were white-collar
workers, mostly in clerical occupa­
tions such as telephone operator,
ticket agent, secretary, and book­
keeper. Eight percent of all em­
ployees were managerial workers,
and 7 percent were professional and
technical workers. Many of the pro­
fessional and technical workers are
in the communications industry,
where, in addition to large numbers
of engineers and technicians, many
actors, entertainers, and writers are
employed.
Percent
Major occupational group of workers
All workers...............................
100

White-collar workers...............
Professional, technical,
and kindred workers . . . .
Managers, officials, and
proprietors.......................
Clerical and kindred workers
Sales workers.......................
Blue-collar workers.................
Craftsmen, foremen, and
kindred workers...............
Operatives and kindred
workers.............................
Service workers...................
Laborers...............................

40
7
8
24
1
60
22
26
3
9

Employment in the transporta­
tion, communications, and public
utility industry group is expected to
increase slowly through the mid1980’s. In addition to openings re­
sulting from growth, many thou­
sands of jobs will be available each
year because of the need to replace
workers who die or retire. Transfers
of employees to other industries will
provide still more opportunities.
Employment growth in individual
industries will vary significantly. In­
creasing popularity of air transpor­
tation for both passengers and cargo
will spur continued rapid employ­
ment growth in this area. Rising pop­
ulation, business expansion, and
growth of suburbs will stimulate em­
ployment in trucking. On the other
hand, little employment change is ex­
pected in local and interurban pas­
senger transportation (buses, taxis,
and subways) because consumers
probably will continue to rely heavily
on private automobiles. The long run
decline in railroad employment is ex­
pected to continue, but at a decreas­
ing rate.
729

730

Employment in communications is
expected to grow slowly through the
mid-1980’s. Although demand for
the industry’s services will increase
rapidly, advances in technology are
expected to limit employment
growth, particularly in telephone
communications. Computers and




other electronic equipment are ex­
pected to be applied increasingly to
work previously done by wage
earners. Employment in electric and
gas utilities also will be affected
strongly by advancing technology
and will grow slowly despite rapid in­
creases in output.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

The statements that follow cover
major industries in the transporta­
tion, communications, and public
utility fields. More detailed in­
formation about particular occupa­
tions in these fields appears else­
where in the Handbook.

employment. They include the pilots,
copilots and flight engineers who fly
the planes and the flight attendants
who assist passengers. Detailed dis­
cussions of most of the principal oc­
CIVIL AVIATION
cupations in civil aviation are pre­
sented elsewhere in the Handbook in
the section on Air Transportation
The rapid development of air NTSB investigates aircraft ac­ Occupations.
transportation has increased the mo­ cidents.
bility of the population and has In 1972, about 360,000 civil avia­
created many thousands of job op­ tion employees worked for domestic Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
portunities in the civil aviation in­ airlines. In addition, several thou­
dustry. In 1972 about 500,000 people sand were employed in the United Jobs are available to young per­
were employed in a variety of inter­ States by foreign airlines that serve sons with a wide variety of training
esting and responsible occupations in this country. Most of the remaining and backgrounds. Although some
this industry.
civil aviation employees worked for jobs require previous training and
firms that fly and maintain their own
aircraft and for firms that repair air­ may require certificates from the
Federal Aviation Administration
Characteristics of the
craft. Others worked for the Federal (FAA), others can be learned on the
Industry
Government. In 1972, the FAA
Many different organizations and employed about 52,000 people, and job.
Pilots and copilots usually have an
many different activities are grouped the CAB about 650.
in civil aviation. The most familiar About half of all airline em­ air transport or commercial pilot’s
are airlines that provide transporta­ ployees work at airports near New certificate from the FAA when they
tion for passengers and cargo. Air­ York, Miami, Chicago, Los Angeles, begin work. They also must have an
lines account for more than three San Francisco, and Dallas, the cities instrument rating to fly when the
times as much intercity passenger where major airlines are based. weather is bad. As a rule, airline
travel as buses and railroads com­ Others work at similar airports pilots and copilots begin as flight
bined.
scattered throughout the country. engineers.
The civil aviation industry also in­ Most other civil aviation employees Young people may obtain pilot
cludes other kinds of flying, as well work near cities although some are training from military or civilian fly­
ing schools. Physical requirements
as government licensed aircraft employed in small communities.
are high. With or without glasses,
repair shops. Many businesses trans­
they must have 20/20 vision, good
port executives in company planes. Civil Aviation Occupations
hearing and no physical handicaps
Some firms use their own planes for
crop dusting, inspecting pipelines, About four-fifths of all civil avia­ that prevent quick reactions. In ad­
tion employees work in ground oc­ dition, airlines generally require two
and other activities.
The regulatory and accident in­ cupations. Many of these are me­ years of college and prefer college
vestigation functions of the Federal chanics and aircraft maintenance graduates. Before qualified pilots can
Aviation Administration (FAA), the personnel. These workers refuel, fly as a flight engineer, they must ob­
Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB), and clean, inspect, and repair the planes tain a flight engineer’s certificate
the National Transportation Safety between flights. Other large groups from the FAA.
Board (NTSB)—all part of the make reservations and sell tickets for Although most flight attendants
Federal government, are another the airline companies. Some are air are women, present airline policy
part of civil aviation. The FAA traffic controllers and flight service permits men and women to compete
develops air safety regulations, co­ specialists for the Federal Aviation equally for available jobs. Appli­
ordinates flights, operates ground Administration. Other ground cants must be in excellent health, and
navigation equipment, and licenses workers included cargo and freight those who have some college and
personnel such as pilots, dis­ handlers, and clerical, administra­ have experience in dealing with the
public are preferred. Applicants are
patchers, and aircraft mechanics. tive, and professional personnel.
The CAB makes policy on matters Flight crew members make up the trained for their jobs at company
such as airline rates and routes. The remaining one-fifth of civil aviation schools.



731

732

When hiring aircraft mechanic
trainees or apprentices, employers
prefer high school or trade school
graduates who are in good physical
condition. Experience in automotive
repairs or other mechanical work
also is helpful. Most mechanics re­
main in the maintenance field, but
they may advance to head me­
chanics, inspectors, and in a few
cases, supervisory and executive
positions. Some jobs require aircraft
mechanics to be certified by the FAA
as an airframe mechanic, a power
plant mechanic, or both.
New reservation and ticket agents
are trained by the company. A good
speaking voice and a pleasant per­
sonality are necessary, because such
personnel deal directly with the
public. A high school education is
required.
Air traffic controllers are selected
through the competitive Federal
Civil Service Systems. Applicants
must pass a rigid physical examina­
tion and a written test. The FAA
trains new workers on the job and at
the FAA Academy. All workers
must be certified by FAA examiners
before they can work as controllers.
Controllers can advance to the job of
chief controller and to higher man­
agement jobs in air traffic control.
Com pletion of com mercial
courses in high school or business
school is usually adequate for entry
into general clerical occupations
such as secretary or typist. Addi­
tional on-the-job training is needed
for specialized clerical occupations,
such as bookkeeper.
Administrative and sales posi­
tions are usually filled by college
graduates who have majored in busi­
ness administration, marketing, ac­
counting, industrial relations, or
transportation. Some companies
have management training pro­
grams for college graduates in which
trainees work for brief periods in
various departments to get a broad




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

picture of air transportation opera­ may fly at greatly reduced rates with
tions, before they are assigned to a other airlines.
Airlines operate flights at all hours
particular department.
of the day and night. Personnel in
some occupations, therefore, often
have irregular hours or work sched­
Employment Outlook
ules. Maximum hours of work per
The total number of workers in month for workers in flight occupa­
civil aviation occupations is ex­ tions have been established by the
pected to increase rapidly through FAA. Flight personnel may be away
the mid-1980’s if fuel shortages do from their home bases about onethird of the time or more. When they
not continue.
Airline employment will increase are away from home, the airlines
rapidly as passenger and cargo provide living accommodations or
traffic grow in response to increases pay expenses.
in population, income, and business Ground personnel, such as dis­
activity. The trend to longer vaca­ patchers and mechanics, usually
tions and reduced fares on some do­ work a 5-day 40- hour week. Their
mestic and overseas flights also will working hours, however, often in­
stimulate passenger traffic. Employ­ clude nights, weekends, or holidays.
ment in other civil aviation activities Ground personnel generally receive
is expected to rise rapidly as more extra pay for overtime work or an
aircraft are purchased for business, equal amount of time off.
agricultural, fire fighting, and rec­ Airline employees usually receive
reation purposes.
vacation with pay, de­
Employment trends will differ 2 to 4 weeks oflength of service. They
pending upon
among occupations. Employment of also receive paid sick leave, retire­
flight attendants and reservation and ment benefits,
and
ticket agents, for example, is ex­ surance. FAAand lifeotherhealth in­
and
Federal
pected to grow very rapidly as more government employees receive 13 to
people travel by air. On the other 26 days of annual leave and 13 days
hand, air traffic controller employ­ of sick leave a year, as well as retire­
ment will grow moderately because ment, life insurance, and health
new equipment will permit them to benefits.
direct more planes.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

Airline employees earned an aver­
age of $13,921 a year in 1972, about
twice the average for all nonsupervisory workers in private industry,
except farming. Among the major
occupations, beginning salaries rang­
ed from $650 a month for ticket
agents to $3,000 a month for airline
captains.
As a rule, airline employees and
their immediate families are entitled
to a limited amount of free or re­
duced-fare transportation on their
companies’ flights. In addition, they

Sources of Additional
Information

Information about job opportu­
nities in a particular airline may be
obtained by writing to the personnel
manager of the company. Addresses
of companies are available from the
Air Transport Association of Amer­
ica, 1000 Connecticut Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.
Inquiries about jobs with the FAA
should be addressed to the personnel
department at the nearest FAA
regional office. Addresses of the
regional offices are available from:

CIVIL AVIATION
Personnel Operations Division,
Federal Aviation Administration,
800 Independence Ave. SW.,
Washington, D.C. 20591

733

proved schools that offer training for Service AIS-200, Federal Aviation
aircraft mechanics, pilots, or other Administration, Washington, D.C.
technical Fields in aviation may be 20591.
obtained from the Research and In­
quiry Division, Office of Information
Information concerning FAA-ap-




OCCUPATIONS IN THE
ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY

steam generating stations, however,
use nuclear energy. A considerable
amount of electricity also is pro­
duced in hydroelectric generating
stations which use water power to
operate the turbines. Some genera­
tors, primarily for use in standby
service or to provide electricity for
special purposes, are powered by
diesel engines or combustion tur­
bines.
After electricity is generated, it
passes through a “switchyard” where
the voltage is increased so that the
electricity may travel long distances
without excessive loss of power. The
electricity passes onto transmission
lines that carry it from the generat­
ing plant to substations, where the
voltage is decreased and passed on to
the distribution networks serving in­
dividual customers. Transmission
lines tie together the generating sta­
tions of a single system and also the
power facilities of several systems. In
this way, power can be interchanged
among several utility systems to
meet varying demands.
In 1972, 520,000 people worked in
the electric power industry. Most of
them, 450,000, worked in privately
owned utilities and cooperatives and
70,000 worked in Federal and

ed by cooperatives; others are owned
by cities, counties, and public utility
districts, as well as by the Federal
Government. While some utilities
generate, transmit, and distribute
only electricity, others distribute
both electricity and gas. This chapter
is concerned with employment relat­
ing only to the production and dis­
tribution of electric power.
Producing and distributing large
quantities of electrical energy in­
volves many processes and activi­
ties. The accompanying chart shows
how electric energy is generated, and
how it travels from the generating
station to the users. The first step in
providing electrical energy occurs in
a generating station or plant, where
Nature and Location
huge generators convert mechanical
of the Industry
energy into electricity. Electricity is
The delivery of electricity to the produced primarily in steamuser at the instant he needs it is the powered generating plants which use
distinctive feature of the operation of coal, gas, or oil for fuel. Some new
electric power systems. Electricity
cannot be stored efficiently but must
be used as it is produced. Because a
H ow Electricity is Made and Brought to
customer can begin or increase his
the Users
use of electric power at any time by
Generating Plant
High Voltage Transmission
merely flicking a switch, an electric
utility system must have sufficient
capacity to meet peak consumer
needs at any time.
An electric utility system includes
High Voltage Distribution in Cities
Office buildings and||
» stores
power plants that generate electric
power, substations that increase or
decrease the voltage of the power,
and vast networks of transmission
and distribution lines. Electric
Low Voltage Residential and Commercial Distribution
utilities range from large systems
serving broad regional areas to small
power companies serving individual
Stores
Schools
communities. Most electric utilities
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics.
are investor-owned (private) or own­

Electricity has become so much a
part of our daily lives that most peo­
ple take it for granted. But, just im­
agine not being able to ride the ele­
vator to your apartment and instead
having to walk up all those flights of
stairs! Or, think about having no
lights, televisions, or radios in your
home! Today, it would be difficult to
get used to living without electricity.
Bringing electricity into our homes
and places of work and recreation is
not as simply done as just turning on
a switch. There are thousands of men
and women working in the electric
power industry to make all this
possible.

133,000 V

.••‘**120/240

734



24

OCCUPATIONS IN THE ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY

municipal government utilities. A
few large manufacturing establish­
ments, which produce electric power
for their own use, also employ elec­
tric power workers.
Since electricity reaches almost
every locality, jobs in this industry
are found throughout the country.
Although hydroelectric power proj­
ects have created jobs in relatively
isolated areas, most utility jobs are
still found in heavily populated urban
areas, especially where there are
many industrial users, or where a
large utility has its headquarters.
Electric Utility Occupations. Many
different types of workers are re­
quired in the electric power in­
dustry. About 40 percent of the in­
dustry’s employees work in occupa­
tions related to the generation, trans­
mission, and distribution of electri­
city, and in customer service occu­
pations. (These occupations are dis­
cussed in detail later in this chapter.)
The industry also employs large
numbers of workers in engineering,
scientific, administrative, sales, cleri­
cal, and maintenance occupations. A
brief discussion on these occupa­
tions is given below. Further in­
formation can be found in state­
ments covering individual occupa­
tions elsewhere in the Handbook.
Engineering and Scientific Oc­
cupations. Engineers plan generat­
ing plant additions, interconnections
of complex power systems, and in­
stallations of new transmission and
distribution equipment. They super­
vise construction, develop improved
operating methods, and test the effi­
ciency of the many types of electri­
cal equipment. In planning modern
power systems, engineers help select
plant sites, types of fuel, and types of
plants. Engineers also help in­
dustrial and commercial customers
make the best use of electric power.
They stimulate greater use of elec­
tricity by demonstrating the ad­



vantages of electrical equipment and
suggesting places where electricity
can be used more effectively.
Administrative and Clerical Oc­
cupations. Because of the enormous
amount of recordkeeping required,
electric utilities employ a high pro­
portion of administrative and cleri­
cal personnel. Many of these workers
are women. Large numbers of ste­
nographers, typists, bookkeepers, of­
fice machine operators, file clerks,
accounting and auditing clerks, and
cashiers are employed. These
workers keep records of the services
rendered by the company, make up
bills for customers, and prepare a
variety of statements and statistical
reports. An increasing amount of
this work in the larger offices now is
being performed by the use of elec­
tronic data processing equipment.
This generally results in more cleri­
cal work being done with the same
number of employees or even fewer.
The use of this equipment also
creates requirements for pro­
gramed and computer operators.
Administrative employees include
accountants, personnel officers, pur­
chasing agents, and lawyers.
Maintenance Occupations. A con­
siderable number of workers test,
maintain, and repair equipment. The
duties of these skilled craftsmen are
similar to those of maintenance
workers in other industries. Among
the more important skilled workers
are electricians, instrument repair­
men, maintenance mechanics, ma­
chinists, pipefitters, and boiler­
makers.

735

replace workers who retire, die, or
leave the industry for other reasons.
All types of consumers will re­
quire more and more electricity. The
widening use of electric power in in­
dustrial processes will spur in­
dustry’s demand for electricity. At
the same time, commercial buyers
will need more electricity because of
the construction of new store and of­
fice buildings, and the moderniza­
tion of existing ones. Residential cus­
tomers will increase their use of elec­
tric power for heating and air-condi­
tioning and for an increasing number
and variety of appliances.
The growing use of automatic con­
trols in this highly mechanized in­
dustry, however, will allow sharp in­
creases in electric power production
with only minor increases in em­
ployment. The number of powerplant and customer service workers
should remain approximately at its
present level while the number of
transmission and distribution
workers is expected to increase
slightly. There will be many open­
ings for maintenance and repair
workers to keep complex machinery
in good working order.
Because of the increasing use of
electronic data processing equip­
ment for billing and record-keeping,
only a small increase in office em­
ployment is expected. However, the
relatively high turnover in office jobs
will provide many openings for new
workers each year. Some increase in
employment also is expected in ad­
ministrative jobs; in scientific, en­
gineering, and other technical jobs;
and in areas such as sales and market
development.

Employment Outlook
Earnings and Working
Although the production and use
Conditions
of electric power will increase sub­
stantially, employment in the in­ Earnings in the electric utility in­
dustry is expected to grow slowly dustry are relatively high. In 1972,
through the mid-1980’s. Most job nonsupervisory employees in private
openings will result from the need to electric power companies averaged

736

$4.89 an hour, about one-third more
than the average for nonsupervisory
workers in private industry as a
whole, except farming.
Many nonsupervisory electric
utility workers in production, trans­
mission, and distribution depart­
ments are union members. The bar­
gaining representative for most of
these workers is either the Inter­
national Brotherhood of Electrical
Workers or the Utility Workers
Union of America. Independent un­
ions represent some utility workers.
Because supplying electricity is a
24-hour, 7-day-a-week activity, some
employees work evenings, nights,
and weekends. Most union con­
tracts with electric utilities provide a
higher rate of pay for evening and
night work than the basic day rate.
Overtime work is often required
especially during emergencies such
as floods, hurricanes, or storms.
During an “emergency callout,”
which is a short-notice request to re­
port for work during nonscheduled
hours, the worker generally is guar­
anteed a minimum of 3 or 4 hours’
pay at 1-1/2 times his basic hourly
rate. Travel time to and from the job
is counted as worktime.
In addition to these provisions
which affect pay, electric utilities
provide other employee benefits.
Generally, annual vacations are
granted to workers according to
length of service. A typical contract
or employee benefit program pro­
vides for a 1-week vacation for 6
months to 1 year of service, 2 weeks
for 1 to 10 years, and 3 weeks for 10
to 20 years. Some contracts and pro­
grams provide for 4 weeks after 18
years, for 5 weeks after 25 years, and
6 weeks after 30 years. The number
of paid holidays ranges from 6 to 12
a year. Nearly all companies have
benefit plans for their employees. A
typical program provides life, hos­
pitalization, and surgical insurance
and paid sick leave. Retirement pen­




sion plans supplement Federal social
security payments and generally are
paid for in full or in part by the
employer.
Because of the dangers of electro­
cution and other hazards, electric
utilities and unions have made in­
tensive efforts to enforce safe work­
ing practices. This has resulted in an
injury rate much lower than in most
manufacturing industries. Some oc­
cupations, however, are more sub­
ject to accidents than others. Acci­
dents occur most frequently among
the line—and cable—splicing crews.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Sources of Additional
Information

More information about jobs in
the electric power industry may be
obtained from local electric utility
companies, industry trade associa­
tions, or from the local offices of un­
ions that have electric utility workers
among their membership. Addi­
tional information also may be ob­
tained from:
Edison Electric Institute, 750 3d Ave.,
New York, N.Y. 10017.
International Brotherhood of Electri­
cal Workers, 1125 15th St. NW„
Washington, D.C. 20005.
Utility Workers’ Union of America,
1875 Conn. Ave. NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20006.

POW ERPLANT
O C C U P A TIO N S
Nature of the Work

Operators are key workers in a
powerplant. They observe, control,
and keep records of the operation of
various kinds of powerplant equip­
ment. They make sure the equip­
ment functions efficiently and detect
any trouble that aiises. Operators in­

clude four basic classes—boiler, tur­
bine, auxiliary equipment, and
switchboard. In many new steam
plants, these jobs are combined, and
operators and their assistants are
known as steam operators, powerplant operators, or central control
room operators. Of increasing im­
portance are the maintenance men
and repairmen, including electrical,
instrument, and mechanical repair­
men. Other powerplant workers in­
clude helpers and cleaners, and the
custodial staff, including janitors and
watchmen. Coal handlers are em­
ployed in steam generating plants
that use coal for fuel. Hydroelectric
plants employ gate tenders who open
and close the headgates that control
the flow of water to the turbines.
Supervision of powerplant oper­
ations is handled by a chief engineer
called an operations supervisor, and
by his assistants, the watch engi­
neers (shift supervisors).
Boiler operators (D.O.T. 950.782)
regulate the fuel, air, and water sup­
ply in the boilers and maintain
proper steam pressure needed to turn
the turbines, on the basis of informa­
tion shown by gages, meters, and
other instruments mounted on panel
boards. One man may operate one or
more boilers. Boiler operators are
employed only where steam is used
to generate electricity.
Turbine operators (D .O.T.
952.138) control the operation of
steam- or water-powered turbines
that drive the generators. (In small
plants, they also may operate auxil­
iary equipment or a switchboard.)
Modern steam turbines and gener­
ators operate at extremely high
speeds, pressures, and temperatures;
therefore, close attention must be
given the pressure gauges, thermom­
eters, and other instruments which
show the operations of the turbo­
generator unit. Turbine operators
record the information shown by
these instruments and check the oil

OCCUPATIONS IN THE ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY

pressure at bearings, the speed of the
turbines, and the circulation and
amount of cooling water in the con­
densers that change the steam back
into water. They also are respon­
sible for starting and shutting down
the turbines and generators, as
directed by the switchboard oper­
ator in the control room. Other
workers, such as helpers and junior
operators, assist the turbine
operators.
Auxiliary equipment operators
(D.O.T. 952.782) check and record
the readings of instruments that indi­
cate the operating condition of
pumps, fans, blowers, condensers,
evaporators, water conditioners,
compressors, and coal pulverizers.
Since auxiliary equipment may occa­
sionally break down, these oper­
ators must be able to detect trouble
quickly, and sometimes make re­
pairs. In small plants which do not
employ auxiliary equipment oper­
ators, these duties are performed by
turbine operators.
Switchboard operators (D.O.T.
952.782) control the amount of elec­
tric power flowing from generators
to outgoing powerlines by operating
switchboards and watching instru­
ment panels. Switches control the
movement of electricity through the
generating station circuits and onto
the transmission lines. Instruments
mounted on panelboards show the
power demands on the station at any
instant, the powerload on each line
leaving the station, the amount of
current being produced by each
generator, and the voltage.
The operators use switches to dis­
tribute the power demands among
the generators, to combine the cur­
rent from two or more generators,
and to regulate the flow of the elec­
tricity onto various powerlines.
When power requirements change,
they order generators started or
stopped and, at the proper time, con­
nect them to the power circuits in the



station or disconnect them. In doing
this work, they follow telephone
orders from the load dispatcher who
directs the flow of current through­
out the system.
Switchboard operators and their
assistants also check their instru­
ments frequently to see that elec­
tricity is moving through and out of
the powerplant properly, and that
correct voltage is being maintained.
Among their other duties, they keep
records of all switching operations
and of load conditions on gener­
ators, lines, and transformers. They
obtain this information by making
regular meter readings.
Control Room Operator (D.O.T.
950.782). In most powerplants con­
structed in recent years, the oper­
ation of boilers, turbines, auxiliary
equipment, and the switching re­
quired for balancing generator out­
put has been centralized in a single
control room. Here, central control
room operators or power plant oper­
ators regulate all the generating
equipment, which in older plants re­
quires specialists such as boiler and
turbine operators. Control room
operators have several assistants who
patrol the plant and check the equip­
ment. Operators report to the plant
superintendent or a watch engineer
when equipment is not operating
properly.
Watch engineers or shift super­
visors (D.O.T. 950.131) oversee the
employees who operate and main­
tain boilers, turbines, generators,
transformers, and other machinery
and equipment. Watch engineers are
supervised by a chief engineer or a
plant superintendent who is in charge
of the entire plant.

737

work gives beginners an opportunity
to become familiar with the equip­
ment and the operations of a powerplant. They advance to the more
responsible job of helper, as open­
ings occur. Formal apprenticeships
in these jobs are rare. Applicants
generally are required to have a high
school education or its equivalent.
It takes from 1 to 3 years to be­
come an auxiliary equipment oper­
ator and from 4 to 8 years to be­
come a boiler operator, turbine oper­
ator, or switchboard operator. A per­
son learning to be an auxiliary equip­
ment operator progresses from
helper to junior operator to opera­
tor. A boiler operator generally
spends from 2 to 6 months as a
laborer before being promoted to the
job of helper. Depending on open­
ings and the worker’s aptitude, the
helper may advance to junior boiler
operator and eventually to boiler
operator, or transfer to the mainte­
nance department and work his way
up to boiler repairmen. In most large
cities, boiler operators, who operate
high-pressure boilers, are required to
be licensed.
Turbine operators are selected
from auxiliary equipment operators
in other plants. In most large cities,
turbine operators are required to be
licensed.
Some powerplant workers em­
ployed in atomic-powered electric
plants must have special training to
work with Fissionable, radioactive
fuel, in addition to the knowledge
and skills required for conventional
steam generated electric power.
Where a system has a number of
generating plants of different size,
operators First get experience in the
smaller stations and then are pro­
moted to jobs in the larger stations as
Training, Other Qualifications,
vacancies occur. New workers in the
and Advancement
switchboard operators section begin
New powerplant workers gener­ as helpers, advance to junior oper­
ally begin at the bottom of the lad­ ators, and then to switchboard oper­
der—usually on cleanup jobs. Such ators. Some utility companies pro-

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

738

plant requires about the same num­
ber of employees as a steam-gener­
ating plant powered by coal.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

The earnings of powerplant work­
ers depend on their types of jobs, the
section of the country in which they
work, and many other factors. The
following tabulation shows esti­
mated average hourly earnings for
selected powerplant occupations in
privately owned utilities in 1972.
A verage hourly
earnings
Auxiliary equipment operator
$4.23
Boiler operator.....................
5.54
Control room operator___
6.15
Switchboard operator:
Switchboard operator,
Class A .............................
5.64
Switchboard operator,
Class B .............................
5.24
Turbine operator.................
5.44
Watch engineer ...................
6.49

mote substation operators to switch­
board operating jobs. The duties of
both classes of operators have much
in common. Switchboard operators
can advance to work in the load dis­
patcher’s office.
Watch engineers are selected from
among experienced powerplant oper­
ators. At least 5 to 10 years of ex­
perience as a first-class operator are
usually required to qualify for a
watch engineer’s job.
Employment Outlook

The total number of jobs for
powerplant operators is expected to
show little change through the mid1980’s, although the production of
electrical energy will increase at a
rapid rate. However, job openings
will occur each year because of the



need to replace operators who re­
tire, die, or leave the industry for
other work.
The use of increasingly larger and
more efficient equipment will result
in great increases in capacity and
production with little increase in the
number of powerplant operators.
For example, one operator can con­
trol a large modern turbogenerator
as readily as he can control a much
smaller one. Also, the growing use of
more automatic equipment reduces
the number of operators needed, and
makes it possible to direct all oper­
ating processes from a central con­
trol room. However, because of the
expected increased demand for elec­
tric power, it will be necessary to
build and operate many new gener­
ating stations.
Generally, a nuclear-powered

A powerplant is typically welllighted and ventilated, clean, and
orderly, but there is some noise from
the equipment.
Switchboard operators in the con­
trol room often sit at the panel
boards, but boiler and turbine oper­
ators are almost constantly on their
feet. The work of powerplant oper­
ators generally is not physically
strenuous, particularly in the new
powerplants. Since generating sta­
tions operate 24 hours a day, 7 days a
week, some powerplant employees
must work nights and weekends.

OCCUPATIONS IN THE ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY
The load dispatcher’s source of in­
TR AN SM ISSION AND
formation for the entire trans­
D ISTR IB U TIO N
mission system centers in the pilot
O C C U P A TIO N S
Nature of the Work

One-fifth of the workers in the
electric power industry are in trans­
mission and distribution jobs. The
principal workers in transmission
and distribution jobs are those who
control the flow of electricity—load
dispatchers and substation oper­
ators—and the men who construct
and maintain powerlines—linemen,
cable splicers, troublemen, groundmen, and helpers. Linemen make up
the largest single occupation in the
industry.
Load dispatchers (D.O.T.
950.168), also called system oper­
ators or power dispatchers, control
the flow of electricity throughout the
area served by the utility. The load
dispatcher’s room is the nerve center
of the entire utility system. From this
location, he controls the plant equip­
ment used to generate electricity and
directs its flow. He telephones in­
structions to the switchboard oper­
ators at the generating plants and the
substations. He tells the operators
when additional boilers and gener­
ators are to be started or stopped so
that power production will be in bal­
ance with power needs.
The load dispatcher must antici­
pate demands for electric power so
that the system will be prepared to
meet them. Power demands on util­
ity systems may change from hour to
hour. A sudden afternoon rainstorm
can cause a million lights to be
switched on in a matter of minutes.
He also directs the handling of any
emergency situation, such as trans­
former or transmission line failure,
and routes current around the af­
fected area. Load dispatchers also
may be in charge of interconnec­
tions with other systems and direct­
ing transfer of current between sys­
tems as the need arises.



board. This board, which dominates
the load dispatcher’s room, is a com­
plete map of the utility’s trans­
mission system. It enables the dis­
patcher to determine, at a glance, the
conditions that exist at any point in
the system. Lights may show the
positions of switches which control
generating equipment and trans­
mission circuits, as well as high volt­
age connections with substations and
large industrial customers. The
board also may have several record­
ing instruments which make a
graphic record of operations for
future analysis and study.
Substation operators (D.O.T.
952.782) generally are responsible
for the operation of the substation.
Under orders from the load dis­
patcher, they direct the flow of cur­
rent out of the station by means of a
switchboard. Ammeters, volt­
meters, and other types of instru­
ments on the switchboard register
the amount of electric power flow­
ing through each line. The flow of
electricity from the incoming to the
outgoing lines is controlled by cir­
cuit breakers. The substation oper­
ators connect or break the flow of
current by manipulating switch­
board levers that control the circuit
breakers. In some substations, where
alternating current is changed to
direct current to meet the needs of
special users, the operator controls
converters which perform the
change.
In addition to switching duties, the
substation operators check the oper­
ating condition of all equipment to
make sure that it is working prop­
erly. They supervise the activities of
the other substation employees on
the same shift. In smaller sub­
stations, the operator may be the
only employee.
Some utilities employ a mobile

739

operator who drives from one auto­
matic station to another, inspecting,
cleaning up trouble, operating con­
trols, and assisting customers’ elec­
tricians in large commercial or
government installations. Since this
job requires considerable inde­
pendent judgment, the mobile oper­
ator is usually more experienced than
the substation operator.
Linemen (D.O.T. 821.381) con­
struct and maintain the network of
powerlines that carry electricity from
generating plants to consumers.
Their work consists of installations,
equipment replacements, repairs,
and routine maintenance. When
wires, cables, or poles break, it
means an emergency call for a line
crew. Linemen splice or replace
broken wires and cables and replace
broken insulators or other damaged
equipment. Most linemen now work
from “bucket” trucks with pneu­
matic lifts that take them to the top
of the pole at the touch of a lever.
In some power companies, line­
men specialize in particular types of
work. Those in one crew may work
only on new construction, and others
may do only repair work.
Troublemen (D.O.T. 821.281) are
experienced linemen who are as­
signed to special crews that handle
emergency calls. They move from
one special job to another, as ordered
by a central service office which re­
ceives reports of line trouble. Often
troublemen receive their orders by
direct radio communications with
the central service office.
These workers must have a thor­
ough knowledge of the company’s
transmission and distribution net­
work. They first locate and report
the source of trouble and then at­
tempt to restore service by making
the necessary repairs. Depending on
the nature and extent of the prob­
lem, a troubleman may restore serv­
ice in the case of minor failure, or he
may simply disconnect and remove

740

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

make sure that the conductors do not
become mixed up between the sub­
station and the customer’s premises.
Cable splicers also make sure the
insulation on the cables is in good
condition.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

damaged equipment. He must be
familiar with all the circuits and
switching points so that he can safely
disconnect live circuits.
Groundmen (D.O.T. 821.887) dig
poleholes and help linemen erect the
poles or towers which carry the dis­
tribution lines. The linemen bolt
crossarms to the poles and bolt or
clamp insulators in place on the
crossarms. Groundmen then help the
linemen raise the wires and cables
and install them on the poles by at­
taching them to the insulators. In
addition, with assistance from
groundmen, linemen attach a wide
variety of equipment to the poles,
such as lightning arrestors, trans­
formers, and switches.
Cable splicers (D.O.T. 829.381)
install and repair insulated cables on
utility poles and towers, as well as
those buried underground or those



installed in underground conduits.
When cables are installed, the cable
splicers pull the cable through the
conduit and then join the cables at
connecting points in the trans­
mission and distribution systems. At
each connection in the cable, they
wrap insulation around the wiring.
They splice the conductors leading
away from each junction of the main
cable, insulate the splices, and con­
nect the cable sheathing. Most of the
physical work in placing new cables
or replacing old ones is done by
helpers.
Cable splicers spend most of their
time repairing and maintaining the
cables and changing the layout of the
cable systems. They must know the
arrangement of the wiring systems,
where the circuits are connected, and
where they lead to and come from.
When making repairs, they must

Load dispatchers are selected from
among the experienced switchboard
operators and from operators of the
large substations. Usually, 7 to 10
years of experience as a senior
switchboard or substation operator
are required for promotion to load
dispatcher. To qualify for this job, an
applicant must have knowledge of
the entire utility system.
Substation operators generally
begin as assistant or junior oper­
ators. Advancement to the job of
operator in a large substation re­
quires from 3 to 7 years of on-the-job
training. About 4 years of on-the-job
training is needed to qualify as a
skilled lineman. Some companies
have formal apprenticeship pro­
grams for linemen. Apprenticeship
programs combine on-the-job train­
ing with classroom instructions in
blueprint reading, elementary elec­
trical theory, electrical codes, and
methods of transmitting electrical
energy.
The apprentice usually begins
training by helping the groundman
set poles in place and by passing
tools and equipment up to the line­
man. After about 6 months the ap­
prentice begins to do simple linework under close supervision, and
progresses to more difficult work as
he gains experience. The training of
linemen who learn their skills on the
job generally is similar to the appren­
ticeship program; it usually takes
about the same length of time, but
does not involve classroom instruc­
tion. A lineman may advance to
troubleman after several years of ex­
perience.

OCCUPATIONS IN THE ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY

Candidates for linework should be
strong and in good physical condi­
tion because climbing poles and lift­
ing lines and equipment is strenuous
work. They also must have steady
nerves and good balance to work at
the tops of the poles and to avoid the
hazards of live wires and falls.
Most cable splicers get their train­
ing on the job, usually taking about 4
years to become fully qualified.
Workers begin as helpers and then
are promoted to assistant or junior
splicers. In these jobs, they are as­
signed more difficult tasks as their
knowledge of the work increases.
Employment Outlook

Several thousand job oppor­
tunities are expected to be available
in transmission and distribution oc­
cupations through the mid-1980’s.
Most of these opportunities will oc­
cur because of the need to replace ex­
perienced workers who retire, die, or
transfer to other fields of work.
Some increase in the employment
of transmission and distribution
workers is expected, although
employment trends will differ among
the various occupations in this cate­
gory. In spite of the need to con­
struct and maintain a rapidly grow­
ing number of transmission and dis­
tribution lines, the number of line­
men and troublemen is expected to
increase only slightly because of the
use of more mechanized equipment.
A limited increase in the number of
cable splicers is expected because of
the growing use of underground lines
in suburban areas. The need for regu­
lar substation operators, however,
will be reduced substantially, since
the introduction of improved and
more automatic equipment makes it
possible to operate more substations
by remote control. At the same time,
more mobile substation operators
will probably be required.



Earnings and Working
Conditions

Wages for transmission and distri­
bution workers vary by occupation
and geographic location. The follow­
ing tabulation shows average hourly
earnings for major transmission and
distribution occupations in privately
owned utilities in 1972.
A verage hourly
earnings
Groundman ............................. $4.02
Lineman................................... 5.95
Load dispatcher....................... 6.27
Substation operator................. 5.32
Troubleman............................. i 5.94

Load dispatchers and substation
operators generally work indoors in
pleasant surroundings. Linerhen,
troublemen, and groundmen work
outdoors and, in emergencies, in all
kinds of weather. Cable splicers do
most of their work in manholes be­
neath city streets—often in cramped
quarters. Safety standards devel­
oped over the years by utility com­
panies, with the cooperation of labor
unions, have greatly reduced the haz­
ards of these jobs.

CUSTOM ER SER VICE
O C C U P A TIO N S
Nature of the Work

Workers in customer service oc­
cupations include people who in­
stall, test and repair meters; meter
readers; company agents in rural
areas; and appliance servicemen.
Metermen (D.O.T. 729.281), or
meter repairmen, are the most skilled
workers in this group. They in­
stall, test, maintain, and repair
meters on customers’ premises.
Some metermen can handle all types
of meters, including the more com­
plicated ones used in industrial
plants and other places where large

741

quantities of electric power are used.
Others specialize in repairing the
simpler kinds, like those in homes.
Often, some of the large systems re­
quire specialists, such as meter in­
stallers (D.O.T. 821.381) and meter
testers (D.O.T. 729.281). Installers
put in and take out meters. Testers
specialize in testing the small meters
used in homes and some of the more
complicated ones used by commer­
cial and industrial customers.
Meter readers (D.O.T. 239.588)
go to customers’ premises to check
meters which register the amount of
electric current used. They record the
amount of current used in a specific
period so that each customer can be
charged for the correct amount.
They also watch for, and report, any
tampering with meters.
District representatives usually
serve as company agents in outlying
districts which are too small to jus­
tify more specialized workers. They
collect overdue bills, make minor re­
pairs, and read, connect, and dis­
connect meters. They receive and
send service complaints and reports
of line trouble to a central office.
Appliance servicemen are dis­
cussed in a separate chapter else­
where in the Handbook.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Metermen begin their jobs as help­
ers in the meter testing and repair
departments. Young persons enter­
ing this field should have a basic
knowledge of electricity. About 4
years of on-the-job training are re­
quired to become a fully qualified
meterman. Some companies have
formal apprenticeship programs in
which the trainee progresses accord­
ing to a specific plan.
Inexperienced workers can qual­
ify as meter readers after a few weeks
of training. Beginners accompany
the experienced meter reader on his

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

742

rounds until they have learned the
job.
The duties of district represen­
tatives are learned on the job. An im­
portant qualification for this occupa­
tion is the ability to deal tactfully
with the public in handling service
complaints and collecting overdue
bills.

need for meter readers will be lim­
ited because of the trend toward less
frequent readings. Moreover, auto­
matic meter reading may become
more common, and new meters will
require less maintenance. However,
some job openings for metermen and
meter readers will occur each year to
replace workers who retire, die, or
transfer to other fields of work.

Employment Outlook

Employment in customer service
occupations is expected to show little
change through the mid-1980’s. The




Earnings and Working
Conditions

The earnings of customer service

workers vary according to the type of
job they have and the section of the
country in which they work. The
following tabulation shows the aver­
age hourly earnings for major cus­
tomer service jobs in privately owned
utilities in 1972.

A verage hourly
earnings
District representative............ $6.09
Meterman A ............................. 5.44
Meterman B ................................. 4.80
Meter reader ............................... 4.32

OCCUPATIONS IN THE
MERCHANT MARINE INDUSTRY
men have home bases in these cities.
The Nation’s largest port is New
York. Other major Atlantic ports
are Philadelphia, Baltimore, Nor­
folk, Boston, Charleston, Savannah,
Tampa, and Jacksonville. Gulf ports
that handle large volumes of cargo
include New Orleans, Houston, and
Galveston. Shipping on the West
Nature and Location
Coast is concentrated in the areas of
of the Industry
San Francisco, Los Angeles, Seattle,
The merchant marine consists and Portland.
mainly of private firms that carry
U.S., foreign, and domestic com­
Occupations In the
merce aboard ocean-going vessels. In
Industry
late 1972, about 7 out of every 8 of
the 703 ships in the active fleet were More than half of the merchant
privately owned. Government-owned marine industry’s employees are offi­
ships are operated by the Navy’s cers and seamen who make up ship
Military Sealift Command (MSC)
and have civilian seafaring per­
sonnel.
About 60 percent of the ships in
our merchant fleet are freighters, in­
cluding general cargo ships and spe­
cial vessels, such as roll-on-roll-off
container ships. About 35 percent
are tankers that carry liquid prod­
ucts, such as oil, mostly between the
Nation’s Gulf and Atlantic Coast
ports. The few remaining ships are
com bination passenger-cargo
carriers.
Many ships operate on regular
schedule to specific ports. Others sail
for any port promising cargo. The
size of a crew depends on the size and
type of vessel. Cargo ships and
tankers have crews varying from 36
to 65 men; passenger ships may have
300 or more.
Most shoreside employees in the
industry work in the country’s major
port cities and most officers and sea­
In 1972, the merchant marine in­
dustry employed about 60,000 people
in a variety of occupations that re­
quire different levels of skill and ed­
ucation. Many of these jobs are
found only in the merchant marine
industry.




crews. Most of the industry’s shoreside employees are dock workers
who load and unload ships. A small
number of workers have administra­
tive and clerical jobs.
Ship crews. The captain (D.O.T.
197.168) or master, has complete au­
thority and responsibility for ship
operation, including discipline and
order, and the safety of the crew,
passengers, and cargo. Under the
supervision of the captain, the work
aboard ship is divided among the
deck, engine, and steward depart­
ments.
Deck officers (D.O.T. 197.133),
under orders from the captain, direct
the navigation of the ship and the
maintenance of the deck and hull.
Boatswains (D.O.T. 911.131) act as
foremen-in-charge of deck crews and
see that deck officers’ orders are car­
ried out. Able seamen (D.O.T.
911.887) steer the ship and report
sightings to the deck officer. Or­
dinary seamen (D.O.T. 911.887), the
entry rating in the deck department,

743

744

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK
Typical Crew Aboard a D ry- Cargo Ship

Radio
operator

Deck department
1

:

|

Engine department
1

Steward’s department
I

Chief Mate

Chief Engineer

Chief Steward

Second Mate

1st Assistant
_I

Chief Cook

2nd Assistant

2nd Cook and Baker

i

1

2 Third Mates
Boatswain

y J ';~ H
"

2 Deck utility men
6 Able-bodied seaman
3 Ordinary seamen

__________ 1
________
3 3rd Assistants
|
_______ 1________
Electrician
Engine utility man
3 Oilers
3 Firemen-watertender
2 Wipers

r

1

4 Messmen
2 Utility men
__ j Officers
[Crewmen

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics.

do general maintenance work such as
chipping rust, painting, and splicing
and coiling ropes. Deck utilitymen
and ship’s carpenters also are em­
ployed to maintain the ship’s deck
and hull.
Marine engineers (D.O.T.
197.136) are responsible for start­
ing, stopping, and controlling the
speed of the main engines and the
operation of all other machinery
aboard ships. They also direct sea­
men, such as oilers and wipers, in the
lubrication and maintenance of
engines, pumps, and other equip­
ment. Oilers (D.O.T. 911.884) lubri­
cate moving parts of mechanical
equipment. Wipers (D.O.T. 699.887)
keep the engine room and machin­
ery clean. Firemen/watertenders
(D.O.T. 951.885) regulate fuel
gauges and the amount of water in
the boilers. The ships’ electrician
(D.O.T. 825.281) repairs and main­
tains electrical equipment, such as
generators and motors.
The chief steward (D.O.T.
350.138) supervises the preparation
of meals and the upkeep of living
quarters aboard ship. The chief cook
(D.O.T. 315.131) and assistant cooks
prepare meals. Utilitymen (D.O.T.
318.887) carry food supplies from



the storeroom, prepare vegetables,
and wash cooking utensils. Messmen (D.O.T. 350.878) set tables,
serve meals, wash dishes, and care

for living quarters.
Most ships employ radio officers
(D.O.T. 193.282), who keep contact
with the shore and other ships and
maintain the radio equipment. Some
cargo ships and all passenger vessels
carry pursers (D.O.T. 197.168), who
prepare the necessary papers to allow
ships to enter port.
Occupations aboard ship are dis­
cussed in detail elsewhere in the
Handbook in the statements on mer­
chant marine officers and merchant
seamen.
Dock Workers. Many workers are
needed to load and unload ships. Ste­
vedores or terminal managers are re­
sponsible for the hiring of dock
workers called longshoremen
(D.O.T. 911.883). Dock foremen or
gang bosses supervise crews of long­
shoremen who load and unload ships
and move cargo in and out of ware-

745

OCCUPATIONS IN THE MERCHANT MARINE INDUSTRY

houses. Some operate materials han­
dling equipment, such as lift trucks
and cranes. Longshoremen also posi­
tion and fasten hose lines to the
ship’s tanks when loading or un­
loading liquid cargo, such as chemi­
cals and oil.
Clerical Occupations. The merchant
marine industry employs workers in
general clerical jobs, such as payroll
clerk, secretary, and typist. Other
clerical workers have specialized
jobs. Billing clerks (D.O.T. 219.388)
type invoices that list items shipped
and dates of shipment. Clerks and
dispatchers, pilot station (D.O.T.
911.368) keep records of ships enter­
ing ports. Manifest clerks (D.O.T.
219.388) compile and type ship’s
manifest (a list of passengers and
cargo) for use at customhouses or
terminals. Receipt and report clerks
(D.O.T. 911.388) prepare reports on
labor and equipment costs for load­
ing and unloading cargoes.
Administrative and Professional Oc­
cupations. The merchant marine in­
dustry employs a small number of
administrative and other office per­
sonnel. Executives plan and ad­
minister company policy. The in­
dustry also employs accountants,
lawyers, and labor relations and per­
sonnel workers. Some marine
architects (D.O.T. 001.081) are em­
ployed to oversee the construction
and repair of ships.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Inexperienced workers may be
hired as longshoremen to load and
unload cargo. Applicants must be in
good physical condition. A high
school education is preferred but not
required. Under the guidance of ex­
perienced workers, longshoremen
can learn their jobs in a few weeks.
As vacancies occur, they can ad­
vance to jobs such as lift truck



operator and crane operator.
Workers who have supervisory abili­
ty may become dock foremen or
gang bosses.
No educational requirements are
established for jobs aboard ship, but
a good education is an advantage.
Formal training for officers is con­
ducted at the U.S. Merchant Marine
Academy, at five State merchant
marine academies, and through pro­
grams operated by trade unions.
Unions also conduct training pro­
grams to upgrade the ratings of
seamen.
To obtain an officer’s license, a
candidate must be a U.S. citizen,
physically fit, and pass a written ex­
amination administered by the U.S.
Coast Guard. Seamen also must ob­
tain licenses (merchant mariner’s
document) from the Coast Guard.
An applicant must pass a physical
examination and present proof that
he has a job offer aboard a U.S. mer­
chant vessel.
A young person who is consider­
ing a career at sea must be able to
live and work with others as a team.
Although peace-time service is re­
laxed, they must adjust to some military-like discipline that is essential
because of the nature of shipboard
life.
Most general clerical occupa­
tions, such as secretary or book­
keeper, usually require the comple­
tion of basic commercial courses in
high school or business school. Ad­
ditional on-the-job training is neces­
sary for specialized clerical occupa­
tions, such as manifest clerk and re­
ceipt and report clerk.
Administrative positions usually
are filled by college graduates who
have degrees in business administra­
tion, marketing, accounting, in­
dustrial relations, or other special­
ized fields. A knowledge of the mer­
chant marine industry is helpful.
Marine architects must be licensed
professionals. Requirements for li­

censing are set by the individual
States and generally include gradu­
ation from an accredited profes­
sional school followed by 3 years of
practical experience in an architect’s
office.
Employment Outlook

Employment in the merchant
marine industry is expected to de­
cline slowly through the mid-1980’s.
Nevertheless, some openings will
arise each year from the need to re­
place experienced workers who
retire, die, or transfer to other fields.
Competion for openings on ships,
however, will be intense because the
number of people seeking jobs is ex­
pected to exceed greatly the number
of openings.
Because of substantially higher
shipbuilding and labor costs, our
merchant fleet finds it difficult to
compete in the world shipping
market. To insure that our country
has a merchant fleet operating in
regular or essential trade routes, the
Government subsidizes many ships.
The Government also passed a law in
1970 to subsidize the construction of
30 new ships annually over a 10-year
period and to improve tax incentives
for firms to buy new ships. The
number of ships built, however, is ex­
pected to be about the same as the
number of older ones taken out of
service. Therefore, the size of our
merchant fleet probably will not
grow.
Employment of ship’s officers and
seamen is expected to decline
because new ships are larger and
faster and can be operated by smaller
crews. The greater use of container­
ized cargo ships and improvements
in materials handling equipment will
reduce the need for longshoremen.
Employment in administrative and
clerical occupations, on the other
hand, is not expected to change
significantly.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

746
Earnings and Working
Conditions

Longshoremen working along the
Atlantic and Gulf Coasts earned
$5.55 an hour in 1972 and those on
the Pacific Coast earned $5.10 an
hour. Longshoremen also earn extra
pay for handling hazardous cargo.
Earnings aboard ships are rela­
tively high; most officers earned a
base pay of about $1,150 a month in
1972. Seamen who have advanced a
rung or two in rating could receive a
base pay of nearly $600 a month. In
addition, both officer and seaman
earnings are supplemented by
premium pay for overtime and
assuming extra responsibilities. On
the average, additional payments for
assuming extra work or respon­
sibility add about 50 percent to base
pay. Shipboard workers also receive
free meals and lodging while at sea.
Since ship’s crew members and
longshoremen are subject to occa­
sional layoff, however, their annual
earnings usually are not as high as
the hourly rates and monthly sal­
aries would imply. Most shoreside
workers in the industry have a 5-day,
40-hour workweek. The workweek
for people aboard ships is con­
siderably different. At sea, most of­
ficers and seamen are required to
stand watch, working split shifts
around the clock. Generally, they
work two 4-hour shifts during every
24-hour period and have 8 hours off
between each shift. Some officers
and seamen are on duty 8 hours a
day, Monday through Friday.
The merchant marine industry
provides excellent fringe benefits.
Most employers provide paid vaca­




tions and holidays. Vacations for
seamen and officers range from 90 to
180 days a year. Many firms also
provide other benefits such as life,
health, and accident insurance. Of­
ficers and seamen may retire on full
pension after 20 years of service,
regardless of age. Longshoremen are
eligible for pension at age 65.
Working and living conditions
aboard ship have improved over the
years. Mechanization has reduced
physical demands and newer vessels
have private rooms, air-conditioning,
television, and better recreational fa­
cilities. However, life aboard ship is
confining, and since voyages last sev­
eral weeks or months, officers and
seamen are away from home and
families much of the time. Some tire
of the lengthy separations and
choose shoreside employment. How­
ever, for many people, the spirit and
adventure of the sea, good wages,
and fringe benefits more than com­
pensate for the disadvantages.
The duties aboard ship are haz­
ardous compared to other in­
dustries. At sea, there is always the
possibility of injuries from falls or
the danger of fire, collision, or sink­
ing. Most shoreside jobs are not haz­
ardous, but longshoremen may do
heavy lifting and risk injury from
falling boxes and other freight when
loading and unloading ships.
Most employees are union
members. All longshoremen are rep­
resented by either the Longshore­
men’s Association International
Union or the Longshoremen’s and
Warehousemen’s Union. Most of­
ficers aboard ships are represented
by the International Organization of

Masters, Mates and Pilots; and the
National Marine Engineers Benefi­
cial Association. Seamen are
members of the National Maritime
Union of America and the Sea­
farers’ Union.
Sources of Additional
Information

General information about jobs in
the merchant marine industry may
be obtained from:
Office of Maritime Manpower,
Maritime Administration, U.S.
Department of Commerce, Wash­
ington, D.C. 20235.

Information about job openings
and wages aboard ships can be ob­
tained from local maritime unions. If
such a union is not listed in the local
telephone directory, information
may be obtained from:
National Maritime Union of America,
36 Seventh Ave., New York, N.Y.
10011.
Seafarers’ International Union of
North America, 675 Fourth Ave.,
Brooklyn, N.Y. 11232.
International Organization of Masters,
Mates and Pilots, 39 Broadway,
New York, N.Y. 10006.
National Marine Engineers, Beneficial
Association, 17 Battery Place, New
York, N.Y. 10004.

Further information about long­
shoremen jobs may be obtained
from:
International Longshoremen’s Assocition (AFL-CIO), 17 Battery Place,
New York, N.Y. 10004.
International Longshoremen’s and
Warehousemen’s Union (AFLCIO), 150 Golden Gate Ave.,
San Francisco, Calif. 94102.

OCCUPATIONS IN RADIO
AND TELEVISION BROADCASTING
The glamor and excitement of
radio and television make broad­
casting careers attractive to many
young people. Electronics and the
business aspects of broadcasting also
are attractions. In 1972 about 108,000 full-time and 25,000 part-time
staff were employed in broadcast­
ing; slightly more than half were em­
ployed in radio and the rest were in
television. In addition, several thou­
sand free-lance performers, such as
actors and musicians, work on a con­
tract basis for stations, networks,
and other producers. Several thous­
and other employees work for inde­
pendent producers in activities close­
ly related to broadcasting, such as
the preparation of filmed and taped
programs and commercials.
Broadcasting stations offer a
variety of interesting jobs in all parts
of the country. Opportunities for en­
try jobs are best at stations in small
communities, although the highestpaying jobs are in large cities, es­
pecially those with national network
stations.
Nature and Location
of the Industry

In 1972 about 6,800 commercial
radio stations were in operation in
the United States. Approximately
4.400 were AM stations and about
2.400 were FM. Commercial tele­
vision stations numbered about 700
in 1972.
Most commercial radio broadcast­
ing stations are small, independent
businesses. The average station



employs about 11 full-time and 4
part-time workers. Television sta­
tions are generally larger, and aver­
age about 75 full-time and 10 parttime employees.
Commercial radio stations are
served by seven nationwide net­
works and a large number of
regional networks. Stations can af­
filiate with networks by agreeing to
broadcast their programs on a regu­
lar basis. The seven national radio
networks employed approximately
2,500 workers in 1972.
Most television stations depend on
one of three national television net­
works for programs that would be
too expensive for individual stations
to originate—for example, sports
events, such as baseball games, or
newscasts of national and interna­
tional significance. These networks,
in turn, can offer national coverage

to sponsors. Up to 200 stations
across the country may carry a net­
work television show. In 1972 the
three national networks employed
about 17,000 workers, or almost 3 of
every 10 staff employees in commer­
cial television. Most network pro­
grams originate in New York City
and Los Angeles.
In addition to commercial broad­
casting stations, there were about
550 educational radio stations (main­
ly FM) and 200 educational tele­
vision stations in 1972. These sta­
tions are operated principally by ed­
ucational agencies such as State
commissions, local boards of educa­
tion, colleges and universities, and
special community public television
organizations. Educational stations
employed more than 6,900 full-time
and over 3,000 part-time workers in
1972 and accounted for about 1 out
of every 14 workers in radio and tele­
vision broadcasting.
There were also about 2,900 cable
TV systems (CATV) serving 6.5 mil­
lion homes. Cable TV systems em­
ployed about 7,000 workers.
Broadcasting Occupations

About half of all employees in the
broadcasting industry hold profes­
sional and technical jobs, such as
staff announcers, newsmen, writers,
or broadcast technicians. Clerical
and sales workers make up an addi­
tional one-fourth, and managerial
personnel, such as producers and di­
rectors, make up about one-sixth.
Many of the remaining employees
are craftsmen, such as electricians
and carpenters.
Jobs vary greatly between small
and large stations. In small stations,
the station manager, who frequently
is the owner, may act as business and
sales manager, or perhaps as pro­
gram director, announcer, and copy­
writer. Announcers in small stations
may do their own writing, operate
747

748

the studio control board, and do
sales work. The engineering staff
may consist of only one full-time
broadcast technician assisted by
workers from the other depart­
ments. In large radio and television
stations, jobs are more specialized
and usually confined to one of four
departments: programming, techni­
cal, sales, or business department.
The kinds of jobs found in each of
these departments are described in
the following paragraphs.
Programming Department. Staff
employees produce daily and weekly
shows, assign personnel to cover spe­
cial events, and provide general pro­
gram services such as sound effects
and lighting. In addition to these
staff employees, freelance actors,
comedians, singers, and other enter­
tainers are hired for specific broad­
casts, a series of broadcasts, or for
special assignments.
The size of a station’s program­
ming department depends on the ex­
tent to which its broadcasts are live,
recorded, or received from a net­
work. In a small station, a few peo­
ple make commercial announce­
ments, read news and sports sum­
maries, select and play recordings,
and introduce network programs. In
a large station, on the other hand, the
program staff may consist of a large
number of people in a wide variety of
specialized jobs.
Program directors are responsible
for the overall program schedules of
large stations. They arrange for a
combination of programs that will be
most effective in meeting the needs
of advertisers and at the same time
be most attractive and interesting to
the audience.
Traffic managers prepare daily
schedules of programs and keep
records of broadcasting time avail­
able for advertising. Continuity
directors are responsible for the writ­
ing and editing of all scripts. They



may be assisted by continuity
writers, who prepare announcers’
books (“copy”) which contain the
script and commercials for each pro­
gram along with their sequence and
length.
Directors plan and supervise indi­
vidual programs or series of pro­
grams. They coordinate the shows,
select artists and studio personnel,
schedule and conduct rehearsals, and
direct on-the-air shows. They may be
assisted by associate directors, who
work out detailed schedules and
plans, arrange for distribution of
scripts and changes in scripts to the
cast, and help direct on-the-air
shows. Some stations employ pro­
gram assistants to aid directors and
associate directors. Assistants help
assemble and coordinate the various
parts of the show. They arrange for
obtaining props, makeup service, art
work, and film slides and assist in
timing. They use cue cards prepared
from scripts, to cue the performers.
Education and public affairs di­
rectors are a link between the sta­
tion and schools, churches, and civic
organizations. They supervise and
edit most noncommercial programs.
In large stations, directors may
work under the supervision of a
producer (also called an operations
manager), who selects scripts, con­
trols finances, and handles other pro­
duction problems. Many times these
functions are combined in the job of
producer-director.
Announcers are the largest and
best known group of program
workers. Announcers introduce pro­
grams, guests, and musical selec­
tions and deliver most of the live
commercial messages. In small sta­
tions, they also may do other work,
such as operate the control board,
sell time, and write commercial and
news copy. In large stations, their
duties are confined to the program­
ing department. Broadcast an­

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

nouncers are discussed in detail else­
where in the Handbook.
Music is an important part of
radio programing. Both small and
large stations use recordings and
transcriptions to provide musical
programs and background music for
other shows. Large stations, which
have extensive music libraries, some­
times employ music librarians to
maintain music files and answer re­
quests for any particular selection of
music. The networks have special­
ized personnel who plan and arrange
for musical services. Musical direc­
tors select, arrange, and direct suit­
able music for programs on general
instructions from program di­
rectors. They select musicians for
live broadcasts and direct them dur­
ing rehearsals and broadcasts. Musi­
cians are generally hired on a free­
lance basis, although a few stations
employ staff musicians full time.
News gathering and reporting is a
key aspect of radio and television
programing. News directors plan
and supervise the overall news and
special events coverage. Newscasters
broadcast daily news programs and
report special news events on the
scene. News writers select and write
copy for newscasters to read on the
air. In small stations, the jobs of
newscaster and newswriter often are
combined.
Stations that originate live tele­
vision shows must have staff
members capable of handling stag­
ing jobs. Studio supervisors plan and
supervise the setting up of scenery
and props. Floor or stage managers
plan and direct the actors’ positions
and movements on the set according
to directors’ instructions. The jobs of
studio supervisor and floor manager
often are combined. Floormen set up
props, hold cue cards, and do other
unskilled chores. Makeup artists
prepare personnel for broadcasts by
applying cosmetics. Scenic de­
signers plan and design settings and

OCCUPATION IN RADIO AND TELEVISION BROADCASTING

backgrounds for programs. They se­
lect furniture, draperies, pictures,
and other props to help convey the
desired visual impressions. Sound ef­
fects technicians operate special
equipment to simulate sounds, such
as gunfire or rain.
About half of all commercial tele­
vision programming is on film, about
15 percent is live, and the remainder
is recorded on video tape. Broadcast
technicians make video tape record­
ings on electronic equipment that
permits instantaneous playback of a
performance. Video tape is used to
record live shows and to prerecord
programs for future broadcasts.
Many stations employ specialized
staff members to take care of filmed
program material. Film editors edit
and prepare all film for on-the-air
presentation. They screen all films
received, cut and splice films to in­

sert commercials, and edit locally
produced film. Film librarians
catalogue and maintain files of mo­
tion picture film.
Technical Department. Technical
staffs position microphones, adjust
levels of sound, keep transmitters
operating properly, and move and
adjust lights and television cameras
to produce clear, well-composed pic­
tures. They also install, maintain,
and repair the many types of electri­
cal and electronic equipment re­
quired for these operations.
Most stations employ chief
engineers, who are responsible for all
engineering matters, including super­
vision of technicians. In small sta­
tions, they also may work a regular
shift at the control board. Large sta­
tions have engineers who specialize
in fields such as sound recording,

Film editor cuts and splices film.




749

maintenance, and lighting. Net­
works employ a few development en­
gineers to design and develop new
electronic apparatus to meet special
problems.
Broadcast technicians have many
jobs. For example, they control the
operation of the transmitter to keep
the level and frequency of broadcast
within legal requirements. They also
set up, operate, and maintain equip­
ment in the studio and in locations
where remote broadcasts are to be
made. (Further information on
broadcast technicians is given else­
where in the Handbook.)
Sales Department. Time salesmen,
the largest group of workers in this
department, sell advertising time to
sponsors, advertising agencies, and
other buyers. They must have
thorough knowledge of the station’s
operations and the characteristics of
the area it serves. The latter includes
population, number of radio and
television sets in use, income levels,
and consumption patterns. Time
salesmen in large stations often work
closely with sponsors and advertis­
ing agencies. Many stations sell a
substantial part of their time, par­
ticularly to national advertisers,
through independent sales agencies.
Large stations generally have
several workers who do only sales
work. The sales manager supervises
a staff of time salesmen, and also
may handle a few of the largest ac­
counts personally. Some large sta­
tions employ statistical clerks and re­
search personnel to help analyze and
report market information on the
community served.
Business Management. In a very
small station, the owner and his sec­
retary may handle all the record­
keeping, accounting, purchasing, hir­
ing, and other routine office work. If
the size of the station warrants full­
time specialists, the business staff

750

Broadcast technician regulating quality
of picture.

may include accountants, publicity
specialists, personnel workers, and
other professional workers. They are
assisted by office workers, such as
stenographers, typists, bookkeepers,
clerks, and messengers.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A high school diploma is the
minimum educational requirement
for most entry jobs in broadcasting,
although for many jobs some college
training is preferred. A liberal arts
education is a good qualification for
the beginner because broadcasters
need people with knowledge and in­
terests in many areas. Television pro­
gramming for networks and large in­
dependent stations generally re­
quires a college degree and some ex­
perience in broadcasting.
Some young people without spe­
cialized training or experience get
their start in broadcasting in jobs
such as clerk, typist, floorman, or
assistant to an experienced worker.
As these new workers gain knowl­
edge and experience, they have the
chance to advance to more respon­



sible jobs. A few young people get
started in broadcasting with tempor­
ary jobs in the summer when regular
workers go on vacations and broad­
cast schedules of daylight hours sta­
tions are increased.
Technical training in electronics is
required for entry jobs in engineer­
ing departments. In addition, anyone
who operates or adjusts a broadcast
transmitter must have a Federal
Communications Commission
(FCC) Radiotelephone First Class
Operator License. To obtain this li­
cense, an applicant must pass a series
of technical examinations given by
the FCC. Small radio stations with
only a few employees sometimes
prefer to have as many personnel as
possible legally qualified to operate
their transmitters. Because of this,
nontechnicians, especially an­
nouncers, have a better chance of
getting a job in radio if they have a
first class license. A course in elec­
tronics at a recognized technical in­
stitute is probably the best way to
prepare for the FCC test.
Entry jobs as announcers in small
stations usually do not require
specific training or experience, but
an applicant must have a good voice,
a broad cultural background, and
other characteristics that make a
dramatic or attractive personality.
Qualifications for administrative and
sales jobs in broadcasting are similar
to those required by other em­
ployers; a business course of study in
high school or college is good
preparation for such jobs.
Most beginners start out in small
stations. Although these stations
cannot pay high salaries, they offer
opportunities to learn the different
phases of broadcasting work because
they generally use personnel in com­
bination jobs. For example, an an­
nouncer may perform some of the
duties of a broadcast technician.
People in the technical depart­
ment tend to remain in this area of

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

work, where thorough training in
electronics is essential. Program em­
ployees usually remain in program­
ming work, although sometimes
transfers to and from the sales and
business departments are made.
Transfers are easier between sales
and business departments because of
their close working relationship; in
fact, in the small stations, they are
often merged into one department.
Although transfers of experienced
workers between departments are
limited to the extent noted, these dis­
tinctions are less important in begin­
ning and top-level jobs. At the higher
levels, a station executive may be
drawn from top-level personnel of
any department.
Employment Outlook

Employment in the broadcasting
industry is expected to grow mod­
erately through the mid-1980’s. Most
job openings, however, will result
from the need to replace expe­
rienced workers who retire, die, or
leave the industry for other reasons.
Competition will be very keen for en­
try jobs, especially in the large cities,
because of the attraction this field
has for young people, and the rela­
tively few beginning jobs that will be
available.
New radio stations are expected to
open, particularly in small commu­
nities, and will offer opportunities
for some additional workers. In ex­
isting radio stations, however, tech­
nological developments will limit
employment growth. Equipment to
control transmitters from the studio
will eliminate the need for a techni­
cal crew at the transmitter site, and
automatic programming equipment
permits radio stations to provide vir­
tually unattended programming.
The number of educational tele­
vision stations is expected to in­
crease as private and government
groups continue to expand in this

751

OCCUPATION IN RADIO AND TELEVISION BROADCASTING

area. The growth of educational sta­
tions will increase job opportunities,
especially in programming, en­
gineering, and station management.
Cable television (CATV) has
emerged as a powerful new force in
communications, and some addi­
tional job opportunites for profes­
sional, technical, and maintenance
workers will be created as CATV
systems increasingly originate and
transmit programs. By using cables
instead of airwaves, CATV can offer
customers a larger selection of sta­
tions plus many additional pro­
grams produced specifically for cable
television.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

In 1972 earnings of nonsupervisory broadcasting workers aver­
aged $4.47 an hour, nearly onefourth more than the average for
nonsupervisory workers in all private
industries, except farming. Salaries
range widely among occupations and
locations in the broadcasting in­
dustry. Employees in large cities gen­
erally earn much more than those in
the same kinds of jobs in small
towns. Wages also tend to be higher
in large stations than in small ones,




and higher in television than in radio.
Most full-time broadcasting em­
ployees have a scheduled 40-hour
workweek; employees in many small
stations work longer hours. Sales
and business employees generally
work in the daytime hours common
to most office jobs. However, pro­
gram and engineering employees
must work shifts which may include
evenings, nights, weekends, and holi­
days. To meet a broadcast deadline,
program and technical employees in
the networks may have to work con­
tinuously for many hours under great
pressure.
Many unions operate in the broad­
casting field. They are most active in
the network centers and large sta­
tions in metropolitan areas. The
National Association of Broadcast
Employees and Technicians and the
International Brotherhood of Elec­
trical Workers both organize all
kinds of broadcasting workers, al­
though most of their members are
technicians. The International
Alliance of Theatrical Stage Em­
ployees and Moving Picture Ma­
chine Operators organizes various
crafts, such as stagehands, sound and
lighting technicians, wardrobe at­
tendants, makeup men, and camera­
men. Many announcers and enter­

tainers are members of the Amer­
ican Federation of Television and
Radio Artists. The Directors Guild
of America, Inc. (Ind.) organizes
program directors, associate di­
rectors, and stage managers. The
Screen Actors Guild, Inc., represents
the majority of entertainers who
appear on films made for television.
Sources of Additional
Information

General information about careers
in radio and television broadcasting
is available from:
National Association of Broadcasters,
1771 N St. NW., Washington, D.C.
20036.

Information about college courses
in television broadcasting is avail­
able from:
Executive Secretary, Association for
Professional Broadcasting, Na­
tional Association of Broadcast­
ing, 1771 N St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.

General information about careers
in public radio and television broad­
casting is available from:
Corporation for Public Broadcasting,
888 16th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20006.

O C C U P A TIO N S IN TH E
RAILROAD IN D U STR Y

The railroads, with their network
of more than 200,000 miles of tracks
reach into all parts of the country.
Trains link people with goods and
large communities with small.
With about 575,000 workers in
1972, the railroads were one of the
Nation’s largest employers and the
second largest transportation indus­
try. Railroad workers operate trains,
build and repair equipment and fa­
cilities, and provide services to cus­
tomers. In most of these jobs,
workers start at the bottom and
work their way up by learning their
jobs and proving their abilities.

hub of the Nation’s railroad net­
work is Chicago where the large
eastern and western railroad systems
meet. Large numbers of railroad em­
ployees also work in and near New
York, Los Angeles, Pittsburgh,
Cleveland, and St. Louis.
Railroad Occupations

Railroad workers can be divided
into five main groups: operating em­
ployees; communications, station,
and office workers; equipment
maintenance workers; property
maintenance workers; and passenger
service attendants.
Operating employees make up
Nature and Location
of the Industry
almost one-third of all railroad
The railroad industry is made up workers. Included are locomotive
of “line-haul” railroad companies
that transport freight and passen­
gers, and switching and terminal
companies that operate in some large
cities.
About 93 percent of all railroad
employees work for line-haul com­
panies that handle about 99 percent
of the industry’s business. The re­
mainder work for short-line rail­
ways and switching and terminal
companies. Most railroad revenue
and employment comes from freight.
Passenger service, though important,
has declined substantially in the past
30 years.
Although railroad workers are
employed in every State except
Hawaii and in communities of all
sizes, the greatest number work at
terminal points where the railroads
have central offices, yards, and
maintenance and repair shops. The
752




engineers, firemen, conductors,
brakemen, and, on some passenger
trains, baggagemen. Whether on the
road or at terminals and railroad
yards, they work together as train
crews. Switchtenders help con­
ductors and brakemen by throwing
switches. Hostlers fuel, check, and
deliver locomotives from the engine
house to the crew.
Another one-fourth of all railroad
workers are communications, sta­
tion, and office employees who con­
trol train movements and handle the
railroads’ business affairs. Telegra­
phers, telephoners, and towermen
pass on orders and other instruc­
tions to train crews and set signals
and track switches. Agents manage
business affairs of the railroad
stations. Railroad clerks assist sta­
tion agents, do secretarial and other
office work, and handle reservations
and ticket sales. In small stations,
they may tend baggage rooms. Other
workers in this group are claims in­
vestigators, accountants, lawyers,
and watchmen.
More than one-fifth of all rail-

OCCUPATIONS IN THE RAILROAD INDUSTRY

road employees are equipment
maintenance workers, who service
and repair locomotives and cars. In­
cluded are carmen, machinists, elec­
trical workers, sheet-metal workers,
boilermakers, and blacksmiths.
Property maintenance workers,
who make up about one-sixth of all
railroad employees, build and repair
tracks, tunnels, signals, and other
railroad property. Trackmen and
other maintenance-of-way workers
repair tracks and roadbeds. Bridge
and building workers construct and
repair bridges, tunnels, and other
structures along the company’s rightof-way. Signal workers install and
service the railroads’ vast network of
signals, including highway crossing
protection devices.
The remaining and smallest group
of railroad workers are passenger
service attendants, who take care of
passengers on trains. Included in this
group are porters, cooks, and
waiters.
Chart 26 shows the number of
workers in major railroad occu­
pations in 1972. Detailed infor­



753

mation about these occupations is
given elsewhere in the Handbook.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most beginning railroad workers
are trained on the job by experi­
enced employees. Training for some

office and maintenance jobs is
available in high schools and voca­
tional schools. Universities and
technical schools offer courses in ac­
counting, engineering, traffic
management, transportation, and
other subjects valuable to pro­
fessional and technical workers.
New employees in some oper­
ating service occupations start as ex­
tra board workers. Their names are
placed on lists for individual occu­
pations, and they substitute for
regular workers who are on vaca­
tion, ill, or absent for other reasons.
They also may be called when rail­
road traffic increases temporarily or
seasonally.
Experienced extra board workers
with sufficient seniority move to
regular assignments as they become
available. The length of time on the
extra board varies by type of job and
number of available openings. Some
workers do not receive regular
assignments for many years.
Beginners in shop trades are usu­
ally high school graduates with no
previous experience, although some
shop laborers and helpers are pro­
moted to the trades. All except elec­
trical workers serve apprenticeships
that last 3 years for inexperienced

Employment in Selected Railroad Occupations1 26
EMPLOYED 1972 (in thousands)
0

Clerks
Shop trades
Brakemen
Track workers
Conductors
Locomotive engineers
Locomotive firemen
Telegraphers, telephones,and towermen
Signal department workers
Bridge and building workers
Station agents
^Estimated.

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

20

40

60

100

754

workers and 2 years for helpers.
Inexperienced electrician apprentices
serve 4 year apprenticeships, and
helpers serve 3 years.
Most applicants for railroad jobs
must pass physical examinations and
those interested in train crew jobs
need excellent hearing and eyesight.
Color-blind persons are not hired as
locomotive engineers or brakemen or
for any other jobs that involve inter­
preting railroad signals.
Railroad workers are promoted on
the basis of seniority and ability. Job
openings are posted on bulletin
boards and workers may bid for
them. The worker highest on the
seniority list usually gets the job. To
be promoted, however, workers may
have to qualify by passing written,
oral, and practical tests. Advance­
ment in train and engine jobs is along
established lines. Most locomotive
engineers, for example, are chosen
from qualified firemen. Some rail­
roads promote brakemen to engi­
neer positions.
Besides determining advancement
procedures, seniority also gives
workers some choice of working con­
ditions. A telegrapher, for instance,
may have to work several years on
the night shift at out-of-the-way
locations before finally getting a day
shift assignment near home.
Employment Outlook

The long run decline in railroad
employment is expected to continue
through the mid-1980’s, but at a de­
creasing rate. Nevertheless, thou­
sands of job opportunities will
develop each year as the industry re­
places some experienced workers
who retire, die, or transfer to other
fields of work.




Despite an expected increase in
freight traffic, railroad employment
will decline mainly as a result of in­
creased worker productivity due to
technological innovations. For ex­
ample, more powerful diesel loco­
motives pull longer trains and
decrease the number of train crews
needed to move the same amount of
freight. Roadway maintenance ma­
chines take the place of workers with
handtools. Automatic switching
lowers the number of conductors
and brakemen required, and
automatic signaling equipment in­
creases the productivity of telephoners, telegraphers, and towermen.
Most people working in passenger
service may eventually work for
AMTRAK, the National Railroad
Passenger Corporation, created in
1971 to revive passenger service
trains. However, it will take years to
carry out the AMTRAK program
and it is too early to determine its
effect on these jobs.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

Nonsupervisory employees of linehour in 1972, about one-third higher
than the average for nonsupervisory
workers in all private industries, ex­
cept farming. Earnings of railroad
workers vary widely, however, de­
pending on occupation. In 1972, for
example, average hourly earnings for
locomotive engineers in passenger
service were $9.25; for freight serv­
ice brakemen, $5.98; for railway
clerks, $4.78; and for track gang
members, $4. Regional wage dif­
ferences are much less in rail­
roading than in other industries
haul railroads averaged $4.94 an

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

because of nationally negotiated
labor contracts.
Most railroad employees work a
5-day, 40-hour week, and receive
premium pay for overtime. Oper­
ating employees, station agents, and
telegraphers and telephoners often
work nights, weekends, and holidays.
Extra board workers may be called
at any time. Bridge and building
workers, signal installers, and track­
men may work away from home for
days at a time.
Employees are usually paid for 9
holidays a year, and depending on
length of service, receive 1 to 5 weeks
of paid vacation a year.
Federal laws provide retirement
pensions for railroad workers who
are age 65 and have at least 10 years
of service. Workers with between 10
and 30 years of service may retire
with a reduced pension at age 62.
Other benefits include pensions for
disabled workers, unemployment
compensation, and pay for work­
days lost due to sickness or injury.
Other insurance programs are
operated under agreements with
labor organizations. These provide
group life insurance to employees
and comprehensive hospital and
medical insurance to employees and
their dependents.
Sources of Additional
Information

Additional information about oc­
cupations in the railroad industry
may be obtained from local railroad
offices. General information about
the industry can be obtained from:
Association of American Railroads,
American Railroads Building, 1920
L St. NW., Washington, D.C.
20036.

O C C U P A TIO N S IN TH E
TE LE P H O N E IN D U S TR Y

About 590 million local and long­
distance telephone calls are made
daily in the United States and over­
seas. In 1972, approximately 960,000
employees were required to provide
this service.
The telephone industry offers men
and women steady, year-round work
in many different jobs. Some jobs,
such as telephone operator and file
clerk, can be learned in a few weeks;
others, such as installer and repair­
man, require many months.
More than half of all telephone
workers are women.
Nature and Location
of the Industry

Providing telephone service for the
many millions of residential, com­
mercial, and industrial customers is
the main work of the Nation’s tele­
phone companies. More than 125
million telephones were in use in the
United States in 1972.
Telephone jobs are found in
almost every community. Most tele­
phone workers, however, are em­
ployed in cities which have large con­
centrations of industrial and busi­
ness establishments. The nerve
center of the local telephone system
is the central office that has the
switching equipment through which
a telephone may be connected with
any other telephone. Every call
travels from the caller through wires
or micro-wave radio and cables to
the cable vault in the central office.
Thousands of pairs of wires fan out
from the cable vault to a dis­



tributing frame where each set of
wires is attached to switching equip­
ment. Electromechanical and elec­
tronic switching equipment make
connections automatically. In a few
remaining switchboards and in un­
usual situations an operator makes
the connection.
Some customers make and receive
more calls than a single telephone
line can handle. For these calls, a
system somewhat similar to a minia­
ture central office may be installed
on the customer’s premises. This sys­
tem is the private branch exchange
(PBX), usually found in apartment
and office buildings, hotels, depart­
ment stores, and other business
firms.
A newer type of service is called
CENTREX, in which incoming calls
can be dialed to any extension with­
out an operator’s assistance, and out­
going and intercom calls can be dial­
ed by the extension users. This equip­
ment can be located either on tele­
phone company premises or on the
customer’s premises.
Other communications services
provided by telephone companies in­
clude conference equipment in­
stalled at a PBX to permit conversa­
tions among several telephone users
simultaneously; mobile radio­
telephones in automobiles, boats,
airplanes and trains; and telephones
equipped to answer calls auto­
matically and to give and take
messages by recordings.
Telephone companies also build
and maintain most of the vast net­
work of cables and radio-relay sys­

tems for communications services,
including those joining the thou­
sands of broadcasting stations all
over the Nation. These services are
leased to networks and their af­
filiated stations. Telephone com­
panies also lease data and privatewire services to business and govern­
ment offices.
The Bell System owns about 4 out
of 5 of the Nation’s domestic tele­
phones. Independent telephone com­
panies serve the remainder. There
are approximately 1,805 independent
telephone companies in the United
States. General Telephone and Elec­
tronics Corporation in New York
City, United Utilities, Inc. in Kansas
City, and Continental Telephone
Corporation in St. Louis account for
about 2 out of every 3 telephones
serviced by independent companies.
Telephone Occupations

Although the telephone industry
requires workers in many different
occupations, telephone craftsmen
and operators make up more than
one-half of all workers. (See chart
27.)
Telephone craft workers install,
repair, and maintain telephones,
cables, switching equipment, and
message accounting systems. These
workers can be grouped by the type
of work they perform: construction
workers place, splice, and maintain
telephone wires and cables; installers
and repairmen place, maintain, and
repair telephones and private branch
exchanges (PBX) in homes and of­
fices and other places of business;
and central office craft workers test,
maintain, and repair equipment in
central offices.
Operators make telephone con­
nections; assist customers in special­
ized services, such as reverse-charge
calls; and give telephone infor­
mation. Detailed discussions of tele­
phone crafts occupations and tele755

756

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK
Telephone Crafts W orkers and Operators
Make Up More Than One-Half of All
W orkers Employed In the Industry

27

PRESENT D IS T R IB U T IO N 1972

43% Other
26% Telephone operators

31% Construction, installation,
and maintenance employees

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics.

phone and PBX operators are
presented elsewhere in the Hand­
book.
More than one-fifth of all tele­
phone industry employees are cleri­
cal workers. They include ste­
nographers, typists, bookkeepers, of­
fice machine and computer oper­
ators, keypunch operators, cashiers,
receptionists, file clerks, accounting
and auditing clerks, and payroll
clerks. Clerical workers keep records
of services, make up and send bills to
customers, and prepare statistical
and other reports.
About one-tenth of the industry’s
employees are professional workers.
Many of these are scientific and
technical personnel such as engi­
neers and draftsmen. Engineers plan
cable and microwave routes, central
office and PBX equipment installa­
tions, new buildings, the expansion
of existing structures, and solve other
engineering problems. Many top
managers and administrators have
engineering backgrounds. Other pro­
fessional and technical workers are
accountants, personnel and labor
relations workers, public relations
men and publicity writers, computer



systems analysts, computer pro­
gramed, and lawyers.
Nearly one-tenth of the industry’s
employees are business and sales
representatives who sell new com­
munications services, directory ad­
vertising and handle requests for in­
stalling or discontinuing telephone
service.
About 3 percent of the industry’s
workers maintain buildings, offices,
and warehouses; operate and service
motor vehicles; and do other mainte­
nance jobs in offices and plants.
Skilled maintenance craftsmen in­
clude stationary engineers, car­
penters, painters, electricians, and
plumbers. Other workers employed
by the telephone industry are
janitors, porters, watchmen, and
guards.
Employment Outlook

Telephone industry employment is
expected to grow moderately
through the mid-1980’s. In addition
to the jobs from employment growth,
tens of thousands of openings will
arise each year because of the need to
replace experienced workers who

retire, die, or leave their jobs for
other reasons.
Employment will grow primarily
because rising population and higher
incomes will increase the need for
telephone service. Greater demand
for transmission of computerprocessed data and other infor­
mation via telephone company lines
also will stimulate employment
growth. Labor-saving technological
innovations, however, will keep
employment from growing as rapidly
as telephone service.
Because of direct-dialing and other
improvements in equipment, the
need for telephone operators will not
increase significantly. Technological
innovations will restrict employ­
ment growth in some skilled crafts.
For example, mechanical improve­
ments, such as pole-lifting equip­
ment and earth-boring tools, will
limit employment of linemen. On the
other hand, new technology is ex­
pected to increase the demand for
engineering and technical personnel,
especially electrical and electronic
engineers and technicians, computer
programmers, and systems analysts.
Employment in administrative and
sales occupations will rise as tele­
phone business increases.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

In 1972 earnings for nonsupervisory telephone employees averaged
$4.24 an hour. In comparison, nonsupervisory workers in all private in­
dustries, except farming, averaged
$3.65 an hour.
In early 1972, basic rates ranged
from an average of $2.67 an hour for
telephone operator trainees and
$3.11 for experienced telephone
operators, to $7.60 for professional
and semi-professional workers.
Clerical workers in non-supervisory
positions averaged $3.62 an hour.
A telephone employee usually

757

OCCUPATIONS IN THE TELEPHONE INDUSTRY

starts at the minimum wage for his
particular job. Advancement from
the starting rate to the maximum
rate generally takes 5 years.
More than two-thirds of the
workers in the industry, mainly tele­
phone operators and craftsmen, are
members of labor unions. The Com­
munications Workers of America
represents the largest number of
workers in the industry, but many
other employees are members of the
13 independent unions which form
the Alliance of Independent Tele­
phone Unions. Others are members
of the International Brotherhood of
Electrical Workers.
Union contracts govern wage
rates, wage increases, and the
amount of time required to advance
from one step to the next for most
telephone workers. The contracts
also call for extra pay for work
beyond the normal 6 to 8 hours a
day, or 5 days a week, and for all
Sunday and holiday work. Most con­
tracts provide a pay differential for
night work.




Overtime work sometimes is re­
quired, especially during emergen­
cies, such as floods, hurricanes, or
bad storms. During an “emergency
call-out,” which is a short-notice re­
quest to report for work during nonscheduled hours, workers are
guaranteed a minimum period of pay
at the basic hourly rate. Travel time
between jobs is counted as worktime
for crafts workers under some con­
tracts.
Paid vacations are granted accord­
ing to length of service. Usually, con­
tracts provide for a 1-week vacation
beginning with 6 months of service; 2
weeks for 1 to 10 years; 3 weeks for
11 to 17 years; 4 weeks for 18 to 24
years; and 5 weeks for 25 years and
over. Depending on locality, holidays
range from 9 to 11 days a year. Most
telephone workers are covered by
paid sick plans and group insurance
which usually provide sickness, acci­
dent, and death benefits, and retire­
ment and disability pensions.
The telephone industry has one of
the best safety records in American

industry. The number of disabling in­
juries has been well below the
average.
Whare To Go for More
Information

More details about employment
opportunities may be obtained from
the telephone company in your com­
munity or local offices of the unions
that represent telephone workers. If
no local union is listed in the tele­
phone directory information may be
obtained from the following:
Alliance of Independent Telephone
Unions, P.O. Box 5462, Hamden,
Conn. 16518.
Communication Workers of America,
1925 K St. NW„ Washington, D.C.
20006.
International Brotherhood of Elec­
trical Workers, 1200 15th St. NW„
Washington, D.C. 20005.
United States Independent Telephone
Association, 1801 K St. NW., Suite
1201, Washington, D.C. 20006.

O C C U P A TIO N S IN TH E
TR U C K IN G IN D U S TR Y

In 1972, the trucking industry
employed approximately 1 million
workers—more than the rival rail,
air, and pipeline transportation in­
dustries combined. It is a major em­
ployer of many young persons not
planning to attend college, since
nearly 90 percent of its freight
handlers, drivers, truck mainte­
nance personnel, or clerical workers
require only a high school education.
Nature and Location
of the Industry

The trucking industry is made up
of firms that furnish hauling and
storage services, both local and long
distance, on a for-hire basis. Its ter­
minals, located in various cities, han­
dle distribution and pickup of freight
and maintenance of trucking equip­
ment.
Local trucking companies serve a
single city and its suburbs. Others,
long-distance carriers, usually travel
through many States. Some firms
specialize in the type of goods
carried: for example, they may carry
oil, grain, livestock, automobiles, or
furniture that often require special
equipment for truck rigging and
loading and unloading.
Trucking companies operate as
either contract or common carriers.
Contract carriers haul commodities
of one or a few shippers exclusively;
common carriers serve the general
public.
The industry’s employment is con­
centrated in a relatively small
number of large companies. Fewer
than 10 percent of the trucking com­
panies in interstate commerce have
758



annual revenues of $1 million or
more; however, these account for
almost half of total industry employ­
ment. A large proportion of com­
panies are small, particularly those
which serve a single city. Many are
owner-operated, and the owner does
the driving.
Trucking industry employees work
in cities and towns of all sizes, and
are distributed much the same as the
Nation’s population.
Occupations in the
Industry

About three-fourths of all truck­
ing industry employees have bluecollar jobs, including about 600,000
truckdrivers. Other important bluecollar occupations are material

handlers, mechanics, washers and
lubricators, and foremen. Most
white-collar employees are clerical
workers, such as secretaries and rate
clerks, and administrative person­
nel, such as terminal managers and
accountants.
Men hold 9 out of every 10 jobs in
the industry. Nearly all women em­
ployees are clerical workers.
The duties and training require­
ments of some of the important
occupations are described briefly in
the following sections.
Truckdriving Occupations. More
than half of the industry’s em­
ployees are drivers. Long-distance
truck drivers (D.O.T. 904.883) spend
nearly all their working hours driving
large trucks or tractor trailers
between terminals. These long-dis­
tance drivers transport goods of
great value that must be delivered
safely and on time. Some drivers
load and unload their trucks; usu­
ally, however, other employees do
this work. Local drivers (D.O.T.
906.883) operate trucks over short
distances, usually within one city and

OCCUPATIONS IN THE TRUCKING INDUSTRY

its suburbs. They deliver goods from
trucking terminals to wholesalers, re­
tailers, and other businesses in the
area. They also pick up goods for
delivery to terminals, where loads
are made up for long trips.
Clerical Occupations. About 1 out of
every 8 of the industry’s employees is
a clerical worker. Many have general
clerical jobs, such as secretary or
clerk-typist, which are common to
all industries. Others have special­
ized jobs. For example, dispatchers
(D.O.T. 919.168) coordinate the
movement of trucks and freight into
and out of terminals; make up loads
for specific destinations; assign
drivers and develop delivery sched­
ules; handle customers’ requests for
pickup of freight; and provide infor­
mation on deliveries. Rate clerks
(D.O.T. 219.388) calculate shipping
charges. Claims clerks (D.O.T.
241.368) handle claims for freight
lost or damaged during transit.
Manifest clerks (D.O.T. 222.488)
prepare forms that list details of
freight shipments. Parts-order clerks
(D.O.T. 223.387) supply mechanics
with replacement parts for trucks;
they also take care of most of the
clerical duties needed to maintain a
truck repair shop.
Administrative and Related Oc­
cupations. More than 1 out of 15 em­
ployees is an administrator. Top ex­
ecutives manage companies and
make policy decisions. Middle man­
agers supervise the operation of in­
dividual departments, terminals, or
warehouses. A small number of ac­
countants and lawyers are employed
by these companies. The industry
also employs sales representatives to
solicit freight business.
Material Handling Occupations.
About 1 out of 12 employees moves
materials into and out of trucks and
warehouses. Much of this work is
done by material handlers (D.O.T.



909.887) who work in gangs of three
or four under the supervision of a
dock foreman or gang leader. Mate­
rial handlers load and unload freight
with the aid of handtrucks, con­
veyors, and other devices. Heavy
items are moved by power truck
operators (D.O.T. 922.883) and
crane operators (D.O.T. 921.280).
Gang leaders determine the order in
which items will be loaded, so that
the cargo is balanced and items to be
unloaded First are near the back of
the truck. Truckdrivers’ helpers
(D.O.T. 905.887) travel with drivers
to unload and pick up freight. Oc­
casionally, helpers may do relief
driving.
Truck Maintenance Occupations.
About 1 out of every 20 employees
takes care of the trucks. Truck me­
chanics (D.O.T. 620.281) keep
trucks and trailers in good running
condition. Much time is spent in pre­
ventive maintenance to assure safe
operation, to check wear and
damage to parts, and to reduce
breakdowns. When breakdowns do
occur, these workers determine the
cause and make the necessary
repairs. Truck mechanic helpers
(D.O.T. 620.884) and apprentices
assist experienced mechancis in in­
spection and repair work. Lubrica­
tion men and washers (D.O.T.
915.887 and 919.887) clean,
lubricate, and refuel trucks, change
tires, and do other routine
maintenance.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Workers in blue-collar oc­
cupations usually are hired at the un­
skilled level, as material handlers,
truck drivers’ helpers, or lubrication
men and washers. No formal train­
ing is required for these jobs, but
many employers prefer high school
graduates. Applicants must be in

759

good physical condition. New em­
ployees work under the guidance of
experienced workers and foremen
while learning their jobs; this usu­
ally takes no more than a few weeks.
As vacancies occur, workers ad­
vance to higher rated blue-collar
jobs, such as power truck operator
and truckdriver. Qualifications for
promotion are the ability to do the
job and length of service with the
firm. Material handlers who
demonstrate supervisory ability can
become gang leaders or dock fore­
men.
Qualifications for truckdriving
jobs vary and depend on individual
employers, the type of truck, and
other factors. Every driver must have
a chauffeur’s license, a commercial
driving permit obtained from State
Motor Vehicle Departments. The
U.S. Department of Transportation
establishes minimum qualifications
for long distance drivers. They must
be at least 21 years old and ablebodied, and have good hearing and
vision of at least 20/40 with or with­
out glasses. They must also be able
to read and speak English and have
at least 1 year of driving experience
and a good driving record. Many
firms will not hire long-distance
drivers under 25 years of age; they
may also specify limitations on
height and weight.
Young people interested in pro­
fessional driving should take the
driver-training courses offered by
many high schools. A course in auto­
motive mechanics is also helpful be­
cause it provides knowledge of the
mechanical operations of a truck.
Private truckdriving training schools
offer another opportunity to prepare
for a driving job. However, com­
pletion of such a course does not
assure immediate employment as a
driver. Graduates frequently must
start as material handlers or drivers’
helpers and advance to driving jobs.
Prospective students should enroll

760

only in those truckdriving courses
offered by schools which have been
certified by the State.
Most truck mechanics learn their
skills informally on the job as help­
ers to experienced mechanics. Others
complete formal apprenticeship pro­
grams which generally last 4 years
and include on-the-job training and
related classroom instruction. Un­
skilled workers, such as lubrication
men and washers, frequently are pro­
moted to jobs as helpers and appren­
tices. However, many firms will hire
inexperienced young people for help­
er or apprentice jobs, especially those
who have completed courses in auto­
motive mechanics.
Com pletion of com mercial
courses in high school or business
school is usually adequate for entry
into general clerical occupations,
such as secretary or typist. Addi­
tional on-the-job training is needed
for specialized clerical occupations,
such as rate or claims clerk.
Generally, no specialized educa­
tion is needed for dispatcher jobs.
Openings are filled by truck drivers,
rate clerks, or other workers who
know their company’s operations
and are familiar with State and
Federal driving regulations. Can­
didates may improve their qualifi­
cations by taking college or techni­
cal school courses in transportation.
Administrative and sales posi­
tions frequently are filled by college
graduates who have majored in busi­
ness administration, marketing, ac­
counting, industrial relations, or
transportation. Some companies
have management training pro­
grams for college graduates in which
trainees work for brief periods in
various departments to get a broad
picture of trucking operations before
they are assigned to a particular
department. High school graduates
may be promoted to administrative
and sales positions.



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK
Employment Outlook

Employment in the trucking in­
dustry is expected to grow rapidly
through the mid-1980’s. In addition
to the job openings created by
employment growth, many openings
will arise as experienced workers re­
tire, die, or transfer to other fields.
The general economic growth of
the Nation is expected to increase the
quantity of freight carried by trucks.
Trucks carry virtually all freight for
local distribution and a great deal of
interstate freight. Also many new
factories, warehouses, and stores are
being located in suburbs or semirural areas where railroad trans­
portation is not available.
Employment, however, will not in­
crease as fast as the demand for
trucking services because techno­
logical developments and a con­
tinued trend toward larger, more ef­
ficient firms will increase output per
worker. As a result of these develop­
ments, rates of growth will vary
among occupations. Employment of
material handlers, for example, is ex­
pected to increase slowly because of
more efficient freight-handling
methods—such as conveyors and
draglines to move freight in and out
of terminals and warehouses, and
cargo cages to combine less-thantruckload shipments. In contrast,
employment of truckdrivers is ex­
pected to increase moderately, al­
though improved highways and
vehicles will result in bigger loads
at higher speeds and fewer drivers
will be required for each ton of
freight.
Compared with small organ­
izations, large companies have
higher proportions of accountants,
personnel workers, clerks, sales
workers, truck mechanics, and fore­
men. Employment in most of these
occupations is expected to increase
very rapidly as a result of the trend
toward larger trucking companies.
On the other hand, terminal

managers make up a greater pro­
portion of employment in small
firms, since they perform many of
the tasks that are assigned to other
workers in large organizations. Thus,
the demand for terminal managers
will grow slowly as employment be­
comes more concentrated in large
firms.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

In 1972, nonsupervisory workers
in the trucking industry averaged
$4.92 an hour, compared with $3.65
an hour for nonsupervisory workers
in all private industries, except far­
ming. Earnings are relatively high in
the trucking industry, because
drivers represent a large proportion
of employment; many long-distance
drivers earn more than $300 a week.
Most employees are paid an hour­
ly rate or a weekly or monthly
salary. However, truckdrivers on the
longer runs generally are paid on a
mileage basis for driving time. For
all other work time, they are paid an
hourly rate. Most employees receive
premium pay for overtime, Sundays,
and holidays.
Paid vacations are almost uni­
versal in the trucking industry.
Typically, employees receive a 1
week vacation after 1 year of serv­
ice, 2 weeks after 3 years, 3 weeks
after 10 years, and 4 weeks after 15
years. Nearly all workers receive
paid holidays. Most workers are
covered by pension plans and life and
health insurance financed at least
partially by employers.
Working conditions vary greatly
among occupations in the industry.
Truckdriving is both physically and
mentally demanding, but conditions
have improved as a result of better
highways, more comfortable seat­
ing, power steering, and airconditioned cabs. Long-distance
drivers frequently work at night and

OCCUPATIONS IN THE TRUCKING INDUSTRY

spend time away from home. Local
drivers usually work only during the
day. Material handlers and truckdriver’s helpers have strenuous jobs,
although conveyor systems and other
freight handling equipment have
reduced some of the heavier lifting
and made the work easier and safer.
Truck mechanics and other main­
tenance personnel may have to work
in awkward or cramped positions
while servicing vehicles, and fre­
quently get dirty because of the




grease and oil on the trucks. In addi­
tion, most maintenance shops are hot
in summer and drafty in the winter.
Mechanics occasionally make re­
pairs outdoors when a truck breaks
down on the road.
Many large organizations operate
around the clock and require some
material handling and maintenance
personnel to work evenings and
nights.
A large number of trucking indus­
try employees are members of the

761

International Brotherhood of Team­
sters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen
and Helpers of America (Ind.).
Sources of Additional
Information

General information about career
opportunities in the trucking indus­
try is available from:
American Trucking Association, 1616
P St. NW„ Washington, D.C.
20036.




WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE
Wholesaling and retailing are the
final stages in the transfer of goods
from producers to consumers.
Wholesalers assemble goods in large
lots and distribute them to retail
stores, industrial firms, and institu­
tions such as schools and hospitals.
Retailers sell goods directly to
housewives and other consumers in a
variety of ways—in stores, by mail,
or through door-to-door selling. A
list of the items sold by wholesale
and retail businesses would include
almost every item produced by
Americans—automobiles, clothing,
food, furniture, and countless others.
In 1972, nearly 16 million people
(not counting an estimated 2 million
self-employed persons plus unpaid
family workers) worked in whole­
sale and retail trade. Retail trade ac­
counted for the largest number of
workers—11.8 million—or about
three-fourths of the employment in
the industry group. The majority of
these workers held jobs in depart­
ment stores, food stores, and restau­
rants and other eating places. About
3.9 million people worked in whole­
sale trade.
Workers with a wide range of
education, training, and skills hold
jobs in wholesale and retail trade.
White-collar workers account for
more than 3 out of 5 workers em­
ployed in this major industry group,
as shown in the accompanying table.
Sales workers, the largest single
group, make up nearly one-fourth of
total industry employment. Man­
agers and proprietors, the second
largest group of workers, account for
about one-fifth of the industry’s
work force. Many managers and



proprietors own and operate small
wholesale houses or retail busi­
nesses, such as food stores and gas
stations. Clerical workers account
for roughly one-sixth of the work
force; many hold jobs as cashiers,
especially in supermarkets and other
food stores. Other important cleri­
cal occupations in retail trade in­
clude secretaries, stenographers and
typists, office machine operators,
and bookkeepers and accounting
clerks. Large numbers of shipping
and receiving clerks work in both
wholesale and retail trade.
Blue-collar workers (craftsmen,
operatives, and laborers) account for
nearly one-fourth of the industry’s
job holders. Many work as mechan­
ics and repairmen, gas station at­
tendants, drivers and deliverymen,
meat cutters, and materials han­
dlers. Most mechanics work for
motor vehicle dealers and gasoline
service stations. A large number of
meat cutters work in wholesale
grocery establishments and in super­
markets and other food stores.
Service workers, employed mostly
in retail trade, account for roughly 1
out of 7 workers in the industry
group. Food service workers, such as
waitresses and cooks, make up by far
the largest concentration of service
workers. Other large groups of serv­
ice workers are janitors, charwomen
and cleaners, and guards and
watchmen.
Major
occupational group
All occupational
groups .......................

Estimated
employment
1972
(percent
distribution)

Professional, technical,
and kindred workers
Managers, officials,
and proprietors........
Clerical and kindred
workers.....................
Sales workers...............
Craftsmen, foremen,
and kindred workers
Operatives and
kindred workers . . . .
Service workers..........
Laborers...............................

2
19
17
23
7
11
15

6

Employment in wholesale and re­
tail trade is expected to increase
moderately through the mid-1980’s
as sales rise in response to growth in
population and income. Due to
laborsaving innovations, however,
employment is not expected to grow
as fast as sales. The use of com­
puters for inventory control and bill­
ing, for example, may limit the need
for additional clerical workers. Im­
proved methods of handling and
storing merchandise will limit the de­
mand for laborers.
Within retail trade, employment
should rise most quickly in depart­
ment stores, drugstores, restaurants,
auto dealerships, and service sta­
tions. Among wholesale establish­
ments, the rates of employment
growth probably will be highest in
businesses that distribute auto parts,
and in firms selling industrial
machinery, equipment, and supplies.
The statements that follow dis­
cuss job opportunities in restaurants
and food stores. More detailed infor­
mation about occupations that cut
across many industries appears else­
where in the Handbook.

100

763

OCCUPATIONS IN THE
RESTAURANT INDUSTRY
In 1972, the restaurant industry
was the fourth largest industry in the
country, employing 2.7 million peo­
ple in establishments ranging from
roadside diners to luxurious restau­
rants. The type of food and service
a restaurant offers varies with its size
and location, as well as with the kind
of customer it seeks to attract. Fastfood restaurants and cafeterias in
suburban shopping centers empha­
size rapid service and inexpensive
meals. Steak houses and pizzerias
consider the quality of their spe­
cialty most important. Some restau­
rants cater to customers who wish to
eat a leisurely meal in elegant sur­
roundings and their menus often in­
clude unusual dishes or “specialties
of the house”.
Most restaurants are small and
have fewer than 10 paid employees;
many of these are operated by their
owners, who have either no paid help
or only 1 or 2 part-time workers. An
increasing proportion of restau­
rants, however, are part of chain
operations.
Restaurant jobs can be found
almost everywhere. Although
employment is concentrated in the
States with the largest populations
and particularly in large cities, even
very small communities have lunch­
eonettes and roadside diners.
Restaurant Workers

About three-fourths of all restau­
rant employees prepare and serve
food, and keep cooking and eating
areas clean. Waiters and waitresses,
and cooks and chefs make up the two
largest groups of workers. Also in­
764



cluded are counter attendants, who
serve food in cafeterias and fast-food
restaurants; bartenders, who mix and
serve drinks; busboys and busgirls,
who clear tables, carry dirty dishes
back to the kitchen, and sometimes
set tables; kitchen workers, who
wash dishes and prepare vegetables;
pantrymen and pantrywomen, who
prepare salads and certain other dish­
es; and janitors and porters, who
dispose of trash, sweep and mop
floors, and keep the restaurant clean.
Some of these workers operate
mechanical equipment such as dish­
washers, floor polishers, and vege­
table slicers and peelers. (Detailed
information on cooks and chefs,
waiters and waitresses, and bar­
tenders is given elsewhere in the
Handbook.)
Another large group of restaurant
workers—about one-sixth of the
total—are managers and propri­
etors. Many are owners and oper­
ators of small restaurants and, in
addition to acting as managers, may
cook and do other work. Some are
salaried employees who manage
restaurants for others.
All other restaurant workers com­
bined account for less than one-tenth
of total industry employment. Most
are clerical workers—cashiers who
receive payments and make change
for customers; food checkers who
total the cost of items selected by
cafeteria customers; and book­
keepers, typists, and other office
workers. A few restaurants employ
dietitians to plan menus, supervise
food preparation, and enforce sani­
tary regulations. Restaurant chains

and some large restaurants employ
mechanics and other maintenance
workers, accountants, advertising or
public relations directors, personnel
workers, and musicians and other
entertainers.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

The skills and experience needed
for restaurant work vary from one
occupation to another. Many jobs re­
quire no special training or experi­
ence, while others require some col­
lege or managerial experience. Re­
quirements also vary from one
restaurant to another; large or ex­
pensive restaurants usually have
higher standards than diners or
luncheonettes.
Young people who have less than a
high school education and no previ­
ous experience often can get jobs as
kitchen workers, dishwashers, or
busboys. Some restaurants hire only
experienced waiters and waitresses,
cooks, and bartenders. Special train­
ing or many years of experience or
both usually are required for chefs’
positions.
Newly hired restaurant workers
are generally trained on the job.
Kitchen workers, for example, may
be taught to operate a lettuceshredder and make salads. Waiters
and waitresses are taught to set
tables, take orders from customers,
and serve food in a courteous and
efficient manner. In many restau­
rants, new employees receive their
training under the close supervision
of an experienced employee or the
manager. Large restaurants and
some chain restaurant operations
may have more formal programs
which often include several days of
training sessions for beginners.
Many public and private high
schools offer courses for persons in­
terested in restaurant work in their
vocational programs. Usually in-

765

OCCUPATIONS IN THE RESTAURANT INDUSTRY

When hiring, employers look for
applicants who have good health and
physical stamina because restaurant
workers have to work long hours,
often under considerable pressure.
Neatness, a pleasant manner, and an
even disposition also are important,
especially for waiters and waitresses
and other employees who deal with
the public.
Restaurants, particularly large
chain operations, promote workers
who have initiative and ability. Busboys or dishwashers can advance to
better paying jobs such as waiter or
cook’s helper and then through addi­
tional training to cook, chef, baker,
or bartender. Experience as maitre
d’hotel may lead to a position as
director of food and beverage serv­
ices in a large chain organization.
Assistant managers, particularly
those with college training, may be
promoted to manager, and eventu­
ally to a top management position.
Employment Outlook

Food manager and cook discuss the day’s menu.

eluded are food preparation and
cooking, catering, restaurant man­
agement, and other related subjects.
Similar training programs are avail­
able for a variety of occupations
through restaurant associations and
trade unions, technical schools,
junior and community colleges, and
4-year colleges. Programs range in
length from a few months to 2 years
or more.
Classroom and on-the-job train­
ing programs for unemployed and
underemployed workers seeking
restaurant jobs were in operation in a
large number of cities in 1972 under



the Manpower Development and
Training Act (MDTA). Training un­
der the MDTA is provided for cooks
and cook apprentices, waiters and
waitresses, food service supervisors,
and cooks’ helpers. These programs
last approximately 12 to 15 weeks.
The Armed Forces also are a good
source of training and experience in
food service work.
A number of programs exist to
train handicapped workers for
restaurant jobs. Among these are
projects to train mentally retarded
persons for occupations, such as
dishwasher and kitchen helper.

Employment in the restaurant in­
dustry is expected to rise rapidly
through the mid-1980’s as restau­
rant business increases. In addition
to the jobs from employment growth,
thousands of openings will arise each
year due to the need to replace ex­
perienced employees who retire, die,
or stop working for other reasons.
Most openings will be for wait­
resses and kitchen helpers—both be­
cause of high replacement needs and
because these workers make up a
very large proportion of all restau­
rant employees. Employment oppor­
tunities also are expected to be
favorable for skilled cooks and sala­
ried restaurant managers. The num­
ber of openings in clerical jobs, such
as cashier, will be relatively small. A
few openings will occur in special­
ized positions, such as food manager
and dietitian.
Population growth, rising in-

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

766

comes, and more leisure time will
contribute to a growing demand for
restaurant services. More people will
“eat out” as the number of working
wives increases and more people
travel. Employment, however, will
not increase as rapidly as the de­
mand for restaurant services, be­
cause worker productivity is rising.
Restaurants have become more effi­
cient as managers have centralized
the purchase of food supplies, intro­
duced self-service, and used precut
meats and modern equipment. Many
restaurants now use frozen entrees in
individual portions which require less
time and skill to prepare than fresh
foods.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

Earnings of restaurant workers de­
pend on the location, size, type, and
degree of unionization of the restau­
rant in which they work. Also, work­
ers in some occupations receive tips
in addition to their wages.
In 1972, nonsupervisory workers
in the restaurant industry averaged
$2.02 an hour (excluding tips). Data
from union contracts covering eat­
ing and drinking places in several
large cities indicate the following
range of hourly earnings for individ­
ual occupations:
Hourly rate range
Waiters and waitresses . . . . $1.11—$2.57
Busboys and busgirls.......... 1.13— 2.96
Dishwashers......................... 1.63- 3.25
Kitchen helpers ................... 1.86— 3.59




Pantry workers............ . . . .
Assistant cooks .......... . . . .
Porters ......................... . . . .
Cashiers ....................... . . . .
Checkers....................... . . . .
Cooks ........................... . . . .
Bartenders ................... . . . .
Chefs............................. . . . .

1.891.891.892.002.002.462.502.83-

3.74
4.36
3.25
3.11
3.42
4.63
4.63
5.22

Salaries of managerial workers
differ widely because of differences
in duties and responsibilities. Many
college graduates who have special­
ized training in restaurant manage­
ment received starting salaries rang­
ing from $9,000 to $11,000 annually
in 1972. Managerial trainees with­
out this background often started at
lower salaries. Many experienced
managers earned between $12,000
and $25,000 a year.
In addition to wages, restaurant
employees usually get at least one
free meal a day, and often are pro­
vided with uniforms. Waiters, wait­
resses, and bartenders also receive
tips. Paid vacations and holidays are
common, and various types of health
insurance programs also are avail­
able. Most full-time restaurant
employees work 30 to 48 hours a
week; scheduled hours may include
evenings, holidays, and weekends.
Many work on split shifts, which
means they are on duty for several
hours during one meal, take some
time off, and then return to work for
the next busy period.
Many restaurants are air-condi­
tioned, have convenient work areas,
and are furnished with the latest
equipment and laborsaving devices.

Others, particularly small restau­
rants, offer less desirable working
conditions. In all restaurants, work­
ers may stand much of the time, have
to lift heavy trays and pots, or work
near hot ovens or steam tables. Work
hazards include the possibility of
burns; cuts from knives and broken
glass or china; and slips and falls on
wet floors.
The principal union in the restau­
rant industry is the Hotel & Restau­
rant Employees and Bartenders
International Union (AFL-CIO).
The proportion of workers covered
by union contracts varies greatly
from city to city.
Sources of Additional
Information

Additional information about
careers in the restaurant industry
may be obtained from:
National Institute for the Foodservice
Industry, 120 South Riverside
Plaza, Chicago, 111. 60606.
Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and
Institutional Education, 1522 K St.
NW„ Washington, D.C. 20005.

Information on vocational educa­
tion courses for restaurant work may
be obtained from the local Director
of Vocational Education, the Super­
intendent of Schools in the local
community, or the State Director of
Vocational Education in the Depart­
ment of Education in the State
capital.

Occupations In the
Industry

OCCUPATIONS IN RETAIL FOOD STORES
In the United States, grocery
stores and supermarkets are as com­
mon as baseballs in summer, and al­
most always near at hand. But like
the tip of an iceberg, the local food
store is merely a small part of a large
body known as the retail food store
industry. The industry sells over 80
percent of the food eaten by Ameri­
cans and employs more than 2 mil­
lion workers.
Jobs vary, and workers range in
education and training from high
school dropouts to college-educated
marketing professionals. The work is
steady, and is part-time as well as
full-time. Students and housewives
seeking additional income often take
part-time positions. Jobs in food
stores are especially attractive in that
the employer provides training and
opportunities for advancement.
Nature of the Industry

Though food stores traditionally
are classified by the type of food
sold, knowing how the food is sold is
important in understanding the in­
dustry. The retail food store indus­
try pioneered in and is the most ex­
tensive user of self-service market­
ing techniques. As a result, there are
now only two basic types of stores,
supermarkets and specialty stores.
A supermarket is simply a big
grocery store that sells a large vari­
ety of meat; canned, frozen, or fresh
vegetables; baked goods; and other
items. All supermarkets are selfservice; customers select and bring
items to check-out counters. Super­
markets constitute only about 20



percent of all food stores, but they
employ about 60 percent of the in­
dustry’s workers. Because prices are
generally lower than at any other
type of food store, supermarkets at­
tract customers who buy in large
quantities. When only a loaf of bread
or a quart of milk is needed, how­
ever, the customer may prefer a
nearby convenience or drive-up
store.
Convenience stores specialize in a
small variety of food and other
items. They open earlier and close
later than large supermarkets, and
customers can make purchases
quickly. Large chains own most of
the 15,000 convenience stores.
Though growing in number, only 5
percent of the industry’s employees
work in convenience stores.
Small neighborhood grocery
stores are the most numerous of all
food stores. Besides a small selec­
tion of popular food items, they may
feature Spanish, Chinese, or other
ethnic foods. Usually owners per­
sonally manage these stores and only
employ additional help as needed.
Few owners operate more than one
store. About 20 percent of the indus­
try’s employees work in small gro­
cery stores.
The remaining food stores oper­
ate in much the same manner as
small neighborhood grocery stores.
However, they feature only one type
of food, such as meat, vegetables, or
candy. Most are small and are usu­
ally operated by the owner and a few
clerks. Approximately 15 percent of
the industry’s employees work in
these stores.

About 60 percent of food store
workers are clerks, cashiers, meat
cutters, and meat wrappers. Man­
agers and owner-managers account
for an additional 25 percent of total
employment. The remaining 15 per­
cent are accountants, bookkeepers,
truckdrivers, service workers and
laborers.
Clerks in supermarkets are usu­
ally called stock or produce clerks.
In the grocery department, stock
clerks keep shelves filled with
merchandise. As part of the job, for
example, they count the cans of soup
on the shelves and in the stock room
before ordering more soup from the
warehouse. Since storage space is
limited, the order should include only
as much as might be sold.
Stock clerks frequently restock
items to create an attractive display.
They locate specific foods for cus­
tomers and perform general clean up
duties. In supermarkets stock clerks
may occasionally operate cash regis­
ters or bag groceries.
Produce clerks maintain the sup­
ply and desirable look of fruits and
vegetables. Because fruits and vege­
tables are perishable, special tech­
niques are used to keep the stock at­
tractive. All produce is dated when it
arrives at the store so that clerks
know which box of fruit or vege­
tables to display first. Fruits and
vegetables must be rotated so that
the most recently delivered goods are
on the bottom. Lettuce and other
greens are moistened and chilled to
preserve crispness. In addition, pro­
duce clerks assist in unloading deliv­
ery trucks, keep the produce depart­
ment clean, answer customer ques­
tions, and weigh and bag produce.
If the store is large, clerks may
assist customers in the bakery or
delicatessen departments.
In the meat department, meat cut­
767

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

768

ters and wrappers order and prepare
meats for sale. Meat is delivered to
the store in large pieces. Saws and
knives are used to cut it into roasts,
steaks, stew meat, and ground beef.
After the fat is cut away and bone
chips are removed, the meat is pack­
aged in plastic trays.
Meat wrappers use machines to
wrap meat in clear plastic. The pack­
ages are then taken to a second
machine to be weighed. The weigh­
ing machine prints labels identifying
the type of meat, the weight, the
price per pound, and the total price
for each package.
At the check-out counter, cash­
iers ring up the price of each item on
the cash register, add sales tax, make
change, and bag purchases.
Cashiers, who are often the only
employees customers meet, must be
pleasant, courteous, fast, and accu­
rate. Experienced cashiers memo­
rize the prices of hundreds of items,
but must detect price changes on
cans and boxes. For produce and
other items that change price fre­
quently, price lists are used. When
not serving customers, cashiers clean
counters and restock small conven­
ience items, such as razor blades and
candy, displayed near the check-out
counter.
Many supermarkets also employ
workers to bag and carry groceries
from the check-out counter to cus­
tomers’ cars. Laborers sometimes
polish floors, clean windows, and do
other housekeeping. The store man­
ager observes the activities of each
department, corrects problems as
they arise, and is responsible for all
activities and the store’s success.
The central administrative offices
of supermarket chains employ ac­
countants, bookkeepers, personnel
specialists, clerks, secretaries, and
other office workers. Chain stores
employ many truckdrivers, stock
clerks, and laborers in warehouses.



Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

In a large supermarket, a new em­
ployee usually begins as a trainee in
one of the following occupations:
cashier, stock clerk, produce clerk,
meat wrapper, or meat cutter. In
smaller stores, however, new
employees usually are trained as
combination cashiers-clerks.
When hiring trainees, employers
look for high school graduates who
are good at arithmetic and make a
neat appearance. An outgoing per­
sonality and the ability to get along
with people also are important, par­
ticularly for cashiers. Applicants
who have less than a high school
education may be hired if they qual­
ify in other respects.
New workers learn their jobs
mostly by helping and observing ex­
perienced employees. Training time
varies by occupation. A few years
may be needed to qualify as a skilled
meat cutter, but cashiers and pro­
duce clerks generally can learn their
jobs in less than 6 months. Jobs as
stock clerks and meat wrappers can
be learned in even less time.
In large cities, cashier trainees, be­
fore being assigned to a store, may
attend a 5-day school operated by a
supermarket chain. These courses,
which emphasize rapid and accurate
operation of cash registers, also give
instruction about customer rela­
tions, including courteous treatment
of customers and handling of com­
plaints. Trainees who pass the ex­
amination are assigned to a store to
finish their training; those who fail
the examination may be hired for
other jobs, such as stock or produce
clerk.
Some stores have meat cutter ap­
prenticeship programs, which gener­
ally last 2 to 3 years, and include
classroom instruction as well as onthe-job training.
Opportunities for promotion are

fairly good for supermarket em­
ployees. Stock clerks frequently
move up to better-paying jobs as pro­
duce clerks or cashiers. A produce
clerk can advance to produce depart­
ment manager. A meat wrapper can
learn to be a cutter, and then ad­
vance to meat department manager.
Cashiers and department managers
can be promoted to assistant man­
ager and, eventually, manager of a
supermarket. Advancement in small
food stores usually is limited, but
employees may get all-round experi­
ence to start their own small
businesses.
Some supermarket employees and
managers advance to administrative
jobs in their company’s central of­
fices. A large number of these jobs,
however, are in specialized fields,
such as accounting or labor rela­
tions, which require college training.
In cooperation with the National
Association of Food Chains, Cornell
University offers home study courses
in management that are designed
specifically for food industry
employees who wish to improve their
chances for advancement. All
employees are eligible to take these
courses.
Employment Outlook

Employment in the food store in­
dustry is expected to rise moderately
through the mid-1980’s. In addition
to the jobs from employment growth
each year thousands of jobs will
become available as employees re­
tire or stop working for other reasons.
Many of these jobs will be parttime.
Employment in the industry is not
expected to keep up with food con­
sumption. New mechanized equip­
ment will result in greater output per
worker. For example, supermarkets
may replace cash registers with com­
puterized check-out systems. An

OCCUPATIONS IN RETAIL FOOD STORES

optical or magnetic scanner would
transmit the code number of each
purchase to a computer that had
been programmed to record the price
of the item, add the tax, and print out
a receipt. The computer also would
keep track of the store’s inventory
and place an order with the ware­
house when stock is needed. This sys­
tem would limit growth in the
employment of cashiers and stock
clerks. Nevertheless, more workers
would be hired as additional super­
markets are built to keep up with the
expansion of suburbs.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

Earnings of nonsupervisory work­
ers in food stores are among the
highest in retail trade. In late 1972,
they averaged $3.14 an hour, com­
pared with $2.75 an hour for non­
supervisory workers in retail stores
as a whole. Earnings vary consid­
erably by occupation. Based on the




limited information available, hourly
rates ranged from about $1.60 for
clerks with little experience to more
than $6 for some highly skilled
meat cutters. Earnings tend to be
highest in large stores in metro­
politan areas.
Most large companies provide
full-time employees with a medical,
hospitalization and pension plan, life
insurance, and sick leave. Paid vaca­
tions and holidays also are provided.
Almost all food store employees
must be able to stand for several
hours at a time. Stock clerks must be
capable of lifting boxes or packages
weighing up to fifty pounds. Most
food store occupations are not haz­
ardous, but meat cutters must be
careful when handling knives and us­
ing machinery, such as electric saws.
Because they frequently work in
refrigerated rooms, meat cutters also
must be able to tolerate low tempera­
tures (35° to 50°F).
Many food store employees are
union members. Employees in the
meat department are represented by

769

the Amalgamated Meat Cutters
Union. Other employees in the store
belong to the Retail Clerks Inter­
national Association.
Sources of Additional
Information

Details about employment oppor­
tunities may be obtained from local
food stores and the local office of the
State employment service.
Specific information on the duties
and qualifications of cashiers are
available from:
National Association of Retail
Grocers, 360 North Michigan Ave.,
Chicago, 111. 60601.

Information on training and other
aspects of the meat cutting trade are
available from:
American Meat Institute, 59 East Van
Buren St., Chicago, 111. 60605.
Amalgamated Meat Cutters and
Butchers Workmen of North
America, 2800 North Sheridan
Road, Chicago, 111. 60657.




FINANCE, INSURANCE, AND REAL ESTATE
Nearly every individual and
organization uses services that the
finance, insurance, and real estate in­
dustry provides. Financial institu­
tions—banks, savings and loan com­
panies, consumer credit organiza­
tions, and others—offer services
ranging from checking and savings
accounts to the handling of stock and
bond transactions. Insurance Firms
provide protection against losses
caused by Fire, accident, sickness,
and death. Real estate organizations
serve as agents in the sale or rental of
buildings and property, and often
m anage larg e o ffices and
apartments.
In 1972, nearly 4 million persons
worked in the Finance, insurance, and
real estate Field. Finance, the largest
sector, employed 1.7 million per­
sons; the next largest, insurance,
almost 1.4 million workers. The re­
mainder—over 800,000—worked in
real estate.
Finance, insurance, and real estate
firms are a major source of job op­
portunities for women, who make up
over half of the industry’s work
force. Their proportions range from
about 35 percent in real estate, to
over 60 percent in banking.
As shown in the accompanying
tabulation, over 90 percent of the
workers in the industry hold white-




collar jobs. Clerical workers alone
make up 46 percent of the industry’s
work force. Many clerical workers
have jobs that are unique to particu­
lar industries, such as bank tellers in
financial institutions and claim ad­
justers in insurance companies.
Other large clerical occupations in­
clude stenographer, typist, secre­
tary, and office machine oper­
ator—jobs also found in other indus­
tries. Sales workers constitute 21
percent of the work force. Most of
these are insurance and real estate
agents and brokers. A relatively
small number of the sales workers
sell stocks and bonds.
Managers and officials—bank
officers, office managers, and
others—make up 19 percent of the
industry’s work force. Professional
and technical workers—such as ac­
countants, computer specialists, and
business research analysts—account
for another 5 percent.
Major

occupational group

Estimated
employment,
1972

Managers, officials,
and proprietors.................
19
Clerical and kindred
workers.............................
46
Sales workers.......................
21
Craftsmen, foremen, and
kindred workers...............
2
Operatives and kindred
workers.............................
(')
Service workers...................
5
Laborers...............................
2
1 Less than 0.5 percent
N ote: Due to rounding sum of individual
items may not equal total.

Employment in the Finance, insur­
ance, and real estate industry is ex­
pected to increase rapidly through
the mid-1980’s as population grows,
business activity increases, and per­
sonal incomes continue to rise. The
growth of individual occupations,
however, may differ from that of the
industry. For example, the increas­
ing use of data processing should
continue to lessen the demand for
workers in routine clerical and
recordkeeping functions, while spur­
ring the demand for workers in
specialized computer occupations.

(percent
distribution)

All occupational
groups...................

100

Professional, technical
and kindred workers . . . .

5

771

tors, marketing and public relations
workers, as well as guards, elevator
operators, cleaners, and other serv­
ice workers.
Three large occupations unique to
OCCUPATIONS IN THE BANKING INDUSTRY banking—clerks, tellers, and of­
ficers—are described in separate
statements elsewhere in the Hand­
Banks have been described as loan associations, personal credit in­ book.
“department stores of finance” be­ stitutions, and related institutions.
cause they offer a variety of services In 1972, commercial banks proc­
ranging from individual checking ac­ essed more than 25 billion checks,
Places of Employment
counts to letters of credit for financ­ and handled an enormous amount of
ing world trade. Banks safeguard paperwork. Workers who do this job In 1972, there were more than 37,money and valuables; administer account for nearly two-thirds of all 000 commercial banks and their
trusts and personal estates; and lend employees. Many are tellers or branches and almost 1,700 mutual
money to businesses, educational, clerks who process the thousands of savings banks and branches. Bank
religious, and other organizations. deposit slips, checks, and other docu­ employment is concentrated in a
They also lend money for the pur­ ments which banks handle daily. relatively small number of very large
chase of homes, automobiles, and Banks also employ many secre­ banks. In 1971, for example, over
household items, and to cover un­ taries, stenographers, typists, tele­ one-half of all commercial bank
expected financial needs. Banks con­ phone operators, and receptionists. employees worked in the Nation’s
tinually strive to serve their cus­ Bank officers fill the second larg­ 600 largest commercial banks; less
tomers’ needs. In recent years, for est occupation in the banking indus­ than 10 percent were employed by
example, they have offered revolv­ try. Approximately 1 out of 5 the 7,000 smallest commercial
ing check credit plans, charge cards, employees is an officer—a presi­ banks.
accounting and billing services, and dent, vice president, treasurer, comp­ Most bank employees work in
troller or other official. Much small­ heavily populated States, such as
money management counseling.
er occupations include accountants, New York, California, Illinois,
economists, lawyers, personnel direc­ Pennsylvania, and Texas. New York
Banks and Their Workers

Banks employed more than a mil­
lion workers in 1972; about twothirds were women. Most bank
employees work in commercial
banks, where a wide variety of serv­
ices are offered. Others work in
mutual savings banks, which offer a
more limited range of serv­
ices—mainly savings deposit ac­
counts, mortgage loans, safe-deposit
rentals, trust management, money
orders, travelers’ checks, and pass­
book loans. Still others work in the
12 Federal Reserve Banks (or
“bankers’ banks”) and their 24
branches; and in foreign exchange
firms, clearing house associations,
check cashing agencies and other
organizations doing work closely re­
lated to banking. In addition, many
people are employed by savings and
772



OCCUPATIONS IN THE BANKING INDUSTRY
O f the Approxim ately 1.1 Million People
Employed in Banking, Tw o-thirds Are in
Clerical Occupations

Clerical
Officers
Professional
Service
All others

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

773

28

Most openings will be for clerks.
In addition, an increasing number of
trainee jobs, which may lead to of­
ficer positions, will probably be­
come available for college gradu­
ates. Many openings for profes­
sional and specialized personnel such
as accountants and auditors, statis­
ticians, and computer operators also
will occur.
Bank facilities and employment
will expand as population, sales, and
incomes increase. Jobs also will be
created as banks continue to im­
prove and expand services such as
bank charge cards and the handling
of accounts for retail stores. As
banks strive to bring these and other
services closer to suburban areas,
branch banks will grow in number
and provide additional employment
opportunities.
The continued conversion to elec­
tronic data processing may slow
employment growth somewhat, de­
spite the expected increase in bank
services. Electronic data processing
is likely to reduce the number of
workers in some occupations while
increasing employment in computer
jobs. The effect of these develop­
ments will vary from one occupation
to another, as indicated in the state­
ments on specific banking occupa­
tions elsewhere in the Handbook.
Bank employees can anticipate
steadier employment than can work­
ers in many other fields, because they
are less likely to be laid off during
periods of low business activity. Even
when a bank is sold or merged work­
ers seldom lose their jobs. Bank offi­
cials usually reduce employment by
failing to replace employees who
leave their jobs.

City, the financial capital of the Na­ Bank workers also can prepare for
tion, has far more bank workers than better jobs by taking courses that the
any other city.
American Institute of Banking offers
in many cities throughout the coun­
try. The Institute, which has 377
chapters and 200 study groups, also
Training
offers
Professional and managerial bank assists correspondence study and
local banks
workers usually have completed col­ cooperative training in conducting
lege; most clerks have finished high various bank positions.programs for
school; guards and building service Bank employees should enjoy
personnel may have less than a high working with numbers. They also
school education.
must
Most new employees receive some sibilitybeofable to accept the respon­
handling large amounts of
form of in-service bank training. money. They should present a good
Banks also provide other oppor­
customers.
tunities for workers to broaden their image to encouraged Often bank offi­
cials are
knowledge and skills. Additional in­ community activities.to participate in
formation about the educational re­
quirements and training for bank
clerks, tellers, and bank officers is
Employment Outlook
given in the statements for these oc­
cupations elsewhere in the Hand­ Employment in banks is expected
to rise rapidly through the midbook.
Many banks encourage employ­ 1980’s. New jobs resulting from
ees to take courses at local colleges employment growth, as well as those
and universities. In addition, bank­ that must be filled as employees re­
ing associations sponsor a number of tire, die, or stop working for other Earnings and Working Conditions
educational programs, sometimes in reasons, are expected to account for
cooperation with colleges and uni­ tens of thousands of openings each Earnings of bank clerks, tellers,
versities. Many banks pay all or part year. Still other jobs will arise as and officers are discussed in the
of the costs for those who success­ workers leave their positions to enter statements for these occupations
elsewhere in the Handbook. In addi­
different types of employment.
fully complete courses.



774

tion to salaries, bank workers gener­
ally receive liberal fringe benefits.
For example, most banks have some
type of profit-sharing or bonus plan.
In addition, group plans that pro­
vide life insurance, hospitalization,
surgical benefits, and retirement in­
come are common. Sometimes free
checking accounts or safe deposit
boxes also are provided.
The workweek in banks is gener­
ally 40 hours or less; in a few local­
ities, a workweek of 35 hours is com­
mon. Tellers and some other employ­
ees work at least one evening a week
when banks remain open for busi­
ness. Certain check processors and




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK
operators of computing equipment
National Association of Bank Women,
Inc., National Office, 111 E.
may work on evening shifts.
Wacker Dr., Chicago, 111. 60601.
National Bankers Association, 4310
Sources of Additional
Georgia Ave. NW., Washington,
Information
D.C. 20011.

Local banks and State bankers’ Information about career oppor­
associations can furnish specific in­ tunities as a bank examiner can be
formation about job opportunities in obtained from:
local banking institutions. General
Federal Deposit Insurance Corpora­
information about banking occupa­
tion, Director of Personnel, 550
tions, training opportunities, and the
17th St. NW., Washington, D.C.
banking industry itself is available
20429.
from:
American Bankers Association, Bank
Personnel Division, 1120 Connec­
ticut Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.
20036.

O C C U P A TIO N S IN TH E
IN SU R AN CE IN D U STR Y

The insurance industry offers
many employment opportunities for
recent high school and college gradu­
ates and experienced workers.
The 1,800 life and nearly 3,000
property/liability (also called property/casualty) insurance companies
do business in home offices and in
thousands of sales offices through­
out the country.
Nature of the Business

Most life and property liability
companies sell accident and health
insurance, which helps policyholders
pay medical expenses, and may fur­
nish other benefits for an injury or
illness.
An increasing number of insur­
ance policies cover groups ranging
from a few individuals to many thou­
sands. These policies usually are
issued to employers for the benefit of
their employees. Most common are
group life and health plans, al­
though some automobile or homeowners policies are offered. In 1972,
group life insurance protected almost
50 million workers; the number of
policies was nearly double the num­
ber 10 years earlier.

The majority were in clerical and
sales jobs. (See chart 29.)
Over half of all insurance com­
pany employees work in clerical and
related jobs—a much larger propor­
tion than in most other industries.
These workers keep records of pre­
mium payments, services, and bene­
fits paid to policyholders. Most are
secretaries, stenographers, and typ­
ists; office machine operators; or
general office clerks. They do work
similar to their counterparts in other
businesses.
Other clerical workers have posi­
tions of greater responsibility that re­
quire extensive knowledge of some
phase of insurance. They include
claim adjusters (D.O.T. 241.168) and
claim examiners (D.O.T. 249.268)
who decide whether claims are cov­
ered by the policy, see that payment
is made, and, when necessary, in­
vestigate the circumstances sur­
rounding the claim. (See the state­
ments on Claim Adjusters and Claim
Examiners elsewhere in the Hand­
book.)
About one-third of all insurance
employees are sales workers— chief­
ly agents, brokers, and others who
sell policies to individuals and busi­
ness firms. Agents and brokers

There are three major types of in­
surance: life, property/liability, and
health. Some companies specialize in
one or more types; a growing num­
ber offer all kinds of insurance
protection. Many life insurance com­
panies also offer mutual fund shares
and variable annuities to their
Insurance Workers
customers.
Life insurance companies sell poli­ About 1.4 million people worked
cies that provide several other kinds in the insurance business in 1972.
of protection. Under some, for ex­
ample, policyholders are to receive
an income when they reach retire­
Approximately 1.4 Million People W ork
ment age or if they should become
in the Insurance Industry— More Than
disabled; other policies may help pay
One-half Are Clerical Workers
the costs of educating children when
they reach college age, or give extra
financial protection while the chil­
dren are young. Life insurance poli­
cies also are designed to protect busi­
ness interests and to guarantee em­
ployee benefits. Property/liability in­
surance provides protection against
loss or damage to policyholders’
property, and protects them from
financial responsibility for injuries to
others or damage to their property.
It covers hazards such as fire, theft,
1.97% All
and windstorm, as well as work­
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics.
men’s compensation and other claims.



29

other

775

776

(D.O.T. 250.258) usually find their technical matters. Lawyers interpret
own customers or “prospects,” and the regulations that apply to insur­
see that each policy they sell pro­ ance company operations and han­
vides the kind of protection required dle the settlement of some insurance
by the policyholder. (See the state­ claims. Investment analysts evalu­
ment on Insurance Agents and Brok­ ate real estate mortgages and new
issues of bonds and other securities,
ers elsewhere in the Handbook.)
About 1 out of 8 insurance work­ analyze investments held by their
ers has a managerial job. Managers companies, and recommend when to
of local sales offices often spend part hold, buy, or sell. As more com­
of their time selling. Others, who puters are installed to handle office
work in home offices, are in charge records, an increasing number of
of departments such as actuarial data processing specialists, includ­
calculations, policy issuance, ac­ ing programmers and systems ana­
lysts, are being employed. Many
counting, and investments.
Professionals, employed mainly at companies also employ editorial,
home offices, represent about 1 out public relations, sales promotion,
of 24 insurance workers. These and advertising specialists.
specialists, who work closely with in­ Insurance companies require the
surance company managers, study same kinds of custodial and mainte­
insurance risks and coverage prob­ nance work as other large organiza­
lems, analyze investment possi­ tions. About 1 out of 50 workers in
bilities, prepare financial reports, the insurance business performs
and do other professional work. these duties.
Among them is the actuary (D.O.T. Additional information about
020.188) whose job is unique to the many of these clerical, professional,
insurance field. Actuaries make and maintenance occupations is con­
statistical studies of loss experience tained elsewhere in the Handbook.
and determine premium rates. (See
the statement on Actuaries else­
Places of Employment
where in the Handbook.) Another
specialist is the underwriter (D.O.T. Many insurance employees work
169.188) , who evaluates insurance in California, Connecticut, Illinois,
applications to determine the risk in­ Massachusetts, New Jersey, New
volved in issuing a policy. Under­ York, and Texas, where some of the
writers decide whether to accept or largest insurance companies have
reject the application; they also home offices. Large numbers also
determine which premium rate are employed in agencies, brokerage
should apply for each policy issued. firms, and other sales offices
(See the statement on Underwriters throughout the country. Almost all
sales personnel work out of local of­
elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Other professional employees do fices; most professional and clerical
essentially the same work in insur­ workers, however, are employed in
ance companies as in other busi­ company home offices.
nesses. Accountants, for example, More than half of all insurance
analyze insurance company records employees work in life companies
and financial problems relating to and agencies; included in this group
premiums, investments, payments to are some very large companies with
policyholders, and other aspects of thousands of employees. Prop­
the business. Engineers work on erty/liability companies, although
problems arising from industrial more numerous than life insurance
property/liability policies and other companies, generally have fewer



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

workers. Many local agencies and
sales offices also are small, regard­
less of the type of insurance handled.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Insurance offers job opportunities
for people having very different
educational backgrounds and
talents. Some positions require col­
lege training while others can be
filled by workers with limited aca­
demic training and few skills.
Graduation from high school or
business school is enough training for
most beginning clerical jobs. Courses
in typing and business math are
assets; the ability to operate office
machines also is helpful. These and
other special skills help beginners ad­
vance to more responsible jobs.
Jobs in engineering, accounting,
and other professional fields gener­
ally require the same kinds of col­
lege training here as in other busi­
nesses. College-trained people also
are preferred for managerial posi­
tions, many of which are filled by
promotion from within.
In all work requiring contact with
the public, employees should have a
pleasant disposition and an out­
going personality. Those in frequent
contact with policyholders should in­
spire confidence in their ability to
protect the customer’s interests. Be­
cause insurance companies often en­
courage their managers and adminis­
trative employees to participate in
community organizations, they
should enjoy working with others in
a social situation.
Insurance workers have ample op­
portunity to continue their educa­
tion. The Insurance Institute of
America, for example, has home
study courses for property/liability
adjusters, claim examiners, under­
writers, and salesworkers. The
American College of Life Under­
writers, the National Association of
Life Underwriters, and the Life

OCCUPATIONS IN THE INSURANCE INDUSTRY

Underwriter Training Council offer
courses that stress the services agents
provide to policyholders. Other
courses, especially designed to help
clerical employees better under­
stand life insurance, relate to the
organization and operation of both
home and field offices. These are
given by the Life Office Manage­
ment Association, which also pro­
vides programs for the development
of supervisors and managers.
Employment Outlook

Employment of insurance work­
ers is expected to increase moder­
ately through the mid-1980’s as the
insurance industry continues to
grow. In addition to new jobs that
will become available, thousands of
openings will occur as employees die,
retire, or leave their jobs to seek
other work.
The expected increase in employ­
ment will result mainly from a grow­
ing volume of insurance business.
Rising personal incomes will stimu­
late the purchase of life insurance, in­
cluding policies designed to provide
retirement income or funds for
future educational expenses. Property/liability insurance sales should
expand as more workers buy homes,
second cars, and other items that re­
quire insurance protection. More
business insurance will be needed as
new plants are built, new equipment
is installed, and more goods are
shipped throughout the country and
the world. Furthermore, as the
coverage of State workmen’s com­
pensation laws is broadened, more
employers may need this type of in­
surance protection.
Growth of insurance employ­
ment, however, is not expected to
keep pace with the growth of busi­
ness volume for several reasons.
Salesworkers are expected to be­
come more productive as more insur­
ance is sold through group contracts



and multiple-line policies (those
which cover many different risks for­
merly covered in separate policies).
Although the total number of cleri­
cal jobs probably will continue to
rise, the increasing use of computers
to do routine jobs will lessen the de­
mand for many low-skilled clerical
workers. Because the computer also
can write simple policies, the under­
writer occupation may not grow as
rapidly as in the past. In addition,
State no-fault insurance plans should
reduce the number of automobile
claims to be adjusted, thus lessening
the demand for claim adjusters.
Most insurance workers have
better prospects of regular employ­
ment than workers in many other in­
dustries. Business people usually re­
gard property/liability insurance as
a necessity, both during economic
recession and in boom periods; also,
private individuals buy insurance to
provide as much basic financial
protection as possible, even when
their incomes decline.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

A 1972 Bureau of Labor Statistics
survey of insurance companies,
banks, and related businesses re­
vealed a wide range of clerical sala­
ries. Some clerks in beginning rou­
tine jobs earned less than $70 a week,
while experienced clerical employ­
ees in more responsible positions
earned up to twice that amount.
Differences in clerical salaries re­
flect variations in specific job duties
and differences among insurance
companies. Salary levels in different
parts of the country also vary; earn­
ings are generally lowest in southern
cities and highest in northeastern and
western metropolitan areas. (See the
chapter on Office Occupations for
additional information about earn­
ings of clerical workers.)
Starting salaries for professional

777

workers are generally comparable to
those for similar positions in other
businesses. According to limited in­
formation available from private sur­
veys of life and property/liability in­
surance companies, 1972 college
graduates started at salaries ranging
from $7,300 to $10,100 a year.
Specialists having several years’ ex­
perience may receive annual salaries
of $10,000 to $15,000. Unlike sala­
ried professional workers, agents and
brokers earn commissions on the
policies they sell. (See the statement
on Insurance Agents and Brokers
elsewhere in the Handbook.) Annual
salaries for supervisors in life and
property/liability companies ranged
from $11,500 to $20,000, depending
upon the type of company operation
involved.
Except for agents and brokers who
sometimes must extend their work­
ing hours to meet with prospective
clients, insurance company employ­
ees usually work 35 to 40 hours a
week. The number of paid holidays is
somewhat greater than in many
other industries. Two-week paid
vacations generally are granted
employees after 1 year of service; in
most companies, vacations are ex­
tended to 3 weeks after 5 years and,
in some, to 4 weeks after 10 years.
Practically all insurance company
workers share in group life and
health plans, as well as in retirement
pensions.
Sources of Additional
Information

General information on employ­
ment opportunities in the insurance
business may be obtained from the
personnel departments of major in­
surance companies or from insur­
ance agencies in local communities.
Other information on careers in
the insurance field is available from:
Institute of Life Insurance, 277 Park
Ave., New York, N.Y. 10017.

778
Insurance Information Institute, 110
William St., New York, N.Y.
10038.
National Association of Insurance
Agents, 96 Fulton St., New York,
N.Y. 10038.




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK
Area Wage Surveys, Metropolitan
Areas, United States and Regional
Summaries,(BLS Bulletin 1685-92).
Superintendent of Documents,
For additional information on the
U.S. Government Printing Office,
salaries of clerical workers in Finance
Washington, D.C. 20402.
industries, including insurance, see:
American Mutual Insurance Alliance,
20 North Wacker Dr., Chicago, 111.
60606.

SERVICE AND MISCELLANEOUS INDUSTRIES
An increasing share of our na­
tional wealth and manpower is being
devoted to services, as a result of
greater emphasis on amenties such as
medical care, education, and recrea­
tion. In many ways, this trend re­
flects the country’s goals of a better
and fuller life for all its citizens.
In today’s job market, the service
industries are therefore an impor­
tant source of employment to
workers, new as well as experienced,
and offer job opportunities to people
with various levels of skills, training,
and education.
In 1972, about 28 million people
worked in service industries. About
one-half were wage and salary
workers employed by private firms,
11.6 million more were government
employees (mainly in educational
and medical services), and 2.2
million were self-employed. The re­
mainder, accounting for 1.6 million,
worked in private households.
Educational services, including
elementary and secondary schools
and institutions of higher education,
make up the largest sector of the
service industry, and account for
nearly one-third of its work force.
Hospitals and other establishments
that provide health services consti­
tute the next largest sector, and ac­
count for one-fifth of the workers. In
both these service industries, gov­
ernment workers (mainly local and
State) make up a large share of the
work force. Other service in­
dustries employing many workers
are hotels, laundries, and other per­
sonal services, private households,
business and repair services, and
entertainment.



As shown in the accompanying
tabulation, white-collar workers
(professional, managerial, clerical,
and sales workers) account for nearly
three-fifths of the service industry’s
employment. The industry employs
the highest proportion of profes­
sional, technical, and kindred
workers of any major industry and
these workers account for over onethird of the industry’s employment.
By far the largest concentration of
professional personnel is repre­
sented by teachers in educational
services. Other major employers of
professional workers are medical and
health services—where doctors, den­
tists, and nurses constitute a large
share of the work force; and many
professionals are self-employed.
Clerical workers account for 1 out of
6 service industry employees. Most
are stenographers, typists, secre­
taries, and office machine operators.
Managers, officials, and proprietors,
including hospital administrators,
make up a relatively small fraction
of the industry’s employment.
Service workers represent nearly
one-third of the industry’s employ­
ment. The major service occupa­
tions are private household worker,
practical nurse, hospital attendant,
charwoman, jan ito r, w aiter,
waitress, cook, and protective serv­
ice worker.
Blue-collar workers, mainly skill­
ed craftsmen and semiskilled
workers (operatives), constitute only
one-eighth of the industry’s employ­
ment. Many of the craftsmen work
as mechanics in automobile and
other repair service industries, or as
maintenance workers in hotels,

schools, and other establishments.
Operatives work mainly in laun­
dries, auto repair shops, and other
types of repair businesses. Most of
the relatively few laborers in this in­
dustry work in auto repair shops, on
golf courses, and in bowling alleys.
Major
occupational group
All occupational
groups...................
Professional, technical,
and kindred workers . . . .
Managers, officials,
and proprietors .................
Clerical and kindred
workers.............................
Sales workers.......................
Craftsmen, foreman, and
kindred workers...............
Operatives and kindred
workers.............................
Service workers ...................
Laborers...............................

Estimated
employment.
1972
(percent
distribution)
100
32
7
20
1
5
4
29
2

Employment in the service in­
dustry is expected to increase rapidly
through the mid-1980’s. The sharp
growth in the demand for services is
expected to stem from population
growth, expanding business activity,
and rising personal incomes. The
fastest-growing parts of the service
industry will be automobile rental
services, medical services, and cer­
tain firms that provide computer
services and laboratory research
facilities.
The need for extensive personal
contact in the many service func­
tions tends to limit the effect of tech­
nological innovations on employ­
779

780

ment requirements. Although com­
puters may slow the employment
growth in some areas—for exam­
ple, in bookkeeping—technological
change is not expected to limit the




total demand for workers in the serv­
ice industry.
The statements that follow dis­
cuss job opportunities in the hotel
and laundry and drycleaning in­

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

dustries. More detailed information
about services related to occupa­
tions that cut across many industries
appears elsewhere in the Handbook.

HOTEL OCCUPATIONS
Hotels and motels provide
travelers with a “home-away-fromhome.” More than 750,000 peo­
ple—about half of them women—
worked in hotels and motels in 1972.
The majority were employed in ur­
ban areas; others worked on the out­
skirts of large cities, along major
highways, and in resort areas.
Some hotel occupations can be
entered with little or no specialized
training. In many kinds of hotel
work, however, the demand for per­
sons with special skills is increasing.
Hotels are complex organizations,
and need specialized personnel to di­
rect and coordinate operations which
may involve thousands of guests an­
nually and millions of dollars in
property and equipment.
This statement deals with jobs in
hotels, motels, and tourist courts.
Separate statements on Hotel
Housekeepers, Managers, Front Of­
fice Clerks, and Bellmen are found
elsewhere in the Handbook.
The Hotel Business

of the year—for example, during the
winter season in Florida—an in­
creasing number are remaining open
the full year.
Hotels range in size from those
having only a few rooms and em­
ployees, to some having more than
1,000 rooms and many hundreds of
workers. Many of the motor hotels
built in recent years have large staffs.
Many motels, however, including a
sizable number run by the owners,
have relatively small staffs.
Most hotels have restaurants that
range from simple coffee shops to
vast dining rooms, with wine cellars
and elaborate kitchens. Large hotels
and motor hotels also may have ban­
quet rooms, exhibit halls, and spa­
cious ballrooms. Many hotels and
motels, especially in resort areas,
have recreational facilities such as
swimming pools, boating facilities,
golf courses, and tennis courts.
Hotels also may provide informa­
tion about interesting places to visit,
sell tickets to theaters and sporting
events, and provide babysitters.
Their facilities often include news­
stands, gift shops, barber and beauty
shops, laundry and valet services,
and railroad and airline ticket reser­
vation offices. Although motels and
tourist courts usually offer fewer
services than hotels, the number with
restaurants, swimming pools, and
other conveniences for guests is
steadily increasing.

Hotels are of three general
types—commercial, resort, and resi­
dential. A few, residential hotels,
generally accommodate people for
long periods. The majority, how­
ever, are commercial hotels, which
cater to travelers seeking a room for
a brief stay. Some, resort hotels, pro­
vide lodging for vacationers. Motor
hotels, motels, and tourist courts
also cater to those seeking accom­
Hotel Workers
modations for a short time.
Although some resort hotels, motor Because of the many services they
hotels, and motels are open only part offer, hotels need a variety of



workers. Housekeeping is a very im­
portant part of the hotel business,
and many thousands of maids,
porters, housemen, linen room at­
tendants, and laundry room workers
are employed to make beds, clean
rooms and halls, move furniture,
hang draperies, provide guests with
fresh linens and towels, operate laun­
dry equipment, and mark and in­
spect laundered items. Women
usually do the lighter housekeeping
tasks, while men have jobs requiring
more strenuous physical effort such
as washing walls and arranging fur­
niture. Large hotels and motor hotels
usually employ executive house­
keepers to supervise these workers;
some hotels also have a manager in
charge of laundry operations.
In most hotels, a uniformed staff
performs guest services in the lobby.
This staff includes bellmen, who
carry baggage for guests and escort
them to their rooms; doormen; and
elevator operators.
The front office staff includes
room clerks, key clerks, mail clerks,
and information clerks. They greet
guests, assign rooms, and furnish in­
formation. More than half of the
hotel clerical workers are front office
employees. The remainder, mainly
women, have clerical jobs such as
bookkeeper, cashier, telephone
operator, and secretary. These occu­
pations are discussed elsewhere in
the Handbook.
Hotel managers and their assist­
ants have the important job of super­
vising operations and making them
profitable. A general manager
directs all hotel operations. Some
general managers have assistants in
charge of specific operations; for example, food-service managers
operate the dining rooms and other
eating facilities, and sales managers
are responsible for attracting more
business to hotels and motels.
In addition, hotels employ many
other workers who are also found in
781

782

other industries. Among these are
accountants, personnel workers,
entertainers, recreation workers,
waiters, chefs, and bartenders.
Maintenance workers, such as car­
penters, electricians, stationary en­
gineers, plumbers, and painters, also
work for hotels. Still other workers
employed in hotels include detec­
tives, barbers, beauty salon opera­
tors, valets, seamstresses, and gar­
deners. Most of these occupations
are discussed elsewhere in the Hand­
book.

jobs to replace workers who are pro­
moted to managerial posts and to fill
jobs in newly built hotels and motels.
In addition, there will be openings
for other clerical workers, although
the increasing use of office machines
may reduce clerical employment re­
quirements in some hotels. Oppor­
tunities are expected to be favorable
for people who acquire the training
and experience to qualify as cooks
and food managers. Technological
change may limit the number of
openings in a few occupations. For
example, the increased use of auto­
matic dishwashers, vegetable cutters
Employment Outlook
and peelers, and other mechanical
kitchen
Employment in this industry will the needequipment is likely to reduce
for kitchen helpers.
expand very rapidly through the
mid-1980’s as population growth
and increased travel spur the de­
Earnings and Working
Conditions
mand for lodging. In addition to
openings that result from growth, The location, size, and type of
thousands of workers will be needed
each year to replace those who re­ hotel affect earnings of hotel
tire or die. Other openings will workers. Other significant factors
arise as workers transfer to jobs are occupational tipping practices
and degree of unionization. About
in other industries.
Most of the anticipated employ­ one-half of all hotel workers are
ment growth will stem from the need covered by the Fair Labor Stand­
to staff new hotels, motor hotels, and ards Act, a Federal law which sets
motels being built in urban and minimum wages. In 1972, hotel
resort areas. Employment is ex­ workers covered by the law earned at
pected to rise rapidly in motels and least $1.60 an hour, with tips repre­
motor hotels as Federal highway senting as much as half of this. In ad­
building stimulates automobile dition, more than half the States
travel. Limited expansion may take have wage and hour laws that cover
place in older hotels, and those un­ hotel workers.
able to modernize are likely to expe­ Nonsupervisory workers in the
rience low occupancy rates that may hotel industry averaged $2.12 an hour
force them to reduce costs by excluding tips in 1972, about half as
eliminating some services and much as all non supervisory workers
workers. Thousands of temporary in private industry, except farming.
jobs will continue to be available Wages of these workers vary greatly
each year in resort hotels and motels among occupations and parts of the
that are open only part of the year. country. For example, workers in the
Most of the job openings in hotels Western United States usually have
will be for workers who need little higher earnings than those working
specialized training, such as maids, in the South. In addition to regular
porters, housemen, and some dining earnings, bellmen, maids, and house­
room employees. Large numbers keepers may receive tips. According
also will be needed in front office to limited data available for some




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

metropolitan areas, wages of bell­
men averaged $1.28 an hour. Prac­
tically all bellmen surveyed received
at least $20 a month in tips.
Salaries of hotel employees in
managerial positions have an espe­
cially wide range, mainly because of
great differences in duties and re­
sponsibilities. Hotel manager
trainees who are graduates of spe­
cialized college programs start at
yearly salaries ranging from $8,000
to $12,000, and are usually given
periodic increases for the first year or
two. Experienced managers may
earn several times as much as begin­
ners; a few, in top jobs, earn $50,000
a year or more. In addition to salary,
hotels customarily furnish managers
and their families with lodging in the
hotel, meals, parking facilities, laun­
dry, and other services.
Since hotels are open round the
clock, employees may work on any
one of three shifts. Fewer employees
work during the night than the day;
they usually receive additional com­
pensation for these shifts. Manager
and housekeepers who live in the
hotel usually have regular work sch­
edules, but they may be called on at
any time.
Waiters and waitresses, cooks,
pantry workers, dishwashers, and
other kitchen workers commonly re­
ceive meals; in a few hotels, maids,
elevator operators, and room clerks
also receive meals.
The Hotel and Restaurant Em­
ployees and Bartenders Internation­
al Union is the major union in the
hotel business. Uniformed person­
nel, such as bellmen and elevator
operators, also may be members of
the Building Service Employees’
International Union.
Sources off Additional
Information

Information on careers in hotel
work may be obtained from;

HOTEL OCCUPATIONS
The Educational Institute of the Amer­
ican Hotel and Motel Association,
77 Kellogg Center, Michigan State
University, East Lansing, Mich.
48823.

For additional information on
hotel training opportunities and a di­




783

rectory of schools and colleges offer­ Information on housekeeping in
ing courses and scholarships in the hotels is available from:
hotel field write:
Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and In­
stitutional Education, 1522 K St.
NW„ Washington, D.C. 20005.

National Executive Housekeepers
Association, Inc., Business and
Professional Building, Gallipolis,
Ohio 45631.

OCCUPATIONS IN LAUNDRY AND
DRYCLEANING PLANTS
In 1972, approximately 555,000
persons were engaged in laundering
and drycleaning garments, house­
hold furnishings, and institutional
linens and uniforms. These workers
were located in every State, in every
city, and probably in every neighbor­
hood. About three-fifths of them
were women.
Drycleaning firms accounted for
more than 40 percent of the in­
dustry’s workers, and laundries
(including coin operated laundro­
mats) accounted for another 35 per­
cent. Most of the remainder worked
for firms that specialized in renting
and cleaning uniforms, towels,
diapers, and other linens. A small
proportion were employed in valet
shops.
Employment is concentrated in
firms that have 20 or more em­
ployees. Many firms, however, are
owner-operated and have only a few

employees. In 1972, about oneseventh of the industry’s workers
were self-employed.
Nature of the Work

One way to describe the work done
in this industry is to follow an ima­
ginary bundle of clothes from the
time it leaves the customer until the
finished work is returned to him.
(See chart 30.) The bundle consists
of some men’s shirts, a business
suit, and bed linens. A route sales­
man or driver (D.O.T. 292.358)
picks up the bundle and, after
leaving a receipt, takes the bundle
to the plant.
The owner of the bundle may in­
stead leave it at the plant or drive-up
store. In this case, a counter clerk
(D.O.T. 369.887) makes out a receipt
and turns the bundle over to a
marker. Either the routeman or the
counter clerk sorts the items in the

H ow W ork Flows Through a Laundry
and Drycleaning Plant

30

Washmen <

1

Tumbler
operators

1
Finishers <

lerks

it

Inspectors

Seamstresses
Drycleaners and
spotters i----

4
I
Finishers

Tumbler
operators

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics.

784



u

Inspectors

Routeraen

Assemblers
and
baggers

Drycleaner removes clothes from
cleaning machine.

bundle into laundry and drycleaning.
The bundle is turned over to
markers (D.O.T. 369.887), who put
an identifying symbol on each item
so it may be matched with the cus­
tomer’s receipt at some later time.
The markers then send the shirts and
sheets to the washroom and the suit
to the drycleaning room.
A washman (D.O.T. 361.885) puts
several hundred pounds of sheets in a
huge washing machine. He loads
shirts in another washer. These ma­
chines are controlled automatically,
but the washman must understand
how to operate the controls—water
temperature, suds level, time cycles,
and the amount of agitation for dif­
ferent fabrics. When the washing cy­
cle is completed, the laundry is trans­
ferred to an extractor that removes
about half the water. This stage is
similar to the “spin” cycle on a home
washer. Conveyors move the laundry
to conditioners, dryers, or tumblers
where dry, heated air removes some
of the remaining moisture.

OCCUPATIONS IN LAUNDRY AND DRYCLEANING PLANTS

The sheets go from the drying area
to flatw ork finishers (D.O.T.
363.886) who shake out folds and
creases, spread the sheets on moving
belts, and feed them into large flatwork ironing machines for ironing
and partial folding. When the sheets
come out of the machine, other fin­
ishers complete the folding and
stacking.
Shirts go directly from the extrac­
tor to shirt finishers (D.O.T.
363.782) who usually work in teams
of two or three. One finisher puts the
sleeves of the shirt on a “sleever”,
which has two armlike forms. A sec­
ond operator then puts the shirt on
a “triple-head” press that irons the
collar and two cuffs at the same time.
The same finisher then puts the shirt
on a “bosom” press that irons the
front and back simultaneously. In
some plants, the first finisher either
folds the shirt or places it on a
hanger, whichever the customer has
indicated. A third finisher may do
the folding. In some laundries, one
shirt finisher performs all these
operations.

Men’s suit finisher sprays steam over
jacket on hot air filled body form.




The jobs of the drycleaner (D.O.T.
362.782) and washman are similar,
but the cleaning solution for drycleaning is a chemical solvent in­
stead of water, and the machines
generally are smaller than laundry
washers. The drycleaner sorts the
clothes according to color, fiber con­
tent, and fabric construction and se­
lects the proper time cycle for each
load. The drycleaner may apply spe­
cial prespotting solutions to spots
and stains before placing the gar­
ments in the drycleaning machine.
After cleaning, a certrifuge extrac­
tor removes the solvent and then the
clothes are dried in a tumbler or hot­
air cabinet. The spotter (D.O.T.
362.381) will use chemical reagents
and steam to remove stubborn stains.
A men’s suit finisher (D.O.T.
363.782) puts the pants on special
“topper” and “legger” presses. The
jacket is placed on a body form that
may have a second part that comes
down to press and shape the
shoulders and collar of the jacket
while the steam is forced from the in­
side. Final finishing touches are done
on a steam heated pressing head and
“buck,” a flat surface covered in
fabric.
An inspector (D.O.T. 369.687)
checks finished items to see that the
quality standards of the plant have
been maintained. Any item in need
of recleaning or refinishing may be
returned to the appropriate depart­
ment; occasionally, the inspector
works on them instead. Repair work
may be forwarded to a seamstress
(D.O.T. 782.884) who sews on but­
tons, mends tears, and resews seams.
Finally, assemblers (D.O.T. 369.687)
collect the linens and shirts by
matching the sales invoice with the
identification marks. Assemblers or
baggers (D.O.T. 920.887) may
remove tags before putting the items
in bags or boxes for storage until
called for by the customer or de­
livered by the routeman.

785

In addition to workers who are
unique to laundry and drycleaning
plants, many other workers are
found in this industry. The manager
or proprietor is responsible for see­
ing that the work of the plant is per­
formed efficiently. Office workers
keep records, handle correspond­
ence, and prepare bills. Sales per­
sonnel develop new customers for the
plant’s services. Mechanics and
repairmen keep equipment and ma­
chinery operating properly. Some
service workers clean, guard, and
otherwise maintain the plant; others
plan and serve food to plant workers.
Laborers lift and carry heavy loads
to machines. (Discussion of many of
these occupations can be found else­
where in the Handbook.)
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Many workers in this industry get
their first jobs without previous
training. Basic laundry and drycleaning skills may be learned on the
job in a short time. Some jobs, such
as folding towels and feeding pillow­
cases and sheets into a flatwork
ironer, may require 1 or 2 days to
learn. Some finishing jobs—pants
presser, shirt Finisher—may require
less than a week’s training. Other
jobs, such as counter clerk, marker,
inspector, and assembler, may re­
quire several weeks to learn. Several
months or more are needed to train a
drycleaner or ladies’ apparel fin­
isher. It may take 6 to 12 months to
become a spotter because of the
variety of Fibers and fabrics, spots
and stains, and chemical reagents.
Some preemployment training in
Finishing, drycleaning, and spotting
skills is available in vocational high
schools and trade schools. Similar
training is available in programs ad­
ministered by the U.S. Department
of Labor under the Manpower De­
velopment and Training Act as well
as in the Job Opportunities in the

786

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

pected to grow moderately through the
mid-1980’s. Besides the job open­
ings that result from employment
growth, many openings will occur as
experienced workers retire, die, or
transfer to other Fields.
The principal reasons for in­
creases in the demand for laundry
and drycleaning services will be ris­
ing population and incomes. Also, as
women increasingly seek careers out­
side the home, they will have less
time to do laundry at home but will
have the additional income to afford
outside services. Offsetting some of
the increased demand for laundry
and cleaning services will be the
easier care of the new fabrics and
finishes. Many persons who have not
previously done their laundry at
home may consider doing so. How­
ever, drycleaning in the home prob­
ably will not be practical for many
years.
These factors will result in in­
creased employment in all occupa­
tions in the laundry and drycleaning
industry except route salesmen and
spotters. The number of route sales­
men probably will decrease as more
people take their clothes to the
neighborhood plant or drive-up store
for quicker, more economical serv­
ice. Employment of spotters may
decline over the next decade as tech­
Employment Outlook
nological innovations in Fibers and
Employment in this industry is ex­ Finishes make fabrics less stainable.

Business Sector program carried out
by the National Alliance of Busi­
nessmen. Home study courses are
available from the International
Fabric Care Institute.
Employers look for workers who
are dependable and who have physi­
cal stamina, manual dexterity, and
keen eyesight. Workers must be able
to adjust to the repetitive nature of
many laundry and drycleaning jobs.
Advancement for most workers in
this industry is limited. Many remain
permanently in the same job. Never­
theless, employers occasionally send
promising employees to technical or
managerial training programs or
seminars on topics of general interest
given by the International Fabric
Care Institute at its facility in Joliet,
111. Some men’s suit finishers become
skilled enough on the job to do
ladies’ apparel Finishing. Markers
and assemblers interested in Finish­
ing work usually are given an oppor­
tunity to move up to this job. Fore­
men and managers frequently are
chosen from experienced employees
already in the industry. Some drycleaners and spotters establish their
own drycleaning plants.




Earnings and Working
Conditions

Wage levels in the laundry and
drycleaning industry are not high. In
1972, the hourly average wage for
nonsupervisory workers in this in­
dustry was $2.42 compared to $3.65
for nonsupervisory workers in all in­
dustries, except farming. Earnings
are higher for workers in the more
highly skilled occupations such as
drycleaner, spotter, and washman.
Modern laundry and drycleaning
plants are clean and well lighted.
Because of the heat, hot air, and
steam of the cleaning processes, the
plant may be uncomfortably hot dur­
ing the summer months. However,
large modern laundries usually have
high ceilings—often three stories
high—and numerous windows that
may be opened for ventilation. Many
new, small drycleaning plants are
air-conditioned in the office and cus­
tomer areas and well ventilated in the
machinery areas. In addition, new
machinery operates with a mini­
mum of noise.
Sources of Additional
Information

The local ofFice of the State em­
ployment service may have addi­
tional information on training and
employment opportunities in this
Field.

GOVERNMENT
Government service, one of the
Nation’s largest fields of employ­
ment, provided jobs for nearly 13.3
million civilian workers in 1972,
about 1 out of 6 employed persons in
the United States. State or local
governments (county, city, town,
village, or other local government
division) employed nearly four-fifths
of these workers. Nearly all of the
others worked for the Federal
Government in the continental
United States. A small number
worked for the Federal Government
overseas.
Government employees represent
a significant portion of each State’s
work force. They work in large cities,
small towns and even in remote and
isolated places such as lighthouses
and forest ranger stations.
Employment in State and local
government is expected to grow
rapidly through the mid-1980’s, con­
tinuing the trend begun in the late
1940’s. Federal employment, on the
other hand, is expected to grow slow­
ly as administrative responsibility for
some programs is transferred to the
States. Many job opportunities will
arise at all levels of government from
the need to replace workers who
retire, die, or leave the government
service. Flundreds of thousands of
individuals will be needed each year
for jobs in a wide variety of oc­
cupations.
GOVERNMENT ACTIVITIES
AND OCCUPATIONS

Two-fifths of all government
workers in 1971, or 5.5 million, pro­



vided educational services, mostly at
the State and local levels. Most
worked in elementary and second­
ary schools. Besides teachers, others
who worked in educational services
included administrative and clerical
workers, maintenance workers,
librarians, dietitians, nurses, and
counselors.
About 1.1 million civilian govern­
ment employees in 1971 worked in
activities concerned with national
defense and international relations,
employed by The U.S. Department
of Defense and State and a few
smaller Federal agencies such as the
Atomic Energy Commission. Occu­
pations in this group include ad­
ministrative and clerical workers,
doctors, nurses, teachers, engineers,
scientists, technicians, craftsmen,
and other manual workers. They
work in offices, research labo­
ratories, navy yards, arsenals, and
missile launching sites and in hos­

pitals and schools run by the mili­
tary services.
Another 1.3 million workers pro­
vide health services and staffed
hospitals, primarily for State and
local governments. Nearly 4.4
million workers were employed in
housing and community develop­
ment, police and Fire protection,
social security and public welfare
services, transportation and public
utilities, financial administration,
general administrative functions, and
judicial and legislative activities. The
majority of these workers were also
State and local government em­
ployees. Most of the 1.1 million
government workers in postal serv­
ices and natural resources, such as
those in the National Park and
Forest Service, were employed by the
Federal Government.
Although the many different
governmental activities require a
diversified work force having many

Major Areas of Governm ent
Em ployment, 1971

31

E m p l o y m e n t 1971 { i n m ill ion s)

0

Education
Health and hospitals
National defense and
international relations
Postal service
Highways
Police protection
General control
Natural resources
Financial administration
Space research and
technology _____ _
All other
Source: Bureau of the Census

1

2

3

4

5

6

i
787

788

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Percent distribution
different levels of education, train­ Table 1. and private Industry of employment In government
by occupation, 1972.
ing, and skill, two out of three
Occupation
government employees are whiteGovernment' Private Industry
collar workers. Among the largest
T otal.................................................................................
100
100
white-collar occupational groups are White-collar workers..................................................................
44
67
teachers, administrators, postal
10
Professional and technical..................................................
35
10
Managers and administrators............................................
8
clerks, and office workers such as
16
Clerical.................................................................................
23
stenographers, typists, and clerks.
8
S ales.....................................................................................
O
14
39
Some important service, craft, and Blue-collar workers....................................................................
15
Craftsmen and related workers..........................................
7
manual occupations are aircraft and
4
Transport equipment operatives........................................
3
Other equipment operatives ..............................................
15
1
automotive mechanics, repairmen,
Nonfarm laborers ..............................................................
4
5
policemen, firemen, truckdrivers, Service workers ...........................................................................
19
12
4
skilled maintenance workers (for ex- Farm workers...............................................................................
O
ample, carpenters, painters, ' Excludes Federal employment overseas.
plumbers, and electricians) custodial 2 Less than 0.5 percent.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals,
workers, and laborers.
Because of the special character of SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics.
many government activities, the
occupational distribution of employ­ The following chapters discuss op- the Armed Forces. A separate
ment is very different from that in portunities for civilian employment chapter gives information on post ofprivate industry, as shown in the ac­ in the major divisions of govern- fice occupations,
companying table.
ment and in the various branches of _____________________________




FEDERAL CIVILIAN GOVERNMENT
The Federal Government is the
Nation’s largest employer; it em­
ployed about 2.6 million civilian
workers in 1972. In addition, it em­
ployed about 60,000 U.S. citizens
abroad. Federal employees work in
occupations that represent nearly
every kind of job in private employ­
ment, as well as some others unique
to the Federal Government, such as
postal clerk, border patrolman, regu­
latory inspector, foreign service of­
ficer, and Internal Revenue agent.
Most Federal employees work for
the departments and agencies that
comprise the executive branch of the
government. Some are employed in
the legislative and judicial branches.
The executive branch includes the
Executive Office of the President, the
11 cabinet departments, and more
than 80 independent agencies, com­
missions, and boards. This branch is
responsible for activities such as ad­
ministering Federal laws, handling
international relations, conserving
natural resources, treating and
rehabilitating disabled veterans,
delivering the mail, conducting scien­
tific research, maintaining the flow
of supplies to the Armed Forces, and
administering other programs to
promote the health and welfare of
the people of the United States.
The Department of Defense,
which includes the Departments of
the Army, Navy, and Air Force, is
the largest agency. It employed
about 1 million civilian workers in
the United States in 1972. The
departments of Agriculture; Health,
Education, and Welfare; and
Treasury each employed more than
100,000 workers. The largest of the



independent agencies were the U.S.
Postal Service, which employed
about 670,000 workers and the
Veterans Administration, which em­
ployed over 190,000 workers.
About 30,000 people worked for
the legislative branch of govern­
ment, which includes the Congress,
the Government Printing Office, the
General Accounting Office, and the
Library of Congress. More than 8,000 people worked for the judicial
branch, which includes the Supreme
Court and the other U.S. courts.
The Federal Government em­
ploys about 2 million white-collar
workers, including postal workers,
including postal workers. Entrance
requirements for white-collar jobs
vary widely. Entrants into profes­
sional occupations must have highly
specialized knowledge in a specified
field.Occupations typical of this
group are attorney, physicist, and
engineer.
Entrants into administrative and
managerial occupations usually are
not required to have knowledge of a
specialized field, but rather must
indicate that they have potential for
future development by graduation
from a 4-year college or by responsi­
ble job experience. The entrant usu­
ally begins at a trainee level and
learns the duties of the job after he is
hired. Typical jobs in this group are
budget analyst, claims examiner,
purchasing officer, administrative
assistant, and personnel officer.
Technician, clerical, and aidassistant jobs have entry level posi­
tions that usually are filled by people
who have a high school education or
the equivalent. For many of these
positions, no previous experience or

training is required. The entry level
position is usually that of trainee.
Persons who have junior college or
technical school training, or those
who have specialized skills may enter
these occupations at higher levels.
Jobs typical of this group are engi­
neering technician, supply clerk,
clerk-typist, and nursing assistant.
Because of its wide range of
responsibilities, the Federal Govern­
ment employs white-collar workers
in a great many occupational fields.
About 150,000 Federal Employees
work in engineering and related
fields. Included in this total are
about 85,000 engineers, repre­
senting virtually every branch and
specialty of the profession. There
also are large numbers of technician
positions in areas such as engi­
neering, electronics, surveying, and
drafting. Nearly two-thirds of all
engineering positions are in the
Department of Defense.
Of the 115,000 workers employed
in accounting and budgeting work,
34,000 are professional accountants
and Internal Revenue agents.
Among administrative and mana­
gerial occupations in this field are
tax technician and budget adminis­
trator. There also are large numbers
of clerical positions that involve
specialized accounting work. Ac­
counting workers are employed
throughout the Government, par­
ticularly in the Department of
Defense, the Treasury Department,
and the General Accounting Office.
More than 10,000 Federal em­
ployees work in hospitals or medical,
dental, public health activities. Pro­
fessional occupations in this field in­
clude physician, nurse, dietitian,
medical technologist, and physical
therapist. Among technician and aid
jobs are medical technician, medical
laboratory aid, and nursing assist­
ant. Employees in this field work pri­
marily in the Veterans Administra­
tion; others are in the Defense
789

790

Department and Health, Education,
and Welfare.
About 45,000 biological and
agricultural science workers were
employed. Large numbers work in
forestry and soil conservation activi­
ties. Others administer farm assist­
ance programs. Technicians and aidassistant occupations include biology
technician, forest and range fire con­
trol technician, soil conservation
technician* and forestry technician.
Most of these workers are employed
by the Departments of Agriculture
and Interior.
In the physical sciences, the
Federal Government employs pro­
fessional workers such as physicists,
chemists, meteorologists, cartog­
raphers, and geologists. Aids and
technicians in this field include
physical science technician, meteor­
ological technician, and cartog­
raphers technician. Four-fifths of the
42,000 workers in the physical
sciences are employed by the Depart­
ment of Defense; the National Aero­
nautics and Space Administration;
and the Departments of Agricul­
ture, Commerce, and Health, Edu­
cation, and Welfare.
Within the mathematics field are
professional mathematicians and
statisticians, and mathematics tech­
nicians and statistical clerks. There
also are a number of administrative
positions in the related field of com­
puter programing. Mathematics
workers are employed primarily by
the Defense Department, the
National Aeronautics and Space Ad­
ministration, and the Departments of
Agriculture, Commerce, and Health,
Education and Welfare. Positions in
the computer field are found in most
Federal agencies.
In the field of law there are more
than 11,000 employees in pro­
fessional positions, such as attorney,
and others in administrative posi­
tions such as claims examiner. There
also are many clerical positions that



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

involve claims examining work.
Workers in the legal field are em­
ployed throughout the Federal
Government.
In the social science field there are
professional positions for econo­
mists throughout the government;
psychologists and social workers
work primarily for the Veterans Ad­
ministration; and foreign affairs and
international relations specialists for
the Department of State. Among
social science administrative work­
ers are social insurance adminis­
trators in the Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare and in­
telligence specialist for the Depart­
ment of Defense.
The Federal Government employs
about 45,000 persons in investiga­
tion and inspection work. Large
numbers of these workers are engag­
ed in administrative activities, such
as criminal investigation and health
and regulatory inspection. Most of
these jobs are in the Defense,
Treasury, Justice, and Agriculture
Departments.
Jobs concerned with purchasing,
cataloging, storing, and distributing
supplies for the Federal Govern­
ment provide employment for about
67,000 workers. This field includes
many managerial and administra­
tive positions such as supply manage­
ment officer, purchasing officer, and
inventory management specialist, as
well as large numbers of specialized
clerical positions. Most of these jobs
are in the Department of Defense.
Nearly 465,000 general clerical
workers are employed in all depart­
ments and agencies of the Federal
Government. Included in this group
are office machine operators, secre­
taries, stenographers, clerk-typists,
mail and file clerks, telephone oper­
ators, and other related workers. In
addition, there are several hundred
thousand postal clerks employed by
the Federal Government.
Blue-collar jobs—service, craft,

and manual labor—provided
employment for more than 580,000
workers in 1972. Most of these
workers were in establishments such
as naval shipyards, arsenals, air­
bases, or army depots; or they work­
ed on construction, harbor, floodcontrol, irrigation, or reclamation
projects. The Department of Defense
employed about three-fourths of
these workers. Others worked for the
Veterans Administration, Postal
Service, General Services Adminis­
tration, Department of the Interior,
Tennessee Valley Authority, and
Department of Agriculture.
The largest single group of bluecollar workers consists of operators
and mobile equipment mechanics.
These jobs include forklift oper­
ators, chauffeur, truckdriver, and
automobile mechanic. The next
largest group of workers are general
laborers, who perform a wide variety
of manual jobs.
The Federal Government employs
many workers in machinery oper­
ation and repair occupations, such as
boiler and steam plant operator,
machinist, machinery repairman,
maintenance electrician, electronics
equipment repairman, and aircraft
mechanic.
Skilled construction workers also
are utilized widely throughout the
Federal Government. Included in
these fields are jobs such as car­
penter, painter, plumber, steamfitter and pipefitter, and sheetmetal
worker. Other important blue-collar
occupations include warehouseman,
food service worker and printer.
Many skilled occupations may be
entered through apprenticeship pro­
grams. Experience normally is not
required to qualify but a test may be
given to indicate whether an appli­
cant has an aptitude for the occupa­
tion. There also are jobs as helpers
for skilled workers such as car­
penter’s helper and machinist’s
helper.

FEDERAL CIVILIAN GOVERNMENT

(Detailed descriptions of the work
duties of most white-collar, service,
craft, and manual labor jobs men­
tioned above are provided in other
sections of the Handbook.)
Federal employees are stationed in
all parts of the United States and its
territories and in many foreign coun­
tries. Although the headquarters of
most Government department and
agencies are in the Washington, D.C.
metropolitan area, only 1 out of 9
(about 320,000) Federal employees
worked in that area in 1972. More
than 300,000 worked in California,
and more than 100,000 each in New
York, Pennsylvania, Texas, and
Illinois.
The Merit System

791

Atomic Energy Commission, and the
Tennessee Valley Authority.
Civil service competitive ex­
aminations may be taken by any
U.S. citizen or person who owes per­
manent allegiance to the United
States (in the case of residents of
American Samoa). To be eligible for
appointment, an applicant must
meet minimum age, training, and ex­
perience requirements for the par­
ticular job. A physical handicap will
not in itself bar a person from a posi­
tion if it does not interfere with his
performance of the required duties.
Examinations vary according to the
types of positions for which they are
held. Some examination test the
applicant’s ability to do the job ap­
plied for, or his ability to learn how
to do it. Applicants for jobs that do
not require a written test are rated on
the basis of the experience and train­
ing described in their applications
and any supporting evidence re­
quired.
Applicants are notified as to
whether they have achieved eligible
or ineligible ratings, and the names
of eligible applicants are entered on a
list in the order of their test scores.
When a Federal agency requests
names of eligible applicants for a job
vacancy, the area office sends the
agency the names at the top of the
appropriate list; the agency can
select any one of the top three.
Names of those not selected are re­
stored to the list for consideration for
other job openings.
Appointments to civil service jobs
are made without regard to an appli­
cant’s race, color, religion, national
origin, politics, or sex.

About 9 out of 10 jobs in the
Federal Government in the United
States are under the merit system.
The Civil Service Act, administered
by the U.S. Civil Service Com­
mission, covers 61 percent of all
Federal jobs. This act was passed by
the Congress to insure that Federal
employees are hired on the basis of
individual merit and Fitness. It pro­
vides for competitive examinations
and the selection of new employees
from among those who make the
highest scores. The commission
through its network of 65 Civil Serv­
ice Commission Area Offices ex­
amines and rates applicants and sup­
plies Federal departments and agen­
cies with names of persons eligible
for the jobs to be Filled.
Some Federal jobs are exempt
from Civil Service requirements,
either by law or by action of the Civil
Service Commission. However, most
of these positions are covered by
Employment Trends
separate merit systems of other agen­
and Outlook
cies such as the Foreign Service of
the Department of State, the Depart­ Federal employment is expected to
ment of Medicine and Surgery of the grow slowly through the mid-1980’s.
Veterans Administration, the In addition to new jobs created by
Federal Bureau of Investigation, the employment growth, there will be



openings due to the need to replace
employees who transfer out of the
Federal service, retire, or die. Thus
many job opportunities will occur in
occupations where total employ­
ment is relatively stable, as well as in
those in which it is rising.
The proportion of Federal workers
employed in professional, technical,
and administrative jobs has gradual­
ly increased in recent years. On the
other hand, the proportion em­
ployed in clerical and blue-collar jobs
has fallen. These trends are expected
to continue. The manpower require­
ments of the Federal Government
will tend to reflect the increasing de­
mand for services of a growing pop­
ulation and the country’s domestic
and international programs. These
demands are expected to result in ris­
ing requirements for professional,
administrative, and technical
workers.
Population expansion will create
more jobs for social security claims
examiners, accounting and budget
workers, and business and industry
specialists. Laws that provide for
new or expanded services to the
public should result in increased
employment of health inspectors and
education personnel. Employment in
legal and kindred occupations also
may increase because of the ex­
istence of more laws and regulations
to interpret, administer, and en­
force; and more claims to examine
for payment of retirement, dis­
ability, and death benefits.
Federal employment gains in
science, engineering, and other Fields
will reflect the demands of vigorous
national research and development
efforts in programs such as urban
development, military weapons,
nuclear energy, medicine and health,
transportation, and natural resource
development. The employment of
scientists and engineers will grow
slowly, as will the employment of
engineering and science technicians.

792

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Trends in Federal Government Employment

32

W O R K E R S (in millions)

3---------------------

Employment in many clerical and
blue-collar occupations will be
limited by the Federal Govern­
ment’s increasing use of labor-saving
electronic data-processing and materials-handling equipment and the in­
troduction of improved datatransmission and communications
systems.
Earnings, Advancement,
and Working Conditions

Nearly all Federal civilian
employees are paid according to one
of 3 major pay systems; the General
Pay Schedule, the wage system, and
the Postal Field System. (The Postal
Field System is discussed with Post
Office Occupations elsewhere in the
Handbook).
Nearly half of all Federal Workers
are paid under the General Sched­
ule. General Schedule (GS) pay rates
are set by Congress and apply na­
tionwide. They are reviewed an­
nually to insure that they remain
comparable with salaries in private
industry. The General Schedule is a
pay scale for workers in pro­
fessional, administrative, technical,
and clerical jobs, and for workers



such as guards and messengers.
General Schedule jobs are classified
by the U.S. Civil Service Com­
mission in one of 18 pay grades, ac­
cording to the difficulty of duties and
responsibilities, and the knowledge,
experience, and skills required of the
worker.
The distribution of Federal white-

collar employees by General Sched­
ule grade, the entrance and maxi­
mum salaries for each grade, and the
amount of each grade’s periodic in­
creases are listed in the accompany­
ing table. Appointments usually are
made at the minimum rate of the
salary range for the appropriate
grade. However, appointments in
hard-to-fill positions may be at a
higher rate.
Employees in all grades except the
highest, GS-18, receive within-grade
pay increases after they have worked
the required time periods, if their
work is an acceptable level of com­
petence. Within-grade increases may
be given, also, in recognition of highquality service.
High school graduates who have
no related work experience usually
start in GS-2 jobs, but some have
special skills begin at grade GS-3.
Graduates of 2-year junior colleges
and technical schools often can begin
at the GS-4 level. Most young people
appointed to professional and ad­
ministrative jobs such as psycholo­
gist, statistician, economist, writer

Table 1. Distribution of all full-time Federal employees under the General Schedule
by grade level, March 31, 1972, and salary scale, effective January 7, 1973

Employees
Percent
General Schedule
Number
(GS) Grade
Total All Grades 1,281,473
100.0
1.....................................
3,158
0.2
2 .....................................
25,528
2.0
3 ..................................... 101,384
7.9
4 ..................................... 168,477
13.1
5 ..................................... 163,210
12.7
6 .....................................
82,333
6.4
7 ..................................... 111.197
8.7
8 .....................................
26,640
2.1
9 ..................................... 139,136
10.9
10.....................................
19,008
1.5
11..................................... 146,401
11.4
12..................................... 127,259
9.9
13.....................................
96.738
7.5
14.....................................
44,239
3.5
15.....................................
22,381
1.7
16.....................................
3,097
.2
17.....................................
959
0.1I
18.....................................
328
1 Less than 0.05 percent
Source: U.S. Civil Service Commission

Entrance

Salaries
Periodic
Increase

Maximum

$ 4,798
5,432
6,128
6,882
7,694
8,572
9,520
10,528
11,614
12,775
13,996
16,682
19,700
23,088
26,898
31,203
36,103
41,734

$ 160
181
204
229
257
286
317
351
387
426
466
556
657
770
897
1,040
1,203

S 6,238
7,061
7,964
8,943
10,007
11,146
12,373
13,687
15,097
16,609
18,190
21,686
25,613
30,018
34,971
39,523
40,915

FEDERAL CIVILIAN GOVERNMENT

and editor, budget analyst, account­
ant, and physicist, can enter at
grades GS-5 or GS-7, depending on
their academic record. Those who
have a master’s degree, or the
equivalent education or experience,
can enter at GS-ll level and above.
Advancement to higher grades
generally depends upon ability, work
performance, and openings in jobs
with higher grades.
About one-quarter of the federal
civilian workers are paid according
to the coordinated Federal Wage
System. Under this system, craft,
service, and manual workers are paid
hourly rates which are established on
the basis of “prevailing” rates paid
by private employers for similar
work in the same locations. As a
result, the Federal Government wage
rate paid for an occupation may vary
among areas of the United States, as
illustrated in the accompanying
table.
Federal Government employees
work a standard 40-hour week. Em­
ployees who are required to work
overtime receive premium rates for
the additional time or compensatory
time off at a later date. Most em­
ployees work 8 hours a day and 5
days a week, Monday through Fri­
day, but in some cases, the nature of
the work requires a different
workweek. Annual earnings for
most full-time Federal workers are
not affected by seasonal factors.
Federal employees earn 13 days of
annual (vacation) leave each year
during their First 3 years of service;
20 days each year until the end of 15
years; after 15 years, 26 days
each year. Nine paid holidays are
observed annually. Workers who are
member of military reserve organi­
zations also are granted up to
15 days of paid military leave a
year for training purposes. A Fed­
eral worker who is laid off is
entitled to unemployment compen­



793
Table 2. Coordinated Federal Wage System Hourly pay rates for Selected Occupations
and location, January 1, 1973

Tool, Die,
Electrician and Gauge
Location
Maker
Atlanta, Ga....................................................................... $3.21
$5.06
$5.86
Boston, Mass....................................................................
3.65
4.65
5.20
3.80
5.33
Chicago, 111.......................................................................
5.96
Denver, Colo.....................................................................
3.65
5.22
4.75
Norfolk-Portsmouth-Newport News-Hampton, Va. .
3.03
4.37
4.95
Houston, Galveston-Texas City, Texas.......................
3.42
4.92
5.57
Los Angeles, Calif............................................................
3.84
5.21
5.79
New Orleans, La..............................................................
3.06
4.50
5.17
New York, N.Y...............................................................
3.70
4.96
5.50
Pensacola, Fla..................................................................
3.11
4.88
5.64
Philadelphia, Pa...............................................................
3.80
4.93
5.41
Seattle-Everett-Tacoma, Wash......................................
4.05
5.13
5.60
San Francisco, Calif........................................................
4.10
5.51
6.11
St. Louis, Mo....................................................................
3.78
5.05
5.60
Washington, D.C.............................................................
4.91
3.46
5.60
Rates are for non-supervisory workers for the second step of a 3-step pay range,
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics
Labor
(heavy)

mission are located in various large
cities throughout the country. These
offices announce and conduct ex­
aminations required for various
Federal Government jobs. They
evaluate qualifications and refer
eligible applicants to employing
agencies for their geographic areas.
They also provide a complete onestop information service on local and
nationwide job opportunities in the
Federal Government service. The
Area Offices also operate a toll-free
telephone information service in
nearly all States for those unable to
visit them. Their telephone numbers
are listed in most telephone books
Sources of Additional
under “U.S. government.”
Information
For information about jobs in a
Information on employment op­ specific agency, contact the agency
portunities in the Federal Govern­ directly.
ment is available from a number of
sources. High school students are
often able to get information from
their high school guidance
counselors. A college placement of­
O C C U P A TIO N S IN
fice is often a good source of such in­
formation for college students. Infor­ TH E P O S TA L SER VICE
mation may be available, also from
State employment service offices and Each year the U.S. Postal Service
many U.S. post offices.
handles more than 80 billion letters
Sixty-five Area Offices operated and 2 billion parcels. About 700,000
by the U.S. Civil Service Com­ workers are required to process and
sation similar to that provided
for employees in private industry.
Other benefits available to most
Federal employees include: A con­
tributory retirement system, optional
participation in low-cost group life
and health insurance programs part­
ly supported by the Government, and
training programs to develop maxi­
mum job proficiency and help
workers achieve their highest po­
tential. These training programs may
be conducted in Government
facilities or in private educational
facilities at Government expense.

794

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

deliver this mail. The vast majority
of these jobs are open to workers
with 4 years of high school or less.
The work is steady, and the pay can
range beyond $10,000 a year. Some
of the jobs, such as mail carrier, offer
a good deal of personal freedom.
Other jobs, however, are more closely
supervised and more routine.
Nature and Location
of the Industry

Most people are familiar with the
duties of the mailman and the post
office window clerk. Yet few are
aware of the many different tasks re­
quired in processing mail and of the
variety of occupations in the Postal
Service.
At all hours of the day and night, a
steady stream of letters, packages,
magazines, and papers moves
through the typical large post office.
Mail carriers have collected some of
this mail from neighborhood mail­
boxes; some has been trucked in
from surrounding towns or from the
airport. When a truck arrives at the
post office, mail handlers unload the
mail, dump it onto long tables, and
separate the letters, packages, and
magazines into groups. Postal clerks
then cancel the stamps and sort the
mail according to destination.
After being sorted, outgoing mail
is loaded into trucks for delivery to
the airport or nearby towns. Local
mail is left for carriers to deliver the
next morning.
To keep buildings and equipment
clean and in good working order, the
Postal Service employs a variety of
service and maintenance workers.
Included are janitors, laborers, truck
mechanics, electricians, carpenters,
and painters. Some workers special­
ize in repairing machines that
process mail.
Postal inspectors see that post of­
fices are operated efficiently, that
funds are spent properly, and that



postal laws and regulations are ob­
served. They also prevent and detect
crimes such as theft, forgery, and
fraud involving use of the mail.
Postmasters and supervisors are
responsible for the day-to-day opera­
tion of the post office, for hiring and
promoting employees, and for set­
ting up work schedules.
The Postal Service also contracts

with private businesses to transport
mail. In 1972, there were about 12,500 of these “Star” route contracts.
Most “Star” route carriers use
trucks to haul mail, but in some
remote areas horses or boats are
used instead.
In 1972, about 700,000 people,
nearly 20 percent of them women,
worked for the Postal Service.
Almost 85 percent of all postal
workers were in jobs directly related
to processing and delivering mail.
(See accompanying table on occu­
pations.) This group included postal
clerks, mail carriers, mail handlers,
and truckdrivers. (Detailed in­
formation on mail carriers and
postal clerks is given elsewhere in the
Handbook.) Postmasters and super­
visors, made up nearly 10 percent of
total employment, and maintenance
workers about 4 percent. The re­
mainder included such workers as
postal inspectors, guards, personnel
workers, and secretaries.
The Postal Service operates more
than 42,000 installations. Most are
post offices, but some serve special
purposes, such as handling payroll
records or supplying equipment.
Although every community has at
least one post office, employment is
concentrated in large metropolitan
areas. Post offices in cities such as
New York, Chicago, and Los

Table 1. Postal Service employment by occupation, 1972

Occupation
Total employment.......................
Postal clerks..............................................
City carriers..............................................
Rural carriers............................................
Mail handlers............................................
Postal supervisors ...................................
Postmasters ..............................................
Maintenance service workers.................
Motor vehicle operators .........................
Vehicle maintenance workers.................
Postal inspectors .....................................
Protection force.......................................
Other..........................................................

Number
706,400
286,384
212,561
50,309
43,303
38,102
30,731
23,962
6,466
5,823
1,589
1,919
5,251

NOTE: Because of rounding, the sums of individual items may not add to total.
dd

Percent
100.0
40.5
30.1
7.1
6.1
5.4
4.4
3.4
.9
.8
.2
.3
.7

FEDERAL CIVILIAN GOVERNMENT

Angeles employ a great number of
workers because they not only
process huge amounts of mail for
their own populations but also serve
as intermediate sorting points for the
smaller communities that surround
them.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

An applicant for a Postal Service
job must pass an examination and
meet minimum age requirements.
Generally, the minimum age is 18,
but a high school graduate may begin
work at 16 if the job is not haz­
ardous and does not require use of a
motor vehicle. Many Postal Service
jobs do not require formal education
or special training. Applicants for
these jobs are hired on the basis of
their examination scores.
Applicants should apply at the
post office where they wish to work
and take the entrance examination
for the job they want. Examinations
for most jobs include a written test.
A physical examination is required,
as well. Applicants for jobs that re­
quire strength and stamina are some­
times given a special test. For exam­
ple, mail handlers must be able to lift
mail sacks weighing up to 70 pounds.
The names of applicants who pass
the examinations are placed on a list
in the order of their scores. Separate
eligibility lists are maintained for
each post office. Five extra points are
added to the score of an honorably
discharged veteran, and 10 extra
points to the score of a veteran
wounded in combat or disabled. Dis­
abled veterans who have a compen­
sable, service-connected disability of
10 percent or more are placed at the
top of the eligibility list. When a job
opens, the appointing officer chooses
one of the top three applicants.
Others are left on the list so that they
can be considered for future
openings.



New employees usually are trained
on the job by supervisors and other
experienced employees. The time
needed for training ranges from a
few days to several months, depend­
ing on the job. For example, mail
handlers and mechanics’ helpers can
learn their jobs in a relatively short
time. Postal inspectors, on the other
hand, need months of training.
Postal workers are classified as
casual, part-time flexible, part-time
regular, or full-time. Casual workers
are hired to help handle the large
amounts of mail during the Christ­
mas season. Part-time flexible em­
ployees do not have a regular work
schedule but replace absent workers
or help with extra work loads as the
need arises. Part-time regulars have
a set work schedule—for example,
four hours a day. Carriers, clerks,
and mail handlers start as part-time
flexible workers and move into full­
time jobs according to their senior­
ity as vacancies occur.
Advancement opportunites are
available for most postal workers
because there is a management com­
mitment to provide career develop­
ment. Also, employees can get pre­
ferred assignments, such as the day
shift or a more desirable delivery
route, as their seniority increases.
When an opening occurs, employees
may submit written requests, called
“bids,” for assignment to the vacan­
cy. The bidder who meets the
qualifications and has the most
seniority gets the job.
In addition, postal workers can
advance to better paying positions by
learning new skills. Training pro­
grams are available for low-skilled
workers who wish to become clerks
or carriers. The Postal Service also
has a special training center for em­
ployees who wish to become techni­
cians or mechanics.
Applicants for supervisory jobs
must pass an examination. Addi­
tional requirements for promotion

795

may include training or education,
satisfactory work record, and per­
sonal characteristics. If the leading
candidates are equally qualified,
length of service also is considered.
Although opportunities for pro­
motion to supervisory positions in
smaller post offices are limited,
workers may apply for vacancies in a
larger post office and thus increase
their chances for promotion.
Employment Outlook

Employment in the postal service
is expected to grow slowly through
the mid-1980’s to handle the in­
creasing amounts of mail stemming
from population and business
growth.
Employment of mail carriers
should grow slowly because mail
delivery is difficult to mechanize.
Employment of clerks and mail
handlers is expected to grow more
slowly than mail carriers because
modernization of post offices and
installation of new equipment will
increase the amount of mail these
workers can handle. Even so, turn­
over among clerks and mail handlers
will provide many job openings.
As the Postal Service continues to
improve the mail sorting process by
using more sophisticated equip­
ment, more maintenance workers
will be needed to keep the machines
in good working order. Although
these workers make up a small per­
centage of total employment, op­
portunities should be good.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

Postal Service employees are paid
under several separate pay schedules
depending upon the duties of the job
and the knowledge, experience, or
skill required. For example, there are
separate schedules for production
workers, such as clerks and mail

796

handlers; for postmasters and super­
visors; for rural carriers; and for
postal executives. In all pay sched­
ules, except that of executives, em­
ployees receive periodic “step” in­
creases up to a specified maximum,
if their job performance is satisfac­
tory. A distribution of employees in
levels 1 through 8, with entrance and
maximum salaries, is shown in the
accompanying table.
Most mail handlers are at level 4,
and postmasters and supervisors are
in levels 5 through 12. Most postal
clerks and mail carriers are at level 5.
Full-time employees work an 8hour day, 5 days a week. Both full­
time and part-time employees who
work more than 8 hours a day or 40
hours a week receive overtime pay of
one and one-half times their hourly
rate.
In 1972, postal employees earned
13 days of annual leave (vacation)
during each of their first 3 years of
service; 20 days each year for 3 to 15
years of service; and 26 days after 15
years. In addition, they earned 13
days of paid sick leave a year, re­
gardless of length of service.




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK
Table 2. Employment and Salaries In the Postal Service

Grade level
Total............................................
/ ................................................
2 ................................................
3 ................................................
4 ................................................
5 ................................................
6 ................................................
7 ................................................
8 ................................................

Employment'
455,213
495
3,128
7,495
39,797
362,007
40,539
1,353
399

Salary schedules2
Entrance
Maximum
$6,178
6,597
7,050
7,540
8,072
8,642
9,262
9,931

$ 8,081
8,654
9,272
9,938
10,657
11,448
12,287
12,911

On June 30, 1972; includes nonsupervisory employees in post offices who are paid annual
salaries. Does not include rural carriers or part time and casual employees.
2 In effect in mid-1972; does not include rural carriers.

Other benefits include retirement
and survivorship annuities and op­
tional participation in low-cost group
life insurance and health insurance
programs supported in part by the
Postal Service.
Most post office buildings are
clean and well lighted, but some of
the older ones are not. The Postal
Service is in the process of replacing
and remodeling its outmoded build­
ings, and conditions are expected to
improve.

Most postal workers are members
of unions and are covered by a na­
tional agreement between the Postal
Service and the unions.
Sources of Additional
Information

Local post offices and State em­
ployment service offices can supply
details about entrance examinations
and employment opportunities in the
Postal Service.

STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS
State and local governments pro­
vide a very large and expanding
source of job opportunities in a wide
variety of occupational fields. In
1972, about 10.6 million people
worked for State and local govern­
ment agencies; nearly three-fourths
of these worked in units of local gov­
ernment, such as counties, munici­
palities, towns, and school districts.
Educational services account for
the majority of jobs in State and
local government. Nearly 5.6 million
employees worked in public schools,
colleges, or other educational ser­
vices.
In addition to the nearly 3 million
classroom and college teachers they
employed, school systems, college,
and universities also employed ad­
ministrative personnel, librarians,
guidance counselors, nurses, dieti­
tians, clerks, and maintnance
workers. Three-fourths of these
workers were employed in elemen­
tary and secondary schools, which
are administered largely by local
governments. State employment in
education is concentrated chiefly at
the college, university, and technical
school levels.
The next two largest fields of State
and local government employment
were health services and highway
work. The 1.1 million workers em­
ployed in health and hospital work
included physicians, nurses, medical
laboratory technicians, and hospital
attendants. More than 600,000 peo­
ple worked in highway activities such
as constructing and maintaining
highways, streets, bridges, and
tunnels.
Highway workers include civil en­



gineers, surveyors, operators of con­
struction machinery and equipment,
truckdrivers, concrete finishers, car­
penters, and construction laborers.
General governmental control and
financial activities accounted for
650,000 additional workers. These
included chief executives and their
staffs, legislative representatives,
and persons employed in the admini­
stration of justice, tax enforcement
and other financial work, and gen­
eral administrative work. These
functions require the services of
individuals such as lawyers, judges,
and other court officials, city mana­
gers, property assessors, budget
analysts, stenographers, and clerks.
Police and fire protection is
another large field of employment.
Nearly 550,000 persons were en­
gaged in police work, primarily for
local governments. Employment in
police work includes administrative,
clerical, and custodial personnel, as
well as uniformed and plainclothes
policemen. Local governments em­
ployed all the 276,000 firemen, many
of whom work only part time.
Other State and local government
employees work in a wide variety of
activities; local utilities (such as
water, electricity, transportation,
and gas supply system), natural re­
sources, public welfare, parks and
recreation, sanitation, correction,
local libraries, sewage disposal, and
housing and urban renewal. These
activities require workers in diverse
occupations such as economist, elec­
trical engineer, electrician, pipe­
fitter, clerk, forester, and busdriver.
Clerical, administrative, mainte­
nance, and custodial workers make
up a large portion of employment in

many areas of government activity.
Among the larger occupations en­
gaged in these groups are clerktypists, stenographers, secretaries,
office managers, fiscal and budget
administrators, bookkeepers, ac­
countants, carpenters, painters,
plumbers, guards, and janitors. (De­
tailed discussions of most occupa­
tions in State and local governments
are given elsewhere in the Hand­
book, in the sections covering the in­
dividual occupations.)
Employment Trends and Outlook

The long-range trend in State and
local government employment has
been steadily upward. (See chart 33.)
Much of this growth results from the
need to provide additional services as
population increases and because of
population movements from rural to
urban areas. City development has
required additional street and high­
way facilities; police and fire protec­
tion; and public health, sanitation,
welfare, and other services. Popula­
tion growth and increasing personal
income have generated demand for
additional and improved education,
housing, hospital, and other services.
Very rapid growth in State and local
government employment is expected
through the mid-1980’s. However,
employment of elementary and sec­
ondary school teachers is expected to
increase more slowly than in the
past, as rapid school enrollment
growth shifts to higher education.
This shift will create greater needs
for college and university teachers
and administrators.
A large State and local work force
will be needed, also to provide im­
proved public transportation
systems, more urban planning and
renewal programs, increased police
protection, better measures to guard
against air and water pollution, ex­
panded natural resource develop­
ment programs, and additional
797

798

hospital facilities. In addition, large
numbers of workers will be needed to
replace employees who transfer to
other fields of work, retire, or die.
Federal-State programs in educa­
tion, vocational training, medicine,
and other fields will increase the
needs of local and State govern­
ments for professional, administra­
tive, and technical personnel. These
will include engineers, scientists,
social workers, counselors, teachers,
doctors, and librarians.
Most positions in State and local
governments are Filled by residents of
the State or locality. Often, how­
ever, it is necessary for State and
local governments to recruit outside
their areas if shortages of particular
skills exist in their areas.




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

ary information for State and local
government employment. Salary in­
formation also can be obtained from
the appropriate State and local gov­
ernment agencies.
A majority of State and local gov­
ernment positions are filled through
some type of formal civil service test,
that is, personnel are hired and pro­
moted on the basis of merit. In some
areas, board groups of employees,
such as teachers, Firemen, and police­
men have separate civil service
coverage which applies only to their
specific groups.
Most State and local government
employees are covered by retire­
ment systems or by the Federal
Social Security program. They
usually work a standard week of 40
Earnings and Working
hours or less, with overtime pay or
Conditions
compensatory time benefits for ad­
Earnings of State and local gov­ ditional hours of work.
ernment employees vary widely, de­
Sources of Additional
pending upon occupation and local­
Information
ity. Salaries from State to State tend
to reflect differences in the general Persons interested in working for
wage level in various localities. State or local government agencies
Clerical and blue-collar earnings in should contact the appropriate State,
State and local governments gen­ county, or city agencies. Offices of
erally are comparable to those of local school boards, city clerks,
workers in similar occupations in school and college counselors or
private industry. Earnings of admin­ placement personnel, and local of­
istrative and professional employees fices of State employment services
in many areas tend to be somewhat have additional information.
lower than those for similar workers
in private industry.
The Handbook statement for in­
dividual occupations often give sal­

THE ARMED FORCES
The Armed Forces offer young
men and women opportunities for
military careers in many occupa­
tions. Many of these are compar­
able to civilian occupations. Jobs
range from electronic technician,
mechanic, or construction equip­
ment operator to specialties such as
interpreter, nurse, or employment
counselor. People who enlist usually
are taught the skills needed to per­
form jobs such as these.
Nearly 2.4 million people, 45,000
of them women, served in the Armed
Forces in 1972: 726,000 in the Air
Force, 811,000 in the Army, 588,000
in the Navy, 198,000 in the Marine
Corps, and 38,000 in the Coast
Guard. The Armed Forces are main­
tained through voluntary enlist­
ments supplemented when needed by
a Selective Service System which can
draft young men between the ages of
18 1/2 and 26. When drafted they
serve for 2 years on active duty fol­
lowed by 4 years in the reserves.
The Armed Forces are now staffed
solely through enlistments. A young
person may enlist in any one of a
variety of programs that involve dif­
ferent combinations of active and re­
serve duty. One option allows enlist­
ment in the reserves for 6 years, at
least 4 months of which are to be
spent on active duty. Young people
also may choose to serve their entire
enlistment on active duty for 3 or 4
years. If qualified, they may enter
one of several officer training pro­
grams and serve as commissioned of­
ficers. They may join the Reserve Of­
ficers’ Training Corps (ROTC) in
college and receive some military
training as part of their college in­
struction. While in college, they are



paid $100 a month and agree to serve
on active duty as a commissioned of­
ficer for at least 2 years after they
graduate. In addition, about 19,000
ROTC scholarships are awarded
each year, which cover the costs of
tuition and books and provide $100 a
month for subsistence. These enlist­
ment choices and the draft are sub­
ject to change by congressional ac­
tion at any time.
Most enlisted jobs in the Armed
Forces require special classroom
training; on-the-job training is given
for the remainder. People who enlist
are often able to choose the type of
training they receive, those who re­
enlist are often offered advanced
training. It is possible for a young
person to be trained in electronics,
aircraft maintenance, metalwork­
ing, or other skilled work. In many
instances, the vocational training and
experience they receive in the Armed
Forces are helpful in obtaining
civilian jobs.
In addition to on-duty training, a
variety of voluntary off-duty
academic and technical training pro­
grams are available to military per­
sonnel. The U.S. Armed Forces In­
stitute (USAFI) offers about 235

correspondence courses ranging from
the elementary school level to the sec­
ond year of college. The USAFI
also offers about 6,000 courses which
are given under contract by colleges
and universities. In the Resident
Center Program, civilian institu­
tions offer courses leading to high
school diplomas and college degrees;
the Prep Program also helps service
men and women to get high school
diplomas. The Serviceman’s Oppor­
tunity College enables servicemen to
get a junior college or vocational ed­
ucation. Courses in these programs
may be taken at military installa­
tions or, if available, at local civilian
institutions. The Military Extension
Correspondence Course Program
also offers technical courses in mili­
tary specialties that are designed to
advance career capabilities.
The Armed Forces also offer
training to many servicemen during
their final 6 months of service to
prepare them for civilian jobs. This
Transition Program provides coun­
seling, training, education, and
placement services to the combatdisabled, those who have no civilian
work experience or skills, and those
who may need to earn high school
equivalency diplomas.
Earnings in 1973 for ranks or pay
grades which persons might achieve
during their first enlistment in the
Armed Forces as commissioned of­
ficers or enlisted members are shown
in the accompanying table.

Table 1. Regular Military Compensation in 1973 for Members of the Armed Forces
Who are Single and Have Less than 2 Years of Serves

Regular
military
Pay grade
compensation,
total
Enlisted members:
E -l...............................
$5,310
E-2...............................
5,798
6,085
E-3...............................
E-4...............................
6,400
Commissioned officers:
0-l ...............................
9,194
0 -2 ...............................
10,671
0 -3 ...............................
12,108
SOURCE: Department of Defense.

Basic
pay

Quarters
allowance

$3,687
4,108
4,270
4,439
6,793
7,826
8,978

,$720
, 767
, 868
, 979
1,306
1,663
1,902

Tax
Subsistence
allowance advantage
$602
602
602
602
575
575
575

$301
321
345
380
520
607
653
799

800

Almost all who enlist are pro­
moted to pay grade E-3 within their
first 6 months of service. Further ad­
vancement to higher pay grades
depends upon individual merit, but
pay increases within a grade are
possible on the basis of length of
service. Enlisted members are usual­
ly furnished quarters and meals but
those who live off base receive al­
lowances for quarters and sub­
sistence. These allowances are not
taxed, providing an advantage over
civilian workers who must earn a
higher gross income to have the same
take-home pay. Servicemen with de­
pendents are paid proportionately
higher allowances.
Many members of the Armed
Forces also earn additional “Special
Pay.” Doctors, dentists, optome­
trists, and veterinarians earn from




$1,200 to $4,200 extra each year de­
pending on their length of service.
People who perform work con­
sidered hazardous, such as those on
flight crews or submarines, receive
“Incentive Pay” ranging from $600
to $1,260 annually if they are en­
listed members, and from $1,200 to
$2,940 if they are officers. Many en­
listed members of the Armed Forces
also receive extra pay ranging from
$600 to $1,800, because they have
skills which are in short supply. En­
listed men and women who choose to
enlist for another tour of active duty
receive a bonus of from $2,000 to
$10,000, depending on the skills they
possess.
Members of the Armed Forces
enjoy many fringe benefits. They re­
ceive free medical and dental care
and 30 days of paid leave annually.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

They pay reduced prices for travel
and for entertainment and pur­
chases on military installations. They
have access to athletic and recrea­
tion facilities. The military retire­
ment system also provides many
benefits and services to persons who
are disabled in the line of duty or
who retire after at least 20 years of
service.
Each of the military services pub­
lishes handbooks and pamphlets that
describe entrance requirements,
training and advancement opportu­
nities, and other aspects of military
careers. These publications are avail­
able at all recruiting stations, most
State employment service offices,
high schools, colleges, and public
libraries.

TECHNICAL APPENDIX
This appendix is designed for read­
ers who wish to know more about
procedures followed in developing
employment outlook than is pre­
sented in preceding reports.
Employment Outlook
Conclusions

The employment outlook in the
occupational reports is based on ex­
tensive economic and statistical anal­
yses and information from many
sources. Although sources and anal­
yses among occupations and indus­
tries differed, the same general
pattern was followed. To insure con­
sistency of individual occupations
and industries, the economy, based
on an assumption of relatively full
employment, was analyzed. Projec­
tions were made of the population,
labor force, gross national product,
average weekly hours, employment
in major industries, and related eco­
nomic measures and the individual
reports were tied to these projec­
tions.
Many studies were based heavily
on an analysis of past and prospec­
tive population trends, including ex­
pected changes in school and college
enrollment, employment of women,
and urban and suburban population.
Population influences employment
requirements in fields such as teach­
ing and health and is of great im­
portance in many industries—for ex­
ample, residential construction, bak­
ing, telephone communication, and
retail trade.
Many factors besides population
size and composition affect employ­
ment in business and industry. Con­
sumer purchasing patterns change as



income levels shift and new products
are developed. Technology brings
changes in raw materials and equip­
ment needed in production and influ­
ences the size, occupation, and skill
of the work force. Research and
development and government poli­
cies, such as defense and space pro­
grams, also bring about changes in
occupations.
Each industry was analyzed and
demands for its products or services
were projected. These projections
then were translated into estimates
of numbers and kinds of workers
needed to produce services and prod­
ucts. Taken into account were
employment trends of total employ­
ment, different occupations, produc­
tivity trends, and possible further
reductions in the workweek.
Population and labor force trends
are from the decennial Censuses of
Population and the monthly labor
force surveys conducted by the
Bureau of the Census for the Bureau
of Labor Statistics. Data also were
drawn from the Censuses of Manu­
factures and Business conducted by
the Census Bureau.
Information also was utilized from
a variety of sources. Among the ma­
jor sources were licensing agencies,
labor unions, professional and trade
associations, and special surveys.
Statistics on employment in nonagricultural establishments pro­
vided monthly data on employment,
hours of work, earnings, and labor
turnover, based on reports for the
past quarter-century or more* from
*See Employment and Earnings,
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau
of Labor Statistics.

a sample of industrial, commercial,
and governmental establishments.
Also contributing to the analysis
of future trends was the Bureau’s ser­
ies of studies of productivity and
technological development, informa­
tion obtained in cooperation with the
National Science Foundation about
employment of scientists and engi­
neers in research and other activ­
ities, and the Occupational Industry
Matrix. The matrix consists of a set
of tables for 116 industries, each
showing a percentage distribution of
employment among 160 of the most
important occupations. The matrix
was valuable in appraising the ef­
fects of changing employment levels
in different industries, in specific oc­
cupations, and in each occupation.
Conclusions based on an analysis
of these various sources generally
show increased employment, but
these expected gains do not indicate
the number of job openings. In most
occupations, more workers are need­
ed yearly to replace those who re­
tire, die, or leave the occupation than
are needed for growth. Conse­
quently, even declining occupations
may offer employment oppor­
tunities to many young people. To
estimate the number of possible
openings in an occupation, the
Bureau has developed tables, similar
to the actuarial tables of life insur­
ance companies, to assess future
rates of replacement from deaths and
retirement. In occupations in which
men are predominant, the rate of
replacement for death and retire­
ment is generally lower than that for
women because so many women
leave paid employment for marriage
801

802

or family responsibilities. The auto­
mobile mechanics rate, for example,
is about 1.5 percent each year, while
that for stenographers, in which
women predominate, is 6.8.
Information so far in this section
relates to the demand for workers.
To appraise prospective employ­
ment opportunities in an occupa­
tion, information on probable future
supply of personnel is important.
Statistics on high school and college
enrollments and graduation, com­




piled by the U.S. Office of Educa­
tion, are the chief sources of infor­
mation on the potential supply of
personnel in professions and other
occupations requiring extensive for­
mal education. Data on numbers of
apprentices from the U.S. Depart­
ment of Labor’s Bureau of Appren­
ticeship and Training provide some
information on new entrants into
skilled trades.
Many of the sources and ap­
proaches referred to earlier have

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

been developed in recent years. Eco­
nomic forecasting is still in the
developmental stage and at best is
difficult and uncertain. Basic
assumptions and underlying projec­
tions (enumerated in the section on
Tomorrow’s Jobs in the front of the
Handbook) should be kept in mind.
Within the framework of assump­
tions, basic employment trends can
be discerned with sufficient accu­
racy to meet the needs of young peo­
ple preparing for careers.

Index to Occupations and Industries
Able seamen, see:
Merchant marine industry .......................
Merchant seamen .....................................
Accelerator operators, atomic energy.............
Account executives, advertising.......................
Account executives, see: Securities salesworkers
Accountants......................................................
See also: Insurance industry.....................
Accounting clerks, see:
Bank clerks................................................
Bookkeeping workers ...............................
Acidizers, petroleum and natural gas...............
Acquisition librarians .......................................
Actors and actresses .........................................
Actuaries ..........................................................
See also: Insurance industry.....................
Actuary clerks, see: Statistical clerks...............
Adding machine operators ...............................
Adjuster, claim, insurance ...............................
Administrative and related occupations ..........
Administrators, hospital...................................
Administrators, medical record.......................
Admissions counselors, see: College student per­
sonnel workers ...........................................
Adult services librarians...................................
Advertising artists and layout men...................
Advertising copywriters ...................................
Advertising managers.......................................
Advertising production managers ...................
Advertising workers .........................................
Advisors, student..............................................
Aeronautical engineers, see: Aerospace engi­
neers ..........................................................
Aeronautical technicians...................................
Aerospace engineers .........................................
Agency cashiers................................................
Agents, see:
Insurance agents and brokers...................
Real estate salesworkers and brokers........
Agricultural economists ...................................
Agricultural engineers.......................................




743
301
655
130
239
128
776
115
87
637
213
576
119
776
100
93
121
128
519
521
135
213
131
131
130
131
130
135
342
392
342
89
226
233
624
343

See also: Agriculture.................................
Agricultural quarantine inspectors...................
Agriculture........................................................
Agriculture, occupations related to ................
Agriculture teachers, vocational.......................
Agronomists......................................................
See also: Agriculture.................................
Air-conditioning and refrigeration mechanic ..
See also:
Electronics manufacturing ................
Office machine and computer manu­
facturing .........................................
Air-conditioning, heating, and refrigeration
technicians ................................................
Air-conditioning, refrigeration, and heating me­
chanics ..........................................................
Air traffic controllers .......................................
Air transportation occupations.........................
Aircraft mechanics ...........................................
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manufacturing,
occupations in ...............................................
Airline dispatchers.............................................
Airline traffic agents and clerks.......................
Airplane mechanics, aircraft mechanics ..........
Airplane pilots ...................................................
Airport traffic controllers.................................
Alcohol, tobacco, and firearms inspectors........
Aluminum industry...........................................
Ampoule examiners, drug industry ..................
Ampoule fillers, drug industry .........................
Analysts, systems..............................................
Anatomists........................................................
Animal husbandry specialists, life scientists ...
Animal physiologists and animal husbandmen,
see: Agriculture .........................................
Annealers, see:
Aluminum industry...................................
Foundries..................................................
Announcers, radio and television.....................
Anode men, aluminum industry.......................
Anodizers, electronics manufacturing..............

624
190
619
624
625
365
624
411
681
713
392
411
286
286
287
643
289
297
287
294
286
192
676
676
676
Ill
366
624
624
651
685
611
649
681
803

804

Anthropologists................................................
Apparel industry, occupations in th e ...............
Appliance servicemen.......................................
Arc cutters, see: Welders...................................
Archeologists, see: Anthropologists....................
Architects.............................................................
Architects, landscape.......................................
Archivists, see: Historians....................................
Armament assemblers, aircraft, missiles, and
spacecraft......................................................
Armed Forces .....................................................
Art directors, see: Commercial artists................
Art, design, and communications related occu­
pations ......................................................
Artists, see:
Advertising workers .................................
Commercial artists ...................................
Artists and letterers, printing and publishing ..
Asbestos and insulating workers .....................
Assemblers........................................................
See also:
Apparel industry ...............................
Electronics manufacturing................
Laundry and dry cleaning plants ___
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing .........................................
Assemblers, bench............................................
Assemblers, floor..............................................
Assembly inspectors, aircraft, missiles, and
spacecraft..................................................
Assignment clerks, see: Statistical clerks..........
Associate directors, radio and television..........
Astronautical engineers, see: Aerospace engi­
neers ..........................................................
Astronomers ....................................................
Astrophysicists, see: Astronomers...................
Atomic energy field, occupations in the............
Attendants, gasoline service station.................
Attendants, parking...........................................
Attorneys..........................................................
Audio-control technicians, broadcast techni­
cians ..............................................................
Audiologists......................................................
Auger operators, coal mining...........................
Automatic pinsetting machine mechanics........
Automatic transmission specialists, see: Auto­
mobile mechanics.......................................
Automobile air-conditioning specialist, see:
Automobile mechanics .................................
Automobile body repairmen.............................
Automobile-glass mechanics, see: Automobile
mechanics......................................................
Automobile manufacturing occupations, see:



652
654
413
81
529
586
599
534
646
799
589
575
131
589
726
248
50
656
680
785
707
50
50
646
100
748
377
342
377
660
224
324
141
387
514
631
422
417
417
415
418

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Motor vehicle and equipment manufacturing
Automobile mechanics .....................................
Automobile painters .........................................
Automobile parts countermen .........................
Automobile-radiator mechanics, see: Automo­
bile mechanics ...........................................
Automobile salesworkers .................................
Automobile service advisors.............................
Automobile trimmers and installation men___
Automobile upholsterers...................................
Auxiliary equipment operators, electric power .
Auxiliary nursing workers, see: Nursing aides .
Aviation maintenance inspectors.....................
Aviation operations inspectors.........................
Aviation safety officers.....................................
Babysitters, see: Private household workers ...
Backtenders, paper and allied products............
Bacteriologists, see: Drug industry...................
Baggers, laundry and dry cleaning...................
Bakers, all-round..............................................
Bakery routemen..............................................
Baking industry................................................
Ballet dancers....................................................
Bank clerks........................................................
Bank officers ....................................................
Bank tellers ......................................................
Banking industry..............................................
Banking occupations.........................................
Bankmen, printing and publishing...................
Bar boys, see: Bartenders .................................
Barbers..............................................................
Barker operators, paper and allied products ...
Barkermen, lumber mills .................................
Bartender helpers..............................................
Bartenders ........................................................
Beater engineers, paper and allied products ...
Beauticians........................................................
Beauty operators..............................................
Bell captains......................................................
Bellboys ............................................................
Bellmen and bell captains.................................
Bench assemblers..............................................
Bench coremakers, foundry .............................
Bench hands, baking.........................................
Bench molders, foundry occupations................
Benchmen, optical mechanics...........................
Bill clerks, see: Merchant marine industry ....
Billing machine operators.................................
Biochemists ......................................................
See also: Life scientists .............................
Biological aides, see:
Engineering and science technicians..........

704
417
51
219
418
220
222
53
53
736
505
191
191
191
176
717
675
685
670
237
669
578
114
116
117
772
114
726
161
169
716
701
161
161
717
171
171
170
170
170
50
29
669
28
431
744
92
363
366
391

INDEX TO OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRIES

Food processing technicians.....................
Biological scientists...........................................
Biological oceanographers, see:
Life scientists............................................
Oceanographers........................................
Biological technicians.......................................
Biologists, see:
Drug industry............................................
Life scientists............................................
Biomedical engineers........................................
Blacksmiths......................................................
See also: Railroad shop trades.................
Blocksetters, lumber mills.......................
Blowers, iron and steel.......................................
Boat motor mechanics.......................................
Boatswains, see:
Merchant marine industry .......................
Merchant seamen .....................................
Body repairmen, automobile ...........................
Boiler operators, electric power.......................
Boilermakers....................................................
See also:
Industrial chemicals .........................
Iron and steel industry.......................
Railroad shop trades.........................
Boilmaking occupations...................................
Bookbinders and related workers.....................
Bookkeepers......................................................
See also: Bank clerks.................................
Bookkeeping machine operators, see:
Bank clerks................................................
Office machine operators .........................
Bookkeeping workers .......................................
Bookmobile librarians.......................................
Bosuns, see: Merchant seamen.........................
Botanists............................................................
See also:
Drug industry.....................................
Life scientists.....................................
Bowling-pin-machine mechanics .....................
Box office cashiers............................................
Brake mechanics, see: Automobile mechanics .
Brakemen, railroad..........................................
Brattice men, see: Coal mining.........................
Bricklayers........................................................
See also:
Aluminum industry...........................
Iron and steel industry.......................
Bricklayers’ tenders..........................................
Brickmasons......................................................
Bridge and building workers, railroad.............
Broadcast technicians, radio and television___
Brokers, insurance............................................



396
675
366
360
391
675
365
343
55
310
701
693
420
743
302
415
736
57
688
696
310
56
40
87
114
114
92
87
213
302
365
676
365
422
88
417
305
631
250
652
696
256
250
306
387
226

805

Brokers, real estate ...........................................
Buckers, logging ..............................................
Building custodians...........................................
Building inspectors ...........................................
Building laborers...............................................
Building trades..................................................
Bull-chain operators, lumber mills...................
Bundlers, apparel..............................................
Bus boys and girls, waiters and waitresses........
Bus mechanics..................................................
Busdrivers, intercity...........................................
Busdrivers, local transit.....................................
Bushelmen, apparel...........................................
Business machine operators .............................
Business machine servicemen...........................
Butlers, see: Private household workers............

232
701
155
196
256
245
701
655
167
454
315
317
656
92
423
176

Cabdrivers ........................................................
Cable splicers, see:
Electric power industry.............................
Telephone industry ...................................
Calculating machine operators.........................
Cameramen, printing, see:
Lithographers.............................................
Printing and publishing.............................
Captain, see:
Merchant marine industry .......................
Merchant marine officers.........................
Pilots and copilots.....................................
Car checkers, statistical clerks.........................
Card-to-tape converter operators, see: Elec­
tronics computer operating personnel ..........
Career planning counselors, college, see:
College career planning and placement
counselors..............................................
College student personnel workers............
Caretakers, see: Private household workers ...
Carmen, railroad shop.......................................
Carpenters ........................................................
See also: Coal mining ...............................
Carpet craftsmen, see: Floor covering installers
Carriers, mail....................................................
Cartographers, see: Geographers.....................
Casework aides, see: Social service aides..........
Caseworkers, social...........................................
Cashiers ............................................................
Cashiers, retail food stores...............................
Cashier checkers ..............................................
Casting inspectors, foundries ...........................
Casting operators, see: Aluminum industry .. .
Catalogers, see: Librarians...............................
Catholic priests ................................................
Cement finishers ..............................................

325
740
407
93
726
726
743
298
294
99
107
550
135
176
310
252
631
262
199
536
568
571
88
768
89
685
650
213
556
254

806

Cement masons................................................
Cementers, petroleum and natural gas................
Central office craftsmen, telephone.................
Central office repairmen, telephone.................
Ceramic engineers...............................................
Certified public accountants................................
Chainmen, see: Surveyors....................................
Check encoders, see: Bank clerks........................
Check inscribers, see: Bank clerks......................
Check-out clerks, see: Cashiers .......................
Checkers, apparel industry...............................
Checkers, see:
Baking industry.........................................
Cashiers ....................................................
Checkers, see: Draftsmen.................................
Checkers, motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing ...........................................................
Chefs, see: Cooks and chefs ................................
Chemical analysts, see: Aluminum industry ...
Chemical engineers.............................................
See also:
Aluminum industry...........................
Drug industry.....................................
Industrial chemical industry................
Paper and allied products industry ...
Petroleum refining................................
Chemical mixers, see: Photographic laboratory
occupations ..................................................
Chemical oceanographers....................................
Chemical operators.............................................
Chemical technicians...........................................
Chemists...............................................................
See also:
Atomic energy field..............................
Drug industry.......................................
Electronics manufacturing..................
Industrial chemical industry................
Iron and steel industry..........................
Office machine and computer manu­
facturing ...........................................
Paper and allied products....................
Petroleum refining................................
Chief cooks, see:
Merchant marine industry .......................
Merchant marine seamen.........................
Chief drillers, petroleum and natural gas..........
Chief engineers, see: Merchant marine officers .
Chief engineers, radio and television ..................
Chief mates, see: Merchant marine officers ...
Chief stewards, see:
Merchant marine industry .......................
Merchant marine seamen.........................



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

254
637
405
405
344
128
399
115
115
89
656
670
89
390
707
163
652
345
652
676
687
719
723
71
360
688
392
379
665
675
679
687
697
712
718
723
744
302
636
298
749
298
744
302

Child welfare workers, see: Social workers ..
Children’s librarians .........................................
Chippers, foundries...........................................
Chippermen, paper and allied products............
Chiropractors....................................................
Chockermen, logging .......................................
Choreographers, see: Dancers .........................
Christmas Club tellers, see: Bank tellers..........
Cindermen, iron and steel.................................
City managers ..................................................
Civil aviation occupations.................................
Civil engineering technicians ...........................
Civil engineers ..................................................
See also: Iron and steel industry................
Civil service workers, Federal Government....
Civilian government, Federal...........................
Claim adjusters, see:
Insurance industry.....................................
Insurance occupations..................................
Claim examiners, insurance .............................
See also: Insurance industry.....................
Claim representatives, insurance.....................
Claim reviewers, insurance...............................
Claim workers, insurance.................................
Claims clerks, see: Trucking industry ..............
Classification clerks, statistical clerks..............
Cleaners, see: Building custodians...................
Cleaning and related occupations.....................
Clergymen ........................................................
Clerical occupations .........................................
Clerk-typists......................................................
Clerks, see:
Account clerks, bank clerks .....................
Accounting clerks, bookkeeping workers .
Actuary clerks, statistical clerks................
Airline traffic agents and clerks................
Assignment clerks, statistical clerks..........
Bank clerks................................................
Billing clerks, merchant marine industry ..
Check-out clerks, cashiers.........................
Claim clerks, trucking industry ................
Classification clerks, statistical clerks ....
Clerk-typists...............................................
Coding clerks, statistical clerks ................
Control clerks, bank clerks.......................
Counter clerks, laundry and drycleaning ..
County collection clerks, bank clerks........
Demurrage clerks, statistical clerks..........
Distribution clerks, postal clerks ..............
Exchange clerks, see: Bank clerks ...............
Interest clerks, bank clerks..........................
Inventory clerks, stock clerks......................

571
213
685
716
473
701
579
117
694
132
731
392
345
697
691
789
775
121
123
775
124
124
124
759
99
155
155
553
86
105
114
87
100
297
100
114
745
89
759
99
105
99
115
784
115
100
94
115
115
101

INDEX TO OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRIES

Law clerks, lawyers............................. 143
Mail clerks........................................... 94
Manifest clerks, merchant marine industry 745
Manifest clerks, trucking industry........... 759
Medical record clerks ............................... 492
Mortgage clerks, bank clerks................... 115
Mortgage clerks, typists........................... 105
Parts-order clerks, trucking industry........ 759
Personnel clerks, statistical clerks............ 99
Postal clerks......................................... 94
Posting clerks, statistical clerks.......... 99
Procurement clerks, stock clerks........ 101
Railroad clerks..................................... 307
Rate clerks, trucking industry ................. 759
Receipt clerks, merchant marine industry . 745
Receiving clerks, shipping and receiving
clerks...................................................... 97
Report clerks, merchant marine industry . 745
Reservation agents and clerks, airline .... 297
Reservation clerks, hotel........................... 91
Room and desk clerks, hotel..................... 91
Sales clerks, retail trade ........................... 235
Shipping and receiving clerks.............. 97
Stock clerks............................................... 101
Stock clerks, motor vehicle and equipment
manufacturing................................. 707
Traffic agents and clerks........................... 297
Transit clerks, bank clerks ....................... 115
Waybill clerks, typists............................... 105
Window clerks, postal clerks ................... 94

Climatologists, see: Meteorologists.................
Clinical dietitians..............................................
Clinical laboratory workers .............................
Clinical psychologists .......................................
Clothing industry occupations, see: Apparel in­
dustry ............................................................
Coal loading machine operators.......................
Coal mining......................................................
Coding clerks, statistical clerks .......................
Coil winders, electronics manufacturing..........
Coiler operators, aluminum industry...............
College and university teachers .......................
College career planning and placement coun­
selors ..............................................................
College librarians..............................................
College placement officers, see:
College career planning and placement
counselors..............................................
College student personnel workers............
College student personnel workers...................
College union staff members.............................



357
517
489
564
654
631
630
99
681
651
208
550
213
550
135
134
135

Color technicians, see: Photographic laboratory
occupations ..................................................
Commercial account underwriters...................
Commercial artists ...........................................
Commercial photographers .............................
Commercial tellers, banking.............................
Communications and related occupations........
Community planners.........................................
Companions, see: Private household workers ..
Composing room occupations, printing............
Composition roofers.........................................
Compositors, printing, see:
Printing occupations.................................
Printing and publishing.............................
Compounders, see: Drug industry ...................
Compressors, see: Drug industry .....................
Computer and related occupations...................
Computer manufacturing.................................
Computer operating personnel.........................
Computer operators, see: Computer operating
personnel ......................................................
Computer programmers, see: Paper and allied
products industry...........................................
Computer salesmen, office machine and com­
puter manufacturing .....................................
Computer service technicians...........................
Computers, prospecting, petroleum and natural
gas..................................................................
Concrete finishers .............................................
Conductors, railroad.........................................
Conservation occupations.................................
Conservationists, range, see: Range managers .
Conservationists, soil.........................................
Console operators, see: Computer operating
personnel ......................................................
Construction ....................................................
Construction electricians...................................
Construction inspector (government)...............
Construction laborers.......................................
Construction machinery operators, see: Opera­
ting engineers................................................
Construction occupations.................................
Continuity directors, radio and television........
Continuity writers, radio and television............
Continuous mining machine operators ............
Control clerks, see: Bank clerks.......................
Control room operators, electric power............
Conveyor men, coal mining .............................
Cooks, see: Private household workers............
Cooks and chefs.................................................
Cooks’ helpers, see: Private household workers
Cooperative extension service workers ............

807

71
126
589
602
117
606
604
176
40
277
40
550
676
676
107
711
107
107
719
712
426
635
254
307
332
335
337
107
629
258
195
256
269
245
748
748
631
115
736
631
176
163
176
559

808

See also: Home economists..........................
Copilots ............................................................
Core assemblers, foundries...............................
Core-oven assemblers, foundries ........................
Coremakers, see:
Foundries.....................................................
Foundry occupations.................................
Motor vehicle and equipment manufactur­
ing ..........................................................
Coresetters, foundries.........................................
Corn and wheat farmers ...................................
Correspondent bank officers................................
Cosmetologists.....................................................
Construction inspectors (government)................
Cotton farmers.....................................................
Counseling occupations........................................
Counseling psychologists, see: Psychologists ..
Counselors, see:
College student personnel workers............
Employment counselers ...........................
Rehabilitation counselers............................
School counselers.........................................
Counter clerks, laundry and drycleaning..........
Counters, paper and allied products....................
Country collection clerks, see: Bank clerks ....
County extension workers....................................
Court reporters ...................................................
Crane operators, see:
Foundries.....................................................
Motor vehicle and equipment manufactur­
ing .............................................................
Operating engineers...................................
Trucking industry .....................................
Cranemen, see: Forge shop occupations ..........
Credit managers...................................................
Credit officials.....................................................
Crew chiefs, aircraft, missile, and space craft ..
Crew schedulers, statistical clerks ......................
Crop specialty farmers .......................................
Crystal finishers, electronics manufacturing ...
Crystal grinders, electronics manufacturing ...
Cushion builders, motor vehicle and equipment
manufacturing.................................................
Custodians, building ...........................................
Customer engineers, computer service techni­
cians ..............................................................
Customer service occupations, electric power ..
Customers brokers, see: Securities salesworkers
Customs inspectors.............................................
Cutters, apparel...................................................
Cutters, motor vehicle and equipment manufac­
turing ...............................................................




561
294
485
685
685
29
706
685
622
116
171
195
623
554
564
135
546
548
544
784
718
115
559
103
685
707
269
759
62
137
137
646
100
623
681
681
707
155
426
741
426
191
655
707

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Cutting machine operators..............................

631

Dairy farmers....................................................
Dampproof workers, see: Roofers...................
Dancers..............................................................
Darkroom technicians, see: Photographic lab­
oratory occupations.......................................
Data typists, see: Computer operating person­
nel ..................................................................
Day workers, see: Private household workers ..
Dean of students, see: College student personnel
workers..........................................................
Deck-engine mechanics, see: Merchant seamen
Deck officers, see:
Merchant marine industry .......................
Merchant marine officers.........................
Deck utilitymen, see: Merchant seamen ..........
Deckmen, lumber mills.....................................
Decontamination men, atomic energy..............
Decorators, interior...........................................
Dehydration-plant operators, petroleum and
natural gas ....................................................
Deliverymen, see: Routemen ...........................
Demurrage clerks, statistical clerks.................
Dental assistants ...............................................
Dental hygienists...............................................
Dental laboratory technicians...........................
Dental occupations ...........................................
Dentists..............................................................
Derrickmen, petroleum and natural gas ..........
Derrickmen, see: Stonemasons.........................
Design occupations ...........................................
Designers, apparel.............................................
Designers, floral................................................
Designers, industrial .........................................
Designers, interior.............................................
Designers, scenic, interior designers and deco­
rators ............................................................
Detailers, see: Draftsmen .................................
Detectives..........................................................
Developers, see: Photographic laboratory occu­
pations ..........................................................
Development engineers, radio and television ...
Die makers, see:
Aluminum industry...................................
Electronics manufacturing .......................
Machining occupations.............................
Office machine and computer manufac­
turing ....................................................
Die makers, tool-and.........................................
See also listing under Tool-and-die makers.
Die sinkers, forge shop .....................................

621
277
578
70
107
176
135
302
743
298
302
701
666
597
636
237
100
467
469
471
465
465
635
281
586
654
593
595
597
748
389
185
71
749
652
681
38
713
38
63

INDEX TO OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRIES

Diesel mechanics................................................. 428
Dietetic educators ............................................... 517
Dietitians ............................................................. 517
Digester operators, paper and allied products .. 717
Directors, program, radio and television.......... 748
Directory assistance operators............................ 200
Dispatchers, see:
Airline dispatchers........................................ 289
Trucking industry ....................................... 759
Dispensing opticians and optical mechanics ... 716
See also: Optometrists.................................. 475
Displaymen (retail trade) .................................... 591
Distribution clerks, postal clerks ......................... 94
District representatives, electric power .............. 741
Dividermen, baking industry .............................. 669
Doctors, medical ................................................. 479
Dough molders, baking....................................... 669
Draftsmen ........................................................... 389
See also:
Aluminum industry.............................. 652
Electronics manufacturing.................. 680
Industrial chemicals ............................ 688
Iron and steel industry.......................... 697
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing ........................................... 706
Office machine and computer manu­
facturing ........................................... 712
Petroleum and natural gas production
and processing .................................. 635
Petroleum refining................................ 723
Dragline operators, coal mining.......................... 631
Dressmakers, apparel ......................................... 656
Drilling machine operators................................ 631
Driver-salesmen, see:
Baking industry......................................... 670
Routemen..................................................... 237
Drivers, intercity buses........................................ 315
Drivers, local transit buses .................................. 317
Drivers, local trucks ........................................... 319
Drivers, ta x i......................................................... 325
Driving occupations............................................. 315
Drug industry, occupations in the........................ 674
Druggists ............................................................. 523
Drycleaners, laundry and drycleaning................ 785
Drycleaning plants............................................... 784
Drycleaning routemen......................................... 237
Dry-kiln operators, lumber mills ........................ 702
Duplicating machine operators............................. 93
Earth-boring machine operators, see: Operating
engineers........................................................... 269
Ecologists, see: Life scientists.............................. 366



Ecologists, range, see: Range managers ..........
Economic geographers .....................................
Economic geologists .........................................
Economists........................................................
See also: Statisticians ...............................
Economists, agricultural...................................
Edgermen, lumber mills ...................................
Editors, film, television.....................................
Education and related occupations...................
EEG technicians ...............................................
Egg products inspectors ...................................
EKG technicians ...............................................
Electric power linemen .....................................
Electric power industry, occupations in the ....
Electric sign servicemen ...................................
Electrical appliance servicemen.......................
Electrical engineers...........................................
See also:
Aluminum industry...........................
Electronics manufacturing ................
Industrial chemical industry..............
Iron and steel industry.......................
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing .........................................
Paper and allied products industry ...
Electrical inspectors .........................................
Electrical repairmen, maintenance electricians .
Electrical repairmen, see: Iron and steel indus­
try ..................................................................
Electrical workers, see: Shop trades, railroads .
Electricians, construction.................................
Electricians, maintenance.................................
See also listing under Maintenance elec­
tricians.
Electricians, merchant marine industry............
Electrocardiograph technicians .......................
Electroencephalographic technicians...............
Electronic assembly inspector, jee:
Electronics manufacturing .......................
Office machine and computer manufac­
turing ....................................................
Electronic computer programmers .................
Electronic organ technicians.............................
Electronic reader-sorter operators, see: Bank
clerks..............................................................
Electronic specialists, see: Oceanographers ....
Electronics checkout men, aircraft, missile, and
spacecraft......................................................
Electronics engineers, see: Electronics manu­
facturing ........................................................
Electronics manufacturing ...............................
Electronics mechanics, aluminum ...................

809

335
536
352
532
374
324
701
749
203
485
190
485
739
734
433
413
346

652
675
687
697
706
434
196
444
696
310
258
444
744
485
486
681
713
109
449
115
360
646
679
679
651

810

Electronics repairmen, iron and steel...............
Electronics subassembly inspectors, see: Office
machine and computer manufacturing ...
Electronics technicians .......................................
See also:
Electronics manufacturing ..................
Engineering and science technicians ..
Office machine and computer manu­
facturing ...........................................
Electroplaters....................................................
See also:
Electronics manufacturing ..................
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing ...........................................
Electrotypers and stereotypers, see:
Printing occupations.................................
Printing and publishing................................
Elementary school teachers ................................
Elevator constructors .........................................
Elevator mechanics.............................................
Embalmers...........................................................
Embossing machine operators .........................
Embryologists .....................................................
Employment aides, see: Social service aides ...
Employment counselors .....................................
Encoders, bank clerks.........................................
Engine mechanics, aircraft, missile, and space­
craft ..................................................................
Engineering aides, see:
Electronics manufacturing ..........................
Office machine and computer manufactur­
ing .............................................................
Engineering and science technicians....................
Engineering geologists.........................................
Engineering technicians.......................................
Engineers .............................................................
See also:
Aeronautical engineers........................
Aerospace engineers ............................
Agricultural engineers..........................
Astronautical engineers........................
Biomedical engineers............................
Ceramic engineers................................
Chemical engineers ..............................
Civil engineers .....................................
Electrical engineers..............................
Electronics engineers............................
Industrial engineers..............................
Mechanical engineers ..........................
Metallurgical engineers........................
Mining engineers..................................
Oceanographic engineers ....................




696
713
392
680
392
713
58
681
707
43
726
204
260
260
173
93
366
569
546
115
646
680
712
391
352
652
339
342
342
343
342
343
344
345
345
346
679
347
348
349
350
360

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Petroleum engineers, petroleum and
natural gas .......................................
Safety engineers....................................
Engineers, development, radio and television ..
Engineers, flight...................................................
Engineers, foundries ...........................................
Engineers, insurance...........................................
Engineers, locomotive.........................................
Engineers, motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing ...........................................................
Engineers, petroleum...........................................
Engineers, stationary.........................................
Enginemen, petroleum and natural g a s............
Entomologists, agriculture..................................
Envelope-machine operators, paper and allied
products ...........................................................
Environmental health technicians ......................
Environmental sciences........................................
Environmentalists...............................................
Etching equipment operators, electronics manu­
facturing ...........................................................
Ethnologists, see: Anthropologists......................
Exchange clerks, see: Bank clerks ...................
Exhaust operators, electronics manufacturing .
Experimental machinists, see: Instrument mak­
ers (mechanical).............................................
Exploration geophysicists....................................
Extension service workers....................................
Exterminators .....................................................
Extras, see: Actors and actresses ........................
Extrusion press operators, aluminum industry .

635
635
749
292
685
776
308
706
635
75
635
625
718
525
352
525
681
529
115
681
33
355
559
156
576
651

Fabrication inspectors, aircraft, missile, and
spacecraft......................................................
Face boss, see: Coal mining .............................
Fallers, logging .................................................
Family service workers, see: Social workers ...
Farm equipment mechanics .............................
Farm managers .................................................
Farm service jobs...............................................
Farmers, see: Agriculture.................................
Fashion models .................................................
FBI special agents.............................................
Federal civilian government.............................
Federal Government occupations.....................
Field engineers, see: Computer service techni­
cians ..............................................................
Field technicians, radio and television..............
File clerks..........................................................
Film editors, television .....................................
Film librarians, television.................................

646
631
701
571
435
625
627
619
228
175
789
789
426
387
90
749
749

811

INDEX TO OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRIES

Film numberers, see: Photographic laboratory
technicians....................................................
Film strippers, see: Photographic laboratory
technicians ....................................................
Final assemblers, aircraft, missile, and space­
craft ................................................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate...................
Finishers, flatwork, laundry and drycleaning ..
Finishers, men’s suit, laundry and drycleaning .
Finishers, optical mechanics.............................
Finishers, shirt, laundry and drycleaning..........
Fire boss, see: Coal mining...............................
Firefighters........................................................
Firemen, see: Firefighters.................................
Firemen, locomotive.........................................
Firemen, stationary (boiler) .............................
Firemen/watertenders, see:
Merchant marine industry .......................
Merchant seamen .....................................
First assistant engineers, merchant marine of­
ficers ..............................................................
First mates, merchant marine officers..............
Fitters, apparel..................................................
Fitters, see: Coal mining...................................
Fitup men, boilermaking occupations.............
Flatwork finishers, laundry and drycleaning ...
Flight attendants...............................................
Flight engineers................................................
Flight service station specialists.......................
Flight superintendents, .see: Airline dispatchers
Floor assemblers ..............................................
Floor coremakers, foundry...............................
Floor covering installers ...................................
Floor covering mechanics.................................
Floor layers, see: Floor covering installers ....
Floor molders, foundry occupations ...............
Floormen, television .........................................
Food and drug inspectors .................................
Floral designers................................................
Food processing technicians.............................
Food scientists..................................................
Food service occupations .................................
Food technologists.............................................
Foremen............................................................
Foresters............................................................
See also:
Agriculture.........................................
Logging and lumber mills.................
Paper and allied products.................
Forestry aides and technicians .........................
Forestry technicians, see: Forestry aides and
technicians....................................................
Forge shop occupations.....................................



71
71
645
771
785
785
431
785
631
181
181
309
77
744
302
299
298
655
631
577
785
290
292
293
289
50
29
261
261
261
28
748
189
593
396
381
161
381
60
332
625
701
719
334
334
61

Forklift truck operators, see:
Electronics manufacturing .......................
Power truck operators...............................
Foundries..........................................................
Foundry occupations.........................................
Framemen, telephone central office craftsmen .
Free-lance models .............................................
Free-lance photgraphers...................................
Front-end mechanics, see: Automobile me­
chanics ..........................................................
Front-office cashiers.........................................
Front-office clerks, hotel...................................
Funeral directors and embalmers.....................
Fur cutters, apparel...........................................
Fur finishers, apparel.........................................
Fur machine operators, apparel.......................
Fur nailers, apparel...........................................
Furnace installers, heating mechanics..............
Furnace operators, foundries ...........................
Furniture upholsterers.......................................

681
73
684
26
405
228
602
417
89
91
173
656
657
657
657
411
685
64

Gagers, petroleum and natural gas...................
Garage mechanics, see: Automobile mechanics
Gas appliance servicemen.................................
Gas burner mechanics.......................................
Gas dispatchers .................................................
Gas fitters, see: Plumbers and pipefitters..........
Gas welders ......................................................
Gas-compressor operators, petroleum and nat­
ural g as..........................................................
Gasoline-plant operators, petroleum and natural
gas..................................................................
Gasoline service station attendants ..................
Gasoline station salesmen.................................
Gasoline station servicemen.............................
General boardmen, see: Commercial artists ...
General bookkeepers.........................................
General maids, see: Private household workers
Geneticists, agriculture.....................................
Geochemists, see: Geologists ...........................
Geochronologist, see: Geologists.....................
Geodesists, see: Geophysicists .........................
Geographers......................................................
Geological oceanographers...............................
See also: Oceanographers.........................
Geologists..........................................................
See also: Petroleum and natural gas pro­
duction and processing .........................
Geomagneticians, see: Geophysicists...............
Geophysicists....................................................
See also: Petroleum and natural gas pro­
duction and processing .........................

636
417
411
411
100
275
81
636
636
224
224
224
770
87
176
625
352
353
355
535
353
360
352
635
355
354
635

812

Glass blowers, electronics manufacturing........
Glass lathe operators, electronics manufactur­
ing ..................................................................
Glaziers..............................................................
Governesses, see: Private household workers ..
Government......................................................
Government occupations, Federal...................
See also: Postal service.............................
Government occupations, State and local........
Graders, lumber m ills.......................................
Grain farmers, see: Corn and wheat farmers ...
Granulator-machine operators, see: Drug in­
dustry ............................................................
Gravure photoengravers, printing and publish­
ing ..................................................................
Grid lathe operators, electronics manufacturing
Grinders, see:
Forge shops ..............................................
Foundries..................................................
Grocery clerks, see: Cashiers ...........................
Ground radio operators and teletypists............
Groundmen, electric power...............................
Guards and watchmen.......................................
Guidance counselors.........................................

681
681
264
176
787
9
793
797
702
622
676
726
681
63
685
89
293
740
183
544

Hairdressers......................................................
Hairstylists,see: Barbers...................................
Hammermen, see:
Forge shop................................................
Motor vehicle and equipment manufac­
turing ....................................................
Hammersmiths, forge shop...............................
Hand assemblers, office machine and computer
manufacturing..............................................
Hand compositors, printing .............................
Hand icers, baking............................................
Hand molders, foundries...................................
Hand sewers, apparel .......................................
Hand spreaders, apparel...................................
Handymen, see: Private household workers ...
Head sawyers, lumber mills .............................
Health and regulatory inspectors (government)
Health insurance agents ...................................
Health physicists, atomic energy .....................
Health physics technicians, atomic energy ....
Health occupations ...........................................
Heat treaters, see:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manufac­
turing ....................................................
Forge shop................................................
Foundries..................................................

171
169
62
706
62
713
40
670
685
656
655
176
609
189
226
665
665
461




645
63
685

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Heaters, see:
Forge shop................................................
Iron and steel industry..................................
Motor vehicle and equipment manufac­
turing ....................................................
Heating mechanics .............................................
Helpers, baking................................................
Helpers, iron and steel.......................................
High school teachers.........................................
High speed printer operators, see: Computer
operating personnel..........................................
Highway patrolmen, see: State police officers ..
Historians.............................................................
Hod carriers......................................................
See also:
Bricklayers.........................................
Plasterers...........................................
Home economists ...............................................
Home health aides, see: Nursing aides................
Home housekeepers, see: Private household
workers..........................................................
Homemaker aides, see: Social service aides ...
Horticulturists.....................................................
Hospital administrators ......................................
Hospital attendants.............................................
Hospital nurses ...................................................
Hostess-cashiers................................................
Hot-cell technicians, atomic energy.................
Hot metal cranemen, see: Aluminum industry .
Hotel front-office clerks ...................................
Hotel housekeepers and assistants......................
Hotel managers and assistants............................
Hotels...................................................................
Household workers, see: Private household
workers.............................................................
Housekeepers, see: Private household workers .
Housekeepers and assistants, hotel ....................
Housemen, see: Private household workers ....
Human nutritionists, see: Agriculture................
Hydrogen furnace operators, electronics manu­
facturing ...........................................................
Hydrologists, see: Geophysicists ........................
Hygienists, dental .............................................
Icing mixers, baking .........................................
Illustrators, see: Commercial artists ................
Information science specialists librarians ..........
Immigration inspectors........................................
Industrial chemical industry, occupations in the
Industrial designers.............................................
See also: Electronics manufacturing ..........
Industrial engineers.............................................

63
695
706
411
670
694
206
107
187
534
257
250
274
560
505
176
568
365
519
505
501
89
666
650
91
159
139
781
176
177
159
176
625
681
355
469
670
589
213
191
687
595
680
347

INDEX TO OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRIES

See also:
Aluminum industry...........................
Apparel industry ...............................
Drug industry.....................................
Electronics manufacturing................
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing .........................................
Office machine and computer manu­
facturing .........................................
Industrial machinery repairmen.......................
Industrial meteorologists .................................
Industrial nurses ...............................................
Industrial photographers...................................
Industrial production and related occupations .
Industrial technicians .......................................
Industrial traffic managers...............................
Infants’ nurses, see: Private household workers
Informal models ...............................................
Information science specialists.........................
Infrared oven operators, electronics manufac­
turing ............................................................
Ingot strippers, iron and steel...........................
Inhalation therapists.........................................
Inside adjusters, claim examiners.....................
Inspectors, construction ...................................
Inspectors, laundry and drycleaning ................
Inspectors, (manufacturing).............................
See also:
Apparel industry ...............................
Electronics manufacturing ................
Forge shop .........................................
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing .........................................
Inspectors, quarantine.......................................
Installation men, see: Automobile trimmers
(automobile upholsterers).............................
Instrument makers (mechanical).....................
Instrument repairmen.......................................
See also:
Drug industry.....................................
Industrial chemical industry..............
Paper and allied products industry ...
Petroleum and natural gas production
and processing ...............................
Instrument technicians, see:
Engineering and science technicians..........
Mechanical technicians.............................
Instrumentmen, see: Surveyors .......................
Insulating workers.............................................
Insurance agents and brokers...........................
Insurance industry.............................................
Insurance occupations.......................................




652
657
676
679
706
712
437
357
502
602
25
393
140
176
228
213
681
694
499
124
195
785
66
656
689
63
707
190
54
33
438
676
688
718
636
393
393
399
248
226
775
119

Insurance salespeople, underwriters.................
Intercity busdrivers...........................................
Interest clerks, see: Bank clerks.......................
Interior decorators.............................................
Interior designers...............................................
International officers, banking.........................
Interpreters ......................................................
Intertype machine operators, printing..............
Inventory clerks, see: Stock clerks...................
Investigators, FBI .............................................
Investment analysts, see: Insurance industry .. .
Iron and steel industry, occupations in the ....
Iron workers, building trades...........................
Janitors, see: Building custodians.....................
Jewelers ............................................................
Jig and fixture builders, aircraft, missile, and
spacecraft......................................................
Junior typists ....................................................
Keepers, iron and steel .....................................
Keypunch operators .........................................
Kindergarten teachers.......................................
Laboratory assurance technicians, see: Food
processing technicians...................................
Laboratory analysts, see: Food processing tech­
nicians ............................................................
See also:
Aluminum industry...........................
Drug industry.....................................
Electronics manufacturing ................
Industrial chemical industry..............
Iron and steel industry.......................
Petroleum refining.............................
Laboratory technicians, dental.........................
Laborers, construction, building trades............
Ladle cranemen, iron and steel.........................
Landmen, petroleum and natural gas................
Landscape architects.........................................
Larrymen, iron and steel...................................
Lathe operators, motor vehicle and equipment
manufacturing...............................................
Lathers..............................................................
Laundresses, see: Private household workers ..
Laundry and drycleaning plants.......................
Law clerks, see: Lawyers...................................
Lawyers ............................................................
See also: Insurance industry.....................
Layout artists, see: Commercial artists............
Layout men, boilermaking occupations............
Layout workers, advertising.............................

813

125
315
115
597
597
116
606
40
101
175
776
692
282
155
440
645
105
697
107
204

396
396
652
676
680
688
697
723
471
256
694
635
595
693
706
265
176
784
143
141
776
589
56
131

814

Leasemen, petroleum and natural g a s..............
Legal secretaries ..............................................
Lens grinder, see: Optical mechanics...............
Letterers, see: Commercial artists...................
Librarians..........................................................
Librarians, acquisition .....................................
Librarians, adult services .................................
Librarians, children’s .......................................
Librarians, medical record ...............................
Librarians, university .......................................
Library occupations...........................................
Library technical assistants...............................
Licensed practical nurses .................................
Licensed vocational nurses...............................
Life insurance agents................, .......................
Life science occupations ...................................
Life scientist......................................................
Lighting technicians, television.........................
Linemen, see:
Electric power industry ...........................
...........................
Telephone industry
Linemen and cable splicers, telephone.............
Linotype operators, printing.............................
Lithographic artists, printing...........................
Lithographic occupations, printing .................
Lithographic pressmen, printing .....................
Livestock farmers ............................................
Load dispatchers, electric power .....................
Loader engineers, logging.................................
Loading machine operators, see: Coal mining .
Loan officers, see:
Bank officers ............................................
Credit officials...........................................
Local government occupations.........................
Local transit busdrivers.....................................
Local truckdrivers, see:
Driving occupations...................................
Trucking industry .....................................
Locksmiths........................................................
Locomotive engineers, railroad .......................
See also: Iron and steel industry...............
Locomotive firemen, railroad...........................
Loggers..............................................................
Logging and lumber m ills.................................
Long-distance truckdrivers...............................
Longshoremen..................................................
Longwall machine operators, see: Coal Mining
Lubrication men, see: Trucking industry..........
Lumbermen ......................................................

635
103
431
589
212
213
213
213
521
213
212
215
504
504
226
363
365
387
739
407
407
40
45
45
45
621
739
701
631
116
137
797
317
319
758
442
308
696
309
700
700
321
744
631
759
700

Machine coremakers, foundry occupations .... 29
Machine designers, see: Mechanical technicians 393



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Machine icers, baking.......................................
Machine modlers, see:
Foundries..................................................
Foundry occupations.................................
Motor vehicle and equipment manufactur­
ing ..........................................................
Machine movers, see: Riggers and movers ....
Machine spreaders, apparel .............................
Machine tool operators.....................................
See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manu­
facturing .........................................
Electronics manufacturing ...............
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing .........................................
Machined parts inspectors, see:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manufac­
turing ....................................................
Office machine and computer manufac­
turing ....................................................
Machinery repairmen, industrial .....................
Machining occupations.....................................
Machinists, all-round .......................................
See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manu­
facturing .........................................
Drug industry.....................................
Electronics manufacturing ................
Instrument makers (mechanical) ....
Railroad shop trades.........................
Mail carriers......................................................
Mail clerks........................................................
Mail handlers....................................................
Mail preparing and mail handling machine op­
erators, office machine operators.................
Mailmen, mail carriers.....................................
Maintenance electricians...................................
See also:
Aluminum industry...........................
Coalmining.......................................
Drug industry.....................................
Electronics manufacturing ................
Industrial chemicals industry............
Iron and steel industry.......................
Office machine and computer manu­
facturing .........................................
Paper and allied products industry ...
Petroleum and natural gas production
and processing...............................
Maintenance machinists, see:
Aluminum industry...................................
Electronics manufacturing .......................

70
685
28
706
282
655
35

645
681
706
646
713
437
31
31
645
676
681
33
310
199
94
94
93
199
444
652
631
676
681
688
696
713
718
636
652
681

INDEX TO OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRIES

Paper and allied products industry............
Maintenance mechanics, see: Industrial ma­
chinery repairmen .........................................
Maintenance technicians, radio and television .
Maintenance welders.........................................
See also:
Aluminum industry...........................
Electronics manufacturing ................
Makeup artists, television.................................
Makeup men, printing and publishing..............
Managers, city..................................................
Managers, industrial traffic .............................
Managers, range ...............................................
Managers and assistants, hotel.........................
Manifest clerks, see:
Merchant marine industry .......................
Trucking industry .....................................
Manipulator operators, iron and steel..............
Manufacturers’ salesworkers ...........................
Manufacturing..................................................
Marble setters, tilesetters, and terrazzo workers
Marine bilogists, see: Oceanographers ............
Marine engineers..............................................
Marine geologists, see: Oceanographers..........
Markers, apparel...............................................
Markers, laundry and drycleaning...................
Marketing research workers.............................
Masons, brick ..................................................
Masons, cement and concrete...........................
Masons, stone ..................................................
Masters, see:
Merchant marine industry .......................
Merchant marine officers.........................
Material handlers, apparel ...............................
Material handlers, see:
Motor vehicle and equipment manufac­
turing ....................................................
Trucking industry .....................................
Mates, see: Merchant marine officers..............
Mathematical assistants, electronics manufac­
turing ............................................................
Mathematical statisticians ...............................
Mathematicians................................................
See also:
Electronics manufacturing ...............
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing .........................................
Office machine and computer manu­
facturing .........................................
Mathematics occupations.................................
Meat and poultry inspectors.............................
Meat cutters......................................................



718
437
387
81
652
681
748
726
132
140
335
139
745
759
695
230
641
266
360
744
360
655
784
144
250
255
280
743
298
655
707
759
298
680
371
371
679
706
712
371
190
165

See also: Retail food stores.......................
Meat wrappers, see: Retail food stores ............
Mechanical artists, commercial artists ............
Mechanical engineers .......................................
See also:
Aluminum industry...........................
Atomic energy field...........................
Coal mining.......................................
Drug industry.....................................
Electronics manufacturing ................
Industrial chemical industry..............
Iron and steel industry.......................
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing .........................................
Office machine and computer manu­
facturing .........................................
Paper and allied products industry ...
Mechanical inspectors.......................................
Mechanical technicians.....................................
Mechanic-attendants, see: Gasoline service sta­
tion attendants...............................................
Mechanics, see:
Air-conditioning mechanics ........................
Aircraft mechanics ...................................
Automobile mechanics ................................
Boat motor mechanics..................................
Bowling-pin-machine mechanics ................
Bus mechanics.............................................
Diesel mechanics.........................................
Dispensing opticians and optical mechanics
Farm equipment mechanics .....................
Gas burner mechanics...............................
Heating mechanics ......................................
Motorcycle mechanics..................................
Oil burner mechanics....................................
Refrigeration mechanics..............................
Truck mechanics.........................................
Vending machine mechanics........................
Mechanics and repairmen....................................
Media directors, advertising.............................
Medical assistants.............................................
Medical laboratory assistants...........................
Medical laboratory technicians.......................
Medical laboratory workers.............................
Medical microbiologists...................................
Medical practitioners .......................................
Medical record administrators.........................
Medical record librarians.................................
Medical record technicians and clerks..............
Medical sales representatives, see: Pharmacists
Medical secretaries ...........................................
Medical social workers.....................................

815

768
768
589
348
642
662
632
676
679
687
696
706
712
719
196
393
224
411
287
417
420
422
454
428
431
435
510
510
446
411
411
454
457
403
131
488
489
489
489
366
473
521
521
492
523
106
571

816

Medical technicians, technologists, and assis­
tant occupations.............................................
Medical technologists.......................................
Medical X-ray technicians ...............................
Melters, see:
Iron and steel industry...............................
Motor vehicle and equipment manufactur­
ing ..........................................................
Men’s suit finishers, laundryand drycleaning ..
Merchant marine industry ...............................
Merchant marine occupations .........................
Merchant marine officers.................................
Merchant seamen ............................................
Messmen, see:
Merchant marine industry .......................
Merchant seamen .....................................
Metal finishers, motor vehicle and equipment
manufacturing..............................................
Metal patternmakers, foundry occupations ...
Metal roofers....................................................
Metallurgical engineers.....................................
See also: Iron and steel industry................
Metallurgists, see:
Aluminum industry...................................
Electronics manufacturing.......................
Foundries..................................................
Iron and steel industry...............................
Motor vehicle and equipment manufactur­
ing ..........................................................
Meteorological instrumentation specialists ....
Meteorologists..................................................
Meter installers, electric power.........................
Meter readers, electric power...........................
Meter repairmen, electric power .....................
Meter testers, electric power.............................
Metermen, electric power.................................
Microbiologists, see:
Agriculture................................................
Drug industry............................................
Life sciences..............................................
Millwrights........................................................
See also:
Aluminum industry...........................
Iron and steel industry.......................
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing .........................................
Paper and allied products industry ...
Mine inspectors................................................
Mineralogists, see:
Geologists..................................................
Petroleum and natural gas .......................
Mining and petroleum industry .......................



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

485
489
497
694
706
785
743
298
298
301
744
302
707
26
27
349
697
652
679
685
696
706
357
357
741
741
741
741
741
625
675
366
67
652
696
708
718
192
352
635
629

Mining engineers...............................................
See also: Coal mining ...............................
Ministers, Protestant...........................................
Missile assembly mechanics, aircraft, missile,
and spacecraft .................................................
Missile manufacturing occupations....................
Mixers, baking..................................................
Models .................................................................
Modelmakers, see:
Instrument makers (mechanical).................
Motoring vehicle and equipment manufac­
turing ....................................................
Molders, jee: Foundry occupations.....................
Molders’ helpers, foundries..................................
Molding machine operators, baking industry ..
Monitors, radiation, atomic energy....................
Monotype caster operators, printing...................
Monotype keyboard operators, printing..........
Mortgage clerks, see:
Bank clerks...................................................
Typists .........................................................
Mothers’ helpers, see: Private household workers
Motion picture projectionists...........................
Motorcycle mechanics.......................................
Motor vehicle and equipment manufacturing
occupations ..................................................
Motor vehicle body repairmen.........................
Music directors, radio and television..................
Music librarians, radio and television ................
Musicians.............................................................

350
632
553
645
643
669
228
33
704
28
685
669
665
41
41
115
105
176
69
446
704
415
748
748
581

Natural gas production and processing..............
Neighborhood workers, see: Social service aides
Neon sign servicemen .......................................
News directors, radio and television....................
Newscasters, radio and television........................
Newspaper reporters...........................................
Newswriters, radio and television........................
Note tellers, banking...........................................
Nuclear reactor operators, atomic energy........
Nurse educators, see: Registered nurses ............
Nursemaids, see: Private household workers ..
Nurses, industrial.................................................
Nurses, licensed practical.................................
Nurses, licensed vocational...............................
Nurses, occupational health................................
Nurses, office.......................................................
Nurses, private duty .........................................
Nurses, public health.........................................
Nurses, registered .............................................
Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants..........
Nursing assistants, see: Nursing aides..............

635
569
433
748
748
609
748
117
665
502
176
502
504
504
502
502
502
502
501
505
505

INDEX TO OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRIES

Nursing occupations.........................................
Nutritionists......................................................
See also:
Dietitians ...............................................
Home economists .................................

501
366
517
561

Observers, petroleum and natural g a s..............
Occupational health nurses...............................
Occupational therapists.....................................
Occupational therapy assistants.......................
Oceanographers................................................
Oceanographic engineers, see: Oceanographers
Odd-job men, see: Private household workers ..
Office machine and computer manufacturing ..
Office machine operators .................................
Office machine servicemen...............................
Office nurses......................................................
Office occupations.............................................
Oil burner mechanics.........................................
Oilers, see:
Merchant marine industry
.................
Merchant seamen .....................................
Operating engineers, construction machinery ..
Operating room technicians.............................
Operatings agents, airline.................................
Operations officers, banking.............................
Operators, resistance welding...........................
Operators, telephone.........................................
Opthalmologists................................................
Optical laboratory technicians.........................
Optical mechanics.............................................
Opticians, dispensing.........................................
Optometric assistants .......................................
Optometrists ....................................................
Oral surgeons, see: Dentists .............................
Orderlies, see: Nursing aides.............................
Ordinary seamen, see:
Merchant marine industry .......................
Merchant seamen.....................................
Organ servicemen .............................................
Ornamental-iron workers, building trades ....
Orthodontists, see: Dentists .............................
Osteopathic physicians .....................................
Outside production inspectors, aircraft, missile,
and spacecraft ...............................................
Ovenmen, baking..............................................
Overburden stripping operators, see: Coal min­
ing ..................................................................
Oxygen cutters..................................................
Oxygen furnace operators, iron and steel..........

635
502
508
510
359
360
176
711
92
423
502
85
411
744
302
269
494
297
116
81
200
475
431
431
431
496
475
465
505
743
301
448
282
465
476
646
669
631
81
694

Packaging engineers, paper andallied products 719



817

Packers, baking industry................................... 670
Painters, automobile......................................... 51
Painters, production ......................................... 74
See also: Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
manufacturing....................................... 645
Painters and paperhangers ............................... 271
Paleomagneticians see: Geophysicists.............. 355
Paleontologists, see:
Geologists.................................................. 352
Petroleum and natural gas ....................... 635
Paper and allied products industries................. 716
Paper chemists, paper and allied products........ 719
Paper machine operators, paper and allied
products ........................................................ 717
Paper sorters and counters, paper and allied
products ........................................................ 718
Paperhangers.................................................... 271
Parking attendants ........................................... 324
Parole officers, see: Social workers .................. 571
Parts countermen, automobile......................... 219
Parts-order clerks, see: Trucking industry........ 759
Party chiefs, surveyors ..................................... 399
Paste-up men, see:
Commercial artists ................................... 589
Printing occupations................................. 41
Pathologists...................................................... 366
See also:
Drug industry......................................... 676
Medical laboratory workers.................. 489
Pathologists, speech........................................... 514
Patrolmen, see:
Police officers............................................. 185
State police officers................................... 187
Pattern graders, apparel ................................... 655
Patternmakers, apparel..................................... 655
Patternmakers, see:
Foundries.................................................. 685
Foundry occupations................................. 26
Motor vehicle and equipment manufactur­
ing .......................................................... 706
PBX installers and repairmen, telephone.......... 409
PBX operators, see: Telephone operators........ 201
PBX repairmen ................................................ 410
Peanut farmers.................................................. 623
Perforator operators, petroleum andnatural gas 637
Performing a rts ................................................ 576
Personal maids, see: Private household workers 176
Personal service occupations ........................... 169
Personnel clerks................................................ 99
Personnel workers............................................. 146
Petroleum and natural gas production and proc­
essing ............................................................ 634

818

Petroleum engineers, see: Petroleum and natural
gas production and processing ........................ 636
Petroleum geologists........................................... 352
See also: Petroleum and natural gas pro­
duction and processing ............................ 635
Petroleum refining............................................... 722
Petrologists, petroleum and natural gas produc­
tion and processing ......................................... 635
Pharmacists......................................................... 523
See also: Drug industry................................ 676
Pharmaceutical detailmen, see: Drug industry 676
Pharmaceutical operators, see: Drug industry . 676
Pharmacologists, see:
Drug industry.......................................... 675
Life scientists............................................... 366
Photocheckers and assemblers, see: Photo­
graphic laboratory occupations ....................... 71
Photoengravers, printing, see:
Printing occupations................................. 46
Printing and publishing................................ 726
Photogeologists, see: Petroleum and natural
gas production and processing ........................ 635
Photographers..................................................... 602
Photographic laboratory occupations ............. 70
Photographic models, see: Models...................... 228
Photographic technicians ................................... 712
Phototypesetting machine operators, printing 41
Physical distribution managers, see: Industrial
traffic managers............................................... 140
Physical geographers........................................... 536
Physical meteorologists....................................... 357
Physical oceanographers..................................... 360
Physical scientists ............................................... 377
Physical-science aides, see: Food processing
technicians....................................................... 396
Physical therapists............................................... 511
Physical therapy assistants and aides.................. 512
Physicians............................................................ 479
Physicists ............................................................ 383
See also:
Electronics manufacturing .................. 679
Office machine and computer manu­
facturing ........................................... 712
Physicists, health, atomic energy........................ 665
Physiologists, see: Drug industry........................ 675
Piano and organ servicemen............................... 448
Piano technicians................................................. 448
Piano tuners......................................................... 448
Picklers, forge shop.......................................... 63
Piercer machine operators, iron and steel .......... 695
Pill and tablet coaters, drug industry.................. 676
Pilots and copilots............................................... 294




OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Pinsetting machine mechanics, see: Bowlingpin-machine mechanics.................................
Pipefitters..........................................................
See also:
Drug industry.....................................
Industrial chemical industry..............
Iron and steel industry.......................
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing .........................................
Paper and allied products industry ...
Pipe-organ technicians ...............................
Placement counselers, college...........................
Plainclothesmen, see: Police officers...............
Planer mill operators, lumber m ill...................
Planer operators, lumber mill...........................
Planetologists, see. Geophysicists ...................
Planners, urban ................................................
Planning counselors, college.............................
Plant facilities technicians, see: Food processing
technicians....................................................
Plant quarantine and plant pest control inspec­
tors, see: Agriculture.....................................
Plant scientists, see: Agriculture.......................
Plasterers..........................................................
Platemakers, printing, see:
Printing occupations.................................
Printing and publishing.............................
Platers, electroplaters.......................................
See also: Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
manufacturing.......................................
Plumbers and pipefitters...................................
See also:
Aluminum industry...........................
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing .........................................
Podiatrists ........................................................
Police officers....................................................
Policemen, see:
Police officers.............................................
State police officers...................................
Policewomen ....................................................
Policy checkers, see: Statistical clerks..............
Policy writers, see: Typists ...............................
Polishers, motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing ........................................................
Political geographers.........................................
Political scientists .............................................
Pondmen, lumber mills.....................................
Portrait photographers.....................................
Postal clerks......................................................
See also: Postal service occupations..........
Postal inspectors ...............................................

422
275
676
688
696
708
718
449
550
185
702
702
355
604
550
387
625
625
273
45
726
58
645
275
652
708
481
185
185
187
185
100
105
707
536
538
701
602
94
785
785

INDEX TO OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRIES

Postal service occupations.................................
Posting clerks, see: Statistical clerks................
Postmasters ......................................................
Pot liners, see: Aluminum industry .................
Potmen, see: Aluminum industry.....................
Poultry farmers................................................
Pourers, see:
Foundries..................................................
Iron and steel industry...............................
Motor vehicle and equipment manufacturing
Power dispatchers, electric power ...................
Power hammer operators, aircraft, missile, and
spacecraft......................................................
Power linemen, electric power .........................
Power shear operators, aircraft, missile, and
spacecraft......................................................
Power truck operators.......................................
See also:
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing .........................................
Trucking industry .............................
Powerplant occupations, electric power............
Practical nurses ................................................
Precision assemblers, electronics.....................
Preparation plant central control operators,
see: Coal mining............................................
Press operators, forge shop...............................
Press photographers .........................................
Pressers, apparel ..............................................
Pressmen, printing, see:
Printing occupations.................................
Printing and publishing.............................
Priests, Roman Catholic...................................
Print developers, machine, see: Photographic
laboratory occupations.................................
Printer operators, see: Photographic laboratory
occupations ..................................................
Printer-slotter operators, paper and allied
products ........................................................
Printers, see: Photographic laboratory occupa­
tions ..............................................................
Printing and publish ing.....................................
Printing occupations.........................................
Printing pressmen and assistants, see:
Printing occupations.................................
Printing and publishing.............................
Private duty nurses ...........................................
Private household service occupations..............
Private outdoor recreation farmers .................
Probation and parole officers, see: Social workers
Process engineers, paper and allied products ...
Process metallurgists, see: Aluminum industry .
Producers, assistants, radio and television........



793
99
785
649
649
622
685
695
706
739
643
739
644
73
707
759
736
504
680
631
62
602
656
48
726
556
71
71
718
71
725
40
48
726
502
176
624
571
719
652
748

Procurement clerks, see: Stock clerks..............
Produce clerks, see: Retail food stores..............
Producer-directors, program, radio and television
Production managers, advertising ...................
Production managers, apparel .........................
Production painters...........................................
See also: Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
manufacturing.......................................
Production planners, aircraft, missile, and
spacecraft......................................................
Production technicians, see:
Engineering and science technicians..........
Industrial engineering...............................
Printing and publishing.............................
Professional modelers, see: Industrial designers
Program assistants, radio and television..........
Program directors, radio and television............
Programmers, electronic computer..................
See also: Office machine and computer
manufacturing.......................................
Proof machine operators, see: Bank clerks ....
Proofreaders, printing and publishing..............
Property and liability insurance agents and
brokers..........................................................
Protective and related service occupations ....
Protestant ministers...........................................
Psychiatric aides, see: Nursing aides ................
Psychiatric social workers.................................
Psychologists....................................................
Public health nurses...........................................
Public health sanitarians, see: Sanitarians........
Public librarians................................................
Public relations workers ...................................
Public works inspectors.....................................
Pumpers, petroleum and natural g a s................
Pumpmen, petroleum refining .........................
Punch press operators, see:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manu­
facturing .................................................
Electronics manufacturing .......................
Purchasing agents .............................................
Pursers, see:
Merchant marine industry .......................
Merchant officers .....................................

819

101
767
748
131
657
74
645
644
393
393
726
595
748
748
109
712
114
726
226
175
553
505
571
563
502
525
212
147
196
441
723
643
681
150
744
299

Quality assurance technicians, see: Food proc­
essing technicians........................................... 396
Quaratine inspectors, foreign........................... 190
Rabbis................................................................ 555
Rack clerks, hotel ............................................. 91
Radiation monitors, atomic energy................. 665
Radiation physicists, atomic energy................. 665

820

Radio and television announcers .....................
Radio and television broadcasting occupations .
Radio officers, see:
Merchant marine industry .......................
Merchant marine officers.........................
Radio operators, ground...................................
Radio service technicians .................................
Radiographers, see:
Aluminum industry...................................
Atomic energy...........................................
Radioisotope-production operators, atomic en­
ergy ................................................................
Radiologic (X-ray) technologists.....................
Radiological physicists, atomic energy ............
Railroad bridge and building workers..............
Railroad clerks..................................................
Railroad conductors .........................................
Railroad industry..............................................
Railroad occupations .......................................
Ranchers............................................................
Range conservationists, see: Range managers .
Range ecologists, see: Range managers...........
Range managers ...........
Range scientists, see: Range managers ............
Rate clerks, see: Trucking industry .................
Real estate agents ............................................
Real estate salesworkers and brokers...............
Realtors ............................................................
Receipt clerks, merchant marine industry........
Receiving clerks, see:
Baking industry.........................................
Shipping and receiving clerks...................
Receptionists..............................
Record keepers, see: Statistical clerks.............
Recording technicians, radio and television ...
Recreation workers..........................................
Reference librarians .........................................
Refinery mechanics, petroleum refining ..........
Refrigeration engineers, see: Merchant seamen
Refrigeration mechanics...................................
Regional geographers.......................................
Regional planners .............................................
Registered nurses..............................................
Registered representatives, see: Securities sales­
workers ..........................................................
Rehabilitation counselors.................................
Rehabilitation workers, see: Social workers ...
Reinforcing-iron workers, building trades........
Remelt operators, see: Aluminum industry ....
Renderers, see: Commercial artists.................
Repairmen, see:
Aircraft mechanics ...................................



611
748
744
299
293
452
651
666
666
497
665
306
307
307
752
305
621
335
335
335
335
759
232
232
232
745
670
97
96
99
387
566
213
723
302
411
536
604
501
239
548
571
282
650
589
287

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Automobile body repairmen..................... 415
Central office repairmen, telephone.......... 406
Industrial machinery repairmen............... 437
Instrument repairmen............................... 438
Jewelry repairmen..................................... 440
Locksmiths................................................ 442
Shoe repairmen ......................................... 451
Telephone and PBX repairmen ............... 409
Television and radio service technicians .. 452
Vending machine operators ..................... 457
Watch repairmen....................................... 459
See also listings under Mechanics and
under Servicemen.
Report clerks, merchant marine industry .......... 745
Reporters, newspaper ......................................... 609
Research and development technicians, see:
Food processing technicians............................ 396
Research assistants, lawyers................................ 143
Research dietitians ............................................. 517
Research directors, advertising............................ 131
Research workers, marketing.............................. 144
Reservation agents and clerks,airline............... 297
Reservation clerks, hotel................................... 91
Reservation control agents............................... 297
Residential carriers, mail carriers ................... 199
Resilient floor layers, see: Floor covering in­
stallers ............................................................... 262
Respiratory therapists....................................... 499
Resistance-welding operators............................... 81
Restaurant industry............................................. 764
Retail food stores................................................. 767
Retail trade salesworkers .................................... 235
Retouchers, photographic laboratory occupa­
tions .................................................................. 71
Rewrite men, see: Newspaper reporters............ 609
Rig builders, petroleum and natural gas ............ 635
Riggers and machine movers, building trades .. 282
Riveters, aircraft, missile, and spacecraft........ 645
Rock-dust machine operators, see: Coal mining . 641
Rocket assembly mechanics, aircraft, missile,
and spacecraft ................................................. 645
Rodmen, see: Reinforcing-iron workers ............ 282
Rodmen, see: Surveyors ...................................... 399
Roll turners, iron and steel .................................. 696
Rollers, iron and steel ......................................... 695
Rolling mill operators, see: Aluminum industry 650
Roman Catholic Priests ...................................... 556
Roof bolters, see: Coal mining............................ 631
Roofers................................................................. 277
Room and desk clerks, hotel............................. 91
Rotary drillers, petroleum and natural gas .... 635
Roustabouts, petroleum and natural g as.......... 635

INDEX TO OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRIES

Route salesmen, see: Routemen.......................
Route salesmen and drivers, laundry and drycleaning ..........................................................
Route supervisors, baking.................................
Routemen..........................................................
See also: Baking industry .........................
Rural carriers, mail carriers.............................
Rural sociologists, agriculture .........................
Safety engineers, see: Coal mining...................
Sales clerks, retail trade ...................................
Sales managers, see: Radio and television
broadcasting..................................................
Sales occupations..............................................
Salesworkers, see:
Automobile parts countermen .................
Automobile salesworkers .........................
Automobile service advisors.....................
Computer salesmen...................................
Insurance agents and brokers...................
Manufacturers’ salesworkers...................
Real estate saleworkers and brokers ........
Retail trade salesworkers .........................
Securities salesworkers.............................
Wholesale trade salesworkers...................
Sample makers, apparel ...................................
Sample-taker operators, petroleum and natural
gas..................................................................
Sand mixers, foundries .....................................
Sandblasters, forge shop...................................
Sanitarians........................................................
Scalemen, see: Aluminum industry .................
Scalers, lumber mills.........................................
Scalper operators, see: Aluminum industry ....
Scenic designers, television...............................
School counselors .............................................
School media specialists, see: Librarians..........
School social workers .......................................
School teachers, see: Agriculture.....................
School teachers, see: Teachers.........................
Science technicians ...........................................
Scientific and technical occupations.................
Scientists, environmental .................................
Scientists, life....................................................
Scientists, physical.............................................
Scientists, range................................................
Scientists, soil....................................................
Sealers, electronics manufacturing...................
Seamen; see: Merchant seamen .......................
Seamstresses, laundry and drycleaning............
Seat-cover installers, see: Automobile trimmers
and installation men .....................................



637
784
671
237
670
199
625
632
235
749
218
219
220
222
712
226
230
232
235
239
242
655
637
685
63
525
650
701
650
748
544
213
569
625
208
391
329
352
365
377
335
369
681
301
785
54

Second assistant engineers, see: Merchant ma­
rine officers....................................................
Second loaders, logging.....................................
Second mates, see: Merchant marine officers . .
Secondary school teachers ...............................
See also: Home economists.......................
Secretaries ........................................................
Securities, salesworkers ...................................
Seismologists, see: Geophysicists.....................
Senior typists....................................................
Separation tenders, see: Coal mining...............
Service advisors, see: Automobile service ad­
visors ..............................................................
Service and miscellaneous.................................
Service occupations...........................................
Service salesmen, see: Automobile service ad­
visors ..............................................................
Service station attendants, see: Gasoline service
station attendants .........................................
Service station mechanic-attendants ...............
Service technicians, computer .........................
Service writers, see: Automobile service ad­
visors ..............................................................
Servicemen, see:
Appliance servicemen ...............................
Business machine servicemen...................
Electric sign servicemen ...........................
Gas appliance servicemen.........................
Neon sign servicemen ...............................
Piano and organ servicemen.....................
Telephone and PBX servicemen................
Television and radio service technicians ..
Setup men (machine tools)...............................
Sewage plant operators.....................................
Sewing machine operators, see:
Apparel industry .......................................
Motor vehicle and equipment manufacturing
Shakeout men, see: Foundries .........................
Shearmen, iron and steel...................................
Sheet-metal workers.........................................
See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manu­
facturing .........................................
Railroad shop trades.........................
Shipping checkers, see: Statistical clerks..........
Shipping and receiving clerks...........................
Ship’s carpenters, see: Merchant seamen ........
Ship’s electricians, see: Merchant seamen........
Shirt finishers, laundry and drycleaning ..........
Shoe repairmen ................................................
Shooters, petroleum and natural g a s ...............
Shop trades, railroad.........................................

821

299
701
298
206
560
102
239
355
105
632
222
779
153
222
224
224
426
222
413
423
433
411
433
448
409
452
37
79
656
707
685
695
279
643
310
99
97
302
302
785
451
635
310

822

Shorthand reporters ...........................................
Shot firers, see: Coal mining................................
Shotblasterers, see:
Forge shop................................................
Foundries.....................................................
Shothole drillers, helpers, petroleum and natu­
ral g as..............................................................
Shothole drillers, petroleum and natural gas ...
Shuttle car operators, see: Coal mining............
Signal department workers, railroad..................
Signal maintainers, railroad................................
Signalmen, railroad.............................................
Silk screen printers, electronics manufacturing
Singers .................................................................
Skipmen, iron and steel.....................................
Slaggers, iron and steel.....................................
Slate roofers, building trades ...........................
Slicing-and-wrapping machine operators, baking .
Slide mounters, see: Photographic laboratory
occupations ..................................................
Soaking pit cranemen, iron and steel..................
Soaking pit operators, aluminum........................
Social scientists ...................................................
Social secretaries.................................................
Social service aides ...........................................
Social service occupations.................................
Social welfare aides.............................................
Social workers.....................................................
Sociologists .........................................................
Soil conservationists ...........................................
Soil scientists.......................................................
Sorters, see: Bank clerks...................................
Sorters, lumber mills...........................................
Sorters, see: Paper and allied products indus­
tries ..................................................................
Sound effects technicians, radio and television .
Space buyers, see: Advertising workers..............
Spacecraft manufacturing occupations............
Special agents, see: FBI Special Agents............
Special librarians.................................................
Speech pathologists.............................................
Spotters, laundry and drycleaning......................
Sprayers, motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing ...........................................................
Sprinkler Fitters, see: Plumbers and pipefitters .
Staff officers, see: Merchant marine officers ...
Stage managers, radio and television..................
State and local government occupations..........
State highway patrolmen ....................................
State police officers..........................................
Station agents, air traffic ...................................
Station agents, railroad.....................................
Station installers, telephone................................



103
631
63
685
635
635
631
311
311
311
681
583
693
694
277
670
71
695
650
529
103
568
543
568
570
539
337
369
114
702
718
749
131
643
175
213
514
785
707
275
299
748
797
187
187
297
312
409

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Stationary engineers .........................................
See also:
Aluminum industry...........................
Paper and allied products..................
Stationary firemen (boiler)...............................
Statistical assistants .........................................
Statistical clerks................................................
Statisticians ......................................................
See also:
Electronics manufacturing ...............
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing .........................................
Office machine and computer manu­
facturing .........................................
Steamfitters, see: Plumbers and pipefitters ....
Steel industry occupations ...............................
Steel pourers, iron and steel .............................
Stenographers and secretaries ............................
Stereotypers, printing, see:
Printing occupations.................................
Printing and publishing.............................
Stewardesses ....................................................
Stewards............................................................
Stillmen, petroleum refining.............................
Stock chasers, motor vehicle and equipment
manufacturing..............................................
Stock clerks......................................................
See also:
Baking industry.................................
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing .........................................
Retail food store ...............................
Stock house larrymen, iron and steel................
Stock house men, iron and steel.......................
Stonemasons ....................................................
Stove tenders, iron and steel.............................
Stratigraphers, see: Geologists.........................
See also: Petroleum and natural gas pro­
duction and processing .........................
Stretcher-leveler-operators, aluminum industry
Strippers, printing .............................................
Structural-iron workers, building trades .......
Structural-, ornamental-, and reinforcing-iron
workers, riggers, and machine movers..........
Student activities personnel, college student
personnel workers .........................................
Student financial aid personnel, college student
personnel workers .........................................
Student housing officers, college student per­
sonnel workers ...............................................
Studio supervisors, radio and television............
Stylists, motor vehicle and equipment manufac­
turing ............................................................

75
652
718
77
100
99
374
679
706
712
275
692
694
102
43
726
290
290
722
707
101
670
707
767
693
692
280
693
353
635
651
45
282
282
135
135
135
748
704

INDEX TO OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRIES

Substation operators, electric power ...............
Supercalendar operators, paper and allied prod­
ucts ................................................................
Surfacers, optical mechanics ...........................
Surgical technicians...........................................
Surveyors..........................................................
See also:
Coal mining.......................................
Petroleum and natural gas production
and processing...............................
Switchboard operators, electric power..............
Switchers, petroleum and natural gas ..............
Switchmen, railroad .........................................
Switchmen, telephone.......................................
Synoptic meteorologists ...................................
Systems analysts ..............................................
See also:
Office machine and computer manu­
facturing .........................................
Paper and allied products industry ...
Systems operators, electric power ...................
Tablet coaters, drug industry ...........................
Tablet testers, drug industry.............................
Tabulating machine operators.........................
Tailors, apparel ................................................
Talleymen, see; Statistical clerks.....................
Tape librarians, see: Computer operating per­
sonnel ............................................................
Tape-to-card converter operators, see: Com­
puter operating personnel .............................
Tappers, see: Aluminum industry.....................
Taxi drivers ......................................................
Teachers, college and university.......................
Teachers, dancing ............................................
Teachers, high school .......................................
Teachers, home economists .............................
Teachers, kindergarten and elementary school .
Teachers, music................................................
Teachers, secondary school...............................
See also: Home economists.......................
Teachers, singing..............................................
Teachers, vocational, agriculture.....................
Teaching occupations .......................................
Technical illustrators, see:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manufac­
turing ....................................................
Electronics manufacturing .......................
Technical secretaries.........................................
Technical stenographers...................................
Technical writers..............................................
See also: Electronics manufacturing ........
Technician occupations.....................................



739
718
431
494
399
632
635
736
636
305
405
357
Ill
712
719
739
676
676
93
656
99
107
107
649
325
208
579
206
560
204
581
206
560
583
625
204
643
680
103
103
613
680
391

Technicians, broadcasting, radio and television
Technicians, dental laboratory.........................
Technicians, drug industry ...............................
Technicians, engineering and science...............
Technicians, food processing ...........................
Technicians, foundries.......................................
Technicians, forestry, see: Forestry aides and
technicians....................................................
Technicians, medical record.............................
Technicians, medical X-ray.............................
Technicians, television and radio service..........
Telegraphers, telephoners, and towermen, rail­
road ................................................................
Telephone crafts occupation.............................
Telephone industry ...........................................
Telephone installers...........................................
Telephone linemen and cable splicers................
Telephone operators .........................................
Telephone repairmen.........................................
Telephone servicemen.......................................
Telephoners, railroad .......................................
Teletypists ........................................................
Television and radio service technicians ..........
Television announcers.......................................
Television broadcasting occupations................
Tellers, banking................................................
Terrazzo workers, building trades ...................
Testboardmen, telephone.................................
Testing technicians, paper and allied products .
Therapeutic dietitians.......................................
Therapists, inhalation.......................................
Therapists, occupations.....................................
Therapists, physical...........................................
Therapy and rehabilitation occupations ..........
Therapy assistants, occupational.....................
Third assistant engineers, see: Merchant marine
officers ..........................................................
Third mates, see: Merchant marine officers ...
Thread trimmers and cleaners, apparel............
Ticket agents, airline.........................................
Ticket sellers, see: Cashiers...............................
Tile roofers, building trades .............................
Tilesetters, building trades ...............................
Timber cruisers, logging...................................
Time buyers, see: Advertising workers ............
Time salesmen, radio and television.................
Tinners, electronics manufacturing .................
Tobacco farmers ...............................................
Tool-and-die makers.........................................
See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft man­
ufacturing .......................................
Electronics manufacturing ...............

823

387
471
676
391
396
685
334
392
497
452
313
405
755
409
406
200
409
409
313
293
452
611
748
117
266
405
719
517
499
508
511
508
510
299
298
656
297
88
277
266
701
131
749
681
623
38
645
681

824

Office machine and computer manu­
facturing ........................................
Tool designers, see: Mechanical technicians ...
Tool pushers, see: Office machine and com­
putermanufacturing .....................................
Toolmakers, electronics manufacturing ..........
Towermen, railroad...........................................
Toxicologists, drug industry.............................
Tracers, see: Draftsmen ...................................
Tractor operators, see: Coal mining.................
Track workers, railroad ...................................
Trackmen, railroad...........................................
Traffic agents and clerks, airline .....................
Traffic controllers, air-route.............................
Traffic controllers, airport ...............................
Traffic managers, industrial.............................
Traffic managers, radio and television.............
Traffic representatives, airline .........................
Trainmen, see: Brakemen, railroad.................
Transcribing machine operators, see: Typists ..
Transit clerks, see: Bank clerks .......................
Transmission and distribution occupations,
electric power................................................
Transmitter technicians, radio and television ..
Transportation activities...................................
Transportation, communication, and public
utilities ..........................................................
Treaters, see:
Petroleum and natural gas .......................
Petroleum refining.....................................
Treatment plant operators, wastewater............
Trimmer saw operators, lumber m ills..............
Trimmers, forge shop .......................................
Trimmers, hand, apparel...................................
Troopers, see: State police officers...................
Troublemen, electric power .............................
Truck mechanic helpers, see: Trucking industry
Truck mechanics..............................................
See also: Trucking industry.......................
Truckdriver helpers...........................................
Truckdrivers, see:
Baking industry.........................................
Drug industry............................................
Electronics manufacturing .......................
Foundries..................................................
Office machine and computer manu­
facturing ................................................
Trucking....................................................
Truckdrivers, local............................................
Truckdrivers, long-distance .............................
Trucking industry .............................................
Tube benders, aircraft, missile, and spacecraft .
Tumbler operators, foundries...........................



OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

713
393
713
681
313
676
390
631
313
313
297
286
286
140
748
297
305
105
115
739
387
285
729
636
723
79
756
63
656
187
739
759
454
759
759
671
676
681
685
714
759
319
321
758
645
685

Tune-up men, see: Automobile mechanics ....
Turbine operators, electric power.....................
Type inspectors, office machine and computer
manufacturing...............................................
Typesetters, hard, printing, see:
Composing room occupations .................
Printing and publishing.............................
Typesetting machine operators, printing..........
Typists ..............................................................
Underwriters, insurance...................................
See also: Insurance industry.....................
University librarians.........................................
University teachers ...........................................
Upholsterers, see:
Automobile trimmers and installation men
Furniture upholsterers...............................
Upsetters, forge shop.........................................
Urban geographers ...........................................
Urban planners ................................................
Utility men, see:
Merchant marine industry .......................
Merchant seamen .....................................
Valets, see: Private household workers............
Varitypists ........................................................
Vending machine mechanics.............................
Vending machine routemen, see: Routemen ...
Veterinarians....................................................
See also:
Agriculture.........................................
Life scientists.....................................
Video-control technicians, television................
Video recording technicians, television ............
Virologists, see: Drug industry.........................
Vocational agriculture teachers, see: Agri­
culture ............................................................
Vocational counselors, see: Employment
counselors......................................................
Vocational nurses, licensed...............................
Volcanologists, see: Geologists.........................
Wage-hour compliance officers .......................
Waiters and waitresses .....................................
Wash box attendants, see: Coal mining............
Washers, see: Trucking industry.......................
Washmen, laundry and drycleaners..................
Waste disposal men, atomic energy.................
Waste treatment engineers and technicians,
see: Petroleum refining.................................
Waste-treatment operators, atomic energy ....
Wastewater treatment plant operators ............
Watch engineers, electric power.......................
Watch repairmen..............................................

417
736
713
40
726
40
105
125
776
213
208
53
64
63
536
604
744
302
176
105
457
237
483
624
366
387
387
676
625
546
504
352
192
167
632
759
784
666
666
723
79
737
459

INDEX TO OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRIES

Watchmakers....................................................
Watchmen ........................................................
Waterproof workers, see: Roofers...................
Waybill clerks, see: Typists...............................
Welders,gas......................................................
Welders, petroleum and natural gas.................
Welders and flame cutters.................................
See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
manufacturing...............................
Electronics manufacturing ...............
Natural gas processing .....................
Welding operators, resistance...........................
Well pullers, petroleum and natural gas ..........
Wheat farmers..................................................
Wholesale and retail trade ...............................
Wholesale trade salesworkers...........................
Window clerks, postal clerks ...........................




459
183
277
105
81
636
81
645
681
636
81
637
622
763
641
94

Wipers, see:
Merchant marine industry .......................
Merchant seamen .....................................
Wire draw operators, aluminum.......................
Wire drawers, iron and steel.............................
Wood patternmakers, foundry occupations ...
Working housekeepers, see: Private household
workers..........................................................
Writers, technical...............................................
X-ray technicians, medical...............................
Yard brakemen, railroad .................................
Yarder engineers, logging.................................
Young adult services librarian .........................
Zoologists, see:
Drug industry.............................................
Life scientists.............................................

825

744
302
651
695
26
177
613
497
305
701
213
675
366

Dictionary of Occupational Titles (D.O.T.) Index
D.O.T.
No.
001.081
001.281
002.
002.081
002.281
003.
003.081
003.151
003.187
003.281
005.
005.081
005.281
006.
006.081
007.
007.081
007.151
007.168
007.181
007.187
007.281
008.
008.081
010.
010.081
010.168
010.187
010.281
010.288
011.
011.081
012.

Architect...........................................
Architect, marine.............................
Draftsman, architectural................
Aeronautical engineering occupations .............................................
Aeronautical engineer....................
Draftsman, aeronautical................
Electrical engineering occupations .
Electrical engineer..........................
Industrial-power engineer..............
Electrical engineer, power..............
Systems engineer.............................
Draftsman, electrical......................
Draftsman, electronic....................
Estimator and draftsman ..............
Civil engineering occupations........
Civil engineer...................................
Draftsman, civil...............................
Draftsman, structural ....................
Ceramic engineering occupations..
Ceramic engineer.............................
Mechanical engineering occupations .........................................
Air-conditioning engineer..............
Mechanical engineer.......................
Refrigeration engineer....................
Heating engineer.............................
Chief engineer .................................
Mechanical-engineering technician ...........................................
Engineering assistant mechanical
equipment.....................................
Plant engineer .................................
Draftsman, mechanical..................
Lay-out man and checker..............
Chemical engineering occupations .
Chemical engineer...........................
Mining and petroleum engineering
occupations .................................
Mining engineer...............................
Observer...........................................
Mining investigator.........................
Draftsman, geological....................
Draftsman, mine .............................
Prospecting computer....................
Metallurgy and metallurgical engineering occupations ................
Foundry metallurgist.......................
Metallurgist, extractive..................
Industrial engineering occupations.

826



Page
586
745
389
391
342
389
391
346
346
346
111
389
389
389
391
345
389
389
391
344
391
676
348,676
676
348, 676
348
348,676
676
348,676
389
389
391
345,676

D O T.
No.
012.081
012.168
012.187
012.188

012.281
013.
013.081
014.
014.281
015.
017.
017.281
018.
018.188
019.
019.081
019.187
019.281
020.
020.081
020.088
020.188

391
350, 632
635
350, 632
389
389,635
635

021.
021.088
022.
022.081

391
348
349
391

022.168
022.181
022.281

Page
Safety engineer.................................
Director, quality control................
Methods engineer, chief ................
Systems analyst, business electronic data processing................
Manufacturing engineer ................
Efficiency engineer .........................
Factory-lay-out m an.......................
Fire-protection engineer ................
Industrial engineer...........................
Industrial-health engineer..............
Production engineer.........................
Production planner .........................
Quality-control engineer................
Time study engineer.........................
Air analyst.......................................
Agricultural engineering occupations .............................................
Agricultural engineer.......................
Marine engineering occupations ...
Draftsman, marine .........................
Nuclear engineering occupations ..
Draftsmen and related work..........
Technical illustrator .......................
Surveying and related work ..........
Surveyor ...........................................
Architecture and engineering,
n.e.c................................................
Landscape architect.........................
Drainage-design coordinator ........
Quality-control technician ............
Occupations in mathematics..........
Applications engineer .....................
Mathematician.................................
Statistician, mathematical ............
Actuary ...........................................
Programmer, business.....................
Programmer, engineering and scientific ...........................................
Statistician, applied.........................
Occupations in astronomy ............
Astronomer .....................................
Occupations in chemistry ..............
Chemist, analytical .........................
Chemist, food...................................
Chemist, inorganic...........................
Chemist, organic .............................
Chemical-laboratory chief ............
Perfumer...........................................
Chemist, water purification ..........

347,676
676
347,676
111
676
676
676
676
347, 676
676
676
644,676
676
676
676
391
343, 624
391
389
389,391
389, 391
644
391
399,632, 635
391
599
348
726
391
111
371
111
119,776
109
109
374
391
377
391
379,381,675
379, 381
379, 381,675
379, 381,675
379
379
379

DICTIONARY OF OCCUPATIONAL TITLES (D O T.) INDEX
DOT.
No.
Page
Malt-specification-control assistant .
396
023.
Occupations in physics ...................
391
023.081
Physicist...........................................
383
Physicist, light .................................
383
023.088
Physicist, theoretical.......................
383
024.
Occupations in geology...................
391
024.081
Geologist .........................................
352,635
Geophysicist.....................................
354, 635
Minerologist.....................................
635
Oceanographer.................................
359
Paleontologist .................................
635
Petrologist .......................................
635
Photogeologist.................................
635
Stratigrapher...................................
635
025.
Occupations in meteorology..........
391
025.088
Meteorologist...................................
357
029.
Occupations in mathematics and
physical sciences, n.e.c..................
391
029.088
Geographer .....................................
535
029.381
Bottle-house quality-control tech­
nician ...........................................
396
Laboratory tester.............................
396
040.
Occupations in agricultural sci­
ences .............................................
365
040.081
Agronomist .....................................
624
Animal husbandman.......................
624
Food technologist ...........................
381
Forester ...........................................
332,625,701
Range manager ...............................
335
Soil conservationist.........................
337
Soil scientist.....................................
369
041.081
Anatomist.........................................
365
Biochemist....................................... 363,381,675
Biologist...........................................
675
Botanist ...........................................
675
Entomologist...................................
625
Geneticist.........................................
625
Microbiologist.................................
625,675
Oceanographer.................................
359
Pharmacologist ...............................
675
675
Physiologist .....................................
Plant quarantine and plant pest
control inspector .........................
625
Plant scientist...................................
625
041.168
Fish culturist .....................................
365
041.181
Histopathologist ...............................
365,675
041.281
Public-health bacteriologist ............
365
045.088
Psychologist, developmental..........
563
Psychologist, educational..............
563
Psychologist, engineering...............
563
Psychologist, experimental............
563
Psychologist, social.........................
563
045.108
Counselor...........................................
134,546
Director of guidance .......................
548
Psychologist, clinical .......................
563
Psychologist, counseling................
563
Psychologist, school .......................
544
Residence counselor .......................
134
050.088
Economist .......................................
532,624
Market research analyst.................
130,144




827
DOT.
No.
051.088
052.088
054.088
055.088
059.088
070.101
070.108
071.108
072.108
073.081
073.108
073.181
073.281
073.381
074.181
075.
077.081
077.128
077.168
078.128
078.168
078.281
078.381
078.368
078.687
079.108

079.118
079.128
079.368
079.378
090.118
090.168

Political scientist.............................
Historian .........................................
Sociologist .......................................
Anthropologist.................................
Economic geographer.....................
Surgeon ............................................
General practitioner .......................
Osteopathic physician.....................
Dentist .............................................
Veterinarian laboratory animal
care...............................................
Veterinarian.....................................
Veterinary livestock-inspector . . . .
Veterinary virus-serum inspector ..
Laboratory technician, veterinary .
Pharmacist.......................................
Registered nurses..............................
Research nutritionist.......................
Dietitian, teaching...........................
Dietitian, therapeutic.......................
Nutritionist .....................................
Dietitian...........................................
Dietitian, administrative.................
Medical technologist, teaching
supervisor.....................................
Medical technologist, chief............
Radiologic technologist, chief........
Biochemistry technologist...............
Medical technologist .....................
Microbiology technologist ............
Medical-laboratory assistant........
Tissue technologist .........................
Dental hygienist...............................
Electrocardiograph technician . . . .
Electroencephalograph technician .
Radiologic technologist...................
Laboratory assistant, plasma
drawing-off...................................
Audiologist.......................................
Chiropractor ...................................
Optometrist .....................................
Podiatrist .........................................
Speech pathologist...........................
Sanitarian.........................................
Occupational therapist ...................
Recreational therapist.....................
Corrective therapist.........................
Inhalation therapist.........................
Medical assistant.............................
Occupational therapist aid .............
Dental assistant.................................
Nurse, licensed practical.................
Surgical technician .........................
Dean of students .............................
Financial-aids officer.......................
Department head, college or uni­
versity ...........................................
Director of admissions ...................
Director of student affairs...............
Director of summer sessions..........

Page
538
534
539,625
529
535
478
478
476
465
483, 624
483
483
483
676
523
501
517
517
517
517,625
517
517
489, 676
489, 497, 676
489,497
676
489
676
489,676
676
469
485
486
497
676
514
473
475
481
514
525
508
566
511
499
488
510
467
504
494
134
134
208
134
134
134

828
DOT.
No.
090.228
090.999
091.228
092.228
096.128
099.228
100.
100.388
110.108
110.118

119.168
120.108
129.108
132.088
132.268
132.388
137.268
139.288
141.031
141.081

141.168
142.051
142.081
143.062

143.282
143.382
150.028
150.048
151.028

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK
Discipline counselor.........................
Registrar, college or university . .. .
Faculty member, college or university...........................................
Graduate assistant...........................
Teacher, agriculture .......................
Teacher, secondary school ............
Teacher, elementary school ..........
Teacher, kindergarten....................
Extension service specialist............
Home economist .............................
Home economist, consumer service ...............................................
Governess.........................................
Librarians.........................................
Medical-record librarian................
Lawyer.............................................
Lawyer, admiralty...........................
Lawyer, corporation .......................
Lawyer, criminal.............................
Lawyer, patent.................................
Lawyer, probate...............................
Lawyer, real estate...........................
Title supervisor ...............................
Clergyman .......................................
Director of religious activities........
Copy writer .....................................
Reporter...........................................
Editor, index.....................................
Interpreter .......................................
Technical writer...............................
Director, a rt.....................................
Advertising lay-out man ................
Art lay-out m an...............................
Cartoonist, motion pictures ..........
Color advisor...................................
Cover designer.................................
Illustrator.........................................
Lay-out man.....................................
Medical illustrator...........................
Miniature-set constructor..............
Stipple artist.....................................
Production manager, advertising ..
Interior designer and decorator ...
Designer...........................................
Floral designer.................................
Industrial designer...........................
Photographer apprentice, commercial.................................................
Photographer apprentice, portrait .
Photographer, commercial............
Photographer, news.........................
Photographer, portrait ...................
Photographer, scientific ................
Biological photographer................
Photographer, aerial.......................
Dramatic coach ...............................
Teacher, drama ...............................
Actor.................................................
Instructor, dancing .........................




Page
134
208

DO T .
No.
151.048
152.028

208
208
625
206
204
204
559
560

152.048

560
176
212
521
141
141
141
141
141
141
141
141
553,555,556
134
130
609
90
606
613
589
130
589
589
589
589
589
589
589
589
589
130
597
654
593
595

159.228
160.188
161.118
162.158
163.118
164.

602
602
602
602
602
602
602
602
576
576
576
478

159.148

165.068
166.
166.168
166.268
168.168

168.268
168.287

168.288
169.188
180.188
182.168
182.287
184.168
186.118
186.138
186.168
186.288
187.118
187.168
188.118
189.118
189.168
191.118
191.268

Dancer .............................................
Teacher, music.................................
Concert singer .................................
Musical entertainer.........................
Musician, instrumental...................
Orchestra leader...............................
Popular singer .................................
Announcer.......................................
Announcer, international broadcast ................................................
Disc jockey.......................................
Sports announcer.............................
Counselor, camp .............................
Accountant.......................................
Treasurer .........................................
Purchasing agent.............................
Hotel manager.................................
Advertising management occupations .............................................
Public-relations m an.......................
Personnel and training administration occupations...........................
Director of placement.....................
Placement officer.............................
Building inspector ...........................
Customs inspector...........................
Health officer, field.........................
Immigration inspector.....................
Manager, credit and collection . . . .
Operations inspector.......................
Safety-and-sanitary inspector........
Check viewer ...................................
Food and drug inspector.................
Inspector, weights and measures ..
Plant-quarantine inspector............
Poultry grader .................................
Sanitary inspector...........................
Claim examiner...............................
Underwriter.....................................
Field m an.........................................
Track worker...................................
Construction inspector ...................
Manager, traffic...............................
Manager, financial institution . . . .
Manager, safe deposits ...................
Operations officer ...........................
Loan officer.....................................
Manager, hotel.................................
Scout, professional sports..............
Superintendent, institution............
Superintendent, recreation............
Director, funeral .............................
Manager, front office .....................
Superintendent, building................
Manager, city...................................
President...........................................
Junior executive...............................
Leaseman.........................................
Right-of-way agent .........................
Claim adjuster.................................

Page
478
581,583
583
583
583
581
583
611
611
611
611
566
128
116
130, 150
139
130
147
146
134
550
195
189
189
189
137
189
189
189
189
189
189
189
189
123
125,776
150
313
195
140
116
116
116
116,137
139
566
519
566
173
139
139, 155
132
116
116
150,635
150
121

DICTIONARY OF OCCUPATIONAL TITLES (D.O.T.) INDEX
DOT.
Page
No.

DO T .
No.

193.168
193.282

286
293
299, 744
387
387
387
387
570

209.138
209.382
209.388

570
570
570

209.688
210.368
210.388

570
570
570
570
566
566
570
570
566
294
294
294
294
298
298
299
299
298
743
744
298
298
298,743
298, 743
299,744
307
604
651
103
103
102
102
105
105
105
105
293
90, 99
90
90
99

210.488
210.588
211.
211.468
212.368
213.138

194.281
194.282
194.782
195.108

195.118
195.168
195.208
195.228
196.168
196.228
196.268
196.283
197.130
197.133
197.136
197.168
198.168
199.168
199.381
201.268
201.368
202.388
203.
203.582
203.588
205.368
206.388
206.588
207.782
207.884
207.885
208.588
208.782

Air-traffic controller.......................
Ground radio operator ...................
Radio officer ...................................
Sound-effects m an...........................
Sound m an.......................................
Sound mixer.....................................
Recording-machine operator........
Caseworker .....................................
Community-relations and services
advisor, public housing ..............
Group worker...................................
Social group worker .......................
Social worker, delinquency prevention ...............................................
Administrator, social welfare........
Director, welfare .............................
Casework supervisor.......................
Director, camp.................................
Director, recreation center............
Case aid ...........................................
Program aid, group work ..............
Program leader ...............................
Chief pilot.........................................
Instructor, p ilot...............................
Check pilot.......................................
Airplane pilot...................................
Chief engineer .................................
First assistant engineer ..................
Second assistant engineer ..............
Third assistant engineer ................
Chief mate .......................................
Deck officer .....................................
Marine engineer...............................
Second mate.....................................
Third m ate.......................................
Captain.............................................
Master .............................................
Purser...............................................
Conductor .......................................
Urban planner .................................
Radiographer...................................
Social secretary ...............................
Secretary .........................................
Court reporter .................................
Stenographer ...................................
Typists .............................................
Varitypists .......................................
Mortgage clerk ...............................
Policy writer.....................................
Telegraphic-typewriter operator ..
Personnel clerk.................................
File clerk I .......................................
File clerk II (classification clerk) ..
Record keeper .................................
Duplicating machine operator II
and III .........................................
Duplicating machine operator I ...
Duplicating machine operator IV ..
Transcribing-machine operator ...
Embossing-machine operator........




93
93
93
105, 726
93

209.488
209.584
209.587
209.588

213.382
213.582
213.588
213.782
213.885
214.488
215.388
216.388
216.488
217.388
219.388

219.488
219.588
222.138
222.368
222.387
222.388
222.478
222.488
222.587

829
Page
Stenographic-pool supervisor........
Justowriter operator .......................
Clerk-typist .....................................
Mortgage clerk ...............................
Circulation clerk .............................
Morticer...........................................
Sampleman, paper...........................
Car checker .....................................
Waybill clerk ...................................
Checker II .......................................
Account-information clerk............
Bookkeeper (clerical) I ...................
Bookkeeper (clerical) II .................
Dividend-deposit-voucher quoter ..
Insurance clerk.................................
Cashiers ...........................................
Station agent II ...............................
Teller.................................................
Supervisor, computer operations ..
Supervisor, machine-records unit . .
Card-to-tape converter operator ..
Console operator.............................
High-speed printer operator..........
Tape-to-card converter operator ..
Key-punch operator.........................
Data typist .......................................
Tabulating-machine operator........
Sorting-machine operator..............
Billing-machine operator ..............
Bookkeeping-machine operator I ..
Bookkeeping-machine operator II .
Adding-machine operator..............
Calculating-machine operator . . . .
Proof-machine operator ................
Transit clerk.....................................
Actuarial clerk.................................
Billing clerk .....................................
Checker ...........................................
Coding clerk.....................................
Country-collection clerk.................
Crew scheduler.................................
Demurrage clerk .............................
Exchange clerk.................................
Interest clerk ...................................
Manifest clerk .................................
Rate clerk.........................................
Sorter ...............................................
Statistical clerk ...............................
Accounting clerk .............................
Insurance clerk.................................
Kardex clerk.....................................
Posting clerk ...................................
Shipping clerk .................................
Expediter .........................................
Freight-receiving clerk ...................
Container coordinator.....................
Retail-receiving clerk .....................
Manifest clerk .................................
Receipt clerk ...................................
Shipping clerk .................................

102
105
105
115
105
105
105
99
105
97, 726
87
87
115
87
87
88
312
117
107
107
107
107
107
107
107
107
93
107
92
92, 114
87
93
93
114
115
100
87,97, 745
87
99
115
100
100
115
115
745
759
114
100
87,99, 115
100
90
99
97
97
97
97
97
759
97
97

830
D O T.
No.
222.588
222.687
223.138
223.368
223.387

223.388
223.588
223.687
231.688
232.138
232.368
233.138
233.388
234.582
234.885
235.862
236.588
237.368
239.588
241.168
241.368
242.368
249.268
249.368
249.388
250.258
250.358
251.258
252.358

\

26
27 \

28 ‘
266.158
280.358
289.358
290.
292.358
292.887
297.868
298.081
299.468
299.884
301.887
303.138
303.878
304.887

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK
Traffic clerk.....................................
Shipping checker.............................
Supervisor, stock.............................
Procurement clerk...........................
Checker ...........................................
Linen-room attendant....................
Magazine keeper.............................
Material clerk .................................
Parts clerk .......................................
Stock clerk.......................................
Storekeeper .....................................
Tape librarian .................................
Tool clerk.........................................
Inventory clerk.................................
Swatch clerk.....................................
Talley man .......................................
Checker I .........................................
Distribution clerk.............................
Foreman, mails ...............................
Post-office clerk...............................
Foreman, carriers ...........................
Mail carrier .....................................
Mail preparing and mail handling .
Mail preparing and mail handling .
Information operator .....................
Telephone operator.........................
Telegrapher and telephoner ..........
Receptionist.....................................
Meter reader ...................................
Router...............................................
Claim adjuster.................................
Claims clerk.....................................
Front office clerk.............................
Claim examiner...............................
Library assistant .............................
Medical record clerk.......................
Life underwriter...............................
Salesman, insurance .......................
Salesman, real estate.......................
Salesman, securities.........................
Leaseman.........................................
Salesmen and salespersons, com­
modities .......................................
Pharmaceutical detail m an............
Salesman, automobile....................
Salesperson, parts ...........................
Sales checkers .................................
Driver salesman...............................
Routeman.........................................
Salesman-driver helper..................
M odel...............................................
Display m an.....................................
Cashier-checker...............................
Optician, dispensing ......................
Day worker.......................................
Housekeeper, hom e.........................
Farm housekeeper ...........................
Farm housemaid .............................
Man-of-all-work .............................




Page
97
97,99
101
101
101
101
101
101
101,759
97
101
107
101
101
101
101
101
94
94
94
199
199
93
93
96
200
313
96
741
97
121,775
758
91
123,775
215
492
226
776
232
239
150
230, 235, 241
676
220
219
235
670
238,784
237
228
591
88
431
176
176
176
176
176

D O T.
No.
305.281
306.878
307.878
309.
309.138
309.878
309.999
311.
312.878
313.
314.
315.
316.
318.887
321.138
324.
330.371
331.878
332.271
332.381
338.381
339.371
350.138
350.878
352.878
355.687
355.878

355.887
356.381
361.885
362.381
362.782
363.782
363.884
363.885
363.886
365.381
369.687
369.887

Yardman .........................................
C ook.................................................
Maid, general...................................
Mother’s helper...............................
Nursemaid .......................................
Domestic service occupations,
n.e.c................................................
Butler ...............................................
Companion.......................................
Personal maid .................................
V alet.................................................
Domestic couple...............................
Waiters, waitresses, and related food
servicing occupations...................
Bar attendant...................................
Bartender.........................................
Chefs and cooks, large hotels and
restaurants...................................
Chefs and cooks, small hotels and
restaurants...................................
Miscellaneous cooks, except dom estic...........................................
Meatcutters, except in slaughtering
and packing houses .....................
Utility man.......................................
Housekeeper ...................................
Inspectress .......................................
Bellmen and related occupations ..
Barber...............................................
Barber apprentice ...........................
Manicurist .......................................
Cosmetologist .................................
Wig dresser.......................................
Embalmer.........................................
Electrologist.....................................
Scalp-treatment operator..............
Chief steward...................................
Messman .........................................
Stewardess.......................................
Clothes-room worker .....................
Attendant, physical therapy..........
Emergency-entrance attendant. . . .
Hospital guide .................................
Nurse aid .........................................
Orderly.............................................
Psychiatric a id .................................
Tray-line worker .............................
Morgue man.....................................
Horseshoer.......................................
Washman.........................................
Spotter .............................................
Drycleaner.......................................
Presser, machine .............................
Presser, hand ...................................
Presser, form ...................................
Flat work finisher ...........................
Shoe repairman ...............................
Assembler.........................................
Inspector...........................................
Counter clerk...................................

Page
176
176
176
176
176
176
176
176
176
176
176
166
161
161
163
163
163,302, 744
165
302
159
159
170
169
169
171
171
171
173
171
171
302,744
302, 744
290
505
512
505
505
505
505
505
505
505
55
784
785
785
313, 656, 785
656
656
785
451
785
785
784

DICTIONARY OF OCCUPATIONAL TITLES (D.O.T.) INDEX
DO T .
No.
Page
372.868
373.
375.1 18
375.138
375.168

375.228
375.268
375.388
375.588
375.868
377.868
381.137
381.887
382.
389.781
389.884
441.137
441.168
441.384
441.687
441.887
449.287
500.380
500.782
500.884
500.885

Marker.............................................
Guard ...............................................
Watchman .......................................
Firemen, fire department ..............
Police C h ief.....................................
Desk officer .....................................
Desk officer, ch ief...........................
Secretary of police...........................
Commanding officer, harborpolice.............................................
Commanding officer, homicide
squad .............................................
Commanding officer, investigation
division.........................................
Commanding officer, motorcycle
squad .............................................
Commanding officer, motor equipment .............................................
Detective ch ief.................................
Harbor master.................................
Matron, head...................................
Pilot, highway patrol.......................
Police captain, precinct..................
Police lieutenant, precinct..............
Police sergeant, precinct................
Special agent, F B I...........................
Traffic lieutenant.............................
Traffic sergeant...............................
Police-academy instructor ............
Detective...........................................
Fingerprint classifier.......................
Parking enforcement officer..........
Border patrolman ...........................
Matron.............................................
Bailiff...............................................
Sheriff, deputy.................................
Charwoman, head ...........................
Porter, head.....................................
Charwoman .....................................
Cleaner, laboratory equipment___
Porter I .............................................
Porter I I ...........................................
Janitors.............................................
Termite treater.................................
Exterminator...................................
Suppression-crew leader................
Fire lookout.....................................
Fire warden .....................................
Forestry aid ......................................
Fire patrolman.................................
Forest-fire fighter ...........................
Sprayer.............................................
Tree pruner.......................................
Tree planter .....................................
Cruiser .............................................
Plater ...............................................
Plater, apprentice.............................
Plater, barrel ...................................
Matrix-plater...................................
Plater, production ...........................




784
183
183
181
185,187
185
187
187
185
185
185
185
185
185
v 185
185
187
185
185
185
179
185
185
185,187
185, 187
185,187
185
185
185
185
185
155
155
155
155
155
155
155
156
156
334
334
334
334
334
334
334
334
334
701
58, 645
58
58
58
58, 707

D.O.T.
No.
500.886
501.782
501.885
502.884
502.887
503.885
503.887
504.782
512.132
512.782
512.885
514.687
514.782
514.884
514.887
518.381
518.782
518.884
518.885
518.887
519.132
519.884
519.887
520.884
520.885

521.885
524.884
525.885
526.781
526.782
526.885
526.886
530.782
532.782
532.885
533.782
534.782
539.782

831
Page
Laborer, electroplating..................
58
Anodizer...........................................
681
Plater, hot dip .................................
681
Blast furnace keeper .......................
694
Second helper...................................
694
Scaleman .........................................
650
Pickier .............................................
63
Sandblaster and shotblaster ..........
63, 685
Heat treater ..................................... 63,645, 651,685
Melter foreman ...............................
694
First helper.......................................
694
Furnace operator.............................
685
Oxygen furnace operator.................
694
Stove tender.....................................
693
Potman.............................................
649
Remelt operator...............................
650
Casting inspector.............................
685
Casting operator .............................
650
Pourer, m etal...................................
685, 694
Tapper .............................................
649
Tapper, helper .................................
649
Coremaker.......................................
29
Floor coremaker .............................
29,685
Hand molder ...................................
685
Machine molder...............................
28, 685
Coresetter.........................................
685
Pourer...............................................
685
Coremaker, machine.......................
29
Core-oven tender.............................
685
Core assembler.................................
685
Foreman, blast furnace...................
693
Pot liner ...........................................
649
Foundry worker, general.................
685, 694
Molder, helper.................................
685,694
Third helper.....................................
694
Bench hand.......................................
669
Batter mixer.....................................
669
Blender .............................................
669
Dividing-machine operator............
669
Dough-brake-machine operator ...
669
Icing mixer.......................................
670
Mixer ...............................................
669
Molding machine operator............
669
Pretzel-twisting-machine operator .
669
Sweet-goods-machine operator ...
669
Slicing-and-wrapping machine operator ...........................................
670
Hand icer ........................................
670
Machine icer.....................................
670
All-round baker...............................
670
Dividerman .....................................
669
Ovenman .........................................
669
All-round baker helper ..................
670
Beater engineer ...............................
717
Digester operator.............................
717
Backtender ........................................
717
Barker operator...............................
701,716
Power-barker operator ...................
701
Supercalendar operator...................
718
Paper machine operator .................
717

D O T.
No.
541.782
542.280
542.782
549.138
549.782
549.884
550.885
554.782
556.782
558.885
559.687
559.782
559.885
563.381
579.782
590.885
599.885
600.280
600.281
600.380
600.381
601.280
601.281
601.381
602.
603.
604.
605.
605.782
606.
609.381
609.885
610.381
610.782
611.782
611.885
612.281
612.381
613.780
613.782

613.885
614.782

Page
Coal washer.....................................
Crude oil treater...............................
Stillman ...........................................
Pumper.............................................
Pumpman.........................................
Preparation plant foreman............
Pumpman.........................................
Treater .............................................
Pumpman.........................................
Compounder ...................................
Pill and tablet coater......................
Compressor .....................................
Chemical operator...........................
Ampoule examiner .........................
Tablet tester.
.............................
Chemical operator...........................
Granulator machine operator........
Pharmaceutical operator................
Ampoule filler .................................
Kiln operator...................................
Sand mixer.......................................
Etcher, printed circuits ..................
Firer .................................................
Tumbler operator ...........................
Instrument maker ...........................
Machinist.........................................
Maintenance machinist..................
Metal patternmaker .......................
Machine builder...............................
Job setter .........................................
Lay-out man.....................................
Die sinker.........................................
Tool-and-die maker........................
Die maker, bench.............................
Tool maker, bench...........................
Plastic tool m aker...........................
Gear machining occupations..........
Abrading occupations....................
Turning occupations .......................
Milling and planing occupations ..
Scalper operator .............................
Boring occupations .........................
Inspector, floor ...............................
Production-machine operator........
Blacksmith.......................................
Drop-hammer operator..................
Forging- press operator..................
Upsetter...........................................
Press operator .................................
Inspector...........................................
Hammersmith .................................
Roll-tube setter ...............................
Heater...............................................
Manipulator operator....................
R oller...............................................
Rolling mill operator......................
Soaking pit operator.......................
Coder operator.................................
Piercer-machine operator..............
Extrusion press operator................




631
636
722
723
723
631
723
723
723
676
676
676
688
676
676
688
676
676
676
702
685
681
681
685
33
31,310,645
645
26,685
31,645
37
31
63
38, 63, 645
38
38
38
35
35
35
35
650
35
646,713
645
55,310
62
62
63
62
63
62
696
695
695
695
650
650
651
603
651

D.O.T.
No.
615.782
615.885
617.782
617.885
619.782
619.886
620.131
620.138
620.281

620.381
620.384
620.782
620.884
620.885
621.281
622.381
623.281
623.381
624.281
625.281
626.
627.
628.
629.
630.
630.381
630.884
631.
633.281

637.281

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK
Page
Wire drawer.....................................
Power shear operator .....................
Punch press operator.......................
Shearman.........................................
Power shear operator .....................
Power hammer operator.................
Trimmer...........................................
Punch-press operator.......................
Heater...............................................
Stretcher-leveler-operator..............
Stretcher-leveler-operator helper ..
Automobile mechanic, ch ief........
Automobile-test-shop .....................
Automobile mechanic.....................
Automobile-repair-service salesm an...............................................
Motorcycle repairman.....................
Truck mechanic...............................
Automobile-service mechanic........
Motorcycle-tester ...........................
Brake-drum-lathe-operator ..........
Truck mechanic helper ...................
Bonder, automobile brakes............
Aircraft mechanic ...........................
Flight engineer.................................
Carman.............................................
Motorboat mechanic.......................
Gear man .........................................
Farm-equipment mechanic............
Diesel mechanic...............................
Missile assembly mechanic............
Outboard motor tester.....................
Rocket assembly mechanic............
Metalworking machinery mechanics .........................................
Printing and publishing mechanics
and repairmen .............................
Textile machinery and equipment
mechanics and repairmen..........
Special industry machinery mechanics .........................................
General industry mechanics and
repairmen.....................................
Conveyor-maintenance m an..........
Anode man.......................................
Powerplant mechanics and repairmen.........................................
Assembly technician .......................
Cash register serviceman................
Dictating-transcribing-machine
serviceman ...................................
Machine analyst...............................
Mail-processing-equipment mechanic...........................................
Office-machine serviceman
Office-machine-serviceman, apprentice.........................................
Statistical-machine serviceman ...
Air-conditioning and refrigeration
mechanic.......................................

651,695
644
644
695
644
644
63
681
63
651
651
417
417
417
222
446
454, 759
417
446
417
759
417
287
292
310
420
101
435
428
645
420
645
437
437
437
437
437
631
649
437
423
423
423
423
423
423
423
423
411,413

DICTIONARY OF OCCUPATIONAL TITLES (D.O.T.) INDEX
DOT.
No.
Page
637.381
638.281
639.381
641.885
649.687
650.582
651.782
651.885
651.886
654.782
661.281
665.782
667.782
667.885
667.887
669.587
674.782
668.885
692.782
692.885
693.280
699.887
700.281
700.381

705.884
706.687
706.884
709.281
709.884
710.131
710.281
712.381
713.251
713.381
713.884

Gas burner mechanic......................
Air-conditioning and refrigeration mechanic...............................
Millwright .......................................
Pinsetter adjuster, automatic ........
Vending machine repairman..........
Envelope machine operator ..........
Paper sorter and counter................
Linotype (or intertype) machine
operator .......................................
Monotype keyboard operator........
Phototypesetting machine operator
Lithographic pressman ..................
Printing-press operator..................
Printer-slotter operator..................
Offset press operator I I ..................
Cylinder-press feeder.......................
Monotype caster operator..............
Wood patternmaker .......................
Timber-sizer operator.....................
Cut-off-saw operator.......................
Edger man .......................................
Head-saw operator .........................
Block setter .....................................
Deckman .........................................
Grader .............................................
Glass lathe operator.........................
Chipperman.....................................
Sealing machine operator..............
Sealing machine operator..............
Form builder ...................................
Wiper ...............................................
Brooch maker .................................
Jeweler .............................................
Chain maker.....................................
Fancy-wire drawer...........................
Goldbeater.......................................
Lay-out man.....................................
Locket maker...................................
Mold maker.....................................
Ring maker .....................................
Stone setter.......................................
Grinder.............................................
Metal Finisher...................................
Polisher.............................................
Type inspector .................................
Assembler.........................................
Locksmith .......................................
Locksmith apprentice....................
Tube bender.....................................
Instrument-repairman foreman ...
Instrument-repairmen I ................
Dental-laboratory technician........
Optician, dispensing .......................
Optician ...........................................
Optician apprentice.........................
Assembler, gold frame ..................
Assembler, molded frames............
Contact-lens-curve grinder............
Contact-lens-edge buffer................




833
DO T .
No.

411,413
411
67
422
457
718
718
41
41
42
45
48, 726
718
48,726
48,726
42
26
702
701
701
701
701
701
702
681
716
713
681
645
302, 744
440
440
440
440
440
440
440
440
440
440
63
707
707
707,713
713
442
442
645
438
438
471
431
431
431
431
431
431
431

715.281
720.281
720.884
721.281

721.381
722.281
723.381
724.781
724.884
725.884
726.384
726.781
726.884

726.887
729.281
729.381
729.884
730.281
730.381
741.887
780.381
780.884
781.381
781.484
781.687

Page
Contact-lens-polisher .....................
Countersink grinder.........................
Embosser and trimmer ..................
Eyeglass-lens cutter.........................
Frame carver, spindle .....................
Groover ...........................................
Heating-fixture tender....................
Lens assembler.................................
Lens blank marker...........................
Lens generator.................................
Mounter and repairer .....................
Plastic-frame insert m an................
Polisher.............................................
Spectacles truer...............................
Trim mounter...................................
Repairman.......................................
Radio repairman .............................
Television service and repairman . . . .
Aliner...............................................
Cabinet mounter .............................
Electric-motor analyst.....................
Electric-motor assembler and
tester .............................................
Electric-motor repairman..............
Propulsion-motor-and-generatorrepairman.....................................
Electric-motor fitter .......................
Inspector, systems...........................
Electrical appliance repairman . . . .
Coil winder.......................................
Coil winder, hand.............................
Exhaust lathe operator ...................
Grid lathe operator .........................
Inspector, subassemblies................
Electronics assembler .....................
Cable maker.....................................
Capacitor assembler .......................
Capacitor winder.............................
Condenser aliner .............................
Crystal finisher.................................
Crystal lapper...................................
Silk-screen printer...........................
Electrical-instrument repairman___
Meter tester .....................................
Meterman.........................................
Production repairman....................
Chassis assembler ...........................
Piano technician...............................
Pipe-organ technician .....................
Sprayer .............................................
Automobile upholsterer ................
Furniture upholsterer .....................
Automobile-seat-cover-and-convertible-top-installer ..................
Cushion builder ...............................
Stuffing machine operator ............
Pattern grader .................................
Patternmaker...................................
Marker.............................................
Assembler.........................................

431
431
431
431
431
431
431
431
431
431
431
431
431
431
431
459
452
452
680
680
417
417
417
417
310
681,713
413
681
681
681
681
713
680,713
680
680,713
680
680
680, 681
680
681
437
741
741
681
680
449
448
707
53
64
54
707
707
655
655
655
655

834
DO T .
No.
781.884
781.887
782.884
783.381
783.781
783.884
785.261
785.281
785.361
785.381
787.782
789.687
800.884
801.281
801.381
801.781
801.884
804.281
804.884
805.281
806.281
806 283
806.381
806.382
806.387
806.684
806.687
806.781
806.887
807.381
809.381
809.781
809.884
809.887
810.
810.782
810.884
811.
811.782
811.884
812.
812.884
813.
814.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK
Page
655
Bundler or fitter...............................
655,707
Cutter...............................................
655
Machine spreader ...........................
Hand spreader.................................
655
656
Trimmer, hand.................................
656
Hand sewer.......................................
784
Seamstress.......................................
657
Fur finisher.......................................
656
Fur cutter.........................................
657
Fur nailer .........................................
656
Tailor ...............................................
656
Bushelman .......................................
Dressmaker .....................................
656
Sample stitcher ...............................
655
656
Tailor ...............................................
657
Fur machine operator ....................
656,707
Sewing machine operator ..............
656
Inspector or checker ......................
645
Riveter .............................................
282,631
Fitter I .............................................
Armament assembler ....................
646
282
Fitter.................................................
Structural-steel-worker..................
282
Structural-steel-worker apprentice
282
282
Reinforcing ironworker..................
Sheet-metal worker......................... 277, 279,310,644
279
Assembler, unk ...............................
57,310
Boilermaker.....................................
Dynamometer tester, m otor..........
707
707
Test driver
Final inspector, truck trailer..........
707
Inspector, assemblies and in646
stallations.....................................
Hypoid-gear tester...........................
707
707
Inspector, returned materials........
Transmission tester.........................
707
707
Final inspector.................................
645
Final assembler ...............................
Assembler.........................................
706
Automobile body repairman..........
415
Fabrication inspector ....................
646
Layout man I ...................................
56
Ornamental-ironworker ................
282
Structural-ironworker....................
282
Lay-out man II ...............................
56,282
Assembler, production line............
282
Grinder-chipper...............................
685
Laborer, steel handling ..................
256
Ornamental-iron-worker helper . ...
256
Arc welders.......................................
81
Welder .............................................
645
Welder .............................................
645
Gas welders .....................................
81
Welder .............................................
645
Welder, gas.......................................
645
Combination arc welders and gas
welders .........................................
81
Welder, production line..................
645
Resistance welders...........................
81,645
Brazing, braze-wdding, and
soldering occupations ................
81




DO T .
No.
815.
816.
819.
819.781
821.281
821.381
821.887
822.281

822.381
822.884
823.281
824.281
825.281
825.381
827.281
828.281
829.281
829.381
840.381
840.781
840.884
841.781
842 381
842.781
842.887
843.884
844.884
844.887
845.781
850.782
850.833

Page
Lead-burning occupations..............
Flame cutters and arc cutters........
Welders, flame cutters, and related occupations, n.e.c................
Fit-up man .......................................
Troubleman .....................................
Cable man .......................................
Lineman...........................................
Meter installer I ...............................
Groundman .....................................
Central office repairman................
PBX repairman ...............................
Signal department worker..............
Telephone repairman.......................
Testboardman .................................
Lineman...........................................
PBX installer...................................
Tdephone installer .........................
Frameman .......................................
Signal department worker..............
Meteorological-equipment repairer ...........................................
Electrician .......................................
Neon-sign serviceman.....................
Electrician .......................................
Electrician, automotive...................
Elevator constructor .......................
Electrical-appliance serviceman . . . .
Data-processing equipment serviceman .........................................
Radioactivity-instrument- maintenance technician.......................
Electrical repairman .......................
Elevator repairman and apprentice
Pinsetter mechanic, automatic . . . .
Cable splicer.....................................
Electronic organ technician ..........
Painter, stage settings ....................
Painter .............................................
Painter, rough .................................
Paperhanger .....................................
Lather...............................................
Plasterer ...........................................
Plasterer helper...............................
Waterproofer...................................
Cement gun nozzleman...................
Cement mason and apprentice___
Concrete rubber...............................
Concrete-wall-grinder operator ...
Cement-gun-nozzleman helper . . . .
Cement mason helper ....................
Concrete-vibrator-operator helper .
Grouter helper.................................
Painter, aircraft...............................
Painter, automobile.........................
Horizontal-earth-boring-machine
operator .......................................
Shield runner ...................................
Bulldozer operator...........................
Dredge leverman .............................

81
81
81
57
739
258
739
741
740
405
410
311
409
405
407
409
409
405
311
437
258
433
302,444, 744
417
260
413
426
438
258,444
260
422
258, 408, 740
449
271
271
271
271
273
273
273
256
277
254
254
254
254
256
256
256
256
645
51
269
269
269
269

DICTIONARY O f OCCUPATIONAL TITLES (D.O.T.) INDEX
DOT.
Page
No.
269
Dredge operator...............................
269
Loek tender .....................................
269
Mucking machine operator............
269
Power-shovel operator ..................
269
Rock-drill operator.........................
269
Scraper operator .............................
269
Tower-excavator operator ............
269
Trench-digging machine operator ...
269
Bell m an...........................................
850.884
269
Dredge-dipper tender.......................
269
Sewer-bottom man .........................
269
Stripping-shovel oiler .....................
256
Laborer, pile driving, ground work ..
850.887
256
Laborer, road...................................
256
Laborer, shore dredging ................
256
Miner helper II ...............................
256
Mucker, cofferdam .........................
256
Sheeting puller.................................
256
Sheet-pile-hammer-operator helper
269
Blade-grader operator....................
851.883
269
Elevating-grader operator..............
269
Motor-grader operator..................
269
Subgrader operator.........................
269
Utility-tractor operator..................
256
Ditch digger.....................................
851.887
256
Dump grader ...................................
256
Form-stripper helper.......................
256
Form tamper I .................................
256
Grader I ...........................................
256
Grade tamper...................................
256
Pipe-layer helper .............................
269
Concrete-paver operator.................
852.883
269
Concrete-paving-machine operator
269
Form-grader operator.....................
254
Cement mason, highways and streets
852.884
254
Form setter, metal/road forms . . . .
256
Joint filler.........................................
852.887
256
Laborer, concrete paving ..............
256
Mud-jack nozzleman.......................
269
Asphalt-planer operator ................
853.782
269
Asphalt-plant operator ..................
269
Asphalt-paving-machine operator ...
853.883
269
Stone-spreader operator................
256
Cold-patch m an...............................
853.887
256
Laborer, bituminous paving..........
256
Squeegee man .................................
269
Driller, water well ...........................
859.782
269
Earth-boring-machine operator ...
269
Foundation drill operator..............
269
Pile-driver operator.........................
269
Well-driller operator, cable tool ...
269
Well-drill operator, rotary drill ...
269
Well-reactivator operator..............
Ballast-cleaning-machine operator
313
859.883
269,631
Dragline operator ...........................
269
Operating engineer .........................
269
Operating engineer apprentice----269
Road-mixer operator.......................
269
Road-roller operator.......................
269
Sweeper operator.............................



835
DO T .
No.
859.887

860.281
860.381
860.781
860.887

861.381
861.781
861.884
861.887
862.281
862.381

862.887

863.381
863.781
863.884

864.781
865.781
865.887

Page
Tamping-machine operator ..........
Air-hammer operator .....................
Curb-setter helper ...........................
Laborer, stone-block ramming----Mucker.............................................
Paving rammer ...............................
Puddler, pile driving ......................
Well-digger helper...........................
Carpenter inspector.........................
Carpenter, maintenance ................
Ship’s carpenter...............................
Carpenter and carpenter apprentice
Form builder ...................................
Shipwright .......................................
Tank builder and erector.................
Billboard erector-and-repairman----Carpenter, rough.............................
Carpenter helper, maintenance . . . .
Laborer, carpentry...........................
Laborer, carpentry, dock ..............
Laborer, shaft sinking.....................
Shipwright helper.............................
Bricklayer and apprentice..............
Bricklayer, firebrick .......................
Marble setter...................................
Stonemason and apprentice ..........
Terrazzo worker and apprentice ...
Tilesetter and tilesetter apprentice
Tuck pointer.....................................
Brick cleaner ...................................
Bricklayer helper.............................
Bricklayer helper, refractory brick ..
Stonemason helper .........................
Oil burner mechanic .......................
Furnace installer .............................
Gas-main fitter.................................
Pipe fitter I .......................................
Pipe-fitter apprentice.....................
Pipe-fitter apprentice, sprinkler
system...........................................
Pipe-fitter, welding .........................
Plumber ...........................................
Plumber apprentice.........................
Back-up man ...................................
Clampman.......................................
Connection man...............................
Crankman .......................................
Laborer, pipe line.............................
Laborer, plumbing...........................
Pipe coverer and insulator..............
Cork insulator, interior surface ...
Composition-weatherboard apptier...............................................
Insulation hoseman.........................
Insulation installer...........................
Insulation worker ...........................
Insulation worker apprentice........
Floor layer.......................................
Glazier .............................................
Glazier helper...................................

269,313
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
252
25.2
302
252
252
252
252
252
252
256
256
256
256
256
250
250
266
280
266
250
250
256
256
256
256
411
275,411
275
275
275
275
275
275
275
256
256
256
256
256
256
248
248
248
248
248
248
248
261
264
256

836
D.O.T.
No.
866.381
866.887
869.281
869.883
869.884
869.887

891.138
900.883
902.883
903.883
904.883
905.883
905.887
906.883
909.883
909.887
910.138
910.364
910.368
910.383
910.388
910.782
910.884
911.131
911.368
911.388
911.883
911.884
911.887
912.168
912.368
913.363
913.368
913.463
914.132
914.381
914.782

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK
Page
Roofer...............................................
Roofer helper...................................
Furnace installer .............................
Rigger and machine mover............
Brattice man.....................................
Rig builder.......................................
Roustabout.......................................
Concrete-pump-operator helper ...
Construction worker I I ..................
Form-setter helper...........................
Form stripper...................................
Hod carrier.......................................
Laborer, cement-gun placing ........
Laborer, wrecking and salvaging ..
Loftsman, pile-driving....................
Mixer, hand, cement gun................
Reinforcing-iron-worker helper ...
Rig-builder helper ...........................
Track worker ...................................
Trashman.........................................
Maintenance foreman.....................
Concrete-mixing-truck driver........
Dump-truck driver...........................
Tank-truck driver ...........................
Tractor-trailer-truck driver............
Truck driver, heavy.........................
Truck-driver helper........................
Truck driver.....................................
Garbage collector I .........................
Hoatler .............................................
Van driver.........................................
Material handler .............................
Station agent ...................................
Brakeman.........................................
Railway express clerk .....................
Reservation clerk.............................
Fireman, locomotive......................
Locomotive engineer.......................
Yard clerk .......................................
Towerman .......................................
Track repairman .............................
Brakeman.........................................
Boatswain.........................................
Clerk and dispatcher, pilot station .
Receipt-and-report clerk................
Longshoreman.................................
Able seaman.....................................
Deck utilityman...............................
Marine oiler.....................................
Ordinary seaman
Airline dispatcher ...........................
Airplane-dispatch clerk..................
Transportation agent.......................
Bus driver.........................................
Taxi driver .......................................
Assignment clerk.............................
Bus driver.........................................
Compressor-station engineer ........
Gager ...............................................
Pumper.............................................




277
256
411
282
631
635
636
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
635
313
256
155
319
319
319,321
321,758
321
759
319, 758
321
321
319
759
312
305
97
97
309
308
101
313
313
305
27, 302, 743
745
745
744
301
301
302, 744
301,743
289
297
297
315,317
325
100
315,317
636
636
636

DO T .
No.
915.867
915.878
915.887
919.168
919.368
919.883
919.887
920.887
921.280
921.281
921.883

921.885
921.886
922.782
922.883

922.887
929.883
929.887
930.130
930.281
930.782

930.883

930.884
930.886
931.381
931.781
931.782
932.883
934.885
939.138
939.387
939.887
940.884
941.488
942.782

Page
Automobile-service-station attendant .........................................
Parking-lot attendant .....................
Lubrication man .............................
Dispatcher .......................................
Ticket agent.....................................
Motorman .......................................
Cleaner .............................................
Track worker ...................................
Bagger...............................................
Blueprint trimmer...........................
Marker I I .........................................
Packager, hand ...............................
Rigger I I ...........................................
Crane operator.................................
Hoisting engineer.............................
Hot-metal crane operator..............
Ingot stripper...................................
Ladle craneman...............................
Skip operator...................................
Soaking pit craneman.....................
Bull-chain operator.........................
Pondman .........................................
Stacker-hoist-and-sorter pocket man
Electric-freight-car operator..........
Electric-truck-crane operator........
Industrial-truck operator ..............
Power truck operator .....................
Straddle-truck operator ................
Sorter...............................................
Tractor operator .............................
Material handler .............................
Tool pusher .....................................
Cementer .........................................
Acidizer ...........................................
Augerman.........................................
Derrickman .....................................
Drilling-machine operator ............
Rotary driller...................................
Shot-hole driller...............................
Continuous-mining-machine operator ...........................................
Cutter operator ...............................
Roof bolter.......................................
Well puller .......................................
Rotary-driller helper.......................
Shot-hole driller...............................
Shooter.............................................
Sample-taker operator ...................
Perforator operator.........................
Loading machine operator............
Shuttle car operator.........................
Shaker tender...................................
Section foreman...............................
Fireboss...........................................
Rock-dust man.................................
Bucker .............................................
Faller ...............................................
Log scaler.........................................
Donkey engineer .............................

224
324
759
759
297
693
313, 759
313
785
90,97
97
97
759
759
701
650
694
694
693
695
701
701
73
73
73
73
759
73
702
631
656
636
637
637
631
635
631
635
635
631
631
631
637
635
635
635
637
637
631
631
632
631
631
631
701
701
701
701

DICTIONARY OF OCCUPATIONAL TITLES (D.O.T.) INDEX
DOT.
No.
Page
942.884
Rigging slinger.................................
701
Chokerman .....................................
942.887
701
949.884
Second loader...................................
701
737
950.131
Watch engineer...............................
Load dispatcher...............................
739
950.168
950.782
Boiler operator.................................
736
Engineman.......................................
635
Gas-compressor operator..............
636
Gasoline-plant operator ................
636
302
Refrigeration engineer....................
Stationary engineer.........................
75
77
Fireman, high pressure ..................
951.885
Fireman, low pressure....................
77
Fireman/watertender ....................
302, 744
Turbine operator.............................
736
952.138
Auxiliary equipment operator . . . .
737
952.782
Substation operator.........................
739
737
Switchboard operator.....................
953.168
Gas dispatcher.................................
100
79
Sewage-plant operator ..................
955.782
387
Audio operator.................................
957.282
Control-room-technician ..............
387
387
Master-contrbl engineer ................
Transmitter operator.......................
387
Video operator.................................
387
69
Motion-picture projectionist..........
960.382
Model, artists’ .................................
228
961.868
228
Model, photographers’ ..................
Occupations in radio and tele963.
vision production, n.e.c................
387
101
969.387
Custodian, athletic equipment. . . .
589
Airbrush artist.................................
970.281
Delineator.........................................
589
589
Form designer .................................
589
Painter, p late...................................
71
Photograph retoucher...