View PDF

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

COUNSELING OCCUPATIONS
Counselors help people to un­
derstand themselves and their op­
portunities so that they can make
and carry out decisions and plans
for a satisfying and productive life.
Whatever the area of counseling—
personal, educational, or voca­
tional—counselors must combine
objectivity with genuine concern
for each client. They must believe
in the uniqueness and worth of each
individual, in his right to make and
accept responsibility for his own
decisions, and in his potential for
development.
This chapter covers four counsel­
ing specialties: school; rehabilita­
tion; employment; and college
career planning and placement.
School counselors are the largest
counseling group. Their main con­
cern is the personal and social
development of students and help­
ing them plan and achieve their
educational and vocational goals.
Rehabilitation counselors work
with persons who are physically,
mentally, or socially handicapped.
Their counseling is generally joboriented, but also involves personal
problems.
Employment
counselors
are
mainly concerned with career
planning and adjustment of young,
old, disabled, and other persons.
College career planning and place­
ment counselors help college stu­
dents examine their own interests,
abilities, and goals; explore career
alternatives; and make and follow
through with a career choice.
Persons who want to enter the
counseling field must be interested
in helping people and have an abili­
ty to understand their behavior. A
pleasant but strong personality that



instills confidence in clients is
desirable. Counselors also must be
patient, sensitive to the needs of
others, and able to communicate
orally as well as in writing.
Many psychologists, social work­
ers, and college student personnel
workers also do counseling. These
and other fields which entail some
counseling such as teaching, health,
law, religion, and personnel, are
described elsewhere in the Hand­
book.

SCH OOL COUNSELOR S
(D.O.T. 045.108)

Nature of the Work
School counselors are concerned
about the educational, career, and
social development of students.
They work with students, both in­
dividually and in groups, as well as
with teachers, other school person­
nel, parents, and community agen­
cies.
Counselors use the results of in­
terest, achievement, and intel­
ligence tests as well as school and
other records to help students eval­
uate themselves. Then, with each
student and sometimes with the
parents, they help develop an edu­
cational plan that fits the student’s
abilities, interests, and career
aspirations.
School counselors often maintain
a small library containing occupa­
tional literature so that students
may find descriptions of work that
they have heard about or in which
they have an interest. Information
on training requirements, earnings,

and employment outlook often is
included with these job descrip­
tions. Computers that students can
use to look up this information
themselves are being tried in some
instances.
Counselors sometimes arrange
trips to factories and business firms,
and show vocational films to pro­
vide a view of real work settings. To
bring the workplace into the school,
the counselor may conduct “career
day” programs.
School counselors must keep upto-date on opportunities for educa- «
tional and vocational training
beyond high school to counsel stu­
dents who want this information.
They must keep informed about
training programs in 2-and 4-year
colleges; in trade, technical, and
business schools; apprenticeship
programs; and available federally
supported programs. Counselors
also advise students about educa­
tional requirements for entry level
jobs, job changes caused by
technological advances, college en­
trance requirements, and places of
employment.
Counselors in high schools often
help students find part-time jobs,
either to enable them to stay in
school or to help them prepare for
their vocation. They may help both
graduates and dropouts to find jobs
or may direct them to community
employment services. They also
may conduct surveys to learn more
about hiring experiences of recent
graduates and dropouts, local job
opportunities, or the effectiveness
of the educational and guidance
programs. Many help students in­
dividually with personal and social
problems or lead group counseling
sessions and discussion groups on
topics related to student interests
and problems.
Elementary school counselors
help children to make the best use
of their abilities by identifying these
and other basic aspects of the
child’s makeup at an early age, and
by
evaluating
any
learning
problems. Methods used in counsel-

ing grade school children differ in
many ways from those used with
older students. Observations of
classroom and play activity furnish
clues about children in the lower
grades. To better understand chil­
dren, elementary school counselors
spend much time consulting with
teachers and parents. They also
work closely with other staff mem­
bers of the school, including
psychologists and social workers.
Some school counselors, particu­
larly in secondary schools, teach
classes in occupational information,
social studies, or other subjects.
They also may supervise school
clubs or other extracurricular ac­
tivities, often after regular school
hours.

Places of Employment
About 44,000 people worked full



time as public school counselors
during 1974. Most counselors work
in large schools. An increasing
number of school districts, how­
ever, provide guidance services to
their small schools by assigning
more than one school to a coun­
selor.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Most States require school coun­
selors to have counseling and
teaching certificates. However, a
growing number of States no longer
require teacher certification. (See
statements on Elementary and
Secondary School Teachers for cer­
tificate requirements.) Depending
on the State, graduate work and
from 1 to 5 years of teaching ex­
perience usually are required for a
counseling certificate. People who

plan to become counselors should
learn the requirements of the State
in which they plan to work since
requirements vary among States
and change rapidly.
College students interested in
becoming school counselors usually
take the regular program of teacher
education, with additional courses
in psychology and sociology. In
States where teaching experience is
not a requirement, it is possible to
major in a liberal arts program. A
few States substitute counseling in­
ternship for teaching experience. In
some States teachers who have
completed part of the courses
required for the master’s degree are
eligible for provisional certification
and may work as counselors under
supervision while they take addi­
tional courses.
Counselor education programs at
the graduate level are available in
more than 440 colleges and univer­
sities, most frequently in the depart­
ments of education or psychology.
One to two years of graduate study
are necessary for a master’s degree.
Most programs provide supervised
field experience.
Subject areas of required gradu­
ate level courses usually include ap­
praisal of the individual student, in­
dividual counseling procedures,
group guidance, information serv­
ice for career development, pro­
fessional relations and ethics, and
statistics and research.
The ability to help others accept
responsibility for their own lives is
important for school counselors
because their work concerns the
development of young people. They
must be able to coordinate the ac­
tivity of others and work as part of
the team which forms the educa­
tional system.
School counselors may advance
by moving to a larger school;
becoming director or supervisor of
counseling or guidance; or, with
further graduate education, becom­
ing a college counselor, educational
psychologist, or school psycholo­
gist.

Employment Outlook
Employment of school coun­
selors is likely to grow more slowly
than the average for all occupations
through the mid-1980’s as the
decline in school enrollments con­
tinues during the remainder of this
decade. However, some positions
will continue to be available in ele­
mentary schools. An expected up­
swing in enrollments beginning in
the early 1980’s should stimulate
some expansion in employment,
and additional counselors will be
required each year to replace those
who leave the profession.
In 1974, the average ratio of
counselors to students as a whole
was still well below generally ac­
cepted standards, despite Federal
aid to the States for support and ex­
pansion of counseling programs.
Some school systems were forced to
eliminate some counselor positions
due to local financial problems.
Over the long run, demand for
school counselors will depend in
large part on the Federal Govern­
ment’s Career Education Program.
This program is designed to inform
children about the world of work
early in their education, so that by
the time they leave the formal edu­
cational system they are prepared
for a suitable and available career.
The extent of future growth in
counselor employment will depend
largely on the amount of funds
which the Federal Government pro­
vides to the States.

teachers at the same school. (See
statements on Kindergarten and
Elementary School Teachers and
Secondary School Teachers.)
In most school systems, coun­
selors receive regular salary incre­
ments as they obtain additional
education and experience. Some
counselors supplement their in­
come by part-time consulting or
other work with private or public
counseling centers, government
agencies, or private industry.

Sources of Additional
Information
State departments of education
can supply information on colleges
and universities that offer training
in guidance and counseling as well
as on the State certification require­
ments.
Additional information on this
field of work is available from:
American School Counselor Association,
1607 New Hampshire Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20009.

EM PLOYM ENT
COUNSELORS
(D.O.T. 045.108)

Nature of the Work

Employment
counselors
(sometimes called vocational coun­
selors) help jobseekers evaluate
their abilities and interests so that
they can choose, prepare for, and
Earnings and Working
adjust to a satisfactory field of
Conditions
work. The extent of counseling
School counselors holding bach­ services given by employment
elor’s degrees earned average counselors varies, depending on the
annual salaries ranging from $9,000 job-seeker and the type of agency.
to $13,000 during 1974, according Job-seekers may include veterans,
to the limited data available. For youth with little or no work ex­
those having master’s degrees, perience, the handicapped, older
average yearly salaries were from workers, and individuals displaced
$10,400 to $15,500. School coun­ by automation and industry shifts or
selors with doctorates had an unhappy with their present occupa­
average maximum salary of almost tional fields. Sometimes jobseekers
$18,200 per year. School coun­ are skilled in specific occupations
selors generally earn more than and ready for immediate job place­



ment, while those who have little
education and lack marketable
skills need intensive training to
prepare for jobs. In State employ­
ment services, the counselor is also
concerned with helping those who
are least employable, such as wel­
fare recipients, prison releasees,
and the educationally and culturally
deprived.
Counselors interview jobseekers
to learn employment-related facts
about their interests, training, work
experience, work attitudes, physical
capacities, and personal traits. If
necessary, they may get additional
data by arranging for aptitude and
achievement tests and interest in­
ventories, so that more objective
help may be given. They may get
additional
information
from
sources such as former employers
and schools.
When
a
jobseeker’s
background—the person’s limita­
tions and abilities—has been
thoroughly reviewed, the employ­
ment counselor discusses occupa­
tional requirements and job oppor­
tunities in different fields within the
potential of the jobseeker. Then,
the counselor and the client
develop a vocational plan. This plan
may specify a series of steps involv­
ing remedial education, job train­
ing, work experience, or other serv­
ices needed to enhance the per­
son’s employability. Often, in
developing this plan, the employ­
ment counselor works with a team
of specialists.
In many cases, employment
counselors refer jobseekers to other
agencies for physical rehabilitation
or psychological or other services
before or during counseling. Coun­
selors must be familiar with the
available community services so
that they can select those most like­
ly to benefit a particular jobseeker.
Counselors may help jobseekers
by suggesting employment sources
and appropriate ways of applying
for work. In many cases when
further support and assistance are
needed, counselors may contact

employers to develop jobs for coun­
seled applicants, although job­
seekers usually are sent to place­
ment interviewers after counseling.
After job placement or entrance
into training, counselors may follow
up to determine if additional
assistance is needed.
The expanding responsibility of
public employment service coun­
selors for improving the employa­
bility of disadvantaged persons has
increased their contacts with these
persons during training and on the
job. Also, it has led to group coun­
seling and the stationing of coun­
selors in neighborhood and commu­
nity centers.

Places of Employment
In 1974, about 3,500 persons,
half of them women, worked as em­
ployment counselors in State em­
ployment service offices, located in
every large city and many smaller
towns. In addition, about 3,500 em­
ployment counselors worked for
various private or community agen­
cies, primarily in the larger cities.
Somd worked in institutions such as



prisons, training schools for
delinquent youths, and mental
hospitals.
Also, the
Federal
Government employed a limited
number of employment counselors,
chiefly in the Veterans Administra­
tion and in the Bureau of Indian Af­
fairs. Some counselors teach in
graduate training programs or con­
duct research.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
The national qualification stand­
ard for first level employment
counselors in State employment
service offices calls for 30 graduate
semester hours of counseling
courses beyond a bachelor’s degree.
However, 1 year of counseling-re­
lated experience may be substituted
for 15 graduate semester hours.
All States require counselors in
their public employment offices to
meet State civil service or merit
system requirements that include
minimum educational and ex­
perience standards.
Applicants
with
advanced
degrees and additional qualifying

experience may enter at higher
levels on the counselor career
ladder. Many States also make
provision for individuals with exten­
sive experience in the employment
service, whether or not they have
college degrees, to enter the coun­
selor career ladder and move up­
ward by acquiring the prescribed
university coursework and qualify­
ing experience for each level.
Although minimum entrance
requirements are not standardized
among private and community
agencies, most prefer, and some
require, a master’s degree in voca­
tional counseling or in a related
field such as psychology, personnel
administration,
counseling,
guidance education, or public ad­
ministration. Many private agencies
prefer to have at least one staff
member who has a doctorate in
counseling psychology or a related
field. For those lacking an ad­
vanced degree, employers usually
emphasize experience in closely re­
lated work such as rehabilitation
counseling, employment interview­
ing, school or college counseling,
teaching, social work, or psycholo­
gyIn each State, the public employ­
ment service offices provide some
in-service training programs for
their new counselors or trainees. In
addition, both their new and ex­
perienced counselors are often
given part-time training at colleges
and universities during the regular
academic year or at institutes or
summer sessions. Private and com­
munity agencies also often provide
in-service training opportunities.
College students who wish to
become employment counselors
should enroll in courses in
psychology and basic sociology. At
the graduate level, requirements for
this field usually include courses in
techniques
of
counseling,
psychological
principles
and
psychology of careers, assessment
and appraisal, cultures and environ­
ment, and occupational informa­
tion. Counselor education pro­

grams at the graduate level are
available in about 370 colleges and
universities, mainly in departments
of education or psychology. To ob­
tain a master’s degree, students
must complete 1 to 2 years of grad­
uate study.
Young people aspiring to be em­
ployment counselors should have a
strong interest in helping others
make vocational plans and carry
them out. They should be able to
work independently and to keep
detailed records.
Well-qualified counselors with
experience may advance to super­
visory or administrative positions in
their own or other organizations.
Some may become directors of
agencies or of other counseling
services, or area supervisors of
guidance programs; some may
become consultants; and others
may become professors in the coun­
seling field.

Employment Outlook
Employment counselors with
master’s degrees or experience in
related fields are expected to face
some competition in both public
and community employment agen­
cies through the mid-1980’s. Some
growth in the number of employ­
ment counselors is expected as their
role becomes more important in
programs dealing with the training
and retraining of unemployed work­
ers, particularly those who are un­
skilled or whose jobs have been dis­
placed by technological or industri­
al shifts. Expansion of these pro­
grams and consequently the extent
of growth in employment of coun­
selors will depend in large part on
the level of funding by the Federal
Government, as well as on the dis­
tribution of revenue sharing money
allocated to these programs by the
individual States. Some openings
for employment counselors will
result from the need to replace
those who die, retire, or transfer to
other occupations.



Earnings and Working
Conditions
Salaries of employment coun­
selors in State employment services
vary considerably by State. In 1974,
minimum salaries ranged from
about $7,200 to $14,700 a year,
with an average of $9,100. Max­
imum salaries ranged from $9,700
to $19,100, with an average of
$ 11,900. More than three-quarters
of the States listed maximum sala­
ries of $11,900 or more. Trainees
for counseling positions in some
voluntary agencies in large cities
were being hired at about $8,500 a
year. Salaries of some employment
counselors in private and communi­
ty agencies were as high as $20,000
although the average was about
$12,000 annually. In general, sala­
ries of employment counselors are
about 1 1/2 times as high as average
earnings for all nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
farming.
Most counselors work about 40
hours a week and have various
benefits, including vacations, sick
leave, pension plans, and insurance
coverage. Counselors employed in
community agencies may work
overtime.

ments for positions in public em­
ployment service offices.

REHABILITATION
COUNSELORS
(D.O.T. 045.108)

Nature of the Work

Rehabilitation counselors help
people with physical, mental, or so­
cial disabilities to adjust their voca­
tional plans and personal lives.
Counselors learn about clients’ in­
terests, abilities, and limitations.
They then use this information,
along with available medical and
psychological data, to help disabled
persons evaluate themselves for the
purpose of pairing their physical
and mental capacity and interests
with suitable work.
Together, the counselor and
client develop a plan of rehabilita­
tion, with the aid of other specialists
responsible for the medical care
and occupational training of the
handicapped person. As the plan is
put into effect, the counselor meets
regularly with the disabled person
to discuss his progress in the reha­
bilitation program and help resolve
any problems that have been en­
Sources of Additional
countered. When the client is ready
Information
to begin work, the counselor helps
For general information on em­ him find a suitable job, and usually
makes followup checks to insure
ployment or vocational counseling,
that the placement has been suc­
contact:
cessful.
National Employment Counselors Associa­
Rehabilitation counselors must
tion, 1607 New Hampshire Ave. NW.,
maintain close contact with the
Washington, D.C. 20009.
families of their handicapped
National Vocational Guidance Association,
clients, other professionals who
Inc., 1607 New Hampshire Ave. NW.,
work with handicapped people,
Washington D.C. 20009.
agencies and civic groups, and
U.S. Department of Labor, Manpower Ad­
ministration, USES, Division of Coun­ private employers who hire the dis­
seling and Testing, Washington, D.C.
abled. Counselors in this field often
20210 .
perform related activities, such as
The administrative office for informing employers of the abilities
each State’s employment security of the handicapped and arranging
agency, bureau, division, or com­ for publicizing the rehabilitation
mission can supply specific infor­ program in the community.
mation about local job opportuni­
An increasing number of coun­
ties, salaries, and entrance require­ selors specialize in a particular area

of rehabilitation; some may work
almost exclusively with blind peo­
ple, alcoholics or drug addicts, the
mentally ill, or retarded persons.
Others may work almost entirely
with persons living in poverty areas.
The amount of time spent in
counseling each client varies with
the severity of the disabled person’s
problems as well as with the size of
the counselor’s caseload. Some
rehabilitation
counselors
are
responsible for many persons in
various stages of rehabilitation; on
the other hand, less experienced
counselors or those working with
the severely disabled may work
with relatively few cases at a time.

Places of Employment
About 19,000 persons, one-third
of them women, worked as reha­
bilitation counselors in 1974.
About 70 percent worked in State
and local rehabilitation agencies
financed
cooperatively
with
Federal and State funds. Some
rehabilitation counselors and coun­
seling psychologists worked for the
Veterans Administration. Reha­
bilitation
centers,
sheltered
workshops, hospitals, labor unions,
insurance companies,
special
schools, and other public and
private agenices with rehabilitation
programs and job placement serv­
ices for the disabled employ the
rest.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A bachelor’s degree with courses
in counseling, psychology, and re­
lated fields is the minimum educa­
tional requirement for rehabilita­
tion counselors. However, em­
ployers are . placing increasing
emphasis on the master’s degree in
vocational counseling or rehabilita­
tion counseling, or in related sub­
jects such as psychology, education,
and social work. Work experience
in fields such as vocational counsel­
ing and placement, psychology,
education, and social work is an



bilitation counselors be hired in ac­
cordance with State civil service
and merit system rules. In most
cases, these regulations require ap­
plicants to pass a competitive writ­
ten test, sometimes supplemented
by an individual interview and
evaluation by a board of examiners.
Since rehabilitation counselors
deal with the welfare of individuals,
the ability to accept responsibility is
important. It also is essential that
they be able to work independently
and be able to motivate and guide
the activity of others.
Counselors who have limited ex­
perience usually are assigned the
Rehabilitation counselor assisting blind
less difficult cases. As they gain ex­
person in use of cassette tape re­
perience, their caseloads are in­
corder.
creased and they are assigned
clients with more complex reha­
asset for securing employment as a bilitation problems. After obtaining
rehabilitation counselor.
Most considerable experience and more
agencies have work-study programs graduate education, rehabilitation
whereby employed counselors can counselors may advance to super­
visory positions or top administra­
earn graduate degrees in the field.
tive jobs.
Usually, 2 years of study are
required for the master’s degree in
the fields preferred for rehabilita­
Employment Outlook
tion counseling. Included is a
semester of actual work experience
Employment ppportunities for
as a rehabilitation counselor under rehabilitation counselors are ex­
the close supervision of an instruc­ pected to be favorable through the
tor. Besides a basic foundation in mid-1980’s. Persons who have
psychology, courses generally in­ graduate work in rehabilitation
cluded in master’s degree programs counseling or in related fields are
are
counseling
theory
and expected to have the best employ­
techniques, occupational and edu­ ment prospects.
cational information, and commu­
Contributing to the long-run de­
nity resources. Other requirements mand for rehabilitation counselors
may include courses in placement will be population growth and the
and followup, tests and measure­ extension of service to a greater
ments, cultural and psychological number of the severely disabled,
effects of disability, and medical together with increased public
and legislative aspects of therapy awareness that the vocational reha­
and rehabilitation. About 85 bilitation approach helps the disa­
schools offered graduate training in bled to become self-supporting.
rehabilitation counseling in 1974.
The extent of growth in employ­
To earn the doctorate in reha­ ment of counselors, however, will
bilitation counseling or in counsel­ depend largely on levels of govern­
ing psychology may require a total ment funding for vocational reha­
of 4 to 6 years of graduate study. In­ bilitation. In addition to growth
tensive training in psychology and needs, many counselors will be
other social sciences, as well as in required annually to replace those
research methods, is required.
who die, retire, or leave the field for
Many States require that reha­ other reasons.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Salaries of beginning rehabilita­
tion counselors in State agencies
averaged $9,300 a year in 1974. Ex­
perienced
counselors
earned
average salaries of $12,200 a year;
the range was $9,800 to $16,400
among the States.
The Veterans Administration
paid counseling psychologists with
a 2-year master’s degree and 1 year
of subsequent experience—and
those with a Ph. D.—starting sala­
ries of $15,481 in late 1974. Those
with a Ph. D. and a year of ex­
perience, and those with a 2-year
master’s degree and much ex­
perience, started at $18,463. Some
rehabilitation counselors with a
bachelor’s degree were hired at
starting salaries of $10,520 and
$12,841. In general, salaries of
rehabilitation counselors are above
the average earnings for all nonsupervisory workers in private indus­
try, except farming.
Counselors may spend only part
of their time in their offices coun­
seling and performing necessary
paperwork. The remainder of their
time is spent in the field, working
with prospective employers, train­
ing agencies, and the disabled per­
son’s family. The ability to drive a
car often is necessary for fieldwork.
Rehabilitation
counselors
generally work a 40-hour week or
less, with some overtime work
required to attend community and
civic meetings in the evening. They
usually are covered by sick and an­
nual leave benefits, and pension
and health plans.

Sources of Additional
Information
For information about rehabilita­
tion counseling as a career, contact:
American Psychological Association, Inc.,
1200 17th St. NW„ Washington, D.C.
20036.
American Rehabilitation Counseling As­
sociation, 1607 New Hampshire Ave.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20009.



National Rehabilitation Counseling Associa­
tion, 1522 K St. NW., Washington, D.C.
20005.

C O LLEG E CAREER
PLANNIN G AND
PLACEM ENT
COUNSELORS

courses. Most career counselors
also assemble and maintain a libra­
ry of career guidance information
and recruitment literature.
Placement counselors may spe­
cialize in areas such as law, educa­
tion, or part-time and summer
work. However, the extent of spe­
cialization usually depends upon
the size and type of college as well
as the size of the placement staff.

( DOT . 166.268)

Places of Employment
Nature of the Work
Choosing a career and deciding
whether or not to go to graduate
school are among the difficult deci­
sions faced by many college stu­
dents. Career planning and place­
ment counselors are employed by
colleges to offer encouragement
and assistance in these decisions.
Career planning and placement
counselors, sometimes called col­
lege placement officers, provide a
variety of services to college stu­
dents and alumni. They assist stu­
dents in making career selections
by encouraging them to examine
their interests, abilities, and goals,
and then helping them to explore
possible career alternatives and to
choose an occupational area that is
best suited to their individual needs.
They advise students considering
dropping out of college of the op­
portunities open to them. They also
help students to get part-time and
summer jobs.
Career planning and placement
counselors
arrange
for
job
recruiters to visit the campus to
discuss their firm’s personnel needs
and to interview applicants. They
provide employers with information
about students and help in apprais­
ing students’ qualifications. They
must keep abreast of information
concerning job market develop­
ments in order to contact prospec­
tive employers, help students
prepare for promising fields, and
encourage the faculty and college
administration to provide pertinent

Nearly all 4-year colleges and
universities and many of the in­
creasing number of junior colleges
provide career planning and place­
ment services to their students and
alumni. Large colleges may employ
several counselors working under a
director of career planning and
placement activities; in many in­
stitutions, however, a combination
of placement functions is per­
formed by one director aided by a
clerical staff. In some colleges,
especially the smaller ones, the
functions of career counselors may
be performed on a part-time basis
by members of the faculty or ad­
ministrative
staff.
Universities
frequently have placement officers
for each major branch or campus.
About 4,100 persons, one-half of
them women, worked as career
planning and placement counselors
in colleges and universities in 1974.
Most were employed on a full-time
basis. An additional 1,200 worked
in junior colleges; about two-thirds
worked part time.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Although no specific educational
program exists to prepare persons
for career planning and placement
work,
a
bachelor’s degree,
preferably in a behavioral science
such as psychology or sociology, is
customary for entry into the field,
and a master’s degree is increas-

ingly being stressed.
In 1974, more than 100 colleges
and universities offered graduate
programs in college student person­
nel work. Graduate courses that are
helpful for career planning and
placement
counseling
include
counseling theory and techniques,
vocational testing, theory of group
dynamics,
and
occupational
research and employment trends.
Some people enter the career
planning and placement field after
gaining a broad background of ex­
perience in business, industry,
government, or educational or­
ganizations. An internship “in a
career planning and placement of­
fice also is helpful.
College career planning and
placement counselors must have an
interest in people. They must be

able to communicate with and gain
the confidence of students, faculty,
and employers in order to develop
insight into the employment needs
of both employers and students.
People in this field should be ener­
getic and able to work under pres­
sure, since they must organize and
administer a wide variety of activi­
ties.
Advancement
for
career
planning and placement profes­
sionals usually is through promo­
tion to an assistant or associate
position,
director
of career
planning and placement, director of
student personnel services, or some
other higher level administrative
position. However, the extent of
such opportunity usually depends
upon the type of college or universi­
ty and the size of the staff.

Employment Outlook
The overall employment outlook
for well-qualified college career
planning and placement counselors
is expected to be favorable through
the
mid-1980’s.
Employment
growth in the field is expected to be
about as fast as the average for all
occupations as college enrollments
continue to increase through the
early 1980’s. Demand will be
greatest for persons with special­
ized training in career counseling in
junior and community colleges,
where, in many cases, there are no
career planning and placement pro­
grams at present. Also contributing
to the demand will be expected
continued expansion in services to
students from minority and low-in­
come groups, who require special
counseling in choosing careers and
assistance in finding part-time jobs
to help pay for their education.
Growth is also expected in services
to the handicapped and to adults
participating in continuing educa­
tion.
However, many institutions of
higher education faced financial
problems in 1974. If this situation
persists, colleges and universities
may be forced to limit expansion of
counseling and placement services,
resulting in competition for availa­
ble positions during this period.

Earnings and Working
Conditions

Counselor discusses career alternatives with college student



The average salary of college
career planning and placement
directors was more than $17,000 a
year in 1974, according to limited
information. Average salaries for
directors in large public universities
were $19,300; in small private col­
leges, about $10,700. Salaries for
college career planning and place­
ment counselors ranged from
$7,000 to $15,000 a year.
Career planning and placement
counselors frequently work more
than a 40-hour week; irregular
hours and overtime often are neces­

sary, particularly during the
“ recruiting season.” Most coun­
selors are employed on a 12-month
basis. They are paid for holidays
and vacations and usually receive
the same benefits as other profes­
sional personnel employed by col­
leges and universities.




Sources of Additional
Information
A list of schools that offer courses
in career counseling and place­
ment and a booklet on the college
student personnel professions, as
well as other information on career

counseling and
available from:

placement,

are

The College Placement Council, Inc., P.O.
Box 2263, Bethlehem, Pa. 18001.

CLERGY
Deciding on a career in the clergy
involves considerations different
from those involved in other career
choices. When young persons
choose to enter the ministry,
priesthood, or rabbinate, they do so
primarily because they possess a
strong religious faith and a desire to
help others. Nevertheless, it is im­
portant for young people to know
as much as possible about the
profession and how to prepare for
it, the kind of life it offers, and its
needs for personnel.
The number of clergy needed de­
pends largely on the number of peo­
ple who participate in organized
religious groups. This affects the
number
of
churches
and
synagogues established and pulpits
to be filled. In addition to the clergy
who serve congregations, many
others teach or act as administra­
tors in seminaries and in other edu­
cational institutions; still others
serve as chaplains in the Armed
Forces, industry, correctional in­
stitutions, hospitals or on college
campuses; or render service as mis­
sionaries or in social welfare agen­
cies.
Persons considering a career in
the clergy should seek the counsel
of a religious leader of their faith to
aid in evaluating their qualifica­
tions. The most important of these
are a deep religious belief and a
desire to serve the spiritual needs of
others. The priest, minister, or
rabbi also is expected to be a model
of moral and ethical conduct. A
person considering one of these
fields must realize that the civic, so­
cial, and recreational activities of a
member of the clergy often are in­
fluenced and restricted by the
customs and attitudes of the com­
munity.



The clergy should be sensitive to
the needs of others and able to help
them deal with these needs. The job
demands an ability to speak and
write effectively, to organize, and to
supervise others. The person enter­
ing this field also must enjoy study­
ing because the ministry is an occu­
pation which requires continuous
learning. In addition, the ministry
demands considerable initiative and
self-discipline.
More detailed information on the
clergy in the three largest faiths in
the United States—Protestant,
Roman Catholic, and Jewish—is
given in the following statements,
prepared in cooperation with
leaders of these faiths. Information
on the clergy in other faiths may be
obtained directly from leaders of
the respective groups.

PR O TESTAN T MINISTERS
( DOT. 120.108)

recreational activities sponsored by
or related to the interests of the
church. Some ministers teach in
seminaries, colleges, and universi­
ties.
The services that ministers con­
duct differ among Protestant
denominations and also among con­
gregations within a denomination.
In many denominations, ministers
follow a traditional order of wor­
ship; in others they adapt the serv­
ices to the needs of youth and
other groups within the congrega­
tion. Most services include Bible
reading, hymn singing, prayers, and
a sermon. In some denominations,
Bible reading by a member of the
congregation
and
individual
testimonials may constitute a large
part of the service.
Ministers serving small congrega­
tions generally work on a personal
basis with their parishioners. Those
serving large congregations have
greater administrative responsibili­
ties, and spend considerable time
working with committees, church
officers, and staff, besides perform­
ing their other duties. They may
have one or more associates or
assistants who share specific
aspects of the ministry, such as a
minister of education who assists in
educational programs for different
age groups, or a minister of music.

Nature of the Work
Protestant ministers lead their
congregations in worship services
and administer the rites of baptism,
confirmation, and Holy Commu­
nion. They prepare and deliver ser­
mons and give religious instruction
to persons who are to become new
members of the church. They also
perform marriages; conduct fu­
nerals; counsel individuals who
seek guidance; visit the sick, aged,
and handicapped at home and in
the hospital; comfort the bereaved;
and serve church members in other
ways. Many Protestant ministers
write articles for publication, give
speeches, and engage in interfaith,
community, civic, educational, and

Places of Employment
In
1974,
about
185,000
ministers—about 3 percent of them
women—served
72
million
Protestants. Most ministers serve
individual congregations. In addi­
tion, however, thousands of
ministers were in closely related
fields such as chaplains in hospitals
and the Armed Forces. The greatest
number of clergy are affiliated with
the five largest groups of
churches—Baptist, United Metho­
dist, Lutheran, Presbyterian, and
Episcopal.
All cities and most towns in the
United States have at least one
Protestant church with a full-time

minister. Although the majority of
ministers are located in urban
areas, many live in less densely
populated areas where they may
serve two or more congregations.

Training and Other
Qualifications
Educational requirements for
entry into the Protestant ministry
vary greatly. Some denominations
have no formal educational require­
ments, and others ordain persons
having varying amounts and types
of training in Bible colleges, Bible
institutes, or liberal arts colleges. A
large number of denominations
require a 3-year course of profes­
sional study in a theological school
or seminary following college
graduation. A degree of bachelor or
master of divinity is awarded upon
completion.
In 1974, there were 132 theologi­
cal institutes accredited by the
American Association of Theologi­
cal Schools. These admit only stu­
dents who have received a
bachelor’s degree or its equivalent
from an accredited college.
Recommended
preseminary
courses include English, history,
philosophy, the natural sciences,



social sciences, the fine arts, music,
religion, and foreign languages.
However, students considering
theological study should contact, at
the earliest possible date, the school
or schools to which they intend to
apply, in order to learn what will
best prepare them for the program
they expect to enter.
The standard curriculum recom­
mended for accredited theological
schools consists of four major types
of courses: biblical, historical,
theological, and practical. In recent
years, greater emphasis has been
placed on courses of a practical na­
ture such as psychology, religious
education, and administration.
Many accredited schools require
that students gain experience in
church work under the supervision
of a faculty member or experienced
minister. Some institutions offer
master of theology and doctor of
theology degrees to students
completing 1 year or more of addi­
tional study. Scholarships and loans
are available for students of
theological institutions.
In general, each large denomina­
tion has its own school or schools of
theology that reflect its particular
doctrine, interests, and needs. How­
ever, many of these schools are
open to students from other
denominations.
Several
inter­
denominational schools associated
with universities give both un­
dergraduate and graduate training
covering a wide range of theologi­
cal points of view.
Persons who have denomina­
tional qualifications for the ministry
usually are ordained following
graduation from a seminary. In
denominations that do not require
seminary training, clergy are or­
dained at various appointed times.
Men and women entering the clergy
often begin their careers as pastors
of small congregations or as
assistant pastors in large churches.

Employment Outlook
The trend toward merger and

unity among denominations, com­
bined with the closing of smaller
parishes and the downturn in finan­
cial support, has reduced demand
for Protestant ministers in recent
years. As a result, new graduates of
theological schools will face in­
creasing competition in finding
positions. The supply-demand situ­
ation will vary among denomina­
tions and the chance of obtaining
employment will depend, in part,
on the length of the candidate’s
formal preparation. Most of the
openings for clergy that are
expected through the mid-1980’s
will therefore result from the need
to replace those in existing posi­
tions who retire, die, or leave the
ministry.
Although fewer opportunities
may arise for Protestant ministers
to serve individual congregations,
newly ordained ministers may find
work in youth, family relations, and
welfare organizations; religious
education; on the campus; and as
chaplains in the Armed Forces,
hospitals, universities, and cor­
rectional institutions.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Salaries of Protestant clergy vary
substantially, depending on age, ex­
perience, education, denomination,
size and wealth of congregation,
type of community, and geographic
location. According to a study by
the National Council of Churches
of Christ, median salaries for
Protestant ministers in 1973 were
about $10,500 plus $1,200 in fringe
benefits. However, on the average,
ministers had to pay over $1,100
out of their own monies for profes­
sionally related expenses, particu­
larly travel. Annual vacations
average 3 weeks and there is often
opportunity for time off.
Because of the wide range of
service that the minister provides,
he or she may work long or ir­
regular hours, often involving
considerable travel.

Sources of Additional
Information
Persons who are interested in the
Protestant ministry should seek the
counsel of a minister or church
guidance worker. Additional infor­
mation is available from many
denominational
offices.
Each
theological school can supply infor­
mation on admission requirements.

prayer, or the use of music or a
choir. The format of the worship
service and, therefore, the ritual
that the rabbis use may vary even
among congregations belonging to
the same branch of Judaism.
Rabbis also may write for reli­
gious and lay publications, and
teach in theological seminaries, col­
leges, and universities.

Places of Employment

RABBIS
(D.O.T. 120.108)

Nature of the Work
Rabbis are the spiritual leaders of
their congregations and teachers
and interpreters of Jewish law and
tradition. They conduct religious
services and deliver sermons at
services on the Sabbath and on
Jewish holidays. Rabbis custom­
arily are available at all times to
counsel members of their congrega­
tion, other followers ofJudaism,and
the community at large. Like other
clergy, rabbis conduct weddings
and funeral services, visit the sick,
help the poor, comfort the be­
reaved, supervise religious educa­
tion programs, engage in interfaith
activities, and involve themselves in
community affairs.
Rabbis serving large congrega­
tions may spend considerable time
in administrative duties, working
with their staffs and committees.
Large congregations frequently
have an associate or assistant rabbi.
Many assistant rabbis serve as edu­
cational directors.
Rabbis serve either Orthodox,
Conservative, or Reform congrega­
tions. Regardless of their particular
point of view, all Jewish congrega­
tions preserve the substance of
Jewish religious worship. The con­
gregations differ in the extent to
which they follow the traditional
form of worship—for example, in
the wearing of head coverings, the
use of Hebrew as the language of



About 4,000 rabbis served over 6
million followers of the Jewish faith
in this country in 1974; approxi­
mately 1,550 were Orthodox rab­
bis, 1,350 were Conservative, and
1,100 Reform. Others work as
chaplains in the military services, in
hospitals and other institutions, or
in one of the many Jewish commu­
nity service agencies. A growing
number are employed in colleges
and universities as teachers in
Jewish Studies programs.
Although rabbis serve Jewish
communities throughout the Na­
tion, they are concentrated in those
States that have large Jewish popu­
lations, particularly New York,
California, Pennsylvania, New Jer­
sey, Illinois, Massachusetts, Florida,
Maryland, and the Washington,
D.C. metropolitan area.

Training and Other
Qualifications
To become eligible for ordination
as a rabbi, a student must complete
a prescribed course of study in a
seminary. Entrance requirements
and the curriculum depend upon
the branch of Judaism with which
the seminary is associated.
Nearly 30 seminaries train
Orthodox rabbis in programs of
varying lengths. The required
course of study to prepare for or­
dination is usually 3 or 4 years.
However, students who are not col­
lege graduates may spend a longer
period at these seminaries and
complete the requirements for the
bachelor’s degree while pursuing
the
rabbinic
course.
Some

Orthodox seminaries do not require
a college degree to qualify for or­
dination, although students who
qualify usually have completed 4
years of college.
The Hebrew Union College—
Jewish Institute of Religion is the
official seminary that trains rabbis
for the Reform branch of Judaism.
It is the only branch that has ap­
proved the training and ordination
of women as rabbis. The Jewish
Theological Seminary of America is
the official seminary that trains rab­
bis for the Conservative branch of
Judaism. Both seminaries require
the completion of a 4-year college
course, as well as earlier prepara­
tion in Jewish studies, for admission
to the rabbinic program leading to
ordination. Normally 5 years of
study are required to complete the
rabbinic course at the Reform semi­
nary, including 1 year of preparato­
ry study in Jerusalem. Excep­
tionally well-prepared students can
shorten this 5-year period to a
minimum of 3 years. A student hav­
ing a strong background in Jewish
studies can complete the course at
the Conservative seminary in 4
years; for other enrollees, the
course may take as long as 6.
In general, the curriculums of
Jewish theological seminaries pro­
vide students with a comprehensive
knowledge of the Bible, Talmud,
Rabbinic literature, Jewish history,
theology, and courses in education,

pastoral psychology, and public
speaking. The Reform seminary
places less emphasis on the study of
Talmud and Rabbinic literature; it
offers, instead, a broad course of
study that includes subjects such as
human relations and community or­
ganization.
Some seminaries grant advanced
academic degrees in fields such as
Biblical and Talmudic research. All
Jewish theological seminaries make
scholarships and loans available.
Newly ordained rabbis usually
begin as leaders of small congrega­
tions, assistants to experienced rab­
bis, directors of Hillel Foundations
on college campuses, teachers in
seminaries and other educational
institutions, or chaplains in the
Armed Forces. As a rule, the pul­
pits of large and well established
Jewish congregations are filled by
experienced rabbis.

Employment Outlook
The demand for Rabbis has
declined in recent years because
some established congregations
have closed and fewer new ones are
being formed. As a result, many
newly ordained Rabbis will take
positions in smaller Jewish commu­
nities and as assistant Rabbis in
larger Jewish congregations. Op­
portunities still exist for Rabbis to
teach in colleges and universities, to
serve as chaplains in the Armed
Forces, and to work in hospitals and
other institutions or in one of the
many Jewish social service agen­
cies. Openings in established con­
gregations will come largely from a
need to replace those Rabbis who
retire or die.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
In 1974, newly ordained Rabbis
averaged about $17,000-$ 18,000 a
year in salary and other benefits, in­
cluding housing, pension, etc. Most
established Rabbis earned between
$20,000 and $35,000 a year, with
some earning as much as $50,000


$60,000. Incomes vary depending
on the size and financial status of
the congregation, as well as its
denominational branch and geo­
graphic location. Rabbis usually
earn additional income from gifts or
fees for officiating at ceremonies
such as weddings.
Rabbis’ working hours are deter­
mined by their role in the congrega­
tion. Besides conducting regular
religious services, they may also
spend considerable time in adminis­
trative, educational, and communi­
ty service functions, as well as
presiding over various ceremonial
services. Rabbis must also be
available to serve the emergency
needs of their congregation mem­
bers.

Sources of Additional
Information
Young people who are interested
in entering the rabbinate should
seek the guidance of a rabbi. Infor­
mation on the work of a rabbi and
occupations allied to it is also
available from many of the local
Boards of Rabbis in large communi­
ties. Each Jewish theological semi­
nary can supply information on its
admission requirements.

ROMAN CATH OLIC
PRIESTS
(D.O.T. 120.108)

Nature of the Work
Roman Catholic priests attend to
the spiritual, pastoral, moral, and
educational needs of the members
of their church. Their duties in­
clude presiding at liturgical func­
tions; offering religious enlighten­
ment in the form of a sermon; hear­
ing confessions; administering the
Sacraments, (including the sacra­
ments of Marriage and Penance);
and conducting funeral services.
They also comfort the sick, console
relatives and friends of the dead,

counsel those in need of guidance,
and assist the poor.
Priests spend long hours working
for the church and the community.
Their day usually begins with morn­
ing meditation and Mass, and may
end with the hearing of confessions
or an evening visit to a hospital or a
home. Many priests direct and
serve on church committees, work
in civic and charitable organiza­
tions, and assist in community
projects.
There are two main classifica­
tions of priests—diocesan (secular)
and religious. Both types have the
same powers acquired through or­
dination by a bishop. The dif­
ferences lie in their way of life, the
type of work to which they are as­
signed, and the church authority to
whom they are immediately sub­
ject. Diocesan priests generally
work as individuals in parishes as­
signed to them by the bishop of
their diocese. Religious priests
generally work as part of a religious
order, such as the Jesuits,
Dominicans, or Franciscans. They
engage in specialized activities such
as teaching or missionary work as­
signed to them by superiors of their
order.
Both religious and diocesan
priests hold teaching and adminis­
trative posts in Catholic seminaries,
colleges and universities, and high

schools. Priests attached to reli­
gious orders staff a large proportion
of the institutions of higher educa­
tion and many high schools,
whereas diocesan priests are usually
concerned with the parochial
schools attached to parish churches
and with diocesan high schools. The
members of religious orders do
most of the missionary work con­
ducted by the Catholic Church in
this country and abroad.

Places of Employment
Approximately 57,000 priests
served nearly 49 million Catholics
in the United States in 1974. There
are priests in nearly every city and
town and in many rural communi­
ties.
The
majority
are
in
metropolitan areas, where most
Catholics reside. Catholics are con­
centrated in the Northeast and
Great Lakes regions, with smaller
concentrations in California, Texas,
and Louisiana. Large numbers of
priests are located in communities
near Catholic educational and
other institutions.

Training and Other
Qualifications
Preparation for the priesthood
generally requires 8 years of study
beyond high school. There are al­
most 400 seminaries offering posthigh school education. Preparatory
study may begin in the first year of
high school, at the college level, or
in theological seminaries after col­
lege graduation.
High school seminaries provide a
college preparatory program that
emphasizes
English
grammar,
speech, literature, and social stu­
dies. Two years of Latin are
required and the study of modern
language is encouraged. The semi­
nary college offers a liberal arts
program, stressing philosophy and
religion; the study of man through
the behavioral sciences and history;
and the natural sciences and mathe­
matics. In many college seminaries,



a student may concentrate in any of
these fields.
The remaining 4 years of
preparation include sacred scrip­
ture; apologetics (the branch of
theology concerning the defense
and proofs of Christianity); dog­
matic, moral, and pastoral theolo­
gy; homeletics (art of preaching);
church history; liturgy (Mass); and
canon law. Field work experience is
usually required in addition to
classroom study. Diocesan and reli­
gious priests attend different major
seminaries, where slight variations
in the training reflect the dif­
ferences in the type of work ex­
pected of them as priests. Priests
are not permitted to marry.
Postgraduate work in theology is
offered at a number of American
Catholic universities or at eccle­
siastical universities around the
world, mostly in Rome. Also, many
priests do graduate work at other
universities in fields unrelated to
theology. Priests are commanded
by the law of the Catholic Church
to continue their studies, at least in­
formally, after ordination.
Young men are never denied
entry into seminaries because of
lack of funds. In seminaries for
secular priests, the church authori­
ties may make arrangements for
student scholarships or loans.
Those in religious seminaries are
financed by contributions of
benefactors.
The first assignment of a newly
ordained secular priest is usually
that of assistant pastor or curate.
Newly ordained priests of religious
orders are assigned to the special­
ized duties for which they are
trained. Many opportunities for
greater responsibility exist within
the church, depending on the
talents, interests, and experience of
the individual.

Employment Outlook
A growing number of priests will
be needed in the years ahead to
provide for the spiritual, educa­

tional, and social needs of the in­
creasing number of Catholics in the
Nation. The number of ordained
priests has been insufficient to fill
the needs of newly established
parishes and other Catholic institu­
tions, and to replace priests who
retire or die. This situation is likely
to persist. However, some of the du­
ties of priests are being assigned to
lay deacons. Although priests
usually continue to work longer
than persons in other professions,
the varied demands and long hours
create a need for young priests to
assist the older ones. Also, an in­
creasing number of priests have
been acting in many diverse areas
of service—in social work; religious
radio, newspaper, and television
work;
and
labor-management
mediation. They also have been
serving in foreign posts as missiona­
ries, particularly in countries that
have a shortage of priests.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Diocesan priests usually receive a
stipend of between $2,000 and
$6,000 a year as well as main­
tenance provisions (room and
board, housekeeping, etc.). Reli­
gious priests are generally sup­
ported by their religious order.
Priests who do special work re­
lated to the church, such as
teaching, usually receive a partial
salary which is less than a lay per­
son in the same position would
receive. The difference between the
usual salary for these jobs and the
salary that the priest receives is
called “ contributed service.” In
some of these situations, housing
and related expenses may be pro­
vided; in other cases, the priest
must make his own arrangements.
Some priests doing special work
may receive the same compensa­
tion that a lay person would
receive. These may include priests
working as lawyers, counselors,

consultants, etc.
Due to the wide range of duties
which most clergy have, the priest
often must work long and irregular
hours. His working conditions vary
widely with the type and area of as­
signment.




Sources of Additional
Information
Young men interested in entering
the priesthood should seek the
guidance and counsel of their
parish priest. For information re­
garding the different religious or­

ders and the secular priesthood, as
well as a list of the seminaries which
prepare students for the priesthood,
contact the diocesan Directors of
Vocations through the office of the
local pastor or bishop.

OTHER SOCIAL SERVICE OCCUPATIONS
C OOPER ATIVE
EXTEN SION SERVICE
W ORKERS
(D.O.T. 096.128)

Nature of the Work
Extension service workers are en­
gaged with the rural area popula­
tion in educational work in fields
such
as
agriculture,
home
economics, youth activities, and
community resource development.
They are employed jointly by State
land-grant universities and the U.S.
Department of Agriculture. Exten­
sion workers must be proficient in
both subject matter and teaching
methods.
Extension workers help rural
families analyze and solve their
farm and home problems and aid in
community improvement. Much of
this educational work is carried on
in groups, through meetings, tours,
demonstrations, and use of local
volunteer leaders. On problems that
cannot be solved satisfactorily by
such group methods, extension
workers give individual assistance.
In their work, they make much use
of mass communication media such
as newspapers, radio, and televi­
sion.
County extension workers help
farmers produce higher quality
crops and livestock more effi­
ciently. They also help them
develop new markets and plan
production to meet market de­
mands, including those for product
quality and variety. They also help
community leaders to improve the
community, by planning and
providing for economic develop­
ment, recreation, and more
adequate public facilities such as



schools, water supply and sewer
systems, and libraries. They help
homemakers to provide more fami­
ly ' enjoyment
from
existing
resources, a higher level of nutri­
tion, and a more pleasant home en­
vironment. Some extension workers
help youths to become more useful
citizens and to gain more personal
satisfaction through programs in
career selection, recreation, health,
and leadership. The essence of ex­
tension work is to help people help
themselves to achieve the goals
they think are important.
County extension workers are

aided by State Extension Service
specialists. The job of these spe­
cialists is to keep abreast of the
latest research in their particular
fields of interest, interpret this for
use in extension work, and help
county extension workers develop
educational programs, activities,
and events to use this new
knowledge.
Cooperative Extension Services
employ persons with a wide range
of skills and with specialized train­
ing in all phases of crop and
livestock production, conservation,
environmental improvement, farm
management and marketing, family
living, human development, nutri­
tion, home management, child
development, sociology, psycholo­
gy, veterinary medicine, engineer­
ing, textiles and clothing, resource
economics, and business and public
administration.
The usual career ladder for ex-

tension workers is from assistant
county agent to a more responsible
job within that county, or in
another county in the State, to an
assignment on the State Extension
Service staff.

Places of Employment
Extension workers are located in
county offices, area offices serving
multicounty units, and State offices,
the last usually on the campus of
the land-grant college or university.
Agents are located in nearly
every county in the 50 States, in
Puerto Rico, and in the District of
Columbia. County staffs range in
size from one agent (serving a wide
variety of clientele interests) to a
dozen or more specialized agents in
counties with high population den­
sity and great diversity of interests.
Staffs are located in counties rang­
ing from the most rural to the most
urban.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Cooperative Extension Service
agents are required to be proficient
in disciplines related to the needs
and programs of the clientele with
whom they work. They must have a
bachelor’s degree in their subjectmatter field; some training in edu­
cational techniques is desirable, as
well.
Often, they receive training in ex­
tension techniques in a pre-induc­
tion training program, and are up­
graded through regular in-service
training programs in both educa­
tional techniques and the subject
matter for which they are responsi­
ble. In addition to subject-matter
proficiency, extension workers
must like to work with people and
to help them.
In most States, specialists and
agents assigned to multicounty and
State staff jobs are required to have
at least one advanced degree and in
many they must have a Ph. D.



Employment Outlook
Extension services employ more
than 15,600 professional people.
The demand for these workers is
expected to increase, especially in
depressed rural areas. As agricul­
tural technology becomes more
complicated, and as farm people
become more aware of the need for
organized activity, more help will
be sought from trained Extension
Service personnel. The Extension
Service also will reach new seg­
ments of the population as residents
recognize the value of its assistance,
particularly in helping the disad­
vantaged.

Earnings
The salaries of extension workers
vary by locality, but, for the most
part, they are competitive with
similar jobs in industry and govern­
ment.

Sources of Additional
Information
Additional information is availa­
ble from County Extension offices,
the State Director of the Coopera­
tive Extension Service located at
each land-grant university; or the
Extension Service, U.S. Depart­
ment of Agriculture, Washington,
D .C.20250.

HOME ECONOM ISTS
(D.O.T. 096.128)

Nature of the Work
Home economists work to im­
prove products, services, and prac­
tices that affect the comfort and
well-being of the family. Some spe­
cialize in specific areas, such as
consumer economics, housing,
home management, home furnish­
ings and equipment, food and
nutrition, clothing and textiles,
and child development and family
relations. Others have a broad

knowledge of the whole profes­
sional field.
Most home economists teach.
Those in high schools teach stu­
dents about foods and nutrition;
clothing selection, construction and
care; child development; consumer
education; housing and home
furnishings; family relations; and
other subjects related to family liv­
ing and homemaking. They also
perform the regular duties of other
high school teachers that are
described in the statement on
Secondary School Teachers else­
where in the Handbook.
Teachers in adult education pro­
grams help men and women to in­
crease their understanding of family
relations and to improve their
homemaking skills. They also con­
duct training programs on second­
ary, postsecondary, and adult levels
for jobs related to home economics.
Special emphasis is given to
teaching those who are disad­
vantaged and handicapped. College
teachers may combine teaching and
research and often specialize in a
particular area of home economics.
Home economists employed by
private business firms and trade as­
sociations promote the develop­
ment, use, and care of specific
home products. They may do
research, test products, and prepare
advertisements and instructional
materials. They also may prepare
and present programs for radio and
television; serve as consultants; give
lectures and demonstrations before
the public; and conduct classes for
sales persons and appliance service
workers. Some home economists
study consumer needs and help
manufacturers translate these needs
into useful products.
Some home economists conduct
research for the Federal Govern­
ment, State agricultural experiment
stations, colleges, universities, and
private organizations. The U.S. De­
partment of Agriculture employs
the largest group of researchers to
do work such as study the buying
and spending habits of families in

supervising nutrition and home
management aides.

Places of Employment

all socioeconomic groups and
develop budget guides.
Home economists who work for
the Cooperative Extension Service
conduct adult education programs
for men and women and 4-H Club
and other youth programs for girls
and boys, in areas such as home
management, consumer education,
family relations, and nutrition. Ex­
tension Service home economists
also train and supervise volunteer
leaders and paid aides who teach
adults and youth. (See statement on
Cooperative Extension Service
Workers elsewhere in the Hand­
book.)
Federal, State, and local govern­
ments and private agencies employ
home economists in social welfare
programs to advise and counsel
clients on the practical knowledge
and skills needed for effective
everyday family living. They also
may help handicapped home­
makers and their families ad­
just to physical as well as social and
emotional limitations by changing
the arrangements in the home; find­



About 128,000 people worked in
home economics professions in
1974. This figure includes 33,000
dietitians and 5,800 Cooperative
Extension Service workers who are
discussed in separate statements
elsewhere in the Handbook.
About 75,000 home economists
are teachers, about 50,000 in
secondary schools and 7,000 in col­
leges and universities. More than
15,000 are adult education instruc­
tors, some of whom teach part time
in secondary schools. Others teach
in community colleges, elementary
schools, kindergartens, nursery
schools, and recreation centers.
More than 5,000 home econo­
mists work in private business firms
and associations. Several thousand
are in research and social welfare
programs. A few are self-employed.
Although most home economists
ing efficient ways to manage
household chores; aiding in the are women, men are entering the
design, selection, and arrangement profession in increasing numbers.
of equipment; and creating other Most men specialize in foods and
methods and devices to enable dis­ institutional management, although
abled people to function at their some are in the family relations and
highest possible level. Other home child development field, applied
economists in welfare agencies su­ arts, consumer education, and
pervise or train workers who pro­ other areas.
vide temporary or part-time help to
households disrupted by illness.
Training, Other Qualifications,
Home economists in health serv­
and Advancement
ices provide special help and
guidance in home management,
About 360 colleges and universi­
consumer education and family ties offer a bachelor’s degree in
economics as these relate to family home economics, which qualifies
health and well-being. Activities of graduates for most entry positions
home economists working in health in the field. A master’s or doctor’s
programs include the following: degree is required for college
making home visits; conducting teaching, for certain research and
clinic demonstrations and classes in supervisory positions, for work as
homemaking skills; counseling in an extension specialist, and for
the management of time and some jobs in nutrition.
resources,
including
financial
Home economics majors study
aspects; assisting mentally retarded sciences and liberal arts—particu­
parents in developing their poten­ larly social sciences—as well as spe­
tial skills for child care and home cialized home economics courses.
management; working with agen­ They may concentrate in a particu­
cies and community resources; and lar area of home economics or in

what is called general home university teaching are expected to
economics. Advanced courses in be good.
chemistry and nutrition are impor­
Although employment of home
tant for work in foods and nutrition; economists is expected to grow
science and statistics for research more slowly than the average for all
work; and journalism for advertis­ occupations, many jobs will
ing, public relations work, and all become available each year to
other work in the communications replace those who die, retire, or
field. To teach home economics in leave the field for other reasons.
high
school,
students
must Growth will result from increasing
complete the courses required for a awareness of the contributions that
teacher’s certificate.
can be made by professionally
Scholarships, fellowships, and trained home economists in quality
assistantships are available for un­ child care, nutrition, housing and
dergraduate and graduate study. furnishings design, consumer edu­
Although colleges and universities cation, and ecology. They also will
offer most of these financial grants, be needed to promote home
government agencies, research products, to act as consultants to
foundations, businesses, and the consumers, and to do research for
American Home Economics As­ improvement of home products and
sociation Foundation provide addi­ services. The Vocational Education
tional funds.
Amendments of 1968, which pro­
Home economists must be able to vide funds for consumer and
work with people of various in­ homemaking education at the
comes and cultural backgrounds secondary, postsecondary, and
and should have a capacity for adult levels, and focus on the needs
leadership. Poise and an interest in of low-income families, should
people also are essential for those further stimulate the need for home
who deal with the public. The abili­ economists.
ty to write and speak well is impor­
tant. Among the subjects recom­
Earnings and Working
mended for high school students in­
Conditions
terested in careers in this field are
home economics, speech, English,
Home economics teachers in
health, mathematics, chemistry, public schools generally receive the
and the social sciences.
same salaries as other teachers. In
Home economists frequently gain 1974, the average starting salary of
experience as teachers and advance public school teachers with a
to positions in business, extension bachelor’s degree was $7,700, ac­
service work, and teacher educa­ cording to a National Education
tion.
Association survey. Public school
teachers with a master’s degree
received average starting salaries of
Employment Outlook
$8,600.
Experienced
teachers
Home economists, especially averaged $ 11,800. Median salaries
those wishing to teach in high of women teaching in colleges and
schools, will face keen competition universities in 1974 ranged from
for jobs through the mid-1980’s. $9,700 for instructors to $18,200
Other areas of home economics for professors.
The Federal Government paid
also will experience competitive job
market conditions as those unable home economists with bachelor’s
to find teaching jobs look for other degrees starting salaries of $8,500
positions. However, for those and $10,500 in late 1974, depend­
willing to continue their education ing on their scholastic record.
toward an advanced degree, em­ Those with additional education
ployment prospects in college and and experience generally earned



from $12,800 to $21,800 or more,
depending on the type of position
and level of responsibility. In late
1974, the Federal Government paid
experienced home economists
average salaries of $ 19,100 a year.
Cooperative Extension Service
workers on the county level
averaged $11,800 while those on
the State level averaged $16,400 in
1974. In general, home economists
earn about one and one-half times
as much as the average for all nonsupervisory workers in private in­
dustry, except farming.
Home economists usually work a
40-hour week. Those in teaching
and extension service positions,
however, frequently work longer
hours because they are expected to
be available for evening lectures,
demonstrations, and other work.
Most home economists receive
fringe benefits, such as paid vaca­
tion, sick leave, retirement pay, and
insurance benefits.

Sources of Additional
Information
A list of schools granting degrees
in home economics and additional
information about home economics
careers, the types of home
economics majors offered in each
school granting degrees in home
economics, and graduate scholar­
ships are available from:
American Home Economics Association,
2010
Massachusetts
Ave.
NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036

RECREATION WORKERS
(D.O.T. 079.128, 159.228, 187.118,
195.168, 195.228)

Nature of the Work
Participation in organized recrea­
tion activities has become an in­
tegral part of the increasing leisure
time enjoyed by many Americans.
Recreation workers plan, organize,

and direct individual and group
recreation activities to help people
better enjoy their nonworking
hours.
. Recreation workers organize and
lead social, cultural, and physical
education programs at community
centers, hospitals, workplaces,
camps, and playgrounds for people
of various ages and interests. They
also manage recreation facilities
and study the recreation needs of
groups and communities. There are
several basic types of recreation
workers: recreation directors, su­
pervisors, leaders, and activity spe­
cialists.
Recreation directors are responsi­
ble for the management and ad­
ministration of recreation pro­
grams. They may evaluate the
recreation needs of the population
they serve, and plan activities ac­
cording to these needs. They also




hire personnel and prepare an
operating budget. Particularly in
smaller recreation programs, the
director also may directly supervise
various activities.
Recreation supervisors may plan
recreation activities or assist the
director in doing this. They then im­
plement these activities, oversee
their operation, and evaluate their
success. They supervise the recrea­
tion leaders, activity specialists, and
maintenance workers, and instruct
them in many of the skills required
to efficiently run a recreation pro­
gram.
Recreation leaders work directly
with the participants in recreation
programs and are responsible for
the program’s day-to-day opera­
tion. They may give instruction in
crafts, games, sports, and other ac­
tivities and keep reports and
records relating to these activities.

Recreation leaders who give in­
struction in specialties such as art,
music, drama, swimming, or tennis
are called activity specialists. They
often conduct classes and coach
teams in the activity in which they
specialize. A camp counselor is
generally a recreation leader and
may also be an activity specialist.
Recreation leaders usually work
under the direction of a supervisor.
The services of recreation work­
ers are used in many different
settings. Recreation personnel em­
ployed by local government and
voluntary agencies provide leisure­
time activities at neighborhood
playgrounds and indoor recreation
centers. They furnish instruction in
the arts, crafts, and in sports. They
may supervise recreational activi­
ties at correctional institutions and
work closely with social workers to
organize programs for the young
and the aged. School recreation
staff organize the leisure-time ac­
tivities of school-age children dur­
ing schooldays, weekends, and va­
cations.
Under the supervision of a camp
director, recreation leaders and ac­
tivity specialists lead and instruct
campers in nature-oriented forms
of recreation such as swimming,
hiking, and horseback riding, as
well as arts, crafts, and other sports.
Some camps provide campers with
specialized instruction in a particu­
lar area such as music, drama, gym­
nastics, or tennis. In resident
camps, the staff also must insure
that the campers have adequate liv­
ing conditions.
Recreation personnel in industry
and in the Armed Forces organize
and direct recreation rooms,
athletic programs such as bowling
and softball leagues, social func­
tions, and other leisure activities for
company employees and service
men and women.
Therapeutic recreation is a spe­
cialized field within the recreation
profession. It provides recreational
services to aid in recovery or adjust­
ment to illness, disability, or a

specific social problem. Recreation
specialists may work with the physi­
cally handicapped in a school oi
rehabilitation center, with mentally
ill or retarded persons in a public or
private institution, or with juvenile
delinquents, older citizens, or disa­
bled veterans. The jobs in this spe­
cialty are largely comparable to
those for recreation workers in
other settings.

Places of Employment
More than 65,000 recreation
workers were employed year-round
in 1974; nearly one-half of them
were women. Government recrea­
tion departments employed about
one-half, primarily in local recrea­
tion departments. Many others
worked for schools, commercial
recreation
establishments
like
camps or resort hotels, and non­
profit voluntary organizations such
as athletic or scouting organiza­
tions, churches, and community or­
ganizations.
Over two-fifths of all year-round
recreation workers are employed
part time. Many of these are stu­
dents who work for local govern­
ment recreation programs. An addi­
tional 100,000 recreation workers
were employed for the summer
months only, during 1974. Seasonal
workers are mostly college students
and teachers who work primarily as
recreation leaders and camp coun­
selors.
Recreation workers are em­
ployed mostly in urban areas where
many people must use the same
playgrounds and recreation centers.
Camp recreation workers, however,
often work in rural, less populated
areas of the country. Camp recrea­
tion workers are employed at re­
sident, day, family, and travel
camps. Except for the directors of
very large camps and workers at the
few camps which remain open yearround, camp recreation workers
generally are employed for 2 or 3
months only during the summer.



Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Formal training in a college
recreation curriculum is becoming
increasingly important for those
seeking a career in recreation.
Recreation directors generally
should have a bachelor’s degree,
preferably in recreation, as well as
considerable experience. Advanced
courses leading to a master’s degree
often are desirable for persons in­
terested in higher level administra­
tive positions and are usually neces­
sary for teaching at a college or
university. Those with a bachelor’s
degree usually begin as supervisors
or recreation leaders, and may ad­
vance to a director position.
A high school education is
generally the minimum require­
ment for recreation leaders. How­
ever, an associate degree in recrea­
tion or a related subject from a
community or junior college usually
is preferred for both year-round
and seasonal employment. In addi­
tion, those with college training
generally start at a higher salary and
have better advancement opportu­
nities. Activity specialists must have
specialized training in a particular
field, such as art, music, drama, or
athletics. In most cases, an as­
sociate degree in recreation with a
concentration in one of these areas
or a bachelor’s degree in recreation
or one of the arts is necessary for
year-round employment. In general,
camps prefer those with some
college background to work as
counselors or activity specialists.
In March 1974, 200 community
colleges and 186 4-year colleges
and universities had recreation and
parks curriculums. In addition, 92
graduate programs were offered.
The typical program of recreation
study includes courses in communi­
cations, natural sciences, the hu­
manities, philosophy, sociology,
psychology, drama, and music.
Specific courses in recreation in­
clude group leadership, program
planning and organization, health
and safety procedures, outdoor and

indoor sports, dance, arts and
crafts, and field work in which the
student obtains actual recreation
leadership experience. Students in­
terested in industrial or other types
of commercial recreation may find
it desirable to take courses in busi­
ness administration; those in­
terested in therapeutic recreation
should take courses in psychology,
health education, and sociology.
Young people planning careers
as recreation workers must have the
ability to motivate people and be
sensitive to their needs. Good
health and physical stamina often
are required. Activity planning
frequently calls for creativity and
resourcefulness. Recreation work­
ers should be able to accept re­
sponsibility and exercise judgment
since they usually work alone. To
increase their leadership skills
and understanding of people, stu­
dents should obtain related work
experience in high school and col­
lege. They may do volunteer, parttime, or summer work in recreation
departments, camps, youth-serving
organizations, institutions, and
community centers.
After a few years experience,
recreation leaders or activity spe­
cialists may become recreation su­
pervisors. Although promotions to
administrative positions may be
easier for persons with graduate
training, advancement is usually
possible through a combination of
education and experience.

Employment Outlook
The employment of recreation
workers is expected to rise faster
than the average for all occupations
through the mid-1980’s as public
pressure for recreation areas results
in the creation of many new parks,
playgrounds, and national forests.
Increased attention to physical fit­
ness by government, educators, and
others may produce a rise in public
and industrial recreation programs.
Longer life and earlier retirements
also will increase the demand for

recreation programs for retired per­
sons. All of these factors will in­
crease the need for recreation work­
ers and stimulate growth in the oc­
cupation.
The level of formal education
and amount of related work ex­
perience will become increasingly
important as more recreation grad­
uates compete for positions. Those
with a 2-year degree or less will
generally be limited in advance­
ment opportunities. Those with a
bachelor’s degree should have a
favorable employment outlook,
with increasing competition during
economic slowdowns when recrea­
tion employment in both the public
and private sectors may be adverse­
ly affected. Opportunities for those
with a master’s or Ph. D. degree
should be good in teaching, super­
visory, and administrative positions.
Job experience prior to gradua­
tion will greatly help a graduate find
a position. Applicants with the most
related job experience will receive
the more responsible and higher
paying positions.
Many opportunities will be
available for part-time and summer
employment as recreation leaders
and assistants in local government
recreation programs. Many of the
summer jobs will be for counselors
and activity specialists in camps.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Starting salaries for recreation
leaders with a bachelor’s degree in
State and local governments
averaged about $8,000 in 1974, ac­
cording to a survey by the Public
Personnel Association. There was a
wide salary range among em­
ployers—in general, salaries were
highest in the west and lowest in the
south. Average earnings for recrea­
tion workers are higher than those
for nonsupervisory workers in
private industry, except in farming.
According to the National Recrea­
tion and Park Association, recrea­
tion workers with a 2-year degree



usually started at about $6,500 in American Camping Association, Bradford
Woods, Martinsville, Ind. 46151.
1974; those with a bachelor’s
degree, about $8,000; with a
master’s degree, $9,-10,000; with a
Ph. D., $11-12,000. A person with
at least a bachelor’s degree and
SO C IA L SER VICE AIDES
considerable (5-6 years) ex­
perience averaged about $14Nature of the Work
15,000. Recreation directors’ sala­
ries ranged from $ 11,000 to more
Social service or human service
than $20,000 depending on their aides enable social service agencies
responsibilities.
to help greater numbers of people
Starting salaries for recreation by providing services which supple­
workers in the Federal Government ment the work of professional so­
in late 1974 were $8,500 for appli­ cial workers and rehabilitation
cants having a bachelor’s degree; counselors. Most social service
$10,500 with a bachelor’s degree aides work under the close
plus 1 year experience; $12,841 guidance and supervision of other
with a bachelor’s plus 2 years ex­ professional staff.
perience or a master’s degree; and
Social service aides serve as a
$15,481 with a bachelor’s plus 3 link between professional social
years experience or a Ph. D.
workers or rehabilitation coun­
The average week for recreation selors and people who seek help
personnel is 35-40 hours. Many from social agencies. Aides explain
camp recreation workers live at the the services and facilities of the
camps where they work, and their agency and help new applicants fill
room and board is included in their out any required forms. In some
salaries. Most public and private agencies, aides visit the client’s
recreation agencies provide from 2 home, interview friends and rela­
to 4 weeks vacation and other tives, and check documents such as
fringe benefits such as sick leave marriage licenses or birth cer­
and hospital insurance.
tificates to determine an in­
A person entering the recreation dividual’s or family’s eligibility for
field should expect some night work financial assistance or other
and irregular hours since they often services.
work while others are enjoying lei­
Much of the routine paperwork
sure time. Recreation workers often required in welfare programs may
spend much of their time outdoors be done by social service aides.
when the weather permits.
They may keep records on clients
up to date, maintain a filing system
of reports or a control system for
Sources of Additional
periodic case reviews, and fill out
Information
school enrollment, employment,
Information about recreation as a medical, and compensation forms.
Due to the wide variety of social
career, employment opportunities
in the field, and colleges and services, social service aides work
universities offering recreation cur- in many different job settings and
perform a range of different job
riculums is available from:,.
functions. Aides usually referred to
National Industrial Recreation Association,
20 North Wacker Dr., Chicago, 11 . as casework aides or assistants, often
1
work directly with clients. They
60606.
National Recreation and Parks Association, may help clients locate and obtain
1601 North Kent St., Arlington, Va. adequate housing, find jobs, or
22209.
counsel parents about their chil­
For information on careers in dren’s dress and appearance.
Casework aides serve as advocates
camping and job referrals, contact:

for clients by going with them to
clinics to insure that they receive
needed medical care or by helping
them effectively communicate their
needs to institutions that provide
educational or welfare services.
Homemaker aides help clients im­
prove their skills in shopping, clean­
ing, sewing, budgeting, family
health and hygiene, child care, and
meal planning and preparation.
They are assigned to a home for 1
day or more a week, or instruct
groups of adults at a community or
neighborhood center.
An important facet of the
homemaker aide’s work is the ac­
tual demonstration of homemaker
skills. Stressing the importance of
regularity and routine in the home,
they set up a schedule of weekly ac­
tivities. They get down to particu­
lars of housekeeping by teaching
homemakers how to clean stoves
and refrigerators, prepare meals
from leftovers, or recognize a bar­
gain in inexpensive material for
clothing. They encourage home­
makers to take advantage of cost­
saving opportunities such as
the barber school for haircuts, the
thrift shop, surplus foods, and free
recreation. In addition to teaching
domestic skills, some homemaker
aides also help clients obtain
needed social services and may do
housekeeping chores during a
parent’s illness.
Some workers called neighbor­
hood workers personally contact the
residents of an area to explain and
discuss agency services. They learn
the needs of individuals and fami­
lies and refer routine cases to a
counselor or to the appropriate
community service agency. They
report more difficult problems to a
supervisor. Neighborhood workers
may inform residents about job
openings, available housing, job
training opportunities, and public
services. On a broader scale, they
assist in the organization of block
and other neighborhood groups to
conduct programs that benefit the
neighborhood, foster a sense of



community responsibility among are usually too young to attend
residents, and encourage participa­ school. Under the direction of so­
tion in the anti-poverty programs of cial workers, teachers, and other
social service agencies. They also professionals, they help children
may assist in routine neighborhood develop socially and prepare for
surveys and counts, keep records, elementary school. Aides also may
and prepare reports of their activi­ teach children counting, arithmetic,
ties for the supervisor.
art, music, and other subjects that
Employment aides actively seek stimulate their curiosity and ability
out the disadvantaged and help to think. In addition, they may work
prepare them for employment by along with the child’s family to help
giving them assistance in getting insure that the child is adequately
special training and counseling. fed and clothed and receives regu­
Working in neighborhood centers lar medical and dental care.
or mobile units, they locate can­
Apart from these specific duties,
didates for available jobs and train­ the most useful functions of social
ing programs by contacting unem­ service aides are to be available
ployed residents in pool rooms, when needed to offer encourage­
laundromats, and street corners or ment and counsel, and to act as ad­
through employment or welfare vocates for the needs of those in the
agency referrals. They give the community which they serve.
unemployed information about the
services of the local State employ­
Places of Employment
ment service office, available job
and training opportunities, and help
About 70,000 people worked as
them fill out the necessary applica­ social service aides in 1974; ap­
tion forms. After clients are em­ proximately 4 out of 5 were women.
ployed, aides maintain contact to Most work in the inner cities of
help workers adjust to the new large metropolitan areas.
work environment and to iron out
More than half of all social serv­
minor difficulties.
ice aides work for government de­
Another occupation that has partments and agencies primarily
much in common with social serv­ on the State and local levels. They
ice aides is child care aide. They work for community and neighbor­
help care for children of working hood organizations and centers,
mothers at child development welfare and social service agencies,
facilities and day care centers. residential welfare facilities for chil­
Child care aides feed, entertain, dren or adults, and rehabilitation
and otherwise care for children who agencies serving the blind, disabled,
and otherwise disadvantaged.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Graduation from high school
generally is not required for social
service aide jobs. Employers do not
always look for the most highly
skilled applicants. An individual’s
need for work, as well as potential
for upgrading his or her skills and
making a useful contribution to the
agency, often is considered. For
employment in some agencies, an
examination or registration on a
civil service list may be required.

Persons seeking jobs as social work now done by professional per­
service aides should get along well sonnel.
with people and be able to work as
Earnings and Working
part of a team. They should be tact­
Conditions
ful, courteous, and want to help
others.
Full-time social service aides with
Homemaker aides should be per­
no prior experience or minimum
sons who have demonstrated com­
petence in managing a home and education earned salaries ranging
rearing children. Workers assigned from $5,000 to $6,500 a year in
to Puerto Rican or Mexican-Amer- 1974. Those with experience or ad­
ican communities should speak and ditional education usually earned
understand Spanish. Some social more. The Federal Government
service aide jobs require typing paid beginning social service aides
salaries of from $5,294 to $8,500 in
skills.
Most employers emphasize the late 1974 depending upon their
development of career ladders with education and prior work ex­
opportunities for advancement perience; experienced aides earned
through a combination of on-the- as much as $10,520. Many aides in
job training, work experience, and both public and private agencies
further education. Aides usually are work part time and earn less.
Although they work much of the
trained on the job from 1 to several
time in offices of social service de­
months. Those without high school
diplomas often receive classroom partments and agencies, they may
instruction to help them pass a high frequently visit the homes of clients
school equivalency examination. or offices of other social service
Entry level positions as employ­ agencies, hospitals, and business
ment aides can lead to a job as an establishments. Aides often must
employment interviewer, and, after work evenings or weekends when
special training, to employment clients can be reached.
counselor. Employing agencies
Sources of Additional
frequently pay part of the cost of
Information
further education for social services
aides.
Information on requirements for
social service aide jobs is available
from city, county, or State depart­
Employment Outlook
ments of welfare or social services,
or
neighborhood
Employment of social service community
aides is expected to grow much development agencies, and local of­
faster than the average for all occu­ fices of the State employment ser­
pations through the mid-1980’s. vice.
Many opportunities are expected
for part-time work. A large number
of openings will arise from the need
to replace aides who die, retire, or
SO C IA L W ORKERS
transfer to other jobs.
Employment in this field will
(D.O.T. 195.108, .118, .168, and
stem from population growth, cou­
.208, .228)
pled with this country’s continuing
commitment to aid those who are
Nature of the Work
disadvantaged, disabled, or unable
The ability of people to live effec­
to care for themselves. In addition,
as social welfare services and pro­ tively in society is often hampered
grams expand, social service aides by problems that range from per­
increasingly will be used for much sonal ones to those arising from so­
of the routine and less responsible cial unrest within a group or com­



munity. These problems, ag­
gravated by the growing complexity
of society, have greatly increased
the need for social services. Social
workers assist individuals, families,
groups and communities in using
these services to solve their
problems.
The three basic approaches to so­
cial work are casework, group
work, and community organization.
The approach chosen is usually
determined by the nature of the
problem and the time and resources
available for solving it. Social work­
ers often combine these ap­
proaches in dealing with a specific
problem.
In casework, social workers use
interviews to identify the problems
of individuals and families. They
then help people to understand and
solve their problems and to secure
needed services, education, or job
training. In group work, social
workers help people to understand
both themselves and others better,
to overcome racial and cultural
prejudices, and to work together
with others in achieving a common
goal. They plan and conduct group
activities for children, adolescents,
older persons and other adults in a
variety of settings such as settle­
ment houses, hospitals, homes for
the aged, and correctional institu­
tions. In community organization,
social workers coodinate the efforts
of groups, such as political, civic,
religious, business, and union or­
ganizations, to combat social
problems through community pro­
grams. For a neighborhood or
larger area, they may help plan and
develop health, housing, welfare,
and recreation services. They often
coordinate existing social services
and organize fund raising for com­
munity social welfare activities.
The majority of social workers
provide social services directly to
individuals, families, or groups.
However, a substantial number are
executives, administrators, or su­
pervisors. Others are college
teachers, research workers, con­

sultants, or private practitioners.
Social workers can apply their
training and experience in a variety
of social service settings.
Social workers in family service
positions in State and local govern­
ment offices and voluntary agencies
provide counseling and social serv­
ices that strengthen personal rela­
tionships and help clients to im­
prove their social functioning. They
also advise their clients on the con­
structive use of financial assistance
and other social services.
Social workers in child welfare
positions work to improve the
physical and emotional well-being
of deprived and troubled children
and youth. They may advise parents
on child care and child rearing,
counsel children and youth with so­
cial adjustment difficulties, arrange
homemaker services during a
parent’s illness, institute legal ac­
tion for the protection of neglected
or mistreated children, provide
services to unmarried parents, and
counsel couples who wish to adopt
children. After making appropriate
case evaluations and home studies,
they may place children in suitable
adoption or foster homes or in spe­
cialized institutions.
School social workers aid chil­
dren whose unsatisfactory school
progress is related to their social
problems. These workers consult
and work with parents, teachers,
counselors, and other school per­
sonnel to identify and solve prob­
lems that hinder satisfactory
adjustment.
Social workers in medical and
psychiatric
settings
such
as
hospitals, clinics, mental health
agencies, rehabilitation centers,
and public welfare agencies aid pa­
tients and their families with social
problems accompanying illness,
recovery, and rehabilitation. As
members of medical teams,- they
help patients respond to treatment
and guide them in their readjust­
ment to their homes, jobs, and com­
munities. (The related occupation
of rehabilitation counselor is




discussed in a separate statement.)
Probation and parole officers and
other social workers engaged in
correctional programs help offend­
ers and persons on probation and
parole readjust to society.. They
counsel on social problems encoun­
tered in relation to their return to
family and community life. Proba­
tion and parole officers also may
help secure necessary education,
training, employment, or communi­
ty services.
In addition, the services of social
workers are being sought in many
fields where they have not been
used significantly in the past. These
include private practice (as coun­
selors), industrial social work, drug
and alcohol abuse counseling, and
city and social policy planning.

Places of Employment
About 300,000 social workers
were employed in 1974; nearly twothirds of them were women. State,
county, and city government agen­
cies employ about two-thirds of all

social workers; about 3,000 work
for the Federal Government. Most
of the remainder work for voluntary
or private agencies, schools,
hospitals, and other medical
establishments. Although employ­
ment is concentrated in urban
areas, many work with rural fami­
lies. A small number of social work­
ers—employed by the Federal
Government and the United Na­
tions or one of its affiliated agen­
cies—serve in other parts of the
world as consultants, teachers, or
technicians and establish agencies,
schools, or assistance programs.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
In recent years, there has been a
growing
acceptance
of
the
bachelor’s degree in social work
(BSW), rather than the master’s
degree (MSW), as the minimum
education of the professional social
worker. The BSW programs
generally offer an introduction to
the social welfare system, the skills

and values of social work, and su­
pervised field experience. Although
the BSW is preferred, many em­
ployers will accept a bachelor’s
degree in another field as an ac­
ceptable level of education.
For many positions, a master’s
degree in social work is preferred or
required. Two years of specialized
study and supervised field instruc­
tion are generally required to earrt
an MSW. Previous training in social
work is not required for entry into a
graduate program, but courses in
related fields such as psychology,
sociology, economics, political
science,
history,
and
social
anthropology, as well as social
work, are recommended. Some
graduate schools recently have
established 1-year MSW programs
for well-qualified BSW recipients.
In 1974, 86 colleges and universi­
ties offered accredited graduate
programs in social work.
Scholarships and fellowships are
available for graduate education.
Some social welfare .agencies, both
voluntary and public, offer plans
whereby workers are granted
‘educational leave1 to obtain gradu­
ate education. The agency may pay
the expenses or a salary, or both.
A graduate degree and ex­
perience are generally required for
supervisory, administrative, or
research work, the last also requir­
ing training in social science
research methods. For teaching
positions, an MSW is required and a
doctorate usually is preferred. In
most State and many local govern­
ment agencies, applicants for em­
ployment must pass a written exam,
particularly at the bachelor’s level.
At the end of 1974, 14 States had
licensing or registration laws
providing for the use of professional
social work titles by those who
qualify. Usually work experience,
an examination, or both, are neces­
sary for licensing or registration,
with periodic renewal required. The
National Association of Social
Workers allows the use of the title
ACSW (Academy of Certified So­




cial Workers) for those members
having at least 2 years of post­
master’s job experience who have
passed the ACSW examination.
Social workers should be emo­
tionally mature, objective, and sen­
sitive and should possess a basic
concern for people and their
problems. They must be able to
handle responsibility, work inde­
pendently, and form and sustain
good working relationships with
clients and co-workers.
Students should obtain as much
related work experience as possible
during high school and college to
determine whether they have the
interest and capacity for profes­
sional social work. They may do
volunteer, part-time, or summer
work in places such as camps, set­
tlement houses, hospitals, commu­
nity centers, or social welfare agen­
cies. Some voluntary and public so­
cial welfare agencies hire students
for jobs in which they assist social
workers.

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
persons having bachelor’s degrees
in social welfare or related fields
should be favorable Through the
remainder of the 1970’s and into
the 1980’s. The outlook for gradu­
ates of master’s degree programs in
social work is expected to continue
to be good through the mid-1980’s.
However, if the number of students
graduating from social work pro­
grams continue to increase at the
same rate as in the 1960’s and early
1970’s, competition for some posi­
tions will become stronger. At both
the bachelor’s and master’s levels, it
is possible that in certain geo­
graphic areas there will be greater
job competition.
Employment of social workers is
expected to increase faster than the
average for all occupations through
the mid-1980’s. Many new posi­
tions will come from the expansion
of community mental health cen­
ters, and growth of the newer social

work services such as drug and al­
cohol abuse counseling and city and
policy planning. Also, as the occu­
pational structure of the economy
continues to change, problems may
be created for unskilled and dis­
placed workers. This, coupled with
the problems caused by social
change, is expected to maintain a
strong demand for persons in the
social service field.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Salaries for social workers at all
levels vary greatly by type of ageiicy
(private or public, Federal, State,
or local) and geographic region.
Salaries are generally highest in
large cities and in States with siza­
ble urban populations. In 1974, so­
cial workers with a bachelor’s
degree usually started at about
$8,000-$8,500; with a master’s
degree, between $9,500 and
$11,000. Salaries for experienced
MSW social workers averaged
$12,000-15,000 a year. Private
practitioners and those in adminis­
tration, teaching, and research
often earn considerably more.
In the Federal Government, so­
cial workers with an MSW and no
experience usually started at about
$10,500 in late 1974. Graduates
with an MSW and no work ex­
perience may start at $12,800 if
they are well qualified for the posi­
tion; with an MSW and 1 year of ex­
perience, usually at $12,800; with
an MSW and 2 years of experience,
at almost $15,500.
Men and women without gradu­
ate training in social work are
generally limited in the advance­
ment opportunities available to
them, since most supervisory and
administrative positions are staffed
by master’s degree recipients.
Most social workers have a 5day, 35-40-hour week. However,
many, particularly in private agen­
cies, work part time. In some agen­
cies, the nature of the duties
requires
some
evening
and

weekend work, for which com­
pensatory time off is given. Most so­
cial work agencies provide fringe
benefits such as paid vacation, sick
leave, and retirement plans.

portunities in the various fields of
social work, contact:

Sources of Additional
Information

Information on accredited gradu­
ate and undergraduate college pro­
grams in social work is available
from:

For information about career op­




National Association of Social Workers,
15th and H St. NW„ 600 Southern
Building. Washington, D.C. 20005.

Council on Social Work Education, 345 East
46th St., New York, N.Y. 10017.

ART, DESIGN, AND COMMUNICATIONS
RELATED OCCUPATIONS
Creativity and the ability to com­
municate ideas are prerequisites for
work in occupations related to art,
design, and communications. For
example, an architect’s blueprint is
the embryo of a building; floral
designers express a mood of love,
sympathy, or other emotion in a
flower arrangement; and actors
project a character on the stage or
screen for the enjoyment of their




audiences. Newspaper reporters
communicate newsworthy events to
their reading audiences; dancers ex­
press emotion, mood, or thought
through physical movements; and
photographers capture an emotion
or idea through camera angle,
lighting, and the flick of a shutter.
This section of the Handbook
describes in detail occupations that
require creative and communica­

tive talents: the performing arts—
actors, dancers, singers, and musi­
cians; the design occupations—
architects, urban planners, and
seven other related occupations;
and communications related Occu­
pations—interpreters, newspaper
reporters, technical writers, and
radio and TV announcers.

PERFORMING ARTISTS
The performing arts include
music, acting, singing, and the
dance. In these fields, the number
of talented persons seeking employ­
ment generally greatly exceeds the
number of full-time positions
available. As a result, many per­
formers supplement their incomes
by teaching, and others work much
of the time in different types of
occupations.
The difficulty of earning a living
as a performer is one fact young
persons should remember when
they consider such a career. They
should consider, therefore, the
possible advantages of making their
art a hobby rather than a profes­
sion. Aspiring young artists usually
must spend many years in intensive
training and practice before they
are ready for public performances.
They not only need great natural
talent but also determination, a
willingness to work long and hard,
and an overwhelming interest in
their chosen field, and some luck.
The statements which follow this
introduction give detailed informa­
tion on musicians, singers, actors,
and dancers.

ACTORS AND
ACTRESSES
(D.O.T. 150.028 and 150.048)

Nature of the Work
Making a character come to life
before an audience is a job that has
great glamour and fascination. This
demanding work requires special
talent and involves many difficulties
and uncertanties.




Only a few actors and actresses
achieve recognition as stars on the
stage, in motion pictures, or on
television or radio. A somewhat
larger number are well-known, ex­
perienced
performers,
who
frequently are cast in supporting
roles. However, most actors and ac­
tresses struggle for a toehold in the
profession, and are glad to pick up
parts wherever they can.
New actors generally start in
“bit” parts where they speak only a
few lines. If successful, they may
progress to larger, supporting roles,
of which there are several in most
stage, television, and screen
productions. They also may serve as
understudies for the principals.
Actors who prepare for stage,
In the winter, most employment
screen,
and
television
roles
rehearse many hours. They must opportunities on the stage are in
memorize their lines and know their New York and other large cities.
About 400 actors and actresses
cues.
In addition to the actors and ac­ worked on Broadway in 1974. In the
tresses with
speaking parts, summer, stock companies in subur­
“extras,” who have no lines to ban and resort areas provide em­
deliver, are used in various ways in ployment. In addition, many cities
almost all motion pictures and now have—“ little theatres,” reper­
many television shows and theatre tory companies and dinner theatres,
productions.
In “spectacular” which provide opportunities for
productions, a large number of ex­ local talent as well as for profes­
sional actors and actresses. Nor­
tras take part in crowd scenes.
Some actors find alternative jobs mally plays are produced and casts
as coaches of drama or directors of selected in New York City for
stage, television, radio, or motion shows that go “on the road.”
Employment in motion pictures
pictures productions. A few teach
in drama departments of colleges and film television is essentially
centered in Hollywood and New
and universities.
York City, although a few studios
are located in Miami and other
Places of Employment
parts of the country. In addition,
About 10,000 actors and ac­ many films are shot on location,
tresses work in stage plays, motion and employ local nonprofessionals
pictures (including films made as “extras.” A number of Amer­
especially for television), industrial ican-produced films are being shot
in foreign countries. In television,
shows and commercials.

most opportunities for actors are at
the headquarters of the major net­
works—in New York, Los Angeles,
and, to a lesser extent, Chicago. A
few local television stations occa­
sionally employ actors.

Training, and Other
Qualifications
Young persons who aspire to act­
ing careers should take part in high
school and college plays, or work
with little theatres and other acting
groups for experience.
Formal training in acting which is
increasingly necessary, can be ob­
tained at dramatic art schools,
located chiefly in New York, and in
more than 1,600 colleges and
universities throughout the country.
College drama curriculums usually
include courses in liberal arts,
speech, pantomime, directing,
play writing, play production, and
history of the drama, as well as
practical courses in acting. From
these, the student develops an ap­
preciation of the great plays and a
greater understanding of the roles
he may be called on to play. Gradu­
ate degrees in fine arts or drama are
needed for college teaching posi­
tions.
Acting demands patience and
total commitment, since aspiring
actors and actresses must wait for
parts or filming schedules, work
long hours, and often do much
traveling. Flawless performances
require long rehearsal schedules
and the tedious memorizing of
lines. The actor needs stamina to
withstand the heat of stage or studio
lights, or the adverse weather con­
ditions which may exist “on loca­
tion.” Above all, young persons
who plan to pursue an acting career
must have talent and the creative
ability to portray different charac­
ters. They must have poise, stage
presence, and aggressiveness to
project themselves to the audience.
At the same time, the ability to fol­
low directions is important.
In all media, the best way to start



is to use local opportunities and to
build on the basis of such ex­
perience. Many actors successful in
local productions eventually try to
appear on the New York stage. In­
experienced actors find it extremely
difficult to obtain employment in
New York or Hollywood particu­
larly in the motion picture field
where employment often results
from previous experience on
Broadway.
To become a movie extra, one
must usually be listed by Central
Casting, a no-fee agency which
works with the Screen Extras Guild
and supplies all extras to the major
movie studios in Hollywood. Appli­
cants are accepted only when the
number of persons of a particular
type on the list—for example,
athletic young men, old ladies, or
small children—is below the
foreseeable need. In recent years,
only a very small proportion of the
total number of applicants have
succeeded in being listed. Extras
have very little opportunity to ad­
vance to speaking roles.
The length of an actor’s or ac­
tresses’ working life depends largely
on skill and versatility. Great actors
and actresses can work almost in­
definitely. On the other hand, em­
ployment becomes increasingly
limited by middle age, especially for
those who become typed in roman­
tic, youthful roles. Due to the fac­
tors disccussed, persons who intend
to pursue an acting career may find
unstable employment conditions
and financial pressures.

Employment Outlook
Overcrowding has existed in the
acting field for many years and this
condition is expected to persist. In
the legitimate theater, motion pic­
tures, radio, and television, job ap­
plicants greatly exceed the jobs
available. Moreover, many actors
are employed in their profession for
only a part of the year.
Motion pictures and TV have
greatly reduced employment oppor­

tunities for actors in the theater.
Although a motion picture produc­
tion may use a very large number of
actors, during filming, films are
widely distributed and may be used
for years. Also, some Americanproduced films are shot in foreign
countries resulting in reduced em­
ployment opportunites for Amer­
ican actors and actresses. Televi­
sion employs a large number of ac­
tors on TV programs and commer­
cials. However, employment on this
media has been reduced by the
FCC ruling that decreased major
TV network prime time pro­
gramming. Local stations often sub­
stitute with low cost game shows
that employ few actors or reruns.
Also, the trend toward 1 to 2-hour
programs, and more reruns shor­
tens the period of employment and
reduces the number of persons
needed.
One possibility for future growth
in the legitimate theater lies in the
establishment of year-round profes­
sional acting companies in cities.
The number of such acting groups
is growing. The recent growth of
summer and winter stock compa­
nies, outdoor and regional theatre,
repertory companies, and dinner
theaters also has increased employ­
ment opportunities. Dinner theatres
represent the fastest growing area
of employment in the country for
actors. Also, a possible growth in
“Off-Broadway” theatre could
result from the recent seating
capacity expansion. In addition,
some increases may be likely in the
employment of actors on television
in response to expansion of the
Public Broadcasting System, UHF
stations, and cable TV. The
development and wider use of video
cassettes also may result in some
employment opportunities. These
media will have a positive influence
on employment if original material
and programs result, not reruns or
old movies.
Though the field of acting as a
whole is expected to grow faster
than the average for all occupa­

tions, through the mid-1980’s, the
number of persons who want to
enter the profession is expected to
^be greater than employment oppor­
tunities. Even highly talented young
people are likely to face stiff com­
petition and economic difficulties.

this profession, annual earnings
may be low for many lesser-known
performers. According to a recent
survey by the Screen Actors Guild,
three-quarters of their members
earned less than $3,500 a year; only
3 percent earned more than
$25,000 a year. In all fields, many
well-known actors and actresses
Earnings and Working
have salary rates above the
Conditions
minimums. Salaries of the few top
stars are many times the figures
Actors and actresses in the legiti­
mate theater belong to the Actors’ cited.
Eight performances amount to a
Equity Association, in motion pic­
tures, including television films, to week’s work on the legitimate
the Screen Actors Guild, Inc., or to stage, and any additional per­
the Screen Extras Guild, Inc., in formances are paid for as overtime.
television or radio, to the American After the show opens, the basic
Federation of Television and Radio workweek is 36 hours, including 12
Artists (AFTRA). These unions hours for rehearsals. Before it
and the show producers sign basic opens, however, the workweek
collective bargaining agreements usually is longer to allow time for
which set minimum salaries, hours rehearsals. Evening work is, of
of work, and other conditions of course, a regular part of a stage
employment. Each actor also signs actor’s life. Rehearsals may be held
a separate contract which may pro­ late at night and on weekends and
vide for higher salaries than those holidays. When plays are on the
road, weekend traveling often is
specified in the basic agreement.
The minimum weekly salary for necessary.
Most actors are covered by a
actors in Broadway productions
pension fund and a growing number
was about $245 in 1974. Those in
small “off-Broad way” theaters have hospitalization insurance to
received a minimum of $137.50 to which employers contribute. All
$210 a week depending on the Equity and AFTRA members have
theater’s gross receipts. For shows paid vacations and sick leave. Most
on the road, the minimum rate was stage actors get little if any unem­
about $347.50 a week. (All ployment compensation solely from
minimum salaries are adjusted up­ acting since they seldom have
ward automatically, by union con­ enough employment in any State to
tract, commensurate with increases meet the eligibility requirements.
in the cost of living as reflected in Consequently, when a show closes,
the Bureau of Labor Statistics Con­ and while waiting for another role
they often have to take any casual
sumer Price Index.)
In 1974, motion picture and work obtainable.
television actors and actresses
earned a minimum daily rate of
Sources of Additional
$172.50, or $604 for a 5-day week.
Information
For extras, the minimum rate was
Information on colleges and
$46 a day. Actors and actresses
who did not work on prime time universities and conservatories
network television received a which offer a major in drama is
minimum program fee of about available from:
$203.50 for a single half-hour pro­ American Educational Theater Association,
1317 F St. NW„ Washington, D.C.
gram and 8 hours of rehearsal time.
20004.
Because of the frequent periods of
unemployment, characteristic of




DANCERS
(D.O.T. 151.028 and 151.048)
Nature of the Work
Dancing is an ancient and world­
wide art that has many different
forms. Professional dancers may
perform in classical ballet or
modern dance, in dance adapta­
tions for musical shows, in folk
dances, and in other popular kinds
of dancing. In classical ballet,
movements are based on certain
conventional or styled “ positions,”
and women dance “en point” (on
the tips of their toes). In modern
dance, movements are more varied
but are nonetheless carefully
planned and executed to follow a
pattern.
In dance productions, performers
most often work as a corps de ballet
(chorus). However, a group of
selected dancers may do special
numbers, and a very few top artists
do solo work.
Many dancers combine stage
work with full-time teaching. The
few dancers who become choreog­
raphers create new ballet or dance
routines. Others are dance directors
who train dancers in new produc­
tions.
(This statement does not include
instructors of ballroom, American
or international folk dance and
other social dancing.)

Places of Employment
About 7,000 dancers worked on
the stage, screen, and television in
1974. Many more teach at schools
of the dance and in other schools
and colleges and universities. A few
teachers, trained in dance therapy,
work in mental hospitals. About 85
percent of all dancers are women,
but in some types of dance, particu­
larly ballet and modern, women
constitute only about one-half of
the performers.
Dance teachers are located
chiefly in large cities, but many
smaller cities and towns have
schools of the dance. New York
City is the hub for performing dan­
cers.

Training and Other
Qualifications
Serious training for a career in
dancing traditionally begins by age
12 or earlier. For example, persons
who wish to become ballet dancers
should begin taking lessons at the
age of 7 or 8. Two to 3 years of
prior preparation is needed before
the young girl should start dancing
“enpointe.” Ballet training requires
from 10 to 12 lessons a week for 11
or 12 months in the year and many
additional hours of practice. The
length of the training period de­
pends on the student’s ability and
physical development, but most
dancers have their professional au­
dition by age 17 or 18. Early and in­
tense training is also important for
the modem dancer.
The selection of a professional
dancing school is important for (1)
setting the pace of training, since
too early and too severe exercise
can permanently damage the legs
and feet; and (2) for connections
with producers may help the stu­
dents obtain employment.
Because of the strenuous training
a student’s general education may
not exceed the minimum. However,
a dancer should study of music,
literature, and history along with
the arts to help in the interpretation



of dramatic episodes and music.
Also, more dancers are being
trained in all forms of dance—bal­
let, ethnic, modern, and tap—for
work on the professional stage or
education.
About 200 colleges and universi­
ties confer bachelor’s degrees on
students who have majored in
physical education and concen­
trated on the dance; majored in a
dance; or majored in a dance pro­
gram to prepare students as profes­
sional dance artists. Some schools
also give graduate degrees.
A college education is an ad­
vantage in obtaining employment as
a teacher of professional dancing or
choreography. However, ballet
dancers who postpone their First au­
dition for openings in classical bal­
let until graduation may compete at
a disadvantage with younger dan­
cers.
Professional schools usually
require teachers to have experience
as a performer; colleges and conser­
vatories generally require graduate
degrees, but experience as a per­
former often may be substituted.
Maturity and a broad educational
background also are important.
The dancer’s life is one of
rigorous
practice
and
selfdiscipline. Good health and physi­
cal stamina are necessary, both to
keep in good condition and to fol­
low the rugged travel schedule
often required.
Body height and build should not
vary much from the average. Good
feet and normal arches also are
required. Above all, onermust have
a natural aptitude for dancing, and
a creative ability to express oneself
through dance.
Seldom does a dancer perform
unaccompanied. Therefore, young
persons who consider dancing as a
career should be able to function as
part of a team. They also should be
prepared to face the anxiety of un­
stable working conditions brought
on by show closings and audition
failures.
Except for outstanding stars,

women past 30 are rarely hired by
ballet companies, and women past
25 are rarely hired for Broadway
shows unless they have had ex­
perience in such productions. Men
in ballet and men and women in
modern dance can usually work
longer than other dancers. After the
employable age for performers has
passed, some dancers teach in col­
leges or conservatories or establish
their own schools. The few who
become choreographers or dance
directors can continue to work as
long as persons in other occupa­
tions.

Employment Outlook
The number seeking professional
careers in dance will continue to ex­
ceed available positions, despite an
expected faster than the average
rate of growth in the employment of
dancers.
Most openings in this relatively
small occupation will result from
replacement needs, and competi­
tion is expected to be keen. The
best employment opportunities will
be in teaching dance. Opportunities
in stage production will be limited.
The number of stage productions
is expected to decline due to in­
creased competition from television
and motion pictures, however,
some jobs will be available in these
media. Financial difficulties of
domestic companies and competi­
tion from foreign dancers will
reduce ballet employment. How­
ever, some performing dancers will
Find jobs in industrial exhibitions,
art shows and state fairs. Others will
work with new professional dance
companies formed from the in­
creasing number of civic and com­
munity dance groups.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Professional dancers who per­
form are members of one of the
unions affiliated with the As­
sociated Actors and Artists of
America (AFL-CIO). Dancers in

opera ballet, classical ballet, and and University Teachers.” )
the modern dance belong to the
The normal workweek is 30
American Guild of Musical Artists, hours (5 hours per day maximum)
Inc.; those on live or videotaped spent in rehearsals and matinee and
television belong to the American evening performances. Extra com­
Federation of Television and Radio pensation is paid for additional
Artists; those perform in films, TV, hours worked. Most stage per­
and other forms of motion pictures formances take place, of course, in
belong to the Screen Actors Guild the evening, and rehearsals require
or the Screen Extras Guild; and very long hours, often on weekends
those in musical comedies join Ac­ and holidays. For shows on the
tors’ Equity Association. Other road, weekend travel often is
dancers may be members of other required.
unions, depending upon the fields
Dancers are entitled to some paid
in which they perform. The unions sick leave and various health and
and producers sign basic agree­ welfare benefits provided by their
ments specifying minimum salary unions, to which the employers
rates, hours of work, and other con­ contribute.
ditions of employment. The
separate contract signed by each
Sources Of Additional
dancer with the producer of the
Information
show may be more favorable than
the basic agreement regarding
Information on colleges and
salary, hours of work, and working universities and conservatories of
conditions.
music which give a major in the
In 1974, the minimum salary for dance or some courses in the dance,
dancers in ballet and other stage as well as details on the types of
productions was about $240 a courses and other pertinent infor­
week. The single performance rate mation is available from the Na­
is about $75 for a solo dance and tional Dance Association, a division
about $40 per dancer for a group. of the American Alliance for
Dancers on tour received an al­ Health, Physical Education and
lowance of $30 a day in 1974, to Recreation, 1201 16th St. NW.,
defray the cost of room and board. Washington, D.C. 20036.
The employer pays the cost of
transportation. For a brief ap­
pearance in a performance on
MUSICIANS
television or a few days’ work in a
movie, the minimum rate is higher,
(D.O.T. 152.028 and 152.048)
relative to time worked. However,
this difference is offset by the brevi­
Nature of the Work
ty of the engagement and the long
period likely waiting for the next
Professional musicians—whether
one. A few performers, of course, they play in a symphony orchestra,
have much higher salaries.
dance band, rock group, or jazz
Some dancers qualified to teach combo—generally have behind
combine this work with engage­ them many years of formal or infor­
ments as performers. Many more mal study and practice. As a rule,
dancers supplement their incomes musicians specialize in either popu­
by other types of work.
lar or classical music; only a few
Salaries of ballet teachers vary play both types professionally.
with the location and prestige of the
Musicians who specialize in
school. Dance teachers in college popular music usually play the
and universities are paid on the trumpet, trombone, clarinet, sax­
same basis as other faculty mem­ ophone, organ, or one of the
bers. (See statement on “College “ rhythm” instruments—the piano,



string bass, drums, or guitar. Dance
bands play in nightclubs, restau­
rants, and at special parties. The
best known bands, jazz groups, rock
groups, and solo performers some­
times give concerts and perform on
television.
Classical musicians play in
symphonies, opera and theater
orchestras, and for other groups
that require orchestral accompani­
ments. Most of these musicians play
strings, brass, or woodwinds instru­
ments. Some form small groups—
usually a string quartet or a trio—to
give concerts of chamber music.
Many pianists accompany vocal or
instrumental soloists, choral groups
or provide background music in
restaurants or other places. Most
organists play in churches; often
they direct the choir.
A few exceptionally brilliant
musicians give their own concerts
and appear as soloists with
symphony orchestras. Both classi­
cal and popular musicians make in­
dividual and group recordings.
A very high proportion of all
musicians teach instrumental and
vocal music in schools and colleges.
Some direct vocal and instrumental
music, teach music appreciation,
and give group instruction on an in­
strument in elementary and secon­
dary school. Many public school
teachers and performing musicians,
give private lessons in their own stu­
dios or in pupil’s homes.
A few musicians work in the field
of music therapy in hospitals, and in
music libraries.

Places of Employment
About 85,000 persons worked as
performing musicians in 1974.
Many thousands more taught in ele­
mentary and secondary schools and
in colleges and universities. Almost
every town and city has at least one
private music teacher.
Most professional musicians who
perform work in cities where enter­
tainment and recording activities
are concentrated, such as New

York, Chicago, Los Angeles, Nash­
ville, Miami Beach, and New Orle­
ans. Many perform with one of the
28
major
symphonies,
88
metropolitan, or 1,100 community
orchestras. Many communities
have orchestras and dance bands,
but in the small towns such work is
usually part time.
In addition,
thousands of
qualified instrumentalists have
other full-time jobs and only occa­
sionally work as musicians in dance
bands, that are hired to play at
private parties or for special occa­
sions. Classical musicians occa­
sionally play in an orchestra,
become conductors or composers,
or do some part-time teaching.

Training and Other
Qualifications
Most people who become profes­
sional musicians begin studying an



instrument at an early age. To
acquire great technical skill, a
thorough knowledge of music, and
the ability to interpret music, young
people need intensive training
through private study with an ac­
complished musician, in a college
or university which has a strong
music program, or in a conservato­
ry of music. For advanced study in
one of these institutions an audition
frequently is necessary. Many
teachers in these schools are ac­
complished artists who will train
only promising young musicians.
More than 700 conservatories
and colleges and universities offer a
bachelor’s degree program in music
education to qualify graduates for
the State certificate for elementary
and secondary school teaching
positions. Over 400 conservatories
and collegiate music schools have
been accredited by the National As­
sociation of Schools of Music to
award the degree of bachelor of
music to students who major in in­
strumental or vocal music. These
programs provide training in musi­
cal performance, history and
theory, and some liberal arts
courses. College teaching positions,
usually require advanced degrees
but exceptions may be made for
well-qualified artists.
Musicians who play jazz and
other popular music must have an
understanding of and feeling for
that style of music, but classical
training may expand their employ­
ment opportunities. As a rule, they
take lessons with private teachers
when young, and seize every oppor­
tunity to play in amateur or profes­
sional performances. Some young
people form small dance bands or
rock groups. As they gain ex­
perience and become known, they
may audition for other local bands,
and still later, for the better known
bands and orchestras.
Young persons who consider
careers in music should have musi­
cal talent, creative ability, and poise
and stage presence to face large au­
diences. Since quality of per­

formance requires constant study
and practice, self-discipline is vital.
Moreover, musicians who do con­
cert and nightclub engagements
must have physical stamina because
of constant travel and rugged time
schedules that often include long
night hours.
Employment Outlook
The music performance field is
expected to remain keenly competi­
tive through the mid-1980’s. Op­
portunities for concerts and recitals
are not numerous enough to pro­
vide adequate employment for all
the pianists, violinists, and other in­
strumentalists qualified as concert
artists. Competition usually is keen
for positions which offer stable em­
ployment, such as jobs with major
orchestras and teaching positions.
Because of the ease with which a
musician can enter private music
teaching, the number of music
teachers has been more than suffi­
cient and probably will continue to
be. Although many opprotunities
are expected for single and short­
term emgagements, playing popular
music in night clubs, theaters, and
other places, the supply of qualified
musicians who seek such jobs is
likely to exceed demand. On the
other hand, first-class, experienced
accompanists and
outstanding
players of stringed instruments are
likely to remain relatively scarce.
Employment of musicians who
perform is expected to jgrow about
as fast as the average for all occupa­
tions through the mid-1980’s.
Although the number of civic
orchestras in smaller communities
has been growing steadily, many
provide only part-time employ­
ment. The decline in opportunities
for musicians in theater, radio, and
motion pictures has more than off­
set these openings. The increased
use of recorded music has lead to
the decline of opportunities in these
areas. Additional employment is ex­
pected from the expanded use of
TV satellites, cable TV, and wider
use of video cassettes.

The employment outlook in
music education for people who are
qualified as teachers as well as
musicians is better than for those
qualified as performers only. How­
ever, the supply of music teachers
in the Nation’s schools is
adequate—a situation which is like­
ly to continue through the mid1980’s.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
The amount received for a per­
formance by either classical or
popular musicians depends to a
large extent on their professional
reputation. Musicians in 1 of the 28
major symphony orchestras in the
United States in 1974 received
minimum salaries that ranged from
about $190 to $350 a week accord­
ing to the American Symphony
Orchestras League, Inc. Eight
orchestras—New York, Boston,
Philadelphia, Cleveland, Cincin­
nati, Houston, Chicago, and the Na­
tional—have year-round seasons
(50 weeks or more) and minimum
salaries ranging from $10,000 to
$18,000. Other major symphony
orchestras have seasons ranging
from 34 to 52 weeks.
Musicians who played at dances,
club dates, water shows, ballets,
musical comedies, concerts, and in­
dustrial shows earned a minimum of
$33 to $40 for 3 hours of work. The
minimum scale for recording is
$100 for a 15 minute tape (3 hours
actual taping time).
Full-time
church
musicians
earned from $7,500 to $16,000 a
year—according to hours worked a
week and level of training.
The salary schedule for all
teachers determines earnings of
music teachers in public schools.
(See statements on Elementary and
Secondary School Teachers else­
where in the Handbook.) Many
teachers give private music lessons
to supplement their earnings. How­
ever, earnings are uncertain and
vary according to the musician’s



reputation, the number of teachers
SINGERS
and students in the locality, and the
(D.O.T. 152.028 and .048)
economic status of the community.
Musicians customarily work at
Nature of the Work
night and on weekends. They also
must spend considerable time in
Professional singing is an art that
practice and in rehearsal.
usually requires not only a fine
Many musicians, primarily those voice but also a highly developed
employed by symphony orchestras, technique and a broad knowledge
work under master wage agree­ of music. A small number of singing
ments, which guarantee a season’s stars make recordings or go on con­
work up to 52 weeks. Musicians in cert tours in the United States and
other areas, however, may face abroad. Somewhat larger numbers
relatively long periods of unem­ of singers obtain leading or support­
ployment between jobs. Thus, their ing roles in operas and popular
earnings generally are lower than music shows, or secure engage­
those of many other occupations. ments as concert sologists in ora­
Moreover, they may not work torios and other types of per­
steadily for one employer. Con­ formances. Some singers also
sequently, some performers cannot become members of opera and
qualify for unemployment compen­ musical comedy choruses or other
sation, and few have either sick professional choral groups. Popular
leave or vacations with pay.
music singers perform in musical
Most professional musicians be­ shows of all kinds—in the movies,
long to the American Federation of on the stage, on radio and televi­
Musicians (AFL-CIO). Concert sion, in concerts and in nightclubs
soloists also belong to the American and other enterainment places. The
Guild of Musical Artists, Inc. (AFL- best known popular music singers
CIO).
make and sell many recordings.
Since most singers of both classi­
Sources of Additional
cal and popular music have only
Information
part-time or irregular employment
For information about wages, they often have other jobs and sing
hours of work, and working condi­ only in the evenings or on
tions for professional musicians, weekends. Some give private voice
lessons. A number of singers teach
contact:
courses in general music and direct
American Federation of Musicians (AFLCIO), 641 Lexington Ave., New York, elementary and secondary school
choruses. Others give voice training
N .Y .10022.
Information about the require­ or direct choral groups in churches,
ments for certification of organists in music conservatories or in col­
leges and universities.
and choir masters is available from:
American Guild of Organists, 630 Fifth Ave.,
New York, N.Y. 10020.

A list of accredited schools of
music is available from:
National Association of Schools of Music,
11250 Roger Bacon Dr., Reston, Va.
22090.

Further information about music
teaching in elementary and secon­
dary schools is available from:
Music Educators National Conference, Suite
601, 8150 Leesburg Pike, Vienna, Va.
22180.

Places of Employment
About 36,000 persons worked as
professional singers in 1974. Op­
portunities for signing engagements
are mainly in New York City, Los
Angeles, Las Vegas, San Francisco,
Dallas and Chicago—the Nation’s
chief entertainment centers. Nash­
ville, Tennessee, a major center for
country and western music, is one

whether professional training is
warranted is also important.
To prepare for careers as singers
of classical music young people can
enroll in a music conservatory, a
school or department of music con­
nected with a college or university,
or take private voice lessons. These
schools provide voice training, and
training in understanding and in­
terpreting music, including musicrelated training in foreign languages
and sometimes dramatic training.
After completing 4-years of study,
the graduate may receive either the
degree of bachelor of music,
bachelor of science or arts (in
music), or bachelor of fine arts.
of the most important places for
Young singers who plan to teach
employment of singers for “ live” in public schools need at least a
performances and recordings. Sing­ bachelor’s degree with a major in
ers who teach music in elementary music education and must meet the
and secondary schools, colleges, State certification requirements for
universities, and conservation are teachers. Over 700 colleges and
employed throughout the country. universities offer such training.
Many work part-time, chiefly as Most college teachers must have a
church singers and choir masters.
master’s degree or doctor’s degree,
but exceptions may be made for
well-qualified artists.
Although voice training is an
asset for singers of popular music,
Training and Other
many with untrained voices have
Qualifications
had successful careers. The typical
Young persons who want to sing popular song does not demand that
professionally should acquire a the voice be developed to cover as
broad background in music, includ­ wide a range on the musical scale as
ing its theory and history. The abili­ does classical music, and the lack of
ty to dance may be helpful, since voice projection may be overcome
singers are sometimes required to by use of a microphone.
Young singers of popular songs
dance. In addition, those interested
in a singing career should start may become known by participat­
piano lessons at an early age to ing in local amateur and paid
become familiar with the musical shows. These engagements may
scale and music composition. As a lead to employment with local
rule, voice training should not begin dance bands or rock groups and
until after the individual has ma­ possibly later with better known
tured physically, although young ones.
In addition to musical ability,
boys who sing in church choirs
receive some training before their perseverance and an outstanding
voices change. Moreover, because personality, a singing career
voice training often continues for requires an attractive appearance,
years after the singer’s professional good contacts, and good luck. Sin­
career has started, a prospective gers also must have physical
singer must have great determina­ stamina to adapt to rigorous time
tion. An audition before a com­ and travel schedules which often in­
petent voice teacher to decide clude working night hours.



Employment Outlook
The employment outlook for sin­
gers is expected to remain keenly
competitive through the mid-1980’s
despite an expected faster than the
average rate of employment
growth. Many short-term jobs are
expected in the opera and concert
stage, movies, theater, nightclubs,
radio and television, dance bands,
and other areas—but not enough to
provide steady employment for all
qualified singers. Singers who can
meet State certification require­
ments may find positions as music
teacher.
Recorded music has replaced the
“live” singer on radio; television
performances by singers are
limited. However, the demand is
growing for singers who record
popular music to do radio and
television commercials. Additional
employment is expected from the
expanded use of TV satellites, cable
TV, and wider use of video cas­
settes.
A singing career is sometimes
relatively short, since it depends on
a good voice and public acceptance
of the artists, both of which may be
affected by age. Due to these cir­
cumstances and factors discussed
elsewhere in the text, singers may
be subject to unstable employment
conditions and the pressure of unre­
liable financial circumstances.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Except for a few well-known con­
cert soloists, opera stars, top
recording artists of popular music,
and some dance band singers. Most
professional singers experience dif­
ficulty in obtaining regular employ­
ment and have to supplement their
incomes.
Singers generally work at night
and on weekends. Work in the en­
tertainment field is seasonal and
few performers have steady jobs.

Singers who appeared in theatri­ the American Guild of Musical
cal and TV motion picture produc­ Artists, Inc.; those who sing on
tions received a minimum of radio or live television or make
$187.50 a day or $604 a week in phonograph recordings are mem­
1974. Singers in opera choruses bers of the American Federation of
received $40 per performance. A Television and Radio Artists; sin­
few opera soloists and popular sing­ gers in the variety and nightclub
ers earned thousands of dollars a field belong to the American Guild
of Variety Artists; those who sing in
performance.
Professional singers usually be­ musical comedy and operettas be­
long to a branch of the AFL-CIO long to the Actors’ Equity Associa­
union, the Associated Actors and tion; and those who sing in the
Artists of America. Singers on the movies belong to the Screen Actors
concert stage or in opera belong to Guild, Inc.




Sources of Additional
Information
Information about accredited
schools and departments of music is
available from:
National Association of Schools of Music,
11250 Roger Bacon Dr., Reston, Va.
22090.

For information about music
teaching in elementary and secon­
dary schools contact:
Music Educators National Conference, Suite
601, 8150 Leesburg Pike, Vienna, Va.
22180.

DESIGN OCCUPATIONS
Good design can improve the ap­
pearance and usefulness of the
products that we use and the places
where we live and work, as well as
increase sales by improving their
“ eye appeal.” Making products or
places more appealing and func­
tional and bringing them to the at­
tention of the public is the job of
people in design occupations.
Different design careers require
varying levels of training and edu­
cation. For example, while floral
designers often learn their duties on
the job and do not need a high
school diploma, architects must
have at least 5 years of college and
professional education. Regardless
of the amount of formal training
required, people in design occupa­
tions should be creative and be able
to communicate ideas through their
designs and displays.
Job opportunities in design occu­
pations are expected to increase
through the mid-1980’s, primarily
because a growing and more af­
fluent population is becoming more
design conscious.
This chapter describes 10 design
occupations: architects, commer­
cial artists, display workers, floral
designers, industrial designers, in­
terior
designers,
landscape
architects, models, photographers,
and urban planners. (Other jobs
that often require design skills—for
example, engineers—are described
elsewhere in the Handbook.)

ARCHITECTS
(D.O.T. 001.081)

Nature of the Work
Attractive buildings improve the




physical environment of a commu­
nity. But buildings also must be safe
and allow people both inside and
around them to properly perform
their duties. Architects design
buildings that successfully combine
these elements of attractiveness,
safety, and usefulness.
Most architects provide profes­
sional services to clients planning a
building project. These services
begin in the early stages of the proj­
ect’s development and continue
until all work is completed.
The architect and client first
discuss the purposes, requirements,
and cost of a project, as well as any
preference on design that the client
may have. The architect then
prepares a rough drawing to show
the scale and structural relation­
ships of the building.
After discussing preliminary
drawings with the client, the
architect develops a final design
showing the floor plans and the
structural details of the project. For
example, in designing a school, the
architect determines the width of
corridors and stairways so that stu­
dents may move easily from one
class to another; the type and ar­
rangement of storage space, and the
location and size of classrooms,
laboratories,
lunchroom
or
cafeteria, gymnasium, and adminis­
trative offices.
Next the architect prepares
working drawings showing the
exact dimensions of every part of
the structure and the location of
plumbing, heating units, electrical
outlets, and air conditioning.
Architects also specify the proj­
ect’s building materials, construc­
tion equipment, and in, some cases,
interior furnishings. In all cases, the
architect must insure that the struc­

tures’ design and specifications
conform to local and State building
codes, zoning laws, fire regulations,
and other ordinances.
After all drawings are completed,
the architect assists the client in
selecting a contractor and in
negotiating the contract. As con­
struction proceeds, there are
periodic visits to the building site to
insure that the contractor is follow­
ing the design and using the
specified materials. The job is not
completed until construction is
finished, all required tests are
made, and guarantees are received
from the contractor.
Architects design a wide variety
of structures such as houses,
churches,
hospitals,
office
buildings, and airports. They also
design multibuilding complexes for
urban renewal projects, college
campuses, industrial parks, and new
towns. Besides designing structures,
architects also may help in selecting
building sites, in preparing cost and
land use studies, and in long range
planning for site development.
When working on large projects
or for large architectural firms,
architects often specialize in one
phase of the work such as desig­
ning, or administering construction
contracts. This often requires work­
ing with engineers, urban planners,
landscape architects, and other
design personnel.

Places of Employment
About
40,000
registered
(licensed) architects were em­
ployed in 1974. Many unlicensed
architectural school graduates also
work as architects.
About two-fifths of all architects
are self-employed, either practicing
individually or as partners. Most of
the others work in architectural
firms, for builders, for real estate
firms, or for other businesses that
have large construction programs.
Some work for government agen­
cies, often in city and community
planning or urban redevelopment.

Architects design floor plans for new building.

About 1,300 architects work for the
Federal Government, mainly for
the Departments of Defense, Hous­
ing and Urban Development, and
the General Services Administra­
tion.
Although found in many areas, a
large proportion of architects were
employed in seven cities: Boston,
Chicago, Los Angeles, New York,
Philadelphia, San Francisco, and
Washington.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
All States and the District of
Columbia require architects to be
licensed. To qualify for the 2-day
licensing exam, a person must have
either a bachelor of architecture
degree followed by 3 years of ex­
perience in an architect’s office or a



sional degree programs after
completing a 2-year junior or com­
munity college program in architec­
ture. Many architectural schools
also offer graduate education for
those who already have their first
professional degree. Although such
training is not essential for practic­
ing architects, it is often desirable
for those in research and teaching.
A typical college architectural pro­
gram includes courses in architec­
tural theory, design, graphics, en­
gineering, and urban planning, as
well as courses in English, mathe­
matics,
chemistry,
sociology,
economics, and a foreign language.
Persons planning careers in
architecture should be able to work
independently, have a capacity for
solving technical problems, and be
artistically inclined. They also must
be prepared to work in the competi­
tive environment of business where
leadership and ability to work with
others are important. Working for
architects or building contractors
during summer vacations is useful
for gaining practical knowledge.
New graduates usually begin as
junior drafters in architectural
firms, where they make drawings
and models of structures under the
direction of a registered architect.
After several years of experience,
they may advance to chief or senior
drafters responsible for all major
details of a set of working drawings
and for supervising other drafters.
Others may work as designers, con­
struction contract administrators,
or specification writers who
prepare directions explaining the
architect’s plan to the builder. Em­
ployees who become associates in
their firms receive, in addition to a
salary, a share of the profits.
Usually, however, the architect’s
goal is to establish a private prac­
tice.

master of architecture degree fol­
lowed by 2 years of experience. As
a substitute for formal training,
most States accept additional ex­
perience (usually 12 years) and
successful completion of an
equivalency test for admission to
the licensing examination. Many
architectural school graduates work
in the field even though they are not
licensed. However, a registered
architect is required to take legal
responsibility for all work.
In 1974, the National Architec­
tural Accrediting Board had ac­
credited 76 of the 100 schools of­
fering professional degrees in
architecture. Most of these schools
offer a 5-year curriculum leading to
Employment Outlook
a Bachelor of Architecture degree
or a 6-year curriculum leading to a
Job prospects for architects are
Master of Architecture degree. Stu­ expected to be favorable through
dents may also transfer to profes­ the mid-1980’s. Employment of

architects is expected to rise at a
much faster rate than the average
for all workers during this period. In
recent years, the number of degrees
granted in architecture also has
been increasing rapidly. If this trend
continues, the number of people
seeking employment in the field
should be roughly in balance with
the number of openings from
growth, deaths, and retirements.
The outlook for these workers may
change, however, during shortrun
periods. Since the demand for
architects is highly dependent upon
the level of new construction, any
significant upsurge or downturn in
building could temporarily alter de­
mand.
Most job openings are expected
to be in architectural firms but
some openings are also expected to
occur in colleges and universities,
construction firms and the Govern­
ment as agencies become more in­
volved in environmental design and
planning. (See statement on Urban
Planners elsewhere in the Hand­
book. )
The major factor contributing to
the increase in employment of
architects is the expected rapid
growth of nonresidential construc­
tion. In addition, the projected in­
crease in enrollments in architec­
tural programs should result in ad­
ditional requirements for architects
to teach in colleges and universities.
Growing public concern about
the quality of the physical environ­
ment is expected to increase the de­
mand for urban redevelopment and
city and community environmental
planning projects. This should
create further opportunities for em­
ployment.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
The average salary for architects
in 1973 was $23,000 according to
the limited information available.
Architects with well-established
private practices generally earn
much more than high-paid salaried



employees of architectural firms.
Although the range in their incomes
is very wide, some architects with
many years of experience and good
reputations earned well over
$35,000 a year. Architects starting
their own practices may go through
a period when their expenses are
greater than their incomes. Annual
incomes may fluctuate due to
changing business conditions.
Depending on their college
records, architects having a
bachelor’s degree and no ex­
perience could start in the Federal
Government at either $163 or $202
a week in 1974. Architects who
have completed all requirements
for the master’s degree can start at
$247 and those with a Ph. D. at
$334 a week.
Most architects spend long hours
at the drawing board in well
equipped offices. An architect
sometimes has to work overtime to
meet q deadline. The routine often
is varied by interviewing clients or
contractors, and discussing the
designs, construction procedures,
or building materials of a project
with other architects or engineers.
Contract administrators frequently
work outdoors during inspections at
construction sites.

Sources of Additional
Information
General
information
about
careers in architecture including a
catalog of publications can be ob­
tained from:
The American Institute of Architecture,
1735 New York Ave., Washington, D.C.
20036.

Information about schools of
architecture and a list of junior col­
leges offering courses in architec­
ture are available from:
The Association of Collegiate Schools of
Architecture, Inc., 1735 New York
Ave., Washington, D. C. 20036.

COM M ERCIAL AR TISTS
(D.O.T. 141.031 and .081,
970.281 and .381, and 979.381)

Nature of the Work
A team of commercial artists
with varying skills and specializa­
tions often creates the artwork in
newspapers and magazines and on
billboards, brochures, catalogs, and
television commercials. This team
is supervised by an art director, who
develops the artistic aspects of an
advertising plan, and then turns it
over to a layout artist for further
refinement. The layout artist who
constructs or arranges elements of
the advertisement, also selects and
lays out illustrations and photo­
graphs, plans use of typography,
and determines color and other ele­
ments of design. Preparation of a
“ rough visual” or sketch is the next
step. The layout artist may change
the visual after consulting with the
director and complete a more com­
prehensive layout for the customer.
A variety of specialists work with
the layout artist to turn out the
finished product. These include
renderers, who use magic markers
to make rough drafts; letterers, who
execute appropriate lettering either
freehand or with mechanical aids;
illustrators, who sketch and draw in
more finished form; and pasteup
and mechanical workers, who cut
and paste basic parts of the adver­
tisement or other artwork by using
a ruling pen and other drafting
tools. Some workers, called general
board workers, spend nearly all their
time at the drawing board perform­
ing many of these specializations.
Apprentices help general board
workers or other specialists by
doing routine jobs such as separat­
ing colors and cutting mats.
In a small office, the art director
may perform the layout and board
work with the aid of apprentices. In
a large office, the art director
develops concepts with the copy­
writer; sets standards; deals with
clients; and purchases needed

photographs, illustrations, lettering,
and other artwork from freelancers.
Advertising artists create the
concept and artwork for a wide
variety of items. These include
direct mail advertising, catalogs,
counter displays, slides, and film­
strips. They also design or lay out
the editorial pages and features and
produce or purchase the necessary
illustrations or artwork. Some com­
mercial artists specialize in produc­
ing fashion illustrations, greeting
cards, or book illustrations, or in
making technical drawings for in­
dustry.

Places of Employment
About 64,000 persons, one-third
of them women, worked as com­
mercial artists in 1974. Although
some commercial artists can be
found in nearly every city, the
majority work in large cities, such
as New York, Los Angeles, Boston,
Washington, D.C., and Chicago,
where the largest users of commer­
cial art are located.
Most commercial artists work as
staff artists for advertising depart­
ments of large companies, printing
and publishing firms, textile compa­
nies, photographic studios, televi­
sion and motion picture studios, de­
partment stores, and a variety of
other business organizations. Many
are self-employed or freelance
artists. Some salaried commercial
artists also do freelance work in
their spare time. About 2,400 com­
mercial artists work for Federal
Government agencies, principally
in the Defense Department. A few
teach in art schools.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Artistic
ability,
judgment,
imagination and a capacity to
visualize ideas on paper are impor­
tant qualifications for success in
commercial art. However, these
qualities must be developed by spe­
cialized training in the techniques
of commercial and applied art.



Education in the fine arts—paint­
ing, sculpture, or architecture—and
in academic studies generally pro­
vides a good foundation for obtain­
ing employment in commercial art,
and may be essential for promotion.
Special courses in visualization,
typography and production, and
TV commercial creation and
production also are desirable.
The most widely accepted train­
ing for commercial art is the in­
struction given in art schools or in­
stitutes that specialize in commer­
cial and applied art. To enter art
school, an applicant must usually
have a high school education. Some
schools admit only applicants who
submit acceptable work samples.
The course of study, which may in­
clude some academic work,
generally takes 2 or 3 years, and a
certificate is awarded on gradua­
tion. A growing number of art

schools, particularly those in or
connected with universities, require
4 years or more of study and confer
a bachelor’s degree—commonly
the bachelor of fine arts (B.F.A.).
About 300 colleges and universities
confer such degrees. In these
schools, commercial art instruction
is supplemented by liberal art
courses, such as English and his­
tory. Limited training in commer­
cial art also may be obtained through
public vocational high schools and
practical experience on the job.
However, supplemental training
usually is needed for advancement.
Beginners also should supplement
their formal education and training
by experience in doing posters,
layouts, illustrations and similar
projects for schools and other or­
ganizations.
The first year in art school may
be devoted primarily to the study of

fundamentals—perspective, design,
color harmony, composition—and
to the use of pencil, crayon, pen
and ink, and other art media. Sub­
sequent study, generally more spe­
cialized, includes drawing from life,
advertising design, graphic design,
lettering, typography, illustrations,
and other courses in the student’s
particular field of interest.
The various specialties, however,
differ in some of the specific abili­
ties required. For example, letterers
and retouchers must do precise and
detailed work that requires excel­
lent coordination, whereas illustra­
tors and designers need imagina­
tion, a distinctive art style, and, in
most cases, the ability to draw well.
Some experience with photog­
raphy, typography, and printing
production is useful in art direction
or design. Freelance commercial
artists must sell both ideas and
finished work to clients. A
knowledge of type specifications
and printing production methods is
very helpful. A business sense and
responsibility in meeting deadlines
are assets, also. Art directors need a
strong educational background in
art and business practices and the
liberal
arts.
Advertising
art
directors require a special kind of
creativity—the ability to conceive
ideas that will stimulate the sale of
the client’s products or services.
Beginning commercial artists
usually need some on-the-job train­
ing to qualify for other than strictly
routine work. Advancement is
based largely on the individual’s
artistic talent, creative ability, and
education. After considerable ex­
perience, many salaried commer­
cial artists leave to do freelance
work. Most illustrators are free­
lancers; many of them have an
agent.
Commercial artists usually as­
semble their best artwork into a
“ portfolio,” to display their work.
A good portfolio is essential in ob­
taining initial employment and
freelance assignments as well as for
job changes.



Employment Outlook

earned from $85 to $90 a week;
graduates of 2-year professional
schools, $90 to $100 a week; and
graduates of 4-year post-high
school programs, $100 to $120 a
week, according to the limited data
available. Talented artists who had
strong educational backgrounds
and good portfolios, however,
started at higher salaries. After a
few years of experience, qualified
artists may expect to earn $140 to
$ 160 a week or more. Art directors,
designers, executives, well-known
freelance illustrators, and others in
top positions generally have much
higher earnings, from $300 to $500
a week or more.
Earnings of freelance artists vary
widely, since they are affected by
factors such as skill level, variety,
and popularity of work. Freelancers
receive from $25 for a single blackand-white fashion sketch to $2,000
for a color cover for a national
magazine. Freelance artists may be
paid by the hour or by the assign­
ment. Commercial artists who
worked for the Federal Govern­
ment in 1974 had an average an­
nual salary of $13,196 or $256 a
week.
Salaried
commercial
artists
generally work 35 to 40 hours a
week, but sometimes they must
work additional hours and under a
considerable amount of pressure in
order to meet deadlines Freelance
artists usually have irregular work­
ing hours.

Talented and well-trained com­
mercial artists may face competi­
tion for employment and advance­
ment in most kinds of work through
the mid-1980’s. Those with only
average ability and little specialized
training probably will encounter
keen competition for beginning
jobs and have limited opportunities
for advancement.
Employment of commercial
artists is expected to increase about
as fast as the average for all occupa­
tions through the mid-1980’s. One
anticipated area of growth is in
visual advertising such as television
graphics, packaging displays, and
poster and window displays. The
expanding field of industrial design
also is expected to require more
qualified artists to do three-dimen­
sional work with engineering con­
cepts. (See statement on Industrial
Designers.) In addition, several
thousand jobs for commercial
artists are expected to open each
year throughout the period to
replace workers who will die, retire,
or leave the field for other reasons.
The demand for commercial
artists is expected to vary by spe­
cialization or type. For example,
demand for freelance artists is ex­
pected to increase; experienced
paste-up and mechanical artists are
always needed; jobs for designers,
art directors, and layout men will be
fewer, much sought after and open
only to experienced, high talented,
and creative artists.
Commercial art occupations are
Sources of Additional
particularly sensitive to changes in
Information
business conditions. Therefore, job­
seekers may find opportunities in
Information on institutions offer­
any one year more or less plentiful ing programs in commercial art is
in accordance to economic condi­ available from:
tions.
National Art Education Association, Na­

Earnings and Working
Conditions
In 1974, beginning commercial
artists having no training beyond
vocational high school typically

tional Education Association, 1916 As­
sociation Dr., Reston. Va. 22091.

DISPLAY W ORKERS
(R ETAIL TRADE)
(D.O.T. 298.081)

Nature of the Work
It happens every shopping day: A
person browsing through a clothing
store notices a mannequin wearing
an attractive suit and, without hav­
ing planned to, purchases a similar
outfit. A fishing enthusiast sees a
display of angling equipment in a
store window, goes in, and buys a
new reel.
Incidents like these show how
displays in stores and store windows
can attract customers and en­
courage them to buy. Knowing the
effectiveness of this foim of adver­
tising, some stores allot a large
share of their publicity budget to
displays.
Display workers specialize in
designing and installing such ex­
hibits. Their aim is to develop at­
tractive, eye-catching ways of
showing store merchandise to best
advantage. To create a setting that
enhances the merchandise, display
workers need imagination as well as
knowledge of color harmony, com­
position, and other fundamentals of
art. They may, for example, choose
a theme—a beach setting to adver­
tise bathing suits or surfing equip­
ment—and design a colorful display
around this theme. After the design
has been approved by the store’s
management, display workers ob­
tain the props and other necessary
accessories. This is where their
craft skills come into play.
Display workers often construct
many of the props themselves using
hammers, saws, spray guns, and
other tools. They may be assisted in
these tasks by a helper or by store
maintenance workers. Display
workers also may use props out of
storage, designed for previous dis­
plays, or order props from firms
which specialize in them. The dis­
play workers install the props,
background settings, and lighting
equipment. They also dress man­



nequins and add finishing touches.
Periodically, they dismantle old dis­
plays and replace them with new
ones.
In large stores that employ
several display workers, each may
specialize in a particular activity
such as carpentry, painting, making
signs, or setting up displays. Overall
planning and administration in
large stores is usually the responsi­
bility of a display director who su­
pervises and coordinates the activi­
ties of the department. The director
confers with architects and execu­
tives, such as advertising and sales
managers, to select merchandise to
be promoted and to design displays.

Places of Employment
About 34,000 persons worked as
display workers in retail stores in
1974. Most worked in department,
clothing,
and
homefurnishing
stores; others in variety, drug, and
shoe stores and in book and gift
shops. Several thousand additional
freelance or self-employed display
workers serviced small stores that
needed
professional
window
dressing but could not afford full­
time display workers. Freelancers
are among the most highly skilled
workers in this field.
While major department stores
may have as many as 30 or 40 dis­
play workers, most stores have only
one or two.

Geographically, employment is
distributed much like the Nation’s
population, with most jobs in larger
towns and cities.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Most display workers learn their
trade through informal on-the-job
training. Beginners are hired as
helpers to dismantle displays, carry
props, and do other routine tasks.
Gradually, they are given the op­
portunity to do more difficult work
such as building props and, if they
show artistic talent, planning simple
designs. A beginner usually can
become skilled in 2 to 3 years.
Training time varies, however, de­
pending on the beginner’s ability
and the variety and complexity of
displays that the employer requires.
When
hiring
inexperienced
workers, most employers will con­
sider only applicants who have fin­
ished high school. Courses that
provide helpful training for display
work include art, woodworking,
mechanical drawing, and merchan­
dising. Some employers seek appli­
cants who have completed college
courses in art, interior decorating,
fashion design, advertising, or re­
lated subjects. College training im­
proves opportunities for advance­
ment to managerial jobs.
Creative ability, manual dexteri­
ty, and mechanical aptitude are
among the most important personal
qualifications needed in this field.
Good physical condition and agility
are needed to carry equipment,
climb ladders, and work in close
quarters without upsetting props.
Advancement may take several
forms. A display worker with super­
visory ability might become display
director in a large store. A display
director might in turn progress to
sales promotion director or be
placed in charge of store planning.
Freelance work is another
avenue of advancement. Some
workers moonlight until they have
enough clients for full-time work on

their own. Relatively little money is
needed to start a freelance business,
but since this is a highly competitive
field, self-employment is likely to
be a struggle, particularly at the
outset.
The display worker’s skills could
lead to jobs in other art-related oc­
cupations such as interior decora­
tion or photography. These occupa­
tions, however, require additional
training.

Employment Outlook
Employment of display workers
is expected to grow about as fast as
the average for all occupations
through the mid-1980’s. The chief
spur to employment gains will be
thfe construction of additional
stores as population grows. Also,
many stores are placing greater
emphasis on window and interior
displays as a means to stimulate
sales. In addition to the jobs result­
ing from employment growth, many
openings will arise each year to
replace experienced workers who
retire, die, or transfer to other oc­
cupations.
Employment opportunities will
be concentrated in large stores,
most of which are located in
metropolitan areas. Although many
jobs will be available for applicants
who have no more than a high
school education, opportunities will
be best for those who have
completed college courses in art,
interior decorating, fashion design,
advertising, or related subjects.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Among large employers, weekly
salaries for beginners ranged from
$80 to $125 in 1974. Beginners
who have completed college
courses in art, interior decorating,
or related subjects generally receive
the higher starting salaries. Ex­
perienced display workers’ salaries
range from $120 to $225 a week,
depending largely on experience
and ability. Most display directors



(shapes), plant materials, and floral
design enables designers to create
floral and plant gifts, decorations,
and tributes.
In any given day, designers may
receive a variety of orders including
decorative potted plants, bouquets,
corsages, funeral work, and dried
flower arrangements. Special or­
ders, such as weddings and parties,
also incorporate the creative design
and decorating talents of the floral
designer.
Designers work from a written
order
indicating
customer
preference for color and type of
flower, as well as the cost, date,
time, and place the arrangement or
plant is to be delivered. Customers
may leave the choice of flowers,
color, and design to the discretion
of the designer.
Designers must know the names
and keeping (lasting) qualities of
flowers as well as growing informa­
tion of potted plants. They also
know the seasonal availability of
flower and plant material. Flowers
are obtained from local wholesalers
or shipped directly from growers.
A funeral order may read “easel
spray of red and white flowers.’’ For
the foundation, the designer at­
taches a base (styrofoam, needle
pack, etc.) near the top of a threeSources of Additional
legged wire stand. Appropriate
Information
flowers are selected from the floral
Details on career opportunities refrigerator. White gladiolas and
can be obtained from local red carnations are a possible com­
retailers, such as department stores, bination. The price of the order and
and from local offices of the State the cost of the flowers determine
the number of flowers used. The
employment service.
flowers are cut to the needed length
and wired for security. Stems are
strengthened with wood sticks for
easy insertion into the base.
FLORAL DESIGNERS
To background the flowers,
designers insert leafy branches such
(D.O.T. 142.081)
as chamadorea or fern into the
base. Gladiolas are evenly spaced
Nature of the Work
so that the tips of the flowers ap­
Floral
designers
assemble proximate a spear or diamond
selected flowers and foliages for a shape. Carnations are placed
specific design to express the between the gladioli to provide con­
thoughts and sentiments of the trasting forms, color harmony, and
sender. Knowledge of flower forms depth. A bow placed at the focal

earn between $10,000 and $15,000
a year. Experienced directors in
large metropolitan department
stores may earn considerably more,
particularly those who occupy ex­
ecutive positions.
The earnings of freelancers de­
pend on their talent and prestige,
on the number and kinds of stores
they service, and on the amount of
time they devote to the work. Many
freelancers earn more than $15,000
a year, and some earn more than
$30,000.
Display personnel enjoy the
satisfaction of doing creative work.
Developing an original design and
transforming it into reality can be a
highly rewarding experience.
Display workers usually work 35
to 40 hours a week. During busy
seasons, such as Christmas and
Easter, they may work overtime,
nights, and weekends to prepare
special displays.
Constructing and installing props
frequently require prolonged stand­
ing, bending, stooping, and working
in awkward positions. Display
workers risk injury from falls off
ladders, from contact with sharp or
rough materials, and from the use
of power tools, but serious injuries
are uncommon.

point of the spray may vary accord­
ing to converging lines. Foliage is
added to hide construction. On the
back of the handwritten sympathy
card are the description of the spray
and the donor’s name and address
for easy acknowledgement. The
spray is ready for delivery. This
type order is usually completed in
15 minutes.
Floral designers have other du­
ties. They help customers select
flowers, plants, gifts and floral ac­
cessories available in the shop. Dur­
ing slack periods, designers
decorate potted plants, arrange
planters, and terrariums and
prepare accessories for a coming
season—for example, bows and
streamers for football corsages or
dressings for potted plants.



Places of Employment
About 33,000 floral designers
were employed in 1974. Nearly all
designers work in the retail flower
shops common to large cities, sub­
urban shopping centers, and small
towns. Most shops are small and
employ only one or two floral
designers; Many designers manage
their own stores. Geographically,
employment is distributed much the
same as population.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Many floral designers are trained
on the job. Beginners usually
prepare flowers for storage, deliver
orders, and do general cleanup
work. Shop managers look for

bright, eager helpers, who dress
neatly, have pleasant personalities,
and can deal effectively with
customers. After a few weeks,
helpers learn enough about flowers,
potted plants, and gift items to
assist customers in making selec­
tions.
Young people who want to
become designers usually are
trained on the job by the manager
or an experienced floral designer.
Initially they copy simple arrange­
ments that use one type of flower. If
they work quickly with their hands
and recognize the shape, color and
position of flowers which make at­
tractive arrangements, instruction
in more complex arrangements is
given. As experience is gained,
original designs required for special
orders can be attempted. Usually a
person can become a fully qualified
floral designer after 2 years of onthe-job training.
Good color vision, manual
dexterity, and the ability to arrange
various shapes and colors in attrac­
tive patterns are the primary
qualifications for this occupation. A
high school diploma generally is not
required, but applicants must be
able to write legibly and do simple
arithmetic in order to write up bills
for customers. High school courses
in business arithmetic, selling
techniques, and other business sub­
jects are helpful. While still in
school, a student may work part
time in a flower shop, especially be­
fore holiday seasons such as Christ­
mas and Easter.
An increasing number of floral
designers take courses in floral ar­
rangement in public and private
schools and junior colleges. How­
ever, whether they last from 6
weeks to 2 years, courses are not a
substitute for on-the-job training
and experience. Longer courses
provide training in flower market­
ing and shop management for floral
designers who plan to operate their
own shops.
Floral designers have limited ad­
vancement possibilities. Those with

supervisory ability may advance to
manager in large flower shops.
Managers who have the necessary
capital may open their own shops.

Employment Outlook
The outlook for employment as a
floral designer is expected to be
good through the mid-1980’s. Em­
ployment is expected to increase
faster than the average for all occu­
pations. In addition to job openings
created by employment growth,
many openings will arise each year
as workers retire, die, or change oc­
cupations. However, designer em­
ployment depends on the income of
customers, and the number of job
openings may vary with ups and
downs in the economy.
Studies of sales in retail florist
stores indicate that customers with
higher incomes spend a greater pro­
portion of their income to buy
flowers. Since the income of each
person, as well as the number of
people is expected to increase,
flower sales should increase signifi­
cantly. As a result, more floral
designers will be needed to prepare
arrangements.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Limited information indicates
that in 1974 qualified designers
earned between $2.50 and $6 an
hour. Rates for trainees ranged
from $ 1.60 to $2 an hour, but sel­
dom exceeded the legal minimum
wage. Because most flower shops
are small, designers may be exempt
from minimum wage laws. Besides
earning money, designers achieve
the satisfaction of doing creative
work and seeing their ideas trans­
formed into reality.
In small shops, floral designers
usually work 8 hours a day, Monday
through Saturday. In many large
shops, designers who work Satur­
day get a day off during the week.
Most designers receive holiday
and vacation pay, Because most



shops are small, other fringe
benefits are limited. Some em­
ployers pay part of the cost of group
life and health insurance but few
contribute to retirement plans other
than
social
security.
Floral
designers in a few cities are mem­
bers of the Retail Clerks Interna­
tional Association.
F|oral designers must be able to
stand for long periods. Work areas
are kept cool and humid to preserve
the flowers and designers are ex­
posed to sudden temperature
changes when entering or leaving
storage refrigerators. Aside from
the possibility of small cuts from
knives or scratches from flower
thorns, this occupation has few
hazards.

Sources of Additional
Information
For additional information about
careers in floral design and ad­
dresses of schools offering courses
in this field, write to:
Society of American Florists and Ornamen­
tal Horticulturists, 901 N. Washington
St., Alexandria, Va. 22314.

INDUSTRIAL DESIGNERS
(D.O.T. 142.081)

Nature of the Work
When people buy a product,
whether it’s a home appliance, a
new car, or a ball point pen, they
want it to be attractive as well as
useful. Industrial designers combine
artistic talent with knowledge of
marketing, materials, machines,
and methods of production to im­
prove the appearance and func­
tional design of products so that
they compete favorably with similar
goods on the market.
As the first step in their work, in­
dustrial designers study the product
and competing products to deter­
mine possible uses. Then they
sketch different designs and consult

with engineers, production super­
visors, and sales and market
research personnel about the prac­
ticability and sales appeal of each
idea.
After company officials select the
most suitable design, the industrial
designer or a professional modeler
make a model, often of clay so that
it can be easily changed. After any
necessary revisions, a final or work­
ing model is made, usually of the
material to be used in the finished
product. The approved model is
then put into production.
Some industrial designers seek to
create favorable public images for
companies and for government
services such as transportation by
developing trademarks or symbols
that appear on the firm’s product,
advertising, brochures, and sta­
tionery. Some design containers
and packages which both protect
and promote their contents. Others
prepare small display exhibits or the
entire layout for industrial fairs.
Some design the interior layout of
special
purpose
commercial
buildings such as restaurants and
supermarkets.
Industrial designers employed by
a manufacturing company usually
work only on the products made by
their employer. This may involve
filling day-to-day design needs of
the
company
or
long-range
planning of new products. Con­
sultants for more than one industri­
al firm may plan and design a great
variety of products.

Places of Employment
About 10,000 persons—about 10
percent women—were employed as
industrial designers in 1974. Most
worked for large manufacturing
companies designing either con­
sumer or industrial products or for
design consulting firms. Others did
freelance work, or were on the
staffs of architectural and interior
design firms.
Industrial design consultants
work mainly in large cities, for ex-

ample, New York, Chicago, Los
Angeles, and San Francisco. Those
with industrial firms usually work in
or near the manufacturing plants of
their companies, which often are
located in small and medium size
cities.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Completing a course of study in
industrial design in an art school, in
the design or art department of a
university, or in a technical college
is the usual requirement for enter­
ing this field of work. Persons
majoring in engineering, architec­
ture, and fine arts may qualify as in­
dustrial designers if they have ap­
propriate experience and artistic
talent. Most large manufacturing
firms hire only industrial designers

who have a bachelor’s degree in the
field.
In 1974, 41 colleges and art
schools offered programs or courses
in industrial design. The Indus­
trial Designers Society of America
recognizes 25 of these programs as
effective in preparing students for
employment as industrial designers.
Industrial
design
programs
usually take 4 years, although a few
colleges and universities require 5
years. These schools award a
bachelor’s degree in industrial
design or fine arts; some also award
a master’s degree. Admittance to
most of these schools requires a
high school diploma. In some cases,
students must present sketches and
other examples of their artistic
ability.
Industrial design programs differ
considerably among schools. Most
college and university programs

Industrial designers confer on plans for new product design.



stress the engineering and technical
aspects of the field; art schools
generally
stress
a
strong
background in art. In most pro­
grams, students spend much time in
the lab designing objects in three
dimensions. In studio courses, stu­
dents make drawings and models
with clay, wood, plaster, and other
easily worked materials. In schools
that have the necessary machinery,
students make models of their
designs while learning to use metal­
working and woodworking machin­
ery. Students also take basic and
abstract art and sculpture courses.
Some schools require courses in
basic engineering and in composi­
tion of materials. Courses in busi­
ness administration and marketing
can be helpful in getting a job.
Industrial designers must have
creative talent, drawing skills, and
the ability to see familiar objects in
new ways. They must understand
and meet the needs and tastes of the
public, rather than design only to
suit their own artistic sensitivity.
Designers
should
not
be
discouraged when their ideas are
rejected—often designs must be
resubmitted many times before one
is accepted. Since industrial
designers must cooperate with en­
gineers and other staff members,
the ability to work and commu­
nicate with others is important.
Design consultants should also un­
derstand business practices and
have sales ability.
Applicants for jobs should assem­
ble a “ portfolio” of drawings and
sketches to demonstrate their
creativity and ability to commu­
nicate ideas.
New graduates of industrial
design programs frequently assist
experienced designers and do sim­
ple assignments. As they gain ex­
perience, they may become super­
visors with major responsibility for
the design of a product or a group
of products. Those who have an
established reputation and the
necessary funds may start their own
consulting firms.

Employment Outlook
Employment in this relatively
small occupation is expected to
grow about as fast as the average
for all occupations. A growing
population and rising incomes will
create markets for newly designed
products, for improved designs of
existing products and packaging
and, in turn, for industrial designers
who create them. Some employ­
ment opportunities also will arise
each year as designers die, retire or
leave the field.
Employment opportunities are
expected to be best for college
graduates with degrees in industrial
design. Opportunities will also arise
for engineering, and architectural
school graduates.
Demand for industrial designers
may fluctuate over short-run
periods. During times of economic
downturns when consumer and in­
dustrial demand for new products is
dampened, requirements for these
workers may decline.
Frequent redesign of household
products, automobiles, and indus­
trial equipment has always created
a need for designers. Although
recently the trend has been away
from annual style changes, further
emphasis on safer products should
increase demand for industrial
designers since a safer product is
usually a better designed product.
Small companies probably will
make increasing use of services of­
fered by industrial design consult­
ing Firms to compete more effec­
tively with larger firms. However,
some of these services, such as
trademark and package design,
could be offered by advertising
agencies.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Salaries for inexperienced indus­
trial designers with a bachelor’s
degree generally ranged from
$9,000 to $12,000 a year in 1974,
according to limited data. After
several years experience, it is possi­



ble to earn $14,000 to $18,000 a
year. Salaries of those with many
years of experience averaged more
than $20,000 a year, but varied ac­
cording to individual talent and the
size and type of firm.
Though earnings of industrial
designers who own their consulting
Firms fluctuate markedly, in recent
years most consultants earned
between $24,000 and $32,000;
heads of large well-known Firms
earned considerably more.

Sources of Additional
Information
A brochure about careers and a
list of schools offering courses and
degrees in industrial design are
available for 50 cents from:
Industrial Designers Society of America,
1750 Old Meadow Rd., McLean, Va.

22101.

INTERIOR DESIGNERS
(D.O.T. 142.051)

Nature of the Work
The creative work of interior
designers, sometimes called interior
decorators, helps make our living,
working, and playing areas more at­
tractive
and useful.
Interior
designers plan and supervise the
design and arrangement of building
interiors and furnishings. They help
clients select and estimate the cost
of furniture, draperies, other
fabrics, floor coverings, and acces­
sories. Interior designers may do
“ boardwork,” particularly on large
assignments. Boardwork includes
work on 'floor plans and elevations
and preparing sketches or other
perspective drawings so clients can
visualize their plans. After the
client approves both the plans and
the cost, the designer may make ar­
rangements
for
buying
the
furnishings; for supervising the
work of painters, floor finishers,
cabinetmakers, carpet layers, and

other craft workers; and for in­
stalling
and
arranging
the
furnishings.
Many large department and fur­
niture stores have separate design
departments
to advise their
customers on decorating and design
plans. The designer’s principal
function in these departments is to
help sell the store’s merchandise,
although materials from outside
sources may be used occasionally
when they are essential to the
customer’s plans. Department store
designers frequently advise the
store’s buyers and executives about
style and color trends in interior
furnishings.
Interior designers may work on
private homes or commercial
buildings. Those who specialize in
commercial structures often work
for clients on large design projects
such as the interiors of entire ofFice
buildings, hospitals, and libraries.
Generally they plan the complete
layout of rooms without changes to
the structure of the building. Some­
times they redesign or renovate the
interiors of old buildings. In these
cases, an architect must check the
plans to assure compliance with
building requirements and to solve
structural problems. Some interior
designers also design the furniture
and accessories to be used in vari­
ous structures, and then arrange for
their manufacture. A few have
unusual jobs such as designing in­
teriors of ships and aircraft, while
others design stage sets used for
motion pictures or television.

Places of Employment
About 34,000 persons—half of
them men—worked as interior
designers in 1974. Most workers in
this occupation are employed in
large cities.
Some interior designers own their
own establishment, either alone or
as members of a firm with other
designers. Large design Firms em­
ploy designers who work independ­
ently or as assistants to more
senior designers.

Other interior designers work in
large department or furniture
stores, and a few have permanent
jobs with hotel and restaurant
chains. Some work for architects,
furniture suppliers, antique dealers,
furniture and textile manufacturers,
or other manufacturers in the in­
terior furnishing field.
Interior designers work for
magazines that feature articles on
home furnishings. Some large in­
dustrial corporations employ interi­
or designers on a permanent basis.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Formal training in interior design
is becoming increasingly important
for entrance into this field. Most de­
partment stores, well-established
design firms, and other major em­
ployers will accept only profes­
sionally
trained
people
for
beginning jobs. The types of train­
ing available include 3-year pro­
grams in a professional school of in­
terior design, 4-year college or
university programs which issue a
bachelor’s degree, or post-graduate
programs leading to a master’s
degree or the Ph. D. The basic
course of study usually includes the
principles of design, history of art,
freehand and mechanical drawing,
painting, study of the essentials of
architecture as they relate to interi­
ors, design of furniture and exhibi­
tions, and study of various materi­
als, such as woods, plastics, metals,
and fabrics. A knowledge of
furnishings, art pieces, and antiques
is important. In addition, courses in
sales, business procedures, and
other business subjects are valua­
ble.
Membership in the American
Society of Interior Design is a
recognized mark of achievement in
this profession. Membership usually
requires the completion of 3 or 4
years of post-high school education
in design, and several years of prac­
tical experience in the field, includ­
ing supervisory work.



Interior designers and clients discuss furniture selection.

Persons starting in interior design
usually serve a training period,
either with design firms, in depart­
ment stores, or in furniture stores.
They may act as receptionists, as
shoppers with the task of matching
materials or finding accessories, or
as stockroom assistants, salesper­
sons, assistant decorators, or junior
designers. In most instances, from 1
to 5 years of on-the-job training is
required before a trainee becomes
eligible for advancement to
designer. Beginners who do not get
trainee jobs often work selling
fabric, lamps, or other interior
furnishings to gain experience in
dealing with customers and to
become familiar with the merchan­
dise. This experience may help in
obtaining a job in design or may
lead to a career in merchandising.
After considerable experience,
designers may advance to design
department
head,
interior

furnishings coordinator, or to other
supervisory positions in department
stores or in large design firms. If
they have the necessary funds, they
may open their own businesses. Ex­
ceptionally talented people can ad­
vance rapidly.
Artistic talent—color sense, good
taste, imagination—good business
judgment, and ability to work with
detail and to deal with people are
important assets for success in this
field. An advantage to interior
design as a career is the satisfaction
of seeing the results of one’s work.

Employment Outlook
Persons seeking beginning jobs in
interior designing are expected to
face competition through the mid1980’s. Interior designing is a com­
petitive field that requires talent,
training, and business ability, and
many applicants vie for the better

jobs. Talented college graduates
who major in interior design and
graduates of professional schools of
interior design will find the best op­
portunities for employment. Those
with less talent or without formal
training will find it increasingly dif­
ficult to enter this field.
Employment of interior designers
is expected to increase about as fast
as the average for all occupations
through the mid-1980’s. Growth in
population, personal incomes, ex­
penditures for home and office
furnishings, and the increasing use
of design services in both homes
and commercial establishments
should contribute to a greater de­
mand for these workers. In addition
to new jobs, some openings will be
created by the need to replace
designers who die, retire, or leave
the field.
Department and furniture stores
are expected to employ an increas­
ing number of designers as their
share in the growing volume of
design work for commercial
establishments and public buildings
increases. Interior design firms also
are expected to continue to expand.
Employment of interior de­
signers, however, is sensitive to
changes in general economic condi­
tions because people often forego
design services when the economy
slows down.

year, while highly successful
designers earn around $25,000 an­
nually. A small number of na­
tionally recognized professionals
earn well over $50,000.
The earnings of self-employed
designers vary widely depending on
the volume of business, their
professional prestige, the economic
level of their clients, and their own
business competence.
Designers’ work hours are some­
times long and irregular. Designers
usually adjust their work day to suit
the needs of their clients, meeting
with them during the evenings or on
weekends, when necessary.

Sources of Additional
Information
For information about careers in
interior design and a list of schools
offering programs in this field, con­
tact:
American Society of Interior Design, 730
Fifth Ave., New York, N.Y. 10019.
Foundation for Interior Design Education
Research, 1750 Old Meadow Rd.,
McLean, Va. 22101.

LANDSCAPE
AR CHITECTS
(D.O.T. 019.081)

Landscape architects first con­
sider the nature and purpose of the
project, the funds available, and the
proposed buildings in planning a
site. Next, they study the site itself,
mapping features such as the slope
of the land and the position of exist­
ing buildings and trees. They also
observe the sunny parts of the site
at different times of the day, soil
texture, existing utilities, and many
other landscape features. Then,
after consulting with the project
architect or engineer they draw up
plans to develop the site. If the plan
is approved, landscape architects
prepare working drawings showing
all existing and proposed features
such as buildings, roads, walkways,
terraces, grading, and drainage
structures in planted areas. Land­
scape architects outline in detail the
methods of constructing features
and draw up lists of building materi­
als. They then may invite landscape
contractors to bid for the work.
Although landscape architects
help design and supervise a wide
variety of projects, some specialize
in certain types of projects such as
parks and playgrounds, hotels and
resorts, shopping centers, or public
housing. Still others specialize in
services such as regional planning
and resource management, feasi­
bility and cost studies, or site con­
struction.

Nature of the Work
Earnings and Working
Conditions
Beginners are usually paid a
straight salary plus a small commis­
sion. Starting salaries can range
from $85 to $125 a week; firms in
large metropolitan areas usually
pay the higher salaries.
Some
experienced
interior
designers are paid straight salaries,
some receive salaries plus commis­
sions based on the value of their
sales, while others work entirely on
commissions.
Incomes of experienced de­
signers vary greatly. Many per­
sons earn from $6,000 to $12,000 a



Everyone enjoys attractively
designed private yards, public
parks, and commercial areas. Land­
scape architects design these areas
to fit in with people’s needs and
aesthetic sense.
Landscape architects assist many
types of organizations in planning
and designing a project from a real
estate firm starting a new suburban
development to a city constructing
an airport or park. They may plan
and arrange trees, shrubbery, walk­
ways, open spaces, and other fea­
tures as well as supervise the neces­
sary grading, construction, and
planting.

Places of Employment
More than 12,000 persons
worked as landscape architects in
1974; less than 5 percent were
women. Most landscape architects
are self-employed or work for
architectural, landscape architec­
tural, or engineering firms. Govern­
ment agencies concerned with
forest management, water im­
poundment, public housing, city
planning, urban renewal, highways,
parks, and recreation employed
about 40 percent of all landscape
architects. The Federal Govern­
ment employed about 500 land­
scape architects, mainly in the De­

partments of Agriculture, Defense,
and Interior. Some landscape
architects were employed by land­
scape contractors, and a few taught
in colleges and universities.

well as English, science, and mathe­
matics. Most college programs also
include field trips to view and study
examples of landscape architecture.
Twenty-eight States require a
license for independent practice of
Training, Other Qualifications,
landscape architecture. Admission
and Advancement
to the licensing examination usually
requires a degree from an ac­
A bachelor’s degree in landscape credited school of landscape
architecture which takes 4 or 5 architecture plus 2 to 4 years of ex­
years is usually the minimum edu­ perience. Lengthy apprenticeship
cational requirement for entering training (6-8 years) under an ex­
the profession. In 1974 the Amer­ perienced landscape architect may
ican
Society
of
Landscape sometimes be substituted for col­
Architects accredited 38 of the 66 lege training.
colleges and universities offering
Persons planning careers in land­
this training.
scape architecture should be in­
Entrance requirements for land­ terested in art and nature. Self-em­
scape architecture programs vary ployed landscape architects also
by college. Some colleges recom­ must understand business practices.
mend completion of a high school Working for landscape architects or
course in mechanical or geometri­ landscape
contractors
during
cal drawing, and most schools ad­ summer vacations helps a person
vise high school students to take understand the practical problems
courses in art, botany, and more of the profession, and may be help­
mathematics than the minimum ful in obtaining employment after
required for college entrance.
graduation.
College courses include technical
New graduates usually begin as
subjects such as surveying, land­
junior drafters, tracing drawings
scape construction, sketching, and
city planning. Other courses in­ and doing other simple drafting
clude horticulture and botany as work. After gaining experience,
they help prepare specifications
and construction details and handle
other aspects of project design.
After 2 or 3 years they can usually
carry a design through all stages of
development. Highly qualified land­
scape architects may become as­
sociates in private firms; landscape
architects who progress this far,
however, often open their own of­
fice.




Employment Outlook
Employment
of
landscape
architects is expected to grow at a
much faster rate than the average
for all occupations through the mid1980’s, resulting in hundreds of
new positions each year. Addi­
tionally, new entrants will be
needed as replacements for land­
scape architects who retire or die.
A major factor underlying the in­

creased demand for landscape
architects is the growing interest in
city and regional environmental
planning. Metropolitan areas will
require landscape architects to
develop land for the efficient and
safe use of growing populations.
Legislation to promote environ­
mental protection could spur de­
mand for landscape architects to
participate in planning and design­
ing a growing number of projects,
such as transportation systems, out­
door recreation areas, and land
reclamation.
Anticipated new construction
may also increase demand for land­
scape architects. However, during
slow periods the demand could be
limited.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Though earnings fluctuate widely
according to the educational
background, experience, and size of
the firm, landscape architects who
own their own practice often earn
more than salaried employees with
considerable experience.
The Federal Government, in late
1974, paid new graduates with a
bachelor’s degree annual salaries of
$8,500 or $10,520 depending on
their qualifications. Those with an
advanced degree had a starting sal­
ary of $12,841 a year. Landscape
architects in the Federal Govern­
ment averaged $21,000 a year.
Salaried employees both in
government and in landscape
architectural firms usually work
regular hours, although employees
in private firms may also work over­
time during seasonal rush periods
or to meet a deadline. Self-em­
ployed persons often work long
hours.

Sources of Additional
information
Additional information including
a list of colleges and universities of­
fering accredited courses of study

in landscape architecture is availa­
ble from:
American Society of Landscape Architec­
ture, Inc., 1750 Old Meadow Rd.,
McLean, Va. 22101.

For information on a career as a
landscape architect in the Forest
Service, write to:
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Ser­
vice, Washington, D.C. 20250.

PHOTOGRAPHERS
(D.O.T. 143.062, .282, and .382)

Nature of the Work
Photographers use their cameras
and film to portray people, places,
and events much as a writer uses
words. Those who are skillful can
capture the personality of in­
dividuals or the mood of scenes
they photograph. Some specialize
in scientific, medical, or engineer­
ing photography and their pictures
enable thousands of persons to see
a world normally hidden from view.
Although their work varies wide­
ly, all photographers use the same
basic equipment. The most impor­
tant piece, of course, is the camera,
and most photographers own
several. Because the procedures in­
volved in still photography are quite
different from those in motion pic­
ture photography, most photog­
raphers specialize in one or the
other. Unlike snapshot cameras
which have a lens permanently at­
tached to the camera body, profes­
sional cameras are constructed to
use a variety of lenses designed for
close-up,
medium-range,
or
distance photography.
Besides cameras and lenses,
photographers use a variety of film
and colored filters to obtain the
desired effect under different
lighting conditions. When taking
pictures indoors or after dark, they
use
electronic
flash
units,
floodlights, reflectors, and other
special lighting equipment.



Some photographers develop and
print their own photographs in the
darkroom and may enlarge or
otherwise alter the basic image.
Other photographers send their
work to photographic laboratories
for processing.
In addition to knowing how to
use their equipment and materials,
photographers must know how to
compose the subjects of their
photographs and be able to recog­
nize a potentially good photograph.
Many photographers specialize in
a particular type of photography
such as portrait, commercial, or in­
dustrial work. Portrait photog­
raphers take pictures of individuals
or groups of persons and usually
work in their own studios. For spe­
cial events, such as weddings or
christenings, however, they take
photographs in churches and
homes. Commercial photographers

generally take pictures to advertise
clothing, automobiles, furniture,
food, and other items. The work of
industrial photographers is used in
company publications to report to
stockholders or to advertise com­
pany products or services. These
photographers also may take mo­
tion pictures of workers operating
equipment and machinery for
management’s use in analyzing
production or work methods.
Other photographic specialties
include photojournalism or press
photography that combines a “nose
for news” with photographic abili­
ty; aerial photography; educational
photography (preparing slides,
filmstrips, and movies for use in the
classroom); and science and en­
gineering
photography
(the
development
of
photographic
techniques for use in space, medi­
cal, or biological research).

Places of Employment
About 80,000 photographers
were employed in 1974. About half
worked in commercial studios, but
newspaper and magazine publishers
also employed many photog­
raphers. Government agencies,
photographic equipment suppliers
and dealers, and many industrial
firms employed large numbers of
these workers. In addition, some
photographers taught in colleges
and universities, or made films. Still
others worked freelance, taking
pictures to sell to advertisers,
magazines, and other customers.
About one-fourth of all photog­
raphers were self-employed.
Jobs for photographers are found
in all parts of the country, in small
towns and large cities, but employ­
ment is concentrated in the most
populated areas.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
People may prepare for work as
professional photographers in a
commercial studio, through 2 or 3
years of on-the-job training.
Trainees generally start in the dark­
room where they learn to develop
film and do photo-printing and en­
larging. Later they may set up lights
and cameras, or help an ex­
perienced photographer take pic­
tures.
Photographic training also is
available in colleges, universities,
junior colleges, and art schools.
About 25 colleges and universities
offer 4-year curriculums, leading to
a bachelor’s degree in photography
that include courses in the liberal
arts. Some colleges and unversities
grant master’s degrees in special­
ized areas, such as color phtography. In addition, a few colleges
have 2-year curriculums leading to
a certificate or an associate’s
degree in photography. Art schools
offer useful training in design and
composition, but not the technical
training needed for professional
photographic work. (See the state­



ment on Commercial Artists else­
where in the Handbook.) The
Armed Forces also trains many
young people in photographic skills
during service.
The type of training determines
the type of work for which prospec­
tive
photographers
qualify.
Amateur experience is helpful in
getting an entry job in a commercial
studio, but post-high school training
and experience usually are needed
for industrial, news, or scientific
photography. Work in scientific,
medical, and engineering research,
such as photographing microscopic
organisms, requires a background
in the particular science or en­
gineering specialty, as well as skill
in photography.
Photographers must have good
eyesight and color vision, artistic
ability, and manual dexterity. Some
knowledge of mathematics, physics,
and chemistry is helpful for un­
derstanding the use of various
lenses, films, light sources, and de­
velopment processes. They also
should enjoy working with detail.
Some photographic specialties
require additional qualities. Com­
mercial or freelance photographers
must be imaginative and original in
their thinking. Those who specialize
in photographing news stories must
be able to recognize a potentially
good photograph and act quickly or
an opportunity to capture an impor­
tant event on film may be lost.
Photographers who specialize in
portrait photography need the abili­
ty to help people relax in front of
the camera.
Newly hired photographers are
given relatively routine assignments
that do not require split-second
camera adjustments or decisions on
what subject matter to photograph.
News photographers, for example,
may be assigned to cover civic
meetings or photograph snow
storms. After gaining experience
they advance to more demanding
assignments and some may move to
staff positions on national news
magazines. Photographers with ex­

ceptional ability may gain national
reputations for their work and often
exhibit their photographs in art and
photographic galleries, or publish
them in books. A few industrial or
science photographers may be
promoted to supervisory positions.
Magazine
photographers
may
become heads of graphic arts de­
partments or photography editors.

Employment Outlook
Employment of photographers is
expected to grow about as fast as
the average for all occupations
through the mid-1980’s. In addition
to openings resulting from growth,
many others will occur each year as
workers die, retire, or transfer to
other occupations.
Job opportunities in newspapers
and magazines should continue to
be good for persons with college
training in photography. Business
and industry also will offer good op­
portunities for photographers as
greater importance is placed on
visual aids for use in meetings,
stockholders’ reports, and sales
campaigns. Photography is becom­
ing an increasingly important part
of scientific and medical research,
and opportunities are expected to
be good for persons with the highly
specialized background this type of
work requires.
Competition for jobs as portrait
and commercial photographers,
however, is expected to be keen.
These fields are relatively crowded
since photographers can go into
business for themselves with a
modest financial investment, or
work part time while holding
another job.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Beginning photographers gener­
ally earned from $100 to $125 a
week in 1974, according to the
limited information available.
Those
who
worked
for
newspapers that have contracts

with the Newspaper Guild had
weekly earnings between $104 and
$359 in 1974, with the majority
falling in the $ 150 to $200 range.
Newspaper photographers with
some experience (usually 4 to 6
years) averaged about $265 a week
in 1974. Contract minimums for ex­
perienced photographers were sel­
dom less than $200 a week. A
number of newspapers paid their
photographers $300 a week or
more, with the top salary over
$420.
Photographers in the Federal
Government earned an average of
$13,970 a year in 1974. Depending
on their level of experience, newly
hired photographers earned from
$7,600 to $10,520 a year and most




experienced photographers earned longer hours. Freelance, press, and
between $ 12,840 and $ 18,460.
commercial photographers travel
Many
experienced
photog­ frequently and may have to work
raphers with established reputa­ in uncom fortable surroundings.
tions earn salaries that are above Sometimes the work can be dan­
the average for nonsupervisory gerous, especially for news photog­
workers in private industry, except raphers assigned to cover stories on
farming. Although self-employed natural disasters or military con­
and freelance photographers often flicts.
earn more than salaried workers,
their earnings are affected greatly
by general business conditons and
Sources of Additional
the type and size of their communi­
Information
ty and clientele.
Career information on photog­
Photographers who have salaried
raphy is available from:
jobs usually work the standard 5day, 40-hour week and receive Photographic Art & Science Foundation,
1100 Executive Way, Des Plaines, 1 1
1.
benefits such as paid holidays, vaca­
60018.
tions, and sick leave. Those in busi­
ness for themselves usually work

terpreter must have a good memory
and generally needs to take notes of
what is said to be certain to give a
complete translation. The chief
drawback of consecutive in­
is
COMMUNICATIONS-RELATED OCCUPATIONS terpretation is that the processthe
time consuming, because
Communication is important to terpretation: simultaneous and con­ speaker must wait for the transla­
people, either individually as secutive. In simultaneous in­ tion before proceeding.
Since interpreters are needed
citizens, workers, or employers, or terpretation, the interpreter trans­
collectively in groups, organiza­ lates what is being said as the whenever people find language a
tions, or government. This section speaker continues to talk. This barrier, their work involves a
of the Handbook describes four oc­ technique requires speed and fluen­ variety of topics and situations.
cupations that specialize in commu­ cy, and it is made possible by the They may be used, for example, to
nications—interpreters, technical use of electronic equipment. Con­ explain to a group of foreign visitors
writers, newspaper reporters, and ference interpreters often work in a various aspects of American life,
glass-enclosed booth from which such as points of political or social
radio and television announcers.
Interpreters and technical writers they can see the speaker. While interest, or they may be required to
work as intermediaries translating listening through earphones to what interpret highly technical speeches
messages for people to understand: is being said, they simultaneously and discussions for medical or
interpreters help people understand give the translation by speaking into scientific gatherings. They may
languages foreign to them; techni­ a microphone. People attending the work at the United Nations, or find
cal writers help people understand conference who do not understand themselves in a courtroom or
technical information. Newspaper the language being spoken may escorting foreign leaders or busi­
reporters and radio and television listen to an interpreter’s translation ness people visiting the United
announcers inform people about by simply pushing a button or turn­ States.
current events and happenings that ing a dial to get the translation in
Places of Employment
might interest or affect them. the language they know. Simultane­
Newspaper reporters gather infor­ ous interpretation is generally
An estimated
150 persons
mation on events which they preferred for conferences, and the
development of portable equipment worked full time as interpreters in
describe, analyze, and interpret in
the United States in 1974. The larg­
newspapers for rapid dissemination has extended its use to other largeest single concentration of inter­
to large numbers of people. Radio scale situations.
Consecutive interpretation also preters was at the United Nations
and television announcers use elec­
in New York where over 60 people
tronic communications equipment involves oral translation. However
the speaker and the interpreter take held full-time posts. Various other
to tell people of products and serv­
ices they might obtain, current turns speaking. A consecutive in­ international organizations, located
primarily in Washington, D.C., also
happenings, and other items of in­
employed regular staff interpreters.
terest.
Within the Federal Government,
the Departments of State and
Justice were the major employers
of full-time interpreters.
An estimated 450 persons
INTERPRETERS
worked as freelance interpreters.
Freelance interpreters may work
(D.O.T. 137.268)
for various employers under short­
term contracts. About four-fifths
Nature of the Work
were under contract on a tempo­
Interpreters help people of dif­
rary basis to the Department of
ferent nations and different cultures
State and the Agency for Inter­
overcome language barriers by
national Development to serve as
translating what has been said by
escort interpreters for foreign vis­
one person into a language that can
itors to the United States. Some
be understood by others.
of these interpreters worked a
There are two basic types of in­
great portion of the year; others



worked for only a few days. The
remainder of the freelance inter­
preters constituted the freelance
conference field. These interpreters
provided for both the supplemen­
tary needs of the international and
Federal agencies and for the pe­
riodic, short-term needs of various
international conferences that are
held in this country. Besides per­
sons who work strictly as inter­
preters, many others do some
interpretation work in the course
of their jobs.
About one-half of the Nation’s
conference interpreters are women;
most escort freelance workers,
however, are men.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A complete command of two lan­
guages or more is the usual require­
ment for becoming an interpreter.
Interpreters must instantaneously
call to mind words or idioms cor­
responding to the foreign ones. An
extensive working vocabulary and
ease in making the transition from
one language structure to another
are necessary.
Students who want to become in­
terpreters should become fluent in
several languages. Interpreters who
work at the United Nations, for
example, must know at least three
of the five official U.N. languages:
English, French, Spanish, Russian,
and Chinese. Portuguese and, to
some extent, Japanese and German
are also valuable to interpreters in
the United States.
Two schools in the United States
offer special programs for in­
terpreter training. Both require
foreign language proficiency upon
entry. The Georgetown University
School of Languages and Lin­
guistics in Washington, D.C. has a
1- or 2-year course of study leading
to a Certificate of Proficiency. Ap­
plicants to Georgetown University
must qualify on the basis of an oral
aptitude test and satisfactory per­
formance in a basic first-year col­



lege program. The Monterey In­
stitute of Foreign Studies in Mon­
terey, Calif., offers a 2-year pro­
gram leading to a master’s degree in
Language and International Studies
and a certificate from the Depart­
ment of Translation and Interpreta­
tion. Applicants to the Monterey
Institute must have a bachelor’s
degree with a language major, or its
equivalent. Students also must pass
a qualifying examination for the In­
terpreters Certificate Program.
Many individuals may qualify as
interpreters principally on the basis
of their foreign backgrounds for
positions in which extensive ex­
perience and a broad education are
not as crucial as for other types of
interpretation. For example, con­
secutive interpreters employed by
the Immigration and Naturalization
Service of the U.S. Department of
Justice serve primarily in interpret­
ing legal proceedings, such as
hearings for aliens.
Besides being proficient in lan­
guages, interpreters are expected to
be generally well informed on a
broad range of subjects, often in­
cluding technical subjects such as
medicine or scientific or industrial
technology. Work as a translator
may serve as a useful background in
maintaining an up-to-date vocabu­
lary in various specialized or techni­
cal areas. The experience of living
abroad also is very important for an
interpreter.
Although there is no standard
requirement for entry into the
profession, a university education
usually is considered essential.
People interested in becoming in­
terpreters should be articulate
speakers and have good hearing.
The exacting nature of this profes­
sion requires quickness, alertness,
and a constant attention to accura­
cy. Working with all types of people
requires good sense, tact, and the
emotional stamina to deal with the
tensions of the job. It is essential
that interpreters maintain con­
fidentiality in their work and that
they give honest interpretations.

Advancement in the interpreting
field is generally based on satisfac­
tory service. There is some ad­
vancement from escort level in­
terpreting to conference level work.

Employment Outlook
Interpreters may face competi­
tion for the limited number of
openings. Little change is expected
in the number of full-time in­
terpreters through the mid-1980’s.
Most opportunities, therefore,
should result from the need to
replace workers who die, retire, or
leave their jobs for other reasons.
Experience has shown that any
slight or sporadic increase in the
demand for interpreters can be met
by the existing pool of freelance
workers. Only highly qualified ap­
plicants will find favorable employ­
ment opportunities.
Qualified interpreters also may
find work abroad. For example, the
demand for interpreters in Europe,
where so many different languages
are spoken, is greater than in the
United States.
People who have- linguistic abili­
ties also may find some employ­
ment opportunities as translators.
In fact, many interpreters find the
ability to do translation work, if not
requisite, an occupational asset.
Foreign language competence also
is important for careers in the fields
of foreign service, international
business, and language education.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Salaries of interpreters depend
upon the type of interpreting done
as well as the ability and per­
formance of the individual. The taxfree annual starting salary for con­
ference interpreters at the United
Nations was $10,000 in 1974. Out­
standing U.N. interpreters could ex­
pect to earn more than $20,000.
Beginning salaries for interpreters
in various other international or­
ganizations were about $9,000 a

year, according to the limited infor­
mation available. In addition, inter­
national organizations often paid
supplementary living and family al­
lowances.
Junior interpreters who worked
for the U.S. Department of State
received $12,841 a year in late
1974. Starting salaries were
somewhat lower for Government
interpreters with limited education,
experience, or skills.
In the freelance field, interpreters
are paid on a daily basis. Con­
ference interpreter salaries ranged
from about $110 to $135 a day in
late 1974, depending on ex­
perience. The U.S. Department of
State paid a daily salary of $ 110.
Freelance escort interpreters
received salaries ranging from
about $36 to over $56 a day, based
on the individual’s skill and prior
performance. Interpreters on as­
signment usually could expect to be
paid for a 7-day week. Interpreters
are paid transportation expenses by
the employing agency and also
receive an allowance to cover the
cost of accommodations, meals,
and other expenses incidental to
their assignments.
The conditions under which in­
terpreters work vary widely. In
freelancing, there is little job securi­
ty because of demand fluctuations,
and the duration of various
freelance assignments ranges from
a few days for a typical conference
to several weeks for some escort as­
signments. Although the hours in­
terpreters work are not necessarily
long, they are often irregular. In
some instances, especially for
escort freelance workers, a great
deal of travel to a wide variety of lo­
cations is required.

Sources of Additional
Information
Information on the interpreting
profession is available from:
The American Association of Language Spe­
cialists, 1000 Connecticut Ave. NW.,
Suite 9, Washington, D.C. 20036.



For information on entry require­
ments and courses of study at the
two schools offering specialized
programs for interpreters, contact:
Division of Interpretation and Translation,
School of Languages and Linguistics,
Georgetown University, Washington,
D .C .20007.
Department of Translation and Interpreta­
tion, Monterey Institute of Foreign Stu­
dies, P.O. Box 1978, Monterey, Calif.
93940.

Information about employment
opportunities is available from:
Language Services Division, U.S. Depart­
ment of State, Washington, D.C. 20520.
Secretariat Recruitment Service, United Na­
tions, New York, N.Y. 10017.

NEWSPAPER
REPORTERS
(D.O.T. 132.268)

Nature of the Work
Newspaper reporters gather in­
formation on current events and
use it to write stories for publication
in daily or weekly newspapers. In
covering events, they may interview
people, review public records, at­
tend news events, and do research.
As a rule, reporters take notes or
use electronic recording devices
while collecting facts, and write
their stories upon return to the of­
fice. Sometimes, to meet deadlines,
they telephone their information or
stories to other staff members
known as “ rewrite men,” who write
or transcribe the stories for them.
Large dailies frequently assign
some reporters to “ beats,” such as
police stations or the courts, to
gather news originating in these
places. General assignment report­
ers handle various types of local
news, such as a story about a lost
child or an obituary of a community
leader. Specialized reporters with a
background in a particular subject
interpret and analyze the news in
fields such as medicine, politics,
science, education, business, labor,1
and religion.

Reporters on small newspapers
may cover not only all aspects of
local news, but also may take
photographs, write headlines, lay
out pages, and write editorials. On
some small weeklies, they also may
solicit advertisements, sell subscrip­
tions, and perform general office
work.

Places of Employment
About 40,000 persons, two-fifths
of them women, worked as
newspaper reporters in 1974. The
majority of reporters work for daily
newspapers; others work for weekly
papers and press services.
Reporters work in cities and
towns of all sizes. Of the 1,775 daily
and 7,650 weekly newspapers, the
great majority are in medium-sized
towns. However, most reporters
work in cities, since big city dailies
employ many reporters, whereas a
smalltown paper generally employs
only a few.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Most newspapers will consider
only applicants who have a college
education. Graduate work is in­
creasingly important. Many editors
prefer graduates who have a degree
in journalism, which usually pro­
vides a liberal arts education along
with professional journalism train­
ing. Some editors consider a liberal
arts degree sufficient. Others prefer
applicants who have a liberal arts
bachelor’s degree and a master’s
degree in journalism. Although
talented writers having little or no
academic training beyond high
school sometimes become reporters
on city newspapers, most reporters
without college training begin on
rural, small-town, or suburban
papers. High school courses that
are useful include English, journal­
ism, social science, and typing.
Bachelor’s degree programs in
journalism are available in more
than 200 colleges. About three-

fourths of the courses in a typical
undergraduate journalism curricu­
lum are in liberal arts. Journalism
courses include reporting, copy­
reading, editing, feature writing,
history of journalism, law, and the
relation of the press to society.
More than 500 junior colleges
offer journalism programs. Twelve
to fifteen hours of credit -earned is
transferable to most 4-year college
programs in journalism. A few ju­
nior colleges also offer programs
especially designed to prepare the
student directly for employment as
a general assignment reporter on a
weekly or small daily newspaper.
The Armed Forces also provide
some training in journalism.
A graduate degree in journalism
was offered by more than 75
schools in 1974. About one-fifth of
those offer a doctoral degree in
mass communications.
Persons who wish to prepare for
newspaper work through a liberal



arts curriculum should take English
courses that include writing, as well
as subjects such as sociology, politi­
cal science, economics, history,
psychology, and speech. Ability to
read and speak a foreign language is
desirable. Those who look forward
to becoming technical writers or re­
porters in a specialized field such as
science, should concentrate on
course work in their subject matter
areas. (See statement on Technical
Writers.) Skill'in typing is essential
because reporters type their own
news stories. On small papers,
knowledge of news photography
also is valuable.'
The Newspaper Fund and in­
dividual newspapers offer summer
internships that provide college stu­
dents with an opportunity to prac­
tice the rudiments of reporting or
editing. In addition, more than
2,500 journalism scholarships, fel­
lowships, assistantships, and loans
were awarded to college journalism

students by universities, new s­
papers, and professional organiza­
tions in J974.
News reporting involves a great
deal of responsibility, since what a
reporter writes frequently in­
fluences the opinion of the reading
public. Reporters should be
dedicated to serving the public’s
need for accurate and impartial
news. Although reporters work as
part of a team, they have an oppor­
tunity for self-expression. Impor­
tant personal characteristics in­
clude a “ nose for news,” curiosity,
persistence, initiative, resourceful­
ness, an accurate memory, and the
physical stamina necessary for an
active and often fast-paced life.
Some who compete for full-time
reporter jobs find it is helpful to
have had experience as a
newspaper “stringer”—a part-time
reporter who covers the news in a
particular area of the community
and is paid on the basis of the sto­
ries printed. Experience on a high
school or college newspaper also is
helpful in getting a job.
Many beginners start on weekly
or on small daily newspapers where
they acquire a broad range of re­
porting experience. Some college
graduates are hired by large city pa­
pers as general assignment report­
ers while a few others start as copy
editors. Beginning reporters usually
are assigned duties such as report­
ing on civic and club meetings,
summarizing speeches, writing
obituaries, interviewing important
visitors to the community, and
covering police court proceedings.
As they gain experience, they may
report more important events,
cover an assigned “ beat,” or spe­
cialize in a particular field.
Newspaper reporters may ad­
vance to reporting for larger papers
or press services. Some experienced
reporters become columnists, cor­
respondents, editorial writers, edi­
tors, or top executives; these posi­
tions represent the top of the field
and competition for them is keen.
Other reporters transfer to related

fields such as public relations, writ­
ing for magazines, or preparing
copy for radio and television news
programs.

Employment Outlook
Beginners with exceptional writ­
ing talent are expected to find
favorable employment opportuni­
ties through the mid-1980’s.
Others, however, will face strong
competition for jobs, especially on
large city dailies. Employment op­
portunities for reporters able to
handle news about highly special­
ized scientific or technical subjects
are expected to be favorable.
Weekly or daily newspapers
located in small towns and subur­
ban areas are expected to continue
to offer the most opportunities for
beginners entering newspaper re­
porting. Openings arise on these
papers as reporters gain experience
and move up to editing positions or
transfer to reporting jobs on larger
newspapers or to other types of
work. Beginning reporters able to
help with photography and other
specialized aspects of newspaper
work and who are acquainted with
the community are likely to be
given preference in employment on
small papers.
In addition to jobs in newspaper
reporting, recent college graduates
who have journalism training may
enter related fields such as advertis­
ing, public relations, trade and
technical publishing, and radio and
television. Good job opportunities
also will be found in teaching jour­
nalism for those who have profes­
sional experience and at least a
master’s degree.
Although the broad field of mass
communication should continue to
expand due to rising levels of edu­
cation; increasing expenditures for
newspaper, radio, and television ad­
vertising; and a growing number of
trade and technical journals,
newspapers are not expected to
share equally in this growth. As a
result, employment of reporters



should increase more slowly than
the average for all occupations.
Most job openings will continue to
arise from the need to replace re­
porters who are promoted to edi­
torial or administrative positions,
transfer to other fields of work,
retire, or leave the profession for
other reasons.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Reporters working for daily
newspapers
having
contracts
negotiated by The Newspaper
Guild had average starting salaries
of $8,750 in late 1974. In general,
earnings of newspaper reporters in
1974 were above average earnings
received by nonsupervisory work­
ers in private industry, except
farming.
Minimum salaries of reporters
having 4 or 5 years of experience
who worked for daily newspapers
with Guild contracts averaged
$14,265 in 1974. The minimums
ranged from $9,100, paid by the
smallest dailies, to more than
$22,000 paid by the largest. Many
reporters, however, were paid sala­
ries higher than these minimums.
Reporters working for national wire
services received annual salaries of
at least $14,000.
Most
newspaper
reporters
generally work a 5-day, 35- or 40hour week. Reporters working for
morning papers usually start work
in the late afternoon and finish at
about midnight. Most reporters also
receive benefits such as paid vaca­
tions, group insurance, and pension
plans.

Sources of Additional
Information
Information about opportunities
for reporters with daily newspapers
is available from:
American Newspaper Publishers Association
Foundation, P.O. Box 17407, Dulles In­
ternational Airport, Washington, D.C.
20041.

For information on opportunities

in the newspaper field and starting
salaries of journalism graduates, as
well as a list of journalism scholar­
ships, fellowships, assistantships,
and loans available at colleges and
universities, write to:
The N ew spaper Fund, Inc., Box 300,
Princeton, N.J. 08540.

Information on union wage rates
is available from:
The Newspaper Guild, Research and Infor­
mation Department, 1125 15th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20005.

For general information about
careers in journalism contact:
American Council on Education for Journal­
ism, School of Journalism, University of
Missouri, Columbia, Mo. 65201.
Association For Education in Journalism,
Murphy Hall, University of Minnesota,
Minneapolis, Minn. 55455.
The Society of Professional Journalists,
Sigma Delta Chi, 35 East Wacker Dr.,
Chicago, III. 60601.

Information on the opportunities
for women in newspaper reporting
and other communications fields is
available from:
Women In Communications, Inc., 8305 A
Shoal Creek Blvd., Austin, Tex. 78758.

Names and locations of daily
newspapers and a list of schools and
departments of journalism are
published in the Editor and
Publisher International Year Book ,
available in public libraries and in
most large newspaper offices.

RADIO AND TELE VISIO N
ANNO UN CER S
(D .O.T. 159.148)

Nature of the Work
Most radio announcers act as
disc jockeys, introducing recorded
music, presenting news and com­
mercials, and commenting on other
matters of interest to the audience.
They may “ad-lib” much of the
commentary, working without a
detailed script. They also may
operate the control board, sell time
for commercials, and write com­
mercial and news copy. In large sta-

tions, however, other workers han­
dle these jobs. (See statement on
radio and television broadcasting
occupations elsewhere in the Hand­
book.)
Announcers employed by televi­
sion stations and large radio sta­
tions usually specialize in particular
kinds of announcing such as sports,
news, or weather. They must be
thoroughly familiar with their areas
of specialization. If a written script
is needed for parts of the program,
the announcer may do the research
and writing. Announcers frequently
participate in community activities.
A sportscaster, for example, might
be the master of ceremonies at a
touchdown club banquet or greet
customers at the opening of a new
sporting goods store. Some an­
nouncers become well-known and
highly paid personalities.

Places of Employment
About 19,000 staff announcers
were employed full time by com­
mercial radio and television broad­
casting stations in 1974. More than
80 percent of them worked in radio

broadcasting. The average com­ announcers. A college liberal arts
mercial radio or television station education provides an excellent
employed
three
announcers, background for an announcer, and
although larger stations sometimes many universities offer cburses of
employed six or more. In addition study in the broadcasting field. Stu­
to staff announcers, several dents at these institutions also may
thousand freelance announcers sell gain valuable experience by supple­
their services for individual assign­ menting their courses with partments to networks and stations, or time work at the campus radio sta­
to advertising agencies and other tion and summer work at local sta­
tions, filling in for vacationing staff
independent producers.
members. A number of private vo­
Training, Other Qualifications,
cational schools also offer training
and Advancement
in announcing. However, those
Announcers must have a pleasant considering training at such a
and well-controlled voice, a good school should contact the personnel
sense of timing, and excellent managers of stations and broadcast­
pronunciation. Correct English ing trade organizations in their area
usage and a knowledge of dra­ to determine the school’s per­
matics, sports, music, and current formance in producing suitably
events improve chances for success. trained candidates.
Most announcers get their first
The most successful announcers
have a combination of personality broadcasting jobs in small stations.
and a knack for dramatization that Because announcers in small radio
makes them attractive to audiences. stations sometimes operate trans­
High school courses in English, mitters, prospective announcers
obtain
an
FCC
public speaking, dramatics, foreign often
languages, and electronics, plus Radiotelephone Third Class Opera­
sports and music hobbies, are valu­ tor License which enables them to
able background for prospective operate a radio transmitter and,
therefore, makes them much more
useful to these stations. (For infor­
mation on how to obtain a license,
see the statement on broadcast
technicians elsewhere in the Hand­
book.)
Announcers usually work in
several different stations in the
course of their careers. After
acquiring experience at a station in
a small community, an ambitious
and talented announcer may move
to a better paying job in a large city.
An announcer also may advance by
getting a regular program as a disc
jockey, sportscaster, or other spe­
cialist. In the national networks,
competition for jobs is intense, and
announcers usually must be college
graduates and have several years of
successful announcing experience
before they are given an audition.

Successful announcers have a personality which makes them attractive to
audiences.



Employment Outlook
The employment of announcers

is expected to increase about as fast
as the average for all occupations
through the mid-1980’s as new
radio and television stations are
licensed. Employment growth,
however, will be limited by the in­
creased use of automatic pro­
gramming. Most job openings in
this relatively small occupation will
result from the need to replace ex­
perienced announcers who transfer
to other occupations, retire, or die.
It will be easier to get an entry job
in radio than in television because
of the greater number of radio sta­
tions that hire beginners. These jobs
generally will be located in small
stations, and the pay will be rela­
tively low. A few jobs also will
become available as more cable
television stations begin their own
programming. However, the great
attraction of the broadcasting field
for young persons, and its relatively
small size, will result in keen com­
petition for entry jobs.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Salaries of beginning announcers
in commercial television ranged
from about $160 to $200 a week in
1974, and those of experienced an­
nouncers ranged from about $225
to $350, according to information
from union contracts. Many wellknown announcers earn much
more. As a rule, salaries increase
with the size of the community and
the station, and salaries in television
are higher than those in radio. An­
nouncers employed by educational
broadcasting stations generally earn
less than those who work for com­
mercial stations.
Most announcers in large stations
work a 40-hour week and receive
overtime pay for work beyond 40
hours. In small stations, many an­
nouncers work 4 to 12 hours of
overtime each week. Working
hours consist of both time on the air
and time spent in preparing for
broadcasts.
Evening,
night,
weekend, and holiday duty occurs



frequently since many stations
broadcast 24 hours a day, 7 days a
week.
Working conditions are usually
pleasant because of the variety of
work and the many personal con­
tacts that are part of the job. An­
nouncers also receive some
satisfaction from becoming well
known in the area their station
serves.

Sources of Additional
Information
For general career information,
write to:
National Association of Broadcasters, 1771
N St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.
Corporation for Public Broadcasting, 888
16th St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20006.

TEC H N IC AL WRITERS
(D.O.T. 139.288)

Nature of the Work
Technical writers organize, write,
and edit materials about science
and technology in order to establish
clearer communication between
those who develop information—
scientists, engineers, and design
technicians—and the users of their
information—operators, repairers,
scientists, engineers, executives, or
consumers. Their writing must al­
ways be clear and easy to follow,
and when it is to be used by spe­
cialists it often must include techni­
cal detail and a highly specialized
vocabulary.
Technical
writers
usually arrange for the preparation
of tables, charts, illustrations, and
other artwork, and may work with
technical illustrators, drafters, or
photographers.
Before starting a writing assign­
ment, technical writers usually
learn as much as they can about
their subject. This process involves
studying reports, reading technical
journals, and consulting with the
engineers, scientists, and other

technical personnel who have
worked on the project. Then they
prepare a rough draft that may be
revised several times before it is ac­
cepted in final form.
The technical writer’s product
takes
many
forms—publicity
releases on a company’s scientific
or technical achievements, manu­
facturers’ contract proposals to
government agencies, manuals that
explain how to operate, assemble,
disassemble, maintain, or overhaul
components of a missile system or a
home appliance, or articles for
scientific and engineering periodi­
cals or popular magazines.

Places of Employment
An estimated 20,000 technical
writers and editors—about one-fifth
women—were employed in 1974.
Many technical writers are em­
ployed in the electronic and
aerospace industries. Some work
for research and development firms
or for the Federal Government—
mainly in the Departments of
Defense and Agriculture, the Ener­
gy Research and Development Ad­
ministration, and the National
Aeronautics and Space Administra­
tion. Others work in firms that spe­
cialize in technical writing. A few
are in business for themselves as
freelance technical writers.
Technical writers are employed
all over the country but the largest
concentrations
are
in
the
Northeastern States, Texas, and
California.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Although there are no prescribed
requirements for entry into the
technical writing field, a combina­
tion of technical experience and
writing ability will generally qualify
a person to work as a technical
writer.
While a college background is
helpful and sometimes necessary,
most technical writers do not enter

perienced technical writers by
doing library research, and by
preparing drafts of reports. Ex­
perienced writers in organizations
that have large technical writing
staffs may advance to technical edi­
tor or other supervisory and ad­
ministrative positions. After gaining
experience and contacts, a few go
into business for themselves. It also
is possible to advance by becoming
a specialist in a particular scientific
or technical subject. These writers
sometimes prepare
syndicated
newspaper columns or articles for
popular magazines.

Employment Outlook

Technical writers discuss specifications of fighter plane component to be included
in technical manual.

the occupation as recent college
graduates. The majority, whatever
their level of educational attain­
ment, work initially as technicians,
scientists, or engineers. In time,
usually as a part of their technical
assignment, they assume some writ­
ing duties, and develop technical
communication skills. Eventually
they decide to work entirely in
technical writing.
Some employers, however, de­
mand a 4-year college education.
Many prefer the applicant to have a
degree in science or engineering,
with a strong background in Eng­
lish, while others emphasize writing
ability.
In 1974, 12 colleges and universi­
ties offered 4-year programs lead­
ing to a bachelor’s degree in techni­
cal writing, technical communica­
tion, or technical journalism; three
schools offered graduate work and



degrees in the field. More than 400
4-year colleges offered at least one
course in technical writing as part
of the regular curriculum. Almost
all colleges, and some engineering
schools, offer English courses to
sharpen writing skills, and some
conduct summer workshops and
short-term seminars for technical
writers.
Besides having writing skills,
technical writers should be able to
think logically, understand scien­
tific and technical concepts, and do
detailed and accurate work. They
should be able to work and talk
easily with others since they often
work as part of a team. At other
times, however, technical writers
must work alone with little or no su­
pervision, so they must be able to
accept responsibility and exercise
initiative.
Beginners often assist ex­

Employment of technical writers
is expected to increase about as fast
as the average for all occupations
through the mid-1980’s. In addition
to openings due to growth, opportu­
nities will result from the need to
replace those who die, retire, or
transfer to other occupations. Em­
ployment opportunities will be best
for experienced technical writers
and for beginners who have good
writing ability and the appropriate
technical education. Those with
only minimum qualifications, how­
ever, may face stiff competition for
beginning jobs.
Requirements
for
technical
writers are expected to increase
because of the need to put the
growing amount of scientific and
technical information into language
that can be understood by
managers for decisionmaking and
by technicians for operating and
maintaining complex industrial
equipment. Since many products
will continue to be assembled from
components manufactured by dif­
ferent companies, technical writers
also will be needed to describe, in
simple terms, how the components
fit together. Others will be needed
to improve and simplify operating
and maintenance instructions for
consumer products.
However, since many technical
writers work in defense- and space-

related
activities,
including
research and development, future
job opportunities are related to
government expenditures in these
areas. Through the mid-1980’s, R &
D expenditures of Government and
industry are expected to increase,
although at a slower rate than dur­
ing the 1960’s.
Technical writers, as discussed in
this statement, include only those
persons whose primary job is to
write about, interpret and edit
technical subject matter. Those
primarily employed as scientists,
engineers or other technical spe­
cialists who may do a considerable
amount of writing are not covered
here. As technology becomes in­
creasingly complex, more writing
assignments may require technical
and scientific knowledge equivalent
to that of an engineer or scientist.
Technical writers who have train­
ing in journalism may find opportu­
nities in other fields that employ
writers such as advertising, public




In the Federal Government in
late 1974, inexperienced technical
writers with a bachelor’s degree and
about five science courses could
Earnings and Working
start at either $8,500 or $10,520 a
Conditions
year, depending on their college
Technical writers have high grades. Those with 2 years of ex­
earnings compared with average perience could start at $12,841 and
earnings for nonsupervisory work­ with 3 years of experience,
ers in private industry, except $15,481.
farming. Salaries of technical
Technical writers generally work
writers depend not only on ability, in clean well-lighted places, though
education, and experience, but also they may work under considerable
on the type, size, and location of pressure, frequently working over­
their employing firm.
time when a publication deadline
Starting salaries in 1974 ranged has to be met.
from about $7,000 a year for those
Sources of Additional
with minimal qualifications to over
Information
$15,000 a year for those with
technical experience and college
For information about careers in
education. Experienced technical
technical writing, contact:
writers average around $17,500 a
year, while those in supervisory Society for Technical Communication, Inc.,
Suite 421, 1010 Vermont Ave. NW.,
positions earned $20,000 or more.
Washington D.C. 20005.
Earnings of freelance writers vary
greatly and depend on the writer’s
ability and reputation.
relations, trade publishing, and
television and radio broadcasting.




THE OUTLOOK FOR INDUSTRIES

AGRICULTURE
Agriculture—broadly defined—is
a genuine growth industry. It has
become a vast and vital industry
that reaches into all levels of society
and into dozens of other industries
and professions. It employs millions
of persons—both professional and
nonprofessional.
For
several
decades, U.S. agriculture has been
immersed in a technological revolu­
tion which has had a tremendous
impact on the industry’s labor
force—both in numbers and com­
position. Agriculture, or agribusi­
ness as it is more commonly
referred to today, is a multifaceted
complex that produces food and
fiber and then assembles, processes,
stores, transports, and markets it to
meet ever-growing demands. Con­
sumers now insist upon more at­
tractively packaged and ready-tocook foods. They also demand that
it be available all year. Thus,
science and business are as much a
part of agriculture today as is farm­
ing. As a result, employment needs
in agribusiness have changed sig­
nificantly and will continue to
change.
Tomorrow’s agriculture and re­
lated natural resource management
areas are expected to be more
dynamic. They will offer many
more and diverse kinds of employ­
ment opportunities. In addition, the
U.S. Department of Agriculture has
many diverse services organized to
help increase the productivity of
agriculture, to regulate practices, to
protect the environment and the
consumer, and to expand research
and educational programs.
The ever-increasing technology
has decreased the need for non­
professional workers (farm or
agribusiness laborers) while simul­
taneously increasing the need for
professional workers (collegetrained personnel). Present trends



are expected to be amplified in the
decades ahead. Enrollment in the
70 Land-Grant Colleges of Agricul­
ture and Natural Resources in­
creased from 35,000 in 1963 to
82,000 in 1974. A recent report
showed an additional 33,000
agricultural students currently en­
rolled in the many non-land-grant
2- and 4-year colleges. Increased
demand for food and fiber and con­
tinued public concern about the
quality of the environment, proper
management of our renewable
natural resources, and consumer
protection issues will cause these
upward trends in college enroll­
ment in agriculture and related
fields to continue.

Opportunities on Farms
In brief, fewer farmers and farm
workers will be needed to produce
America’s food and fiber products.
For instance, in 1950 the average
farmer could produce enough food
and fiber for about 16 other per­
sons. Today, each farmer feeds and
clothes 53 other persons. By 1980,
it is expected that each farmer will
be able to produce enough for 65
persons.
Employment on U.S. farms and
ranches has declined from 7.2 mil­
lion in 1950 to nearly 3.5 million in
1974. By 1985, with a continued in­
crease in size of farms and greater
use of power and machinery, there
are expected to be 2 million farm
workers. Farm output has increased
by 52 percent since 1950. This was
accomplished with 17 percent
fewer crop acres.
This phenomenal increase in
farm productivity was accom­
plished by significantly increased
use of farm power, machinery and
equipment, higher application of
fertilizers and other agrichemicals,

improved crop varieties and strains
of livestock, and improved farming
practices in general. Farms in­
creased in size and considerably
more total capital is required of
each farm operator. (See accom­
panying table.)
Management is the key to success
in modern farming. Today’s farmers
need a much higher level of
knowledge and skills than did their
predecessors. For example, the
dairy farmer used to feed each cow
an amount of grain based on the
amount of milk she had produced
the previous day or week. Modern
dairy farmers feed their cows on the
basis of their potential—“pushing”
potential high-performance cows to
their limits, cutting back on expen­
sive feed for cows that already have
peaked out. Figuring the potential
is a much more difficult technique
than weighing milk.
The need for better trained farm
operators and farm workers will in­
crease as farming becomes more
scientific. The knowledge and
capital required to start farming a
generation ago is no longer
adequate. College training is
becoming the rule rather than the
exception for young “commercial”
farmers. It gives them the technical
basis that they need to keep up
with new developments in research
and technology and to apply them
intelligently on their own farms.
Biology, engineering, chemistry,
and agronomy —not to mention
economics, marketing, and ac­
counting—are part of the necessary
kit of tools for a successful farmer
today.
Capital requirements are another
obstacle the beginning farmer must
overcome. It was estimated that the
average commercial farm in 1974
had 470 acres, with a value of more
than $190,000 in real estate,

livestock, crops, and equipment.
Regionally, the estimated value of
commercial farms varied from an
average of $70,000 in Appalachia
to $475,000 in the Pacific region.
For the person who has the train­
ing, the capital, and the manage­
ment ability, the modern farm can
offer much higher incomes than the
old-style farm. Nevertheless, while
agriculture production will still
offer challenging and rewarding
careers with larger incomes and
better living conditions than it used
to, it will offer them to fewer and
fewer people.

Opportunities of Specific Types
of Farms
Although the number of farms
and farm jobs is decreasing, some
desirable and rewarding opportuni­

ties remain in agriculture. The deci­
sion to enter farming may be made
simply because an opening exists on
the family farm or on a farm near­
by. To be successful, however,
young people should know the
requirements of the specific type of
farm operation they wish to enter.
They should take into consideration
their aptitudes, interests, prefer­
ences, experience, knowledge, and
skills in directing labor and handling
livestock and machinery. Young
people also must consider family
labor supply and financial re­
sources, as the labor and capital
requirements for an operation of
adequate size vary widely from one
type of farm to another.
A realistic decision to go into
farming can be made only in terms
of a particular area or community.

This section evaluates, from an oc­
cupational standpoint, some of the
more common types of farms. The
accompanying table gives illustra­
tive data on size of farm, capital
requirements, and net farm in­
comes received by operators of typ­
ical or representative farms in vari­
ous parts of the country. Many
farms are larger than these and
offer more return than is shown
here. Some are smaller and offer
the operators little income or op­
portunity to improve their status
without major changes. On most of
the farms, the major part of the
work is done by the farm operators
and their families. Whereas some of
the smaller farms hire workers only
during the peak labor season, large
ones often use hired labor the
whole year.

Table 1. Average size of farm by product and location, capital invested, and net farm income on commercial farms, 1974
Capital invested in —
Type of farms and location

Dairy farms:
Central New York...............................
Southeastern Wisconsin......................
F.gg-producing farms, New Jersey............
Broiler farms, Georgia................................
Com Belt farms:
Hog-beef feeding..................................
Cash grain crop....................................
Cotton farms
Mississippi Delta.................................
Southern High Plains, Texas:
Irrigated.........................................
Nonirrigated..................................
Tobacco farms. Coastal Plain,
North Carolina.........................................
Tobacco-livestock farms, Bluegrass
area, Kentucky.........................................
Wheat-fallow farms:
Northern Plains....................................
Central Plains.......................................
Pacific Northwest................................
Cattle ranches
Northern Plains....................................
Northern Rocky Mountain................
Southwest..............................................
Migratory-Sheep Ranches,
Utah-Nevada............................................

Size of farm as
measured by

40 milk cows........................ $61,200
40 milk cows........................ 120,212
66,280
5,550 layer chickens...........
33,109
44,600 produced annually...

$25,347
26,593
3,655
6,615

$23,547
25,436
9,596
991

280 acres of cropland..........
375 acres of cropland.........

226,440
428,400

28,119
45,526

49,536
0

900 acres of cropland.........

694,237

102,367

870 acres of cropland..........
860 acres of cropland.........

632,961
296,437

50 acres of cropland...........

Crops

Total

Net farm
income

$16,764 $ 126,855
18,352
190,593
0
79,531
330
41,045

$15,364
19,857
6,043
2,663

43,302
6,186

347,397
480,112

14,749
30,423

0

0

796,604

100,017

54,899
21,558

0
0

0
0

687,860
317,995

73,412
66,810

67,106

7,391

783

1,423

76,703

7,837

64 acres of cropland...........

188,190

9,400

12,119

4,722

214,431

14,950

1,800 acres of cropland.....
1,800 acres of cropland.......
1,800 acres of cropland.......

303,705
379,440
548,505

53,560
53,560
66,950

0
0
0

0
0
0

357,265
433,000
615,455

30,694
63,334
69,484

307 beef cows......................
314 beef cows......................
278 beef cows......................

513,254
342,491
678,356

27,677
26,271
16,416

107,896
100,616
91,434

10,661
20,702
0

659,488
490,080
786,206

34,714
34,272
11,319

2,025 breeding ew es...........

205,571

20,286

91,757

2,846

320,460

27,163

1The information presented here is on an owner-operated basis,
primarily for comparability between types of farm. Net farm
income is the combined return to total capital phis return to opera­
tor and other unpaid members of the family for their labor and



Land
Machinery
and
and
Livestock
buildings equipment

management. N o allowance has been made for payment of rent,
interest, or mortgage.
SOURCE: Prepared in the Commodity Economics Division,
Economic Research Division, U.S. Department of Agriculture.

The figures in the table on capital
invested mean that the operator
controls or uses resources valued at
that amount. Many farmers supple­
ment their own capital with bor­
rowed funds; others rent part or all
of the land they use, thus reserving
more of their funds for the purchase
of livestock, feed, machinery, and
equipment. Still others have part­
ners who provide most of the work­
ing capital. For example, many
farmers who raise broilers are in
partnership with a feed dealer.
No brief general statement can
be made about specialization versus
diversification in farming opera­
tions that would apply in all parts of
the country. The general trend
favors more specialized farming.
Farms
that produced
many
products a generation ago now may
produce only two or three. Efficient
production of most farm products
requires a substantial investment in
specialized equipment. To receive
the full benefit from this invest­
ment, the farmer must produce on a
large scale. Two other factors con­
tributing to specialization are the
increased emphasis on quality of
farm products, and the greater
knowledge and skill required for ef­
fective production. Few farmers,
however, find it advantageous to
produce only one product. The
main reasons for producing more
than one product are the desirabili­
ty of spreading risk, the more effec­
tive use of labor (particularly family
labor), and the fuller utilization of
most other resources than can be
realized in a one-product system.

In this way, the work can be divided
up to allow some workers to take a
day off.
Dairy farmers who produce their
own feed have a variety of jobs to
accomplish. Dairy herds are
decreasing in number, but are
becoming larger and more produc­
tive each year. Income from dairy­
ing is distributed somewhat evenly
throughout the year.

Livestock Farms (Other Than
Dairy and Poultry)

usually not much physical strength.
Poultry farms often make con­
siderable use of family help.
Poultry farmers often experience
sharp year-to-year fluctuations in
income. These operations have high
cash costs and thin profit margins.
Many broiler producers have con­
tracts with a financing agency such
as a feed dealer, so that the profit
margin can be somewhat dependa­
ble.

Cash Grain Farms

A livestock farm may handle only
The production of corn, wheat,
beef, swine, sheep, or horses. But it grain sorghums, and other grains
also may combine all of these enter­ requires the use of tractors, farm
prises. Persons who like livestock machinery, and equipment. For
and who have developed some skills many of these farms the work
and knowledge about them and the requirements are seasonal. That is,
mechanical equipment necessary during the soil preparation, plant­
for handling these farms can find ing, and harvesting times the farm
livestock production rewarding and operators are very busy. During
profitable. Farm chores tend to be other seasons and in slack periods
more flexible than on dairy farms. the farmer often will seek employ­
Most labor tends to be family labor. ment off the farm.
Various systems of livestock
Knowledge of farm machinery,
production allow for some spe­ seed bed preparation, varieties,
cialization so that the system can fit planting times, depths, as well as
the size of farm, the types of feed methods of weed, insect, and dis­
production available locally, and ease control are required if produc­
the needs of consumers. Incomes ers are to be successful. Cash grain
on livestock farms tend to be varia­ farmers are subject to major risks
ble, and risks are quite high. Capital due both to weather and prices for
investments
in housing
and their grains. This is particularly true
livestock can be considerable. for specialized crop farmers. Invest­
Ability to understand the markets ments in land, power, and equip­
and to adjust management practices ment on the usually large acreage
to changing costs and prices is the can be very high. Thus, total risk is
key to success in livestock produc­ very high and management is criti­
tion.
cal.

Poultry Farms
Dairy Farms
While dairy farms are located
throughout the country, their
greatest concentration is near large
population centers. There is work
to be done every day thoughout the
year on dairy farms, and they tend
to be family operations. However,
some farms are large enough so that
more than one worker is required to
handle the chores and equipment.



Cotton, Tobacco, and Peanut
Farms

Poultry farms concentrate on egg
production or on the production of
broilers. Poultry farmers do not
raise their own feed. They purchase
feeds which are suited to their
specific purposes. As in many farm­
ing enterprises, poultry farming
requires specialized skill. The han­
dling of the birds and of the
mechanical feeding equipment
requires specialized knowledge but

Cotton, tobacco, and peanuts are
grown on farms of varying size, de­
pending upon the region. As in
many other products, growers have
been forced to enlarge their acre­
age and often to diversify. Still
many farms are small and are parttime farming operations.
Some of the cotton farms, par­
ticularly in the West and Southwest,
have gone under irrigation. Other

such farms in the Southeast have
added beef cattle or poultry to their
farming operations. Prices of these
crops are usually government sup­
ported, so price risks tend to be less
than for other cash-grain farms.

Specialty Crop Farms
Specialty crop farms may
produce potatoes, grapes, oranges,
sugar cane, melons, broomcorn,
popcorn, or a combination of these
and other specialty crops. These
farms exist because of the demand
for the product and because of the
unflpMP background, skills, and
resources which a farmer has for
this kind of production. These en­
terprises often require seasonal
workers and relatively expensive
specialized
equipment.
These
producers need specific skills which
may be obtained through ex­
perience or through special train­
ing.
Profits from specialty farms
usually vary greatly from year-toyear. Specialty crop farmers usually
study the demand picture well and
make adjustments so that the par­
ticular operation will produce ac­
cording to the effective demand.

Private Outdoor Recreation
Farms
Since the demand for outdoor
recreation facilities exceeds the
supply, many farm operators .in the
vicinity of national, State, and local
parks, or near wildlife preserves,
have taken advantage of their loca­
tion to establish recreation busi­
nesses. These farmers sell hunting
or fishing rights to individuals, form
hunting clubs, or establish private
campgrounds. Some will enlarge or
improve their farm ponds or irriga­
tion reservoirs which they then
stock with fish or make available
for swimming and boating. Old
farm buildings, sheds, and barns
may be converted into riding sta­
bles or horse boarding stables. In
making these facilities available,



many farmers have converted a lia­
bility into an asset. Such farmers
only represent 1 percent of all
farms in the United States, but their
numbers are increasing. The
average amount reported earned
from such recreation activity was
about $1,630 per farm. For persons
with recreational interests in
favored locations, this type of sup­
plemental recreational enterprise
can add substantially to farm in­
come.

production, new technology and equip­
ment, and financial management.

Opportunities in Off-Farm
Agribusinesses

The same technological revolu­
tion that hit the farm sector simul­
taneously extended itself into the
off-farm agribusiness sector, alter­
ing farm product assembling,
processing and handling practices.
It changed the organizational struc­
ture of both the farm and off-farm
sectors of today’s modem agricul­
Other Specialty Farms
ture. These technologies signifi­
Agriculture also includes such cantly increased the capital require­
specialized areas as nurseries, ments of the off-farm sector. It also
greenhouses, honey bees, fur farms, called for much greater managerial
and riding stables. For many of and technical knowledge and skills
these, special knowledge and on the part of both professional and
skilled management are required. nonprofessional workers in the total
Risks are high—but, for persons agricultural complex. As a result,
who have the abilities and the the number and kinds of personnel
resources, these ventures are often needed in the off-farm agribusiness
labor force have changed signifi­
profitable and rewarding.
cantly over the past three decades
and they are likely to continue to
Training Opportunities
Available for Farm Production change.
For example, as farms increase in
Jobs
size, more and more custom serv­
A good initial background in ices will be used by farm opera­
farming can be obtained by growing tors. Operating this custom equip­
up on a successful farm. Necessary ment will require special training
experience also may be gained by and skills. Thus, there will continue
working as a closely supervised ten­ to be a wide range of occupations
ant or hired worker on a success­ which require technical knowledge
ful farm. In addition, college train­ below that required at the 4-year
ing in agriculture and agricultural college level. Many 2-year commu­
business management is of sustan- nity-junior colleges and vocational
tial value to the modern farmer.
and technical schools now provide
Several types of vocational train­ excellent training to meet these
ing are availablev under federally needs. Examples of such jobs in­
assisted programs. Training is of­ clude assistant feedlot managers,
fered in the following ways:
feed mill supervisors, general farm
1. High school courses in agriculture.
and ranch managers, irrigation sys­
2. Short courses for young fanners at col­
tem servicers, farm service center
leges of agriculture, including intensive
assistant managers, fertilizer and
training in farm planning, farm struc­
pesticide applicators, farm weld­
tures, construction, welding and related
ers, petroleum distributors, diesel
shop and repair work, as well as instruc­
tion in crop production, livestock feed­
mechanics, agricultural account­
ing and management, recordkeeping,
ants, elevator operators, fertilizer
and other aspects of farming.
bulk blending plant assistant
3. Adult evening classes (or day classes in
managers, and artificial inseminaoff-seasons) that provide intensive in­
tors.
struction in subjects such as land and
Persons with 4-year bachelor’s
soil management, crop and livestock

degrees in agriculture will be in­
creasingly needed in the off-farm
agribusiness professional occupa­
tions. Nearly one-half of 4-year
agriculture college graduates are
now employed in off-farm positions
in agribusiness. They have taken
jobs such as sales and technical
service center managers with agri­
cultural supply firms selling feed,
seed, fertilizer, agrichemicals,
power, machinery, equipment and
farm building supplies.
Others have taken jobs as buyers
for meatpackers and other food
processors; in advertising and
public relations work; in manage­
ment positions with agricultural
product
assembly,
storage,
processing and marketing firms
operating in both the United States
and abroad. Some take jobs with
farm cooperatives, food chains,
dairy product distributors, and farm
credit agencies. Others work as
agricultural consultants, economic
analysts, field contractors, agricul­
tural attaches, insurance specialists,
farm appraisers, agrichemical ap­
plicators, inspectors of food
processing
plants,
landscape
architects, farm magazine writers,
farm radio and TV broadcasters,
and meat and grain inspectors and
graders.

Occupations in the Public
Sector of Agriculture
The public service sector of
agriculture provides employment
opportunities for College of
Agriculture bachelor’s degree grad­
uates in positions as soil conserva­
tionists, vocational agriculture
teachers,
county
extension
directors, 4-H agents, rural and
community planners, Farm and
Home Administration supervisors,
Department of Agriculture inspec­
tors, Crop and Livestock Reporting
Service employees, Peace Corps
workers,
vocational
technical
school teachers, agricultural mar­
ket reporters, and agricultural at­
taches.



Those having advanced degrees
in agriculture (master’s and Ph. D.
degrees) qualify for positions as
educators, industry research and
development scientists, agribusi­
ness managers and upper level ad­
ministrators, veterinarians, and
researchers or administrators with
governmental agencies such as the
U.S. Department of Agriculture. In
addtion to the governmental agen­
cies, numerous private foundations
also employ agricultural scientists,
technicians, and administrators.
(For more detail, see section on
agriculture-related professional oc­
cupations.)

Occupations in Renewable
Natural Resource Management

and technology, environmental
biology, fisheries biology, land­
scape architecture, horticulture,
urban and regional planning, urban
forestry, soil and water conserva­
tion, crop protection, pest manage­
ment, park and recreational area
management, land-use planning,
and range management. Many of
these are relatively new college
degree curriculums, brought on by
greater public concern for proper
management of the Nation’s
renewable natural resources and
pressures to provide facilities for
use of leisure time.
People trained in the above cur­
riculums take jobs as park and
recreation area managers, park
rangers, regional park supervisors,
outdoor recreation specialists, pri­
vate recreation firm managers, soil
and water conservationists, wildlife
managers, foresters, forestry tech­
nicians, environmental biologists,
range managers, fishery biologists,
and land-use planners. (See the
statement on Conservation Occu­
pations elsewhere in the Hand­
book.) Some work in urban agricul­
ture—parks,
zoos,
botanical
gardens, golf courses, open areas,
and landscaping; and in city and
county planning.

Proper management of our
renewable natural resources is a na­
tional obligation. It involves the
wise use of land and forests, water
and minerals, and fish and wildlife.
It involves preserving parks and
other natural recreation areas
(including unspoiled wilderness,
virgin prairies, and scenic riverways).
Soil must be managed; timber
must be used wisely; wildlife must
be protected; water must be con­
served and protected from pollu­
tion. Land-use planning is becom­
Sources of Additional
ing more important as public pres­
Information
sures build both to protect our farm
The most significant sources of
land to produce more food and
fiber and to devote more land to information and guidance available
highways, urban development, min­ to farmers are the services provided
ing and quarrying, lumbering, and by the land-grant colleges and
recreation. People with more lei­ universities and the U.S. Depart­
sure time are voting for more park ment of Agriculture, Washington,
facilities and lakes, planned recrea­ D.C. 20250. These services include
tion programs, camping sites, hunt­ research, publication, teaching, and
ing preserves, fishing facilities, and extension work. The county
areas for water sports and nature agricultural agent is often the best
contact for the young person seek­
studies.
Therefore, many opportunities ing advice and assistance in farm­
are available for persons holding ing. The Farmers’ Home Adminis­
degrees from colleges of agriculture tration system of supervised credit
and natural resources (Forestry) in is one example of credit facilities
such curriculums as: Natural combined with a form of extension
resource management, wildlife con­ teaching. Organized groups, such as
servation, forestry, wood science the Future Farmers of America and

the 4-H Clubs, also furnish valuable
training to young farm people.
For information about opportuni­
ties in off-farm activities, contact
individual colleges of agriculture or
the U.S. Department of Agricul­
ture, Washington, D.C. 20250.

AG R IC U LTU R E-R ELATED
PROFESSIONAL
OCCUPATIONS
Nature of the Work
The discussion that follows deals
primarily with job categories that
are generally termed professional
fields. These occupations usually
require at least a bachelor’s degree,
and master’s and Ph. D. degrees are
becoming increasingly necessary.
Some of these jobs are discussed
more fully elsewhere in the Hand­
book. (See index.)
Agricultural economists (D.O.T.
050.088) deal with problems re­
lated to production, financing, pric­
ing, and marketing of farm products
both in the United States and in
foreign
countries.
These
economists are factfinders, evalua­
tors, analysts, and interpreters who
provide economic information to
farmers, agri-business firms, pol­
icymakers, consumers, and other
interested persons. They provide
cost-benefit analyses for evaluating
farm programs at the National,
State, and farm level. They study
the effects of mechanization,
technological advances, and other
developments that influence the
supply of and demand for farm
products and the accompanying ef­
fects on costs and prices of farm
products.
Agricultural engineers (D.O.T.
013.081) develop new and im­
proved farm machines and equip­
ment; deal with the physical aspects
of soil and water problems in farm­
ing; design and supervise installa­
tion of systems for irrigation,
watershed protection and flood



prevention; devise new techniques
for harvesting and processing farm
products; and design more efficient
farm buildings.
Agronomists (D.O.T. 040.081)
are concerned with growing, breed­
ing, and improving field crops such
as cereals and grains, legumes and
grasses, tobacco, cotton, and
others. They do research also in the
fundamental principles of plant
sciences.
Animal physiologists (D.O.T.
041.081) study the functions of the
animal body and any of its parts.
Animal
scientists
(D.O.T.
040.081) deal with production and
management of farm animals. They
are concerned with genetics, nutri­
tion, breeding, physiology, environ­
ment, and animal health.
Veterinarians (D.O.T. 073.081)
inspect
livestock
at
public
stockyards and points of entry into
the United States; inspect establish­
ments that produce veterinary
biological supplies; administer tests
for animal diseases; conduct pro­
grams for the control and eradica­
tion of animal disease; conduct
research on livestock diseases and
vaccines for disease control; work
directly with farmers in protection
or restoration of livestock health;
and provide services for the health
and care of small animals and pets.
Geneticists (D.O.T. 041.081) try
to develop strains, varieties, breeds,
and hybrids of plants and animals
that are better suited than those
presently available for the produc­
tion of food and fiber.
Microbiologists (D.O.T. 041.081)
study bacteria and the relation of
other microorganisms to human,
plant, and animal health and the
function of these microorganisms in
the making of products such as
vitamins, antibiotics, amino acids,
grain alcohol, sugars, and polymers.
Plant scientists (D.O.T. 041.081)
study plant diseases and their na­
ture, causes, and methods of con­
trol. They also study the structure
of plants and the growth-related
factors in plants. Methods of im­

proving fruits, vegetables, flowers,
and ornamental plants are also of
major concern.
Plant quarantine and plant pest
control
inspectors
(D.O.T.
041.081), who are trained in the
biological sciences, supervise and
perform professional and scientific
work in enforcing plant quarantine
and pest control laws. Plant quaran­
tine inspectors inspect ships,
planes, trucks, and autos coming
into the country to keep out dan­
gerous insect pests. Plant pest con­
trol inspectors conduct programs to
protect the crops of the country by
prompt detection, control, and
eradication of plant pests.
Entomologists (D.O.T. 041.081)
study insects both beneficial and
harmful. They identify the popula­
tions and distributions of insects
that injure growing crops and
animals; that harm human beings;
and that damage agricultural com­
modities during shipping, storage,
processing, and distribution. Their
research is directed toward finding
means by which these harmful in­
sects may be controlled, and desira­
ble insects managed to increase
their impact on pests.
Foresters (D.O.T. 040.081) are
concerned with the protection,
production, processing, and dis­
tribution of our timber resources.
They also study means by which
wood may be seasoned, preserved,
and given new properties.
Human nutritionists (D.O.T.
077.128) are concerned with the
science of food, nutrients, and
other substances; their action, in­
teraction, and balance in relation to
health and disease; and the means
by which the body utilizes these
substances. They also study certain
social, economic, cultural, and
physiological implications of food
and eating.
Rural
sociologists
(D.O.T.
054.088) study the structure and
functions of the social institutions
(customs, practices, and laws) that
are a part of rural society or affect
it.

School teachers (D.O.T. 091.228)
in vocational agriculture and re­
lated fields supervise and give in­
struction in farm management,
agricultural production, agricul­
tural supplies and services, opera­
tion and repair of farm equipment
and structures, inspection and
processing of farm products, orna­
mental horticulture, conservation
of natural resources, and uses of
forests.
Farm
managers,
including
agriculture management specialists,
supervise and coordinate the
production,
marketing,
and
purchasing and credit activities of
one farm or a group of farms.

Places of Employment
Government agencies, colleges,
and agricultural experiment sta­
tions hire many agricultural
research workers. They also hire
people to take technical and ad­
ministrative responsibilities in pro­
grams involving or affecting farm­
ers such as the production, proc­
essing, marketing, inspection, and
grading of farm products; preven­
tion and spread of plant pests,
animal parasites, and diseases; and
management and control of wildlife.
States,
counties,
and
municipalities hire many who serve
as vocational agriculture teachers.
Through a nationwide, federally
aided program, teachers of voca­
tional agriculture not only teach
high school students interested in
farming, but also provide organized
instruction for adult farmers, giving
individual consultation at their
farms to keep them abreast of mod­
em farm technology.
Agribusinesses, farmer coopera­
tives, and commercial and financial
companies that buy from, sell to, or
serve farmers also employ many
professionals with agriculture-re­
lated training, as do farmers’ orga­
nizations or trade associations
whose members deal with farmers.
Such companies and organizations
tend to be located either in indus­
trial centers or in areas of high



agricultural activity, and include
producers of feed, seed, fertilizer,
and farm equipment; and of insecti­
cides, herbicides, and other chemi­
cal dusts and sprays. Employment
in these organizations may be ex­
pected to expand, as farmers rely
increasingly on them to provide
farm supplies, machinery, equip­
ment, and services, and to market
farm products. The size of the
organization and the types of serv­
ices it offers determine the number
of its employees and the nature of
their jobs. Large farm supply coop­
eratives and businesses, for exam­
ple, may have separate divisions for
feed, seed, fertilizer, petroleum,
chemicals, farm machinery, public
relations, and credit, each super­
vised by a department head. In
smaller businesses and coopera­
tives, such as local grain-marketing
elevators, the business is run al­
most entirely by the general man­
ager who has only two or three
helpers.
Research activities related to
agriculture have grown very
rapidly. The largest agencies in this
field are the State agricultural ex­
periment stations connected with
the land-grant colleges and the vari­
ous research branches of the U.S.
Department of Agriculture. The
U.S. Department of Agriculture
employs workers in research posi­
tions in various parts of the country:
in Washington, D.C.; at the
Agricultural Research Center at
Beltsville, Md.; and at land-grant
colleges. Other Government de­
partments also have many agricul­
tural research jobs.
Public and private lending insti­
tutions which make loans to farmers
employ people with broad training
in agriculture and business. These
workers ordinarily are required to
have had practical farm experience,
as well as academic training in
agriculture, economics, and other
subjects. Making financially sound
loans involves careful analysis of
the farm business and proper eval­
uation of farm real estate and

other farm property. These workers
are employed by the Cooperative
Farm Credit Administration in its
banks and in associations oper­
ating under its supervision through­
out the country; by the Farmers
Home Administration in its Wash­
ington, D.C. office, and in State
and county offices throughout the
country; by rural banks; and by
insurance companies that have sub­
stantial investments in farm
mortgages.
Agricultural communications is
another expanding area of spe­
cialization. Crop reporters and mar­
ket news reporters are employed by
the U.S. Department of Agriculture
in field offices throughout the
United States. Crop reporters
gather information on crop produc­
tion during all stages of the growing
season. Market news reporters col­
lect information on the movement
of agricultural produce from the
farm to the market. Radio and TV
farm directors are employed by
many radio and TV stations to re­
port prices, sales, grades, and other
agricultural information to farm re­
sidents. Agricultural reporters and
editors compile farm news and data
for farm journals, bulletins, and
broadcasts.
The qualifications of workers in
all of these fields ordinarily include
a college education and special
training in a particular line of work.
In most of these fields, the demand
for workers exceeds the supply. In
recent years, the demand has in­
creased because of the need to
recruit professional personnel to
staff agricultural missions to other
countries and to give technical aid
to agricultural institutions and farm­
ers there.

Sources of Additional
Information
Opportunities in Research. Addi­
tional information on research op­
portunities at land-grant colleges
may be obtained from the dean of
agriculture at the State land-grant

college. Information on employ­
ment in the U.S. Department of
Agriculture is available from the
USDA recruitment representatives
at land-grant colleges and from the
Office of Personnel, U.S. Depart­
ment of Agriculture, Washington,
D.C. 20250.
The following publication will be
valuable:
C a reers
in
A g ric u ltu re
R e so u rc e s —A g ric u ltu re .

and

N a tu ra l

American As­
sociation of Land-Grant Colleges and
State Universities, Washington, D.C.
Copies can be obtained free from State
agricultural colleges.

Opportunities
in
Agricultural
Finance. For information about em­

ployment opportunities in agricul­
tural finance, contact:
Farm Credit Administration, Washington,
D.C. 20578.




Farmers Home Administration, U.S. Depart­
ment of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
20250.
Agricultural Director, American Bankers
Association, 90 Park Ave., New York,
N .Y .10016.

Opportunities with Cooperatives.
Cooperatives in the individual com­

munities are a good source of infor­
mation on jobs either in their own
organizations or in other coopera­
tives. Most States have a State
Council or association of coopera­
tives that can provide information
on cooperative locations and some
job information.
The Cooperative Foundation, 59
E. Van Buren St., Chicago, 111.
60605, offers a publication, Careers
in Cooperatives, which describes
about 100 different kinds of jobs
available in these businesses.

Opportunities
for
Agricultural
Economists. For additional informa­

tion about opportunities in agricul­
tural economics, write the Depart­
ment of Agricultural Economics at
State land-grant colleges. For infor­
mation on Federal employment op­
portunities, applicants may get in
touch with USDA recruitment
representatives at the State landgrant college or write directly to the
Office of Personnel, U.S. Depart­
ment of Agriculture, Washington,
D.C. 20250.
Opportunities as Vocational Agricul­
ture Teachers. Prospective teachers

should contact the Head Teacher
Trainer in Agriculture Education at
the land-grant college or the State
Supervisor of Agricultural Educa­
tion at the State Department of
Public Instruction in their respec­
tive States.

MINING AND PETROLEUM
The mining and petroleum indus­
try provides most of the basic raw
materials and energy sources for in­
dustry and consumer use. Metal
mines provide iron, copper, gold,
and other ores. Quarrying and other
nonmetallic mining yield many of
the basic materials such as
limestone and gravel for building
schools, offices, homes, and
highways. Nearly all of the Nation’s
energy for industrial and personal
use comes from oil, gas, and coal.
Few products from mines reach the
consumer in their natural state;
nearly
all
require
further
processing.
The mining and petroleum indus­
try employed about 672,000 wage
and salary workers in 1974. Over
four-tenths of these worked in the
exploration and removal of crude
petroleum and natural gas. Coal
mining accounted for about onefourth of the industry’s workers,
and quarrying and nonmetallic
mineral mining nearly one-fifth.
The remaining workers were in
metal mining.
As shown in the accompanying
tabulation, blue-collar workers
(craft workers and operatives) ac­
count for nearly seven-tenths of the
industry’s employment. Operatives
are the largest occupational group
in the industry. Included in the
operative group are oil well drillers,
mining machinery operators, and
truck and tractor drivers. Skilled
craft workers constitute the second



largest
occupational
group.
Mechanics and repairers maintain
the complex equipment and
machinery used in mining and in oil
well drilling. Many operators of
heavy equipment, such as power
shovels and graders, work in open
pit mining. Large numbers of
pumpers, gaugers, and engine wor­
kers hold jobs in the removal and
transportation of petroleum and
natural gas. Supervisors of blue-col­
lar workers also constitute an im­
portant part of the craft worker
group.
The industry’s white-collar em­
ployees are divided among three
occupational groups—professional
and
technical,
clerical,
and
managerial
workers.
Taken
together, these groups compose the
remaining three-tenths of the indus­
try’s employment.
Estim ated
em ploym ent,
1974

(percent
M a jo r occupational ftroup distribution)

All occupational groups...
Professional, technical, and kin­
dred workers ...........................
Managers and administrators.....
Clerical and kindred workers.....
Sales workers ..............................
Craft and kindred workers..........
Operatives.2
...................................
Service workers...........................
•Less than 0.5 percent.
2Includes mine laborers.

100

15
6
10
(')
26
41
2

Professional, technical, and kin­
dred workers are concentrated lar­
gely in petroleum and gas extrac­
tion. Most are engineers, geologists,
or technicians engaged in explora­
tion and research. Two out of three
clerical employees work in petrole­
um and gas extraction. Most are
secretaries, office machine opera­
tors, and typists.
Employment in the mining and
petroleum industry is expected to
increase about as fast as the average
for all industries through the mid1980’s, but different growth pat­
terns are likely within the industry.
Employment in coal mining and in
petroleum and natural gas extrac­
tion should increase as the Nation
strives to become self-sufficient in
energy sources. Employment in
metal mining also is expected to
grow. Employment in quarrying
and nonmetallic mining, on the
other hand, is expected to decline
as laborsaving equipment leads to
higher output with fewer workers.
The statements that follow pro­
vide information on employment
opportunities in the petroleum and
natural gas extraction industry and
the coal mining industry. More
detailed information about many of
the major occupations in the mining
and petroleum industries also ap­
pears elsewhere in the Handbook.

COAL MINING
Nature of the Industry
Coal has played a vital role in the
development of this Nation.
Originally used only as a source of
heat, the demand for coal grew
rapidly with the coming of the
steam engine. By the beginning of
the 20th century coal emerged as a
major ingredient in the production
of steel and electric power.
Coal is usually divided into two
classes, bituminous and anthracite.
Bituminous, or “soft” coal, is the
most widely used and the most
plentiful, and accounts for most
coal production. Production of
anthracite, or “hard” coal, on the
other hand, is steadily declining due
to dwindling reserves and difficulty
of recovery. Other forms of coal,
such as lignite and peat, are clas­
sified in the subbituminous catego­
ry, and are used in limited amounts.
Most of the Nation’s coal is
mined in the Appalachian area
which extends from Pennsylvania
through Eastern Ohio, West Vir­
ginia, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennes­
see, and Alabama. A large amount
of coal also is mined in Indiana, Il­
linois, and in the Rocky Mountain
States.

Types of Mines
Coal is either mined underground
or extracted from the earth’s sur­
face. Underground mines produce
slightly less than half of the bitu­
minous coal and employ most of the
miners. Surface mines account for
the remaining coal, but employ only
a small proportion of the industry’s
workers.
The type of mine a company de­
cides to open depends on the



geological formation and the depth
and location of the coal seam. Un­
derground mines are used to reach
coal that lies deep below the sur­
face. A series of entries must be
constructed so that air, and miners
and equipment can reach the seam
and coal can be carried out. De­
pending on the depth of the coal
seam, the entry may be vertical
(shaft mine), horizontal (drift
mine), or at an angle (slope mine).
(See chart.) Shaft mines are used to
reach coal lying far below the sur­
face. Drift and slope mines are
usually not as far underground as
shaft mines.
After the coal seam has been
reached, nearly all underground
mines are constructed the same
way. Miners make a network of in­
terconnecting tunnels so that the
mine resembles a maze with
passageways going off in predeter­
mined directions, sometimes ex­

tending over many miles. As coal is
removed, the tunnels become
longer and longer. Throughout this
process, a significant amount of
coal (pillars) is left between the
tunnels to support the roof. When
miners reach the end of the com­
pany’s property they start working
back toward the entrance, mining
most of the remaining coal as they
retreat. This is called retreat min­
ing.
If the coal seam is not too far
below ground, surface mining is
practiced. Two types of surface
mines are strip and auger. At strip
mines, huge machines tear the earth
away and dig out the coal. Auger
mining is used to remove coal from
extremely steep hillsides. A large
auger (drill) bores into the hill and
pulls the coal out.

Occupations in the Industry
In 1974 about 169,000 people
worked in the coal mining industry.
About 85 percent were production
workers who mined and processed
coal. Mining jobs range from ap­
prentice miners who usually act as
helpers in several occupations, to
highly skilled and experienced
miners who operate equipment

Longwall mining is basically an
extension of continuous mining. In
this method, the longwall machine
operator runs a set of machines
which cut and automatically load
coal onto a conveyor. At the same
time hydraulic jacks reinforce the
roof. As the coal is cut and the face
progresses, the jacks are hydrauli­
cally wrenched forward and the
roof is allowed to cave behind.
Many other workers are required
to run a safe and efficient un­
derground mine. Before miners are
allowed underground, the fire boss
or preshift examiner (D.O.T.
939.387) inspects the work area for
loose roof, dangerous gases and
adequate ventilation. The rock-dust
machine operator (D.O.T. 939.887)
sprays limestone on the mine walls
and ground to hold down dust since
Miner runs a continuous mining machine which tears coal from the seam.
coal dust is extremely explosive,
worth several hundred thousand haulage system used, these cars and interferes with breathing.
The roof bolter (D.O.T. 930.883)
dollars. Jobs available in a mine, take the coal to a conveyor belt for
however, vary by type and method shipment to the main entry or to the operates a machine to install roof
of mining.
surface, or onto mine cars which support bolts. This operation is ex­
are transported on tracks to the sur­ tremely important because of the
Mining Occupations. Two basic face.
ever-present threat of roof cave-ins.
methods of mining underground
The continuous mining method The stopping builder (D.O.T.
coal, conventional and continuous, eliminates the drilling and blasting 869.884) constructs doors, walls or
account for 96 percent of total un­ operations of conventional mining. partitions in the passageways to
derground production. A third The continuous-mining machine force air through the tunnels to
method, longwall, makes up the operator (D.O.T. 930.883) runs a working areas, and the supervisor,
remaining.
machine that cuts or rips out the called a face boss (D.O.T. 939.138),
Conventional mining is the oldest coal and loads it directly onto a is in charge of all operations at the
method and requires the most work­ conveyor or shuttle cars.
work site where coal is actually
ers and procedures. In conven­
mined.
tional mining, the cutting machine
Most surface miners operate the
operator (D.O.T. 930.883) uses a
large machines that either remove
huge electric chainsaw, with a
the earth above the coal, or dig and
cutter ranging in length from 6 to
load the coal. The number of work­
15 feet, to cut a strip, or kerf, un­
ers required to operate a surface
derneath the coal seam to control
mine depends on the types of
the direction of the coal as it falls
machines used and the amount of
after it has been blasted. Next the
overburden above the coal seam.
drilling machine operator (D.O.T.
The more overburden present, the
930.782) drills holes into the coal
greater the number of workers
where the shot firer (D.O.T.
usually required.
931.281) places explosives. After
In many strip mines, the overbur­
the blast, the loading machine
den is first drilled and blasted. Then
operator (D.O.T. 932.883) scoops
the overburden stripping operator or
up and dumps the coal into small
dragline operator (D.O.T. 859.883)
rubber-tired cars, which are run by
scoops the earth away to expose the
the shuttle car operator (D.O.T. A miner moves a cutting machine into coal. Next the coal loading machine
932.883). Depending on the type of
position at the coal face.
operator (D.O.T. 932.883) rips coal



from the seam and, loads the coal
into trucks to be driven to the
preparation plant. In auger mines,
the rotary auger operator (D.O.T.
930.782) runs the machine that
pulls the coal from sides of hills.
Tractor operators (D.O.T. 929.883)
drive bulldozers to move materials
or pull out imbedded boulders or
other objects. Helpers assist in
operating these machines.
Other workers, not directly in­
volved in the mining processes,
work in and around coal mines. For
example, skilled repairers, called
fitters (D.O.T. 801.281), fix all
types of mining machinery, and
electricians check and install elec­
trical wiring. Carpenters construct
and maintain benches, bins, and the
wooden bodies of mine cars. Many
mechanics and electricians assem­
ble, maintain, and repair the
machines
used
in
mines.
Truckdrivers haul coal to prepara­
tion plants and supplies to the mine.

Preparation Plant Occupations.
Rocks and other impurities must be
removed before coal is crushed,
sized or blended, to meet the
buyer’s wishes. These processes
take place at the preparation plant.
Many preparation plants are
located next to the mine. The
plant’s size and number of em­
ployees vary by the amount of coal
processed
and
degree
of
mechanization. Some plants have
all controls centrally located and
require only one worker to oversee
all washing, separating, and crush­
ing operations. This worker is
known as a preparation plant central
control operator (D.O.T. 549.138).
Plants that are not as mechanized,
however, need workers at each
step, such as the wash box attendant
(D.O.T. 541.782) and separation
tender (D.O.T. 934.885). Wash box
attendants
operate
equipment
which size and separate impurities
from coal. The separation tender

operates a device that further
cleans coal with currents of water.

Administrative Professional, Cleri­
cal, and Technical Occupations. A
wide range of administrative,
professional, technical and clerical
personnel work in the coal industry.
At the top of the administrative
group are executives who make all
policy decisions. A staff of spe­
cialists, such as accountants, attor­
neys, and market researchers
supply legal, technical, and market
information for decisionmaking.
Clerical and secretarial workers
assist the administrative staff.
A variety of engineering and
scientific personnel work in the
coal industry. Mining engineers
(D.O.T. 010.081 and .187) ex­
amine coal seams for depth and pu­
rity, determine the type of mine to
be built, and supervise the con­
struction and maintenance of
mines.
Mechanical
engineers
(D.O.T. 007.081, .151, .168, and .187;
and 019.187) oversee the installation of
equipment, such as centralized heat and
water systems, while safety engineers
(D.O.T. 010.181) are in charge of all
health and safety programs.
The scientific staff conducts
research on means to make coal a
cleaner, more efficient, and more
easily transportable energy source.
Presently,
many
physicists,
chemists, and geologists are study­
ing feasible alternatives for convert­
ing coal into a gas or liquid.
Other technical personnel are
required to assist scientists and en­
gineers. For example, surveyors
(D.O.T. 018.188) help map out the
mining areas. Engineering and
science technicians may assist in
research efforts.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Miner operates loading machine.



Most miners start out as helpers
to experienced workers and learn

skills on the job. Formal training,
however, is becoming more impor­
tant due to the growing use of
technologically advanced machin­
ery and mining methods. As a
result, most companies supplement
on-the-job training with formal pro­
grams and actively seek recent
graduates of a program in mine
technology.
Mine technology programs are
available in a few colleges
throughout the country, mostly in
coal mining areas. The programs
lead either to a certificate, after 1
year, or an associate degree, after 2
years, in mine technology. Courses
cover areas such as mine ventila­
tion, roof bolting, and machinery
repairs. Prospective students do not
need a high school education but
must pass an entrance examination
in basic math and English.
The type of formal training ad­
ministered by coal companies var­
ies. For example, some companies
have training mines where skills are
taught; others give classroom in­
struction for a few weeks before al­
lowing workers into a mine.
Many courses also are available
on health and safety procedures,
mining techniques, and mining
machinery. The U.S. Mining En­
forcement and Safety Administra­
tion, coal companies, and the
United Mine Workers of America
conduct classes on health, safety,
and mining methods. Mine machin­
ery manufacturers offer courses in
machine operation and main­
tenance.
As miners gain more experience,
they can move to higher paying
jobs. When a vacancy occurs, an
announcement is posted and all
workers qualified may bid for the
job. A mining machine operator’s
helper, for example, may become
an operator. The position is filled
on the basis of seniority and ability.
A small number of miners advance
to supervisory positions and, in
some cases, to administrative jobs
in the office.
Miners must be at least 18 years



old and in good physical condition. die, or transfer to other fields of
A high school diploma is not work.
required. All miners should be able
to work in close areas and have
Earnings and Working
quick reflexes in emergencies.
Conditions
Requirements for scientific and
In 1974, union wage rates for
engineering, administrative, and
clerical jobs are similar to those in miners ranged from $5.34 to $7.59
other industries. College graduates an hour, with workers in un­
are preferred for jobs in advertising, derground mines generally earning
personnel, accounting, and sales. slightly more than those in surface
For clerical and secretarial jobs, mines or preparation plants. In
employers usually hire high school comparison, production workers in
graduates who have training in manufacturing averaged $4.40 an
areas such as stenography and typ­ hour.
ing.
Because underground miners
spend time traveling from the mine
entrance to their working areas,
they have a slightly longer day than
surface miners. Those in surface oc­
cupations work a 7 1/4- hour shift
(36 1/2- hour week), while un­
Employment Outlook
derground miners work an 8-hour
Coal is expected to play an in­ day (40-hour week).
creasingly important role as a basic
Union miners receive 10 holidays
energy source. Rising demand for and 14 days of paid vacation each
electric power coupled with greater year. As their length of service in­
emphasis on developing domestic creases, they gain extra vacation
energy supplies should result in ac­ days up to a total of 29. Union
celerated coal production. The ex­ workers also receive benefits from
tent of growth in production, how­ a welfare and retirement fund, and
ever, is uncertain. Oil, natural gas, workers suffering from pneu­
and nuclear energy also are used to moconiosis (black lung) receive
generate electricity, and the de­ Federal aid.
mand for coal will be determined,
Miners have unusual and harsh
to some extent, by the price and working conditions. Underground
availability of these fuels. Growth in mines are damp, dark, noisy, and
production also depends on how cold. At times, several inches of
quickly economical methods of coal water may be on tunnel floors.
gasification and liquification are Although mines have electric lights,
developed. Environmental stand­ many areas are illuminated only by
ards relating to strip mining and the lights on the miners’ caps. Wor­
the use of high sulfur content coal, kers in mines with very low roofs
which causes air pollution, may also have to work on their hands and
affect coal output. More coal how­ knees, backs, or stomachs in
ever, will be needed to make steel, cramped areas.
chemicals, and other products.
Though safety conditions have
Employment is expected to in­ improved considerably, miners
crease but the amount of growth must constantly be on guard for
will depend on the level of produc­ hazards. There is also the risk of
tion, on the types of mines opened, developing pneumoconiosis from
and the mining methods and coal dust and silicosis from the rock
machinery used. In addition to dust generated by the drilling in the
openings due to growth, several mines. Surface mines and prepara­
thousand openings will occur each tion plants are usually less
year as experienced miners retire, hazardous than underground mines.

Sources of Additional
Information
For details about job opportuni­
ties in mining, contact individual
coal companies. General informa­
tion on mining occupations is




available from:
United Mine Workers of America, 900 15th
St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20005.
Bituminous Coal Operators’ Association,
918 16th St. NW, Washington, DC.
20006.

Mining Enforcement and Safety Administra­
tion, Department of Interior, Washing­
ton, D .C .20240.

OCCUPATIONS IN
PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS
PRODUCTION AND GAS PROCESSING
Nature and Location of the
Industry
Petroleum is a natural fuel
formed from the decay of plants
and animals. Buried beneath the
ground for millions of years under
tremendous pressure, this organic
matter became petroleum, or what
is usually called oil.
Oil and natural gas have assumed
a position of such importance that
they now furnish more than threefourths of our energy needs. Oil and
natural gas run our factories and
transportation systems, heat our
homes and places of work, and are
basic raw materials for many
products such as plastics, chemi­
cals, medicines, fertilizers, and
synthetic fibers.
In 1974, the Nation consumed 17
million barrels of oil a day—enough
to fill a railroad train of tank cars
that would stretch from Pittsburgh
to St. Louis.
People with many different skills
are needed to explore for oil and
gas fields, drill new wells, improve
existing wells, and process natural
gas.
In 1974, about 290,000 workers
were employed in these activities.
Firms that work on contract for oil
companies employed a large pro­
portion of these workers, and the
major oil companies employed the
rest. Occupations in oil refining are
discussed in a separate chapter else­
where in the Handbook.
Since oil and gas are difficult to
find, exploration and drilling are
key activities in the petroleum in­
dustry. After scientific studies in­
dicate the possible presence of oil,




the company selects a well site and
installs a towerlike steel rig to sup­
port the drilling equipment. A hole
is bored deeper and deeper into the
earth until oil or gas is found or the
company decides to write the effort
off as a loss. Although a few large
oil companies do their own drilling,
most is done by contractors. More
than 7,000 firms are engaged in the
search for and production of oil and
natural gas.
When oil or gas is discovered,
pipes, valves, tanks, and other
equipment are installed to control
the flow of these raw materials from
the well. There were more than
600,000 wells in this country in
1974, and about half of all the
petroleum
industry’s
200,000
production workers were needed to
operate and maintain them.
Oil and gas are transported to
refineries by pipeline, ship, rail­
road, barge, or truck. Many refine­
ries are thousands of miles from oil
fields, but gas processing plants
usually are near the fields so that
water, sulfur compounds, and other
impurities can be removed before
the liquid gases are piped to
customers. These gases—chiefly
ethane, propane, butane, and natu­
ral gasoline—are important raw
materials for refineries and chemi­
cal plants. Some are widely used as
heating fuels.
Although drilling for oil and gas
is done in 32 States, about ninetenths of the industry’s workers are
employed in 10 States. Texas leads
in the number of oilfield jobs, fol­
lowed by Louisiana, Oklahoma,
California, New Mexico, Wyoming,
Kansas, Colorado, Ohio, and Mis­

sissippi. Thousands of additional
Americans are employed by oil
companies overseas, mostly in the
Middle East, Africa, Western Eu­
rope, South America, and Indone­
sia.

Occupations in the Industry
Workers with a wide range of
education and skills are needed to
find oil and gas and to drill, operate,
and maintain wells and process
natural gas.
Exploration. Exploring for oil is the
first step in petroleum production.
Small crews of specialized workers
travel to remote areas to search for
geological formations likely to con­
tain oil. Exploration parties, led by
a petroleum geologist (D.O.T.
024.081), study the surface and
subsurface of the earth. Geologists
seek clues to the possibility of oil
traps by examining types of rock
formations on and under the earth’s
surface. Besides making detailed
ground surveys, petroleum geolo­
gists depend on aerial exploration
and magnetic surveys for a broad
picture of the area. Subsurface
evidence is collected by boring and
bringing up core samples of the
rocks, clay, and sands that form the
layers of the earth. From these ex­
aminations geologists draw crosssection maps of the underground
formations to pinpoint areas where
oil or gas may be located. In
offshore exploration, they also may
obtain rock samples from the bot­
tom of the sea in their search for
clues to oil-bearing formations.
Many geologists work in district of­
fices of oil companies or explora­
tion firms where they prepare and
study geological maps. They also
study samples from test drilling to
find any clues to oil.
In addition to the petroleum
geologist, exploration parties may
include other geology specialists:
Paleontologists (D.O.T. 024.081)
study fossil remains in the earth to
locate oil-bearing layers of rock;
mineralogists (D.O.T. 024.081)

(D.O.T. 930.886), who operate
portable drilling rigs to make holes
into which explosives are placed;
and shooters (D.O.T. 931.381) who
place and detonate explosives.
Before exploration, the oil com­
pany must obtain permission to use
the land. The lease buyer{ D.O.T.
191.118) makes the necessary busi­
ness arrangements with landowners
or with owners of mineral rights.
Drilling. Exploration methods are
used to find likely oil fields but only
drilling can prove the presence of
oil. Overall planning and supervi­
sion of drilling usually are the
responsibilities of the petroleum en­
gineer.
Wells are almost always started in
the same way. Rig builders (D.O.T.
869.884) and a crew of rig-builder
helpers (D.O.T. 869.887) install a
portable drilling rig to support the
machinery and equipment that
raises and lowers the drilling tools.
Rotary drilling is the normal way
petroleum is brought to the surface.
A revolving steel bit bores a hole in
the ground by chipping and cutting
rock. The bit is attached to a length
of pipe which is turned by a diesel
engine. As the bit cuts deeper into
Seismic survey crew explores for oil and gas.
the earth, more pipe is added.
study physical and chemical pro­ tion are made by detonating explo­ Drilling pipe is hollow and runs the
perties of mineral and rock sam­ sives in the ground. The time it entire depth of the well. A stream of
ples;
stratigraphers
(D.O.T. takes for sound waves to reach an mud is continuously pumped into
024.081) determine the rock layers underground rock layer and return the hollow pipe and comes out
most likely to contain oil and natu­ indicates the depth of the layer. By through holes in the drill bit. This
ral gas; photogeologists (D.O.T. setting off explosions at a number mud, a mixture of clay, chemicals,
024.081) examine and interpret of locations, scientists can map un­ and water, cools the drill bit,
aerial photographs of land surfaces; derground formations with con­ plasters the walls of the hole to
and petrologists (D.O.T. 024.081) siderable accuracy, thus providing a prevent cave-ins, and carries
investigate the history of the forma­ clue to the whereabouts of traps crushed rock to the surface so that
tion of the earth’s crust. Explora­ that may contain oil.
drilling is continuous until the bit
tion parties may also include drafA geophysicist (D.O.T. 024.081) wears out. When a new bit is
ters( D.O.T. 010.281) and sur­ usually leads a seismograph crew needed, all of the pipe must be
veyors{ D.O.T. 018.188), who assist that may include: prospecting com­ pulled up out of the hole, a section
in surveying and mapping opera­ puters (D.O.T. 010.288), who per­ at a time, a new bit placed on the
tions.
form the calculations and prepare end of the pipe, and the pipe
from
the
information returned to the hole.
Most geophysical exploration is maps
The tool pusher or drilling super­
done by seismic prospecting. The recorded by the seismograph; obser­
seismograph is a sensitive instru­ vers (D.O.T. 010.168) who operate visor (D.O.T. 930.130) supervises
ment that records natural and man­ and maintain electronic seismic one or more drilling rigs and sup­
shothole
drillers plies materials and equipment to rig
made
earthquakes.
Artificial equipment;
earthquakes in petroleum explora­ (D.O.T. 930.782) and their helpers crews.



A typical rotary drilling crew
consists of five workers: driller, der­
rick operator, engine operator, and
two helpers. Because drilling rigs
are operated 24 hours a day, 7 days
a week, two to four crews are
needed for each rig.
The rotary driller (D.O.T.
930.782) supervises the crew and
operates machinery that controls
drilling speed and pressure, and
records operations. The rotary rig
engine operator (D.O.T. 950.782)
is in charge of engines that provide
the power for drilling and hoisting.
The derrick operator (D.O.T.
930.782) , who is second in charge,
works on a small platform high on
the rig to help run pipe in and out of
the well hole, and operates the
pumps that circulate mud through
the pipe. Rotary drill helpers
(D.O.T. 930.844), also known as
roughnecks, guide the lower end of
the pipe to and from the well open­
ing and connect and disconnect
pipe joints and drill bits.
Roustabouts (D.O.T. 869.884) or
general laborers, though not con­
sidered part of a drilling crew, do
general oilfield maintenance and
construction work, such as cleaning
tanks and building roads.
Well Operation and Maintenance.
When oil is found, the drill pipe and
bit are pulled from the well, and
metal pipe known as casing metal is
lowered into the hole and cemented
in place. The upper ends of the cas­
ing are fastened to a system of
valves called a “Christmas tree.”
Pressure in the well forces crude oil
and gas to the surface, through the
Christmas tree, and into gas traps
and storage tanks. If natural pres­
sure is not great enough to force the
oil to the surface, pumps are used.
Petroleum production engineers
generally plan and supervise well
operation and maintenance. To
prevent waste, they decide the rate
of oil flow and anticipate per­
formance of oil reservoirs by
analyzing information such as pres­
sure readings from the well. En­



gineers are increasingly using com­
puters for analytical work. Some
engineers specialize in overcoming
effects of corrosion on well casings,
in the selection and design of
production
equipment
and
processes, or in the prevention of
pollution. Some companies hire en­
gineer aides to make tests, keep
records, post maps, and otherwise
assist engineers.
Pumpers (D.O.T. 914.782) and
their helpers operate and maintain
motors, pumps, and other equip­
ment to force oil from wells. Their
chief duty is to regulate the flow of
oil according to a schedule set up
by the petroleum engineer and
production supervisor. Generally, a
pumper operates a group of wells.
Switchers work in fields where oil
flows under natural pressure and
does not require pumping. Pumpers
open and close valves to regulate
the oil flow from wells to tanks or
into pipelines Gaugers (D.O.T.
914.381) measure and record the
flow and take samples to check
quality. Treaters (D.O.T. 541.782)
test the oil for water and sediment
and remove these impurities by
opening a drain at the tank’s base or
by using special chemical or electri­
cal equipment. In some fields,
pumping, switching, gauging, and
treating operations are automatic.
Many skilled workers are em­
ployed in maintenance operations.
Welders, pipefitters, electricians,
and machinists repair and install
pumps, gauges, pipes, and other
equipment.
Natural Gas Processing. Most gas
processing workers are operators.
The dehydration-plant operator
(D.O.T. 541.782) tends an auto­
matically controlled treating unit
which removes water and other im­
purities from natural gas. The
gasoline-plant operator tends com­
pressors that raise the pressure of
the gas for transmission in the
pipelines.
The
gas-compressor
operator (D.O.T. 950.782) assists
either of these two employees.

Many workers in the larger natu­
ral gas processing plants are em­
ployed in maintenance activities.
These include instrument repairers,
electricians, welders, and laborers.
In numerous smaller natural gas
plants, workers combine skills,
usually of operator and main­
tenance worker. Many small plants
are so highly automated they are
virtually unattended. They are
checked at periodic intervals by
maintenance workers or operators,
or they are checked continuously
by instruments which automatically
report problems and shut down the
plant if an emergency develops.
Other Oilfield Services. Companies
that offer services on a contract
basis provide another important
source of employment. Among
these employees are skilled workers
such
as cementers
(D.O.T.
930.281), who mix and pump ce­
ment into the space between steel
casings and well walls to prevent
cave-ins;
acidizers
(D.O.T.
930.782), who force acid into the
bottom of the well to increase the
flow of oil; perforator operators
(D.O.T. 931.782), who use subsur­
face “guns”to pierce holes in drill
pipes or casings to make openings
for oil to flow through; sample-taker
operators (D.O.T. 931.781), who
take samples of soil and rock for­
mations from wells to help geolo­
gists determine the presence of oil;
and well pullers (D.O.T. 930.883),
who remove pipes, pumps, and
other subsurface devices from wells
for cleaning, repairing, or salvaging.
Offshore Operations. Most explora­
tion, drilling, and producing activi­
ties are on land but an increasing
amount of this work is done
offshore, particularly in the Gulf of
Mexico off the coasts of Louisiana
and Texas. Some additional
offshore work is being done in the
Pacific Ocean off California,
Oregon, Washington, and Alaska
and in many foreign locations such
as the Persian Gulf, Bass Strait, and

are hired in the field by the crew
chief or by local company represen­
tatives. College students majoring
in physical or earth sciences or in
engineering may work part-time or
summers with exploration crews,
and get full-time jobs after gradua­
tion.
Members of drilling crews usually
begin as roughnecks. As they
acquire experience, they may ad­
vance to more skilled jobs. For ex­
ample, a worker hired as a
roughneck may advance to derrick
operator and, after several years,
become a driller. A driller can ad­
vance to the job of tool pusher in
charge of one or more drilling
crews.
Companies generally hire people
who live near wells for well opera­
tion and maintenance jobs. They
prefer applicants who have
Drill crew lowers section of drill pipe on
mechanical ability and a knowledge
offshore rig.
of oilfield processes. Because this
North Sea. Some wells have been type of work is less strenuous than
drilled over 100 miles from shore drilling and offers the advantage of
and in water more than 1,000 feet a fixed locale, members of drilling
deep. These offshore operations crews or exploration parties who
require the same type of drilling prefer not to travel often transfer to
crews as are employed on land well operation and maintenance
operations. In addition, offshore jobs. New workers may start as
operations require radio operators, roustabouts and advance to jobs as
cooks, ship’s officers and sailors, switchers, gaugers, or pumpers.
and pilots for work on drilling plat­ Training usually is acquired on the
forms, crewboats, barges, and job; at least 2 years of experience
are needed to become an all-round
helicopters.
(Detailed discussions of profes­ pumper.
Post-high school vocational train­
sional, technical, mechanical, and
other occupations found not only in ing in oilfield occupations is availa­
the petroleum and natural gas ble from Eastern New Mexico
production industry, but in other in­ University, Roswell, N.M.; Exten­
dustries as well, are given elsewhere sion Services of the University of
in the Handbook in the sections Texas; and the Petroleum Industry
Training Service, Edmonton, Al­
covering individual occupations.)
berta, Canada. Most graduates of
these programs find jobs readily
Training, Other
available.
Qualifications,and
For scientists, such as geologists
Advancement
and geophysicists, college training
Most workers in nonprofessional with at least a bachelor’s degree is
jobs with an exploration crew begin required. The preferred educa­
as helpers and advance into one of tional qualification for a petroleum
the specialized jobs. Their training engineer is a degree in engineering
may vary from several months to with specialization in courses on the
several years. New workers usually petroleum industry. However, col­



lege graduates having degrees in
chemical, mining, civil or mechani­
cal engineering, or in geology,
geophysics, or other related
sciences often are hired for petrole­
um engineering jobs. Petroleum en­
gineering aides include people with
2-year technical degrees as well as
former roustabouts or pumpers who
have been promoted.
Scientists and engineers usually
start at junior levels; after several
years of experience they can ad­
vance to managerial or administra­
tive jobs. Scientists and engineers
who have research ability, particu­
larly those with advanced degrees,
may transfer to research or consult­
ing work.
Information on training, qualifi­
cations, and advancement in natu­
ral gas processing plants is similar
to that for petroleum refining. A
statement on petroleum refining
can be found elsewhere in the
Handbook.

Employment Outlook
Employment in petroleum and
natural gas production is expected
to increase faster than the average
for all industries through the mid1980’s. Besides the job openings
created by employment growth,
many openings will occur as work­
ers retire, die, or leave the industry
for other reasons.
Increased demand for crude oil
and natural gas, higher prices for
these products, and a national pol­
icy to move toward energy self-suf­
ficiency are expected to provide the
incentive for the industry to expand
rapidly. Growth will be concen­
trated in exploration and drilling,
and more workers will be needed in
most occupations associated with
these
activities.
Opportunities
should be particularly good in
offshore drilling.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
In 1974, nonsupervisory em­
ployees in oil and gas extraction

averaged $4.82 an hour. In com­
parison, the average for all nonsupervisory workers in private indus­
try, except farming, was $4.22 an
hour. Earnings usually are higher in
offshore operations than in land
operations.
Most oilfield jobs involve rugged
outdoor work in all kinds of
weather. They often are in remote
areas in settings as varied as a
Western desert, the Arctic Circle,
or the Gulf of Mexico. Physical
strength and stamina are important
because the work involves standing
most of the time, lifting moderately
heavy objects, and climbing and
stooping to work with power tools
and handtools that often are oily
and dirty.
Drilling employees may expect to




move from place to place since maintenance and natural gas
their work in a particular field may processing work 8 hours a day, 5
be completed in less than a year. days a week.
Exploration field personnel may be
Sources of Additional
required to move even more
Information
frequently. They may be away from
home for weeks or months at a
Further information about jobs in
time. Well operation and main­
the petroleum industry may be
tenance workers and natural gas
processing workers usually remain available from the personnel offices
in the same location for long of individual oil companies. For in­
formation on scientific and techni­
periods.
On land, drilling crews usually cal jobs, write to:
work 7 days, 8 hours a day, and American Association of Petroleum Geolo­
gists, P.O. Box 979, Tulsa, Okla. 74101.
then have a few days off. In offshore
Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME,
operations, they may work 7 days,
6200 N. Central Expressway, Dallas,
12 hours a day, and then have 7
Tex. 75206.
days off. If the well is far from the
American Geological Institute, 2201 M St.
coast, they live on the drilling rig or
NW„ Washington, D.C. 20037.
on ships anchored nearby. Most
workers in well operations and

CONSTRUCTION
The activities of the construction
industry touch nearly every aspect
of our daily lives. The houses and
apartments in which we live; the
factories, offices, and schools in
which we work; and the roads on
which we travel are examples of
some of the products of this indus­
try. The industry includes not only
new construction, but also addi­
tions, alterations, and repairs to ex­
isting structures.
In 1974, about 4 million people
worked in the contract construction
industry. An additional 1.4 million
workers are estimated to be either
self-employed—mostly owners of
small building firms—or are
Federal, State, or local government
employees who build and maintain
our Nation’s vast highway systems.
The contract construction indus­
try is divided into three major seg­
ments. About half of the jobholders
work for electrical, air-condition­
ing, plumbing, and other special
trade contractors. Almost one-third
work for the general building con­
tractors that do most residential,
commercial, and industrial con­
struction. The remaining one-fifth
build dams, bridges, roads, and
similar heavy construction projects.
As illustrated in the accompany­
ing tabulation, craft and kindred
workers account for 55 percent of
the total employment in this indus­




try—a much higher proportion than machine
operators,
constitute
in any other major industry. Some another 7 percent of the industry’s
examples of craft workers are car­ employment. Professional and
penters, painters, plumbers, and technical workers, mostly engineers
bricklayers. Laborers are the next and engineering technicians, draf­
largest occupational group and ac­ ters, and surveyors, make up the
count for 15 percent of employ­ remaining 3 percent of the work
ment. They provide materials, scaf­ force.
folding, and general assistance
Construction industry employ­
to skilled workers. Semiskilled ment is expected to rise faster than
w orkers (operatives), such as the average for all industries
truckdrivers and welders, represent through the mid-1980’s, as popula­
about 8 percent of the industry’s tion and income growth create a de­
work force. Managers and adminis­ mand for more houses, schools, fac­
trators—mostly self-employed—ac­ tories and other buildings. Because
count for about 12 percent of em­ of laborsaving improvements in
ployment. Clerical workers, largely tools, materials, and work methods,
typists, secretaries, and office however, employment will not grow
as rapidly as construction activity.
Employment also may fluctuate
Estim ated
em ploym ent, from year to year because construc­
1974
tion activity is sensitive to changes
(percent
M a jo r occupational proup distribution) in economic conditions.
Contract construction is the
All occupational groups...
100
major source of employment for
skilled craft workers such as
Professional, technical, and kin­
dred workers ...........
3 bricklayers, painters, and carpen­
Managers and administrators ...
II ters. For information on these and
Clerical and kindred workers ...
7 other construction crafts, see theSalesworkers ..............................
(‘)
chapter on Construction Occupa­
Craft and kindred workers .......
55 tions elsewhere in the Handbook.
Operatives ..................................
8 For information on occupations
Service workers..........................
(')
that are found in many other indus­
Laborers ......................................
15 tries, see the index in the back of
1Less than 0.5 percent.
the book.
NOTE: Due to rounding, sums of indi­
vidual items may not add to total.

MANUFACTURING
Manufacturing is a key activity of
our Nation’s economy. The
products of the manufacturing in­
dustries range in complexity from
simple plastic toys to intricate elec­
tronic computers, and in size from
miniature electronic components to
gigantic aircraft carriers. Manufac­
turing involves many diverse
processes. Workers process foods
and chemicals, print books and
newspapers, spin textiles and weave
them, make clothing and shoes, and
produce the thousands of other
products needed for our personal
and national welfare.
About 20 million people worked
in manufacturing—the largest of
the industry divisions—in 1974.
About three-fifths of all manufac­
turing employees worked in plants
that produced durable goods, such
as steel, machinery, automobiles,
and household appliances. The rest
worked in plants that produced
nondurable
goods,
such
as
processed food, clothing, and
chemicals.
As illustrated in the accompany­
ing table, blue-collar workers (craft
workers, operatives, and laborers)
make up about two-thirds of manu­
facturing employment. Operatives
alone account for over four-tenths
of the work force; many are spin­
ners and weavers, sewing machine
operators, machine tool operators
and welders, or operators of the
specialized processing equipment
used in the food, chemical, paper,
and petroleum industries.
Craft and kindred workers make
up the next largest group and ac­
count for nearly one-fifth of em­
ployment in manufacturing. Many
of these skilled workers install and
maintain the wide assortment of
machinery and equipment required
in all factories. Others are em­



ployed in skilled production occu­
pations. Machinists, for example,
are especially important in the
metalworking industries, as are
skilled inspectors and assemblers.
In the printing and publishing in­
dustries, compositors, typesetters,
photoengravers, lithographers, and
pressworkers make up a large share
of the work force. The craft group
also includes supervisors of bluecollar workers.
White-collar workers (profes­
sional, managerial, clerical, and
salesworkers) account for nearly
one-third of employment in man­
ufacturing establishments. Clerical
workers, such as secretaries and of­
fice machine operators, are the
largest white-collar group. Clerical
workers hold about 1 out of every 8
jobs in the manufacturing sector.
Professional, technical, and kin­
dred workers account for about 1
out of every 10 jobs in manufactur­
ing establishments.
Engineers,
scientists, and technicians represent
a large share of the professional
workers. These highly trained
workers included not only those
who oversee and guide the produc­
tion processes, but also those who
carry out the extensive research
Estim ated
em ployment,
1974

M a jo r occupational xroup

(percent
distribution)

All occupational groups...

100

Professional, technical, and kin­
dred workers ..........................
Managers and administrators.....
Clerical and kindred workers.....
Salesworkers ..............................
Craft and kindred workers.........
Operatives.....................................
Service workers............................
Laborers........................................

9
7
12
2
19
44
2
5

and development activities needed
in the aerospace, electronics, chem­
ical, petroleum, and other indus­
tries.
Population growth, rising per­
sonal income, and expanding busi­
ness activity will create a substan­
tial increase in the demand for
manufactured products through the
mid-1980’s. Employment in manu­
facturing, however, is expected to
increase at a slower pace than
production. The application of
modern technology to manufactur­
ing processes will make possible
substantial increases in production
of goods without corresponding in­
creases in the work force. Although
the average rate of employment
growth will be slow, employment
trends of individual industries will
vary widely. In the industries manu­
facturing rubber and miscellaneous
plastics products and medical and
dental instruments employment
should increase about one-third, far
above the average increase. Em­
ployment in several other indus­
tries—including
metalworking
machinery, and computers and
peripheral equipment—should in­
crease faster than the average for
all manufacturing. On the other
hand, employment in some manu­
facturing
industries—including
tobacco, food, and radio and televi­
sion sets—is expected to decline
through the mid-1980’s.
The statements that follow pro­
vide information on employment
opportunities in several of the
manufacturing industries. More
detailed information about occupa­
tions that are found in manufactur­
ing as well as in many other indus­
tries appears elsewhere in the
Handbook. (See index in the back of
the book.)

OCCUPATIONS IN AIRCRAFT, MISSILE,
AND SPACECRAFT MANUFACTURING
Firms that manufacture and as­
semble aircraft, missiles, and
spacecraft make up what is known
as the “aerospace” industry. In
1974, more than three quarters of a
million people worked in the indus­
try: more than 500,000 in the
manufacture and assembly of
complete aircraft, aircraft engines,
propellers, and auxiliary parts and
equipment; 90,000, in the manufac­
ture of missiles and spacecraft; and
more than 160,000 in companies
that make electronic equipment
and instruments for aircraft, mis­
siles, and spacecraft. Thousands of
workers
in other
industries
produced parts, machinery, and
equipment used in the manufacture
of aerospace vehicles. Also,
thousands of Federal workers were
engaged in aerospace-related work,
since the Government is a major
purchaser
of
the
industry’s
products. These workers were
primarily employed in the National
Aeronautics and Space Administra­
tion (NASA) and the Department
of Defense.
Aerospace jobs exist in almost
every State. The largest concentra­
tion is in California. Other States
with large numbers of aerospace
jobs include New York, Washing­
ton, Connecticut, Texas, Florida,
Ohio, Missouri, Pennsylvania, Mas­
sachusetts,
Kansas,
Alabama,
Maryland, New Jersey, and Geor­
gia.




Nature of the Industry
All
aircraft,
missiles, and
spacecraft have the same basic
components: a frame, an engine,
and a guidance and control system.
Missiles and spacecraft travel into
space at speeds many times faster
than sound, while aircraft fly in the
earth’s atmosphere at much slower
rates. Missiles are powered by
either jet or rocket engines;
spacecraft are rocket-powered
only. Aircraft are powered by
piston, jet, or rocket engines.
Aircraft vary from small personal
or business planes that do not cost
much more than an automobile to
multi-million dollar jumbo trans­
ports and supersonic fighters. In
dollar value most aircraft produc­
tion is for military use although the
value of planes made for commer­
cial and private use has been in­
creasing.
Missiles are for military use and
generally carry destructive war­
heads. While some are capable of
traveling only a few miles, such as
those that support ground troops
and defend against low-flying air­
craft, others have intercontinental
ranges of 7,000 miles or more.
Some missiles are launched from
land; others from aircraft, sub­
marines, or ships.
Most of the Nation’s spacecraft
are built for NASA and the Depart­
ment of Defense to explore outer
space or to monitor conditions

within the earth’s atmosphere. On
manned flights, a cabin capsule car­
ries the astronauts. Some spacecraft
probe the space environment and
then fall back to earth, while others
enter into earth orbit and become
artificial satellites. Still others orbit
or land on the moon or go to other
planets. All spacecraft carry instru­
ments that record and transmit
scientific data to earth stations.
Major aircraft, missile, and
spacecraft firms contract with
government or private business to
produce an aerospace vehicle. As a
contractor, the firm is responsible
for managing and coordinating the
entire project. This involves design,
production, assembly, and inspec­
tion of the vehicle.
Although aircraft, missile, and
spacecraft manufacturers generally
make many components of a craft
and do final assembly work them­
selves thousands of subcontractors
are involved in the production of
parts or supplies the original firm
cannot produce, such as bearings,
rocket fuels, or special lubricants.
Other subcontractors produce subassemblies such as communication
or guidance equipment, or jet en­
gines. Some of these firms depend
on still other subcontractors to
supply parts for their subassem­
blies.
In producing an aerospace vehi­
cle, the contractor’s engineering
department first prepares design
drawings and specifications. Then,
the production department works
on details for machines, materials,
and operations needed to manufac­
ture the vehicle. Production in­
cludes designing and producing
tools and fixtures to produce
thousands of parts and accessories
that make up an aerospace vehicle.
Parts and components are in­
spected and tested many times be­
fore
being
assembled,
and
completed systems are examined
for conformance to specifications.
Before a finished vehicle is
delivered, it is checked out by a
team of mechanics, or flight-tested
if it is an aircraft.

Occupations in the Industry
Because of the complex and
changing nature of aerospace
technology, firms need workers
with many different types of skills.
The types of workers required will
also depend on the specific function
of an aerospace plant. For example,
a plant primarily engaged in
research and development or in
producing experimental prototypes
requires many more scientists and
engineers than a firm producing
large quantities of parts for aircraft.
Major jobs in aerospace manu­
facturing are described under three
main categories: professional and
technical; administrative, clerical,
and related occupations; and plant
occupations. Many of these jobs are
in other industries as well and are
discussed in greater detail else­
where in the Handbook.
Professional and Technical Occupa­
tions. Research and development

(R&D) are vital to the aerospace
industry. The pace of discovery in
aerospace technology is so rapid, in
fact, that much equipment becomes
obsolete while still in an experimen­
tal stage or soon after being put into
production. Today, research is con­
ducted in many areas such as
developing vehicles with greater
speeds, ranges, and reliability; en­
gines with more power; and more
advanced sources of rocket propul­
sion such as nuclear and electric
energy. Metals and plastics also
are continually being developed
for wider capabilities, as are elec­
tronic guidance and communication
systems.
Emphasis on R&D makes the
aerospace industry an important
source of jobs for technical person­
nel. In 1974, about one-fourth of all
employees
were
engineers,
scientists, and technicians, a con­
siderably higher proportion than in
most other manufacturing indus­
tries.
Engineers, scientists, and techni­
cians work together in developing



materials and structures, energy
and power systems, and space
sciences.
Among the many types of work­
ers assisting scientists and engi­
neers are drafters and engineering
and science technicians. Others in­
clude production planners (D.O.T.
012.188), who plan the layout of
machinery, movement of materials,
and sequence of operations for effi­
cient manufacturing processes; and
technical
illustrators
(D.O.T.
017.281), who help prepare man­
uals and other technical literature
describing the operation and main­
tenance of aerospace products.
Engineer and technician run test on an
aircraft design.

designs for aircraft, missiles, and
spacecraft. Before an engineering
department approves a design for
production, it conducts tests to
determine which designs can best
withstand expected operating con­
ditions. A scale model is made from
a preliminary drawing and is tested
in wind, temperature, and shock
tunnels and other testing areas that
simulate actual flight conditions.
Next, a full-sized experimental
model, or prototype, is thoroughly
tested in the air and on the ground.
The design is modified many times
during this process until the test
results are satisfactory. Then, ac­
tual production may begin. Even
after production has started, how­
ever, further changes are often
made.
Due to the wide range of research
and development projects, many
types of engineers and scientists
work in the aerospace industry.
Aerospace, chemical, electrical,
electronic, industrial, and mechani­
cal, engineers are among the larger
engineering branches needed in this
industry. Scientists in the industry
include physicists, mathematicians,
chemists, metallurgists, and as­
tronomers. These engineers and
scientists work in a wide and varied
range of applied fields such as

Administrative , Clerical, and Related
Occupations. Managerial and ad­

ministrative jobs generally are com­
parable to similar jobs in other in­
dustries, except that in the
aerospace industry these positions
are often filled by people with
technical backgrounds in engineer­
ing or science. These positions in­
clude executives responsible for the
direction and supervision of
research and production, and offi­
cials in departments such as sales,
purchasing, accounting, and indus­
trial relations. Many thousands of
clerks, secretaries, computer per­
sonnel, and other office personnel
work in aerospace firms.
Plant Occupations. About one-half
of all workers in the aerospace in­
dustry have plant- or production-re­
lated jobs. Plant jobs can be clas­
sified in the following groups:
Sheet-metal work; machining and
tool fabrication; other metal
processing; assembly and installa­
tion; inspecting and testing; flight
checkout; and materials handling,
maintenance, and custodial.
Sheet-Metal Occupations. Following

blueprints and other engineering in­
formation, sheet-metal workers
(D.O.T. 804.281) shape com­
plicated parts from sheets of thin
metal by hand or machine. Hand
methods include the shaping of

parts by pounding them with mal­
lets and by bending, cutting, and
punching them with handtools.
Machine methods use power ham­
mers and presses, saws, tube
benders, and drill presses.
Less skilled workers usually spe­
cialize in the use of a single
machine to fabricate parts required
in large numbers. Some of these
workers are punch press operators
(D.O.T. 615.782), power hammer
operators (D.O.T. 617.782) and
power shear operators (D.O.T.
615.782 and .885).
Machining and Tool Fabrication Oc­
cupations. Machining and tool

fabrication workers use a wide
variety of machines and handtools
to make metal parts of machines
or other products. Many of these
workers are in engine and propeller
plants, which are basically metal­
working establishments; fewer are
required in plants that assemble
complete aerospace vehicles.
The most skilled machinists are
the all-round machinists (D.O.T.
600.280 and .281) who plan the
work and set up and operate several
types of machine tools. They per­
form highly varied, nonrepetitive
machining operations, frequently
producing parts for experimental
and prototype vehicles.
Machine tool operators (D.O.T.
609.855) produce metal parts in
large volume. They generally
operate a single type of machine
tool such as a lathe, drill press, or
milling machine. Skilled operators
set up work on a machine and han­
dle more difficult and varied jobs.
Less skilled operators do more
repetitive work.
Other machining and tool fabri­
cation workers produce parts
needed for the manufacture of
aerospace vehicles. On the basis of
information received from an en­
gineering department, jig and fix ­
ture builders (D.O.T. 693.280)
build jigs—metal devices used as
guides for tools. Tool and die makers
(D.O.T. 601.280) make the cutting



tools and fixtures used in machine
tool operations, and the dies used in
forging and punch press work.
Other Metal Processing Occupa­
tions. Some of the many other
metalworking occupations are tube
benders (D.O.T. 709.884), who

form tubings used for oil, fuel,
hydraulic, and electrical conduit
lines; and riveters (D.O.T. 800.884)
and welders (D.O.T. 810.782 and
.884; 811.782 and .884; 812.884
and 813.380 and .885), who use
mechanical and electrical devices
to join fabricated parts. Metalwork­
ing jobs also are in foundry plants
where workers produce castings by
pouring molten metal into molds.
Many workers chemically treat
and heat-treat aircraft, missile, and
spacecraft parts during their manu­
facture to clean, change, or protect
their surfaces or structural condi­
tion. For example, heat treaters
(D.O.T. 504.782) heat sheet-metal
parts to keep the metal soft and
malleable for metal-shaping work.
Painters (D.O.T. 845.781) and
platers (D.O.T. 500.380) either
paint or plate surfaces.
Assembly and Installation Occupa­
tions. Practically all plants in the

aerospace industry employ as­
sembly and installation workers.
Some assemble engines, electronic
equipment, and auxiliary com­
ponents, but most assemble major
subassemblies or install major com­
ponents in aircraft or spacecraft. In
an aircraft, for example, this work
involves joining wings and tails to
the fuselage and installing the en­
gine and auxiliary equipment such
as the fuel system and flight con­
trols. Assemblers rivet, drill, bolt,
and solder parts together.
Many assemblers are skilled
mechanics and installers who read
blueprints and interpret other en­
gineering specifications as they take
apart, inspect, and install complex
mechanical and electronic assem­
blies. Final assemblers (D.O.T.
806.781) of complete aircraft and
missile or rocket assembly mechanics

Skilled assemblers work on intricate en­
gine components.

(D.O.T. 625.281) do general as­
sembly work, and often work on ex­
perimental, prototype, or special
craft. Other skilled assemblers work
in plants that produce relatively
large numbers of aircraft and mis­
siles rather than a few experimental
types. They often specialize in the
assembly of one specific part of a
space vehicle. Assemblers also spe­
cialize in systems such as electrical
wiring, heating, and plumbing.
Inspecting and Testing Occupations.
Because aircraft, missiles, and
spacecraft are extremely complex
and affect the life and safety of peo­
ple, firms employ workers to con­
duct thousands of painstaking inspections and tests. Inspectors
thoroughly test each component
and part as it moves through the
production and assembly process,
as well as just before delivery. In­
spections are made not only by em­
ployees of the manufacturers but
also by commercial firms that have
contracted for the equipment. Em­
ployees of the Federal Government
also inspect vehicles under govern­
ment contract.
Most inspectors specialize in a

Materials Handling, Maintenance,
and
Custodial
Occupations.

Aerospace plants employ many
materials
handlers
such
as
truckdrivers, shipping clerks, and
toolroom attendants. Maintenance
workers, such as electricians, main­
tenance mechanics, carpenters, and
plumbers, keep equipment and
buildings in good operating condi­
tion and make changes in the layout
of the plant. Guards, firefighters,
and janitors provide protective and
custodial services.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

certain area of aerospace manufac­
turing. Using complex machinery,
they check to assure that all parts
and assemblies were made accord­
ing to engineering specifications.
Among the most skilled inspectors,
especially in final assembly plants,
are outside production inspectors
(D.O.T. 806.381) who examine
machined parts, subassemblies, and
tools and dies ordered from other
firms. They also serve as a ‘link”
between their own engineering de­
partment and supplying companies.
Machined parts inspectors>f D.O.T.
.
609.381) examine machined parts
and fabricated sheet-metal and as­
sembly inspectors (D.O.T. 806.381)
inspect complete major assemblies
and installations such as fuselage,
wing, and nose sections to insure
their proper fitting. They also check
the functioning of hydraulic,



plumbing, and other systems. Less
skilled inspectors check subassem­
blies.
Flight
Checkout
Occupations.
Checking out every part of an air­
craft or spacecraft before its first
flight requires a team of mechanics.
The crew chief, the most skilled
mechanic of the team, directs other
workers in the entire checking out
operation. Engine mechanics spe­
cialize in checking out the powerplant of a craft, including the en­
gine, propellers, and oil and fuel
systems; and electronics checkout
workers do the final operational ex­
amination of radio, radar, auto­
matic pilot, fire control, and elec­
tronic guidance systems. The
checking out process may require
making minor repairs and, in some
cases, even returning the craft to
the plant for extensive adjustments.

A college degree in engineering
or in one of the sciences usually is
the minimum requirement for an
entry level position as an engineer
or scientist in the aerospace indus­
try. Technicians can sometimes ad­
vance to these positions without a
college degree, but only after years
of work experience and some col­
lege-level training.
New entrants may qualify for
technician positions by attending a
technical institute or junior college,
or by obtaining related work ex­
perience. Entry level plant occupa­
tions generally do not require a high
school diploma although graduates
are often preferred. Inexperienced
plant workers generally start out in
semiskilled positions and learn
skills on the job and in classroom
courses. As they gain experience,
they can move on to more highly
skilled positions. For example, it
usually takes 2 to 4 years of plant
experience to become a skilled as­
sembler.
Skilled inspectors often have
several years of machine shop ex­
perience and must be able to install
and use various kinds of testing
equipment and instruments, read
blueprints and other specifications,
and use shop mathematics.
Mechanics who do final checkout
of aircraft and spacecraft may
qualify for their jobs by working in
earlier stages of the production line,

by receiving training in checkout year because of the growth ex­
work, or by working as ‘line main­ pected in the industry, and to
tenance” mechanics with commer­ replace workers who retire, die, and
cial airlines.
transfer to jobs in other industries.
Chief mechanics usually need 3 Job opportunities are expected to
to 5 years of experience in the increase for highly trained workers,
manufacture of aircraft, missiles, such as scientists, engineers, and
and spacecraft, including at least 1 skilled plant personnel in all areas
year as a checkout mechanic. Spe­ of the industry, especially with
cialized mechanics, working under firms engaged in research and
the supervision of a chief mechanic, development and the manufacture
usually need at least 2 years’ ex­ of prototype and other technologi­
perience. Less experienced helpers cally advanced aircraft. Less skilled
or assistants learn on the job, with and unskilled workers will also be
plant training courses.
needed to fill entry level plant posi­
Apprenticeship programs are tions.
sometimes available for craft occu­
Since many aerospace products
pations such as machinists, tool and are either military hardware or
die makers, sheet-metal workers, space vehicles, the industry’s future
aircraft mechanics, and electri­ depends, to a great extent, on the
cians. The programs vary in length level of Federal expenditures.
from 3 to 5 years depending on the Changes in these expenditures
trade. During this time, the ap­ usually have been accompanied by
prentice handles work of progres­ sharp fluctuations in aerospace em­
sively increasing difficulty as well as ployment. For example, aerospace
classroom instruction. Such instruc­ employment declined sharply from
tion for a machinist apprentice, for the high levels of the late 1960’s
example, includes courses in partly because of decreased aircraft
blueprint reading, mechanical requirements for Vietnam and
drawing, shop mathematics, and reduced expenditures for space ex­
ploration. The outlook for this in­
physics.
Because complex and rapidly dustry is based on the assumption
changing products require highly that defense spending will increase
trained workers, aerospace plants moderately from the 1974 level, but
sometimes support formal training will be slightly below the peak
to supplement day-to-day ex­ levels of the late 1960’s. R&D
perience and help workers advance spending is also expected to be
more rapidly. Although most are above current levels. If actual ex­
short-term programs to meet im­ penditures should differ substan­
mediate needs, some major produ­ tially from these assumed levels, the
cers conduct training classes or pay outlook will be affected ac­
tuition and related costs for outside cordingly.
Civilian aircraft production also
courses. Some classes are held dur­
ing working hours; others are after is an important determinant of
aerospace employment. Overall
working hours.
employment in this area is expected
to remain fairly stable through the
Employment Outlook
mid-1980’s. Nevertheless, thou­
Employment in the aerospace in­ sands of new workers will be re­
dustry is expected to rise above quired in this sector of the industry
recent levels by the mid-1980’s. to replace those who die, retire or
The number of people working in transfer to other fields.
this industry, however, probably
Earnings and Working
will remain below the peak levels of
Conditions
the late 1960’s.
Thousands of jobs will open each
Plant workers’ earnings in the



aerospace industry are higher than
those in most other manufacturing
industries. In 1974, for example,
production workers in plants mak­
ing aircraft an d . parts averaged
$5.40 an hour; production workers
in all manufacturing industries as a
whole averaged about $4.22 an
hour.
The following tabulation in­
dicates an approximate range of
hourly wages for selected occupa­
tions in 1974 obtained from the col­
lective bargaining agreements of a
number of major aerospace compa­
nies; these rates do not include in­
centive earnings. The ranges in
various jobs are wide, partly
because wages within an occupa­
tion vary according to workers’
skills and experience, and partly
because wages differ from plant to
plant, depending upon type of
plant, locality, and other factors.
Aircraft mechanics.................. $4.00-6.88
Assemblers................................
4.28-5.51
Electronics technicians...........
4.50-6.00
Heat treaters.............................
5.53-6.33
Inspectors and testers............
4.38-6.63
5.06-5.98
Jig and fixture builders...........
Machinists.................................
4.32-6.97
Maintenance crafts..................
4.32-6.97
Riveters......................................
3.50-4.63
Tool and die makers...............
5.78-6.88
Welders......................................
3.50-6.97

Fringe benefits in the industry
usually include 2 weeks of paid va­
cation after 1 or 2 years of service,
and 3 weeks after 10 to 12 years.
Employees generally get 8 to 12
paid holidays a year and 1 week of
paid sick leave. Other major
benefits include life insurance;
medical, surgical, dental, and
hospital insurance; accident and
sickness insurance; and retirement
pensions.
Most employees work in modern
factory buildings that are clean,
well-lit, and well-ventilated. Some
work outdoors. Operations such as
sheet-metal processing, riveting,
and welding may be noisy, and
some assemblers may work in
cramped
quarters.
Aerospace
plants, however, are relatively safe.

Most plant workers in the
aerospace field are union members.
They are represented by several
unions including the International
Association of Machinists and
Aerospace Workers; the Interna­
tional Union, United Automobile,
Aerospace, and Agricultural Imple­
ment Workers of America; and the
International Union of Electrical,
Radio, and Machine Workers.
Some craft workers, guards, and




truckdrivers are members of unions
that represent their specific occu­
pational groups.

Sources of Additional
Information
Additional information about
careers in the aerospace field is
available from:
National Aeronautics and Space Administra­
tion, Washington, D.C. 20546.

Electronics Industries Association, 2001 Eye
St. NW„ Washington, D.C. 20006.

For specific information about an
occupation, contact:
International Union, United Automobile,
Aerospace, and Agricultural Implement
Workers of America, 8000 East Jeffer­
son Ave., Detroit, Mich. 48214.
International Union of Electrical, Radio and
Machine Workers, AFL-CIO, 1126 16th
St. NW„ Washington, D.C. 20036.

OCCUPATIONS IN THE
Aluminum was once considered a
specialty metal having limited ap­
plications. Today it is produced in
quantities second only to iron and
steel. It is used in products that
range from household appliances
and cooking utensils to automo­
biles, aircraft, and missiles. In
recent years, many new uses for
aluminum have been developed, in­
cluding house siding, containers,
and electrical cables. In 1974, the
industry produced about 12.0 bil­
lion pounds of primary aluminum,
or about twice the output of only 10
years earlier.
This statement describes occupa­
tions in plants that produce ingots
(bars) of primary aluminum. It also
describes occupations in plants that
shape the ingots into sheets, wire,
and other forms by rolling,
stretching, or forcing the aluminum
through an opening. Occupations
concerned with casting, forging,
stamping, machining, and fabricat­
ing aluminum are discussed
separately in the Handbook state­
ments dealing with forge shop,
foundry, and metalworking occupa­
tions.
About 105,000 persons worked
in the aluminum industry in 1974.
Approximately one-third helped
make aluminum; the remainder
helped convert large pieces into
sheets, cables, and other industrial
products.
Since the huge machinery neces­
sary for making aluminum is very
expensive, the production of prima­
ry aluminum is concentrated in a
relatively small number of plants.
These plants generally are located
near abundant sources of alumina
and electricity. Many are in Arkan­



Making Aluminum. Aluminum is
obtained from alumina by using
electricity to create chemical
changes that separate pure alu­
minum from other materials. Alu­
mina—a fine, white powder
ALUMINUM INDUSTRY processed from bauxite ore—is
placed in large containers called
“pots” that are filled with a special
liquid. Suspended in the liquid are
sas, Louisiana, Texas, Alabama, poles (anodes); electric cables are
and Tennessee, where alumina is attached to the pots and to poles.
made from bauxite ore imported When the process is in operation,
from the Caribbean area or mined electricity flows from the poles,
locally and electricity is obtained through the liquid containing the
from the Tennessee Valley Authori­ alumina, and to the walls and floors
ty or generated from local deposits of the pots. As the electricity passes
of natural gas or oil. About two- through the liquid, it heats and
fifths of the employees who make chemically changes the alumina to
aluminum work in these States. pure, liquid aluminum. Because the
Another one-fifth work in the State aluminum is heavier, it settles to the
of Washington where plants are bottom of the pot; waste materials
located to serve customers on the go to the top of the liquid. Periodi­
West Coast. A significant number cally, pure aluminum is removed
of employees also work in plants from the bottom of the pot.
Pot tenders (D.O.T. 512.885) see
located in Ohio, Indiana, and New
that the pots operate continuously.
York.
Plants that shape aluminum into Each is responsible for a number of
sheets, wire, and other products are pots. As a result of the chemical
more dispersed geographically. changes, the alumina in each pot is
Over one-half of the employment in slowly used up. By watching the
these plants is in California, surface of the liquid, or instru­
Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Illinois, ments, tenders determine when to
Alabama, New York, and Ohio. add alumina from the overhead
The remainder is widely scattered storage compartment.
throughout a large number of
States.

Occupations in the Industry
Employment in the aluminum in­
dustry falls into several categories.
The biggest group—about threefourths—
are the production work­
ers directly involved in operating
or maintaining the industry’s pro­
duction equipment. The remaining
one-fourth are in professional,tech­
nical, administrative, clerical, and
supervisory positions.
Production Occupations. To illus­
trate the production occupations
found in the industry, a description
of the major steps in making and
shaping aluminum follows.

Processing worker loads shredder with
old aluminum cans that are to be
recycled.

Every 24 to 72 hours, molten alu­
minum is siphoned from the bottom
of the pots into huge brick-lined,
steel containers or “crucibles.” The
tapper (D.O.T. 514.884) and tapper
helper (D.O.T. 514.887) signal the
hot-metal crane operator (D.O.T.
921.883) to place the overhead
crane near the pot. Using automatic
equipment, they break a hole in the
crust of waste materials that forms
on the top of the liquid. One end of
a curved, cast iron tube is inserted
into the pot; the other end is placed
into a crucible and the molten
metal is drawn from the pot into the
crucible.
After aluminum has been taken
from several pots and the crucible is
full, charge gang weighers (D.O.T.
502.887) weigh and sample the
molten metal for laboratory analy­
sis. Then, workers operating over­
head cranes pour the molten metal
from the crucible into a remelting
furnace. A remelt operator (D.O.T.
512.885) adds portions of alu­
minum scrap, other molten metal,
or chemicals that will produce
metal with the desired properties.
Finally, hand skimmers remove
waste products which have been
forced to the surface of the molten
metal.
After operating for a number of
months, the heat and chemical
reactions make holes in the pot’s
lining so that the liquid metal con­
tacts the steel container. When this
happens, the pot is shut down and
the liquid drained so that pot liners
(D.O.T. 519.884) can make
repairs. Depending on the condi­
tion of the pots, liners may patch
holes in the lining or may complete­
ly remove and replace the lining.
The metal is then transferred to
the second or holding compartment
of the furnace until a sufficient
supply is obtained for pouring. The
d.c. casting operator (D.O.T.
514.782) has charge of the pouring
station where the molten metal is
cast into ingots—large blocks of
metal. The operator controls the
cooling conditions of the casting



unit by keeping the molds full of
metal and spraying water against
the molds to produce ingots of
uniform size and quality.
Shaping aluminum. The large in­
gots must be reduced in size before
the aluminum is useful to
customers. Depending on the final
product desired, several methods
may be used to shape the ingot.
Aluminum products such as plate,
sheet, and strip are produced by
rolling.
The first step in rolling is to
remove surface impurities from the
ingot. The scalper operator (D.O.T.
605.782) manipulates levers of a
scalper machine and cuts thin
layers of rough metal from the in­
gots so that the surfaces are
smooth. Then, the ingots are heated
to proper working temperatures for
rolling. Workers operating over­
head cranes lower the ingots into
furnaces, or “soaking pits,” where
they are kept sealed for 12 to 18
hours. Soaking pit operators (D.O.T.
613.782) manage the furnace and
control the temperature and heat­
ing time.
After being heated, the huge in­
gots are positioned on the
“ breakdown” or hot rolling mill
where they are converted into elon­
gated slabs. Rolling mill operators
(D.O.T. 613.782) manipulate the
ingots back and forth between
powerful rollers until they are
reduced in thickness to about 3

Worker polishes aluminum wing section
for airliner.

inches. The slabs then move down
the line on the rollers to additional
hot mills that work them down to a
thickness of about one-eighth of an
inch. At the end of the hotline, a
coiler operator (D.O.T. 613.885)
tends a coiler that automatically
winds the metal onto reels.
The coiled aluminum cools at
room tem perature before being
cold-rolled still thinner. Cold-rolling
produces a better surface finish and
increases the metal’s strength and
hardness. Since continuous cold­
rolling could make the metal too
brittle, an annealer (D .O .T .
504.782) occasionally heats (anne­
als) the metal.
As an alternative to being rolled,
the metal now may be stretched.
Stretcher-level-operators
(D.O.T.
619.782) and stretcher-level-operator helpers (D.O.T. 619.886) posi­
tion the finished plate or sheet in
clamps, determine the stretch
required to remove surface con­
tours, and operate the machine that
pulls the metal from end to end to
stretch it.
In the rod and bar factory, square
castings called “ billets” are heated
to make them softer and then are
rolled through progressively smaller
openings, until the desired size is
obtained. To produce wire, hotrolling continues until the rod is
about three-eighths of an inch in
diameter. Then, wire draw operators
(D.O.T.
614.782)
operate
machines that pull the cold wire
through a series of holes (dies) that
gradually reduce its size. The
machines also automatically coil
the wire on revolving reels.
Structural products such as Ibeams and angles may be hot-rolled
or extruded. Hot-rolled products
are made by passing a square billet
with rounded corners between
grooved rolls that gradually reduce
the thickness and change the shape
of the metal.
Extruding of metal often is com­
pared with squeezing toothpaste
from a tube. Extruded aluminum
shapes are produced by placing hot

billets (bars) inside a cylinder in a
powerful press. A hydraulic ram
that usually has a force of several
million pounds pushes the metal
through a hole (die) at the other
end of the cylinder. The metal takes
the shape of the die and then may
be cut into desired lengths. By
designing different dies, almost any
shape of aluminum product may be
formed. Extrusion press operators
(D.O.T. 614.782) regulate the rate
at which the metal is forced through
the press.
During both the production and
shaping processes, workers and
machines inspect the metal to as­
sure quality. Radiographers (D.O.T.
199.381) operate various types of
X-ray equipment to inspect the
hietal. Computers monitor opera­
tions and automatically adjust
metal temperature and mill speed.
Other production workers in the
aluminum industry keep machines
and equipment operating properly.
Some move materials, supplies, and
finished products throughout the
plants; still others are in service oc­
cupations such as guard and
custodian. Many of these occupa­
tions are common to other indus­
tries. (See index to the Handbook.)
Since electricity is vital to making
aluminum, the industry needs many
electricians to install and repair
electrical fixtures, apparatus, and
control equipment. Other em­
ployees, such as millwrights and
maintenance machinists, make and
repair mechanical parts for plant
machinery, while stationary en­
gineers operate and maintain the
powerplants, turbines, steam en­
gines, and motors used in aluminum
plants.
Other important groups are the
diemakers who assemble and repair
dies used in aluminum metalwork­
ing operations; the bricklayers who
build and reline furnaces, soaking
pits, and similar installations; and
the welders who join metal parts
together with gas or electric weld­




ing equipment. In addition, plum­
bers and pipefitters lay out, install,
and maintain piping and piping
systems for steam, water, and other
materials used in aluminum manu­
facturing.

A wide range of other profesional
and administrative workers is
needed in the manufacture of alu­
minum. Top executives manage the
companies and determine policy.
Middle managers and superinten­
dents direct individual depart­
ments, offices, and production
operations. The industry also em­
ploys other adminstrative person­
nel, as well as accountants, lawyers,
statisticians,
economists,
and
mathematicians. Clerical workers,
including bookkeepers, secretaries,
stenographers, clerk typists, and
keypunch and computer operators
keep company records and do other
routine office work.

Professional, Technical, Adminis­
trative, Clerical, and Sales Occupa­
tions. About one employee in ten is
a professional or technical worker;
about the same proportion are
clerks. The few remaining workers
are in administrative and sales posi­
tions.
Companies employ a variety of
professional specialists in produc­
ing aluminum. Quality control
chemists analyze the aluminum and
the raw materials used in its Training, Other Qualifications,
production while process metallur­
and Advancement
gists determine the most efficient
Aluminum companies generally
methods of producing aluminum
from raw materials. Physical metal­ hire and train inexperienced work­
lurgists test aluminum and alu­ ers for processing and maintenance
minum alloys to determine their jobs. A bachelor’s degree is re­
physical characteristics and also quired for most professional jobs,
develop new alloys and new uses for and graduate degrees in science or
engineering are preferred for re­
aluminum.
Chemical engineers and mechan­ search and development work. Ad­
ical engineers design and supervise ministrative and managerial posi­
the construction and operation of tions usually are filled by workers
production facilities. Mechanical who have engineering or science
engineers may design new rolling backgrounds and have been pro­
mills or improve existing mills moted to these jobs. Some new
and related equipment. Electrical graduates who have degrees in busi­
engineers plan and oversee the ness administration or liberal arts
installation, operation, and main­ may fill entry level administrative
tenance of the electric generators jobs. Sales positions often are filled
persons
with . technical
and distribution systems used in by
the manufacture of aluminum. In­ backgrounds.
Applicants and current em­
dustrial engineers conduct work
measurement studies and develop ployees who demonstrate an ap­
management control systems to aid titude for technical work have op­
in financial planning and cost analy­ portunities to qualify as techni­
cians, laboratory assistants, and
sis.
Engineering technicians, labora­ other semiprofessional workers.
tory technicians, and chemical However, some college background
analysts assist engineers and in engineering and science, or
chemists in research and develop­ graduation from a technical in­
ment work. Drafters prepare the stitute or community college, is
working drawings that are required required for many technical jobs.
Unskilled workers begin their
to make or repair production
careers in a labor pool and sub­
machinery.

stitute for absent workers until they
become eligible for permanent
positions in a shop or department.
As these workers acquire additional
skills and seniority with the com­
pany, they usually move to more
responsible and better paying posi­
tions. Some eventually become su­
pervisors.
Craft workers usually are trained
on the job. A number of companies,
particularly the larger ones, have
craft apprenticeship programs that
include classroom or home study
courses, as well as on-the-job train­
ing. Generally, candidates for these
programs are chosen from promis­
ing young workers already em­
ployed by the company. The length
of the apprenticeship varies accord­
ing to the craft, although most
require 3 to 4 years. Examples of
crafts that can be learned through
apprenticeship are: electrician,
welder, brickmason, carpenter,
machinist, maintenance mechanic,
pipefitter, and general maintenance
mechanic.

the construction of large buildings
and for residential construction and
remodeling. Furthermore, the alu­
minum industry supports a strong
research and development program
and an aggressive marketing pro­
gram which should continue to
develop new alloys, processes, and
products. As a result, the number of
engineers, scientists, and technical
personnel is expected to increase as
a proportion of total employment.
On the other hand, technological
developments, such as computercontrolled rolling operations, will
limit employment growth among
some production occupations.

Annealer................................
Sheet stretcher-leveler
operator..............................
Inspector........... ..................
Extrusion press operator.....
Maintenance:
Boiler firer.............................
Bricklayer..............................
Welder....................................
Pipefitter................................
Millwright..............................
Electrician.............................
Machinist...............................

5.20
5.12
5.28
5.68
5.28
6.08
5.52
6.00
6.00
6.24
6.24

Aluminum workers receive many
fringe benefits, such as paid vaca­
tions and holidays, retirement
benefits, life and health insurance,
shift differentials, supplemental
jury-duty pay, and supplemental
unemployment benefits. Most wor­
kers receive paid vacations ranging
Earnings and Working
from 1 to 4 weeks, depending on
Conditions
length of service. In addition, there
Hourly earnings of plantworkers are extended vacation plans that
in the aluminum industry are higher provide a 10-week vacation every 5
than the average for manufacturing years.
industries. In 1974, production
Making aluminum requires high
workers in plants which make alu­ temperatures; the potroom is often
minum averaged $6.06 an hour, hot, dusty, and smoky. However,
and those in aluminum rolling and working conditions in plants have
drawing plants averaged $5.28. In been improved as a result of smoke
Employment Outlook
comparison, production workers in control programs and other pro­
Employment in the aluminum in­ manufacturing industries as a whole jects. Because making aluminum is
a continuous process, some produc­
dustry is expected to grow about as averaged $4.40 an hour.
Skilled operators and skilled tion employees have to work nights
fast as the average for all industries
through the mid-1980’s. In addition maintenance and craft workers and weekends.
The shaping sector of the indus­
to growth, many job opportunities hold the highest paying plant jobs.
will arise from the need to replace Hourly rates in 1974 for selected try offers more favorable work con­
workers who retire, die, or leave the occupations in a number of plants ditions though workers in certain
industry for other reasons. The covered by one major union- jobs are subject to heat, noise, and
number of job opportunities may management contract are shown other discomforts.
The industry stresses safe work­
vary from year to year, however, below.
ing conditions and conducts safety
because the demand for aluminum
H o u rly
education programs. Plant's where
fluctuates with ups and downs in
wa^e
Occupation
rate
aluminum is made have had a lower
the economy.
rate of injuries than the average for
Over the long run, demand for Making Aluminum:
$5.12
Anode rebuilder...................
all metal industries, while the rate
aluminum is expected to grow as
Pot liner.................................
5.44
for aluminum rolling and drawing
population increases and con­
Pot tender.............................
5.36
mills has been about the same as the
sumers have more money to spend
Tapper...................................
5.60
average. However, the average
on products made from aluminum.
Charge gang weigher...........
5.12
number of workdays lost for each
Industries that represent major Shaping Aluminum:
markets for aluminum are growing
injury in the aluminum industry has
Scalper operator...................
5.60
industries with potential for new
been greater than the average for
Soaking pit operator............
5.20
product development. For example,
metal industries.
Hot mill operator, junior.....
5.52
aluminum is being used widely in
Continuous mill operator.....
6.16
Most process and maintenance




workers in the aluminum industry
belong to labor unions. In addition,
labor organizations represent some
office and technical personnel. The
unions having the greatest number
of members in the industry are
United Steelworkers of America;
Aluminum Workers International




Union; and International Union,
United Automobile, Aerospace and
Agricultural Implement Workers of
America.
Sources of Additional
Information
Information

on

aluminum

production and uses, as well as
careers, many be obtained from:
The Aluminum Association, 750 Third Ave..
New York, N.Y. 10017.

OCCUPATIONS IN THE APPAREL INDUSTRY
The apparel industry is an impor­
tant source of jobs for workers who
have widely different skills and in­
terests. Many of these jobs can be
learned in a few weeks; others take
several years.

Nature and Location of the
Industry
Over 1.3 million people were em­
ployed in the apparel industry in
1974. Approximately 585,000
produced women’s and children’s
apparel and about 495,000, men’s.
The rest made such items as fur
goods, gloves, hats, curtains, and
draperies.
Although apparel factories are
located in nearly all States, about
80 percent of the workers are em­
ployed in 15 States: New York,
Pennsylvania, California, North
Carolina, New Jersey, Georgia,
Texas, Tennessee, Massachusetts,
South Carolina, Alabama, Missis­
sippi, Virginia, Missouri, and Il­
linois. New York and Pennsylvania
alone employ approximately 30
percent of the industry work force.
Some
of
the
important
Northeastern apparel manufactur­
ing centers are in New York City,
suburban New Jersey, Boston,
Philadelphia, and in smaller cities in
Pennsylvania such as Wilkes-Barre,
Hazelton, and Allentown. Leading
Midwestern and Western centers
include Chicago, St. Louis, Dallas,
El Paso, San Antonio, and Los An­
geles. Apparel manufacturing in the
Southeast tends to be widely
dispersed. North Carolina, for ex­
ample, has plants in about 80 of its
101 counties.
Most apparel plants are small.



Only about 1 out of every 7 em­
ploys more than 100 workers.
Plants that manufacture standard
garments such as work pants
usually are larger than those mak­
ing expensive dresses and other
items that are subject to rapid style
change.

Occupations in the Industry
The major operations in making
apparel are designing and pattern
making, cutting and marking, sew­
ing, and pressing. Generally, high
grade and style-oriented apparel is
more carefully designed and in­
volves more handwork than
cheaper, more standardized items.
For example, much hand detailing
goes into a fashionable cocktail
dress or a high-priced suit or coat,
while items such as undershirts and
overalls usually are sewn entirely by
machine. To make the many dif­
ferent kinds of garments, workers
with various skills and educational
backgrounds are needed.
Designing Room Occupations. Typi­
cally, the manufacturing process
begins with the designer (D.O.T.
142.081), who creates new types
and styles of apparel. Inspiration for
a new design may come from any of
a variety of experiences: traveling,
observing life styles, and seeing the
work of other designers, to name
but a few. In addition to creativity,
designers must have practical
knowledge of the apparel business
so that they can translate their ideas
into styles that can be produced at
competitive prices. They must, for
example, be familiar with labor

costs for various factory operations
such as cutting, sewing, and
pressing.
A large manufacturer generally
has a head designer and several
assistants. Many small firms, how­
ever, do not employ designers but
purchase ready-made designs or
patterns or copy higher priced
designs.
A designer usually works with
one type of apparel, such as suits or
dresses, although some work with
several. For a high-quality dress,
designers usually start by drawing
sketches and choosing fabrics, trim,
and colors. Using these sketches as
guides,
designers
and
their
assistants make an experimental
dress. They cut materials and pin,
sew, and adjust the dress on a form
or a live model until it matches the
sketch.
Sample makers (D.O.T. 785.381 )
use this experimental dress as a
guide in cutting and sewing fabrics
to make a finished sample of the
dress. After management has ap­
proved the sample, a pattern maker
(D.O.T. 781.381 ) constructs a
master pattern. Working closely
with the designer, the pattern
maker translates the sketch or sam­
ple dress into paper or fiberboard
pieces, each one representing a part
of the garment. A pattern grader
(D.O.T. 781.381 ) measures the
pieces that make up this master pat­
tern, and modifies them to fit vari­
ous sizes. Some large plants use
computers to reduce the time
needed to draw up the patterns for
each size.
Styles for many items, such as
men’s suits and jackets, do not
change significantly from year to
year; thus, some of the steps
described above are not required. A
designer may alter the style of a
suit, for example, by simply making
minor changes on the master pat­
tern. Before making such changes,
however, the designer must be able
to sketch or mentally picture how
the total appearance of the suit will
be affected.

layers are as high as 9 inches. The blind-stitch machine operator, and
cutter follows the outline of the pat­ by the type of work performed,
tern on the cloth with an electri­ such as collar stitcher or sleeve
cally powered knife which slices finisher.
Most hand sewing is done on
through all the layers at once. The
work of a cutter and a marker better quality or highly styled
frequently is combined into a single dresses, suits, and coats. Hand
sewers (D.O.T. 782.884) use needle
job.
The pieces of cloth that have and thread to perform various
been cut are prepared for the sew­ operations ranging from simple
ing room by another group of spe­ sewing to complex stitching. Many
cialized workers. Assemblers, some­ hand sewers specialize in a single
times called bundlers or fitters operation, such as lapel basting or
(D.O.T. 781.687), bring together lining stitching.
Instead of being sewn, parts such
and bundle the pieces and accesso­
ries (linings, tapes, and trimmings) as collars and lapels may be “fused”
needed to make a complete gar­ together by heat and pressure. A
ment. They match color, size, and fusing machine operator places the
fabric design and use chalk or garment part on a loading platform
thread to mark locations for of a fusing press which is adjusted
pockets, buttonholes, buttons, and to apply the precise amount of pres­
Cutter guides electric knife through lay­
other trimmings. They identify each sure and temperature needed for a
ers of cloth.
bundle with a ticket, which is also permanent bond.
In a typical apparel plant, bun­
Cutting Room Occupations. Work­ used to figure the earnings of work­
ers in the cutting room prepare ers who are paid accordingr'to the dles of cut garment pieces move
cloth for sewing. There are five number of pieces they produce. through the sewing department,
basic operations in the cutting de­ The bundles are then routed to the where the garments take form as
various sections of the sewing they pass through a series of sewing
partment: spreading, marking,
operations. Each operator performs
cutting, assembling, and ticketing. room.
one or two assigned tasks on each
Small shops may combine two or
Sewing Room Occupations. About piece in the bundle and then passes
more of these operations into a sin­
one-half of all apparel workers are the bundle to the next operator.
gle job.
handsewers and sewing machine Many plants employ material han­
Hand spreaders (D.O.T. 78 1.887)
operators. Expensive garments and dlers (D.O.T. 929.887) who move
lay out bolts of cloth into exact
lengths on the cutting table. finishing touches on moderate- garment bundles from one sewing
priced clothing may need much operation to another.
(D.O.T.
Machine
spreaders
At various stages of the sewing
781.884) are aided by machines in hand sewing. Most sewing, how­
ever, is done with machines.
operations, inspectors and checkers
laying the cloth evenly across the
table.
Markers (D.O.T. 781.484) trace
Sewing
machine
operators
the fiberboard pattern pieces on (D.O.T. 787.782) use industrial
large sheets of paper, and may machines that are heavier and run
make several carbons of these faster thanvthe ones found in the
tracings. In some cases they trace home. These workers generally spe­
the pattern pieces with chalk cialize in a single operation such as
directly on the cloth itself, rather sewing shoulder seams, attaching
than on paper. To get the greatest cuffs to sleeves, or hemming
number of garments from a blouses. Some make sections such
minimum quantity of cloth, mark­ as pockets, collars, or sleeves;
ers arrange pattern pieces so that others assemble and join these
there is just enough distance completed sections to the main
between them for the cutter to parts of the garment.
work.
Sewing
machine
operators
A cutter (D.O.T. 781.884) cuts generally are classified by the type
out the various garment pieces from of machine they use, such as single­
layers of cloth. Sometimes these needle sewing machine operator or



(D.O.T. 789.687) examine gar­
ments. They mark defects, such as
skipped stitches or bad seams,
which are repaired before the gar­
ments are passed on to the next
sewing operation. Inspectors some­
times make minor repairs. Trim­
mers, hand (D.O.T. 781.887), often
called
thread trimmers
and
cleaners, remove loose threads,
basting stitches, and lint from gar­
ments. This is called “ in-process in­
spection.”
Tailoring
Occupations.
Tailors
(D.O.T. 785.261 and .381) and
dressmakers (D.O.T. 785.361) are

skilled workers who do difficult
kinds of hand and machine sewing.
Most of them are employed in mak­
ing expensive clothing that needs
precise shaping and finishing.
Although some tailors and dress­
makers make complete garments,
most specialize in a few operations
such as collar setting and lapel
padding.
Bushelers (D.O.T. 785.281) are
tailors who repair defects in
finished garments rejected by the
inspector. They alter parts that
have not been sewn correctly, rear­
range padding in coats and suits,
and do other sewing necessary to
correct defects.
Pressing Occupations. The shape
and appearance of the finished gar­
ments depend, to a large extent, on
the pressing that is done during and
after sewing operations.
Pressers (D.O.T. 363.782, .884,
and .885) use various types of
steam pressing machines, and may
work with manikins and body
forms, or use hand irons to flatten
seams and to shape parts and
finished garments. There are two
basic types of pressers—underpressers and finish pressers. Underpressers specialize on particular gar­
ment parts, such as collars, shoul­
ders, seams, or pockets. Their du­
ties vary from simple smoothing of
cloth and flattening of seams to
skillful shaping of garment parts.




Appearance of the finished garment depends largely on the presser’s skills.

Finish pressers generally do final
pressing and ironing at the end of
the sewing operations.
Fur Shop Occupations. Because furs
are expensive and difficult to work
with, making a fur garment requires
workers who have special skills not
found in plants that make other
types of apparel.
The most skilled worker in a fur
garment plant is the fur cutter
(D.O.T. 783.781), who also may be
the supervisor. The cutter selects
and matches enough fur skins to
make a single garment, such as a
coat or jacket, and arranges and
cuts the skins on pattern pieces so
that the choice sections of fur are
placed where they will show. Fol­
lowing the sewing instructions given
by the cutter, fu r machine operators
(D.O.T. 787.782) sew these pelts
together to make garment sections.
A fu r nailer (D.O.T. 783.884) wets
the
sewn garment sections,
stretches them by hand, and either
staples or nails them on a board so
that they will cover the pattern.
When the sections are dry, this

worker removes the staples or nails
and trims the fur exactly along the
outline of the pattern. The fur
machine operator then finishes sew­
ing the various sections to complete
the garment. Fur finishers (D.O.T.
783.381) sew in the lining, tape
edges, make pockets, and sew on
buttons and loops.
Administrative, Sales, and Main­
tenance Occupations. Most adminis­

trative positions in an apparel plant
are in the production department.
Production managers are responsi­
ble for estimating production costs,
scheduling the flow of work, hiring
and training workers, controlling
quality, and supervising the overall
production activities of the plant. In
some small apparel firms, the
production manager also is a
designer.
Industrial
engineers
advise
management about the efficient use
of machines, materials, and work­
ers. (Further discussion of indus­
trial engineers is included el­
sewhere in the Handbook.)
Clerks, bookkeepers, stenog-

A large proportion of apparel industry employees are sewing machine operators.

raphers, and other office workers
make up payrolls, prepare invoices,
keep records, and attend to other
paperwork. In some large plants,
many clerical functions are handled
with computers. This requires
keypunch operators, computer pro­
grammers and operators, and
systems analysts. Salesworkers,
fabric buyers, models, accountants,
and sewing machine mechanics and
technicians are among other types
of workers in the apparel industry.
Discussions of many of these jobs
can be found elsewhere in the
Handbook.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Most production (plant) workers
in the apparel industry pick up their
skills on the job by helping and ob­
serving
experienced
workers.



Training time ranges from a few
weeks to several years, depending
on the type of occupation, the
worker’s aptitude, and the em­
ployer’s training programs. A rela­
tively small number of employees
are trained in formal apprenticeship
programs for highly skilled occupa­
tions, such as pattern maker, cutter,
and tailor. Apprenticeships include
both classroom and on-the-job
training. Some private and public
schools in apparel manufacturing
centers offer courses in pattern
making, cutting, and tailoring, as
well as machine and hand sewing.
Students who complete these cour­
ses, however, usually need addi­
tional on-the-job training.
Many production occupations
are well suited for the handicapped
because the work is done while the
worker is seated. In many cases, lit­
tle physical effort is required. Good

eyesight and manual dexterity,
however, are vital.
Entry into beginning hand or
machine-sewing jobs is relatively
easy, since there are few restric­
tions regarding education and
physical condition. New workers
start by sewing straight seams,
under the supervision of a skilled
worker or supervisor, and progress
to more complicated sewing as they
gain experience. Many large com­
panies have special on-the-job
training programs for sewing
machine operators. The operator is
taught how to perform each opera­
tion with minimal finger, arm, and
body movement. The ability to do
routine work rapidly is essential,
since nearly all sewers are paid by
the number of pieces they produce.
Some sewers advance to other jobs
in the plant, such as tailor or dress­
maker; others become supervisors.
Most sewers, however, stay on the
same general operation throughout
their working lives and can look
forward only to moving from simple
sewing tasks to more complicated
ones that pay higher piece rates.
New workers usually enter the
cutting room by taking jobs as as­
semblers (bundlers or fitters). Pa­
tience and the ability to match
colors are necessary for these jobs.
An assembler may be promoted to
spreader, and after a few years, to
marker or cutter.
Pattern graders usually are
selected from employees working in
the cutting room or in other plant
jobs. Training in drafting is helpful
since much of the work requires the
use of drafting
tools
and
techniques.
Most pattern makers pick up the
skills of the trade by working for
several years as helpers to ex­
perienced pattern makers. Cutters
and pattern graders are occa­
sionally promoted to pattern mak­
ing. Pattern makers must be able to
visualize from a sketch or model the
size, shape, and number of pattern
pieces required for a particular gar­
ment. They also must have a

knowledge of fabrics, body propor­
tions, and garment construction.
For beginning tailor and dress­
making jobs, many employers
prefer to hire vocational school
graduates who have had courses in
these subjects. With a few years of
additional apprenticeship or infor­
mal on-the-job training, graduates
can qualify as skilled workers.
Some of these workers eventually
become designers or supervisors.
They can also transfer to jobs out­
side the apparel manufacturing in­
dustry as fitters and alteration
tailors in clothing stores and
drycleaning shops.
Pressers usually begin as underpressers, working on simple
seams and garment parts. Un­
derpressing can be learned in a
short time, and the worker can
progress to the more difficult job of
finish presser. These workers also
can transfer to pressing jobs in
drycleaning shops.
Many apparel firms prefer to
recruit designers from colleges that
offer specialized training in this
field. Graduates usually start as
assistant designers or sample
makers. Some designers, however,
have come up through the ranks by
advancing from cutting, pattern
making, or tailoring jobs.
Designers need a thorough
knowledge of fabrics, a keen sense
of color, and the ability to translate
design ideas into a finished gar­
ment. They should also acquaint
themselves with garment making
techniques by working briefly in
various plant jobs, such as sample
making, cutting, and machine sew­
ing. Designers should know how to
sketch.
A production manager usually
begins as a management trainee,
and an industrial engineer as a jun­
ior engineer. A college education
increasingly is being required for
these jobs. For those without a col­
lege background, many years of onthe-job training in all production
processes, ranging from selection of
fabrics to shipment of finished ap­



parel, are required to qualify as a
production manager.

Employment Outlook
Apparel industry employment is
expected to grow more slowly than
the average for all industries
through the mid-1980’s. Most job
openings will arise from the need to
replace experienced workers who
retire, die, or transfer to other fields
of work. The number of openings
may fluctuate greatly from year to
year, as the demand for apparel is
highly sensitive to changes in the
economy.
Demand for apparel is expected
to increase over the long run as
population and incomes continue to
grow. The industry’s greater
emphasis on styling also may stimu­
late demand. Employment in the in­
dustry, however, is not expected to
keep pace with the production of
apparel, because new mechanized
equipment and improved methods
of production and distribution are
expected to result in greater output
per worker. Examples of laborsav­
ing equipment include sewing
machines that can position needles
and trim threads automatically;
devices that automatically position
fabric pieces under the needle and
remove and stack completed
pieces; and computer-controlled
pattern making, grading, and
cutting. Computers also are im­
proving managerial control over
sales, inventories, shipping, and

production.
Despite technological advances
in equipment, apparel manufactur­
ing operations will continue to
require much manual labor. Most
employment opportunities will be
for sewing machine operators, as
this occupational group constitutes
approximately 50 percent of total
industry employment. Job openings
also will arise for pressers and de­
signing and cutting room workers.
Opportunities are expected to be
particularly favorable for produc­
tion managers and engineers with
college degrees in apparel manage­
ment, engineering technology for
apparel, and industrial engineering,
as well as for salesworkers, fabric
buyers, and sewing machine
mechanics. People who plan to
become designers, on the other
hand, will face keen competition,
because the number of people try­
ing to get into this field exceeds the
number of available jobs.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Earnings in the apparel industry
are relatively low. In 1974, produc­
tion workers in apparel averaged
$2.99 an hour, compared with
$4.40 an hour for those in all manu­
facturing industries. Production
workers in the apparel industry also
worked fewer hours per week than
those in manufacturing as a whole.
Average hourly earnings of
production workers varied among

Table 1. Average hourly earnings of production workers in the men’s and boys’
suits and coats industry, selected occupations and areas, 1973
Estimated average hourly earnings
Men’s and boys’ suits and coats
New York &
Nassau-Suffolk Baltimore

Chicago

All production workers...................................

$3.79

$3.32

$3.88

Cutters and markers....................................................
Finishers, hand, coat fabrication..............................
Sewing machine operators, coat fabrication...........
Sewers, hand, trouser fabrication.............................
Sewing machine operators, trouser
fabrication.................................................................

5.02
3.21
3.84
3.75

4.42
3.20
3.21
3.05

4.92
3.64
3.87
3.65

4.10

3.09

3.50

different kinds of apparel plants,
ranging from $2.58 in plants that
made men’s and boys’ work
clothing to $3.66 in those that made
men’s and boys’ suits and coats.
Earnings of apparel workers also
varied by occupation and geo­
graphical area. Table 1 gives esti­
mated average hourly earnings in
1973 for selected occupations and
areas in one segment of the indus­
try.
Because most production work­
ers in the apparel industry are paid
by the number of pieces they
produce, their total earnings de­
pend upon speed as well as skill.
Many apparel workers are union
members, particularly those who
work in metropolitan areas. The
major unions in this industry are the
International Ladies’ Garment
Workers’ Union, the Amalgamated
Clothing Workers of America, and
the United Garment Workers ol
America. Some of these unions
sponsor health care and child day
care centers, cooperative housing,
and vacation resorts for the benefit
of their members.
Workers may be laid off for
several weeks during slack seasons,
particularly in plants that make
seasonal garments, such as women’s
coats and suits. Employment is
usually more stable in plants that
produce standardized garments,
such as pajamas and men’s shirts,
which are worn all year. In many




plants, the available work during
slack periods is divided so that all
workers can be assured of at least
some earnings.
While many plants are housed in
old buildings, others are located in
modern buildings that have ample
work space, good lighting, and air
conditioning.
Because most employees sit when
they sew, the work is not physically
strenuous, but the pace is rapid and
many tasks are monotonous. A
sewer may occasionally pierce a
finger with a needle, but serious ac­
cidents are rare.
Working conditions in cutting
and designing rooms are pleasant.
These rooms often are in a separate
area of the plant, away from the
hustle and bustle of the sewing and
pressing operations. Designing, pat­
tern making, and cutting jobs are
more
interesting
and
less
monotonous than most other ap­
parel jobs.

Sources of Additional
Information
Information on vocational and
high schools that offer training in
designing, tailoring, and sewing
may be obtained from the Division
of Vocational Education of the De­
partment of Education in each
State capital.
Information on apprenticeships
may be obtained from the Ap­

prenticeship Council of the State
Labor Department or the local of-1
flees of State employment service.
Some local employment service of­
fices administer tests to determine
aptitudes that are important for
many apparel industry jobs.
For general information on jobs
in the industry and information on
schools which offer degrees in ap­
parel management, engineering
technology for apparel, design, and
related professional and vocational
fields, write to:
American Apparel Manufacturers Associa­
tion, 1611 N. Kent St., Arlington, Va.
22209.
Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America,
15 Union Square, New York, N.Y.
10003.
Clothing Manufacturers Association of
U.S.A., 135 W. 50th St., New York,
N.Y. 10020.
Fur Information and Fashion Council, 101
W. 30th St., New York, N.Y. 10001.
International Ladies’ Garment Workers’
Union, 1710 Broadway, New York,
N .Y .10019.
National Dress Manufacturers’ Association,
Inc., 570 Seventh Ave., New York, N.Y.
10018:

National Outerwear and Sportswear As­
sociation, Inc., 1 Pennsylvania Plaza,
New York, N.Y. 10001.
New York Coat and Suit Association, 225
W. 34th St., New York, N.Y. 10001.
United Garment Workers of America, 31
Union Square, New York, N.Y. 10013.

OCCUPATIONS IN THE ATOMIC ENERGY FIELD

Atomic energy is a source of heat
and radiation that can be used for
peaceful as well as military pur­
poses. Although peaceful applica­
tions have been expanding rapidly
in recent years, they are still in the
early stages of development, and
continuing research and develop­
ment programs will be needed dur­
ing the next several decades to find
new and more efficient ways of
utilizing this energy.
In 1974, nearly 250,000 people
worked in atomic energy activities.
Large numbers did research and
development work. Others worked
in industries that manufacture
nuclear weapons and other defense
materials, nuclear reactors, and
nuclear fuels. Most atomic energy
workers are scientists, engineers,
technicians, and craft workers.

eliminating
refueling,
nuclear
propulsion extends the range and
mobility of our naval forces.
Although existing reactors al­
ready generate huge quantities of
power from a small amount of
uranium, more efficient reactors
may be operational by the mid1980’s. The Liquid Metal Fast
Breeder Reactor, which may be
commercially operable by the
1990’s, actually produces more
potential fuel than it consumes.

Further in the future, controlled fu­
sion reactors may provide an even
more efficient method of producing
electricity.
The U.S. Energy Research and
Development Administration has
continued the research begun by
the Atomic Energy Commission’s
“ Project Plowshare,” a program to
develop peaceful uses for nuclear
explosives. The program has poten­
tial applications in areas such as
gas, oil, and mineral recovery, and
the excavation of harbors, canals,
and mountain passes.
Another significant application
of atomic energy is in the use of
radioisotopes. The radioisotopes
emit radiation that special instru­
ments, such as thickness gauges,
can detect, and are valuable
research tools in environmental stu­
dies, agriculture, medicine, and in­
dustry.

Applications of Atomic Energy
One significant use of atomic
energy is the production of com­
mercial electricity by nuclear reac­
tors. Steam produced by reactors
now generates electricity for many
communities. These reactors have
become competitive with systems
that use fossil fuels (such as coal
and oil). At the end of 1974, there
were 55 nuclear reactors in com­
mercial operation. About 175
plants are now either in the
planning stage or being con­
structed. Dual-purpose nuclear
power desalting plants, which
would at the same time provide
both a new source of fresh water
and electric power, are being stud­
ied.
Nuclear reactors also power sub­
marines and surface vessels. By




Technicians complete assembly of experimental unit used in atomic energy
research.

How Atomic Energy is
Produced
Although there are several
processes for producing atomic or
nuclear energy, the most common
method used today is the fission
process. It involves splitting urani­
um or plutonium nuclei by neutron
bombardment. When neutrons
emitted from this fission process
bombard other nuclei, further fis­
sion takes place and, under proper
conditions, results in a “ chain”
reaction. This reaction releases
energy which is converted into
power. The detonation of an atomic
bomb is an application of the explo­
sive release of atomic energy. How­
ever, for commercial uses, this
energy is controlled.
Controlled fission is the essential
feature of a nuclear reactor. The
reactor is like a furnace, and needs
fuel to operate. The principal
source material for reactor fuel is
uranium 235. Uranium in its natural
state contains less than 1 percent of
readily fissionable material, U-235.
Although natural uranium is some­
times used as reactor fuel, a more
concentrated and enriched fuel is
produced and used by increasing
the proportion of U-235 isotopes
through a process called gaseous

diffusion. The rate of fission and
energy produced in a nuclear reac­
tor usually is controlled by inserting
special neutron-absorbing rods into
the fuel chamber or “core.”
When atomic energy is used com­
mercially for power, the heat
generated must be converted to
electricity by conventional equip­
ment. The major difference
between nuclear and conventional
thermal electric power stations is
that the steam to drive turbines
comes from a nuclear reactor
rather than from conventional
power sources. (See accompanying
chart.)
Because of the potential hazards
of nuclear radiation, special radia­
tion-resistant materials are used in
reactors and precautions are taken
to protect personnel.

Nature of the Atomic Energy
Field
Many kinds of research and in­
dustrial activities are required for
the production and use of nuclear
energy. These processes include the
mining, milling, and refining of
uranium-bearing ores; the produc­
tion of nuclear fuels; the manufac­
ture of nuclear reactors, reactor
components, and nuclear instru­

Nuclear Reactor Generating Electricity_________ 19
Nuclear Reactor
R eactor control console

Shield^

■
1;
|; 1

ments; the production of special
materials for use in reactors; the
design, engineering, and construc­
tion of nuclear facilities; the opera­
tion and maintenance of nuclear
reactors;
the
disposal
of
radioisotopes; the production of
nuclear weapons; and research and
development work.
These activities take place in
plants, laboratories, and other
facilities. Some work, such as min­
ing and milling, manufacturing heat
transfer equipment, and construct­
ing facilities, differs little from
similar work in other fields. Other
activities, however, such as produc­
ing fuels needed to run reactors, are
unique to the atomic energy field.
The Federal Government sup­
ports over half of the basic atomic
energy activities, though private
support has been increasing. The
U.S. Energy Research and Develop­
ment Administration (ERDA)
directs the Federal Government’s
atomic energy research program,
and the Nuclear Regulatory Com­
mission (NRC) controls the use of
nuclear materials by private or­
ganizations. The operation of
ERDA-owned facilities, including
laboratories, uranium processing
plants, nuclear reactors, and
weapons manufacturing plants, is
contracted to private organizations.
About half of all workers in the
atomic energy field are employed in
government-owned
facilities.
Privately owned facilities do all
types of atomic energy work except
for the development and produc­
tion of military weapons and certain
nuclear fuel-processing operations.
A large amount of research and
development work is carried out in
ERDA-owned laboratories, univer­
sity and college laboratories, non­
profit institutions, and industrial or­
ganizations under ERDA contracts.

U r a n iu m ro d s-

1 j
K~

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics




Occupations in the Atomic
Energy Field
Engineers, scientists, technicians,
and craft workers account for a

higher proportion of total employ­
ment in this field than in most
others, mainly because much of the
work is still in the research and
development phase. Office person­
nel in administrative and clerical
jobs represent another large group.
Most of the remainder are
semiskilled and unskilled workers
involved in production operations,
plant protection, and services.
Although many engineers work­
ing in the atomic energy field are
trained in nuclear technology, en­
gineers trained in other fields also
are employed. Mechanical en­
gineers are the largest single group,
but many electrical and electronic,
chemical, civil, and metallurgical
engineers also are needed. Many of
these engineers do research and
development work; others design
nuclear reactors, nuclear instru­
ments, and other equipment.
Research laboratories and other
organizations that do atomic energy
work employ scientists in basic and
applied nuclear research. Most are
physicists and chemists, but mathe­
maticians, biological scientists, and
metallurgists also do atomic energy
research.
Large numbers of engineering
and science technicians, drafters,
and radiation monitors assist en­
gineers and scientists in research
and development and in designing
and testing equipment and materi­
als.
Many highly skilled workers
build equipment for experimental
and pilot work and maintain the
complex equipment and machinery.
Maintenance mechanics and all­
round machinists work in most
atomic energy activities, as do elec­
tricians, plumbers, pipefitters, and
other craft workers and chemical
process operators.

Activities in the Atomic Energy
Field
The following briefly describes
some major atomic energy activities
and their workers.



Chemists operate “light splitting” device used in studying the motion of atomic
particles.

Uranium Exploration and Mining.
The 6,500 people employed in
uranium exploration and mining in
1974 had jobs similar to those in
mining of other metallic ores. They
mainly work in the Colorado
Plateau area of the Far West, in the
States of New Mexico, Wyoming,
Utah, Colorado, and Arizona. A
relatively small number of mines
account for the bulk of production
and employment. Most workers in
uranium mines are in production
jobs such as miners and drillers in
underground mines, and truckdrivers, bulldozer operators, and
machine loaders at open pit mines.
About 1 out of 8 employees in
uranium exploration and mining is
in a professional job, such as mining
engineer or geologist.
Uranium Ore Milling. In uranium

mills, metallurgical and chemical
processes are used to extract urani­
um from mined ore. Uranium mills,
located primarily in the Colorado
Plateau, employed about 1,400
workers in 1974.
These mills employ skilled
machinery repairers, millwrights,
pipefitters, carpenters, electricians,
and chemical process operators. A
small proportion of those working
in milling operations are scientists
and engineers.
Uranium Refining and Enriching.
Milled uranium is chemically
processed to remove impurities and
converted to metal or intermediate
chemical products for reactor fuel
preparation. Conventional chemi­
cal and metallurgical processes are
used, but they must meet more ex­
acting standards than in most other

industries. The output of refining
plants may be further processed to
obtain enriched uranium.
Activity in this segment of the
atomic energy field is centered in
Ohio, Tennessee, Kentucky, and Il­
linois. In 1974 uranium refining and
enriching plants employed about
7,900 workers.
Maintenance craft workers, par­
ticularly in the highly automated
uranium enriching plants, con­
stitute a large proportion of skilled
workers. Large numbers of chemi­
cal process operators also are em­
ployed. More than a third of the en­
gineers and scientists are chemical
engineers and chemists.
Manufacturing.
About
27,700 people were employed in
the design and manufacturing of
nuclear reactors and reactor parts
in 1974. Reactor manufacturers do
extensive development work on
reactors and auxiliary equipment,
design reactors, and generally build
most of the intricate components,
such as fuel elements, control rods,
and reactor cores.
About one-third of the em­
ployees in firms that design and
manufacture reactors are scientists,
engineers, and technicians. En­
gineers alone represent more than
one-quarter of the employment.
Most are mechanical engineers and
reactor engineers who specialize in
reactor technology. Assisting these
engineers and scientists are many
drafters and engineering techni­
cians.
Skilled workers, mostly all-round
machinists, are employed by reac­
tor manufacturers in experimental,
production, and maintenance work.
Other craft workers such as sheetmetal workers, instrument makers,
machinery repairers, instrument
repairers, and electricians also are
employed. Reactor manufacturers
employ nuclear reactor operators
to operate experimental and test
reactors.
Reactor

Reactor

Operation




and

Main­

tenance. About 7,700 workers
operated and maintained nuclear
reactors in 1974. Nuclear power
stations employ reactor operators,
mechanical, electrical and elec­
tronic engineers, instrument and
electronic technicians, radiation
monitors, and other plant operators
and attendants. Machinery and in­
strument repairers, electricians,
and pipefitters maintain and repair
the reactors.
Research and Development Facili­
ties. A number of research and

development
laboratories
are
operated for ERDA by universities
and industrial concerns. These
facilities are major centers for basic
and applied nuclear research in en­
gineering,
physical
and
life
sciences, and in the development of
nuclear reactors and other nuclear
equipment. More than half of the
33,000
employed
in ERDA
research and development facilities
are engineers, scientists, and sup­
porting
technicians,
including
radiation monitors.
Administrative and clerical work­
ers account for a large proportion
of employment. Skilled workers in­
clude large numbers of machinists,
electricians, machinery repairers,
and millwrights, and many tool and
diemakers, instrument makers, and
pipefitters. Nuclear reactor opera­
tors operate research and test reac­
tors and many service workers are
employed in plant protection and
security operations.
Although most nuclear energy
research is in ERDA research and
development facilities, additional
research is done in privately owned
laboratories of educational institu­
tions, other nonprofit institutions,
and industrial concerns. In 1974,
about 4,000 persons worked in such
facilities, nearly 3 out of 4 in scien­
tific, engineering, and technical
jobs.

weapons and weapon components,
plutonium, and other defense
materials employed about 31,000
people in 1974. Most skilled work­
ers are machinery repairers and
millwrights,
chemical
process
operators, machinists, electricians,
instrument repairers, pipefitters,
tool and diemakers, and instrument
makers.
Among the large number of
scientists and engineers employed
at these facilities are physicists,
chemists, and mechanical, electri­
cal, and electronic engineers. Many
engineering and physical science
technicians, drafters, and radiation
monitors assist scientists and en­
gineers.
Construction o f Nuclear Facilities.
In 1974, about 43,000 persons
worked on the construction of
nuclear facilities—almost all were
craft workers. Over 11,000 of these
were pipe- and steamfitters, 5,300
were electricians, and 7,300 were
laborers. Several thousand carpen­
ters, ironworkers, operating en­
gineers, and boilermakers also were
required in nuclear construction.

Other Atomic Energy Activities.
Over 2,400 workers produce spe­
cial materials such as beryllium, zir­
conium, and hafnium for use in
reactors. About 8,000 workers are
in companies that make reactor
control instruments, radiation de­
tection and monitoring devices, and
other instruments. Production of
these instruments is similar to other
instrument manufacturing. Large
numbers of engineers and techni­
cians are employed in these indus­
tries.
Roughly 800 people were em­
ployed by manufacturers of particle
accelerators and their specialized
components. Particle accelerators
enable scientists to study the struc­
ture and properties of elementary
particles in the nucleus of an atom.
Production o f Nuclear Weapons and
Other workers process and
Other Defense Materials. Establish­ package radioisotopes, produce
ments that produce nuclear radiography units and radiation

gauges and package and dispose of
radioactive waste.
Government Employment. In 1974,
the Atomic Energy Commission
employed nearly 8,000 workers
(about 2,000 were scientists or en­
gineers). In January 1975, however,
the AEC was disbanded. About
6.000 workers began working in the
new Energy Research and Develop­
ment Administration, while about
2.000 joined the newly formed
Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
Since ERDA and NRC are primari­
ly administrative and regulatory
agencies, nearly 9 out of 10 em­
ployees are in administrative,
professional, or clerical jobs.
Several thousand employees are en­
gaged in atomic energy work in
other Federal agencies and in regu­
latory activities and radiological
health programs of State and local
governments.
Unique Atomic Energy Occupations.
Most of the occupations discussed
in the preceding sections are similar
to those found in other industrial
activities, even though they may
have job titles unique to the atomic
energy field (such as nuclear en­
gineer, radiation chemist, and




nuclear reactor operator) and
require some specialized knowledge
of atomic energy. (A detailed dis­
cussion of the duties, training, and
employment outlook for most of
these
occupations
appears
elsewhere in the Handbook.)
The health physics occupations,
which are unique to the atomic
energy field, and some other occu­
pations that require training in the
field or in the handling and use of
radioactive materials or radiation
producing equipment, are discussed
briefly in the following sections.
Health physicists (sometimes
called radiation or radiological
physicists or chemists) detect radia­
tion and apply safety standards to
control exposure to it. In 1974
nearly 800 health physicists were
employed in radiation protection
work, research, or teaching.
Health physicists are responsible
for planning and organizing
radiological health programs at
atomic energy facilities. They
establish inspection standards and
determine procedures for protect­
ing employees and eliminating
radiological hazards. Some super­
vise the inspection of work areas
with potential radiation hazards and
prepare instructions covering safe

work procedures.
Health physicists also plan and
supervise training programs dealing
with radiation hazards and advise
others on methods of dealing with
them. In some cases, they work on
research projects dealing with the
effects of human exposure to radia­
tion and may develop procedures
for using radioactive materials.
Radiation monitors (also called
health-physics technicians) gener­
ally work under the supervision of
health physicists. Almost 2,000
radiation monitors were employed
in the atomic energy field in 1974.
They use special instruments to
monitor work areas and equipment
to detect radioactive contamination.
Soil, water, and air samples are
taken frequently to determine radia­
tion levels. Monitors also may col­
lect and analyze radiation detectors,
such as film badges and pocket de­
tection chambers, worn by workers.
They calculate the amount of time
that personnel may work in con­
taminated areas, considering
maximum radiation exposure limits
and the radiation level. Monitors
also give instructions in radiation
safety procedures and prescribe
special clothing requirements and
other safety precautions for workers
entering radiation zones.
Nuclear reactor operators perform
work in nuclear power stations
similar to that of boiler operators in
conventional ones; however, the
controls they operate are different.
They also help to load and unload
reactor cores. Those who work with
research and test reactors check
reactor control panels and adjust
controls to maintain specified
operating conditions within the
reactor. About 1,700 people
worked as nuclear reactor opera­
tors in 1974.
Accelerator operators set up,
maintain, and coordinate the opera­
tion of particle accelerators. They
adjust machine controls to ac­
celerate electrically charged parti­
cles, based on instructions from the

scientist in charge of the experi­
ment, and set up target materials
that are to be bombarded by the
particles.
Radiographers take radiographs
to check the quality of metal
castings, welds, and other objects
by adjusting the controls of an Xray machine, or by exposing the ob­
ject to be radiographed to a source
of radioactivity. They select the
proper type of radiation source and
film and use standard mathematical
formulas to determine exposure
distance and time.
Hot-cell
technicians
operate
remote-controlled equipment to
test radioactive materials that are
placed in hot cells—rooms enclosed
with radiation shielding materials
such as lead and concrete. By con­
trolling
“ slave
manipulators”
(mechanical devices that act as a
pair of arms and hands) from out­
side the cell and observing their ac­
tions through the cell window, they
perform standard chemical and
metallurgical
operations
with
radioactive materials.
Hot-cell
technicians also enter the cell wear­
ing protective clothing to set up ex­
periments or to decontaminate the
cell and equipment. Decontamina­
tion workers use radiation-detec-

Hot cell technician handles highly, radio­
active material with a remote control
manipulator.



tion instruments to locate equip­
The specialized knowledge of
ment, plant areas, and materials nuclear energy essential for most
that have been exposed to radia­ scientific and engineering positions
tion. They decontaminate these can be obtained at a college or
with special equipment, detergents, university or through on-the-job ex­
and chemicals and verify the effec­ perience.
tiveness of the process. Waste-treat­
Colleges and universities have ex­
ment operators operate
heat panded their facilities and curricuexchange units, pumps, compres­ lums to provide training in nuclear
sors, and other equipment to energy. Most people planning to
decontaminate and dispose of work in the atomic energy field as
radioactive waste liquids. Waste- scientists and engineers choose to
disposal workers seal contaminated major in a specific nuclear
wastes in concrete containers and discipline, although a degree in a
transport the containers to a burial traditional engineering or science
ground.
curriculum is generally sufficient to
Radioisotope-production operators begin work in the field. Some col­
use remote control manipulators leges and universities award gradu­
and other equipment to prepare ate degrees in nuclear engineering
radioisotopes for shipping and per­ or nuclear science. Others offer
form chemical analyses to ensure graduate training in these fields, but
that radioisotopes conform to award degrees only in the tradi­
specifications.
tional engineering or scientific
fields.
Training and Other
Health physicists should have at
Qualifications
least a bachelor’s degree in physics,
Training and education require­ chemistry, or engineering, and a
ments and advancement opportuni­ year or more of graduate work in
ties for most workers in the atomic health physics. A Ph. D. degree
energy field are generally similar to often is required for teaching and
those doing comparable jobs in research.
Skill requirements for craft work­
other
industries.
These
are
discussed elsewhere in the Hand­ ers in the atomic energy field are
book under the specific occupa­ higher than in most industries
tions. However, additional special­ because of the precision required to
ized training is required for many insure efficient operation and main­
workers because the field requires tenance of complex equipment and
exacting work standards in both its machinery. For example, pipefitters
research and production activities, may have to fit pipe to tolerances of
and because it has unique health less than one ten-thousandth of an
inch and work with pipe made from
and safety problems.
Many engineers and scientists in rare and costly metals. Welding also
the atomic energy field have ad­ must meet higher reliability stand­
vanced training, particularly those ards than in most fields. These
doing research, development, and craft workers generally obtain the
design work. About one-fourth of required additional specialized
the scientists and engineers em­ skills through apprenticeship train­
ployed in research and develop­ ing programs of employers and
ment by major ERDA contractors unions.
have a Ph. D. degree. While the
High school graduates who have
proportion of engineers with Ph. D. taken science courses can qualify
degrees is smaller than that of for on-the-job training as radiation
scientists, graduate training is workers, accelerator operators,
preferred for an increasing number radiographers, hot-cell technicians,
of both scientific and engineering decontamination workers, radioiso­
jobs.
tope-production operators, and ra­

dioactive waste disposal workers.
Nuclear power reactor operators
need a basic understanding of reac­
tor theory and a working
knowledge of reactor controls.
Most operator trainees are high
school graduates. Trainees are
often selected from conventional
power plant personnel with ex­
perience operating boilers, tur­
bines, or electrical machinery.
Workers operating nuclear reactor
controls must be licensed by the
NRC. To qualify for a license, the
trainee must pass an operating and
written test given by the NRC,
along with a medical examination.
The preparation for NRC licensing
generally lasts at least 1 year.
Licenses must be renewed every 2
years however, due to rapid
technological
change.
Con­
sequently, continual retraining is
necessary. Additional preparation
beyond the operator’s license is
needed for a senior operator’s
license, which authorizes the holder
to supervise a nuclear control
room.
All employees who work in the
vicinity of radiation hazards are
given on-the-job training in the na­
ture
of radiation
and
the
procedures to follow in case of its
accidental release.
Individuals who handle classified
data (restricted for reasons of na­
tional security) or who work on
classified projects in the atomic
energy field must pass a security
clearance.
The Energy Research and
Development Administration, at its
contractor-operated facilities, sup­
ports on-the-job and specialized
training programs to help prepare
scientists, engineers, technicians,
and other workers for the atomic
energy field.
Additional educational and train­
ing opportunities are offered in
cooperative programs arranged by
ERDA laboratories with colleges
and universities. Temporary em­
ployment at these laboratories is
available to faculty members and



students. Many undergraduate and
graduate engineering students work
at laboratories and other ERDA
facilities on a rotation basis, and
many graduate students do their
thesis work at ERDA laboratories.
Government contractors often
provide employees with training at
their own plants or at nearby col­
leges and universities.

Employment Outlook
Employment in the atomic ener­
gy field is expected to grow much
faster than the average for all indus­
tries through the mid-1980’s. Ex­
pansion of nuclear generating
capacity and continued increases in
research and development expendi­
tures will account for most of the
growth in the field. Besides the job
openings created by employment
growth, many openings will occur

as workers retire, die, or transfer to
other occupations or industries.
The number of nuclear power
plants is expected to be several
times greater in 1985 than it was in
1974. This anticipated growth will
require large increases in the
number of workers in the design,
construction, operation, and main­
tenance of these plants. In design,
many more engineers and drafters
will be required. Construction
needs will call for large numbers of
pipe- and steamfitters, electricians,
carpenters, ironworkers, boiler­
makers, other craft workers and
laborers. Many more reactor opera­
tors and maintenance personnel
will be needed to bring these plants
into operation and keep them
running efficiently.
Expansion also will require sub­
stantial increases in the sectors in­
volved in mining and milling urani-

Workers load cylinders of enriched uranium for shipment.

um ore, processing reactor fuel, and
producing special materials for
reactors. As planning of nuclear
plants accelerates and more reac­
tors become operable, more regula­
tory workers will be needed to en­
sure the quality and safety of these
plants. However, public concern
about environmental effects of
nuclear power plants may cause
delays in construction projects,
resulting in a slower rate of growth
than initially anticipated.
Employment associated with
research and development also is
expected to increase, though not
nearly as fast as in the areas directly
affected by nuclear construction.
An increasing number of scientists,
engineers, and technicians will
study methods to improve the effi­
ciency of the nuclear generation of
electricity, peaceful uses for
nuclear explosives, and the possible
bio-medical applications of nuclear
science.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Hourly earnings of blue-collar
workers employed by contractors at
ERDA laboratories and other in­
stallations averaged $5.04 in 1974,




compared with $4.40 for those in
all manufacturing industries.
Professional workers, mostly
scientists and engineers, employed
at ERDA installations averaged
$18,700 a year in 1974, and other
white-collar workers (largely cleri­
cal and other office personnel)
averaged about $9,100 a year.
(Earnings data for many of the oc­
cupations found in the atomic ener­
gy field are included in the state­
ments on these occupations else­
where in the Handbook.)
Working conditions in uranium
mining and milling, instrument and
auxiliary equipment manufacturing,
and construction of facilities are
generally similar to those in other
industries, except for radiation
safety precautions. All uranium
mines are equipped with mechani­
cal ventilation systems that reduce
the concentration of radioactive
radon gas—a substance that can
cause lung injury if inhaled over a
number of years. Efforts to
eliminate this hazard are continu­
ing. Manufacturing facilities, power
plants, and research laboratories
are generally well-lighted and wellventilated. Only a small proportion
of employees in the atomic energy
field actually work in areas where

direct radiation dangers exist. Even
in these areas, shielding, automatic
alarm systems, and other devices
and clothing give ample protection
to the workers.
Extensive safeguards and operat­
ing practices protect the health and
safety of workers, and ERDA and
its contractors have maintained an
excellent safety record. The NRC
regulates the possession and use of
radioactive materials, and inspects
nuclear facilities to insure com­
pliance with health and safety
requirements. Constant efforts are
being made to provide better safety
standards and regulations.
Most hourly paid plantworkers
belong to unions that represent
their particular craft or industry.

Sources of Additional
Information
Information about research pro­
grams in the atomic energy field is
available from:
U.S. Energy Research and Development Ad­
ministration, Washington, D.C. 20545.

For information about licensing
and safety requirements, contact:
U.S.

Nuclear Regulatory Commission,
Washington, D.C. 20555.

OCCUPATIONS IN THE BAKING INDUSTRY

The baking industry—one of the
Nation’s largest food-processing
employers—provides steady, yearround employment for thousands of
workers throughout the country.
Jobs exist to suit a wide variety of
interests, skills, and talents. Bakery
workers make, wrap, pack, sell and
deliver products. Mechanics main­
tain and repair plant machinery and
service delivery trucks. Managers
and sales specialists direct opera­
tions and clerical workers perform
regular office duties.

Nature and Location of the
Industry
About 250,000 persons worked
in the Nation’s 3,600 industrial
bakeries in 1974. More than 4 out
of 5 worked in bakeries that
produced perishable goods such as
bread, rolls, pies, cakes, and
doughnuts. The remainder worked
in those that made “ dry” goods
such as cookies, crackers, and
pretzels.
Although there are many small
bakeries, the larger plants account
for most of the employment. About
three-fourths of the industry’s em­
ployees are in plants with more than
100 workers.
Besides the industrial bakeries,
over 12,000 single-shop retail bake­
ries employed more than 100,000
people
in
1974,
including
shopowners. Because many opera­
tions in small bakeries are per­
formed by hand rather than by
machine, these shops offer skilled
bakers many job opportunities that
are not available in large industrial
bakeries.
Almost every community has at




least one bakery, but jobs are con­
centrated in metropolitan areas.
Most of the industry’s employees
are production workers. They do
the actual baking, handle raw
materials, maintain equipment,
wrap and pack products, and keep
the bakeries clean. Nearly 1 out of
4 drives a truck to deliver the indus­
try’s products; most of these wor­
kers sell to retail stores. Other
drivers with no sales duties deliver
bakery products to distribution cen­
ters, hotels, restaurants, and stores.
The remaining 20 percent of the
work force are in administrative,
professional, technical, and clerical
jobs.
Production Occupations. Although
not all baked goods are made in ex­
actly the same way, most bakery
production jobs are similar.
Production workers blend, sift, and
mix ingredients to form a dough;

Baker prepares dough for baking.

shape and bake the dough; and
wrap and pack the final product.
Since bread is the primary
product of the industry, occupa­
tions described here are those
found in a bread bakery. Jobs may
be somewhat different in a bakery
which makes other products or is
more automated.
The first step in baking is to com­
bine the ingredients needed to
make dough. Mixers (D.O.T.
520.885) load blending machines
with the exact amounts of flour,
water and yeast needed for the
bread. Using instruments, they
carefully control the temperature,
timing, and mixing speed of the
machines to insure a uniform, wellblended dough. After the dough is
mixed, it is dropped into a trough
and pushed to a warm proofing
room where the yeast ferments and
the dough rises. The risen dough is
poured back into the blender and
sugar, salt, shortening, and more
flour and water are added. The
dough is allowed to rise again be­
fore it is shaped into loaves.
Divider
machine
operators
(D.O.T. 520.885) run machines
which divide, round, proof, and
shape dough into loaf-size balls. A
conveyor carries these balls of
dough to dough molders or molding
machine
operators
(D.O.T.
520.885) who press out the air bub­
bles, form the balls into loaves, and
drop the loaves into pans. If bread
or rolls are to be made in fancy
shapes, bench hands (D.O.T.
520.884) knead and form the
dough by hand.
The pans of dough go back to the
proofing room for about an hour
before being placed in the oven.
Oven tenders (D.O.T. 526.885)
load and unload the ovens and ad­
just the temperature and timing of
the ovens to make sure that the
bread is properly baked.
Some bakeries use an automatic
process called “continuous mix”
that eliminates many of the steps
described above. With this process
all ingredients are mixed at once

and the dough is divided, shaped,
put into pans, and then proofed
only once before baking.
In small bakeries, all-round
bakers (D.O.T. 526.781) assisted by
helpers, usually handle all the steps
needed to turn out finished baked
products. In large bakeries, all­
round bakers are employed as
working supervisors. They direct
their employees and coordinate
their activity with that in other de­
partments in order to meet produc­
tion schedules.
A considerable number of helpers
(D.O.T. 526.886) are employed in
baking operations to grease pans,
remove bread from pans, push
troughs and racks, and wash pans.
They may assist all-round bakers
and other workers. They have job
titles such as doughmixer helper,
and oven tender helper.
After baked goods leave the oven
and are cooled, several types of
workers prepare them for delivery
to customers. Slicing-and-wrapping
m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s

(D .O .T . 521.885)

feed loaves of bread onto conveyors
leading to the machines, watch the
slicing and wrapping operations,
adjust the machines, and keep them
supplied with bags and labels. A
conveyor then takes the wrapped
loaves to the shipping platform.
Bakery employees in icing de­
partments give finishing touches to
cakes, pastries, and other sweet
goods following special formulas of
the bakery. Icing mixers (D.O.T.
520.885) prepare cake icings and
fillings. They weigh and measure in­
gredients and mix them by
machine. They also prepare cooked
fillings for pies, tarts, and other pas­
tries. Hand icers (D.O.T. 524.884)
are skilled workers who decorate
special products such as wedding
cakes, birthday cakes, and fancy
pastries. When the product is
uniform or requires no special
decoration, the frosting may be ap­
plied by machine icers (D.O.T.
524.885) .
Bakeries also employ many wor­
kers in storage, warehousing, and



Cake decorating requires some artistic
ability.

shipping departments. Receiving
and stock clerks check, record, and
deliver incoming supplies and in­
gredients to various departments.
Packers and checkers make up or­
ders of bakery products for delivery
by route drivers.
Maintenance Occupations. Bakeries

employ skilled maintenance work­
ers such as machinists, electri­
cians, and stationary engineers to
keep machinery and equipment in
good condition. Large plants need
many of these workers because
their baking operations are highly
mechanized. Many bakeries also
employ truck mechanics to service
their delivery trucks.
Sales

and Driving Occupations.
Selling and delivering finished
baked
foods
requires
many
thousands of workers. Some sell
baked goods, some drive trucks,
and many do both.
Route drivers, (D.O.T. 292.358),
work for wholesale bakeries. They
deliver baked foods to grocery
stores along their routes and collect
payment. Attracting new customers
and urging old customers to buy
more products are a major part of
their job. Route drivers usually ar­
range their baked goods on shelves

or display racks in grocery stores
although some stores have begun to
use their own employees to stock
shelves. Drivers also list the items
they think the grocers will buy the
next day, and these lists are used to
help make up the bakery produc­
tion schedule for the next morning.
Route supervisors assign delivery
routes
and
check
delivery
schedules. They train new route
drivers and may temporarily
replace those who are absent. A
large bakery may employ several
supervisors, each in charge of 6 to
10 route drivers.
Chain grocery store bakeries and
multioutlet retail bakeries employ
truckdrivers rather than route
drivers to deliver baked foods to
each of their company’s stores.
Truckdrivers do not have sales du­
ties, nor do they stock shelves. Each
store’s stock clerks or sales clerks
arrange the displays of baked foods.
Administrative , Clerical, and Profes­
sional and Technical Occupations.

Administrators in large bakeries
and owners of small bakeries coor­
dinate all baking activities, from the
purchase of raw materials to the
production and delivery of finished
goods. In large firms, activities are
divided into separate departments
or functions and are supervised by
plant managers, comptrollers, sales
managers, and other executives.
Some administrative employees
specialize in fields such as account­
ing, purchasing, advertising, per­
sonnel, and industrial relations.
Bakeries employ many types of
clerical workers, including book­
keepers, cashiers, clerks, business
machine operators, typists, and
switchboard operators. Some large
baking companies have laboratories
and test kitchens where chemists,
home economists, and their
assistants test ingredients and
prepare formulas and recipes.
(Detailed discussion of the duties,
training, and employment outlook
for maintenance, sales, driving, ad­
ministrative, clerical, and technical

personnel appear elsewhere in the
Handbook.)
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Training requirements for occu­
pations in the baking industry range
from a few days on the job to
several years of experience or ad­
vanced education. Slicing and
wrapping machine operators can
learn their job in a few days, but
skilled workers, such as all-round
bakers, mixers, oven tenders, and
other baking specialists, need 3 or 4
years of training. Professional per­
sonnel and some administrative
workers must have a college degree
or considerable experience in their
specialty.
Most inexperienced production
workers in the baking industry are
hired as helpers. They are usually
assigned such tasks as carrying in­
gredients to mixing machines, or
pushing troughs of dough to the
proofing room. Helpers are often
able to learn more advanced baking
skills while working alongside ex­
perienced bakers, and may be
selected to enter an apprenticeship
program. Employers usually require
an apprentice to be at least 18 years
old and have a high school or voca­
tional school diploma. Apprentice­
ship programs last 3 or 4 years, and
include on-the-job training in all
baking operations and classroom
instruction in related subjects.
Some workers take courses in vo­
cational school or learn baking in
the Armed Forces. Such training
may not qualify a person as a skilled
baker, but it may help in getting a
job as an apprentice and perhaps
shorten the apprenticeship training
period.
Bakers may be promoted to jobs
such as working or department su­
pervisors. Some bakers who have
developed special skill in fancy
cakemaking or piemaking may find
jobs in hotel or restaurant bakeries.
All-round bakers with some busi­
ness ability sometimes open their
own bakeshops.



Production employees must be in
good health because most States
require a health certificate indicat­
ing that the worker is free from con­
tagious diseases. Good health also is
important because of the irregular
working hours and high tempera­
ture in bakeries.
Some bakeries have apprentice­
ship programs for maintenance
workers such as machinists, electri­
cians, and mechanics. Others train
maintenance workers informally on
the job. Some bakeries hire only
maintenance workers who are al­
ready skilled.
For jobs as route drivers or
truckdrivers, baking firms generally
hire inexperienced people with a
high school education. These work­
ers often begin as stock clerks,
packers, or checkers, and are
promoted to driving jobs. Appli­
cants must be able to get a chauf­
feur’s license and are sometimes
tested by the baking companies to
determine whether they are safe
drivers. Classroom instruction in
sales,
display,
and
delivery
procedures is sometimes given to
new route drivers, but most training
is given on the job by supervisors.
Route drivers may be promoted to
route supervisors or sales managers.
Administrative jobs are usually
filled by upgrading personnel al­
ready employed in the firm. Some
owners and production managers of
bakeries have come from the ranks
of plant workers and some others
began their careers in sales occupa­
tions. In recent years, large baking
firms have required their new ad­
ministrative workers to have a col­
lege degree in an administrative
field, such as marketing, account­
ing, labor relations, personnel, or
advertising. Kansas State University
at Manhattan offers a bachelor of
science degree in baking science
and management. The American
Institute of Baking conducts a
school of baking for persons with a
bachelor’s degree who wish to
qualify for managerial positions.
Persons who have completed a

commercial course in high school,
junior college, or a business school
are usually preferred for secretarial,
stenographic, and other clerical
jobs.

Employment Outlook
Employment in the baking indus­
try is expected to change little
through the mid-1980’s. Neverthe­
less, several thousand job openings
are anticipated each year because
of the need to replace workers who
retire, die, or transfer to other fields
of work.
Population growth will increase
the demand for bakery products.
However, laborsaving technological
innovations will enable many bake­
ries, particularly the large industrial
ones, to meet the demand without
increasing employment. Pneumatic
handling systems and pumps
quickly and easily transfer in­
gredients from trucks or railroad
cars to storage containers. The
“continuous
mix”
process
eliminates doughmixing and proof­
ing operations, and conveyor
systems move panned dough from
ovens to labeling machines in one
continuous process. In addition,
some bakeries can prepare a week’s
baked goods at one time and store
them in the freezer until needed.
Although the baking industry as a
whole is not expected to grow,
small retail bakeries may ex­
perience
employment
gains.
Because many of these shops
produce a wide variety of baked
goods in small quantities, laborsav­
ing machinery often is too expen­
sive to be practical.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
In 1974, earnings of production
workers in the baking industry
averaged $170.31 a week, or $4.29
an hour, which is slightly higher
than the average for all manufactur­
ing industries. Bakeries producing
perishable products generally offer

higher wages than those producing
“dry” products.
According to union contracts
covering employees in 24 wholesale
bakeries producing bread and re­
lated products, minimum hourly
rates in major occupations in 1974
were as follows:
Baking supervisors and all­
round bakers......................... $4.59-6.64
Molders and dividers and
molding and dividing
machine operators...............
4.49-6.24
4.39-6.24
Mixers (dough or icing)...........
Oven tenders ...........................
4.39-6.24
Bench hands..............................
4.26-6.05
Wrapping machine operators...
3.47-5.89
leers and decorators...............
4.16-5.24

Some plant employees work
night shifts and weekends because
many bakeries operate around the
clock. Some bakeries are eliminat
ing the night shift since baked
goods can be frozen and stored
until needed. Most plant workers
are on a 40-hour workweek, but
some work 35 or 37 1/2 hours, and
others 44 to 48 hours.
Route drivers usually receive a
guaranteed minimum salary plus a
percentage of their sales. Accord­
ing to limited information from
union contracts, route drivers for




wholesale bakeries had minimum
weekly salaries of from $119 to
$221 in 1974. By selling more
baked products to more customers,
route drivers can increase their
earnings. Companies generally pay
for uniforms and their main­
tenance.
Working conditions in bakeries
are generally good. However, many
jobs involve some strenuous physi­
cal work, despite the considerable
mechanization of baking processes.
Work near ovens can be hot, espe­
cially in the summer.
Nearly all employees of industrial
baking firms get paid vacations,
which usually range from 1 to 5
weeks according to length of ser­
vice. Employees also get from 5 to
11 paid holidays, depending on the
locality. Most baking companies
have life and health insurance pro­
grams and retirement pension
plans. Many employees are covered
by joint union-industry plans which
are paid for entirely by the com­
pany.
Many bakery workers belong to
labor unions. Bakers and other
plant workers are organized by the
Bakery and Confectionary Work­
ers’ International Union of Amer­
ica, and route drivers and truck

drivers usually are members of
the International Brotherhood of
T eam sters, C hauffeurs, W are­
housemen and Helpers of America
(Ind.). Some maintenance workers
are members of craft unions such
as the International Association of
Machinists and Aerospace Workers
and the International Union of
Operating Engineers.

Sources of Additional
Information
Information on baking jobs and
training opportunities may be ob­
tained from bakeries in the commu­
nity, local offices of the State em­
ployment service, or locals of the
labor unions noted previously.
For general information on job
opportunities in the industry and on
schools which offer courses or
degrees in baking science and
technology, write to:
American
Bakers
Association,
1700
Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Washington,
D .C .20006.

For information on opportunities
in retail bakeries, write to:
Associated Retail Bakers of America, 731735 W. Sheridan Rd., Chicago, 1 1
1.
60613.

OCCUPATIONS IN THE DRUG INDUSTRY
References to potions and spells
for the cure and prevention of pain
and disease are numerous in medi­
cal folklore. But 20th century
science has created a supply of drug
products undreamed of by even the
most imaginative apothecaries of
the past.
More than 10,000 prescription
drugs are available to today’s physi­
cian. These drugs have resulted in
the control of cardiovascular dis­
ease, malaria, pneumonia, and even
some forms of cancer. Hormones
have relieved the pain and crippling
effects of arthritis and other dis­
eases. Tranquilizers and other drugs
have done much to reduce the
severity of mental illness. Vaccines
have reduced dramatically the toll
of polio, whooping cough, and
measles. Discoveries in veterinary
medicine have increased animal
productivity and controlled various
diseases, some of which are trans­
missible to humans.
The American drug industry has
risen to a position of worldwide
prominence by its activities in
research and development of new
drugs, spending a higher proportion
of its funds for research than any
other American industry. The larg­
est share of research and develop­
ment expenditures is devoted to the
advancement
of
scientific
knowledge and the development of
new products. The remainder is al­
located to the improvement of ex­
isting products. A large pharmaceu­
tical firm may test 4,000 or more
substances a year and spend mil­
lions of dollars to develop one new
drug.
Because the drug industry looks
to its many scientific and technical
personnel to carry out its vast




research programs, 2 out of every 5
jobs in the industry require more
than a high school education.

Nature and Location of the
Industry
In 1974, over 160,000 persons
worked in the drug industry. About
130.000 worked in plants that made
pharmaceutical
preparations
(finished drugs), such as tranquil­
izers, antibiotics, and analgesics.
Another 18,000 worked in plants
that made biological products, such
as serums and vaccines; about
14.000 worked in plants that
produced bulk medicinal chemicals
and botanicals used in making
finished drugs.
Drug manufacturing companies
typically employ large numbers of
workers. About two-thirds of the in­
dustry’s employees are in plants
having more than 500 workers, and
some of the largest plants employ
more than 5,000.
Nearly four-fifths of the indus­
try’s workers were employed in
seven States: New Jersey, New
York, Indiana, Pennsylvania, Il­
linois, Michigan, and California.
Large drug manufacturing plants
are located in Indianapolis, Ind.;
Chicago, 111.; Nutley and Rahway,
N.J.; Philadelphia, Pa.; Detroit and
Kalamazoo, Mich.; Pearl River and
Brooklyn, N.Y.; and in the Los An­
geles and San Francisco, Calif,
areas.
For testing new drugs, a primary
research method is used, called
screening. In screening an an­
tibiotic, for example, a sample is
placed in a bacterial culture. If posi­
tive results follow, the antibiotic is
next tested on infected laboratory

animals. Promising co npounds are
studied further for evidence of use­
ful—and harmful—effects. A new
drug will be selected for testing in
humans only if it promises to have
therapeutic advantages over com­
parable drugs already in use, or if it
offers the possibility of being safer.
After laboratory screening, a
clinical investigation, or trial of the
drug on human patients, is made.
Supplies of the drug are given to a
small circle of doctors who ad­
minister it .to carefully selected con­
senting patients. The patients are
then observed closely and special
studies made to determine the
drug’s effect. If a drug proves use­
ful, arrangements are made for
more tests with a larger group of
physicians, including some in
private practice.
Once a drug has successfully
passed animal and clinical tests and
has been approved by the Food and
Drug
Administration
(FDA),
problems of production methods
and costs must be worked out be­
fore manufacturing begins. If the
original laboratory process of
preparing and compounding the in­
gredients is complex and expensive,
pharmacists, chemists, chemical en­
gineers, packaging engineers, and
production specialists are assigned
to develop processes economically
adaptable to mass production.
Drug
manufacturers
have
developed a high degree of automa­
tion in many production operations.
Milling and micronizing machines
(which pulverize substances into
extremely fine particles) are used to
reduce bulk chemicals to the
required size. These finished chemi­
cals are combined and processed
further in mixing machines. The
mixed ingredients may then be
mechanically capsulized, pressed
into tablets, or made into solutions.
One type of machine, for example,
automatically stamps, fills, and
seals capsules. Other machines fill
bottles with capsules, tablets, or
liquids, and seal, label, and package
the bottles.

Drug products are inspected at
various stages during the manufac­
turing process to insure that they
conform
to
specifications.
Although some inspection opera­
tions are mechanized, many are
performed manually.

Occupations in the industry
Employees with many different
levels of skill and education work inthe drug industry. More than half
are in white-collar jobs (scientific,
technical, administrative, clerical,
and sales); most of the remainder
are in plant jobs (processing or
production, maintenance, transpor­
tation, and custodial).
Some of the important occupa­
tions are described briefly below.
Detailed discussions of profes­
sional, technical, clerical, and other
occupations found in drug manu­

facturing, as well as in other indus­
tries, are given elsewhere in the
Handbook.
Scientific and Technical Occupa­
tions. About 1 out of every 5 em­

ployees in the industry is a scientist,
engineer, or technician—a far
greater proportion than in most
other industries. The majority do
research to develop new drug
products. Others work to stream­
line production methods and im­
prove quality control.
Chemists (D.O.T. 022.081) make
up the largest group of scientific
and technical personnel in the in­
dustry. Organic chemists combine
new compounds for biological test­
ing. Physical chemists separate and
identify substances, determine
molecular structure, help to create
new compounds, and improve

Nearly one-fourth of the drug industry’s employees are in scientific and technical
occupations.



manufacturing processes. Bio­
chemists study the action of drugs
on body processes. Radiochemists
trace the course of drugs through
body organs and tissues. Phar­
maceutical chemists set standards
and specifications for the form of
products and for storage condi­
tions and see that labeling and
literature meet the requirements of
State and Federal laws. Analytical
chemists test raw and intermediate
materials and finished products for
quality.
Several
thousand
biological
scientists (D.O.T. 041.081, .181)
work in the drug industry. Biolo­
gists and bacteriologists study the
effect of chemical agents on in­
fected animals. Microbiologists
grow strains of microorganisms
which
produce
antibiotics.
Physiologists investigate the effect
of drugs on body functions and vital
processes. Pharmacologists and
zoologists study the effect of drugs
on animals. Virologists grow
viruses, develop vaccines, and test
them in animals. Botanists, with
their special knowledge of plant
life, contribute to the discovery of
botanical ingredients for drugs.
Other biological scientists include
pathologists, who study normal and
abnormal cells or tissues, and tox­
icologists, who are concerned with
the safety, dosage levels, and the
compatibility of different drugs.
Pharmacists perform research in
product development, studying
many forms of medicines at various
stages of production. Some set
specifications for the purchase and
manufacture of materials, and han­
dle correspondence relating to
products. Drug manufacturers also
employ physicians and veterinari­
ans.
Engineers make up a small frac­
tion of scientific and technical wor­
kers. Chemical engineers (D.O.T.
008.081) design equipment and
devise manufacturing processes. In­
dustrial engineers (D.O.T. 012.081,
.168, .187, .188, and .281) plan
equipment layout and workflow to

maintain efficient use of plant
facilities. Mechanical engineers
(D.O.T. 007.081, .151, .181, and
.187) coordinate the installation
and maintenance of sterilizing,
heating, cooling, humidifying, and
ventilating equipment.
Technicians (D.O.T. 073.381,
078.128, .168, .281, .381, and
.687) represent about one-fourth of
the drug industry’s scientific and
technical workers. Laboratory tests
play an important part in the detec­
tion and diagnosis of disease and in
the discovery of medicines. Labora­
tory technicians perform these tests
under the direction of scientists in
such
areas
as
bacteriology,
biochemistry, microbiology, virolo­
gy (the study of viruses), and
cytology (analysis of cells).
Administrative , Clerical, and Related
Occupations. About 1 out of every 3

workers in drug manufacturing is in
an administrative, clerical, or other
office job. At the top of the ad­
ministrative group are the execu­
tives who make policy decisions
concerning matters of finance, mar­
keting, and research. Other ad­
ministrative and executive workers
are accountants, lawyers, purchas­
ing agents, personnel and industrial
relations workers, and advertising
and marketing research workers.
Clerical employees keep records on
personnel, payroll, raw materials,
sales, shipments, and plant main­
tenance.
Pharmaceutical detailers (D.O.T.
266.158), often called pharmaceu­
tical representatives, describe their
companies’ products to practicing
and teaching physicians, phar­
macists, dentists, and hospital ad­
ministrators.
Plant Occupations. Nearly half of
the industry’s employees work in
plant jobs. The majority of these
workers can be divided into three
major occupational groups: produc­
tion or processing workers, who
operate the drug producing equip­
ment; maintenance workers, who



Pharmaceutical detailer checks hos­
pital drug supplies.

install, maintain, and repair this
equipment; and shipping clerks,
truck drivers, and material han­
dlers, who help transport the drugs.
Pharmaceutical operators (D.O.T.
559.782) control machines that
produce tablets, capsules, oint-

Pharmaceutical operator fills capsules
with powdered medication.

ments, and medicinal solutions.
Granulator
machine
operators
(D.O.T. 559.782) tend milling and
grinding machines that reduce mix­
tures to particles of designated
sizes.
Compounders
(D.O.T.
550.885) tend tanks and kettles in
which solutions are mixed and com­
pounded to make up creams, oint­
ments, liquid medications, and
powders. Compressors (D.O.T.
556.782) operate machines that
compress ingredients into tablets.
Pill and tablet coaters (D.O.T.
554.782) , often called capsule
coaters, control a battery of
machines that apply coatings to
tablets
which
flavor,
color,
preserve, add medication, or con­
trol disintegration time. Tablet
testers (D.O.T. 559.687) inspect
tablets for hardness, chippage, and
weight to assure conformity with
specifications.
Ampoule fdlers (D.O.T. 559.885)
operate machines that fill small
glass containers with measured
doses of liquid drug products. Am ­
poule examiners (D.O.T. 559.687)
examine
the
ampoules
for
discoloration, foreign particles, and
flaws in the glass.
After the drug product is
prepared and inspected, it is bottled
or packaged. Most of the packaging
and bottle filling jobs are done by
semiskilled workers who operate
machines that measure exact
amounts of the product and seal
containers.
The drug industry employs many
skilled maintenance workers to as­
sure that production equipment is
operating properly and to prevent
costly breakdowns. Included among
maintenance workers are' power
plant operators who are responsible
for high pressure boilers, tur­
bogenerators,
compressors,
refrigeration equipment, and plant
water systems; electricians who in­
stall, maintain, and repair the vari­
ous types of electrical equipment;
plumbers who install and maintain
heating, plumbing, and pumping
systems; machinists who make and

Compounder tends tank in which solu­
tions are mixed.

repair metal parts for machines and
equipment;
and
instrument
repairers who periodically inspect
instruments and controls and repair
or replace malfunctioning parts.
Plant workers who do not
operate or maintain equipment per­
form a variety of other tasks. Some
drive trucks to make deliveries to
other parts of the plant; some load
and unload trucks and railroad cars;
others keep inventory records. The
industry also employs custodial
workers, such as guards and jani­
tors, whose duties are similar to
those of such workers in other in­
dustries.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
The training requirements for
jobs in the drug industry range from
a few hours of on-the-job training to
years of preparation.
For production and maintenance
occupations, drug manufacturers
generally hire inexperienced work­
ers and train them on the job; high
school graduates are preferred by
most firms. Beginners in production
jobs assist experienced workers and
learn the operation of the
processing equipment. With ex­



perience, employees may advance
to more skilled jobs in their depart­
ments. Most maintenance jobs are
filled by people who start as helpers
to electricians, plumbers, machin­
ists, and other craft workers.
Many companies encourage
production and maintenance work­
ers to take courses related to their
jobs in local schools and technical
institutes, or to enroll in correspon­
dence courses. Some companies
reimburse the workers for part, or
all, of the tuition. Skilled produc­
tion and maintenance workers with
leadership ability may advance to
supervisory positions.
For technicians in the drug indus­
try, methods of qualifying for jobs
vary in many ways. Most techni­
cians enter the field with a high
school education and advance to
jobs of greater responsibility with
experience and additional formal
education. However, companies
prefer to hire graduates of technical
institutes or junior colleges, or
those who have completed college
courses in chemistry, biology,
mathematics, or engineering. In
many firms, inexperienced workers
begin as laboratory helpers or aides,
performing routine jobs such as
cleaning and arranging bottles, test
tubes, and other equipment.
The experience required for
higher levels of technician jobs var­
ies from company to company.
Generally, a minimum of 1 year of
experience is required for assistant
technician jobs, 3 years for techni­
cian, 6 years for senior technician,
and 10 years for technical as­
sociate. Some companies require
senior technicians and technical as­
sociates to complete job-related
college courses.
For most scientific and engineer­
ing jobs, a bachelor of science
degree is the minimum require­
ment. Some companies have formal
training programs for college grad­
uates with engineering and scien­
tific backgrounds. These trainees
work for brief periods in the various
divisions of the plant to gain a

broad knowledge of drug manufac­
turing operations before being as­
signed to a particular department.
In other firms, newly employed
scientists and engineers are im­
mediately assigned to a specific ac­
tivity such as research, process
development, production, or sales.
Drug manufacturing companies
prefer to hire college graduates,
particularly those with strong scien­
tific backgrounds as pharmaceuti­
cal detailers. Newly employed phar­
maceutical representatives com­
plete rigorous formal training pro­
grams revolving around their com­
panies’ product lines.
Job prospects and advancement
are usually best for professionals
with advanced degrees. Some com­
panies offer training programs to
help scientists and engineers keep
abreast of new developments in
their fields and to develop adminis­
trative skills. These programs may
include meetings and seminars with
consultants from various fields.
Many
companies
encourage
scientists and engineers to further
their education; some provide
financial assistance for this pur­
pose. Publication of scientific
papers is also encouraged.

Employment Outlook
Drug manufacturing employment
is expected to grow about as fast as
the average for all industries
through the mid-1980’s. Most job
openings, however, will result from
the need to replace experienced
workers who retire, die, or transfer
to other fields of work.
The demand for drug products is
expected to grow very rapidly. De­
mand will be stimulated primarily
by population growth, particularly
the growing number of older people
who require more health care
services, and the growth of cov­
erage under comprehensive health
insurance
programs
including
Medicare and Medicaid. Other fac­
tors which are expected to increase
the demand for drugs include

greater personal income, the rising automatic processing and control
health consciousness of the general equipment. Employment of ad­
public, and the discovery of new ministrative and clerical workers is
drugs to treat illnesses not yet expected to increase moderately;
responding to therapy. A continued however, most semiskilled plant oc­
rise in drug sales to other countries, cupations are expected to increase
particularly developing countries slowly, as more processes are
with mounting health care require­ adapted to automatic equipment.
ments, also is anticipated.
Unlike many other manufactur­
The industry’s employment will ing industries, drug industry em­
not increase as rapidly as the de­ ployment is not highly sensitive to
mand for drug products, because changes in economic conditions.
technological improvements in Thus, even during periods of high
production methods will increase unemployment, work is likely to be
output per worker. The more relatively stable in the drug indus­
widespread use of automatic try.
processing and control equipment
in operations formerly done by
Earnings and Working
hand will tend to reduce labor
Conditions
requirements, particularly in plants
where common drugs are massEarnings of plant workers in the
produced. For example, mixing and drug industry are higher than the
granulating
processes,
which average for all manufacturing in­
precede tableting, have become dustries. For example, in 1974,
completely mechanized in some production workers in the drug in­
plants. Computers in quality con­ dustry averaged $4.62 an hour,
trol systems are used to eliminate while those in manufacturing as a
computational errors in analysis whole averaged $4.40 an hour.
and testing and to speed up produc­
National wage data are not
tion and shipment.
available for individual occupations
Rates of employment growth will in the drug industry. However,
vary among occupations. The num­ statements on specific occupations,
bers of scientists, engineers, techni­ such as chemist, pharmacist, and
cians, and maintenance workers are technician, in other parts of the
expected to increase faster than Handbook, will give general
those of other occupational groups earnings information.
in the industry. Demand for
Some employees work in plants
scientists, engineers, and techni­ that operate around the clock—3
cians will be spurred by continued shifts a day, 7 days a week. In most
expansion of research and develop­ plants, workers receive extra pay
ment activities. More skilled main­ when assigned to second or third
tenance workers (such as electri­ shifts. Since drug production is sub­
cians, machinists, plumbers, and in­ ject to little seasonal variation,
strument repairers) will be needed work is steady.
to service the growing amount of
Working conditions in drug




plants are better than in most other
manufacturing
plants.
Much
emphasis is placed on keeping
equipment and work areas clean
because of the danger of con­
tamination to drugs. Plants are
usually
air-conditioned,
welllighted, and quiet. Ventilation
systems protect workers from dust,
fumes, and disagreeable odors. Spe­
cial precautions are taken to pro­
tect the relatively small number of
employees who work with infec­
tious cultures and poisonous chemi­
cals. With the exception of work
performed by material handlers and
maintenance workers, most jobs
require little physical effort. The
frequency of injuries in drug manu­
facturing has been about half the
average for all manufacturing in­
dustries.
Some of the industry’s produc­
tion and maintenance employees
are members of labor unions. The
principal unions in the industry are
The Oil Chemical and Atomic
Workers International Union; the
International Chemical Workers
Union; and District 50, United
Steel Workers of America (Ind.).

Sources of Additional
Information
For information about careers in
drug manufacturing, write to the
personnel departments of in­
dividual drug manufacturing com­
panies and to:
Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association,
1155 Fifteenth St. NW„ Washington,
D C. 20005.

OCCUPATIONS IN THE
ELECTRONICS INDUSTRY
An astronaut, a doctor, a munications systems, and other
mechanic, and a business executive electronic goods used in medicine,
all have something in common; education, crime detection, and
without electronic devices they traffic control.
Electronic products have become
would be unable to do much of
their work. We would never have an important part of daily business
reached the moon without the operations. Industrial purchases in­
thousands of people working in clude computers, radio and televi­
electronics research and produc­ sion broadcasting equipment, and
tion. Nor would doctors be able to production control equipment.
Consumer products are probably
diagnose and treat many diseases
without
modern
electronic the most familiar types of electronic
machines. Mechanics use elec­ products. Every day thousands of
tronic testing equipment to locate people buy television sets, radios,
malfunctioning parts in numerous microwave ovens, stereos, and cal­
types of machines and engines. culators.
Components are needed to
Business executives also owe a lot
to electronics. Electronic compu­ manufacture and repair electronic
ters, for example, have helped them products. Some of the most wellin such areas as inventory control, known components are capacitors,
market research, and production switches, transistors, relays, televi­
sion picture tubes, and amplifiers.
scheduling.
Nearly 1.5 million workers were
employed in the electronics indus­
Nature and Location of the
try in 1974. About 1,025,000
Industry
worked in plants that produce end
The electronics industry dates products for government, industri­
back to the early 1920’s when the al, and consumer use. The rest
first radios were produced. By the worked in plants that made elec­
end of World War II, the industry tronic components.
Electronics manufacturing work­
had diversified its production to in­
clude defense equipment. With the ers are located in all parts of the
development of television and the country, but the majority of the jobs
computer, the electronics industry in 1974 were in eight States:
expanded even further to manufac­ California, New York, Illinois, Mas­
sachusetts, Pennsylvania, Indiana,
ture a wide range of products.
Jersey,
and
Texas.
Today, the industry is divided New
into four main market areas: Metropolitan areas with large num­
government products, industrial bers of electronics manufacturing
products, consumer products, and workers include Los Angeles,
components. Products sold to the Chicago, New York, Philadelphia,
government make up a large por­ Newark, Boston, Baltimore, Indi­
tion of electronic sales. Included in anapolis, and Dallas.
In addition to electronics manu­
government purchases are widely
different products such as missile facturing plants, electronics work­
and space guidance systems, com­ ers were employed by the Federal




Government, in activities such as
research, development, and con­
tract negotiations. Universities and
nonprofit research centers em­
ployed a relatively small number of
electronics workers.

Occupations in the Industry
A wide variety of jobs exists in
the electronics manufacturing in­
dustry. More than half of all work­
ers are in plant jobs that include
production, maintenance, transpor­
tation, and service occupations.
The rest are scientists, engineers,
and other technical workers, and
administrative,
clerical,
and
salesworkers.
Professional and Technical Occupa­
tions. The electronics industry is
very dependent on research and
development. As a result, a large
proportion of its workers are in en­
gineering, scientific, and other
technical jobs. Engineers and
scientists alone make up about 1
out of every 9 electronics workers.
Electrical and electronics en­
gineers, the largest group of en­
gineers in the industry, work on
research and development, produc­
tion, and quality control problems.
Most of these engineers are highly
specialized and may work in a
specific area such as the design and
implementation of solid-state cir­
cuitry in radar, computers, and cal­
culators.
Mechanical
engineers
help
develop new products, tools, and
equipment by setting requirements
for the strength of materials and
designs. Industrial engineers work
on production problems such as
devising more efficient methods in
manufacturing processes or plant
layout. Chemical, metallurgical,
and ceramic engineers also work
for electronics companies.
Physicists work on research and
development projects such as
developing uses for solid-state cir­
cuitry or designing integrated cir­
cuits for satellites.

Chemists and metallurgists work
mainly in research and in materials
preparation and testing. Mathe­
maticians and statisticians help en­
gineers and scientists on complex
mathematical
and
statistical
problems, especially in the design
of military and space equipment
and computers. Statisticians also
are employed in quality control,
production scheduling, and sales
analysis and planning. Industrial
designers are concerned with the
design of electronic products and
the equipment used to manufacture
them.
Technicians—such as electronics
technicians, drafters, engineering
aides, laboratory technicians, and
mathematical assistants—make up
about 1 out of every 20 electronics
manufacturing workers. Many elec­
tronics technicians help engineers
design and build experimental
models. They also set up and repair
electronic
equipment
for
customers.
Other
electronics
technicians do complex inspection
and assembly work. Drafters
prepare drawings from sketches or
specifications furnished by en­
gineers.
Engineering aides assist en­
gineers by making calculations,
sketches, and drawings, and testing
electronic
components
and
systems. Laboratory technicians
help physicists, chemists, and en­
gineers in laboratory analyses and
experiments.
Mathematical
assistants follow procedures out­
lined by mathematicians to solve
problems. They also operate test
equipment to develop computers
and other electronic products.
Technical writers prepare train­
ing and technical manuals that
describe the operation and main­
tenance of electronic equipment.
They also prepare catalogs, product
literature, and contract proposals.
Technical illustrators draw pictures
of electronic equipment for techni­
cal publications and sales literature.
Administrative, Clerical, and Re­
lated Occupations. About 1 out of 4



workers in electronics manufactur­
ing has an administrative or other
office job. Administrative workers
include purchasing agents, sales ex­
ecutives, personnel specialists, ad­
vertising workers, and market
researchers. Secretaries, typists,
and business machine operators are
among the thousands of other office
workers employed by electronics
firms. A growing proportion of
these office workers operate com­
puters.
Plant Occupations. About half of
electronics manufacturing em­
ployees work in plant operations:
assembly, capacitor and coil wind­
ing, inspecting, machining, fabricat­
ing, processing, and maintenance.
Occupations (D.O.T.
729.884, 720.884, 726.781 and
.884). Assemblers, most of whom
are semiskilled workers, make up
the largest group of employees.
Most end products are assembled
by hand with small tools, soldering
irons, and light welding machines.
Assemblers use diagrams to guide
their work. Some assembly is done
by following instructions presented
on color slides and tape recordings.
Color slide projectors flash a pic­
ture of an assembly sequence on a
screen, while the assembler listens
to recorded directions.
Precision assemblers and elec­
tronics technicians install com­
ponents and subassemblies in com­
plex products such as missiles. They
also help make experimental
models. Most of these workers are
employed in the manufacture of
military and industrial electronic
equipment.
Machines are used in some as­
sembly work. For example, in
putting together circuit boards, au­
tomatic machines often are used to
position components on boards and
to solder connections. Here the as­
semblers work as machine opera­
tors or loaders. Most components
are put together by machines, since
their assembly involves simple and
Assembly

repetitive operations. Even some
types of miniaturized semiconduc­
tors and other components, made
with parts small enough to pass
through a needle’s eye, are assem­
bled by machines.
Hand assembly is needed for
some items, such as receiving tubes
and some types of resistors and
diodes. Hand assemblers may per­
form only a single operation as
components move down the
production line, but some put
together complete components.
Tiny parts often are assembled
under
magnifying
lenses
or
microscopes. Precision welding
equipment may be used to weld
connections in microminiature
components and circuit assemblies.
Machining Occupations. Machining
workers are needed in most elec­
tronics manufacturing plants, par­
ticularly for military, space, and in­
dustrial products. Machine-tool
operators and machinists make
precise metal parts. Toolmakers
construct and repair jigs and fix­
tures that hold metal while it is
being stamped, shaped, or drilled.
Diemakers build metal forms (dies)
used in stamping and forging metal.
Fabricating Occupations. Fabricat­
ing workers are employed in many
electronics manufacturing plants,

Assemblers make up the largest group
of electronics industry employees.

facturing. Some inspection jobs
require electronics technicians who
have years of experience. These
jobs are commonly found in com­
plex production work such as the
manufacture of computers and
spacecraft. Most inspectors, how­
ever, do not need extensive techni­
cal training.
Some inspectors check incoming
parts and components supplied by
other Firms. They may have job ti­
tles that indicate the work they do,
such as incoming materials inspec­
tor or plating inspector.
During manufacturing, com­
ponents
are
either checked
manually by workers using test me­
ters or routed mechanically through
automatic
test
equipment.
Although many of these workers
Processing Occupations. Many elec­ simply are called testers, others
tronics workers process or prepare have job titles that reflect the type
parts for assembly. Electroplaters of components they inspect, such as
and tinners (D.O.T. 501.885) coat transformer-tester or coil-tester.
parts with metal; anodizers (D.O.T. Some automatic equipment can
501.782) treat these parts in elec­ check components, produce a
trolytic and chemical baths to punched tape of the results, and
prevent
corrosion.
Other sort the components into batches
processing workers also coat elec­ for shipping. Workers who feed or
tronic components with waxes, oils, monitor automatic equipment often
plastics, or other materials. Some are called test-set operators or test­
operate machines which encase ing-machine operators.
Electronic assembly inspectors
microminiature components in
plastic. Silk screen printers (D.O.T. (D.O.T. 722.281) examine assem­
726.887) print patterns on circuit bled products to make certain that
boards and on parts of electronic they conform to blueprints and
components. Etching equipment specifications. They inspect wiring,
operators (D.O.T. 590.885) do electrical connections, and other
chemical etching of copper on cir­ critical items to make sure
everything will work properly.
cuit boards.
Operators o f infrared ovens and
hydrogen
furnaces
(D.O.T. Maintenance Occupations. Many
590.885) remove moisture and workers repair and maintain
foreign deposits from ceramic, machinery and equipment. Skilled
metal, and glass parts. In tube electricians are responsible for the
manufacturing, exhaust operators proper operation of electrical
(D.O.T. 725.884) and sealers equipment; machine and equip­
(D.O.T. 692.885) operate gas ment repairers make mechanical
flame machines that clear tubes of repairs; maintenance machinists
impurities, exhaust the gas, and seal and welders build and repair equip­
ment and Fixtures. Air-conditioning
the tubes.
and refrigeration mechanics work
Inspection Occupations. Inspection in air-conditioned plants that have
begins when raw materials enter the special refrigerated and dust free
plant and continues through manu­ rooms to protect sensitive parts.
but most are in plants that make in­
dustrial products. Sheet-metal
workers make frames, chasis, and
cabinets. Glass blowers and glass
lathe operators (D.O.T. 674.782)
make tubes for experimentation
and development work.
In electron tube manufacturing,
special fabricating workers are em­
ployed. For example, grid lathe
operators (D.O.T. 725.884) wind
Fine wire around two heavy parallel
wires to make grids (devices in
tubes that control the flow of elec­
trons). Other fabricating workers
include coil winders (D.O.T.
724.781 and .884), crystal grinders
and finishers (D.O.T. 726.884), and
punch press operators (D.O.T.
617.885) .




Painters, plumbers, pipeFitters, car­
penters, and sheet-metal workers
also are employed in electronics
plants.
Other Plant Occupations. Many
workers move and handle materi­
als. Forklift operators stack crates
in warehouses, and load and unload
trucks and boxcars. Truckdrivers
move freight outside the plant. The
industry also employs guards and
janitors.
(Detailed discussions of profes­
sional, technical, mechanical, and
other occupations, found not only
in electronics manufacturing plants,
but also in other industries, are
presented elsewhere in the Hand­
book in sections covering the in­
dividual occupations.)

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Training requirements for jobs in
electronics manufacturing plants
range from a few hours of on-thejob training to years of specialized
preparation. Beginning engineering
jobs usually are filled by recent col­
lege graduates, but some positions
call for advanced degrees. A small
number of workers without college
degrees, however, are upgraded to
professional engineering classiFications from occupations such as en­
gineering assistant and electronics
technician. Workers who become
engineers in this way usually take
advanced electronics courses in
night school or in other training
programs. To keep up with new
developments and to qualify for
promotion, professional and techni­
cal personnel obtain additional
training, read technical publica­
tions, and attend lectures and
technical demonstrations.
Almost
all
mathematicians,
physicists, and other scientists em­
ployed in electronics manufactur­
ing have college degrees; most have
advanced degrees.
Technicians generally need spe­
cialized training to qualify for their

jobs. Most electronics technicians
attend either a public, private, or
Armed Forces technical school.
Some complete 1 or 2 years of col­
lege in a scientific or engineering
field, and some receive training
through a 3- or 4-year apprentice­
ship program. High school gradu­
ates who have had courses in
mathematics and science are
preferred for apprenticeship pro­
grams.
Some workers advance to elec­
tronics technician positions from
jobs such as tester or laboratory
assistant. A relatively small number
of plantworkers become techni­
cians. Opportunities for advance­
ment are improved by taking cours­
es either in company-operated
classes, night school, junior college,
or technical school, or by cor­
respondence.
Electronics technicians need
good color vision, manual dexterity,
and good eye-hand coordination.
Some technicians who test radio
transmitting equipment must hold
licenses from the Federal Commu­
nications Commission as first- or
second-class commercial radio­
telephone operators.
Drafters usually take courses in

drafting at a trade or technical
school; a few have completed a 3or 4-year apprenticeship. Under an
informal arrangement with their
employers, some qualify for both
on-the-job training and part-time
schooling. Because many drafters in
this industry must understand the
basic principles of electronic cir­
cuits, they should study basic elec­
tronic theory.
Technical writers must have a
flair for writing and are usually
required to have some technical
training. Employers prefer to hire
those who have had some technical
institute or college training in
science or engineering. Many, how­
ever, have college degrees in Eng­
lish or journalism and receive their
technical training on the job and by
attending company-operated even­
ing classes. Technical illustrators
usually have attended art or design
schools.
Many tool and diemakers,
machinists, electricians, and other
craft workers learn their trades by
completing a 4- or 5-year ap­
prenticeship; others are upgraded
from helpers’jobs.
Formal training is not necessary
for workers entering plant jobs, but

Patience and manual dexterity are needed in some electronics assembly jobs.



a high school diploma or its
equivalent is sometimes required.
Job applicants may have to pass ap­
titude tests and demonstrate skill
for particular types of work. A short
period of on-the-job training
generally is provided for inex­
perienced workers. Assemblers,
testers, and inspectors need good
vision, good color perception,
manual dexterity, and patience.
Requirements for administrative
and other office jobs are similar to
those in other industries. Some
beginning administrative jobs are
open only to college graduates with
degrees in business administration,
law, accounting, or engineering.
For clerical jobs, employers usually
prefer high school graduates with
training in stenography, typing,
bookkeeping, and office machines.

Employment Outlook
Employment
in
electronics
manufacturing is expected to in­
crease faster than the average for
all industries through the mid1980’s. In addition to the jobs
resulting from employment growth,
large numbers of openings will arise
as experienced workers retire, die,
or take jobs in other industries.
Production
of
electronic
products will increase as business
executives decide to buy more com­
puters and other electronic equip­
ment to automate paper work and
production processes. Business
spending for electronic communi­
cation and testing equipment also
will grow. The demand for televi­
sion receivers, video tape record­
ers, stereo systems, calculators,
and two-way car radios will rise as
population and personal incomes
grow. Government purchases for
defense will continue to account for
a large proportion of electronics
manufacturing output. An increas­
ing share of government purchases,
however, is likely to be for elec­
tronic equipment used in medicine,
education, pollution abatement,
and other fields.

Although employment in the
electronics industry is expected to
grow over the long run, it may fluc­
tuate from year to year, because of
changes in economic activity and
defense spending. As a result, job
openings may be plentiful in some
years, scarce in others.
The rates of employment growth
will vary among occupational
groups and individual occupations.
For example, employment of skilled
maintenance workers is expected to
rise at a more rapid rate than total
employment, because of the need
to repair the increasing amounts of
complex machinery. On the other
hand, employment of assemblers
probably will rise at a slower rate,
because of the growing mechaniza­
tion and automation of assembly
line operations.
Employment
of
engineers,
scientists, and technicians is ex­
pected to increase faster than total
employment, because of continued
high expenditures for research and
development and the manufacture
of more complex products. Among
professional and technical workers,
the greatest demand will be for en­
gineers, particularly those who have
a background in certain specialized
fields, such as quantum mechanics,
solid-state
circuitry,
product
design, and industrial engineering.
Many opportunities also will be
available for engineers in sales de­
partments because the industry’s
products will require sales person­




nel
with
highly
technical
backgrounds. The demand for
mathematicians and physicists will
be particularly good because of ex­
panding research in computer and
laser technology.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
As shown in the accompanying
table, in 1974 electronics produc­
tion workers who made products
for government and industrial use
had higher average hourly earnings
than production workers in manu­
facturing as a whole. Those making
other electronic products, however,
made less than the average for all
manufacturing industries.
Production
w orkers’
average
hourly
earnings.
Type o f product

All manufacturing
industries...................
Major electronics manufac­
turing industries:
Government and indus­
trial electronics end
products.........................
Radio and television
receiving sets, and
phonographs..................
Electron tubes..................
Semiconductors and
other components,
except tubes..................

1974

$4.40

4.66

3.88
4.33

3.37

Working conditions in elec­
tronics manufacturing compare
favorably with those in other indus­
tries. Plants are usually well-lighted,
clean, and quiet. Many plants are
relatively new, and are located in
suburban and semirural areas. The
work in most occupations is not
strenuous but assembly-line jobs
may be monotonous.
The injury rate in electronics
manufacturing has been far below
the average in manufacturing as a
whole, and injuries usually have
been less severe.
Many workers in electronics
manufacturing are union members.
The principal unions are the Inter­
national Union of Electrical, Radio
and Machine Workers; Interna­
tional Brotherhood of Electrical
Workers; International Association
of Machinists and Aerospace Wor­
kers; and the United Electrical,
Radio and Machine Workers of
America (Ind.).

Sources of Additional
Information
Information about careers in this
field can be obtained from the
public relations departments of
electronics manufacturing compa­
nies, the unions previously listed,
and from:
Electronic Industries Association, 2001 Eye
St. NW„ Washington, D.C. 20006.

OCCUPATIONS IN FOUNDRIES
Metal castings produced by
foundry workers are essential for
thousands of products ranging from
missiles to cooking utensils. In
1974, about 340,000 people
worked in the foundry industry.
Thousands of others worked in the
foundry departments of plants
which make and use castings in
their final product, such as plants
operated by manufacturers of au­
tomobiles or machinery.
Casting is a method of forming
metal into intricate shapes. To cast
metal, a mold is prepared with a
cavity shaped like the object to be
cast. Metal is then melted and
poured into the mold to cool and

solidify. The strength of metal
which has been cast makes it suita­
ble for many household and indus­
trial items.

Nature and Location of the
Foundry Industry
Nearly three-fourths of the
foundry industry’s employees work
in iron and steel foundries. The
remainder work in plants that cast
nonferrous metals, such as alu­
minum, bronze, and zinc. Foundries
usually specialize in a limited
number of metals, because different
methods and equipment are needed
to melt and cast different alloys.

Foundry workers examine pattern for ship propeller cap.




There are six principal methods
of casting, each named for the type
of mold used. In the most common
method, green-sand molding, a spe­
cial sand is packed around a pattern
in a boxlike container called a flask.
After the pattern is withdrawn, mol­
ten metal is poured into the mold
cavity and forms the desired metal
shape. Sand molds can be used only
once. A second method, called per­
manent molding, employs a metal
mold that can be used many times.
Permanent molding is used chiefly
for casting nonferrous metals.
Precision investment casting, a
third method (often called the lost
wax process), uses ceramic molds.
A wax or plastic pattern is coated
with refractory clay; after the coat­
ing hardens, the pattern is melted
and drained so that a mold cavity is
left. Castings produced from these
molds are precise and require little
machining. Shell molding, a fourth
process, is becoming increasingly
important. In this method, a heated
metal pattern is covered with sand
coated with resin. The sand forms a
thin shell mold that, after curing, is
stripped from the pattern. Castings
produced from these molds are
precise and have a smooth surface.
Diecasting, a fifth process, is done
mostly by machines. Molten metal
under high pressure is forced into
dies from which the castings are
later automatically ejected or
removed by hand. A sixth method,
centrifugal casting, is used to make
pipe and other products that have
cylindrical cavities. Molten metal is
poured into a spinning mold where
centrifugal force distributes the
metal against the walls of the mold.
Most foundries are small. More
than 90 percent employ fewer than
250 workers, although several of
the largest employ more than 5,000
workers.
Small
foundries
generally
produce a variety of castings in
small quantities. They employ hand
and
machine
molders
and
coremakers (the key foundry occu­
pations) and a substantial number

of unskilled laborers. Large foun­
dries are often highly mechanized
and produce great quantities of
identical castings. These shops em­
ploy relatively few unskilled
laborers, because cranes, con­
veyors, and other types of equip­
ment replace manual labor in the
moving of materials, molds, and
castings. Since much of the casting
in large shops is mechanized, they
also employ proportionately fewer
skilled molders and coremakers
than small shops. However, many
skilled maintenance workers, such
as millwrights and electricians, are
employed to service and repair the
large amount of machinery.
Though foundries are located in
many areas, jobs are concentrated
in States which have considerable
metalworking activity; for example,
in Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Il­
linois, Indiana, and Wisconsin.

Foundry Occupations
Most of the industryrs 340,000
employees in 1974 were plant work­
ers. To illustrate more clearly the
duties of these workers, a briel
description of the jobs involved in
the most common casting processsand molding—follows:
After the casting is designed, the
patternmaker (D.O.T. 600.280 and
661.281) makes a wood or metal
pattern in the shape of the casting.
Next, a hand molder (D.O.T.
518.381) makes sand molds by
packing and ramming sand, spe­
cially prepared by a sand mixer
(D.O.T. 579.782), around the pat­
tern. A molder's helper (D.O.T.
519.887) may assist in these opera­
tions. If large numbers of identical
castings are to be made, machines
may be used to make the molds at a
faster speed than is possible by
hand. The operator of this equip­
ment is called a machine molder
(D.O.T. 518.782).
A coremaker (D.O.T. 518.381
and .885) shapes sand into cores
(bodies of sand that make hollow
spaces in castings). Most cores are



baked in an oven by a core-oven
tender (D.O.T. 518.887). After the
cores are assembled, they are
placed in the molds by core setters
(D.O.T. 518.884) or molders. Now,
the molds are ready for the molten
metal.
A furnace operator (D.O.T.
512.782) controls the furnace that
melts the metal which a pourer
(D.O.T. 514.884) lets flow into
molds. When the castings have
solidified, a shakeout worker
(D.O.T. 519.887) dumps them, and
sends them to the cleaning and
finishing department.
Dirty and rough surfaces of
castings are cleaned and smoothed.
A shotblaster (D.O.T. 503.887)
operates a machine that cleans
large castings by blasting them with
air mixed with metal shot or grit.
Smaller castings may be smoothed
by tumbling. In this process, the
castings, together with an abrasive
material, are placed in a barrel
which is rotated at a very fast speed.
The person who controls the barrel
is called a tumbler operator (D.O.T.
599.885). Sandblasters and tumbler
operators may also operate a
machine that both tumbles and
blasts the castings. A chipper
(D.O.T. 809.884) and a grinder
(D.O.T. 809.884) use pneumatic
chisels, powered abrasive wheels,
powersaws, and handtools, such as
chisels and files, to remove excess
metal and to finish the castings.
Castings are frequently heattreated in furnaces to strengthen
the metal; a heat treater, or annealer
(D.O.T. 504.782), operates these
furnaces. Before the castings are
packed for shipment, a casting in­
spector (D.O.T. 514.687) checks
them to make sure they are struc­
turally sound and meet specifica­
tions.
Many foundry workers are em­
ployed in occupations that are com­
mon to other industries. For exam­
ple,
maintenance
mechanics,
machinists, carpenters, and mill­
wrights maintain and repair foundry
equipment. Crane and derrick

operators and truckdrivers move
materials from place to place.
Machine tool operators finish
castings. Foundries also employ
thousands of workers in unskilled
jobs, such as guard, janitor, and
laborer.
About one-sixth of all foundry
workers are employed in profes­
sional, technical, administrative,
clerical, and sales occupations. Of
these personnel, the largest number
are clerical workers, such as
secretaries, typists, and accounting
clerks.
Foundries employ engineers and
metallurgists to do research, design
machinery and plant layout, control
the quality of castings, and super­
vise plant operations and main­
tenance. In recent years, many of
these workers have been hired to
sell castings and to assist customers
in designing cast parts. Most
foundry technicians are concerned
with quality control. For example,
they may test molding and
coremaking sand, make chemical
analyses of metal, and operate
machines that test the strength and
hardness of Castings. Administra­
tive workers employed in foundries
include office managers, personnel
workers, purchasing agents, and
plant managers.
Detailed discussions of three
principal foundry occupations—
patternmakers, coremakers, and
molders—appear elsewhere in the
Handbook.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Most workers start in unskilled
jobs, such as laborer or helper, and,
after receiving on-the-job training
from a supervisor or experienced
worker, gradually learn more
skilled jobs. This is the usual prac­
tice in training workers for casting
process jobs such as melter,
chipper, and grinder.
Some skilled foundry workers—
particularly hand molders, hand
coremakers, and patternmakers—

learn their jobs through formal ap­
prenticeship. Apprentices receive
supervised on-the-job training for 2
to 4 years, usually supplemented by
classroom instruction. High school
graduates are preferred for ap­
prenticeship programs, but appli­
cants with less education sometimes
are hired. Management prefers
workers who have completed an ap­
prenticeship, because they have a
greater knowledge of all foundry
operations and are therefore better
qualified to fill supervisory jobs.
Skilled foundry workers also can
learn their trades informally on the
job or through a combination of
trade school and on-the-job train­
ing. In some cases, trade school
courses may be credited toward
completion of formal apprentice­
ships. Some foundries and the
American Foundry Society Cast
Metals Institute conduct training
programs to update and upgrade
the skills of experienced workers.

Employment Outlook
Employment in the foundry in­
dustry is expected to show little or
no change through the mid-1980’s.
Nevertheless, many job openings
will become available because of
the need to replace experienced
workers who retire, die, or transfer
to fields of work. The number of
openings may fluctuate from year
to year since the demand for
foundry castings is sensitive to ups
and downs in the economy.
Over the long run, population
growth and higher incomes will
create a demand for more automo­
biles, household appliances, and
other consumer products that have
cast parts. More castings also will
be needed for industrial machinery




as factories expand and modernize.
However, technological develop­
ments will enable foundries to meet
the increased demand for castings
without increasing employment sig­
nificantly. Continued improve­
ments in production methods will
result in greater output per worker.
Although foundry employment as
a whole is not expected to change
significantly through the mid1980’s, employment will rise in
some occupations. For example,
employment of scientists and en­
gineers is expected to increase
because of expanding research and
development activities. Technicians
also will be needed in greater num­
bers to help improve quality control
and production techniques. More
maintenance workers will be hired
to keep the industry’s growing
amount of machinery in working
order. In contrast, machine molding
and coremaking will be substituted
for hand processes, and will limit
the need for additional hand molders and hand coremakers. Im­
proved molding techniques, such as
quick set molding in which the
mold hardens quickly and without
baking in an oven, also will limit
employment of molders. As more
machinery for materials handling is
introduced,
employment
of
laborers and other unskilled work­
ers may decline.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Production workers in foundries
have higher average earnings than
those in manufacturing as a whole.
In 1974, production workers in iron
and steel foundries averaged $5.05
an hour, and those in nonferrous
foundries averaged $4.48. By com­

parison, production workers in all
manufacturing industries averaged
$4.40 an hour.
Working conditions in foundries
have improved in recent years.
Many foundries have changed plant
layouts and installed modern ven­
tilating systems to reduce heat,
fumes, and smoke. Although the in­
jury rate in foundries is higher than
the average for manufacturing, em­
ployers and unions are attempting
to reduce injuries by promoting
safety training.
Foundry workers belong to many
unions, including the International
Molders’ and Allied Workers’
Union; the United Steelworkers of
America; and the International
Union of Electrical, Radio and
Machine Workers. Many pattern­
makers are members of the Pattern
Makers’ League of North America.

Sources of Additional
Information
Further information about work
opportunities in foundry occupa­
tions may be obtained from local
foundries, the local office of the
State employment service, the
nearest office of the State ap­
prenticeship agency or the Bureau
of Apprenticeship and Training,
U.S. Department of Labor. Infor­
mation also is available from the
following organizations:
American Foundrymen’s Society, Golf and
Wolf Rds., Des Plaines, 1 1 60016.
1.
Cast Metals Federation, Cast Metals Federa­
tion Building, 2061 1 Center Ridge Rd.,
Rocky River, Ohio 441 16.
Foundry Educational Foundation, 1138 Ter­
minal Tower, Cleveland, Ohio 44113.
International Molders’ and Allied Workers'
Union, 1225 E. McMillan St., Cincin­
nati, Ohio 45206.

ployees are in processing, main­
tenance, and other plant jobs.
Scientific and Technical Occupa­
tions. The industrial chemical in­

dustry is one of the Nation’s major
employers of scientific and techni­
cal workers; 1 out of 5 of its em­
ployees is a scientist, engineer, or
filtering, and drying processes that technician. Many work in research
convert raw materials to finished and testing laboratories. An even
products. This equipment regulates larger number are administrators or
the combination of ingredients, production supervisors. Because
flow of materials, and the tempera­ the sale of chemical products
ture, pressure, and process time. frequently requires a technical
Materials also are moved automati­ background, scientists and en­
cally from one part of the plant to gineers sometimes work as sales
another by conveyors or through representatives.
Chemists are the largest and one
pipes. Because of this automatic
equipment, relatively few workers of the most important group of
can produce tons of chemicals in scientists in the industry. Through
basic
and applied
research,
one continuous operation.
About two-thirds of the 3,000 in­ chemists learn about the properties
dustrial chemical plants in the of chemicals in order to find new
United States have fewer than 50 and improved products and produc­
workers. Over half of the industry’s tion methods. Their efforts have led
employees, however, are concen­ to the discovery of plastics, nylon,
trated in large plants with more and many other items.
Chemists also work in activities
than 500 workers.
Chemical plants are usually close other than research and develop­
to manufacturing centers or near ment. A large number supervise
the sources of raw material. Many plantworkers or analyze and test
plants that produce chemicals from chemical samples to insure the
petroleum, for example, are near quality of the final product. Others
the oil fields of Texas and Loui­ are administrators, marketing ex­
siana. Although industrial chemical perts, chemical salesworkers, and
workers are employed in almost technical writers.
Engineers are another important
every state, about half of them work
in Tennessee, New Jersey, Texas, group of industrial chemical profes­
Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, and sionals. Using their knowledge of
both chemistry and engineering,
South Carolina.
chemical engineers convert labora­
tory processes into large-scale
production methods. They design
Occupations in the Industry
chemical plants and processing
Workers with many different equipment and sometimes super­
skills and levels of education work vise construction and operation.
in the industrial chemical industry. Chemical engineers also fill sales,
Research scientists, engineers, and customer service, market research,
technicians develop products and plant management, and technical
design equipment and production writing jobs.
Mechanical engineers design
processes. Administrators, profes­
sionals, and clerical workers handle power and heating equipment.
financial and business matters, keep They also work with chemical en­
records, and advertise and sell gineers to design processing equip­
chemical products. Other em- ment and supervise its installation,

OCCUPATIONS IN THE INDUSTRIAL
CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
Industrial chemical products are
the raw materials for all kinds of
everyday items, from
nylon
stockings to automobile tires.
Chemicals also are used to treat
drinking water, to propel rockets,
and to make steel, glass, explosives,
and thousands of other items. The
discovery of nylon, plastics, and
other new products has helped the
industrial
chemical
industry
become one of the Nation’s most
important.
Making these many, very dif­
ferent kinds of products requires a
large number of workers with many
different skills. About 550,000 peo­
ple in many different occupations
worked in the industrial chemical
industry in 1974. Training varies
from a few days on the job for some
plantworkers to college degrees for
engineers and chemists.

Nature of the Industry
The industry produces organic
and inorganic chemicals, plastics,
and man-made rubber and fibers.
Unlike drugs, paints, and other
chemical products sold directly to
consumers, industrial chemicals are
used by other industries to make
their own products.
Chemical products are made
from coal, petroleum, limestone,
mineral ores, and many other raw
materials. Since these materials
usually go through several chemical
changes, the finished products are
vastly different from the original in­
gredients. Some plastics, for exam­
ple, are made from natural gas.
In a modern chemical plant, au­
tomatic equipment controls the dis­
solving, heating, cooling, mixing,




give accurate measurements and
equipment must withstand corro­
sion, damaging chemicals, high
temperatures, and pressure. Many
skilled maintenance workers are
needed to keep this equipment in
good condition. Pipefitters and
boilermakers lay out, install, and
repair pipes, vats, and pressure
tanks; maintenance machinists
make and repair metal parts for
machinery; electricians maintain
and repair wiring, motors, and
other electrical equipment; and in­
strument repairers install and serv­
ice instruments and control
devices. In some chemical plants
one worker may do several of these
jobs. Plantworkers also are needed
to drive trucks, keep inventory of
stock and tools, load and unload
trucks, ships, and railroad cars,
keep the plant and office clean, and
do many other kinds of work.
Administrative, Clerical, and Related
Occupations. About 1 out of 5 in­

dustrial chemical workers holds an
administrative, clerical, or other
nonscientific
white-collar job.
High-level managers generally are
One out of five chemical workers is a scientist, engineer, or technician.

operation, and maintenance. Elec­
trical engineers design electric and
electronic instruments and control
devices, and facilities for generating
and distributing electric power.
Many technical workers assist
scientists and engineers. Laborato­
ry technicians conduct tests and
record the results in charts, graphs,
and reports which are used by
chemists and chemical engineers.
Their work may range from simple
routine tests to complicated
analyses. Drafters provide en­
gineers with specifications and
detailed drawings of chemical
equipment.
Plant Occupations. About 3 out of
every 5 industrial chemical workers
operate or maintain equipment or
do other plant jobs.
Skilled
chemical
operators



(D.O.T. 558.885 and 559.782) and
their helpers are the largest group
of plantworkers. They set dials,
valves, and other controls on auto­
matic equipment to insure that the
right temperature, pressure, and
amounts of materials are used. As
chemicals are processed, operators
read instruments that measure pres­
sure, flow of materials, and other
conditions. They also use instru­
ments to test chemicals or send
chemical samples to the testing
laboratory. Operators keep records
of instrument readings and test
results and report equipment break­
downs. Chemical operators are
sometimes called filterers, mixers,
or some other title, depending on
the kinds of equipment they
operate.
To keep production processes
running smoothly, instruments must

Chemical operator checks production
process.

trained in chemistry or chemical
engineering. These executives de­
cide what products to manufacture,
where to build plants, and how to
handle the company’s finances. Ex­
ecutives depend on specialized
workers including accountants,
sales representatives, lawyers,
industrial and public relations
workers, market researchers, com­
puter programmers, and personnel
and advertising workers. Many
secretaries, typists, payroll and
shipping clerks, and other clerical
employees work in offices and
plants.
(Individual statements elsewhere
in the Handbook give detailed
discussions of many scientific,
technical, maintenance, and other
occupations found in the industrial
chemical industry, as well as in
other industries.)

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Jobs in the industrial chemical in­
dustry require from a few days of
on-the-job training to many years of
preparation. Some plant workers
can learn their jobs in a day or two.
Scientists, engineers, technicians,
and chemical operators, on the
other hand, spend several years
learning their skills.
Engineers and scientists must
have at least a bachelor’s degree in
engineering, chemistry, or a related
science. Most research jobs, how­
ever, require advanced degrees or
specialized
experience.
Many
scientists and engineers attend
graduate courses at company ex­
pense.
Some firms have formal training
programs for newly hired scientists
and engineers. Before they are as­
signed to a particular job, these em­
ployees work briefly in various de­
partments to learn about the com­
pany’s overall operation. In other
firms, junior scientists and en­
gineers are assigned immediately to
a specific job.
Technicians qualify for their jobs



in many ways. Graduates of techni­
cal institutes, junior colleges, or vo­
cational technical schools have the
best opportunities. Companies also
hire students who have completed
part of the requirements for a col­
lege degree, especially if they have
studied mathematics, science, or
engineering. High school graduates
with courses in chemistry can quali­
fy through on-the-job training and
experience.
Many
technicians
receive additional technical school
or undergraduate training through
company tuition-refund programs.
Laboratory technicians usually
start as trainees or assistants, and
drafters begin as copyists or tracers.
As they gain experience and show
ability to work without close super­
vision, these technicians advance
from routine work to more difficult
and responsible jobs.
Industrial
chemical
firms
generally hire and train inex­
perienced high school graduates for
processing and maintenance jobs.
Equipment operators and other
processing workers usually start out
in a labor pool where they are as­
signed jobs such as filling barrels or
moving materials. Workers may be
transferred from the labor pool to
fill vacancies in one of the
processing departments. As they
gain experience they move to more
skilled processing jobs. Thus, a
worker may advance from laborer
to chemical operator helper, and
then to chemical operator. Skilled
processing workers are rarely
recruited from other plants.
Most maintenance workers are
trained on the job. Chemical com­
panies often have formal main­
tenance training programs, includ­
ing some classroom instruction,
which may last from a few months
to several years. Instrument
repairers sometimes attend training
programs offered by instrument
manufacturers. Maintenance work­
ers and trainees are encouraged to
take job-related courses at local vo­
cational or technical schools. Their
employers may pay part or all of the

tuition.
Administrative jobs are usually
filled by people with college
degrees in business administration,
accounting, economics, statistics,
marketing, industrial relations, and
other fields. Chemists and en­
gineers also hold administrative
jobs. Some companies have ad­
vanced training programs for new
administrative employees.
Secretaries, bookkeepers, and
other clerical workers generally
have had commercial courses in
high school or business school.

Employment Outlook
The outlook for the industrial
chemical industry through the mid1980’s is uncertain. Large increases
in the price of petroleum, which is
the raw material for many industrial
chemicals, have brought about
rapid increases in the prices of
these products. Higher prices even­
tually may curtail the demand for
chemicals, subsequently moderat­
ing the industry’s production
growth. This development could
sharply reduce the employment
growth that otherwise would occur.
However, even if employment does
not grow, the industry will still need
many new workers to replace em­
ployees who retire, die, or transfer
to other industries. Job. openings
from deaths and retirements alone
will average several thousand a
year.
Although the composition of em­
ployment in the industry is ex­
pected to change, with more ad­
ministrative and technical workers
needed to handle the increasingly
complex production processes,
most job openings will continue to
be for production workers since
they are the largest group of em­
ployees.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Production workers in the indus­
trial chemical industry have rela­
tively high earnings because a large

proportion of them are in skilled
jobs. In 1974 they averaged $5.05
an hour, compared to $4.40 an
hour for production workers in all
manufacturing.
National wage data are not
available for individual occupations
in the industrial chemicals industry.
However, in 1974 hourly wages in a
few union-management contracts
were as follows:
Hourly rates

Instrument repairers................ $4.13-6.00
Laboratory technicians........... 3.93-5.89
Chemical operators.................. 4.13-5.86
Pipefitters, boilermakers, and
sheet-metal workers............ 4.13-5.86

Because chemical plants usually
operate around the clock—three
shifts a day, 7 days a week—
processing workers often work the
second or third shift, usually for
extra pay. Shift assignments are




usually rotated, so an individual
may work days 1 week and nights
the next. Maintenance workers
usually work only the day shift.
Most industrial chemical jobs, ex­
cept those for laborers or material
handlers, are not strenuous. Equip­
ment operators are on their feet
most of the time. Some workers
must climb stairs or ladders to con­
siderable heights, or work outdoors
in all kinds of weather. Workers
may be exposed to dust, disagreea­
ble odors, or high temperatures,
although most plants have ventilat­
ing or air-conditioning systems.
Many chemicals are dangerous to
touch or breathe. However, the in­
dustrial chemical industry has one
of the better safety records in
manufacturing. Protective clothing,
eyeglasses, showers, and eye baths
near hazardous work stations and

other safety measures help prevent
serious injuries.
Many production workers in the
industrial chemical industry belong
to labor unions, including the Inter­
national Chemical Workers Union;
Oil, Chemical, and Atomic Work­
ers International Union; and the
United Steelworkers of America.
Sources of Additional
Information

Further information on careers in
the industry may be obtained from
employment offices of industrial
chemical companies, locals of the
unions mentioned above, and from:
American Chemical Society, 1155 16th St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.
Manufacturing Chemists’ Association, Inc.,
1825 Connecticut Ave. NW., Washing­
ton, D C. 20009.

OCCUPATIONS IN THE
IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY
Steel is the backbone of any in­ cupations are discussed elsewhere
dustrialized economy. Few in the Handbook.)
products in daily use have not been
Blast furnaces make iron from
made from steel or processed by iron ore, coke, and limestone.
machinery made of steel. In 1974, Steelmaking furnaces refine the
the United States produced about iron into steel. Primary rolling mills
one-fifth of the world’s steel output. and continous casting operations
About 610,000 wage and salary shape the steel into basic products
workers were on the payrolls of the called billets, blooms, and slabs,
iron and steel industry’s more than which other rolling mills refine into
940 plants in 1974. Employees sheets, plates, bars, strips, and vari­
work in a broad range of jobs that ous other semifinished products.
require a wide variety of skills. Many mills also produce finished
Many of these jobs are found only items, such as pipe and wire. Most
semifinished steel products, how­
in iron and steelmaking.
The iron and steel industry, as ever, are shipped to plants of other
discussed in this chapter, consists of industries.
blast furnaces, steelmaking fur­ The leading steel-consuming in­
naces, and finishing mills. The min­ dustries manufacture automobiles,
ing and processing of raw materials construction materials, machinery
used to make steel and the fabrica­ and machine tools, containers, and
tion of steel are not described. household appliances. Steel sheets
(Employment opportunities in are made into automobile bodies,
foundry, forging, and machining oc­ appliances, and furniture. Steel bars

20

The Steelmaking Process
Raw material

Iron

lim e s to n e , iro n o re , c o k e

Iron & scrap
o p e n lijj^ h e o r t h

C

Steel

A
■m

fu
fu r n a c e

T i- )

b aa s i c^ K j^ ^ x y g e n fu rn a c e
b s ic 4 ^ o >

electric

strip p in g

t e e m i n C gi K in g o s
g n g o t

►
ym
u

scrap
s te e l

fu rn a c e

so a k in g

3

To rolling mills
s la b s ■
p la t e , sh e e t & s trip

So urce

Bureau of Labor Statistics




t* ^ b lo o m s■stru ctu ra l steel
t & ra ils

are used to make parts for machin­
ery and to reinforce concrete in
building and highway construction.
Steelplates become parts of ships,
bridges, railroad cars, and storage
tanks. Strip steel is used to make
pots and pans, razor blades, toys,
and many other items.
Individual plants in the iron and
steel industry typically employ a
large number of workers. About 80
percent of the industry’s employees
work in plants which have more
than 2,500 employees. A few plants
have more than 20,000. Many
plants, however, have fewer than
100 employees.
Iron and steel plants are located
mainly in the northern and eastern
parts of the United States. About 7
out of 10 of the industry’s workers
are employed in five States—
Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Il­
linois, and New York. Nearly 3 out
of 10 are employed in Pennsylvania
alone.
The heart of U.S. steel manufac­
turing is a triangular area, about
250 miles on a side, marked off by
Johnstown, Pa., Buffalo, N.Y., and
Detroit, Mich. Included in this area
are major steel producing centers
such as Pittsburgh, Pa., and Cleve­
land and Youngstown, Ohio. Large
plants also are located on the south
shore of Lake Michigan near
Chicago. The Nation’s three largest
steel plants are located at Indiana
Harbor and Gary, Ind., and Spar­
rows Point, Md. (near Baltimore).
Much of the steelmaking in the
South is in the vicinity of Bir­
mingham, Ala., and Houston, Tex.
In California there are plants at
Fontana and near San Francisco.
Other steelmaking facilities are
located at Pueblo, Colo, and Provo,
Utah.

A ^ billetss ■ ro d s , b a rs , s e a m le s s
E Iit e t jir o
p ip e s & tu b es

*

m

Occupations in the Industry

Workers in the iron and steel in­
dustry hold more than 2,000 dif­
ferent types of jobs. Many are
directly engaged in making iron and
steel and converting it into

semifinished and finished products.
Others maintain the vast amount of
machinery used in the industry,
operate cranes and other equip­
ment that move raw materials and
steel products about the plants, or
perform other kinds of production
jobs. In addition, many workers are
needed to do clerical, sales, profes­
sional, technical, administrative,
and supervisory work.
Processing Occupations. The
majority of the workers in the in­
dustry are employed in the many
processing operations involved in
converting iron ore into steel and
then into semifinished and finished
steel products. Following are brief
descriptions of the major steelmak­
ing and finishing operations and
some of the occupations connected
with them.
Blast furnaces. The blast furnace, a
large steel cylinder lined with heatresistant brick, is used to make mol­
ten iron from iron ore. A mixture of
ore, coke, and limestone (called a
“charge”) is fed into the top of the
furnace. Hot air blown in the bot­
tom from giant stoves causes the
coke to bum, producing intense
heat. At these high temperatures
gas from the burning coke reacts
with the oxygen in the ore, freeing
the iron.
The iron, now molten, trickles
down through the burning coke and
collects in a pool at the bottom of
the furnace. At the same time, the
intense heat causes the limestone to
combine with other impurities in
the ore and with coke ash to form
“slag,” a byproduct that is often
used for making cement and insu­
lating materials. The slag also
trickles down through the coke and
floats on top of the heavier molten
iron. Molten iron is removed from
the furnace every 3 or 4 hours; slag
may be removed more frequently.
A blast furnace operates continu­
ously, 24 hours a day, 7 days a
week, unless it is shut down for
repairs or for other reasons. A sin­
gle furnace may produce up to



7,500 tons of iron in a 24-hour
period.
The raw materials used in blast
furnaces are transferred from
stockyards by larry operators
(D.O.T. 919.883). These workers
position their larry cars under
storage bins where they are filled
with coke, limestone, or iron ore.
After driving on tracks to the fur­
nace, the operators position their
cars over an open grate. Pulling a
lever, they dump the materials
through the grate and into a
hopper. Scale car operators (D.O.T.
921.883) drive other larry cars on
tracks in tunnels underneath the
hoppers. Positioning their car under
one of these bins, they fill it with
raw material, weigh the loaded car,
and then unload the material into
skip cars where the ore, limestone,
or coke is automatically carried to
the top of the blast furnace and
dumped. In stockhouses without
automatic controls a skip car opera­
tor (D.O.T. 921.883) uses electric
and pneumatic controls, to operate
these cars. Scale car operators must
keep records of what they put in the
furnace, and must know what is in
the furnace at any time. Stove ten­
ders (D.O.T. 512.782) operate the
stoves which heat air for the blast
furnace. They regulate valves to
control the heat of the stoves and
the flow of air to the fumiace.
Blowers (D.O.T. 519.132) over­
see the operation of one or more
blast furnaces and are responsible
for the quantity and quality of the
iron produced. They coordinate the
addition of raw materials by
stockhouse workers with the fur­
nace operation and supervise
keepers (D.O.T. 502.884) and their
helpers (D.O.T. 502.887) in remov­
ing (tapping) the iron and slag from
the furnace. If the iron is not form­
ing correctly in the furnace, they
may have the stove tenders change
the temperature and flow of air into
the furnace.
When the blower has determined
that the iron is ready to be
removed, the keeper and a helper

drill through the clay that is
plugging a taphole above the mol­
ten iron, allowing the slag to flow
down a sand-lined channel into
waiting ladles. Helpers open gates
to divert the slag into other ladles
when the first one is filled. After
removing the slag the keeper drills
through a lower taphole which al­
lows the iron to flow down another
channel into hot metal cars. In
some furnaces only the lower
taphole is used. The slag flows out
after the iron and is diverted by the
keeper to the slag channel. To close
the furnace the keeper uses a “mud
gun” to shoot clay , into the
tapholes. The keeper and helpers
use sledges and tongs to remove
solidified iron and slag from the
channels and shovels to line the
channels with special heat resistant
sand.
Some iron is made into finished
products such as automobile engine
blocks and plumbing pipes. Most of
it, however, is used to make steel.
Because steel is stronger than iron
and can be hammered and bent
without breaking, it can be used for
many more products.
Steel furnaces. Steel is made by
refining iron to remove some of the
carbon and impurities and adding
alloying agents such as silicon and
manganese. This is done in several
types of furnaces: basic oxygen,
open hearth, and electric.
More than half of all domestic
steel is made in basic oxygen fur­
naces (BOF’s) and about a quarter
in open hearth furnaces. Both
produce similar kinds of steel, but
BOF’s do the job faster and are ex­
pected to replace many of the open
hearths now in operation. Although
electric furnaces also produce regu­
lar steel like that made by BOF’s
and open hearths, they can also
produce high quality steel such as
tool and stainless steel.
A melter (D.O.T. 512.132) su­
pervises workers at a steel furnace.
Melters receive information on the
characteristics of the raw materials
they will be using and the type and

quality of steel they are expected to
produce. The melter makes the
steel to the desired specifications by
varying the proportions of iron,
scrap steel, and limestone in the
furnace, and by adding small
amounts of other materials such as
manganese, silicon, copper, or
other alloy additives. The
procedure followed depends on the
furnace used.
A basic oxygen furnace (BOF) is
a giant, pear-shaped steel container
lined with refractory material. The
furnace operator (D.O.T. 512.782),
under the direction of the melter,
controls this steelmaking process.
To begin the operation, the furnace
operator’s first assistant uses con­
trols to tilt the furnace to receive
the charge of steel scrap and molten
iron. A scrap crane operator (D.O.T.
921.883) adds scrap steel and is fol­
lowed by a charging crane operator
(D.O.T. 921.883) who adds the
molten iron made by the blast fur­

nace. After the assistant rights the
furnace, the furnace operator, who
works in a pulpit, uses levers and
buttons to lower the oxygen lance, a
pipe which blows oxygen into the
furnace at supersonic speeds.
Operators also control the addition
of lime, which reacts with impuri­
ties in the iron to form slag, and the
addition of any alloys which are
required to give the steel the
desired properties. If the chemical
reactions become too violent, the
furnace may overheat, causing slag
and iron to splash out the top. Thus,
furnace operators must pay close
attention to conditions in the fur­
nace, regulate the oxygen flow and,
if the furnace does overheat, direct
the rocking of the furnace to cool it.
By observing the various instru­
ments in the control room, the fur­
nace operator knows when the steel
has almost'the correct composition.
The first assistant then tilts the fur­
nace while the second assistant and

A scrap crane operator loads a B.O.F. with scrap metal.



helpers, working from behind a
heat shield, use a long-handled
spoon to take a sample. The sample
is sent up to the lab where metallur­
gists determine how close the steel
is to the product desired. Based on
this information, the furnace opera­
tor determines how much longer
and at what temperature the fur­
nace should operate. When the fur­
nace operator has determined that
the steel is of the correct composi­
tion, the first assistant tilts the fur­
nace towards a waiting ladle. The
steel flows through a taphole half­
way up the furnace and into the
ladle. The second assistant and
helpers may add alloys to the ladle
while the steel is poured. By con­
tinually tilting the furnace at a
steeper angle the first assistant can
keep the slag above the taphole,
preventing it from flowing into the
ladle. Eventually, the slag is poured
into the slag pot. The assistants and
helpers then use handtools to clean
out the tap hole and furnace lip.
An open hearth furnace resem­
bles a large, rectangular, shallow
pan. The melter at this furnace su­
pervises a first helper (D.O.T.
512.782) who in turn directs the ac­
tivities of a second helper (D.O.T.
502.884) and a third helper (D.O.T.
519.887). To begin the operation, a
charging-machine operator (D.O.T.
512.883), working in a pulpit, uses
a long-armed charging machine to
dump boxes of limestone and scrap
steel inside the furnace door. The
first helper operates controls to
open and close the door, and regu­
lates the flow of hot air from brick
stoves to the furnace. After deter­
mining that the material has
reached the correct temperature,
the first helper signals a crane
operator who pours molten iron
from a ladle into a movable spout
located at a door of the furnace.
The first helper continues to
operate controls to bring the fur­
nace up to the best temperature for
the steelmaking reactions.
After taking a sample of the mol­
ten metal and determining that it

has the correct composition, the
first helper directs the other helpers
in tapping the furnace. Using an ex­
plosive charge, the second helper
opens the taphole, which is located
at the lowest part of the furnace.
While the metal flows into the ladle,
the second and third helpers shovel
alloying materials, which they had
previously weighed and wheeled to
the furnace, into the ladle. The
lighter slag flows out after the steel
and overflows into a slag pot. After
the furnace has been emptied, the
first helper examines the interior
and supervises the other helpers in
repairing any damage to the floor or
walls.
The electric arc furnace is the
most common electric furnace. To
load it, the roof is usually swung
aside by the furnace operator
(D.O.T. 512.782). A crane opera­
tor adds lime, scrap steel, and in
some cases enriched iron pellets to
the furnace. Molten iron is seldom
used in these furnaces. After clos­
ing the roof, the furnace operator
uses controls to lower electrodes to
within a few inches of the metal.
Other controls are used to regulate
the current flowing through the
electrodes. The current arcs from
an electrode to the metal and then
back to a neighboring electrode,
melting the steel. By regulating the
current, the operator can control
the temperature much more accu­
rately than operators of BOF’s and
open hearths, to produce very high
quality steels.
To remove the slag, the furnace
operator uses levers to tilt the fur­
nace slightly while an assistant uses
a long pole to stir the slag. This
helps the slag flow out of a spout
located above the molten steel.
When the furnace has been righted,
alloys can be added through the
roof, after which the operator tilts
the furnace in the opposite
direction to pour the steel into a
ladle.
Molten steel usually is solidified
into large blocks called “ingots.” A
ladle crane operator (D.O.T.



Furnace workers take sample of molten steel for laboratory analysis.

921.883) controls an overhead
crane which picks up the ladle of
molten steel and moves it over a
long row of ingot molds resting on
flatbottom cars. The steel pourer
(D.O.T. 514.884) operates a
stopper at the bottom of the ladle to
let the steel flow into these molds.
As soon as the steel has solidified
sufficiently, an ingot stripper
(D.O.T. 921.883) operates an over­
head crane, which removes the
molds from the ingots.
Rolling and finishing. The three
principal methods of shaping steel
are rolling, casting, and forging.
About three-fourths of all steel
products are shaped by the rolling
process. In this method, heated
steel ingots are squeezed into
longer and flatter shapes between
two massive cylinders or “rolls.”
Before ingots of steel are rolled,
they are heated to the temperature

specified by plant metallurgists.
The heating is done in large fur­
naces called “soaking pits,” located
in the plant floor. A soaking pit
crane operator (D.O.T. 921.883)
maneuvers an overhead crane to lift
the ingots from small railcars and
place them in the soaking pit. A
heater (D.O.T. 613.782) and helper
(D.O.T. 613.885) control the soak­
ing pit operation. They adjust con­
trols to maintain the correct tem­
perature in each pit, and by
watching dials and observing the
color of the metal, they determine
when the ingot is ready for rolling.
When the ingots are hot enough the
crane operator places them on an
ingot buggy, which carries them to
the first rolling mill, sometimes
called a “primary” mill. Here, the
ingots are rolled into smaller, more
easily handled shapes called blooms
and slabs. Blooms are generally
between 6 and 12 inches wide and 6

and 12 inches thick. Slabs are much
wider and thinner than blooms.
The rolling of ingots into blooms
and slabs is a similar operation; in
fact some rolling mills can do both.
The ingot moves along on a roller
conveyer to a machine which
resembles a giant clothes wringer.
A “two-high” rolling mill has two
grooved rolls which revolve in op­
posite directions. The rolls grip the
approaching ingot and pull it
between them, squeezing it thinner
and longer. When the ingot has
made one such pass the rolls are
reversed, and the ingot is fed back
through them. Throughout the
rolling operation, the ingot is
periodically turned 90 degrees by
mechanical
devices
called
“manipulators,” and passed
between the rolls again so that all
sides are rolled. This operation is
repeated until the ingot is reduced
to a slab or bloom of the desired
size. It is then ready to be cut to
specified lengths.
A roller (D.O.T. 613.782), the
worker in charge of the mill, works
in a glass-enclosed control booth,
located above or beside the con­
veyer line. This employee’s duties,
which appear to consist principally
of moving levers and pushing but­
tons, look relatively simple. How­
ever, the quality of the product and
the speed with which the ingot is
rolled depend upon the roller’s
skill. The roller regulates the open­
ing between the rolls after each
pass. If the opening is set too wide,
more passes will be needed to get
the required shape, and production
will be slowed. If the opening is too
narrow, the rolls or gears may be
damaged. Long experience and a
knowledge of steel characteristics
are required for a worker to
become a roller. A manipulator
operator (D.O.T. 613.782) sits in
the booth beside the roller and
operates controls which position
the ingot correctly before each
pass.
Upon leaving the rolling mill, the
red-hot slab or bloom moves along



a conveyer to a place where a shear having the profile of the desired
operator (D.O.T. 615.782) controls product shape, such as slab or
a heavy hydraulic shear which cuts
the steel into desired lengths.
In a rolling mill that has auto­
matic controls, a rolling mill atten­
dant is given a card that has been
punched with a series of holes. The
holes represent coded directions as
to how the ingot is to be rolled. The
attendant inserts the card into a
card “reader” and presses a button
to start the automatic rolling
sequence. When this process is
used, the roller’s job is shifted from
operating the controls to directing
and coordinating the rolling
process.
Of increasing use in steel shaping
is the continuous casting process,
which eliminates the necessity of
producing large ingots that in turn
must be reheated and then put
through huge blooming and
slabbing mills. In the continuous
casting process, molten steel is
poured into a water-cooled mold

bloom. The steel cools and solidi­
fies along the bottom and lower
sides of the mold. Passing down
through a chamber, the steel is
further cooled by a water spray.
Pinch rolls control its descent and
support its weight, and the molded
slab or bloom of steel is cut into
lengths as it emerges from the rolls.
After the steel is rolled or cast
into primary shapes, most of it is
put through semifinishing and
finishing operations. Slabs, for ex­
ample, can be reduced and shaped
into plates and sheets. Blooms can
be made into rods which in turn can
be reduced to wire.
To make sheets, a slab is first
heated in a furnace similar to the
soaking pits, described earlier, and
then run through a hot strip mill.
The hot strip mill is a continuous se­
ries of pairs of rolls, similar to the
two at the primary mill. As the slab
moves through each pair of rolls it

becomes thinner and longer. Edge
guides control its width. After
passing through the last pair of
rolls, the sheet is wound into a coil.
If the customer prefers a thinner
sheet or an improved surface, the
product may be cold rolled in
another mill.
Having obtained information on
the characteristics of the sheet
desired, the roller at the hot strip
mill refers to a printed guide to
determine the necessary gauge
between each pair of rolls, and the
speed at which the slab should
travel. Working in a pulpit, the
roller uses controls to set the gauge
on the last series of rolls, while the
speed operator (D.O.T. 613.782)
controls the speed of the sheet
being rolled. Unless problems
develop, the job of these two wor­
kers is repetitive. However, if the
sheet should begin to buckle
between rolls, due to the steel’s
composition or temperature, these
two employees must readjust the
gauge and speed in an attempt to
avoid damage to the sheet.
Under the direction of the roller,
a rougher (D.O.T. 613.782) and
assistant use handtools to adjust the
gauge and edge guides for the first
series of rolls (called the roughing
mill). A rougher pulpit operator
(D.O.T. 613.782), following the
rougher’s instructions, signals the
furnace crew for additional slabs
and uses hand controls to operate
guides to position the slab at the
start of the run.
Wire and pipe are made from
blooms. First the bloom is rolled
into a billet (a bloom with a smaller
cross section). To make wire, the
billet is rolled into an even thinner
product called a rod.
A wire drawer (D.O.T. 614.782)
operates equipment that pulls the
steel rod through a die. The die has
a tapered hole, one end of which is
smaller than the rod. As the rod
passes through the hole, it is made
thinner and longer and becomes
wire.
A piercer-machine operator



(D.O.T. 613.885) controls machin­
ery that makes seamless pipe from
solid billets of steel. The operator
passes a heated billet between two
barrel-shaped rolls which spin the
billet and force an end of it against
a sharp plug or “mandrel.” The
mandrel smooths the inside wall of
the billet and makes the diameter of
the hole uniform.
Maintenance, Transportation, and
Plant Service Occupations. Large

numbers of workers are required in
steel plants to support processing
activities. Some maintain and repair
machinery and equipment, while
others operate the equipment
which provides power, steam, and
water.
Machinists and machine tool
operators make and repair metal
parts for production equipment.
Diemakers use machine tools to
form dies, such as those used to
make wire. Roll turners (D.O.T.
613.780) use lathes, grinders, and
other machine tools to refinish the
steel rolls used in the rolling mills.
Millwrights overhaul machinery
and repair and replace defective
parts. Electricians install wiring and
fixtures and hook up electrically
operated equipment. Electrical
repairers (motor inspectors) keep
wiring, motors, switches, and other
electrical equipment in good
operating condition.
Electronic repairers install and
maintain the increasing number of
electronic devices and systems used
in steel manufacturing plants. Typi­
cally, this equipment includes com­
munication systems such as closedcircuit television; electronic com­
puting and data recording systems;
and measuring, processing, and
control devices such as X-ray mea­
suring or inspection equipment.
Bricklayers repair and rebuild the
brickwork in furnaces, soaking pits,
ladles, and coke ovens, as well as
mill buildings and offices. Pipefit­
ters lay out, install, and repair pip­
ing that is used to carry the large
amounts of liquids and gases used in

steelmaking. Boilermakers test,
repair, and rebuild heating units,
storage tanks, stationary boilers,
and condensers. Locomotive en­
gineers and other train crew mem­
bers operate trains that transport
materials and products in the vast
yards of iron and steel plants. Other
skilled workers operate the various
boilers, turbines, and switchboards
in factory powerplants.
Other types of maintenance and
service workers include carpenters,
oilers, painters, instrument
repairers, scale mechanics, welders,
loaders, riggers, janitors, and
guards. Many laborers are em­
ployed to load and unload materials
and do a variety of cleanup jobs.
Administrative, Clerical, and
Technical Occupations. Profes­

sional, administrative, clerical, and
salesworkers consitute about onefifth of the industry’s total employ­
ment. Of these, the majority are
clerical workers, such as secreta­
ries, stenographers, typists, ac­
counting clerks, and general office
clerks.
Engineers, scientists, and techni­
cians make up a substantial propor­
tion of the industry’s white-collar
employment. Several thousand of
these workers perform research and
development work to improve ex­
isting iron and steel products and
processes, and to develop new ones.
Among the technical specialists
employed in steelmaking are
mechanical engineers, whose prin­
cipal work is the design, construc­
tion, and operation of mill machin­
ery and material handling equip­
ment. Metallurgists and metallurgi­
cal engineers work in laboratories
and production departments where
they have the important task of
specifying, controlling, and testing
the quality of the steel during its
manufacture. Civil engineers are
engaged in the layout, construction,
and maintenance of steel plants,
and the equipment used for heat,
light, and transportation. Electrical
engineers design, lay out, and su­

pervise the operation of electrical
facilities that provide power for
steel mill operation.
Chemists analyze the chemical
properties of steel and raw materi­
als in laboratories. Laboratory
technicians do routine testing and
assist chemists and engineers.
Drafters prepare working plans and
detailed drawings required in plant
construction and maintenance.
Among the employees in ad­
ministrative, managerial, and super­
visory occupations are office
managers, labor relations and per­
sonnel managers, purchasing
agents, plant managers, and indus­
trial engineers. Working with these
personnel are several thousand
professional workers, including ac­
countants, nurses, lawyers,
economists, statisticians, and
mathematicians. The industry also
employs several thousand salesworkers.
(Detailed discussions of profes­
sional, technical, mechanical, and
other occupations found in the iron
and steel industry, as well as in
many other industries, are given
elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

New workers in processing
operations usually are hired as un­
skilled laborers. Openings in higher
rated jobs usually are filled by
promoting workers from lower
grade jobs. Length of service with
the company is the major factor
considered when selecting workers
for promotion. Promotions to first
level supervisory positions, such as
blower and melter, differ among
companies. Some firms determine
these promotions solely on seniority
while others base them on ability to
do the job.
Training for processing occupa­
tions is done almost entirely on the
job. Workers move to operations
requiring progressively greater skill
as they acquire experience. A crane
operator, for example, first is taught



how to operate relatively simple
cranes, and then advances through
several steps to cranes much more
difficult to run, such as the hotmetal crane.
Workers in the various operating
units usually advance along fairly
well-defined lines of promotion
within their departments. For ex­
ample, to become a blast furnace
blower, a worker generally starts as
a laborer, advancing to second
helper, first helper, keeper and
finally blower. At a basic oxygen
furnace a worker may begin by
doing general cleanup work and
then advance to furnace hand,
second assistant, first assistant, fur­
nace operator and eventually to
melter. A possible line of job ad­
vancement for a roller in a finishing
mill might be assistant rougher,
rougher pulpit operator, rougher,
speed operator and finish roller.
Workers can be trained for skilled
jobs, such as blower, melter, and
roller, which are among the highest
rated steelmaking jobs, in a
minimum of 4 or 5 years, but they
may have to wait 25 or 30 years be­
fore openings occur.
To help them advance in their
work, many employees take parttime courses in subjects such as
chemistry, physics, and metallurgy.
Steel companies sometimes provide
this training—often within the
plant. Other workers take evening
courses in high schools, trade
schools, or universities or enroll in
correspondence courses.
Althoughv many maintenance
workers start as helpers and pick up
their skills from experienced work­
ers, apprenticeship is the best way
to learn a maintenance trade. Ap­
prenticeship programs usually last 3
or 4 years and consist mainly of
shop training in various aspects of
the particular jobs. In addition,
classroom instruction in related
technical subjects usually is given,
either in the plant or in local voca­
tional schools.
Steelmaking companies have dif­
ferent qualifications for apprentice

applicants. Generally, employers
require applicants to have the
equivalent of a high school or voca­
tional school education. In most
cases, the minimum age for appli­
cants is 18 years. Some companies
give aptitude and other types of
tests to applicants to determine
their suitability for the trades. Ap­
prentices generally are chosen from
among qualified workers already
employed in the plant.
The minimum requirement for
engineering and scientific jobs
usually is a bachelor’s degree with
an appropriate major. Practically
all the larger companies have for­
mal training programs for collegetrained technical workers. In these
programs, trainees work for brief
periods in various operating and
maintenance divisions to get a
broad picture of steelmaking opera­
tions before they are assigned to a
particular department. In other
companies, the newly hired
scientist or engineer is assigned
directly to a specific research,
operating, maintenance, adminis­
trative, or sales unit. Engineering
graduates frequently are hired for
saleswork and many of the execu­
tives in the industry have engineer­
ing backgrounds. Engineering grad­
uates, as well as graduates of busi­
ness administration and liberal arts
colleges, are employed in sales, ac­
counting, and labor-management
relations, as well as in managerial
positions.
Completion of a business course
in high school, junior college, or
business school is preferred for
entry into most of the office occu­
pations. Office jobs requiring spe­
cial knowledge of the steel industry
generally are filled by promoting
personnel already employed in the
industry.
Employment Outlook

Employment in the iron and steel
industry is not expected to change
significantly in the long run (197485). Nevertheless, many workers

will be hired to replace those who
retire, die, or transfer to other
fields. The total number hired may
fluctuate from year to year because
the industry is sensitive to changes
in business conditions and defense
needs.
Production of iron and steel is ex­
pected to increase moderately as
population and business growth
create a demand for more automo­
biles, household appliances, indus­
trial machinery, and other products
that require large amounts of these
metals. Because of laborsaving
technology, however, employment
is not expected to keep pace with
increases in production. Giant blast
furnaces are being built that make
more iron per worker than the
smaller furnaces they are replacing.
Open hearth furnaces will continue
to be replaced with more efficient
basic oxygen furnaces, increasing
the amount of steel produced per
worker. Older primary rolling mills
will be replaced by continuous
casters, which use fewer employees
to produce slabs, billets, and
blooms. Greater use of computers
to control plant equipment, as in
hot finishing mills, and to process
business records also will increase
efficiency.
Employment trends will differ
among occupations. The number of
engineers, metallurgists, laboratory
technicians, and other technical
workers will increase as the indus­
try’s research and development
programs expand. Employment of
computer programmers and opera­
tors also will increase. More main­
tenance workers will be needed to
maintain the increasingly complex
machinery used by steel mills. Em­
ployment in processing occupa­
tions, on the other hand, is ex­
pected to decline slightly as more
efficient plant machinery and
equipment are introduced.

Basic straight-time hourly earninps 1of workers in selected occupations in basic
iron and steel establishments, mid-1974
Hourly
earnings

Blast furnaces:
Larry operators.......................................................................................................
$5.10
Keepers...............
5.50
Basic oxygen furnaces:
Second assistants...................................................................................................
5.20
Furnace operators..................................................................................................
6.40
Open hearth furnaces:
Charging machine operators................................................................................
5.70
Furnace operators..................................................................................................
6.50
Bloom, slab, and billet mills:
Soaking pit crane operators.................................................................................
5.60
Rollers...............
6.80
Continuous hot-strip mills:
Roughers..................................................................................................................
5.70
Rollers......................................................................................................................
7.30
Maintenance:
Bricklayers..............................
5.80
Millwrights...............................................................................................................
5.70
1Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.

in iron and steelmaking are among
the highest in manufacturing. In
1974, they averaged $6.25 an hour,
while production workers in manu­
facturing as a whole averaged
$4.40. To show how earnings vary
by occupation and department,
wage rates for employees in some of
the principal occupations are
presented in table 1. However, most
steelworkers are paid on an incen­
tive basis—that is, the more they
produce the more they earn—and
often earn more than the table
would indicate.
Most plantworkers in the iron
and steel industry are members of
the United Steelworkers of Amer­
ica. Agreements between steel
companies and the union include
some of the most liberal benefits in
industry. Most workers receive va­
cation pay ranging from 1 to 4
weeks, depending on length of serv­
ice. A worker in the top 50 per­
cent of a seniority list receives a 13week vacation every 5 years; the
remaining workers receive 3 extra
weeks of vacation once in a 5-year
period. Professional and executive
personnel in some companies
receive similar benefits.
Earnings and Working
Workers may retire on companyConditions
paid pensions after 30 years of serv­
Earnings of production workers ice, regardless of age. Employees




having 2 years of more of service
are eligible to receive supplemental
unemployment benefits for up to 52
weeks. Other benefits include
health and life insurance, and edu­
cation and scholarship assistance.
Working conditions vary by de­
partment. Maintenance shops
generally are clean and cool.
Rolling mills and furnaces are hot
and noisy. Many plants, however,
have developed methods to reduce
job discomfort. The use of remote
control, for example, enables some
employees, such as furnace opera­
tors, to work outside the immediate
vicinity of processing operations. In
other instances, the cabs in which
the workers sit while operating
mechanical equipment, such as
cranes, may be air-conditioned.
Because certain processes are con­
tinuous, many employees are on
night shifts or work on weekends.
Sources of Additional
Information

For additional information about
careers in the iron and steel indus­
try, contact:
American Iron and Steel Institute, 1000 16th
St. NW„ Washington, D C. 20036.
United Steelworkers of America, 1500 Com­
monwealth Building, Pittsburgh, Pa.
15222.

OCCUPATIONS IN LOGGING
AND LUMBER MILLS
Young people who have a high
school education and a love for the
outdoors and wildlife may find re­
warding careers in the logging and
lumber industry. Logging camps
and sawmills provide many job op­
portunities in the South and Pacific
Northwest, the Nation’s major
timber-producing regions. Because
the building and furnishing of
homes, hospitals, schools, stores,
and most other structures depend
upon lumber and wood products,
thousands of job openings will be
available each year through the
mid-1980’s.
Nature and Location of the
Industry

In 1974, nearly 85,000 wage and
salary workers were employed in
logging to help harvest trees and
remove them from forests. A much
larger number—about 220,000—
worked in sawmills and planing
mills where logs are converted into
lumber. In addition, about 50,000
workers were self-employed, most
of them in logging.
This statement deals with activi­
ties and jobs involved in cutting and
removing timber from forests and in
the processing of logs into rough
and finished lumber. It excludes the
manufacture of paper, plywood,
veneer, and other wood products
such as furniture and boxes. Occu­
pations in paper manufacturing are
discussed in a separate statement
elsewhere in the Handbook.
Lumber production has followed
the same basic process for many
years. A stand of timber is har­
vested in the forest, moved to a cen­
tral location or “landing” accessi­
ble to transportation, and then car­



ried by truck or rail to a mill for
processing. Logging crews typically
consist of from 5 to 15 workers.
Several crews, each working at a
different location, may be needed
to supply logs for a single mill. The
crew moves through the forest as
one area after another is harvested.
Years ago these workers lived in
camps close to the cutting site.
With better roads, almost all can
now live at home and commute to
work.
In the sawmill, logs are debarked,
rough-sawn into various widths and
lengths, and then seasoned (dried)
so the wood will not warp. A small
amount of rough lumber is sold
without further processing, but the
rest must be sent to a planing mill
before it goes to market. In this
mill, rough boards are finished to
give them a smooth surface. Boards
also are made into flooring, siding,
moulding, and other forms of build­
ing trim. Since logs cost more to
ship than lumber, sawmills usually
are located near tree harvesting
areas. Some of these mills are small,
portable operations that can be
moved about from week to week as
the harvest progresses, but the large
ones are permanent. Planing mills
may be near sawmills or hundreds
of miles away. About three-fourths
of all mills employ fewer than 20
workers, but some have more than
100 .
Although some logging and
lumber mill workers are employed
in nearly every State, seven States
account for about half of the indus­
try’s employment: Oregon,
Washington, California, Alabama,
North Carolina, Arkansas, and
Georgia.

Logging. Before a stand of timber is
harvested, a forester (D.O.T.
040.081) decides which trees to
cut. Foresters also map the cutting
areas, plan and supervise the
cutting, and plant seedlings to
replace the trees that were
removed. Timber cruisers (D.O.T.
449.287) estimate the amount and
grade of standing timber and help
foresters make maps. Heavy equip­
ment operators build access roads
and trails to the cutting and loading
areas so that they can be reached by
logging crews.
The initial harvesting task—
“falling and bucking”—is the
process of cutting the tree down
and further cutting (bucking) it into
logs for easier handling. Fallers
(D.O.T. 940.884), working singly
or in pairs, use powersaws to cut
down trees marked by the forester.
Expert fallers can usually drop a
tree in the exact spot where they
want it, making sure other trees are
not injured in the process. As soon
as the tree is down, buckers (D.O.T.
940.884) saw the limbs off and saw
the trunk into logs.
The next cask—“skidding”—is a
method of removing logs from the
cutting area. A choker (steel cable)
is noosed around the log by choker
setters (D.O.T. 942.887) and then
attached to a tractor which drags or
“skids” the log to the landing. A
rigging slinger (D.O.T. 942.884) su­
pervises and assists choker setters
and tractor drivers. In rough terrain
in the West, where logs must be
moved up or down steep slopes or
across ravines, the “highlead”
method is used instead of tractor
skidding. This method is somewhat
like a fishing rod and reel. Steel ca­
bles run from a diesel-powered
winch (reel) through pulleys at the
top of a large steel tower (rod) and
down to the cutting area which may
be hundreds of feet away from the
tower. Choker setters noose the end
of the cable around a log and a
yarder engineer (D.O.T. 942.782)
operates the winch to pull the log
into the landing. Experiments are

Logging worker uses chain saw to di­
vide tree trunk into logs.

now being made with heavy duty
helicopters. Hovering above a
logging site, the helicopters can lift
and move logs weighing several
tons. Balloons also are being tried.
After logs reach the landing, they
are loaded on a truck trailer and
hauled to a mill. A loader engineer
(D.O.T. 921.883) operates a
machine that picks up logs and
places them on the trailer. A second
loader (D.O.T. 949.884) directs the
positioning of logs on the trailer.
Although trucks usually are used,
logs are sometimes carried by rail­
road cars.
Sawmills and Planing Mills. At the
sawmill incoming logs are stacked
on the ground (cold decking) or
dumped into a pond to await
cutting. Water storage protects the
logs from splitting, insect damage,
and fire. Cold decking, on the other
hand, permits greater storage
volume per acre, and some hard­
woods such as oak must be stored
this way because they will sink in
water. Scalers (D.O.T. 941.488)
measure logs and look for defects,
such as knots and splits, to estimate
the amount and quality of lumber
available. Pond workers (D.O.T.
921.886) wearing spiked boots
walk about on the logs in the pond
and use long poles to sort them so
that all of one kind or size go into



the mill together.
A bull-chain operator (D.O.T.
921.885) controls a conveyor that
pulls logs up a chute into the saw­
mill. A barker operator (D.O.T
533.782) operates machinery to
remove bark and foreign matter
that could damage saws. One kind
of machine has rough metal bars or
knives that rub or chip the bark
away. Another kind tears it off with
the high pressure force of water.
The removed bark may be
processed into garden mulch or
burned to produce heat and steam
for the sawmill.
As a log enters the sawing area, a
deck worker (D.O.T. 667.887) rolls
it onto a platform called a
“carriage,” and a block setter
(D.O.T. 667.885) aligns the log and
locks it into position. The carriage,
which moves back and forth on
rails, carries the log into the teeth of
a large bandsaw, and each time it
passes the saw a board is sliced off.
This operation is controlled by a
head sawyer (D.O.T. 667.782), who
is one of the most experienced wor­
kers in the mill. The quantity of
lumber obtained from logs depends
largely on the head sawyer’s skill
and knowledge.
After leaving the carriage, the
lumber moves to an edger saw, con­
sisting of two or more circular
blades. Operated by a pony edger
(D.O.T. 667.782), the edging
machinery cuts the lumber to the
desired width. For example, the
production run may be cutting
boards to a 4-inch width. Next, a
trimmer saw operator (D.O.T.
667.782) , using a series of circular
cross-cut saws, cuts the lumber to
various lengths, such as 8, 10, or 12
feet.
When all sawing is completed, a
conveyor system moves the rough
lumber into a sorting shed, where
graders (D.O.T. 669.587) examine
each board and determine its grade.
After grading, sorters (D.O.T.
922.887) pull and stack the lumber
according to type, grade, and
dimension.

At this stage, the lumber is still
green and must be seasoned so that
it will not shrink or warp. It may be
stacked outdoors where the sun and
wind will remove moisture. More
frequently, however, it is placed in
a specially heated building (drykiln). Dry-kiln operators (D.O.T.
563.381) control temperature, hu­
midity, and ventilation in kilns.
Some seasoned lumber is ready
for use without further processing,
primarily in the construction indus­
try. Most of the lumber must pass
through a mill before being shipped
to market. In this mill, the rough
dried lumber is run through a set of
rotating knives controlled by a
planer operator (D.O.T. 665.782).
Some knife heads produce smooth
surfaces, while others tongue-andgroove the boards for flooring or
paneling. Similarly, a wide variety
of moulding or other building trim
may be cut. The dressed or finished
lumber is usually graded again be­
fore storage or shipment by a planer
mill grader (D.O.T. 669.587).
In addition to occupations
described in the logging and milling
processes, many other occupations
require a broad range of training
and skills. Maintenance mechanics
install and repair saws and related
machinery. Saw filers sharpen and
repair saws, and electricians main­
tain and repair wiring, motors, and
other electrical equipment.
Truckdrivers transport logs to the
mills and deliver the finished
lumber products to wholesalers.
Many workers are employed in
clerical, sales, and administrative
occupations. For example, many
firms employ office managers,
purchasing agents, personnel
managers, salesworkers, office
clerks, stenographers and typists,
bookkeepers, and business machine
operators. Also, the industry em­
ploys professional and technical
workers, such as civil and industrial
engineers, drafters and surveyors,
and accountants. (Detailed discus­
sions of professional, technical, and
mechanical occupations, found not

good physical condition. Although
modern equipment has reduced
some of the heavy labor, stamina
and agility are still important
qualifications, particularly for log­
gers. Because of the danger in­
volved in operating and working
around heavy machinery, workers
should be alert and well coor­
dinated.
A bachelor’s degree usually is the
minimum educational requirement
for forester, engineer, accountant,
and other professional occupations.
Completion of commercial courses
in high school or business school
usually is adequate for entry into
clerical occupations, such as secre­
tary, typist, and bookkeeper.
Employment Outlook

Mechanized equipment in modem sawmills reduces need for hand labor.

only in logging and milling but in
other industries as well, are given
elsewhere in the Handbook in sec­
tions covering individual occupa­
tions.)
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most loggers and millhands get
their first jobs without previous
training. Employers prefer high
school graduates, but applicants
with less education frequently are
hired: Entry level jobs usually can
be learned in a few weeks by ob­
serving and helping experienced
workers. A beginner on a logging
crew may start by helping choker
setters or buckers. In the mill, a
beginner may be assigned to a labor
pool to do odd jobs, such as
stacking and sorting lumber. As
workers gain experience, and as
vacancies occur, they can advance
to higher paying jobs. A choker
setter who has an aptitude for
operating machinery, for example,
may become a truck or tractor



driver, or a yarder engineer. Millhands also can learn various kinds
of machine operating jobs, such as
bull-chain operator and pony edger.
Mechanics, electricians, and
others who repair and maintain the
industry’s equipment are trained on
the job under the guidance of su­
pervisors and experienced workers.
In some firms, this training is sup­
plemented by classroom instruc­
tion. Maintenance trainees
frequently are selected from work­
ers already employed in mills or
logging crews. Many firms, how­
ever, will hire inexperienced people
who have mechanical aptitude.
Generally, it takes a trainee 3 to 4
years to become skilled in one of
the maintenance jobs.
Workers who have leadership
ability and years of experience can
advance to supervisory positions in
mills and logging crews. As in other
industries, however, opportunities
for promotion are limited because
relatively few of these positions
exist.
Loggers and millhands must be in

Employment in logging and
lumber mills is expected to decline
through the mid-1980’s despite in­
creases in wood production to meet
the Nation’s population and indus­
trial growth. Laborsaving machin­
ery will make it possible to harvest
and process more lumber with
fewer employees. Nevertheless,
several thousand new workers will
be needed each year to replace
those who retire, die, or leave the
industry for other reasons. The
number of job openings may fluctu­
ate from year to year, however,
because the demand for lumber is
sensitive to changes in construction
activity.
Employment in logging camps
and mills will decline over the long
run as more modern equipment and
techniques are adopted. A tree
shear, for example, which has a
scissor-like pair of blades, can cut
down a tree four times as fast as a
saw. As more of these shears come
into use, fewer logging workers will
be required. Sawmills and planing
mills may reduce employment
requirements by installing new
machinery and improving plant
layouts. In the kiln area, for exam­
ple, a stacking machine operated by

LoKKinx

................................................................
Deck workers
Pond workers
Sorters
Trimmers
Checker setters
Block setters
Pony edgers
Lumber stackers
Truckdrivers
Planer operators
Graders, planed lumber
Tractor drivers, skidding
Head-saw operators, circular saw
Head-saw operators, band saw
Falters and buckers, power

two or three people can replace six
who stack by hand.
Although employment in the in­
dustry as a whole is declining, cer­
tain occupations will grow. Addi­
tional mechanics, for example, will
be needed to maintain the growing
stock of logging equipment, trucks,
and mill machinery. More foresters
will find jobs in this industry as
forest replanting and conservation
programs receive greater attention.
Mechanical and electrical en­
gineers will be in greater demand as
the industry’s production methods
become more complex. As in the
past, however, most of the indus­
try’s job openings will be for logging
and millworkers; because they
make up a very large proportion of
the industry’s total employment,
replacement needs are high.
Summer jobs sometimes are
available for high school students




Hourly rates
South West Coast
$2.30
2.55
2.25
2.35
2.45
2.50
2.45
2.25
2.50
3.30
2.70
2.70
3.40
4.45
2.85

$4.40
4.40
4.40
4.60
4.75
4.85
4.95
4.95
5.00
5.20
5.35
5.55
6.00
6.40
7.95

17 years of age or older. These jobs
are unskilled and include such tasks
as working on a survey crew, help­
ing haul logs to landings, clearing
brush, and fighting forest fires.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

Most logging jobs are outdoors.
The forest may be wet, muddy, and
hot, with annoying insects during
the summer; conversely, working
conditions may be difficult and time
lost because of snow, sleet, and low
temperature during the winter.
Sawmills and planing mills may be
noisy and dusty, and uncomfortably
warm during the summer.
Moreover, work at logging sites and
in mills is more hazardous than in
most manufacturing plants. For
many persons, however, the oppor­
tunity to work and live in forest re­
gions away from crowded cities
more than offsets these disad­
vantages.
The major unions in this industry
are the International Woodworkers
of America and the United Brother­
hood of Carpenters and Joiners of
America, both AFL—CIO af­
filiates. A large proportion of the
industry’s production workers on
the West Coast are covered by
union-management contracts. On
the other hand, relatively few of
those in the South were covered.

In 1974, production workers in
sawmills and planning mills
averaged $3.79. In comparison,
Sources of Additional
production workers in manufactur­
Information
ing industries as a whole averaged
$4.40 an hour.
For further information about job
Wage rates in logging vary con­ opportunities and working condi­
siderably by occupation, size of tions, contact:
firm, machines and equipment used International Woodworkers of America,
and, above all, by geographic area.
1622 N. Lombard St., Portland, Oreg.
97217.
Estimated average hourly rates for
selected occupations in West Coast Wood Industry Careers, National Forest
Products Association, 1619 Mass. Ave.
and Southern logging operations
NW„ Washington, D.C. 20036.
and mills in 1974 are shown in the
accompanying tabulation.

MOTOR VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT
MANUFACTURING OCCUPATIONS
The automobile industry
employs more workers than any
other single manufacturing indus­
try. Moreover, it is a major con­
sumer of steel, rubber, plate
glass, and other basic materials.
Many businesses, including repair
shops, gas stations, highway con­
struction, and truck and bus
transportation facilities, have
been created because of motor
vehicles.
To build the more than 10 million
vehicles produced in 1974, the au­
tomobile industry employed
860,000 workers. In addition to
workers discussed in this chapter,
thousands of persons work in other
industries that produce automobile
glass, automotive stampings,
lighting systems, storage batteries,
tires, and many other components.
Like other large industries, the
automobile industry employs peo­
ple with widely different levels and
types of education and training. Job
requirements vary from a college
degree for engineers and other
professional and technical workers
to a few hours of on-the-job training
for some assemblers, materials han­
dlers, and custodians.
Nature and Location of the
Industry

The automobile industry is able
to produce millions of vehicles
because of mass production of
standardized parts and assembly
line manufacturing. Parts plants
make thousands of interchangeable
parts. At the assembly plants work­
ers put these parts together to build
a complete vehicle. New cars are
driven off the assembly line at the
rate of about one a minute.



The industry has about 3,000
plants, ranging from small parts
plants with only a few workers to
huge assembly plants that employ
several thousand. About 85 percent
of the industry’s employees work in
plants with 500 workers or more.
Over two-thirds of the automo­
bile industry’s employees work in
the Great Lakes region, including
Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois,
Wisconsin, and western New York.
Michigan alone has almost 40 per­
cent of the total, with half of these
workers in the Detroit metropolitan
area. Other important automobile
industry centers in the Great Lakes
area are Flint and Lansing,
Michigan; Cleveland and Warren,
Ohio; Indianapolis and Ft. Wayne,
Indiana; Buffalo, New York; and
Chicago, Illinois.
Major automobile manufacturing
centers are also found in other parts
of the country, including Los An­
geles, San Francisco, Kansas City,
St. Louis, Atlanta, and Philadel­
phia.
How Automobiles are Made

There are three stages in making
an automobile: designing, engineer­
ing, and testing; production of parts
and subassemblies; and final as­
sembly. (Although the rest of this
statement discusses only automo­
biles, the information also applies
to trucks, buses, and other motor
vehicles.)
Designing, Engineering, and Test­
ing. About 2 to 3 years of designing,
engineering, and testing precede
the actual production of a new car.
First, executives decide what
kind of car to produce—a sports

car, compact, or luxury car—and
approve basic specifications for the
car’s size and cost. Stylists design
the car’s body and interior. From
the stylists’ sketches and drawings,
skilled model makers make scale
and full-size clay and fiberglass
models of the car. The models are
used to refine the styling, to evalu­
ate safety features, and finally to
make master dies for producing the
car. Engineers design the car’s en­
gine, transmission, suspension, and
other parts. Their designs must
meet safety and pollution control
standards, as well as pass cost, fuel
economy, and performance tests.
They work with physicists,
chemists, metallurgists, and other
scientists on research to develop
new parts, stronger and lighter
metal alloys, new ways to use
plastic and fiberglass, and
thousands of other improvements.
Engineers also work with drafters
who draw up blueprints and specifi­
cations.
Each new design and improve­
ment is thoroughly tested in the
laboratory and on the road. Engines
are run thousands of miles under
nearly all driving conditions. Safety
features are tested in the laboratory
and in actual crashes. Components
that fail must be redesigned before
the car can be produced.
Production of Parts. Once the car is
finally designed and tested, the
thousands of parts that are needed
to assemble complete vehicles must
be produced. Parts are made from a
variety of materials, including steel,
copper, aluminum, glass, rubber,
plastic, and fabric.
Several different methods are
used to make metal parts. The cast­
ing process is used for bulky parts
such as engine blocks. Axles and
other parts that must withstand
great stress are forged. Body panels
are stamped out of sheet metal by
huge presses. Some parts are
machined to exact dimensions.
Some parts are made entirely by
machine. These metalworking

processes are explained more fully
under plant occupations.
Other parts are produced by a
variety of manufacturing processes.
Plastic and glass parts are molded
and cut, seat cushions are sewn, and
many parts are painted. Parts are
also assembled into units or
“subassemblies,” such as complete
transmissions.
Throughout production many in­
spections and tests are made to en­
sure that the assembled car will
meet quality and safety standards.
Final Assembly. After many months
of designing, testing, and producing
parts, the car is finally assembled.
Workers attach the parts and subas­
semblies in the right order as a con­
veyor carries the chassis along the
assembly line. Axles are attached;
the engine and transmission are
mounted; body panels are welded
together, painted, and joined to the
chassis; instrument panels and seats
are installed. Near the end of the
line, hubcaps, mirrors, and other
finishing touches are added.
Gasoline is pumped into the fuel
tank, headlights and wheels are
aligned, and the car is inspected
and driven off the line. The whole
final assembly process may take as
little as 90 minutes.
Assembling hundreds of cars a
day requires expert timing and
coordination. Parts and subassem­
blies are delivered according to
production schedules arranged
months in advance. They are fed
continually to workers from storage
areas along the assembly line. In­
structions for the color and special
equipment for each car are trans­
mitted along the line. This system
allows cars of different colors and
types to follow each other on the as­
sembly line—a blue sedan may fol­
low a red station wagon. Inspec­
tions are made at many assembly
stations to make sure the car is put
together correctly.

workers in hundreds of occupa­
tions. Semiskilled plant workers, in­
cluding assemblers and inspectors,
make up about one-half of all em­
ployees. An additional one-quarter
are supervisors, machinists, tool
and die makers, mechanics, and
other skilled craftworkers. Clerical
workers make up another one-tenth
of the total. The rest are profes­
sionals, technicians, salesworkers,
managers, guards, and unskilled
workers.
Some of the important occupa­
tions are described briefly below.
Detailed discussions of many of the
professional, technical, craft, and
plant jobs may be found elsewhere
in the Handbook.
Professional and Technical Occupa­
tions. The modern automobile is the

product of the research, design, and
development work of thousands of
engineers, chemists, drafters, and
other professional and technical
workers.
Over 30,000 engineers worked in
the automobile industry in 1974.
Most of them were mechanical,
electrical, or industrial engineers.
Mechanical engineers design im­
provements for engines, transmis­
sions, and other working parts.
Electrical engineers design the car’s
electrical system, especially the ig­
nition system and accessories. In­
dustrial engineers concentrate on
plant layout, work standards,
scheduling, and other production
problems. The industry also em­
ploys metallurgical, civil, chemical,
and ceramic engineers.
The industry employed over
3,000 mathematicians, physicists,
chemists, and other physical
scientists in 1974. Most of them
work on research and development
projects such as finding ways to
reduce fuel consumption and air
pollution and studying the behavior
of metals under certain conditions.
Mathematicians and statisticians
design quality control systems and
Occupations in the Industry
work with research scientists and
The automobile industry employs engineers. Some scientists supervise




technical phases of production.
Metallurgists, for example, super­
vise melting and heating operations
in the casting and forging depart­
ments.
Drafters are the largest group of
technical workers. They work
closely with engineers and stylists to
draft blueprints and specifications
for each part of the car. Engineer­
ing aides, laboratory assistants, and
thousands of other technicians also
assist engineers and scientists.
Administrative, Clerical, and Related
Occupations. Executives decide
what kind of vehicles to produce,
what prices to charge, where to
build plants, and whether to manu­
facture or buy certain parts. They
are assisted by lawyers, market
analysts, economists, statisticians,
industrial relations experts and
other professionals, who may also
supervise plant or office staffs.
Purchasing agents, personnel
managers, and other administrative
workers direct special phases of the
company’s business.
Secretaries,
bookkeepers,
shipping clerks, keypunch and busi­
ness machine operators, typists, and
other clerical employees work in
the industry’s plants and offices.
Plant Occupations. About threefourths of the automobile industry’s
employees work in the plant. Most
of them make parts or work on the
assembly line. Others service and
repair machinery and equipment.
Foundry Occupations. Engine
blocks and many other parts are
“cast” or molded from melted
metal. Patternmakers, coremakers,
and machine molders make sand
molds which have a hollow space
inside in the shape of the part.
Workers called melters and pourers
melt the metal in electric furnaces,
or cupolas, and pour it into the
mold. After it cools and hardens
into the shape of the part, shakeout
workers remove the casting from
the mold.

Forging Occupations. Axles,
driveshafts, and other forged parts
are made by pounding metal into
dies. Workers called heaters heat
the metal in a furnace and place it
in a forging die. Hammerers then
use a drophammer to pound the
metal into the shape of the die.
Other forge shop workers clean,
finish, heattreat, and inspect forged
parts.
Machining and other Metalworking
Occupations. Most rough cast,

forged, and some stamped parts
must be machined to exact dimen­
sions before they can be used.
Machine tool operators, represent­
ing one of the industry’s largest
metal working occupations, run
machine tools that cut or grind
away excess metal from rough
parts. Most operators'use only one
kind of machine tool and are called
lathe operators, milling machine
operators, or some other special
title. Operators on some machines
make simple tool changes and
gauge machined areas of the parts.
Some machine tools are auto­
matic and can be linked together to
do a series of machining operations.
A rough engine block, for example,
can be moved through hundreds of
automatic drilling, cutting, and
grinding operations with little or no
manual labor. Some of the inspec­
tion is also automatic. Workers
must monitor a control panel to
spot interruptions and breakdowns.
Assembly Occupations. The largest
group of workers in the automobile
industry are the assemblers (D.O.T.
806.887). They put together small
parts to make subassemblies, and
put subassemblies together to build
a complete vehicle. Each assembler
has a specific job to do as the vehi­
cle passes a work station. For exam­
ple, one worker mounts a tire and
the next worker tightens the nuts
with a power wrench. Most as­
sembly jobs are repetitive and
require limited skills. However,



Assemblers install crank shaft into cylinder block.

they do require good coordination,
and may be strenuous.
Finishing Occupations. “Finishing”
includes painting, polishing, uphol­
stering, and other operations that
protect the car’s surface and add to
the car’s comfort and appearance.
Electroplaters (D.O.T. 500.885)
coat bumpers, grills, hubcaps, and
trim with chrome. Metal finishers
(D.O.T. 705.884) file and polish
rough metal surfaces in preparation
for painting. Sprayers (D.O.T.
741.887) apply primers and paint
with power spray guns. Polishers
(D.O.T. 705.884) polish finished
surfaces by hand or with a power
buffing wheel.
Several different kinds of work­
ers combine their skills to make
the car’s upholstery. Working from
a pattern, cutters (D.O.T. 781.884)
cut fabric or leather with hand or
electric shears. Sewing machine

operators (D.O.T. 787.782) sew the
pieces together into seat covers or
headliners. Cushion builders

(D.O.T. 780.884) fasten springs,
padding, and foam rubber to the
seats and other upholstered areas
and install the covers.
Inspection Occupations. (D.O.T.
806.281, .283, .381, .382, .387,
.684, and .687). Throughout the
manufacture and assembly of a new
car, inspectors inspect certain parts
for defects. They inspect raw
materials, examine parts during
manufacturing, check the quality
and uniformity of subassemblies,
and test-drive the new car. Inspec­
tors need various skills, depending
on the part of process they inspect.
Many of them use micrometers,
gauges, and testing instruments and
read blueprints and specifications.
Other Plant Occupations. Many

other workers help keep the plant
operating by delivering materials
and parts, repairing equipment, and
cleaning and guarding the plant.
Assembly line production
requires an elaborate materials han­
dling and delivery system. Materials
handlers load and unload raw
materials and parts from trucks,
ships, and railroad cars. Overhead
crane operators move heavy
machinery and raw steel. Power
truck operators move parts and
materials about the plant.
Checkers, stock chasers, and stock
clerks make sure parts and tools are
delivered to the assembly line at the
right time. They receive and dis­
tribute materials and keep records
of shipments.
A large staff of workers set up the
plant’s equipment and keep it in
good condition. Skilled main­
tenance mechanics and electricians
service and repair complex
mechanical hydraulic, electrical,
and electronic equipment. Mill­
wrights move and install heavy
machinery. Plumbers and pipefit­
ters lay out, install, and repair pip­
ing, valves, pumps, and compres­
sors. Carpenters, stationary en­
gineers, and sheet-metal workers
also work in automobile plants.
The industry also employs many
protective and custodial workers,
including guards, janitors, and por­
ters.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Engineers and scientists must
have at least a bachelor’s degree
with an appropriate major. Ad­
vanced degrees or specialized ex­
perience are sometimes required
for research and development jobs.
About a dozen colleges offer un­
dergraduate or graduate courses in
automotive engineering, and many
companies have training programs
in automotive specialties for en­
gineers and scientists. Most compa­
nies also offer grants, loans, or tui­
tion refund plans to their employees



for advanced study. Engineers and
scientists may become supervisors
of research or production units, and
sometimes enter administrative or
executive positions.
Most automotive stylists are
graduates of art institutes or have
bachelor’s degrees in industrial
design. They should have a
background in practical applica­
tions, such as model building, as
well as in design theory and
techniques.
Most engineering aides, laborato­
ry assistants, drafters, and other
technicians in the automobile in­
dustry are graduates of technical in­
stitutes or junior colleges. Others
are trained on the job, at company
schools, or at company expense at
local technical schools or junior
colleges. Technicians sometimes
advance to engineering jobs
through experience and study
toward an engineering degree.
Although a college education is
not always required, administrative
jobs are usually filled by people
with degrees in business administra­
tion, engineering, marketing, ac­
counting, industrial relations, and
similar fields. Some companies
offer advanced training in these
specialties.
For semiskilled jobs, the industry
seeks people who can do routine
work at a steady pace. Most as­
sembly jobs can be learned in a few
hours, and the less skilled machine
operating jobs can be learned in a
few weeks. Plant workers should be
in good health and have good coor­
dination and ability to do mechani­
cal work.
Tool and die makers, pattern­
makers, electricians, and some
other craftworkers in the automo­
bile industry need at least 4 years of
training. Although many persons
learn their skills by working with
experienced craftworkers, ap­
prenticeship training is the best way
to learn a skilled trade. Automobile
manufacturers, working with labor
unions, offer apprenticeships in
many crafts.

Applicants for apprenticeship
usually must be high school, trade,
or vocational school graduates, or
have equivalent training. Training
should include mathematics,
science, mechanical drawing, and
shop courses. Apprentices must
pass physical examinations,
mechanical aptitude tests, and
other qualifying tests.
Apprenticeship includes both
classroom and on-the-job instruc­
tion. Shop math, blueprint reading,
shop theory, and such special sub­
jects as electronics and hydraulics
are studied in the classroom. In the
shop, apprentices learn the
techniques of their trade and how
to use tools and machinery.
Supervisors usually are selected
from workers already employed in
the firm, especially if they have
completed an apprenticeship and
have considerable experience.
Newly promoted supervisors
usually go through a special training
program.
Employment Outlook

Employment in the automobile
industry is not expected to increase
significantly through
1985.
Nevertheless, thousands of workers
will be hired in this large industry
each year to replace those who
retire, die, or transfer to other in­
dustries. The total number hired
will fluctuate from year to year
because the industry is sensitive to
changes in general business condi­
tions, consumer preferences,
availability of credit, and defense
activity.
The production of motor vehicles
is expected to increase during the
next decade as population and in­
come increase. Because of laborsaving technology, however, em­
ployment in the industry will not
keep pace with production. Au­
tomobile companies will use more
automated and computerized
equipment for machining, assem­
bling, and inspecting. A recent ex­
ample is the versatile “industrial

robot” which can be programmed
to weld body panels, feed parts into
machine tools, and do a variety of
other tasks. Also, new or
modernized plants will have the
latest conveyor equipment for mov­
ing parts and materials.
Some of the industry’s increased
efficiency, however, will be offset
by other developments. More wor­
kers will be needed to design, test,
and build cars with improved
safety, exhaust control, and fuel
consumption features.
Changes in the kinds of vehicles
built and how they are produced
will affect the type as well as the
number of workers employed in the
automobile industry. More en­
gineers, scientists, technicians, and
other professionals will be em­
ployed to meet the industry’s
research and development needs,
especially to design new engines,
exhaust systems, and safety equip­
ment. The use of computers will in­
crease the need for systems analysts
and programmers, but will limit em­
ployment growth in many clerical
occupations.
The employment of skilled wor­
kers, as a group, may decline,
mainly because fewer machinists
and tool and diemakers will be
needed as more efficient processes
are introduced. Some skilled occu­
pations will grow, including electri­
cians, millwrights, pipefitters, and
machine repairers. Overall, the
number of semiskilled.workers will
decline slightly.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

Production workers in the au­
tomobile industry are among the
highest paid in manufacturing. In
1974 they averaged $5.90 an hour,
compared to $4.40 an hour for
production workers in all manufac­
turing industries.




Besides wages and salaries, au­
tomobile workers receive a wide
range of fringe benefits. They are
paid one and one-half times their
normal wage for working more than
8 hours a day or 40 hours a week, or
for working on Saturday. They
receive premiums for working late
shifts, and double the normal wage
for Sundays and holidays. Most
workers get paid vacations (or pay­
ment instead of vacations) and 12
paid holidays a year. Most compa­
nies provide annual wage increases,
plus automatic increases when the
cost of living rises. Life, accident,
and health insurance are provided,
also.
A great majority of the industry’s
workers are covered by companypaid retirement plans. Retirement
pay varies with length of serv­
ice. Many plans provide for retire­
ment at age 55, or after 30 years of
service regardless of age.
Most wage workers and some
salaried employees receive supple­
mental unemployment benefit
plans, paid for entirely by their em­
ployers. These plans provide pay
during layoffs and also provide
short-workweek benefits when
workers are required to work less
than a full week. During layoff,
provisions are included for life,
accident, and health insurance;
survivor income benefits; reloca­
tion allowances; and separation
payments for those laid off 12
continuous months or more.
Most production maintenance
workers in assembly plants, and a
majority in parts plants, belong to
the International Union, United
Automobile, Aerospace and
Agricultural Implement Workers of
America. In'some parts plants, the
International Union, Allied Indus­
trial Workers of America is the bar­
gaining agent. Other workers be­
long to the International Associa­

tion of Machinists and Aerospace
Workers; the Pattern Maker’s
League of North America; the In­
ternational Molders’ and Allied
Workers’ Union of North America;
the Metal Polishers Buffers, Platers,
and Helpers International Union;
the International Union, United
Plant Guard Workers of America
(Ind.); the International Brother­
hood of Electrical Workers; the In­
ternational Union of Electrical,
Radio, and Machine Workers; and
the International Die Sinkers’ Con­
ference (Ind.).
Most automobile industry em­
ployees work in plants that are rela­
tively clean and free of dust, smoke,
and fumes. Some work areas, how­
ever, are hot, noisy, and filled with
dust and fumes. These conditions
have been greatly improved by the
introduction of better ventilation
and noise control systems.
Sources of Additional
Information

Information on employment and
training opportunities in the au­
tomobile industry can be obtained
from local offices of the State em­
ployment service; employment of­
fices of automobile firms; locals of
the unions listed above; and from:
International Union, United Automobile,
Aerospace and Agricultural Implement
Workers of America. 8000 East Jeffer­
son Ave., Detroit, Mich. 48214.
Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association of
the U.S., Inc., 320 New Center Building,
Detroit, Mich. 48202.

Information on careers in au­
tomotive engineering and a list of
schools offering automotive en­
gineering courses are available
from:
Society of Automotive Engineers, 2 Pennsyl­
vania Plaza, New York, N.Y. 10001.

ness machine manufacturing em­
ployment is located in nine States:
Ohio, Kentucky, New York,
Michigan, California, Illinois,
Delaware, New Jersey, and Con­
necticut. Some of the important
manufacturing centers are: Dayton,
OFFICE MACHINE AND COMPUTER
Toledo, and Euclid, Ohio; the New
York-Northeastern New Jersey in­
MANUFACTURING OCCUPATIONS
dustrial area; Hartford and Stam­
During the last decade, employ­ software or that rent or lease com­ ford, Conn.; Chicago, 111.; Detroit,
ment in the office machine and puters and provide related services. Mich.; and Lexington, Ky.
computer industry grew much In 1974, more than 80,000 peo­
faster than employment in manu­ ple were employed in factories that Occupations in the industry
facturing as a whole. Growth was produced conventional office A variety of occupations, requir­
spearheaded by a rapid expansion machines and scales. Of this total, ing a broad range of training and
in the production of computers. For nearly half produced desk calcula­ skills, are found in plants that make
many years, the industry’s chief tors, cash registers, coin and ticket office machines and computers.
products were typewriters, adding counters, and adding, accounting, More than half of the industry’s
machines, calculators, and other and voting machines; the rest
conventional office machines. produced typewriters, industrial workers are in white-collar jobs
(engineering,
Today, plants that make computers and household scales and miscel­ administrative,scientific, technical,
clerical);
account for more than half of the laneous office machines, including the others are sales, and jobs (as­
in plant
items as diverse as postage meters sembly, inspection, maintenance,
industry’s production.
and dictating machines.
Large plants account for most of transportation and service).
Nature and Location of the
White-collar workers represent a
the employment in office machine significantly larger proportion of
Industry
and computer manufacturing. A total employment in the computer
In 1974, the office machine and majority of the industry’s em­
computer manufacturing industry ployees are in plants that have industry than in most other manu­
employed 294,000 workers in ap­ 1.000 or more employees; several facturing industries because of the
proximately 1,000 plants. About 7 computer plants have more than highly complex nature of computer
manufacturing.
out of every 10 of them worked in 5.000 employees.
plants that produced computer California, New York, and Min­ Some of the key occupations in
equipment, the remainder in plants nesota have about two-thirds of the office machine and computer
that produced conventional office computer manufacturing employ­ industry are described briefly in the
machines and scales and other ment, and the following States em­ following section. (Detailed discus­
weighing devices.
ploy most of the remainder: Mas­ sions of professional, technical,
Computer equipment manufac­ sachusetts, Pennsylvania, Arizona, skilled, and other occupations
turing plants employed about Florida, Texas, North Carolina and found in this industry, as well as in
210,000 workers in 1974. These Colorado. In New York, the lower many others, are given elsewhere in
plants manufacture general purpose Hudson River Valley area has many the Handbook, in sections covering
computers as well as those used for important computer manufacturing individual occupations.)
special applications, such as space centers: Poughkeepsie, East Fish Engineering and Scientific Occupa­
exploration and missiles. They also Kill, and Kingston. Large manufac­ tions. Nearly 1 out of every 10
manufacture related equipment turing plants also are located in workers in the office machine and
such as machines that read mag­ Rochester and Utica, N.Y., and in computer industry is an engineer or
netic numbers on bank checks. In the Boston, Mass., and Philadel­ scientist. Most of them work at
addition to computers and related phia, Pa. areas. The leading center computer plants.
equipment, plants may furnish in the Midwest is Minneapolis-St. The largest group of engineers
“software” (computer programs Paul. The Los Angeles and San work with electricity or electronics.
and operating systems). Thousands Diego industrial areas are the most Most are engaged in research and
of people whose employment is not important computer manufacturing development, although many work
included in this chapter are em­ centers in the West, followed by in production. The industry also
ployed outside manufacturing Phoenix, Ariz.; and San Jose, Calif. employs large numbers of mechani­
plants by firms that specialize in Most of the conventional busi­ cal and industrial engineers. Some



mechanical engineers are engaged
in product development and tool
and equipment design. Others are
concerned with the maintenance,
layout, and operation of plant
equipment. Industrial engineers
determine the most effective means
of using the basic factors of produc­
tion-labor, machines, and materials.
Chemists make up the largest
group of scientists in office machine
and computer manufacturing. Their
work is primarily in chemical
processing of printed circuits used
in computers. Mathematicians
make up another large group of
scientists. Their work on complex
mathematical problems is impor­
tant in designing computers.
Physicists are employed in research
and development to work on items
such as miniaturized components
and circuits. Statisticians work in
fields such as quality control and
production scheduling.
The industry also employs
systems analysts and computer pro­
grammers, many of whom have
scientific
or
engineering
backgrounds. Systems analysts
primarily devise new information
processing techniques and improve
existing techniques. Programmers
design and test computer programs.
Some analysts and programmers
specialize in scientific and en­
gineering problems, while others
process accounting, inventory,
sales, and other business data.
Systems analysts and programmers
may assist sales personnel in deter­
mining data processing needs of
customers.
Technical Occupations. More than 1
out of every 20 workers in the in­
dustry is a technician. Most special­
ize in electronics and assist en­
gineers and scientists in research
and development, testing and in­
specting electronic components,
and doing complex assembly work.
Some electronics technicians spe­
cialize in repairing computers.
Chemical control technicians
prepare solutions used in the



etching of circuit boards. Photo­
graphic technicians set up cameras
and other equipment used in the
tracing process to create copper
etchings on circuit boards. Drafters
prepare drawings from sketches or
specifications furnished by en­
gineers. Engineering aids assist en­
gineers by making calculations,
sketches, and drawings, and by con­
ducting performance tests on com­
ponents.

Administrative and Sales Occupa­
tions. About 1 out of every 13 work­

ers is an administrator. Included
are top executives who manage
companies and determine policy
decisions and middle managers who
direct departments such as advertis­
ing and industrial relations. Other
administrative employees in staff
positions include accountants,
lawyers, and market researchers.
Sales personnel hold about 1 out
of every 25 jobs in the industry.
Those who sell conventional office
machines usually work on their
own. Computer sales personnel, on
the other hand, are assisted by a
host of technical experts, such as
engineers and systems analysts.
Because computers are complex
and expensive, computer sales
representatives may have to spend
several months to complete a sale.
Clerical Occupations. Nearly 1 out
every 6 workers in the industry is in
a clerical job. Included in this group
are secretaries, clerk typists, file
clerks, bookkeepers, and business
machine operators, as well as com­
puter personnel such as keypunch
and computer operators.
Plant Occupations. Nearly half of
this industry’s employees are plant
(blue-collar) workers. Most plant
workers are engaged directly in
making computers and office
machines. They include assemblers,
inspectors or testers, machinists,
machine tool operators, and their
supervisors. Truckdrivers, material
handlers, power truck operators,
guards, and janitors move materials

and perform custodial duties, and
plumbers and pipefitters, electri­
cians, carpenters, and other work­
ers maintain production machin­
ery and building facilities.
Assembly Occupations. (D.O.T.
590.885; 692.782; 706.884;
726.781 and .884) Workers who as­
semble computers and office
machines have many different
skills, and make up the largest
group of plant workers.
Assemblers may put together
small parts to make components or
components to make sub-assem­
blies or the finished product. Much
of their work is done by hand. Some
assemblers do a single operation as
components move down the as­
sembly line. The assembly of
typewriters, for example, is divided
into many simple operations. Each
assembler does one job as the typwriter passes the work station.
Some assembly jobs are difficult
and require great skill, while others
are relatively simple. Skilled elec­
tronics assemblers, for example, use
diagrams as guides to wire complex
memory and logic panels for com­
puters.
Machines are used for many as­
sembly operations. Automatic wirewrapping machines, for example,
wire panels and plugboards. Opera­
tors feed these machines and
remove and inspect finished items.
Electronic technicians usually do
the most difficult hand assembly
work. In research laboratories, they
put together experimental equip­
ment. In plants, they put together
complex items that require a
knowledge of electronics theory.
Assemblers commonly use
screwdrivers, pliers, snippers, and
soldering irons and they use special
devices to position and hold parts
during assembly. Some assemblers
use precision equipment to weld
connections in circuit assemblies.
Machining Occupations. Most office
machine and computer manufac­
turing plants employ machining

workers who operate power-driven
machine tools to produce plastic
and metal parts for computers,
typewriters, accounting machines,
calculators, and other products.
Numerical control machine opera­
tors tend machines that have been
programmed to perform machining
operations automatically. Toolmakers construct and repair equip­
ment used to make and assemble
parts. Diemakers specialize in metal
forms (dies) used in punch and
power presses that shape metal
parts.
Inspection and Testing Operations.

These operations begin when raw
materials enter the plant and con­
tinue throughout the assembly
process. Finished parts and
products are tested and inspected
thoroughly.
Some inspectors examine in­
dividual parts; others inspect com­
ponents during subassembly; still
others inspect completed office
machines and computers. Many in­
specting jobs require highly skilled
workers. On the other hand, rela­
tively unskilled people can run
some automatic test equipment.
Workers who feed or monitor this
equipment are called test-set opera­
tors or testing machine operators.
Job titles indicate the work many
inspectors do. Machined parts in­
spectors (D.O.T. 609.381) use
precision testing instruments to
determine whether parts have been
machined properly. Type inspectors
(D.O.T. 706.687) use a magnifying
glass to examine typewriter type for
defects. Electronic subassembly in­
spectors (D.O.T. 726.384) use
microscopes, meters, and various
measuring devices to examine cir­
cuits and other electronic subas­
semblies. Electronic assembly in­
spectors (D.O.T. 722.281) use spe­
cial instruments to test electronic
systems such as computer memory
units.
In plants that manufacture con­
ventional office machines, final in­
spection is relatively simple. Inspec­



tors operate the machines, look for
defects, and refer malfunctioning
machines to repairers. The final in­
spection or “debugging” of compu­
ters, on the other hand, is very com­
plex. Electronic technicians inspect
new computers under the supervi­
sion of electronic engineers. They
use complex equipment to run tests
and detailed drawings and instruc­
tions to find causes of malfunctions.
Maintenance Occupations. Many
maintenance workers with different
types of training take care of the in­
dustry’s production machinery and
equipment. Skilled electricians are
responsible for the maintenance of
electrical equipment. Machine and
equipment repairers make
mechanical repairs. Maintenance
machinists and welders build and
repair equipment. Air-conditioning
and refrigeration mechanics are
employed in plants which are airconditioned and have special
refrigerated and dust-free rooms in
order to maintain the equipment.
Painters, plumbers, pipefitters, car­
penters, and sheet-metal workers,
and other building maintenance
craft workers also are employed.
Other Plant Occupations. Many
truckdrivers are employed to make
deliveries to various parts of plants.
Laborers load and unload trucks
and boxcars and do general clean­
up work. Some other plant occupa­
tions are boiler operator, stationary
engineer, guard, and janitor.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A bachelor’s degree in engineer­
ing or one of the sciences is usually
required for engineering and scien­
tific jobs. For research and develop­
ment work, applicants with ad­
vanced degrees generally are
preferred. Some companies have
training programs designed to give
young college graduates a broad
picture of manufacturing opera­
tions before they are assigned to a

particular department. Because of
the highly technical nature of com­
puters, many of the industry’s ex­
ecutives have backgrounds in en­
gineering or science.
Engineers and scientists, as well
as graduates of business administra­
tion and liberal arts colleges, are
employed as sales workers, pro­
grammers, and systems analysts.
Most business and liberal arts grad­
uates, however, are employed in ac­
counting, labor-management rela­
tions, and other administrative ac­
tivities.
Technicians qualify for their jobs
in a number of ways. Some obtain
training in either a public, private,
or Armed Forces technical schools.
Others have one or more years of
scientific or engineering training,
but have not completed all of the
requirements for a degree. Still
other technicians are promoted
from lower grade jobs in the plant
and some well-qualified technicians
may advance to engineering jobs
after completing courses in mathe­
matics, engineering, and related
subjects.
People who complete commer­
cial courses in high school or busi­
ness school are preferred in clerical
jobs such as stenographer or office
machine operator. For computer
operators, most firms prefer appli­
cants who have some college or
technical training in data
processing. With additional train­
ing, some computer operators and
clerical workers advance to pro­
grammer jobs.
In selecting workers for plant
jobs, firms generally prefer high
school or vocational school gradu­
ates, who are then trained through
on-the-job instruction and ex­
perience that varies from a few days
to years. Some plants also conduct
classroom training of short dura­
tion. Skilled craft workers, such as
machinists and tool and die makers,
may spend 3 to 4 years in learning
their jobs and some firms have for­
mal apprenticeship programs,
which include both on-the-job

training and classroom instruction
related to the particular craft.
Frequently, openings for skilled
jobs are filled by qualified young
workers already in the plant.
Workers who have little or no
previous experience or training are
hired for less skilled inspection, as­
sembly, and machining jobs. Appli­
cants may have to pass aptitude
tests and demonstrate ability for
particular types of work. Most as­
sembly and inspection jobs require
good eyesight and color perception,
manual dexterity, and patience.
Experienced plant workers have
opportunities to advance to jobs
with higher pay. Assemblers, for ex­
ample, can become semiskilled in­
spectors, and eventually skilled in­
spectors. Machine tool operators
can move to skilled machinist jobs.
Craft workers and skilled inspectors
can become technicians, after
completing courses in companyoperated schools, junior colleges,
or technical schools. Supervisory
jobs are open to well-qualified plant
workers who have leadership abili­
ty.
Employment Outlook

Employment in this industry is
expected to increase much faster
than the average for all industries
through the mid-1980’s. In addition
to the job openings that result from
employment growth, many
openings will arise as experienced
workers retire, die, or transfer to
jobs in other industries.
Employment growth is expected
to be concentrated in plants that
produce electronic computer
equipment as the demand for com­
puters and related equipment con­
tinues to increase. As the economy
expands and becomes more com­
plex, computers will become in­
creasingly useful to business,
government agencies, and other or­
ganizations. Demand also will be
stimulated as new uses for compu­
ters are developed. Growth in the
number of computers will be ac­



companied by a need for additional
computer-related equipment—
input and output, storage, and com­
munication devices.
Employment in plants that
produce conventional office
machines is expected to grow
slowly. Most job openings will
result from the need to replace ex­
perienced workers who retire, die,
or transfer to other industries. The
demand for most types of office
machines is expected to rise rapidly
as business and government or­
ganizations grow and the volume of
paperwork increases. However,
technological improvements in
production methods are expected
to increase output per worker. For
example, increasing mechanization
of operations formerly done by
hand will tend to reduce labor
requirements, particularly in plants
where products are mass-produced,
such as typewriters and calculators.
Some occupational groups in the
office machine and computer
manufacturing industry are ex­
pected to grow faster than others.
For example, the number of profes­
sional and administrative workers,
particularly engineers, scientists,
and technicians, is expected to in­
crease more rapidly than the
number of plant workers. Demand
for these workers will be spurred by
continued high levels of research
and development expenditures to
improve production processes, ad­
vance machine capabilities, and
aroaden the use of computers for
lumerical controlled manufactur­
ing.
Semiskilled production workers,
such as assemblers and inspectors,
will continue to account for most of
the work force in plant occupa­
tions, despite the growing use of au­
tomated and mechanized assembly
line equipment.

dustry are higher than the average
for other manufacturing industries.
In 1974, they averaged $4.64 an
hour, compared with $4.40 an hour
for plant workers in manufacturing
industries as a whole.
National wage data are not
available for individual occupations
in the office machine and computer
industry. However, the following
tabulation, based on data obtained
from a small number of union con­
tracts, provides an example of the
range in hourly wage rates for
selcted occupations in 1974:
Hourly rate
ranges

Assemblers................................. $ 3.03-4.46
Machinists.................................. 3.49-4.93
Inspectors................................... 2.93-4.93
Tool and die makers................ 3.53-4.90
Electricians................................ 3.34-4.48

Some employees work night
shifts and weekends because many
plants operate around the clock.
Employees working second or third
shifts, or more than 8 hours a day or
40 hours a week generally receive
extra pay.
Paid vacations and holidays are
almost universal in this industry.
Most employees receive I to 4
weeks of vacation, depending on
length of service. They also receive
insurance and pension benefits at
least partially financed by the em­
ployer. Employee stock purchase
plans are available in many firms.
In general, the work surroundings
in office machine and computer
plants are more favorable than
those in most other types of facto­
ries. Work stations usually are welllighted and clean, and free from
dust, fumes, and loud noises. Many
computer factories are relatively
new and are located in suburban
areas.
Some plant jobs are repetitious,
but very few require great physical
effort. Fewer and less severe inju­
Earnings and Working
ries take place in office machine
Conditions
and computer manufacturing than
Earnings of plant workers in the the average for all manufacturing.
office machine and computer in­ Many plant workers are covered

by union contracts. The principal and the International Brotherhood Computer and Business Equipment Manu­
facturer’s Association, 1828 L. St. NW.,
unions in this industry are the Inter­ of Electrical Workers.
Washington, D.C. 20036.
national Association of Machinists
For general information on jobs
and Aerospace Workers; the Inter­
in the industry, write to:
national Union, United Automo­
Sources of Additional
American Federation of Information
bile, Aerospace and Agricultural
Information
Processing Societies, Inc., 210 Summit
Implement Workers of America;
Ave., Montvale, N.J. 07645.
the International Union of Electri­ For general information on the
cal, Radio and Machine Workers; industry, write:




OCCUPATIONS IN THE PAPER
AND ALLIED PRODUCTS INDUSTRIES
In 1974, the paper and allied
products industry employed about
700,000 people to produce many
different kinds of paper and paperboard products. The industry em­
ploys workers in occupations rang­
ing from unskilled to highly special­
ized technical and professional
jobs, many found only in the paper
industry.
Nature and Location of the
Industry

The paper industry is highly
mechanized. Pulp, paper, and many
finished paper products are manu­
factured by machines—some as
long as a football field—in a series
of nearly automatic operations that
require very little handling of
materials by workers. Manufactur­
ing plants in the paper industry are
engaged in one or more of three dif­
ferent operations: The production
of pulp (the basic ingredient of
paper) from wood, reused fibers, or
other raw materials; the manufac­
ture of paper or paperboard (thick
paper) from pulp; or the conversion
of rolls or sheets of paper or paperboard into finished products, such
as tissue paper, envelopes, and
boxes.
The largest group of employees
in the industry works in mills that
produce pulp, paper, or paperboard. The next largest group
works in plants that make boxes
and containers; and the remainder
work in plants that make a variety
of other paper products.
About four-fifths of the industry’s
employees work in factories which
employ 100 workers or more.



Workers in this industry are
located throughout the country,
although about half are employed
in eight States: New York, Pennsyl­
vania, Ohio, Illinois, Wisconsin,
California, Massachusetts, and New
Jersey. Other States having large
numbers of paperworkers are
Michigan, Georgia, Washington,
North Carolina, Alabama, Maine,
Texas, and Florida.
Occupations in the Industry

Employees in the paper industry
work in a variety of occupations,
requiring a broad range of training
and skills. Many workers operate
and control specialized papermak­
ing, finishing, and converting
machines. Some workers install and
repair papermaking machinery.
Truck drivers make deliveries, and
other workers load and unload
trucks, railroad cars, and ships.
The industry employs many
workers in clerical, sales, and ad­
ministrative occupations. For ex­
ample, it employs purchasing
agents, personnel managers, sales
representatives, office clerks,
stenographers, book-keepers, and
business machine operators. Also,
because of the complex processes
and equipment used, the industry
employs professional and technical
workers, including chemical and
mechanical engineers, chemists,
laboratory technicians, and pulp
and paper testers. (Detailed dis­
cussions of professional, technical,
and mechanical occupations,
found not only in the paper indus­
try but in other industries, are given

elsewhere in the Handbook in
sections covering individual oc­
cupations.)
Production Jobs. In 1974, more
than three-fourths of all employees
in the industry worked in produc­
tion jobs. The simplified description
of papermaking occupations and
processes that follows applies to a
plant which combines the produc­
tion of pulp, paper, and finished
paper products into one continuous
operation. (See accompanying
chart.)
After logs are received at the
pulpmill, the bark is removed. One
machine used for this operation is a
large revolving cylinder known as a
“drum barker.” Logs are fed
mechanically into this machine by a
semiskilled worker called a barker
operator (D.O.T. 533.782). The
machine cleans bark from the logs
by tumbling them against each
other and also against the rough
inner surface of the drum. Next,
pulp fibers in the logs are separated
from other substances by a chemi­
cal or mechanical process, or both,
depending on the type of wood used
and the grade of paper desired.
In the mechanical process, pulpwood is held against a fast-revolving
grindstone that separates the fibers.
In the more commonly used chemi-'
cal process, pulpwood is carried on
conveyor belts to a chipper
machine operated by a chipper
(D.O.T. 668.885). The machine
cuts the pulpwood into chips about
the size of a quarter. These wood
chips are “cooked” with chemicals
under high temperature and pres­
sure in a “digester,” a kettlelike vat
several stories high. Digesters are
operated by skilled workers called
digester operators
(D.O.T.
532.782), who determine the
amount of chemicals to be used and
the cooking temperature and pres­
sure. They also direct the loading of
the digester with wood chips and
chemicals. By checking an instru­
ment panel, digester operators
make certain that proper conditions

are being maintained. When the
pulp fibers are removed from the
digester, they are washed to remove
chemicals, partially cooked chips,
and other impurities. These fibers,
called pulp, resemble wet, brown
cotton.
Many modern plants are today
making greater use of continuous
digesters (equipment that produces
pulp continuously rather than in
separate batches). Continuous
digesters make it practical to use
sawdust in pulp-making, and
eliminate the manual starting and
stopping of each batch of pulp.
To turn pulp into paper, the pulp
is mixed thoroughly with water and
further refined in machines
operated by skilled workers called
beater engineers (D.O.T. 530.782).
The kind and amount of chemicals
and dyes they use and the length of
time they “beat” the solution deter­
mines the color and strength of the
paper.
The pulp solution, now more



than 99 percent water, is turned
into paper or paperboard by
machines which are among the lar­
gest in American industry. The
machines are of two general types.
One is the Fourdrinier machine, by
far the most commonly used; the
other is the cylinder machine used
to make particular types of paper,
such as building and container
board. In the Fourdrinier, the pulp
solution pours into a continuously
moving and vibrating belt of fine
wire screen. As the water drains,
millions of pulp fibers adhere to one
another, forming a thin wet sheet of
paper. After passing through
presses that squeeze out more
water, the newly formed paper
passes through the dryer section of
the papermaking machine to
evaporate remaining water.
The quality of the paper
produced largely depends on the
skills of paper machine operators
(D.O.T. 539.782), who control the
“wet-end” of the papermaking

machine to form paper of specified
thickness, width, and physical
strength. They check control-panel
instruments to make sure the flow
of pulp and the speed of the
machine are coordinated. Paper
machine operators also determine
whether the paper meets required
specifications by interpreting
laboratory tests or, in some in­
stances, by visually checking or
feeling the paper. They supervise
the less skilled workers of the
machine crew and, with their help,
keep the paper moving smoothly
through the machine.
Many modern papermills have
papermaking machines which use
computers and advanced instru­
mentation to help the operator con­
trol the quality of the paper. For ex­
ample, beta-ray sensors measure
the weight of the paper and elec­
tromagnetic sensors measure the
thickness.
Backtenders (D.O.T. 532.885),
who are supervised by paper
machine operators, control the
pressure and temperature of
machinery that dries and finishes
the paper and gives it the correct
thickness. Backtenders inspect the
paper for imperfections, and make
sure that it is being wound tightly
and uniformly into rolls. They also
adjust the machinery that cuts the
rolls into smaller rolls and, with the
help of assistants, may weigh and
wrap the rolls for shipment.
Papermills that produce a fine
grade of paper for books,
magazines, or stationary usually
have finishing departments. Most
workers in these departments are
either semiskilled or unskilled. One
semiskilled worker, the supercalen­
dar operator (D.O.T. 534.782),
aided by several helpers and by
mechanical handling equipment,
places huge rolls of paper onto a
machine that gives the paper a
smooth and glossy finish. The su­
percalendar operator also inspects
the finished paper to make sure that
specifications have been met.
Another semiskilled worker, the

and pipefitters, who lay out, install,
and repair pipes.
Stationary engineers are em­
ployed to operate and maintain
powerplants, steam engines,
boilers, air compressors, and tur­
bines.
Professional and Technical Occupa­
tions. The complexity of pulp and

paper sorter and counter (D.O.T. thousands of workers to print

649.687), inspects sheets of paper
for tears, dirt spots, and wrinkles;
counts them; and may fill customer
orders.
In converting plants, machines
operated by semiskilled or skilled
workers convert paper and paperboard into envelopes, napkins, cor­
rugated shipping containers, and
other paper products. Occupations
in converting plants differ widely,
depending largely on the product
being manufactured. An example of
a semiskilled worker is the envelope
machine operator (D.O.T. 641.885)
who feeds and tends an automatic
machine that makes envelopes from
either rolls of paper or prepared en­
velope blanks. One of the few
skilled workers in a converting
plant is the printer-slotter operator
(D.O.T. 651.782) who controls a
machine that cuts and creases
paperboard sheets and prints
designs or lettering on them.
Converting plants employ



designs and lettering on bags,
labels, wallpaper, and other paper
products. Among these are com­
positors who set type, and press
operators who prepare and operate
printing presses.
Maintenance Jobs. The paper indus­
try employs many skilled main­
tenance workers to care for its com­
plex machinery and electrical
equipment. Millwrights install and
repair machinery. They also take
apart and reassemble machines
when they are moved about the
plant. Instrument repairers install
and service instruments that meas­
ure and control the flow of pulp,
paper, water, steam, and chemical
additives.
Other important maintenance
employees include electricians, who
repair wiring, motors, control
panels, and switches; maintenance
machinists, who make replacement
parts for mechanical equipment;

paper manufacturing requires
thousands of workers who have en­
gineering, chemical, or other
technical training. Approximately
15.000 scientists and engineers and
5.000 technicians were employed
by the paper industry in 1974.
Many chemists are employed to
control the quality of the product
by supervising the testing of pulp
and paper. In research laboratories,
chemists study the influence of vari­
ous chemicals on pulp and paper. In
addition, some chemists and en­
gineers are employed as sales
representatives, supervisors of
plantworkers, or as administrators
in positions which require technical
knowledge.
Chemical and mechanical en­
gineers transform- new pulp and
papermaking techniques into prac­
tical production methods. Some
chemical engineers supervise the
production process. Electrical en­
gineers supervise the operation of
power-generating and distributing
equipment and instruments.
Packaging engineers design con­
tainers and packages and supervise
their production. A few box manu­
facturers also employ artists who
develop letterings, designs, and
colors for containers.
Foresters manage large areas of
timberland and assist in the wood­
buying operations of pulp and
paper companies. They map forest
areas, plan and supervise the har­
vesting, and seed or plant new trees
to assure continuous production of
timber.
Systems analysts and computer
programmers are becoming increas­
ingly important to this industry due
to the greater use of computerized

controls in the production process.
They analyze business and produc­
tion problems and convert them to
a form suitable for solution by com­
puter.
Frequent tests are performed
during the manufacture of pulp or
paper to determine whether size,
weight, strength, color, and other
properties meet standards. Some
testing is done by machine opera­
tors, but in many mills testing
technicians are employed. These
technicians, who have job titles
such as laboratory technician, pulp
tester, and chemical analyst, also
assist engineers and chemists in
research and development activi­
ties.
Administrative, Clerical and Re­
lated Occupations. The paper indus­

try employs many administrative,
clerical, and other office personnel.
Executives plan and administer
company policy. To work effective­
ly, executives require information
from a wide variety of personnel,
including accountants, sales
representatives, lawyers, and per­
sonnel in industrial relations, trans­
portation, market research, and
other activities. Bookkeepers,
secretaries, shipping clerks, and
other clerical workers keep records
of personnel, payroll, inventories,
sales, shipments, and plant main­
tenance.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Paper and pulp companies
generally hire and train inex­
perienced workers for production
and maintenance occupations.
Many companies prefer to hire high
school graduates. Inexperienced
workers usually start as laborers or
helpers and advance along fairly
well-defined paths to more skilled
jobs.
Some large plants have formal
apprenticeship programs for main­
tenance workers. Under these pro­
grams, which usually last 3 to 4
years, people are trained for jobs,



such as machinist, electrician, mill­
wright, and pipefitter. Generally, an
applicant is given a physical ex­
amination, mechanical aptitude
tests, and similar qualifying tests.
Apprenticeship includes both onthe-job training and classroom in­
struction related to the occupation.
The machinist apprentice, for ex­
ample, receives classroom instruc­
tions in mathematics, blueprint
-eading, and shop theory.
A bachelor’s degree is usually the
minimum educational requirement
for scientists, engineers, foresters,
and other professional occupations.
For research work, persons having
advanced degrees are preferred.
Many engineers and chemists
(called process engineers and paper
chemists) have specialized training
in paper technology. A list of
schools offering such training is
available from the American Paper
Institute, 260 Madison Ave., New
York, N.Y. 10016. Many compa­
nies have summer jobs for college
students specializing in papermak­
ing, and upon graduation frequently
hire them on a permanent basis.
Some associations, colleges and in­
dividual companies offer scholar­
ships in pulp and papermaking
technology.
Some companies have formal
training programs for college grad­
uates with engineering or scientific
backgrounds. These employees be­
fore being assigned to a particular
department may work for brief
periods in various parts of the plant
to gain a broad knowledge of pulp
and paper manufacturing. Other
firms immediately assign junior
chemists or engineers to a specific
research, operation, or main­
tenance unit.
Generally, no specialized educa­
tion is required for laboratory
assistants, testing technicians, or
other kinds of technicians. Some
employers, however, prefer to hire
technical institute or junior college
graduates. Beginning technicians
start in routine jobs and advance to
positions of greater responsibility

after they acquire experience and
can work with minimum supervi­
sion.
Administrative postions usually
are filled by people who have col­
lege degrees in business administra­
tion, marketing, accounting, indus­
trial relations, or other specialized
business fields. A knowledge of
paper technology is helpful for ad­
ministrators and sales occupations.
This is true especially for sales
representatives who give customers
technical assistance. Most pulp and
paper companies employ clerks,
bookkeepers, stenographers, and
typists who have had commercial
courses in high school or business
school.
For production workers, promo­
tion generally is limited to more
skilled jobs within a “work area,”
which may be a department, sec­
tion, or an operation on one type of
machine. These promotions may
take years, depending on the availa­
bility of jobs. Experience gained
within a work area usually is not
transferrable; unskilled
or
semiskilled workers who transfer to
jobs outside their seniority-area or
to other plants usually must start in
entry jobs.
Many plant supervisors are
former production workers. In
some plants, qualified workers may
be promoted directly to supervisory
positions. In others, workers are
given additional training before
they are eligible for promotion.
This training often is continued
after the worker is promoted—
through conferences, special plant
training sessions, and courses at
universities or trade schools. Most
firms provide some' financial
assistance for employees who take
courses outside the plant.
Employment Outlook

Employment in the paper and al­
lied products industry is expected
to increase more slowly than the
average for all industries through
the mid-1980’s. Although a signifi­
cant number of job openings is ex­

pected due to growth, most
openings will stem from the need to
replace workers who retire, die, or
leave their jobs for other reasons.
The number of job openings may
fluctuate from year to year, how­
ever, because the demand for paper
is somewhat sensitive to changes in
economic conditions.
Paper production is expected to
increase over the long run as popu­
lation and business activity grow
and new uses for paper are
developed. Employment will grow
at a slower rate than production,
however, because of the greater use
of laborsaving machinery. Most of
the employment growth will occur
in plants that make finished
products such as napkins, en­
velopes, boxes, and wrapping
paper. These plants are not as
suited for laborsaving machinery as
plants that produce pulp and un­
finished paper products.
Occupational groups within the
industry are expected to grow at
different rates. The number of en­
gineers, scientists, technicians, and
maintenance workers is expected to
increase faster than other occupa­
tional groups in the industry. More
scientific and technical personnel
will be needed as research and
development activities expand, and
more maintenance workers will be
required to service the more com­
plex machinery. Employment of ad­
ministrative and clerical workers
also is expected to rise at a faster
pace than total employment. On the
other hand, the number of produc­
tion workers may decline slightly as
more laborsaving machinery is in­
troduced. Nevertheless, replace­
ment needs will create many job
openings for production workers.

areas. They also may be exposed to
disagreeable odors from chemicals
in the papermaking process. The
rate of injury in this industry has
been about the same as the rate for
all manufacturing.
A majority of the production
workers are members of trade
unions. The largest unions in the in­
dustry are the United Papermakers
and Paperworkers and the Interna­
tional Brotherhood of Pulp, Sul­
phite and Paper Mill Workers.
Many other workers in the Western
States, are represented by the As­
sociation of Western Pulp and
Paper Workers. Many printing wor­
to the International
Hourly rate kers belong Graphic Communica­
ranges Printing and
tions Union. Some maintenance
$4.85-7.99 and craft workers belong to various
4.43-7.54 craft unions.

industry had average earnings of
$4.50 an hour in 1974. In the same
year, production workers in all
manufacturing industries averaged
$4.40 an hour.
The following tabulation, based
on information from a score of
union-management contracts in the
paper industry, illustrates the ap­
proximate range of hourly wage
rates for selected production and
maintenance occupations in 1974.
Local rates within these ranges de­
pend on geographic location, type
and size of mill, kinds of machines
used, and other factors.
Production occupations:
Paper machine operator...
Backtender.........................
Head stock preparer
(beater engineer)..........
Digester operator
(cook)..............................
Supercalendar operator...
Barker operator, drum......
Chipper...............................
Maintenance occupations:
Pipefitter.............................
Electrician..........................
Machinist............................

4.48-6.13
4.61-6.09
5.07-5.69
4.13-4.87
4.12-4.61

Sources of Additional
Information

Further information about job
opportunities in this industry is
available from local offices of the
State employment service and
from:

4.46-5.88
4.26-5.88 American Paper Institute, 260 Madison
4.26-5.88
Ave., New York, N.Y. 10016.
Fibre Box Association, 224 S. Michigan
Most pulp and paper plants
Ave., Chicago, 111. 60604.
operate around the clock—three National Paper Box Manufacturers Associa­
shifts a day, 7 days a week. Produc­
tion, Inc., 121 N. Broad St., Philadel­
phia, Pa. 19107.
tion workers can expect to work on
evening or night shifts from time to Paper Industry Management Association,
2570 Devon Ave., Des Plaines, III.
time. Maintenance workers usually
60018.
are employed on the regular day

For information on job opportu­
shift.
In mostvplants the standard work­ nities for paper and paper products
week is 40 hours; in a few it is 36 sales representatives, write to:
hours or less. Workers normally National Paper Trade Association, Inc., 420
Lexington Ave., New York, N.Y.
have year-round employment
10017.
because paper production is not
subject to seasonal variations.
Most pulp and papermaking jobs
Earnings and Working
do not require strenuous physical
Conditions
effort. However, some employees
Production workers in the paper work in hot, humid, and noisy




OCCUPATIONS IN THE
PETROLEUM REFINING INDUSTRY
The petroleum and natural gas
industries provide about threefourths of the Nation’s energy
needs. Crude oil products supply
the fuels and lubricants used for
motor vehicles, locomotives, air­
craft, and ships. Oil and gas provide
much of the heat for homes, facto­
ries, and stores, as well as the fuel
for the generation of over onequarter of our electric power. In ad­
dition, basic petroleum compounds
are used to manufacture hundreds
of everyday products such as
synthetic rubber, fertilizers, and
plastics.
In 1974 about 155,000 workers,
who had a wide range of educa­
tional backgrounds and skills, were
employed in the petroleum refining
industry. This industry covers occu­
pations and activities involved in
refining oil. Occupations in petrole­
um and natural gas production and
processing are discussed in a
separate chapter elsewhere in the

The first step in petroleum refin­
ing consists of heating crude oil as it
flows through a series of pipes in a
furnace. The vapors from the
heated oil pass into a tower where
the various “fractions,” or parts, of
the oil are condensed. The heaviest
parts (for example, heavy fuel oils
and asphalt) are drawn off along
the bottom of the tower where tem­
peratures are highest; lighter parts
(jet fuel and diesel fuel) are drawn
off along the middle of the tower;

and the lightest (gasoline and
gases) are taken off at the top
where temperatures are lowest.
Further processing by more com­
plicated methods combines or
modifies compounds obtained
through fractionating. Treating
units are used to remove water, sul­
fur compounds, and other impuri­
ties.
About 600 refineries were in
operation in 1974. They ranged in
size from plants with fewer than
three employees to those with
several thousand. Although many
States have refineries, about 85 per­
cent of the workers were employed
in 10 States: Texas, California, Il­
linois, Pennsylvania, Louisiana,
New York, New Jersey, Ohio,
Oklahoma, and Indiana. Refineries
usually are located near oilfields,
industrial centers, or deepwater
ports where tankers can dock.

Handbook.

Nature and Location of the
Industry

A modern refinery is a com­
plicated plant made up of tanks and
towers connected by a maze of
pipes and valves. From the time
crude oil enters the refinery to the
shipment of finished products, the
production flow is almost continu­
ous. Operators use instruments in­
cluding computers to measure and
regulate the flow, volume, tempera­
ture, and pressure of liquids and
gases going through the equipment.
Manual handling of materials is vir­
tually eliminated.



Operator observes central controls for a refinery.

Refinery workers are among the highest
paid employees in manufacturing.

Occupations in the Industry

About 1 out of every 2 workers in
a refinery is an operator. A key
worker in converting crude oil into
usable products is the refinery
operator (D.O.T. 542.280), or chief
operator, who is responsible for one
or more processing units. The
refinery operator, with help from
assistant operators, makes adjust­
ments for changes in temperature,
pressure, and oil flow. In modern
refineries, operators can monitor
instruments on panels that show the
entire operation of all processing
units in the refinery. They also
patrol units to check their operating
condition.
Other plantworkers may include
still pump operators (D.O.T.
549.782), also known as pumpers,
and their helpers (D.O.T. 549.884),
who maintain and operate pumps
that control all production
throughout the refinery; and
treaters (D.O.T. 549.782), who
operate equipment to remove im­
purities from gasoline, oil, and
other products. In automated



plants, computers may do the work
of pumpers and treaters. Operators
monitor the computers to spot
potential problem areas, and may
make routine checks of the refinery
to make sure that valves are operat­
ing properly.
Many refineries employ large
numbers of maintenance workers to
repair, rebuild, replace, and clean
equipment. In other plants, main­
tenance work is contracted to com­
panies outside the petroleum indus­
try. Maintenance workers are
needed because high heat, pressure,
and corrosion quickly wear out the
complex refining equipment. In­
cluded are skilled boilermakers,
electricians, instrument repairers,
machinists, pipefitters, sheetmetal
workers, and welders. Helpers and
apprentices also are in these trades.
Some skilled workers have a prima­
ry skill in one craft as well as the
ability to handle closely related
crafts. For example, a pipefitter
also may be a boilermaker and a
welder. Maintenance workers who
have such combined jobs are some­
times called refinery mechanics.
Plantworkers who do not
operate, monitor, or maintain
equipment do many other tasks.
Some workers drive delivery trucks;
some load and unload materials on
trucks, trains, or ships; and others
keep stock and tool inventory
records. The industry also employs
service workers such as guards and
janitors.
About 12 percent of the workers
in petroleum refining are scientists,
engineers, and technicians. Among
these are chemists, chemical en­
gineers, mechanical engineers,
waste treatment engineers, labora­
tory technicians, and drafters.
Chemists and laboratory techni­
cians control the quality of petrole­
um products by making tests and
analyses to determine chemical and
physical properties. Some chemists
and chemical engineers develop
and improve products and
processes. Laboratory technicians
assist chemists in research projects

or do routine testing and sample
taking. Some engineers design
chemical processing equipment and
plant layout, and others supervise
refining processes. Waste treatment
engineers and technicians supervise
and improve treatment and disposal
of refinery waste waters and gases.
Drafters prepare plans and
drawings needed in refinery con­
struction and maintenance.
Refining companies employ
many administrative, clerical, and
other white-collar personnel. Ad­
ministrative workers include
managers, accountants, purchasing
agents, lawyers, computer program­
mers, computer analysts, and per­
sonnel and training specialists.
Typists, secretaries, bookkeepers,
keypunch operators, and business
machine operators assist adminis­
trative workers. (Detailed discus­
sions of professional, technical,
mechanical, and other occupations
found not only in petroleum refin­
ing but also in other industries are
presented elsewhere in the Hand­
book.)

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

New plantworkers usually begin
as aides in a labor pool where they
move materials, pack cartons, fill
barrels, and do maintenance work.
They may be transferred to the
processing department or main­
tenance shop when a vacancy oc­
curs. Aptitude testing and inter­
viewing frequently are used in
selecting applicants for plant jobs.
Workers newly assigned to a
processing department learn to
operate equipment under ex­
perienced operators. Formal train­
ing courses frequently are given in
plant operation.
A supervisor trains inexperienced
workers in the maintenance shop.
Some refineries have classroom in­
struction related to particular work.
After 3 or 4 years, a person may ad­
vance from helper to skilled craft
worker in one of the maintenance
crafts. Some large refineries train

workers in several crafts. For exam­
ple, a qualified instrument repairer
may be given electrician or machin­
ist training.
For scientists and engineers, a
bachelor’s degree in an appropriate
field usually is the minimum educa­
tional requirement. Advanced
degrees are preferred for research
work.
For most laboratory assistant
jobs, 2-year technical school train­
ing is required. Laboratory
assistants begin in routine jobs and
advance to positions of greater
responsibility as they acquire ex­
perience and learn to work without
close supervision. Inexperienced
drafters begin as copyists or tracers
and can advance to more skilled
drafting jobs.
Administrative
positions
generally are filled by people who
have college degrees in science and
engineering, accounting, business,
industrial relations, or other spe­
cialized fields. For positions as
clerks, bookkeepers, secretaries,
and typists, most refineries employ
persons who have had commercial
courses in high school or business
school. For occupations associated
with computers, educational
requirements range from a high
school level for keypunch operators
to a college degree in the physical
science field for analysts.
Employment Outlook

Employment in petroleum refin­
ing is expected to show little change
through the mid-1980’s. Refinery
output is expected to increase to




meet the Nation’s growing demand
for petroleum products, but auto­
mated, computerized plants, in­
creased refining capacity, and im­
proved refining techniques should
make it possible for the industry to
increase production without in­
creasing employment significantly.
Nevertheless, thousands of job
openings will result from the need
to replace workers who retire, die,
or transfer to other occupations.
Most jobs will be for operators,
maintenance workers, administra­
tors, and technicians. More main­
tenance workers, such as electri­
cians, pipefitters, and instrument
repairers, will be needed to take
care of the increasing amount of au­
tomated equipment and complex
control instruments.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

Refinery workers are among the
highest paid employees in manufac­
turing. In 1974 production workers
in petroleum refining averaged
$5.96 an hour, compared with an
average of $4.40 an hour for
production workers in manufactur­
ing industries as a whole. Refinery
workers have better-than-average
earnings because a large proportion
are skilled.
Entry salaries for chemical en­
gineers in the petroleum refining in­
dustry were among the highest in
American industry, according to a
survey conducted by the College
Placement Council in 1974. The
average monthly salary for chemists
who had a bachelor’s degree and no

experience was $966, and for
chemical engineers $1,177.
Because petroleum is refined
around the clock, operators may be
assigned to any one of the three
shifts, or they may be rotated on
various shifts. Some operators work
weekends and get days off during
the week. Employees usually
receive additional pay for shift
work. Most maintenance workers
are on duty during the day.
Most refinery jobs require only
moderate physical effort. A few
workers, however, have to open
and close heavy valves and climb
stairs and ladders to considerable
heights. Others may work in hot
places or may be exposed to un­
pleasant odors. Refineries are rela­
tively safe. The injury frequency
rate has been less than half the rate
for manufacturing as a whole.
Many refinery workers are union
members and belong to the Oil,
Chemical and Atomic Workers In­
ternational Union. Some refinery
workers are members of AFL-CIO
craft unions or of various indepen­
dent unions.
Sources of Additional
Information

More information on job oppor­
tunities in the petroleum refining
industry may be obtained from the
personnel offices of individual oil
companies. General information on
jobs in the industry is available
from:
National Petroleum Refiners Association,
1725 DeSales St. NW., Washington,
D.C.20036.

OCCUPATIONS IN THE PRINTING
AND PUBLISHING INDUSTRY
Printing is both an art and one of
our chief means of communication.
In 1974, the printing and publishing
industry employed about 1.1 mil­
lion workers. Government agencies
and private firms that do their own
printing, such as banks and in­
surance companies, also employed
thousands of printing workers.
Nature and Location of the
Industry

Included in the industry are the
printing and publishing of
newspapers, magazines, books, and
advertising matter; the production
of business forms, greeting cards,
and gift wrappings; commercial or
job printing; bookbinding; and
typesetting,
photoengraving,
platemaking, and other printing
services, primarily for printing
establishments.
In 1974, the largest division in
terms of employment was
newspaper printing and publishing,
with over 380,000 employees. Most
daily and many weekly newspapers
throughout the Nation do their own
printing. Although some major
newspapers have more than 2,000
employees, many have fewer than
20.
Commercial printing shops, the
second largest division of the indus­
try, employed about 362,000 work­
ers. These shops produce a variety
of materials, including advertising
matter, business cards, calendars,
catalogs, labels, maps, and
pamphlets. They also print limitedrun newspapers, books, and
magazines. Many commercial shops
have several hundred workers, but



employment is concentrated in
smaller shops.
Printing jobs are found
throughout the country. Almost
every town has at least one printing
shop, frequently, a small newspaper
plant that also may do other print­
ing. However, about one-half of the
Nation’s printing employees are in
five States— New York, Illinois,
California, Pennsylvania, and Ohio.
Within these States, most printing
activities are in or near manufactur­
ing, commercial, or financial areas
such as New York, Chicago, Los
Angeles, Philadelphia, San Francisco-Oakland, Cincinnati, and
Cleveland. Other leading centers of
printing are Boston, Detroit, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Washington,
D.C., St. Louis, and Baltimore. Em­
ployment in book and magazine
printing is highly concentrated in
these areas. A much larger propor­
tion of newspaper employment,
however, is found outside these
centers because of the great
number of small local newspapers.
Printing Methods

Printing is a means of transferring
ink impressions of words and pic­
tures to paper, metal, or other
materials. A plate of metal, rubber,
or plastic is prepared so that part of
it can be covered with ink. The ink
is then transferred to a sheet of
paper or other material that is
pressed against the plate.
In relief printing, the letters and
images are raised from the rest of
the printing plate. Ink is rolled over
the raised surface and then paper is
pressed against it. In gravure print­

ing, the image is etched into the sur­
face of a cylinder. The whole sur­
face is covered with ink and then
wiped off; ink is left only in the
sunken or etched areas. When paper
is pressed against the surface, the
ink is lifted out and appears on the
paper. In lithography (offset print­
ing), the printing plate surface is
smooth, with both image and
nonimage areas on the same level.
Lithography is based on the princi­
ple that grease and water do not
mix. The plate’s image areas are
coated with a substance to make
the greasy printing ink stick to the
plate and then moistened with
water so that only the image areas
take up the ink. The inked image is
transferred from the plate to a
rubber blanket and then to the
paper.
Screen printing is a method in
which inks or other materials such
as paint and varnish are forced
through a stencil mounted on a
finely woven screen. The shape of
the stencil openings determines the
design to be printed. This process
may be applied to a variety of sur­
faces such as paper, glass, metal,
plastic, and textiles.
Printing Occupations

Production of printed materials
requires workers in a wide variety
of occupations. Printing craft work­
ers represent a large segment of
these employees. They usually spe­
cialize in one area of printing
operations: Type composition,
photography, platemaking, presswork, or binding. Their training
generally is confined to only one of
the basic printing methods—letterpress, lithography, or gravure.
Some of the principal printing
crafts are briefly described below.
Detailed information on these
crafts is presented in the section on
printing occupations, elsewhere in
the Handbook.
The printing process begins in a
composing room where manuscript
copy is set in type, proofed, and

checked for errors. Machine and
handset type and other materials
such as photoengravings are assem­
bled there and prepared for the
pressroom.
In 1974, about 40 percent of all
printing craft workers—165,000—
were employed in composing room
occupations. This group includes
compositors (D.O.T. 973.381) who
set type by hand or machine;
typesetter perforator operators
(D.O.T. 208.588) who punch tapes
used to operate some typesetting
machines; make-up arrangers
(D.O.T. 973.381) who assemble
type in shallow trays called
“galleys” and make trial copy of
this type; and proofreaders (D.O.T.
209.688) who check the trial copy
with the original copy for errors.
Electrotypers and stereotypers
(D.O.T. 974.381 and 975.782)
make duplicate pressplates of
metal, rubber, and plastic for letterpress printing. These plates are
made from the metal type forms
prepared in the composing room.
Electrotypes are used mainly in
book and magazine work. Stereo­
types, which are less durable, are
used chiefly in newspaper work.
Photoengravers
(D.O.T.
971.381) make metal printing
plates of illustrations and other
copy that cannot be set up in type.
The printing surfaces on these
plates stand out in relief above the
nonprinting spaces, as do the letters
and the accompanying type.
Similarly, gravure photoengravers
(D.O.T. 971.381), a specialized
type of photoengravers, make
gravure cylinders in which the
image is etched below the surface
for use in reproducing pictures and
type.
The actual printing operation is
performed in the pressroom. Print­
ing press operators (D.O.T.
651.782, .885 and .886) prepare
type forms and pressplates for final
printing and tend the presses while
they are in operation. Small com­
mercial shops generally have small
and relatively simple presses that



often are fed paper by hand. At the
other extreme are the enormous
presses used by ' the larger
newspaper, magazine, and book
printing plants. They automatically
print the paper and cut, assemble,
and fold the pages. These machines
are operated by crews of press
operators assisted by less skilled
workers.
Lithography (offset printing) is
growing in importance. Practically
all items printed by other processes
also can be produced by lithog­
raphy. It is a process of photogra­
phing the matter to be printed,
making a printing plate from the
photograph and pressing the inked
plate against a rubber blanket
which in turn presses it onto the
paper. Several operations are in­
volved in lithography, and each is
performed by a specialized group of
workers. The main group of litho­
graphic workers are camera opera­
tors (D.O.T. 972.382), artists and
letterers (D.O.T. 971.281), strippers
(D.O.T. 971.381), platemakers
(D.O.T. 972.381), and press opera­
tors (D.O.T. 651.885).
Because of the increasingly com­
plex and highly mechanized print­
ing equipment in use today, techni­
cally trained people are needed in
all areas of printing management
and production. For example, an in­
creasing number of production
technicians (D.O.T. 019.281) are
employed to see that the standards
for each printing job are met.
Many printed items, such as
books, magazines, pamphlets, and
calendars, must be folded, sewed,
stapled, or bound after they leave
the printing shops. Much of this
work is done by skilled bookbin­
ders. In many binderies, however,
the work is done mostly by
semiskilled assemblers.
Besides printing craft workers,
the industry employs people in a
variety of other occupations. Many
mailroom workers are employed in
newspapers and magazine plants to
address, bundle, and tie the printed
matter for distribution. Modern

mailroom
processes
are
mechanized to a considerable ex­
tent. Mailers operate addressing,
stamping, stacking, bundling, and
tying machines. Many large printing
firms employ mechanics and
machinists to repair and adjust
typesetting machines, printing
presses, and other equipment.
Printing firms employ a great
many people as executives, sales
representatives, accountants, en­
gineers, computer programers,
stenographers, clerks, and laborers.
Newspapers and other publishers
employ a considerable number of
reporters, editors, and photog­
raphers. These occupations are
discussed elsewhere in the Hand­
book.

Training and Other
Qualifications

Many training authorities recom­
mend apprenticeship as the best
way to learn printing trades. A sub­
stantial number of people, however,
learn these trades by working as
helpers or through a combination of
work experience and schooling.
Apprentices often are chosen from
among people already employed in
various unskilled jobs in printing
plants.
Printing apprenticeships usually
last from 4 to 6 years, depending on
the occupation and shop or area
practices. The apprenticeship pro­
grams cover all phases of a particu­
lar trade and generally include
classroom or correspondence study
in related technical subjects, as well
as on-the-job training. Apprentice­
ship applicants generally must be at
least 18 years of age and pass an ap­
titude test and a physical examina­
tion. Applicants who qualify may be
put on a waiting list if there are no
immediate apprenticeship job
openings.
Most employers prefer applicants
to have a high school education or
its equivalent. A thorough

knowledge of spelling, punctuation,
the fundamentals of grammar, and
basic mathematics is essential in
many of the printing trades. A
knowledge of the basic principles of
chemistry, electronics, and physics
is becoming increasingly important
because of the growing use of
photomechanical and electronic
processes in printing.
Most printing crafts require peo­
ple with good eyesight, about
average physical strength, and a
high degree of manual dexterity.
Alertness, patience, and the ability
to work with others also are neces­
sary. The ability to distinguish
colors is important in areas of print­
ing where color is used. An artistic
sense also is an asset since the
finished product should be pleasing
in balance and design.
About 4,000 schools—high
schools, vocational schools, techni­
cal institutes, and colleges—offer
courses in printing technology.
These courses may help a person to
be selected for apprenticeships or
other job openings in the printing
and publishing industry.
Administrative jobs are usually
filled by upgrading experienced
people. Many owners and produc­
tion managers of printing firms
have come from the ranks of print­
ing craft workers. In recent years,
however, more firms are filling ad­
ministrative positions with people
who have college degrees in busi­
ness administration, marketing, ac­
counting, industrial relations, or
other specialized business fields.
Most firms hire clerks, book­
keepers, stenographers, and typists
who have completed commercial
courses in high school or business
school.
Some computer programmers in
the printing industry have technical
school training; others learn their
skills on the job. Also, many com­
positors and typesetters are being
taught computer programming
skills, and the International Typo­
graphic Union has established a
training center for this purpose.



Employment Outlook

Employment in the printing and
publishing industry is expected to
grow more slowly than the average
for all industries through the mid1980’s. Most job openings will
occur from the need to replace ex­
perienced workers who retire, die,
or transfer to other industries.
The volume of printed materials
is expected to increase rapidly
because of population growth, the
increasingly high literacy level of
the population, and the trend to
greater use of printed materials for
information, packaging, and vari­
ous industrial and commercial pur­
poses. Employment will grow at a
slower rate than the volume of
printing, however, because of
laborsaving technological changes
in printing methods.
Occupational groups in the in­
dustry are expected to increase at
different rates. Employment of
technical, maintenance, and cleri­
cal workers will increase at a faster
pace than total employment. Em­
ployment growth will vary among
the printing crafts. The number of
lithographic craft workers, for ex­
ample, is expected to increase
because of the growing use of
lithography. On the other hand,
since lithography does not require
photoengraving, employment of
photoengravers is expected to
decline. The trend to computeriza­
tion of typesetting operations will
reduce the need for some machine
operators in composing rooms
while creating a demand for more
computer programmers. More
mechanics will be hired to maintain
the industry’s increasingly complex
machinery.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

facturing industries as a whole
averaged $4.40.
The accompaying tabulation
shows the average estimated union
minimum hourly rates for selected
printing occupations in 1974 based
on a survey of 69 large cities. These
are the minimum basic rates for
daywork, and do not include over­
time, other special payments, or
bonuses.
Most printing craft workers who
are covered by union contracts
work fewer than 40 hours a week.
Some contracts specify a standard
workweek of less than 35 hours, but
most fall within a 35 to 37-1/2 hour
range. Time and a half generally is
paid for overtime. Work on Sun­
days and holidays is paid for at time
and one-half or double-time rates in
most commercial printing firms. In
newspaper plants, however, the
workweek often includes Sundays.
Time and one-half or double time is
paid for these days only when they
are not part of the employee’s regu­
lar shift. Night-shift workers
generally receive pay differentials
above the standard day rates.
The starting wage rates of ap­
prentices generally are from 40 to
50 percent of the basic rate for
skilled workers in the shop. Wages
are increased periodically, usually
every 6 months, until the ap­
prentice reaches the skilled rate.
The injury-frequency rate in the
printing industry is somewhat lower
than the average for all manufactur­
ing industries.
A large proportion of the printing
trades workers are members of
unions. Among these are the
Graphic Arts Union, International
the International Printing and
Graphic Communication’s Union
America, the International Typo­
graphical Union, and the Interna­
tional Mailers Union.

Earnings of production workers
Sources of Additional
in the printing and publishing indus­
Information
try are among the highest in manu­
facturing. In 1974, they averaged Details about employment op­
$4.96 an hour, while those in manu­ portunities and apprenticeships

Bookbinders...............................................
Compositors:
Hand...................................................
Machine operators...........................
Electrotypers.............................................
Photoengravers.........................................
Press operators.........................................
Press (cylinder) operators..............
Press (platen) operators..................
Stereotypers...............................................

may be obtained from local employers, such as newspapers and
printing shops, local offices of the
unions mentioned above, or the
local office of State employment




Newspaper
Average minimum hourly American 11600 SunrisePublishers Associa­
tion,
Valley Dr., Reston,
rate, 1974
Va. 20041.
Book and American Photoplatemakers Association,
Newspaper
job shops
$6.63

...............................
...............................
...............................
...............................
...............................

$6.86
6.97
—
7.27
6.74
—

...............................

6.69

.....................................

.....................................

—

7.11
6.97
6.22
—
—
6.73
5.86
6.78

166 W. Van Buren St., Chicago, 111.
60604.
Graphic Arts Technical Foundation, 4615
Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 15213.
Gravure Technical Institute, 60 E. 42 St.,
New York, N.Y. 10020.
International Typographical Union, P.O.
Box 157, Colorado Springs, Colo.
80901.
Printing Industries of America, Inc., 1730 N.
Lynn St., Arlington, Va. 22201.

(See the section on Printing Oc­
cupations elsewhere in the Hand­
services. Some State employment book for names of labor organiza­
service offices screen applicants tions and trade associations that
can provide more information on
and give aptitude tests.
For general information on the specific printing trades.)
industry, write to:

TRANSPORTATION, COMMUNICATIONS, AND
PUBLIC UTILITIES
The transportation, communica­
tions, and public utility industries
produce most of the energy that
powers, heats, and lights our facto­
ries and homes. The transportation
industry moves goods and people
by air, rail, water, and highway; the
communications industry provides
communications systems such as
telephones and radio and TV
broadcasting. Other public utilities
supply the Nation with electricity,
gas, and sanitation services.
Transportation, communications,
and public utility firms are
semipublic in character. Some State
and local governments operate
their own transit lines or electric
companies as well as other types of
utilities. Privately owned transpor­
tation and public utility firms , are
regulated closely by commissions or
by other public authorities to make
sure they operate in the public in­
terest.
In 1974, almost 4.7 million peo­
ple worked in the transportation,
communications, and public utility
industry division. In addition, more
than one-half million persons held
jobs with State and local govern­
ments in publicly owned transit and
utility systems. Almost half of the
workers in this industry division
worked in two major industry
groups: communications employing
1.2 million workers ; and motor
freight
transportation
and
warehousing (including local and
long-distance trucking); employing
over 1 million workers.
Electric, gas, and sanitary serv­
ices companies employed nearly
750,000 workers and railroads over



580,000. Other industries employ­
ing a significant number of workers
were air transportation and local
and interurban passenger transit.
The remaining workers were em­
ployed by firms that provide water
and pipeline transportation and
transportation services.
As shown in the accompanying
tabulation, blue-collar workers
(craft workers, operatives, and
laborers) made up three-fifths of
total employment in the transporta­
tion, communications, and public
utility industries in 1974. Opera­
tives alone accounted for about
one-fourth of the total. Most of
these semiskilled workers are truck,
bus, and taxi drivers, and railroad
brake operators. Craft workers
made up nearly one-fourth of the
total. Among the occupations in
this group are airplane mechanic,
motor vehicle mechanic, telephone
line installer, locomotive engineer,
and the supervisors of blue-collar
workers. A relatively small fraction
of the industry’s employees were
laborers, such as material handlers
and truckdrivers’ helpers.
Nearly two-fifths of the industry’s
employees were white-collar work­
ers (professional, managerial,
clerical, and sales). Most of the
white-collar workers were in cleri­
cal occupations such as telephone
operator, ticket agent, secretary,
and bookkeeper. These industries
employed about an equal number
of managerial workers and profes­
sional and technical workers. Many
of the professional and technical
workers are in the communications
industry, where, in addition to large

numbers of engineers and techni­
cians, many actors, entertainers,
and writers are employed.
Major occupational ftroup

Percent of
workers

All workers............................

100

Professional, technical, and kindred
workers...........................................
Managers and administrators........
Clerical and kindred workers........
Sales workers......................................
Craft and kindred workers..............
Operatives..........................................
Service workers................................
Laborers.............................................

7
8
23
1
23
26
3
9

Employment in the transporta­
tion, communications, and public
utility industries is expected to in­
crease more slowly than the
average for all industries through
the mid-1980’s. In addition to
openings resulting from growth of
the industries, many thousands of
jobs will be available each year
because of the need to replace
workers who die, retire, or transfer
to other industries.
Employment growth in individual
industries will vary. Rising popula­
tion and business expansion will
stimulate employment growth in air
transportation and in trucking. On
the other hand, little employment
change is expected in local and in­
terurban passenger transportation
(buses, taxis, and subways). The
longrun decline in railroad employ­
ment is expected to continue, but at
a decreasing rate.
Employment in communications
is expected to grow at about the
same rate as the average for all in­

dustries through the mid-1980’s.
Although demand for the industry’s
services will increase rapidly, ad­
vances in technology are expected
to limit employment growth, par­
ticularly in telephone communica­
tions. Computers and other elec­
tronic equipment are expected to




be applied increasingly to work
previously done by wage earners.
Employment in electric and gas
utilities also will be affected
strongly by advancing technology
and will grow more slowly than in­
creases in output.
The statements that follow cover

major industries in the transporta­
tion, communications, and public
utility fields. More detailed infor­
mation about particular occupa­
tions in these fields appears else­
where in the Handbook.

CIVIL AVIATION
The rapid development of air
transportation has increased the
mobility of the population and has
created many thousands of job op­
portunities in the civil aviation in­
dustry. In 1974 over 450,000 peo­
ple were employed in a variety of
interesting and responsible occupa­
tions in this industry.
Characteristics of the Industry

Many different organizations and
activities are involved in civil avia­
tion. The most familiar are airlines
that provide transportation for pas­
sengers and cargo. Airlines account
for more than three times as much
intercity passenger travel as buses
and railroads combined.
The civil aviation industry in­
cludes other kinds of flying activi­
ties. For example, many businesses
transport executives in company
planes and some firms use their own
planes for crop dusting, inspecting
pipelines, and other activities. The




government-licensed shops which
repair and inspect smaller airplanes
also are included in the industry.
The Federal Aviation Adminis­
tration (FAA) and the Civil
Aeronautics Board (CAB)—both
part of the Federal Government—
regulate the civil aviation industy.
The FAA develops air safety regu­
lations, coordinates flights,
operates ground navigation equip­
ment, and licenses personnel such
as pilots and aircraft mechanics.
The CAB makes policy on airline
rates and routes.
In 1974, about 325,000 em­
ployees worked for airlines. Most of
the remaining civil aviation em­
ployees worked for firms that
operate airplanes to transport ex­
ecutives and for firms that rent, ser­
vice, or repair aircraft. The rest
worked for the Federal Govern­
ment; in 1974, the FAA employed
about 56,000 people, the CAB less
than 1,000.
About half of all airline em-

ployees work at airports near New
York, Miami, Los Angeles, San
Francisco, Chicago, Atlanta, and
Dallas, the cities where major air­
lines are based. Others work at air­
ports scattered throughout the
country. Most other civil aviation
employees work at airports near
large cities.
Civil Aviation Occupations

About four-fifths of all civil avia­
tion employees work in ground oc­
cupations. Many of these are
mechanics and aircraft main­
tenance personnel who refuel,
clean, inspect, and repair the planes
between flights. Other large groups
make reservations and sell tickets
for the airline companies. Some are
air traffic controllers and flight
service specialists for the FAA.
Other groundworkers include cargo
and freight handlers, dispatchers,
and clerical, administrative, and
professional personnel.
Flight crewmembers make up the
remaining one-fifth of civil aviation
employment. They include the
pilots who fly the planes and the
flight attendants who assist passen­
gers. Detailed discussions of most
of the principal occupations in civil
aviation are presented elsewhere in
the Handbook in the section on Air
Transportation Occupations.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Jobs are available to persons with
a wide variety of training and
backgrounds. Although some jobs
require previous training and may
require certificates from the FAA
Others can be learned on the job.
Pilots usually have an air trans­
port or commerical pilot’s license
from the FAA when they begin
work. They also must have an in­
strument license to fly when the
weather is bad. As a rule new airline
pilots begin as flight engineers.
Interested persons may obtain
pilot training from military or
civilian flying schools. Physical
requirements are high. With or
without glasses, they must have
20/20 vision, good hearing, and no
physical handicaps that prevent
quick reactions. In addition, airlines
generally require 2 years of college
and prefer college graduates. Be­
fore qualified pilots can fly as a
flight engineer, they must obtain a
flight engineer’s license from the
FAA.
Although most flight attendants
are women, airlines permit men and
women to compete equally for
available jobs. Applicants must be

At airport, air traffic controllers keep air­
planes that are flying nearby safely
separated.



in excellent health, and those who
have some college and have ex­
perience in dealing with the public
are preferred. Applicants are
trained for their jobs at company
schools.
When hiring airplane mechanic
trainees or apprentices, employers
prefer high school or trade school
graduates who are in good physical
condition. Experience in automo­
tive repairs or other mechanical
work also is helpful. Most
mechanics remain in the main­
tenance field, but they may advance
to head mechanics, inspectors, and
in a few cases, to supervisory and
executive positions. Some jobs
require aircraft mechanics to be
certified by the FAA as an airframe
mechanic, a powerplant mechanic,
or both.
New reservation, ticket, and pas­
senger agents are trained by the
company. A good speaking voice
and a pleasant personality are
necessary, because such personnel
deal directly with the public. A high
school education is required.
Air traffic controllers are
selected through the competitive
Federal Civil Service System. Ap­
plicants must pass a rigid physical
examination and a written test. The
FAA trains new workers on the job
and at the FAA Academy. All
workers must be certified by FAA
examiners before they can work as
controllers. Controllers can ad­
vance to chief controller and to
higher management jobs in air traf­
fic control.
Completion. of commercial
courses in high school or business
school is usually adequate for entry
into general clerical occupations
such as secretary or typist. How­
ever, additional on-the-job training
is needed for specialized clerical
occupations such as bookkeeper.
Administrative and sales posi­
tions are usually filled by college
graduates who have majored in
business administration, marketing,
accounting, industrial relations, or
transportation. Some companies

have management training pro­
grams for college graduates in
which trainees work for brief
periods in various departments to
get a broad picture of air transpor­
tation operations before they are
assigned to a particular department.
Employment Outlook

The total number of workers in
civil aviation occupations is ex­
pected to increase about as fast as
the average for all occupations
through the mid-1980’s. Besides the
job openings from employment
growth, many openings will arise as
experienced workers retire, die, or
transfer to other fields of work.
However, job opportunities may
vary from year to year because the
demand for air travel fluctuates
with ups and downs in the econo­
my.
Airline employment is expected
to increase as passenger and cargo
traffic grow in response to increases
in population, income, and business
activity. Employment in other civil
aviation activities is expected to rise
as more aircraft are purchased for
business, agricultural, fire fighting,
and recreational purposes.
Employment trends will differ
among occupations. The number of
reservation, ticket, and passenger

Reservation agents give information
about flights and make reservations
over the telephone.

agents, for example, is expected to
grow rapidly as more people travel
by air. On the other hand, the
number of air traffic controllers is
expected to grow only moderately
because new equipment will permit
each controller to direct more
planes.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

Airline employees earned an
average of $16,200 a year in 1974,
about twice the average for all nonsupervisory workers in private in­
dustry, except farming. Among the
major occupations, salaries ranged
from $700 a month for new reserva­
tion agents to $5,800 a month for
experienced airline captains. As an
additional benefit, airline em­




ployees and their immediate fami­
lies are entitled to a limited amount
of reduced-fare transportation with
their own and most other airlines.
Airlines operate flights at all
hours of the day and night. Person­
nel in some occupations, therefore,
often have irregular hours or work
schedules. For example, flight per­
sonnel may be away from home
bases about one-third of the time or
more. When they are away from
home, the airlines provide hotel ac­
commodations.
Ground personnel, such as ticket
agents and mechanics, usually work
a 5-day 40-hour week. Their work­
ing hours, however, often include
nights, weekends, or holidays.
Ground personnel generally receive
extra pay for overtime work or an
equal amount of time off.

Sources of Additional
Information

For information about job oppor­
tunities in a particular airline, write
to the personnel manager of the
company. Addresses of companies
are available from the Air Trans­
port Association of America, 1709
New York Ave. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20006.
For information about FAA-approved schools that offer training
for airplane mechanics, pilots, or
other technical occupations in avia­
tion, write to the Research and
Inquiry Division, Office of Informa­
tion Service AIS-230, Federal Avia­
tion Administration, Washington,
D.C. 20591.

primarily in steam-powered
generating plants which use coal,
gas, oil, or nuclear energy for fuel.
In addition, a considerable amount
of electricity is produced in
hydroelectric generating stations
which use water power to operate
the turbines. Still other generators,
primarily for use in standby service
or to provide electricity for special
purposes, are powered by diesel en­
gines or gas turbines.
After electricity is generated, it
passes through a “switchyard,”
where the voltage is increased so
that the electricity may travel long
distances without excessive loss of
power. The electricity passes onto
transmission lines that carry it from
the generating plant to substations,
where the voltage is decreased and
passed on to the distribution net­
works serving individual customers.
Transmission lines tie together the
generating stations of a single
system and also the power facilities
of several systems. In this way,
power can be interchanged among
several utility systems to meet vary­
ing demands.
In 1974, 550,000 people worked
in the electric power industry. Most
of them, 465,000, worked in in­
vestor-owned utilities and coopera­
tives and 80,000 worked in Federal

OCCUPATIONS IN THE
ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY

by cooperatives; others are owned
by cities, counties, and public utility
districts, as well as by the Federal
Government. While some utilities
generate, transmit, and distribute
only electricity, others distribute
both electricity and gas. This
chapter is concerned with employ­
ment relating only to the produc­
tion and distribution of electric
power.
Producing and distributing large
quantities of electrical energy in­
volves many processes and activi­
ties. The accompanying chart
shows how electric energy is
generated, and how it travels from
the generating station to the users.
The first step in providing electri­
Nature and Location of the
cal energy occurs in a generating
industry
station or plant, where huge genera­
The delivery of electricity to tors convert mechanical energy into
users at the instant they need it is electricity. Electricity is produced
the unique feature of the electric
power systems. Electricity cannot
be stored efficiently but must be
How Electricity is Made and Brought to
used as it is produced. Because a
the Users
customer can begin or increase the
use of electric power at any time by
merely flicking a switch, an electric
utility system must have sufficient
capacity to meet peak consumer
needs at any time.
An electric utility system in­
cludes powerplants that generate
electric power, substations that in­
crease or decrease the voltage, and
vast networks of transmission and
distribution lines. Electric utilities
range from large systems serving
broad regional areas to small power
companies serving individual com­
munities. Most electric utilities are
investor-owned (private) or owned
Electricity has become so much a
part of our daily lives that most peo­
ple take it for granted. But just
imagine not being able to ride the
elevator to your apartment and in­
stead having to walk up all those
flights of stairs’ Or think about hav­
ing no lights, television set, or radio
in your home’ Today, it would be
difficult to get used to living
without electricity.
Bringing electricity into our
homes and places of work and
recreation is not as simple as just
turning on a switch. There are
thousands of employees working in
the electric power industry to make
all this possible.




High V oltage Transmission
I iS
BS

High Voltage Distribution in Cities
Office building* and I

Large factories I I I

5 u b s to tio n

trenltormer »owh ’

•

’LL} J

Low Voltage Residential a nd Commercial Distribution

Stores

So urce :

Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Schools

22

and municipal government utilities.
A few large manufacturing
establishments, which produce
electric power for their own use,
also employ electric power
workers.
Since electricity reaches almost
every locality, jobs in this industry
are found throughout the country.
Although hydroelectric power pro­
jects have created jobs in relatively
isolated areas, most utility jobs are
still found in heavily populated
urban areas.
Electric Utility Occupations. Many
different types of workers are
required in the electric power in­
dustry. About 40 percent of the in­
dustry’s employees work in occupa­
tions related to the generation,
transmission, and distribution of
electricity, and in customer service
occupations. (These occupations
are discussed in detail later in this
chapter.) The industry also employs
large numbers of workers in en­
gineering, scientific, administrative,
sales, clerical, and maintenance oc­
cupations. A brief discussion on
these occupations is given below.
Further information can be found
in statements covering individual
occupations elsewhere in the Hand­

amount of recordkeeping required,
electric utilities employ many ad­
ministrative and clerical personnel.
Large numbers of stenographers,
typists, bookkeepers, office
machine operators, file clerks, ac­
counting and auditing clerks, and
cashiers are employed. These
workers keep records of the
services rendered by the company,
make up bills for customers,
and prepare a variety of statements
and statistical reports. An increas­
ing amount of this work in the larger
offices now is being performed by
computers., This generally results
in more clerical work being done
either by fewer or by the same
number of employees. The use of
this equipment also creates a need
for programmers and computer
operators. Administrative employ­
ees include accountants, personnel
officers, purchasing agents, and
lawyers.
Maintenance Occupations. A con­
siderable number of workers test,
maintain, and repair equipment.
The duties of these skilled craft
workers are similar to those of
maintenance workers in other in­
dustries. Among the more impor­
tant skilled workers are electri­
book.
cians, instrument repairers, main­
tenance mechanics, machinists,
Engineering and Scientific Occupa­ pipefitters, welders, dispatchers,
tions. Engineers plan generating and boilermakers.
plant construction and additions,
interconnections of complex power
Employment Outlook
systems, and installations of new
transmission and distribution Employment in the electric
systems and equipment. They su­ power industry is expected to in­
pervise construction, develop im­ crease about as fast as the average
proved operating methods, and test for all industries through the midthe efficiency of the many types of 1980’s. The greater use of electric
electrical equipment. In planning power in industrial processes,
modem power systems, engineers growth of commercial centers, and
help select plantsites, types of fuel, population growth will all con­
and types of plants. Engineers also tribute to an increased demand for
help industrial and commercial electricity. However, due to the
customers make the best use of growing use of automatic controls,
employment will not increase as
electric power.
fast as electric power production.
Trends in growth will differ from
Administrative and Clerical Occupa­
tions. Because of the enormous one occupation to another in the in­



dustry. The need for scientific, en­
gineering, and technical employees
is expected to increase sharply as
construction of power generating
plants increases and as research
into developing more efficient ener­
gy usage to combat shortages and
higher prices of fossil fuels becomes
necessary. Much of this increase in
employment will be in the develop­
ment and construction of new
nuclear power facilities.
In many other occupations in this
industry, only slight increases in
employment are expected. Larger,
more efficient powerplants will
limit growth of employment of
powerplant employees. The in­
creased use of electronic data
processing equipment for billing
and recordkeeping will restrict
growth in some clerical jobs. In oc­
cupations which will experience lit­
tle or no growth, most job openings
will result from the need to replace
workers who die, retire, or leave the
electric power industry for other
reasons.
People hired by electric power
companies should have relatively
secure jobs. Even during downturns
in the economy, these companies
seldom lay off employees.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

Earnings in the electric utility in­
dustry are relatively high. In 1974,
nonsupervisory employees in
private electric power companies
averaged $5.55 an hour. By com­
parison, the average for all nonsu­
pervisory workers in private indus­
try, except farming was $4.22 an
hour.
Because supplying electricity is a
24-hour, 7-day-a-week activity,
some employees work evenings,
nights, and weekends, usually on
rotating shifts. Most union con­
tracts with electric utilities provide
a higher rate of pay for evening and
nightwork than the basic day rate.
Overtime work is often required.

especially during emergencies such
as floods, hurricanes, or storms.
During an “emergency callout,”
which is a short-notice request to
report for work during
nonscheduled hours, the worker
generally is guaranteed a minimum
of 3 or 4 hours’ pay at 1-1/2 times
the basic hourly rate. Travel time to
and from the job is counted as
worktime.
In addition to these provisions
which affect pay, electFic utilities
provide other employee benefits.
Generally, annual vacations are
granted to workers according to
length of service. A typical contract
or employee benefit program pro­
vides for a 1-week vacation for 6
months to 1 year of service, 2 weeks
for 1 to 10 years, and 3 weeks for
10 to 20 years. Some contracts and
programs provide for 4 weeks after
18 years, for 5 weeks after 25 years,
and 6 weeks after 30 years. The
number of paid holidays ranges
from 6 to 12a year. Nearly all com­
panies have benefit plans for their
employees. A typical program pro­
vides life, hospitalization, and surgi­
cal insurance and paid sick leave.
Retirement pension plans supple­
ment Federal social security pay­
ments and generally are paid for in
full or in part by the employer.
Because of the dangers of elec­
trocution and other hazards, elec­
tric utilities and unions have made
intensive efforts to enforce safe
working practices. This has resulted
in an injury rate lower than in most
manufacturing industries. However,
some occupations, especially those
on linecrews, are more subject to
accidents than others.
Many nonsupervisory electric
utility workers in production, trans­
mission, and distribution depart­
ments are union members. The bar­
gaining representative for most of
these workers is either the Interna­
tional Brotherhood of Electrical
Workers or the Utility Workers
Union of America. Independent
Unions represent some utility wor­
kers.



Sources of Additional
Information

Information about jobs in the
electric power industry is available
from local electric utility compa­
nies, from industry trade associa­
tions, or from the local offices of
unions that represent electric utility
workers. Additional information
also may be obtained from:

Edison Electric Institute, 90 Park Ave., New
York, N.Y. 10016.
International Brotherhood of Electrical
Workers, 1125 15th St. NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20005.
Utility Workers’ Union of America, 1875
Connecticut Ave. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20006.

POWERPLANT
OCCUPATIONS
Nature of the Work

Operators are keyworkers in a
powerplant. They include four
basic classes—boiler, turbine, aux­
iliary equipment, and switchboard.
These operators observe, control,
and keep records of the operation
of various kinds of powerplant
equipment. They make sure that
the equipment functions efficiently
and detect any trouble that arises.
In many new steamplants, including
nuclear, these jobs are combined;
operators and their assistants are
known as steam operators, powerplant operators, or central control
room operators.
Of increasing importance are the
maintenance personnel, including
electrical, instrument, and
mechanical repairers. Other powerplant workers include helpers and
cleaners, and the custodial staff, in­
cluding janitors and guards. In
steam generating plants using coal
for fuel, coal handlers are em­
ployed. In hydroelectric plants, gate
tenders open and close the
headgates that control the flow of
water to turbines. Supervision of
powerplant operations is handled

by chief engineers called operations
supervisors, and by their assistants,
watch engineers (called shift super­
visors).
Boiler
operators
(D.O.T.
950.782)—employed only where
steam generates electricity—regu­
late the supplies of fuel, air, and
water in the boilers and maintain
proper steam pressure to turn the
turbines. Pressure is measured by
gauges, meters, and other instru­
ments mounted on panel boards.
One employee may operate one or
more boilers.
Turbine operators (D.O.T.
952.138) control the operation of
steam or water-powered turbines
that drive the generators. In small
plants, they also may operate aux­
iliary equipment or a switchboard.
Since modem steam turbines and
generators operate at extremely
high speeds, pressures, and tem­
peratures, the operator must give
close attention to the pressure
gauges, thermometers, and other
instruments showing the operations
of the turbo-generator unit. Tur­
bine operators record the informa­
tion shown by these instruments
and check the oil pressure at
bearings, the speed of the turbines,
and the circulation and amount of
cooling water in the condensers
that change the steam back into
water. They also are responsible for
starting and shutting down the tur­
bines and generators, as directed by
the switchboard operator in the
control room. Other workers, such
as helpers and junior operators,
assist the turbine operators.
Auxiliary equipment operators
(D.O.T. 952.782) check and record
the readings of instruments that in­
dicate the operating condition of
pumps, fans, blowers, condensers,
evaporators, water conditioners,
compressors, and coal pulverizers.
Since auxiliary equipment may oc­
casionally break down, these opera­
tors must be able to detect trouble
quickly, and sometimes make
minor repairs. In small plants which
do not employ auxiliary equipment

operators, these duties are per­
formed by turbine operators.
Switchboard operators (D.O.T.
952.782) control the amount of
electric power flowing from genera­
tors to outgoing powerlines by
watching instrument panels and by
operating switchboards. Switches
control the movement of electricity
through the generating station cir­
cuits and onto the transmission
lines. Instruments mounted on
panelboards show the power de­
mands on the station at any instant,
the powerload on each line leaving
the station, the amount of current
being produced by each generator,
and the voltage.
The operators use switches to dis­ Control room worker checks and records
instrument readings.
tribute the power demands among
the generators, to combine the cur­ older plants requires specialists
rent from two or more generators,
as boiler and turbine opera­
and to regulate the flow of the elec­ such Control room operators have
tors.
tricity onto various powerlines. several assistants who patrol the
When power requirements change,
check the
they order generators started or plant and report to theequipment.
Operators
stopped and, at the proper time, perintendent or a watch plant su­
engineer
connect them to the power circuits when equipment is not operating
in the station or disconnect them. In
doing this, they follow telephone properly. engineers or shift super­
Watch
orders from the load dispatcher visors (D.O.T. 950.131) oversee
who directs the flow of current the employees who operate and
throughout the system.
maintain boilers, turbines,
Switchboard operators and their tors, transformers, and genera­
other
assistants also check their instru­ machinery and equipment. Watch
ments frequently to see that elec­ engineers are supervised by a chief
tricity is moving through and out of engineer or a plant superintendent
the powerplant properly, and that who is in charge of the entire plant.
correct voltage is being maintained. Generally, a nuclear-powered
Among their other duties, they plant requires about the same kind
keep records of all switching opera­
employees as a
tions and of load conditions on and number of plant powered by
steam-generating
generators, lines, and transformers.
They obtain this information by coal. However, nuclear plants em­
ploy a few additional employees
making regular meter readings.
Control room operator (D.O.T. such as health and safety specialists.
950.782) . In most powerplants con­
structed in recent years, the opera­
tion of boilers, turbines, auxiliary Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
equipment, and the switching
required for balancing generator New powerplant workers
output has been centralized in a sin­ generally begin at the bottom of the
gle control room. Here, central ladder—usually on cleanup jobs.
control room operators or power- Such work gives beginners an op­
plant operators regulate all the portunity to become familiar with
generating equipment, which in the equipment and the operations



of a powerplant. They advance to
the more responsible job of helper,
as openings occur. Formal ap­
prenticeships in these jobs are rare.
Applicants generally are required
to have a high school or vocational
school education.
It takes from 1 to 3 years to
become qualified as an auxiliary
equipment operator and from 4 to 8
years to become a boiler operator,
turbine operator, or switchboard
operator. A person learning to be
an auxiliary equipment operator
progresses from helper to junior
operator to operator. A boiler
operator generally spends from 2 to
6 months as a laborer before being
promoted to the job of helper. De­
pending on openings and the
worker’s aptitude, the helper may
advance to junior boiler operator
and eventually to boiler operator,
or transfer to the maintenance de­
partment and work up to boiler
repairer. Turbine operators ad­
vance from the ranks of auxiliary
equipment operators and are often
selected from other plants.
In many States and large cities,
employees who operate equipment
in powerplants must be licensed by
local or State agencies. While
licensing requirements often vary
from place to place, the National"
Institute for the Uniform Licensing
of Power Engineers (NIULPE) is
attempting to standardize these
requirements.
Some powerplant workers em­
ployed in atomic-powered electric
plants must have special training to
work with nuclear fuel, in addition
to the knowledge and skills
required for conventional steam­
generated electric power. All con­
trol room operators, assistant con­
trol room operators, and some
operators of high pressure auxiliary
equipment in nuclear powerplants
must be licensed by the Nuclear
Regulatory Commission.
Where a system has a number of
generating plants of different size,
operators usually first get ex­
perience in the smaller stations and

then are promoted to jobs in the
larger stations as vacancies occur.
New workers in the switchboard
operators section begin as helpers,
advance to junior operators, and
then to switchboard operators.
Some utility companies promote
substation operators to switchboard
operating jobs. The duties of both
classes of operators have much in
common. Switchboard operators
can advance to work in the load
dispatcher’s office.
Watch engineers are selected
from among experienced powerplant operators. At least 5 to 10
years of experience as a first-class
operator are usually required to
qualify for a watch engineer’s job.
Employment Outlook

Employment of powerplant
operators is expected to increase
more slowly than the average for all
occupations through the mid1980’s, even though the production
of electrical energy will increase at
a rapid rate. Although some new
jobs will become available, most job
openings will occur because of the
need to replace workers who retire,
die, or leave the industry for other
work. People hired by electric
power companies are likely to have
relatively secure jobs. Even during
downturns in the economy these
companies seldom lay off em­
ployees.
Because of the increased demand
for electric power, it will be neces­
sary to build and operate many new
generating stations. The use of
larger and more efficient equip­
ment, however, will result in a great
increase in capacity and production
without a corresponding increase in
the number of powerplant opera­
tors. For example, it takes only one
turbine operator to control a tur­
bogenerator regardless of the
generator’s size. Also, automatic
equipment makes it possible for one
boiler operator to control several
boilers from a central control room.



Earnings and Working
Conditions

TRANSMISSION AND
DISTRIBUTION
OCCUPATIONS

The earnings of powerplant wor­
kers vary by occupation and locali­
ty. The following tabulation shows
Nature of the Work
estimated average hourly earnfngs
for selected powerplant occupa­ One-fourth of the workers in the
tions in privately owned utilities in electric power industry are in trans­
1974.
mission and distribution jobs. The
Averaye principal workers in these jobs are
hourly
earninys those who control the flow of elec­
tricity-load dispatchers and sub­
Auxiliary equipment operator... $4.80 station operators —and employees
Boiler operator.................................. 6.30
Control room operator................... 7.00 who construct and maintain power­
lines—line installers and repairers,
Switchboard operator:
cable splicers, troubleshooters,
Switchboard operator, Class
A.............................................. 6.40 ground helpers, and laborers. Line
installers and repairers make up the
Switchboard operator. Class
B.............................................. 5.95 largest single occupation in the in­
dustry.
Turbine operator.......................... 6.15
Load dispatchers (D.O.T.
Watch engineer................................. 7.35
950.168), also called system opera­
A powerplant is typically well- tors or power dispatchers, control
lighted and ventilated, clean, and the flow of electricity throughout
orderly, but there is some noise the area served by the utility. The
load dispatcher’s room is the nerve
from the equipment.
Switchboard operators in the center of the entire utility system.
control room often sit at the panel From this location, the load
boards, but boiler and turbine dispatcher controls the plant equip­
operators are almost constantly on ment used to generate electricity
their feet. The work of powerplant and directs its flow. Dispatchers
operators generally is not physically telephone instructions to the
strenuous, particularly in the new switchboard operators at the
powerplants. Since generating sta­ generating plants and the substa­
tions operate 24 hours a day, 7 days tions, telling them when additional
a week, some powerplant em­ boilers and generators are to be
ployees must work nights and started or stopped so that power
weekends, usually on rotating production will be in balance with
power needs.
shifts.
The load dispatcher must an­
ticipate demands for electric power
Sources of Additional
so that the system will be prepared
Information
to meet them. Power demands on
For information concerning utility systems may change from
licensing of powerplant employees, hour to hour. A sudden afternoon
contact State and local occupa­ rainstorm may cause a million lights
tional licensing agencies in your to be switched on in a matter of
minutes.
area or write to:
Dispatchers also direct the han­
National Institute for Uniform Licensing of
Power Engineers, 176 W. Adam St., dling of any emergency situation,
Suite 1914, Chicago, III. 60603.
such as transformer or transmission
line failure, and route current
around the affected area. They also
may be in charge of interconnec­
tions with other systems and direct­

ing transfers of current between
systems as the need arises.
The load dispatcher’s source of
information for the entire transmis­
sion system is the pilot board. This
board, which dominates the load
dispatcher’s room, is a complete
map of the utility’s transmission
system. It enables the dispatcher to
determine, at a glance, the condi­
tions that exist at any point in the
system. Lights may show the posi­
tions of switches which control
generating equipment and transmis­
sion circuits, as well as high voltage
connections with substations and
large industrial customers. The
board also may have several record­
ing instruments which make a
graphic record of operations for fu­
ture analysis and study.
Substation operators (D.O.T.
952.782) generally are responsible
for the operation of the substation.
Under orders from the load
dispatcher, they direct the flow of
current out of the station by means
of a switchboard. Ammeters, volt­
meters, and other types of instru­
ments on the switchboard register
the amount of electric power flow­
ing through each line. The flow of
electricity from the incoming to the
outgoing lines is controlled by cir­
cuit breakers. The substation
operators connect or break the flow
of current by manipulating
switchboard levers that control the
circuit breakers. In some substa­
tions, where alternating current is
changed to direct current to meet
the needs of special users, the
operator controls converters which
perform the change.
In addition to switching duties,
substation operators check the
operating condition of all equip­
ment to make sure that it is working
properly. They supervise the activi­
ties of the other substation em­
ployees on the same shift. In smaller
substations, the operator may be
the only employee.
Some utilities employ a mobile
operator who drives from one auto­
matic station to another, inspecting



powerlines, operating controls,'and
assisting customers’ electricians in
large commercial or government in­
stallations. Since this job requires a
considerable degree of independent
judgment, the mobile operator is
usually more experienced than the
substation operator.
Line installers and repairers

(D.O.T. 821.381) construct and
maintain the network of powerlines
that carries electricity from
generating plants to consumers.
Their work consists of installations,
equipment replacements, repairs,
and routine maintenance. When
wires, cables, or poles break, it
means an emergency call for a
linecrew. Line repairers splice or
replace broken wires and cables
and replace broken insulators or
other damaged equipment. Most in­
stallers and repairers now work

from “bucket” trucks with pneu­
matic lifts that take them to the top
of the pole at the touch of a lever.
In some power companies, linecrew
employees specialize in particular
types of work. Those in one crew
may work on new construction
only, and others may do only repair
work.
Trouble shooters
(D.O.T.
821.281) are experienced line in­
stallers and repairers who are as­
signed to special crews that handle
emergency calls. They move from
one job to another, as ordered by a
central service office which
receives reports of line trouble.
Often troubleshooters receive their
orders by direct radio communica­
tions with the central service office.
These workers must have a
thorough knowledge of the com­
pany’s transmission and distribution

Line installers and repairers construct electric powerlines.

network. They first locate and re­
port the source of trouble and then
attempt to restore service by mak­
ing the necessary repairs. Depend­
ing on the nature and extent of the
problem, troubleshooters may
restore service, or simply discon­
nect and remove the damaged
equipment. They must be familiar
with all the circuits and switching
points so that they can safely
disconnect live circuits.
Ground helpers (D.O.T. 821.887)
dig poleholes and help line instal­
lers and repairers erect the poles or
towers which carry the distribution
lines. Line installers bolt crossarms
to the poles and bolt or clamp insu­
lators in place on the crossarms.
Ground helpers then help the instal­
lers raise the wires and cables and
install them on the poles by at­
taching them to the insulators. In
addition, with assistance from
ground helpers, line installers at­
tach a wide variety of equipment to
the poles, such as lightning ar­
restors, transformers, and switches.
Cable splicers (D.O.T. 829.381)*
install and repair insulated cables
on utility poles and towers, as well
as those buried underground or
those installed in underground con­
duits. When cables are installed, the
cable splicers pull the cable through
the conduit and then join the cables
at connecting points in the trans­
mission and distribution systems. At
each connection in the cable, they
wrap insulation around the wiring.
They splice the conductors leading
away from each junction of the
main cable, insulate the splices, and
connect the cable sheathing. Most
of the physical work in placing new
cables or replacing old ones is done
by laborers.
Cable splicers spend most of their
time repairing and maintaining ca­
bles and changing the layout of the
cable systems. They must know the
arrangement of the wiring systems,
where the circuits are connected,
and where they lead to and come
from. When making repairs, they
must make sure that the conductors



do not become mixed up between
the substation and the customer’s
premises. Cable splicers also
periodically check insulation on ca­
bles to make sure it is in good con­
dition.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Load dispatchers are selected
from experienced switchboard
operators and from operators of
large substations. Usually, 7 to 10
years of experience as a senior
switchboard or substation operator
are required for promotion to load
dispatcher. To qualify for this job,
an applicant must have knowledge
of the entire utility system.
Substation operators generally
begin as assistant or junior opera­
tors. Advancement to the job of
operator in a large substation
requires from 3 to 7 years of on-thejob training. About 4 years of onthe-job training are needed to quali­
fy as a skilled line installer and
repairer. Some companies have for­
mal apprenticeship programs for
line employees. Apprenticeship
programs combine on-the-job train­
ing with classroom instruction in
blueprint reading, elementary elec­
trical theory, electrical codes, and
methods of transmitting electrical
energy.
Apprentices usually begin train­
ing by helping ground helpers set
poles in place and by passing tools
and equipment up to line installers
and repairers. After about 6
months, apprentices begin to do
simple linework under close super­
vision, and progress to more dif­
ficult work as they gain experience.
The training of line installers and
repairers who learn their skills on
the job generally is similar to the
apprenticeship program; it usually
takes about the same length of time,
but does not involve classroom in­
struction. A line installer and
repairer may advance to
troubleshooter after several years
of experience.

Candidates for linework should
be strong and in good physical con­
dition since work involving climb­
ing poles and lifting lines and equip­
ment is strenuous. They also must
have steady nerves and good
balance to work at the top of the
poles and to avoid the hazards of
live wires and falls.
Most cable splicers get their
training on the job, usually taking
about 4 years to become fully
qualified. Workers begin as helpers
and then are promoted to assistant
or junior splicers. In these jobs, they
are assigned more difficult tasks as
their knowledge of the work in­
creases.
Employment Outlook

Several thousand job opportuni­
ties are expected to be available in
transmission and distribution occu­
pations through the mid-1980’s.
Most of these opportunities will
occur because of the need to
replace experienced workers who
retire, die, or transfer to other fields
of work. Workers hired by electric
power companies are likely to have
relatively secure jobs. Even during
downturns in the economy, these
companies seldom lay off em­
ployees.
Some increase in the employ­
ment of transmission and distribu­
tion workers is expected, although
employment trends will differ
among the various occupations in
this category. In spite of the need to
construct and maintain a rapidly
growing number of transmission
and distribution lines, the number
of line installers and repairers and
troubleshooters is expected to in­
crease only slightly because of the
use of more mechanized equip­
ment. A limited increase in the
number of cable splicers is ex­
pected because of the growing use
of underground lines in suburban
areas. The need for regular substa­
tion operators, however, will be
reduced substantially, since the in­
troduction of improved and more

automatic equipment makes it
possible to operate more substa­
tions by remote control. At the
same time, more mobile substation
operators will probably be required.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

Wages for transmission and dis­
tribution workers vary by occupa­
tion and geographic location. The
following tabulation shows esti­
mated average hourly earnings for
major transmission and distribution
occupations in privately owned
utilities in 1974.
Avera^e
hourly
earnings

Ground helper.............................. $4.55
Line installer and repairer......... 6.75
Load dispatcher........................... 7.10
Substation operator...................... 6.05
Trouble shooter........................... 7.75

Load dispatchers and substation
operators generally work indoors in
pleasant surroundings. Line instal­
lers and repairers, troubleshooters,
and ground helpers work outdoors.
In emergencies, they may work in
all kinds of weather. Cable splicers
do most of their work in manholes
beneath city streets—often in
cramped quarters. Safety standards
developed over the years by utility
companies, with the cooperation of
labor unions, have greatly reduced
the hazards of these jobs.

maintain, and repair meters on
customers’ premises. Some
repairers can handle all types of
meters, including the more com­
plicated ones used in industrial
plants and other places where large
quantities of electric power are
used. Others specialize in repairing
the simpler kinds, like those in
homes. Often, some of the large
systems require specialists, such as
meter installers (D.O.T. 821.381 )
and meter testers (D.O.T. 729.281).
Installers put in and take out me­
ters. Testers specialize in testing the
small meters used in homes and
some of the more complicated ones
used by commercial and industrial
customers.
Meter readers (D.O.T. 239.588)
go to customers’ premises to check
meters which register the amount of
electric energy used. They record
the amount of electricity used in a
specific period so that each
customer can be charged for the
correct amount. They also watch
for, and report, any tampering with
meters.
District representatives usually
serve as company agents in outlying

CUSTOMER SERVICE
OCCUPATIONS




Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Meter repairers begin their jobs
as helpers in the meter testing and
repair departments. Persons enter­
ing this field should have a basic
knowledge of electricity. About 4
years of on-the-job training are
required to become a fully qualified
meter repairer. Some companies
have formal apprenticeship pro­
grams in which the trainee
progresses according to a specific
plan.
Inexperienced workers can quali­
fy as meter readers after a few
weeks of training. Beginners ac­
company the experienced meter
reader on the rounds until they
have learned the job.
The duties of district representa­
tives are learned on the job. An im­
portant qualification for this occu­
pation is the ability to deal tactfully
with the public in handling service
complaints and collecting overdue
bills.
Employment Outlook

Nature of the Work

Workers in customer service oc­
cupations include people who in­
stall, test, and repair meters; meter
readers; company agents in rural
areas; and appliance repairers.
Electric meter repairers (D.O.T.
729.281) are the most skilled work­
ers in this group. They install, test,

districts which are too small to justi­
fy more specialized workers. They
collect overdue bills; make minor
repairs; and read, connect, and
disconnect meters. They receive
and send service complaints and re­
ports of line trouble to a central of­
fice.
Appliance repairers are discussed
in a separate chapter elsewhere in
the Handbook.

Meter readers go to customer’s homes
to record electricity used.

Employment in customer service
occupations is expected to show lit­
tle change through the mid-1980’s.
The need for meter readers will be
limited because of the trend toward
less frequent readings. Moreover,
automatic meter reading may
become more common, and new
meters will require less main­
tenance. However, some job
openings for meter repairers and

meter readers will occur each year
to replace workers who retire, die,
or transfer to other fields of work.
People hired by electric power
companies are likely to have rela­
tively secure jobs. Even during
downturns in the economy, these
companies seldom lay off em­
ployees.




Earnings and Working
Conditions

The earnings of customer service
workers vary according to the type
of job they have and the section of
the country in which they work.
The following tabulation shows esti­
mated average hourly earnings for
major customer service jobs in

privately owned utilities in 1974.
A vera^e
hourly
earnings

District representative................ $6.90
Meter repairer A .......................... 6.15
Meter repairer B .......................... 5.45
Meter reader................................. 4.90

OCCUPATIONS IN THE
MERCHANT MARINE INDUSTRY
In 1974, the merchant marine in­
dustry employed about 50,000 peo­
ple in a variety of occupations that
require different levels of skill and
education. Many of these jobs are
found only in the merchant marine
industry.

these cities. The Nation’s largest
port is New York. Other major At­
lantic ports are Boston, Philadel­
phia, Baltimore, Norfolk, Char­
leston, Savannah, Tampa, and
Jacksonville. Gulf ports that handle
large volumes of cargo include New
Orleans, Houston, and Galveston.
Shipping on the West Coast is con­
Nature and Location of the
centrated in the areas of San Fran­
Industry
The merchant marine consists cisco, Los Angeles, Seattle, and
mainly of private firms that carry Portland.
foreign and domestic commerce Occupations in the Industry
aboard oceangoing vessels. In late More than half of the merchant
1974, nearly all of the 578 ships in
the active fleet were privately marine industry’s employees are of­
owned. The small number of
government-owned ships in the
merchant marine are operated by
the Navy’s Military Sealift Com­
mand (MSC) and have civilian
seafaring personnel.
Nearly three-fifths of the ships in
our merchant fleet are freighters.
These include general cargo ships
and special vessels, such as roll-onroll-off container ships. About twofifths of the ships are tankers that
carry liquid products, such as oil,
mostly between the Nation’s Gulf
and Atlantic Coast ports. Several
ships are combination passengercargo carriers.
Many ships operate on a regular
schedule to specific ports. Others
sail for any port promising cargo.
The size of a crew depends on the
type of vessel. Cargo ships and
tankers have crews varying from
26 to 65 persons; passenger ships
may have crews of 300 or more.
Most shoreside employees in the
industry work in the country’s
major port cities, and most officers
and sailors have home bases in




ficers and sailors who make up ship
crews. Most of the industry’s
shoreside employees are dockworkers who load and unload ships. A
small number of workers have ad­
ministrative and clerical jobs.
Ship Crews. The captain (D.O.T.
197.168) or master, has complete
authority and responsibility for the
ship’s operation, including
discipline, order, and the safety of
the crew, passengers, and cargo.
Under the supervision of the cap­
tain, the work aboard ship is di­
vided among the deck, engine, and
steward departments.
Deck officers (D.O.T. 197.133),
under orders from the captain,
direct the navigation of the ship and
the maintenance of the deck and
hull. Boatswains (D.O.T. 911.131)
supervise deck crews and see that
deck officers’ orders are carried
out. Able seamen (D.O.T. 911.887)
steer the ship and report sightings
to the deck officer. Ordinary

seamen (D.O.T. 911.887), the entry

rating in the deck department, do
general maintenance work such as
chipping rust, painting, and splicing
and coiling ropes. Deck utility hands
(D.O.T. 911. 884) and ship's car­
penters (D.O.T.860.281) also are
employed to maintain the ship’s
deck and hull.
Marine engineers (D.O.T.
197.136) are responsible for start­
ing, stopping, and controlling the
speed of the main engines and the
operation of all other machinery
aboard ship. They also direct
sailors, such as oilers and wipers, in
the lubrication and maintenance of
engines, pumps, and other equip­
ment. Oilers (D.O.T. 911.884)
lubricate moving parts of mechani­
cal equipment. Wipers (D.O.T.
699.887) keep the engineroom and
machinery clean. Firers-watertenders (D.O.T. 951.885) regulate fuel
gauges and the amount of water in
the boilers. The ship’s electrician
(D.O.T. 825.281) repairs and main­
tains electrical equipment, such as
generators and motors.
The chief steward (D.O.T.
350.138) supervises the prepara­
tion of meals and the upkeep of liv­
ing quarters aboard ship. The chief
cook (D.O.T.315.131) and assistant
cooks prepare meals. Utility hands
(D.O.T. 318.887) carry food sup­
plies from the storeroom, prepare
vegetables, and wash cooking uten­
sils. Mess attendants (D.O.T.
350.878) set tables, serve meals,
wash dishes, and care for living
quarters.
Most ships employ radio officers
(D.O.T. 193.282), who keep con­
tact with the shore and other ships
and maintain the radio equipment.
Some cargo ships and all passenger
vessels carry pursers (D.O.T.
197.168), who prepare the necessa­
ry papers to allow ships to enter or
leave port.
Occupations aboard ship are
discussed in detail elsewhere in the
Handbook in the statements on
merchant marine officers and
merchant marine sailors.



Engineering officer records pressure gage readings in engine room.

Dock Workers. Many workers are items shipped and dates of ship­
needed to load and unload ships. ment. Clerks and dispatchers, pilot
Terminal managers are responsible station, (D.O.T. 219.368) keep
for hiring dockworkers called records of ships entering ports.
stevedores (D.O.T. 91 1.883). Gang Manifest clerks (D.O.T. 911.368)

bosses supervise crews of
stevedores who load and unload
ships and move cargo in and out of
warehouses. Some operate materi­
als handling equipment, such as lift
trucks and cranes. Stevedores also
position and fasten hose lines to the
ship’s tanks when loading or un­
loading liquid cargo, such as chemi­
cals and oil.
Clerical Occupations. The merchant
marine industry employs workers in
general clerical jobs, such as payroll
clerk, secretary, and typist. Other
clerical workers have specialized
jobs. Billing clerks (D.O.T.
219.388) type invoices that list

compile and type the ship’s
manifest (a list of passengers and
cargo) for use at customhouses or
terminals. Receipt and report clerks
(D.O.T. 911.388) prepare reports
on labor and equipment costs for
loading and unloading cargoes.

Administrative and Professional Oc­
cupations. The merchant marine in­

dustry employs a small number of
administrative and other office per­
sonnel. Executives plan and ad­
minister company policy. The in­
dustry also employs accountants,
lawyers, and labor relations and
personnel workers. Some marine
architects (D.O.T. 001.081) are

employed to oversee the construc­ occupations, such as manifest clerk
tion and repair of ships.
and receipt and report clerk.
Administrative positions usually
are filled by college graduates who
Training, Other Qualifications,
have degrees in business adminis­
and Advancement
tration, marketing, accounting, in­
Inexperienced workers may be dustrial relations, or other special­
the
hired as stevedores to load and un­ ized fields. A knowledge isofhelp­
merchant marine industry
load cargo. Applicants must be in
good physical condition. A high ful. Marine architects must be
school education is preferred but licensed professionals. Require­
licensing are set by the in­
not required. Under the guidance of ments for States and generally in­
dividual
experienced workers, stevedores clude graduation from an ac­
can learn their jobs in a few weeks. credited professional school fol­
As vacancies occur, they can ad­ lowed by 3 years of practical ex­
vance to jobs such as lift truck perience in an architect’s office.
operator and crane operator. Work­
ers who have supervisory ability
may become gang bosses.
No educational requirements are
Employment Outlook
established for jobs aboard ship, but
a good education is an advantage.
Employment in the merchant
Formal training for officers is con­ marine industry is expected to
ducted at the U.S. Merchant decline through the mid-1980’s.
Marine Academy, at five State Nevertheless, some openings will
merchant marine academies, and arise each year from the need to
through programs operated by replace experienced workers who
trade unions. Unions also conduct retire, die, or transfer to other
training programs to upgrade the fields.
ratings of sailors.
Because of substantially higher
To obtain an officer’s license, a shipbuilding and labor costs, our
candidate must be a U.S. citizen, merchant fleet finds it difficult to
physically fit, and pass a written ex­ compete in the world shipping mar­
amination administered by the U.S. ket. To insure that our country has
Coast Guard. Sailors also must ob­ a merchant fleet operating in regu­
tain licenses (merchant mariner’s lar or essential trade routes, the
document) from the Coast Guard. Government subsidizes many ships.
Applicants are required to pass a In 1970, the Government also
physical examination and present passed a law which would subsidize
proof that they have a job offer the construction of 30 new ships an­
aboard a U.S. merchant vessel.
nually over a 10-year period and to
Persons who are considering a improve tax incentives for firms to
career at sea must be able to live buy new ships. Despite this support,
and work with others as a team. the size of our merchant fleet
Although peace-time service is probably will not grow significantly,
relaxed, they must adjust to some since the number of ships to be built
military-like discipline that is essen­ is expected to only slightly exceed
tial because of the nature of ship­ the number of older vessels taken
board life.
out of service.
Most general clerical occupa­ Little or no change in the em­
tions, such as secretary or book­ ployment of ship’s officers is ex­
keeper, usually require the comple­ pected over the long run. Employ­
tion of basic commercial courses in ment of sailors, on the other hand,
high school or business school. Ad­ is expected to decline because new
ditional on-the-job training is ships are equipped with laborsaving
necessary for specialized clerical innovations, such as automated en


ginerooms, which reduce the need
for these workers.
Employment trends also will vary
among shoreside occupations. The
greater use of containerized cargo
ships and improvements in materi­
als handling equipment will reduce
the need for stevedores. Employ­
ment in administrative and clerical
occupations, on the othe hand, is
not expected to change signifi­
cantly.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

Stevedores working along the At­
lantic and Gulf Coasts earned $6.80
an hour in 1974, and those on the
Pacific Coast earned $6.50 an hour.
Stevedores also earn extra pay for
handling hazardous cargo.
Earnings aboard ships are rela­
tively high; most officers earned a
base pay of about $1,350 a month
in 1974. Sailors who have advanced
a rung or two in rating could
receive a base pay of nearly $700 a
month. In addition, both officers’
and sailors’ earnings are supple­
mented by premium pay for over­
time or for assuming extra responsi­
bilities. On the average, additional
payments for assuming extra work
or responsibility add about 50 per­
cent to base pay. Shipboard work­
ers also receive free meals and
lodging while at sea.
Since ship’s crewmembers and
stevedores are subject to occasional
layoff, however, their annual
earnings usually are not as high as
the hourly rates and monthly sala­
ries would imply.
Most shoreside workers in the in­
dustry work a 5-day, 40-hour week.
The workweek for people aboard
ships is considerably different. Most
officers and sailors are required to
stand watch, working split shifts
around the clock. Generally, they
work two 4-hour shifts during every
24-hour period and have 8 hours off
between each shift. Other officers
and sailors are on duty 8 hours a
day, Monday through Friday.

The merchant marine industry
provides excellent fringe benefits.
Most employers provide paid vaca­
tions and holidays. Vacations for
sailors and officers range from 90 to
180 days a year. Many firms also
provide other benefits such as life,
health, and accident insurance. Of­
ficers and sailors may retire on full
pension after 20 years of service,
regardless of age. Stevedores are
eligible for pension at age 65.
Working and living conditions
aboard ship have improved over the
years. Mechanization has reduced
the physical demands, and newer
vessels have private rooms, air-con­
ditioning, television, and better
recreational facilities. However, life
aboard ship is confining, and since
voyages last several weeks or
months, officers and sailors are
away from their homes and families
much of the time. Some tire of the
lengthy separations and choose
shoreside employment. However,
for many people, the spirit and ad­
venture of the sea, good wages, and
fringe benefits more than compen­
sate for the disadvantages.




The duties aboard ship are
hazardous compared with other in­
dustries. At sea, there is always the
possibility of injury from falls or the
danger of fire, collision, or sinking.
Most shoreside jobs are not
hazardous, but stevedores may do
heavy lifting and risk injury from
falling boxes and other freight when
loading and unloading ships.
Most employees are union mem­
bers. All stevedores are represented
by either the International
Longshoremen’s Association or the
International Longshoremen’s and
Warehousemen’s Union. Most of­
ficers aboard ships are represented
by the International Organization of
Masters, Mates and Pilots; and the
National Marine Engineers Benefi­
cial Association. Sailors are mem­
bers of the National Maritime
Union of America and the
Seafarers’ Union.
Sources of Additional
Information

For general information about

jobs in the merchant marine, write
to:

Office of Maritime Manpower, Maritime Ad­
ministration, U.S. Department of Com­
merce, Washington, D.C. 20235.

Information about job openings
and wages aboard ships can be ob­
tained from local maritime unions.
If such a union is not listed in the
local telephone directory, contact:
National Maritime Union of America, 36
Seventh Ave., New York, N.Y. 10011.
Seafarers’ International Union of North
America, 675 Fourth Ave., Brooklyn,
N.Y. 11232.
National Marine Engineers, Beneficial As­
sociation, 17 Battery PI., New York,
N.Y. 10004.

Further information about
stevedore jobs is available from:
International Longshoremen’s Association
(AFL-CIO), 17 Battery PI., New York,
N.Y. 10004.
International
Longshoremen’s
and
Warehousemen’s Union (AFLCIO),
150 Golden Gate Ave., San Francisco,
Calif. 94102.

OCCUPATIONS IN RADIO
AND TELEVISION BROADCASTING
The glamor and excitement of
radio and television make broad­
casting careers attractive to many
people. In 1974 about 120,000 full­
time and 30,000 part-time workers
were employed in broadcasting;
slightly more than half were in radio
and the rest were in television. In
addition, several thousand
freelance performers, such as
writers, performers, and musicians,
work on a contract basis for sta­
tions, networks, and other produ­
cers. Several thousand other em­
ployees work for independent
producers in activities closely re­
lated to broadcasting, such as the
preparation of filmed and taped
programs and commercials.
Broadcasting stations offer a
variety of interesting jobs in all
parts of the country. Opportunities
for entry jobs are best at stations in
small communities, although the
highest paying jobs are in large ci­
ties, especially those with national
network stations.

and a large number of regional net­
works. Stations can affiliate with
networks by agreeing to broadcast
their programs on a regular basis.
The seven national radio networks
employed approximately 2,500
workers in 1974.
Most television stations depend
on 1 of 3 national television net­
works for programs that would be
too expensive for individual stations
to originate—for example, sports
events, such as baseball games, or

newscasts of national and interna­
tional significance. These networks,
in turn, can offer national coverage
to sponsors. As many as 200 sta­
tions across the country may carry a
network television show. In 1974
the three national networks em­
ployed about 18,000 workers, or al­
most 3 of every 10 staff employees
in commercial television. Most net­
work programs originate in New
York City or Los Angeles.
In addition to commercial broad­
casting stations, there were about
700 educational radio stations
(mainly FM) and 220 educational
television stations in 1974. These
stations are operated principally by
educational agencies such as State
commissions, local boards of edu­
cation, colleges and universities,
and special community public
television organizations. Educa­
tional stations employed more than

Nature and Location of the
Industry

In 1974 about 7,000 commercial
radio stations and 700 commercial
television stations were in operation
in the United States.
Most commercial radio broad­
casting stations are small, indepen­
dent businesses. The average sta­
tion employs about 11 full-time and
4 part-time workers. Television sta­
tions are generally larger-, and
average about 75 full-time and 10
part-time employees.
Commercial radio stations are
served by nine nationwide networks



Announcers read prepared news reports on the air.

8,000 full-time and over 3,000 parttime workers in 1974.
There were also about 3,150
cable TV systems (CATV) employ­
ing about 9,500 workers in 1974.
Broadcasting Occupations

About half of all employees in the
broadcasting industry hold profes­
sional and technical jobs, such as
staff announcers, news persons,
writers, or broadcast technicians.
Clerical and sales workers make up
an additional one-fourth, and
managerial personnel make up
about one-seventh. Many of the
remaining employees are craft
workers, such as electricians and
carpenters.
Jobs vary greatly between small
and large stations. In small stations,
the station manager, who
frequently is the owner, may act as
sales manager, or perhaps as pro­
gram director, announcer, and
copywriter. Announcers in small
stations may do their own writing,
operate the studio control board,
and do sales work. The engineering
staff may consist of only one full­
time broadcast technician assisted
by workers from the other depart­
ments. In large radio and television
stations, jobs are more specialized
and usually confined to 1 of 4 de­
partments: programming, technical,
sales, or administrative. The kinds
of jobs found in each of these de­
partments are described in the fol­
lowing paragraphs.
Programming Department. Staff
employees produce daily and
weekly shows, assign personnel to
cover special events, and provide
general program services such as
sound effects and lighting. In addi­
tion to these staff employees,
freelance performers, writers, sing­
ers, and other entertainers are
hired for specific broadcasts, a se­
ries of broadcasts, or for special as­
signments.
The size of a station’s pro­
gramming department depends on
the extent to which its broadcasts
are live, recorded, or received from



a network. In a small station, a few
people make commercial an­
nouncements, read news and sports
summaries, select and play
recordings, and introduce network
programs. In a large station, on the
other hand, the program staff may
consist of a large number of people
in a wide variety of specialized jobs.
Program directors are responsible
for the overall program schedules
of large stations. They arrange for a
combination of programs that will
effectively meet the needs of adver­
tisers and at the same time be at­
tractive and interesting to the au­
dience.
Traffic managers prepare daily
schedules of programs and keep
records of broadcasting time availa­
ble for advertising. Continuity
directors are responsible for the
writing and editing of all scripts.
They may be assisted by continuity
writers, who prepare announcers’
books (“copy”) which contain the
script and commercials for each
program along with their sequence
and length.
Directors plan and supervise in­
dividual programs or series of pro­
grams. They coordinate the shows,
select artists and studio personnel,
schedule and conduct rehearsals,
and direct on-the-air shows. They
may be assisted by associate
directors, who work out detailed
schedules and plans, arrange for
distribution of scripts and changes
in scripts to the cast, and help direct
on-the-air shows. Some stations em­
ploy program assistants to aid
directors and associate directors.
Assistants help assemble and coor­
dinate the various parts of the show.
They arrange for props, makeup
service, artwork, and film slides and
assist in timing. They cue the per­
formers, using cue cards prepared
from scripts.
Community and public affairs
directors are a link between the sta­
tion and schools, churches, citizen
groups, and civic organizations.
They supervise, write, and host
public affairs programs.

In large stations, directors may
work under the supervision of a
producer, who selects scripts, con­
trols finances, and handles other
production problems. Many times
these functions are combined in the
job of producer-director.
Announcers are the largest and
best known group of program work­
ers. Announcers introduce pro­
grams, guests, and musical selec­
tions and deliver most of the live
commercial messages. In small sta­
tions, they also may operate the
control board, sell time, and write
commercial and news copy. Broad­
cast announcers are discussed in
detail elsewhere in the Handbook.
Music is an important part of
radio programming. Both small and
large stations use recordings and
transcriptions to provide musical
programs and background music
for other shows. Large stations,
which have extensive music libra­
ries, sometimes employ music
librarians to maintain music files
and answer requests for any par­
ticular selection of music. The net­
works have specialized personnel
who plan and arrange for musical
services. Musical directors select,
arrange, and direct music for pro­
grams following general instruc­
tions from program directors. They
select musicians for live broadcasts
and direct them during rehearsals
and broadcasts. Musicians are
generally hired on a freelance basis.
News gathering and reporting is a
key aspect of radio and television
programming. News directors plan
and supervise all news and. special
events coverage. Newscasters
broadcast daily news programs and
report special news events on the
scene. Newswriters select and write
copy for newscasters to read on the
air. In small stations, the jobs of
newscaster and newswriter often
are combined.
Stations that originate live televi­
sion shows must have staff members
who take care of staging the pro­
grams. Studio supervisors plan and
supervise the setting up of scenery

and props. Floor managers plan and
direct the performers’ positions and
movements on the set according to
directors’ instructions. The jobs of
studio supervisor and floor manager
often are combined. Property han­
dlers set up props, hold cue cards,
and do other unskilled chores.
Makeup artists prepare personnel
for broadcasts by applying
cosmetics. Scenic designers plan and
design settings and backgrounds for
programs. They select furniture,
draperies, pictures, and other props
to help convey the desired visual
impressions. Sound effects techni­
cians operate special equipment to
simulate sounds, such as gunfire or
rain.
Almost all commercial television
programming is recorded either on
film or video tape. Broadcast
technicians make * video tape
recordings on electronic equipment
that permits instantaneous
playback of a performance. Video
tape is used to record live shows
and to prerecord programs for fu­
ture broadcasts. Many stations em­
ploy specialized staff members to
'take care of filmed program materi­
al. Film editors edit and prepare all
film for on-the-air presentation.
They screen all films received, cut
and splice films to insert commer­
cials, and edit locally produced
film. Film librarians catalogue and
maintain files of motion picture
film.
Technical Department. Technicians
position microphones, adjust levels
of sound, keep transmitters opera­
ting properly, and move and adjust
lights and television cameras to
produce clear, well-composed pic­
tures. They also install, maintain,
and repair the many types of elec­
trical and electronic equipment
required for these operations.
Most stations employ chief en­
gineers, who are responsible for all
engineering matters, including su­
pervision of technicians. In small
stations, they also may work at the
control board and repair and main­



tain equipment. Large stations have
engineers who specialize in fields
such as sound recording, main­
tenance, and lighting. Networks
employ a few development engineers
to design and develop new elec­
tronic apparatus to meet special
problems.
Broadcast technicians have many
jobs. For example, they control the
operation of the transmitter to keep
the level and frequency of broad­
cast within legal requirements.
They also set up, operate, and
maintain equipment in the studio
and in locations where remote
broadcasts are to be made. (Further
information on broadcast techni­
cians is given elsewhere in the

Handbook.)
Sales Department. Sales representa­
tives, the largest group of workers

in this department, sell advertising
time to sponsors, advertising agen­
cies, and other buyers. They must
have a thorough knowledge of the
station’s operations, programming,
and the characteristics of the peo­
ple in the area it serves. The latter
includes population, number of
radio and television sets in use, in­
come levels, and consumption pat­
terns. Sales representatives in large
stations often work closely with

Broadcast technician regulates quality
of picture.

sponsors and advertising agencies.
Many stations sell a substantial part
of their time, particularly to na­
tional advertisers, through indepen­
dent advertising agencies.
Large stations generally have
several workers who do only sales
work. The sales manager supervises
them, and also may handle a few of
the largest accounts personally.
Some large stations employ statisti­
cal clerks and research personnel to
help analyze and report market in­
formation on the community
served.
Business Management. In a very
small station, the owner and a
secretary may handle all the record­
keeping, accounting, purchasing,
hiring, and other routine office
work. If the size of the station war­
rants full-time specialists, the busi­
ness staff may include accountants,
publicity specialists, personnel
workers, and other professional
workers. They are assisted by
office workers, such as stenograph­
ers, typists, bookkeepers, clerks,
and messengers.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A high school diploma is the
minimum educational requirement
for most entry jobs in broadcasting,
although for some jobs college
training is preferred. A liberal arts
education is a good qualification for
the beginner because broadcasters
need people with knowledge and in­
terests in many areas. Television
programming for networks and
large independent stations
generally requires a college degree
and some experience in broadcast­
ing.
Some young people without spe­
cialized training or experience get
their start in broadcasting in jobs
such as clerk, typist, property han­
dler, or assistant to an experienced
worker. As these new workers gain
knowledge and experience, they
have the chance to advance to more

responsible jobs. A few people get
started in broadcasting with tempo­
rary jobs in the summer when regu­
lar workers go on vacation and
broadcast schedules of daylighthours stations are increased.
Technical training in electronics
is required for entry jobs in en­
gineering departments. The chief
engineer of a television or radio sta­
tion and any employee who adjusts
a broadcast transmitter must have a
Federal Communications Commis­
sion (FCC) Radiotelephone First
Class Operator License. In addi­
tion, anyone who operates a radio
broadcast transmitter must have at
least an FCC Radiotelephone Third
Class Operator License. To obtain
these licenses, an applicant must
pass a series of technical examina­
tions given by the FCC. Small radio
stations with only a few employees
sometimes prefer to have as many
staff members as possible who are
legally qualified to operate their
transmitters. Because of this, non­
technicians, especially announcers,
have a better chance of getting a
job in radio if they have a first- or
third-class license. A course in elec­
tronics at a recognized technical in­
stitute is probably the best way to
prepare for the FCC test. In addi­
tion, high school courses in elec­
tronics, mathematics, and physics
are often helpful to persons who
plan to pursue careers as broadcast
technicians.
Entry jobs as announcers in small
stations usually do not require
specific training or experience, but
an applicant must have a good
voice, a broad cultural background,
and other characteristics that make
a dramatic or attractive personality.
Courses in speech, English, social
science, drama, and electronics are
helpful to persons seeking careers
as announcers. In addition, college
campus radio experience, summer
and part-time employment at local
stations, and a good knowledge of
the commercial industry are all
highly regarded as backgrounds.
Qualifications for administrative



and sales jobs in broadcasting are
similar to those required by other
employers; a business course pro­
gram of study in high school or a
college degree in business or
management is good preparation
for such jobs.
Most beginners start out in small
stations. Although these stations
cannot pay high salaries, they offer
opportunities to learn the different
phases of broadcasting work
because they generally use person­
nel in combination jobs. For exam­
ple, an announcer may perform
some of the duties of a broadcast
technician.
People in the technical depart­
ment tend to remain in this area of
work, where thorough training in
electronics is essential. Program
employees usually remain in pro­
gramming work, although some­
times transfers to and from the sales
and business departments are
made. Transfers are easier between
sales and business departments
because of their close working rela­
tionship; in fact, in the small sta­
tions, they are often merged into
one department. Although transfers
of experienced workers between
departments are limited to the ex­
tent noted, these distinctions are
less important in beginning and toplevel jobs. At the higher levels, a
station executive may be drawn
from top-level personnel of any de­
partment.
Many radio and television station
managers consider training in a
private vocational school to be
helpful for people interested in
careers in the broadcasting indus­
try. However, before enrolling in
any vocational broadcasting school,
prospective students should contact
employers and broadcasting trade
organizations in their area to deter­
mine the school’s performance in
producing suitably trained can­
didates.

industry is expected to grow faster
than the average for all industries
through the mid-1980’s. Besides the
job openings from growth, many
openings will result from the need
to replace experienced workers
who retire, die, or leave the indus­
try for other reasons. Competition
will be very keen for entry jobs,
especially in the large cities,
because of the attraction this field
has for young people.
New radio stations are expected
to open, particularly in small com­
munities, and will offer opportuni­
ties for some additional workers. In
existing radio stations, however,
technological developments will
limit employment growth. For ex­
ample, automatic programming
equipment permits radio stations to
provide virtually unattended pro­
gramming.
The number of educational
television stations is expected to in­
crease as private and government
groups continue to expand in this
area. The growth of educational
stations will increase job opportuni­
ties, especially in programming, en­
gineering, and station management.
Cable television (CATV) has
emerged as a powerful new force in
communications, and some addi­
tional job opportunities for profes­
sional, technical, and maintenance
workers will be created as CATV
systems increasingly originate and
transmit programs. Many of these
new jobs will be in small cities
where most CATV systems are
located to improve television recep­
tion in rural areas. By using cables
instead of airwaves, CATV can
offer customers a larger selection of
stations plus many additional pro­
grams produced specifically for
cable television.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

In 1974 earnings of nonsupervisory broadcasting workers
Employment Outlook
averaged $5.02 an hour, nearly
Employment in the broadcasting one-fifth more than the average for

nonsupervisory workers in private
industry, except farming. Salaries
range widely among occupations
and locations in the broadcasting
industry. Employees in large cities
generally earn much more than
those in the same kinds of jobs in
small towns. Wages also tend to be
higher in large stations than in small
ones, and higher in television than
in radio.
Most full-time broadcasting em­
ployees have a scheduled 40-hour
workweek; employees in many
small stations work longer hours.
Sales and business employees
generally work in the daytime hours
common to most office jobs. How­
ever, program and engineering em­
ployees must work shifts which may
include evenings, nights, weekends,
and holidays. To meet a broadcast
deadline, program and technical
employees in the networks may
have to work continuously for many
hours under great pressure.




Several unions operate in the
broadcasting field. They are most
active in the network centers and
large stations in metropolitan areas.
The National Association of Broad­
cast Employees and Technicians
and the International Brotherhood
of Electrical Workers both organize
all kinds of broadcasting workers,
although most of their members are
technicians. The International Al­
liance of Theatrical Stage Em­
ployees and Moving Picture
Machine Operators organizes vari­
ous crafts, such as stagehands,
sound and lighting technicians,
wardrobe attendants, makeup
artists, and camera operators. Many
announcers and entertainers are
members of the American Federa­
tion of Television and Radio
Artists. The Directors Guild of
America, Inc. (Ind.) organizes pro­
gram directors, associate directors,
and stage managers. The Screen
Actors Guild, Inc., represents the

majority of entertainers who appear
on films made for television.
Sources of Additional
Information

For general information about
careers in radio and television
broadcasting, write to:
National Association of Broadcasters, 1771
N St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

For information about college
courses in television broadcasting,
contact:
Executive Secretary, Broadcasting Educa­
tion Association, National Association
of Broadcasting, 1771 N St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

For general information about
careers in public radio and televi­
sion broadcasting, write to:
Corporation for Public Broadcasting, 888
16th St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20006.

OCCUPATIONS IN THE RAILROAD INDUSTRY
The railroads, with their network
of more than 200,000 miles of line
reach into all parts of the country.
In 1974, they carried over one and
a half billion tons of freight and 274
million passengers.
Trains are one of the most effi­
cient methods of transporting large
amounts of freight over distances
exceeding several hundred miles.
Locomotives can pull thousands of
tons of cargo using fewer em­
ployees and far less fuel than trucks
and airplanes.
With 560,000 workers in 1974,
the railroads were one of the Na­
tion’s largest employers. Railroad
workers operate trains, build and
repair equipment and facilities, pro­
vide services to customers, and col­
lect and account for revenue. In
most of these jobs, seniority systems
prevail with workers starting at the
bottom and working their way up.
Nature and Location of the
Industry

The railroad industry is made up
of “line-haul” railroad companies
that transport freight and passen­
gers, and switching and terminal
companies that provide line-haul
railroads with services at some large
stations and yards.
About 95 percent of all railroad
employees work for line-haul com­
panies that handle about 99 percent
of the industry’s business. The
remainder work for switching and
terminal companies. Most railroad
revenue and employment comes
from freight. Passenger service has
declined substantially in the past 30
years.
Railroad workers are employed
in every State except Hawaii. Large



numbers work at terminal points
where the railroads have central of­
fices, yards, and maintenance and
repair shops. Chicago, the hub of
the Nation’s railroad network, has
more railroad employees than any
other area. Many employees also
work at the major railroad opera­
tions centered near New York, Los
Angeles, Philadelphia, Min­
neapolis, Pittsburgh, and Detroit.
Railroad Occupations

Railroad workers can be divided
into four main groups: Operating
employees; station and office work­
ers; equipment maintenance work­
ers; and property maintenance
workers.
Operating employees make up al­
most one-third of all railroad work­
ers. This group includes locomo­
tive engineers, conductors, and
brake operators. Whether on the
road or at terminals and railroad
yards, they work together as traincrews. Also included are switchtenders who help conductors and
brake operators by throwing track
switches in railroad yards and host­
lers who fuel, check, and deliver
locomotives from the engine house
to the crew.
One-fourth of all railroad work­
ers are station and office em­
ployees who direct train move­
ments and handle the railroads’
business affairs. Professionals such
as managers, accountants, statisti­
cians, and systems analysts do ad­
ministrative and planning work,
while clerks keep records, prepare
statistics, and handle business
transactions such as collecting bills
and adjusting claims. . Agents
manage the business affairs of the

railroad station. Telegraphers and
telephoners pass on instructions to
traincrews and help agents with
clerical work.
More than one-fifth of all rail­
road employees are equipment
maintenance workers, who service
and repair locomotives and cars.
This group includes car repairers,
machinists, electrical workers,
sheet-metal workers, boilermakers,
and blacksmiths.
Property maintenance workers,
who make up about one-sixth of all
railroad employees, build and
repair tracks, tunnels, signals, and
other railroad property. Track
workers repair tracks and road­
beds. Bridge and building workers
construct and repair bridges,
tunnels, and other structures along
the right-of-way. Signal workers in­
stall and service the railroads’ vast
network of signals, including high­
way crossing protection devices.
The accompanying chart shows
the number of workers in major
railroad occupations in 1974.
Detailed information about some of
these occupations is given else­
where in the Handbook.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most beginning railroad workers
are trained on the job by ex­
perienced employees. Training for
some office and maintenance jobs is
available in high schools and voca­
tional schools. Universities and
technical schools offer courses in
accounting, engineering, traffic
management, transportation, and
other subjects which are valuable to
professional and technical workers.
New employees in some occupa­
tions, especially those in operating
service jobs such as locomotive en­
gineer, start as “extra board” work­
ers. They substitute for regular
workers who are on vacation, ill, or
absent for other reasons. They also
may be called when railroad traffic
increases temporarily or seasonally.
Extra board workers with enough

Employment in Selected Railroad Occupations' 2
4
EMPLOYED, 1974 (in th o u sa n d s )

0

20

40

60

100
I

Clerks
Shop trades
Brake operators
Track workers
Conductors

Earnings and Working
Conditions

Locomotive engineers
Signal department workers
Telegraphers, telephones and tower
operators____________________________
Bridge and building workers
Station agents

E stim ated.
Source:

Bureau of Labor S ta tistic s.

seniority move to regular assign­
ments as they become available.
The length of time on the extra
board varies according to the
number of available openings.
Some workers do not receive regu­
lar assignments for many years.
Beginners in shop trades usually
are high school graduates with no
previous experience, although some
shop laborers and helpers are
promoted to the trades. Shopworkers serve apprenticeships that last
3 to 4 years, depending on how
much previous work experience the
apprentice has.
Most applicants for railroad jobs
must pass physical examinations.
Those interested in traincrew jobs
need excellent hearing and
eyesight. Color-blind persons are
not hired as locomotive engineers
or brake operators or for any other
jobs that involve interpreting rail­
road signals.
Railroad workers are promoted
on the basis of seniority and ability.
Job openings are posted on bulletin
boards and workers may bid for
them. The worker highest on the
seniority list usually gets the job. To
be promoted, however, workers
may have to qualify by passing writ­
ten, oral, and practical tests. Ad­
vancement in train and engine jobs



cally, will reduce the need for cleri­
cal workers.
Most people working in pas­
senger service may eventually work
for AMTRAK, the National Rail­
road Passenger Corporation,
created in 1971 to revive passenger
service trains. However, it will take
years to carry out the AMTRAK
program, and it is too early to deter­
mine its effect on these jobs.

is along established lines. All con­
ductors, for example, are chosen
from qualified brake operators.
Besides determining advance­
ment procedures, seniority also
gives workers some choice of work­
ing conditions. A telegrapher, for
instance, may have to work several
years on the night shift at out-ofthe-way locations before finally
getting a day shift assignment near
home.
Employment Outlook

The longrun decline in railroad
employment is expected to con­
tinue through the mid-1980’s, but
at a decreasing rate. Nevertheless,
thousands of job opportunities will
develop each year as the industry
replaces some experienced workers
who retire, die, or transfer to other
fields of work.
Despite an expected increase in
freight traffic, railroad employment
will decline, mainly as a result of in­
creased worker productivity due to
technological innovations. For ex­
ample, as automatic classification
systems are installed in more yards,
fewer yard workers will be needed
to assemble and disassemble trains.
The installation of wayside scan­
ners, which identify cars electroni­

Nonsupervisory railroad em­
ployees averaged $5.68 an hour in
1974, about one-third higher than
the average for all nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
farming. Earnings of railroad wor­
kers vary widely, however, depend­
ing on the occupation. For exam­
ple, in 1974 average hourly
earnings for locomotive engineers
in passenger service were $10.55;
for freight service brake operators
$6.73; for railway clerks, $5.61;
and for track gang members, $4.95.
Regional wage differences are
much less in railroading than in
other industries because of na­
tionally negotiated labor contracts.
Most railroad employees work a
5-day, 40-hour week, and receive
premium pay for overtime. How­
ever, operating employees, station
agents, and telegraphers and
telephoners often work nights,
weekends, and holidays. Extra
board workers may be called at any
time. Bridge and building workers,
signal installers, and track workers
may work away from home for days
at a time.
Sources of Additional
Information

Additional information about oc­
cupations in the railroad industry
may be obtained from local railroad
offices. For general information
about the industry, write to:

Association of American Railroads, Amer­
ican Railroads Building, 1920 L St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

OCCUPATIONS IN THE
TELEPHONE INDUSTRY
About 600 million local and long
distance telephone calls are made
daily in the United States and over­
seas. In 1974, approximately
975,000 employees provided this
daily service.
The telephone industry offers
steady, year-round employment in
many different jobs. Some jobs,
such as telephone operator and file
clerk, can be learned in a few
weeks; others, such as installer and
repairer, require many months.
Nature and Location of the
Industry

Providing telephone service for
the many millions of residential,
commercial, and industrial
customers is the main work of the
Nation’s telephone companies.
More than 144 million telephones
were in use in the United States in
1974.
Telephone jobs are found in al­
most every community. Most
telephone workers, however, work
in cities having large concentrations
of industrial and business establish­
ments. The nerve center of the local
telephone system is the central of­
fice that has the switching equip­
ment through which a telephone
may be connected with any other
telephone. Every call travels from
the caller through wires and cables
to the cable vault in the central of­
fice. Thousands of pairs of wires fan
out from the cable vault to a dis­
tributing frame where each set of
wires is attached to switching
equipment. Electromechanical and
electronic switching equipment
make connections automatically. In
a few remaining switchboards and



in unusual situations an operator
makes the connection.
Some customers make and
receive more calls than a single
telephone line can handle. For this
larger volume of calls, a system
somewhat similar to a miniature
central office may be installed on
the customer’s premises. This
system is the private branch
exchange (PBX), usually found in
office buildings, hotels, department
stores, and other business firms.
A newer type of service is called
CENTREX, in which incoming
calls can be dialed to any extension
without an operator’s assistance,
and outgoing and intercom calls
can be dialed by the extension
users. This equipment can be
located either on telephone com­
pany premises or on the customer’s
premises. CENTREX is currently
replacing PBX in popularity among
business and industrial users which
handle a very large volume of calls.
However, PBX is still more popular
with smaller users.
Other communications services
provided by telephone companies
include conference equipment in­
stalled at a PBX to permit conversa­
tions among several telephone users
simultaneously; mobile radio­
telephones in automobiles, boats,
airplanes and trains; and telephones
equipped to answer calls automati­
cally and to give and take messages
by recordings.
Telephone companies also build
and maintain most of the vast net­
work of cables and radio-relay
systems for communications serv­
ices, including those joining the
thousands of broadcasting stations
all over the Nation. These services

are leased to networks and their af­
filiated stations. Telephone compa­
nies also lease data and private wire
services to business and govern­
ment offices.
The Bell System owns about 4
out of 5 of the Nation’s domestic
telephones. Independent telephone
companies own the remainder.
There are approximately 1,655 in­
dependent telephone companies in
the United States. General
Telephone and Electronics Corp. in
Stamford, Conn., United Utilities,
Inc. in Kansas City, and Continental
Telephone Corp. in Chantilly, Va.
service about 2 out of every 3
telephones owned by independent
companies.
Telephone Occupations

Although the telephone industry
requires workers in many different
occupations, telephone craft wor­
kers and operators make up more
than one-half of all workers. (See
accompanying chart.)
Telephone craft workers install,
repair, and maintain telephones, ca­
bles, switching equipment, and
message accounting systems. These
workers can be grouped by the type
of work they perform: construction
workers place, splice, and maintain
telephone wires and cables; instal­
lers and repairers place, maintain,
and repair telephones and private
branch exchanges (PBX) in homes
and offices and other places of busi­
ness; and central office craft work­
ers test, maintain, and repair
equipment in central offices.
Operators make telephone con­
nections; assist customers in spe­
cialized services, such as reversecharge calls; and give telphone in­
formation. Detailed discussions of
telephone craft occupations and
telephone and PBX operators are
presented elsewhere in the Hand­
book.
More than one-fifth of all
telephone industry employees are
clerical workers. They include
stenographers, typists, book-

Telephone Crafts Workers and Operators
Make Up More Than One-Half of All
Workers Employed in the Industry

25

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION, 1974

42% Other
21% Telephone operators

37% Construction, installation,
and maintenance employees

Source: Bureau of Labor S ta tistic s .

keepers, office machine and com­
puter operators, keypunch opera­
tors, cashiers, receptionists, file
clerks, accounting and auditing
clerks, and payroll clerks. Clerical
workers keep records of services,
make up and send bills to
customers, and prepare statistical
and other reports.
About one-tenth of the industry’s
employees are professional work­
ers. Many of these are scientific
and technical personnel such as en­
gineers and drafters. Engineers plan
cable and microwave routes, cen­
tral office and PBX equipment in­
stallations, new buildings, the ex­
pansion of existing structures, and
solve other engineering problems.
Some engineers also engage in
research and development of new
equipment. Many top managers and
administrators have engineering
backgrounds. Other professional
and technical workers are accoun­
tants, personnel and labor relations
workers, public relations specialists
and publicity writers, computer
systems analysts, computer pro­
grammers, and lawyers.
Nearly one-tenth of the industry’s
employees are business and sales
representatives who sell new com­
munications services, directory ad­
vertising, and handle requests for



installing
or
discontinuing
telephone service.
About 3 percent of the industry’s
workers maintain buildings, offices,
and warehouses; operate and serv­
ice motor vehicles; and do other
maintenance jobs in offices and
plants. Skilled maintenance work­
ers include stationary engineers,
carpenters, painters, electricians,
and plumbers. Other workers em­
ployed by the telphone industry are
janitors, porters, and guards.
Employment Outlook

Telephone industry employment
is expected to increase about as fast
as the average for all industries
through the mid-1980’s. In addition
to the jobs from employment
growth, tens of thousands of
openings will arise each year
because of the need to replace ex­
perienced workers who retire, die,
or leave their jobs for other reasons.
Employment will grow primarily
because rising population and
higher incomes will increase the
need for telephone service. Greater
demand for transmission of com­
puter-processed data and other in­
formation via telephone company
lines also will stimulate employ­
ment growth. Laborsaving innova­

tions, however, will keep employ­
ment from growing as rapidly as
telephone service.
Employment of telephone opera­
tors is expected to decline slightly.
If the trend in the number of
telephone companies charging
customers for directory assistance
calls continues, more people will
dial numbers direct and use
telephone directories to locate
needed numbers, thus reducing the
need for operators. Technological
innovations will restrict employ­
ment growth in some skilled crafts.
For example, mechanical improve­
ments, such as pole-lifting equip­
ment and earth-boring tools, will
limit employment of line installers
by increasing their efficiency. On
the other hand, new technology is
expected to increase the demand
for engineering and technical per­
sonnel, especially electrical and
electronic engineers and techni­
cians, computer programmers, and
systems analysts. Employment in
administrative and sales occupa­
tions will rise as telephone business
increases.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

In 1974 earnings for nonsupervisory telephone employees
averaged $5.08 an hour. In com­
parison, nonsupervisory workers in
all private industries, except farm­
ing, averaged $4.22 an hour.
In early 1974, basic rates ranged
from an average of $3.40 an hour
for telephone operator trainees to
$9.56 for professional and
semiprofessional workers.
A telephone employee usually
starts at the minimum wage for the
particular job. Advancement from
the starting rate to the maximum
rate generally takes 5 years, but
operators and clerical employees of
some companies may reach the
maximum rate in 4 years.
, More than two-thirds of the
workers in the industry, mainly
telephone operators and craft-

workers, are members of labor
unions. The two principal unions
representing workers in the tele­
phone industry are the Com­
munications Workers of America
and the International Brotherhood
of Electrical Workers, but many
other employees are members of
the 13 independent unions which
form the Alliance of Independent
Telephone Unions.
Union contracts govern wage
rates, wage increases, and the
amount of time required to advance
from one step to the next for most
telephone workers. The contracts
also call for extra pay for work
beyond the normal 6 to 8 hours a
day, or 5 days a week, and for all
Sunday and holiday work. Most
contracts provide a pay differential
for night work.
Overtime work sometimes is
required, especially during emer­
gencies, such as floods, hurricanes,




or bad storms. During an
“emergency call-out,” which is a
short-notice request to report for
work during nonscheduled hours,
workers are guaranteed a minimum
period of pay at the basic hourly
rate. Travel time between jobs is
counted as worktime for craft
workers under some contracts.
Paid vacations are granted ac­
cording to length of service.
Usually, contracts provide for a 1week vacation beginning with 6
months of service; 2 weeks for 1 to
7 years; 3 weeks for 8 to 15 years; 4
weeks for 16 to 24 years; and 5
weeks for 25 years and over. De­
pending on locality, holidays range
from 9 to 11 days a year. Most
telephone workers are covered by
paid sick plans and group insurance
which usually provide sickness, ac­
cident, and death benefits, and
retirement and disability pensions.
The telephone industry has one

of the best safety records in Amer­
ican industry. The number of dis­
abling injuries has been well below
the average.
Sources of Additional
Information

More details about employment
opportunities are available from the
telephone company in your com­
munity or local offices of the unions
that represent telephone workers. If
no local union is listed in the
telephone directory write to:

Alliance of Independent Telephone Unions,
P.O. Box 5462, Hamden, Conn. 16518.
Communication Workers of America, 1925
K St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20006.
International Brotherhood of Electrical
Workers, 1200 15th St. NW., Washing­
ton, D.C.20005.
United States Independent Telephone As­
sociation, 1801 K St. NW., Suite 1201,
Washington, D.C. 20006.

OCCUPATIONS IN THE
TRUCKING INDUSTRY
In 1974, the trucking industry
employed approximately 1.2 mil­
lion workers—more than the rival
rail, air, and pipeline transportation
industries combined. It is a major
employer of persons not planning to
attend college, since nearly 90 per­
cent of its employees are freight
handlers, drivers, truck main­
tenance personnel, or clerical wor­
kers, who only require a high school
education.
Nature and Location of the
Industry

The trucking industry is made up
of companies that sell transporta­
tion and storage services. Although
many trucking companies serve
only a single city and its suburbs,
and others carry goods only
between distant cities, most large
trucking firms provide both types of
service. Moreover, some firms
operate one type of truck and spe­
cialize in one type of product. For
example, they may carry steel rods
on flat trailers or grain in open top
vans. In addition, trucking compa-

Drivers “keep on trucking” in ell kinds of
weather.



nies may operate as either contract
or common carriers. Contract car­
riers haul commodities of one or a
few shippers exclusively; common
carriers serve the general public.
The industry’s employment is
concentrated in a relatively small
number of large companies. Almost
half of the industry’s workers are
employed by less than 10 percent of
the companies. On the other hand,
a large proportion of companies are
small, particularly those which
serve a single city. Many companies
are owner-operated, and the owner
does the driving.
Trucking industry employees
work in cities and towns of all sizes
and are distributed much the same
as the Nation’s population.
Occupations in the Industry

About three-fourths of all
trucking industry employees have
blue-collar jobs, including about
600,000 truckdrivers. Other impor­
tant blue-collar occupations are
material handlers, mechanics,
washers and lubricators, and super­
visors. Most white-collar employees
are clerical workers, such as
secretaries and rate clerks, and ad­
ministrative personnel, such as ter­
minal managers and accountants.
The duties and training require­
ments of some of the important oc­
cupations are described briefly in
the following sections.
Truckdriving Occupations. More
than half of the industry’s em­
ployees are drivers. Long-distance
truckdrivers (D.O.T. 904.883)
spend nearly all their working hours
driving large trucks or tractor
trailers between terminals. Some

drivers load and unload their
trucks; usually, however, other em­
ployees do this work. Local
truckdrivers (D.O.T. 906.883)
operate trucks over short distances,
usually within one city and its sub­
urbs. They pick up goods from, and
deliver goods to, trucking ter­
minals, businesses, and homes in
the area.
Clerical Occupations. About 1 out
of every 8 of the industry’s em­
ployees is a clerical worker. Many
have general clerical jobs, such as
secretary or clerk-typist, which are
common to all industries. Others
have specialized jobs. For example,
dispatchers (D.O.T. 919.168) coor­
dinate the movement of trucks and
freight into and out of terminals;
make up loads for specific destina­
tions; assign drivers and develop
delivery schedules; handle
customers’ requests for pickup of
freight, and provide information on
deliveries. Claims adjusters (D.O.T.
241.368) handle claims for freight
lost or damaged during transit.
Manifest clerks (D.O.T. 222.488)
prepare forms that list details of
freight shipments. Parts-order clerks
(D.O.T.
223.387)
supply
mechanics with replacement parts
for trucks; they also take care of
most of the clerical duties needed
to maintain a truck repair shop.
Administrative and Related Occupa­
tions. More than 1 out of 15 em­

ployees is an administrator. Top ex­
ecutives manage companies and
make policy decisions. Middle
managers supervise the operation
of individual departments, ter­
minals, or warehouses. A small
number of accountants and lawyers
are employed by these companies.
The industry also employs sales
representatives to solicit freight
business.
Material Handling Occupations.

About 1 out of 12 employees moves
freight into and out of trucks and
warehouses. Much of this work is

Assembling loads in advance permits trucks to be loaded quickly.

done by material handlers (D.O.T.
929.887) who work in groups of
three or four under the direction of
a dock supervisor or gang leader.
Material handlers load and unload
freight with the aid of handtrucks,
conveyors, and other devices.
Heavy items are moved by power
truck operators (D.O.T. 922.883)
and crane operators (D.O.T.
921.280). Gang leaders determine
the order in which items will be
loaded, so that the cargo is
balanced and items to be unloaded
first are near the truck’s door.
Truckdrivers' helpers (D.O.T.
905.887) travel with drivers to un­
load and pick up freight. Occa­
sionally, helpers may do relief driv­
ing.
Truck Maintenance Occupations.

About 1 out of every 20 employees
takes care of the trucks. Truck
mechanics (D.O.T. 620.281) keep
trucks and trailers in good running
condition. Much time is spent in
preventive maintenance to assure
safe operation, to check wear and
damage to parts, and to reduce



breakdowns. When breakdowns do
occur, these workers determine the
cause and make the necessary
repairs. Truck mechanic helpers
(D.O.T. 620.884) and apprentices
assist experienced mechanics in in­
spection and repair work. Truck
lubricators and washers (D.O.T.
915.887 and 919.887) clean,
lubricate, and refuel trucks, change
tires, and do other routine main­
tenance.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Workers in blue-collar occupa­
tions usually are hired at the un­
skilled level, as material handlers,
truckdrivers’ helpers, lubricators,
and washers. No formal training is
required for these jobs, but many
employers prefer high school
school graduates. Applicants must
be in good physical condition. New
employees work under the
guidance of experienced workers
and supervisors while learning theii
jobs; this usually takes no more
than a few weeks. As vacancies
occur, workers advance to more

skilled blue-collar jobs, such as
power truck operator and
truckdriver. The ability to do the
job and length of service with the
firm are the primary qualifications
for promotion. Material handlers
who demonstrate supervisory abili­
ty can become gang leaders or dock
supervisors.
Qualifications for truckdriving
jobs vary and depend on individual
employers, the type of truck, and
other factors. In most States,
drivers must have a chauffeur’s
license, a commercial driving per­
mit obtained from State motor vehi­
cle departments. The U.S. Depart­
ment of Transportation establishes
minimum qualifications for long­
distance drivers. They must be at
least 21 years old, be able-bodied,
have good hearing, and have at
least 20/40 vision with or without
glasses. However, many firms will
not hire drivers under 2$ years of
age. Drivers also must be able to
read, speak, and write English well
enough to complete required re­
ports. Drivers must have good driv­
ing records.
People interested in professional
driving should take the driver-train­
ing courses offered by many high
schools. A course in automotive
mechanics also is helpful. Private
truckdriving training schools offer
another opportunity to prepare for
a driving job. However, completion
of such a course does not assure
employment as a driver. .
Most truck mechanics learn their
skills informally on the job as
helpers to experienced mechanics.
Others complete formal apprentice­
ship programs which generally last
4 years and . include on-the-job
training and related classroom in­
struction. Unskilled workers, such
as lubricators a n d , Washers,
frequently are promoted to jobs as
helpers and apprentices; However,
many firms will hire inexperienced
people, especially those who have
completed courses in automotive
mechanics, for helper or apprentice
jobs.

Lubricators help keep the trucks in good operating condition.

Completion of commercial cours­
es in high school or in a private
business school is usually adequate
for entry into general clerical occu­
pations such as secretary or typist.
Additional on-the-job training is
needed for specialized clerical oc­
cupations such as claims adjuster.
Generally, no specialized educa­
tion is needed for dispatcher jobs.
Openings are filled by truckdrivers,
claims adjusters, or other workers
who know their company’s opera­
tions and are familiar with State and
Federal driving regulations. Can­
didates may improve their qualifi­
cations by taking college or techni­
cal school courses in transporta­
tion.
Administrative and sales posi­
tions frequently are filled by college
graduates who have majored in
business administration, marketing,



transfer to other fields. The number
of jobs may vary from year to year,
however, because the amount of
freight fluctuates with ups and
downs in the economy.
Trucks carry virtually all freight
for local distribution and a great
deal of freight between distant cit­
ies. As the volume of freight in­
creases with the Nation’s economic
growth, employment in the trucking
industry will rise. More employees
also will be needed to serve the
many factories, warehouses, stores,
and homes being built where rail­
road transportation is not available.
Employment will not increase as
fast as the demand for trucking
services because technological
developments and a continued
trend toward larger, more efficient
firms will increase output per
worker. As a result of these
developments, rates of growth will
vary among occupations. Employ­
ment of material handlers, for ex­
ample, is expected to increase
slowly because of more efficient
freight-handling methods—such as
conveyors and draglines to move
freight in and out of terminals and
warehouses. On the other hand,
employment of accountants, per­
sonnel workers, clerks, and
mechanics is expected to increase
rapidly as firms increase in size and
are able to employ more of these
specialists.

accounting, industrial relations, or
transportation. Some companies
have management training pro­
grams for college graduates in
which trainees work for brief
periods in various departments to
get a broad understanding of
Earnings and Working
trucking operations before they are
Conditions
assigned to a particular department.
High school graduates may be In 1974, nonsupervisory workers
promoted to administrative and in the trucking industry averaged
sales positions.
$5.79 an hour, compared with
$4.22 an hour for their counter­
parts in all private industry, except
Employment Outlook
farming. Earnings are relatively
Employment in the trucking in­ high in the trucking industry,
dustry is expected to grow about as because highly paid drivers
fast as the average for all industries represent a large proportion of em­
through the mid-1980’s. In addition ployment; many long-distance
to the large number of job openings drivers earn more than $300 a
created by employment growth, week.
thousands more will arise as ex­ Most employees are paid an
perienced workers retire, die, or hourly rate or a weekly or monthly

salary. However, truckdrivers on
the longer runs generally are paid
on a mileage basis while driving.
For all other worktime, they are
paid an hourly rate.
Working conditions vary greatly
among occupations in the industry.
While drivers may experience nerv­
ous strain from maneuvering large
trucks in fast-moving traffic, more
comfortable seating, power steer­
ing, and air-conditioned cabs have
reduced physical strain. Long­
distance drivers frequently work at
night and may spend time away
from home; local drivers usually
work during the day. Material han­
dlers and truckdrivers’ helpers have
strenuous jobs, although conveyor
systems and other freight handling




equipment have reduced some of
the heavier lifting and made the
work easier and safer. Truck
mechanics and other maintenance
personnel may have to work in awk­
ward or cramped positions while
servicing vehicles, and frequently
get dirty because of the grease and
oil on the trucks. In addition, most
maintenance shops are hot in
summer and drafty in the winter.
Mechanics occasionally make
repairs outdoors when a truck
breaks down on the road.
Many large organizations operate
around the clock and require some
material handling and maintenance
personnel to work evenings, nights,
and weekends.
A large number of trucking in­

dustry employees are members of
the International Brotherhood of
Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Ware­
housemen and Helpers of America
(Ind).
Sources of Additional
Information

For general information about
career opportunities in the trucking
industry, write to:
American Trucking Associations, Inc., 1616
P St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

Information about specific jobs
may be available from the person­
nel departments of local trucking
companies or the local office of
your State employment service.

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE
Wholesaling and retailing are the
final stages in the transfer of goods
from producers to consumers.
Wholesalers assemble goods in
large lots for distribution to retail
stores, industrial firms, and institu­
tions such as schools and hospitals.
Retailers sell goods directly to con­
sumers in a variety of ways—in
stores, by mail, or through door-todoor selling. A list of the items sold
by wholesale and retail businesses
would include almost every item
produced by industry—automo­
biles, clothing, food, furniture, and
countless others.
In 1974, about 17 million people
(not counting an estimated 2 mil­
lion who were self-employed per­
sons or unpaid family workers)
worked in wholesale and retail
trade. The largest number of work­
ers—12.7 million or about threefourths of them were employed in
retail trade. The majority of these
workers held jobs in department
stores, food stores, and restaurants
and other eating places. About 4.3
million people worked in wholesale
trade.
Workers with a wide range of
education, training, and* skills hold
jobs in wholesale and retail trade.
As shown in the accompanying
tabulation, 3 out of 5 workers in
these industry divisions were whitecollar workers (professional,
managerial, clerical, and sales).
Sales workers, the largest single
group, make up more than one-fifth




of total industry employment.
Managers and proprietors, the
second largest group of workers,
constitute nearly one-fifth of the in­
dustry’s work force. Many
managers and proprietors own and
operate small wholesale houses or
retail businesses, such as food
stores and gas stations. Clerical
workers make up over one-sixth of
the work force; many hold jobs as
cashiers, especially in supermarkets
and other food stores. Other impor­
tant clerical occupations in retail
trade include secretaries, stenog­
raphers and typists, office machine
operators, and bookkeepers and ac­
counting clerks. Large numbers of
shipping and receiving clerks work
in both wholesale and retail trade.
Blue-collar workers (craft work­
ers, operatives, and laborers) con­
stitute nearly one-fourth of the in­
dustry’s jobholders. Many work as
mechanics and repairers, gas sta­
tion attendants, drivers and delivery
workers, meat cutters, and materi­
als handlers. Most mechanics work
for motor vehicle dealers and
gasoline service stations. A large
number of meatcutters work in
wholesale grocery establishments
and in supermarkets and other food
stores.
Service workers, employed
mostly in retail trade, constitute
about 1 out of 6 workers in the in­
dustry. Food service workers, such
as waitresses and cooks, make up
by far the largest concentration of

service workers. Other large groups
of service workers are janitors,
cleaners, and guards.
Estimated

employment,
1974 (percent
Major occupational group distribution)
All occupational groups...

Professional, technical, and kin­
dred workers.................................
Managers and administrators...
Clerical and kindred workers...
Salesworkers ................................
Craft and kindred workers..........
Operatives......................................
Service workers............................
Laborers.........................................

100
2
19
17
22
8
10
16
6

Employment in wholesale and
retail trade is expected to increase
by about the same rate as the
average for all industries through
the mid-1980’s as sales rise in
response to growth in population
and income. Due to laborsaving in­
novations, however, employment is
not expected to grow as fast as
sales. The use of computers for in­
ventory control and billing, for ex­
ample, may limit the need for addi­
tional clerical workers. Improved
methods of handling and storing
merchandise will limit the demand
for laborers.
The statements that follow
discuss job opportunities in restau­
rants and food stores. More
detailed information about occupa­
tions that cut across many indus­
tries appears elsewhere in the
Handbook.

advertising or public relations
directors, personnel workers, and
musicians and other entertainers.
OCCUPATIONS IN THE
RESTAURANT INDUSTRY
In 1974, the restaurant industry
was the fourth largest industry in
the country, employing 3.1 million
people in establishments ranging
from roadside diners to luxurious
restaurants. The type of food and
service a restaurant offers varies
with its size and location, as well as
with the kind of customer it seeks to
attract. Fast-food restaurants and
cafeterias in suburban shopping
centers emphasize rapid service and
inexpensive meals. Steak houses
and pizzerias consider the quality of
their specialty most important.
Some restaurants cater to
customers who wish to eat a leisure­
ly meal in elegant surroundings and
their menus often include unusual
dishes or "‘specialties of the house.”
Most restaurants are small and
have fewer than 10 paid employees;
many of these are operated by their
owners, who have either no paid
help or only one or two part-time
workers. An increasing proportion
of restaurants, however, are part of
a chain operation.
Restaurant jobs are found almost
everywhere. Although employment
is concentrated in the States with
the largest populations and particu­
larly in large cities, even very small
communities have luncheonettes
and roadside diners.
Restaurant Workers

About three-fourths of all restau­
rant employees prepare and serve
food, and keep cooking and eating
areas clean. Waiters and waitresses,
and cooks and chefs make up the
two largest groups of workers.
Others are counter workers, who
serve food in cafeterias and fast


food restaurants; bartenders, who
mix and serve drinks; dining room
attendants, who clear tables, carry
dirty dishes back to the kitchen,
and sometimes set tables; dish­
washers, who wash dishes and help
keep the kitchen clean; pantry
workers, who prepare salads and
certain other dishes; and janitors
and porters, who dispose of trash,
sweep and mop floors, and keep the
restaurant clean. Some of these
workers operate mechanical equip­
ment such as dishwashers, floor
polishers, and vegetable slicers and
peelers. (Detailed information on
cooks and chefs, waiters and
waitresses, bartenders, food
counter workers, and dining room
attendants and dishwashers is given
elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Another large group of restau­
rant workers—about one-seventh
of the total—are managers and
proprietors. Many are owners and
operators of small restaurants and,
in addition to acting as managers,
may cook and do other work. Some
are salaried employees who manage
restaurants for others.
All other restaurant workers
combined account for less than
one-tenth of total industry employ­
ment. Most are clerical workers—
cashiers who receive payments and
make change for customers; food
checkers who total the cost of items
selected by cafeteria customers;
and bookkeepers, typists, and other
office workers. A few restaurants
employ dietitians to plan menus, su­
pervise food preparation, and en­
force sanitary regulations. Restau­
rant chains and some large restau­
rants employ mechanics and other
maintenance workers, accountants,

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

The skills and experience needed
for restaurant work vary from one
occupation to another. Many jobs
require no special training or ex­
perience, while others require some
college or managerial experience.
Requirements also vary from one
restaurant to another; large or ex­
pensive restaurants usually have
higher standards than diners or
luncheonettes.
Young people who have less than
a high school education and no
previous experience often can get
jobs as kitchen workers, dish­
washers, or dining room attendants.
Although a high school education is
not mandatory, some restaurants
hire only those with a diploma or
experienced waiters and waitresses,
cooks, and bartenders. Special
training or many years of ex­
perience or both usually are
required for chefs’ positions.
Newly hired restaurant workers
are generally trained on the job.
Kitchen workers, for example, may
be taught to operate a lettuceshredder and make salads. Waiters
and waitresses are taught to set ta­
bles, take orders from customers,
and serve food in a courteous and
efficient manner. In many restau­
rants, new employees receive their
training under the close supervision
of an experienced employee or the
manager. Large restaurants and
some chain restaurant operations
may have more formal programs
which often include several days of
training sessions for beginners.
Many public and private high
schools offer vocational courses for
persons interested in restaurant
training. Usually included are food
preparation and cooking, catering,
restaurant management, and other
related subjects. Similar training
programs are available for a variety

of occupations through restaurant
associations and trade unions,
technical schools, junior and com­
munity colleges, and 4-year col­
leges. Programs range in length
from a few months to 2 years or
more.
The Armed Forces are another
good source of training and ex­
perience in food service work. A
number of programs also exist to
train handicapped workers for
restaurant jobs. Among these are
projects to train mentally retarded
persons for occupations such as
dishwasher and kitchen helper.
When hiring, employers look for
applicants who have good health
and physical stamina because
restaurant workers have to work
long hours, often under considera­
ble pressure. Neatness, a pleasant
manner, and an even disposition
also are important, especially for
waiters and waitresses and other
employees who meet the public.
Restaurants, particularly large
chain operations, promote workers
who have initiative and ability. Din­
ing room attendants or dishwashers
can advance to better paying jobs
such as waiter or cook’s helper and
then through additional training to
cook, chef, baker, or bartender. Ex­
perience as maitre d’hotel may lead
to a position as director of food and
beverage services in a large chain
organization. Assistant managers,
particularly those with college
training, may be promoted to
manager, and eventually to a top
management position.
Employment Outlook

Employment in the restaurant in­
dustry is expected to increase faster
than the average for all industries
through the mid-1980’s. In addi­
tion to the openings arising from
employment growth, thousands of
openings are expected each year
due to turnover—the need to
replace experienced employees
who find other jobs or who retire,
die, or stop working for other



reasons. Turnover is particularly
high among part-time workers,
many of whom are students.
Most openings will be for
waitresses and kitchen helpers—
both because of their high replace­
ment needs and because these
workers make up a very large pro­
portion of all restaurant employees.
Employment opportunities also are
expected to be favorable for skilled
cooks and salaried restaurant
managers. The number of openings
in clerical jobs, such as cashier, will
be relatively small. A few openings
will occur in specialized positions,
such as food manager and dietitian.
Population growth, rising per­
sonal incomes, and more leisure
time will contribute to a growing
demand for restaurant services.
Also, as an increasing number of
wives work, more and more families
may find dining out a welcome con­
venience. Increasing worker
productivity, however, will prevent
employment from growing as
rapidly as demand for restaurant
services. Restaurants have become
more efficient as fast food service
counters have become more popu­
lar, and as managers have central­
ized the purchase of food supplies,
introduced self-service, and used
precut meats and modern equip­
ment. Many restaurants now use
frozen entrees in individual por­
tions which require less time and
skill to prepare than fresh foods.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

Earnings of restaurant workers
depend on the location, size, type,
and degree of unionization of the
restaurant in which they work.
Also, workers in some occupations
receive tips in addition to their
wages.
In 1974, nonsupervisory workers
in the restaurant industry averaged
$2.33 an hour (excluding tips).
Data from union contracts covering
eating and drinking places in
several large cities indicate the fol­
lowing range of hourly earnings for

individual occupations:
Hourly rate
range 1

Chefs........................................... $3.00-5.90
Bartenders................................. 2.90-5.40
C ooks......................................... 2.60-4.90
Pantry workers......................... 2.16-3.82
Checkers.................................... 2.10-3.71
Porters........................................ 1.96-3.42
Cashiers..................................... 2.10-3.38
Dishwashers.............................. 1.31-3.04
Dining room attendants.......... 1.30-3.04
Kitchen helpers......................... 2.19-3.02
Waiters and waitresses........... 1.20-3.00
Assistant cooks......................... 2.30-2.90
Food counter workers............ 1.90-2.60
1 Tips not included.

Salaries of managerial workers
differ widely because of differences
in duties and responsibilities. Many
college graduates who had special­
ized training in restaurant manage­
ment received starting salaries
ranging from $10,000 to $12,000
annually in 1974. Managerial
trainees without this background
often started at lower salaries.
Many experienced managers
earned between $15,000 and
$30,000 a year.
In addition to wages, restaurant
employees usually get at least one
free meal a day, and often are pro­
vided with uniforms. Waiters,
waitresses, and bartenders also may
receive tips.
Most full-time restaurant em­
ployees work 30 to 48 hours a
week; scheduled hours may include
evenings, holidays, and weekends.
Many work on split shifts, which
means they are on duty for several
hours during one meal, take some
time off, and then return to work
for the next busy period.
Many restaurants have con­
venient work areas, and are
furnished with the latest equipment
and laborsaving devices. Others,
particularly small restaurants, offer
less desirable working conditions.
In all restaurants, workers may
stand much of the time, have to lift
heavy trays and pots, or work near
hot ovens or steam tables. Work

Sources of Additional
hazards include the possibility of
Information
burns; cuts from knives and broken
glass or china; and slips and falls on
For additional information about
wet floors.
careers in the restaurant industry,
The principal union in the restau­
rant industry is the Hotel and write to:
Institute
Restaurant Employees and Barten­ National 120 Southfor the Foodservice Indus­
try,
Riverside Plaza, Chicago,
ders International Union (AFL111. 60606.
CIO). The proportion of workers Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institu­
covered by union contracts varies
tional Education, 1522 K St., NW.,
greatly from city to city.
Washington. D.C. 20005.




Information on vocational educa­
tion courses for restaurant work
may be obtained from the local
director of vocational education,
the superintendent of schools in the
local community, or the State
director of vocational education in
the department of education in the
State capital.

candy. Most are small and are
usually operated by the owner and a
few clerks. Approximately 15 per­
cent of the industry’s employees
work in these stores.
OCCUPATIONS IN RETAIL FOODSTORES
In the United States, grocery
stores and supermarkets are as
common as baseballs in summer,
and almost always near at hand. But
like the tip of an iceberg, the local
foodstore is merely a small part of a
large body known as the retail foodstore industry. The industry sells
most of the food eaten by Amer­
icans and employs more than 2.1
million workers.
Jobs in the foodstores vary, and
workers range in education and
training from high school dropouts
to college educated marketing
professionals. Jobs in foodstores are
especially attractive because em­
ployers often provide training and
because the opportunities for
promotion are good. The large
number of opportunities for parttime employment may be of special
interest to homemakers and stu­
dents who do not want full-time
jobs.
Nature of the Work

In contrast to restaurants where
food is eaten as it is purchased,
retail foodstores sell food which is
to be eaten away from the store.
The industry pioneered in selfservice marketing techniques that
permit customers to select items
from shelves and bring them to
check-out stands. Self-service
methods reduce the number of em­
ployees needed. Therefore the cost
of operating a store is lower. As a
result, food sold in large self-service
foodstores, or supermarkets, is
generally less expensive than food
sold in small stores.
There are three basic types of
food stores: Supermarkets which
sell many food items, small grocery



stores, and specialty food stores
which emphasize a particular type
of food, or service, not generally
available in a supermarket.
Supermarkets are simply big,
self-service grocery stores which
sell meat; canned, frozen, or fresh
vegetables; baked foods; and other
items. Only about 20 percent of all
food stores are supermarkets. How­
ever, they employ about 60 percent
of the industry’s workers. Because
prices are generally lower than at
any other type of foodstore, super­
markets attract customers who
make many purchases. When only a
loaf of bread or a quart of milk is
needed, however, the customer
may prefer a nearby neighborhood
grocery store or a specialty foodstore.
Small neighborhood grocery
stores are the most numerous of all
foodstores. Besides a small selec­
tion of popular food items, they
may feature Spanish, Chinese, or
other ethnic foods. Usually, owners
personally manage these stores and
only employ additional help as
needed. Few owners operate more
than one store. About 20 percent of
the industry’s employees work in
small grocery stores.
Convenience stores are small
grocery stores which specialize in a
small variety of food and other
items which customers might want
in a hurry. They open earlier and
close later than large supermarkets,
and customers can make purchases
quickly. Only 5 percent of the in­
dustry’s employees work in con­
venience stores.
Specialty food stores operate in
much the same manner as small
neighborhood grocery stores. How­
ever, they feature only one type of
food, such as meat, vegetables, or

Occupations in the Industry

About 60 percent of foodstore
workers are clerks, cashiers, meatcutters, and meatwrappers.
Managers and owner-managers
make up an additional 25 percent
of total employment. The remain­
ing 15 percent are accountants,
bookkeepers, truckdrivers, clean­
ing and other service workers, and
laborers.
Clerks in supermarkets are
usually called stock or produce
clerks. In the grocery department,
stock clerks keep shelves filled with
merchandise. For example, they
may count the cans of soup on the
shelves and in the stockroom and
decide whether to order more soup
from the warehouse. Since storage
space is limited, the order should
include only as much as might be
sold before another delivery from
the warehouse will be made.
Stock clerks frequently rearrange
food to create an attractive display.
They help customers find what they
want and perform general clean-up
duties. In supermarkets, stock
clerks may occasionally operate
cash registers or bag groceries.
Produce clerks maintain the dis­
plays of fruits and vegetables.
Because fruits and vegetables are
perishable, clerks use special
techniques to keep the stock attrac­
tive. Fruits and vegetables are
rotated so that the most recently
delivered goods are on the bottom
of the display. Lettuce and other
greens are moistened and chilled to
preserve crispness. In addition to
caring for the displays, produce
clerks help unload delivery trucks,
keep the produce department
clean, answer customer’s questions,
and weigh and bag produce.
In large stores which have bakery
and delicatessen departments,
other clerks work behind counters

selling cakes or lunch meats.
Meatcutters and wrappers order
and prepare meats for sale. Since
meat is delivered to the store in
large pieces, meatcutters use saws
and knives to cut the large pieces
into roasts, steaks, stew meats, and
other meal size portions. After the
fat is cut away and bone chips are
removed, the meat is placed in
plastic trays and is ready to be
wrapped.
Meatwrappers use a machine to
wrap the package of meat in clear
plastic. Then, the wrappers weigh
the packages and attach labels
which the weighing machine has
printed and which identify the type
of meat, the weight, the price per
pound, and the total price for each
package.
At the check-out counter,
cashiers ring up the price of each
item on the cash register, add sales
tax, receive checks or money, make
change, and bag purchases.
Cashiers, who are often the only
employees customers meet, must be
pleasant, courteous, fast, and accu­
rate. Experienced cashiers
memorize the prices of hundreds of
items, but must detect price
changes on cans and boxes. For
produce and other items that
change price frequently, price lists
are used. When not serving
customers, cashiers clean counters
and restock small convenience
items, such as razor blades and
candy, displayed near the check­
out counter.
Many supermarkets also employ
workers to bag and carry groceries
from the check-out counter to
customers’ cars. Cleaning and other
service workers polish floors, clean
windows, and do other housekeep­
ing jobs. The store manager ob­
serves the activities of each depart­
ment, corrects problems as they
arise, and is responsible for all ac­
tivities and the store’s success.
The central administrative offices
of supermarket chains employ ac­
countants, bookkeepers, personnel
specialists, clerks, secretaries, and



other office workers. Chain stores
also employ many truckdrivers,
stock clerks, and laborers in
warehouses.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

In a large supermarket, a new
employee usually begins as a
trainee in one of the following oc­
cupations: cashier, stock clerk,
produce clerk, meatwrapper, or
meatcutter. In smaller stores, how­
ever, new employees usually are
trained as combination cashiersclerks.
When hiring trainees, employers
look for high school graduates who
are good at arithmetic and who
make a neat appearance. An outgo­
ing personality and the ability to get
along with people also are impor­
tant, particularly for cashiers. Ap­
plicants who have less than a high
school education may be hired if
they qualify in other respects.
New workers learn their jobs
mostly by helping and observing ex­
perienced employees. A few years
may be needed to qualify as a
skilled meatcutter, but cashiers and
produce clerks generally can learn
their jobs in less than 6 months.
Jobs as stock clerks and meatwrap­
pers can be learned in even less
time.
Before being assigned to a store,
cashier trainees may attend a 5-day
school operated by a supermarket
chain. These courses, which
emphasize rapid and accurate
operation of cash registers, include
instructions for treating customers
courteously and for handling com­
plaints. Trainees who pass the ex­
amination are assigned to a store to
finish their training; those who fail
may be hired for other jobs, such as
stock or produce clerk.
Some stores have meatcutter ap­
prenticeship programs, which
generally last 2 to 3 years, and in­
clude classroom instruction as well
as on-the-job training.
Foodstores provide ambitious

employees with excellent opportu­
nities for advancement in super­
markets, stock clerks frequently
move up to better-paying jobs as
head clerks or grocery department
managers. Produce clerks may ad­
vance to jobs produce managers,
produce buyer or produce super­
visors of several stores. Meatwrap­
pers can learn to be cutters, and
then advance to meat department
manager. Cashiers and department
managers can be promoted to
assistant managers and, eventually,
managers of a supermarket. Ad­
vancement in small foodstores
usually is limited, but employees
may get all-round experience to
start their own small businesses.
Some supermarket employees
and managers advance to adminis­
trative jobs in their company’s cen­
tral offices. A large number of these
jobs, however, are in specialized
fields, such as accounting or labor
relations, which require college
training.
In cooperation with the National
Association of Food Chains, Cor­
nell University offers home study
courses in management that are
designed specifically for food indus­
try employees who wish to improve
their chances for advancement. All
employees are eligible to take these
courses.
Foodstores also have been a
growing source of jobs for women.
In 1974, about 40 percent of the in­
dustry’s employees were women,
compared with about 30 percent in
1960.
Employment Outlook

The outlook for jobs in the foodstore industry is good. Employment
through the mid-1980’s is expected
to grow about as fast as the average
for all industries. In addition, each
year thousands of jobs will become
available as employees transfer to
jobs in other industries, retire, or
stop working for other reasons.
Many part-time jobs will be availa­
ble.

As population increases, more
food will have to be distributed; this
will increase foodstore sales and
employment. However, employ­
ment is not expected to increase as
rapidly as foodstore sales because
new equipment will increase em­
ployee productivity. For example,
computer assisted check-out
systems are now being tested as
replacements for cash registers. An
optical or magnetic scanner trans­
mits the code number of each
purchase to a computer that is pro­
grammed to record the price of the
item, add the tax, and printout a
receipt. The computer also keeps
track of the store’s inventory and
places orders with the warehouse
When stock is needed. This system
would limit growth in the employ­
ment of cashiers and stock clerks.
Nevertheless, more workers would
be hired as additional supermarkets
are built to keep up with the expan­
sion of suburbs.
The outlook for part-time jobs as
cashiers and stock clerks is very
good. Large numbers of the present
employees are students who are
supplementing their income while
attending school. After completing
school, many leave for jobs in other
industries. Other part-time em­




ployees also may work only for
short periods. As a result, there are
many part-time job opportunities
which frequently can lead to full­
time jobs.

such as electric saws. Because they
frequently work in refrigerated
rooms, meatcutters also must be
able to tolerate low temperatures
(35 to 50 degrees fahrenheit).
Many foodstore employees are
union members. Employees in the
meat department are represented
Earnings and Working
by the Amalgamated Meat Cutters
Conditions
Union. Other employees in
Earnings of nonsupervisory store belong to the Retail Clerks the
In­
workers in foodstores are among ternational Association.
the highest in retail trade. In 1974,
they averaged $3.60 an hour, com­
Sources of Additional
pared with $3.10 an hour for non­
Information
supervisory workers in retail
stores as a whole. Earnings vary Details about employment op­
considerably by occupation. Based portunities are available from local
on the limited information avail­ foodstores and the local office of
State
able, hourly rates ranged from theFor employment service.
about $1.60 for clerks with little duties specific information on the
and
experience to more than $6.00 for cashiers, write to:qualifications of
some highly skilled meatcutters.
Retail Grocers,
Earnings tend to be highest in National Association ofAve., Chicago, 360
North Michigan
111.
large stores in metropolitan areas.
60601.
Almost all foodstore employees For information on
must be able to stand for several other aspects of the training and
meatcutting
hours at a time. Stock clerks must trade, contact:
be capable of lifting boxes or
packages which weigh up to 50 Amalgamated Meat Cutters and Butchers
pounds. Most foodstore occupa­
Workmen of North America, 2800
tions are not hazardous, but meatNorth Sheridan Road, Chicago, III.
60657.
cutters must be careful when han­
dling knives and using machinery,

FINANCE, INSURANCE, AND REAL ESTATE
Nearly every individual and or­
ganization uses services that the
finance, insurance, and real estate
industry provides. Financial institu­
tions—banks, savings and loan
companies, consumer credit or­
ganizations, and others —offer serv­
ices ranging from checking and
savings accounts to the handling of
stock and bond transactions. In­
surance companies provide protec­
tion against losses caused by fire,
accident, sickness, and death. Real
estate firms serve as agents in the
sale or rental of buildings and prop­
erty, and often manage large of­
fices and apartments.
In 1974, over 4.1 million persons
worked in the finance, insurance,
and real estate field. Finance, the
largest sector, employed 1.9 million
persons; the next largest, insurance,
over 1.4 million workers. The
remainder—over 800,000—worked
in real estate.
Finance, insurance, and real
estate firms are a major source of
job opportunities for women, who
make up over half of the industry’s
work force. The proportion of
women ranges from about 35 per­
cent in real estate to over 65 per­
cent in banking.




As the accompanying tabulation
shows, over 90 percent of the work­
ers in the industry hold white-col­
lar jobs. Clerical workers alone
make up 46 percent of the indus­
try’s work force. Many clerical
workers have jobs that are unique
to particular industries, such as
bank tellers in financial institutions
and claim representatives in in­
surance companies. Other large
clerical occupations include ste­
nographer, typist, secretary, and
office machine operator— also
jobs
found in other industries. Salesworkers constitute 21 percent of the

work force. Most of these are insur­
ance and real estate agents and
brokers. A relatively small number
of the salesworkers sell stocks and
bonds.
Managers and officials—bank of­
ficers, office managers, and
others—make up 20 percent of the
industry’s work force. Professional
and technical workers—such as ac­
countants, computer specialists,
and business research analysts—ac­
count for another 5 percent.
Employment in the finance, in­
surance, and real estate industry is
expected to increase faster than the
average for all industries through
the mid-1980’s. Over the long run,
Estimated population, business activity, and
employment,
personal incomes should continue
1974
{percent
to rise, creating a need to expand
Major occupational group distribution) both the types of services offered
All occupational groups...
100 and the number of establishments
engaged in finance, insurance, and
Professional, technical, and kin­
dred workers.............................
5 real estate. Growth, however, may
Managers and administrators......
20 vary by occupation. For example,
Clerical and kindred workers.....
46 the increasing use of data
Salesworkers ...............................
21 processing should continue to les­
Craft and kindred workers........
2 sen the demand for workers in rou­
tine clerical and recordkeeping
Operatives..................................... (')
Service workers...........................
5 functions while spurring demand
Laborers.........................................
1 for workers in computer occupa­
tions.
1 Less than 0.5 percent.

OCCUPATIONS IN THE
BANKING INDUSTRY

personnel directors, marketing and
public relations workers, as well as
guards, elevator operators,
cleaners, and other service workers.
Three large occupations unique
to banking—clerks, tellers, and of­
ficers—are described in separate
statements elsewhere in the Hand­
book.

Places of Employment
savings and loan associations, per­
sonal credit institutions, and related In 1974, there were more than
institutions.
40,000 commercial banks and their
In 1974, commercial banks branches and almost 2,000 mutual
processed about 25 billion checks savings banks and branches. Bank
and handled an enormous amount employment is concentrated in a
of paperwork. The clerical workers relatively small number of very
who do this job account for nearly large banks. In 1974, for example,
two-thirds of all bank employees. almost two-thirds of all commercial
Many are tellers or clerks who bank employees worked in the Na­
process the thousands of deposit tion’s 800 largest commercial
slips, checks, and other documents banks; less than 6 percent were em­
which banks handle daily. Banks ployed by the 6,000 smallest com­
also employ many secretaries, mercial banks.
stenographers, typists, telephone Most bank employees work in
operators, and receptionists.
heavily populated States, such as
Bank officers comprise the New York, California, Illinois,
second largest occupation in the Pennsylvania, and Texas. New
banking industry. Approximately 1 York City, the financial capital of
out of 5 employees is an officer—a the N ation, has far more bank work­
president, vice president, treasurer, ers than any other city.
comptroller or other official. Other
occupations in the industry account
Training
Banks and Their Workers
for fewer positions. These include
Banks employed more than a mil­ accountants, economists, lawyers, Professional and managerial
lion workers in 1974; about twoOf the More Than 1.1 Million People
thirds were women. Most bank em­
ployees work in commercial banks,
Employed in Banking, Two-Thirds Are in
where a wide variety of services are
Clerical Occupations
26
offered. Others work in mutual
savings banks, which offer a more
limited range of services—mainly
savings deposit accounts, mortgage
Clerical
loans, safe-deposit rentals, trust
management, money orders,
Officers
travelers’ checks, and passbook
loans. Still others work in the 12
Professional
Federal Reserve Banks (or
Service
“bankers’ banks’’) and their 24
branches and in foreign exchange
All others
firms, clearing house associations,
check cashing agencies, and other
organizations doing work closely
related to banking. In addition,
many people are employed by

Banks have been described as
“department stores of finance”
because they offer a variety of serv­
ices ranging from individual
checking accounts to letters of
credit for financing world trade.
Banks safeguard money and valua­
bles; administer trusts and personal
estates; and lend money to business,
educational, religious, and other or­
ganizations. They lend money to in­
dividuals to purchase homes, au­
tomobiles, and household items,
and to cover unexpected financial
needs. Banks continually adapt
their services to meet their
customers’ needs. In recent years,
for example, they have offered
revolving check credit plans,
charge cards, accounting and
billing services, and money
management counseling.




Source: Bureau of Labo r S ta tistic s.

bank workers usually have
completed college; most clerks
have finished high school; guards
and building service personnel may
have less than a high school educa­
tion.
Most new employees receive
some form of in-service bank train­
ing. Banks also provide other op­
portunities for workers to broaden
their knowledge and skills. Many
banks encourage employees to take
courses at local colleges and univer­
sities. In addition, banking associa­
tions sponsor a number of pro­
grams, sometimes in cooperation
with colleges and universities.
Many banks pay all or part of the
costs for those who successfully
complete courses.
Bank workers also can prepare
for better jobs by taking courses
that the American Institute of
Banking offers in many cities
throughout the country. The In­
stitute, which has 387 chapters and
over 200 study groups, also offers
correspondence study and assists
local banks in conducting coopera­
tive training programs for various
bank positions.
Bank employees should enjoy
working with numbers and be able
to accept the responsibility of han­
dling large amounts of money. They
should present a good image to
customers. Often bank officials are
encouraged to participate in com­
munity activities.

Most openings will be for clerks.
In addition, an increasing number
of trainee jobs, which may lead to
officer positions, will probably
become available for college gradu­
ates. Many openings for profes­
sional and specialized personnel
such as accountants and auditors,
statisticians, and computer opera­
tors also will occur.
Bank facilities and employment
will grow as population, sales, and
incomes rise, resulting in greater
numbers of financial transactions
among businesses and individuals.
Jobs also will be created as banks
continue to improve and expand
services such as bank charge cards
and the handling of accounts for
retail stores. As banks strive to
bring these and other services
closer to suburban areas, branch
banks will grow in number and pro­
vide additional employment oppor­
tunities.
The continued conversion to
electronic data processing may les­
sen demand for some bank workers,
despite the expected increase in
bank services. The effect of this
development will vary by occupa­
tion, as indicated in the statements
on specific banking occupations
elsewhere in the Handbook.
Bank employees can anticipate
steadier employment than workers
in many other fields, because they
are less likely to be laid off during
periods of low business activity.
Even when a bank is sold or
merged, workers seldom lose their
Employment Outlook
jobs. Bank officials usually reduce
Banks should continue to be a
when necessary, by
major source of job opportunities in employment, employees who leave
not replacing
office occupations. Banking em­ their jobs.
ployment is expected to rise faster
than the average for all industries
Earnings and Working
through the mid-1980’s. New jobs
Conditions
resulting from employment growth,
as well as those that arise as em­ In addition to salaries, bank
ployees retire, die, or stop working workers generally receive liberal
for other reasons, are expected to fringe benifits. For example, most
account for tens of thousands of banks have some type of profitopenings each year.
sharing or bonus plan. In addition,




group plans that provide life in­
surance, hospitalization, surgical
benefits, and retirement income are
common. Sometimes free checking
accounts or safe-deposit boxes also
are provided.
The workweek in banks is
generally 40 hours or less; in a few
localities, a workweek of 35 hours
is common. Tellers and some other
employees work at least one even­
ing a week when banks remain open
for business. Certain check proces­
sors and operators of computing
equipment may work on evening
shifts.
Sources of Additional
Information

Local banks and State bankers’
associations can furnish specific in­
formation about job opportunities
in local banking institutions.
General information about banking
occupations, training opportunities,
and the banking industry itself is
available from:
American Bankers Association, Bank Per­
sonnel Division, 1120 Connecticut Ave.
NW„ Washington, D.C. 20036.
National Association of Bank Women, Inc.,
National Office, 111 E. Wacker Dr.,
Chicago, 111. 60601
National Bankers Association, 4310 Georgia
Ave. NW., Washington, D.C. 20011.

For information about career op­
portunities as a bank examiner,
contact:
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation,
Director of Personnel, 550 17th St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20429.

Information on careers with the
Federal Reserve System is available
from:
Board of Governors, The Federal Re­
serve System, Personnel Department,
Washington, D.C. 20551 or from the
personnel department of the Federal
Reserve bank serving each geographic
area.

group life insurance protected
about 65 million persons; the
number of policies was almost dou­
ble the number 10 years earlier.
OCCUPATIONS IN THE
INSURANCE INDUSTRY
The insurance industry offers
many employment opportunities
both for recent high school and col­
lege graduates and for experienced
workers.
The 1,800 life and 2,800 proper­
ty-liability (also called casualty) in­
surance companies do business in
home and regional offices and also
in thousands of sales offices
throughout the country.
Nature of the Business

There are three major types of in­
surance: life, property-liability, and
health. Some companies specialize
in only one type; a growing number
of large insurers now offer several
lines of insurance. For example,
several life carriers can now offer
their policyholders protection for
their homes and cars; at the same
time, major property-liability com­
panies sell life insurance policies.
Many insurance companies also
offer mutual fund shares and varia­
ble annuities as additional invest­
ment choices for their customers.
Life insurance companies sell
policies that provide benefits to sur­
vivors upon the death of' the in­
sured. Some life insurance policies
also provide policyholders with a
steady income when they reach
retirement age or if they become
disabled; policies may be designed
to help provide funds to educate
children when they reach college
age, or give extra financial protec­
tion while the children are young.
Life insurance policies also may be
used to protect business interests
and to guarantee employee
benefits. Property-liability in­
surance provides policyholders with



protection against loss or damage to
their property, and protects them
from financial responsibility for in­
juries to others or damage to other
people’s property. It covers hazards
such as fire, theft, and windstorm,
as well as workers’ compensation
and other claims. Most life and
property liability companies sell
accident and health insurance,
which helps policyholders pay
medical expenses, and may furnish
other benefits for an injury or
illness.
An increasing number of in­
surance policies cover groups rang­
ing from a few individuals to many
thousands. These policies usually
are issued to employers for the
benefit of their employees. Most
common are group life and health
plans, although the number of
group automobile and homeowner
policies is growing rapidly. In 1974,

Insurance Workers

About 1.6 million people worked
in the insurance business in 1974.
The majority were in clerical and
sales jobs. (See accompanying
chart.)
Just over half of all insurance
company employees work in cleri­
cal and related jobs; this is a much
larger proportion than in most
other industries. These workers
keep records of premium payments,
services, and benefits paid to pol­
icyholders. Most are secretaries,
stenographers, typists, office
machine operators, or general of­
fice clerks. They do work similar to
that of their counterparts in other
businesses.
Other clerical workers have posi­
tions of greater responsibility that
require extensive knowledge of
some phase of insurance. They in­
clude claim adjusters (D.O.T.
241.168) and claim examiners
(D.O.T. 249.268) who decide
whether claims are covered by the
policy, see that payment is made,

Approximately 1.4 Million People Work
in the Insurance Industry—
More Than
One-Half Are Clerical Workers
51 % Clerical

2 9 % Sales

11% M anagerial
7 % Professional
2 % All other
Source:

Bureau of Labor S ta tistic s.

27

and, when necessary, investigate
the circumstances surrounding the
claim. (See the statement on Claim
Representatives elsewhere in the
Handbook.)
Nearly one-third of all insurance
employees are salesworkers—
chiefly agents and brokers who sell
policies to individuals and business
firms. Agents and brokers (D.O.T.
250.258) usually find their own
customers or “prospects,” and see
that each policy they sell is tailored
to meet the individual needs of the
policyholder. (See the statement on
Insurance Agents and Brokers
elsewhere in the Handbook.)
About 1 out of 9 insurance work­
ers has a managerial job. Managers
of local sales offices often spend
part of their time selling. Others,
who work in home offices, are in
charge of departments such as
actuarial calculations, policy issu­
ance, accounting, and investments.
Professionals, employed mainly
at home offices, represent about 1
out of 15 insurance workers. These
specialists, who work closely with
insurance company managers,
study insurance risks and coverage
problems, analyze investment possi­
bilities, prepare financial reports,
and do other professional work.
Among them is the actuary (D.O.T.
020.188) whose job is unique to the
insurance field. Actuaries make stu­
dies of the probability of an insured
loss and determine premium rates.
(See the statement on Actuaries
elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Another specialist is the under­
writer (D.O.T. 169.188), who
evaluates insurance applications
to determine the risk involved in
issuing a policy. Underwriters
decide whether to accept or
reject the application; they also
determine which premium rate
should apply for each policy issued.
(See the statement on Underwriters
elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Other professional employees do
essentially the same work in in­
surance companies as in other busi­



nesses. Accountants, for example,
analyze insurance company records
and financial problems relating to
premiums, investments, payments
to policyholders, and other aspects
of the business. Safety engineers,
fire protection engineers, and in­
dustrial hygienists in casualty com­
panies work as consultants to indus­
trial and commercial policyholders
on matters concerning the health
and safety of their employees. (See
the statement on Occupational
Safety and Health Workers else­
where in the Handbook.) Lawyers
interpret the regulations that apply
to insurance company operations
and handle the settlement of some
insurance claims. Investment
analysts evaluate real estate
mortgages and new issues of bonds
and other securities, analyze invest­
ments held by their companies, and
recommend when to hold, buy, or
sell. As more computers are in­
stalled to handle office records, an
increasing number of programmers,
systems analysts, and other data
processing specialists are being em­
ployed. Many companies also em­
ploy editorial, public relations, sales
promotion, and advertising spe­
cialists.
Insurance companies require the
same kinds of custodial and main­
tenance work as other large or­
ganizations. About 1 out of 45
workers in the insurance business
performs these duties.
Places of Employment

Many insurance employees work
in California, Connecticut, Illinois,
Massachusetts, New Jersey, New
York, and Texas, where some of the
largest insurance companies have
home offices. In addition, large
numbers are employed in company
sales offices, independent agencies,
and brokerage firms throughout the
country. Almost all sales personnel
work out of local offices; most
professional and clerical workers,
however, are employed in company
regional and home offices.

About half of all insurance em­
ployees work in life companies and
agencies; included in this group are
some very large companies with
thousands of employees. Propertyliability companies, although more
numerous than life insurance com­
panies, generally have fewer work­
ers. Many local agencies and sales
offices also are small, regardless of
the types of insurance handled.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Insurance offers job opportuni­
ties for people with different educa­
tional backgrounds and talents.
Some positions require specific col­
lege training; others can be filled by
workers with limited academic
training and few skills.
Graduation from high school or
business school is enough training
for most beginning clerical jobs.
Courses in typing and business
math are assets; the ability to
operate office machines also is
helpful. These and other special
skills help beginners advance to
more responsible jobs.
Jobs in engineering, accounting,
and other professional fields
generally require the same kinds of
college training here as in other
businesses. College-trained people
also are preferred for managerial
positions, many of which are filled
by promotion from within.
In all work requiring contact with
the public, employees should have a
pleasant disposition and an outgo­
ing personality. Those in frequent
contact with policyholders should
be able to inspire confidence in
their ability to protect the
customer’s interests. Because in­
surance companies often encourage
their managers and administrative
employees to participate in commu­
nity organizations, they should be
people who enjoy working with
others in a social situation.
Insurance workers have ample
opportunity to continue their edu­
cation. The Insurance Institute of

America, for example, has home
study courses for claim adjusters,
claim examiners, underwriters, and
salesworkers. The American Col­
lege of Life Underwriters, the Na­
tional Association of Life Un­
derwriters, and the Life Un­
derwriter Training Council offer
courses that stress the services
agents provide to policyholders.
Other courses, especially designed
to help clerical employees better
understand life insurance, relate to
the organization and operation of
both home and field offices. These
are given by the Life Office
Management Association, which
also provides programs for the
development of supervisors and
managers.
Employment Outlook

Employment of insurance work­
ers is expected to increase about
as fast as the average for all occupa­
tions through the mid-1980’s as the
insurance industry continues to ex­
pand. In addition to new jobs that
will become available, thousands of
openings will occur as employees
die, retire, or leave their jobs to
seek other work.
The expected increase in employ­
ment will result mainly from a
growing volume of insurance busi­
ness. As a larger proportion of the
population enters the age group
normally associated with family for­
mation, higher incomes, and
greater consumer spending, in­
surance sales should expand. Sales
of life insurance will rise as the
growing number of young adults at­
tempt to provide a secure future for
their families. Property-liability in­
surance sales should expand as they
buy homes, cars, and other items
that require insurance protection.
More business insurance will be
needed as new plants are built, new
equipment is installed, and more
goods are shipped throughout the
country and the world. Further­
more, as the coverage of State
workers’ compensation laws is



broadened, more employers may
need this type of insurance protec­
tion.
Growth of insurance employ­
ment, however, is not expected to
keep pace with the expanding
volume of business for several
reasons. Salesworkers are expected
to become more productive as
more insurance is sold through
group contracts and multiple-line
policies (those which cover many
different risks formerly covered in
separate policies). Although the
total number of clerical jobs
probably will continue to rise, the
increasing use of computers to do
routine jobs will lessen the demand
for many low-skilled clerical work­
ers. Because the computer can
write simple policies, the un­
derwriter occupation may not grow
as rapidly as in the past. In addition,
State “no-fault” insurance plans
should reduce the number and
complexity of automobile claims to
be adjusted, thus lessening the de­
mand for automobile claim ad­
justers.
The insurance industry has al­
ways been a stable employer and
most insurance workers have better
prospects of regular employment
than workers in many other indus­
tries. Business people usually re­
gard property-liability insurance as
a necessity, both during economic
recession and in boom periods. In­
dividuals who buy insurance try to
provide as much basic financial
protection as possible, even when
their incomes decline.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

A 1974 survey of insurance com­
panies, banks, and related busi­
nesses revealed a wide range of
clerical salaries. Some clerks in
beginning routine jobs earned less
than $90 a week; experienced cleri­
cal employees in more responsible
positions earned up to twice that
amount.
Differences in clerical salaries

reflect variations in specific job du­
ties and differences among in­
surance companies. Salary levels in
different parts of the country also
vary; earnings are generally lowest
in southern cities and highest in
northeastern
and
western
metropolitan areas. (See the
chapter on Office Occupations for
additional information about
earnings of clerical workers.)
Starting salaries for professional
workers are generally comparable
to those for similar positions in
other businesses. According to in­
formation available from private
surveys of life and property-liability
insurance companies, 1974 college
graduates started at salaries ranging
from $7,500 to $11,000 a year.
Specialists with graduate degrees or
several years’ experience may
receive considerably higher starting
salaries. Unlike salaried profes­
sional workers, agents and brokers
earn commissions on the policies
they sell. (See the statement on In­
surance Agents and Brokers else­
where in the Handbook.) Annual
salaries for supervisors in life and
property-liability companies ranged
from $12,000 to $20,000, depend­
ing upon the type of company
operation involved.
Except for agents and brokers
who sometimes must extend their
working hours to meet with
prospective clients, insurance com­
pany employees worked an average
of 37 hours a week in 1974. The
number of paid holidays is
somewhat greater than in many
other industries. Two-week paid va­
cations generally are granted em­
ployees after 1 year of service; in
most companies, paid vacations are
extended to 3 weeks after 5 years
and, in some, to 4 weeks after 10
years. Practically all insurance
company workers share in group
life and health plans, as well as in
retirement pensions.
Sources of Additional
Information

General information on employ­

ment opportunities in the insurance Other information on careers in
business may be obtained from the the insurance field is available
personnel departments of major in­ from:
surance companies or from in­ Institute of Life Insurance, 277 Park Ave.,
surance agencies in local communi­
New York, N.Y. 10017.
ties.
Insurance Information Institute, 110 William




St., New York. N.Y. 10038.
American Mutual Insurance Alliance, 20 N.
Wacker Dr., Chicago, III. 60606.
National Association of Insurance Women,
1847 E. 15th St., Tulsa, Okla. 74104.

SERVICE AND MISCELLANEOUS INDUSTRIES
An increasing share of our na­
tional wealth is being devoted to
services as a result of greater
emphasis on amenities such as
medical care, education, and
recreation. In many ways, this trend
reflects the country’s goals of a
better and fuller life for all its
citizens.
In today’s job market, the service
industries are therefore an impor­
tant source of employment, for new
workers as well as experienced
ones, and they offer job opportuni­
ties to people with various levels of
skills, training, and education.
In 1974, nearly 30 million people
worked in service industries. About
one-half were wage and salary
workers in private firms, 12.3
million more were government em­
ployees (mainly in educational and
medical services), and 2.2 million
were self-employed. The remain­
der, about 1.4 million, worked in
private households.
Educational services, including
elementary and secondary schools
and institutions of higher educa­
tion, make up the largest sector of
the service industry, and account
for over one-fourth of its work
force. Hospitals and other establish­
ments that provide health services
constitute the next largest sector,
and account for nearly one-eighth
of the workers. In both these serv­
ice industries, government work­
ers (mainly local and State) make
up a large share of the work force.
Other service industries employing
many workers are hotels, laundries,
private households, business and
repair services, and entertainment.
As shown in the accompanying
tabulation, white-collar workers



(professional, managerial, clerical,
and salesworkers) account for over
three-fifths of the service industry’s
employment. The industry employs
the highest proportion of profes­
sional, technical, and kindred work­
ers of any major industry and
these workers account for one-third
of the industry’s employment. By
far the largest concentration of
professional
personnel
is
represented by teachers in educa­
tional services. Other major em­
ployers of professional workers are
medical and health services—where
doctors, dentists, and nurses con­
stitute a large share of the work
force. Many professionals are selfemployed. Clerical workers ac­
count for 1 out of 5 service industry
employees. Most are stenographers,
typists, secretaries, and office
machine operators. Managers, offi­
cials, and proprietors, including
health services administrators,
make up a relatively small fraction
of the industry’s employment.
Service workers represent nearly
one-third of the industry’s employ­
ment. Some large service occupa­
tions are private household worker,
practical nurse, hospital attendant,
janitor, waiter or waitress, cook,
and protective service worker.
Blue-collar workers, mainly
skilled craft workers and
semiskilled operatives, constitute
only one-ninth of the industry’s em­
ployment. Many of the craft work­
ers are mechanics in automobile
and other repair service industries,
or maintenance workers in hotels,
schools, and other establishments.
Operatives work mainly in laun­
dries, auto repair shops, and other
types of repair businesses. Most of

the relatively few laborers in this in­
dustry work in auto repair shops, on
golf courses, and in bowling alleys.
Estimated
employment,
1974
(percent
Major occupational group distribution)
All occupational groups...

100

Professional, technical, and kin­
dred workers.............................
33
Managers and administrators......
8
Clerical and kindred workers....
20
Salesworkers.................................
1
Craft and kindred workers........
5
Operatives.....................................
4
Service workers...........................
28
Laborers.........................................
2
NOTE: Because of rounding, sum of in­
dividual items does not equal total.

Employment in the service indus­
try is expected to increase much
faster than the average for all indus­
tries through the mid-1980’s. The
sharp growth in the demand for ser­
vices is expected to stem from
population growth, expanding busi­
ness activity, and rising personal in­
comes. The fastest growing parts of
the service industry will be
hospitals, medical services, and cer­
tain firms that provide computer
services and laboratory research
facilities.
The need for extensive personal
contact in the many service func­
tions tends to limit the effect of
technological innovations on em­
ployment requirements. Although
computers may slow the employ­
ment growth in some areas—for ex­
ample,
in
bookkeeping—
technological change is not ex­
pected to limit the total demand for

workers in the service industry.
hotel and laundry and drycleaning pations that cut across many indusThe statements that follow industries. More detailed informa- tries appears elsewhere in the
discuss job opportunities in the tion about services related to occu- Handbook.




HOTEL OCCUPATIONS
Hotels, motels, and resorts pro­
vide lodging to suit the needs of
every traveler. Some motels offer
inexpensive basic services for those
who simply want a comfortable
place to sleep. Other motels and
most hotels cater to persons who
desire more luxurious surroundings
and offer swimming pools, fine
restaurants, and more personalized
service. More than 835,000 people,
about half of them women, were
employed in the industry in 1974.
Some hotel occupations require
little or no specialized training.
Bellhops, waiters and waitresses,
and cleaning workers, for example,
usually learn their skills on the job.
For many kinds of hotel work, how­
ever, demand for persons with spe­
cial skills or college training is in­
creasing as hotels and motels grow
in size, and as chain operations
become an ever-larger part of the
industry.
This statement describes the jobs
usually found in hotels, motels,
resorts, and tourist courts. More
detailed descriptions of the work of
hotel housekeepers, managers,
front office clerks, and bellhops are
found elsewhere in the Handbook.
The Hotel Business

Hotels range in size from those
with only a few rooms and em­
ployees to huge establishments with
more than 1,000 rooms and many
hundreds of workers. Many of the
motels built in recent years are
fairly large and employ many work­
ers, but the economy motels and
most older motels have relatively
small staffs. Some motels are run
entirely by individual owners and
their families.



Nearly all hotels and many
motels offer a variety of con­
veniences for their guests, including
restaurants, banquet rooms,, meet­
ing rooms, swimming pools, and gift
shops. Motels usually have simple
coffee shops, while hotels often
have several restaurants and may
offer live entertainment in one of
them at night. Hotels and motels in
resort areas often have recreational
facilities, such as golf courses and
tennis courts, in addition to
swimming pools. Large hotels also
may have newsstands, barber and
beauty shops, laundry and valet
services, and theater and airline
ticket counters.
Hotel Workers

To provide the many services
they offer, hotels and motels em­
ploy workers in a wide variety of
occupations. Housekeeping is a
very important part of the business
and more than a fourth of all work­
ers are concerned with keeping
hotels and motels clean and attrac­
tive. The cleaning staff make beds,
provide guests with fresh linens and
towels, vacuum rooms and halls,
and move furniture. Linen room at­
tendants and laundry room workers
mark and inspect towels, sheets,
and blankets and operate the wash­
ing and pressing machines in the
hotel laundry. Large hotels and
motels usually employ executive
housekeepers to supervise these
workers and purchase housekeep­
ing supplies. Some hotels also em­
ploy managers to supervise laundry
operations.
The next largest group of hotel
workers are food service personnel.
These workers include cooks and

chefs, waiters and waitresses, and
bartenders who work in the coffee
shops and restaurants found in most
motels and hotels. Detailed descrip­
tions of their duties are found else­
where in the Handbook.
Hotel managers and assistants are
responsible for the profitable
operation of their establishments.
They determine room rates, over­
see restaurant operations, and su­
pervise the hotel or motel staff. In
smaller hotels and motels a general
manager performs all these tasks,
but in large hotels a general
manager usually has several
assistants, each one responsible for
a separate department, such as food
service, sales, or personnel.
Nearly all hotels and motels em­
ploy clerical workers to take room
reservations, bill guests, and furnish
information. Most of these workers
are front office clerks who greet
guests, assign rooms, handle mail,
and collect payments. The
remainder are bookkeepers,
telephone operators, secretaries,
and other clerical workers, whose
jobs in hotels are much like clerical
jobs elsewhere.
Most hotels and some motels em­
ploy a uniformed staff to perform
services for guests. This staff in­
cludes bellhops, who carry baggage
and escort guests to their rooms;
doorkeepers, who help guests out of
their cars or taxis and carry baggage
into the hotel lobby; and elevator
operators.
In addition, hotels employ many
other workers who are also found in
other industries. Among these are
accountants, personnel workers,
entertainers, and recreation work­
ers. Maintenance workers, such as
carpenters, electricians, stationary
engineers, plumbers, and painters,
also work for hotels. Still other
workers employed in hotels in­
clude detectives, barbers, cos­
metologists, valets, and gardeners.
Most of these occupations are dis­
cussed elsewhere in the Handbook.

Employment Outlook

Employment in this industry will
expand about as fast as the average
for all industries through the mid1980’s as new hotels and motels are
built to take advantage of interstate
highway or resort locations. In addi­
tion to openings resulting from
growth, thousands of workers will
be needed each year to replace
those who retire, die, or transfer to
other industries.
Most of the anticipated employ­
ment growth will stem from the
need to staff new hotels and motels.
Employment is expected to in­
crease in both luxury and economy
motels as Federal expenditures for
highways and other transportation
systems stimulate travel. Employ­
ment may decline, however, in
older hotels, and those unable to
modernize are likely to experience
low occupancy rates that may force
them to reduce costs by eliminating
some services and workers.
Thousands of temporary jobs will
continue to be available each year
in resort hotels and motels that are
open only part of the year.
Most of the job openings in hotels
and motels will be for workers who
need little specialized training, such
as cleaners, porters, and some din­
ing room employees. Large num­
bers also will be needed in front of­
fice jobs, but opportunities may be
limited by the increasing use of
computer reservation systems in
hotel and motel chains.
Opportunities will be favorable
for persons with training or ex­
perience as cooks and chefs or as
food managers.
Earnings and Working
Conditions

Earnings of hotel workers depend




on the location, size, and type of the
hotel in which they work. Workers
in some occupations receive tips in
addition to wages that add substan­
tially to their income. Nonsupervisory workers in the hotel industry
averaged $2.62 an hour in 1974, ex­
cluding tips—about half the
average for all nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, ex­
cept farming. About one-half of all
hotel workers are covered by
Federal and State minimum wage
laws; in 1974, workers covered
by these laws earned at least
$2 an hour.
A 1973 survey of earnings in
selected hotel occupations in
metropolitan areas indicates that
earnings of front office clerks
ranged from $2.09 to $3.88 an
hour, with an average of $2.56.
Bellhops’ earnings ranged from
$1.99 to $5.71, including tips, with
an average of $3 an hour. Tips
represent a significant source of in­
come for bellhops, ranging from 23
to 74 percent of their total income.
Salaries of hotel managers and
assistants vary greatly, mainly
because of differences in duties and
responsibilities. Hotel manager
trainees who are graduates of spe­
cialized college programs start at
yearly salaries ranging from $8,000
to $12,000, and are usually given
periodic increases for the first year
or two. Experienced managers may
earn several times as much as
beginners; a few, in top jobs, earn
$50,000 a year or more. In addition
to salary, hotels customarily furnish
managers and their families with
lodging in the hotel, meals, parking
facilities, laundry, and other serv­
ices.
Since hotels are open round the
clock, employees must work on
shifts. Fewer employees work at

night than during the day and they
usually receive additional compen­
sation. Managers and housekeepers
who live in the hotel usually have
regular work schedules, but they
may be called on at any time.
Waiters and waitresses, cooks,
pantry workers, dishwashers, and
other kitchen workers commonly
receive meals; in a few hotels,
cleaners, elevator operators, and
room clerks also receive meals.
Most employees receive 5 to 8 paid
holidays a year, paid vacations, and
medical benefits.
The Hotel and Restaurant Em­
ployees and Bartenders Interna­
tional Union is the major union in
the hotel business. Uniformed per­
sonnel, such as bellhops and eleva­
tor operators, may be members of
the Building Service Employees’ In­
ternational Union.
Sources of Additional
Information

Information on careers in hotel
work may be obtained from:

The Educational Institute of the American
Hotel and Motel Association, 1407 S.
Harrison Rd., East Lansing, Mich.
48823.

For additional information on
hotel training opportunities and a
directory of schools and colleges of­
fering courses and scholarships in
the hotel field, write to:
Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institu­
tional Education, Suite 219, 11 Koger
Executive Center, Norfolk, Va. 23502.

Information on housekeeping in
hotels is available from:

National Executive Housekeepers Associa­
tion, Inc., Business and Professional
Building, Gallipolis, Ohio 45631.

OCCUPATIONS IN LAUNDRY AND
DRYCLEANING PLANTS
Nature of the Work
In 1974, approximately 430,000
persons were employed by
One
to describe
establishments that launder and done in way industry is to the work
this
follow an
dryclean garments, household imaginary bundle of clothes from
furnishings, and institutional linens the time it leaves the customer until
and uniforms. These workers were it is cleaned
employed throughout the country, companying and returned. (See ac­
chart.) The bundle
but were concentrated in consists of some men’s shirts, a
metropolitan areas.
bed linens. A
Drycleaning firms and laundries business suit, and 292.358) picks
route driver (D.O.T.
accounted for about three-fourths up the bundle and, after leaving a
of the industry’s workers. Most of receipt, takes the bundle to the
the remainder worked for firms that plant.
specialized in renting and cleaning The owner of the bundle may in­
uniforms, towels, diapers, and other stead leave it at the plant or drivelinens. A small proportion were em­ up store. In this case, a counter clerk
ployed in valet shops.
369.887) makes out a
More than half of the industry’s (D.O.T. Either the route driver or
receipt.
employment is found in firms that the counter clerk sorts the items in
have 20 employees or more. Most
firms, however, are owner-operated the bundle into laundry and
and have fewer than 10 employees. drycleaning. is turned over to a
The
In 1974, about one-tenth of the in­ marker bundle 369.887), who puts
(D.O.T.
dustry’s workers were self-em­ an identifying symbol on each item
ployed.
How Work Flows Through a Laundry
and Drycleaning Plant
Laundry

Sorters
and
markers
Drycieantng

, D rydeaners and
spotters

Bureau of Labor Statistics.




so it may be matched with the
customer’s receipt at some later
time. The marker then sends the
shirts and sheets to the washroom
and the suit to the drycleaning
room.
A machine washer (D.O.T.
361.885) puts several hundred
pounds of sheets into a huge wash­
ing machine. Shirts are loaded into
another washer. These machines
are controlled automatically, but
the machine washer must un­
derstand how to operate the con­
trols—water temperature, suds
level, time cycles, and the amount
of agitation for different fabrics.
When the washing cycle is
completed, the laundry is trans­
ferred to an extractor that removes
about half of the water. This stage is
similar to the “spin” cycle on a
home washer. Conveyors move the
laundry to conditioners, dryers, or
tumblers where dry, heated air
removes some of the remaining
moisture.
The sheets go from the drying
area to flatwork finishers (D.O.T.
363.886) , who shake out folds and
creases, spread the sheets on mov­
ing belts, and feed them into large
flatwork ironing machines for iron­
ing and partial folding. When the
sheets come out of the machine,
other finishers complete the folding
and stacking.
Shirts go directly from the extrac­
tor to shirt finishers (D.O.T.
363.782), who usually work in
teams of two or three. One finisher
puts the sleeves of the shirt on a
“sleever,” which has two armlike
forms. A second finisher then puts
the shirt on a “triple-head” press
that irons the front and back simul­
taneously. In some plants, the first
finisher either folds the shirt or
places it on a hanger, whichever the
customer has indicated. A third
finisher may do the folding. In some
laundries, one shirt finisher per­
forms all these operations.
The jobs of the drycleaner
(D.O.T. 362.782) and machine
washer (D.O.T. 361.885) are

similar, but the cleaning solution
for drycleaning is a chemical sol­
vent instead of water, and dryclean­
ing machines generally are smaller
than the laundry washers. The
drycleaner sorts clothes according
to color, fiber content, and fabric
construction and selects the proper
time cycle for each load. The
drycleaner may apply special
prespoting solutions to spots and
stains before placing the garments
in the drycleaning machine. After
cleaning, a special machine
removes the solvent and then the
clothes are dried in a tumbler or
hot-air cabinet. The spotter
(D.O.T. 362.381) will use chemical
reagents and steam to remove stub­
born stains.
If the clothes are made of a
material that sheds wrinkles readily,
the finisher places them on hangers
and puts them in a steam tunnel or
steam cabinet. The steam will
remove the wrinkles and help the
garment regain its shape.
Some clothes, such as men’s
suits, are made out of fabrics that
require more attention; they are
finished differently. A men's suit
finisher (D.O.T. 363.782) puts the
pants on special “topper” and
“legger” presses. The jacket is
placed on a body form that may
have a second part that comes
down to press and shape the shoul­
ders and collar of the jacket while
the steam is forced from the inside.
Final finishing touches are done on
a steam-heated pressing head and
“buck,” a flat surface covered in
fabric.
An inspector (D.O.T. 369.687)
checks finished items to see that the
quality standards of the plant have
been maintained. Any item in need
of recleaning or refinishing may be
returned to the appropriate depart­
ment; occasionally, the inspector
works on them instead. Repair
work may be forwarded to a mender
(D.O.T. 782.884), who sews on
buttons, mends tears, and resews
seams. Finally, assemblers (D.O.T.
369.687) collect the linens and



shirts by matching the sales invoice
with the identification marks. As­
semblers or baggers (D.O.T.
920.887) may remove tags before
putting the items in bags or boxes
for storage until called for by the
customer or delivered by the route
driver.
In addition to workers who are
unique to laundry and drycleaning
plants, many other workers are
found in this industry. The manager
or proprietor is responsible for see­
ing that the work of the plant is per­
formed efficiently. Office workers
keep records, handle correspon­
dence, and prepare bills. Sales per­
sonnel develop new customers for
the plant’s services. Mechanics
keep equipment and machinery
operating properly. Some service
workers clean, guard, and other­
wise maintain the plant; others plan
and serve food to plantworkers.
Laborers lift and carry heavy loads
to machines. (Discussion of many
of these occupations can be found
elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Many workers in this industry get
their first jobs without previous
training. Persons who have little
formal education can get produc­
tion line jobs in drycleaning plants.
Many employers will hire appli­
cants who do not speak English.
Basic laundry and drycleaning skills
may be learned on the job in a short
time. Some jobs, such as folding
towels and feeding pillowcases and
sheets into a flatwork ironer, may
require 1 or 2 days to learn. Some
finishing jobs—pants presser, or
shirt finisher, for example—may
require less than a week’s training.
Other jobs, such as counter clerk,
marker, inspector, and assembler,
may require several weeks to learn.
Several months or more are needed
to train a drycleaner or women’s
apparel finisher. It may take 6 to 12
months to become a spotter
because of the variety of fibers and

fabrics, spots and stains, and chemi­
cals used in treating the stains.
Some preemployment training in
finishing, drycleaning, and spotting
skills is available in vocational high
schools and trade schools. Home
study courses are available from the
International Fabric Care Institute.
Employers look for workers who
are dependable and who have
physical stamina, manual dexterity,
and keen eyesight. Workers must
be able to adjust to the repetitive
nature of many laundry and
drycleaning jobs.
Advancement for most workers
in this industry is limited. Many
remain permanently in the same
job. Nevertheless, employers occa­
sionally send promising employees
to technical or managerial training
programs or seminars on topics of
general interest given by the Inter­
national Fabriccare Institute at its
facility in Joliet, 111. Some men’s suit
finishers become skilled enough to
do women’s apparel finishing.
Markers and assemblers interested
in finishing work usually are given
an opportunity to move up to this
job. Finishers also may become
inspectors. Supervisors and
managers frequently are chosen
from experienced employees al­
ready in the industry. Some drycleaners and spotters establish
their own drycleaning plants.
Employment Outlook

Employment in this industry is
expected to decline through the
mid-1980’s. Laborsaving machinery
and more efficient methods of
cleaning and finishing laundry will
enable the industry to do more
work with fewer employees.
Nevertheless, thousands of workers
will be hired to replace those who
retire, die, or transfer to other
fields.
Although the industry’s total em­
ployment is expected to decline,
employment trends will differ
among occupations. Employment
of spotters is expected to decline

because new fibers and finishes
make fabrics less stainable. The
number of finishers should de­
crease as machinery does more
of the finishing work. On the other
hand, more people will be needed
in some maintenance occupations
to repair the increasing amount of
machinery and equipment used by
laundry and drycleaning firms.
More counter clerks will be
required due to growth in the
number of retail outlets operated by
these firms.

In 1974, the hourly average wage
for nonsupervisory workers in this
industry was $2.80 compared to
$4.22 for all nonsupervisory work­
ers in private industry, except
farming. Earnings are higher for
workers in the more highly skilled
occupations such as drycleaner,
spotter, and machine washer.
Modern laundry and drycleaning
plants are clean and well lighted.
Because of the heat, hot air, and
steam of the cleaning processes, the
plant may be hot during the
summer months. However, large
modern laundries usually have high
Earnings and Working
ceilings—often three stories high—
Conditions
and numerous windows that may be
Wage levels in the laundry and opened for ventilation. Many new,
drycleaning industry are not high. small drycleaning plants are air-




conditioned in the office and
customer areas and well ventilated
in the machinery areas. In addition,
new machinery operates with a
minimum of noise. Work in laun­
dries and drycleaning plants is less
hazardous than in most manufac­
turing plants.
Sources of Additional
Information

The local office of the State em­
ployment service may have addi­
tional information on training and
employment opportunities in this
field.

GOVERNMENT
Government service, one of the
Nation’s largest fields of employ­
ment, provided jobs for over 14.5
million civilian workers in 1974,
about 1 out of 6 employed persons
in the United States. State or local
governments (county, city, town,
village, or other local government
division) employed nearly fourfifths of these workers. Nearly all of
the others worked for the Federal
Government in the continental
United States. A small number
worked for the Federal Govern­
ment overseas.
Government
employees
represent a significant portion of
each State’s work force. They work
in large cities, small towns, and
even in remote and isolated places
such as lighthouses and forest
ranger stations.
Continuing the trend begun in
the late 1940’s, employment in
State and local government is ex­
pected to grow faster than the
average for all industries through
the mid-1980’s. Federal employ­
ment, on the other hand, is ex­
pected to grow much more slowly
than the average for all industries.
Many job opportunities also will
arise at all levels of government as
workers retire, die, or leave the
government service.
Government Activities and
Occupations

Two-fifths of all government
workers in 1973, or5.9 million,pro­
vided educational services, mostly
at the State and local levels in ele­
mentary and secondary schools.
Besides teachers, others who
worked in educational services in­
cluded administrative and clerical



Major Areas of
Government Employment, 1973
EMPLOYMENT 1973 (in m illions)

0

1 2

Health and hospitals
National defense and
international relations^
Postal service

29

3

State and local government

/

J

Federal government

Police protection
Highways
General control
Natural resources
Financial administration
Space research and
technology________ _
A ll other
Source: Bureau of the Census

workers, maintenance workers,
librarians, dietitians, nurses, and
counselors.
About 1.1 million civilian em­
ployees in 1973 worked for Federal
agencies which are concerned with
national defense and international
relations. Occupations in this group
include administrative and clerical
workers, physicians, nurses,
teachers, engineers, scientists,
technicians, and craft and other
manual workers. They work in of­
fices, research laboratories, navy
yards, arsenals, and missile
launching sites and in hospitals and
schools run by the military services.
Another 1.4 million workers pro­
vided health services and staffed
hospitals, primarily for State and
local governments. Many workers
also were employed in housing and
community development, police
and fire protection, social security
and public welfare services, trans­
portation and public utilities, finan­

cial administration, general ad­
ministrative functions, and judicial
and legislative activities. The
majority of these workers also were
State and local government em­
ployees. All of the 700,000 govern­
ment workers in postal services and
a majority of the 400,000 workers
in natural resource fields, such as
the National Park and Forest Serv­
ice, were employed by the Federal
Government.
Although the many government
activities require a diversified work
force having various levels of edu­
cation, training, and skill, 2 out of 3
government employees are whitecollar workers. Among the largest
white-collar occupational groups
are teachers, administrators, postal
clerks, and office workers such as
stenographers, typists, and clerks.
Some important service, craft,
and manual occupations are air­
craft and automotive mechanics,
repairers, police, firefighters,

Table 1. Percent distribution of employment in government and private industry
by occupation, 1974

Government1

Private
industry

Total.............................................................................................

100

100

White-collar workers............................................................................

67

45

Professional and technical...........................................................
Managers and administrators.....................................................
Clerical............................................................................................
Sales.................................................................................................

36
8
23
(2)

10
11
16
7

Blue-collar workers...............................................................................

14

39

Craft and related workers...........................................................
Transport equipment operatives................................................
Other equipment operatives...................................................... .
Nonfarm laborers..........................................................................

6
3
1
4

15
4
15
5

Service workers......................................................................................
Farm workers.........................................................................................

19
(2)

10
4

Occupation

1Excludes Federal employment overseas.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics




truckdrivers, skilled maintenance
workers (for example, carpenters,
painters, plumbers, and electri­
cians) custodial workers, and
laborers.
Because of the special character
of many government activities, the
occupational distribution of em­
ployment is very different from that
in private industry, as shown in
table 1.
The following chapters discuss
opportunities for civilian employ­
ment in the major divisions of
government and in the various
branches of the Armed Forces. A
separate chapter gives information
on post office occupations.

FEDERAL CIVILIAN GOVERNMENT
Nature and Location of
Employment

The Federal Government is the
Nation’s largest employer; it em­
ployed about 2,725,000 civilian
workers in all parts of the United
States in 1974. In addition, it em­
ployed about 60,000 U.S. citizens
abroad. Although the headquarters
of most Government departments
and agencies are in the Washington,
D.C. metropolitan area, only 1 out
of 9 (about 340,000) Federal em­
ployees worked in that area in
1974. Nearly 300,000 worked in
California, and more than 100,000
each in New York, Pennsylvania,
Texas, and Illinois.
Federal employees work in occu­
pations that represent nearly every
kind of job in private employment,
as well as some others unique to the
Federal Government, such as postal
clerk, regulatory inspector, foreign
service officer, and Internal
Revenue agent. Most Federal em­
ployees work for the departments
and agencies that make up the ex­
ecutive branch of the government.
Some are employed in the legisla­
tive and judicial branches.
The executive branch includes
the Executive Office of the Pre­
sident, the 11 cabinet departments,
and about 80 independent agencies,
commissions, and boards. This
branch is responsible for activities
such as administering Federal laws,
handling international relations,
conserving natural resources, treat­
ing and rehabilitating disabled
veterans, delivering the mail, con­
ducting scientific research, main­
taining the flow of supplies to the
Armed Forces, and administering
other programs to promote the



health and welfare of the people of
the United States.
The Department of Defense,
which includes the Departments of
the Army, Navy, and Air Force, is
the largest agency. It employed
over 1 million civilian workers in
the United States in 1974. The de­
partments of Agriculture; Health,
Education, and Welfare; and Trea­
sury each employed more than
100.000 workers. The two largest
independent agencies were the U.S.
Postal Service, which employed al­
most 700,000 workers, and the
Veterans Administration, which
employed over 200,000.
About 38,000 people worked for
the legislative branch of govern­
ment, which includes the Congress,
the Government Printing Office,
the General Accounting Office, and
the Library of Congress. Almost
10.000 people worked for the judi­
cial branch, which includes the
Supreme Court and the other U.S.
courts.
White-Collar Occupations. Because

of its wide range of responsibilities,
the Federal Government employs
white-collar workers in a great
many occupational fields. Nearly 2
million white-collar workers, in­
cluding postal workers, worked for
the Federal Government in 1974.
About 150,000 of these work in en­
gineering and related fields. In­
cluded in this total are about
85.000 engineers, representing vir­
tually every branch and specialty of
the profession. There also are large
numbers of technicians in areas
such as engineering, electronics,
surveying, and drafting. Nearly twothirds of all engineers are in the De­
partment of Defense.

Of the 115,000 workers em­
ployed in accounting and budgeting
work, 34,000 are professional ac­
countants and Internal Revenue
agents. Among administrative and
managerial occupations in this field
are tax technician and budget ad­
ministrator. There also are large
numbers of clerks in specialized ac­
counting work. Accounting work­
ers are employed throughout the
Government, particularly in the De­
partment of Defense, the Treasury
Department, and the General Ac­
counting Office.
More than 100,000 Federal em­
ployees work in hospitals or in
medical, dental, and public health
activities. Professional occupations
in this field include physician,
nurse, dietitian, medical technolo­
gist, and physical therapist. Among
technician and aide jobs are medi­
cal technician, medical laboratory
aide, and nursing assistant. Em­
ployees in this field work primarily
in the Veterans Administration;
others are in the Defense Depart­
ment and the Department of
Health, Education, and Welfare.
Almost 45,000 biological and
agricultural science workers are
employed by the Federal Govern­
ment. Many of these work in
forestry and soil conservation ac­
tivities. Others administer farm
assistance programs. The largest
number were employed as biology,
forest and range fire control , soil
conservation , and forestry techni­
cians. Most of these workers are
employed by the Departments of
Agriculture and Interior.
In the physical sciences, the
Federal Government employs
professional workers such as
physicists, chemists, meteorolo­
gists, cartographers, and geologists.
Aides and technicians in this field
include physical science technician,
meteorological technician, and car­
tographer’s technician. Four-fifths
of the 42,000 workers in the physi­
cal sciences are employed by the
Department of Defense; the Na­
tional Aeronautics and Space Ad­

ministration; and the Departments
of Agriculture, Commerce, and
Health, Education, and Welfare.
Within the mathematics field are
professional mathematicians and
statisticians, and mathematics
technicians and statistical clerks.
There also are a number of adminis­
trative positions in the related field
of computer programming. Mathe­
matics workers are employed
primarily by the Defense Depart­
ment, the National Aeronautics and
Space Administration, and the De­
partments of Agriculture, Com­
merce, and Health, Education, and
Welfare. Computer related occupa­
tions are found in most Federal
agencies.
In the field of law there are more
than 11,000 employees in profes­
sional positions, such as attorney,
and others in administrative posi­
tions such as claims examiner.
There also are many clerical posi­
tions that involve claims examining
work. Workers in the legal field are
employed throughout the Federal
Government.
In the social science field there
are professional positions for
economists throughout the govern­
ment; psychologists and social
workers work primarily for the
Veterans Administration; and
foreign affairs and international
relations specialists for the Depart­
ment of State. Among social
science administrative workers are
social insurance administrators in
the Department of Health, Educa­
tion, and Welfare and intelligence
specialists for the Department of
Defense.
The Federal Government em­
ploys about 45,000 persons in in­
vestigative and inspection work.
Large numbers of these workers are
engaged in administrative activities,
such as criminal investigation and
health and regulatory inspection.
Most of these jobs are in the De­
partments of Defense, Treasury,
Justice, and Agriculture.
About 64,000 persons worked in
jobs concerned with the purchase,



cataloging, storage, and distribution
of supplies for the Federal Govern­
ment. This field includes many
managerial and administrative posi­
tions such as supply management
officer, purchasing officer, and in­
ventory management specialist, as
well as large numbers of specialized
clerical positions. Most of these
jobs are in the Department of
Defense.
Nearly 460,000 general clerical
workers are employed in all depart­
ments and agencies of the Federal
Government. Included in this group
are office machine operators,
secretaries, stenographers, clerktypists, mail and file clerks,
telephone operators, and other re­
lated workers. In addition, there are
several hundred thousand postal
clerks employed by the Federal
Government.
Entrance requirements for whitecollar jobs vary widely. Entrants
into professional occupations must
have highly specialized knowledge
in a specified field. Occupations
typical of this group are attorney,
physicist, and engineer.
Entrants into administrative and
managerial occupations usually are
not required to have knowledge of a
specialized field, but rather must in­
dicate that they have potential for
future development by having a
degree from a 4-year college or by
responsible job experience. En­
trants usually begin at a trainee
level and leam the duties of the job
after they are hired. Typical jobs in
this group are budget analyst,
claims examiner, purchasing of­
ficer, administrative assistant, and
personnel officer.
Technician, clerical, and aideassistant jobs have entry level posi­
tions that usually are filled by peo­
ple who have a high school educa­
tion or the equivalent. For many of
these positions, no previous ex­
perience or training is required.
The entry level position is usually
that of trainee. Persons who have
junior college or technical school
training, or those who have special­

ized skills, may enter these occupa­
tions at higher levels. Jobs typical of
this group are engineering techni­
cian, supply clerk, clerk-typist, and
nursing assistant.
Blue-Collar Occupations. Blue-col­
lar jobs—service, craft, and manual
labor—provided employment for
more than 544,000 workers in
1974. Most of these workers are in
establishments such as naval
shipyards, arsenals, air or army
depots. Blue-collar workers also
work on construction, harbor,
flood-control, irrigation, or recla­
mation projects. The Department
of Defense employs about threefourths of these workers. Others
work for the Veterans Administra­
tion, U.S. Postal Service, General
Services Administration, Depart­
ment of the Interior, Tennessee
Valley Authority, and Department
of Agriculture.
The largest single group of bluecollar workers consists of mobile
equipment
operators
and
mechanics. These jobs include
those of forklift operator, chauf­
feur, truckdriver, and automobile
mechanic. The next largest group of
workers are general laborers, who
perform a wide variety of manual
jobs.
The Federal Government em­
ploys many workers in machinery
operation and repair occupations,
such as boiler and steam plant
operator, machinist, machinery
repairer, maintenance electrician,
electronics equipment repairer, and
aircraft mechanic.
Skilled construction workers also
are utilized widely throughout the
Federal Government in such jobs as
carpenter, painter, plumber, steamfitter and pipefitter, and sheetmetal
worker. Other important blue-col­
lar occupations include warehouse
worker, food service worker, and
printer.
Entrance requirements. Persons
with previous training in a skilled
trade may apply for a position with
the Federal Government at the

journeyman level. Those with no
previous training may apply for ap­
pointment to one of several ap­
prenticeship programs. Applicants
are given a written examination and
are rated on their potential to learn
a skilled trade. The apprenticeship
program generally lasts for 4 years
with the trainee receiving both
classroom and on-the-job training.
After completing this training, a
person is eligible for a position at
the journeyman level. There also
are a number of positions which
require little or no prior training or
experience. These include custodi­
ans, maintenance workers, messen­
gers, and many others. (Detailed
descriptions of the work duties,
qualifications, and training of most
white-collar, service, craft, and
manual labor jobs mentioned above
are provided in other sections of the
Handbook.)
The Merit System

About 9 out of 10 jobs in the
Federal Government in the United
States are under the merit system.
The Civil Service Act, administered
by the U.S. Civil Service Commis­
sion, covers 61 percent of all
Federal jobs. This act was passed by
the Congress to insure that Federal
employees are hired on the basis of
individual merit and fitness. It pro­
vides for competitive examinations
and the selection of new employees
from among those who make the
highest scores. The commission,
through its network of 65 Civil
Service Commission Area Offices,
examines and rates applicants and
supplies Federal departments and
agencies with names of persons
eligible for the jobs to be filled.
Some Federal jobs are exempt
from Civil Service requirements,
either by law or by action of the
Civil Service Commission. How­
ever, most of these positions are
covered by separate merit systems
of other agencies such as the
Foreign Service of the Department
of State, the Department of



Medicine and Surgery of the
Veterans Administration, the
Federal Bureau of Investigation, the
Energy Research and Development
Administration, the Nuclear Regu­
latory Commission, and the Ten­
nessee Valley Authority.
Civil service competitive ex­
aminations may be taken by any
U.S. citizen. To be eligible for ap­
pointment, an applicant must meet
minimum age, training, and ex­
perience requirements for the par­
ticular job. A physical handicap will
not in itself bar a person from a
position if it does not interfere with
his or her performance of the
required duties. Examinations vary
according to the types of positions
for which they are held. Some ex­
aminations test the applicant’s abili­
ty to do the job applied for or his or
her ability to learn how to do it. Ap­
plicants for jobs that do not require
a written test are rated on the basis
of the experience and training
described in their applications and
any supporting evidence required.
Applicants are notified as to
whether they have achieved eligible
or ineligible ratings, and the names
of eligible applicants are entered on
a list in the order of their test
scores. When a Federal agency

requests names of eligible appli­
cants for a job vacancy, the area of­
fice sends the agency the names at
the top of the appropriate list; the
agency can select any one of the top
three. Names of those not selected
are restored to the list for con­
sideration for other job openings.
Appointments to civil service
jobs are made without regard to an
applicant’s race, color, religion, na­
tional origin, politics, or sex.
Employment Trends and
Outlook

Federal employment is expected
to grow more slowly than the
average for all industries through
the mid-1980’s, continuing a trend
begun in the late 1960’s. Although
total Federal Government employ­
ment is expected to rise somewhat,
some Federal agencies will reduce
their staffs as some administrative
responsibilities will continue to be
transferred to State and local
governments. In addition, the De­
partment of Defense is expected to
reduce the number of its civilian
employees.
In addition to some new jobs
there will be openings due to the
need to replace employees who

transfer out of the Federal service,
retire, or die. Thus, many job op­
portunities will occur in occupa­
tions where total employment is
relatively stable, as well as in those
in which it is rising.
The proportion of Federal work­
ers employed in professional,
technical, and administrative jobs
has gradually increased in recent
years. On the other hand, the pro­
portion employed in clerical and
blue-collar jobs has fallen. These
trends are expected to continue,
reflecting the increasing demand
for services of a growing population
and the requirements of the
country’s international programs.
These demands are expected to
result in rising requirements for
professional, administrative, and
technical workers. Employment in
many clerical and blue-collar occu­
pations, however, will be limited by
the Federal Government’s increas­
ing use of labor saving electronic
data processing and materials han­
dling equipment and the introduc­
tion of improved data transmission
and communications systems.
Earnings, Advancement, and
Working Conditions

Nearly all Federal civilian em­
ployees are paid according to one
of three major pay systems; the
General Pay Schedule, the wage
system, and the Postal Field
System. (The Postal Field System is
discussed with Post Office Occupa­
tions elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Nearly half of all Federal Work­
ers are paid under the General
Schedule. The General Schedule is
a pay scale for workers in profes­
sional, administrative, technical,
and clerical jobs, and for workers
such as guards and messengers.
General Schedule jobs are classified
by the U.S. Civil Service Commis­
sion in one of 18 grades, according
to the difficulty of duties and
responsibilities, and the knowledge,
experience, and skills required of
the worker. General Schedule (GS)



Table 1. Distribution of full-time Federal employees under the General Schedule
by grade level, March 31, 1974, and salary scale, effective October 13, 1974
Employees
Salaries

General Schedule
(GS) Grade

Number

Total all grades............. 1,322,313
1....................................................
2....................................................
3....................................................
4....................................................
5....................................................
6....................................................
7....................................................
8....................................................
9....................................................
10.................................................
11.................................................
12.................................................
13.................................................
14.................................................
15.................................................
16.................................................
17.................................................
18.................................................

4,317
36,240
109,584
167,377
176,960
81,401
121,387
26,206
129,846
21,837
141,718
128,602
101,496
46,744
23,801
3,428
1,003
366

Percent Entrance

Periodic Maximum
increase

100.0
0.3 $5,294
5,996
2.7
6,764
8.3
12.7
7,596
13.4
8,500
6.2
9,473
9.2 10,520
2.0 11,640
9.8 12,841
1.7 14,117
10.7 15,481
9.7 18,463
7.7 21,816
3.5 25,581
1.8 29,818
.3 34,607
.1 2 40,062
(') 2 46,336

$176
200
225
253
283
316
351
388
428
471
516
615
727
853
994
1,154
1,335

$6,878
7,796
8,789
9,873
11,047
12,317
13,679
15,132
16,693
18,356
20,125
23,998
28,359
33,258
2 38,764
2 43,839
2 45,402

1 Less than 0.05 percent.
2 Basic pay limited by section 5308 of title 5 of the United States Code to $36,000 as of
the above date.
SOURCE: U.S. Civil Service Commission; preliminary data.

pay rates are set by Congress and
apply nationwide. They are
reviewed annually to insure that
they remain comparable with sala­
ries in private industry.
The distribution of Federal
white-collar employees by General
Schedule grade, the entrance and
maximum salaries for each grade,
and the amount of each grade’s
periodic increases are listed in table
1. Appointments usually are made
at the minimum rate of the salary
range for the appropriate grade.
However, appointments in hard-tofill positions may be at a higher
rate.
Employees in all grades except
the highest, GS-18, receive withingrade pay increases after they have
worked the required time period, if
their work is at an acceptable level
of competence. Within-grade in­
creases may be given also in recog­
nition of high-quality service.
High school graduates who have

no related work experience usually
start in GS-2 jobs, but some who
have special skills begin at grade
GS-3. Graduates of 2-year junior
colleges and technical schools often
can begin at the GS-4 level. Most
people appointed to professional
and administrative jobs such as
psychologist,
statistician,
economist, writer and1 editor,
budget analyst, accountant, and
physicist, can enter at grades GS-5
or GS-7, depending on their
academic record. Those who have a
master’s degree, or the equivalent
education or experience, usually
enter at the GS-9 or GS-11 level.
Advancement to higher grades
generally depends upon ability,
work performance, and openings in
jobs with higher grades.
About one-quarter of the Federal
civilian workers are paid according
to the coordinated Federal Wage
System. Under this system, craft,
service, and manual workers are

Table 2. Coordinated Federal Wage System hourly rates1for selected occupations
and location, January 1,1975

Location
Atlanta....................................................................................
Boston.....................................................................................
Chicago...................................................................................
Denver....................................................................................
Norfolk—Portsmouth —Newport News—Hampton ...
Houston, Galveston —Texas City...................................
Los Angeles..........................................................................
New Orleans.........................................................................
New York..............................................................................
Pensacola................................................................................
Philadelphia............................................................................
Seattle —F.verett —Tacoma.................................................
San Francisco.......................................................................
St. Louis................................................................................
Washington, D.C..................................................................

Tool, die,
and gauge
Labor
(heavy) Electrician maker
$7.17
$3.96
$6.21
5.98
6.55
4.45
4.84
6.65
7.43
6.40
3.52
5.83
3.80
6.04
5.37
4.09
6.64
5.87
6.50
4.73
7.25
3.68
6.19
5.44
4.56
6.67
6.03
7.17
3.98
6.21
4.99
6.51
6.05
7.06
6.49
5.18
6.97
7.75
5.15
6.49
4.38
5.84
4.39
6.24
7.03

1 Rates are for nonsupervisory workers for the 3rd step of a 5-step pay range.
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics

paid hourly rates which are
established on the basis of
“prevailing” rates paid by private
employers for similar work in the
same locations. As a result, the
Federal Government wage rate paid
for an occupation varies by locality,
as illustrated in table 2.
Federal Government employees
work a standard 40-hour week. Em­
ployees who are required to work
overtime receive premium rates for
the additional time or compensato­
ry time off at a later date. Most em­
ployees work 8 hours a day and 5
days a week, Monday through
Friday, but in some cases, the na­
ture of the work requires a different
workweek. Annual earnings for
most full-time Federal workers are
not affected by seasonal factors.
Federal employees earn 13 days
of annual (vacation) leave each
year during their first 3 years of
service; 20 days each year until the
end of 15 years; after 15 years, 26
days each year. Nine paid holidays
are observed annually. Workers
who are members of military
reserve organizations also are
granted up to 15 days of paid milita­
ry leave a year for training pur­
poses. A Federal worker who is laid
off is entitled to unemployment



compensation similar to that pro­
vided for employees in private in­
dustry.
Other benefits available to most
Federal employees include: a con­
tributory retirement system, op­
tional participation in low-cost
group life and health insurance pro­
grams which are partly supported
by the Government, and training
programs to develop maximum job
proficiency and help workers
achieve their highest potential.
These training programs may be
conducted in Government facilities
or in private educational facilities at
Government expense.
Sources of Additional
Information

Information on employment op­
portunities in the Federal Govern­
ment is available from a number of
sources. High school students are
often able to get information from
their high school guidance coun­
selors. A college placement office is
often a good source of such infor­
mation for college students. Infor­
mation also may be available from
State employment service offices
and many U.S. post offices.
Sixty-five area offices operated

by the U.S. Civil Service Commis­
sion are located in various large ci­
ties throughout the country. These
offices announce and conduct ex­
aminations required for various
Federal Government jobs. They
evaluate qualifications and refer
eligible applicants to employing
agencies for their geographic areas.
They also provide a complete onestop information service on local
and nationwide job opportunities in
the Federal Government service.
The area offices also operate a tollfree telephone information service
in nearly all States for those unable
to visit them. Their telephone num­
bers are listed in most telephone
books under “U.S. Government.”
For information about jobs in a
specific agency, contact the agency
directly.
OCCUPATIONS IN THE
POSTAL SERVICE

The U.S. Postal Service handled
about 90 billion pieces of mail in
1974, including letters, magazines,
and parcels. About 700,000 work­
ers were required to process and
deliver this mail. The vast majority
of Postal Service jobs are open to
workers with 4 years of high school
or less. The work is steady, and the
pay can range beyond $12,000 a
year. Some of the jobs, such as mail
carrier, offer a good deal of per­
sonal freedom. Other jobs, how­
ever, are more closely supervised
and more routine.
Nature and Location of the
Industry

Most people are familiar with the
duties of the mail carrier and the
post office window clerk. Yet few
are aware of the many different
tasks required in processing mail
and of the variety of occupations in
the Postal Service.
At all hours of the day and night,
a steady stream of letters, packages,
magazines, and papers moves

through the typical large post of­
fice. Mail carriers have collected
some of this mail from neighbor­
hood mailboxes; some has been
trucked in from surrounding towns
or from the airport. When a truck
arrives at the post office, mail han­
dlers unload the mail. Postal clerks
then sort it according to destina­
tion. After being sorted, outgoing
mail is loaded into trucks for
delivery to the airport or nearby
towns. Local mail is left for carriers
to deliver the next morning.
To keep buildings and equipment
clean and in good working order,
the Postal Service employs a variety
of service and maintenance work­
ers. Included are janitors, laborers,
truck mechanics, electricians,
carpenters, and painters. Some
workers specialize in repairing
machines that process mail.
Postal inspectors audit post of­
fices operations to see that they are
run efficiently, that funds are spent
properly, and that postal laws and
regulations are observed. They also
prevent and detect crimes such as
theft, forgery, and fraud involving
use of the mail.
Postmasters and supervisors are
responsible for the day-to-day
operation of the post office, for hir­
ing and promoting employees, and
for setting up work schedules.
The Postal Service also contracts
with private businesses to transport
mail. In 1974, there were about
12,500 of these “Star” route con­
tracts. Most “ Star” route carriers
use trucks to haul mail, but in some
remote areas horses or boats are
used instead.
Almost 85 percent of all postal
workers are in jobs directly related
to processing and delivering mail.
(See table l.)-This group includes
postal clerks, mail carriers, mail
handlers, and truckdrivers.
(Detailed information on Mail Car­
riers and Postal Clerks is given else­
where in the Handbook.) Post­
masters and supervisors make up
nearly 10 percent of total employ­
ment, and maintenance workers



about 4 percent. The remainder in­
cludes such workers as postal in­
spectors, guards, personnel work­
ers, and secretaries.
The Postal Service operates more
than 41,000 installations. Most are
post offices, but some serve special
purposes, such as handling payroll
records or supplying equipment.
Although every community
receives mail service, employment
is concentrated in large
metropolitan areas. Post offices in
cities such as New York, Chicago,
and Los Angeles employ a great
number of workers because they
not only process huge amounts of
mail for their own populations but
also serve as mail processing points
for the smaller communities that
surround them.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

An applicant for a Postal Service
job must pass an examination and
meet minimum age requirements.
Generally, the minimum age is 18,
but a high school graduate may
begin work at 16 if the job is not
hazardous and does not require use
of a motor vehicle. Many Postal
Service jobs do not require formal
education or special training. Ap­
plicants for these jobs are hired on
the basis of their examination
scores.
Applicants should apply at the
post office where they wish to work
and take the entrance examination
for the job they want. Examinations
for most jobs include a written test.
A physical examination is required,
as well. Applicants for jobs that
require strength and stamina are
sometimes given a special test. For
example, mail handlers must be
able to lift mail sacks weighing up
to 70 pounds. The names of appli­
cants who pass the examinations
are placed on a list in the order of
their scores. Separate eligibility lists
are maintained for each post office.
Five extra points are added to the
score of an honorably discharged

veteran, and 10 extra points to the
score of a veteran wounded in com­
bat or disabled. Disabled veterans
who have a compensable, serviceconnected disability of 10 percent
or more are placed at the top of the
eligibility list. When a job opens,
the appointing officer chooses one
of the top three applicants. Others
are left on the list so that they can
be considered for future openings.
New employees are trained either
on the job by supervisors and other
experienced employees or in local
training centers. Training ranges
from a few days to several months,
depending on the job. For example,
mail handlers and mechanics’ help­
ers can learn their jobs in a rela­
tively short time. Postal inspectors,
on the other hand, need months of
training.
Postal workers are classified as
casual, part-time flexible, part-time
regular, or full-time. Casual work­
ers are hired to help handle the
large amounts of mail during the
Christmas season and for other
short-term assignments. Part-time
flexible employees do not have a
regular work schedule but replace
absent workers or help with extra
work loads as the need arises. Parttime regulars have a set work
schedule—for example, 4 hours a
day. Carriers, clerks, and mail han­
dlers may start as part-time flexible
workers and move into full-time
jobs according to their seniority as
vacancies occur.
Advancement opportunities are
available for most postal workers
because there is a management
commitment to provide career
development. Also, employees can
get preferred assignments, such as
the day shift or a more desirable
delivery route, as their seniority in­
creases. When an opening occurs,
employees may submit written
requests, called “bids,” for assign­
ment to the vacancy. The bidder
who meets the qualifications and
has the most seniority gets the job.
In addition, postal workers can
advance to better paying positions

by learning new skills. Training pro­ Table 1. Employment and salaries in the Postal Service
grams are available for low-skilled
Salary schedules 2
workers who wish to become
Grade level
Employment
technicians or mechanics.
Entrance Maximum
Applicants for supervisory jobs
must pass an examination. Addi­ Total.
449,679
tional requirements for promotion
1.
555 $8,692 $10,595
2
9,11 I
may include training or education,
2,946
1 1,168
3.
9,564
8,257
1 1,786
a satisfactory work record, and ap­
4.
39,920 10,054
12,452
propriate personal characteristics
5.
352,613 10,586
13,171
such as leadership ability. If the
6
42,880 11,157
13,962
leading candidates are equally
7.
2,132 11,776
14,801
8
qualified, length of service also is
376 12,445
15,425
considered.
June 30, 1974; includes nonsupervisory employees in post offices who are paid
Although opportunities for 1 On salaries. Does not
promotion to supervisory positions annualeffect in mid-1974; include rural carriers or part time and casual employees.
does not include rural carriers.
in smaller post offices are limited, 2 In
workers may apply for vacancies in such as clerks and mail handlers; paid sick leave a year regardless of
a larger post office and thus in­ for rural carriers; for postal length of service.
crease their chances.
managers; and for postal execu­ Other benefits include retirement
tives. In all pay schedules, except and survivorship annuities, free
Employment Outlook
that of executives, employees group life insurance, and optional
insurance
periodic “step” increases
Employment in the Postal Serv­ receive specified maximum if their participation in healthpart by the
programs supported in
up to a
ice is expected to grow more
slowly than the average for all in­ job performance is satisfactory. A Postal Service. office buildings are
of employees
Most
dustries through the mid-1980’s. distributionwith entrance in levels 1 clean andpost lighted, but some of
well
through 8,
and max­
Mechanization of mail processing imum salaries, is shown in table 1. the older ones are not. The Postal
and more efficient delivery should Most mail handlers
in the process of replac­
allow the Postal Service to handle and most postal clerks are at level 4 Service isremodeling its outmoded
and mail car­ ing and
increasing amounts of mail without
buildings, and conditions are ex­
corresponding increases in employ­ riers are at level 5.
Full-time employees work an 8- pected to improve.
ment. Nevertheless, thousands of
day 5 days a
full­ Most postal workers are mem­
job openings will result as workers hour and part-time week. Both who bers of unions and are covered by a
time
employees
retire, die, or transfer to other work more than 8 hours a day or 40 national agreement between the
fields.
hours a week receive overtime pay Postal Service and the unions.
of one and one-half times their
Earnings and Working
hourly rates.
Sources of Additional
Conditions
In 1974, postal employees earned
Information
Postal Service employees are 13 days of annual leave (vacation)
paid under several separate pay during each of their first 3 years of Local post offices and State em­
schedules depending upon the du­ service, including prior Federal ployment service offices can supply
ties of the job and the knowledge, civilian and military service; 20 details about entrance examina­
experience, or skill required. For days each year for 3 to 15 years of tions and employment opportuni­
example, there are separate service; and 26 days after 15 years. ties in the Postal Service.
schedules for production workers, In addition, they earned 13 days of




.

.

.

STATE AND LO C A L G O VER NM ENTS

State and local governments pro­
vide a very large and expanding
source of job opportunities in a
wide variety of occupational fields.
In 1974, over 11.8 million people
worked for State and local govern­
ment agencies; nearly three-fourths
of these worked in units of local
government, such as counties, mu­
nicipalities, towns, and school dis­
tricts.
Sate and local governments pro­
vide a very large and expanding
source of job opportunities in a
wide variety of occupational fields.
In 1974, over 11.8 million people
worked for State and local govern­
ment agencies; nearly three-fourths
of these worked in units of local
government, such as counties, mu­
nicipalities, towns, and school dis­
tricts.
Educational services account for
the majority of jobs in State and
local government. About 5.9 mil­
lion employees worked in public
schools, colleges, or other educa­
tional services.
In addition to the nearly 3 million
classroom and college teachers,
school systems, colleges, and
universities also employed adminis­
trative personnel, librarians,
guidance counselors, nurses, dieti­
tians, clerks, and maintenance
workers. Three-fourths of these
worked elementary and secondary
schools, which are administered lar­
gely by local governments. State
employment in education is con­
centrated chiefly at the college,
university, and technical school
levels.
The next two largest fields of
State and local government em­
ployment were health services and
highway work. The almost 1.4 mil­



lion workers employed in health
and hospital work included physi­
cians, nurses, medical laboratory
technicians, and hospital atten­
dants. More than 600,000 people
worked in highway activities such
as construction and maintenance.
Highway workers include civil en­
gineers, surveyors, operators of
construction machinery and equip­
ment, truckdrivers, concrete
finishers, carpenters, and construc­
tion laborers.
General governmental control
and financial activities accounted
for about 840,000 workers. These
included chief executives and their
staffs, legislative representatives,
and persons employed in the ad­
ministration of justice, tax enforce­
ment and other financial work, and
general administration. These func­
tions require the services of in­
dividuals such as lawyers, judges,
and other court officials, city
managers, property assessors,
budget analysts, stenographers, and
clerks.
Police and fire protection is
another large field of employment.
Over 600,000 persons were en­
gaged in police work, including ad­
ministrative, clerical, and custodial
personnel, as well as uniformed and
plainclothes police. Local govern­
ments employed all of the 300,000
firefighters, many of whom work
only part time.
Other §tate and local govern­
ment employees work in a wide
variety of activities; local utilities
(such as water or electricity), trans­
portation, natural resources, public
welfare, parks and recreation,
sanitation, correction, local libra­
ries, sewage disposal, and housing
and urban renewal. These activities

require workers in diverse occupa­
tions such as economist, electrical
engineer, electrician, pipefitter,
clerk, forester, and busdriver.
Clerical, administrative, main­
tenance, and custodial work make
up a large portion of employment in
most government agencies. Among
the workers involved in these activi­
ties are clerk-typists, stenographers,
secretaries, office managers, fiscal
and budget administrators, book­
keepers, accountants, carpenters,
painters, plumbers, guards, and
janitors. (Detailed discussions of
most occupations in State and local
governments are given elsewhere in
the Handbook, in the sections
covering the individual occupa­
tions.)
Employment Trends and
Outlook

The long-range trend in State and
local government employment has
been steadily upward. (See accom­
panying chart.) Much of this
growth results from the need to pro­
vide additional services as popula­
tion increases and as people move
from rural to urban areas. City
development has required addi­
tional street and highway facilities;
police and fire protection; and
public health, sanitation, welfare,
and other services. Population
growth and increasing personal in­
come have generated demand for
additional and improved education,
housing, health facilities, and other
services. Except for elementary and
secondary school teachers, State
and local government employment
is expected to grow faster than the
average for all industries through
the mid-1980’s.
A large State and local work
force also will be needed to provide
improved public transportation
systems, more urban planning and
renewal programs, increased police
protection, better measures to
guard against air and water pollu­
tion, and expanded natural
resource development programs. In

government employment. Salary in­
formation also can be obtained
from the appropriate State and
local government agencies.
A majority of State and local
government positions are filled
through some type of formal civil
service test, that is, personnel are
hired and promoted on the basis of
merit. In some areas, groups of em­
ployees, such as teachers and po­
lice, have separate civil service
coverage for their specific groups.
Most State and local government
employees are covered by retire­
ment systems or by the Federal So­
cial Security program. They usually
work a standard week of 40 hours
or less, with overtime pay or com­
benefits for addi­
addition, large numbers of workers ever, it is necessary to recruit from pensatory timework.
tional hours of
will be needed to replace em­ outside if shortages of particular
ployees who transfer to other fields skills exist.
Sources of Additional
of work, retire, or die.
Information
Earnings and Working
Federal-State programs in educa­
Conditions
Persons interested in working for
tion, vocational training, medicine,
and other fields will increase the
Earnings of State and local State or local govenment agencies
needs of local and State govern­ government employees vary widely, should contact the appropriate
ments for professional, administra­ depending upon occupation and lo­ State, county, or city agencies. Of­
tive, and technical personnel. These cality. Salaries from State to State fices of local school boards, city
will include engineers, scientists, tend to reflect differences in the clerks, school and college coun­
social workers, counselors, general wage level in various locali­ selors or placement personnel, and
local offices of State employment
teachers, physicians and librarians. ties.
services have additional informa­
Most positions in State and local The Handbook statement for in­
governments are filled by residents dividual occupations often gives sa­ tion.
of the State or locality. Often, how­ lary information for State and local




TH E ARM ED FORCES

The Armed Forces offer young
men and women career opportuni­
ties irr a range of occupations al­
most as wide as that found in
civilian life. Jobs include clerical
and administrative work, skilled
construction trades, electrical and
electronic occupations, auto repair,
and hundreds of other specialties
requiring varied amounts of educa­
tion and training. Each year the
Armed Forces give hundreds of
thousands of men and women basic
and advanced training which can be
useful in both military and civilian
careers.
Since the Selective Service draft
authority was allowed to lapse in
1973, the various branches of the
Armed Forces—Army, Air Force,
Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast
Guard—are being staffed entirely
through voluntary enlistments. The
military services must compete with
civilian employers and offer occu­
pational benefits and training pro­
grams which make military service
an attractive career alternative.
These benefits are explained in
more detail later in this statement.
A young person may enlist in any
one of a variety of programs that in­
volve different combinations of ac­
tive and reserve duty. Active duty
ranges from 2 to 6 years, with 3and 4-year enlistments the most
common. In general, enlistments
for over 4 years are for job special­
ties which require a considerable
amount of advanced technical
training.
At the end of 1974, over 2.2 mil­
lion men and women were on active
duty in the Armed Forces: about
780.000 in the Army; 645,000 in
the Air Force; 545,000 in the Navy;
190.000 in the Marine Corps; and



36.000 in the Coast Guard. Of these
about 50,000 were women. In addi­
tion to those on active duty, over
175.000 persons were in active
reserve units.
Military personnel are stationed
throughout the United States and in
many countries around the world.
In the United States, the largest
numbers are in California, followed
by Texas, North Carolina, Florida,
Georgia and the Washington, D.C.
metropolitan area. Over 500,000
are outside the United States. The
majority of these—over 300,000—
are stationed in Europe
(particularly Germany); large num­
bers also are in the Western Pacific.
In addition, over 200,000 Navy,
Marine Corps, and Coast Guard
personnel are assigned to ships, in­
stallations, and ports in the United
States and its outlying areas, and
around the world.
Job Training and Education for
Enlisted Personnel

Following initial or advanced
training, an individual is sent to his
or her service assignment. The type
and location of duty depend on serv­
ice vacancies, personal qualifica­
tions, and personal preferences.
Persons planning to apply the
skills gained through military train­
ing to a civilian career should ob­
tain certain information before
choosing a military occupation.
First, they should determine how
good the prospects are for civilian
employment in jobs related to a
particular military specialty.
Second, they should know what the
prerequisites are for the related
civilian job. Many occupations
require licensing, certification, or a
minimum level of education. Those
interested should find out whether
military training is sufficient to
enter the field or, if not, what addi­
tional training will be required.
Much information on the em­
ployment outlook for civilian jobs
for which military training helps
prepare an individual is given in
other Handbook statements. Addi­
tional information often can be ob­
tained from schools, unions, trade
associations and other organiza­
tions in the field of interest, or from
a school counselor. By looking into
this kind of information before
choosing a specific military occupa­
tion, young people entering the
Armed Forces will help insure that
the type of training they obtain will
fit their career plans.
A list of major job categories for
enlisted personnel is presented
below.

The Armed Forces train person­
nel in hundreds of different types of
jobs. Job training available to en­
listees depends on the length of
their service commitment, their
general and technical aptitude, the
needs of the service, and personal
preferences. Following a basic
training period of between 6 and 11 Administrative Specialists and Clerks
weeks, depending on service Personnel
branch, a majority of recruits go Administration
directly to formal classroom train­ Clerical personnel
ing in a specialty while the Accounting, finance, and
remainder receive on-the-job train­ disbursing
ing at their first duty assignment. Supply and logistics
For those not assigned directly to Religious, morale, and welfare
schools, there is opportunity for Information and education
formal classroom training following Communications center opera­
tions
on-the-job training.

ADP computers
Teletype and cryptographic
equipment
Other electronic equipment
Communications and Intelligence
Specialists

Radio and radio code
Sonar
Radar and air traffic control
Signal intelligence/electronic
warfare
Military intelligence
Combat operations control
Medical and Dental Specialists

Medical care
Technical medical services
Related medical services
Dental Care

Other Technical and Allied Spe­
cialists

Electrical and Mechanical Equip­ Service and Supply Handlers
ment Repairers
Food service

Aircraft
Motor transport
Automotive
Material receipt, storage, and
Wire communications
issue
Missiles, mechanical and electri­ Military Police
cal
Personal service
Armament and munitions
Auxiliary labor
Shipboard propulsion
Forward area equipment support
Power generating equipment
Infantry, Gun Crews, and Seaman­
Precision equipment
ship Specialists
Aircraft launch equipment
Infantry
Other mechanical and electrical
Armor and amphibious
equipment
Combat engineering
Artillery/gunnery, rockets, and
Crafts
missiles
Metalworking
Combat aircrew
Construction
Seamanship
Utilities
Construction equipment opera­
Electronic Equipment Repairers
tion
Radio/radar
Lithography
Fire control systems
Industrial gas and fuel production
Missile guidance and control
Fabric, leather and rubber
Sonar equipment
Firefighting and damage control
Nuclear weapons equipment
Other crafts



Photography
Drafting, surveying, and mapping
Weather
Ordnance disposal and diving
Scientific and engineering aides
Musicians
A brief description of each
category as it relates to civilian jobs
follows:
Administrative specialist and clerk
jobs are found in most private busi­
nesses and government agencies
and require the same basic skills as
those learned in the military serv­
ices.
Electrical and mechanical equip­
ment repairers generally are in­
structed in the basic theories and
advanced
troubleshooting
techniques involved in the opera­
tion and repair of equipment. This
instruction and training make
transfer to a similar civilian job
fairly easy in many career fields. In
others, some additional civilian
training may be needed.
In general, the various skilled
crafts or trades require some kind of
apprenticeship program. In some
cases credit is given towards the ap­
prenticeship requirement for skills
acquired through military training
and experience.

Many of the service and supply oc­
cupations are identical to those in

civilian life. Such military ex­
perience is helpful in obtaining
similar civilian employment.
On the other hand, many of the
jobs in the infantry, gun crews and
seamanship specialist group are
unique to the Armed Forces, having
few or no parallels in civilian jobs.
However, this work experience may
be helpful in developing leadership
and supervisory skills which pro­
vide a good base for future civilian
employment.
Those working as electronic
equipment repairers generally main­
tain and repair specialized military
equipment. However, most of the
training and experience gained can
be directly related to civilian occu­
pations such as electronics techni­
cian, aircraft instrument mechanic,
or radar and radio repairer. The
service-trained specialist in this
area may need additional training
on specialized equipment before
gaining journeyman status in
civilian employment. Credit is
sometimes given in an apprentice­
ship program for skills acquired iu
the service. Also, in certain occupa­
tions, such as electrician, for exam­
ple, applicants may be required to
show an adequate level of
knowledge by passing an examina­
tion before a license to practice is
issued.
Some of the communications and
intelligence specialist occupations
have civilian counterparts, such as
sonar, radar, and radio operators.
In general, however, these have a
limited civilian demand. Other jobs,
such as military intelligence or
combat operations control have
very few or no parallel civilian oc­
cupations.
In recent years, changes in milita­
ry training and civilian require­
ments in the medical and dental
fields have greatly increased
civilian employment opportunities
for service-trained personnel. An
examination is required in most
fields to show proficiency. Some of



the civilian occupations in which
service-trained men and women
can become certified include:
physician’s assistant; laboratory
technician; emergency medical
care technician; medical technolo­
gist; dental assistant; nurse (most
States allow service trained person­
nel to take the Licensed Practical
Nurse Examination; a few, the reg­
istered Nurse Examination); and
physical therapists.
Other technical and allied spe­
cialists include a wide range of jobs,
many having direct civilian parallels
such as photographer, meteorolo­
gist, musician, and others providing
skills with limited demand in the
civilian sector such as ordnance
disposal and diving.
Traditionally, women in the
armed services have been limited to
jobs in the administrative, clerical,
or medical fields. Today, women
are eligible and encouraged to enter
all military occupational fields ex­
cept those involving actual combat.
Other Educational Programs

In addition to on-duty training, a
variety of programs are available to
help military personnel continue
their education. A Tuition
Assistance program is available at
most military installations for active
duty personnel who wish to take

off-duty courses leading to a
bachelor’s or advanced degrees.
Assistance also is available for
schooling ranging from basic sub­
jects through college and technical
occupational courses.
Each service branch offers pro­
grams for full-time education,
providing full pay, allowances, tui­
tion, and related fees. Other pro­
grams enable the enlisted man or
woman to take college courses and
additional military training leading
to commissioning as an officer.
Courses also are available to help
service personnel earn their high
school equivalency diploma. In ad­
dition, programs are being in­
stituted to permit the application of
credit for military training courses
towards associate or baccalaureate
college degrees from participating
institutions.
Officer Training

Officer candidates in the Armed
Forces receive training through a
wide variety of programs: The
Federal Service Academies (Naval,
Air Force, Military, and Coast
Guard); Reserve Officer Training
Corps (ROTC); Officer Candidate
School; National Guard (State Of­
ficer Candidate School programs);
and direct appointment.
The Federal Service Academies
provide a 4-year college program
leading to a bachelor of science
degree. The midshipman or cadet is
provided free room and board, tui­
tion, medical care, and a monthly
allowance. Graduates may receive
regular commissions in all branches
of the service and have a 5-year ac­
tive duty obligation.
To become a candidate for ap­
pointment as a midshipman or
cadet in the Naval, Air Force, or
Military Academy, most applicants
obtain a nomination from an
authorized nominating source
(usually a member of Congress). It
is not necessary to know a member
of Congress personally to request a
nomination. The nominee must

meet certain requirements, which
include an academic record of a
specified quality, college aptitude
test scores above an established
minimum, recommendations from
teachers or school officials, and
passing a medical examination. Ap­
pointments are made from eligible
nominees according to personal
preference of the nominating
authority and by a competitive
system based on the nominees’
qualifications. The dependents of
certain veterans may gain admis­
sion. Active and reserve service
members also may gain admission
through applications.
Appointments to the Coast
Guard Academy are made on a
competitive basis. A nomination is
not required.
The Reserve Officer Training
Corps (ROTC) Program involves
the training of students in over 500
Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Air
Force units at participating colleges
and universities throughout the
United States. As a part of the
school curriculum, ROTC training
includes 2 to 5 hours of military in­
struction a week in addition to
regular college courses. Some
summer training also is required.
Advanced ROTC training, occur­
ring during the junior and senior
years, is optional (except under the
Navy programs) and students must
qualify for admission.
Advanced ROTC students are
paid a monthly allowance while at­
tending school and receive addi­
tional pay for summer training.
Scholarships also are available on a
competitive basis. Following
graduation, ROTC students fulfill
their military obligations by serving
as regular or reserve officers for a
stipulated period of time.
A commission in the Armed
Forces can be earned without
ROTC training by those who enlist
from civilian life into one of the
several Officer Candidate School
Programs. The Army, Navy, Air
Force, Marine Corps and Coast
Guard train selected college gradu­



ates to become commissioned of­
ficers. The National Guard also has
several Officer Candidate Programs
for qualified high school graduates.
Many men and women who are
trained in medicine or one of the re­
lated health sciences may qualify
for direct appointment as officers.
Financial assistance is available to
students enrolled in training in one
of these fields. Direct appointments
also are available for those qualified
to serve in other occupations, such
as judge advocate general or
chaplain.
The Armed Forces offer a wide
variety of flight training programs,
many of which lead to a commis­
sion. In addition, all services have
programs for qualified enlisted per­
sonnel to obtain commissions.

tary personnel receive free room
and board, medical and dental care,
a military clothing allowance, mili­
tary supermarket and department
store shopping privileges, recrea­
tional facilities, 30 days of paid va­
cation a year, and travel opportuni­
ty. When room and board are not
provided, a living allowance is
given. Table 1 gives examples of
military pay and allowances.
Active career officers and en­
listed personnel also are eligible
for retirement benefits after 20
years of service.
The pay grades for enlisted per­
sonnel begin at E-1, the lowest, and
go to E-9, the highest. The lowest
pay grade for commissioned of­
ficers is 0-1; the highest, 0-10.
Enlisted personnel will normally
be promoted to pay grade E-3
Salary, Allowances, Promotion, within their first 12 months of ser­
vice. Further promotions depend
and Working Conditions
on individual merit, but in-grade
In addition to regular salary, mili­ pay increases are possible on the

Table 1. Active duty military compensation in 1974 for members of the Armed
Forces who are single and have less than 2 years of service

Pay grade

Regular
military
compensa­
tion. total

Basic
pay

Quarters Subsistence
allowance allowance

Enlisted members:
E - l.................................................
E -2.................................................
E -3.................................................
E -4.................................................

$5,756
6,278
6.562
6,872

$4,129
4,600
4,780
4,971

$759
810
914
1,033

$868
868
868
868

Commissioned officers:
O -l ................................................
0 - 2 ................................................
0 - 3 ................................................
SOURCE: Department of Defense.

9,594
11,128
12,669

7,610
8,766
10,058

1,378
1,756
2,005

606
606
606

basis of length of service.
The normal workweek in the
Armed Forces is 8 hours a day, 5 or
5 1/2 days a week. Due to the na­
ture of military work, an individual
or group may be called upon to
work longer hours without addi­
tional compensation. With the wide
range of jobs found in the service,
working conditions vary substan­
tially. Some jobs which are extraor­
dinarily dangerous, or in an un­
desirable location, provide addi­
tional income in the form of a
bonus or special payments.
Athletic and other recreational
facilities, such as libraries, gymnasi­
ums, tennis courts, golf courses,
and movies, are available on most
military installations. Service per­
sonnel also may get help with per­
sonal or financial problems from
personal affairs officers, legal
assistance officers, and chaplains,
and from other supporting agen­
cies.
Veterans’ Benefits

The Veterans Administration
provides numerous benefits to
those who have served in the
Armed Forces. The educational
assistance program is usually the
most important to those consider­
ing enlisting.
Veterans who have at least 181
days bf continuous active duty are



eligible for educational benefits.
Each eligible person is entitled to 1
1/2 months of educational
assistance for each month of service
on active duty, up to a maximum of
36 months. These benefits may be
received for education at any ap­
proved institution, including public
or private elementary, secondary,
vocational, correspondence, busi­
ness, or flight training schools;
junior or teachers’ colleges; normal
schools; colleges or universities;
professional, scientific, or technical
institutions; and various other in­
stitutions that furnish education at
the elementary level or above. A
member of the service who has not
received a secondary school
diploma (or an equivalency cer­
tificate), and needs to take a
remedial or refresher course to
prepare for enrollment in an educa­
tion or training program, may
receive such training without hav­
ing it charged against the benefits
earned through military service.
In addition to training in an edu­
cational institution, GI Bill benefits
are available for apprenticeship or
on-the-job training and flight train­
ing. The amount of the training
assistance allowance depends on
the type of program and the
number of dependents of the
veteran. For full-time education in
an approved institution, a veteran
with no dependents received $270 a

month in January 1975; with one
dependent, $321; with two depen­
dents, $366; and $22 for each addi­
tional dependent. A veteran with no
dependents receiving apprentice­
ship or on-the-job training was paid
$196 for each of the first 6 months;
$147 for each of the second 6
months; $98 for each of the third 6
months; and $49 for each addi­
tional month; with one dependent,
$220, $171, $122, $73; with two
dependents, $240, $191, $142,
$93; and $10 a month for each ad­
ditional dependent. Another attrac­
tive veterans’ benefit available is a
guaranteed home, farm, or business
loan.
Each of the Armed Forces
Reserve Programs offers pay,
promotion, training, education and
retirement benefits similar to those
of the active duty programs.
More detailed or current infor­
mation on educational benefits, as
well as other veterans benefits, is
available from the Veterans Ad­
ministration office located in each
State, the District of Columbia,
Puerto Rico, and the Philippines.
Other Sources of Information

Each of the military services
publishes
handbooks
and
pamphlets that describe entrance
requirements, training and ad­
vancement opportunities, and other
aspects of military careers. These
publications are available at all
recruiting stations, most State em­
ployment service offices, high
schools, colleges and public libra­
ries. Individuals may obtain addi­
tional information by writing to the
addresses below:

U S. Army Recruiting Command, Fort
Sheridan, 111. 60037.
Navy Recruiting Command (Code 40),
4015 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, Va.
22203.
USAF Recruiting Service, Directorate of
Recruiting Operations, Randolph Air
Force Base, Tex. 78149.
Commandant of the Marine Corps, Code
MMRE-7, Headquarters Marine Corps,
Washington, D.C. 20380.
Commandant (G-PMR), U.S. Coast Guard,
Washington, D.C. 20590.

Dictionary of Occupational Titles (D.O.T.) Index
no t .
No.

001.081
001.281
002.
002.081
002.281
003.
003.081
003.151
003.187
003.281
005.
005.081
005.281
006.
006.081
007.
007.081
007.151
007.168
007.181
007.187
007.281
008.
008.081
010.
010.081
010.168
010.187
010.281
010.288
011.
011.081
012.
012.081
012.168
012.187
012.188

Pane

Architect...................................................
548
691
Architect, marine.......... .........................
371
Drafter, architectural.............................
373
Aeronautical engineering occupations.
Aeronautical engineer............................
329
371
Drafter, aeronautical...............................
373
Electrical engineering occupations.....
Electrical engineer..................................
333
Industrial-power engineer.....................
333
333
Electrical engineer, power....................
108
Systems engineer.....................................
371
Drafter, electrical....................................
371
Drafter, electronic..................................
371
Distribution estimator............................
373
Civil engineering occupations...............
332
Civil engineer...........................................
371
Drafter, civil.............................................
371
Drafter, structural...................................
373
Ceramic engineering occupations........
331
Ceramic engineer....................................
373
Mechanical engineering occupations...
627
Air-conditioning engineer.....................
Mechanical engineer................................................. 335, 627
627
Refrigeration engineer..............................................
Heating engineer....................................................... 335, 627
335
Chief engineer.............................................................
627
Mechanical-engineeringtechnician .......................
627
Engineering assistant mechanical equipment......
Plant engineer............................................................. 335, 627
371
Drafter, mechanical..................................................
371
Lay-out checker.........................................................
373
Chemical engineering occupations.......................
Chemical engineer...................................................... 331, 626
373
Mining and petroleum engineering occupations..
Mining engineer......................................................... 337, 586
338
Petroleum engineer...................................................
Safety engineer, mining............................................ 197, 586
590
Observer......................................................................
Mining investigator................................................... 337, 586
Drafter, geological......................................................371, 590
371
Drafter, mine.............................................................
590
Prospecting computer.............................................
Metallurgy and metallurgial engineering
373
occupations..............................................
336
Foundry metallurgist..................................
336
Metallurgist, extractive..............................
336
Metallurgist, physical.................................
373
Industrial engineering occupations.........
Safety engineer.......................................................... 197, 626
626
Director, quality control..........................................
Methods engineer, chief.......................................... 334, 626
Systems analyst, business electronic data
108
processing..................................................
626
Manufacturing engineer..............................
626
Efficiency engineer......................................
626
Factory-lay-out engineer.............................




D O T.
No.

012.281
013.
013.081
014.
014.281
015.
017.
017.281
018.
018.188
018.587
018.687
019.
019.081
019.281
020.
020.081
020.088
020.188
021.
021.088
022.
022.081
022.168
022.181
022.281
023.
023.081
023.088
024.
024.081

025.
025.088

Pa/lt

Fire-protection engineer.................................................. 198,626
Industrial engineer............................................................. 334,626
Industrial-health engineer........................................
626
Production engineer......................................
626
Production planner........................................................... 597,626
Quality-control engineer..........................................
626
Time study engineer.................................................
626
Air analyst...................................................................
626
Agricultural engineering occupations........................... 330,373
Agricultural engineer........................................................ 330,580
Marine engineering occupations.............................
373
Drafter, marine..........................................................
371
Nuclear engineering occupations...........................
373
Drafters, n.e.c..................................................................... 371,373
Technical illustrator..................................................
597
Cartographer...............................................................
500
Surveyors, n.e.c..........................................................
373
Surveyor...................................................... 378,586,590
Surveyor’s helper-rod...............................................
379
Surveyor’s helper-chain...........................................
379
Architecture and engineering, n.e.c......................
373
Landscape architect..................................................
560
Quality-control technician.......................................
673
Occupations in mathematics...................................
373
Applications engineer...............................................
108
Mathematician...........................................................
356
Statistician, mathematical.......................................
108
Actuary....................................................................... 115,719
Programmer, business...............................................
106
Programmer, engineering and scientific...............
106
Statistician, applied...................................................
358
Occupations in astronomy................................
373
Astronomer.................................................................
361
Occupations in chemistry.......................................
373
Chemist, analytical............................................................ 363,626
Chemist, food.....................................................363, 365, 626
Chemist, inorganic............................................................ 363,626
Chemist, organic................................................................ 363,626
Chemical-laboratory chief......................................
363
Perfumer.....................................................................
363
Chemist, water purification....................................
363
Occupations in physics............................................
373
Physicist.......................................................................
367
Physicist, light............................................................
367
Physicist, theoretical.................................................
367
Occupations in geology............................................
373
Geologist...................................................................... 339,589
Geophysicist................................................................ 341,590
Minerologist........................................................................ 339,589
Oceanographer...........................................................
346
Paleontologist...................................................................... 339,589
Petrologist........................................................................... 339,590
Photogeologist.................................................................... 339,590
Stratigrapher...................................................................... 339,590
Occupations in meteorology...................................
373
Meteorologist..............................................................
343

DOT
No.

Page

029.
Occupations in mathematics and physical
sciences, n.e.c.........................................................
373
029.088 Geographer.................................................................
500
040.081 Agronomist................................................................. 351,580
Animal scientist......................................................... 351, 580
Food technologist......................................................
365
Forester.............................................................. 320, 580, 650
Range manager..........................................................
323
Soil conservationist.................................................... 325, 580
Soil scientist................................................................ 354, 580
041.081 Anatomist..................................................................... 352, 626
Biochemist.......................................................... 349, 365, 626
Biologist....................................................................... 35 1,626
Botanist........................................................................ 351, 580
Entomologist............................................................... 351, 580
Geneticist............................................................351, 580, 626
Microbiologist....................................................352, 580, 626
Oceanographer...........................................................
346
Pharmacologist............................................................ 352, 626
Physiologist................................................................. 351,626
Plant quarantine and plant pest control
inspector..................................................................
580
Plant scientist.............................................................. 351, 580
041.168 Fish culturist..............................................................
351
041.181 Histopathologist........................................................ 351,626
041.281 Public-health bacteriologist...................................
351
045.088 Psychologist, developmental...................................
505
Psychologist, educational.........................................
505
Psychologist, engineering.........................................
506
Psychologist, experimental.......................................
505
Psychologist, social...................................................
505
045.108 Counselor......... .............................. 132, 505, 511, 513, 515
Director of guidance .................. 132, 505, 511, 513, 515
506
Psychologist, clinical.................................................
Psychologist, counseling..........................................
506
Psychologist, school..................................................
505
Residence counselor.................................................
132
050.088 Economist.............................................................141,498,580
Market research analyst........................................... 126, 141
050.118 Manpower research and planning director........
498
051.088 Political scientist........................................................
503
052.038 Director, State-historical society...........................
502
052.088 Historian......................................................................
502
054.088 Sociologist................................................................... 507, 580
055.088 Anthropologist...........................................................
496
059.088 Economic geographer...............................................
500
Linguist, scientific.....................................................
496
070.101 Surgeon........................................................................
448
070.108 General practitioner..................................................
448
071.108 Osteopathic physician...............................................
446
072.108 Dentist..........................................................................
435
073.081 Veterinarian, laboratory animal care................... 452, 580
073.108 Veterinarian................................................................
452
073.181 Veterinary livestock-inspector................................
452
073.281 Veterinary virus-serum inspector..........................
452
073.381 Laboratory technician, veterinary........................
627
074.181 Pharmacist..................................................................
493
075.
Registered nurses.......................................................
470
077.081 Research nutritionist.................................................
485
077.128 Dietitian, teaching......................................................
485
Dietitian, therapeutic.....................................
485
Nutritionist.................................................................. 485, 580
077.168 Dietitian.......................................................................
485
Dietitian, administrative...........................................
485
078.128 Medical technologist, teachingsupervisor............. 458, 627
078.168 Medical technologist, chief..................................... 458, 627
Radiologic technologist, chief.........•....................... 466, 627



DOT
No.

Page

078.281 Biochemistry technologist.......................................
627
Medical technologist................................................. 458, 627
Microbiology technologist.......................................
627
078.381 Medical-laboratory assistant.................................. 458, 627
627
Tissue technologist.....................................................
078.368 Dental hygienist.........................................................
439
Electrocardiograph technician................................
454
Electroencephalograph technician.........................
455
Radiologic technologist.............................................
466
078.687 Laboratory assistant, plasmadrawing-off.............
627
079.108 Audiologist.................................................................
482
Chiropractor...............................................................
443
Optometrist.................................................................
444
Podiatrist......................................................................
451
Speech pathologist.....................................................
482
079.128 Occupational therapist..............................................
476
Recreational therapist...............................................
529
079.188 Industrial hygienist...................................................
198
079.368 Inhalation therapist...................................................
467
Medical assistant........................................................
457
Occupational therapist aid.......................................
477
079.378 Dental assistant.........................................................
437
Nurse, licensed practical..........................................
472
Physical therapist.......................................................
479
Surgical technician....................................................
463
090.118 Dean of students.......................................................
132
Financial-aids officer................................................
132
090.168 Department head, college oruniversity.................
210
Director of admissions..............................................
132
Director of student affairs.......................................
132
Director of summer sessions...................................
132
Discipline counselor..................................................
132
Registrar, college or university...............................
132
090.228 Faculty member, college or university.................
210
090.999 Graduate assistant....................................................
210
091.228 Teacher, agriculture..................................................
581
Teacher, secondary school......................................
208
092.228 Teacher, elementary school.....................................
206
Teacher, kindergarten...............................................
206
096.128 Extension service specialist......................................
526
Home economist........................................................
527
Home economist, consumerservice.......................
527
099.228 Child mentor...............................................................
179
100.
Librarians....................................................................
213
100.388 Medical-record librarian..........................................
213
110.108 Lawyer....................................................................
139
110.118 Lawyer, admiralty.....................................................
139
Lawyer, corporation.................................................
139
Lawyer, criminal........................................................
139
Lawyer, patent...........................................................
139
Lawyer, probate.........................................................
139
Lawyer, real estate....................................................
139
119.168 Title supervisor........................................................
139
120.108 Clergy........................................ ......................... 520,522,523
129.108 Director of religious activities................................
132
132.088 Copywriter................................................................
126
132.268 Reporter.......................................................................
567
132.388 Editor, index...............................................................
87
137.268 Interpreter...................................................................
565
139.288 Technical writer.......................................................
571
141.031 Director, art................................................................
550
141.081 Advertising lay-out planner...................................
126
Art lay-out planner...................................................
550
Cartoonist, motion pictures.....................................
550
Color advisor.............................................................
550
Cover designer...........................................................
550
Illustrator....................................................................
550

D O T.
No.

141.168
142.051
142.081
143.062

143.282
143.382
150.028
150.048
151.028
151.048
152.028
152.048
159.148
159.228
160.188
161.118
162.158
163.118
164.
165.068
166.
166.168
166.268
168.168

168.268
168.284
168.287

168.287
168.288
169.118
169.188
180.118
182.168
184.168

Taxe

No.

550 185.168
Lay-out planner....................................
Medical illustrator.........................................
550 186.1 18
Miniature-set constructor....................................
550 186.138
Stipple artist................................................................
550 186.168
Production manager, advertising...........................
126 186.288
Interior designer and decorator.............................
558 187.118
Designer......................................................................
607
Floral designer....................................
554
Industrial designer......................................................
556
Photographer apprentice, commercial.................
562 187.168
Photographer apprentice, portrait.........................
562
Photographer, commercial.......................................
562
Photographer, news..................................................
562
Photographer, portrait..............................................
562 188.118
Photographer, scientific..........................................
562 189.118
Biological photographer...........................................
562 189.168
Photographer, aerial.................................................
562 191.118
Dramatic coach..........................................................
539
Teacher, drama..........................................................
539 191.268
Actor............................................................................
539 193.168
Instructor, dancing....................................................
541 193.282
Dancer.........................................................................
541 194.168
Teacher, music........................................................... 543, 545 194.281
Concert singer..............,.............................................
546 194.282
Musical entertainer...................................................
543
Musician, instrumental..............................................
543 194.782
Orchestra leader........................................................
543 195.108
Popular singer.............................................................
545
Announcer.................................................................
569
Announcer, international broadcast......................
569
Disc jockey.................................................................
569
Sports announcer.......................................................
569
Counselor, camp.......................................................
529 195.118
Accountant.................................................................
123
Treasurer......................................................................
1 11 195.168
Purchasing agent............................................... 126, 128, 149
Hotel manager...........................................................
136
Advertising management occupations.................
126 195.208
Public-relations practitioner..................................
147 195.228
Personnel and training administration
occupations.............................................................
143 196.168
Director of placement............................................... 132, 143 196.228
Placement officer....................................................... 143,517 196.268
Building inspector......................................................
192 196.283
Customs inspector......................................................
194 197.130
Health officer, field...................................................
194
Immigration inspector...........................
194
Manager, credit and collection...............................
134
Safety engineer, insurance......................................
198' 197.133
Operations inspector.................................................
197
Safety-and-sanitary inspector..................................
197
Safety inspector, insurance.....................................
197
Check viewer, mining...............................................
194 197.136
Food and drug inspector..........................................
194 197.168
Inspector, weights and measures...........................
194
Plant-quarantine inspector.......................................
194
Poultry grader.............................................................
194 198.168
Sanitary inspector......................................................
194 199.168
Food and drug inspector..........................................
194 199.381
Claim examiner..........................................................
117 201.268
Conciliator.................................................................. 143, 144 201.368
Labor relationsspecialist.................................................. 143,144 202.388
Salary and wage administrator................................
143
Underwriter......................................................................... 120,719 203.
Field contractor.........................................................
149 203.582
Track worker...................
304 203.588
Manager, traffic.........................................................
137




Taxi-

Manager, merchandise..............................................
128
Manager, financial institution.................................
111
Manager, safe deposits.............................................
Ill
Operations officer.....................................................
Ill
Loan officer...............................................................
Ill
Manager, hotel...........................................................
136
Public health service officer....................................
488
Superintendent, institution.......................................
488
Superintendent, recreation..................................
529
Director, funeral........................................................
177
Director, volunteer services.....................................
488
Manager, front office.........................
136
Superintendent, building.................................... 136, 156
Manager, city.............................................................
130
President.................................................... .y ...........••
Ill
Executive trainee.......................................................
Ill
Lease buyer...............................................................590
Right-of-way agent....................................................
149
Claim adjuster............................................................
117
Air-traffic controller..............................................
279
Radio officer............................................................. 290,691
Sound-effects supervisor..........................................
370
Sound-effects technician..........................................
370
Sound controller........................................................
370
Sound mixer................................................................
370
Recording-machine operator................................
370
Caseworker................................................................
534
Community-relations and services advisor,
public housing........................................................
534
Group worker............................................................
534
Social group worker..................................................
534
Social worker, delinquency prevention.............
534
Administrator, social welfare..................................
534
Director, welfare........................................................
534
Casework supervisor.................................................
534
Director, camp...........................................................
529
Director, recreation center......................................
529
Case aid.....................................................................
534
Program aid, group work.......................................... 529, 534
Program leader......................................................
529
Chief pilot...................................................................
283
Instructor, pilot..........................................................
283
Check pilot.................................................................
283
Airplane pilot.............................................................
283
Chief engineer...........................................................
289
First assistant engineer..............................................
289
Second assistant engineer........................................
290
Third assistant engineer...........................................
290
Chief mate......................................................
289
Deck officer..........................................
289, 690
Second mate...............................................................
289
Third mate..................................................................
289
Marine engineer........................................................
691
Captain......................................................................... 289,690
Master.............................................................................289, 690
Purser............................................................................ 290, 691
Conductor...................................................................
298
Urban planner............................................................
151
Radiographer.............................................................
604
Social secretary..........................................
94
Secretary.....................................................................
94
Court reporter............................................................
94
Stenographer...............................................................
94
Typists.........................................................................
101
Varitypists...................................................................
101
Mortgage clerk...........................................................
101
Policy writer................................................................
101

dot

No.

205.368
206.388
206.588
207.782
207.884
207.885
208.588
208.782
209.138
209.382
209.388
209.488
209.584
209.587
209.588
209.688
210.368
210.388

Personnel clerk..........................................
File clerk I ..................................................
File clerk II (classification clerk)..........
Recordkeeper..............................................
Duplicating-machine operator II and III
Duplicating-machine operator I..............
Duplicating-machine operator IV..........
Transcribing-machine operator...............
Typesetter-perforator operator...............
Embossing-machine operator..................
Stenographic-pool supervisor..................
Justowriter operator..................................
Clerk-typist..................................................
Mortgage clerk............................................
Circulation clerk........................................
Morticer.......................................................
Sample clerk, paper..................................
Car checker................................................
Waybill clerk...............................................
Checker II.................................................
Account-information clerk......................
Bookkeeper (clerical) I ...........................
Bookkeeper (clerical) II..........................
210.488 Dividend-deposit-voucher quoter..........
210.588 Insurance clerk..........................................
211.
Cashiers........................................................
211.468 Station agent II...........................................
212.368 Teller.............................................................
213.138 Supervisor, computer operations...........
Supervisor, machine-records unit..........
213.382 Card-to-tape converter operator.............
Console operator.......................................
High-speed printer operator...................
Tape-to-card converter operator...........
213.582 Key-punch operator................................
213.588 Data typist...................................................
213.782 Tabulating-machine operator..................
213.885 Sorting-machine operator........................
214.488 Billing-machine operator.........................
215.388 Bookkeeping-machine operator I ..........
216.388 Bookkeeping-machine opeartor II.........
216.488 Adding-machine operator........................
Calculating-machine operator.................
217.388 Proof-machine operator...........................
Transit clerk................................................
219.388 Actuarial clerk..........................................
Billing clerk;...............................................
Checker.......................................................
Coding clerk..............................................
Country-collection clerk.........................
Crew scheduler.........................................
Demurrage clerk.......................................
Exchange clerk.........................................
Interest clerk..............................................
Manifest clerk...........................................
Sorter..........................................................
Statistical clerk.........................................
219.488 Accounting clerk......................................
Policy checker..........................................
2 19.588 Kardex clerk..............................................
Posting clerk..............................................
222.138 Shipping clerk...........................................
222.368 Expediter.....................................................
222.387 Freight-receiving clerk.............................
222.388 Container coordinator............................
222.478 Retail-receiving clerk...............................
222.488 Manifest clerk............................................




...

Page

87, 98
87
87
98
90
90
90
101
673
90
94
101
101
110
101
101
101
98
101
... 96,673
82
... 82, 110
... 82, 110
82
82
84
302
113
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
90
104
90
... 90,110
82
90
90
110
110
98
96, 82, 691
82
98
110
98
98
110
110
691
110
98
.... 82, 110
98
87
98
96
96
96
96
96
704

DOT
No.

Page

Receipt clerk...............................................................
96
222.587 Shipping clerk............................................................ 96, 98
96
222.588 Traffic clerk................................................................
222.687 Shipping checker....................................................... 96, 98
100
223.138 Supervisor, stock..........................................................
100
223.368 Procurement clerk.....................................................
100
223.387 Checker..............................................................................
Linen-room attendant...............................................
100
Magazine keeper........................................................
100
Material clerk..................................................................
100
Parts clerk.................................................................... 100, 704
Stock clerk..................................................................
96
Storekeeper.......................................................................
100
Tape librarian..................................................................
104
Tool clerk.........................................................................
100
100
223.388 Inventory clerk.................................................................
100
223.588 Swatch clerk.....................................................................
Counter......................................................................... 98, 100
100
223.687 Checker 1..........................................................................
91
231.688 Distribution clerk.............................................................
91
232.138 Supervisor, mails...............................................................
91
232.368 Post-office clerk................................................................
201
233.138 Supervisor, carriers......................................................
201
233.388 Mail carrier......................................................................
Mail-preparing and mail- handling-machine
234.
operators.................................................................
90
93
235.862 Information operator......................................................
Telephone operator................................................
202
303
236.588 Telegrapher and telephoner.................................
93
237.368 Receptionist......................................................................
688
239.588 Meter reader...............................................................
Router..........................................................................
96
85
240.368 Collector.....................................................................
241.168 Claim adjuster............................................................ 117, 718
704
241.368 Claims clerk................................................................
89
242.368 Front office clerk.......................................................
249.268 Claim examiner........................................................... 117, 718
216
249.368 Library assistant.........................................................
461
249.388 Medical record clerk....................................................
226
250.258 Life underwriter.........................................................
Sales agent, insurance.......................
226, 719
232
250.358 Sales agent, real estate..............................................
238
251.258 Sales agent, securities.......................................
149
252.358 Lease buyer.......................................................................
26 )
228, 234, 240
27 V Salesworkers, commodities
28 )
627
266.158 Pharmaceutical detailer....................
221
280.358 Sales associate, automobile...................................
220
289.358 Salesperson, parts.....................................................
Sales checkers..............................................
234
290.
292.358 Driver, Sales route........................................... 236, 622, 726
237
292.887 Driver helper, sales route...............................
230
297.868 Model...........................................................................
553
298.081 Merchandise displayer.............................................
259
,299.381 Carpet installers..................................
84
299.468 Cashier-checker........................................................
487
299.884 Optician, dispensing.............................
179
301.887 Day worker..........................
179
303.138 Housekeeper, home..................................................
179
303.878 Farm housekeeper................................................
House worker, farm..........................
179
179
304.887 Caretaker....................................................................
Yard worker................................................................
179
179
305.281 Cook.............................................................................
179
306.878 Houseworker, general...............................................
Mother’s helper..........................................................
179

D O T.
No.

307.878
309.
309.138
309.878
309.999
311.
31 1.878
312.878
312.887
313.
314.
315.
315.131
316.
318.887
319.878
321.138
324.
330.371
331.878
332.271
332.381
338.381
339.371
350.138
350.878
352.878
355.687
355.878

355.887
356.381
361.885
362.381
362.782
363.782
363.884
363.885
363.886
365.381
369.687
369.887
372.868
373.
375.118
375.138
375.168

Page

179
Child monitor..............................................................
179
Domestic service occupations, n.e.c......................
179
Butler.........................................................................
179
Companion..................................................................
179
Lady’s, attendant........................................................
179
Gentleman’s attendant..............................................
179
Domestic couple........................................................
Waiters, waitresses, and related food service occupations 170
Dining room attendant................................................. 166, 167
162
Bar attendant..............................................................
162
Bartender....................................................................
162
Bartender helper........................................................
164
Chefs and cooks, large hotels and restaurants ....
164
Chefs and cooks, small hotels and restaurants....
Miscellaneous cooks, except domestic........ 164, 294, 691
294
Chief cook..................................................................
Meatcutters, except in slaughtering and packing
168
houses.......................................................................
Utility hand................................................................. 294, 691
166
Dishwasher..................................................................
Fountain server.......................................................... 157, 167
157
Housekeeper................................
174
Inspector.........................................
172
Bellhop and related occupations
172
Barber..............................................
172
Barber apprentice.........................
174
Manicurist.....................................
174
Cosmetologist.................................
174
Wig dresser.....................................
177
Embalmer........................................
174
Electrologist...................................
174
Scalp-treatment operator.............
Steward/stewardess, chief........................................ 293, 691
Mess attendant............................................................ 294, 691
285
Airplane flight attendant..........................................
505
Clothes-room worker................................................
480
Attendant, physical therapy....................................
505
Emergency-entrance attendant...............................
505
Hospital guide.............................................................
505
Nurse aid......................................................................
505
Orderly.........................................................................
505
Psychiatric aid............................................................
505
Tray-line worker........................................................
505
Morgue attendant......................................................
51
Horseshoer..................................................................
726
Washer.......................................................................
727
Spotter.........................................................................
726
Drycleaner..................................................................
609
Presser, machine........................................................
Shirt finisher............................................................... 726, 727
609
Presser, hand...............................................................
609
Presser, form...............................................................
726
Flat work Finisher.......................................................
424
Shoe repairer.............................................................
727
Assembler.................................................................
727
Inspector......................................................................
726
Counter clerk..............................................................
726
Marker.........................................................................
186
Guard.........................................................................
184
Firefighter, fire department....................................
Police chief............................................................... 187, 190
187
Desk officer..............................................................
190
Desk officer, chief.....................................................
190
Secretary of police.....................................................
187
Commanding officer, harbor-police.....................
187
Commanding officer, homicide squad..................
187
Commanding officer, investigation division.........




No.

375.228
375.268
375.388
375.588
375.868
377.868
379.387
381.137
381.887
382.884
389.781
389.884
441.137
441.168
441.384
441.687
441.887
449.287
500.380
500.781
500.782
500.884
500.885
500.886
501.782
501.885
502.884
502.887
503.885
503.887
504.782
512.132
512.782
512.883
512.885
514.687
514.782
514.884

Page

Commanding officer, motorcycle squad...............
187
Commanding officer, motor equipment...............
187
Detective chief...........................................................
187
Harbormaster............................................................
187
Police sergeant...........................................................
187
Pilot, highway patrol.................................................
190
Police captain, precinct...........................................
187
Police lieutenant, precinct.......................................
187
Police sergeant, precinct..........................................
187
Special agent, FBI......................................................
182
Traffic lieutenant.......................................................
187
Traffic sergeant..........................................................
187
Police-academy instructor...................................... 187, 190
Detective..................................................................... 187, 190
Fingerprint classifier............
187, 190
Parking enforcement officer...................................
187
Border guard...............................................................
187
Police officer III.........................................................
187
Bailiff...........................................................................
187
Sheriff, deputy...........................................................
187
Fire inspector.............................................................
197
Charworker, head.....................................................
156
Porter, head................................................................
156
Charworker.................................................................
156
Cleaner, laboratory equipment...............................
156
Porter 1.........................................................................
156
Porter II.......................................................................
156
Janitor..........................................................................
156
Termite treater...........................................................
158
Exterminator..............................................................
158
Suppression-crew leader.......................................
322
Fire lookout...............................................................
322
Fire warden.................................................................
322
Forestry aid................................................................
322
Fire ranger..................................................................
322
Forest-firefighter.......................................................
322
Sprayer.........................................................................
322
Tree pruner.................................................................
322
Tree planter................................................................
322
Cruiser........................................................................
650
Plater.......................................................................... 57, 598
Plater, apprentice.......................................................
57
Cylinder grinder.........................................................
57
Plater, barrel..............................................................
57
Matrix-plater..............................................................
57
Plater, production..................................................... 57,656
Laborer, electroplating............................................
57
Anodizer......................................................................
632
Plater, hot dip............................................................
632
Blast furnace keeper.................................................
643
Second helper............................................................
644
Charge gang weigher................................................
603
Helper, blast furnace keeper..................................
643
Picker..............
59
Sandblaster and shotblaster..................................... 59,636
Heat treater (annealer)................................... 598, 603, 636
Melter supervisor......................................................
643
First helper..................................................................
644
Furnace operator...................................................... 636, 645
Oxygen furnacd operator.........................................
644
Stove tender................................................................
643
Charging machine operator.....................................
644
Pot tender...................................................................
602
Remelt operator..................
603
Casting inspector.......................................................
636
Casting operator........................................................
603
Pourer, metal............................................................. 636, 645

D O T.
No.

Page

DOT
No.

Page

Tapper..........................................................................
603 601.280 Diesinker...................................................................... 35,59;
Tool-and-die maker.................................................. 35, 598
514.887 Tapper, helper...........................................................
603
35
518.381 Coremaker.................................................................
636 601.281 Diemaker, bench.....................................................••
Toolmaker, bench......................................................
35
Bench coremaker..............................
27
35
Bench molder..............................................................
26 601.3 81 Plastic toolmaker.......................................................
Gear machining occupations..................................
33
Floor coremaker........................................................
27 602.
Abrading occupations....................... .......................
33
Floor molder......................................
26 603.
Hand molder............................................
636 604.
Turning occupations.................................................
33
518.782 Machine molder........................................................ 26,636 605.
Milling and planing occupations.............................
33
518.884 Coresetter........................................
636 605.782 Scalper operator........................................................ 33,603
Pourer..........................................................................
636 606.
Boring occupations....................................................
33
518.885 Coremaker, machine................................................. 26,636 609.381 Inspector, machined parts........................................ 399, 661
Core-oven tender........................
636 609.885 Machine tool operator..............................................
598
519.132 Supervisor, blast furnace (blower)......................
643 610.381 Blacksmith.................................................................. 51,301
519.884 Pot liner......................................
603 610.782 Drop-hammer operator.............................................
59
519.887 Foundry worker, general.......................
636 611.782 Forging-press operator..............................................
59
Molder, helper............................................................
636
Upsetter.......................................................................
59
Shakeout worker........................................................
636 611.885 Press operator............................................................
59
Third helper...............................................................
644 612.281 Inspector......................................................................
59
520.884 Bench hand.................................................................
621 612.381 Hammersmith..............................................................
59
520.885 Batter mixer................................................................
621 613.780 Roll-tube setter..........................................................
647
Dividing-machine operator......................................
621
Roll turners.................................................................
647
Icing mixer..................................................................
622 613.782 Heater..........................................................................
645
Mixer.............................................................................
621
Manipulator operator................................................
646
Molding machine operator................................
621
Roller...........................................................................
646
521.885 Slicing-and-wrapping machine operator...............
622
Rolling mill operator.................................................
603
524.884 Hand icer.....................................................................
622
Rougher.......................................................................
647
525.885 Machine icer...............................................................
622
Rougher pulpit operator.................
647
526.781 All-round baker.........................................................
622
Soaking pit operator....................................
603
526.885 Oven tender................................................................
621
Speed operator........................................................
647
526.886 All-round baker helper............................................
622 613.885 Coiler operator..........................................................
603
530.782 Beater engineer..........................................................
665
Heater helper..............................................................
645
532.782 Digester operator.......................................................
664
Piercer-machine operator.................
647
532.885 Backtender..................................................................
665 614.782 Extrusion press operator..........................................
603
533.782 Barker operator......................................................... 651, 664
Power-barker operator............................................. 651,664 615.782 Wire drawer................................................................ 603, 647
Power shear operator................................................
598
534.782 Supercalendar operator...........................................
665
Punch press operator......................................... . 598, 646
539.782 Paper machine operator..........................................
665
646
541.782 Coal washer................................................................
586 615.885 Shear operator...........................................
Power shear operator............................................ ...
598
Dehydration-plant operator...............................
591 617.782 Power hammer operator...................................
598
Treater.........................................................................
591 617.885 Trimmer..............................................................
59
542.280 Refinery operator..........................................
670
632
549.138 Preparation plant supervisor................................
586 619.782 Punch-press operator...................
Heater....................................................................
59
549.782 Still-pump operator...................................................
670
Stretcher-leveler operator...........................
603
Treater.........................................................................
670 619.886 Stretcher-leveler-operator helper...........................
603
549.884 Pumper helper...........................................................
670 620.131 Automobile mechanic, chief..................................
394
550.885 Compounder..............................................................
627 620.281 Automobile mechanic...............................................
394
554.782 Pill and tablet coater.......... .....................................
627
Automobile-repair-service estimator.....................
223
556.782 Compressor.................................................................
627
Motorcycle repairer...................................
419
558.885 Chemical operator....................................................
639
427, 705
559.687 Ampoule examiner...................................................
627 620.381 Truck mechanic......................................
Automobile-service mechanic.................................
394
Tablet tester................................................................
627
Motorcycle-tester.....................................................
419
559.782 Chemical operator.................................................... 627,639 620.384 Brake-drum-lathe-operator......................................
394
Granulator machine operator.................................
627 620.782 Truck mechanic helper............................................
620.884
705
Pharmaceutical operator..........................................
627 620.885 Bonder, automobile brakes......................................
394
559.885 Ampoule filler............................................................
627
280
563.381 Kiln operator..............................................................
651 621.281 Aircraft mechanic......................................................
300
579.782 Sand mixer..................................................................
636 622.381 Car repairer................................................................
397
590.885 Etcher, printed circuits..................................................... 632,660623.281 Motorboat mechanic.................................................
409
Firer...................................................................................... 632,660624.281 Farm-equipment mechanic......................................
409
599.885 Tumbler operator.......................................................
636 624.381 Field equipment maintenancemechanic................
405
600.280 Instrument maker.......................................................
31 625.281 Diesel mechanic.........................................................
Missile assembly mechanic......................................
598
Machinist............................................................. 29, 300, 598
Outboard motor tester..............................................
397
Metal patternmaker.................................................. 24,636
Rocket assembly mechanic......................................
598
600.281 Machine builder................................................................. 29,598
Metalworking machinery mechanics.....................
410
600.380 Job setter.....................................................................
34 626.
Printing and publishing mechanicsand repairers
410
600.381 Lay-outworker..........................................................
29 627.



D.O.T.
No.

628.
629.
630.
630.884
631.
633.281

637.281
637.381
638.281
639.381
641.885
649.687
650.582
651.782
651.885
651.886
654.782
661.281
665.782
667.782
667.885
667.887
668.885
669.587
674.782
692.782
692.885
693.280
699.887
700.281
700.381

705.884
706.687
706.884
790.281
709.884
710.131
710.281
711.381
712.381

Page

Textile machinery and equipment mechanics
410
and repairers..........................................................
Special industry machinery mechanics.................
410
General industry mechanics and repairers..........
410
Anode rebuilder.........................................................
410
Powerplant mechanics and repairers.....................
410
Assembly technician.................................................
400
Cash register servicer................................................
400
Dictating-transcribing-machine servicer...............
400
Machine analyst.........................................................
400
Mail-processing-equipment mechanic....................
400
Office-machine servicer...........................................
400
Office-machine-servicer, apprentice......................
400
Statistical-machine servicer.....................................
400
Air-conditioning and refrigeration mechanic...... 389, 391
Gas burner mechanic................................................ 389, 391
Air-conditioning and refrigeration mechanic......
389
Millwright....................................................................
64
Pinsetter adjuster, automatic..................................
399
Vending machine repairer.......................................
429
Envelope machine operator.....................................
666
Paper sorter and counter.........................................
666
Linotype (or intertype) machine operator........
39
Monotype keyboard operator.................................
39
Phototypesetting machine operator....................... 39, 40
Lithographic press operator..................................... 42,45
Printing-press operator............................................. 45,673
Printer-slotter operator............................................ 45, 666
Offset press operator II............................................ 45,673
Cylinder-press feeder................................................ 45,673
39
Monotype caster operator.......................................
Wood patternmaker.................................................. 24,636
Timber-size operator.................................................
651
Cut-off-saw operator.................................................
651
Pony edger..................................................................
651
Head-saw operator.....................................................
651
Block setter.................................................................
651
Log roller.....................................................................
651
Chipper........................................................................
664
Grader.........................................................................
651
Glass lathe operator..................................................
632
Sealing machine operator........................................
660
Sealing machine operator........................................
632
Jig and fixture builder...............................................
598
Wiper........................................................................... 293,691
Brooch maker.............................................................
414
Jeweler.........................................................................
414
Chain maker...............................................................
414
Fancy-wire drawer.....................................................
414
Goldbeater..................................................................
414
Lay-outworker..........................................................
414
Locket maker..............................................................
414
Mold maker................................................................
414
Ring maker.................................................................
414
Stone setter.................................................................
414
Grinder......................................................................... 59, 656
Metal finisher..............................................................
656
Polisher........................................................................
656
Type inspector...........................................................
661
Assembler...................................................................
660
Locksmith...................................................................
416
Locksmith apprentice...............................................
416
Tube bender................................................................
598
Instrument-repair supervisor...................................
412
Instrument mechanic................................................
412
Lens maker, bench...................................................
67
Dental-laboratory technician..................................
441




No.

713.251
713.381
713.884

715.281
720.281
720.884
721.281
721.381
722.281
723.381
723.884
724.781
724.884
725.884
726.384
726.781
726.884

726.887
729.281
729.884
730.281
730.381
741.887
780.381
780.884
781.381
781.484
781.687
781.884
781.887

Page

Optician, dispensing.................................................
487
Optician.......................................................................
487
Optician apprentice..................................................
487
Assembler, gold frame..............................................
67
Assembler, molded frames.......................................
67
Contact-lens-curve grinder......................................
67
Contact-lens-edge buffer..........................................
67
Contact-lens-polisher................................................
67
Countersink grinder..................................................
67
Embrosser and trimmer............................................
67
Eyeglass-lens cutter...................................................
67
Frame carber, spindle...............................................
67
Groover.......................
67
Heating-fixture tender...............................................
67
Lens assembler...........................................................
67
Lens blank marker....................................................
67
Lens generator...........................................................
67
Mounter and repairer...............................................
67
Plastic-frame lens mounter......................................
67
Polisher........................................................................
67
Spectacles truer.........................................................
67
Trim mounter.............................................................
67
Repairer, watch..........................................................
432
Radio repairer............................................................
425
Television and radio repairer..................................
425
Aliner...........................................................................
631
Cabinet mounter........................................................
631
Electric-motor analyst...............................................
394
Electric-motor assembler and tester......................
394
Electric-motor repairer............................................
394
Propulsion-motor-and- generator-repairer............
394
Electric-motor fitter..................................................
301
Inspector, systems..................................................... 632, 661
Electrical applicance repairer.................................
391
Appliance repairer....................................................
391
Coil winder.................................................................
632
Coil winder, hand.....................................................
632
Exhaust lathe operator.............................................
632
Grid lathe operator...................................................
632
Inspector, subassemblies.........................................
661
Electronics assembler.............................................. 631,660
Cable maker................................................................ 631,660
Capacitor assembler.................................................. 631, 660
Capacitor winder....................................................... 631, 660
Condenser aliner........................................................ 631, 660
Crystal finisher................................................................... 632,660
Crystal lapper..................................................................... 631,660
Silk-screen printer.....................................................
632
Electrical-instrument repairer.................................
412
Meter tester......................................................................... 412,688
Electric meter repairer......................................................412,688
Chassis assembler.......................................................
631
Piano technician........................................................
421
Pipe-organ technician...............................................
421
Piano tuner.................................................................
421
Sprayer.........................................................................
656
Furniture upholsterer................................................
61
Cushion builder..........................................................
656
Stuffing machine operator.......................................
656
Pattern grader............................................................
607
Patternmaker.............................................................
607
Marker.........................................................................
608
Assembler...................................................................
608
Bundler or fitter.........................................................
608
Cutter........................................................................... 608,656
Machine spreader.....................................................
608
Hand spreader............................................................
608

D O T.
No.

Page

D O T.
No.

Page

383
Trimmer, hand............................................................
609 822.281 Central office repairer..............................................
PBX repairer...............................................................
387
782.884 Hand sewer.................................................................
608
Signal department worker........................................
301
Mender.........................................................................
727
Telephone repairer....................................................
387
783.381 Fur finisher.................................................................
609
385
783.781 Fur cutter.....................................................................
609 822.381 Line installer...............................................................
PBX installer...............................................................
387
783.884 Fur nailer.....................................................................
609
Telephone installer....................................................
387
785.261 Tailor...........................................................................
609
Trouble locator..........................................................
383
785.281 Busheler.......................................................................
609
383
785.361 Dressmaker.................................................................
609 822.884 Frame wirer................................................................
Signal department worker........................................
301
785.381 Sample stitcher..........................................................
607
412
Tailor............................................................................ 607, 609 823.281 Meteorological-equipment repairer.......................
787.782 Fur machine operator...............................................
609 824.281 Electrician..................................................................... 256, 407
Neon-sign servicer.....................................................
407
Sewing machine operator........................................ 608, 656
789.687 Inspector or checker.................................................
609 825.281 Electrician...........................................................;293, 417, 691
Electrician, automotive.............................................
394
800.884 Riveter.........................................................................
598
257
801.281 Fitter 1.......................................................................... 275,586 825.381 Elevator constructor............................,....................
391
801.381 Fitter.............................................................................
275 827.281 Electrical-appliance servicer....................................
801.781 Structural-steelworker.............................................
275 828.281 Data-processing equipment servicer........................402, 412
Radioactivity-instrument- maintenance
Structural-steel-worker apprentice........................
275
technician................................................................. 402, 412
801.884 Reinforcing ironworker............................................
275
801.887 Laborer, corrugated-iron-culvert placing.............
253 829.281 Electrical repairer....................................................... 256, 417
Elevator repairer and apprentice............................
257
804.281 Sheet-metal worker.................................272, 273, 301, 597
Pinsetter mechanic, automatic................................
399
804.884 Assembler, unit..........................................................
273
805.281 Boilermaker................................................................ 54,301 829.381 Cable splicer...................................................... 256,385,687
422
Electronic organ technician.....................................
806.281 Dynamometer tester, motor.....................................
656
267
806.283 Test driver....................................................................
656 840.381 Painter, stage settings...............................................
267
806.381 Final inspector, truck trailer....................................
656 840.781 Painter..........................................................................
267
Inspector, assemblies and installations.................
656 840.884 Painter, rough............................................................
254
Outside-production inspector.................................
599 840.887 Dry wall sander..........................................................
267
806.382 Hypoid-gear tester.....................................................
656 841.781 Paperhanger........................................................... .
269
806.387 Inspector, returned materials..................................
656 842.381 Stucco mason.............................................................
262
806.684 Transmission tester...................................................
656 842.781 Lather.................................................................... .
Plasterer.......................................................................
269
806.687 Final inspector...........................................................
656
254
806.781 Final assembler..........................................................
598 842.884 Dry wall applicator...................................................
Taper............................................................................
254
806.887 Assembler....................................................................
656
Wallboard taper.........................................................
254
807.381 Automobile body repairer.......................................
392
253
809.381 Lay-out worker 1................................................. 54, 275, 276 842.887 Plasterer helper..........................................................
272
Ornamental-ironworker...........................................
275 843.884 Waterproofer.............................................................
251
Structural-ironworker...............................................
275 844.884 Cement-sprayer, nozzle.............................................
Cement mason and apprentice...............................
251
809.781 Lay-out worker II.............................................................. 54,275
Concrete rubber........................................................
251
809.884 Assembler, production line......................................
275
Concrete-wall-grinder operator..............................
251
Grinder-chipper.........................................................
636
253
809.887 Laborer, steel handling............................................
253 844.887 Cement-sprayer helper, nozzle...............................
Cement mason helper...............................................
253
Ornamental-iron-worker helper..............................
253
Concrete-vibrator-operator helper.........................
253
810.
Arc welders.................................................................
77
Grouter helper...........................................................
253
810.782 Welder......................................................................... 77,598
810.884 Welder......................................................................... 77,598 845.781 Painter, aircraft.......................................................... 49,598
Painter, automobile...................................................
49
811.
Gas welders...........................
77
265
811.782 Welder................................................................................. 77,598 850.782 Horizontal-earth-boring- machine operator.........
Shield runner.............................................................
265
811.884 Welder, gas................................................................. 77,598
265
812.
Combination arc welders and gas welders............
77 850.833 Bulldozer operator....................................................
Dredge operator.........................................................
265
812.884 Welder, production line........................................... 77,598
Lock tender................................................................
265
813.
Resistance welders.................................................... 77, 598
Mucking machine operator......................................
265
814.
Brazing, braze-welding, and soldering
Power-shovel operator...............................
265
occupations............................................................
77
Rock-drill operator...................................................
265
815.
Lead-burning occupations.......................................
77
Scraper operator.....................................................
265
816.
Flame cutters and arc cutters.................................
77
Tower-excavator operator.......................................
265
819.
Welders, flame cutters, and related occupations,
Trench-digging machine operator..........................
265
n.e.c........ .................................................................
77
265
819.781 Welder assembler (fitter)...................................... 54, 77 850.884 Bell-hole digger..........................................................
Dredge-dipper tender................................................
265
819.887 Welder helper.............................................................
77
Trench trimmer, fine................................................
265
821.281 Troubleshooter.........................................................
686
Stripping-shovel oiler................................................
265
821.381 Cable installer repairer............................................
256
Line erector (line installer).....................................
686 850.887 Laborer, pile driving, ground work....................... 253, 265
Laborer, road.............................................................
253
Meter installer 1.........................................................
688
Laborer, shore dredging............................ ,............
253
821.387 Safety inspector.........................................................
197
Miner helper II...........................................................
253
821.887 Ground helper.............................................................
687



D O T.
No.

851.883

851.887

852.883
852.884
852.887
853.782
853.883
853.887
859.782

859.883

859.884
859.887

860.281
860.381
860.781
860.887

Page

Mucker, cofferdam...................................................
253
Sheeting puller............................................................
253
Sheet-pile-hammer-operator helper.......................
253
Blade-grader operator...............................................
265
Elevating-grader operator........................................
265
Motor-grader operator..............................................
265
Subgrader operator...................................................
265
Utility-tractor operator.............................................
265
Ditch digger................................................................
253
Dump grader...............................................................
253
Form-stripper helper.................................................
253
Form tamper 1.............................................................
253
Grader 1.......................................................................
253
Grade tamper..............................................................
253
Pipe-layer helper........................................................
253
Concrete-paver operator..........................................
265
Concrete-paving-machine operator.......................
265
Form-grader operator...............................................
265
Cement mason, highways and streets....................
251
Form setter, metal/road forms................................
251
Joint filler....................................................................
253
Laborer, concrete paving.......................................
253
Mud-jack nozzle worker..................................
253
Asphalt-planer operator...........................................
265
Asphalt-plant operator..............................................
265
Asphalt-paving-machine operator..........................
265
Stone-spreader operator..........................................
265
Cold-patcher...............................................................
253
Laborer, bituminous paving.....................................
253
Squeegee finisher.......................................................
253
Driller, water well......................................................
265
Earth-boring-machine operator..............................
265
Foundation drill operator........................................
265
Pile-driver operator...................................................
265
Well-driller operator, cable tool.............................
265
Well-drill operator, rotary drill...............................
265
Well-reactivator operator........................................
265
Ballast-cleaning-machine operator...................
304
Dragline operator...................................................... 265, 585
Operating engineer....................................................
265
Operating engineer apprentice...............................
265
Road-mixer operator......................
265
Road-roller operator.................................................
265
Sweeper operator.......................................................
265
Tamping-machine operator......................................
304
Laborer, paving brick...............................................
253
Air-hammer operator................................................
253
Curb-setter helper......................................................
253
Laborer, stone-block ramming...............................
253
Mucker.........................................................................
253
Paving rammer...........................................................
253
Puddler, pile driving.................................................
253
Well-digger helper.....................................................
253
Carpenter inspector.................................................
249
Carpenter, maintenance...........................................
249
Ship’s carpenter......................................................... 293, 691
Carpenter and carpenter apprentice.....................
249
Form builder...............................................................
249
Shipwright...................................................................
249
Tank builder and erector.........................................
249
Billboard erector-and-repairer.............................
249
Carpenter, rough........................................................
249
Carpenter helper, maintenance..............................
253
Laborer, carpentry.....................................................
253
Laborer, carpentry, dock.........................................
253
Laborer, shaft sinking...............................................
253
Shipwright helper.......................................................
253




D O T.
No.

861.381 Bricklayer and apprentice..............
Bricklayer, firebrick.
Marble setter..............................................
861.781 Stonemason and apprentice...................
Terrazzo worker and apprentice...........
Tilesetter and tilesetter apprentice.......
861.884 Tuck pointer..............................................
861.887 Brick cleaner..............................................
Bricklayer helper......................................
Bricklayer helper, refractory brick.......
Stonemason helper...................................
862.281 Oil burner mechanic................................
862.381 Furnace installer.
Gas-main fitter.............
Pipe fitter I....................
Pipe-fitter apprentice.
Pipe-fitter apprentice, sprinkler system.
Pipe-fitter, welding.
Plumber.....................
Plumber apprentice.
862.884 Laborer, construction or leak gang.
862.887 Backer-up..............................................
Clamper................................................
Connection hand.
Crank hand.................
Laborer, pipe line......
Laborer, plumbing.
863.381 Pipe coverer and insulator.................
863.781 Cork insulator, interior surface........
863.884 Composition-weatherboard applier...
Blower insulator.
Insulation installer.
Insulation worker.
Insulation worker apprentice.
864.781 Floor layer................................
865.781 Glazier........................................
865.887 Glazier helper
866.381 Roofer.............
866.887 Roofer helper.
869.281 Furnace installer.
869.883 Rigger and machine mover.
869.884 Stopping builder.
Rig builder..........................................
Roustabout........................... ..............
869.887 Concrete-pump-operator helper.....
Construction worker II
Form-setter helper.
Form stripper.
Hod carrier...............................
Laborer, cement-gun placing.
Laborer, wrecking and salvaging...
Loft worker, pile-driving.................
Mixer, hand, cement gun................
Reinforcing-iron-worker helper.....
Rig-builder helper.
Track worker..................
Track layer....;.................
891.138 Maintenance supervisor.
892.883 Laborer, hosting or hooker...
900.883 Concrete-mixing-truckdriver.
902.883 Dump-truckdriver.
903.883 Tank-truckdriver.
904.883 Tractor-trailer-truckdriver.
905.883 Truckdriver, heavy.
905.887 Truckdriver helper.
906.883 Truck