View PDF

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.


Occupational Outlook
Handbook,1976-77 Edition

JO isJ J

To learn about this Handbook, see How to Use the Handbook, page 3.
To locate an occupation or industry, see:

Table of Contents, page ix.
Dictionary of Occupational Titles Index, page 745.
Alphabetical Index, page 756.
Job titles which connote sex stereotypes have been changed.

A number of job titles have been revised in this edition of the Handbook in order to
eliminate connotations of sex stereotyping. The new titles are consistent with changes
in the occupational classification system used by the U.S. Bureau of the Census, and
with considerably more numerous changes in the Dictionary of Occupational Titles.
For a general view of work and jobs in the United States, read the chapter on

Tomorrow’s Jobs, page 13.
Forecasts of the future are precarious! Keep in mind the explanation on page 5 of

what the employment outlook information in the Handbook really means. Read the
section on Assumptions and Methods Used in Preparing the Employment Projections,
page 11.
The job picture is constantly changing. To find out how you can keep your information

up to date, see the section on Where to Go for More Information, page 9.
You may need local information, too. The Handbook gives facts about each occupation

for the United States as a whole. See page 9 for sources of job information in your
Reprints from the Handbook provide an inexpensive way to get occupational outlook

information about particular fields. For instructions on how to order one or more of 155
reprints, see page 776.


It keeps you up to date on fast-changing employment trends.
It reports promptly on new occupational research results
It analyzes legislative, educational, and training developments that affect career
Order form on back cover

Occupational Outlook
Handbook, 1976-77 Edition
U.S. Department of Labor
W. J. Usery, Jr., Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Julius Shiskin, Commissioner
Bulletin 1875

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402,
GPO Bookstores, or BLS Regional Offices listed on page 783. Price $7.
Make checks payable to Superintendent of Documents.

Stock Number 02 9 -0 0 1 -0 1 406-6/Catalog Number L 2.3:1875


The difficulties young people experience when making the transition from school to work has
been recognized by leaders in government and education as a serious national problem. One way to
help ease this transition is to provide young people with accurate and comprehensive career guidance
information. By acquiring specific knowledge of the various occupations in our economy, they can
become aware of the opportunities and alternatives that are available to them, and can plan for careers
suited to their abilities and aspirations.
The Occupational Outlook Handbook is a major source of vocational guidance information for
hundreds of occupations. For each occupation, the Handbook describes what workers do on the job,
the training or education needed, and most importantly, some idea of the availability of jobs in the
years ahead.
Although its main purpose is providing information to young people, the Handbook is also a useful
resource for persons entering or reentering the work force at later stages in their lives. Our hope in the
Department of Labor is that this publication will continue to offer valuable assistance to all persons
seeking satisfying and productive employment.

W. J. Usery, Jr., Secretary o f Labor


Prefatory Note
In our constantly changing economy, information on future career opportunities and educational
requirements is necessary if young people are to be prepared for tomorrow’s jobs. For more than 30
years, the Bureau of Labor Statistics has conducted research on occupations and industries for the pur­
pose of providing this information for use in vocational guidance.
The major product of this research is the Occupational Outlook Handbook, which contains infor­
mation on job duties, educational requirements, employment outlook, and earnings for more than 850
occupations and 30 industries. The Handbook information is based on data received from a variety of
sources, including business firms, trade associations, labor unions, professional societies, educational
institutions, and government agencies, and represents the most current and comprehensive informa­
tion available.
As part of the Bureau’s continuing effort to increase the usefulness of the Handbook, the new edi­
tion has been substantially revised. The format has been simplified, and a number of statements in­
clude information on the effect of fluctuations in the business cycle as well as long-run expectations.
The new Handbook uses the revised non-sexist job titles developed for the Dictionary o f Occupational
Titles, and includes expanded information on high school courses that are useful in preparing for each
occupation. Finally, this edition contains new guides on using the Handbook for both students and

Julius Shiskin, Commissioner, Bureau o f Labor Statistics

Letter of Endorsement
Work can be one of life’s most rewarding experiences. A job can offer pride in achievement and
an opportunity for personal growth, as well as the security of an adequate income. But finding work
that is satisfying seldom is easy. Career planning with the advice of trained counselors can help a great
To assist individuals with their educational and vocational choices, counselors must have occupa­
tional information that is current, accurate, and comprehensive. The Occupational Outlook Handbook
is a primary source of the information needed for sound career planning. For more than 850 occupa­
tions and 30 major industries, the Handbook describes what workers do on the job, the training and
education required, advancement possibilities, employment outlook, and earnings and working condi­
tions. Most statements also list professional societies, trade associations, unions, and other organiza­
tions that can supply additional career information.
Counselors in all work settings will find the new edition of the Occupational Outlook Handbook an
invaluable tool for helping clients plan a satisfying future in the working world.
Thelma Daley, President
American Personnel and
Guidance Association

Richard L. Roudebush
Veterans Administration

William B. Lewis
Associate Administrator
U.S. Employment Service
U.S. Department of Labor

T. H. Bell
Commissioner of Education
Office of Education
S. Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare

Thomas W. Carr
Director, Defense Education
U.S. Department of Defense

John A. Svahn, Acting
Social and Rehabiliation Service
U.S. Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare

The Handbook was prepared in the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Division of Occupational Outlook,
under the supervision of Russell B. Flanders and Neal H. Rosenthal. General direction was provided by
Dudley E. Young, Assistant Commissioner for Employment Structure and Trends.
The planning and coordination of the Handbook was done by Michael J. Pilot. Max L. Carey, Con­
stance B. DiCesare, Daniel E. Hecker, and Anne Kahl supervised the research and preparation of in­
dividual Handbook sections.
Members of the Division’s staff who contributed sections were Vance Anthony, Harold Blitz,
Douglas J. Braddock, Charles A. Byrne III, Donald E. Clark, C. Hall Dillon, Jr., Lawrence C. Drake,
Jr., Alan Eck, John K. Franklin, Susan C. Gentz, Stephen W. Ginther, Stephen C. Hough, H. Philip
Howard, H. Van Z. Lawrence, Chester Curtis Levine, Dana Pescosolido, James V. Petrone, John
Reiber, Philip L. Rones, Joan M. Slowitsky, D. Patrick Wash, and Elliot Werner.
Coordination of the gathering and editing of photographs and preparation of the D.O.T. index was
done by Donald Dillon. Jean F. Whetzel prepared the Index to Occupations and Industries. Olive B.
Clay provided statistical assistance.
Word processing was handled by Linda Kellner, Maria Kline, Sheila Spofford, and Beverly Wil­
The statements dealing with agriculture were prepared in conjunction with the U.S. Department
of Agriculture with the assistance of Melvin Janssen, Economic Research Service and Carroll V. Hess,
Dean, College of Agriculture, Kansas State University.

Photograph Credits
The Bureau of Labor Statistics gratefully acknowledges the cooperation and assistance of
the many government and private sources that either contributed photographs or made their
facilities available to the U.S. Department of Labor photographers for this edition of the
Occupational Outlook Handbook.
Auto Dealers; National Pest Control Association; Na­
tional Committee on Household Developments; Na­
Federal. Department of Agriculture; Department of the tional Education Association; Public Relations Society
Air Force; Department of the Army; Department of of America, Inc.; Society of American Florists and Or­
Health, Education, and Welfare; Department of Interi­ namental Horticulturists; and United Auto Workers.
or; Department of Justice; Department of Labor; De­
partment of Transportation; ERDA; Forest Service; Industry and Business. Aerospace Corp.; Air Reduction
General Services Administration; Government Printing Co., Inc.; American Telephone and Telegraph; ARA
Office; National Aeronautics and Space Administra­ Services; Bausch and Lomb; Brunswick Corp.; Canteen
tion; National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Ad­ Corp.; Chase Manhattan Bank; The C&O/B&O Rail­
ministration; National Institutes of Health; Department roads; Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Co.;
of the Navy; U.S. Postal Service; and Smithsonian In­ Chrysler Corp.; Clairol; Clark Equipment Corp.; Con­
rad Hilton Hotels; Consolidated Edison Company of
New York; Continental Trailways Co.; Delta Airlines;
State and Local. City of Cincinnati, City of Denver; Dis­ Doggett Enterprises; Dow Chemical Corp.; Drexel Fur­
trict of Columbia; City of Houston; Ohio—State Police; niture Co.; Eastman Kodak Co.; Eli Lilly Corp.; Ford
Motor Co.; General Dynamics Corp.; General Electric
and Prince Georges County (Maryland).
Corp.; General Foods Corp.; Georgia-Pacific Co.; Gil­
pin Wholesale Druggist Co.; Girard Bank and Trust
Private Sources
Co.; Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co.; GEICO; Grand
Membership Groups. Aluminum Association; American Union Stores; Grumman Aerospace Corp.; Gulf Oil
Corp.; Harley-Davidson Motorcycles; Harshe-Rotman,
Bankers Association; American Chemical Society;
and Drucke, Inc.; Irving Cloud Publishing Co.; Inland
American Chiropractors Association; American Dental Steel Co.; Louisiana-Pacific Corp.; Marine Midland;
Assistants Association; American Dentists Association; Marriott; Merkle Press; Mutual of Omaha; National
American Home Economic Association; American Cash Register Co.; Neiman Marcus; Oster Corp.; Phil­
Hotel and Motel Association; American Institute of lips Petroleum Co.; PPG Industries; Price Waterhouse;
Architects; American Iron and Steel Institute; Amer­ RCA; Santa Fe Railroad; Schlage Locke Co.; Sears
ican Optometric Association; American Podiatry As­ Roebuck Co.; Snelling and Snelling; Southern Railroad
sociation; American Society of Planning Officials; System; Stacy Adams; Steelcase; Sun Oil Co.; Texaco;
American Trucking Association; Associated General Texas Instruments; Thompson and Litton, Inc.; Unilux,
Contractors of America; Association of America Rail­ Inc.; Union Carbide; Weyerhauser Co.; Winchester—
roads; Aviation Maintenance Foundation; Forging In­ Western; and Woodward and Lothrop.
dustries Association; Gypsum Drywall Contractors In­
ternational; International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Publications. The Catholic Standard; Contractor
Employers and Moving Picture Machine Operators of magazine; Farm and Power Magazine; Jeweler's Topics;
the United States and Canada; International Brother­ Jobber Topics; New York Daily News; Snips Magazine;
hood of Electrical Workers; International Ladies’ Gar­ Washington Star Newspaper; and Women's Wear Daily.
ment Workers Union; International Taxicab Associa­
tion; Marble Institute of America; Motor Vehicle Schools. Cape Fear Technical Institutes; George
Manufacturer’s Association; National Association of Washington University; Johns Hopkins University; Na­
Government Sources

tional Radio Astronomy Observatory; University of
Delaware; and University of Maryland.
Other. Children’s Hospital of Chicago; Children’s
Hospital of the District of Columbia; Fletcher Drake;

Holy Cross Hospital; Lutheran Theological Seminary;
Metropolitan Opera; Mobile General Hospital; Na­
tional Ballet; United Nations; and WRC-TV
(Washington, D.C.).

A great many trade associations, professional societies, unions, and industrial organizations are
able to provide career information that is valuable to counselors and job seekers. For the convenience of
Handbook users, some of these organizations are listed at the end of the statements on individual occupa­
tions and industries. Although these references were assembled carefully, the BLS has neither authority nor
facilities for investigating the organizations listed. Also, because the Bureau does not preview all the infor­
mation or publications that may be sent in response to a request, it cannot guarantee the accuracy of such
information. The listing o f an organization, therefore, does not constitute in any way an endorsement or recom­
mendation by the Bureau or the U.S. Department o f Labor, either o f the organization and its activities or o f the
information it may supply. Each organization has sole responsibility for whatever information it may issue.
The occupational information contained in the Handbook presents a general, composite descrip­
tion of jobs and industries and cannot be expected to reflect work situations in specific establishments or lo­
calities. The Handbook, therefore, is not intended and should not be used as a guide for determining wages,
hours, the right o f a particular union to represent workers, appropriate bargaining units, or formal job evalua­
tion systems.



Guide to the Handbook







TOMORROW S JOBS.............................................


The Outlook for Occupations

Foundry occupations............................................
\ Patternmakers...................................................
Machining occupations........................................
All-round machinists........................................
Instrument makers (mechanical)...................
Machine tool operators...................................
Set-up workers (machine tools).....................
Tool-and-die makers.........................................
Printing occupations............................................
Bookbinders and related workers...................
Composing room occupations.........................
Electrotypers and stereotypers........................
Lithographic occupations................................
Printing press operators and assistants...........
Other industrial production and related
Automobile painters.........................................
Blue-collar worker supervisors........................
Boilermaking occupations...............................
Boiler tenders...................................................
Forge shop occupations...................................
Furniture upholsterers.....................................
Inspectors (manufacturing).............................
Motion picture projectionists..........................
Ophthalmic laboratory technicians..............


Photographic laboratory occupations...........
Power truck operators.....................................
Production painters..........................................
Stationary engineers.........................................
Waste water treatment plant operators..........
OFFICE OCCUPATIONS...........................
Clerical occupations.................................
Bookkeeping workers...........................
Collection workers...............................
File clerks..............................................
Hotel front office clerks......................
Office machine operators....................
Postal clerks..... ....................................
Secretaries and stenographers.............
Shipping and receiving clerks..............
Statistical clerks....................................
Stock clerks../.......................................
Computer and related occupations........
Computer operating personnel............
Systems analysts...................................
Banking occupations................................
Bank clerks............................................
Bank officers........................................
Bank tellers............................................
Insurance occupations..............................
Claim representatives...........................
Administrative and related occupations .
Advertising workers..............................
City managers.......................................
College student personnel workers....
Credit managers...................................
Hotel managers and assistants.............
Industrial traffic managers...................
Marketing research workers................
Personnel and labor relations workers
Public relations workers......................






Purchasing agents.....................................
Urban planners..........................................
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS.............................
Cleaning and related occupations...............
Building custodians...................................
Hotel housekeepers and assistants..........
Pest controllers..........................................
Food service occupations.............................
Cooks and chefs........................................
Dining room attendants and dishwashers
Food counter workers..............................
Waiters and waitresses.............................
Personal service occupations......................
Bellhops and bell captains........................
Funeral directors and embalmers............
Private household service occupations......
Private household workers......................
Protective and related service occupations
FBI special agents.....................................
G uards........................................................
Police officers............................................
State police officers..................................
Construction inspectors (Government)...
Health and regulatory inspectors
Occupational safety and health workers.
Other service occupations............................
Mail carriers..............................................
Telephone operators.................................
Teaching occupations..................................
Kindergarten and elementary school
Secondary school teachers......................
College and university teachers...............
Library occupations.....................................
Library technicians and assistants...........
SALES OCCUPATIONS.................................
Automobile parts counter workers.........
Automobile salesworkers.........................
Automobile service advisors....................
Gasoline service station attendants........
Insurance agents and brokers..................
Manufacturers’ salesworkers...................
Real estate salesworkers and brokers.....
Retail trade salesworkers.........................



Route drivers...................................................... 236
Securities salesworkers......................................238
Wholesale trade salesworkers........................... 240
CONSTRUCTION OCCUPATIONS....................... 243
Asbestos and insulation workers......................246
Bricklayers and stonemasons............................ 247
Carpenters.......................................................... 249
Cement masons (cement and concrete
finishers)........................................................ 251
Construction laborers........................................ 253
Drywall installers and finishers........................ 254
Electricians (construction)................................256
Elevator constructors........................................ 257
Floor covering installers.................................. 259
Marble setters, tile setters, and terrazzo
workers.......................................................... 263
Operating engineers (construction
machinery operators)..................................... 265
Painters and paperhangers................................267
Plumbers and pipefitters....................................270
Sheet-metal workers.......................................... 273
Structural, ornamental, and reinforcing iron
workers; riggers; and machine movers...... 275






ACTIVITIES....................................................... 278
Air transportation occupations............................ 279
Air traffic controllers...................................... 279
Airplane mechanics.......................................... 280
Airplane pilots.................................................. 283
Flight attendants.................................................285
Reservation, ticket, and passenger agents..... 287
Merchant marine occupations............................ 289
Merchant marine officers..................
Merchant marine sailors....................................292
Railroad occupations............................................ 296
Brake operators..................................................296
Locomotive engineers....................................... 299
Shop trades........................................................ 300
Signal department workers.............................. 301
Station agents................................................... 302
Telegraphers, telephoners, and tower
operators.................................. ,................... 303
Track workers....................................................304
Driving occupations...................
Intercity busdrivers........................................... 306
Local transit busdrivers................................... 308
Local truckdrivers............................................ 310
Long distance truckdrivers.............................. 311
Parking attendants............................................ 313


Taxicab drivers.................................................
Conservation occupations...................................
Forestry technicians.........................................
Range managers...............................................
Soil conservationists.........................................
Environmental scientists.....................................
Life science occupations.....................................
Life scientists....................................................
Soil scientists....................................................
Mathematics occupations....................................
Physical scientists.................................................
Food scientists..................................................
Other scientific and technical occupations.......
Broadcast technicians......................................
Engineering and science technicians..............
MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS..........................
Telephone craft occupations...............................
Central office craft occupations..................
Central office equipment installers................
Line installers and cable splicers....................
Telephone and PBX installers and repairers..
Other mechanics and repairers...........................
Air-conditioning, refrigeration, and heating
Appliance repairers................................ .........
Automobile body repairers..............................


Automobile mechanics.................
Boat-motor mechanics..................................... 397
Bowling-pin-machine mechanics.................... 399
Business machine repairers.............................. 400
Computer service technicians.......................... 402
Diesel mechanics................................................405
Electric sign repairers........................................ 407
Farm equipment mechanics............................. 409
Industrial machinery repairers.......................... 410
Instrument repairers.......................................... 412
Jewelers.............................................................. 414
Locksmiths......................................................... 416
Maintenance electricians...................................417
Motorcycle mechanics.......................................419
Piano and organ tuners and repairers............. 421
Shoe repairers.....................................................424
Television and radio service technicians....... 425
Truck mechanics andbus mechanics................ 427
Vending machine mechanics............................ 429
Watch repairers................................................. 432
HEALTH OCCUPATIONS......................................434
Dental occupations............................................... 435
Dentists............................................................... 435
Dental assistants............................................... 437
Dental hygienists............................................... 439
Dental laboratory technicians.......................... 441
Medical practitioners............................................ 443
Chiropractors...................................................... 443
Optometrists....................................................... 444
Osteopathic physicians......................................446
Physicians........................................................... 448
Podiatrists.......................................................... 451
Veterinarians...................................................... 452
Medical technologist, technician, and assistant
occupations................................................... 454
Electrocardiograph technicians........................ 454
Electroencephalographic technicians............. 455
Medical assistants............................................. 457
Medical laboratory workers............................ 458
Medical record technicians and clerks............ 461
Operating room technicians............................. 463
Optometric assistants......................................... 464
Radiologic (X-ray) technologists.....................466
Respiratory therapy workers........................... 467
Nursing occupations.............................................. 470
Registered nurses............................................... 470
Licensed practical nurses..................................472
Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants....... 474
Therapy and rehabilitation occupations............. 476
Occupational therapists.....................................476
Occupational therapy assistants.......................477
Physical therapists............................................. 479
Physical therapist assistants and aides............. 480
Speech pathologists and audiologists.............. 482
Other health occupations......................................485



Dispensing opticians..................................
Health services administrators..................
Medical record administrators.................


SOCIAL SCIENTISTS......................................
Political scientists.......................................


Counseling occupations................................
School counselors.......................................
Employment counselors............................
Rehabilitation counselors..........................
College career planning and placement
Protestant ministers...................................
Rabbis............................................. ............
Roman Catholic priests.............................
Other social service occupations.................
Cooperative extension service workers....
Home economists......................................
Recreation workers...................................
Social service aides....................................
Social workers............................................


Performing artists...........................................
Actors and actresses..................................
Design occupations.......................................
Commercial artists.....................................
Display workers..........................................
Floral designers.........................................
Industrial designers....................................
Interior designers.......................................
Landscape architects................................
Communications-related occupations..........
Newspaper reporters................................ .
Radio and television announcers.............
Technical writers......................................


The Outlook for Industries

AGRICULTURE..................................................... 575
MINING AND PETROLEUM.................................583
Coal mining........................................................ 584
Petroleum and natural gas production and
gas processing............................................... 589
CONSTRUCTION................................................... 594
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft..................... 596
Aluminum........................................................... 602
Apparel.............................................................. 607
Atomic energy field........................................... 613
Electronics.......................................................... 630
Foundries............................................................ 635
Industrial chemical............................................ 638
Iron and steel...................................................... 642
Logging and lumber mills..................................650
Motor vehicle and equipment.......................... 654
Office machine and computer.......................... 659
Paper and allied products..................................664
Petroleum refining............................................. 669
Printing and publishing......................................672
AND PUBLIC UTILITIES............................... 676
Civil aviation...................................................... 678
Electric power....................................................681
Merchant marine.............................................. 690
Radio and TV broadcasting............................. 694
Railroads............................................................. 699
Telephone......................................................... 701
Trucking............................................................. 704
WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE..................708
Restaurants......................................................... 709
Retail food stores.............................................. 712
Banking............................................................... 716
Insurance............................................................ 718
INDUSTRIES................................................... 722
Laundry and drycleaning...................................726
GOVERNMENT........................................................ 729
Federal civilian employment................................ 731
Postal Service.....................................................735
State and local governments.................................738
Armed Forces........................................................ 740




(D.O.T.) INDEX.............................................. 745
AND INDUSTRIES.......................................... 756

REPRINTS........................................................ 776
HANDBOOK READERS................................ 782


• Introductory sections which tell how to use the Handbook,
where to go for more career information, how employment
projections are made, and where tomorrow's jobs will be.

• 300 occupational briefs, grouped into 13 clusters of
related jobs

• 35 industry briefs
• Index of job titles by Dictionary of Occupational Titles code
• Instructions for ordering Handbook reprints, the
Occupational Outlook Quarterly, and other BLS publications
which will keep you informed about the economy and the
job market.


How many kinds of jobs are there?
More than 850 occupations are
in the
Although this is a large number, the
total number of occupations in the
U.S. economy may be counted in
the thousands. Jobs in the Hand­
book generally are those which
young people are most interested in
learning about. Most occupations
requiring long periods of education
or training are discussed, as are a
number of small but growing fields
of employment. Altogether, the oc­
cupations in the Handbook account
for about 95 percent of all salesworkers; about 90 percent of professional,
craft, and service workers; 80 percent
of clerical workers; 50 percent of all
operatives; and smaller proportions of
managerial workers and laborers. The
main types of farming occupations are
described in the Handbook. The long­
term job outlook for the Nation as a
whole is discussed, too.
Where should I look first?
Start with jobs you know
something about or are interested
in. If an important industry is
located in your hometown, for ex­
ample, you may find it useful to
read the Handbook industry state­
ment to find out about the many
different kinds of jobs in that indus­
try and their differing training
requirements and earnings poten­
tial. There are 35 industry state­
ments in the Handbook, grouped ac­
cording to major divisions in the
economy: Agriculture, mining, and
petroleum; construction; manufac­
turing; transportation, communica­
tions, and public utilities; wholesale
and retail trade; finance, insurance,

and real estate; services; and
government. You may wish to talk
with your parents or your counselor
about current job prospects in your
own area.
You may be interested in a cer­
tain field—sales work or repair
work, for example. To find out what
kinds of jobs there are in that field,
consult the Handbook's Table of
Contents for the appropriate career
“cluster.” All of the occupational
briefs in the Handbook are arranged
in “clusters” of related jobs. There
are 13 clusters altogether: Industri­
al production, office, service, edu­
cation, sales, construction, trans­
portation, scientific and technical,
mechanics and repair, health, social
science, social service, and art,
design, and communications occu­
pations. Most career clusters in the
Handbook describe a variety of jobs
in a single field. Training and skill
requirements within a particular
cluster often vary a great deal. If
you are thinking about a future in
the health field, for example, you
will find that a few jobs in this field
require only a high school diploma;
others require a degree from a 2year community college or junior
college; still others require a
bachelor’s degree; and a few
require 4 years or more of formal
training following college gradua­
You may already have a specific
job in mind. To find out where it is
described, turn to the Index of Oc­
cupations and Industries at the back
of the book.
What will I learn?
Once you have chosen a place to
begin—an occupation or industry

you’d like to learn more about—
you can use the Handbook to find
out what the job is like, what educa­
tion and training is necessary, and
what the advancement possibilities,
earnings, and employment outlook
are likely to be. Each section of the
Handbook follows a standard for­
mat, making it easier to compare
different jobs with one another.
It is important to bear in mind
that the information in the Hand­
book is designed for career
guidance purposes. In the effort to
present a meaningful overview of
each of several hundred jobs,
details are omitted, and some
distinctions are glossed over.
Moreover, each statement has its
own limitations, mostly because of
imperfect data sources and limits
on length. What follows is a
description of the type of informa­
tion presented in each Handbook
statement, with a few words of ex­
The numbers in parentheses
which appear just below the title of
most Handbook statements are
D.O.T. code numbers. D.O.T. stands
for Dictionary o f Occupational Ti­
tles, now in its third edition, a U.S.
Department of Labor publication
which “defines” each of about
35,000 jobs according to a system
which uses code numbers to classify
each job in terms of the type of
work performed, training required,
physical demands, and working
conditions. Revision of the D.O.T.
is underway, and the fourth edition
is scheduled to appear in 1976. It
will include, thousands of new jobs
which have emerged as a result of
technological and other changes in
the past 10 years. An index listing

Handbook occupations by D.O.T.
number precedes the alphabetical
Index of Industries and Occupa­
tions. D.O.T. numbers are used
primarily by public employment
service agencies for classifying ap­
plicants and job openings, and for
reporting and other operating pur­
poses. They are included in the
Handbook since career information
centers and libraries frequently use
them for filing occupational infor­
The Nature of the Work section
describes the major duties of work­
ers in the occupation. It tells what
workers do on the job and how they
do it. Although each job description
is typical of the occupation, duties
are likely to vary by employer and
size of employing organization, geo­
graphic location, and other factors.
In some occupations, individual
workers specialize in certain tasks.
In others they perform the entire
range of work in the occupation. Of
course, job duties continually
change as technology advances,
new industrial processes are
developed, and products or services
change. In preparing the Handbook,
every effort is made to include the
most recent information available,
but because of the rapid rate of
change in some fields, this is not al­
ways possible.
The Places of Employment sec­
tion provides information on the
number of workers in an occupa­
tion and tells whether they are con­
centrated in certain industries or
geographic areas. Whether an oc­
cupation is large or small is impor­
tant to a jobseeker because large
occupations, even those growing
slowly, offer more openings than
small ones because of the many
workers who retire or die each year.
Some occupations are concen­
trated in particular industries. Most
cooks and chefs, for example, are
employed in restaurants and hotels
while secretaries are employed in
almost every industry. If an occupa­
tion is found primarily in certain in­
dustries, this section lists them.

A few occupations are concen­
trated in certain parts of the
country. Actors and actresses, for
example, usually work in California
and New York. This information is
included for the benefit o'f people
who have strong preferences about
where they live—because they do
not wish to be separated from their
families and friends, for example.
For most occupations, however,
employment is widely scattered and
generally follows the same pattern
as the distribution of the popula­
In addition, the proportion of
women employed is mentioned in a
number of Handbook statements.
Information on part-time employ­
ment is included because it is im­
portant to students, homemakers,
retired persons, and others who
may want to work part time. Know­
ing which occupations offer good
opportunities for part-time work
can be a valuable lead.
The Training, Other Qualifica­
tions, and Advancement section
should be read carefully because it
often is necessary to start planning
toward your career goal early in
high school. It’s a good idea to look
closely at the list of high school and
college courses regarded as useful
preparation for the career you have
in mind. Nearly all Handbook state­
ments list such courses.
Workers can qualify for jobs in a
variety of ways, including college
study leading to a certificate or as­
sociate degree; programs offered by
post-secondary vocational schools,
both public and private; home study
courses; government training pro­
grams; experience or training ob­
tained in the Armed Forces; ap­
prenticeship and other formal train­
ing offered on-the-job or in the
classroom by employers; and high
school courses. For each occupa­
tion, the Handbook identifies which
of these routes of entry is preferred.
In many cases, alternative ways of
attaining training are listed as well.
It is worth remembering that the
level at which you enter an occupa­

tion and the speed with which you
advance often are determined by
the amount of training you have.
In an effort to protect the public,
all States have certification or
licensing requirements for some oc­
cupations to assure that workers are
properly qualified. Physicians and
nurses, elementary and secondary
cosmetologists, electricians and
plumbers are examples of occupa­
tions that are licensed. If you are
require State licensing, be sure to
check the requirements in the State
in which you plan to work.
An important factor in career
choice is the extent to which a par­
ticular job suits your personality.
Although it is often difficult for
people to assess themselves, your
counselor undoubtedly is familiar
with tests that can help. Each state­
ment in the Handbook provides in­
formation which allows you to
match your own unique personal
characteristics—your likes and
dislikes—with the characteristics of
the job. For a particular job, you
may need the ability to:
make responsible decisions,
motivate others,
direct and supervise others,
work under close supervision,
work in a highly competitive at­
enjoy working with ideas and
solving problems.
enjoy working with people,
enjoy working with things—good
coordination and manual dexterity
are necessary.
work independently^initiative
and self-discipline are necessary,
work as part of a team,
enjoy working with detail, either
numbers or technical written
enjoy helping people,
use creative talents and ideas and
enjoy having an opportunity for
derive satisfaction from seeing
the physical results of your work,
work in a confined area.

perform repetitious work.
enjoy working outside, regardless
of the weather.
The Employment Outlook section
discusses prospective job opportu­
nities. Knowing whether or not the
job market is likely to be favorable
is quite important in deciding
whether to pursue a specific career.
While your interests, your abilities,
and your career goals are extremely
important, you also need to know
something about the availability of
jobs in the fields that interest you
The employment outlook section
of most Handbook statements
begins with a sentence about an­
through 1985. The occupation is
described as likely to grow about as
fast as the average for all occupa­
tions; faster than the average; or
slower than the average (Figure I).
Job opportunities in a particular oc­
cupation usually are favorable if em­
ployment increases at least as rapidly
as the economy as a whole. Occupa­
tions in which employment stays
about the same or declines generally
offer less favorable job prospects
than growing occupations, because
the only openings are those due to
Some Handbook statements take
note of the effect of fluctuations in
the business cycle. This information
is valuable to people looking into
long-range career possibilities at a
time when the economy is in a
recession. Young people un­
derstandably wonder: What will the
economy be like when I enter the
labor market? Will it be harder to
find a job 5 or 10 years from now
than it is today? The Handbook
gives information, wherever feasi­
ble, on occupations and industries
whose levels of employment fluctu­
ates in response to shifts in the
economic climate. It helps to bear
in mind that employment in many—
but not all—occupations and indus­
tries is directly affected by an
economic downturn. A sharp im­
provement in the outlook for these

Figure I

Projected 1974-85
change in employment

Much faster than the average for all occupations.............
Faster than the average for all occupations.......................
About as fast as the average for all occupations 1............
Slower than the average for all occupations.......................
Little change is expected......................................................
Expected to decline................................................................

50.0 percent or greater
25.0 to 49.9 percent
15.0 to 24.9 percent
4.0 to 14.9 percent
3.9 to —3.9 percent
—4.0 percent or greater

'T he average increase projected for all occupations for the 1974-85 period is 20.3

occupations and industries is likely
as the economy picks up. However,
other occupations and industries
are less vulnerable to changes in the
business cycle. Other factors in­
fluence their well-being. These mat­
ters are explored in a number of
Handbook statements.
For some occupations, it is possi­
ble to observe trends in the number
of people pursuing relevant types of
education or training and sub­
sequently entering the profession.
When supply as well as demand in­
formation is available, the Hand­
book describes prospective job op­
portunities in terms of the an­
ticipated demand-supply relation­
ship. The prospective job situation
is termed “ excellent” when demand
is likely to greatly exceed supply;
“ keenly competitive” when supply
is likely to exceed demand. Other
terms used in Handbook statements
are shown in Figure II.
The information in this section
should be used carefully, however.
The prospect of relatively few
openings, or of strong competition,
in a field that interests you should
make you take a second look at
your career choice. But this infor­
mation alone should not prevent
you from pursuing a particular
career if you feel that your ap­

titudes and interests justify your
goal. Getting a job may be difficult
if the field is so small that openings
are few (actuaries and blacksmiths
are examples) or so popular that it
attracts many more jobseekers than
there are jobs (radio and television
broadcasting, journalism, the per­
forming arts, and modeling).
Getting a job also can be difficult in
occupations and industries in which
employment is declining (merchant
sailors, photoengravers, typeset­
ters), although this is not always the
Remember, even occupations
which are small or overcrowded
provide some jobs. So do occupa­
tions in which employment is grow­
ing very slowly or even declining,
for there always is a need to replace
workers who leave the occupation.
If the occupation is large, the
number of job openings due to
turnover can be quite substantial.
Bookkeepers, telephone operators,
and machinists are examples of
large occupations which provide a
significant number of job openings
each year because of turnover. On
the average, openings resulting
from replacement needs are ex­
pected to account for 70 percent of
all job openings.
In other words, don't rule out a

Figure II

Job opportunities
Very good
Good or favorable
May face competition
K°en competition

Prospective demand-supply relationship
Demand much greater than supply
Demand greater than supply
Rough balance between demand and supply
Likelihood of more supply than demand
Supply greater than demand

potentially rewarding career simply
because the prospective outlook in
an occupation is not favorable. Do
discuss your abilities and aptitudes
with your counselor. Checking
further is a good idea, too. Sug­
gestions for additional information
on the job market are given in the
following section, Where to Go for
More Information.
How reliable is the information
on the outlook for employment
over the next 10 years? No one can
predict future labor market condi­
tions with perfect accuracy. In
every occupation and industry, the
number of jobseekers and the
number of job openings constantly
changes. A rise or fall in the de­
mand for a product or service af­
fects the number of workers needed
to produce it. New inventions and
technological innovations create
some jobs and eliminate others.
Changes in the size or age distribu­
tion of the population, work at­
titudes, training opportunities, or
retirement programs determine the
number of workers available. As
these forces interact in the labor
market, some occupations ex­
perience a shortage, some a surplus,
some a balance between jobseekers
and openings. Methods used by
economists to develop information
on future occupational prospects
differ, and judgments which go into
any assessment of the future also
differ. Therefore, it is important to
understand what underlies each
statement on outlook.
For every occupation and indus­
try covered in the Handbook, an
estimate of future employment
needs is developed. These estimates
are consistent with a set of assump­
tions about the future of the econo­
my and the country. For more
detail, see the section entitled, As­
sumptions and Methods Used In
Preparing the Employment Projec­
Finally, you should remember
that job prospects in your commu­
nity or State may not correspond to
the description of employment out­

look in the Handbook. For the par­
ticular job you are interested in, the
outlook in your area may be better,
or worse. The Handbook does not
discuss the outlook in local areas
because the analysis is far too much
for a centralized staff to handle.
developed, however, by many
States and localities. The local of­
fice of your State Employment Ser­
vice is the best place to ask about
local-area employment projections.
Be sure to check with your parents
and counselors, too.
The Earnings section helps
answer many of the questions that
you may ask when choosing a
career. Will the income be high
enough to maintain the standard of
living I want and justify my training
costs? How much will my earnings
increase as I gain experience? Do
some areas of the country or some
industries offer better pay than
others for the same type of work?
Like most people, you probably
think of earnings as money. But
money is only one type of financial
reward for work. Paid vacations,
health insurance, uniforms, and
discounts on clothing or other
merchandise also are part of the
total earnings package.
About 9 out of 10 workers
receive money income in the form
of a wage or salary. A wage usually
is an hourly or daily rate of pay,
while a salary is a weekly, monthly,
or yearly rate. Most craft workers,
operatives, and laborers are wage
earners, while most professional,
technical, and clerical workers are
salary earners.
In addition to their regular pay,
wage and salary workers may
receive extra money for working
overtime, more than their usual
number of hours, or on a night shift
or irregular schedule. In some occu­
pations, workers also may receive
tips or be paid a commission based
on the amount of sales or services
they provide to customers. Factory
workers are sometimes paid a piece
rate which is an extra payment for

each item they produce. For many
workers, these types of pay amount
to a large part of their total
The remaining 10 percent of all
workers are in business for them­
selves and earn self-employment in­
come instead of wages or salaries.
This group includes workers in a
wide variety of occupations: Physi­
writers, photographers, and farmers
are examples of workers who
frequently are self-employed.
Workers in some occupations
earn self-employment income in ad­
dition to their wages or salaries. For
example, electricians and carpen­
ters often do small repair or
remodeling jobs during evenings or
weekends, and college professors
frequently are paid for publishing
articles based on independent
Besides money income, most
wage and salary workers receive a
variety of fringe benefits as part of
their earnings on the job. Several
are required by Federal and State
law, including Social Security,
Unemployment Insurance. These
benefits provide income to persons
who are not working because of old
age, work-related injury or disabili­
ty, or lack of suitable jobs.
Among the most common fringe
benefits are paid vacations,
holidays, and sick leave. In addi­
tion, many workers are covered by
life, health, and accident insurance;
participate in retirement plans; and
are entitled to supplemental unem­
ployment benefits. All of these
benefits are provided—in part or in
full—through their employers.
Some employers also offer stock
options and profit-sharing plans,
savings plans, and bonuses.
Workers in many occupations
receive part of their earnings in the
form of goods and services, or pay­
ments in kind. Sales workers in de­
partment stores, for example, often
receive discounts on merchandise.
Workers in other jobs may receive

free meals, housing, business ex­
pense accounts, or free transporta­
tion on company-owned planes.
Which jobs pay the most? This is
a difficult question to answer
because good information is availa­
ble for only one type of earnings—
wages and salaries—and for some
occupations even this is unavaila­
ble. Nevertheless, the Handbook
does include some comparisons of
earnings among occupations. Most
earnings in an occupation are
greater than or less than the
average earnings of workers who
are not supervisors and work in
private industry, but not in farming.
This group represented more than
80 percent of all workers in 1974
and had the most reliable earnings
data currently available for com­
parison purposes.
Comparisons also are made
among earnings for similar occupa­
tions. For example, hourly earnings
of construction occupations can be
compared to determine whether
bricklayers earn more than carpen­
ters, or electricians more than
Besides differences among occu­
pations, many levels of pay exist
within each occupation. Beginning
workers almost always earn less
than those who have been on the
job for some time because pay rates
increase as workers gain experience
or do more responsible work.
Earnings in an occupation also

Table 2.

Average annual salaries of chemists, with Ph.D. degrees, by type of work,

Type of work

SOURCE: American Chemical Society.

vary by geographic location. The
weekly earnings
beginning computer programmers,
for example, vary considerably
from city to city. (See table 1.) The
highest earnings of the 10 cities
listed, occurred in Detroit, Mich,
and the lowest in Little Rock, Ark.
Although it is generally true that
earnings are higher in the North
Central and Northeast regions than
in the West and South, there are ex­
ceptions. You should also re­
member that those cities which
offer the highest earnings are often
those in which it is most expensive
to live.
In addition, workers in the same
occupation may have different
earnings depending on the industry
in which they work. For example,
senior accounting clerks in 1973-74
averaged $183 a week in public
utilities, $163.50 a week in manu­
facturing, $ 156 a week in wholesale
trade, and $149.50 a week in serv­
ices, but only $137.50 in retail ail
trade and $138.50 in finance, in­
surance, and real estate.

Table 1. Average weekly earnings of beginning computer programmers, 1973-74,
by selected city

Average weekly earnings

D etroit.................................................................................
N ew ark.................................................................................................
Washington, D .C .................................................................................

202 50
198 00

Chattanooga ......................................................................................
Little Rock...........................................................................................
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Annual salaries

Salaries also vary by the type of
work a person performs. The sala-.
ries of Ph. D. chemists, for example,
vary considerably depending on the
specific nature of the job, as shown
in table 2. In 1974, chemists in
management jobs earned $4,000 a
year more than those in marketing
and production. Chemists in
research and development, how­
ever, earned $ 1,500 less than those
in marketing and production, but
$4,700 more than chemistry profes­
Because of these variations in
earnings, you should check with
your counselor or with local em­
ployers if you are interested in
specific earnings information for
occupations in your area.
The Working Conditions section
provides information that can affect
preferences for working conditions
vary considerably among in­
dividuals. Some people, for exam­
ple, prefer outdoor work while
others prefer working in an office.
Some people like the variety of shift
work, and others want the steadi­
ness of a 9-to-5 job. Following is a
list of several different types of
working conditions that apply to
some of the occupations in the
Overtime work. When overtime is
required on a job, employees must
give up some of their free time and
need to be flexible in their personal
lives. Overtime, however, does pro­
vide the opportunity to increase
earning power.
Shift work. Evening or night work is
part of the reqular work schedule in

some jobs. Employees who work on
these shifts usually are working
while most other people are off.
Some persons prefer shift work,
however, because they can pursue
certain daytime activities, such as
hunting, fishing, or gardening.
Environment. Work settings vary
from clean, air-conditioned offices
to places that are dirty, greasy, or
poorly ventilated. By knowing the
setting of jobs you find interesting,

you can avoid an environment that
you may find particularly un­
Outdoor work. Persons who work
outdoors are exposed to all types of
weather. This may be preferred to
indoor work, however, by those
who consider outdoor work more
Harzards. In some jobs employees
are subject to possible bums, cuts,

falls, and other injuries and must be
careful to follow safety precautions.
Physical demands. Some jobs
require standing, stooping, or heavy
lifting. You should be sure that you
have the physical strength and
stamina required before seeking
one of these jobs.
Considering working conditions
when you make up your mind about
a career can help you choose a job
that brings you satisfaction and en­

By now, you may have some
ideas about jobs that interest you
and that seem to suit you. If so, you
probably have located appropriate
Handbook statements and given
some' thought to the information
they contain—either on your own
or with the help of your counselor.
If you want more information on
the job itself, on places in your own
locality to look for this kind of
work, or on schools which offer ap­
propriate training—or, if instead,
you simply want to explore the file a
little more—you’re ready to go
beyond the Handbook.
A great deal of career informa­
tion is available in the form of
books, pamphlets and brochures,
magazine articles, filmstrips, tapes,
and cassettes. Computer-assisted
occupational information systems
have been installed in some schools
and career information centers.
Most occupational reports in the
Handbook suggest organizations
you can write to for additional
career information. This is a good
way to begin. Then investigate
other sources of information, many
of which you’ll find close to home:
establishments, trade unions, em­
ployer associations, professional
societies, private employment agen­
cies, and State Employment
School libraries and guidance of­
fices usually have extensive collec­
tions of career information. In addi­
tion, counselors and teachers
generally know of any special infor­
mation assembled on job opportu­
nities in your locality. Teachers of
special subjects such as music,
printing, and shorthand often can

give information about occupations
related to the subjects they teach.
Public libraries have books,
pamphlets, and magazine articles
with occupational information. The
librarian can help you a great deal
in directing you to the information
best suited to your needs.
Business establishments are often
willing to supply information about
the work they perform, the types of
jobs they have available, and the
qualifications needed. The names
of local firms can be found in the
classified section of your telephone
directory or can be obtained from
your local chamber of commerce. If
the firm is a large one, it’s a good
idea to contact the director of per­
Trade unions, employers* associa­
tions, and professional societies
frequently have local branches.
Often, staff members can supply
career information for the occupa­
tions or industries with which they
are concerned.
Private employment agencies can
provide a great deal of information
and assistance to jobseekers. These
agencies, which ordinarily charge a
fee for their services, employ coun­
selors to assist clients with their
career planning and placement.
Because they are located in cities
and towns throughout the country,
private employment agencies can
be an excellent source of informa­
tion about job opportunities in local
areas. They are listed in local
telephone directories, and advertise
in newspapers and magazines.
State Employment Service offices
are in a particularly good position
to provide information about jobs,
hiring standards, and wages in your

locality. Public Employment Ser­
vice agencies in each State are af­
filiated with the U.S. Employment
Service of the U.S. Department of
Labor, and provide their services
without charge. Operating through
a network of local offices, State
agencies help jobseekers find em­
ployment and help employers find
qualified workers.
Whether you are looking for a
job right now, or exploring career
possibilities for the future, your
local Employment Service office
can be a help. Depending on your
particular needs, you can obtain in­
formation on jobs in your local
area, employment counseling,
referral to training programs, and
placement services, as follows:
Information on local job opportu­
nities can be obtained from the Job
Information Service (JIS). These
special units have been set up in
many local offices of the Employ­
ment Service. They permit job­
seekers to select jobs from a com­
puterized listing of opportunities in
the area. These listings, which are
updated daily, provide information
from employers on
openings. The JIS also furnishes
general information on occupa­
tional trends, industrial develop­
ments, job opportunities in State
and Federal Government, and
promotional materials from as­
sociations and unions. Information
on jobs in other parts of the country
is available as well.
Employment counseling is availa­
ble from trained Employment Ser­
vice counselors to assist young peo­
ple starting their careers, as well as
experienced workers interested in
changing jobs. Counselors help

people determine their actual and
potential abilities, interests, and
personal traits, to help them make
the best use of their capacities in
the light of available jobs. Most
counselors in Employment Service
offices make use of USES aptitude
tests when appraising an in­
dividual's aptitudes, interests, and
clerical and literary skills.
Referral to training programs is
another service. When individuals
seek work for which they are not
qualified, the Employment Service
may suggest programs that provide
training in basic education or a
specific skill.
Placement services also are
available. Placing workers in jobs is
a primary objective of the public
Employment Service, and reg­
istered applicants are directed to
employers who have vacancies to
fill. Requests are received from em­
ployers for many different kinds of
workers. As a result, registered ap­
plicants have access to knowledge
of a variety of vacancies, just as the
employer has access to many appli­

Certain groups of jobseekers are
given special consideration by
public employment offices. These
include veterans legally entitled to
priority in all services, with
preferential treatment for disabled
veterans over others. In addition,
the Vietnam Era Veterans Read­
justment Assistance Act requires
that some specific form of
assistance, designed to enhance em­
ployment prospects, be given to
each veteran who applies to the
Employment Service. Each local of­
fice has a veterans’ employment
representative assigned the respon­
sibility of seeing that these priority
services are provided by all local of­
fice staff.
The Employment Service also
maintains a year-round program of
services for youth, including coun­
seling, job development, place­
ment, training, and referral to other
agencies. Special efforts include the
Summer Employment Program, in
which the Employment Service
tries to develop as many jobs as
possible for disadvantaged youth.

Another special program provides
placement services to graduating
seniors, school dropouts, and
potential dropouts who want to
Other groups facing special dif­
ficulties in obtaining suitable em­
ployment are given special con­
sideration by the Employment Serv­
ice, too. This may include referral
for supportive services, such as
provision of child care to enable the
parent to work, or health examina­
tions or referral to training which
will help develop the jobseeker’s
employability. For individuals with
mental or physical disabilities,
assistance in making realistic job
choices and overcoming problems
related to getting and holding jobs
is available. For middle-aged and
older workers placement efforts
which take into account their par­
developed. Similar attention is
given to the unique employment
problems of minority group mem­
bers, and to the difficulties encoun­
tered by disadvantaged job seekers.

Although the discussions of fu­
ture job prospects contained in the
Handbook are written in qualitative
terms, the analyses upon which they
are based begin with quantitative
estimates of projected employment,
replacement openings, and—in a
few cases—supply.
These projections were de­
veloped using data on popula­
tion, industry and occupational em­
ployment, productivity, consumer
expenditures, technological innova­
tion, and other factors expected to
affect employment growth. The Bu­
reau’s other research programs pro­
vided much of this data, but many
other agencies of the Federal
Government were important con­
tributors, including the Bureau of
Apprenticeship and Training and
the U.S. Employment Service,
Manpower Administration, Depart­
ment of Labor; the Bureau of the
Census, Department of Commerce;
the Office of Education and the
Rehabilitation Services Administra­
tion, Department of Health, Educa­
tion, and Welfare; the Veterans Ad­
ministration; the Civil Service Com­
mission; the Interstate Commerce
Commission; the Civil Aeronautics
Board; the Federal Communica­
tions Commission; the Department
of Transportation; and the National
Science Foundation.
In addition, experts in industry,
unions, professional societies, and
trade associations furnished data
and supplied information through
interviews. Many of these in­
dividuals also reviewed preliminary
drafts of the statements. The infor­
mation presented in each statement
thus reflects the knowledge and

judgment not only of the Bureau of
Labor Statistics staff, but also of
leaders in the fields discussed,
although the Bureau, of course,
takes full responsibility.
After the information from these
sources was compiled, it was
analyzed in conjunction with the
Bureau’s model of the economy in
1985. Like other models used in
economic forecasting, it encom­
passes the major facets of the
economy and represents a com­
prehensive view of its projected
structure. The bureau’s model is
comprised of internally consistent
projections of gross national
product (GNP) and its com­
ponents—consumer expenditures,
investment, government expendi­
tures, and net exports; industrial
output and productivity; labor
force; average weekly hours of
work; and employment for detailed
industry groups and occupations.
The methods used to develop the
employment projections in this edi­
tion of the Handbook are the same
as those used in other Bureau of
Labor Statistics studies of the
economy. A detailed description of
these methods appears in The U.S.
Economy in 1985, BLS Bulletin
Assumptions. The Bureau’s pro­
jections to 1985 are based on the
following general assumptions:
The institutional framework of
the U.S. economy will not change
Current social, technological,
and scientific trends will continue,
including values placed on work,
education, income, and leisure.
The economy will gradually

recover from the high unemploy­
ment levels of the mid-1970’s and
reach full employment (defined as
4 percent unemployment) in the
No major event such as
widespread or long-lasting energy
shortages or war will significantly
alter the industrial structure of the
economy or alter the rate of
economic growth.
Trends in the occupational struc­
ture of industries will not be altered
radically by changes in relative
wages, technological changes, or
other factors.
Methods. Beginning with popula­
tion projections by age, sex, and
race developed by the Bureau of
the Census, a projection of the total
labor force is derived using ex­
pected labor force participation
rates for each of these groups. In
developing the participation rates,
the Bureau takes into account a
variety of factors that affect a per­
son’s decision to enter the labor
market, such as school attendance,
retirement practices, and family
The labor force projection is then
translated into the level of GNP
that would be produced by a fully
employed labor force. Unemployed
persons are subtracted from the
labor force estimate and the result
is multiplied by a projection of out­
put per worker. The estimates of fu­
ture output per worker are based on
analysis of trends in productivity
growth among industries and
changes in the average weekly
hours of work.
Next, the projection of GNP is di­
vided among its major components:

Consumer expenditures, business just the projections accordingly.
Occupational employment projec­
investment, government expendi­
tures—Federal, State, and local— tions. Projections of industry em­
and net exports. Each of these com­ ployment are translated into occu­
ponents is broken down by produc­ pational employment projections
ing industry. Thus, consumer ex­ using
penditures, for example, is divided matrix. This matrix, which is di­
among industries producing goods vided into 200 industry sectors and
and services such as housing, food, 400 occupation sectors, describes
automobiles, medical care, and the current and expected occupa­
tional structure of each industry. By
Once estimates are developed for applying the projected patterns of
these products and services, they occupational structure for each in­
are translated into detailed projec­ dustry to the industry employment
tions of industry output, not only projection and aggregating the
for the industries producing the resulting estimates, employment
final product, but also for the inter­ projections for each of the 400 oc­
mediate and basic industries which cupations contained in the matrix
provide the raw materials, electric can be obtained.
power, transportation, and other in­
In some cases employment is re­
puts required in the production lated directly to one of the com­
process. To facilitate this transla­ ponents of the Bureau’s model—for
tion, the Department of Commerce example, the number of cosmetolo­
has developed input-output tables gists is related to consumer expen­
which indicate the amount of out­ ditures for beauty shop services. In
put produced by each industry— others, employment is related to an
steel, glass, plastics, etc.—that is independent variable not explicitly
required to produce a final product, projected in the model, but be­
automobiles for example.
lieved to be a primary determinant
By using estimates of future out­ of employment in that occupation.
put per man-hour based on studies The projection of automobile
of productivity and technological mechanics, for example, is based on
trends for each industry, it is possi­ the expected stock of motor vehi­
ble to derive industry employment cles. Projections that are developed
projections from the output esti­ independently are compared with
those in the matrix and revised, if
These projections are then com­ necessary, to assure consistency.
pared with employment projections
Replacement needs. In addition to
derived using regression analysis. developing an estimate of projected
This analysis develops equations employment for each occupation, a
that relate employment by industry projection is made of the number of
to combinations of economic varia­ workers who will be needed as
bles, such as population and in­ replacements. Separations con­
come, that are considered determi­ stitute a significant source of
nants of long-run changes in em­ openings. In most occupations,
ployment. By comparing projec­ more workers are needed to replace
tions resulting from input-output those who retire, die, or leave the
and regression analysis, it is possi­ occupation than are needed to fill
ble to identify areas where one jobs created by growth. Con­
method produces a projection in­ sequently, even declining occupa­
consistent with past trends or the tions offer employment opportuni­
Bureau’s economic model, and ad­ ties.

To estimate replacement open­
ings, the Bureau has developed
tables of working life based on ac­
tuarial experience for deaths and on
decennial census data on general
patterns of labor force participation
by age and sex. Withdrawals from
each occupation are calculated
separately for men and women by
age group and used to compute an
overall separation rate for the occu­
pation. These rates are used to esti­
mate average annual replacement
needs for each occupation over the
projection period.
The effects of interoccupational
transfers are not taken into account
needs because little information is
as yet available on this type of
Supply. Supply estimates used in
analysis of certain Handbook occu­
pations represent the numbers of
workers who are likely to enter a
particular occupation if past trends
of entry to the occupation continue.
These estimates are developed in­
dependently of the demand esti­
mates. Thus, supply and demand
are not discussed in the usual
economic sense in which wages
play a major role in equating supply
and demand. Statistics on college
enrollments and graduations by
field are the chief sources of infor­
mation on the potential supply of
personnel in professional, techni­
cal, and other occupations requir­
ing extensive formal education.
Data on persons completing ap­
prenticeship programs provide
some information on new entrants
into skilled trades. The Bureau
Supply: Concepts and Sources o f
Data for Manpower Analysis (BLS
Bulletin 1816, 1974). This bulletin
explores several aspects of occupa­
tional supply.

Young people face the difficult
task of choosing sound career plans
from among thousands of alterna­
tives. As the economy continues to
expand, creating many new kinds of
jobs, this planning becomes even
more difficult. This Handbook pro­
vides occupational information in­
tended to aid students, counselors,
parents, and teachers in examining
the large number of options open to
tomorrow’s worker.
Many questions are important to
young persons as they attempt to
match their abilities and interests
with the variety of occupational
choices. What fields look promising
for employment opportunities?
What education and training are
required to enter particular jobs?
How do earnings in certain occupa­
tions compare with earnings in
others requiring similar training?
What types of employers provide
which kinds of jobs? Does employ­
ment in a particular job mean
steady, year-round work or is the
job seasonal or affected by minor
swings in economic activity?
The answers to these questions
change as our economy grows. New
goods, services, and improved
methods of production, as well as
changes in living standards, life
styles, and government policy con­
stantly alter the types of jobs that
become available. This section ex­
plores how changes in our industrial
and economic framework affect the
outlook for employment in specific
occupations. It also discusses the
implications of these changes for
career education and vocational
No one can forecast the future
with certainty. Nevertheless, by

using the wealth of information
available, and economic and
statistical analysis, the work future
can be broadly sketched. Of course,
some aspects of the future can be
predicted more accurately than
others. For example, the population
in 1985 can be estimated with a
high degree of accuracy because
changes in the rate of population
growth occur very slowly. On the
other hand, forecasting employ­
ment in a specific occupation is
quite difficult. The demand for
scientists, for example, would
change quite rapidly if a major
research and development program
were initiated.
But before projecting the de­
mand for workers in the economy, a
number of basic assumptions must
be made about broad national pol­
icy and social, technological, and
business conditions. The employ­
ment outlook pictured in the Hand­
book is drawn within the following
fundamental assumptions.
The institutional framework of
the U.S. economy will not change
Current social, technological,
and scientific trends will continue,
including values placed on work,
education, income, and leisure.
The economy will gradually
recover from the high unemploy­
ment levels of the mid-1970’s and
reach full employment, (4 percent
unemployment) in the mid-1980’s.
No major event such as
widespread or long-lasting energy
shortages or war will significantly
alter the industrial structure of the
economy or alter the rate of
economic growth.
Trends in the occupational struc­

ture of industries will not be altered
radically by changes in relative
wages, technological changes, or
other factors.
The Handbook's assessment of in­
dustrial and occupational outlook
begins with a projection of the total
labor force. By 1985, approximate­
ly 109.7 million persons will be in
the labor force, according to projec­
tions developed by the Bureau of La­
bor Statistics in January 1975. About
2.1 million will be members of the
Armed Forces; the remainder makes
up the civilian labor force— 107.7 mil­
lion. This represents an 18-percent
increase over 1974.
The growth of individual indus­
tries and occupations will differ,
however, from that of the total
labor force. The following sections
discuss the projected growth of in­
dustries and occupations, and
describe the effect of this growth on
tomorrow’s jobs.
Industrial Profile

To help understand the Nation’s
industrial composition, industries
may be viewed as either goodsproducing or service-producing.
They may further be grouped into
nine major divisions according to
product or service. (See chart 1.)
Most of the Nation’s workers are
in industries that produce services,
in activities such as education,
health care, trade, repair and main­
tenance, government, transporta­
tion, banking, and insurance. The
production of goods—raising food
crops, building, extracting minerals,
and manufacturing—requires only
about one-third of the country’s
work force. (See chart 2.) In

Where People Work1


E WPLOYMENT, 1974 (in millions)

_____________ 1
_____________ !





State and local



i f l Wholesale

Transportation and public utilities
Finance, insurance, and real estate
Contract construction
M ining
1 Wage and salary workers except Agriculture which includes self-employed and unpaid family workers.
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics.

general, job growth through the
mid-1980’s is expected to continue
to be faster in the service-producing
industries than in the goodsproducing industries. However,
among industry divisions within
both the goods-producing and ser­
vice-producing sectors, the growth
pattern will continue to vary. (See
chart 3.)
Service-producing industries. In
1974, about 53.7 million workers
were on the payroll of serviceproducing
government; services and miscel­
laneous; transportation and other

utilities; and finance, insurance,
and real estate—about 19.8 million
more than the number employed in
1960. The major factors underlying
this rapid growth were (1) popula­
tion growth; (2) increasing ur­
banization with its accompanying
need for more city services; and (3)
rising incomes and living standards
accompanying a demand for im­
proved services, such as health and
education. These factors are ex­
pected to continue to result in rapid
growth of service industries as a
group, and they are expected to em­
ploy 71.5 million by 1985, an in­

Industries Providing Services Offer More Jobs
Than Those Providing Goods________________
W O RKERS (in m illions)1
6 0 — ------- ---------------


Goods Producing
Contract construction
M ining

Service Producing
Transportation and
public utilities
Finance, insurance
and real estate
Governm ent




1945 1950 1955 I9 6 0 1965 1970 1975
1Wage ond salary workers, except Agriculture, which includes self-employed and unpaid family workers.

S o u rc e :

B ure a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s

crease of about 33 percent over the
1974 level.
Trade, the largest division within
the service-producing industries,
has expanded sharply since 1960.
Wholesale and retail outlets have
multiplied in large and small cities
to satisfy the need of our highly
urban society. Employment in trade
was about 17 million in 1974, about
49 percent above the 1960 level.
Employment in trade is expected
to grow by about 22 percent
between 1974 and 1985. Although
an ever-increasing volume of
merchandise will be distributed as a
result of increases in population
and consumer expenditures, the
rate of increase in manpower needs
will be slowed by laborsaving
technology such as the greater use
of electronic data processing equip­
ment and automated warehousing
equipment, and by growth in the
number of self-service stores, and
vending machines.
Government employment has
grown faster than any other indus­
try division, and increased by about
70 percent, from 8.4 million to 14.5
million, between 1960 and 1974.
Growth has been mostly at the State
and local levels, which together ex­
panded by 90 percent. Employment
growth has been greatest in agen­
cies providing education, health,
sanitation, welfare, and protective
services. Federal Government em­
ployment increased about 20 per­
cent between 1960 and 1974.
Government will continue to be a
major source of new jobs through
the mid-1980’s Employment in
government will grow faster than
the average for other industries, ris­
ing about 35 percent over the 1974
total. Most of the growth will occur
in State and local agencies; while at
the Federal level, employment will
grow more slowly than the average.
Service and miscellaneous indus­
tries have increased rapidly as a
result of the growing need for
health services, maintenance and
repair, advertising, and domestic
help. From 1960 to 1974, total em-

Through the Mid-1980's Employment Growth
Will Vary Widely, by Industry

Contract construction
Transportation and public utilities
Agricultu re
S o u rc e

B ure a u o f L ab or S ta tis tic s

ployment in this industry division
rose by over 80 percent, from 7.4
million to about 13.S million.
Service and miscellaneous indus­
tries will continue to be among the
fastest-growing industries through
the mid-1980’s. More than half
again as many workers are expected
to be employed in this industry divi­
sion in 1985 as in 1974. Manpower
requirements in health services are
expected to grow rapidly due to
population growth and the increas­
ing ability of persons to pay for
health care. Business services,
including accounting, data proc­
essing, and maintenance, also are
expected to grow rapidly.
Transportation and public utility
employment in 1974, at 4.7 million,
was about 17 percent higher than in
1960. Different parts of this indus­
try, however, have experienced dif­
ferent growth trends. For example,
employment increased rapidly in air
transportation, but declined in the
railroad industry.
The number of jobs in transporta­
tion and public utilities as a whole is
expected to increase by 11 percent
to 1985, less than the average for
other industries. Widely differing
employment trends will continue to
be experienced among individual
industries within the division. A

continued increase in employment
is expected in air transportation,
and a decline is expected to con­
tinue in railroad employment. A
slight decline is expected in water
Finance, insurance, and real
estate, the smallest of the serviceproducing industry divisions, grew
by about 56 percent from 1960, to
more than 4.1 million in 1974. Em­
ployment has grown especially
rapidly in banks; in credit agencies;
and among security and commodity
brokers, dealers, exchanges, and
Job growth in finance, insurance,
and real estate will outpace the
overall increases in nonfarm em­
ployment through the mid-1980’s.
1985 employment will be about 35
percent higher than in 1974.
Goods-Producing Industries. Em­
ployment in the goods-producing
industries—agriculture, manufac­
turing, construction, and mining—
at more than 28.1 million in 1974
has increased slowly in recent
years. Significant gains in produc­
tivity resulting from automation
and other technological develop­
ments as well as the growing skills
of the work force have permitted
large increases in output without
corresponding increases in employ­

ment. Overall, employment in
goods-producing industries is ex­
pected to increase more slowly than
the average for other industries.
However, widely different patterns
of employment changes have oc­
curred and will continue among the
industry divisions in the goodsproducing sector.
Agriculture, which until the late
1800’s employed more than half of
all workers in the economy, em­
ployed about 4 percent, or 3.5 mil­
lion workers, in 1974. Increases in
the average size of farms, rapid
mechanization, and improved fertil­
izers, feeds, and pesticides have
created large increases in output
even though employment has fallen
The worldwide demand for food
is increasing rapidly. Although farm
employment in 1985 will be below
the 1974 level, the rate of decline
will be slower than during the
Mining employment, at about
672,000 workers in 1974, has
declined nearly 6 percent since
1960, primarily because of laborsaving technological changes. The
overall trend is expected to change,
and mining employment in 1985
should be about 17 percent higher
than in 1974. Coal mining will be a
major source of new jobs as the cost
of other fuels continues to rise and
efficient ways are found to
minimize the environmental impact
of mining.
Contract construction employ­
ment, about 4 million in 1974, has
increased about 38 percent since
1960 as a result of the Nation’s
growing need for homes, apart­
ments, offices, stores, highways,
and other physical facilities.
Between 1974 and 1985, employ­
ment in contract construction is ex­
pected to grow about as fast as the
average for other industries rising
by 26 percent.
Manufacturing, the largest divi­
sion within the goods-producing
sector, had about 20 million wor­
kers in 1974, an increase of about

19 percent over 1960. New
products for industrial and con­
sumer markets and the rapid
growth of government expenditures
for defense and space programs
spearheaded growth during the
Manufacturing employment is
expected to increase more slowly
than the average for other indus­
tries through the mid-1980’s and to
reach about 22.2 million in 1985.
Employment in durable goods
manufacturing is projected to in­
crease at a slightly faster rate than
total manufacturing, and nondura­
ble goods, somewhat more slowly;
however, the rate of growth will
vary among the individual manufac­
turing industries.

Occupational Profile

As industries continue to grow,
changes will take place in the Na­
tion’s occupational structure. Jobs
will become more complex and spe­
cialized offering an even greater
number of occupational choices to
persons planning a career. By first
studying the outlook for broad oc­
cupational groups, the task can be
made more manageable. (See chart

Employment Has Shifted Toward
White-Collar Occupations
WORKERS (in millions)






Among the broad occupational
groups, white-collar jobs have
grown most rapidly. In 1974, whitecollar workers—professional, man­
agerial, clerical, and sales—outnum­
bered blue-collar workers—craftworkers, operatives, and laborers by almost
12 million. (See chart 5.)
Through the mid-1980’s, we can
expect a continuation of the rapid
growth of white-collar and service
occupations, a slower-than-average
growth of blue-collar occupations,
and a further decline of farm
workers. The rapid growth ex­

WORKERS, 1974 (in millions) ’



Professional and technical
Operatives, except transport
M anagers and administrators, except
Nonfarm laborers
Transport equipment operatives
Farm workers
’ includes self-employed and unpaid family workers.

Bureau of Labor Statistics




Bureau of Labor Statistics

Employment in Major
Occupational Groups, by Sex




pected for white-collar and service
workers reflects continuous ex­
pansion of the service-producing
industries, which employ a rela­
tively large proportion of these
workers. The growing demand for
workers to perform research and
development, to provide education
and health services, and to process
the increasing amount of paper­
work throughout all types of enter­
prises, also will be significant in
the growth of white-collar jobs.
The slower-than-average growth
of blue-collar and farm workers
reflects the expanding use of laborsaving equipment in our Nation’s
industries and the relatively slow
growth of the goods-producing
industries that employ large pro­
portions of blue-collar workers.
(See chart 6.)
The following sections describe
in greater detail the changes that
are expected to occur among the
broad occupational groups through
the mid-1980’s.
Professional and technical work­
ers , the third largest occupational
group in 1974, at 12.3 million, in­
clude such highly trained personnel
as teachers, dentists, accountants,
and clergy.
Professional occupations will
grow by about 30 percent between

1974 and 1985—second only to
clerical occupations in terms of
growth rate. (See chart 7.) Profes­
sional workers in this area will
be in great demand as the Nation
makes greater efforts in transporta­
tion, energy production, rebuilding
the cities, and enhancing the beauty
of the land. The quest for scientific
and technical knowledge is bound
to grow, raising the demand for
workers in scientific and technical
specialties. The late 1970’s and
early 1980’s will see a continuing
emphasis on the social sciences and
medical services.
Managers and administrators
totaled about 8.9 million in 1974.
As in the past, requirements for
salaried managers are likely to con­
tinue to increase rapidly because of
the growing dependence of business
organizations and government
agencies on management spe­
cialists. On the other hand, the
number of self-employed managers
is expected to continue to decline
as the trend toward larger busi­
nesses continues to restrict growth
of the total number of firms, and as
supermarkets continue to replace
small groceries and general stores.
Overall, the number of managers
will increase about as fast as the
average for other occupations.

Clerical workers, numbering 15
million made up the largest group
of workers in 1974. They are ex­
pected to be the fastest growing
group during the 1974-85 period —
increasing about one-third. In­
cluded in this category are workers
who operate computers and office
machines, keep records, take dicta­
tion, and type. Many new clerical
made up the largest group of wor­
kers in 1974. Many new clerical
positions are expected to open up
as industries employing large num­
bers of clerical workers continue to

expand. The demand will be strong
for those qualified to handled jobs
processing operations.
Sales workers, accounting for
about 5.4 million workers in 1974,
are found primarily in retail stores,
manufacturing and wholesale firms,
insurance companies, real estate
agencies, as well as offering goods
door-to-door. Salesworkers are ex­
pected to increase about 16 per­
cent between 1974 and 1985.
Salesworker employment will grow
as population growth and business
expansion increase the demand for
a wide range of goods and services.
Craft workers, numbering about
11.5 million in 1974, include a wide
variety of occupations such as car­
penters, tool and diemakers, instru­
ment makers, all-round machinists,
electricians, and typesetters. Indus­
trial growth and increasing business
activity will spur the growth of craft
occupations through the mid1980’s. However, technological
developments will tend to limit the
expansion of this group. Employ­
ment craft workers is expected to
increase about as fast as the aver­
age for all occupations, rising to
nearly 20 percent by 1985.
Operatives made up the second
largest major occupational group in

Through the Mid-1980's Employment Growth
Will Vary Widely among Occupations


Professional and technical
M an agers and administrators
except farm__________________
Craft and kindred
Nonfarm laborers

Bureau of Labor Statistics

-2 0





1974, with about 13.9 million work­
ers engaged in such activities as
assembling goods in factories; driv­
ing trucks, buses, and taxis and
operating machinery.
Employment of operatives is ex­
pected to increase about 9 percent
by 1985, more slowly than the
average for other occupations.
Technological advances will reduce
employment for some types of
semiskilled occupations. Increases
in production, as well as the
trend toward motor truck transpor­
tation of freight, are expected to be
major factors contributing to the
overall employment increase.
(excluding those in
farming and mining), numbered
nearly 4.4 million workers in 1974.
They move, lift, and carry materials
and tools in the Nation’s work­
places. Employment of laborers is
expected to increase only about 9
percent between 1974 and 1985 in
spite of the rises in manufacturing
and construction, where most are
employed. Increased demand is ex­
pected to be offset by rising produc­
tivity resulting from continued sub­
stitution of mechanical equipment
for manual labor.
Service workers, including men
and women who maintain law and
order, assist professional nurses in
hospitals, give haircuts and beauty
treatments, serve food, and clean
and care for our homes, totaled
about 11.4 million in 1974. This
diverse group is expected to in­
crease 28 percent between 1974
and 1985. Some of the main factors
that are expected to increase re­
quirements for these occupations
are the rising demand for hospital
and other medical care; the greater
need for protective services as
urbanization continues and cities
become more crowded; and the
more frequent use of restaurants,
beauty salons, and other services
as income levels rise and an in­
creasing number of housewives
take jobs outside the home. The
employment of private household

workers, however, will continue to
fall despite a rise in demand for
their services. Fewer persons will
accept household employment be­
cause of low wages and the
strenuous nature of the work.
Farm workers —including farm­
ers, farm managers, laborers, and
supervisors—numbered nearly 3.1
million in 1974. The demand for
food products, both at home and
for export, will continue to grow
rapidly. Farm employment, how­
ever, will decline through the mid1980’s as farm technology con­
tinues to improve.
Job Openings

In considering careers, young
people should not eliminate an oc­
cupation just because it will not be
Although growth is an indicator of
future job outlook, it is not the only
factor. More jobs will be created
between 1974 and 1985 from
deaths, retirements, and other labor
force separations than from em­
ployment growth. (See chart 8.)
Replacement needs will be particu­
larly significant in occupations
which have a large proportion of

older workers. Furthermore, an oc­
cupation with many workers, even
though it may have little prospects
for growth, may offer more
openings than a fast-growing, small
one. For example, among the major
occupational groups, openings for
operatives resulting from growth
and replacements combined will be
although the rate of growth in the
employment of craftsmen will be
considerably more rapid than the
rate of growth for operatives.
Outlook and Education

Numerous opportunities for em­
ployment will be available for
skilled jobseekers during the years
ahead. Employers are seeking peo­
ple who have higher levels of edu­
cation because many jobs are more
complex and require greater skill.
Furthermore, employment growth
generally will be faster in those oc­
cupations requiring the most educa­
tion and training. For example, em­
ployment in clerical and profes­
sional and technical jobs will
grow faster than in all other occu­
pational groups.
A high school education has
become standard for American

Training Needs Are Determined
by Replacement Plus Growth
W ORKERS NEEDED - 1974-85 (in millions)

Clericol workers
Service workers
Professional and technical workers
M anagers and administrators
Craft and kindred workers
Nonfarm laborers
Farm workers

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics


workers. Thus, a high school gradu­
ate is in a better competitive posi­
tion in the job market than a non­
Although training beyond high
school has been the standard for
some time for many professional
occupations, other areas of work
also require more than a high
school diploma. As new, automated
equipment is introduced on a wider
scale in offices, banks, insurance
companies, and government opera­
tions, skill requirements are rising
for clerical and other jobs. Em­
ployers increasingly are demanding
better trained workers to operate
complicated machinery. In many
areas of sales work, developments
in machine design, use of new
materials, and the complexity of
equipment are making greater
technical knowledge a requirement.
Because many occupations are
becoming increasingly complex and
technical, specific occupational
training such as that obtained
through apprenticeship, junior and
community colleges, and post-high
school vocational education cour­
ses is becoming more and more im­
portant to young people preparing
for successful careers.
Young persons who do not get

Estimated Lifetime Earnings for M en Tend to
Rise w ith Years of School Completed_______
EST IM A T ED E A R N IN G S - 1972 TO DEATH (in th o u s a n d s of dollars)


Elementary School

good preparation for work will find
the going more difficult in the years
ahead. Employers will be more like­
ly to hire workers who have at least
a high school diploma. Further­
more, present experience shows
that the less education and training
a worker has, the less chance he has
for a steady job. (See chart 9.)
In addition to its importance in
competing for jobs, education

U N E M P L O Y M E N T RATE, (March 1974)


8 or less

High School
Bureau of Labor Statistics

High School

All Levels

Bureau of the Census

Unemploym ent Rates Are Highest
for Young W orkers______________




makes a difference in lifetime in­
come. According to the most
recently available data, men who
had college degrees could expect to
earn about $760,000 in their life
times, or nearly two and three quar­
ters times the $280,000 likely to be
earned by workers who had less
than 8 years of schooling, nearly
twice the amount earned by work­
ers who had 1 to 3 years of high
school, and more than 1 1/2 times
as much as high school graduates.
Clearly the completion of high
school pays a dividend. A worker
who had only 1 to 3 years of high
school could expect to earn only
about $45,000 more than workers
who had an elementary school edu­
cation, but a high school graduate
could look forward to a $135,000
lifetime income advantage over an
individual completing elementary
school. (See chart 10.)
In summary, young people who
have acquired skills and a good
basic education will have a better
chance for interesting work, good
wages, and steady employment.
Getting as much education and
training as one’s abilities and cir­
cumstances permit should therefore
be a top priority for today’s youth.




Millions of people who work in
industrial production help to ensure
the continued growth of our econo­
my and its smooth operation. These
skilled and semiskilled blue-collar
workers are involved in almost
every production process.
Workers in this group are em­
ployed mostly in factories. Machin­
ists and machine tool operators
shape metal to precise sizes. Assem­
blers put together automobiles,
television sets, and hundreds of
other products. Inspectors examine
and test products to assure quality.
Printing craft workers operate the
various types of machinery used to
print newspapers, books, and other
publications. Some factory workers
are not directly involved in the
production process, but support it
in some way. Stationary engineers,
for example, operate boilers and
other equipment. Millwrights move
and install heavy industrial machin­
ery. Power truck operators move
materials about the plant.
Industrial workers also are em­
ployed outside of manufacturing in

a variety of activities. Automobile
painters, for example, restore the
finish on old and damaged cars.
Photographic laboratory workers
develop film and make prints and
Semiskilled workers, such as as­
semblers and power truck opera­
tors, ordinarily need only brief onthe-job training. Skilled workers,
such as stationary engineers and
machinists, require considerable
training to qualify for their jobs.
Many learn their trades on the job,
but training authorities generally
recommend completion of a 3- or
4-year apprenticeship program as
the best way to learn a skilled trade.
Most jobs in industrial produc­
tion do not require a high school
diploma. However, many em­
ployers prefer high school or voca­
tional school graduates who have
taken courses such as blueprint
reading and machine shop.
Growth rates for individual occu­
pations in industrial production will
differ greatly. Employment of weld­

ers, for example, is expected to
rise faster than the average for all
occupations in the Nation’s work
force as a result of growth in the
metalworking industries and the
wider use of welding. Employment
of assemblers is expected to grow
about the same as the average,
despite the continued automation
of assembly processes. Employment
in some printing crafts, on the other
hand, is expected to decline as a
result of more efficient printing
methods. Even in most declining
occupations, however, some job
openings are expected as ex­
perienced workers retire, die, or
transfer to other fields.
This chapter includes statements
on 21 industrial production and re­
lated occupations. Many other wor­
kers who are involved in industrial
production are described elsewhere
in the Handbook because of their
close association with particular oc­
cupational groups. For example,
engineers are included in the
chapter on Scientific and Technical

make the patterns used in making
molds for metal castings. Most of
the workers in the occupation are
600.280) ; a smaller number are
661.281) . Some patternmakers
work with both metal and wood as
well as plaster and plastics.
Foundry workers produce metal replace experienced workers who blueprints prepared by engineers.
castings for numerous industrial die, retire, or transfer to other oc­ They make a precise pattern for the
and household products that range cupations will provide some job product, carefully checking each
from machine tools to bathtubs. openings. The number of openings dimension with instruments such as
Casting is a method of forming may fluctuate from year to year micrometers and calipers. Precision
metal into intricate shapes. Molten because foundry employment is is important because any imperfec­
metal is poured into carefully sensitive to ups and downs in the tions in the pattern will be
prepared molds and allowed to economy.
reproduced in the castings made
Patternmakers, molders, and from it.
The patternmaker, the molder, coremakers are discussed in detail
Wood patternmakers select the
and the coremaker each play an im­ in the following statements. (For a woodstock, lay out the pattern, and
portant part in the process. The pat­ general description of many other saw each piece of wood to size.
ternmaker makes a wood or metal jobs involved in metal casting, see They then shape the rough pieces
model of the casting. A molder the statement on Foundries else­ into final form with various wood­
places it in a box and packs sand where in the Handbook.)
working machines, such as lathes
around the model to form a mold. If
and sanders, as well as many small
the casting is to have a hollow sec­
handtools. Finally, they assemble
Sources of Additional
tion, a coremaker makes a core of
the pattern segments by hand, using
packed and hardened sand that is
glue, screws, and nails.
For details about training oppor­
positioned in the mold before the
Metal patternmakers prepare
tunities for patternmakers, molders, patterns from metal stock or from
molten metal is poured in.
In 1974, about 21,000 pattern­ and coremakers, contact local rough castings made from a wood
makers, 60,000 molders, and foundries, the local office of the pattern. To shape and finish the
25,000 coremakers worked in the State employment service, the patterns, they use many metalwork­
foundry industry. About three- nearest office of the State ap­ ing machines, including lathes, drill
fourths of them worked in shops prenticeship agency, or the Bureau presses, shapers, milling machines,
that make and sell castings. The of Apprenticeship and Training, power hacksaws, and grinders.
remainder worked in plants that U.S. Department of Labor. Infor­ They also use small handtools.
make and use castings in their final mation also is available from the
products, such as plants operated following organizations:
by manufacturers of automobiles or American Foundrymen’s Society, Golf and
Training, Other Qualifications,
Wolf Rds., Des Plaines, III. 60016.
and Advancement
A high school education is the International Molders’ and Allied Workers’
Union, 1225 E. McMillan St., Cincin­
Apprenticeship is the best means
minimum requirement for an ap­
nati, Ohio 45206.
of qualifying as an experienced pat­
prentice in patternmaking and for
more skilled molding and coremak­ Cast Metals Federation, Cast Metals Federa­ ternmaker. Because of the high
tion Building, 20611 Center Ridge Rd.,
degree of skill and the wide range of
ing jobs. An eighth grade educa­
Rocky River, Ohio 44116,
knowledge needed for patternmak­
tion, however, may be enough for
ing, it is difficult to learn the trade
entry into many molding and
on the job. In some instances,
coremaking jobs.
skilled machinists have been able to
Employment in these trades is ex­
transfer to metal patternmaking
pected to show little or no change
with additional on-the-job training
through the mid-1980’s because of
Nature of the Work
or experience. Trade school cours­
automation and other laborsaving
are es in patternmaking provide useful
methods. Nevertheless, the need to highly skilled craft workers who preparation for the prospective ap-

the number of patterns that have to
be made.
Although employment is not ex­
pected to grow significantly, some
job openings will arise because of
the need to replace experienced
pattermakers who retire, die, or
transfer to other occupations. Most
of these openings will be for metal
patternmakers. The number of
openings may fluctuate from year
to year since the demand for
foundry products is sensitive to
changes in the economy.
Because patternmakers learn
either basic metalworking or wood­
working they are prepared for jobs
in related fields when patternmak­
ing employment is not available.
Wood patternmakers can qualify
for woodworking jobs such as
cabinetmakers, and metal pattern­
makers can transfer their skills to
metalworking jobs such as machin­

Patternmaker checks dimensions of wooden pattern.

prentice, and may be credited
toward completion of the ap­
The usual apprenticeship period
for patternmaking is 5 years. Each
year at least 144 hours of classroom
instruction usually are provided.
Apprenticeship programs for wood
and metal pattemmaking are
Employers generally
require apprentices to have a high
school education.
Apprentices begin by helping ex­
perienced patternmakers in routine
duties. They make simple patterns
under close supervision; as they
progress, the work becomes in­
creasingly complex and the supervi­
sion more general. Patternmakers
earn higher pay as their skill in­
creases, and some become super­
Patternmaking, although not

Earnings and Working

Patternmakers generally have
higher earnings than other produc­
strenuous, requires considerable tion workers in manufacturing. In
standing and moving about. Manual January 1975, average straight-time
dexterity is especially important hourly earnings of wood pattern­
because of the precise nature of the makers ranged from $5.25 in gray
work. The ability to visualize ob­ iron and malleable iron foundries,
jects in three dimensions is also im­ to $5.55 in nonferrous foundries,
according to a wage survey made by
the National Foundry Association.
Metal patternmakers’ earnings
generally were higher. In com­
parison, all production workers in
Employment Outlook
manufacturing averaged $4.65 an
Employment of foundry pattern­ hour.
makers is expected to show little or
Patternmakers work indoors in
no change through the mid-1980’s well-lighted, well-ventilated areas.
despite the anticipated increases in The rooms in which they work are
foundry production. The increased generally separated from the areas
use of metal patterns and other where the casting takes place, so
technical improvements in pattern­ they are not exposed to the heat
making will prevent any significant and noise of the foundry floor.
employment growth. Metal pat­
For sources of additional infor­
terns, unlike wooden ones, can be mation, see the introductory sec­
used again and again, thus reducing tion of this chapter.

identical sand molds. Machine mol­ Training, Other Qualifications,
ders assemble the flask and pattern
and Advancement
Nature of the Work
on the machine table, fill the flask
Completion of a 4-year ap­
The molder prepares a mold with prepared sand, and operate the
which contains a hollow space in machine with levers and pedals. prentice program, or equivalent ex­
the shape of the item to be made. Many of these workers set up and perience, is needed to become a
skilled hand molder. Workers with
The mold is made by packing and adjust their own machines.
ramming specially prepared sand
Hand molders use primarily this training also are preferred for
around a pattern—a model of the manual methods to construct the some kinds of machine molding but
object to be duplicated—in a box sand molds. Power tools, such as in general a shorter training period
called a flask. A flask is usually pneumatic rammers, and handtools, is required in order to become a
made in two parts which can be such as trowels and mallets, are qualified machine molder. Some
separated to remove the pattern used to smooth the sand. Molds for people learn molding skills infor­
without damaging the mold cavity. small castings are usually made on mally on the job, but this way of
When molten metal is poured into the workbench by bench molders learning the trade takes longer and
the cavity, it soldifies and forms the (D.O.T. 518.381); those for large is less reliable than apprenticeship.
An eighth grade education
and bulky castings are made on the
Most of the workers in this occu­ foundry floor by floor molders usually is the minimum requirement
pation are machine molders; the (D.O.T. 518.381). An all-round for apprenticeship. Many em­
rest are hand molders. Machine hand molder makes many different ployers, however, prefer high
molders (D.O.T. 518.782) operate types of molds. A less-skilled school school graduates.
Apprentices, under close supervi­
machines that simplify and speed molder specializes in a few simple
sion by skilled molders, begin with
the making of large quantities of types.
simple jobs, such as shoveling sand,
and gradually take on more difficult
and responsible work, such as
ramming molds, withdrawing pat­
terns, and setting cores. They also
learn to operate the various types of
molding machines. Beginning with
simple shapes and advancing to
more complex work, they make
as training
progresses. In addition, the ap­
prentice may work in other foundry
departments to develop all-round
knowledge of foundry methods and
practices. The apprentice usually
receives at least 144 hours of class­
room instruction each year in sub­
jects such as shop arithmetic,
metallurgy, and shop drawing.
Hand molders who do highly
repetitive work usually learn their
jobs during a brief training period.
Trainees work with a molder to
make a particular kind of mold.
After 2 to 6 months, the trainee
usually is capable of making a
similar mold. Most machine mold­
ing jobs can be learned in 2 to 3
months on the job.
Physical standards for molding
jobs are fairly high. Hand molders
stand at their work, move about a
great deal, and frequently must lift
Molders pour liquified metal Into molds.


heavy objects. They need good vi­
sion and a high degree of manual
dexterity. Molders may advance to
a specialized molding job or even­
tually to a supervisory position.
Employment Outlook

Employment of molders is ex­
pected to show little or no change
through the mid-1980’s. The trend
to more machine molding, such as
the sand slinging process, and other
laborsaving innovations will limit
employment growth. Nevertheless,
the need to replace experienced
molders who retire, die, or transfer
to other occupations will provide
some job openings. The number of
openings, however, may fluctuate
from year to year because the de­
mand for foundry products is sensi­
tive to changes in the economy.

Earnings and Working Conditions

In January 1975, floor molders
averaged $4.75 an hour and bench
molders averaged $4.55, according
to a wage survey made by the Na­
tional Foundry Association. Mol­
ders who were paid on an incentive
basis generally had higher earnings.
By comparison, production workers
in all manufacturing industries
averaged $4.65 an hour.
Working conditions vary con­
siderably from one foundry to
another. Heat and fumes have been
greatly reduced in many plants by
the installation of improved ventila­
tion systems and air- conditioning.
For sources of additional infor­
mation, see the introductory sec­
tion of this chapter.

The poured metal solidifies around
the core, so that when the core is
removed the desired cavity or con­
tour remains.
A core may be made either by
hand or machine. In both instances,
sand is packed into a block of wood
or metal in which a space of the
desired size and shape has been hol­
lowed out. After the core is
removed from this box it is
hardened by baking or by another
drying method.
When hand
methods are used, the coremaker
uses mallets and other handtools to
pack sand into the core box. Small
cores are made on the workbench
by bench coremakers (D.O.T.
518.381) and large ones are made
on the foundry floor by floor
coremakers (D.O.T. 518.381).
Machine coremakers (D.O.T.
518.885) operate machines that
make sand cores by forcing sand
into a core box. Some machine
coremakers are required to set up
and adjust their machines and do
finishing operations on the cores.
Others are primarily machine ten­
ders. They are closely supervised
and their machines are adjusted for

them. (To see how the coremaker’s
job is a basic step in the casting
process, read the description of
sand casting given in the statement
on Foundries elsewhere in the
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Completion of a 4-year ap­
prentice training program or the
equivalent experience is needed to
become a skilled hand coremaker.
Apprenticeships also are sometimes
required for the more difficult
machine coremaking jobs. Ap­
prenticeship training in coremaking
and molding often are combined.
Experienced coremakers teach
apprentices how to make cores and
operate ovens. Classroom instruc­
tion covering subjects such as
arithmetic and the properties of
metals generally supplements onthe-job training. Coremakers earn
higher pay as their skill increases,
and some become supervisors.
An eighth grade education
usually is the minimum requirement
for coremaking apprentices; some

Nature of the Work

Coremakers prepare the “cores”
that are placed in molds to form the
hollow sections in metal castings.

Coremaker operates machine that produces cores for automobile engine heads.

employers require graduation from
high school. Some types of hand
coremaking require a high degree
of manual dexterity.

tions. The number of openings may
fluctuate from year to year since
the demand for foundry products is
sensitive to changes in the econo­

Employment Outlook

Employment of coremakers is ex­
pected to show little or no change
through the mid-1980’s. Growth in
this occupation will be limited as
more cores are made by machine
instead of by hand. Nevertheless,
some job openings will arise
because of the need to replace ex­
perienced coremakers who retire,
die, or transfer to other occupa­

Earnings and Working

In January 1975, the average
hourly earnings of floor coremakers
were $4.65; bench coremakers,
$4.35; and machine coremakers,
$4.05, according to a wage survey
made by the National Foundry As­
sociation. Coremakers who were
paid on an incentive basis generally

had higher earnings. By com­
parison, production workers in all
manufacturing industries averaged
$4.65 an hour.
Working conditions vary con­
siderably from one foundry to
another. Heat and fumes have been
greatly reduced in many plants by
the installation of improved ventila­
tion systems and air-conditioning.
Although the injury rate in foun­
dries is higher than the average for
manufacturing, coremaking is one
of the least hazardous foundry jobs.
For sources of additional infor­
mation, see the introductory sec­
tion of this chapter.


Nearly every product made by
American industry contains metal
parts or is manufactured by
machines made of metal parts. In
1974, over 1.1 million machinists,
machine tool operators, tool and
diemakers, and setup workers used
a wide variety of machine and
handtools to shape these metal
A machine tool is a stationary,
power-driven device that brings
together the cutting instrument
(tool) and the metal to be cut, hold­
ing them. Some of the most com­
mon machine tools are lathes and
machines that drill, bore, mill, and
grind. Metal can be shaped also by
using chemicals, electricity, mag­
netism, sound, light, and liquids
under controlled conditions.
All-round machinists can operate
most types of machine tools,
whereas machine tool operators
generally work with one kind only.
Tool and diemakers make dies
(metal forms) for presses and
diecasting machines, devices to
guide drills into metal, and special
gauges to determine whether the
work meets specified tolerances. In­
strument makers use machine tools
to produce highly accurate instru­
ment parts from metal and other
materials. Setup workers adjust
tools for semiskilled machine tool
operators to run. (Detailed discus­
sions of work performed, training,
and earnings of these occupations
are presented in the chapters that

(D.O.T. 600.280, .281, and .381)
Nature of the Work

All-round machinists, who can
set up and operate most types of
machine tools, use these tools to
make metal parts. Because they
plan and carry through all opera­
tions, they may switch from one
product to another and give variety
to their work. Their knowledge of
metals and machine tools enables
them to turn a block of metal into
an intricate part of precise specifi­
cations. They select tools and
materials for each job and plan the
cutting and finishing operations
from a blueprint or written specifi­
cations. They make standard shop
computations relating to dimen­
sions of work and machining
specifications. They often use

Machinist adjusts high-speed machine

precision measuring instruments,
such as micrometers, to measure
the accuracy of their work to
thousandths or even millionths of
an inch. After completing machin­
ing operations, they may use hand
files and scrapers before assembling
the finished parts with wrenches
and screwdrivers.
Machinists who make and repair
metal parts in maintenance depart­
ments must have a broad
knowledge of the way machines
work to adjust and test parts. In
plants that produce large numbers
of metal products, highly skilled
machinists specialize in layout work
and mark specifications on metal
for machine tool operators who do
the machining operations.

Places of Employment

An estimated 335,000 machinists
were employed in 1974. Almost
every factory using substantial
amounts of machinery employed
all-round machinists to maintain its
mechanical equipment. Some all­
round machinists made large quan­
tities of identical parts in produc­
tion departments of metalworking
factories; others made limited num­
bers of varied products in machine
shops. Most all-round machinists
worked in the following industries:
machinery, including electrical;
transportation equipment; fabri­
cated metal products; and pri­
mary metals. Other industries em­
ploying substantial numbers of
these workers were the railroad,
chemical, food processing, and tex­
tile industries. The Federal Govern­
ment also employed all-round
machinists in Navy yards and other
Although machinists work in all
parts of the country, jobs are most
plentiful in areas where many facto­
ries are located. Among the leading
areas of employment are Los
Angeles, Chicago, New York,
Philadelphia, Boston, San Fran­
cisco, and Houston.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

vance into other technical jobs in
machine programming and tooling.

A 4-year formal apprenticeship is
the best way to learn the machinist
trade, but some companies have
training programs for single-pur­
pose machines that require less
than 4 years. Many machinists,
however, learn on the job.
Persons interested in becoming
machinists should be mechanically
suited to do highly accurate work
that requires concentration as well
as physical effort. Prospective
machinists should be able to work
independently. Although the work
is sometimes tedious and repeti­
tious, all-round machinists fre­
quently have the satisfaction of
seeing the final results of their
A high school or vocational
school education, including mathe­
matics, physics, or machine shop
training, is desirable. Some compa­
nies require experienced machinists
to take additional courses in mathe­
matics and electronics at company
expense so that they can service
and operate numerically controlled
machine tools. In addition, equip­
ment builders generally provide
training in the electrical, hydraulic,
machine-and-control systems.
Typical machinist apprentice
programs consist of approximately
8,000 hours of shop training and
about 570 hours of related class­
room instruction. In shop training,
apprentices learn chipping, filing,
hand tapping, dowel fitting, rivet­
ing, and the operation of various
machine tools. In the classroom,
they study blueprint reading,
mechanical drawing, shop mathe­
matics, and shop practices.
All-round machinists have nu­
merous opportunities for advance­
ment. Many advance to supervisory
jobs. Some take additional training
and become tool and die or instru­
ment makers. Skilled machinists
may open their own shops or ad­

Employment Outlook

rates in 14 of the areas surveyed,
selected to show how wage rates
differ in various parts of the
country, appear in the accompany­
ing tabulation.

The number of all-round machin­
Hourly rate
ists is expected to increase at about
the same rate as the average for all San Francisco —Oakland............... $6.48
occupations through the mid- D etroit..........................
1980’s. Expansion of metalworking New York.........................................
activities will cause most of the in­ Chicago.................................
Minneapolis —St. Paul....................
crease. In addition to openings
Portland, Oreg.................................
created by growth in this large oc­
cupation, many openings will arise Louisville...........................................
from the need to replace ex­ Los Angeles—Long Beach............
perienced machinists who retire, H ouston............................................
die, or transfer to other fields of Cleveland...........................................
As population and income rise, Boston................................................
so will the demand for machined Greenville, S.C.................................
goods, such as automobiles,
Machinists must follow strict
household appliances, and industri­
al products. However, technologi­ safety regulations when working
cal developments which increase around high-speed machine tools.
the productivity of machinists are Short-sleeved shirts, safety glasses,
expected to keep employment from and other protective devices are
rising as fast as the demand for required to reduce accidents. Most
machined goods.
shops are clean and workplaces are
Chief among these technological well-lighted.
innovations is the expanding use of
Many machinists are members of
numerically controlled machine unions including the International
tools. These machines, which trans­ Association of Machinists and
late numbers into a series of mo­ Aerospace Workers; the Interna­
tions or processes, significantly tional Union, United Automobile,
reduce the time required to per­ Aerospace, and Agricultural Imple­
form machining operations.
ment Workers of America; the In­
Much of the employment growth ternational Union of Electrical,
will occur in maintenance shops, as Radio and Machine Workers; the
industries continue to use a greater International Brotherhood of Elec­
volume of complex machinery and trical Workers; and the United
equipment. Skilled maintenance Steelworkers of America.
machinists are needed to prevent
costly breakdowns in highly
Sources of Additional
mechanized plants. In such plants, a
breakdown of one machine may
stop many other machines.
The National Machine Tool
Builders Association, 7901 Westpark Dr., McLean, Va. 22101 —
Earnings and Working
whose members build a large per­
centage of all machine tools used
The earnings of machinists com­ in this country—
will supply, on
pare favorably with those of other request, information on career
Machinists opportunities in the machine tool
averaged $5.56 an hour in 1973-74, industry.
a survey of
The National Tool, Die and
metropolitan areas. Average hourly Precision Machining Association,

9300 Livingston Rd., Oxon Hill,
Md. 20022, offers information on
apprenticeship training, including
Standards for Tool and Die Makers
certified by the U.S. Department of
Labor’s Bureau of Apprenticeship
and Training.
The Tool and Die Institute, 777
Busse Highway, Park Ridge, 111.
60068—a trade association—offers
information on apprenticeship
training in the Chicago area.
Many local offices of State em­
ployment services provide free ap­
titude testing to persons interested
in becoming all-round machinists or
tool and diemakers. In addition, the
State employment service refers ap­
plicants for apprentice programs to
employers. In many communities,
applications for apprenticeship also
are received by labor-management
apprenticeship committees.
Apprenticeship information also
may be obtained from the following
unions (which have local offices in
many cities):

mental models, special laboratory
equipment, and custom instru­
ments. Experimental devices con­
structed by these craft workers are
used, for example, to regulate heat,
earthquakes, and control industrial
processes. The parts and models
may range from simple gears to in­
tricate parts of navigation systems
for guided missiles. Instrument
makers also modify existing instru­
ments for special purposes.
Instrument makers fabricate
metal parts using machine tools
such as lathes and milling machines,
and handtools such as files and
chisels. Because accuracy is impor­
tant, they measure finished parts
with a wide variety of precision
measuring equipment, including
micrometers, verniers, calipers, and
dial indicators, as well as standard
optical measuring instruments.

Using considerable imagination
and ingenuity, they work from
rough sketches, verbal instructions,
or ideas, as well as from detailed
blueprints. Sometimes specifica­
tions must not vary more than 10
millionths of an inch. To meet these
standards, they use special equip­
ment or precision devices, that
other machining workers seldom
use, such as the electronic height
gauge. They also work with a
variety of materials, including
plastics and rare metals such as
titanium and rhodium.
Instrument makers may con­
struct, assemble, and then test all
parts of an instrument in small
shops. When working with electri­
cal and electronic components that
are to be incorporated into an in­
strument, however, they frequently
work with other instrument makers
or electronic specialists.

International Association of Machinists and
Aerospace Workers, 1300 Connecticut
Ave. NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.
International Union, United Automobile,
Aerospace and Agricultural Implement
Workers of America, Skilled Trades De­
partment, 8000 East Jefferson Ave.,
Detroit, Mich. 48214.
International Union of Electrical Radio and
Machine Workers, 1126 16th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.
International Brotherhood of Electrical
Workers, 1125 15th St. NW., Washing­
ton, D .C .20005.

(D.O.T. 600.280)
Nature of the Work

Instrument makers (also called
modelmakers) work closely with
engineers and scientists in translat­
ing designs and ideas into experi­

Instrument makers work closely with engineer and scientists.

Places of Employment

Many of the approximately 5,500
instrument makers employed in
1974 worked for firms that manu­
factured instruments. Others were
in research and development
laboratories that make special
devices for scientific research. The
Federal Government employed
many instrument makers.
The main centers of instrument
making are located in and around a
few large cities, particularly New
York, Chicago, Los Angeles,
Boston, Philadelphia, Washington,
Detroit, Buffalo, and Cleveland.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Some instrument makers ad­
vance from the ranks of machinists
or skilled machine tool operators.
These craft workers begin by doing
the simpler jobs under close super­
vision. Usually 1 to 2 years or more
of instrument shop experience are
needed to qualify as instrument
Other instrument makers learn
their trade through apprenticeships
that generally last 4 years. A typical
4-year program includes 8,000
hours of shop training and 576
hours of related classroom instruc­
tion. Shop training emphasizes the
use of machine tools, handtools,
and measuring instruments, and the
working properties of various
materials. Classroom instruction
covers related technical subjects
such as mathematics, physics,
blueprint reading, chemistry, metal­
lurgy, electronics, and fundamental
instrument design. Apprentices
must learn enough shop mathe­
matics to plan their work and to use
formulas. A basic knowledge of
mechanical principles is needed in
solving gear and linkage problems.
For apprenticeship programs,
employers generally prefer high
school graduates who have taken
algebra, geometry, trigonometry,
science, and machine shopwork.
Further technical schooling in elec­

tricity, physics, machine design,
and electronics is often desirable,
and may make possible future
promotions to technician jobs.
Persons interested in becoming
instrument makers should be those
having a strong interest in mechani­
cal subjects and better-than average
ability to work with their hands.
They must have initiative and
resourcefulness because instrument
makers often work alone under
minimum supervision or none.
Since instrument makers often face
new problems, they must be able to
Frequently, they must visualize the
relationship between individual
parts and the complete instrument,
and must understand the principles
of the instrument’s operation.
Because of the nature of their jobs,
instrument makers have to be very
conscientious and take considera­
ble pride in creative work.
As instrument makers’ skills and
knowledge improve, they may ad­
vance to more responsible posi­
tions. For example, they may plan
and estimate time and material
requirements for the manufacture
of instruments or provide special­
ized support to professional person­
nel. Others may become super­
visors and train less skilled instru­
ment makers.
Employment Outlook

Job opportunities are expected to
be relatively scarce in the years
ahead. Some workers will be
needed to replace experienced in­
strument makers who retire, die, or
find other jobs, but replacement
needs will be small because so few
people are employed in this field.
Employment growth will create a
small number of additional job
makers is expected to increase at a
slower rate than the average for all
occupations through the mid1980’s. Some additional workers
will be needed to make models of

new instruments for mass produc­
tion and also to make custom or
special instruments, particularly in
the expanding field of industrial au­
tomation. Also, more versatile and
sensitive precision instruments can
be expected to emerge from current
research and development pro­
grams. Laborsaving technological
innovations, however, will limit em­
ployment growth. Numerically con­
trolled machine tools, for example,
reduce the amount of labor
required in machining operations.
Earnings and Working

Earnings of instrument makers
compare favorably with those of
other highly skilled metalworkers.
In 1973-74, instrument makers
generally earned between $5 and
$7 an hour.
Instrument shops usually are
clean and well-lighted, with tem­
peratures strictly controlled. Instru­
ment assembly rooms are some­
times known as “white rooms,” for
almost sterile conditions are main­
Serious work accidents are not
common, but machine tools and fly­
ing particles may cause finger,
hand, and eye injuries. Safety rules
generally require the wearing of
special glasses, aprons, tightly fitted
clothes, and short-sleeved shirts.
Many instrument makers are
union members. Among the unions
representing them are the Interna­
tional Association of Machinists
and Aerospace Workers; the Inter­
national Brotherhood of Electrical
Workers; the International Union,
United Automobile, Aerospace,
and Agricultural Implement Work­
ers of America.
Sources of Additional

See list under this same heading
in the statement on all-round
machinists elsewhere in the Hand­

(D.O.T. 602., 603., 604., 605.,
and 606.)
Nature of the Work

Many machine tool operators do
simple, repetitive jobs that can be
learned quickly on one or two types
of machine tools. Other more
skilled workers do complex and
varied machining operations on
several different machine tools.
Typically, semiskilled operators
place rough metal stock in a
machine tool on which the speeds
and operation sequence already
have been set. By using special,
easy-to-use gauges they watch the
machine and make minor adjust­
ments. However, they depend on
skilled machining workers for
major adjustments when their
machine is not working properly.
Skilled machine tool operators
plan and set up the correct
sequence of machining operations
according to blueprints, layouts, or
other instructions. They adjust
speed, feed, and other controls, and
select the proper cutting instru­
ments or tools for each operation.
Using micrometers, gauges, and
other precision measuring instru­
ments, they check the completed
work with the tolerance limits given
in the specifications. They also may
select cutting and lubricating oils to
cool metal and tools during machin­
ing operations.
Operators use lathes, drill
presses, and automatic screw
machines. They also use boring,
grinding, and milling machines.
Both skilled and semiskilled opera­
tors have job titles related to the
kind of machine they operate, such
as engine lathe operator, milling
machine operator, and drill press
Places of Employment

About 600,000 machine tool
operators were employed in 1974,

Operator adjusts machine that drills and reams rifle parts.

mainly in factories that produce
fabricated metal products, trans­
portation equipment, and machin­
ery in large quantities. Skilled
machine tool operators worked in
production departments, main­
tenance departments, and tool­
Machine tool operators work in
every State and in almost every city
in the United States. However, they
are concentrated in major industrial
areas such as the Great Lakes Re­
gion: About one-fourth of all
machine tool operators work in the
Great Lakes cities of Detroit, Flint,
Chicago, Cleveland, and Milwau­
kee. Among the other areas that
have large numbers of these work­
ers are Los Angeles, Philadelphia,
St. Louis, and Indianapolis.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most machine tool operators
learn their skills on the job. Begin­
ners usually start by observing
skilled operators at work. When
trainees first operate a machine,
they are supervised closely by more
experienced workers. Beginners
learn how to use measuring instru­
ments and to make elementary
computations needed in shopwork.
They gradually acquire experience
and learn to operate a machine
tool, read blueprints, and plan the
sequence of machining work.
Individual ability and effort large­
ly determine the time required to
become a machine tool operator.
Most semiskilled operators learn

their jobs in a few months, but a
skilled operator often requires 1to 2
years. Some companies have formal
training programs for new em­
Although no special education is
required for semiskilled jobs, per­
sons seeking such work can im­
prove their opportunities by
completing courses in mathematics
and blueprint reading. In hiring
beginners, employers often look for
persons with mechanical aptitude
and some experience working with
machinery. Physical stamina is im­
portant since much time will be
spent standing. Applicants should
be able to work independently
within a relatively small work area.
Although much of the work is tedi­
ous, many machine tool operators
derive satisfaction from seeing the
results of their work.
Skilled machine tool operators
may become all-round machinists,
tool and diemakers, or advance to
jobs in machine programming and
Employment Outlook

Job opportunities for machine
tool operators should be fairly plen­
tiful in the years ahead. Because
this is a large occupation, many
openings arise due to the need to
replace operators who retire, die, or
transfer to other fields of work.
Some openings also will result from
employment growth, although em­
ployment of machine tool operators
is expected to grow more slowly
than the average for all occupations
through the mid-1980’s.
More machine tool operators will
be needed as metalworking indus­
tries expand their output. However,
the use of faster and more versatile
automatic machine tools and nu­
merically controlled machine tools
will result in greater output per
worker and tend to limit employ­
ment growth. Other factors that
may slow the growth in this occupa­
tion are the increasingly important
new processes in metal removal,

such as electrical discharge and ul­
trasonic machining, and the use of
powdered metals that reduce the
machining necessary for a final
Workers with thorough back­
grounds in machining operations,
mathematics, blueprint reading,
and a good working knowledge of
the properties of metals will be
better able to adjust to the changing
job requirements that will result
from technological advances.

long to unions, including the Inter­
national Association of Machinists
and Aerospace Workers; the Inter­
national Union, United Automo­
bile, Aerospace, and Agricultural
Implement Workers of America;
the International Union of Electri­
cal, Radio and Machine Workers;
the International Brotherhood of
Electrical Workers; and the United
Steelworkers of America.
Sources of Additional

Earnings and Working

See the list under this same head­
ing in the statement on All-round
Machine tool operators are paid Machinists elsewhere in the Hand­
according to hourly or incentive book.
rates, or on the basis of a combina­
tion of both methods. Skilled opera­
tors averaged $5.67 an hour in
1973-74, according to a survey of
metropolitan areas. By comparison,
nonsupervisory workers in private
(D.O.T. 600.380)
industry, except farming, averaged
$4.05. Average hourly rates in 14 of
Nature of the Work
the areas surveyed, selected to
show how wage rates of machine
Setup workers, often called
tool operators differ in various parts machine tool job setters, are skilled
of the country, appear in the ac­ specialists employed in plants and
companying tabulation.
machine shops that do machining in
large volume. Their main job is to
Hourly rate prepare machine tools for use
(setup), and to explain to
semiskilled workers the operations
San Francisco-Oakland.................
to be performed and ways to check
the accuracy of the work. Usually
Los Angeles-Long Beach..............
setup workers are assigned a
Portland. Oreg..................................
number of machine tools that are of
one type, such as turret lathes.
Minneapolis-St. Paul......................
However, they may set up several
different kinds. Working from
specifications, or job layouts, they
Waterbury. Conn.............................
determine the rate at which the
Worcester. Mass..............................
material is to be fed into the
Tampa-St. Petersburg....................
machines, operating speeds, tool­
Most shops are clean and work­ ing, and operation sequence. They
places are well-lighted. Machine then select and install the proper
tool operators must use protective cutting or other tools and adjust
glasses and may not wear loose- guides, stops, and other controls.
fitting garments when working They may make trial runs and ad­
around high-speed machine tools. just the machine and tools until the
Most machine tool operators be­ parts produced conform to specifi-

cations. The machine is then turned
over to a semiskilled operator.
Places of Employment

Most of the estimated 50,000
setup workers in 1974 were em­
ployed in factories that manufac­
tured fabricated metal products,
transportation equipment, and
machinery. These workers usually
were employed by large companies
that employed many semiskilled
machine tool operators. They are
not usually employed in main­
tenance shops or in small jobbing
Setup workers are found in every
State. However, employment is
concentrated in major industrial
areas such as Los Angeles, Philadel­
phia, New York, Chicago, Detroit,
and Cleveland.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Setup workers must qualify as all­
round machinists. They must be
able to operate one or more kinds
of machine tools and select the
sequence of operations so that
metal parts will be made according
to specifications. The ability to
communicate clearly is important
in explaining the machining opera­
tions to semiskilled workers. Setup
workers may advance within a shop
or transfer into other jobs, such as
parts programmer.
Employment Outlook

Employment of setup workers is
expected to increase more slowly
than the average for all occupations
through the mid-1980’s. Although
consumer and industrial demand
for machined goods will grow,
partly offsetting this will be greater
productivity of setup workers due
to the increasing use of numerically
controlled machined tools. Most
job opportunities will arise from the
need to replace experienced work­
ers who retire, die, or transfer to
other occupations.

Set-up worker prepares machine for operation.

Earnings and Working

Sources of Additional

The earnings of setup workers
compare favorably with those of
other skilled machining workers. In
1973-74, setup workers generally
earned between $5 and $6 an hour.
Good safety habits are important
since setup workers are exposed to
high-speed machine tools that have
sharp cutting edges.
Many setup workers are mem­
bers of unions, including the Inter­
national Association of Machinists
and Aerospace Workers; the Inter­
national Union, United Automo­
bile, Aerospace, and Agricultural
Implement Workers of America;
and the United Steelworkers of

See list under this same heading
in the statement on all-round
machinists elsewhere in the Hand­

(D.O.T. 601.280, .281, and .381)
Nature of the Work

Tool-and-die makers are highly
skilled, creative workers whose
products—tools, dies, and special

guiding and holding devices—are
used to mass-produce metal parts.
Toolmakers produce jigs and fix­
tures (devices that hold metal while
it is shaved, stamped, or drilled).
They also make gauges and other
measuring devices for manufactur­
Diemakers construct metal forms
(dies) to shape metal in stamping
and forging operations. They also
make metal molds for diecasting
and for molding plastics. Tool-anddie makers repair worn or damaged
dies, gauges, jigs, and fixtures, and
design tools and dies.
Compared with most other
tool-anddie makers have a broader
knowledge of machining opera­
tions, mathematics, and blueprint
reading, and do precise handwork.
Tool-and-die makers use almost
every type of machine tool and
precision measuring instrument.
They work and are familiar with the
machining properties of metals and
alloys commonly used in manufac­

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Tool-and-die making skills can be
obtained through formal ap­
prenticeship or equivalent on-thejob training. Applicants should
have a good working knowledge of
mathematics and physics, as well as
considerable mechanical ability,
finger dexterity, and an aptitude for
precise work.
In selecting apprentices, most
employers prefer persons with a
high school or trade school educa­
tion. Some employers test ap­
prentice applicants to determine
their mechanical aptitudes and
their abilities in mathematics.
Most of the 4 years of a tool and
die apprenticeship are spent in
practical shop training. Apprentices
learn to operate the drill press,

milling machine, lathe, grinder, and
other machine tools. They also
learn to use handtools in fitting and
assembling tools, gauges, and other
mechanical equipment, and study
heat treating and other metalwork­
ing processes. Classroom training
consists of shop mathematics, shop
theory, mechanical drawing, tool
designing, and blueprint reading.
Several years of experience after
apprenticeship are often necessary
to qualify for more difficult tooland-die work. Some companies
have separate apprenticeship pro­
grams for toolmaking and die­
Some machining workers be­
come tool-and-die makers without
completing formal apprenticeships.
After years of experience as skilled
machine tool operators or machin­
ists, plus additional classroom train-

Places of Employment

In 1974, about 170,000 tool-anddie makers were employed, primar­
ily in plants that produce manufac­
turing, construction, and farm
machinery. Others worked in au­
tomobile, aircraft, and other trans­
portation equipment industries;
small tool-and-die shops; and elec­
trical machinery and fabricated
metal industries.
Although tool-and-die makers
are situated throughout the country,
jobs are most plentiful in areas
where many large factories are
located. About one-fifth of all tooland-die makers work in the Detroit
and Flint, Chicago, and Los An­
geles areas, which are major manu­
facturing centers for automobiles,
machinery, and aircraft, respective­
ly. Among the other areas that have
large numbers of these workers are
Cleveland, New York, Newark,
Dayton, and Buffalo.

Tool and die maker must have a broad knowledge of machining operations.

ing, they develop into all-round
workers who can skillfully perform
tool-and-die making.
Tool-and-die makers may be­
come tool designers or advance to
supervisory positions. Some open
their own tool-and-die shops.
Employment Outlook

Employment of tool-and-die
makers is expected to increase at
about the same rate as the average
for all occupations through the mid1980’s. Besides the job openings
from employment growth, many
openings will arise as experienced
tool-and-die makers retire, die, or
transfer to other fields of work.
The long-range expansion in
metalworking industries will result
in a continued need for tools and
dies. The growth of this occupation
may be limited, however, by the use
of electrical-discharge machines
machines that have significantly
changed toolmaking processes. Nu­
merically controlled machining
operations require fewer of the spe­
cial tools and jigs and fixtures, and
could increase the output of each
tool-and-die maker.

As a group, tool-and-die makers
have a long working life, because
their extensive skills and knowledge
can be acquired only after many
years of experience. Tool-anddie makers also have greater occu­
pational mobility than other less
skilled workers, and can transfer to
other machining occupations.
Earnings and Working

Tool-and-die makers are among
the highest paid machining work­
ers. Tool-and-die makers averaged
$5.98 an hour in 1973-74, accord­
ing to a survey of metropolitan
areas. This was almost one and onehalf times as much as the average
for all nonsupervisory workers in
private industry, except farming.
Average hourly rates in 14 of the
areas surveyed, selected to show
how wage rates for tool-and-die
makers differ in various parts of
the country, appear in the accom­
panying tabulation.
As with other machining work­
ers, tool-and-die makers wear pro­
tective glasses when working
around metal cutting machines.
Tool-and-die shops are usually


Hourly rate

San Francisco-Oakland.................
New York.........................................
Los Angeles-Long Beach..............
Salt Lake City..................................
Worcester. Mass..............................


safer than similar operations in
production plants.
Many tool-and-die makers are
members of unions, including the
International Union, United Au­
tomobile, Aerospace, and Agricul­
tural Implement Workers of Amer­
ica; and the United Steelworkers of
Sources of Additional

See list under this same heading
in the statement on All-round
Machinists elsewhere in the Hand­


In 1974, almost 400,000 printing
craft workers were employed to
produce newspapers, magazines,
business forms, and hundreds of
other printed materials. Although
most worked for publishers and
commercial printing shops, many
had jobs in insurance companies,
paper mills, government agencies,
and many other organizations that
do their own printing.
Printing craft workers usually
specialize in one area of printing
operations: Type composition,
platemaking, presswork, or binding.
The most common way to learn the
skills needed in most of these fields
is through apprenticeship, which
generally lasts from 4 to 6 years.
Apprenticeship applicants usually
must be high school graduates who
are at least 18 years of age, but
requirements vary among em­
ployers. Most printing craft workers
who are covered by union contracts
work fewer than 40 hours a week.
Some contracts specify a standard
workweek of less than 35 hours, but
most fall within a 35- to 37-1/2hour range.
Through the mid-1980’s, oppor­
tunities to enter printing crafts will
stem mainly from the need to
replace experienced workers who
retire, die, or leave the field for
other reasons. Employment growth
also will provide job openings in
some crafts, but laborsaving
technological developments will
restrict growth in others.
The statements that follow deal
with employment opportunities for
the major groups of printing work­
ers: Composing room occupations,
photoengravers, electrotypers and
stereotypers, printing press opera­

tors and assistants, lithographic
occupations, and bookbinders.

In many binding shops much of
the work is done by bindery work­
ers who are trained in only one
operation or in a small number of
relatively simple tasks. For exam­
ple, bindery workers perform such
tasks as fastening sheets or signa­
tures together using a machine sta­
pler and feeding signatures into
various machines for stitching, fold­
ing, or gluing operations.
Places of Employment

Nature of the Work

About 35,000 bookbinders were
employed in 1974. Many work in
shops that specialize in bookbind­
ing; others work in the bindery de­
partments of book publishing firms,
commercial printing plants, and
large libraries. Some bookbinders
work for the Federal Government
Although bookbinders work in all
parts of the country, employment is
concentrated in large printing cen­
ters such as New York, Chicago,
Los Angeles, and Washington, D.C.

Many printed items, such as
books and magazines, must be
folded, sewed, stapled, or bound
after they leave the printing shops.
Much of this work is done by skilled
bookbinders (D.O.T. 977.781).
Edition-binding—making books
in quantity from big, flat printed
sheets of paper—is the most com­
Training and Other
plicated kind of binding. Bookbind­
ers first fold the printed sheets into
one unit or more, known as a
A 4- or 5-year apprenticeship,
“signature,” so that the pages will which includes on-the-job training
be in the right order. They then in­ as well as related classroom instruc­
sert any illustrations that have been tion, generally is required to qualify
printed separately, gather and as­ as a skilled bookbinder. Ap­
semble signatures in proper order, prenticeship applicants usually
and sew them together. They shape must have a high school education,
the book bodies with presses and mechanical aptitude, and be at least
trimming machines and reinforce 18 years of age. During the ap­
them with glued fabric strips. prenticeship, trainees learn to asCovers are glued or pasted onto the
book bodies, and then the books
undergo a variety of finishing
operations and frequently are
wrapped in paper jackets. Machines
are used extensively throughout the
Skilled bookbinders seldom per­
form all the different binding tasks,
but many have had training in all of
them. In large shops, skilled book­
binders may be assigned to one or a
few operations, most often to the
operation of complicated machines,
such as rounding and cutting

semble signatures; to renovate old,
worn bindings; and to use various
binding machines, such as puncher
and folders.
Most unskilled bindery hands
learn their tasks through informal
on-the-job training which may last
from several months to 2 years. A
few learn through formal ap­
prenticeship programs that include
classroom instruction as well as onthe-job training.

hourly rate for bindery workers was
Bookbinding shops tend to be
noisy when machinery is operating.
Bookbinders have some variety in
their jobs, but the jobs of bindery
workers tend to be monotonous.
Most bindery workers are mem­
bers of The Graphic Arts Interna­
tional Union.

Employment Outlook

Details about apprenticeship and
other training opportunities may be
obtained from local bookbinding
shops, local offices of the Graphic
Arts Union, or the local office of
the State employment service.
For general information on book­
binding occupations, write to:

Employment of bookbinders and
bindery workers is expected to in­
crease slower than the average for
all occupations through the mid1980’s. Most job openings will arise
as experienced workers retire, die,
or change occupations.
Despite the anticipated growth in
the amount of bound printed
materials, employment growth will
be limited by the increasing
mechanization of bindery opera­
tions. For example, the use of in­
tegral folders which automatically
fold pages as they come off the
press eliminates the need for bind­
ery workers to do the folding by
Earnings and Working

Wage rates for skilled bookbind­
ers tend to be below the average
for other printing crafts. A survey
of union wage rates in 69 large cit­
ies showed that the minimum wage
rates for bookbinders in publishing
firms and bookbinding shops
averaged about $6.63 an hour in
1974. This rate was about half
above the average for nonsupervisory workers in all private indus­
tries, except farming.
The wage rates for bindery work­
ers are considerably lower than
the rates for bookbinders, and are
among the lowest for printing in­
dustry workers. A survey of union
wages in 69 large cities shows that
in 1974 the average minimum

Sources of Additional

American Newspaper Association, 11600
Sunrise Valley Dr., Reston, Va. 20041.
Graphic Arts Technical Foundation, 4615
Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 15213.
The Graphic Arts International Union, 1900
L St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.
Printing Industries o f America, Inc., 1730 N.
Lynn St., Arlington, Va. 22201.

(D.O.T. 650.582, 654.782, and
Nature of the Work

The printing process begins in a
composing room when manuscript
copy is set in type, proofed, and
checked for errors. Machine and
handset type and other materials
such as pasteups and photoen­
gravings are assembled and
prepared for the pressroom.
Hand compositors ( typesetters)
(D.O.T. 973,381) make up the old­
est composing-room occupation.
Today most type that is set by hand
is for work that requires special
composition—usually larger size
type for advertising copy—and for

small jobs in which the setting of
type by machine would be impracti­
To set type, the compositor reads
from the manuscript copy and sets
each line of type in a “composing
stick” (a device that holds type in
place) letter by letter and line by
line. When this stick is full, the
compositor slides the completed
lines onto a shallow metal tray
called a “galley.”
Typesetting machine operators are
craft workers who operate semi-au­
tomatic machines which set type
much more rapidly than hand
methods. Many of these workers
specialize in operating linotype,
keyboard, casting, or photo­
typesetting machines.
Linotype (or intertype) machine
operators (D.O.T. 650.582), read­
ing from the copy clipped to the
machine’s copy board, select letters
and other characters by operating a
keyboard which has 90 keys. As
they press the keys, the letters, in
forms of metal molds, are assem­
bled into lines of words. As they
complete each line, the operators
touch a lever and the machine auto­
matically casts the line of type into
a solid metal strip called a “ slug.”
The slugs are assembled into the
type forms from which either the
printing impressions or printing
plates are made. Nearly all
newspaper plants, large commercial
shops, and typographic composi­
tion firms use these machines to set
type. In small plants, operators also
may maintain and repair typesetting
Monotype keyboard operators
keyboards which are similar to
typewriters, but which have about
four times as many keys. The
keyboard machine produces a per­
forated paper tape that later is fed
into the casting machine by mono­
type caster operators (D.O.T.
654.782). The machine reads the
tape and automatically selects the
metal molds for each letter. Molten
metal is forced into molds to form

Linotype operators set type.

the type. Caster operators insert the
tape, adjust and tend the machine
while it is operating, and do minor
maintenance and repair work.
Phototypesetting machine opera­
tors (D.O.T. 650.582) operate high
speed typesetting machines. In
phototypesetting, a photographic
process replaces the function of the
hot metal, and the final product is a
film or photographic print of the
type rather than a metal slug. In a
common kind of phototypesetting,
perforated paper tape or a magnetic

tape is fed into a machine which
reads the tape and photographs the
individual characters indicated on
the tape.
In a more advanced type of
phototypesetting, a cathode-ray
tube operator controls a machine
which generates characters from in­
formation stored in a computer and
displays them on a screen that is
similar to a TV picture tube. The
characters, as they appear on the
face of the screen, are picked up by
the lens and exposed onto photo­
graphic film or paper. These
machines can turn out several
thousand characters a second and
compose entire pages instead of a
line at a time.
In addition to machine operation,
phototypesetters must be familiar
with the fundamentals of photog­

procedures, to develop the film.
They also make minor repairs on
the phototypesetting machine.
Much of this equipment has elec­
tronic controls and operators need
a basic knowledge of the principles
of electronics.
Typesetting machine operators
also use machines similar to
typewriters to set “coldtype” on
paper. “ Coldtype” composition
may be set directly on a paper or
metal sheet from which the plate is
to be made, or the cold type images
may be cut from paper and pasted
on layout sheets. The process of as­
sembling and pasting this type on
layout sheets is called paste
makeup, and is somewhat similar to
hand composition. Coldtype com­
position frequently is used by
newspapers for display advertising,
and to set regular text copy.
Places of Employment

About 165,000 workers were em­
ployed in composing room occupa­
tions in 1974. About one-third
work for newspaper plants. Many
others work for commercial print­
ing plants, book and magazine print­
ers, and Federal, State, and local
governments. Some work for banks,
insurance companies, advertising
agencies, manufacturers, and other
firms that do their own printing.
Composing room workers are
located in almost every community
throughout the country, but they
are concentrated in large cities.
Training and Other

Most compositors get their skills
through apprenticeship training.
Others learn while working as shop
helpers for several years, or through
a combination of trade school and
helper experience.
Generally, apprenticeship covers
a 6-year period of progressively ad­
vanced training, supplemented by
classroom instruction or correspon­

dence courses. However, this
period may be shortened by as
much as 2 to 2-1/2 years for ap­
prentices who have had previous
experience or schooling or who
show the ability to learn the trade
more rapidly.
After basic training as a hand
compositor, the apprentice receives
intensive training in one specialized
field or more, such as in the opera­
tion of typesetting machines, in­
cluding phototypesetting and tele­
typesetting machines, as well as in
specialized work in hand composi­
tion and photocomposition.
Applicants for apprenticeship
generally must be high school grad­
uates and in good physical condi­
tion. They usually are given ap­
titude tests. Important qualifica­
tions include training in mathe­
matics and English, especially
spelling. Printing and typing cours­
es in vocational or high schools are
good preparation for apprentice­
ship applicants, and a general
background in electronics and
photography is becoming increas­
ingly useful. Artistic ability is an
asset for a compositor in layout
Tape-perforating machine opera­
tors must be expert typists. Many
technical institutes, junior colleges,
and colleges offer courses in print­
ing technology, which provide a
valuable background for people
who are interested in becoming
compositors. They generally learn
to type in commercial courses in
high school or in business school.
These operators do not need to be
trained as skilled compositors but
they must be familiar with printing
terms and measurements. The
training period for tape perforating
machine operators is about a year.
Employment Outlook

Employment in composing-room
occupations is expected to decline
through the mid-1980’s. Neverthe­
less, a few thousand job openings
are expected each year as ex­

perienced workers retire, die, or
change occupations.
In spite of the anticipated expan­
sion in the volume of printing, em­
ployment in composing room occu­
pations is expected to decline
because of the trend to high-speed
phototypesetting and typesetting
computers. These high speed
machines require fewer operators
than the traditional hot metal
method of typesetting.
For the jobs that do become
available, opportunities should be
best for persons who have
completed post high school pro­
grams in printing technology, such
as those offered by technical in­
stitutes and junior colleges. Many
employers prefer to hire applicants
who have completed these pro­
grams because the comprehensive
training that they receive helps
them Jearn composing room trades
and adapt to new processes and
techniques more rapidly.
Although most job opportunities
will continue to be in the printing
industry, a growing number will be
found in other industries, such as
paper and textile mills, which are
doing their own typesetting instead
of contracting it to printing firms.
Earnings and Working

Union compositors on the day
shift in newspaper plants had an
estimated average minimum rate of
$6.86 an hour in 1974, according to
a survey of 69 large cities. This rate
was about one-half more than the
average for nonsupervisory workers
in all private industries, except
Working conditions for composi­
tors vary from plant to plant. Some
heat and noise are made by
typesetting machines. In general,
the new plants are well-lighted and
clean, and many are air-condi­
tioned. Hand compositors have to
stand for long periods and do some
heavy lifting. People with some
types of physical handicaps, such as

or stereotyping from flat type
Electrotypers make a wax or
plastic mold of the metal type form
Sources of Additional
which is coated with chemical solu­
tions before being placed in an elec­
Details about apprenticeship and trolytic bath containing metal. This
other training opportunities may be leaves a metallic shell on the coated
obtained from local employers, mold. The shell is stripped from the
such as newspapers and printing mold, backed with metal or plastic,
shops, the local office of the Inter­ and carefully finished.
national Typographical Union, or
The stereotyping process is sim­
the local office of the State employ­ pler, quicker, and less expensive
ment service.
than electrotyping, but it does not
For general information on com­ yield as durable or as fine a plate.
posing room occupations, write to:
Stereotypers make molds or mats of
American Newspaper Publishers Associa­ papermache instead of wax or
tion, 11600 Sunrise Valley Dr., Reston, plastic. The mat is placed on the
Va. 20041.
type form and covered with a cork
Graphic Arts Technical Foundation, 4615
blanket and a sheet of fiberboard.
Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 15213.
The covered form is run under
International Typographic Composition As­ heavy steel rollers to impress the
sociation, Inc., 2233 Wisconsin Ave.
type and photoengravings on the
NW„ Washington, D.C. 20007.
mat. Then the mat is placed in a
Printing Industries of America, Inc., 1730 N.
stereotype casting machine which
Lynn St., Arlington, Va. 22201.
casts a composition lead plate on
the mold. In many of the larger
plants, automatic machines cast
stereotype plates.
Some electrotypers and stereo­
typers do only one phase of the
work, such as casting, molding, or
finishing. Others handle many
Nature of the Work
Electrotypers (D.O.T. 974.381)
Places of Employment
and stereotypers (D.O.T. 975.782)
make duplicate press plates of
About 4,000 electrotypers and
metal, rubber, and plastic for letterpress printing. These plates are stereotypers were employed in
made from the metal type forms 1974. Many electrotypers work in
prepared in the composing room. large plants that print books and
Electrotypes are used mainly in magazines. Most stereotypers work
book and magazine work. Stereo­ for newspaper plants, but some
types, which are less durable, are work in large commercial printing
used chiefly for newspapers. Elec­ plants. Electrotypers and stereotypers also are employed in service
trotyping and stereotyping are
shops which do this work for print­
necessary because most volume ing firms.
printing requires the use of
Jobs in these trades can be found
duplicate plates. When a large edi­
throughout the country, but em­
tion of a magazine or newspaper is
ployment is concentrated in large
printed, several plates must be used cities.
to replace those which become too
worn to make clear impressions.
Training and Other
Furthermore, many big plants use
rotary presses which require curved
plates made by either electrotyping
Nearly all electrotypers and
deafness, have been able to work in
the trade.

stereotypers learn their trades
through 5- to 6-year apprentice­
ships. Electrotyping and stereotyp­
ing are separate crafts and relative­
ly few transfers take place between
the two. The apprenticeship pro­
gram of each trade covers all phases
of the work and almost always in­
cludes classes in related technical
subjects as well as training on the
Apprenticeship applicants must
be at least 18 years of age and, in
most instances, must have a high
school education or its equivalent.
If possible, this education should in­
clude courses in chemistry and
machine shop. Physical examina­
tions and aptitude tests usually are
given to prospective apprentices.
Employment Outlook

Job opportunities for electro­
typers and stereotypers are ex­
pected to be scarce through the
mid-1980’s. Despite the anticipated
increase in the volume of printing,
employment of electrotypers and
stereotypers is expected to decline
because of labor saving develop­
ments. For example, automatic
plate casting eliminates many steps
in platemaking. The use of plastic
printing plates also requires less
labor because such plates are more
durable and reduce the demand for
duplicate plates. Furthermore, the
greater use of offset printing
reduces the need for electrotype
and stereotype plates, which are not
needed in offset printing.
Earnings and Working

In 1974, union minimum wage
rates in 69 large cities averaged
$6.22 an hour for electrotypers and
$6.69 an hour for stereotypers in
book and commercial printing
shops. Both averages were con­
siderably higher than the average
for nonsupervisory workers in all
private industries, except farming.
Much of the work in these trades
requires little physical effort since

the preparation of duplicate print­
ing plates is highly mechanized.
However, some lifting of relatively
heavy press plates occasionally is
Nearly all electrotypers and
stereotypers are members of the In­
ternational Printing and Graphic
Communication’s Union.
Sources of Additional

Details about apprenticeship and
other training opportunities may be
obtained from local employers,
such as newspapers and printing
shops, the local office of the Inter­
national Printing and Graphic Com­
munications Union, or the local of­
fice of the State employment ser­
For general information on elec­
trotypers and stereotypers, write to:
American Newspaper Publishers Associa­
tion, 11600 Sunrise Valley Dr., Reston,
Va. 20041.
Graphic Arts Technical Foundation, 4615
Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 15213.
International Printing and Graphic Commu­
nications Union, 1730 Rhode Island
Ave. NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.
Printing Industries of America, 1730 N.
Lynn St., Arlington, Va. 22201.

Nature of the Work

operators, artists, and letterers,
strippers, platemakers, and press
972.382) start the process of mak­
ing a lithographic plate by
photographing and developing
negatives of the copy. They
generally are classified as line
camera operators, halftone opera­
tors, or color separation photog­
raphers. Negatives may need
retouching to lighten or darken cer­
tain parts. Lithographic artists
(D.O.T. 972.281) make these cor­
rections by sharpening or reshaping
images on the negatives. They do
the work by hand, using chemicals,
dyes, and special tools. Like camera
operators, they are assigned to only
one phase of the work, and may
have job titles such as dot etchers,
retouchers, or letterers.
Strippers (D.O.T. 971.281) ar­
range and paste film or prints of
type and artwork on the layout
sheets from which photographic im­
pressions are made for the pressplates.
972.781) cover the surface of the
plates with a coating of photosensi­
tive chemicals, or the plate may
come with the coating already ap­
plied. After exposing the sensitized
plate to the negative, they chemi­
cally treat the plate to bring out the
photographic image.
(D.O.T. 651.782) tend lithographic
(offset) printing presses. They in­
stall plates on the presses and adjust
the pressure and water and ink roll­
ers for correct operation. Basically,
the duties of these workers are
similar to those of letterpress and
gravurepress operators.

Lithography, also called offset
printing, is one of the most rapidly
growing methods of printing. It is a
process of photographing the
matter to be printed, making a
printing plate from the photograph,
Places of Employment
and pressing the inked plate against
a rubber plate which in turn presses
Nearly 85,000 skilled litho­
it onto the paper.
graphic workers were employed in
Several operations are involved 1974. Many work for commercial
in lithography, and each is per­ printing plants, newspapers, and
formed by a specialized group of book and magazine printers. Some
workers. The main group of litho­ work for the U.S. Government
graphic workers includes camera Printing Office.

response to the continued growth of
offset printing. Commercial print­
ing firms and newspaper publishers
increasingly are using offset presses
in place of letterpresses. Employ­
ment growth also will be stimulated
by the greater use of photographs
and drawings in printed matter, and
by the more widespread use of
color in many printed products.
should be best for people who have
completed post high school pro­
grams in printing technology, such
as those offered by technical in­
stitutes and junior colleges. Many
employers prefer to hire applicants
who have completed these pro­
grams because the comprehensive
training that they receive helps
them learn lithographic trades and
adapt more rapidly to new
processes and techniques.
Earnings and Working

Although lithographic workers
are located in all parts of the
country, most are employed in large
Training and Other

A 4- or 5-year apprenticeship
program usually is required in order
to become a well-rounded litho­
graphic craft worker. These pro­
grams may emphasize a specific
craft, such as platemaker or press
operator, although an attempt is
made to make the apprentice
familiar with all lithographic opera­
Usually, apprenticeship appli­
cants must be in good physical con­
dition, high school graduates, and
at least 18 years of age. Aptitude
tests usually are given to prospec­
tive apprentices to determine if
they are suited for the work.

Many technical institutes, junior
colleges and colleges offer 2-year
programs in printing technology,
which provide a valuable back­
ground for persons who are in­
terested in learning lithographic
crafts. High school and vocational
school training in printing, photog­
raphy, mathematics, chemistry,
physics, and art also are helpful.
Employment Outlook

A survey of union wages in 69
large cities shows that in 1974 the
average minimum wages for litho­
graphic artists was about $7.90; for
platemakers $7.59; and for press
operators $7.81. These rates were
higher than the average for all nonsupervisory workers in private in­
dustries, except farming.
Lithographic workers are on
their feet much of the time, but the
work is not strenuous. They are
sometimes under pressure to meet
publication deadlines.
Most lithographic workers are
members of the Graphic Arts Inter­
national Union. A large number of
offset press operators are members
of the International Printing and
Graphic Communications’ Union of
North America.

Employment of skilled litho­
graphic workers is expected to in­
crease faster than the average for
all occupations through the mid1980’s. In addition to the job
openings resulting from employ­
Sources of Additional
ment growth, the need to replace
workers who retire, die, or change
occupations will provide some
Details on apprenticeship and
other training opportunities in
Employment of lithographic lithographic occupations are availa­
workers is expected to increase in ble from local employers, such as

newspapers and printing shops,
local offices of the union previously
mentioned, or the local office of the
State employment service. For in­
formation on schools that offer
courses in printing technology,
write to:
Graphic Arts Technical Foundation, 4615
Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 15213.

For general information on litho­
graphic occupations, write to:
American Newspaper Publishers Associa­
tion, 11600 Sunrise Valley Dr., Reston,
Va. 20041.
Graphic Arts International Union, 1900 L St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.
International Printing and Graphic Commu­
nications’ Union North America, 1730
Rhode Island Ave. NW., Washington,
D .C .20036.
National Association of Printers and Lithog­
raphers, 570 7th Ave., New York, N.Y.
Printing Industries of America, Inc., 1730 N.
Lynn St., Arlington, Va. 22201.

(D.O.T. 971.281 and .382)
Nature of the Work

Photoengravers make metal print­
ing plates of pictures and other
copy that cannot be set up in type.
In letterpress photoengraving, ink is
rolled over the printed surface
which stands higher than the rest of
the plate. When paper is pressed
against the raised surface, the print
or image is picked up. Similarly,
gravure cylinders on which the
image is etched below the surface
of the cylinder. Ink is placed in the
etched or sunken areas, and when
paper is pressed against the surface
the ink is lifted out and appears on
the paper.
In the making of a photoengrav­
ing plate for the letterpress process,
the entire job may be done either by
one worker or by several, each
doing a particular operation, such
as camera work, printing, and

etching. In large shops, however, from touching the inking rollers
the work usually is divided among a during printing.
number of these specialists.
Gravure photoengraving is like
Photoengravers first photograph letterpress photoengraving, except
the material to be reproduced. that in gravure the image areas
After developing the negative, they rather than the background are
print the image on a metal plate by etched away.
coating the plate with a solution
sensitive to light and then exposing
Places of Employment
it to the negative. When the plate is
placed in an acid bath, the
An estimated 17,000 skilled
nonimage areas are etched away photoengravers were employed in
and the image areas stand out.
1974. More than half work in com­
The number of photoengraving mercial shops that make photoen­
operations performed depends on gravings for other printing firms.
the quality of the printing required. Newspapers and photogravure
Photoengravings for very high shops employ several thousand
quality books or periodicals, for ex­ photoengravers. Book and mag­
ample, require more careful finish­ azine printers and the Federal
ing than those for newspapers. Government also employ these
Photoengravers use handtools to in­ workers. Many photoengravers
spect and touch up the plates. They have their own shops.
Although photoengravers are
cut away metal from the nonprint­
ing part of the plate to prevent it located in all parts of the country,

employment is concentrated in
large printing centers, such as New
York, Chicago, Philadelphia, and
Los Angeles.
Training and Other

Most photoengravers learn their
trade through a 5-year apprentice­
ship program which includes at
least 800 hours of classroom in­
struction. Apprenticeship appli­
cants must be at least 18 years of
age and generally must have a high
school or vocational school educa­
tion or its equivalent, preferably
with courses in printing, chemistry,
and physics. Many employers
require a physical examination for
prospective photoengravers. Good
eyesight is particularly important
because of the close work and color
discrimination involved. Also, most
apprenticeship candidates have to
take an aptitude test to determine if
they have the potential to do the
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
photoengravers are expected to be
scarce in the years ahead. Despite
the growing use of photographs and
other illustrations in publications,
employment of photoengravers will
decline as many firms switch from
letterpress to offset printing, which
requires no photoengraving. Also,
new technological advances such as
color scanners and color enlargers
plus the trend toward automated
platemaking should reduce the
need for these workers. However, a
few hundred job openings are ex­
pected each year as experienced
photoengravers retire, die, or
change occupations.
Earnings and Working

Union photoengravers on the day
shift in newspaper plants had an
average minimum rate of $7.27 an
hour in 1974, according to a survey

of 69 large cities. This average was
about two-thirds more than the
average for nonsupervisory workers
in all private industries, except
Photoengravers stand up much of
the time, but the work is not strenu­
ous. Work areas usually are air-con­
ditioned and well-lighted. Most
photoengravers are members of the
Graphic Arts International Union.
Sources of Additional

Details about apprenticeship and
other training opportunities may be
obtained from local employers,
such as newspapers and printing
shops, the local office of the union
mentioned above, or the local
office of the State employment
For general information on
photoengravers, write to:
American Newspaper Publishers Associa­
tion, 11600 Sunrise Valley Dr., Reston,
Va. 20041.
American Photoplatemakers Association,
166 W. Van Buren St., Chicago, III.
Graphic Arts Technical Foundation, 4615
Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 15213.
Graphic Arts International Union, 1900 L St.
NW„ Washington, D.C. 20036.
Printing Industries of America, Inc., 1730 N.
Lynn St., Arlington, Va. 22201.

(D.O.T. 651.782, .885. and .886)
Nature of the Work

Printing operations are per­
formed in a pressroom. Printing
press operators prepare type forms
and press plates for final printing
and tend the presses.
The object of preparation work is
to insure printing impressions that
are distinct and uniform. This
operation may be performed by

placing pieces of paper exactly the
right thickness underneath low
areas of the press plates to level
them. Press operators also* adjust
control margins and the flow of ink
to the inking roller. In some shops,
they oil and clean the presses and
make minor repairs. Press opera­
tors who work with large presses
have assistants and helpers.
Press operator’s jobs may differ
from one shop to another, mainly
because of differences in the kinds
and sizes of presses. Press operators
generally operate relatively simple
manual presses. On the other hand,
a crew of several operators and less
skilled workers run giant presses
used by the large newspaper,
magazine, and book printers. These
presses are fed paper in big rolls
called “ webs” up to 50 inches or
more in width. They print the paper
on both sides; cut, assemble, and
fold the pages; and count the
finished newspaper sections as they
come off the press.
Places of Employment

About 140,000 press operators
and assistants were employed in
1974. More than half work for com­
mercial printing shops and book
and magazine publishers. Many
others have jobs in newspapers
plants. Some press operators and
assistants work for banks, insurance
companies, manufacturers, and
other organizations that do their
own printing, such as Federal,
State, and local goverments.
Press operators and assistants can
find jobs throughout the country,
but employment is concentrated in
large cities.
Training and Other

Most press operators learn their
trade through apprenticeship, but
some workers learn as helpers or
press assistants. Others obtain their
skills through a combination of

expected to increase about as fast
as the average for all occupations
through the mid-1980’s. Despite
the increased use of faster and more
efficient presses, more press opera­
tors will be needed because of the
growth in the amount of printed
In addition to the jobs from em­
ployment growth, a few thousand
openings will arise each year as ex­
perienced workers retire, die, or
change occupations. Since more
firms are using web-offset presses,
the outlook for web-press operators
will be particularly good.
Although most job opportunities
will continue to be in the printing
industry, a growing number of
openings will be found in other in­
dustries, such as papermills, which
are doing more of their own presswork instead of contracting it to
printing firms.

Earnings and Working

A survey of union wages in 69
large cities, shows that in 1974 the
average minimum hourly rate for
color is essential for work on color newspaper press operators-inpresses. Physical strength and en­ charge was $7.33; for newspaper
durance are needed for work on press operators, $6.74; for book
some kinds of presses, where opera­ and job cylinder press operators,
tors lift heavy plates and stand for $6.73; and for book and job press
long periods.
assistants and feeders, $6.63. These
Since there are generally long rates were higher than the average
waiting lists for apprenticeship pro­ for all nonsupervisory workers in
grams, it is very difficult for a high private industries, except farming.
school graduate to obtain an ap­ Many press operators work night
prenticeship right out of school. shifts and receive extra pay.
Most people have to take a job as a
Pressrooms are noisy, and work­
press assistant or an an unskilled ers in certain areas frequently
laborer before being selected for an wear ear protectors. Press opera­
apprenticeship. It is not uncommon tors are subject to hazards when
for a person to work 2 or 3 years be­ working near machinery. At times,
fore beginning apprenticeship train­ they work under pressure to meet
Most pressroom workers are
covered by union agreements. The
principal union in this field is the In­
Employment Outlook
ternational Printing and Graphic
Employment of press operators is Communications’s Union.

Press operators cleaning and oiling presses.

work experience and vocational or
technical school training.
The length of apprenticeship and
the content of training depend large­
ly on the kind of press used in the
plant. The apprenticeship period in
commercial shops is 2 years for
press assistants, and 4 to 5 years for
press operators. In addition to onthe-job instruction, the apprentice­
ship includes related classroom or
correspondence school courses.
A high school or vocational
school education or its equivalent
generally is required for apprentice­
ship. Courses in printing provide a
good background. Because of
technical developments in the
printing industry, courses in
chemistry and physics also are help­
ful. Mechanical aptitude is impor­
tant in making press adjustments
and repairs. An ability to visualize

Sources of Additional

Details about apprenticeship and
other training opportunities may be
obtained from local employers,
such as newspapers and printing
shops, the local office of the union
mentioned above, or the local

office of the State employment
For general information about
press operators and assistants, write
American Newspaper Publishers Associa­
tion, 11600 Sunrise Valley Dr., Reston,
Va. 20041.

Graphic Arts Technical Foundation, 4615
Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 15213.
International Printing and Graphic Commu­
nications Union, 1730 Rhode Island
Ave. NW„ Washington, D C. 20036.
Printing Industries of America, Inc., 1730 N.
Lynn St., Arlington, Va. 22201.


Nature of the Work

Television sets, automobiles, and
refrigerators are typical of the
manufactured products that un­
dergo many assembly operations.
Assemblers put together the parts
for these and thousands of other
Many assemblers work on items
that move automatically past their
work stations on conveyors. In the
automobile industry one assembler
may start nuts on bolts, and the next
worker may tighten the nuts with
power-driven tools. These assem­
blers must complete their job within
the time it takes the part or product
to pass their work station. Others,
known as bench assemblers, put
together small parts to make subas­
semblies or small complete units. In
a rifle manufacturing plant a gun as­
sembler builds an entire rifle from a
collection of parts and subassem­
blies, and tests the moving parts to
make sure they function correctly.
Some assemblers, known as floor
assemblers, put together large,
heavy machinery or equipment on
shop floors, often fastening parts
with bolts, screws, or rivets.
Assemblers use many different
tools depending on the product and
the work they are doing. Pliers,
power drills, and wrenches are
among the common tools used.
Skilled assemblers work on the
more complex parts of subassem­
blies with little or no supervision,
and are responsible for the final as­
sembly of complicated jobs. Some

work with engineers and techni­
cians, assembling products that
these people have just designed.
These workers must know how to
read blueprints and other engineer­
ing specifications and use a variety
of tools and precision measuring in­
Places of Employment

About 1,140,000 assemblers
worked in manufacturing plants in
1974. Almost two-thirds were in
plants that made machinery and
motor vehicles. More than half of
all assemblers were employed in the
heavily industrialized States of
California, New York, Michigan, Il­
linois, Ohio, and Pennsylvania.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Inexperienced people can be
trained to do assembly work in a
few days or weeks. New workers
may have their job duties explained
to them by the supervisor and then
be placed under the direction of ex­
perienced employees. When new
workers have developed sufficient
speed and skill, they are placed ‘on
their own” and are responsible for
the work they do.
Employers seek applicants who
are physically fit and who can do
routine work at a fast pace. A high
school diploma usually is not
For some types of assembly jobs,
applicants may have to meet special
requirements. Some employers
look for applicants with mechanical

aptitude and prefer those who have
taken vocational school courses
such as machine shop. Good
eyesight, with or without glasses,
may be required if the assemblers
work with small parts. In plants that
make electrical • *and electronic
products, which may contain many
different colored wires, applicants
often are tested for color blindness.
As assemblers become more ex­
perienced they may progress to as­
sembly jobs that require more skill.
A few advance to skilled assembly
jobs. Experienced assemblers who
have learned many assembly opera­
tions and thus understand the con­
struction of a product may become
product repairers. These workers
fix assembled articles which inspec­
tors have ruled defective. Assem­
blers may also advance to inspector
and a few are promoted to super­
visor. Some assemblers become
trainees in skilled trades jobs such
as machinist.

Employment Outlook

Employment of assemblers is ex­
pected to increase about as fast as
the average for all occupations
through the mid-1980’s, with
thousands of openings each year.
Many job openings will also result
as workers retire, die, or transfer to
other occupations.
Manufacturing plants will need
more assemblers to produce goods
for the Nations’s growing economy.
Growth in population and personal
income will increase the demand
for consumer products such as au­
tomobiles and household ap­
pliances while business expansion
will increase the demand for indus­
trial machinery and equipment.
Most assemblers work in plants
that produce durable goods, such as
automobiles and aircraft, which are
particularly sensitive to changes in
business conditions and national
defense needs. Therefore, even
though employment is expected to
grow, jobseekers may find opportu­
nities scarce in some years.

Earnings and Working

Wage rates for assemblers ranged
from about $2 to $6 an hour in
1974, according to information
from a limited number of union
contracts. Most assemblers covered
by these contracts made between
$3 and $5.50 an hour. Some assem­
blers are paid incentive or
piecework rates and are en­
couraged to work more rapidly by
the prospect of higher earnings.
The working conditions of assem­
blers differ, depending on the par­
ticular job performed. Assemblers
of electronic equipment may put

together small components at a
bench in a room that is clean, well
lighted, and free from dust. Floor
assemblers of industrial machinery,
on the other hand, may install and
assemble heavy parts and be ex­
posed to contact with oil and
grease. Workers on assembly lines
may be under pressure to keep up
with the speed of the lines. Since
most assemblers only perform a few
steps in the assembly operation, as­
sembly jobs tend to be more
monotonous than other blue-collar
Many assemblers are members of
labor unions. These include the In­
ternational Association of Machin­

ists and Aerospace Workers; the In­
ternational Union of Electrical,
Radio and Machine Workers; the
International Union, United Au­
tomobile, Aerospace and Agricul­
tural Implement Workers of Amer­
ica; and the International Brother­
hood of Electrical Workers.
Source of Additional

Additional information about
employment opportunities for as­
semblers may be available from
local offices of the State employ­
ment service.

(D.O.T. 845.781)
Nature of the Work

Some assemblers do delicate work.

Automobile painters make old
and damaged motor vehicles “ look
like new.” These skilled workers
repaint vehicles that have lost the
luster of their original paint, and the
repaired portions of damaged vehi­
cles. (Production painters who
work for motor vehicle manufac­
turers are discussed elsewhere in
the Handbook.)
To prepare an automobile for
painting, painters or their helpers
rough-sand it to remove original
paint and rust. Painters then use a
spray gun to apply primer coats to
the automobile surface. After the
primer dries, they sand the surface
until it is smooth. For roughsanding, they usually use a pneumatic or
electric sander and a coarse grade
of sandpaper; final sanding may be
done by hand, using a fine grade of
Small nicks and
scratches that cannot be removed
by sanding are filled with automo­
bile body putty. Masking tape and
paper are used to cover areas not to
be painted.
Before painting repaired portions
of an automobile, painters may mix
paints to match the color of the car.

Auto painter prepares car for spray

Before applying paint, they adjust
the nozzle of the spray gun accord­
ing to the kind of lacquer or enamel
being used and, if necessary, adjust
the air-pressure regulator to obtain
the correct pressure. To speed dry­
ing, they may place the freshly
painted automobile under heat
lamps or in a special infrared oven.
Painters or their helpers may polish
the newly painted surface.
Places of Employment

About 25,000 persons worked as
automobile painters in 1974. Al­
most two-thirds worked in shops
that specialize in automobile
repairs. Most others worked for au­
tomobile and truck dealers. Some
painters worked for organizations
that maintained and repaired their
own fleets of motor vehicles, such
as trucking companies and buslines.
Painters are employed through­
out the county and are concen­
trated in metropolitan areas.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most automobile painters begin
their careers as helpers, and acquire
their skills informally by working
with experienced painters. Usually,
helpers remove automobile trim,
clean and sand surfaces to be
painted, and polish newly painted

surfaces. As helpers gain ex­
perience, they progress to more
complicated tasks, such as using
spray guns to apply primer coats
and paint small areas. To become a
fully qualified painter, 3 to 4 years
of on-the-job training usually are
A small number of automobile
painters learn through apprentice­
ship. Apprenticeship programs,
which generally last 3 years, consist
of on-the-job training supple­
mented by classroom instruction.
Young persons considering this
work as a career should have good
health, keen eyesight, and a good
color sense. Courses in automobilebody repair offered by high schools
and vocational schools provide
helpful experience. Completion of
high school is generally not a
requirement but may be an ad­
vantage, because to many em­
ployers high school graduation in­
dicates that a young person can
complete a job.
An experienced automobile
painter with supervisory ability may
advance to shop supervisor. Many
experienced painters with the
necessary funds open their own
Employment Outlook

Employment of automobile paint­
ers is expected to increase about as
fast as the average for all occupa­
tions through the mid-1980’s. In ad­
dition to jobs created by growth,
several hundred openings are ex­
pected each year because of the
need to replace experienced paint­
ers who retire or die. Openings also
will occur as some painters transfer
to other occupations.
Employment of automobile paint­
ers is expected to increase primari­
ly because more motor vehicles will
be damaged in traffic accidents as
the number of vehicles grows. Ac­
cident losses will grow, even though
better highways, lower speed limits,
driver training courses, and im­
proved bumpers and other safety

features on new vehicles may slow
the rate of growth.
Most persons who enter the oc­
cupation can expect steady work as
the automobile repair business is
not very vulnerable to changes in
economic conditions.
Job opportunities will be best in
metropolitan areas. Many shops in
small cities do not have enough
business to hire trainees.
Earnings and Working

Painters employed by automobile
dealers in 34 large cities had esti­
mated average hourly earnings of
$7.60 in 1974, compared with
$4.05, the average for all nonsupervisory workers in private industry,
except farming. Skilled painters
usually earn between two and three
times as much as inexperienced
helpers and trainees.
Many painters employed by au­
tomobile dealers and independent
repair shops receive a commission
based on the labor cost charged to
the customer. Under this method,
earnings depend largely on the
amount of work and how fast the
painter completes it. Employers
frequently guarantee their commis­
sioned painters a minimum weekly
salary. Helpers and trainees usually
are paid an hourly rate until they
become sufficiently skilled to work
on a commission basis. Painters em­
ployed by trucking companies,
buslines, and other organizations
that repair their own vehicles
usually receive an hourly rate. Most
painters work 40 to 48 hours a
Automobile painters are exposed
to fumes from paint and paintmix­
ing ingredients. However, in most
shops, the painting is done in spe­
cial ventilated booths that protect
the painters. Masks covering the
nose and mouth are used, also.
Painters must be agile because they
often bend and stoop while work­
ing. Many automobile painters be­
long to unions, including the Inter-

national Association of Machinists
and Aerospace Workers; the Inter­
national Union, United Automo­
bile, Aerospace Workers; the Inter­
national Union, United Automo­
bile, Aerospace and Agricultural
Implement Workers of America;
the Sheet Metal Workers’ Interna­
tional Association; and the Interna­
tional Brotherhood of Teamsters,
Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and
Helpers of America (Ind.). Most
painters who are union members
work for the larger automobile
dealers, trucking companies, and
Sources of Additional

For more details about work op­
portunities, contact local em­
ployers, such as automobile-body
repair shops and automobile
dealers; locals of the unions previ­
ously mentioned; or the local office
of the State employment service.
The State employment service also
may be a source of information
about apprenticeship and other
programs that provide training op­
For general information about
the work of automobile painters,
Automotive Service Industry Association,
230 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, 1 1
Automotive Service Councils of America,
Inc., 4001 Warren Blvd., Hillside, 1 1

(D.O.T. 356.381 and 610.381)
Nature of the Work

Years ago the village blacksmith
was as vital as the country doctor.
No one else could repair a broken
wagon wheel, shoe a horse, or forge
a tool to suit a farmer’s needs.
Power hammers and ready-made
horseshoes have made work easier,

but the blacksmith’s job has
remained basically the same.
To make or repair metal parts,
blacksmiths first heat the metal in a
forge to soften it. When the metal
begins to glow, they pick it up with
tongs, place it on the anvil, and
shape it with presses and power
hammers. Broken parts are rejoined
by hammering them together. The
blacksmith uses handtools such as
hammers and chisels to finish the
part, often reheating it in the forge
to keep it soft and workable.
To harden a finished part,
blacksmiths heat it to a high tem­
perature in the forge and then
plunge it into a water or oil bath. To
temper the part—make it less brit­
tle—they heat the metal to a lower
temperature for some time, and
then allow it to cool at room tem­
Industrial occupations which are
similar to blacksmith include forge

and hammer operator, welder, and
boilermaker. (These occupations
are discussed elsewhere in the
Blacksmiths who specialize in
shoeing horses are called farriers.
After removing the old shoe with
nail snippers and pincers, farriers
examine the horse’s hoof for bruises
and clean, trim, and shape the hoof.
When the hoof is ready they posi­
tion and nail a shoe on the hoof and
trim the hoof flush to the new shoe.
Today most farriers use ready-made
horseshoes, but they may have to
make or adjust shoes for a proper

Places of Employment

Of the nearly 9,000 blacksmiths
employed in 1974, almost twothirds worked in factories, rail­
roads, and mines. The remainder

worked in small shops, and most
were self-employed. Blacksmiths
work in all parts of the country—in
rural communities as well as in
large industrial centers.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Many beginners enter the occu­
pation by working as helpers in
blacksmith shops or large industrial
firms which employ blacksmiths.
Others enter through formal ap­
prenticeship programs and from re­
lated occupations such as forge
operator or hammer operator. Ap­
prenticeship programs usually last 3
or 4 years. The programs teach
blueprint reading, proper use of
tools and equipment, heat-treat­
ment of metal, and forging
methods. Most apprentices are
found in large industrial firms
rather than in small repair shops.
Vocational school or high school
courses in metalworking, and
blueprint reading are helpful to
young people interested in becom­
ing blacksmiths.
Courses in horseshoeing are
available at several schools. The
Cornell University School of
Veterinary Medicine in Ithaca,
N.Y., offers a 16-week (640-hour)
course, and shorter courses are of­
fered by Pennsylvania State Univer­
sity at State College, the University
of Maine at Orono, and Oklahoma
Horseshoeing School at Stillwater.
Blacksmiths must be in good
physical condition. Pounding metal
and handling heavy tools and parts
require considerable strength and
Opportunities for advancement
are limited, especially for black­
smiths who work in small re­
pair shops. However, blacksmiths
may advance to be supervisors or
inspectors in factories, or to open
their own repair shops. Blacksmiths
also may be able to transfer to re­
lated occupations such as forge,
hammer, and press operator.

Employment Outlook

Employment of blacksmiths is ex­
pected to decline through the mid1980’s. Forge shops are using
machines to produce many of the
metal articles that were formerly
handmade by blacksmiths. In addi­
tion, welders are doing much of the
metal repair work once done by
blacksmiths. Nevertheless, some
job openings will occur as ex­
perienced blacksmiths retire, die,
or transfer to other occupations.
Employment of farriers may in­
crease slightly due to the growing
popularity of horses for recreation.
Since this is a small occupation,
however, relatively few job
openings will become available.

tunities in this trade, contact local
blacksmith shops and local offices
of the State employment service.

Nature of the Work

In any organization, someone has
to be boss. For the millions of
workers who assemble television
sets, service automobiles, lay
bricks, unload ships, or perform any
of thousands of other activities, a
blue-collar worker supervisor is the
boss. These supervisors direct the
activities of other employees and
frequently are responsible for see­
Earnings and Working
ing that millions of dollars worth of
equipment and materials are used
In union contracts covering a efficiently.
number of blacksmiths in steel worker supervisors are most com­
plants, railroad shops, and in the monly known as foremen or
shipbuilding and petroleum indus­ forewomen, they also have many
tries, hourly pay ranged from $4 to other titles. In the textile industry
$7.50 in 1974.
they are referred to as second
Blacksmith shops tend to be hot hands; on ships they are known as
and noisy, but conditions have im­ boatswains; and in the construction
proved in recent years because of industry they are often called over­
large ventilating fans and less vibra­ seers, straw bosses, or gang leaders.
Although their titles differ
Blacksmiths are subject to burns between industries, the job of all
from forges and heated metals and blue-collar worker supervisors is
cuts and bruises from handling similar. They tell other employees
tools. Safety glasses, metal-tip what jobs are to be done and make
shoes, face shields, and other pro­ sure the jobs are done correctly.
tective devices have helped to For example, loading supervisors at
reduce injuries.
truck terminals assign workers to
Many blacksmiths are members load trucks and check that the
of the International Brotherhood of material is loaded correctly. In
Boilermakers, Iron Shipbuilders, some cases, supervisors also do the
Blacksmiths, Forgers and Helpers. same work as other employees. This
representing is especially true in the construction
blacksmiths include the United industry where, for example,
Steelworkers of America, the In­ bricklayer supervisors also lay
dustrial Union of Marine and Ship­ brick.
building Workers of America, and
Because they are responsible for
the International Union of Jour­ the output of other workers, super­
neymen Horseshoers.
visors make work schedules and
keep production and employee
Sources of Additional
records. They use considerable
judgment in planning and must
For details about training oppor­ allow for unforeseen problems such

ment is distributed in much the
same way as population, jobs are
located in all cities and towns.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Blue-collar worker supervisor checks production records.

as absent workers and machine
breakdowns. Teaching employees
safe work habits and enforcing
safety rules and regulations are
other supervisory responsibilities.
They also may train new em­
In addition to their other duties,
blue-collar worker supervisors tell
their subordinates about company
plans and policies, reward good
workers by making recommenda­
tions for wage increases, awards, or
promotions, and deal with poor
workers by issuing warnings or
recommending that they be fired or
laid off without pay for a day or
more. In companies where em­
ployees belong to labor unions, su­
pervisors may meet with union

representatives to discuss work
problems and grievances. They
must know the provisions of labormanagement contracts and run
their operations according to these
Places of Employment

About 1,460,000 blue-collar
worker supervisors were employed
in 1974. Although they work for al­
most all businesses and government
agencies, over half work in manu­
facturing, supervising the produc­
tion of cars, washing machines, or
any of thousands of other products.
Most of the rest work in the con­
struction industry and in wholesale
and retail trade. Because employ­

When choosing superyisors, em­
ployers generally look for ex­
perience, skill, and leadership
qualities. Employers place special
emphasis on the ability to motivate
employees, command respect, and
get along with people. Completion
of high school is often the minimum
educational requirement, and 1 or 2
years of college or technical school
can be very helpful to workers who
want to become supervisors.
Most supervisors rise through the
ranks—that is, they are promoted
from jobs where they operated a
machine, or worked on an assembly
line, or at a construction craft. This
work experience gives them the ad­
vantage of knowing how jobs
should be done and what problems
may arise. It also provides them
with insight into management poli­
cies and employee attitudes
towards these policies. Supervisors
are sometimes former union
representatives who are familiar
with grievance procedures and
union contracts. To supplement this
work experience, larger companies
usually have training programs to
help supervisors make management
decisions. Smaller companies often
use independent training organiza­
tions or written training materials.
Although fewer than one-tenth of
all blue-collar worker supervisors
are college graduates, a growing
number of employers are hiring
trainees with a college or technical
school background. This practice is
most prevalent in industries with
processes, such as the chemical, oil,
and electronics industries. Em­
backgrounds in business adminis­
tration, industrial relations, mathe­
matics, engineering, or science. The
trainees undergo on-the-job train­

ing until they are able to accept su­
pervisory responsibilities.
Supervisors with outstanding
ability, particularly those with col­
lege education, may move up to
higher management positions. In
manufacturing, for example, they
may advance to jobs such as depart­
ment head and plant manager.
Some supervisors, particularly in
the construction industry, use the
experience and skills they gain to go
into business for themselves.
Employment Outlook

worker supervisors is expected to
increase at about the same rate as
the average for all occupations
through the mid-1980’s. In addi­
tion, many job openings will arise as
experienced supervisors retire, die,
or transfer to other occupations.
Population growth and rising in­
comes will stimulate demand for
goods such as houses, air condi­
tioners, TV sets, and cars. As a
result, more blue-collar workers
will be needed to produce and sell
these items, and more supervisors
will be needed to direct their activi­
ties. Although most of these super­
visors will continue to work in
manufacturing, a large part of the
increase in jobs will be due to the
expansion of nonmanufacturing in­
dustries, especially in the trade and
service sectors.
There is usually keen competi­
tion for supervisory jobs. Com­
petent workers who possess leader­
ship ability and have a few years of
college are the most likely to be

generally are determined by the
wage rates of the highest paid wor­
kers they supervise. Some compa­
nies keep wages of supervisors
about 10 to 30 percent higher than
those of their subordinates.
Since supervisors are responsible
for the work of other employees,
they generally work more than 40
hours a week and are expected to
be on the job before other workers
arrive and after they leave. They
sometimes do paperwork at home
and may find themselves worrying
about job-related problems after
Working conditions vary from in­
dustry to industry. In factories, su­
pervisors may get dirty around
machinery and materials and have
to put up with noisy factory opera­
Some supervisors who have
limited authority may feel isolated,
neither a member of the work force
nor an important part of manage­
ment. On the other hand, super­
visors have more challenging and
prestigious jobs than most blue-col­
lar workers.

workers and fitters help make the
parts for these vessels, and boiler­
makers assemble them.
Layout workers (D.O.T. 809.381
and .781) follow blueprints in
marking off lines on metal plates
and tubes. These lines serve as
guides to other workers in the shop
who cut and shape the metal.
Layout workers use compasses,
scales, gauges, and other devices to
make measurements. Their mea­
surements must be precise because
errors may be difficult or impossi­
ble to correct once the metal is cut.
Before the boiler parts are assem­
bled, fitters (D.O.T. 819.781) see
that they fit together properly.
These workers bolt or tackweld the
parts into place temporarily and
alter those that do not line up ac­
cording to blueprints. To make al­
terations, they use drills, grinders,
welding machines, cutting torches,
and other tools.
Boilermakers (D.O.T. 805.281)
assemble and erect large boilers in
shops and at the construction sites
where these vessels will be used.
They lift heavy metal parts into
place with rigging equipment such
as hoists and jacks, and weld or
Sources of Additional
rivet the parts together. After a
boiler is completed, they test it for
A bibliography of career litera­ leaks and other defects.
ture on management occupations is
Boilermakers also do repair jobs.
available from:
After finding the cause of the trou­
ble, they may dismantle the boiler,
American Management Association, 135
West 50th St., New York, N.Y. 10020.
patch weak spots with metal stock,
replace defective sections with new
parts, or strengthen joints. Installa­
tion and repair work often must
meet State and local safety stand­
Nature of the Work

Earnings and Working

In 1974 average earnings of bluecollar worker supervisors who
worked full time were $13,249,
compared with $10,975 for workers
in all occupations. Supervisors
usually are salaried and are not paid
Their salaries

Places of Employment

Boilers, vats, and other large ves­
sels that hold liquids and gases are
essential to many industries.
Boilers, for example, supply the
steam that drives the huge turbines
in electric utility plants and ships.
Tanks and vats are used to process
and store chemicals, oil, and hun­
dreds of other products. Layout

About 45,000 boilermakers,
layout workers, and fitters were em­
ployed in 1974. Of these, several
thousand boilermakers worked in
the construction industry, mainly to
assemble and erect boilers and
other pressure vessels. Boiler­
makers also were employed in the
maintenance and repair depart­

ments of iron and steel plants,
petroleum refineries, railroads,
shipyards, and electric powerplants.
Large numbers worked in Federal
Government installations, prin­
cipally in Navy shipyards and
Federal powerplants. Layout work­
ers and fitters worked mainly in
plants that make fire-tube and
water-tube boilers, heat exchan­
gers, heavy tanks, and similar
Boilermaking workers are em­
ployed throughout the country, but
employment is concentrated in
highly industrialized areas, such as:
New York, Philadelphia, Chicago,
Pittsburgh, Houston, San Fran­
cisco, and Los Angeles.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Many people have become
boilermakers by working for several
years as helpers to experienced
boilermakers, but most training
authorities agree that a formal ap­
prenticeship is the best way to learn
this trade. Apprenticeship pro­
grams usually consist of 4 years of
on-the-job training, supplemented
by about 150 hours of classroom in­
struction each year in subjects such
as blueprint reading, shop mathe­
matics, and welding.
Most layout workers and fitters
are hired as helpers and learn the
craft by working with experienced
employees. It generally takes at
least 2 years to qualify as an ex­
perienced layout worker or fitter.
When hiring apprentices or help­
ers, employers prefer high school
or vocational school graduates.
Courses in shop, mathematics,
blueprint reading, welding, and
metalworking provide a useful
background for all boilermaking
jobs. Most firms require applicants
to pass a physical examination
because good health and the
capacity to do heavy work are
necessary in these jobs. Mechanical
aptitude and manual dexterity also
are important qualifications.

Layout workers and fitters may
become boilermakers or advance to
shop supervisors. Boilermakers may
become supervisors for boiler in­
stallation contractors; a few may go
into business for themselves.
Employment Outlook

hourly rates ranging from about
$4.50 to $10. Generally, layout
workers earned more than boiler­
makers, and boilermakers earned
more than fitters.
When assembling boilers or mak­
ing repairs, boilermakers often
work in cramped quarters or at
great heights. Some work also must
be done in damp, poorly ventilated
places. Boilermaking is more
hazardous than many other metal­
working occupations. Employers
and unions attempt to eliminate in­
juries by promoting safety training
and the use of protective equip­
ment, such as safety glasses and
metal helmets.
Most boilermaking workers be­
long to labor unions. The principal
union is the International Brother­
hood of Boilermakers, Iron Ship­
builders, Blacksmiths, Forgers and
Helpers. Some workers are mem­
bers of the Industrial Union of
Marine and Shipbuilding Workers
of America; the Oil, Chemical and
Atomic Workers International
Union; and the United Steelworkers
of America.

Employment in boilermaking oc­
cupations is expected to increase
faster than the average for all occu­
pations through the mid-1980’s. In
addition to the job openings result­
ing from employment growth, many
openings will arise each year as ex­
perienced workers retire, die, or
transfer to other fields of work.
The construction of many new
electric powerplants, especially
nuclear plants, will create a need
for additional boilers and will cause
layout workers, and fitters to in­
The expansion of other industries
which use boiler products, such as
the chemical, petroleum, steel, and
shipbuilding industries, will further
increase the demand for these
Many of the industries which
Sources of Additional
purchase boilers are sensitive to
economic conditions. Therefore,
during economic downturns some
For further information regard­
boilermakers, fitters, and layout
ing boilermaking apprenticeships or
workers may be laid off.
other training opportunities, con­
tact local offices of the unions
Earnings and Working
previously mentioned, local con­
struction companies and boiler
According to a national survey of manufacturers, or the local office of
workers in the construction indus­ the State employment service.
try, union wage rates for boiler­
makers averaged $8.60 an hour in
1974, compared with $8.16 for all
building trades.
Comparable wage data were not
available for boilermakers em­
(D.O.T. 951.885)
ployed in industrial plants. How­
ever, wage rates were available
Nature of the Work
from union contracts that cover
Boiler tenders operate and main­
many boilermakers, layout workers,
and fitters employed in fabricated tain the steam boilers that power in­
plate work and the petroleum and dustrial machinery and heat facto­
shipbuilding industries in 1974. ries, offices, and other buildings.
Most of these contracts called for Qualified tenders may be responsi-

Boiler tenders check meters and gages to determine if boilers are functioning

ble for inspecting boiler equipment,
lighting boilers, and maintaining
steam pressure.
In most plants, boiler tenders
operate mechanical devices that
control the flow of air, gas, oil, or
coal into fireboxes. They read me­
ters and other instruments to deter­
mine if boilers are functioning safe­
ly. They sometimes make minor
repairs, and test and treat boiler
water with chemicals. They also
may operate waste heat boilers
which burn trash and other solid
Boiler tenders often are super­
vised by stationary engineers who
operate and maintain a variety of
equipment, including boilers, diesel
and steam engines, and refrigera­
tion and air-conditioning systems.
(Additional information on sta­
tionary engineers appears else­
where in the Handbook .)

Places of Employment

About one-half of the 90,000
boiler tenders employed in 1974
worked in factories. Plants that
manufacture lumber, iron and steel,
paper, chemicals, and stone, clay,
and glass products are among the
leading employers of boiler tenders.
Public utilities also employ many of
these workers. Many others were
employed by hospitals, schools, and
Federal, State, and local govern­
Although boiler tenders are em­
ployed in all parts of the country,
most work in the more heavily
populated areas where large manu­
facturing plants are located.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Some large cities and a few States
require boiler tenders to be

licensed. An applicant can obtain
the knowledge and experience to
pass the license examination by first
working as a helper in a boiler
room. Applicants for helper jobs
should be in good physical condi­
tion and have mechanical aptitude
and manual dexterity. High school
courses in mathematics, motor
mechanics, chemistry, and blue­
print reading are also helpful to
persons interested in becoming
boiler tenders.
There are two types of boiler
tenders’ licenses— low and high
pressure boilers. Low pressure ten­
ders operate boilers generally used
for heating buildings. High pressure
tenders operate the more powerful
boilers and auxiliary boiler equip­
ment used to power machinery in
factories as well as heat large
buildings. Both high and low pres­
sure tenders, however, may operate
equipment of any pressure if a sta­
tionary engineer is on duty.
Due to regional differences in
licensing requirements, a boiler
tender who moves from one State
or city to another may have to pass
an examination for a new license.
However, the National Institute for
Uniform Licensing of Power En­
gineers is currently assisting many
State licensing agencies in adopting
uniform licensing requirements that
would eliminate this problem by
establishing reciprocity of licenses.
Boiler tenders may advance to
stationary engineers. To help them
advance, they sometimes supple­
ment their on-the-job training by
taking courses in chemistry,
physics, blueprint reading, electrici­
ty, and air-conditioning and
refrigeration. Boiler tenders also
Employment Outlook

Employment of boiler tenders is
expected to decline through the
mid-1980’s as more and more new
boilers are equipped with automatic
controls. Nevertheless, a few

thousand openings will result each
year from the need to replace ex­
perienced tenders who retire, die,
or transfer to other occupations.
Earnings and Working

Boiler tenders had average
hourly earnings of $4.63, according
to a survey of metropolitan areas in
1973-74. This was the average for
all nonsupervisory workers in
private industry, except farming.
The average for tenders in in­
dividual areas ranged from $3 in
Greenville, S.C., to $6.31 in
Detroit, Mich.
Modern boiler rooms usually are
clean and well lighted. However,
boiler tenders occasionally may
have to work in awkward positions
and be exposed to noise, heat,
grease, fumes, and smoke. They
also are subject to burns, falls, and
injury from moving machinery. De­
fective boilers and auxiliary equip­
ment may be dangerous to tenders
and other persons. Modern equip­
ment and safety procedures, how­
ever, have reduced accidents.
The principal unions organizing
boiler tenders are the International
Brotherhood of Firemen and Oilers
and the International Union of
Operating Engineers.
Sources of Additional

Information about training or
work opportunities in this trade is
available from local offices of State
employment services, locals of the
International Brotherhood of Fire­
men and Oilers, and from State
and local licensing agencies.
Specific questions about the na­
ture of the occupation, training,
and employment opportunities may
be referred to:
International Brotherhood of Firemen and
Oilers, 200 Maryland Ave. NE.,
Washington, D.C. 20002.
International Union of Operating Engineers,
1125 17th St. NW„ Washington, DC.

Electroplater prepares to immerse helicopter parts in nickel solution.

For information concerning
reciprocity of boiler tenders’ licen­
ses among various cities and States,
National Institute for Uniform Licensing of
Power Engineers, 176 West Adam St.,
Suite 1911, Chicago, 1 60603.

(D.O.T. 500.380 and .781 through

Nature of the Work

Electroplaters use plating solu­
(electrolysis) to coat metal and
plastic articles with chromium,
nickel, silver, or other metal to give
the articles a protective surface or
an attractive appearance. Products
that are electroplated include items
as widely different as automobile
jewelry, electronic components,
and jet engine parts. Electroplaters
also make items such as spray paint
masks, turbine blades, and pen caps
through a process known as elec­
Skill requirements and work per­
formed vary by type of shop. All­
round platers in small shops analyze
solutions, do a great variety of plat­

ing, calculate the time and current
needed for various types of plating,
and perform other technical duties.
They also may order chemicals and
other supplies for their work.
Platers in larger shops usually
carry out more specialized assign­
ments that require less extensive
In preparing an article for elec­
troplating, platers may first cover
parts of it with lacquer, rubber, or
tape to keep these parts from being
exposed to the plating solution.
They then either scour the article or
dip it into a cleaning bath to remove
dirt and grease before putting it in
the solution. They may remove the
article from the solution from time
to time to make sure that work is
progressing satisfactorily.
Electroplaters must visually in­
spect their work for defects such as
minute pits and rodules. To deter­
mine the quality of the work, they
use micrometers, calipers, and elec­
tronic devices.
Places of Employment

In 1974 about 34,000 people
worked as electroplaters. About
half of them worked in shops that
specialized in metal plating and
polishing for manufacturing firms
and for other customers. The
remaining platers worked in plants

that manufactured plumbing fix­
tures, cooking utensils, household
appliances, electronic components,
motor vehicles, and other metal
products. Also the U.S. government
employs platers in a number of mili­
tary and civilian installations for
maintenance purposes.
Electroplaters work in almost
every part of the country, although
most work in the Northeast and
Midwest near the centers of the
metalworking industry. Large num­
bers of electroplaters work in Los
Angeles, San Francisco, Chicago,
New York, Detroit, Cleveland,
Providence, and Newark, N.J.

courses in electroplating. Young
persons who wish to become elec­
troplaters will find high school or
vocational school courses in
chemistry, electricity, physics,
mathematics, and blueprint reading
Employment Outlook

Metal Polishers, Buffers, Platers
and Helpers International Union.
Other platers have been organized
by the International Union, United
Agricultural Implement Workers of
America, and the International
Association of Machinists and
Aerospace Workers.

Sources of Additional
Employment of electroplaters is
expected to grow about as fast as
the average for all occupations
For additional information about
through the mid-1980’s. In addi­
job opportunities and training,
tion, many openings will result from
the need to replace experienced write to:
workers who retire, die, or transfer American Electroplaters Society, Inc., 56
Melmore Gardens, East Orange, N.J.
to other occupations.
Expansion of metalworking in­ National Association of Metal Finishers, 248
Training, Other Qualifications,
dustries and the electroplating of a
Lorraine Ave., Upper Montclair, N.J.
and Advancement
broadening group of metals and
Most electroplaters learn the plastics are expected to increase the
trade on the job by helping ex­ need for electroplaters. However,
perienced platers. It usually takes at employment growth will be
least 3 years to become an all-round somewhat restricted by mechaniza­
plater. Platers in large shops usually tion and the use of more efficient
are not required to have an all­ plating methods.
Forging is one of the oldest
round knowledge of plating, and
methods of working and shaping
can learn their jobs in much less
metals. The simplest way is the
Earnings and Working
hand forging done by a blacksmith.
A small percentage of elec­
Modern forge shops substitute
troplaters receive all-round training
Hourly wage rates for elec­ heavy power equipment and dies
by working 3 or 4 years as an ap­ troplaters ranged from $2.50 to (tools that shape metal) for the
prentice. Apprenticeship programs
$5.25 in 1974, according to the blacksmith’s hammer and anvil.
combine on-the-job training and re­ limited information available. Dur­ Five employees operating a large
lated classroom instruction in the ing apprenticeship or on-the-job forging machine can turn out more
properties of metals, chemistry, and training, a worker’s wage rate starts forgings in 1 hour than five
electricity as applied to plating. Ap­ at about 60 to 70 percent of an ex­ blacksmiths can make in a year.
prentices do progressively more dif­ perienced worker’s rate and
Forged metal is exceptionally
ficult work as their skill and progresses to the full rate by the strong and is used for many
knowledge increase. By the third or end of the training period.
products that must withstand heavy
fourth year, they determine clean­
Plating work involves some wear. Examples include automobile
ing methods, do plating without su­ hazards because acid, alkaline, and crankshafts, gears, wrenches, and
pervision, make solutions, examine poisonous solutions are used. Hu­ many aerospace equipment parts.
plating results, and direct helpers. midity and odor also are problems Most forgings are steel; but alu­
Qualified platers may become su­ in electroplating plants. However, minum, copper, brass, bronze, and
pervisors. Some electroplaters most plants have ventilation other metals are forged also.
become sales representatives for systems and other safety devices Forgings vary in weight from
metal products wholesalers or that have reduced occupational ounces to many tons.
hazards. Protective clothing and
A few people take a 1- or 2-year boots provide additional protec­
Nature of the Work
electroplating course in a junior tion. Generally, mechanical devices
college, technical institute, or voca­ are used for lifting, but at times the
Before metal can be shaped, it
tional high school. In addition, worker must lift and carry objects must be heated in intensely hot fur­
many branches of the American weighing up to 100 pounds.
naces (forges). Then workers
Electroplaters Society give basic
Some platers are members of the manipulate the glowing metal

between two metal dies that are at­
tached to power presses or ham­
mers. With tremendous force, the
hammers or presses pound or
squeeze the metal into the desired
shape. To finish the forging, other
workers remove rough edges and
excess metal and perform other
finishing operations such as heat
treating and polishing.
Two kinds of dies are used. The
open die, which is flat and similar to
the blacksmith’s hammer, is used
when only a limited quantity of
forgings or large-size forgings are
needed. The impression, or closed
die, which has a cavity shaped to
the form of the metal part, is used
to produce large quantities of
identical forgings.
Basic forge-shop equipment con­
sists of various types of power ham­
mers, power presses, dies, and fur­
naces. Forge-shop workers also use
handtools, such as hammers and
tongs, and measuring devices, such
as rules, scales, and calipers.
Descriptions of some major
forge-shop production occupations
Hammersmiths (D.O.T. 612.381)
direct the operation of open die
power hammers. They interpret
blueprints, drawings, and sketches
so that the part being forged will
meet specifications. They decide
the amount of hammer force and if
and when the metal needs addi­
tional heating.
determine how to work the metal
under the hammer and which tools
are needed to produce desired an­
gles and curves.
Hammersmiths head crews of
four or more workers. A hammer
driver or hammer runner regulates
the force of the forging blow. A
crane operator transfers the metal
from the furnace to the hammer
and manipulates it under the
hammer. A heater controls the fur­
nace that brings the metal to cor­
rect temperatures. One or more
helpers assist the crew as needed.
The duties of hammer operators
(D.O.T. 610.782), who operate im

Hammer operator shapes metal parts
with large power hammer.

pression die power hammers, are
similar to those of hammersmiths at
Generally, the bigger the hammer
and the larger or more intricate the
shape to be formed, the greater the
skill required of the operator. With
the assistance of helpers and
heaters, hammer operators set and
align dies in the hammers. They
control the force of the forging
blow, manipulate the metal under
the hammer, and determine if and
when the metal needs additional
Press operators (D.O.T. 611.782
and .885) control huge presses
equipped with either impression or
open dies that press and squeeze
hot metal rather than hammer or
pound it. They regulate machine
pressure and move the hot metal
between the dies. They also may
control the metal heating opera­
tions. Some operators set up the
dies in the presses. Their skills are
very similar to those of hammer­
smiths or hammer operators.
With the help of heaters and
several helpers, upsetters (D.O.T.

611.782) operate machines that
shape hot metal by applying
horizontal pressure. The heads of
nails and bolts, for example, are
made by upset forging.
Heaters (D.O.T. 619.782) con­
trol furnace temperatures. They
determine when the correct tem­
perature has been reached by ob­
serving the metal’s color and the
furnace’s temperature gauge. Using
tongs or mechanical equipment,
they transfer the hot metal from the
furnace to hammers or presses.
Some heaters clean furnaces.
Inspectors (D.O.T. 612.281) ex­
amine forged pieces for accuracy,
size, and quality. They use gauges,
micrometers, and calipers to mea­
sure forgings. Machines that test
strength and hardness and elec­
tronic testing devices also may be
Die sinkers (D.O.T. 601.280)
make the impression dies for the
forging hammers and presses.
Working from a blueprint, drawing,
or template, these skilled workers
make an outline of the object to be
forged on two matching steel
blocks. They form the object’s
shape in the blocks by using milling
machines and other machine tools
such as EDM (electrical discharge
machinery) and ECM (electrical
scrapers, grinders, and other handtools, die sinkers smooth and Finish
the die cavity. Finally, a sample is
prepared from the Finished cavity
and is checked against speciFications.
Many forge-shop workers clean
and Finish forgings. For example,
trimmers (D.O.T. 617.885) remove
excess metal with presses equipped
with trimming dies. Grinders
(D.O.T. 705.884) remove rough
edges with power abrasive wheels.
Sandblasters or shotblasters (D.O.T.
503.887) operate sandblasting or
shotblasting equipment that cleans
and smoothes forgings. Picklers
(D.O.T. 503.885) dip forgings in an
acid solution to remove surface
scale and reveal any surface de­

504.782) heat and cool forgings to
harden and temper the metal.
Places of Employment

In 1974, about 65,000 produc­
tion workers were employed in
forge shops. About three-fourths of
these worked in shops that make
and sell forgings. The remainder
worked in plants that use forgings in
their final products, such as plants
operated by manufacturers of au­
tomobiles, farm equipment, and
Although forge-shop workers are
found in all areas, they are concen­
trated near steel-producing centers
that provide the steel for forgings,
and near metalworking plants that
are the major users of forged
products. Large numbers of forgeshop workers are employed in and
around the cities of Detroit,
Chicago, Cleveland, Los Angeles,
and Pittsburgh.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most forge-shop workers learn
their skills on the job. They
generally join hammer or press
crews as helpers or heaters. As they
become experienced, they progress
to other jobs. Advancement to
hammersmith, for example, re­
quires several years of on-the-job
training and experience.
Some forge shops offer ap­
prentice training programs for
skilled jobs such as diesinker, heat
treater, hammer operator, hammer­
smith, and press operator. Ap­
prenticeships usually last 4 years.
These programs provide classroom
training and practical experience in
metal properties, power hammer
and furnace operation, hand tool
use, and blueprint reading.
Training requirements for inspec­
tors vary. Only a few weeks of onthe-job training are necessary for
those who make examinations
visually or with simple gauges.
Others who inspect forgings made

to exact specifications may need
some background in blueprint read­
ing and mathematics, and may be
given several months of training.
Employers usually require no
more than a grammar school educa­
tion for helpers and heaters, but
high school graduates are pre­
ferred. Young people interested
in more skilled forge-shop jobs
should complete high school and
take mathematics (especially ge­
ometry), drafting, and shopwork.
Although cranes are used to
move very large objects, forge-shop
workers must be strong enough to
lift and move heavy forgings and
dies. They need stamina and en­
durance to work in the heat and
noise of a forge shop.

Earnings and Working

Average hourly earnings of forgeshop production workers are higher
than the average for all manufactur­
ing production workers. In 1974,
production workers in iron- and
steel-forging plants averaged $5.81
an hour, compared with $4.40 an
hour for production workers in all
manufacturing industries.
Many forge shops have heat
deflectors and ventilating fans to
reduce heat and smoke. Improve­
ments in machinery and shop prac­
tices have reduced some noise and
vibration. Forge-shop occupations
are more hazardous than most
manufacturing occupations. Thus,
labor and management cooperate
Employment Outlook
to encourage good work practices
forge-shop through safety training and the
production workers is expected to required use of protective equip­
increase more slowly than the ment such as face shields, ear plugs,
average for all occupations through safety glasses, metal-toe shoes, hel­
the mid-1980’s. Some new jobs will mets, and machine safety guards.
Most forge-shop workers are
become available because of
union members. Many are members
growth, but most openings will arise
from the need to replace ex­ of the International Brotherhood of
perienced workers who retire, die, Boilermakers, Iron Shipbuilders,
Blacksmiths, Forgers and Helpers.
or transfer to other fields of work.
Others are members of the United
Employment will grow because
of expansion in industries that use Steelworkers of America; the Inter­
forgings, particularly automobile national Union, United Automo­
and energy-related industries. The bile, Aerospace and Agricultural
rapid expansion of nuclear power- Implement Workers of America;
plant construction will cause a great the International Association of
demand for forged piping and Machinists and Aerospace Work­
fittings. Likewise, many forged ers; and the International Die
drilling bits and other forged Sinkers Conference (Ind.).
products will be needed for oil
drilling and coal mining operations.
Sources of Additional
However, employment will not
keep pace with forge shop produc­
For information on employment
tion, because improved forging
opportunities in forging, contact
techniques and equipment will
result in greater output per worker. local offices of the State employ­
Employment in some forge shops ment service, personnel depart­
is sensitive to changes in economic ments of forge shops, locals of the
conditions. In shops that make au­ labor organizations listed above, or:
tomobile parts, for example, em­ The Forging Industry Association, 55 Public
Square, Cleveland, Ohio 44113.
ployment fluctuates with changes in
the demand for new cars; thus, jobs The Open Die Forging Institute, 120 E.
Ogden Ave., Hinsdale, III. 60521.
in these shops may be plentiful in
some years, scarce in others.

(D.O.T. 780.381)
Nature of the Work

Furniture upholsterers recondi­
tion sofas, chairs, and other uphol­
stered furniture. These craft work­
ers repair or replace fabrics,
springs, webbing, frames, and other
parts that are worn or damaged.
(Workers employed in the manu­
facture of upholstered furniture are
not included in this statement.)
To work at a convenient level,
upholsterers usually place the furni­
ture on which they are working on
padded wooden horses. Using tack
pullers or chisels and mallets, they
pull out the tacks holding the old
fabric. They may then remove the
padding and burlap to uncover the
springs. Broken or bent springs are
removed. If the webbing that holds
the springs in place is worn, the
workers remove all the springs and
the webbing. Upholsterers then
repair the frame, as well, by reglu­
ing loose sections and refinishing
exposed wooden parts.
In reupholstering furniture, they
first tack strips of webbing to the
frames. Next, they sew or staple
new springs to the webbing and tie
each spring to the adjoining ones,
securing the outside springs to the
frame. They use burlap, filling, and
padding to cover the springs, and
sew the padding to the burlap.
Finally, after covering the padding
with muslin and new upholstery
fabric, they attach these materials
to the frame and make sure
everything is smooth and tight.
They complete the job by sewing or
tacking on fringe, buttons, or other
Upholsterers use a variety of
handtools including tack and staple
removers, pliers, hammers, and
hand or power shears. They also use
special tools such as webbing
stretchers and upholstery needles.
They may also use sewing

Upholsterer covers frame and springs with burlap.

Sometimes upholsterers pick up
Geographically, upholsterers are
and deliver furniture. Those who distributed in about the same pro­
own and manage shops order sup­ portion as population, with the
plies and equipment, and keep busi­ highest concentration in metro­
ness records.
politan areas.
Places of Employment

About 34,000 people worked as
furniture upholsterers in 1974.
Over half worked in small uphol­
stery shops, most of which had from
1 to 10 employees. Many uphol­
sterers also worked for furniture
stores. A few worked for businesses
such as hotels, that maintain their
own furniture. Almost 1 out of
every 3 upholsterers is self-em­
ployed—a much higher proportion
than in most other trades.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

The most common way to enter
this trade is to start as a helper in an
upholstery shop and learn on the
job. Newly hired helpers remove
old fabric, padding, and springs,
and do other simple jobs. As they
gain experience, they do more com­
plex tasks such as installing
webbing and springs, and sewing on
fabric and trimming. A beginner
needs about 3 years of on-the-job

training to become a skilled uphol­
Inexperienced persons can learn
many skills of the trade by working
in furniture factories and doing dif­
ferent jobs related to furniture
upholstering. They may get valua­
ble training, also, in vocational or
high school courses that include
chair caning, furniture making, tex­
tile fabrics, and upholstery repair.
However, additional training and
experience in a shop are usually
required before these workers can
qualify as skilled upholsterers. A
few people learn the trade through
formal apprenticeship programs
that last from 3 to 4 years and in­
clude classroom instruction as well
as on-the-job training.
Young persons interested in
becoming upholsterers should have
good manual dexterity, coordina­
tion, and be able to do occasional
heavy lifting. An eye for detail,
good color sense, and a flair for
creative work are helpful.
Many upholsterers open their
own shops.
Employment Outlook

Employment of upholsterers is
expected to grow at a rate slower
than the average for all occupations
through the mid-1980’s. Most job
openings will arise because of the
need to replace experienced work­
ers who retire, die, or transfer to
other occupations.
More upholstered furniture will
be used as population, personal in­
come, and business expenditures
grow. But the demand for uphol­
sterers will be limited because fur­
niture is being constructed of fewer
upholstery materials, and because
more people are buying new furni­
ture instead of having old pieces
Earnings and Working

Based on limited information,
hourly wages for experienced furni­

ture upholsterers ranged from
$3.75 to $6 in 1974. Many self-em­
ployed upholsterers earned con­
siderably more. Wages for inex­
perienced trainees ranged from $2
to $3.60 an hour.
Upholsterers usually buy handtools, but employers provide power
Upholsterers generally work 40
hours a week, although overtime is
common during the weeks before
major holidays.
Many upholstery shops are spa­
cious, adequately lighted, and well
workshop’s air may be dusty when
padding and stuffing are being cut,
but precut materials have reduced
this problem. Upholsterers stand
while they work and also do a con­
siderable amount of stooping and
Sources of Additional

ders or blueprints and do calcula­
tions using decimals or common
fractions when measuring. They
sometimes use handtools, such as
screwdrivers, magnifying glasses,
and tweezers.
Skilled inspectors work under
general supervision, whereas semi­
skilled inspectors usually work
under close supervision. Generally,
skilled inspectors have greater dis­
cretion in accepting or rejecting
products, and are responsible for
inspecting the most important parts
of mass-produced goods. Skilled in­
spectors may also use a wider
variety of testing instruments.
Many inspectors count the items
rejected. When the number rises
above a certain level, they notify
their supervisors so that corrections
can be made on the production line.
Some inspectors make minor
repairs and adjustments and grade
products for quality.

Places of Employment
For more details on work oppor­
tunities for upholsterers, contact
About 790,000 inspectors were
local employers or the local office employed in 1974. Two-thirds
of the State employment service.
worked in plants that produced
durable goods such as machinery,
transportation equipment, elec­
tronics equipment, and furniture.
Others worked in plants that
produced goods such as textiles, ap­
parel, and leather products.
Inspectors worked in every part
Nature of the Work
of the country, although they are
Most products—including the concentrated in the industrialized
things we eat, drink, wear, and ride States. Almost two-thirds are found
in—are checked by inspectors in Ohio, New York, Michigan, Il­
sometime during the manufacturing linois, Pennsylvania, California,
process to make sure they are of the New Jersey, North Carolina, and
desired quality. Inspectors also Indiana.
check the quality of the raw materi­
als and parts that make up finished Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Inspectors use a variety of
Inspectors generally are trained
methods to make certain that
products meet specifications. They on the job for a brief period—from
may merely look for flaws, imper­ a few hours or days to several
fections, or defects; or they may use months, depending upon the skill
gauges, micrometers, and other in­ required.
Employers look for applicants
struments to examine parts and
materials. They may read work or­ who have good health and eyesight,

changes in business conditions, may
find jobs scarce in some years, plen­
tiful in others.
Earnings and Working

Inspector checks operation of washing machines.

can follow directions, and can con­
centrate on details. Applicants
should be able to get along with
people since inspectors work occa­
sionally as part of a team. A few
large companies give preemploy­
ment tests to check such skills as
the ability to work with numbers.
Some employers may hire appli­
cants who do not have a high school
diploma but who have qualifying
aptitudes or related experience.
Other employers
prefer ex­
perienced production workers for
inspection jobs.
Some semiskilled inspectors—
particularly in metalworking indus­
tries—who take courses, such as
blueprint reading and shop mathe­
matics, may advance to skilled in­
spectors or quality control techni­
cians. After acquiring sufficient ex­

perience and knowledge, a few
become supervisors.
Employment Outlook

Wages for inspectors ranged
from $2.30 to $6.30 an hour in
1974, according to information
from a limited number of union
contracts. Most inspectors covered
by these contracts earned between
$3 and $5.50 an hour.
Working conditions vary con­
siderably for inspectors. For exam­
ple, some have well lighted, air-con­
ditioned workplaces in an aircraft
or missile plant; others, who work
on the production floor of a
machinery or metal fabricating
plant, often are exposed to high
temperatures, oil, grease, and noise.
Many inspectors are members of
labor unions, including the Interna­
tional Union, United Automobile,
Aerospace and Agricultural Imple­
ment Workers of America; the In­
ternational Association of Machin­
ists and Aerospace Workers; the In­
ternational Union of Electrical,
Radio and Machine Workers; and
the International Brotherhood of
Electrical Workers.

Sources of Additional

Employment of inspectors is ex­
Information about employment
pected to increase faster than the
average for all occupations through opportunities in this field may be
the mid-1980’s, with thousands of available from local offices of the
openings each year. Most of the in­ State employment service.
The American Society for Quali­
dustries that employ these workers
are expected to increase their out­ ty Control certifies quality techni­
put and thus employment in the cians. For information about the
longrun. The growing complexity of test required for certification, write
manufactured products should also to:
result in a need for more inspectors. American Society for Quality Control, 161
Additional openings will result as
West Wisconsin Ave., Milwaukee, Wis.
workers retire, die, or transfer to
other occupations.
Inspectors seeking jobs in compa­
nies that produce durable goods,
which are particularly sensitive to

(D.O.T. 638.281)
Nature of the Work

Millwrights are skilled workers
who move and install heavy indus­
trial machinery. They must know
how to dismantle, reassemble, and
align complex equipment. To as­
semble machinery, millwrights fit
bearings, align gears and wheels, at­
tach motors, and connect belts.
They often construct concrete
foundations and platforms and
fabricate metal framework on
which machinery is mounted. Mill­
wrights must be able to read
blueprints and work with wood,
steel, concrete, and other building
To move machinery, millwrights

use hoists, jacks, wood blocking,
and other rigging devices. To
dismantle and assemble equipment,
they use wrenches and other handtools and portable power tools.
They also use calipers, squares,
plumb bobs, and other devices to
align and level machinery.
Millwrights employed by con­
tract installation and construction
companies do a variety of installa­
tion work. Those employed in fac­
tories usually specialize in installing
the particular types of machinery
used by their employers. They also
may maintain plant equipment such
as conveyors and cranes.
Many of the millwright’s duties
are also performed by industrial
machinery repairers. (See state­
ment on Industrial Machinery
Repairers elsewhere in the Hand­

Places of Employment

Most of the estimated 95,000
millwrights employed in 1974
worked for manufacturing compa­
nies; the majority were in transpor­
tation equipment, metal, paper,
lumber, and chemical products in­
dustries. Others worked for con­
tractors in the construction indus­
try. Machinery manufacturers em­
ployed a small number to install
equipment in customers’ plants.
Millwrights work in every State.
However, employment is concen­
trated in heavily industrialized
areas such as Detroit, Pittsburgh,
Cleveland, Buffalo, and ChicagoGary.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most millwrights start as helpers
to skilled workers and learn the
trade on the job. Others learn
through formal apprenticeship pro­
grams. Apprenticeship programs
generally last 4 years and include
training in dismantling, moving,
erecting, and repairing machinery.
Helpers also may work with
concrete and receive instruction in
related skills such as carpentry,
welding, and sheet metal work.
Classroom instruction is given in
shop mathematics, blueprint read­
ing, hydraulics, electricity, and
Applicants for apprentice or
helper jobs must be at least 17 years
old. Many employers prefer to hire
high school or vocational school
graduates. Courses in science,
mathematics, mechanical drawing,
and machine shop practice are use­
ful. Because millwrights often put
together and take apart com­
plicated machinery, mechanical ap­
titude is important. Strength and
ability also are important, because
the work requires considerable lift­
ing and climbing.
Employment Outlook

Millwrights work on heavy gear assembly.

Employment of millwrights is ex­

pected to increase about as fast as
the average for all occupations
through the mid-1980’s. Employ­
ment will increase as new plants are
built, as existing plant layouts are
improved, and as increasingly com­
plex machinery is installed and
maintained. Besides job openings
from employment growth, a few
thousand openings will arise an­
nually as experienced millwrights
retire, die, or transfer to other oc­

nies that manufacture and install tionist operates the movie projec­
machinery may have periods of tors and sound equipment.
unemployment. Frequently they
To show a feature-length movie,
work away from home.
projectionists use two projectors,
The work of millwrights involves sound equipment, a film rewinding
some hazards. For example, there machine, and seven reels of film or
are dangers of being struck by more. Before the movie begins,
falling objects or by machinery that they examine the film an$l check
is being moved. There also is the the equipment to see that it works
danger of falling from high work­ properly, and load the projectors
places. In addition, millwrights are with the first and second reels. Most
subject to usual shop hazards such projectors burn a carbon rod to
as cuts and bruises. Accidents have provide light for the screen. After
been reduced by the use of protec­ igniting and adjusting the rod, pro­
Earnings and Working
tive devices such as safety belts and jectionists start the first reel. If the
picture is out of focus or unsteady,
Most millwrights belong to labor they adjust the projector lens.
According to a 1973-74 survey of
A reel of film lasts 20 minutes or
unions, among which are the Inter­
metropolitan areas, hourly wages national Association of Machinists more. When the reel is almost
for millwrights averaged $5.76—
more than one-third higher than the and Aerospace Workers; United complete, cue marks (small circles
average wage for all nonsupervisory Brotherhood of Carpenters and in the upper right corner of the pic­
workers in private industry, except Joiners of America (construction ture) signal that it is time to start
farming. Earnings for millwrights in millwrights); United Steelworkers the second projector. After a
11 areas that represent various re­ of America; International Union, second series of cue marks appears,
gions of the country appear in the United Automobile, Aerospace and the projectionist simultaneously
Agricultural Implement Workers of closes the shutter on the first pro­
accompanying tabulation:
America; United Paperworkers In­ jector and opens the second one.
ternational Union; and the Interna­ This changeover happens so
Rate per hour,
tional Union of Electrical, Radio quickly that the audience does not
notice an interruption on the
and Machine Workers.
(all industries)
screen. Next, the projectionist
removes the first reel and rewinds it
Sources of Additional
on the rewinding machine. The en­
Los Angeles-Long Beach and
tire process is repeated until all the
Anaheim-Santa Ana-Garden
For further information on ap­ reels have been shown. When film
prenticeship programs, write to the breaks, the projectionist must
St. Louis................................................
Apprenticeship Council of the State rapidly rethread it so that the show
5.76 Labor Department, local offices of may continue.
Some new theaters have auto­
5.70 State employment service, local
firms employing millwrights and to: matic equipment that reduces the
Minneapolis-St. Paul......................
workload. Some
New Orleans.........................................
5.16 United Brotherhood of Carpenters and projectionist’s
Joiners of America, 101 Constitution
machines, for example, automati­
Ave. NW., Washington, D.C. 20001.
New Haven...........................................
cally change reels.
Projectionists clean and lubricate
Millwrights employed by con­
equipment, check for defective
struction companies usually have
parts and damaged film, and make
higher wage rates than those in
minor repairs and adjustments. For
manufacturing. The average hourly
example, they may replace a badly
rates for millwrights under union
worn projector sprocket. Major
(D.O.T. 960.382)
contracts in construction in 26 ci­
repairs are made by service techni­
ties ranged from $6.70 to $9.77 in
cians who specialize in repairing
Nature of the Work
projection and sound equipment.
Projectionists are key behindMillwrights employed by facto­
ries ordinarily work year round. the-scenes workers in motion pic­
Places of Employment
Millwrights employed by construc­ ture theaters. From a booth high in
An estimated 18,000 motion piction companies and those compa­ the back of the theater, the projec­

first learn simple tasks such as
threading and rewinding film, and
as they gain experience, progress to
more difficult assignments, such as
adjusting and repairing equipment.
An apprentice may work in several
theaters to become familiar with
different types of equipment.
Young people interested in
becoming projectionists should
have good eyesight, including nor­
mal color perception, and good
hearing. They should be tempera­
mentally suited to working alone
and in close quarters. Manual
dexterity and mechanical aptitude
also are important personal qualifi­
gained from operating small movie
projectors at home, at school, or
in the Armed Forces also is help­
ful. Advancement opportunities
for projectionists are limited.
Some, however, become theater
In a few theaters, owners reduce
costs by training apprentices to be
both projectionists and managers of
Employment Outlook

ture projectionists were employed
full time in 1974. More than threefourths worked for indoor theaters;
most of the remainder worked
for drive-ins. Some projectionists
worked in large manufacturing
companies, television studios, and
in Federal, State, and local govern­
Projectionists work in cities and
towns of all sizes throughout the
country. In theaters located in small
towns, theater owners or members
of their families may do projec­
tionist work.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most theaters in urban areas are
unionized and young people who
want jobs as projectionists must

complete a union apprenticeship
program. In nonunion theaters,
young people may start as ushers or
helpers and learn the trade by
working with an experienced pro­
Unions require applicants to be
18 and prefer high school gradu­
ates. The apprenticeship training
usually lasts 1 to 2 years depending
on the policy of the local union.
After training, the apprentice must
pass an exam for union member­
ship. In some cases, a capable ap­
prentice may be assigned to a fullor part-time job at an experienced
projectionist’s pay before becoming
a union member. In a few cities and
States, projectionists must be
Apprentices learn the trade by
working with projectionists. They

Employment of motion picture
projectionists is expected to grow
more slowly than the average for all
occupations through the mid1980’s. Most job openings will
occur as experienced workers
retire, die, or transfer to other fields
of work. Applicants may face keen
competition for the jobs that
become available. Because earnings
of motion picture projectionists are
relatively high, applicants fre­
quently outnumber job openings.
The number of movie theaters is
expected to increase as a result of
increases in population and per­
sonal income. Because of laborsav­
ing innovations in equipment and
theater design, however, employ­
ment of projectionists will not keep
pace with theater growth. While
older theaters required one projec­
tionist per shift, many new ones are
built side by side so that one projec­

tionist, aided by automated projec­
tion machines and longer film reels,
can take care of more than one
theater at a time.
Earnings and Working

Average hourly earnings for pro­
jectionists in large metropolitan
areas ranged from $4.75 to $11.73
in 1974, according to information
from several union contracts.
Generally, downtown theaters pay
higher hourly rates than suburban
or drive-in theaters. Projectionists
who work more than one screen
usually receive extra pay.
evenings; generally 4 to 6 hours, 6
evenings a week. They may work
more than 6 hours on Saturday and
Sunday in theaters that feature
matinees. Some projectionists work
at several theaters. For example, a
weekly schedule may call for two
evenings in each of three theaters.
Projectionists employed in driveins, particularly in northern States,
may be laid off for several months
during the winter.
Projection rooms usually have
adequate lighting and ventilation,
and many are airconditioned. The
work is not strenuous and is rela­
tively hazard free, but there is some
danger of electrical shock and
burns if proper safety precautions
are not taken. Although projec­
tionists must stand a lot, they can sit
for short periods while the equip­
ment is operating. Most projec­
tionists work without direct super­
vision and have infrequent contact
with other theater employees.
Sources of Additional

Details about apprenticeship pro­
grams and employment opportuni­
ties may be obtained from any local
of the International Alliance of
Theatrical Stage Employees and
Moving Picture Machine Operators
of the United States and Canada.

(D.O.T. 711.381 and 713.884)
Nature of the Work

Ophthalmic laboratory techni­
prescribed by eye physicians
The two types of ophthalmic
laboratory technicians are surfacer
(or lens grinder) and bench techni­
cian (or finisher). Starting with
standard size lens blanks, which
large optical firms mass-produce,
surfacers lay out the work and grind
and polish the lens surfaces. Sur­
facers use precision instruments to
measure the lenses and assure that
they fit the prescription. In small
laboratories, one person may do
these operations and benchwork
too. In large laboratories, work is
divided into separate operations
which are performed mainly by
workers who operate power grind­
ing and polishing machines.
Bench technicians mark and cut
lenses and smooth their edges to fit
frames. They then assemble the len­
ses and frame parts into finished
glasses. Bench technicians use spe­
cial tools, such as lens cutters and
glass drills, as well as small files,
pliers, and other handtools. They
also use automatic edging machines
to shape lens edges, and precision
instruments to detect imperfec­
tions. In large laboratories, the du­
ties of bench technicians are di­
vided into several operations which
semiskilled workers.
Places of Employment

About 22,000 persons worked as
ophthalmic laboratory technicians
in 1974. Most ophthalmic laborato­
ry technicians work in ophthalmic
laboratories. Some work for retail

optical dispensaries or other stores
that sell prescription lenses. A few
work for eye physicians or op­
tometrists who dispense glasses
directly to patients.
Ophthalmic laboratory techni­
cians are found in every State.
However, employment is concen­
trated in large cities and in popu­
lous States.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most ophthalmic laboratory
technicians learn their skills on the
job. At first, technician trainees do
simple jobs such as processing len­
ses through a grinding machine. As
they gain experience, they progress
to other operations such as lens
cutting and eyeglass assembly.
When the trainees have acquired
experience in all types of work,
which usually takes about 3 years,
they are considered all-round opti­
cal mechanics. Some technicians
specialize in one type of job, such as
surfacing or bench work. The train­
ing time required to become a spe­
cialist is less than that needed to
become an all-round technician.
High school graduates also can
prepare to become a technician
through 3- to 4-year formal ap­
prenticeship programs. Apprentices
with exceptional ability may
complete their training in a shorter
period. Most training authorities
agree that technicians who learn as
apprentices have more job opportu­
nities and more opportunities for
advancement than those without
such training. In addition, a number
of vocational schools offered 9month full-time optical technician
courses. Graduates from such
schools often work for retail optical
stores to receive additional on-thejob training. A small number of
technicians learn their trades in the
Armed Forces.
Employers prefer applicants for
entry jobs as ophthalmic laboratory
technicians to be high school gradu­
ates who have had courses in the

basic sciences. A knowledge of
physics, algebra, geometry, and
mechanical drawing is particularly
valuable. The interest and ability to
do precision work is essential.
Some States require licenses for
ophthalmic laboratory technicians
in retail optical shops. To obtain a
license, the applicant generally
must meet certain minimum stand­
ards of education and training,
and must also pass either a written
or practical examination, or both.
For specific requirements, the
licensing boards of individual States
should be consulted.
Ophthalmic laboratory techni­
cians can become supervisors and
managers. Many of them have
although the trend is to train
specifically for optician jobs. Work­
ers in both occupations, especially
those having all-round training in
both shop and dispensing work,
have opportunities to go into busi­
Employment Outlook

of ophthalmic
laboratory technicians is expected
to increase much faster than the
average for all occupations through
the mid-1980’s. In addition to the
job openings from employment
growth, some openings will arise
from the need to replace ex­
perienced workers who retire, die,
or transfer to other occupations.
More technicians will be needed
due to the rising demand for
eyeglasses. Growth in the popula­
tion, rising literacy and educational
levels, and a large increase in the
number of older persons (a group
most likely to need glasses) will in­
crease the demand for glasses. State
programs to provide eye care for
low-income families, union health
insurance plans, and medicare also
will stimulate demand. Moreover,
the growing variety of frame styles
and colors may encourages in­
dividuals to buy more than one pair
of glasses.

Earnings and Working

Hourly wage rates for ophthalmic
technicians ranged from $3.61 to
$6.14 in 1974, based on informa­
tion from a small number of union
Apprentices start at about 60
percent of the skilled worker’s rate;
their wages are increased periodi­
cally so that upon completion of
the apprenticeship program, they
receive the beginning rate for ex­
perienced workers.
Most opthalmic laboratory tech­
nicians work a 5-day, 40-hour
Work surroundings of the
ophthalmic technician are pleasant,
well-lighted, and well-ventilated,
but noisy because of the power­
grinding and polishing machines.
Physically handicapped persons
who have full use of their eyes and
hand can perform some of the more
specialized jobs in the larger firms.
Some ophthalmic laboratory
technicians are member of unions.
The principal union in this field is
the International Union of Electri­
cal, Radio and Machine Workers
Sources of Additional

A list of schools offering courses
for people who wish to become
ophthalmic laboratory technicians
is available from:
National Academy of Opticianry, 514 Chest­
nut St., Big Rapids, Mich. 49307.

For general information about
the occupation, contact:
International Union of Electrical, Radio and
Machine Workers, 1126 16th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.
Optical Wholesalers Association, 6935
Wisconsin Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.
Opticians Association of America, 1250
Connecticut Ave. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 970.281, 976.381,
.687 through .887)
Nature of the Work

Amateur snapshots, home mov­
ies, professional portraits, and
photographs to illustrate publica­
tions require the skills of thousands
of photographic laboratory em­
ployees. These workers develop
film, make prints and slides, and
perform related tasks, such as en­
larging and retouching photo­
graphs. (This chapter does not
discuss employees of laboratories
who specialize in processing profes­
sional motion picture film.)
All-round darkroom technicians
(D.O.T. 976.381) can perform all
tasks necessary to develop and print
film. The technician varies the
developing process according to the
of film—black-and-white
negative, color negative, or color
positive. For example, a developing
process for black-and-white nega­
tive film covers five steps:
developer, stop bath, fixing bath,
washing, and drying. The first three
steps use chemical solutions and are
performed in darkness. After un­
winding a roll of film or in the case
of cut film, the technician places it
in the developer, a solution that
brings out the image on exposed
film. When the film has remained in
the developer for a specified
period, the technician transfers it to
a stop bath to prevent overdevelop­
ment. Next, the film is placed in a
fixing bath that makes it insensitive
to light to prevent further exposure.
Finally, the technician washes the
film with water to remove the fixing
solution and places the film in a
drying cabinet. In many photo­
graphic labs, technicians regulate
machines that automatically per­
form the steps described above.
Processes for developing color
films are more complex than those

used for black-and-white. Thus,
some labs employ color technicians
(D.O.T. 976.381)—highly skilled
processing color film.
The darkroom technician makes
a photograph by transferring the
image from a negative to photo­
graphic paper. Printing frequently
is performed on a projection
printer, which consists of a fixture
for holding negatives and photo­
graphic paper, an electric lamp, and
a magnifying lens. The technician
places the negative between the
lamp and lens, and the paper below
the lens. When the technician turns
on the lamp, light passes through
the negative and lens and records a
magnified image of the negative on
the paper. During printing, the
technician may vary the contrast of
the image or remove unwanted
background by using paper patterns
to shade part of the photographic
paper from the projected image.
After removing the exposed photo­
graphic paper from the printer, the
technician develops it in much the
same way as the negative. If the
customer desires, the technician
mounts the finished print in a frame
or on a paper or cardboard back.
In addition to working in the
laboratory, darkroom technicians
may set up lights and cameras or
photographers. Many technicians,
particularly those who work in por­
trait studios and aspire to become
professional photographers, divide
their time between taking and
processing pictures. In some labs,
helpers assist technicians. They
also may be assisted by workers
who specialize in a particular
activity, such as developers
(D.O.T. 976.381) printers (D.O.T.
976.381), and retouchers (D.O.T.
In most large photo labs, dark­
room technicians supervise semi­
skilled workers who do special­
ized assignments that require only a
limited knowledge of developing
and printing. Included are film

numberers (D.O.T. 976.887), who
sort film according to the type of
processing needed and number
each roll for identification; film
strippers, who unwind rolls of film
and place them in developing
machines; printer operators (D.O.T.
976.782), who operate machines
that expose rolls of photographic
paper to negatives; print developers,
machine (D.O.T. 976.885), who
operate machines that develop
these rolls of exposed photographic
paper; chemical mixers (D.O.T.
976.884), who measure and com­
bine the various chemicals that
make up developing solutions; slide
mounters, who operate machines
that cut, insert, and seal slides in
carboard mounts; and photo­
checkers and assemblers (D.O.T.
976.687), who inspect the finished
slides and prints and package them
for customers.

Places of Employment

In 1974, about 50,000 persons
worked in photo lab occupations.
M ore than half o f them were in
semiskilled photofinishing occupa­
tions; the remainder were dark­
room technicians.
Most semiskilled workers are em­
ployed by large photofinishing labs
that specialize in processing film for
amateur photographers. A large
proportion of darkroom technicians
work in photo labs operated by por­
trait and commercial studios and by
manufacturers, newspaper and
magazine publishers, advertising
agencies, and other organizations.
Darkroom technicians also work in
commercial labs that specialize in
processing the work of professional
Photo lab workers are situated in
all parts of the country, but employ­

ment is concentrated in the more
populous areas such as New York,
Los Angeles, and Chicago.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most darkroom technicians learn
their skills through informal on-thejob training. Beginners start as help­
ers and gradually learn to develop
and print film by assisting ex­
perienced technicians. It generally
takes 3 to 4 years to become a fully
qualified darkroom technician.
Some helpers become specialists in
a particular activity, such as print­
ing or developing. Generally, the
training time required in order to
become a specialist is less than is
needed to become an all-round
darkroom technician.
When hiring darkroom techni­
cian helpers, employers prefer ap­
plicants who are high school gradu­
ates. Courses in chemistry and
mathematics are helpful to people
interested in this trade. Some high
schools and trade schools offer
courses in photography that include
training in film processing. The
Armed Forces also offer training
for darkroom technicians. Ex­
perience gained through processing
film as a hobby is helpful.
Two-year curricula leading to an
associate degree in photographic
technology are offered by a few col­
leges. Completion of college level
courses in this field is helpful to
people who are interested in super­
visory and managerial jobs in photo
Many darkroom technicians
eventually become professional
photographers. (See statement on
Photographers elsewhere in the
Handbook.) Others advance to su­
pervisory positions in laboratories.
Training requirements for wor­
kers in semiskilled photolab occu­
pations range from a few weeks to
several months of on-the-job train­
ing. For example, film numberers
and slide mounters usually can
learn their jobs in less than a month,
but printer operators and chemical

mixers may need several months or
longer. For many semiskilled jobs,
manual dexterity, good vision in­
cluding normal color perception,
and good hand-eye coordination
are important qualifications. How­
ever, some laboratories employ
blind workers as film splicers and
film strippers, since these jobs are
performed in the dark to prevent
damage to exposed film. Increas­
ingly, photo labs are seeking high
school graduates for semiskilled
Employment Outlook

Employment in photo lab occu­
pations is expected to increase
faster than the average for all occu­
pations through the mid-1980’s. In
addition to jobs from employment
growth, many openings will result
from the need to replace ex­
perienced workers who retire, die,
or transfer to other fields of work.
The need for semiskilled workers
is tied closely to the growth of
purchases by amateur photog­
raphers are expected to increase
very rapidly as a result of rising
population and personal income.
Improvements in still and movie
cameras that make them easier to
load and operate also should con­
tribute to increases in the use of
film. However, due to the growing
popularity of self-processing instant
cameras and the increased use of
mechanized film processing equip­
ment in photo labs, employment
will not grow as fast as the amount
of film used.
The need for all-round darkroom
technicians is expected to increase
as a result of the growing demand
for photography in business and
government. A major factor con­
tributing to this demand will be the
increasing variety of printed matter
that is illustrated with photographs.
The growing use of photography in
research and development activities
also will contribute to the demand
for darkroom technicians.

Earnings and Working

Earnings of photo lab workers
vary greatly and depend on factors
such as skill level, experience, and
geographic location. Beginning pay
for inexperienced darkroom techni­
cians’ helpers ranged from $2.25 to
$3.50 an hour in 1974, according to
the limited information available.
Most of the experienced all-round
darkroom technicians and color
technicians earned between $3.50
and $6 an hour.
Workers in semiskilled occupa­
tions earned from $2.50 to $4.50 an
hour. Among these workers, printer
operators and chemical mixers
generally had the highest earnings.
The majority of photo lab em­
ployees work a 40-hour week and
get premium pay for overtime. In
labs that specialize in processing
film for amateur photographers,
employees may work a considera­
ble amount of overtime during the
summer and for several weeks after
Christmas. Many labs employ tem­
porary workers during these
seasonal peaks.
Photo lab jobs are not physically
strenuous. In many semiskilled oc­
cupations, workers perform their
jobs while sitting, but the work is
repetitious and the pace is rapid.
Some workers (for example, printer
operators and photocheckers and
assemblers) are subject to eye
fatigue. Photofinishing labs are
generally clean, well-lighted, and
Sources of Additional

For information about employ­
ment opportunities in photographic
laboratories and schools that offer
degrees in photographic technolo­
gy, write to:
Photo Marketing Association, 603 Lansing
Ave., Jackson, Mich. 49202.
Professional Photographers of America, Inc.,
1090 Executive Way, Des Plaines, III.

(D.O.T. 922.782 and .883)
Nature of the Work

In the past, manual workers
usually did the hard physical labor
of moving materials and products.
Today, many heavy materials are
moved by workers who operate
various types of power trucks. A
typical truck has a hydraulic lifting
mechanism and forks to carry a
load or other attachments to make
it more versatile. For example, a
truck may have a clamp lift to move
cartons, bales, or paper rolls, a
scoop to lift coal, or a tow bar to
pull warehouse trailers.
Operators must use care and skill

in driving trucks. For example,
when loading or removing materials
from stock, which may be stacked
from floor to ceiling, they must be
able to judge distance so that no
damage occurs. They also must
know the lifting capacity of the
truck and the kinds of jobs it can
Operators may have to keep
records of materials moved and do
some manual loading and unload­
ing. They also may be responsible
for keeping their trucks in good
working condition by cleaning, oil­
ing, checking the water in batteries,
and making simple adjustments.

About three-fourths of them
worked in manufacturing, indus­
tries. Large numbers were em­
ployed in plants that made automo­
biles, machinery, fabricated metal
products, paper, building materials,
and iron and steel. Many power
truck operators also were epiployed
in warehouses, depots, freight and
marine terminals, and mines.
Power truck operators are em­
ployed in many different industries
in all parts of the country. Although
some are employed in small towns,
most work in heavily populated
areas where large factories are

Places of Employment

About 350,000 persons worked
as power truck operators in 1974.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most workers can learn to
operate a power truck in a few days.
It takes several weeks, however, to
learn the layout and operation of a
plant and the most efficient way of
handling materials.
Many companies have formal
training programs to teach new em­
ployees to operate power trucks,
make simple repairs, and handle
materials. They also learn plant
layout and operation and safe driv­
ing rules. Because power trucks are
becoming more complex and ex­
pensive, firms are expected to place
greater emphasis on training pro­
grams to increase the skills of their
Employers seek applicants who
have manual dexterity, mechanical
ability, and above-average eyesight,
including good depth perception.
Large companies generally require
applicants to pass a physical ex­
Opportunities for advancement
are limited. A few operators may
become supervisors.
Employment Outlook

Power truck operators can find jobs in many different industries.

Employment of power truck
operators is expected to increase
about as fast as the average for all

occupations through the midSources of Additional
1980’s. In addition to jobs resulting
from employment growth, many
Information on work opportuni­
operators will be needed to replace
those who retire, die, or transfer to ties for power truck operators may
be available from the local office of
other occupations.
More goods will be manufactured the State employment service.
as population grows and our stan­
dard of living rises, and more power
truck operators will be needed to
move these goods and the materials
used to produce them. The need for
operators also will increase as more
Nature of the Work
firms use power trucks in place of
hand labor to move materials.
Almost every metal or wood
product manufactured gets a coat­
ing of paint or other protection.
Earnings and Working
The majority of painters in factories
use spray guns to apply paint,
According to a survey of lacquer, varnish, and other finishes.
metropolitan areas in 1974, power Others operate painting machinery
truck operators in manufacturing such as spraying machines, dipping
earned an average of $4.40 an hour, tanks, or tumbling barrels. The
slightly above the average for non- work of production painters in fac­
supervisory workers in all private tories is different from that of
industries except farming. Earnings skilled painters in construction and
of operators varied by region, as maintenance work. (See statements
shown below:
on painters and automobile painters
elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Most of the work of production
Hourly rate
painters is repetitive. Spray painters
United States........................
may paint several hundred identical
items a day as these products pass
by on conveyors. They may have to
North Central...................................
clean items before painting them
and on multicolored ones they
apply masking tape to keep colors
Power truck operators are sub­ from overlapping. They follow
ject to hazards such as collisions directions to mix paint and use
and falling objects. They may viscosity meters to make sure the
operate their trucks outdoors where paint is the right consistency. Mix­
they are exposed to all kinds of ing paint and figuring areas to be
weather. Some operators may han­ painted require simple arithmetic
dle loose material that is dirty or involving decimals and fractions.
dusty. Moving materials throughout Painters adjust spray gun nozzles
a plant, however, is likely to be less and other controls so that paint will
routine and boring than many other be applied evenly. They also must
production jobs.
clean and maintain spray guns and
A trend toward quieter and more other equipment.
Painting machine operators set
comfortable and better handling
trucks has resulted in better work­ up the painting equipment at the
ing conditions. Also, the increasing beginning of their shift and are
use of the relatively noiseless and responsible for keeping it running.
pollutant free battery-powered They make sure that the paint is
truck is doing much to improve the being applied correctly and make
adjustments or minor repairs to the
comfort of the operator.

machinery if necessary. They may
also operate related machines such
as washing tanks, used to clean
items prior to painting, and baking
ovens which dry the painted arti­
cles. These painters, especially in­
experienced ones, may load items
to be painted onto conveyors or
into the machinery.
On production lines that use au­
tomatic painting machinery, spray
painters paint parts of an article
that the machine misses. For exam­
ple, some modern applicators can­
not paint inside surfaces, such as
the interior of a bucket. Painters
use regular spray guns to paint
these areas.
Places of Employment

About 125,000 production paint­
ers were employed in 1974. About
two-thirds of the total worked in
plants that made automobiles,
machinery, furniture and other
wood products, or manufactured
metal products such as cans, tin­
ware, and handtools. Although
production painters are scattered
geographically, large numbers are
employed in industrialized States. A
fourth of all furniture painters were
employed in North Carolina and
Pennsylvania, while one-third of all
automobile painters worked in
Michigan—over half of these in
Detroit. Over a quarter of the paint­
ers employed by companies mak­
ing machinery and metal products
worked in Ohio and Illinois.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

New workers often start off load­
ing and unloading items from con­
veyor lines. After they become
familiar with the production
process and as openings arise, they
may be taught painting skills. They
usually learn the work by watching
and helping experienced painters.
The length of training varies from a
few days to several months. Some
modern painting processes, such as

those used to apply powdered
paints, demand a more skilled
painter and thus a correspondingly
longer training period. As painters
gain experience they can advance
to higher skill categories, perform­
ing more difficult work.
Production painters should be
able to stand for long periods of
time. Although they seldom have to
lift heavy objects, the production
line nature of the job demands con­
tinuous physical exertion. High
school graduation is generally not
required for entry level positions,
but a diploma or its equivalent may
be needed to advance to higher skill
Opportunities for advancement
are limited, although a small
number of production painters
become supervisors.

to $5.20 in 1974, based on informa­
tion from a limited number of union
contracts. Most painters covered by
these contracts earned between $3
and $5 per hour.
Painters are exposed to fumes
from paint and paint-mixing in­
gredients. Some wear protective
clothing and masks which cover the
nose and mouth. They may also be
exposed to noisy factory conditions.
When painting large objects, they
sometimes work in awkward and
cramped positions.
production painters are the Interna­
tional Union, United Automobile,
Aerospace and Agricultural Imple­
ment Workers of America; the
United Furniture Workers of Amer­
ica; and the United Steelworkers of

Employment Outlook

Sources of Additional

Employment of production paint­
ers is expected to grow at about the
same rate as the average for all oc­
cupations through the mid-1980’s.
Many job openings will also result
as experienced workers retire, die,
or transfer to other occupations.
Most manufacturing industries
are expected to increase their out­
put in the years ahead. Demand for
consumer products, such as au­
tomobiles and furniture, will in­
crease as population and personal
income grow. Business growth will
create a need for more industrial
machinery and equipment. Painters
will be needed to apply protective
and decorative coatings to these
items. Employment of painters,
however, is not expected to keep
pace with manufacturing output
because increased use of automatic
sprayers and other laborsaving in­
novations should raise output per

More facts about job opportuni­
ties in this field may be available
from local offices of the State em­
ployment service.

(D.O.T. 950.782)
Nature of the Work

Stationary engineers operate and
maintain boilers, diesel engines,
turbines, generators, pumps, and
compressors. The equipment is
used to generate power and to heat
and air-condition factories and
other buildings. Stationary en­
gineers must operate and maintain
the equipment according to State
and local laws, since the safety of
many people depends upon the
proper functioning of the equip­
Earnings and Working
Stationary engineers, or power
engineers as they are often called,
Hourly wage rates for production detect and identify any trouble that
painters ranged from about $2.20 develops by watching and listening

to machinery, and by analyzing
readings of meters, gages, and other
instruments. They operate levers,
throttles, switches, valves, and
other devices to periodically regu­
late the machinery, and also record
such information as fuel consump­
tion and boiler temperatures and
pressure. Stationary engineers also
make minor repairs such as reseat­
ing valves and replacing gaskets,
pumps, and bearings.
In a large plant, the stationary en­
gineer may have charge of the
boiler room, and direct the work of
assistant stationary engineers, tur­
bine operators, boiler tenders, and
airconditioning and refrigeration
mechanics. In a small plant, the sta­
tionary engineer may operate and
maintain equipment by himself.
Places of Employment
... ^

In 1974, about 193,000 station­
ary engineers were employed in a
wide variety of places, including
power stations, factories, sewage
and water-treatment plants, office
and apartment buildings, hotels,
and hospitals. Federal, State, and
local governments also employed
large numbers of these workers.
Most plants which operate on three
shifts employ four to eight station­
ary engineers, but some have more.
In many plants, only one engineer
works on each shift.
Because stationary engineers
work in so many different kinds of
industries, they are employed in all
parts of the country. Although
some are employed in small towns
and in rural areas, most work in the
more heavily populated areas
where large industrial and commer­
cial businesses are located.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancment

Many stationary engineers start
as helpers or craft workers in other
trades and acquire their skills
through informal on-thejob ex­
perience. However, most training

authorities recommend formal ap­
prenticeship programs because of
the increasing complexity of the
machines and systems.
In selecting apprentices, most
prenticeship committees prefer
high school or trade school gradu­
ates who have received instruction
in mathematics, mechanical draw­
ing, machine-shop practice, phys­
ics, and chemistry. Mechanical
aptitude, manual dexterity, and
good physical condition also are im­
portant qualifications.
The apprenticeship usually lasts 4
years. In addition to on-the-job
training, apprentices receive class­
room instruction in practical
chemistry, elementary physics,
blueprint reading, applied electrici­
ty, and other technical subjects.
Becoming a stationary engineer
without going through a formal ap­

prenticeship program usually takes

many years of experience as an
assistant to licensed stationary en­
gineers or as a boiler tender. This
practical experience usually is sup­
plemented by technical or other
school training or home study.
Some States, the District of
Columbia, and many large and
medium-size cities have licensing
requirements for stationary en­
gineers. Although requirements for
a license differ from place to place,
the following are typical: Appli­
cants must be at least 20 years of
age; they must reside for a specified
period in the State or locality in
which the examination is given; and
they must meet the experience
requirements for the class of license
requested and pass an examination
which may be written, oral, or both.
Generally, there are several
classes of stationary engineer licen­

ses. Each class specifies the steam
pressure or horsepower of the
equipment the engineer can
operate. The chief engineer license
permits the stationary engineer to
operate equipment of all types and
capacities. An applicant for this
license may be required to have a
high school education and 4 years
of approved apprenticeship or onthe-job training. The lower class
licenses limit the capacity of the
equipment the engineer may
operate without the supervision of a
higher rated engineer.
Because of regional differences
in licensing requirements, a sta­
tionary engineer who moves from
one State or city to another may
have to pass an examination for a
new license. However, the National
Institute for Uniform Licensing of
Power Engineers is now assisting
many States in adopting a stan­
dardized licensing program that
would eliminate this problem by
establishing reciprocity of licenses.
Stationary engineers advance to
more responsible jobs by being
placed in charge of larger, more
powerful, or more varied equip­
ment. Generally, engineers advance
to these jobs as they obtain higher
class licenses. Advancement, how­
ever, is not automatic. For example,
an engineer who has a first-class
license may work for some time as
an assistant to another first-class
engineer before a vacancy occurs.
Some stationary engineers even­
tually advance to jobs as plant en­
gineers and as building and plant
superintendents. A few obtain jobs
as examining engineers and techni­
cal instructors.
Employment Outlook

Employment of stationary en­
gineers is expected to show little
change through the mid-1980’s.
Nevertheless, several thousand job
openings will arise annually
because of the need to replace ex­
perienced workers who retire, die,
or transfer to other occupations.

Industrial growth will result in an
increased use of large boilers and
auxiliary equipment in factories,
powerplants, and other buildings.
The need for additional stationary
engineers, however, will be limited
by the trend to more powerful and
more centralized equipment. For
example, a large boiler operated by
one stationary engineer can supply
heat and refrigeration for several
buildings, instead of each building
having its own small boiler and en­
Earnings and Working

tional Union of Operating En­
gineers and the International
Union, United Automobile, Aero­
space and Agricultural Implement
Workers of America.
Sources of Additional

Information about training or
work opportunities is available
from local offices of State employ­
ment services, locals of the Interna­
tional Union of Operating En­
gineers, and from State employ­
ment services, locals of the Interna­
tional Union of Operating En­
gineers, and from State and local
licensing agencies.
Specific questions about the oc­
cupation may be referred to:

Stationary engineers had average
hourly earnings of $5.51 in 197374, according to a survey of International Union of Operating Engineers,
metropolitan areas. This was higher
1125 17th St. NW., Washington, D.C.
than the average for all nonsuper20036.
visory workers in private industry, National Association of Power Engineers,
except farming. Averages for en­
Inc. 176 West Adam St., Chicago, III.
gineers in individual cities ranged
from $3.88 in Greenville, S.C. to
$6.55 in the San Francisco area.
licensing requirements, contact:
Stationary engineers generally National Institute for Uniform Licensing of
have steady year-round employ­
Power Engineers, 176 West Adam St.,
Chicago, III. 60603.
ment. They usually work a 5-day,
40-hour week. In plants that
operate around the clock, they may
be assigned to any one of three
shifts—often on a rotating basis—
and to Sunday and holiday work.
Engine rooms, powerplants, or
boiler rooms usually are clean and
OPERATORS (Sewagewell-lighted. Even under the most
Plant Operator)
favorable conditions, however,
some stationary engineers are ex­
(D.O.T. 955.782)
posed to high temperatures, dust,
dirt, contact with oil and grease,
Nature of the Work
and fumes or smoke. They may
have to crawl inside boilers and
Clean water is essential for our
work in crouching or kneeling posi­ health and recreation and for the
tions to inspect, clean or repair the existence of fish and wildlife.
Wastewater treatment plant opera­
Because stationary engineers tors help keep America’s water
often work around boilers and elec­ clean
trical and mechanical equipment, domestic and industrial waste.
Waste materials are carried by
they must be alert to avoid burns,
electric shock, and injury from water through sewer pipes to treat­
moving machinery.
ment plants. Operators control
Among the unions to which these equipment to remove these materi­
workers belong are the Interna­ als or render them harmless. By

operating and maintaining pumps,
pipes, and valves that connect the
collection system to the treatment
facility, operators move the wastewater through the various treat­
ment processes.
Operators read and interpret me­
ters and gauges to make sure plant
equipment is working properly.
Other jobs include operating
chemical feeding devices to remove
pollutants from wastewater; taking
samples of the water for laboratory
analysis; and testing and adjusting
the level of chlorine in the water.
Operators also make minor repairs
on valves, pumps, and other equip­
ment. They use gauges wrenches,
pliers, and other common handtools, as well as special tools. Occa­
sionally operators must work under
emergency conditions—for exam­
ple, a heavy rainstorm may cause
abnormal amounts of wastewater to
flow into sewer pipes and threaten
to exceed a plant’s treatment
The duties of operators vary de­
pending on the type and size of
plant. For example, the treatment
process in an industrial plant, such
as a food-processing company, may
be simple since the wastewater is of
a known content. Treatment plants
which serve entire cities, on the
other hand, must be equipped to
treat a mixture of waste products
that varies daily, thus making the
operator’s job more complicated. In
smaller plants, one operator may be
responsible for the entire system—
making repairs, keeping plant
records, handling complaints, and
doing the maintenance work for the
facility. In larger plants, the staff
may include chemists, laboratory
technicians, mechanics, helpers, su­
pervisors, and a superintendent.
As a result of the passage of the
1972 Federal Water Pollution Con­
trol Act, water pollution standards
will become increasingly stringent
in the future. In order to meet these
higher requirements, operators will
have to be able to operate more so­
phisticated systems.

Places of Employment

About 62,000 people worked full
time as wastewater treatment plant
operators in 1974, of whom about
35.000 worked in municipal plants,
25.000 in private industry, and
2.000 in Federal installations. In ad­
dition, over 50,000 operators per­
formed operator duties in addition
to other related duties.
Wastewater treatment plant
operators are employed throughout
the country. Geographically, em­
ployment is distributed much like
the Nation’s population, with most
jobs in larger towns and cities.
Many operators in small towns are
employed part time.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Trainees usually start as helpers
and learn their skills on the job
under the direction of an ex­
perienced operator. They learn by
doing routine tasks such as record­
ing meter readings; taking samples
of wastewater and sludge; and
doing simple maintenance and
repair work on pumps, electric mo­
tors, and valves. They also are ex­
pected to perform housekeeping
tasks such as cleaning and main­
taining plant equipment and
Persons interested in entering the
field should have some mechanical
aptitude and should be competent
in basic mathematics. Employers
generally prefer trainees who have
a high school diploma or its
equivalent, and in some States this
is a minimum educational require­
ment. Some positions, particularly
in larger cities and towns, are
covered by civil service regulations,
and applicants may be required to
pass written examinations testing
elementary mathematics skills,
mechanical aptitude, and general
intelligence. Operators must be
agile, since they have to climb lad­
ders and move easily around heavy

Some 2-year programs leading to
an associate degree in wastewater
technology are available; these pro­
vide a good general knowledge of
the water pollution control field as
well as basic preparation for
becoming an operator. Since plants
are becoming more complex,
completion of such courses in­
creases an applicant’s chances for
employment and promotion.
Most State water pollution con­
trol agencies offer training courses
to improve the skills of treatment
plant operators. These courses
cover principles of sludge digestion,
odors and their control, chlorina­
tion, sedimentation, biological ox­
idation, and flow measurements.
Some operators take correspond­
ence courses on subjects related to
wastewater treatment, and some
employers will pay part of the tui­
tion for courses leading to a college
degree in science or engineering.
Operators may be promoted to
positions such as supervisor and su­
perintendent. Superintendents of
large and complex plants are ex­
pected to have an engineering or
science degree. A high school
diploma and increasingly responsi­
ble experience may be sufficient to
qualify as superintendent of a small
or medium-sized plant at present,
but educational requirements are
rising as more complex treatment
plants are built to meet new water
pollution control standards. Since
many new and existing plants are
being organized on a regional basis,
it is becoming increasingly impor­
tant for operators to receive some
training in management techniques.
A limited number of operators may
become technicians employed by
State water pollution control agen­
cies to monitor and provide techni­
cal assistance to plants throughout
the State. Some technical-voca­
tional school or junior college train­
ing is generally preferred for techni­
cian jobs.
In 40 States, supervisors and cer­
tain operators must pass an ex­
amination to certify that they are

capable of overseeing treatment
plant operations. Voluntary certifi­
cation programs are in effect in the
remaining States, with the excep­
tion of Alaska.
Under a typical program, there
are different classes of certification
for different sizes of treatment
plants. For example, to be certified
a “Class I operator” capable of
operating a small plant with simple
equipment, an applicant should be
a high school graduate, demon­
strate general knowledge of treat­
ment operations by passing a writ­
ten test, and complete 1 year of
satisfactory employment at a treat­
ment plant. Requirements for cer­
tification as a Class IV operator
who supervises a large plant em­
ploying complex technology may
require a bachelors degree in
science and engineering; 4 years of
treatment plant experience, 2 years
of which were in a position of major
knowledge of the entire field of
wastewater treatment as demon­
strated through a written test.

Employment Outlook

Employment of wastewater treat­
ment plant operators is expected to
increase much faster than the
average for all occupations through
the mid-1980’s, mainly as a result of
the construction of new treatment
plants to process the increasing
amount of domestic- and industrial
wastewater. Also, more highly
trained operators will be needed as
modernize their facilities to cope
more effectively with water pollu­
tion. In addition to new jobs from
employment growth, many job
openings will occur as experienced
operators retire, die, or transfer to
other occupations.
People who enter this field
should have fairly steady employ­
ment in the years ahead. Even dur­
ing economic downturns treatment
plants seldom lay off employees.

Earnings and Working

It is estimated that the earnings of
operators ranged from about
$6,500 to $20,000 a year in 1974,
based on information from several
surveys covering a number of cities
throughout the United States.
Operators at the supervisory level
could earn even more. Salaries for
trainees were roughly 80 percent of
operators’ salaries in most cities.
Because pollution control is a
never-ending task, operators work
different shifts and in an emergency
may have to work overtime. Opera­
tors may be exposed to unpleasant
odors, as well as noise from the
operation of electrical motors and
pumps. However, odor is kept to a
minimum by the use of chlorine or
other chemicals.
Sources of Additional

People interested in a career in
wastewater treatment should con­
tact their local or State water pollu­
tion control agencies. Additional
information is available from:
Water Pollution Control Federation, 3900
Wisconsin Ave., NW., Washington,
D.C. 20016.

and steel reinforcing rods in
bridges, buildings, and roads
frequently are joined by welding. In
addition, a growing number of
plastic parts are welded to make a
variety of products.
Welding processes differ by the
way heat is created and applied to
the parts being joined. For example,
in arc welding, the most frequently
used process, heat is created as
electricity flows across an airspace
from the tip of the welding tool to
the metal. In resistance welding, the
heat is created by electricity flow­
ing directly through the metal. In
gas welding, the heat of burning
gases melts the metal. As part of
most welding processes, special
filler materials, called welding elec­
trodes or welding rods, usually are
melted in with the metal to give the
joint greater strength. Once the
heat is removed, the metal and filler
material harden and connect the
parts. It is the welder’s job to heat
the metal and filler material so that
they melt together properly and
harden into a strong joint.
Because welding processes differ
and are used for a wide variety of
purposes, the equipment welders
use and the skill levels of welders
vary. Jobs vary from those of highly

Environmental Protection Agency, Office of
Water Programs Operations, Manpower
Development Staff, 401 M St. SW.,
Washington, D.C. 20460.

(D.O.T. 810. through 819.887)
Nature of the Work

Welding consists of joining two
pieces of material, usually metal, by
melting them together. It is the
most common method of per­
manently connecting various metal
parts that go into the construction
of automobiles, spacecraft, ships,
household appliances, and thou­
sands of other products. Beams

Welders use special masks and heavy
gloves to prevent injuries.

skilled manual welders who can use
gas and electric arc welding equip­
ment in more than one position and
who can plan their work from
drawings or other specifications to
those of unskilled welding machine
tenders who simply press a button
to start a machine. Skilled welders
know the characteristics o f steel,
bronze, aluminum, and other
metals and can weld joints held in
various positions. Welders who con­
struct ships and maintenance weld­
ers are examples of skilled welders.
Ship welders join the steel plates
and beams used to build ships.
Some joints to be welded are on the
floor, some are on the wall, and
some are overhead on the ceiling.
All must be carefully welded to in­
sure that the ship will not break
apart in rough seas.
Ship welders generally use arc
welding equipment because it welds
the steel plates faster and better
than gas equipment. After reading
instructions on construction plans
to learn which rods to use and ob­
taining a supply of rods from the
storage area, ship welders are ready
to begin work. First, they insert a
rod in a holder attached to an elec­
tric cable from a gasoline-powered
generator or other source of elec­
tricity. Another electrical cable is
attached to the metal being welded
and controls are adjusted to provide
the right amount of electricity.
Next, welders “ strike an arc” by
briefly touching the rod to the
metal to start the electricity flowing
and then pulling the rod back to
create a small space which the cur­
rent must jump. If the distance
between the rod and the metal is
correct, electricity continues to
flow through the rod and across the
space, creating an electric arc; the
heat from the electric arc melts the
rod and the metal. Welders move
the arc along the joint and as the
rod melts and becomes shorter,
move the rod closer to the metal to
keep the tip at the proper distance.
When the rod becomes very short,
welders replace it.

Maintenance welders repair
tools, machines, and equipment—
for example, a farmer’s plow. In this
case, welders bring their equipment
to the job. Gas welding generally is
preferred because the torch, hoses,
and tanks of gas are portable.
After examining the plow and
preparing the break for repair—
usually by grinding—maintenance
welders select the proper welding
rod for the job. Next, they light the
torch and adjust valves on the tanks
of acetylene and oxygen to obtain
the right flame. With the welding
rod in one hand and the torch in the
other, they heat the edges of the
crack in the plow and apply the
heat. As the metal begins to melt,
the welders periodically melt the
end of the welding rod in the hot,
liquid metal while they carefully
move the torch and rod along the
crack to complete the repair. Weld­
ers must be careful to keep the
torch at the right distance from the
metal in order to apply the heat cor­
rectly and to add filler material, as
needed, to fill the crack.
Not all welders have the skills of
shipbuilding or maintenance weld­
ers. For example, less skilled work­
ers use semiautomatic arc welding
equipment to speed up the job of
Semiautomatic equipment consists
of a welding gun which welders
must position but which automati­
cally supplies the proper amount of
electricity and filler material to the
joint. In this example, assembly
lines bring car frames to welders
and put them in place. Welders
then position their welding guns on
the parts to be welded, push a but­
ton on the tool, “ strike an arc,” and
guide the arc to complete one or
two joints before the assembly line
takes the frame to another worker.
Like skilled welders, these welders
are responsible for the strength of
the joint. However, they need less
skill because all parts they weld are
identical and each welded from the
same position as the others.
If the factory is large, and many

identical parts must be welded, the
Training, Other Qualifications,
company may save money by using
and Advancement
automatic welding machines. Such
machines are used, for example, in
Generally, it takes several years
making automobile mufflers and of training to become a skilled
washing machines. The workers welder. Some of the less-skilled
who operate these machines need jobs, however, can be learned in a
little knowledge of welding and are few months of on-the-job training.
frequently called welding machine Welding machine tenders, for ex­
tenders to distinguish them from ample, can be taught to operate a
more skilled, manual welders. machine in a few hours and become
Welding machine tenders place the completely qualified in a week.
parts to be joined in holders on the
Beginners often start in simple
machine. To complete the weld, production jobs where the type and
tenders simply push a button. The thickness of the metal, as well as the
machine then clamps the part in position of the welding operation
place and rotates it, as necessary, to rarely change. As the need arises,
complete the welding cycle. The supervisors teach new employees
welding machines, not the operator, how to weld different types of
are responsible for the weld. After metal, and how to weld vertical and
the welding cycle is finished, tend­ overhead joints. Some large compa­
ers remove the welded material nies conduct programs to train per­
and load the machine again.
sons as welders. After completing
Closely related to welders are the course, individuals are offered
cutters. The workers use the heat jobs. A few companies offer em­
from burning gases or an electric ployees welder apprenticeship pro­
arc to cut and trim metal rather grams that last 4 years, including
then join it. Some cutters operate classroom and on-the-job training.
electrically or mechanically con­
Persons planning careers as
trolled machines which automati­ welders or cutters need manual
cally follow the proper guideline.
dexterity, good eyesight, and good
should be able to concentrate on
Places of Employment
detailed work for long periods, and
About 645,000 welders and should be free of any physical disa­
flame cutters were employed in bilities that would prevent them
1974, including a relatively small from bending, stooping, and work­
number of flame and arc cutters. ing in awkward positions. Many em­
Over one-half of all welders help ployers prefer applicants who have
manufacture durable goods; for ex­ high school or vocational school
ample, boilers, bulldozers, trucks, training in welding. Courses in shop
ships, and heavy machinery. About mathematics, mechanical drawing,
one-fourth repair metal products, blueprint reading, and physics also
while most of the rest help con­ are helpful.
New developments are requiring
struct bridges, large buildings, and
new skills of welders. This is par­
Welders are concentrated in the ticularly true in fields such as
manufacturing centers of the Great atomic energy or missile manufac­
Lakes States. About one-third work turing, which have high standards
in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan, for the reliability of welds. Before
Indiana, and Illinois. Because of the being assigned to work on
widespread use of welding, the rest buildings, bridges, or other jobs
are distributed much the same as where the strength of the weld is
population, with large numbers highly critical, welders may be
working in New York, Texas, and required to pass an examination of
their welding skills given by an em­

ployer or government agency.
Welders who pass such examina­
tions are generally referred to as
“certified welders.”
Promotion opportunities for
welders are good. Welding machine
tenders may learn skilled welding
jobs; skilled welders may be
promoted to welding inspectors,
technicians, or supervisors. Ex­
perienced workers who have ob­
tained college training on the prop­
erties of metal are in great demand
to develop new applications for
welding. A small number of ex­
perienced welders open their own
welding repair shops.

sands of other products which
welders help make. Employment of
welders also is expected to increase
as welding replaces other methods
of joining metals. Welding generally
is cheaper than other methods of
joining metal parts, and is being
used more and more frequently in
the manufacturing and construction
E m p l o y me n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s
should be especially good for
skilled welders in nuclear powerplant, pipeline, and ship construc­
tion jobs. Recent reports indicate
that a shortage of skilled welders
exists in these industries.

Employment Outlook

Earnings and Working

Job opportunities for welders
should be very good in the years
ahead. Employment in this field
with many jobs is expected to in­
crease faster than the average for
all occupations through the mid1980’s as a result of the generally
favorable long-run outlook for
metalworking industries and the
greater use of welding. In addition
to job openings created by employ­
ment growth, thousands should be
available each year because of the
need to replace experienced weld­
ers who retire, die, or transfer to
other occupations. Job opportuni­
ties may vary, however, because
welder employment in manufactur­
ing industries fluctuates with ups
and downs in the economy.
Increases in population and in­
come are expected to stimulate de­
mand for cars, buildings, heavy
machinery, appliances, and thou­

National wage data on welders
are not available. However, the
limited data vailable indicate weld­
ing machine tenders earned from
$3.93 to $5.10 in 1974. Welders in
the construction industry earned
$4.50 to $ 10 an hour, depending on
Welders and cutters use protec­
tive clothing, safety shoes, goggles,
helmets with protective lenses, and
other devices to prevent burns and
eye injuries. Although lighting and
ventilation are usually adequate,
they occasionally work in the
presence of poisonous gases and
fumes caused by the melting of
some metals. They are often in con­
tact with rust, grease, and dirt on
metal surfaces. Welding machine
tenders are largely free from the
hazards associated with hand weld­
ing. An eyeshield or goggles

generally offer adequate protection
to these workers.
Many welders are union mem­
bers. However, because welding is
also done by other craft workers,
for example by pipefitters, and has
only recently been receiving recog­
nition as a distinct craft, welders be­
long to many different unions.
Among these are the International
Association of Machinists and
Aerospace Workers; the Interna­
tional Brotherhood of Boiler­
Blacksmiths, Forgers and Helpers;
the International Union, United
Agricultural Implement Workers of
America; the United Association of
Journeymen and Apprentices of the
Plumbing and Pipe Fitting Industry
of the United States and Canada;
and the United Electrical, Radio
and Machine Workers of America
(Ind.). Only one labor organiza­
tion—the International Union,
United Welders (Ind.),
Sources of Additional

For further information on train­
ing and work opportunities for weld­
ers, contact local employers or the
local office of the State employ­
ment service. For general informa­
tion about welders, write to:
The American Welding Society, 2501 NW.
7th St., Miami, Fla. 33125.
International Union, United Automobile,
Aerospace and Agricultural Implement
Workers of America, 8000 East Jeffer­
son Ave., Detroit, Mich. 48214.

Office workers perform a wide for people with widely different
range of tasks that are needed to educational backgrounds. Some
keep business and other organiza­ jobs can be entered with only a high
tions running on a day to day basis. school education; many others,
Clerical workers, such as secretar­ however, require at least a college
ies and typists, maintain files, type, degree.
and operate office machines.
Many clerical employees work
Professional and technical em­ with things and often do detailed,
ployees give legal advice, prepare repetitive tasks. Most professional
and analyze financial reports, office workers, on the other hand,
design computer systems, and ar­ work with ideas; they apply their
skills to solving problems and devis­
range bank loans.
Opportunities in office work exist ing ways to provide better services

to those who depend on them.
Besides the technical skills required
to do their jobs, office workers need
judgment and the ability to commu­
nicate their ideas to others.
This chapter of the Handbook
describes office work in Clerical
Occupations, Computer and Re­
lated Occupations, Banking Occu­
pations, Insurance Occupations,
and Administrative and Related

About 15 million people worked
in clerical jobs in 1974. Many keep
records and do other office paper­
work. Others handle communica­
tions, operate office machines, ship
and receive merchandise, and ring
sales on cash registers.
Workers in clerical jobs have a
wide variety of skills and ex­
perience. They include highly
skilled title searchers in real estate
firms and executive secretaries in
business offices as well as relatively
unskilled messengers and file
clerks. Despite the diversity of jobs
and duties, much clerical employ­
ment is concentrated in just a few
familiar jobs. Roughly 1 of every 5
clerical workers is a secretary or
stenographer. One in ten is a book­
keeper. The accompanying chart
shows employment in these and
other major clerical occupations
discussed in the Handbook.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Clerical workers need high
school diplomas for all but the most
routine jobs, and many employers
prefer applicants who have had
business courses. Some companies
cooperate with local high schools
and business schools in office edu­
cation programs that enable stu­
dents to work part time while at­
tending school. This experience is
helpful for beginners seeking jobs
after graduation. Many States and
localities sponsor programs to train
unemployed and low-skilled work­
ers for entry level clerical jobs.
Beginning clerical workers often
receive on-the-job training. They
learn how their employers keep
records and become familiar with
the kinds of business forms used.
Some new workers learn to operate

A Majority of the Approximately 15 Million Clerical
Workers are Employed in These Occupations

adding and duplicating machines
and other kinds of office equip­
ment. They may attend classes to
learn how to operate tabulating
machines and other specialized
equipment. Secretaries, stenog­
raphers, and typists need special
skills that must be learned in
schools or formal training pro­
Many clerical jobs require read­
ing comprehension, a knowledge of
arithmetic skills. Employers prefer
applicants for almost all clerical
jobs to have basic typing skills.
Some employers test applicants for
clerical aptitude.
Advancement opportunities for
clerical workers are good, and
many employers provide courses so
that their employees can learn the
skills needed for more demanding
jobs. As workers become more
highly skilled, they are assigned
more difficult tasks. For example,
junior typists may be promoted to
more responsible jobs as senior
typists as their typing speed and ac­
curacy improves. Receptionists
who learn typing and office
procedures may become secretaries
or typists. Promotion to supervisor
or manager generally depends on
leadership ability, work experience,
and knowledge of the overall opera­
tions of the organization.
Employment Outlook

WORKERS 1974 (in millions)


Source Bureau of Labor Statistics



Employment of clerical workers
is expected to increase faster than
the average for all occupations
through the mid-1980’s. In addition
to the many new jobs created by
this growth, about a million job
openings a year will occur as em­
ployees die, retire, or leave their
Future growth in the number of
clerical workers is expected to
result primarily from the increasing
paperwork that will accompany the
expansion of large and complex or­
ganizations. A great deal of this
paperwork is handled by computer.

The impact of automation on office
equipment and procedures is con­
siderable, but it is more important
in some jobs than in others. In
general, long-term employment
prospects are best in clerical occu­
pations which are not affected by
automation, in those which are
compatible with computer applica­
tions, and in jobs which have
developed as a result of new
technologies. Job opportunities are
especially favorable for recep­
tionists, secretaries, typists, and
computer operators. Demand for
these workers will be particularly
strong in banks, insurance compa­
nies, manufacturing firms, and
professional service organizations.
As more firms use computers and
business machines, routine clerical
jobs such as payroll, bank, and file
may be
reduced or
eliminated. However, as work is
shifted from clerks to machines,
many jobs will be created for cleri­
cal workers who are familiar with
computer operations, particularly
in large firms.
Persons with clerical skills, par­
ticularly secretarial and typing
skills, should find extensive oppor­
tunities for temporary or part-time
work as more employers use these
workers during peak business

the Northeast, $165 in the West,
and $ 149 in southern cities.
Clerical employees work a 40hour week in most cities. In some,
especially in the Northeast, the
scheduled work week is 35 hours.
Most clerical workers in large cit­
ies receive 7 paid holidays or more
a year and 2 weeks’ vacation after
working 1 year. Longer vacations,
based on added years of service,
may range to 4 weeks or more.
Group life and health insurance
plans, sick benefits, and retirement
plans often are available.
Sources of Additional

Many State employment service
offices can provide information
about earnings, hours, and employ­
ment opportunities in clerical jobs.
Information concerning training
for clerical occupations in your
State is available from:
State Supervisor of Office Occupations Edu­
cation, State Department of Education,
State capital.

A directory of private business
schools located in cities throughout
the country may be obtained from:
United Business Schools Association, 1730
M St., NW„ Washington, D.C. 20036.

In many small firms, general
bookkeepers (D.O.T. 210.388) are
the only bookkeeping workers.
They analyze and record all finan­
cial transactions, such as orders and
cash sales. They also check money
taken in against that paid out to be
sure accounts “balance,” and cal­
culate the firm’s payroll. Although
most of this work is done by hand,
occasionally bookkeepers use sim­
ple office equipment such as adding
machines. General bookkeepers
also prepare and mail customers’
bills and answer the telephone.
In large businesses, a number of
bookkeepers and accounting clerks
work under the direction of a head
bookkeeper. Bookkeepers often
specialize in certain types of work
such as preparing statements on a
company’s income from sales or its
daily operating expenses. They
sometimes use complex bookkeep­
ing machines to perform these du­
ties. Accounting clerks (D.O.T.
219.488), sometimes known as
bookkeeping clerks, perform a
variety of routine duties. They
record details of business transac­
tions, including deductions from
payrolls and bills paid and due.
They also may type vouchers, in­
voices, and other financial records.
Places of Employment

Earnings and Working

Clerks in routine jobs earned as
little as $95 a week, while many
highly skilled workers were paid
$200 or more, according to a 1974
survey. Salary variations within an
occupation are relatively common
and these usually reflect differences
in educational level, work ex­
perience, and level of responsibili­
tySalaries in different parts of the
vary; earnings
generally are lowest in southern cit­
ies and highest in northeastern and
western urban areas. For example,
secretaries averaged $ 166 a week in

.. •/_




Bookkeeping workers numbered
almost 1.7 million persons in 1974.
About 90 percent were women.
Jobs for bookkeeping workers are
(D.O.T. 210.368 through .588,
found in all kinds of firms, with an
216.388, and 219.388 and .488)
wholesale and retail trade. One of
Nature of the Work
every three bookkeepers works for
Every business needs systematic a retail store or wholesale firm. In
and up-to-date records of accounts addition, many work in factories,
and business transactions. Book­ banks,
keeping workers maintain these hospitals, and schools.
records in journals, ledgers, and on
other accounting forms. They also
Training, Other Qualifications,
prepare periodic financial state­
and Advancement
ments showing all money received
and paid out. The duties of book­
High school graduates who have
keeping workers vary with the size taken business arithmetic, book­
of the business.
keeping, and accounting meet the

minimum requirements for most
bookkeeping jobs. Some em­
ployers, however, prefer applicants
who have completed business
courses at a junior college or
business school.
Persons also may qualify for
bookkeeping jobs through on-thejob training. In some areas, compa­
nies cooperate with business
schools and high schools in workstudy programs. These programs
offer part-time experience that
helps students get jobs soon after
above average aptitude for working
with numbers and a knack for con­
centrating on details. They should
be able to type and operate various
office machines. Because they de­

pend on other office workers for in­
formation, bookkeepers should be
able to work as part of a team.
Newly hired bookkeeping work­
ers begin by recording routine
transactions. They advance to more
responsible assignments, such as
preparing income statements and
operating complex bookkeeping
machines. Some workers are
promoted to supervisory jobs.
Bookkeepers who complete courses
in college accounting may become
accountants. (The occupation of
accountant is discussed elsewhere
in the Handbook.)
Employment Outlook

Thousands of job openings for
bookkeepers are expected every

year through 1985. Jobs will be nu­
merous even though bookkeeper
employment is expected to grow
slowly over the next 10 years or so,
for the occupation is large and tur­
nover is high. Most job openings for
bookkeepers will occur because of
the need to replace workers who
die, retire, or stop working for bther
Future employment growth in
this occupation will be slowed by
the increasing use of electronic data
processing and various types of
machines can process data more ac­
curately, rapidly, and economically
than workers doing it by hand.
Nevertheless, need for bookkeep­
ing workers is expected to outpace
the impact of laborsaving office
machines over the next decade.
Earnings and Working

Capable workers advance quickly to more difficult work using a bookkeeping


Beginning accounting clerks in
private firms averaged $551 a
month in 1974, according to a Bu­
reau of Labor Statistics survey of
clerical occupations. They had
higher salaries, on the average, than
beginning file clerks or typists, but
earned less than beginning secreta­
ries or stenographers. Experienced
accounting clerks earned $697 a
month, about the same as the
average for all nonsupervisory wor­
kers in private industry, except
In late 1974, starting salaries in
the Federal Government ranged
from $5,996 (GS-2) to $6,764 (GS3) for bookkeeping workers right
out of high school. Starting salaries
were higher for bookkeeping work­
ers with at least 2 years’ work ex­
perience or 2 years of college edu­
cation. These salaries ranged from
$7,596 (GS-4) to $8,500 (GS-5)
per year. Average salaries in the
Federal Government in late 1974
for general accounting clerks were
$12,800 per year.
Working conditions for book­
keepers are similar to those of other

office workers in the same firms.
(See introductory section to this
chapter for more information on
earnings and working conditions
and for sources of additional infor­

(D.O.T. 211.138, .368, .468, .488,
and 299.468)
Nature of the Work

Supermarkets, movie theaters,
and restaurants are among the
many businesses that employ
cashiers to handle payments from
customers. Most cashiers receive
money, make change, fill out
charge forms, and give receipts.
(Since it is different from other
cashier jobs, the occupation of
bank cashier is discussed elsewhere
in the Handbook.)
In addition to these duties,
cashiers, depending on their em­
ployers, may do other jobs and have
different job titles. Those who work
in theaters, for example, are often
called box office cashiers or ticket
sellers. They operate ticket­
dispensing machines and answer
telephone inquiries. Restaurant
cashiers, sometimes called cashier
checkers, handle reservations for
meals and special parties, type
menus, or sell items at the candy
and cigarette counter. In supermar­
kets and other self-service stores,
cashiers known as check-out clerks,
checkers, or grocery clerks wrap or
bag purchases and, during slack
periods, may restock shelves and
mark prices. In many offices,
cashiers known as agency or frontoffice cashiers, type, operate the
switchboard, do bookkeeping, and
act as receptionists.
Cashiers operate several types of
machines. Many use cash registers
which print the amount of the sale
on a paper tape. However, a rapidly
growing number of cashiers operate

computerized point-of-sale reg­
isters that automatically calculate
the necessary taxes and record in­
ventory numbers and other infor­
mation. Point-of-sale registers are
replacing less versatile models in
many stores. Cashiers who work in
hotels and hospitals use machines
that record charges for telephone,
medical, and other services and
prepare itemized bills. Cashiers also
operate adding and change­
dispensing machines.

ture stores, and in other kinds of
retail stores. Restaurants and
theaters also employ a large
number of cashiers. Most of the
businesses employing cashiers are
located in cities or suburban
shopping centers; however, many
are in small towns.
Opportunities for part-time work
are very good. Nearly half of all
cashiers work part time; one in four
is a student.

Places of Employment

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

In 1974, about 1.1 million per­
sons, over 85 percent of them
women, worked as cashiers. More
cashiers work in supermarkets and
grocery stores than in any other
kind of store. However, cashiers are
needed in businesses of all types
and sizes, and many find jobs in de­
shoestores, hardware stores, furni­

Employers prefer beginning
cashiers with high school diplomas.
Courses in business arithmetic,
bookkeeping, typing, and other
business subjects are good prepara­
tion for cashier jobs. Cashier train­
ing is offered as part of many public
school vocational programs.
Many employers offer on-the-job
training for cashiers. In a small firm,

the beginning cashier is trained on
the job by an experienced worker.
In large firms, cashier training pro­
grams often include classroom in­
struction in use of the point-of-sale
register and in other phases of
For some cashier jobs, employers
seek persons who have special skills
or business experience, such as typ­
ing or selling. Many cashier
openings are filled by promoting
clerk-typists in offices, stock clerks
and baggers in supermarkets, and
other qualified workers already em­
ployed by the firm.
Persons who want to become
cashiers should be able to do repeti­
tious work accurately. They need
finger dexterity, a high degree of
eye-hand coordination, and an ap­
titude for working with figures.
Because they meet the public,
cashiers should be neat in ap­
pearance and able to deal tactfully
and pleasantly with customers.
Promotion opportunities for
cashiers tend to be limited. How­
ever, the cashier’s job affords a
good opportunity to learn an em­
ployer’s business and so may serve
as a steppingstone to a more
managerial position. Cashiers work­
ing in chainstores and other large
retail businesses, for example, may

Future employment of cashiers is
likely to be affected by the use of
computerized checkout systems,
which are beginning to replace cash
registers in some supermarkets. An
optical or magnetic scanner trans­
mits the code number of each
purchase to a computer which is
programmed to record the price of
the item, add the tax, and print out
a receipt. The computer also keeps
track of the store’s inventory and
places orders with the warehouse
when stock is needed. With this
system, more of the work is handled
by machine, and supermarkets may
not need as many stock clerks and
cashiers. Employment growth is ex­
pected to slow with eventual
widespread adoption of automated
checkout systems.

of this chapter for sources of addi­
tional information.)

(D.O.T. 240.368)
Nature of the Work

Companies that lend money or
extend credit expect to be repaid.
However, customers who “ buy
now” are not always able to “ pay
later.” Collection workers, often
called bill collectors, help maintain
a company’s financial well-being by
keeping bad debts to a minimum.
A collector’s primary job duty is
to convince people to make good
on unpaid bills. The collector
usually receives a bad debt file after
normal billing methods, such as
monthly statements and collection
Earnings and Working
form letters, have failed to elicit
payment. The file contains informa­
Beginning cashiers often earn the tion about the debtor, the nature
minimum wage required by law. In and amount of the unpaid bill, and
several States and in establishments the last time payment was made.
The collector then contacts the
covered by the Federal law, the
minimum was $ 1.90 or $2 an hour debtor, determines why the bill is
in 1974. Unionized cashiers, many unpaid, and tries to get the debtor
of them grocery checkers in super­ to pay or make new arrangements
markets, had average earnings in for payment.
1974 which ranged from $3.30 to
The approach that collectors use
$5.90 an hour for experienced wor­ depends on the type of payment
kers in metropolitan areas.
problem they are handling. Some­
advance to department or store
Cashiers often work during rush times customers feel that the bill is
periods such as holidays, weekends, incorrect, or that the merchandise
late afternoons, and evenings. they bought is faulty, or that ser­
Work at these times often is vices they were billed for were not
Employment Outlook
required in theaters, restaurants, properly performed. Collectors
Job openings for cashiers are ex­ and foodstores. Many cashiers in normally recommend that the
pected to be plentiful through these places work part time or on debtors resolve these disagreements
1985. Employment is expected to split shifts. Full-time cashiers in su­ by contacting the original sellers. In
grow about as fast as the average permarkets and other large retail large stores, problems are referred
for all occupations. New jobs will stores usually work a 5-day, 40- to special “customer service” de­
result from future business growth, hour week; however, they generally partments, set up to deal with
particularly in retail trade. More work on Saturday and have another disputed accounts. If the problems
important than growth as a source day off during the week.
are not settled, the collectors again
of jobs for cashiers, however, is the
Most cashiers work indoors, contact the customers to convince
need to replace workers who die, often in small booths or behind them that they were properly
retire, or stop working for other counters located near store en­ charged and should pay the debts.
reasons. Because the occupation is trances. In some cases, they are ex­
When customers have met with
large and turnover is high, many posed to cold drafts in the winter financial
cashier jobs will be available over and considerable heat during the mismanaged their money, collec­
summer. (See introductory section tors may work out new payment
the next 10 years.

If collectors find
customers fraudulently avoiding
payment of their bills, they may
recommend that the files be turned
over to an attorney.
When a debtor moves without
leaving a forwarding address, the
collector may inquire at the post of­
fice, search telephone directories,
and call on the person’s friends and
former neighbors. In large collec­
tion operations, this may be done
by collection workers known as
“ tracers.”
In small organizations, bill collec­
tors may perform other functions
customers. They may advise
problems, or contact customers to
determine if they are satisfied with
the way their accounts are being
handled. Some collectors supervise

the repossession procedure for
businesses that reclaim goods when
payment is not made.
Although most collectors do their
work by phone, some make per­
sonal visits to the debtor. These
visits usually are necessary when a
large amount of money is involved
and the debtor has been unrespon­
sive to phone contact.
Places of Employment

About 60,000 persons—over a
third of them women—were collec­
tion workers in 1974. Although col­
lectors work for a variety of busi­
nesses, most are employed by
banks, loan companies, and collec­
tion agencies. Many others work for
retail and wholesale businesses.
Jobs for collectors are found
throughout the United States, but

opportunities are best in heavily
populated urban centers. Many
firms having branch offices in rural
areas locate their collection depart­
ments in the business district of
nearby cities.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A high school education usually
is sufficient for entry into the col­
lection field. Because a collector
handles delinquent accounts on a
person-to-person basis, high school
courses in psychology and speech
may be useful. Previous employ­
ment as a sales clerk can help the
collection worker learn how credit
transactions originate and how they
are handled at the point of sale.
Knowledge of a foreign language
may be an asset for persons seeking
collection jobs in areas with large
non-English-speaking populations.
Most of a collector’s training is
on the job. The employer may pro­
vide training manuals that explain
collection procedures, but more
often the new employee gains col­
lection skills informally. For exam­
ple, the new collector learns
telephone techniques by listening' as
experienced workers make collec­
tion calls.
A collector’s most important
asset is the ability to get along with
different people. He or she must be
alert, imaginative, and quick-witted
to handle the difficult situations
that are a part of collection work.
While collectors should be sym­
problems, they also must be persua­
sive to overcome some debtors’
reluctance to fulfill their financial
obligations. Because a collector
spends most of the day on the
telephone, a pleasant speaking
voice and manner are important.
The collector’s job generally of­
fers limited opportunities for ad­
vancement; competition for the few
supervisory positions is keen. The
collector with above-average abili­
ties, however, may become a col­

lection manager or supervisor of a further growth of suburban retail
staff of collectors. Some collection stores. Delinquent accounts, unfor­
workers progress to other positions tunately, are an unavoidable aspect
in the credit field, such as bank loan of the credit system. As businesses
officer or outside representative for extend attractive credit terms for
a collection agency. Further educa­ the purchase of greater numbers of
tion, such as that available through goods and services by increasingly
professional associations of collec­ broad segments of our society, the
tors or college courses, may be number of delinquent accounts can
helpful for advanced positions in be expected to increase. Additional
the credit and collection field.
collection workers will be required
to service these accounts on a person-to-person basis.
Employment Outlook
The applicant with a background
of high school business courses who
telephone skills should find job op­
portunities available in the collec­
tion field. In the past, some job­
seekers have been reluctant to ac­
cept collection work.
recently, however, the image of the
occupation has improved. The role
of the collector has expanded to in­
clude customer debt counseling,
and collection methods have been
modified in line with modern
management techniques and recent
consumer legislation. Despite this
improved image, the number of
persons seeking collection jobs is
expected to fall short of the need
for additional workers. Employers
will need large numbers of collec­
tors to fill vacancies created by
deaths and retirements, and many
new positions will open up as the
occupation grows, at a rate faster
than the average for other career
should be best in collection agen­
cies, where replacement needs con­
tinue to be high, and in retail trade
firms, where earnings often are
somewhat lower than the average.
The strongest competition for col­
lection positions will be in large
metropolitan banks that generally
offer higher salaries and better op­
portunities for advancement than
other employers.
The demand for collection wor­
kers will be spurred by the expan­
sion of credit card services and the

Earnings and Working

Although earnings and payment
schedules for collectors vary among
employers, the limited information
available indicates that beginning
collectors earned over $100 a week
in 1974. Managers of collection de­
partments often earned $15,000 a
year and more.
A survey by the American Col­
lectors Association showed that
telephone collectors working for
collection agencies had an average
monthly income of $626 in 1974.
This average income can vary sub­
stantially because collection agen­
cies generally use some form of sal­
ary plus commission plan as an in­
centive to their collectors.
Commission schedules vary wide­
ly from agency to agency. A collec­
tor may be paid a relatively high sal­
ary with a low commission percent­
age or receive a low salary and a
high rate on the money he collects
for the agency. In some agencies, a
quota is assigned to a collector or
group of collectors and a bonus
paid if the quota is reached. A few
collection workers’ earnings are
only from commissions.
In addition to salary, collectors
receive the benefits common to
other office occupations, such as
paid vacations and health in­
surance. Those who occasionally
make visits outside the office
usually are furnished a company car
or are paid expenses for using their
own automobile.

Sources of Additional

Information on jobs as collection
workers as well as other positions in
a credit collection office is available
American Collectors Association, 4040 W.
70th St., Minneapolis, Minn. 55435.
Associated Credit Bureaus, 6767 Southwest
Freeway, Houston, Tex. 77036.

(D.O.T. 132.388, 205.368,
206.388, 219.588, 920.887)
Nature of the Work

An orderly file system is often the
key to an efficient office. In most
offices, records are arranged so that
information can be located quickly.
This creates many job opportunities
for file clerks, who keep records ac­
curate, up to date, and properly
File clerks classify, store, update,
and retrieve office information on
request. To do this, they read in­
coming material and put it in order
for future use by means of some
system, such as by number, letter of
the alphabet, or subject matter.
When these records are requested,
file clerks locate them and turn
them over to the borrower. They
keep track of materials removed
from the files and make sure that
those given out are returned.
Some clerks operate mechanized
files which rotate to bring the
needed records to them. Others
retrieve documents or spools of
microfilm and place them in an
electronic transmitter which dis­
plays the information on video ter­
minals located elsewhere in the or­
ganization. Records also must be
up-to-date in order to be useful.
File clerks make sure that new in­
formation is added to existing files
shortly after it is received.
From time to time, file clerks
may destroy outdated file materials

or transfer them to inactive storage.
They check files at regular intervals
to insure that all items are correctly
placed. Whenever data cannot be
located, the file clerk searches for
the missing records. As an organiza­
tion’s needs for information
change, file clerks modify old filing
systems or establish new ones.
In small offices, file clerks often
type, sort mail, or operate duplicat­
ing machines. Those who work with
automated filing systems may code
and microfilm all incoming docu­
Places of Employment

About 275,000 persons—15 per­
cent of them men—worked as file
clerks in 1974. In addition, many
other clerical workers perform
some filing tasks in connection with
their work. Opportunities for parttime work are abundant in this oc­
cupation; in 1974, approximately 1
of every 4 file clerks worked part
Although filing jobs are found in
almost every kind of organization,
over one-half of all file clerks work
in banks, insurance companies, fac­
tories, or government agencies.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Employers prefer high school
graduates for beginning file clerks.
Most seek applicants who can type,
and many prefer those who have
some knowledge of office practices
as well. High schools, colleges, and
private business schools teach these
and other skills that help a beginner
get a job. Many States and localities
sponsor programs to train unem­
ployed and low-skilled workers for
entry level clerical jobs such as file
Some on-the-job training usually
is necessary because each organiza­
tion has its own filing system and of­
fice procedures. In organizations
procedures, clerks learn their jobs
in a few weeks. Learning to operate
mechanical filing systems usually
takes more time. Where file clerks
have a variety of related duties,
training may take up to 3 months.
File clerks must read accurately
and rapidly, spell well, and like
detailed work. They should be neat,
able to work as part of a team, and
not be easily bored by repeated
File clerks can advance to more
difficult filing duties and to jobs su­
pervising other file clerks. Those
who improve their skills may be
promoted to office machine opera­
tors, receptionists, and typists.

should assure steady employment
growth. However, this growth
should be slower than in past years
as computers are used more exten­
sively to arrange, store, and trans­
mit information. Jobseekers who
possess typing and other secretarial
skills and are familiar with a wide
range of office machines should
have greater opportunities than less
experienced applicants.
Temporary or part-time work
often is desirable for students and
persons with family responsibilities.
File clerks should find many such
opportunities as employers increas­
ingly turn to part-time and tempo­
rary workers during peak business
Earnings and Working

According to a recent survey,
beginning file clerks in urban areas
averaged $107 a week in 1974.
Those with some experience
averaged $118; those with a great
deal of experience, $144. File
clerks earn almost three-fourths as
much as the average for nonsupervisory workers in private industry,
except farming.
In the Federal Government,
beginning file clerks without high
school diplomas started at about
$102 a week in late 1974, and high
school graduates began at $ 115 a
week. Experienced file clerks in the
Federal Government averaged
about $ 152 a week in 1974.
Employment Outlook
Working conditions for file clerks
usually are similar to those for other
Employment of file clerks is ex­
pected to grow about as fast as the office workers in the same or­
average for all occupations through ganization. Although they do not do
the mid-1980’s as business expan­ heavy lifting, they often must stoop,
sion creates a need for more and bend, and reach. (See the statement
better recordkeeping. In addition, a on Clerical Occupations for infor­
large number of file clerks will be mation on fringe benefits and
needed each year to replace those sources of additional information.)
who die, retire, or transfer to other
The growing volume of paper
work and continued expansion of
those businesses that traditionally
have employed many file clerks

(D.O.T. 242.368)
Nature of the Work

Hotels and motels employ front
office clerks to handle room reser­
vations, greet guests, issue keys,
and collect payments. In small
hotels and in many motels, front of­
fice clerks also may work as book­
keepers, cashiers, or telephone
operators. Large hotels usually em­
ploy several front office clerks to
handle different jobs, such as
receiving mail, providing informa­
tion, or issuing keys. In the largest
hotels, floor clerks distribute mail,
packages, and telegrams to guests.
About 54,000 persons—half of
them women—worked as front of­
fice clerks in 1974.
Room or desk clerks assign rooms
to guests and answer questions
about hotel services, checkout
time, or parking facilities. In assign­

ing rooms, they must consider
guests’ preferences while trying to
maximize hotel revenues. These
clerks fill out guests’ registration
forms and sometimes collect pay­
Reservation clerks record written
or telephoned requests for rooms,
type out registration forms, and
notify room clerks of guests’ arrival
Rack clerks keep records of
room assignments to advise
housekeepers, telephone operators,
and maintenance workers that
rooms are occupied.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Employers usually select high
school graduates who have some
clerical aptitude when they are hir­
ing front office clerks. A knowledge
of bookkeeping is helpful for work
in a small hotel or on the night shift,
because clerks often have a wider
range of duties under these circum­

stances. Occasionally, employees in
other hotel occupations, such as
bellhops or elevator operators, may
be transferred to front office jobs.
Although education beyond high
school generally is not required for
front office work, college training is
an asset for advancement to
managerial jobs. Neatness, a'courteous and friendly manner, and a
desire to help people are important
traits for front office clerks.
Knowledge of a foreign language
can be helpful for work in large
hotels or resorts that receive many
foreign guests.
Newly hired workers usually
begin as mail, information, or key
clerks and receive their training on
the job. The training period is
usually brief and includes an ex­
planation of the job’s duties and in­
formation about the hotel, such as
room locations and services of­
fered. Once on the job, they receive
help and supervision from the
assistant manager or an ex­
perienced front office worker.
Most hotels promote front office
workers from within so that a key or
mail clerk may be promoted to
room clerk, then to assistant front
office manager, and later to front
office manager. Clerks may im­
prove their opportunities for
promotion by taking home study
courses in hotel management such
as those sponsored by the Educa­
tional Institute of the American
Hotel and Motel Association. (See
the statement on Hotel Managers
and Assistants elsewhere in the
Employment Outlook

Front office clerks check the occupancy and advance reservation rack before
accepting telephoned reservations or assigning rooms to arriving guests.

Employment of front office
clerks is expected to grow about as
fast as the average for all occupa­
tions through the mid-1980’s as
new hotels and motels are built.
Most openings, however, will result
from the need to replace workers
who die, retire, or leave the occupa­
tion. Growth in the occupation will
be limited somewhat by the use of

computerized reservation systems
in most hotel and motel chains.
See the statement on the Hotel
Industry elsewhere in the Handbook
for information on earnings and
working conditions, sources of ad­
ditional information, and more in­
formation on employment outlook.

(D.O.T. 207.782, .884, and .885;
208.782; 213.782; 214.488;
215.388; 216.488; and 234.)
Nature of the Work

To speed the paperwork involved
in operating a business, most firms
employ office machine operators to
record information, determine bills
and inventories, and perform other
decribes some of the more common
machine operating jobs.
Billing machine operators (D.O.T.
214.488) prepare customer state­
ments by typing information, such
as customers’ names, purchases,
and amount of sales, on a billing
machine that automatically com­
putes the balances and required
Bookkeeping machine operators
(D.O.T. 215.388) record a firm’s
financial transactions on a book­
keeping machine and calculate trial
balances, summary reports, and
other necessary data.
Adding and calculating machine
operators (D.O.T. 216.488) use
mechanical adding machines and
electronic calculators to compute
payrolls and invoices and do other
statistical work. Some calculators
can also be used to compute square
roots and percent distributions.
Mail preparing and mail handling
machine operators (D.O.T. 234.)
use machines to open incoming
mail and prepare bills and letters
for mailing. Some machines fold
and insert enclosures, while others

address, seal, and stamp envelopes.
Addressing machines print ad­
dresses on envelopes using stencils
or metal plates prepared by em­
bossing machine operators (D.O.T.
208.782) using special typewriters.
Duplicating machine operators
(D.O.T. 207.782, .884, and .885)
operate equipment that can
reproduce letters, bills, invoices
and other documents. Included are
mimeograph, stencil, and copying
machines. These workers keep the
machines loaded with paper, see
that they are properly adjusted for
the number of copies to be made,
and may collate pages of lengthy
documents by hand or machine.
Tabulating machine operators
(D.O.T. 213.782) operate ma­
chines that sort and total large
quantities of accounting and
statistical information and print the
results on special business forms.
Information about workers in
several other occupations that use

office machines can be found
elsewhere in the H a n d b o o k , in the
statements on computer and
peripheral equipment operators,
typists, and statistical clerks.
Places of Employment

In 1974, about 170,000 people—
three-fourths of them women—
worked as office machine opera­
tors. About one-third worked for
manufacturing companies, but
large numbers were employed by
wholesale and retail stores. Some
office machine operators are em­
ployed by service firms that prepare
monthly bills and mailing circulars
for businesses that do not have their
own office machinery.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Employers prefer high school or

business school graduates for jobs
as office machine operators. Most
newly hired workers are expected
to be able to type and operate add­
ing machines and calculators. A
knowledge of business arithmetic is
The amount of instruction and
receive depends on the types of
machines they operate. Although a
few days of training are usually suf­
ficient to train duplicating machine
operators, several weeks may be
needed to train bookkeeping
machine operators. Some office
machine operators are trained at
company expense in schools run by
equipment manufacturers.
Finger dexterity, good eye and
hand coordination, and good vision
are important for most office
machine operator jobs. Billing and
calculating machine operators
should know simple arithmetic so
they can detect obvious errors in
computations. Some mechanical
ability is advantageous, especially
for duplicating and tabulating
machine operators.
Most employers promote from
within and give strong considera­
tion to seniority and job per­
formance as shown by supervisors’
ratings. Promotion may be from a
routine machine job to a more com­
plex one, or to a related clerical job.
Employers often provide any addi­
tional training that may be
required. In firms having large cleri­
cal staffs, office machine operators
may advance to jobs where they
train beginners or to supervisory
positions as section or department
Employment Outlook

Employment of office machine
operators is expected to grow more
slowly than the average for all occu­
pations through the mid-1980’s.
Most openings will result from the
need to replace workers who die,
retire, or leave the occupation.
Despite expected growth in the

volume of billing, computing, and
duplicating work, the occupation
will expand slowly as computerized
systems spread. In addition, ad­
vances in data transmission devices
will enable large employers to cen­
tralize recordkeeping, and to
reduce the requirements for opera­
tors in branch offices.

office workers in the same firms.
(See the statement on Clerical Oc­
cupations for further information
on working conditions and for
sources of additional information.)

Earnings and Working

Nature of the Work

A 1974 Bureau of Labor
Statistics survey of earnings for
several office machine operator oc­
cupations in urban areas showed
that the lowest salaries were paid in
the South and the highest in the
North and West.
For some occupations averages
are given separately for different
skill groups. Operators in Class A
were very experienced and per­
formed comparatively difficult
work. Those in Classes B and C had
some or no experience, worked on
more routine assignments, and used
simpler equipment. The average
weekly salaries reported in this sur­
vey are shown in the accompanying
A verage


Billing machine operators...........
Bookkeeping machine operators:
Class A..................................
Class B..................................
Tabulating machine operators:
Class A ..................................
Class B..................................
Class C ..................................

$ 133.00

Billing and bookkeeping machine
operators earned slightly less than
the average for all nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
Because some types of office
machines are very noisy, operators
may work in special areas apart
from other company offices. In
other respects, their working condi­
tions are similar to those of other

(D.O.T. 231.688, 232.138 and
Most people are familiar with the
post office window clerk who sits
behind the counter selling stamps
or accepting parcel post. However,
the majority of postal clerks are dis­
tribution clerks who sort incoming
and outgoing mail in workrooms.
Only in a small post office does a
clerk do both kinds of work.
When mail arrives at the post of­
fice, machines, operated by dis­
tribution clerks and mail handlers,
separate it into groups of letters,
parcel post, and magazines and
newspapers. Clerks feed letters into
stamp-canceling machines and can­
cel the rest by hand. The mail is
then taken to other sections of the
post office to be sorted by destina­
tion. Clerks first separate the mail
into primary destination categories:
mail for the local area, for each
nearby State, for groups of distant
States, and for some of the largest
cities. This primary distribution is
followed by one or more secondary
distributions. For example, local
mail is combined with mail coming
in from other cities, and sorted ac­
cording to street and number. In
post offices with electronic mail­
sorting machines, clerks read ZIP
codes and simply push a key cor­
responding to the letter’s destina­
tion; the letter drops into the proper
The clerks at post office windows
provide a variety of services in addi­
tion to selling stamps and money or­
ders. They weigh packages to deter­
mine postage and check to see if
their condition is satisfactory for
mailing. Clerks also register and in­
sure mail and answer questions

about postage rates, mailing restric­
tions, and other postal matters. Oc­
casionally they may help a
customer file a claim for a damaged
package. In large post offices, a
window clerk may provide only one
or two of these services and may be
called a registry, stamp, or money
order clerk.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Postal clerks must be at least 18
and pass a four-part written ex­
amination. The first part tests cleri­
cal accuracy by asking the appli­
cant to compare pairs of addresses
and indicate which are identical.
The second part tests ability to
memorize mail distribution systems.
The third measures reading ability,
including vocabulary, and the
fourth tests ability to do simple
arithmetic. They must also pass a

physical examination and may be
asked to show that they can lift and
handle mail sacks weighing up to 70
pounds. Applicants who are to
work with an electronic sorting
machine must pass a special ex­
which includes a
machine aptitude test.
Applicants should apply at the
post office where they wish to work
because each post office keeps a
separate list of those who have
passed the examination. Appli­
cants’ names are listed in order of
their scores. Five extra points are
added to the score of an honorably
discharged veteran, and 10 extra
points to the score of a veteran
wounded in combat or disabled.
Disabled veterans who have a com­
pensable, service-connected disa­
bility of 10 percent or more are
placed at the top of the list. When a
vacancy occurs, the appointing of­
ficer chooses one of the top three

applicants; the rest of the names
remain on the list for future ap­
New clerks are trained on the
job. Most clerks begin with simple
tasks to learn regional groupings of
States, cities, and ZIP codes. To
help clerks learn these groups,
many post offices offer classroom
A good memory, good coordina­
tion, and the ability to read rapidly
and accurately are important. Dis­
tribution clerks work closely with
other clerks, frequently under the
tension and strain of meeting mail­
ing deadlines. Window clerks must
be tactful when dealing with the
public, especially when answering
questions or receiving complaints.
Postal clerks are classified as
casual, part-time flexible, part-time
regular, or full time. Casual workers
are hired to help handle the large
amounts of mail during the Christ­
mas season. Part-time flexible em­
ployees do not have a regular work
schedule, but replace absent wor­
kers or help with extra work loads
as the need arises. Part-time regular
workers have a set work schedule—
for example, 4 hours a day.
Most clerks begin as part-time
flexible employees and become full­
time workers as vacancies occur.
As their seniority increases, they
may bid for preferred assignments
such as the day shift, a window job,
or a higher level nonsupervisory
position as expediter or window ser­
vice technician. A relatively small
number of clerks become super­
Employment Outlook

Most postal clerks sort incoming and outgoing mail.

Employment of postal clerks—
who numbered 268,000 in 1974—is
expected to change very little,
through the mid-1980’s. Although
the amount of mail may increase
along with population and business
growth, modernization of post of­
fices and installation of new equip­
ment will increase the amount of
mail each clerk can handle. Most

job openings will result from the
need to replace clerks who retire,
die, or transfer to other occupa­
Earnings and Working

Most clerks are at the grade 5
level; in mid-1974 those working a
part-time flexible schedule began at
$4.77 and could reach $6.06 an
hour after 8 years. By comparison,
nonsupervisory workers in private
industry, except farming, averaged
$4.22 an hour. Clerks working full
time earned $9,588 a year and
could advance to $12,173 after 8
years. All clerks who work night
shifts receive 10 percent additional
Besides good pay, full-time postal
employees have more job security
than workers in most other indus­
Working conditions of clerks
differ according to the specific
work assignments and the amount
and kind of laborsaving machinery
in the post office. In small post of­
fices, clerks may carry heavy mail
sacks from one part of the building
to another, and sort the mail by
hand. In large post offices, chutes

and conveyors move the mail and
much of the sorting is done by
machine. In either case, clerks are
on their feet most of the time,
reaching for sacks of mail and plac­
ing packages and bundles into sacks
while walking around the work­
Distribution clerks may become
bored with the routine of sorting
mail unless they enjoy trying to im­
prove their speed and accuracy.
They also may have to work at
night, because most large post of­
fices process mail around the clock.
A window clerk, on the other
hand, has a greater variety of du­
ties, has frequent contact with the
public, generally has a less strenu­
ous job, and never has to work a
night shift.
(For information on fringe
benefits, see statement on Postal
Service Occupations elsewhere in
the Handbook.)
Sources of Additional

Local post offices and State em­
ployment service offices can supply
details about entrance examina­
tions and employment opportuni­
ties for postal clerks.

(D.O.T. 235.862, 237.368)
Nature of the Work

Clerk unloads mail from truck.

tor’s booth; and in large plants, they
provide callers with identification
cards and arrange escorts to take
them to the proper office.
Many receptionists keep business
records of callers, the times at
which they called, and the persons
to whom they were referred. When
they are not busy with callers,
receptionists may type, file, or
operate a switchboard. Some recep­
tionists open and sort mail and col­
lect and distribute messages. Still
others prepare travel vouchers and
do simple bookkeeping.
Places of Employment

Nearly 460,000 persons worked
as receptionists in 1974. Ninetyseven percent of them were women.
Part-time employment is readily
available for receptionists, and
about 1 in 3 works part time.
Although receptionists work in
almost every kind of organization,
over half work for doctors, lawyers,
or other professional people. Large
numbers also work in insurance
companies, banks, factories, and
firms providing business and per­
sonal services.

All organizations want to make a
good first impression on the public.
This is an important part of the job
of the receptionist, who generally is
the first person a caller sees.
Receptionists greet customers
and other visitors, determine their
needs, and refer callers to the offi­ Training, Other Qualifications,
cial who can help them. Recep­
and Advancement
tionists in hospitals, after obtaining
personal histories, direct patients to
A high school diploma generally
the proper waiting rooms; in beauty is required for work as a recep­
shops, they arrange appointments tionist. Courses in English, spelling,
and show customers to the opera­ typing, elementary bookkeeping,

and business practices are helpful
to the beginner.
Liking people and wanting to
help them are assets to the recep­
tionist. A neat appearance, a
pleasant voice, and an even disposi­
tion also are important. Because
receptionists do not work under
close supervision, common sense
and a thorough understanding of
how the business is organized help
them handle various situations that
Promotion opportunities for
receptionists are limited, especially
in small offices. In large work­
places, however, a receptionist who
has clerical skills may advance to a
better paying job as a secretary or
administrative assistant. Many com­
panies have their own training pro­
grams so that the skills needed for
advancement can be learned on the
job. College or business school
training also can be helpful in ad­
vancing to better paying office jobs.

to-person nature, it is unlikely to be
affected by office automation.
Job opportunities should con­
tinue to be excellent for students,
persons with family responsibilities,
and others who do not wish to work
full time.
Earnings and Working

Full-time switchboard/reception­
ists working in urban areas averaged
$113 a week in 1974. This was
slightly under the average earnings
for nonsupervisory workers in pri­
vate industry, except farming. Re­
ceptionists working in the western
United States had average weekly
earnings of $ 118. Those in southern
cities averaged $105 a week. In the
Federal Government, beginning in­
formation receptionists earned
$ 115 a week in late 1974.
Receptionists usually work in
furnished. Although most have
regular hours, receptionists in
Employment Outlook
hospitals and beauty shops may
work evenings and weekends. (See
Employment of receptionists is
the statement on Clerical Occupa­
expected to grow faster than the
tions for sources of additional infor­
average for all occupations during
the next 10 years. Thousands of mation.)
openings will result each year as
businesses expand and as recep­
tionists who die, retire, or transfer
to other jobs are replaced. The
number of replacements will be
(D.O.T. 201.268 and .368;
quite large because the occupation
202.388, and 209.138)
is large and turnover is high.
Within the fast-growing clerical
Nature of the Work
field, receptionist employment is
expected to grow very rapidly. Only
The efficiency of any organiza­
a few other clerical jobs are pro­ tion depends upon secretaries and
jected to grow faster through 1985. stenographers who are at the center
This is largely because so many of communications within their
receptionists work for firms provid­ firm. They transmit information
ing business, personal, and profes­ among their employer’s staff and to
sional services—a sector of the persons in many other organiza­
economy which is expected to show tions.
very strong growth in the future. In
Secretaries (D.O.T. 201.368) re­
addition, more and more firms lieve their employers of routine du­
recognize the importance of the ties so that they can work on more
receptionist in promoting good important matters. Although most
public relations. Also, because the secretaries type, take shorthand,
receptionist’s work is of a person- and deal with callers, the time spent

on these duties varies in different
types of organizations.
In offices where dictation and
typing are handled in word
processing centers, administrative
secretarial duties. (For more infor­
mation on these centers, see the
statement on Typists elsewhere in
the Handbook.) They often work in
clusters of three or four so that they
can readily help each other.
Because they are released from dic­
tation and typing, they can serve
several members of the professional
staff. Their duties range from filing,
routing mail, and answering
telephones to more responsible jobs
such as answering letters, doing
statistical research, and writing re­
Some secretaries are trained in
specific skills needed in certain
types of work. Medical secretaries
prepare case histories and medical
reports; legal secretaries do legal
research and help prepare briefs;
and technical secretaries assist en­
gineers or scientists in drafting re­
ports and research proposals.
Another specialized secretary is the
social secretary (D.O.T. 201.268),
who arranges social functions, an­
swers personal correspondence,
and keeps the employer informed
about all social activities.
Stenographers (D.O.T. 202.388)
take dictation and then transcribe
their notes on a typewriter. They
may either take shorthand or use a
stenotype machine which prints

symbols as certain keys are pressed.
most beginners, take routine dicta­
tion and do other office tasks such
telephones, and operating office
machines. Experienced and highly
skilled stenographers take difficult
dictation and do more responsible
clerical work. They may sit in on
staff meetings and give a summary
report or a word for word record of
the proceedings. They also super­
vise other stenographers, typists,
and clerical workers. Technical
stenographers must know the terms
used in a particular profession.
They include medical, legal, and
engineering or scientific stenog­
raphers. Some experienced stenog­
raphers take dictation in foreign
languages; others work as public
stenographers serving traveling
business people and others.
Shorthand reporters are special­
ized stenographers who record all
statements made in a proceeding.
Nearly half of all shorthand report­
ers work as court reporters at­
tached to courts of law at different
levels of government. They take
down all statements made at legal
proceedings and present their
record as the official transcript.
Many other shorthand reporters
work as free-lance reporters who
record out-of-court testimony for
attorneys, meetings and conven­
tions, and other private activities.
Still others record the proceedings
in the Congress of the United
States, in State legislatures, and in
both State and Federal agencies.
Most shorthand reporters take
their notes on a stenotype machine
and transcribe them on a
typewriter. Sometimes the reporter
dictates notes on magnetic tapes
that a typist can transcribe later.
Because the reporter’s transcript is
the official record of a proceeding,
accuracy is vitally important.
General stenographers,

nearly all of them women—worked
in jobs requiring secretarial or
stenographic skills in 1974; most
were secretaries. Despite impres­
sive employment gains in non-traditional occupations, more women
work as secretaries than in any
other job. Only about 100,000 per­
sons worked as stenographers in
Opportunities for part-time work
are increasing in these and other
clerical occupations. In 1974, ap­
proximately 1 of every 5 secretaries
and 1 in 6 stenographers worked
part time.
Secretaries and stenographers
are employed throughout the
economy. About two-thirds of
them, however, work in banks, in­
surance companies, real estate
firms, government agencies, and
other establishments providing
services to the public. Most
specialized stenographers and sec­
retaries-work for doctors, lawyers,
and other professional people.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Generally, graduation from high
school is required for a job as a
secretary or stenographer. Many
employers prefer applicants having
additional secretarial training at a
college or private business school.
Courses vary from a few months’ in­
struction in basic shorthand and
typing to longer programs teaching
specialized skills such as shorthand
reporting or legal or medical
secretarial work. Shorthand report­
ers generally must complete a 2year course in a shorthand report­
ing school.
An increasing number of private
firms and government agencies
have their own training facilities
where employees can upgrade their
skills and broaden their knowledge of
the organization. Also, many State and
local governments sponsor programs to
train unemployed and low-skilled
Places of Employment
workers for entry jobs as secretaries.
About 3.3 million persons—
Many courts of law require their

court reporter to be a Certified
Shorthand Reporter (CSR). Others
hire reporters with the understand­
ing that they will be certified within
1 year. The National Shorthand Re­
porters Association gives tests for
speed and accuracy to certify re­
Although there are many dif­
ferent shorthand methods, em­
preferences. The most important
factor in hiring and promotion is
speed and accuracy. To qualify for
jobs in the Federal Service—and for
employment in many private
firms—stenographers must be able
to take dictation at 110 words per
minute and type 40 to 50 words per
minute. Many shorthand reporting
jobs require more than 225 words
of dictation per minute; shorthand
reporters in the Federal Govern­
ment generally must take 175
words a minute.
Secretaries and stenographers
should have good hearing; a
knowledge of spelling, punctuation,
grammar, and vocabulary is essen­
tial. The ability to concentrate amid
distractions is vital for shorthand
reporters. Employers look for per­
sons who are poised and alert, and
who have pleasant personalities.
Discretion, judgment, and initiative
are important for the more respon­
sible secretarial positions.
Many stenographers who im­
prove their skills advance to
secretarial jobs; others, who
acquire the necessary speed
through additional training, can
Secretaries can increase their skills
and broaden their knowledge of
their company’s operations by tak­
ing courses offered by the company
or by local colleges and universities.
As secretaries gain knowledge and
experience, they can qualify for the
designation Certified Professional
Secretary (C.P.S.) by passing a se­
ries of exams given by the National
designation is recognized by a
growing number of employers as

dictation machines has severely
reduced the need for office stenog­
raphers, and fewer jobs will be
available than in the past. Prospects
for skilled shorthand reporters, in
contrast to the overall outlook for
stenographers, appear to be very
good as State and Federal court
systems expand to handle the rising
Employment Outlook
number of criminal court cases and
Employment of secretaries is ex­ civil lawsuits. Opportunities will be
pected to increase faster than the best for those who have earned cer­
average for all occupations through tification by the National Short­
the mid-1980’s as the continued ex­ hand Reporters Association.
pansion of business and govern­
ment creates a growing volume of
Earnings and Working
paper work. Several hundred
thousand jobs will become available
According to a recent survey,
each year due to growth and the
need to replace those who die, general stenographers working in
retire, or stop working for other urban areas averaged $586 a month
in 1974; experienced workers who
Demand for secretaries will rise were highly skilled averaged $663.
mainly as those organizations which Shorthand reporters generally earn
require large secretarial staffs ex­ higher salaries than other steno­
pand their operations. New or ex­ graphic workers. The National
panded government agencies, par­ Shorthand Reporters Association
ticularly at the State and local level; estimates that well-trained begin­
insurance companies offering new ners receive from $800 to $1,000 a
forms of protection; and banks month, depending on speed and re­
providing financial counseling for gional location.
an increasingly affluent population
According to the same survey,
all underscore the need for well- secretaries to supervisors in small
trained and versatile secretaries. offices earned monthly salaries of
Although many new types of auto­ $638. Secretaries to officers in
matic office equipment have been small companies had average
introduced in recent years, no ad­ monthly salaries of $690; those
verse impact on employment of working for middle management in
secretaries is expected. However, large companies averaged $735.
job seekers who are familiar with a Secretaries having greater responsi­
wide range of office machines and bilities, such as executive secreta­
procedures should have better ries to corporate officers, earned
prospects than less experienced average monthly salaries of $804.
Beginning clerk-stenographers in
Persons with secretarial skills the Federal Government earned
should find extensive opportunities from $499 to $708 a month in late
for^emporary or part-time work as 1974 depending on education,
employers increasingly turn to training and experience. Earnings
these workers during peak business of beginning shorthand reporters
periods. This type of arrangement ranged from $789 to $1,070 a
should be especially attractive to month depending on speed, educa­
students and persons with family tion, and experience. Starting sala­
ries for secretaries in the Federal
Employment of stenographers is Government ranged from $708 to
expected to continue the decline of $876 a month, while the average for
recent years. The increased use of all secretaries was $840 a month. In

the mark of achievement in the
secretarial field. Many executive
secretaries are promoted into
management positions where they
can use their vast experience and
knowledge of their employer’s

1974, earnings of stenographers
were slightly less and those of
secretaries somewhat more than
average earnings for all nonsupervisory workers in private industry,
except farming.
Working conditions for secreta­
ries and stenographers generally are
similar to those of other office workers
in the same organization. Shorthand
reporters, however, often sit for long
periods of time while recording an
event. (See the statement on Clerical
Occupations for more information on
earnings and working conditions.)
Sources of Additional

For information on careers in
secretarial work, write:
(International), 2440 Pershing Road,
Suite G 10, Kansas City, Missouri 64108.

careers in secretarial work and a
directory of business schools is
available from:
Association of Independent Colleges and
Schools, 1730 M St. NW„ Washington,
D .C .20036.

For information about shorthand
reporting, contact:
National Shorthand Reporters Association,
25 West Main St., Madison, Wis. 53703.

(D.O.T. 209.688, 219.388,
222.138 through .687, 223.387,
239.588, 910.368 and 920.887)
Nature of the Work

Shipping and receiving clerks
keep track of goods transferred
between firms and their customers
and suppliers. In small companies,
one clerk may keep records of all
shipments sent out and received; in
larger companies, many clerks take
care of this recordkeeping.

Shipping clerks are responsible
for all shipments leaving a business
place. Before goods are sent to a
customer, these clerks check to be
sure the order has been filled cor­
rectly. They obtain merchandise
from the stockroom and wrap it or
pack it in shipping containers.
Clerks also put addresses and other
packages, look up and compute
either freight or postal rates, and
record the weight and cost of each
shipment. They may also be respon­
sible for preparing invoices and
furnishing information about ship­
ments to other parts of the com­
pany, such as the accounting de­
partment. Once a shipment is
checked and ready to go, shipping
clerks may move it to the shipping
dock and direct its loading on
trucks according to its destination.
Shipping and receiving clerks work­
ing in small firms may combine the
various duties of stock clerks in
their jobs. (For more information
about the additional duties of
shipping clerks in small firms, see
the statement on Stock Clerks
elsewhere in the Handbook.)
When shipments arrive, receiving
clerks perform tasks similar to
shipping clerks. They determine
whether their employer’s orders
have been correctly filled, by veri­
fying incoming shipments against
the original order and the accom­
panying bill of lading or invoice.
They record the receipt and condi­
tion of incoming shipments. Clerks
also make adjustments with ship­
pers for lost and damaged merchan­
dise. Routing or moving shipments
warehouse section, or stockroom,
and providing information that is
needed to compute inventories also
may be part of their job.
Places of Employment

About 465,000 persons—onequarter of them women—worked as
shipping and receiving clerks in
1974. More than half worked in

workers in shipping or receiving
Work as a shipping or receiving
clerk offers a good opportunity for
ambitious young people to learn
about their company’s products and
business practices. Some clerks
may be promoted to head shipping
or receiving clerk or warehouse
manager. Others may enter related
fields such as industrial traffic
(Industrial Traffic Managers and
Purchasing Agents are discussed
elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Employment Outlook

factories; large numbers also were
employed by wholesale houses or
retail stores. Although jobs for
shipping and receiving clerks are
found in all localities, most clerks
work in urban areas, where many
factories and wholesale houses are
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

High school graduates are
preferred for beginning jobs in
shipping and receiving depart­
ments. Business arithmetic, typing,
and other high school business sub­
jects are helpful. The ability to
write legibly is important. Dependa­
bility and an interest in learning
about the firm’s products and busi­
ness activities also are qualities
which employers seek. In addition,
shipping and receiving clerks
should be able to work under close
supervision at repetitive tasks.
New employees usually are
trained on the job by an ex­
perienced worker. As part of their
training they often file, check ad­
dresses, attach labels, and check
items included in shipments. As
clerks gain experience, they may be
assigned tasks requiring a good deal
of independent judgment, such as
handling problems of damaged
merchandise, or supervising other

Employment of shipping and
receiving clerks is expected to rise
about as fast as the average for all
occupations through the mid1980’s as business expands and
there are more goods to be dis­
tributed. Several thousand jobs will
become available each year as em­
ployment grows and as workers
retire, die, or transfer to other oc­
Although substantial growth is
expected in the volume of goods to
be moved, employment of shipping
and receiving clerks will increase
rather slowly because of changes in
technology which enable fewer
clerks to handle more goods. Grow­
ing numbers of firms are using com­
puters to keep track of shipping and
receiving records, and moving belts
to handle shipments once lifted by
Earnings and Working

Shipping and receiving clerks in
urban areas averaged $169 a week,
according to a 1974 survey. This is
about as much as the average
earnings for all nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
farming. Salaries varied substan­
tially, however, by type of em­
ployer. Shipping and receiving
clerks employed by manufacturing
firms averaged $ 166, those working

numerical records to help make
decisions. Statistical clerks prepare
and insure the accuracy of these
records. Jobs in this field can be
grouped into four categories:
recording, compiling and coding,
computing and tabulating, and
Recording. This work involves
collecting and verifying the accura­
cy of information. Shipping checkers
in manufacturing companies and
wholesale and retail businesses
(D.O.T. 222.687) insure that
merchandise is ready for shipment,
is properly labeled, and contains
the desired number of items. Car
checkers for railroads (D.O.T.
209.588) record shipments as they
arrive at or leave a freight terminal.
They check railroad car numbers
and contents to verify specifications
on the invoice. Counters (D.O.T.
223.588) , who may have a title
specifying their work or the items
which they count, record the
number of materials received,
transferred, or produced, and work
in several industries. For example,
lumber talliers or lumber checkers
work in saw mills; pit recorders col­
lect production data in the steel in­
Compiling and coding. In or­
Sources of Additional
ganizations of all types, information
must be properly filed, verified, or
Information about the work and analyzed by data processing equip­
earnings of shipping and receiving ment. Posting clerks (D.O.T.
clerks in wholesale establishments 219.588) do this work by making
entries in registers and journals.
is available from:
They receive and sort records of
National Association of Wholesaler Distribu­
tors, 1725 K St. NW., Washington, D.C. shipments, production, and finan­
cial transactions to provide com­
pany officials with current informa­
tion on business activities. Recordkeepers (D.O.T. 206.588), also
known as classification clerks,
record data systematically for easy
(D.O.T. 205.368, 206.588,
location. Coding clerks (D.O.T.
209.588, 219.388, .488, .588,
219.388) code information for
222.687, 223.588, 913.368, and
transfer to computer cards. Person­
nel clerks (D.O.T. 205.368) gather
and file information on the em­
Nature of the Work
ployees of a business; their work
Administrators and managers in may include some typing and
all types of organizations depend on preparation of reports.

for wholesale houses earned $175,
and those employed by public utili­
ties averaged $ 198.
Most shipping and receiving
clerks receive time-and-a-half for
work over 40 hours. Night work
and overtime, including work on
Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays,
may be necessary when shipments
have been unduly delayed or when
materials are needed immediately
on production lines. Although
shipping and receiving clerks do
much of their work in warehouses
or in shipping and receiving rooms,
they may do some of it on outside
loading platforms. Workplaces
often are large, unpartitioned areas
which may be drafty, cold, and lit­
tered with packing materials.
Most clerks must stand for long
periods while they check merchan­
dise. Locating numbers and
descriptions on cartons often
requires a great deal of bending,
stooping, and stretching. Also,
under the pressure of getting ship­
ments moved on time, clerks some­
times may help load or unload
materials in the warehouse. (See
the statement on Clerical Occupa­
tions for additional information on
fringe benefits.)

Computing and tabulating. Or­
ganizations frequently use numeri­
cal records for reports and
research. Statistical clerks gather
information from records to present
in a chart or table for analysis. Ac­
tuary clerks (D.O.T. 219.388) assist
actuaries in insurance companies to
determine the risk involved in
providing insurance coverage. They
also prepare charts and tables for
studies on general insurance prac­
tices. Policy checkers (D.O.T.
219.488) verify insurance company
(D.O.T. 219.388), also known as
tabulating clerks, calculate and
compute numerical data for
government and business research
projects. Demurrage clerks (D.O.T.
219.388), employed by railroads,
compute charges for the use of rail­
road tracks and calculate the
weight of shipments or distance
railroad cars have traveled.
Scheduling. Many business activi­
ties involve the movement of peo­
ple and things, and statistical clerks
do much of the required schedul­
ing. For example, assignment clerks
(D.O.T. 913.368) work for bus
companies and assign drivers to
meet riders’ transportation needs.
Drivers are selected on the basis of
experience, length of service, and
nature of the assignment. Crew
schedulers (D.O.T. 219.388) do
similar work for airlines; they assign
pilots to scheduled flights and log
the mileage each pilot has flown.
Gas dispatchers (D.O.T. 953.168)
determine the proper pressure in a
natural gasline to meet customers’
requirements after considering in­
formation such as the weather, time
of day, and other factors that affect
the use of gas.
Places of Employment

Over 325,000 persons worked as
statistical clerks in 1974. More than
two-thirds were women, but some
jobs were held predominantly by
men. For example, shipping
checkers, who may lift and move

records in an orderly manner. In
preparing data for computers, cod­
ing clerks must be careful to avoid
Most employers follow a promotion-from-within policy that allows
experienced workers to qualify for
more responsible jobs as they
become available. Qualified statisti­
cal clerks may perform more dif­
ficult assignments or advance to su­
pervisory positions. Many compil­
ing and coding jobs and computing
and tabulating jobs can lead the ex­
ceptional employee with special­
ized training to a career in com­
puter programming and related

Employment Outlook

Employment of statistical clerks
is expected to grow about as fast as
the average for other occupations
through the mid-1980’s. In addition
to job opportunities arising from
this growth, many additional
openings will occur as clerks die,
retire, or leave the occupation for
other reasons.
This occupation includes a wide
heavy items, and assignment clerks, numbers and the ability to do
who normally are experienced bus- detailed work. Clerks should be range of jobs. Some statistical
tactful and even tempered. Courses clerks perform routine duties and
drivers, usually are men.
Although statistical clerks are in business arithmetic, bookkeep­ there may be fewer such jobs in the
employed in nearly every industry, ing, and typing are good prepara­ future as computers increasingly
are used to collect and process in­
over half worked in finance, in­ tion for this work.
In many companies, general formation. Other jobs will not be
surance, and real estate companies;
manufacturing firms; and Federal, clerks who have become familiar eliminated by the computer
State, and local government.
with their employers’ record because they require personal con­
Because businesses of almost systems and office procedures are tact or involve preparing data for
every size require numerical promoted to statistical clerk posi­ computer use. The demand for
records, statistical clerks work tions. On-the-job training that these workers should outpace the
throughout the United States. Jobs equips the employee to specialize in growth of the occupation as a
are concentrated, however, in numerical work may include the whole.
Among the factors that will con­
heavily populated cities that are use of calculators, tabulating
centers of industry and government machines, and typewriters.
tribute to the demand for statistical
Statistical clerks who observe clerks is the expected increase in
and record data must be familiar business and government projects
with the items or information which requiring the collection and
Training, Other Qualifications,
they observe. For example, lumber processing of large amounts of nu­
and Advancement
checkers must know the various merical data. In addition, adminis­
Most employers prefer statistical types and qualities of wood trators increasingly will rely on nu­
clerks who are high school gradu­ products. Statistical clerks in com­ merical records to analyze and con­
ates. They also seek applicants who piling and coding jobs must locate trol all aspects of their organiza­
have an aptitude for working with and assemble information from tion’s work.

Earnings and Working

Limited information indicates
that beginning statistical clerks earn
about as much as workers in other
entry level clerical jobs such as of­
fice clerks or file clerks; salaries for
these workers ranged between $90
and $100 a week in 1974. The en­
trance salary for beginning statisti­
cal assistants employed by the
Federal Government was $130 a
week in late 1974.
Experienced workers doing
statistically related clerical work,
including the operation of tabulat­
ing machines or calculators, earned
between $120 and $150 a week in
1974. Top level clerks and super­
visors earned $175 a week and
more. Earnings usually are highest
in the manufacturing, transporta­
tion, and utilities industries; and
lower in retail trade; finance, in­
surance and real estate; and service
Nearly every employer of statisti­
cal clerks offers some form of ing orders for quality and quantity
insurance and sometimes make minor repairs
coverage, and retirement benefits. or adjustments. They also report
Most statistical clerks work in damaged or spoiled goods and
clean, well-lighted and well-venti­ process papers necessary for ob­
taining replacements or credit.
lated offices.
Materials are stored in bins, on
the floor, or on shelves according to
the plan of the stockroom. Stock
clerks organize and mark items with
identifying codes or prices so that
inventories can be located quickly
and easily. They keep records of
(D.O.T. 223.138, .368, .387, .388,
items entering or leaving the
.588, .687; 910.388; 969.387)
stockroom. Sometimes they label,
pack, crate, or address goods for
Nature of the Work
Most employers recognize the
Stock clerks working in small
importance of keeping well- firms may combine the varied du­
balanced inventories to prevent ties of shipping and receiving
sales losses or slowdowns in clerks. (For more information
about the additional duties of stock
Stock clerks (D.O.T. 223.387) clerks in small firms, see the state­
help protect against such losses by ment on Shipping and Receiving
controlling the flow of goods Clerks elsewhere in the Handbook.)
received, stored, and issued. They In large firms with specialized jobs,
usually receive and unpack incom­ inventory clerks (D.O.T. 223.388)
ing merchandise or material. They take periodic counts of items on
may check the items against outgo­ hand and make reports showing

stock balances. Procurement clerks
(D.O.T. 223.368) work in factories
and prepare orders for the purchase
of new equipment.
The duties of stock clerks also
depend on the items they handle.
For example, stock clerks who
work with foods and drugs must
maintain proper temperature and
humidity conditions; those who
handle large construction items
must do much walking and climbing
to note the condition and quantity
of that stock.
Places of Employment

Nearly 490,000 persons—onefourth of them women—worked as
stock clerks in 1974. About twothirds of the total worked in facto­
ries, wholesale firms, and retail
stores. Many others were employed
by airlines, government agencies,
hospitals, and other organizations
that keep large quantities of goods
on hand. Although jobs for stock
clerks are found in all parts of the
country, most work in urban areas

where factories, warehouses, and
stores are concentrated.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Although there are no specific
educational requirements for stock
clerks, employers prefer high
school graduates. Many look for
reading and writing skills, a basic
knowledge of mathematics, and
typing and filing abilities. Good
health, especially good eyesight, is
important. Generally, those who
handle jewelry, liquor, or drugs
must be bonded.
Stock clerks usually receive onthe-job training. New workers begin
with simple tasks such as counting
and marking stock. Basic responsi­
bilities of the job usually are
learned within several weeks. As
they progress, stock clerks learn to
keep records of incoming and out­
going materials, take inventories,
and order supplies.
This is a job where many young
people start their careers. In a small
firm, the stock clerk may advance
to a sales position or become an
assistant buyer or purchasing agent.
In large firms, stock clerks can ad­
vance to more responsible stock
handling jobs such as invoice clerk,
stock control clerk, or procurement
clerk. A few may be promoted to
the stockroom supervisor’s job, but
additional education often is
Employment Outlook

Employment of stock clerks is ex­
pected to increase about as fast as
the average for all occupations
through the mid-1980’s. Many
thousands of job openings will
occur each year as employment
grows and as workers die, retire, or
transfer to other occupations.
Growth in employment of stock
clerks probably will be slower than
in the past as computers are used
increasingly for inventory control.
Because entrance into this occupa­

tion is relatively easy and many
young people seek this work as a
first job, some competition for
openings is likely.
Earnings and Working

Experienced stock clerks earned
average weekly salaries of $166 in
1974, according to the limited data
available. This was slightly above
the average for nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
In the Federal Government,
beginning stock clerks without ex­
perience were paid $ 115 a week in
late 1974; those with general work
experience received $130 a week.
Experienced stock clerks in the
Federal Government averaged
about $ 180 a week in 1974.
Stock clerks generally receive
time-and-a-half for work over 40
hours. Overtime may be required
when large shipments are delivered
and when inventory is taken.
Although stock clerks usually
work in relatively clean, heated,
and well-lighted areas, some
stockrooms may be damp and drafty. Clerks handling refrigerated
goods may spend some time in cold
storage rooms. Stock clerks are on
their feet much of the working day,
often on a concrete floor. The job
also involves considerable bending,
lifting, and climbing. (See the state­
ment on Clerical Occupations for
additional information on working
conditions and fringe benefits.)
Sources of Additional

Information about the work and
earnings of stock clerks in
wholesale establishments is availa­
ble from:
National Association of Wholesaler Distribu­
tors, 1725 K St. N W., Washington, D.C.

(D.O.T. 203.138 through .588;
208.588; and 209.382 through
Nature of the Work

A rapid flow of written communi­
cation is essential to the modern of­
fice. The typist helps to maintain
this flow by making neat, typed
copies of handwritten, printed, and
recorded words.
Beginning or junior typists usually
type headings on form letters, copy
directly from handwritten drafts,
and address envelopes. Often, they
do other office tasks, including an­
swering telephones, filing, and
operating office machines such as
copiers and calculators.
More experienced typists do
work that requires a high degree of
judgment. Senior typists work from
rough drafts which are difficult to
read or which contain technical
material. They may plan and type
complicated statistical tables, com­
bine and rearrange materials from
different sources, or prepare master
copies to be reproduced on copying
Clerk typists (D.O.T. 209.388)
combine typing with filing, sorting
mail, answering telephones, and
other general office work. Varitypists (D.O.T. 203.582) produce
master copies, such as stencils, on
machines similar to typewriters.
Transcribing machine operators
(D.O.T. 208.588) type letters and
reports as they listen to dictation
recorded on magnetic tape. Other
typists who have special duties in­
clude policy writers (D.O.T.
203.588) in insurance companies,
waybill clerks (D.O.T. 209.588) in
railroad offices, and mortgage clerks
(D.O.T. 203.588) who work in
In some offices, many typists are
grouped in a specialized word
processing center that handles all
the transcription and typing for

chance to learn or upgrade skills so
that they can advance to more
responsible positions within the or­
ganization. Many States and locali­
ties sponsor programs to train
unemployed and low-skilled work­
ers for entry jobs as typists.
Many employers require appli­
cants for typing jobs to take a test
that shows their speed and accura­
cy. For most jobs, 40 to 50 words
per minute is required. All typists
who transcribe recorded dictation
need sharp hearing and must be
especially good in spelling. Success­
ful typists are neat, accurate, and
are able to concentrate amid dis­
As beginners increase their skills,
they often advance to higher level
typing jobs. Some typists are
promoted to supervisor jobs in
word processing centers. Others,
who master additional skills, can
move into secretarial jobs.
Typists operating high-speed equipment

Employment Outlook

several departments. These work­
ers, usually called correspondence
secretaries, operate various kinds of
high-speed typewriters equipped
with a programmed memory which
enables them to produce final copy
with a minimum of retyping.
Places of Employment

About 1 million persons worked
as typists in 1974. Ninety-seven
percent of them were women.
Despite recent gains in other fields,
employment of women remains
highly concentrated in clerical oc­
cupations, and typist is one of the
largest of these. In addition to
the 1 million typists, many other
newspaper reporters, writers, and
editors—use typing skills in the per­
formance of their jobs.
Part-time employment is readily
available for workers with clerical
skills, and nearly 1 typist out of 4
works part time.

Typists are employed throughout
the entire economy. Over half of
them work in factories, banks, in­
surance companies, real estate
firms, and government agencies.
The largest single concentration of
typists is found in Federal, State,
and local government agencies
where the volume of paperwork to
be processed is extremely high.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Typists generally need high
school diplomas. Good spelling,
punctuation, and grammar are es­
sential. Ability to operate office
equipment, such as copying and
adding machines, and also a
knowledge of office procedures, are
An increasing number of compa­
nies and government organizations
have their own typist training pro­
grams. These give employees a

The number of typists is expected
to grow faster than the average for
all occupations through the mid1980’s as business expansion in­
creases the volume of paperwork.
Many thousands of job openings
will occur each year due to growth
of the occupation and the need to
replace those who die, retire, or
leave the labor force.
Continued growth of the econo­
my, particularly those industries
that generate vast quantities of writ­
ten records and correspondence,
will assure very good prospects for
typists in the years ahead. Demand
should be particularly strong for
highly skilled workers and those
who can handle other office jobs as
well as typing. Many employers will
prefer typists who are familiar with
new kinds of word processing
equipment. Because an increasing
number of employers are using tem­
porary and part-time workers dur­
ing peak business periods, opportu­
nities should continue to be excel­

lent for typists who do not wish to
work full time.

slightly less than the average office employees. Typists, like
earnings for nonsupervisory workers in other clerical workers, sit for
periods of time and often must con­
private industry, except farming.
In the Federal Government, the tend with high noise levels caused
Earnings and Working
starting salary for typists without by office machines located nearby.
experience was $ 115 a week in late (See the statement on Clerical Oc­
According to a recent survey, 1974, compared with $146 a week cupations for more information on
working conditions and also for a
beginning typists averaged $122 a for those with experience.
Working conditions for typists list of places to write for additional
week in 1974. Those with ex­
perience earned $141 a week, usually are similar to those of other information on clerical jobs.)

Since 1951, when the first com­
puter was installed for commercial
use, computer systems have
become an increasingly important
part of everyday life. Today these
machines bill customers, pay em­
ployees, record airline and hotel
reservations, and monitor factory
production processes. Scientific
and engineering research relies on
computer systems to solve complex
equations as well as to collect,
store, and sort vast amounts of data.
Workers in computer and related
occupations design data processing
systems, write instructions and
translate data into machine-reada­
ble language, and operate compu­
ters and peripheral equipment.
Most computer careers require
some type of specialized training.
Although not a universal require­
ment, a college degree is increas­
ingly important for systems analysts
and programmers—especially for
those who work in scientific and
technical research operations.
Computer operators usually need a
high school diploma, but special­
ized training and experience are
more important than formal educa­
tion. For all computer occupations,
employers stress the importance of
learning on the job.
knowledge and skills, computer
personnel must be able to concen­
trate on their work and should
enjoy working with details. Those
keypunchers or console operators,
for example, must have manual
dexterity and some mechanical ap­
titude. Programmers and systems
analysts must be able to think logi­
cally and enjoy solving problems.
This chapter describes three
computer occupations: Computer

Operating Personnel, Program­
mers, and Systems Analysts.

(D.O.T. 213.138, .382, .582, .588,
and .885, and 223.387)
Nature of the Work

All data systems require special­
ized workers to enter data and in­
structions, operate the computer,
and retrieve the results. The data to
be processed and the instructions
for the computer are called
“ input”; the results are called
In many systems, keypunch opera­
tors (D.O.T. 213.582) prepare
input by punching patterns of holes
in cards to represent different let­
ters, numbers, and special charac­
ters, using a machine similar to a
typewriter. In others, data typists
(D.O.T. 213.588) use special
machines that convert the informa­
tion they type to holes in cards or
magnetic impulses on tapes or
disks. They also may type input
material directly on-line into a com­
Some computer systems only use
input from magnetic tapes. Card-totape converter operators (D.O.T.
213.382) are needed to transfer
data from punched cards or paper
tapes to magnetic tapes. These
workers wire plugboards-to fconnect
circuits according to prepared dia­
grams, load the machines with
cards and tapes, and observe their
operation for any malfunctions.
Once the input is coded,
prepared in a form the computer
can read, it is ready to be

(D.O.T. 213.382) examine the pro­
processing the input, make sure the
computer has been loaded with the
correct cards or magnetic tapes,
and then start the computer. While
it is running, they watch the
machine, paying special attention
to the error lights that could signal a
malfunction. If the computer stops
or one of the lights goes on, opera­
tors must locate the problem and
remove the faulty input materials.
In some systems, machines
directly connected to the computer
translate output into the form
desired by the programmer. In
others, highspeed printers or con­
verters run by auxiliary equipment
operators (D.O.T. 213.382) and
213.382)—perform this function.
Frequently, the cards, magnetic
tapes, and computer programs are
kept for future use. Tape librarians
(D.O.T. 223.387) classify and
catalog this material and maintain
files of program development
records and computer operating in­
Places of Employment

About 500,000 persons worked
as console, auxiliary equipment,
and keypunch operators in 1974.
Women held ifiore than 90 percent
of the keypunching jobs and nearly
45 percent of the console and aux­
iliary equipment jobs.
Although workers in these occu­
pations are employed in almost
every industry, most work in
government agencies, manufactur­
ing firms, banks, and insurance
companies. Many computer and
peripheral equipment operators,
however, work for wholesale and
retail trade establishments and data
processing service organizations.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

In firms that have just installed a



causes of failures.
Keypunch and auxiliary equip­
ment operators should be able to
work under close supervision as
part of a team. They also must like
working with machines and not
become easily bored by repetitious
tasks. Console operators must be
capable of independent judgment,
especially when working without
supervision on second and third
Although advancement opportu­
nities for keypunch and auxiliary
equipment operators are limited,
promotion to a supervisory position
is possible after several years on the
job. With additional training, often
including college study, a few ad­
vance to jobs as console operators.
Console operators also may be
promoted to supervisory positions,
or to jobs that combine supervision
and console operation. Through onthe-job-experience and additional
training, some console operators
advance to jobs as programmers.
Employment Outlook

Changes in data processing
technology will have differing ef­
fects on computer operating occu­
Computer operators who work in scientific research installations may wear special
pations. Employment of keypunch
clothing to prevent dust and fingerprints from marring sensitive magnetic tapes
operators is expected to decline
and equipment.
through the mid-1980’s because of
new computer system, tabulating some college training. The Federal advances in other data entry
and bookkeeping machine opera­ Government requires a high school techniques and equipment. By con­
tors may be transferred to jobs as diploma, unless applicants have had trast, expanding usage of computer
keypunch or auxiliary equipment specialized training or experience. hardware, especially terminals, will
operators, or console operators. Many employers test applicants to cause the demand for console and
Most often, however, employers determine their aptitude for com­ auxiliary equipment operators to
recruit workers from the outside. puter work, particularly their ability rise very rapidly and employment is
Some organizations will train typists to reason logically. Keypunch expected to grow faster than the
to operate keypunch machines, but operators and data typists are tested average for all occupations.
most seek workers who already for their ability to work quickly and
Earnings and Working
have this skill. Many high schools, accurately.
public and private vocational
Beginners usually are trained on
schools, private computer schools, the job. The length of training
Average weekly earnings of
and business schools and colleges needed varies—auxiliary equip­ beginning keypunch operators in
offer training in computer operat­ ment operators can learn their jobs private industry ranged from $105
ing occupations.
in a few weeks, but console opera­ to $120 in 1974, according to sur­
Employers in private industry tors require several months of train­ veys conducted in urban areas by
usually require applicants to have a ing because they must become suf­ the Bureau of Labor Statistics and
high school education, and many ficiently familiar with the computer firms engaged in research on data
prefer console operators to have equipment to be able to trace the processing



operators earned from $140 to
$ 160 weekly.
Average weekly earnings of
beginning console operators ranged
from $140 to $160. Experienced
workers earned from $ 180 to $205,
and lead operators earned from
$210 to $250 weekly.
Salaries of beginning operating
personnel in the Federal Govern­
ment are comparable to those in
private industry. Console operators
earned slightly more and keypunch
operators slightly less than the
average for all nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
Because electronic computers
must be operated at carefully con­
trolled temperatures, operators
work in air-conditioned rooms. One
disadvantage, however, is the high
noise level generated by some aux­
iliary equipment. Some console and
auxiliary equipment operators work
evening or night shifts because
many organizations use their com­
puter 24 hours a day. Tape librari­
ans usually work only day shifts.
Sources of Additional

Further information on data
processing careers is available
American Federation of Information
Processing Societies, 210 Summit Ave.,
Montvale, N.J. 07645.

(D.O.T. 020.188)
Nature of the Work

Computers can process masses of
information rapidly and accurately,
but only if they are given step-bystep instructions to follow. Because
the machines cannot think for
themselves, computer programmers
must write detailed instructions
called programs that list in a logical

order the steps the machine must
follow to solve a problem.
When a new problem is to be
given to a computer, an ex­
perienced programmer first care­
fully examines the problem and
determines the steps necessary to
reach a solution. Programmers
whose work includes a considerable
amount of this preliminary analysis
are sometimes called program
analysts. Once this part of the job is
finished, an applications pro­
grammer writes detailed instruc­
tions for processing the data, using
one of the languages developed
especially for computers.
Programs vary with the type of
problem to be solved because the
mathematical calculations involved
in payroll accounting procedures,
for example, are different from
those required to determine the

flight path of a space probe. A busi­
developing instructions for billing
customers would first decide what
company records the computer
would need and then draw a flow
chart or diagram showing the steps
the computer must follow to obtain
old balances, add new charges, cal­
culate finance charges, and deduct
payments before determining a
customer’s bill. Using the flow
chart, the programmer writes the
actual instructions the computer
will follow.
The programmer then checks the
operation of the program to be sure
the instructions are correct and will
produce the desired information.
This check is called “debugging.”
The programmer tries a sample of
the data with the program and
reviews the results to see if any er-



rors are made. If errors occur, the
program must be changed and
rechecked until it produces the cor­
rect results.
Finally, an instruction sheet is
prepared for the computer operator
who will run the program. (The
work of computer operators is
described in the statement on Com­
puter Operating Personnel.)
Although simple programs can be
written in a few days, programs
which use complex mathematical
formulas or many data files may
require more than a year of work.
In such cases, several programmers
often work together under an ex­
perienced programmer’s supervi­
Programmers usually specialize
in either business or scientific
operations because they require dif­
of educational
backgrounds. Some programmers
who have had training in systems
analysis specialize in writing in­
structions for an entire operating
system and are called systems pro­
grammers. These workers write
programs that tell the computer
how to schedule the jobs it has been
given and when to switch from one
to another. They also develop new
computer languages.

Places of Employment

In 1974, about 200,000 per­
sons—about three-fourths of them
men—worked as computer pro­
grammers. Most were employed by
manufacturing firms, banks and
processing service organizations,
and government agencies.
Programmers usually work in
large firms that need and can afford
extensive computer systems. Small
firms generally require computers
only for payroll or billing purposes
and frequently pay data processing
service organizations to do this
work. Systems programmers usually
work in research organizations and
computer manufacturing firms.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

There are no universal training
requirements for
because employers’ needs vary.
Some programmers are college
graduates; others have taken spe­
cial courses in computer work to
supplement their experience in
fields such as accounting or inven­
tory control.
Employers using computers for
scientific or engineering applica­
tions prefer college graduates with
degrees in the physical sciences,
mathematics, engineering, or com­
puter science. Graduate degrees are
required for some jobs. Very few
scientific organizations are in­
terested in applicants with no col­
lege training.
Although many employers who
use computers for business applica­
tions do not require college
degrees, they prefer applicants who
have had college courses in data
processing, accounting, and busi­
ness administration. Occasionally,
workers who are experienced in
machine tabulation or payroll ac­
counting but have no college train­
ing are promoted to programming
jobs; however, they need additional
data processing courses to become
fully qualified programmers.
Computer programming is taught
at a growing number of technical
schools, colleges, and universities.
Instruction ranges from introducto­
ry home study courses to advanced
courses at the graduate level. High
schools in many parts of the
country also offer courses in com­
puter programming.
In hiring programmers, em­
ployers look for people who can
think logically and are capable of
exacting analytical work. The job
also calls for patience, persistence,
and the ability to work with ex­
treme accuracy even under pres­
sure. Ingenuity and imagination are
particularly important when pro­
grammers must find new ways to
solve a problem.

Beginning programmers usually
spend their first weeks on the job
attending training classes. After this
initial instruction, they work on
simple assignments while complet­
ing further specialized training pro­
grams. Programmers generally must
spend at least a year working under
close supervision before they can
handle all aspects of their job. Once
skills have been acquired, however,
the prospects for further advance­
ment are good. In large organiza­
tions, they may be promoted to lead
programmers or systems analysts
and have supervisory responsibili­
Employment Outlook

Employment of programmers is
expected to grow faster than the
average for all occupations through
the mid-1980’s as computer usage
expands, particularly in medical,
educational, and data processing
services. In addition to job openings
resulting from growth of the occu­
pation, several thousand openings
will arise each year from the need
to replace workers who leave the
occupation. Because many pro­
grammers are relatively young, few
openings will result from deaths or
The demand for applications pro­
grammers will increase as many
processes once done by hand are
automated, but employment will
not grow as rapidly as in the past for
several reasons. Improved pro­
gramming languages that can be
used by other than data processing
personnel will simplify or eliminate
some programming tasks. Also,
many programs for business opera­
tions have been standardized and
are sold to computer users by
“ software” companies that special­
ize in writing programs. Job oppor­
tunities will be best for systems pro­
grammers and applications pro­
grammers who have had some
training in systems analysis.



Earnings and Working

Average weekly earnings of
beginning programmers in private
industry ranged from $170 to $240
in 1974, according to surveys con­
ducted in urban areas by the Bu­
reau of Labor Statistics and firms
engaged in research on data
perienced workers earned from
$260 to $335 weekly, and lead pro­
grammers earned from $295 to
$360. Earnings of applications pro­
grammers are generally at the lower
end of the scale, systems program­
mers at the higher end.
Salaries in the Federal Govern­
ment are comparable to those in
private industry. Programmers
working in the North and West
earned somewhat more than those
working in the South. Those work­
ing for data processing services and
manufacturing firms had higher
earnings than programmers em­
ployed in banks, advertising, or
educational institutions. Overall,
programmers earned about twice as
much as the average for all nonsupervisory workers in private indus­
try, except farming.
Programmers work about 40
hours a week, but their hours are
not always from 9 to 5. Once or
twice a week a programmer may re­
port early or work late to use the
computer when it is available. Oc­
casionally, they work on weekends
or are telephoned to advise com­
puter operators working a second
or third shift.

(D.O.T. 003.187, 012.168,
020.081 and 020.088)

Nature of the Work

Many essential business functions
and scientific research projects de­
pend on systems analysts to plan ef­
ficient methods of processing data
and handling the results. Analysts
begin an assignment by discussing
the data processing problem with
managers or specialists in the area
concerned. If a new inventory
system is desired, for example,
analysts must determine what new
data need to be collected, the
equipment needed for processing,
and the procedure to be followed in
using the information.
Analysts use various techniques,
such as cost accounting, sampling,
and mathematical model building

to analyze the problem and devise a
new system. Once a system has <
been developed, they prepare
charts and diagrams that describe
its operation in terms that managers
or customers can understand.
If the system is accepted, analysts
prepare instructions for program­
mers and test the operation of the
The problems systems analysts
must solve range from monitoring
nuclear fission in a powerplant to
forecasting sales for an appliance
manufacturing firm. Because the
work is so varied and complex,
most analysts specialize in either
business or scientific and engineer­
ing applications.
Some analysts improve systems
already in use by developing better
procedures or adapting the system
to handle additional types of data.
Others do research, called ad­
vanced systems design, to devise
new methods of systems analysis.

Sources of Additional

Additional information about the
occupation of programmer is
available from:
American Federation of Information
Processing Societies, 210 Summit Ave.,
Montvale, N.J. 07645.

Systems analyst checks results of a sales forecasting program with data processing



Places of Employment

About 115,000 persons—10 per­
cent of them women—worked as
systems analysts in 1974. Most
worked in urban areas for manufac­
turing firms, wholesale and retail
businesses, and data processing ser­
vice organizations. In addition,
large numbers worked for banks,
insurance companies, and educa­
tional institutions.

acquiring additional training. Later
they are promoted to systems
Systems analysts must be able to
think logically and should like
working with ideas. Although most
systems analysts work independ­
ently, they sometimes work in
teams on large projects. The ability
to concentrate and pay close atten­
tion to details also is important.
In large data processing depart­
ments, persons who begin as junior
systems analysts may be promoted
to senior or lead systems analysts
after several years of experience.
Systems analysts who show leader­
ship ability also can advance to jobs
as managers of systems analysis or
data processing departments.

nesses, and this, too, will contribute
to employment growth.
Earnings and Working

Average weekly earnings for
beginning systems analysts in
private industry ranged from $230
to $250 in 1974, according to sur­
veys conducted in urban areas by
the Bureau of Labor Statistics and
private firms engaged in research
on computer occupations. Ex­
Training, Other Qualifications,
perienced workers earned from
$300 to $335, and lead systems
and Advancement
analysts earned from $335 to $360
There is no universally accepta­
weekly. Earnings in the Federal
ble way of preparing for a job as a
Government were comparable to
systems analyst because employers’
those in private industry.
preferences depend on the work
Systems analysts working in the
being done. Employers usually want
North and West earned somewhat
analysts with backgrounds in ac­
more than those in the South and
counting, business, or economics
generally their earnings were
for work in finance, while persons
Employment Outlook
greater in data processing or manu­
with backgrounds in the physical
facturing firms than in banks or
Employment of systems analysts educational institutions. Overall,
sciences, mathematics, computer
are is expected to grow faster than the systems analysts earn more than
preferred for work in scientifically average for all occupations through twice as much as the average for all
oriented organizations. Some em­ the mid-1980’s as computer usage nonsupervisory workers in private
ployers prefer applicants who have expands, particularly in medical, industry, except farming.
a bachelor’s degree and work ex­ educational, and data processing
Systems analysts usually work
perience in one of these fields. services. In addition to opportuni­ about 40 hours a week—the same
Others stress a graduate degree. ties that will result from growth, as other professional and office
Applicants also may qualify on the some openings will occur as systems workers. Unlike many computer
basis of professional experience as a analysts advance to managerial operators, systems analysts are not
programmer or computer operator. positions or enter other occupa­ assigned to evening or night shifts.
Most employers prefer people tions. Because many of these work­ Occasionally, however, evening or
who have had some experience in ers are relatively young, few posi­ weekend work may be necessary to
computer programming. Beginning tions will result from retirement or complete emergency projects.
analysts without this experience can death.
The demand for systems analysts
learn to use electronic data
Sources of Additional
processing equipment on the job, or is expected to increase as users
can take special courses offered by become more familiar with com­
Further information about the
their employers, computer manu­ puter capabilities and expect
facturers, or colleges. In the greater efficiency and performance occupation of systems analyst is
Federal Government and many in­ from their data processing systems. available from:
dustries, systems analysts begin Advances in hardware and com­ American Federation of Information
Processing Societies, 210 Summit Ave.,
their careers as programmers and puter programs will result in ex­
Montvale, N.J. 07645.
are promoted to analyst trainees panded computer applications in
after gaining some experience and manufacturing and small busi­

Modern banks offer a variety of fice machine operators, recep­
services to meet the needs of their tionists, and other clerical workers
customers. They provide checking whose jobs are much the same in
and savings accounts, loans, trust banks as in other businesses are
fund management, and financial discussed elsewhere in the Hand­
Bank work is highly specialized,
In a small bank, one clerk may do
and most employees gain ex­ several jobs, such as sorting checks,
perience and skill through on-the- totaling debit and credit slips, and
job training. Although banks preparing monthly statements for
usually seek college graduates for depositors. In a large bank, how­
officer trainee jobs, opportunities ever, each clerk usually specializes
for high school graduates are plenti­ and frequently has a special job
ful in other bank jobs. Opportuni­ title, as well.
ties for advancement are good.
Bank clerks known as sorters
Bank employees can qualify for (D.O.T. 219.388) separate docu­
better positions by enrolling in pro­ ments—checks, deposit slips, and
grams offered by the American In­ other items—into different groups
stitute of Banking, or by taking col­ and tabulate each “batch” so they
lege courses in finance and busi­ may be charged to the proper ac­
counts. Often the clerks use cancel­
Bank employees should enjoy ing and adding machines in their
working with numbers and be able work. Many banks also employ
to perform detailed work. Personal proof machine operators (D.O.T.
qualifications such as honesty and 217.388) , who use equipment that
the ability to meet and commu­ sorts items and then both adds and
nicate with customers are impor­ records the amounts of money in­
Bookkeeping workers are the
This section discusses three of­
largest single group of bank clerks.
fice occupations unique to banking:
Bookkeeping machine operators
Clerks, Tellers, and Officers.
(D.O.T. 215.388) may use conven­
tional bookkeeping machines or
electronic posting machines to
record financial transactions. In
banks, these workers are sometimes
(D.O.T. 209.388, 210.388,
known as account clerks, posting
215.388 217.388, 219.388 and
machine operators, or recording
210.388) job titles sometimes relate
to the kinds of records they keep—
Nature of the Work
for example, Christmas club book­
All complex organizations need keeper, discount bookkeeper, in­
clerks to handle their paperwork. terest-accrual bookkeeper, trust
Because of the specialized nature of bookkeeper, and commodity loan
banking, some of the duties of bank clerk. Thousands of bookkeeping
clerks differ from those of clerks in and accounting clerks (D.O.T.
other businesses. (Secretaries, of­ 219.488) also do routine typing,
1 10

calculating, and posting. Included
in this group are reconcilement
clerks, who process statements
from other banks to aid the auditing
of accounts, and trust investment
clerks, who post the daily invest­
Other clerical employees whose
duties and job titles are unique to
banking include country collection
clerks (D.O.T. 219.388), who sort
thousands of pieces of mail daily
and determine which items must be
held at the main office and which
should be routed to branch banks
for collection. Also employed are
transit clerks (D.O.T. 217.388),
who sort checks and drafts on other
banks, list and total the amounts in­
volved, and prepare documents to
be mailed for collection; exchange
clerks (D.O.T. 219.388), who serv­
ice foreign deposit accounts and
determine charges for cashing or
handling checks drawn against such
accounts; interest clerks (D.O.T.
219.388), who keep records on in­
terest-bearing items that are due to
or from the bank; and mortgage
clerks (D.O.T. 209.388), who type
legal papers dealing with real estate
upon which money has been
loaned, and maintain records relat­
ing to taxes and insurance on these
Electronic data-processing has
created several new clerical occu-

pations unique to banking. These
include the electronic reader-sorter
operator who runs electronic check
sorting equipment; the check inscriber or encoder who operates
machines that print information on
checks and other documents in
magnetic ink to prepare them for
machine reading; and the control
clerk who keeps track of the large
volume of documents flowing in
and out of the computer division.
Other occupations include cardtape converter operator, coding
clerk, console operator, data typist,
data converting machine operator,
data examination clerk, high speed
printer operator, tape librarian,
teletype operator, and verifier
Most of the 517,000 clerical em­
ployees working in banks in 1974
were women.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

High school graduation is con­
sidered adequate preparation for
most beginning clerical jobs in
banks. Courses in bookkeeping,
typing, business arithmetic, and of­
fice machine operation also are
desirable. Applicants may be given
brief tests to determine their ability
to work rapidly and accurately, and
to communicate effectively with
others. They should be able to work
as part of a team and under close
Beginners may be hired as file
clerks, keypunch operators, transit
clerks, clerk-typists, or for related
work. Some are trained by the bank
to operate various office machines.
A few start as messengers.
A clerk in a routine job may be
promoted to a clerical supervisory
position, to teller or credit analyst,
and eventually to senior supervisor.
Advancement to a bank officer
position is a possibility for outstand­
ing clerks who have had college
training or have taken specialized
courses in banking.
Additional education—particu­

larly the courses offered by the
American Institute of Banking—
may help workers advance. (See
statement on the Banking Industry
for information on the Institute’s
educational program.)
Employment Outlook

Employment of bank clerks is ex­
pected to grow faster than the
average for other occupations
through the mid-1980’s. In addition
to opportunities stemming from
employment growth, many jobs will
open up from the need to replace
the large number of clerks who
leave their jobs each year. As a
result, banking should continue to
be a good source of employment
opportunities for clerical workers.
Jobs for clerks will arise as
established banks expand their ser­
vices and new banks and branches
open. Nearly all banks use elec­
tronic equipment that lessens de­
mand for some workers, such as
check sorters and bookkeeping
machine operators. Moreover, the
jobs of keypunch operators and
others who prepare data for com­
puter input are being affected by
technology and increased use of
remote terminals.
Most workers affected by a shift
in computer technology will be
retrained and reassigned, either to
new jobs created by the change in
equipment and methods, or to du­
ties related to new banking services.
Overall, the volume of work is ex­
pected to be so great that the
number of clerks will continue to

Clerical workers in financial in­
stitutions, including banks, usually
earned between $90 and $170 a
week in 1974, according to a Bu­
reau of Labor Statistics survey.
Experienced secretaries and
received the highest weekly sala­
ries: $150 and $170. The earnings

of beginning file clerks and messen­
gers were generally the lowest: $90
and $ 100 a week.
See the statement on the Banking
Industry for additional information.

(D.O.T. 186.1 18, .138, .168, and
.288; 161.118, 189.118 and .168)
Nature of the Work

Practically every bank has a pres­
ident who directs operations; one
or more vice presidents who act as
general managers or who are in
charge of bank departments such as
trust or credit; and a comptroller or
cashier who, unlike cashiers in
stores and other businesses, is an
executive officer generally respon­
sible for all bank property. Large
banks also may have treasurers and
other senior officers, as well as jun­
ior officers, to supervise the vari­
ous sections within different depart­
ments. Banks employed almost
240,000 officers in 1974; women
were about one-fifth of the total.
Bank officers make decisions
within a framework of policy set by
the board of directors and existing
laws and regulations. They must
have a broad knowledge of business
activities to relate to the operations
of their department. For example,
loan officers evaluate the credit and
collateral of individuals and busi­
nesses applying for a loan.
Similarly, trust officers must un­
derstand each account before they
invest funds to support families,
send young people to college, or
pay retirement pensions. Besides
supervising financial services, of­
ficers advise individuals and busi­
nesses and participate in communi­
ty projects.
Because banks offer many serv­
ices, a wide choice of careers is
available to workers who specialize.
Loan officers may handle install­
ment, commercial, real estate, or
agricultural loans. To evaluate loan

applications properly, officers need
to be familiar with economics,
production, distribution, merchan­
dising, and commercial law. Also,
they need to know business opera­
tions and should be able to analyze
financial statements.
Bank officers in the field of trust
management require knowledge of
financial planning and investment
for purposes of investment research
and for estate and trust administra­
Operations officers plan, coor­
dinate, and control the work flow,
update systems, and strive for ad­
ministrative efficiency. Careers in
bank operations include electronic
data processing manager and other
positions involving internal and
customer services.
A correspondent bank officer is
responsible for relations with other
banks; a branch manager, for all
functions of a branch office; and an

international officer, for advising
customers with financial dealings
abroad. A working knowledge of a
foreign country’s financial system,
trade relations, and economic con­
ditions is beneficial to those in­
terested in international banking.
Other career fields for bank of­
ficers are auditing, economics, per­
sonnel administration, public rela­
tions, and operations research.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Bank officer positions are filled
by management trainees or by
promoting outstanding bank clerks
or tellers. College graduation
usually is required for management
trainees. A business administration
major in finance or a liberal arts
curriculum including accounting,
economics, commercial law, politi­
cal science, and statistics serves as

excellent preparation for officer
trainee positions. Valuable ex­
perience may be gained through
summer employment programs.
Many banks have well-organized
officer-training programs usually
ranging from 6 months to 1 year.
Trainees may start as credit or in­
vestment analysts or may rotate
among bank departments to get the
“feel” of banking; bank officials
then can determine the position for
which each employee is best suited.
Persons planning to become bank
officers should like to work inde­
pendently and analyze detailed in­
formation. They also need tact and
good judgment in order to counsel
Advancement to officer may
come slowly in small banks where
the number of positions is limited.
In large banks that have special
training programs, promotions may
come more quickly. For a senior of­
ficer position, however, an em­
ployee usually needs many years of
Although experience, ability, and
leadership are emphasized for
promotion, advancement also may
be accelerated by special study.
Courses in every phase of banking
are offered by the American In­
stitute of Banking, a longestablished,
school. (See the statement on the
Banking Industry elsewhere in the
Handbook for more information on
the Institute’s program and other
training programs sponsored by
universities and local bankers’ as­
Employment Outlook

Through the mid-1980’s, employ­
ment of bank officers is expected to
increase faster than the average for
all occupations. The increasing de­
pendence on computers and an ex­
pansion in the services offered by
banks will require growing numbers
of officers to provide sound
management and effective quality
control. Opportunities also will

arise as experienced officers leave
their jobs. College graduates who
meet the standards for management
trainees should find good opportu­
nities for entry positions. However,
many senior officer positions will be
filled by promoting people already
experienced in banking. Competi­
tion for these promotions, particu­
larly in large banks, is likely to be

Large banks, insurance compa­
nies, and other financial institutions
paid executive trainees who were
college graduates starting salaries
ranging from about $730 to $930 a
month in 1974, according to the
limited information available.
Salaries of senior bank officers
may be several times as great as
these starting salaries. For officers,
as well as for other bank employees,
earnings are likely to be lower in
small towns than in big cities.
See the statement on the Banking
Industry elsewhere in the Handbook
for additional information on bank­
ing occupations.

(D.O.T. 212.368)
Nature of the Work

Every bank, no matter how small,
has at least one teller who receives
and pays out money and records
these transactions. In a very small
bank, one all-round teller may han­
dle all transactions; in larger banks
different kinds of transactions
usually are assigned to different tel­
lers. For example, a Christmas Club
teller accepts and records deposits
made to Christmas Club savings ac­
counts and a note teller handles
certain transactions for clients who
have made loans. Other tellers who
have special job titles include com­
mercial (or paying and receiving)

savings, foreign exchange, payroll,
discount, and securities tellers .

ment sheet, and balance the day’s
accounts. They also sort checks and
deposit slips. Paying and receiving
tellers may supervise one or more
About 270,000 tellers were em­
ployed in 1974. A large number
worked part time; about 9 out of 10
were women.

Commercial tellers, the most
common, cash customers’ checks
withdrawals from checking and
savings accounts. Before cashing a
check, the teller must verify the
identity of the person to whom pay­
ment is made, and must be certain
that the payee’s account has suffi­
cient funds to cover the payment.
When accepting a deposit, the teller
Training, Other Qualifications,
checks the accuracy of the deposit
and Advancement
slip and enters the total in a pass­
In hiring tellers, banks prefer
book or on a deposit receipt. Tel­
lers may use machines for making high school graduates experienced
change and for totaling deposits. in clerical work. Maturity, neatness,
Those who handle savings accounts tact, and courtesy are important
may use a “window” posting because customers deal with tellers
machine to print a receipt, record far more frequently than with other
the transaction in the customer’s bank employees. Since tellers han­
passbook, and simultaneously post dle large sums of money and are
the transaction to the bank’s ledger. bonded, they must meet the stand­
After banking hours, tellers ards established by bonding com­
count cash on hand, list the cur­ panies. Although tellers work inde­
rency-received tickets on a settle­ pendently, their recordkeeping is

closely supervised. They work with
detail and are confined to a small
work area.
New tellers usually observe ex­
perienced workers for a few days
before doing the work themselves.
Training may last from a few days
to 3 weeks or longer. Beginners
usually start as commercial tellers;
in large banks which have a
separate savings teller’s “cage,”
they may start as savings tellers.
After gaining experience, a teller
in a large bank may advance to
head teller; those who have had
some college or specialized training
offered by the banking industry
may be promoted to officer. (See
the statement on the Banking In­
dustry for information about the
educational programs of the Amer­
ican Institute of Banking.)

Employment Outlook

The number of bank tellers is ex­
pected to increase faster than the
average for all occupations through
the mid-1980’s as banks expand
their services. An increasing pro­
portion of tellers, however, will
work part-time during the noon
hour and evenings to accommodate
customers who transact business
Thousands of openings will occur
each year as a result of employment
growth and the need to replace tell­
ers who retire, die, or stop working
for other reasons. The relatively
high replacement needs in this oc­
cupation are expected to be an im­
portant source of job opportunities.
Qualified applicants should find
good employment prospects.

Although increased use of
mechanical and electronic equip­
ment may eliminate some routine
duties and speed other work, total
employment is not likely to be ad­
versely affected.

All nonsupervisory workers in
banking, including tellers, averaged
$121 a week in 1974, according to
a Bureau of Labor Statistics survey.
The range between the lowest and
highest salaries depends on ex­
perience, the worker’s specific du­
ties, and location and size of the
See the statement on the Banking
Industry elsewhere in the Handbook
for additional information on this
and other banking occupations.


insurance practices. Because of
their broad knowledge of in­
surance, actuaries may work on
problems arising in the company’s
investment, group underwriting, or
pension planning departments. Ac­
tuaries in executive positions help
determine general company policy.
In that role, they may be called
upon to explain complex technical
matters to company executives,
government officials, and the
public. They may testify before
public agencies on proposed legisla­
tion affecting the insurance busi­
ness, for example, or explain in­
tended changes in premium rates or
contract provisions.
Actuaries who work for the
Federal Government usually deal
with a particular insurance or pen­
sion program, such as social securi­
ty or life insurance for veterans and
members of the Armed Forces. Ac­
tuaries in State government posi­
tions regulate insurance companies,
supervise the operations of State
retirement or pension systems, and
work on problems connected with
unemployment insurance or work­
ers’ compensation. Consulting ac­
tuaries set up pension and welfare
plans and make periodic evalua­
tions of these plans for private com­
panies, unions, and government

Insurance protection is an in­
tegral part of the American way of
(D.O.T. 020.188)
life. It frees policyholders and their
beneficiaries from worry and finan­
cial burdens that may result from
Nature of the Work
death, illness, or other losses
Why do young persons pay more
beyond their control. Businesses
could not operate, nor could most for automobile insurance than older
people buy homes or other major persons? How much should an in­
items, without the assurance of pro­ surance policy cost? Answers to
tection from sudden disaster. In­ these and similar questions are pro­
surance workers adapt policies to vided by actuaries who design in­
meet changing needs, decide which surance and pension plans that can
applications can be accepted and be maintained on a sound financial
establish premium rates on the poli­ basis. They assemble and analyze
cies, and investigate and settle statistics to calculate probabilities
of death, sickness, injury, disability,
A college degree is increasingly unemployment, retirement, and
important for professional, techni­ property loss from accident, theft,
cal, and managerial jobs in in­ fire, and other potential hazards.
surance, although some positions Actuaries use this information to
are open to high school graduates determine the expected insured
who have appropriate experience. loss. For example, they may calcu­
Insurance workers in clerical posi­ late how many persons who are 21
tions need a high school diploma. years old today can be expected to
Regardless of their previous train­ live to age 65—the probability that
ing, insurance workers must con­ an insured person might die during
tinually learn while on the job. this period is a risk to the company.
Many professional associations They then calculate a price for as­
sponsor courses in all phases of in­ suming this risk that will be profita­
Places of Employment
surance work; employees are en­ ble to the company yet be competi­
Approximately 10,700 persons
couraged to participate to prepare tive with other insurance compa­
themselves for more responsible nies. Finally, they must make sure worked as actuaries in 1974. Four
that the price charged for the in­ of every 10 actuaries worked in five
This section describes three in­ surance will enable the company to major cities—New York, Hartford,
surance occupations: Actuaries, pay all claims and expenses as they Chicago, Philadelphia, and Boston.
About two-thirds of all actuaries
Claim Representatives, and Un­ occur. In the same manner, the ac­
tuary calculates premium rates and worked for private insurance com­
derwriters. (Statements on the In­
surance Industry and Insurance policy contract provisions for each panies. Almost 90 percent of them
Agents and Brokers are included type of insurance offered. Most ac­ worked for life insurance compa­
tuaries specialize in either life and nies; the rest worked for property
elsewhere in the Handbook.)
health insurance or in property and and liability (casualty) companies.
The number of actuaries employed
liability (casualty) insurance.
To perform their duties effective­ by an insurance company depends
ly, actuaries must keep informed on the volume of its business and
about general economic and social the number and types of insurance
trends, and legislative, health, and policies it offers. Large companies
other developments that may affect may employ over 100 actuaries on

their staffs or rely instead on rating
bureaus or consulting firms.
Consulting firms and rating bu­
reaus (associations that supply ac­
tuarial data to member companies)
employed about one-fifth of all ac­
tuaries. Other actuaries work for
private organizations administering
independent pension and welfare
plans or for Federal and State
government agencies. A few teach
in colleges and universities.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

The minimum requirement for
beginning jobs in large life or
casualty companies is a bachelor’s
degree with a major in mathematics
or statistics. Some companies will
hire applicants with a major in
economics or business administra­
tion who demonstrate a thorough
foundation in calculus, probability,
and statistics (20-25 hours). Other

desirable courses are insurance law,
Although only 17 colleges and
universities offer training specifi­
cally designed for actuarial careers,
several hundred schools offer some
of the necessary courses.
It usually takes from 5 to 10 years
after beginning an actuarial career
to complete the entire series of ex­
aminations required for full profes­
sional status. These examinations
cover general mathematics, special­
ized actuarial mathematics, and all
phases of the insurance business.
Those considering an actuarial
career should take at least the
beginning examination covering
general mathematics while still in
college. Success in passing the first
two examinations helps beginners
to evaluate their potential as actu­
aries. Those who pass these exami­
nations usually have better oppor­
tunities for employment and receive

a higher starting salary. Advanced
examinations, usually taken by
those in junior actuarial positions,
require extensive home study and
experience in insurance work.
The Society of Actuaries gives 10
actuarial examinations for the life
insurance and pension field; the
Casualty Actuarial Society also
gives 10 for the property and liabili­
ty field. Since the first parts of the
examination series of either society
are the same, students may defer
the selection of their insurance spe­
cialty until they become more
familiar with the field. Persons who
complete five examinations in the
life insurance series or six in the
series are awarded
“ associate” membership in their
respective society. Those who have
passed an entire series receive full
membership and the title “fellow.”
Beginning actuaries often rotate
among different jobs to learn vari­
ous actuarial operations and to
become familiar with different
phases of insurance work. At first,
their work may be rather routine,
such as preparing calculations or
tabulations for actuarial tables or
reports. As they gain experience,
they may supervise actuarial clerks,
prepare correspondence and re­
ports, and do research.
Advancement to more responsi­
ble work as assistant, associate, and
chief actuary depends largely on
job performance and the number of
actuarial examinations passed.
Many actuaries, because of their
broad knowledge of insurance and
related fields, are selected for ad­
ministrative positions in other com­
pany activities, particularly in un­
derwriting, accounting, or data
processing departments. Many ac­
tuaries advance to top executive
Employment Outlook

Actuaries discussing a problem.

Employment of actuaries is ex­
pected to rise faster than the
average for all occupations through
the mid-1980’s. In addition to job

openings resulting from this growth,
several hundred actuaries will be
needed each year to replace those
who retire, die, or transfer to other
occupations. Job opportunities will
be best for new college graduates
who have passed at least one ac­
tuarial examination while still in
school and have a strong mathe­
matical and statistical background.
However, because of the large
number of persons expected to
receive degrees in mathematics,
and the large number of students
taking actuarial examinations, com­
petition for beginning jobs should
remain keen.
Employment in this occupation is
influenced by the volume of in­
surance sales, which will continue
to grow over the next decade. Shifts
in the age distribution of the popu­
lation over the next decade will
result in many more people with
established careers and family
responsibilities. This is the group
traditionally responsible for the
bulk of private insurance sales.
Increased sales, however, are
only one determinant of demand.
Changes in existing insurance prac­
tices are creating a need for more
actuarial services. For example,
passage of a “ no-fault” automobile
insurance plan would require com­
panies writing automobile in­
surance to reevaluate their pricing
structures in light of no-fault
requirements. It is uncertain at this
time whether Federal no-fault
legislation will be enacted; how­
ever, the growing number of States
enacting their own plans indicates
continued strong demand for actu­
aries to make these analyses. The
Pension Reform Act of 1974 is like­
ly to stimulate employment of ac­
tuaries, particularly in consulting
firms. As more States pass competi­
tive rating laws, companies which
previously relied on rating bureaus
for actuarial data will expand exist­
ing actuarial departments or create
new ones.
Changes in the way medical mal­
practice insurance is handled also

may generate additional demand
for actuaries.

Sources of Additional

For facts about actuarial oppor­
tunities and qualifications, contact:
Earnings and Working

In 1974, actuaries had average
salaries over twice as high as the
average for all nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
farming. New college graduates en­
tering the life insurance field
without having passed any actuarial
exams averaged $9,800 in 1974, ac­
cording to a survey of U.S. compa­
nies by the Life Office Management
Association (LOMA). Applicants
who had successfully completed the
first exam received $10,400 and
those who had passed two exams
averaged $11,100. Salaries for ac­
tuaries in casualty companies
generally are comparable to those
offered by life companies.
In the Federal Government, new
graduates with the bachelor’s
degree could start at $8,500 a year
in late 1974. Applicants with either
1 year of graduate study or relevant
work experience were hired at
$10,500, and those with the
master’s degree started at $12,800
a year. Actuaries in the Federal
Government averaged $22,800 a
year in late 1974.
Beginning actuaries can look for­
ward to a marked increase in
earnings as they gain professional
experience and successfully ad­
vance in either society’s examina­
tion program. Insurance companies
usually give merit increases averag­
ing from $400 to $800 to their ac­
tuaries as they pass each successive
examination leading to membership
in either society. Associates
averaged $16,400 a year in 1974;
salaries for actuaries who were
awarded full fellowship during that
year averaged $22,700. Fellows
with additional years of experience
earned substantially more, and
many top actuarial executives were
paid over $35,000.

Casualty Actuarial Society, 200 East 42nd
St., New York, N.Y. 10017.
Society of Actuaries, 208 South LaSalle St.,
Chicago, III. 60604.

(D.O.T. 168.288, 191.268,
241.168, and 249.268)
Nature of the Work

Fast and fair settlement of all
claims is essential to any insurance
company if it is to meet its commit­
ments to policyholders and also
protect its own financial well-being.
The people who investigate claims,
negotiate settlement with policy­
holders, and authorize payment are
known as claim representatives—a
group which includes claim ad­
justers and claim examiners.
(casualty) insurance company
receives a claim, the claim adjuster
determines the amount of the loss
and whether the policy covers it.
Adjusters use reports, physical
evidence, and testimony of wit­
nesses in investigating a claim.
When their company is liable, they
negotiate with the claimant and set­
tle the case.
Adjusters must make sure that
settlements are in line with the real
extent of the loss. They must pro­
tect their company from false or in­
flated claims but, at the same time,
settle valid claims fairly and
promptly. Some adjusters are al­
lowed to issue checks on company
funds; most, however, submit their
findings to claim examiners who
review them to insure that proper
procedures have been followed and
then authorize payment.
Some adjusters work with all
lines of insurance. Others specialize

In life insurance companies, the partments and other insurance
counterpart of the claim adjuster is companies. In addition to verifying
the claim examiner, who in­ claims and approving payment, ex­
vestigates the details surrounding aminers also maintain records of
questionable claims or those ex­ settled claims and prepare reports
ceeding a specified amount. They to be submitted to their company’s
may check claim applications for data processing department. Some
completeness and accuracy, inter­ experienced examiners serve on
view medical specialists, consult committees, conduct surveys of
policy files to verify information on claim practices within their com­
a claim, or calculate benefit pay­ pany, and help devise more effi­
ments. Generally, examiners are cient ways to process claims. They
authorized to investigate and ap­ sometimes testify in court on con­
prove payment on all claims up to a tested claims.
certain limit; larger claims are
referred to a senior examiner.
Examiners checking incorrect or
questionable claims may cor­
Places of Employment
Adjuster determines extent of auto body respond with investigating compa­
nies, field managers, agents, or the
About 125,000 persons worked
family of the insured. Claim ex­ as claim representatives in 1974.
in claims from property damage by
The majority of claim adjusters
fire, marine loss, automobile aminers occasionally travel to ob­
tain information by personal inter­ worked for insurance companies
damage, workers’ compensation
view, or contact State insurance de­ that sell property and liability
loss, or bodily injury. Several States
have “ no-fault” automobile in­
surance plans that relieve the ad­
juster from determining responsi­
bility for a loss. Adjusters in these
States still must decide the amount
of loss, however. A growing number
of casualty companies employ spe­
cial claims people to settle small
claims, usually minor automobile or
homeowner damage claims. These
claim workers, generally called
“ inside adjusters” or “telephone
adjusters,” contact claimants by
telephone or mail and have the pol­
icyholder send repair costs, medical
bills, and other statements to the
company. Many companies central­
ize this operation in a drive-in
claims center where the cost of
repair is determined and a check is
issued on the spot.
Adjusters work away from the of­
fice most of the time. They may be
called to the site of an accident or
to the location of a fire or burglary.
Adjusters make their own schedules
of the activities needed to dispose
of a claim properly. They also keep
written or taped records of informa­
tion obtained from witnesses and
other sources and prepare reports
Claim examiner calculates benefit payment.
of their findings.

coverage. Some were employed by
independent adjusting firms that
contract their services for a fee.
These independents range from na­
tional companies employing hun­
dreds of adjusting specialists to
small 3- or 4-person operations. A
relatively small number of adjusters
represent the insured rather than
the insurance company. These
‘public adjusters4 usually are
retained by banks, financial or­
ganizations, and other business
firms to handle fire and other losses
to property. They negotiate claims
against insurance companies and
deal with adjusters for such compa­
Most claim examiners worked for
life insurance companies in large ci­
ties such as New York, Hartford,
Chicago, San Francisco, and Dallas,
where most home offices are
Adjusters may travel to almost
any area of the United States, since
claims must be settled locally. Oc­
casionally, the adjuster may travel
to the scene of a disaster, such as a
hurricane or a riot, to work with
local personnel. Some cases result
in travel outside the United States.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Although a growing number of
insurance companies prefer claim
representatives to have a college
degree, many hire those without
college training, particularly if they
have specialized experience. For
example, persons experienced in
automobile repair work may qualify
as auto adjusters, and those with
clerical work experience might be
hired as inside adjusters.
No specific field of college study
is recommended. Although courses
in insurance, economics, or other
business subjects are helpful, a
major in almost any college field is
adequate preparation. An adjuster
who has a business or accounting
background might specialize in loss
from business interruption or

damage to merchandise. Those with
college training in engineering will
find their education helpful in ad­
justing industrial claims.
Most large insurance companies
provide beginning claim adjusters
and examiners on-the-job training
and home study courses. Claim
representatives are encouraged to
take courses designed to enhance
their professional skills. For exam­
ple, the Insurance Institute of
America offers a 6-semester study
program leading to a diploma in in­
surance loss and claim adjusting
upon successful completion of six
prepare for these examinations by
independent home study or through
company or public classes. A
professional Certificate in In­
surance Adjusting also is available
from the College of Insurance in
New York City.
The Life Office Management As­
sociation (LOMA) in cooperation
with the International Claim As­
sociation offers a claims education
program for life and health ex­
aminers. The program is part of the
LOMA Institute Insurance Educa­
tion Program leading to the profes­
sional designation, FLMI (Fellow,
Life Management Institute) upon
successful completion of eight writ­
ten examinations.
About three-fourths of the States
require adjusters to be licensed.
Despite wide variation in State
licensing requirements, applicants
usually must comply with one or
more of the following: Pass a writ­
ten examination covering the fun­
damentals of adjusting; furnish
character references; be 20 or 21
years of age and a resident of the
State; offer proof that they have
completed an approved course in
insurance or loss adjusting; and file
a surety bond.
Because they often work closely
with claimants, witnesses, and other
insurance professionals, representa­
tives must be able to adapt to many
different persons and situations.
They should be able to commu­

nicate effectively and gain the
respect and cooperation of people
from different backgrounds. For ex­
ample, when adjusters’ evaluations
of claims differ from those of the
persons who have suffered the loss,
they should be able to explain their
conclusions tactfully. Examiners
need to be familiar with nfedical
and legal terms and practices and
Federal and State insurance laws
and regulations. Because they may
have to check premium payments,
policy values, and other numerical
items in processing a claim, ex­
aminers should be adept at making
mathematical calculations. Both
adjusters and examiners should
have a good memory and enjoy
working with details.
Beginning adjusters and ex­
aminers work on small claims under
the supervision of an experienced
worker. As they learn more about
claim investigation and settlement,
they are assigned claims that are
higher in loss value and more dif­
ficult. Trainees are promoted as
they demonstrate competence in
handling assignments and progress
in the courses they take. Because of
the complexity of insurance regula­
tions and claims procedures, work­
ers who lack formal academic
training may advance more slowly
than those with 2 years or more of
college. Employees who show
unusual competence in claims work
or outstanding administrative skills
may be promoted to department su­
pervisor in a field office or to a
managerial position in the home of­
fice. Qualified adjusters and ex­
aminers can transfer to other de­
partments, such as underwriting or
data processing.
Employment Outlook

Employment of claim representa­
tives is expected to grow about as
fast as the average for all occupa­
tions through the mid-1980’s as the
number of insurance claims con­
tinues to increase. In addition to
jobs created by growth of the occu­

surance Association-American Mu­
tual Insurance Alliance-National
Association of Independent In­
surers survey of property and lia­
bility companies, claim adjusters
averaged about $ 11,900 a year in
1974; inside adjusters earned
average salaries of about $8,300.
Most public adjusters are paid a
percentage of the amount of the
settlement—generally 10 percent.
Adjusters are furnished a company
car or are reimbursed for use of
their own vehicles for business pur­
poses. Salaries of claim adjusters
are about one and one-half times
the average earnings for all nonsupervisory workers in private indus­
try, except farming; salaries of in­
side adjusters are slightly above this
A survey of life insurance compa­
nies by the Life Office Management
Association revealed that claim ex­
aminers earned average salaries of
$11,200 a year in 1974. According
to the survey of property and liabili­
ty companies, casualty claim ex­
aminers averaged $13,300. Claim
supervisors in casualty companies
and life companies averaged
between $14,000 and $15,000 and
many earned more than $20,000 a
year. Claim examiners earn nearly
twice as much as the average for all
nonsupervisory workers in private
industry, except farming.
Claim adjusting is not a desk job.
It requires that a person be physi­
cally fit because much of the day
may be spent in traveling from one
place to another, walking about
outdoors, and climbing stairs. Ad­
justers may have to work evenings
or weekends in order to interview
witnesses and claimants when they
are available. Since most compa­
nies provide 24-hour claim service
to their policyholders, some ad­
justers always must be on call. (See
the statement on the Insurance In­
dustry for additional information on
working conditions and employee
Earnings and Working
Claim examiners have desk jobs
According to an American In­ that require no unusual physical ac­

pation, many others will result from
the need to replace workers who
die, retire, or transfer to other jobs.
Several factors point to a growing
volume of insurance and a resulting
need for claim adjusters. Shifts in
population patterns over the next
decade will insure a steadily rising
number of workers entering their
most productive years. These work­
ers and their families are likely to
seek insurance protection as they
purchase homes, automobiles, and
other consumer durables. Expand­
ing business will need protection for
new plants and equipment and for
insurance covering workers’ com­
pensation and product liability. As
more people live and work in
densely populated areas, the in­
creased risk of automobile acci­
dent, fire, or theft should result in a
greater number of claims.
Growth of this occupation may
be slower than in recent years as
no-fault automobile insurance plans
enable adjusters to handle more
cases. The growing emphasis on
drive-in claim centers and claim
handling by telephone also should
reduce the demand for automobile
adjusters while it stimulates de­
mand for inside adjusters. Indepen­
dent adjusters who specialize in au­
tomobile damage claims should
continue to suffer some loss of busi­
ness. Prospects are expected to be
quite good for adjusters who spe­
cialize in other types of claims or
those who can move into other lines
of adjusting.
Prospects are much less favora­
ble for claim examiners. Employ­
ment of examiners in casualty com­
panies should rise about as fast as
for adjusters; however, much
slower growth is expected for life
insurance examiners as increased
use of computers enables them to
process more claims, especially
routine ones and those that arise
under group policies.

tivity. Although the average work­
week for examiners is 35 to 40
hours, they may work longer at
times of peak claim loads or when
quarterly and annual statements are
prepared. They also may need to
travel occasionally.
Sources of Additional

General information about a
career as a claim examiner or ad­
juster is available from the home of­
fices of many life and property and
liability insurance companies.
about licensing
requirements for claim adjusters
may be obtained from the depart­
ment of insurance in each State.
Information about career oppor­
tunities in these occupations also
may be obtained from:
Insurance Information Institute, 110 William
St., New York, N.Y. 10038.

For information about public in­
surance adjusting, contact:
National Association of Public Adjusters,
1613 Munsey Building, Baltimore, Md.
21202 .

Career information on life in­
surance claim examining is availa­
ble from:
Institute of Life Insurance, 277 Park Ave.,
New York, N.Y. 10017.

(D.O.T. 169.188)
Nature of the Work

Insurance companies assume mil­
lions of dollars in risks each year, by
transferring chance of loss from
their policyholders to themselves.
Underwriters appraise and select
the risks their company will insure.
(The term underwriter sometimes is
used in referring to insurance
agents; see the statement on In­
surance Agents and Brokers else­
where in the Handbook for a dis­
cussion of that occupation.)

Underwriters decide whether
their companies will accept risks
after analyzing information in in­
surance applications, reports from
loss control consultants, medical re­
ports, and actuarial studies (reports
that describe the probability of in­
sured loss). Some routine applica­
tions that require very little inde­
pendent judgment are handled by
computers. Generally, however, un­
derwriters use considerable per­
sonal judgment in making deci­
sions. Because these decisions are
seldom reviewed at a higher level,
underwriters have great responsi­
bility. Their companies may lose
business to competitors if they ap­
praise risks too conservatively or
have to pay many future claims if
their underwriting actions are too
When deciding that a policy is an
acceptable risk, an underwriter may
outline the terms of the contract,
including the amount of the premi­
um. Underwriters frequently cor­
respond with policyholders, agents,
and managers about policy cancel­
lations or requests for information.
In addition, they sometimes accom­
pany salespeople on appointments
with prospective customers.
Most underwriters specialize in
one of three major categories of in­
surance: life, property and liability,
or health. Life insurance un­
derwriters may further specialize in
one type of life insurance or more,
such as group or individual policies.
The property and liability un­
derwriter specializes by type of risk
insured, such as fire, automobile,
marine, or workers’ compensation.
Some underwriters, called commer­
cial account underwriters, handle
business insurance exclusively.
They often must evaluate a firm’s
entire operation in appraising its in­
surance application.
A standard group insurance pol­
icy insures all persons in a specified
group through a single contract at
uniform premium rates; this type of
group policy generally provides life
or health insurance protection. The

home offices in a few large cities,
such as Hartford, New York,
Chicago, Dallas, and Los Angeles.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Underwriter analyzes information pre­
sented on policy application.

group underwriter analyzes the
overall composition of the group to
be sure that total risk is not exces­
sive. A different type of group pol­
icy finding increasing acceptance is
the policy that provides the mem­
bers of a group—a labor union, for
example—with an individual policy
geared to their own circumstances.
These policies generally are in the
casualty field, covering automo­
biles, pleasure boats, and homes.
The casualty underwriter analyzes
the application of each group
member and makes individual ap­
praisals. Some group underwriters
attend meetings with union or em­
ployer representatives to discuss
the types of policies available to
their groups.

Places of Employment
An estimated 20,000 persons
worked as insurance underwriters
in 1974. Over three-fourths were
property and liability underwriters
working in regional or home offices
throughout the United States; most
life insurance underwriters are in

For beginning underwriting jobs,
most insurance companies seek col­
lege graduates who have degrees in
liberal arts or business administra­
tion, but a major in almost any field
background. Some high school
graduates who begin as underwrit­
ing clerks may be trained as un­
derwriters after they demonstrate
an aptitude for the work.
College graduates usually start as
trainees or junior underwriters.
They study claim files to learn the
factors associated with certain
types of losses, and carry out their
work assignments under an ex­
perienced risk appraiser. Many sup­
plement on-the-job training with
courses and instruction at home of­
fice schools or local colleges and
universities. Many firms pay tuition
and the cost of books for those who
satisfactorily complete underwrit­
ing courses. Some companies offer
salary increases as an incentive. In­
dependent study programs are
available through the American In­
stitute of Property and Liability Un­
derwriters, the American College of
Life Underwriters, the Home Office
Life Underwriters Association, the
Institute of Home Office Un­
derwriters, and the Life Office
Management Association.
Underwriting can be a satisfying
career for persons who like working
with details and enjoy relating and
evaluating information. In addition
to analyzing problems, underwriters
must make prompt decisions and be
able to communicate their ideas to
others. They must also be imagina­
tive and aggressive, especially when
they have to get additional informa­
tion from outside sources.
Experienced underwriters who
complete study courses may ad­
vance to chief underwriter or un­

derwriting manager. Some un­
derwriting managers are promoted
to senior managerial jobs after
several years.

Employment Outlook
Employment of underwriters is
expected to rise about as fast as the
average for all occupations through
the mid-1980’s as insurance sales
continue to expand. Each year
many jobs will become available as
the occupation grows and as those
who die, retire, or transfer to other
work are replaced.
Several factors underlie the ex­
pected growth in the volume of in­
surance and the resulting need for
underwriters. Over the next decade,
a much larger portion of our popu­
lation will enter their most produc­
tive years. As this traditional mar­
ket for life insurance expands, the
volume of insurance sales also
should rise. This will occur as more
individuals purchase life insurance
to protect their families’ standard of
living, finance their childrens’ edu­
cation, or provide retirement in­
come. Property and liability in­
surance sales also should expand as
purchases of automobiles, pleasure
boats, and other consumer durables
increase. Both spending for new
home construction and the Amer­
ican public’s growing security con­
sciousness should contribute to de­
mand for more extensive insurance
protection. Expanding businesses

will need protection for new plants
and equipment and insurance for
product liability. Heightened com­
petition among insurance compa­
nies and changes in regulations af­
fecting investment profits also are
expected to increase the insurance
industry’s need for competent un­

Earnings and Working
Underwriters in life insurance
averaged $12,500 a year in 1974,
according to a Life Office Manage­
ment Association (LOMA) survey.
Senior life underwriters (those with
5 years’ experience) averaged
$14,300, while senior group un­
derwriters earned average salaries
of $14,800. Supervisors of un­
derwriting in life insurance compa­
nies averaged $15,000 to $20,000.
In most cases, underwriters in
larger companies earned higher
An American Insurance Association-American Mutual Insurance
Alliance-National Association of
Independent Insurers survey of
companies that sell property and
liability insurance showed that ex­
perienced underwriters averaged
$11,300 a year in 1974. Earnings
varied substantially by underwriting
specialty; senior commercial lines
underwriters averaged $13,100,
while personal lines underwriters

earned average salaries of $10,900.
Experienced underwriters earn
over 1 1/2 times the average
earnings of nonsupervisory workers
in private industry, except farming.
Underwriting supervisors in proper­
ty and liability companies averaged
$15,100 a year in 1974; many
earned over $17,500.
Most underwriters have desk jobs
that require no unusual physical ac­
tivity. Although the average week is
37 hours, underwriters sometimes
work overtime. Most insurance
companies have liberal vacation
policies and other employee
benefits. (See the statement on the
Insurance Industry for additional
information on working conditions
and employee benefits.)

Sources of Additional
General information about a
career as an insurance underwriter
is available from the home offices
of many life insurance and property
and liability insurance companies.
Information about career opportu­
nities as an underwriter also may be
obtained from:
Institute of Life Insurance, 277 Park Ave.,
New York, N Y. 10017.
Insurance Information Institute, 110 William
St., New York, N Y. 10038.
American Mutual Insurance Alliance, 20 N.
Wacker Dr., Chicago, III. 60606.

Most administrative workers are
professional office employees who
run, or help run, business and other
organizations. Some are managers,
who supervise, plan operations and
make company policy. Others pro­
vide assistance to management,
such as personnel workers who
recruit and hire staff members and
handle employee problems. The
success or failure of an organization
depends heavily on the way ad­
ministrative workers do their jobs.
Nearly all administrative jobs
require a college degree, although
employers vary in the specific area
of study they prefer. Some seek
business administration or liberal
arts graduates; others want a
background in technical area such
as engineering or science.
Many administrative workers
solve problems and make decisions,
using numbers and technical data.
In addition, these workers must be
tactful and able to get along with
others. They must be able to handle
the uneven flow of work in offices.
This section describes several ad­
ministrative occupations including
Credit Officials, and Personnel and
Labor Relations workers.

ports that furnish this kind of infor­
Three major accounting fields
are public, management, and
government accounting. Public ac­
countants have their own busi­
nesses or work for accounting
firms. Management accountants,
also called industrial or private ac­
countants, handle the financial
records of the company they work
for. Government accountants ex­
amine the records of government

agencies and audit private busi­
nesses and individuals whose
dealings are subject to government
Accountants often concentrate
on one particular phase of account­
ing. For example, many public ac­
countants specialize in auditing
(reviewing a client’s financial
records and reports to judge their
reliability). Others specialize in tax
matters, such as preparing income
tax forms and advising their clients
of the advantages and disad­
vantages of certain business deci­
sions. Still others become spe­
cialists in management consulting
and give advice on a variety of mat­
ters. They might develop or revise
an accounting system to serve the
needs of clients more effectively or
give advice about different types of
accounting equipment.
Management accountants pro-

(D.O.T. 160.188)

Nature of the Work
Managers must have up-to-date
financial information to make im­
portant decisions. Accountants
prepare and analyze financial re­

CPA familiarizes himself with plant operations before beginning financial audit

vide the financial information ex­
ecutives need to make sound busi­
ness decisions. They may choose to
work in areas such as taxation,
budgeting, or investments. Internal
auditing is an area of specialization
within management accounting
which is rapidly growing in im­
portance. Accountants who work as
internal auditors examine and eval­
uate their firm's financial systems
procedures to ensure efficient and
economical operation.
Many accountants in the Federal
Government work as Internal
Revenue agents, investigators, and
bank examiners; other government
accountants have regular account­
ing positions.

Places of Employment
About 805,000 people worked as
accountants in 1974; almost 20 per­
cent were Certified Public Accoun­
tants (CPA’s). About 4 percent of
CPA’s and nearly 24 percent of all
accountants are women. Since the
early 1960’s, employment of
women accountants has increased
more rapidly than that of men, and
there is every indication that
women will continue to play an in­
creasingly active role in the occupa­
About 60 percent of all account­
ants do management accounting
work; one-fifth of these work as in­
ternal auditors. An additional 20
percent are engaged in public ac­
counting as proprietors, partners,
or employees of independent ac­
counting firms. Other accountants
work for Federal, State, and local
government agencies, and a small
number teach in colleges and
universities. Opportunities are plen­
tiful for part-time work in account­
ing, particularly in smaller firms.
Accountants are found in all
business, industrial, and govern­
ment organizations. Most, however,
work in large urban areas where
many public accounting firms and
central offices of large businesses

Public Accountants, to establish
certification. Most successful can­
didates have college degrees, and
three-fourths of the States require
CPA candidates to be college grad­
uates. Nearly all States require ap­
plicants to have at least 2 years of
Training, Other Qualifications,
public accounting experience for a
and Advancement
CPA certificate.
Requirements vary, but more
Training in accounting is availa­
ble at colleges and universities, ac­ than half the States restrict the title
counting and business schools, and “public accountant” to those who
correspondence schools. Although are licensed or registered. Some
many graduates of business and States require only a high school
correspondence schools are suc­ diploma while others require 2
cessful in small firms, most large years of college or more. Informa­
public accounting and business tion on requirements may be ob­
firms require applicants to have at tained directly from individual
least a bachelor’s degree in ac­ State boards of accountancy or
counting or a closely related field. from the National Society of Public
Many employers prefer those with Accountants.
The recognized mark of com­
the master’s degree in accounting.
A strict accounting background petence and experience in the field
usually is not required for starting of internal auditing is the designa­
jobs as internal auditors; however, tion, Certified Internal Auditor
training in business management, (CIA). The Institute of Internal Au­
industrial relations, business law, ditors, Inc. confers this designation
and mathematics is helpful. A grow­ upon
ing number of large employers completed 3 years’ experience in
prefer applicants who are familiar internal auditing and who have
with computer technology for both passed a 4-part examination.
accounting and internal auditor Beginning in 1978, a bachelor’s
positions. For beginning accounting degree from an accredited college
positions, the Federal Government or university also will be required.
requires 4 years of college training
Persons planning a career in ac­
(including 24 semester hours in ac­ counting should have an aptitude
counting or related subjects) or an for mathematics. Neatness and ac­
equivalent combination of educa­ curacy also are necessary. Em­
tion and experience. For teaching ployers seek applicants who can
positions, most colleges and univer­ handle responsibility and work with
sities require at least the master’s little supervision.
degree or the Certified Public Ac­
To get to the top in the profes­
countancy Certificate.
sion, accountants usually must con­
Previous work experience in ac­ tinue their study of accounting even
counting can help an applicant get a though they already have college
job. Many colleges offer students an degrees or professional certificates.
opportunity to gain experience They may participate in seminars
through internship programs con­ sponsored by various professional
ducted by public accounting or associations or take courses offered
business firms.
by their employers. A growing
Anyone working as a “certified number of States require both
public accountant” must hold a cer­ CPA’s and licensed public accoun­
tificate issued by the State board of tants to complete a certain number
accountancy. All states use the of hours of continuing education
CPA examination, administered by courses before their licenses can be
the American Institute of Certified renewed. An increasing number of
are concentrated. For example,
over 20 percent of all accountants
are employed in just four major cit­
ies: Chicago, Los Angeles; New
York; and Washington, D.C.

accountants study computer opera­ each year when workers die, retire,
tion and programming to adapt ac­ or leave the occupation.
counting procedures to new data
Demand for skilled accountants
processing methods. Although will rise as managers rely more on
capable accountants should ad­ accounting information to make
vance rapidly, those having in­ business decisions. For example, of­
adequate academic preparation ficers of large corporations base
may be assigned routine jobs and their
find promotion difficult.
proposals such as plant expansion,
Junior public accountants usually mergers, or foreign investments on
start by assisting with auditing work information about the financial
for several clients. They may ad­ condition of the firm, tax implica­
vance to intermediate positions tions of the proposed action, and
with more responsibility in 1 or 2 other considerations. On a smaller
years and to senior positions within scale, owners of small businesses
another few years. In larger firms, are expected to rely more and more
those who deal successfully with on the expertise of public account­
top industry executives often ants in planning their operations.
become supervisors, managers, or Government legislation to monitor
partners, or transfer to executive business activity also is expected to
positions in private firms. Some add to the demand for accountants.
open their own public accounting An example is the Pension Reform
Act of 1974, which establishes
Beginning management account­ minimum standards for private pen­
ants often start as ledger account­ sion plans. This and other legisla­
ants, junior internal auditors, or as tion should create many new jobs
trainees for technical accounting for management accountants to
positions. They may advance to maintain new systems and public
jobs such as chief plant accountant, accountants to audit them.
chief cost accountant, budget
Because of the growing complex­
director, or manager of internal au­ ity of business, college graduates
diting. Some become controllers, will be in greater demand than ap­
vice-pre­ plicants who lack this training.
sidents, or corporation presidents. Many employers prefer graduates
In the Federal Government, begin­ who have worked part time in a
ners are hired as trainees and business or accounting firm while in
usually are promoted in a year or school. Those who have been
so. In college and university trained in a specific phase of ac­
teaching, those having minimum counting should find ample oppor­
training and experience may tunities.
receive the rank of instructor
As data processing systems con­
without tenure; advancement and tinue to replace manual preparation
permanent faculty status depend of accounting records and state­
upon further education and ments, the need for some accoun­
teaching experience.
tants to perform routine tasks, par­
ticularly in large firms, may be
reduced. However, many opportu­
Employment Outlook
nities will arise for accountants
Employment is expected to in­ without a college degree, mainly in
crease about as fast as the average small businesses and public ac­
for all occupations through the mid- counting firms.
1980’s as businesses and govern­
ment agencies continue to expand
Earnings and Working
in size and complexity. In addition
to jobs resulting from growth, many
thousands of openings will result
Starting salaries of beginning ac­

countants in private industry were
$9,700 a year in 1974, according to
a survey in urban areas. Earnings of
experienced accountants ranged
between $13,300 and $19,600, de­
pending on their level of responsi­
bility and the complexity of the ac­
counting system. In general, ex­
perienced accountants earn'about
twice as much as nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
farming. Chief accountants who
direct the accounting program of a
company or one of its establish­
ments earned between $17,600 and
$29,000, depending upon the scope
of their authority and size of profes­
sional staff.
According to the same survey,
$10,400 a year, while experienced
auditors’ earnings ranged between
$14,400 and $17,500.
Salaries generally are higher for
accountants who travel a great deal
or who hold a graduate degree or a
CPA certificate.
In the Federal Civil Service, the
entrance salary for junior accoun­
tants and auditors was about
$10,200 in late 1974. Candidates
who had superior academic records
received a starting salary of about
$ 11,200. Applicants with a master’s
degree or 2 years’ professional ex­
perience began at about $12,800.
Accountants in the Federal
$23,000 a year in 1974.
Accountants who specialize in in­
come tax preparation often work
long hours under heavy pressure
during the tax season; those em­
ployed by national accounting firms
may travel extensively to conduct
audits and perform other services
for their clients. The majority, how­
ever, work in one office between 35
and 40 hours a week, under the
same general conditions as fellow
office workers.

Sources of Additional
Information about CPA’s and

about aptitude tests in high schools,
colleges, and public accounting
firms may be obtained from:
American Institute of Certified Public Ac­
countants, 666 Fifth Ave., New York,
N.Y. 10019.

Further information on special­
ized fields of accounting is available
National Association of Accountants, 919
Third Ave., New York, N.Y. 10022.
National Society of Public Accountants,
1717 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Washing­
ton, D C. 20006.
Institute of Internal Auditors, 5500 Diplomat
Circle, Orlando, Fla. 32810.

(D.O.T. 050.088; 132.088;
141.081 and .168; 162.158; and
164.068 through .168)

Nature of the Work
Almost every business does some
form of advertising to pursuade
people to buy its products or use its
services. A wide variety of workers
in many industries create and
produce advertisements, or make
arrangements for them to be broad­
cast on radio and television or
published in newspapers and
magazines. The following occupa­
tions are those most commonly as­
sociated with advertising.
Advertising managers direct the
advertising program of the busi­
nesses for which they work. They
determine the size of the advertis­
ing budget, the type of ads and
media to be used, and the advertis­
ing agency, if any, that will be em­
ployed. Managers who decide to
employ an agency work closely with
the account executives assigned to
their firms. They also may supervise
the preparation of pamphlets,
brochures, or other materials
developed to promote the firm’s
products or services. Advertising
managers working for newspapers,
radio stations, and other communi­
cations media have somewhat dif­

ferent duties. They are responsible
for selling advertising time or space,
and their work is similar to that of
sales managers in other businesses.
Account executives are employed
by advertising agencies to develop
advertising programs for clients.
They study the client’s sales, public
image, and advertising problems
and create a program that meets the
client’s approval. In most agencies,
the actual artwork and slogans are
developed by artists and copy­
writers, but in some small agencies,
account executives are responsible
for this aspect of the job. Account
executives may be supervised by ac­
count supervisors; usually, how­
ever, they report directly to agency
Research directors and their
assistants study the market for the
product or service being sold. They
review its possible uses, advantages
or disadvantages compared to those
of competitors, and ways of
reaching potential buyers. These
workers may survey buying habits
and motives of customers, or try out
sample advertisements to find the
selling theme or medium that best
sells the product. (See the state­
ment on Marketing Research Work­
ers for more information on this
Advertising copywriters develop
the slogans and text to be used in
the ads. By studying information
about the product and its potential
customers, they are able to write
copy aimed at the particular group
of customers the advertiser seeks to
attract. They may specialize in writ­
ing copy for certain groups, such as
business managers, teenagers, or
sports lovers, or for a class of
products, such as cars or computer
equipment. Copywriters usually
work closely with account execu­
tives. In some agencies they may be
supervised by copy chiefs.
Artists and layout workers create
the visual impact of an advertise­
ment by selecting photographs,
drawing symbols or figures, and
selecting the size or type of print to

be used in a magazine or newspaper
ad. When television commercials
are planned, they usually sketch
sample scenes for the client to con­
sider. (See the statements on Com­
mercial Artists and Photographers
for more information on this type of
Media directors (or space buyers
and time buyers ) negotiate con­
tracts for advertising space or air
time. They determine, for example,
the day and time when a television
commercial would reach the largest
group of prospective buyers at the
least cost. To select the best medi­
um for the advertiser, they must
know the costs of using various
media and the characteristics of the
audience that would be reached by
specific publications or television
Production managers and their
assistants arrange to have the ad
printed for publication or filmed for
television use. They must know
which firms or freelance workers
will be able to produce the best ad
for the least cost.

Places of Employment
In 1974, about 170,000 people
worked in jobs requiring considera­
ble knowledge of advertising. More
than one-third were employed in
advertising agencies, largely con­
centrated in New York City and
The rest worked for a variety of
firms and industries. Many advertis­
ing workers are employed directly
by organizations with products or
services to sell, such as manufac­
turers and retail stores. Others work
for television or radio stations,
newspapers, and magazines and sell
air time or space to advertisers.
Some work for printers, art studios,
and package design firms that help
advertisers create their ads.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Most employers prefer college
graduates who have liberal arts

strongly affected by general busi­
ness conditions because firms ex­
pand or contract their advertising
budgets according to their financial
success. Although opportunities
should be favorable for highly
qualified applicants, others seeking
entry jobs will face keen competi­
tion because many persons are at­
tracted to the field. Most openings
will result from the need to replace
workers who die, retire, or leave the
occupation for other reasons.

Earnings and Working

Layout worker designs a newspaper ad for a department store sale.

training or majors in advertising,
marketing, journalism, or business
administration. No particular edu­
cational background, however, is
equated with success in advertising.
Preparing or selling ads for school
publications or a summer job with a
marketing research service can be
helpful experience.
Some large organizations recruit
outstanding college graduates for
training programs that cover all
aspects of advertising work. Some
beginners start as research or
production assistants or as space or
time buyers. A few begin as junior
Many advertising jobs require
imagination, creativity, and a flair
for language. Persons interested in
becoming advertising managers, ac­
count executives, media buyers,
and production managers must be
able to get along well with people
and be able to sell their ideas.
Research directors and their
assistants must have an understand­

ing of human behavior. Creativity is
especially important to artists,
layout workers, and account execu­
tives. Advertising workers must be
able to accept criticism of their
work and be able to function as part
of a team.
Copywriters and account execu­
tives may advance to more respon­
sible work in their specialties, or to
managerial jobs, if they demon­
strate ability in dealing with clients.
Some who are especially capable
may become partners in an existing
agency, or establish their own.

Employment Outlook
Employment of advertising work­
ers is expected to increase about
as fast as the average for all occupa­
tions through the mid-1980’s, as the
growing number of consumer goods
and increasing competition in some
product or service markets cause
advertising expenditures to rise.
Employment in these occupations is

According to the limited infor­
mation available, annual salaries for
beginning advertising workers with
bachelor’s degrees ranged from
$8,000 to $10,000 in 1974. The
higher starting salaries generally
were paid by the largest firms or ad­
vertising agencies to outstanding
Salaries of experienced advertis­
ing workers employed by agencies
varied by size of firm and type of
job. For example, account execu­
tives averaged $18,000 to $25,000
a year and media directors,
$20,000, according to limited infor­
Copywriters’ salaries
ranged from $15,000 for beginners
to as much as $50,000 for those
having print and television ex­
People in advertising work under
great pressure. They are expected
to produce quality ads in as short a
time as possible. Sometimes they
must work long or irregular hours in
order to meet deadlines or make
last-minute changes. Account ex­
ecutives, copywriters, and layout
workers may become frustrated by
a client’s inability to define the type
of ad he or she wants for a product.
Advertising can be a satisfying
career for persons who enjoy
variety, excitement, creative chal­
lenges, and competition. Unlike
workers in many other occupations,
advertising workers experience the
satisfaction of having their work in

print, on television, or on radio,
even though they remain unknown
to the public at large.

buying trips, and also place orders
with wholesale and manufacturers’
salesworkers who call on them to
display their merchandise.
Sources of Additional
Buyers must be able to assess the
resale value of goods after a brief
inspection and make a purchase
Information on advertising agen­ decision quickly. They are aware of
cies and the careers they offer is their stores’ profit margins and try
available from:
to select merchandise that will sell
American Association of Advertising Agen­ quickly at well above the original
cies, 200 Park Ave. New York, N.Y.
cost. Since most buyers work within
a limited budget, they must plan
For a list of schools that provide their purchases to keep needed
training in advertising, contact:
items always in stock but also allow
American Advertising Federation, 1225
for unexpected purchases when a
Connecticut Ave. NW., Washington, “good buy” presents itself.
D C. 20036.
merchandise for their firms to resell
(unlike purchasing agents who buy
goods for direct use by the firm—
see the statement on Purchasing
Agents elsewhere in the Handbook),
(D.O.T. 162.158 and 185.168)
they must know what motivates
customers to buy. Before ordering a
Nature of the Work
particular line of merchandise,
Buyers determine which products buyers study market research re­
are on display in retail stores. ports and analyze past sales records
Although all buyers seek to satisfy to determine what products are cur­
their stores’ customers and sell at a rently in demand. They also confer
profit, the kind and variety of goods with assistant buyers and sales
they purchase depend on the store clerks whose daily contact with
where they work. A buyer for a customers furnishes information
small clothing store, for example, about consumer likes and dislikes.
may purchase its complete stock of In addition, buyers read fashion and
merchandise from sportswear to trade magazines to keep abreast of
formal evening clothes. Buyers who style and manufacturing trends; fol­
work for larger retail businesses low ads in newspapers and other
often handle one or a few related media to check retail competitors’
lines of goods, such as men’s wear, sales activities; and watch general
ladies’ sportswear, or children’s economic conditions to anticipate
toys. Some, known as foreign consumer buying patterns.
buyers, purchase merchandise out­
Merchandise managers ( D.O.T.
side the United States.
185.168) plan and coordinate buy­
In order to purchase the best ing and selling activities for large
selection of goods for their stores, and medium-sized stores. They di­
buyers must be familiar with the vide the budget among buyers, de­
manufacturers and distributors who cide how much merchandise to
handle the merchandise they need.
stock, and assign each buyer to
They also must keep informed
purchase certain goods. Merchan­
about changes in existing products
dise managers may review buying
and the development of new ones.
decisions to insure that needed
To learn about merchandise, buyers
categories of goods are in stock,
attend fashion and trade shows and and help buyers to set general pric­
visit manufacturers’ showrooms.
ing guidelines.
They usually order goods during

managers usually have very busy
schedules and deal with many dif­
ferent people in the course of a day.
They work with manufacturers’
representatives, other store person­
nel including store executives and
Assisting with sales promotions and
creating enthusiasm among sales
personnel are part of the buyer’s
job, and he or she may be asked to
provide information such as dress
sizes and product descriptions to
the advertising department for a
sales promotion, or to meet with
floor salesworkers before a new line
of merchandise is introduced. Some
buyers direct assistants who handle
routine aspects of purchasing such
as verifying shipments; others su­
pervise department managers.
Some buyers represent large
stores or chains in cities where
many manufacturers are located.
The duties of these “ market
representatives” vary by employer;
some purchase goods, while others
supply information and arrange for
store buyers to meet with manufac­
turers when they are in town.

Places of Employment
In 1974, almost 110,000 buyers
and merchandise managers worked

Linen buyer in a large department store
discusses special order with


for retail firms—half of them for usually lasts about a year. After
clothing and general department about 5 years of working as a buyer,
those who show exceptional ability
About 2 out of every 5 people in may advance to merchandise
manager. A few find further promo­
the occupation were women.
Although jobs for buyers are tion to top executive jobs such as
found in all parts of the country, general merchandise manager for a
most jobs are in major metropolitan retail store or chain. The length of
areas were retail stores are concen­ time it takes to reach any of these
trated. Market representatives levels depends not just on the in­
work for buying offices in major dividual’s ability but on the store’s
market areas such as New York, need for management personnel.
The faster growing the company,
Chicago, and Dallas.
the more opportunity there is for a
worker to acquire responsibility.
Training, Other Qualifications,
Buyers should be good at
and Advancement
planning and decisionmaking and
A job which traditionally has at­ have an interest in merchandising.
tracted career-minded people, buy­ They need leadership ability and
ing offers good opportunities to communications skills to supervise
salesworkers and assistant buyers
begin a career in merchandising.
Most retail stores prefer college and to deal effectively with manu­
facturers’ representatives and store
or junior college graduates for buy­
executives. Because of the fast pace
ing jobs. Courses in merchandising
and constant pressure of their work,
or marketing may help in getting a
buyers need physical stamina and
first job, but most employers accept
emotional stability.
graduates in any field of study and
train them on the job. Promising
salesworkers sometimes are con­
Employment Outlook
sidered for promotion to jobs at the
Employment of buyers is ex­
management level, and begin as
pected to grow faster than the
assistant buyers.
Many stores have formal training average for all occupations through
programs for all management or ex­ the mid-1980’s, as retail stores seek
ecutive trainees, including buyers. to promote sales by offering their
These programs usually last from 6 customers a broader selection of
to 8 months and combine classroom goods. In addition to opportunities
instruction in merchandising and created by this growth, many job
purchasing with short rotations to openings will arise each year from
various jobs in the store. This train­ the need to replace workers who
ing introduces the new worker to leave the occupation. Competition
store operations and policies, and for these jobs is expected to be
provides the fundamentals of keen, for merchandising attracts
merchandising and management as large numbers of college graduates
every year. Prospects are likely to
The trainee’s first job is likely to be best for qualified applicants who
be that of assistant buyer. The du­ enjoy the competitive nature of
ties include supervising saleswork­ retailing, and work best in a de­
ers, checking invoices on material manding, fast-paced job.
Employment of buyers will grow
received, and keeping account of
stock on hand. Assistant buyers as retailers put greater emphasis on
purchasing the selection, display, and promo­
responsibilities, depending upon tion of the goods they have for sale.
their individual abilities and the size This is likely to spur demand for
of the department where they work. buyers with the professional exper­
Training as an assistant buyer tise to discover new sources of

merchandise and select goods that
will appeal to customers and make
a profit for the retailer. The de­
mand for astute buyers and
merchandise managers will grow
even though chain stores and other
large firms are centralizing their
purchasing functions and turning to
the computer for routine buying
and for compiling and tabulating
data on past sales.

Earnings and Working
Newly hired buyers who were
college graduates started at $8,300
to $9,000 a year in 1974. Some who
showed unusual promise started at
annual salaries of $ 12,000 or more.
Earnings, which frequently in­
clude a bonus in addition to regular
salary, vary according to the sales
volume of the store and the type of
merchandise purchased. Buyers in
single-store companies with yearly
sales of $5-15 million earned about
$10,500 in 1974; merchandise
managers in these stores averaged
nearly $24,000.
Buyers for discount department
stores and other mass merchandis­
ing firms are among the most highly
paid in the industry. Those working
for mass merchandising firms with
annual sales of $40-400 million
earned over $21,000 in 1974, while
merchandise managers earned
about $36,000. A 1972 survey con­
ducted by the Mass Retailing In­
stitute shows that in firms with an­
nual sales of $4 million or more,
average earnings for buyers ranged
from about $16,000 to $24,000, de­
pending on the type of merchandise
purchased; most buyers earned
between $19,000 and $21,000.
Merchandise managers made con­
siderably more.
Buyers regulate their own hours,
and often work more than 40 hours
a week because of sales, con­
ferences, and travel. The amount of
traveling a buyer does varies with
the type of merchandise bought and
the location of suppliers, but most

spend 4 or 5 days a month on the
road. Merchandise managers also
travel frequently, averaging several
trips a month in many cases.

civic meetings to advocate certain
programs or to inform citizens of
current government operations.
City managers work closely with
planning departments to coordinate
new and existing programs. In
Sources of Additional
smaller cities that have no per­
manent planning staff, coordination
General information about a may be assumed entirely by the
career in retailing is available from: manager.
National Retail Merchants Association, 100
Many cities employ assistant city
West 31st St., New York, N.Y. 10001.
Mass Retailing Institute, 570 Seventh Ave., assistants,
New York, N.Y. 10018.
assistants to aid city managers.
Under the manager’s direction,
they administer programs, prepare
reports, receive visitors, answer
correspondence, and generally help
to keep the city functioning
(D.O.T. 188.118)
smoothly. Assistant city managers
organize and coordinate city pro­
Nature of the Work
grams, supervise city employees,
Population growth and industrial and act for the city manager in their
expansion place increasing pressure absence. They also may assume
on housing, transportation, and
other facilities of cities. Problems
associated with growing modern
communities, such as air and water
pollution and rising crime rates,
also demand attention. To cope ef­
fectively with these problems, many
communities hire a specialist in
management techniques—the city
A city manager is responsible to
the community's elected officials
who appoint him. Although duties
vary by city size, city managers
generally administer and coor­
dinate the day-to-day operations of
the city. They are responsible for
functions such as tax collection and
disbursement, law enforcement,
and public works; hire department
heads and their staffs; and prepare
the annual budget to be approved
by elected officials. They also study
current problems, such as traffic
congestion, crime, or urban
renewal, and report their findings to
the elected council.
City managers must plan for fu­
ture growth and development of cit­
ies and surrounding areas. To pro­
vide for an expansion of public serv­
ices, they frequently appear at

responsibility for some projects,
such as the development of a
preliminary annual budget. Depart­
ment head assistants generally are
responsible for one activity, such as
personnel, finance, or law, but also
may assist in other areas. Adminis­
trative assistants, also called execu­
tive assistants or assistants to the
city manager, usually do adminis­
trative and staff work in all depart­
ments under the city manager. For
instance, they may compile operat­
ing statistics, or review and analyze
work procedures.

Places of Employment
About 2,900 city managers were
employed in 1974. Although nearly
all of them were men, in recent
years a growing number of women
have entered the occupation. In ad­
dition, several thousand persons

worked as administrative assistants,
department head assistants, and
assistant city managers. Most city
managers worked for cities and
counties having a council-manager
form of government, in which the
council appoints a manager who is
responsible for the day-to-day
operation of the government as well
as for the hiring and firing of
assistants, department heads, and
other staff. Most of the remainder
worked in municipalities having
other forms of government, such as
which the mayor appoints the city
manager as his administrative
assistant or chief administrative of­
ficer. A few city managers also
worked for metropolitan or re­
gional planning organizations and
councils of governments.
Although over three-quarters of
all city managers work for small cit­
ies having 25,000 or less inhabit­
ants, many larger cities also em­
ploy a city manager. About half of
the cities having a population of
between 10,000 and 500,000 have
city managers. City managers work
in all States, but one-half are con­
centrated in the eastern part of the

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A master’s degree, generally in
public or business administration, is
becoming increasingly important
for those seeking a career in city
management. Although some appli­
cants with only a bachelor’s degree
may find employment, strong com­
petition for positions, even among
master’s recipients, will make the
graduate degree a requirement for
most entry level jobs. In some cases,
employers may hire a person with
training in a field related to public
administration, such as engineering,
recreation, social work, or political
In 1974, over 150 colleges and
universities offered graduate degree
programs in public or municipal ad­

ministration. Degree requirements
in some schools include successful
completion of an internship pro­
gram in a city manager’s office.
During this internship period,
which may last from 6 months to a
year, the degree candidate observes
local government operations and
does research under the direct su­
pervision of the city manager.
Most new graduates work as ad­
ministrative assistants to city
managers for several years and gain
experience in solving urban
problems, coordinating public serv­
ices, and management techniques.
Others work in an area of govern­
ment operations such as finance,
public works, or public planning.
They may acquire supervisory skills
nd additional experience by work­
ing as assistant city manager or de­
partment head assistant in opera­
tions. City managers often are first
employed in small cities, but during
their careers, they may work in
several cities of increasing size.
Young persons who plan a career
in city management should like to
work with detail and as part of a
team. They must have sound
judgment, self-confidence, and be
able to perform well under stress.
To handle emergency situations,
city managers must quickly isolate
problems, identify their causes, and
provide alternate solutions. City
managers should be tactful and able
to communicate with and work well
with people.
City managers also must be
dedicated to public service since
they often put in long, hard hours in
times of crises.

Employment Outlook
This small occupation is expected
to expand faster than the average
for all occupations to the mid1980’s as problems of our growing
cities become more complex. Ex­
amples of more sophisticated ways
of dealing with these problems in­
clude computerized data collection
of police information, advances in

technology of traffic control, and
the application of systems analysis
to urban problems. The demand for
city managers also will increase as
cities convert to the councilmanager form of government, cur­
rently the fastest growing form of
city government. Furthermore, city
managers will be needed in places
having other forms of government
to help elected officials cope with
day-to-day operations of govern­
Persons who seek beginning city
management jobs as administra­
tive assistants, department head
assistants, or assistant city man­
agers may face strong competi­
tion through the mid-1980’s, espe­
cially if they do not have a graduate
degree in public administration or
related management experience.
However, many of those unable to
find employment in this area should
find jobs in other fields of public ad­
ministration. Competition should
be keen among the growing number
of administrative assistants, depart­
ment head assistants, and assistant
city managers for the relatively few
city manager positions.

Earnings and Working
Salaries of city managers and
their assistants vary according to
their education and experience as
well as job responsibility and size of
city. Generally, city managers’
earnings are very high relative to
the average earnings for nonsupervisory workers in private industry,
except farming. In 1974, annual
salaries of city managers ranged
from about $12,000 in cities of
5,000 to more than $40,000 in cit­
ies of over 250,000, according to
the International City Management
Association. The average annual
salary for all city managers is al­
most $20,000. City managers in
cities not having council-manager
governments received slightly less.
managers and department head

assistants ranged from about ability to provide for their housing,
$ 10,000 in small cities to more than social, cultural, and recreational
$25,000 in large ones. They were needs. Development and adminis­
generally paid about three-fourths tration of these services, including
the salaries paid city managers. Ad­ educational and similar programs,
ministrative assistant salaries typi­ provide a wide variety of jobs for
cally ranged from $8,500 to college student personnel workers.
$ 10,000, annually.
The admissions officer, registrar,
City managers often work more the dean of students, and the career
than 40 hours a week. Emergency planning and placement counselor
problems may require evening and are probably the best known among
weekend work and meetings with these. Some other types of workers
individuals and citizen’s groups that may make up this broad occu­
pational field are student activities
consume additional time.
Fringe benefits usually include and college union personnel, stu­
health and life insurance programs, dent housing officers, counselors in
pension plans, sick leave, vacation the college counseling center,
time, and often a car for official financial aid officers, and foreign
business. Managers generally are student advisers.
reimbursed for expenses incurred
Titles of student personnel work­
professional ers vary from institution to institu­
meetings and seminars.
tion and from program to program
within a single school. Titles also
Sources of Additional
vary with the level of responsibility
within a certain student personnel
program. The more common titles
For information on a career in include dean, director, officer, as­
city management, contact:
sociate dean, assistant director, and
International City Management Association, counselor.
1140 Connecticut Ave. NW., Washing­
The dean o f students, or the vice
ton, D.C. 20036.
president for student affairs, heads
For further information on the
the student personnel program at a
council manager form of govern­
school. Among his or her duties is
ment, contact:
evaluating the changing needs of
National Municipal League, 47 E. 68th St., the students and helping the pre­
New York, N Y. 10021.
sident of the college develop in­
stitutional policies. The dean of stu­
dents generally coordinates a staff
of associate or assistant deans;
these are in charge of the specific
programs that deal directly with the
(D.O.T. 045.108, 090.118,
At some school's, the admissions
090.168, 129.108, and 166.168)
office and the records office are
separate. Admissions counselors in­
Nature of the Work
terview and evaluate prospective
A student’s choice of a particular students and process their applica­
institution of higher education for tions. They may travel extensively
further study is influenced by many to recruit high school, junior col­
factors. Availability of a specific lege, and older students and to
educational program, quality of the acquaint them with opportunities
school, and cost, as well as proximi­ available at their college. They
ty to home, may all play important work closely with faculty, adminis­
trators, financial aid personnel, and
For many students, an equally public relations staff to determine
important factor is the institution’s policies for recruiting and admitting

students. Personnel in the office of
the registrar maintain the academic
records of students, and provide
current enrollment statistics for
communication both within the col­
lege and between the college and
the community.
Student financial aid personnel
assist students in obtaining financial
support to pay for their education.
Workers in this field must keep well
informed about sources of financial
aid, funding, and about manage­
ment of all forms of financial aid—
scholarships, grants, loans, student
employment, fellowships, teaching
and research assistantships. They
work closely with administrators
and with the admissions, counsel­
ing, business, and academic office
Career planning and placement
counselors, sometimes called col­
lege placement officers, assist stu­
dents in making long-range career
selections and may also help stu­
dents get part-time and summer
jobs. On many campuses, they ar­
range for prospective employers to
visit the school to discuss their
firm’s personnel needs and to inter­
view applicants. (For further infor­
mation on this field, see statement
on College Career Planning and
Placement Counselors.)
The student personnel staff in
charge of student activities work
with members of proposed and
established student organizations,
especially with student government.
They help the student groups to
plan, implement, and evaluate their
activities. Often, the student activi­
ties staff will assist in the orienta­
tion of new students.
College union staff members work
with students to provide intellec­
tual, cultural, and recreational pro­
grams. Many college union staff
members are responsible for direct­
ing the operation of the physical
facilities and services of the build­
ing, such as food and recreational
services, building maintenance,
fiscal planning, conference facili­
ties, and employee supervision.

formation on this field, see state­
ment on Psychologists.)
Foreign student advisers ad­
minister and coordinate many of
the services which are crucial in in­
suring a successful academic and
social experience for students from
other countries. They usually assist
with foreign student admissions,
orientation, financial aid, housing,
English as a foreign language,
academic and personal counseling,
student-community relationships,
placement, and alumni relations. In
addition they may be an adviser for
international associations and na­
tionality groups and for U.S. stu­
dents interested in study, educa­
tional travel, work, or service pro­
jects abroad.
Student housing officers some­
times live in the dormitories and, in
general, help the students to live
together in harmony. They may
serve as counselors to individual
students with personal problems.
Housing officers also may be in­
volved in managing the fiscal, food
service, and housekeeping opera­
tions of student residences.
Counselors help students with
personal, educational, and voca­
tional problems. Students may
come to the counselors on their
own or be referred by a faculty
member, a residence hall coun­
selor, o r a friend. C ounseling needs

may arise from lack of self-con­
fidence or motivation on the part of
the student, failure in academic
work, desire to leave college or
transfer to another college, inability
to get along with others, loneliness,
drug abuse, or marriage problems.
In addition, there is a growing trend
for counselors to try to reach more
students by establishing group sen­
sitivity sessions and telephone
“ hotlines.” Counselors often ad­
minister tests that indicate ap­
titudes and interests to students
having trouble understanding them­
selves. Some also teach in the col­
lege or assist with admissions,
orientation, and training of res­
idence hall staff. (For further in­

Places of Employment
An estimated 50,000 college stu­
dent personnel workers, roughly
one-third of them women, were em­
ployed in 1974. Every college and
university, whether a 2-year or a 4year school, has a staff performing
student personnel functions. They
are not always organized as a
unified program. Large colleges
and universities generally have spe­
cialized staffs for each personnel
function. However, in many small
colleges a few persons may carry
out the entire student personnel

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Because of the diversity in duties,
the education and backgrounds of
college student personnel workers
vary considerably. A bachelor’s
degree is the minimum require­
ment; however, for some student
personnel programs it is necessary
to have a master’s degree, and
others in the field have doctoral
In 1974, more than 100 colleges
and universities offered graduate
programs in student personnel
work. However, many employers

prefer instead a graduate degree in
a specific academic field added to
some courses in student personnel
work. A master’s degree in clinical
or counseling psychology is usually
required for work as a college coun­
selor. This degree also is helpful in
other student personnel fields such
as career planning and placement.
Business administration also is help­
ful, especially for those who wish to
go into the admissions, records, col­
lege union, financial aid, or student
housing fields. Familiarity with data
processing is an asset especially for
work in admissions, records, or
financial aid. Social science and
recreation degrees also are useful,
as is work experience in business,
government, or educational as­
sociations. The majority, however,
have degrees in education or the so­
cial sciences.
College student personnel work­
ers must be interested in, and able
to work with, people of all
backgrounds and ages. They must
have the patience to cope with con­
flicting viewpoints of students,
faculty, and parents. People in this
field often deal with the unexpected
and the unusual; therefore emo­
tional stability and the ability to
function while under pressure are
Entry level positions are usually
those of student activities advisers,
admissions counselors, financial aid
counselors, residence hall directors,
and assistants to deans. Persons
without graduate degrees may find
advancement opportunities limited.
A doctorate is usually necessary for
the top student personnel positions.

Employment Outlook
The employment outlook of col­
lege student personnel workers is
likely to be somewhat competitive
through 1985. Employment is ex­
pected to remain relatively stable.
Tightening budgets, in both public
and private colleges and universi­
ties, is the chief factor underlying
this expected lack of growth in em­

ployment. Student personnel posi­
tions least likely to be affected if
some reduction in number becomes
necessary are those most closely
tied to the academic function of the
school—admissions, financial aid,
and records. Over the short run,
until colleges and universities
resolve their financial difficulties,
most openings each year will result
from the need to replace personnel
who transfer to other positions,
retire, or leave the field for other
During the early 1980’s, how­
ever, employment of student per­
sonnel workers is expected to in­
crease as colleges provide more
services for students, especially the
growing number from low-income
and minority families who often
require special counseling and
assistance. The increasing number
of college students, in junior and
community colleges, is a factor
which also could contribute to
some growth in the student person­
nel occupations, especially if finan­
cial problems should ease. Twoyear public colleges, for the most
part, have less serious financial
problems because, unlike most 4year institutions, their enrollments
are growing and their operating
costs are moderate.

Earnings and Working
Median salaries of chief student
affairs officers ranged from $ 13,700
in small private colleges to $29,900
in large public universities in 1974,
according to a National Education
Association survey of public and
private colleges and universities.
Median salaries of deans o f admis­
sions ranged from $12,700 to
$22,300; for registrars, from $9,400
to $20,400. Directors o f student
testing and counseling had median
salaries of $ 11,400 to $22,800. The
median salaries of the other student
personnel workers were somewhat
lower. New entrants to the field
received about $8,500 in 1974.

College student personnel work­
ers frequently work more than a
40-hour week; often irregular hours
and overtime work are necessary.
Employment in these occupations is
usually on a 12-month basis. In
many schools, they are entitled to
retirement, group medical and life
insurance, and sabbatical and other

tions, executive level credit
managers are responsible for for­
mulating a credit policy. They must
establish financial standards to be
met by applicants and thereby
determine the amount of risk that
their company will accept when of­
fering its products or services for
sale on credit. Managers usually
cooperate with the sales depart­
ment in developing a credit policy
Sources of Additional
liberal enough to allow the com­
pany’s sales to increase and yet
strict enough to deny credit to
A pamphlet, Careers in Higher customers whose ability to repay
Education, is available from:
their debts is questionable. Many
The American Personnel and Guidance As­ credit managers establish office
sociation, 1607 New Hampshire Ave.
procedures and supervise workers
NW., Washington, D.C. 20009.
who gather information, analyze
facts, and perform general office
duties in a credit department; they
include application clerks, collec­
tion workers, bookkeepers, and
(D.O.T. 168.168)
In smaller companies that handle
a limited number of accounts,
Nature of the Work
credit managers may do much of
Both businesses and individuals the work of granting credit them­
may require credit to meet their selves. They may interview appli­
daily needs for a variety of goods cants, analyze the information
and services. In most forms of gained in the interview, and make
credit granting, a credit manager the final lending decision. They
has final authority over the decision frequently must contact customers
to accept or reject a credit applica­ who are unable or refuse to pay
their debts. They do this through
writing, telephoning, or personal
In extending credit to a business
(commercial credit), the credit contact. If these attempts at collec­
manager, or an assistant, analyzes tion fail, credit managers may refer
detailed financial reports submitted the account to a collection agency
by the applicant, interviews a or assign an attorney to take legal
representative of the company action.
about its management, and reviews
credit agency reports to determine
Places of Employment
the firm’s record in repaying debts.
The manager also checks at banks
About 66,000 persons, nearly a
where the company has deposits or third of them women, worked as
previously was granted credit. In credit managers in 1974. About
extending credit to individuals one-half were employed in whole­
(consumer credit), detailed finan­ sale and retail trade, but many
cial reports usually are not availa­ others, almost one-third of the
ble. The credit manager must rely total, worked for manufacturing
more on personal interviews, credit firms and financial institutions.
bureaus, and banks to provide in­
Although goods and services are
formation about the person apply­ sold on credit, and cash loans
granted, throughout the United
ing for credit.
Particularly in large organiza­ States, most credit managers work

in urban areas where many finan­ thorough understanding of the
cial and business establishments are company’s credit procedures and
policies. They may analyze previous
credit transactions to learn how to
Training, Other Qualifications, recognize which applicants should
prove to be good customers.
and Advancement
Trainees also learn to deal with
A college degree is becoming in­ credit bureaus, banks, and other
creasingly important for entry level businesses that can provide infor­
jobs in credit management. Em­ mation on the past credit dealings
ployers usually seek persons who of their customers.
have majored in business adminis­
Many formal training programs
tration, economics, or accounting, are available through the educa­
but may also hire graduates holding tional branches of the associations
liberal arts degrees. Some em­ that serve the credit and finance
ployers promote high school gradu­ field. This training includes home
ates to credit manager positions if study, college and university pro­
they have experience in credit col­ grams, and special instruction to
lection or processing credit infor­ improve beginners’ skills and keep
experienced credit managers aware
Newly hired workers normally of new developments in their field.
A person interested in a career as
begin as management trainees and
work under the guidance of more a credit manager should be able to
experienced personnel in the credit analyze detailed information and
department. Here they gain a draw valid conclusions based on

Manager trainee reviews previous credit transactions.

this analysis. Because it is necessary
to maintain good customer relation­
ships, a pleasant personality and the
ability to speak and write effective­
ly also are characteristics of the
successful credit manager.
The work performed by credit
managers allows them to become
familiar with almost every phase of
their company’s business. Highly
managers can advance to top-level
executive positions. However, in
small and medium-sized companies,
such opportunities are limited.

Employment Outlook
Credit management is an expand­
ing field. Through the mid-1980’s
employment is expected to grow
faster than the average for all occu­
pations. In addition to opportunities
created by this growth, many jobs
will open each year from the need
to replace persons who leave the
occupation. Although there will be
employment opportunities through­
out the country, prospects should
continue to be best for wellqualified jobseekers in metropolitan
The volume of credit extended
rose very rapidly during the past
decade. In the years ahead, busi­
nesses can be expected to require
increasing amounts of credit to
secure raw materials for production
and obtain finished goods for even­
tual resale. Consumers, whose per­
sonal incomes have risen, are ex­
pected to finance greater numbers
of high-priced items. In addition,
the use of credit for everyday
purchases is expected to grow as
demand increases for recreation
and household goods as well as a
wide range of consumer services.
Although the increasing use of
computers for storing and retriev­
ing information will allow in­
dividual credit managers to serve
more customers, this should not
slow the growth of the occupation.
As companies handle greater num­
bers of credit transactions, credit

managers will spend more time
managing and supervising the credit
handling process in their firms.
Moreover, many duties of credit
managers, such as customer coun­
seling and interviewing applicants,
demand the tact and good judgment
only personal contact can provide.
In addition, attractive credit
terms are a major tool for increas­
ing the sales volume of almost any
business. As firms strive to max­
imize their sales in the face of com­
petition, there will be a greater de­
mand for skilled credit managers
who can establish credit policies
strict enough to minimize bad debt

Earnings and Working
In 1974, beginning credit man­
agers earned annual salaries that
ranged from about $7,500 to over
$10,000, depending on the type of
employer and the geographic loca­
tion of the job.
As credit managers gain ex­
perience and reach middle manage­
ment positions, their earnings
usually range from $10,000 to
$20,000 a year; with the largest em­
ployers, earnings may be as high as
$25,000 or more. Some individuals
in top-level positions earned sala­
ries well over $40,000 a year.
Credit managers normally work
the standard workweek of their
company—35-40 hours, but some
work longer hours. In wholesale
and retail trade, for example, a
seasonal increase in credit sales can
produce a greater work volume. In
addition, some credit managers at­
tend conferences sponsored by in­
dustry and professional organiza­
tions where managers meet to
develop and discuss new techniques
for the management of a credit de­

Sources of Additional
Information about training pro­
grams available in consumer credit

may be obtained from:
Society of Certified Consumer Credit Execu­
tives, 7405 University Dr., St. Louis,
Mo. 63130.

For information about training
programs available in commercial
credit, write:
Credit Research Foundation, 3000 Marcus
Ave., Lake Success, N.Y. 11040.

(D.O.T. 163.118 and 187.118,

Nature of the Work
Hotel managers are responsible
for operating their establishments
profitably and satisfying guests.
They determine room rates and
credit policy, direct the operation
of the kitchen and dining rooms,
and manage the housekeeping, ac­
counting, and maintenance depart­
ments of the hotel. They also are
responsible for solving
problems that may arise.
Managers who work in small
hotels may do much of the front of­
fice clerical work, such as taking
room reservations and assigning
rooms. In some small hotels and
many motels, the manager is also
the owner and may be responsible
for all aspects of the business.
General managers of large hotels
usually have several assistants who
manage various parts of the opera­
tion. Because the hotel restaurant
and cocktail lounge are important
to the success of the entire
establishment, they almost always
are operated by managers with ex­
perience in the restaurant field.
Other areas that usually are han­
dled separately are advertising,
rental of banquet and meeting
facilities, personnel, and account­
Large hotel and motel chains
often centralize some activities,
such as purchasing and advertising,

so that individual hotels in the chain
may not need managers for these
departments. Managers who work
for chains may be assigned to or­
ganize a newly built or purchased
hotel or to reorganize an existing
hotel or motel that is not operating
About 120,000 hotel and motel
managers, one-third of them
women, were employed in 1974.
More than a third were self-em­

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Although experience is generally
the most important consideration in
selecting managers, employers in­
creasingly emphasize college edu­
cation. Many believe that acquiring
a 4-year college degree in hotel and
restaurant administration is the best
educational preparation. The cours­
es in hotel work that are available
in a few junior colleges and through
the American Hotel and Motel As­
sociation also are considered help­
A college program in hotel
management usually includes cours­
es in hotel administration, ac­
counting, economics, food service
management and catering, and
hotel maintenance engineering.
Students are encouraged to work in
hotels or restaurants during
summer vacations because the ex­
perience gained and the contacts
made with employers may help
them to get better hotel jobs after
Managers should have initiative,
self-discipline, and the ability to or­
ganize work and direct the work of
others. They must be able to con­
centrate on details and solve
Some large hotels have special
on-the-job management trainee
programs in which trainees rotate
among various departments to
acquire a thorough knowledge of
the hotel’s operation. Outstanding
employees who have not had col-

and the particular carrier. To make
their decisions, managers consider
factors such as freight classifica­
schedules, size of shipments, and
loss and damage rates. (This state­
ment does not cover traffic
managers who sell transportation
services for railroads, airlines,
trucking firms, and other freight
Activities of industrial traffic
a managers range from checking
freight bills to deciding whether the
company should buy its own fleet of
trucks or contract for services.
They route and trace shipments, ar­
range with carriers for transporta­
tion services, prepare bills of lading
and other shipping documents, and
handle claims for lost or damaged
goods. Traffic managers keep
records of shipments, freight rates,
commodity classifications, and ap­
plicable government regulations.
Hotel manager personally greets an association representative who is considering
They also must stay informed about
his hotel as a convention site.
changing transportation technolo­
gy, such as containerization (the
lege training may receive financial
See the statement on the Hotel
assistance to help them acquire a Industry elsewhere in the Handbook use of containers packed with many
for information on earnings and individual items). Some traffic
Most hotels promote employees working conditions, sources of ad­ managers (called physical distribu­
with proven ability, usually front of­ ditional information, and more in­ tion managers) are responsible for
fice clerks, to assistant manager and formation on employment outlook. packaging shipments and maintain­
ing warehouse facilities and trans­
eventually to general manager.
portation equipment.
Hotel chains may offer better opTraffic managers often consult
portunites for advancement than in­
with other company officials about
dependent hotels, because em­
the firm’s transportation needs.
ployees can transfer to another
They may, for example, work with
hotel in the chain or to the central
production department personnel
office if an opening occurs.
(D.O.T. 184.168)
to plan shipping schedules, or with
members of the purchasing depart­
Employment Outlook
Nature of the Work
ment to determine what quantities
Industrial firms want to receive of goods can be transported most
Employment of hotel managers is
expected to grow about as fast as raw
deliver economically.
the average for all occupations customers’ goods promptly, safely,
Since many aspects of transporta­
through the mid-1980’s as addi­ and with minimum cost. Arranging tion are subject to Federal, State,
tional hotels and motels are built
the transportation of materials and and local government regulations,
and chain and franchise operations
finished products is the job of an in­ traffic managers must know about
spread. Many openings also will dustrial traffic manager. Industrial these and any other legal matters
occur as experienced managers die,
traffic managers analyze various that apply to their companies’
retire, or transfer to other jobs. Ap­ transportation possibilities and shipping operations. High level traf­
plicants having college degrees in
choose the most efficient type for fic managers represent their com­
hotel administration will have an their companies’ needs—rail, air, panies before ratemaking and regu­
advantage in seeking entry posi­ road, water, pipeline, or some com­ latory bodies such as the Interstate
tions and later advancement.
bination. Then they select the route Commerce Commission, State




commissions, and local traffic bu­

Places of Employment
More than 20,000 persons were
industrial traffic managers in 1974.
Although most jobs are found in
manufacturing firms, some traffic
managers work for large stores. A
few are self-employed consultants,
or work for firms that handle trans­
portation problems for clients.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Although high school graduates
with experience in traffic depart­
ments sometimes are hired as traffic
managers, a college education is in­
creasingly important in this field.
For some kinds of work, college
training is required. To argue cases
before the Interstate Commerce
Commission, for example, a traffic

manager must meet standards that
include at least 2 years of college.
Although some employers prefer
graduates who have a degree in
traffic management, others seek
liberal arts majors who have had
courses in transportation, manage­
ment, economics, statistics, market­
ing, or commercial law.
Industrial traffic training is
available through colleges and
universities, traffic management
schools, and seminars sponsored by
private organizations. More than
100 colleges, universities, and ju­
nior colleges offer a degree in traf­
fic management.
Industrial traffic managers should
be able to analyze numerical and
technical data such as freight rates
and classifications to solve trans­
portation problems. The job also
requires the ability to work inde­
pendently and to present facts and
figures in a convincing manner.

Newly hired traffic specialists
often complete shipping forms and
calculate freight charges. After
gaining experience, they do more
technical work such as analyzing
transportation statistics. A com­
petent worker may advance to a su­
pervisory job such as supervisor of
rates and routes; a few are
promoted to assistant general traf­
fic manager and eventually to
general traffic manager. Industrial
traffic managers can sometimes
help their chances for advancement
by participating in company-spon­
sored training programs or taking
advanced courses in traffic manage­

Employment Outlook
Industrial traffic management is a
relatively small occupation and is
expected to grow more slowly than
the average for all occupations
through the mid-1980’s. A few
openings will become available
each year as new jobs are created,
and as traffic managers die, retire,
or leave the field for other reasons.
College graduates with a major in
traffic management or transporta­
tion can expect first consideration
for the available jobs.
Growth in the occupation will
stem from an increasing emphasis
on reducing the cost of receiving
raw materials and distributing
finished products. As the distance
between markets becomes greater
and rate schedules and regulations
governing transportation more
complex, manufacturers increas­
ingly will require traffic specialists
with the expertise to obtain the
lowest possible freight rates.

Earnings and Working
Industrial traffic managers’ sala­
ries started at about $ 15,000 a year
in 1974, according to the limited in­
formation available. Although
earnings of experienced traffic
managers vary, in general they are
much higher than the average for

all nonsupervisory workers in
private industry, except farming.
Some traffic executives earned
$40,000 a year or more.
Although industrial traffic man­
agers usually have a standard
workweek, some of them have to
spend time outside regular working
hours preparing reports, attending
meetings, and traveling to hearings
before State and Federal regulatory

Sources of Additional
Information on education and
technical training is available from:
American Society of Traffic and Transporta­
tion, Inc., 547 West Jackson Blvd.,
Chicago, III. 60606.

(D.O.T. 110.108, .118, and

Nature of the Work
At some time in our life, each of
us may need a lawyer for advice
about our rights and responsibilities
w hen we buy p ro p e rty , make a will,
or settle an estate. In addition,
lawyers, also called attorneys,
negotiate the settlement of legal
problems out of court or, when
necessary, represent clients in court
or before government agencies.
Most lawyers are engaged in
general practice and handle all
kinds of legal work for clients.
However, a significant number spe­
cialize in one branch of law, such




patent, real estate, tax, or interna­
tional law. Some attorneys devote
themselves entirely to trying cases
in the courts. Others never appear
in court but instead draw up wills,
trusts, contracts, mortgages, and
other legal documents; conduct

out-of-court negotiations; and do
investigative and other legal work
to prepare for trials. Some may act
as trustees by managing a person’s
property and funds, or as executors
by seeing that the provisions of
their client’s will are carried out.
Still others teach, do research or
write, or perform administrative
work. Government attorneys help
develop Federal and State laws and
programs; they prepare drafts of
proposed legislation, establish law
enforcement procedures, and argue
Many people who have legal
training do not work as lawyers but
use their knowledge of law in other
occupations. They may, for exam­
ple, be insurance adjusters, tax col­
lectors, probation officers, credit
investigators, or claim examiners. A
legal background also is an asset to
those seeking or holding public of­

Places of Employment
Over 340,000 persons worked as
lawyers in 1974. Although the
majority were men, increasing num­
bers of women are choosing careers
in law. In 1974, for example, about
1 of every 5 students in American
Bar Association (ABA) approved
law schools was a woman.
Most lawyers are in private prac­
tice, either self-employed (alone or
in partnerships) or working for
other lawyers or law firms. In addi­
tion, about 22,000 lawyers worked
for the Federal Government,
chiefly in the Justice, Defense, and
Treasury Departments, and the
Veterans Administration; another
32,000 were employed by State and
local governments. Others worked
for private companies or taught in
law schools. Some salaried lawyers
also have independent practices;
others do legal work part time while
in another occupation.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
In order to practice law in the
courts of any State, a person must
be admitted to its bar. Applicants
for admission to the bar must pass a
written examination; however, a
few States drop this requirement for
graduates of their own law schools.
Lawyers who have been admitted Jo
the bar in one State usually can be
admitted in another without taking
an examination provided they meet
that State’s standards of good moral
character and have a specified
period of legal experience. Each
Federal court or agency sets its own
qualifications for those practicing
before it.
To qualify for the bar examina­
tion in most States, an applicant
must have completed 3 years of col­
lege and have graduated from a law
school approved by the American
Bar Association or the proper State
authorities. A few States accept the
study of law wholly in a law office
or in combination with study in a
law school; only California accepts
the study of law by correspondence
as qualification for taking the bar
exam. Several States require regis­
tration and approval of students by
the State Board of Examiners,
either before they enter law school,
or during the early years of legal
study. In a few States, candidates
must complete clerkships before
they are admitted to the bar.
The required college and law
school work usually takes 7 years of
full-time study after high school—4
years of college followed by 3 years
in law school. Although a number
of law schools accept students after
3 years of college, an increasing
number require applicants to have a
bachelor’s degree. To meet the
needs of students who can attend
only part time, a number of law
schools have night or part-time divi­
sions which usually require 4 years
of study. In 1974, about one-fifth of
all law students in ABA-approved
schools were enrolled in evening

Law schools seldom specify col­
lege subjects that must be included
in students’ prelegal education.
economics and other social
sciences, logic, and public speaking
are important for prospective
lawyers. Students interested in a
particular aspect of the law may
find it helpful to take related cours­
es; for example, engineering and
science courses for the prospective
patent attorney, and accounting for
the future tax lawyer. Acceptance
by most law schools depends on the
applicant’s ability to demonstrate
an aptitude for the study of law,
usually through the “ Law School
Admissions Test.” In 1974, 156 law
schools were approved by the
Others—chiefly night schools—
were approved by State authorities
The first year or year and a half
of law school generally are devoted
to fundamental courses such as
constitutional law, contracts, pro­
perty law, and judicial procedure.
In the third year, students may elect
specialized courses in fields such as
tax, labor, or corporation law. Prac­
tical experience is often acquired
by participation in school-spon­
sored legal aid activities, in the
school’s practice court where stu­
dents conduct trials under the su­
pervision of experienced lawyers,
and through writing on legal issues
for the school’s law journal. Gradu­
ates receive the degree of juris doc­
tor (J.D.) from most schools as the
first professional degree. Advanced
study is often desirable for those
planning to specialize, do research,
or teach in law schools.
The practice of law involves a
great deal of responsibility. Persons
planning careers in law should like
to work with people and ideas, and
be able to win the confidence of
their clients.
Most beginning lawyers start in
salaried positions, although some
go into independent practice im­
mediately after passing the bar ex­

amination. Newly hired salaried at­
torneys usually act as research
assistants (law clerks) to ex­
perienced lawyers or judges. After
several years of progressively
responsible salaried employment,
many lawyers go into practice for
themselves. Some lawyers, after
years of practice, become judges.

Employment Outlook
A rapid increase in the number of
law school graduates has created
keen competition for the available
jobs. In the years ahead, the
number of graduates is expected to
increase further and intensify this
Employers will be very selective
in hiring new lawyers. Graduates of
well-known law schools and those
who rank high in their classes
should find salaried positions with
law firms, on the legal staffs of cor­
porations and government agen­
cies, and as law clerks for judges.
Graduates of less prominent
schools and those with lower
scholastic ratings will experience
some difficulty in finding salaried
jobs. However, many will find op­
portunities in fields where legal
training is an asset but not normally
a requirement.
The employment of lawyers is ex­
pected to grow faster than the
average for other occupations
through the mid-1980’s as in­
creased business activity and popu­
lation create a demand for attor­
neys to deal with a growing number
of legal questions. Supreme Court
decisions extending the right to
counsel for persons accused of
lesser crimes, the growth of legal
action in the areas of consumer pro­
tection, the environment, and
safety, and an expected increase in
the use of legal services by middle
income groups through prepaid
legal service programs also should
provide employment opportunities.
Other jobs will be created by the
need to replace lawyers who retire

or leave the occupation for other
Prospects for establishing a new
practice probably will continue to
be best in small towns and expand­
ing suburban areas. In such commu­
nities competition is likely to be less
than in big cities and new lawyers
may find it easier to become known
to potential clients; also, rent and
other business costs are somewhat
lower. Salaried positions, on the
other hand, will be limited largely
to urban areas where the chief em­
ployers of legal talent—government
agencies, law firms, and big cor­
porations—are concentrated.

Earnings and Working
Lawyers entering practice in
1974 earned starting salaries rang­
ing from about $10,000 to $12,000
a year. Factors affecting the salaries
offered to new graduates include:
Their academic records; types,
sizes, and locations of their em­
ployers; and whether the new
lawyer has any specialized educa­
tional background that the em­
ployer requires. Lawyers with at
least a year’s experience working in
manufacturing and business firms
earned about $16,000 a year; those
with a few years of experience
earned over $20,000 annually. In
the Federal Government, annual
starting salaries for attorneys were
$12,841 or $15,481 in late 1974,
depending upon their academic and
personal qualifications. Those with
a few years of experience earned
$21,816 a year. On the average,
lawyers earn over three times as
much as nonsupervisory workers in
private industry, except farming.
Beginning lawyers engaged in
legal aid work usually receive the
lowest starting salaries. New
lawyers starting their own practices
may earn little more than expenses
during the first few years and may
need to work part time in other oc­
Lawyers on salary receive in­
creases as they assume greater

responsibility. In 1974, those in
charge of legal staffs in private in­
dustry averaged more than $37,200
a year. Incomes of lawyers in
private practice usually grow as
their practices develop. Private
practitioners who are partners in
law firms generally earn more than
those who practice alone.
Lawyers often work long hours
and are under considerable pres­
sure when a case is being tried. In
addition, they must keep abreast of
the latest laws and court decisions.
However, since lawyers in private
practice can determine their own
hours and workload, many stay in
practice well past the usual retire­
ment age.

sales forecasts and make recom­
mendations on product design and
Most marketing research starts
with the collection of facts from
sources such as company records,
published materials, and experts on
the subject under investigation. For
example, marketing research work­
ers making sales forecasts may
begin by studying the growth of
sales volume in several different
cities. This growth may then be
traced to increases in population,
size of the company’s sales force, or
amount of money spent on advertis­
ing. Other marketing research
workers may study changes in the
quantity of company goods on
store shelves or make door-to-door
Sources of Additional
surveys to obtain information on
company products.
Marketing research workers are
The specific requirements for ad­
often concerned with customers’
mission to the bar in a particular
State may be obtained at the State opinions and tastes. For example, to
capital from the clerk of the help decide on the design and price
Supreme Court or the secretary of of a new line of television sets, mar­
keting research workers may survey
the Board of Bar Examiners.
consumers to find out what styles
Information on law as a career is
and price ranges are most popular.
available from:
This type of survey usually is super­
Information Service, The American Bar As­
vised by marketing researchers who
sociation, 1155 East 60th St., Chicago,
specialize in consumer goods; that
III. 60637.
Information on financial aid and is, merchandise sold to the general
law school accreditation is available public. They may be helped by
statisticians who select a group (or
Association of American Law Schools, Suite sample) to be interviewed and
370, 1 Dupont Circle NW„ Washington, “ motivational research” specialists
D .C .20036.
who phrase questions to produce
reliable information. Once the in­
vestigation is underway, the mar­
keting research worker may super­
M ARKETING RESEARCH vise the interviewers as well as
direct the office workers who tabu­
late and analyze the information
(D.O.T. 050.088)
Marketing surveys on products
Nature of the Work
used by business and industrial
Businesses require a great deal of firms may be conducted somewhat
information to make sound deci­ differently from consumer goods
sions on how to market their surveys. Marketing researchers
products. Marketing research work­ often conduct the interviews them­
ers provide much of this informa­ selves to gather opinions of the
tion by analyzing data on products product. They also may speak to
and sales, making surveys, and con­ company officials about new uses
ducting interviews. They prepare for it. They must therefore have

specialized knowledge of both mar­
keting techniques and the industrial
uses of the product.

Places of Employment
About 25,000 full-time market­
ing research workers were em­
ployed in 1974. Most jobs for mar­
keting research workers are found
in manufacturing companies, ad­
vertising agencies, and independent
research organizations. Large num­
bers are employed by stores, radio
newspapers; others work for univer­
sity research centers and govern­
ment agencies. Marketing research
organizations range in size from
one-person enterprises to firms with
a hundred employees or more.
New York City has the largest
number of marketing research
workers. Many major advertising
agencies, independent marketing
organizations, and central offices of

marketing research are statistics,
psychology, and economics. Some
require skill in specialized areas,
such as engineering, or substantial
sales experience and a thorough
knowledge of the company’s
products. Knowledge of data
processing is helpful because of the
growing use of computers in sales
forecasting, distribution, and cost
Trainees usually start as research
assistants or junior analysts. At first,
they may do considerable clerical
work, such as copying data from
published sources, editing and cod­
ing questionnaires, and tabulating
survey returns. They also learn to
conduct interviews and write re­
ports on survey findings. As they
gain experience, assistants and jun­
ior analysts may assume responsi­
bility for specific marketing
research projects, or advance to su­
pervisory positions. An excep­
tionally able worker may become
marketing research director or vice
president for marketing and sales.
Either alone or as part of a team,
large manufacturers are located
marketing research workers must
there. The second largest concen­
tration is in Chicago. However, be resourceful as they analyze
problems and
marketing research workers are techniques to their apply various
solution. As ad­
employed in many other cities as visers to management, they should
well_wherever there are central be able to write clear reports in­
offices of large manufacturing and forming company officials of their
sales organizations.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Employment Outlook

Although a bachelor’s degree is
required for marketing research
trainees, graduate training is neces­
sary for many specialized positions
and for advancement to higher level
positions. Many graduates qualify
for jobs through previous ex­
perience in other types of research,
while employers may hire university
teachers of marketing or statistics
to head new marketing research de­
College courses considered to be
valuable preparation for work in

Opportunities should be best for
applicants with graduate training in
marketing research or statistics.
The growing complexity of market­
ing research techniques also will ex­
pand opportunities in this field for
psychologists, economists, and
other social scientists.
Marketing research employment
rises as new products and services
are developed requiring informa­
tion to identify potential buyers.
The demand for new products and
services will grow most quickly

when business activity and personal
incomes are rapidly expanding. In
periods of slow economic growth,
however, the demand for marketing
services may be reduced and limit
the hiring of research workers.
Over the long run, our growing
population arid the increased
variety of goods and services that
businesses and individuals will
require is expected to stimulate a
high level of marketing activity. As
a result, employment of marketing
research workers is expected to
grow much faster than the average
for other occupations through the
The competition among manu­
facturers of both consumer and in­
dustrial products will make it in­
creasingly important to appraise
marketing situations. As techniques
improve and more statistical data
accumulate, company officials are
likely to turn more often to market­
ing research workers for informa­
tion and advice.

Earnings and Working
Starting salaries for marketing
research trainees were about
$10,000 a year in 1974, according
to the limited information available.
Persons with master’s degrees in
business administration and related
fields usually started with somewhat
higher salaries.
Experienced workers such as
senior analysts received salaries
over $16,000 a year. Earnings were
highest, however, for workers in
management positions of great
responsibility. Vice presidents of
marketing research earned well
over $25,000 a year in 1974.
Marketing research workers
usually work in modern, centrally
located offices. Some, especially
those employed by independent
research firms, do a considerable
amount of traveling in connection
with their work. Also, they may
frequently work under pressure and
for long hours to meet deadlines.

Sources of Additional
careers in marketing research is
available from:
American Marketing Association, 222 South
Riverside Plaza, Chicago, III. 60606.

(D.O.T. 166.088 through .268;

Nature of the Work
Attracting the best employees
available and matching them to the
jobs they can do best is important
for the success of any organization.
Today, most businesses are much
too large for close contact between
owners and their employees. In­
stead, personnel and labor relations
workers provide the link between
management and employees—
assisting management to make ef­
fective use of employees’ skills, and
helping employees to find satisfac­
tion in their jobs and working con­
ditions. Although some jobs require
only limited contact with people
outside the office, most jobs in this
field involve frequent contact with
other people. Dealing with people is
an essential part of the job.
Personnel workers and labor
relations workers concentrate on
different aspects of employer-em­
ployee relations. Personnel workers
interview, select, and recommend
applicants to fill job openings. They
handle wage and salary administra­
tion, training and career develop­
ment, and employee benefits.
“ Labor relations” usually means
union-management relations, and
people who specialize in this field
work for the most part in unionized
establishments. They help company
officials prepare for collective bar­
gaining sessions, participate in con­

tract negotiations with the union,
and handle labor relations matters
that come up everyday.
In a small company, personnel
work consists mostly of interview­
ing and hiring, and one person
usually can handle it all. By con­
trast, a large organization needs an
entire staff, which might include
recruiters, interviewers, counselors,
job analysts, wage and salary
analysts, education and training
specialists, and labor relations spe­
cialists, as well as technical and
clerical workers.
Personnel work often begins with
the personnel recruiter or employ­
ment interviewer (D.O.T. 166.268),
who works on a person-to-person
basis with present and prospective
around the country, often to college
campuses, in the search for promis­
ing job applicants. Interviewers talk
to applicants, and select and recom­
mend those who appear qualified to
fill vacancies. They often ad­
minister tests to applicants and in­
terpret the results. Hiring and
placement specialists need to be
thoroughly familiar with the or­
ganization and its personnel poli­
cies, for they must be prepared to
discuss wages, working conditions,
and promotional opportunities with
prospective and newly hired em­
ployees. They also need to keep in­
formed about equal employment
opportunity and affirmative action
guidelines. Equal employment op­
portunity is a complex and sensitive
area of personnel work which in
some large organizations is handled
by special EEO counselors or coor­
dinators. The work of Employment
Counselors, which is similar in a
number of ways, is described in a
separate statement elsewhere in the
Job analysts (D.O.T. 166.068)
and salary and wage administrators
(D.O.T. 169.118) do very exacting
work. Job analysts collect and
analyze detailed information on
jobs, job qualifications, and worker
characteristics in order to prepare

job descriptions, sometimes called
position classifications. Job descrip­
tions tell applicants, interviewers,
supervisors, and others basically
what the duties of a job are and
what training and skills it requires.
Whenever a government agency or
large business firm introduces a
new job or evaluates existing ones,
it calls upon the expert knowledge
of the job analyst. Accurate infor­
mation about job duties also is
required when a firm evaluates its
pay system and considers changes
in wages and salaries. Establishing
and maintaining pay systems is the
principal job of wage administra­
tors. They devise ways of making
sure that pay rates within the firm
are fair and equitable, and conduct
surveys to see how their pay rates
compare with those elsewhere.
Being sure that the firm’s pay
system complies with laws and
regulations is another part of the
job, one which requires knowledge
of compensation structures and
labor law.
Training specialists supervise or
conduct training sessions, prepare
manuals and other materials for
these courses, and look into new
methods of training. They also
counsel employees on training op­
portunities, which may include onthe-job, apprentice, supervisory, or
management training.
Employee-benefits supervisors
and other personnel specialists han­
dle the employer’s benefits pro­
gram, which often includes health
insurance, life insurance, disability,
and pension plans. These workers
also coordinate a wide range of em­
ployee services, including cafeterias
and snack bars, health rooms,
recreational facilities, newsletters
and communications, and counsel­
ing for work-related personal
problems. Counseling employees
who are approaching retirement
age is a particularly important job
of these workers.
Occupational safety and health
programs are handled in various
ways. Quite often, in small compa­

nies especially, accident prevention
and industrial safety are the respon­
sibility of the personnel depart­
ment—or of the labor relations spe­
cialist, if the union has a safety
representative. Increasingly, how­
ever, there is a separate safety de­
partment under the direction of a
safety and health professional,
generally a safety engineer or indus­
trial hygienist. (The work of Occu­
pational Safety and Health Workers
is discussed elsewhere in the Hand­
(D.O.T. 169.118) advise manage­
ment on all aspects of unionmanagement relations. When the
contract is up for negotiation, they
provide background information
and technical support, a job that
requires extensive knowledge of
| economics, labor law, and collec­

tive bargaining trends. Actual
negotiation of the agreement is con­
ducted at the top level, with the
director of labor relations or other
top-ranking official serving as the
employer’s representative, but
members of the company’s labor
relations staff play an important
role throughout the negotiations.
Much of the everyday work of
the labor relations staff concerns in­
terpretation and administration of
procedures in particular. Members
of the labor relations staff would
work with the union on seniority
rights under the layoff procedure
set forth in the contract, for exam­
ple. Later in the day, they might
meet with the union steward about
a worker’s grievance. Doing the job
well means staying abreast of cur­
rent developments in labor law, in-

Job analyst reviews new job descriptions with a company official.

eluding arbitration decisions, and
maintaining continuing liaison with
union officials.
Personnel workers in government
agencies generally do the same kind
of work as those in large business
firms. There are some differences,
however. Public personnel workers
deal with employees whose jobs are
governed by civil service regula­
tions. Civil service jobs are strictly
classified as to duties, training, and
pay. This requires a great deal of
emphasis on job analysis and wage
and salary classification; many peo­
ple in public personnel work spend
their time classifying and evaluating
jobs, or devising, administering, and
scoring competitive examinations
given to job applicants.
Knowledge of rules and regula­
tions pertaining to affirmative ac­
tion and equal opportunity pro­
grams is important in public person­
nel work. In 1972, the U.S. Civil
Service Commission established a
specialization for Federal personnel
workers concerned with promoting
equal opportunity in hiring, train­
ing, and advancement. Similar at­
tention to equal employment op­
portunity, accompanied by a need
for qualified staff, is evident in State
and local government agencies.
Labor relations is an increasingly
important specialty in public per­
sonnel administration. Labor rela­
tions in this field have changed con­
siderably in recent years, as union
strength among government wor­
kers has grown. This has created a
need for more and better trained
workers to handle negotiations,
grievances, and arbitration cases on
behalf of Federal, State, and local
government agencies.

Places of Employment
In 1974, over 320,000 people
were personnel and labor relations
workers. Three out of four worked
in private industry, for manufac­
turers, banks, insurance companies,
railroads, department

stores, and other business concerns.
Some worked for private employ­
ment agencies, including executive
job-search agencies, “office tem­
poraries” agencies, and others.
A large number of personnel and
labor relations workers, over
80,000 in 1974, worked for Federal,
State, and local government agen­
cies. Most of these were in person­
nel administration, and handled
recruitment, interviewing, testing,
job classification, training, and
other personnel matters for the Na­
tion’s 14.5 million public em­
ployees. Some were on the staff of
the U.S. Employment Service and
State employment agencies. Still
others worked for agencies which
oversee compliance with labor
laws. Some, for example, were
wage-hour compliance officers;
their work is described in another
part of the Handbook, in the state­
ment on Health and Regulatory In­
spectors (Government). Other
public employees in this field car­
ried out research in economics,
labor law, personnel practices, and
related subjects, and sought new
ways of ensuring that workers’
rights under the law are understood
and protected.
In comparison with private indus­
try, labor unions do not employ a
large number of professionally
trained labor relations workers. An
elected union official generally han­
dles labor relations matters at the
company level. At national and in­
ternational union headquarters,
however, the research and educa­
tion staff usually includes specialists
with degrees in industrial and labor
relations, economics, or law.
A few personnel and labor rela­
tions workers are in business for
themselves as management con­
sultants or labor-management rela­
tions experts. In addition, some
people in the field teach college or
university courses in personnel ad­
ministration, industrial relations,
and related subjects.
Most jobs for personnel and labor
relations workers are located in the

highly industrialized sections of the

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Many employers seek to fill
beginning positions in personnel
and labor relations with college
graduates who have the potential to
move into management jobs. Some
employers look for graduates who
have majored in personnel adminis­
tration or industrial and labor rela­
tions, while others prefer college
graduates with a general business
background. Still other employers
feel that a well-rounded liberal arts
education is the best preparation
for personnel work. A college
major in personnel administration,
political science, or public adminis­
tration can be an asset in looking
for a job with a government agency.
At least 200 colleges and univer­
sities have programs leading to a
degree in the field of personnel and
labor relations. (While personnel
administration is widely taught, the
number of programs which focus
primarily on labor relations is quite
small.) In addition, many schools
offer course work in closely related
background is appropriate for work
in this area, and a combination of
courses in the social sciences,
behavioral sciences, business, and
economics is useful.
Prospective personnel workers
might include courses in personnel
management, business administra­
psychology, sociology, political
science, economics, and statistics.
Courses in labor law, collective bar­
gaining, labor economics, labor his­
tory, and industrial psychology pro­
vide valuable backgound for the
prospective labor relations worker.
Graduate study in industrial rela­
tions, economics, business, or law
provides sound preparation for
work in labor relations. While the
law degree seldom is required for
jobs at the entry level, most of the

people with responsibility for con­
tract negotiations are lawyers, and
the industrial relations plus law
degree combination is becoming
highly desirable.
A college education is important,
but it is not the only way to enter
personnel work. Some people enter
the field at the clerical level, and
advance to professional positions
on the basis of experience. They
often find it helpful to take college
courses part time, however.
New personnel workers usually
enter formal or on-the-job training
programs to learn how to classify
jobs, interview applicants, or ad­
minister employee benefits. After
the training period, new workers
are assigned to specific areas in the
company’s employee relations de­
partment. After gaining experience,
they usually can advance within
their own company or transfer to
another employer. At this point,
some people move from personnel
to labor relations work.
Some people enter the labor rela­
tions field directly, as trainees.
They are usually graduates of
master’s degree programs in indus­
trial relations, or may have a law
degree. Quite a few people, how­
ever, begin in personnel work, gain
experience in that area, and sub­
sequently move into a labor rela­
tions job.
Workers in the middle ranks of a
large organization often transfer to
a top job in a smaller one. Em­
ployees with exceptional ability
may be promoted to executive posi­
tions, such as director of personnel
or director of labor relations.
Personnel and labor relations
workers should speak and write ef­
fectively and be able to work with
people of all levels of education and
experience. They also must be able
to see both the employee’s and the
employer’s points of view. In addi­
tion, they should be able to work as
part of a team. They need super­
visory abilities and must be able to
accept responsibility. Integrity and
fairmindedness are important quali­

ties for people in personnel and
labor relations work. A persuasive,
congenial personality can be a great

Employment Outlook
The number of personnel and
labor relations workers is expected
to grow faster than the average
for all occupations through 1985, as
employers, increasingly aware of
the benefits to be derived from
good labor-management relations,
continue to support sound, capably
staffed employee relations pro­
grams. In addition to new jobs
created by growth of the occupa­
tion, many openings will become
available each year because of the
need to replace workers who die,
retire, or leave their jobs for other
Recent legislation setting stand­
ards for employment practices in
the areas of occupational safety and
health, equal employment opportu­
nity, and pensions has stimulated
demand for personnel and labor
growth is foreseen, as employers
throughout the country review ex­
isting programs in each of these
areas and, in many cases, establish
entirely new ones. This has created
job opportunities for people with
appropriate expertise. The effort to
end discriminatory employment
practices, for example, has led to
scrutiny of the testing, selection,
procedures in many companies and
government agencies. The findings
are causing a number of employers
to modify these procedures, and to
take steps to raise the level of
professionalism in their personnel
Substantial employment growth
is foreseen in the area of public per­
sonnel administration. Opportuni­
ties probably will be best in State
and local government, areas which
are expected to experience strong
employment growth over the next
decade. By contrast, Federal em­

Moreover, as union strength among
public employees continues to
grow, State and local agencies will
need many more workers qualified
to deal with labor relations. Enact­
ment of collective bargaining
legislation for State and local
greatly stimulate demand for labor
relations workers knowlegeable
about public sector negotiations.
Although the number of jobs in
both personnel and labor relations
is projected to increase over the
next decade, competition for these
jobs also is increasing. Particularly
keen competition is anticipated for
jobs in labor relations. A small field,
labor relations traditionally has
been difficult to break into, and op­
portunities are best for applicants
with a master’s degree or a strong
undergraduate major in industrial
relations, economics, or business. A
law degree is an asset.

Earnings and Working
Beginning job analysts in private
industry started at $9,800 a year in
1974, according to a Bureau of
Labor Statistics survey. Ex­
perienced job analysts earned
$17,300 a year, about twice the
average for all nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
farming. Directors of personnel
earned between $15,600 and
$27,300 a year; top labor relations
executives in large corporations
earned considerably more.
Beginning job analysts employed
by State governments had starting
salaries ranging from $8,000 to
$10,000 in 1974, according to a
survey of public service pay con­
ducted by the International Person­
nel Management Association. In
the Federal Government, new grad­
uates with a bachelor’s degree
generally started at $8,500 a year in
late 1974. Those with a master’s
degree started at about $10,500 a
year, or in some cases, at $12,800 a
Average salaries of Federal em­

ployees in several different areas of
personnel work ranged from about
$19,000 to $22,500 in late 1974, as


Staffing specialists........................... $19,100
Position classifiers........................... 20,300
Personnel management
specialists...................................... 21,500
Employee development
specialists...................................... 21,500
Salary and wage administrators... 22,500

Nature of the Work

Federal employees in the field of
labor relations had generally com­
parable salaries. Labor-manage­
ment and employee relations spe­
cialists and labor-management rela­
tions officers averaged $21,500 a
year in late 1974. Federal media­
tors’ salaries were higher: about
$30,000 a year, on the average.
Employees in personnel offices
generally work 35 to 40 hours a
week. As a rule, they are paid for
holidays and vacations, and share in
retirement plans, life and health in­
surance plans, and other benefits
available to all professional workers
in their organizations.

(D.O.T. 165.068)

How successfully an organization
presents itself may affect its public
acceptance and influence. Public
relations workers help organiza­
tions build and maintain positive
public images. Public relations is
more than telling the employer’s
“ story,” however. Understanding
the attitudes and concerns of
customers, employees, and various
other “publics”—and communicat­
ing this information to manage­
ment—is an important part of the
Public relations departments are
found in many different organiza­

tions, and workers must tailor their
programs to an employer’s particu­
lar needs. A public relations
director for a college or university,
for example, may devote most of his
or her energies to attracting addi­
tional students, while one in a large
corporation may handle the em­
ployer’s relations with stockhold­
ers, government agencies, and
community groups.
Public relations workers put
together information that keeps the
public aware of their employer’s ac­
tivities and accomplishments. After
preparing the information, they
contact people in the media who
might be interested in publicizing
their material. Many television
commercials or special reports,
newspaper items, and magazine ar­
ticles start at public relations work­
ers’ desks. Sometimes the subject

Sources of Additional
For general information on
careers in personnel and labor rela­
tions work, write to:
American Society for Personnel Administra­
tion, 19 Church St., Berea, Ohio 44017.

Information about careers in
public personnel administration is
available from:
International Personnel Management As­
sociation, 1313 E. 60th St., Chicago, III.

A brochure describing a career in
labor-management relations as a
field examiner is available from:
Director of Personnel, National Labor Rela­
tions Board, 1717 Pennsylvania Ave.
NW„ Washington, D C., 20570.

Public relations worker reviews copy for new stockholders report with company

is a company and its policies
towards its employees or its role in
the community. Often the subject is
a public issue, such as health, nutri­
tion, energy, or the environment.
Public relations workers also ar­
range and conduct programs in
which company representatives will
have direct contact with the public.
Such work includes setting up
speaking engagements for company
officials and writing speeches for
them. These workers often serve as
an employer’s representative during
community projects and occa­
sionally show films at school assem­
blies, plan conventions, or manage
fund-raising campaigns.
Public relations staffs in very
large firms may number 200 or
more, but in most firms the staff is
much smaller. The director of
public relations may develop
overall plans and policies with a top
management executive having the
authority to make final decisions. In
addition, large public relations de­
partments employ writers, research
workers, and other specialists who
prepare material for the different
media or write reports sent to
Workers who handle publicity for
an individual or direct public rela­
tions for a university or small busi­
ness may handle all aspects of the
job. They make contacts with peo­
ple outside the organization, do the
necessary planning and research,
and prepare material for publica­
tion. These workers may combine
public relations duties with adver­
tising or sales promotion work;
some are top-level officials and
others have lower level positions.
The most skilled public relations
work of making overall plans and
maintaining contacts usually is
done by the department director
and highly experienced staff mem­

Places of Employment
More than 100,000 persons—
about 30 percent of them women—
were public relations workers in

1974. Manufacturing firms, public
utilities and transportation compa­
nies, insurance companies, and
trade and professional associations
employ the majority of public rela­
tions workers. However, a sizeable
number work for government agen­
cies, or for schools, colleges, muse­
ums, and many other kinds of edu­
cational, religious, and welfare or­
ganizations. The rapidly expanding
health field also offers opportuni­
ties for public relations work, in
hospitals, pharmaceutical compa­
nies, and medical associations, for
example. A number of public rela­
tions workers are employed by con­
sulting firms, which furnish public
relations services to clients for a
Public relations workers are con­
centrated in large cities where press
services and other communications
facilities are readily available, and
where many businesses and trade
associations have their headquar­
ters. More than half of the esti­
mated 1,700 public relations con­
sulting firms in the United States
are in New York, Los Angeles,
Chicago, and Washington, D.C.

administration, psychology, and
public speaking help in preparing
for a public relations career. Ex­
tracurricular activities such as writ­
ing for a school publication provide
valuable experience. Part-time or
summer jobs in public relations pro­
vide training that can help in com­
peting for entry positions.
Creativity, initiative, and the
ability to express thoughts clearly
and simply are important to the
public relations worker. Fresh ideas
are so vital in public relations that
some experts spend all their time
developing new ideas, leaving the
job of carrying out programs to
People who choose public rela­
tions work as a career need an out­
going personality, self-confidence,
and an understanding of human
psychology. They should have the
enthusiasm necessary to motivate
people. Public relations workers
need a highly developed sense of
competitiveness and the ability to
function as part of a team.
Some companies—particularly
those with large public relations
staffs—have formal training pro­
grams for new workers. In other
firms, new employees learn by
Training, Other Qualifications,
working under the guidance of ex­
and Advancement
perienced staff members. Beginners
A college education combined often maintain files of material
with journalism experience is an ex­ about company activities, scan
cellent preparation for public rela­ newspapers and magazines for ap­
tions work. Although most begin­ propriate articles to clip, and as­
ners have a college degree in jour­ semble information for speeches
nalism, English, or public relations, and pamphlets. After gaining ex­
a perience, they work on more dif­
background in a field related to the ficult assignments, such as writing
firm’s business—science or en­ press releases, speeches, and arti­
gineering, for example. Some firms cles for publication.
Promotion to supervisory jobs
want college graduates with at least
may come as workers show they
1 year’s experience working for the
can handle more demanding and
news media.
In 1974, over 80 colleges and creative assignments. Some ex­
more than 30 graduate schools of­ perienced public relations workers
fered degree programs or special start their own consulting firms.
curriculums in public relations. In
addition, nearly 200 colleges of­
Employment Outlook
fered at least one course in this
Employment of public relations
Courses in journalism, business workers is expected to increase

about as fast as the average for all
occupations through the mid1980’s. In addition to new jobs
created by this growth, openings
will occur every year because of the
need to replace workers who leave
the field.
Demand for public relations wor­
kers may be affected by economic
conditions, slackening as employers
delay expansion or impose staff cuts
during business slowdowns. Over
the long run, however, public rela­
tions spending is expected to in­
crease substantially. Corporations,
associations, and other large or­
ganizations are likely to expand
their public relations efforts to gain
public support and approval.
Competition for beginning jobs is
keen, for public relations work has
an aura of glamour and excitement
which attracts large numbers of job­
seekers. Prospects for a career in
public relations are best for enthu­
siastic people with sound academic
preparation and some media ex­

Earnings and Working
Starting salaries for college grad­
uates beginning in public relations
work ranged from $7,500 to $9,000
a year in 1974, according to the
limited data available.
The salaries of experienced work­
ers generally are highest in large
organizations with extensive public
relations programs. Directors of
public relations for medium-sized
firms earned $15,000 to $30,000 a
year; those at large companies had
salaries in the $20,000 to $50,000
range. Salaries for some officials,
such as vice-presidents in charge of
public relations, can range from
$25,000 to $75,000 a year or more.
The median salary for directors
of public relations was about
$23,000 in 1974. Public relations
consulting firms often pay higher
salaries than organizations with
their own public relations depart­
ments. In social welfare agencies,

nonprofit organizations, hospitals,
and universities, salaries generally
are lower.
Although the workweek for
public relations staffs usually is 35
to 40 hours, overtime may be
necessary to prepare ' or deliver
speeches, attend meetings and com­
munity activities, or travel out of
town. Occasionally, the nature of
their regular assignments or special
events requires public relations
workers to be on call around the

Sources of Additional
For career information and a list
of schools offering degrees and
courses in the field, write:
Career Information, Public Relations Society
of America, Inc., 845 Third Ave., New
York, N.Y. 10022.

Salary data and other statistics
are available from:
PR Reporter, Meriden, N.H. 03770.

(D.O.T. 162.158, 180.118,
191.118, and 252.358)

Nature of the Work
If materials, supplies, or equip­
ment are not on hand when needed,
an organization’s work may be in­
terrupted or halted. Maintaining an
adequate supply of items a firm
needs to operate is the purchasing
agent’s job.
Purchasing agents, also called in­
dustrial buyers, and their assistants
obtain goods and services of the
required quality at the lowest possi­
ble cost, and see that adequate sup­
plies are kept on hand. Agents who
work for manufacturing firms buy
machinery, raw materials, and
product components; those work­
ing for government agencies may
purchase office supplies, furniture,
and business machines. In fo rm a ­
tion on retail buyers, who purchase

merchandise for resale in its
original form, is presented in the
statement on Buyers elsewhere in
the Handbook.
Purchasing agents buy when
stocks on hand reach a predeter­
mined reorder point, or when a de­
partment in the organization
requisitions items it needs. Because
agents often can purchase from
many sources, their main job is
selecting the seller who offers the
best value.
Purchasing agents use a variety of
means to select among suppliers.
They compare listings in catalogs
and trade journals and telephone
suppliers to get information. They
also meet with salespersons to ex­
amine samples, watch demonstra­
tions of equipment, and discuss
items to be purchased. Sometimes
agents invite suppliers to bid on
large orders; then they select the
lowest bidder among those who
meet requirements for quality of
goods and delivery date.
In some cases, however, purchas­
ing agents must deal directly with a
manufacturer to obtain specially
designed items made exclusively for
their company. These agents must
have a high degree of technical ex­
pertise to insure that all product
specifications are met.
It is important that purchasing
agents develop good business rela­
tions with their suppliers. This can
result in savings on purchases,
favorable terms of payment, and
quick delivery on rush orders or
materials in short supply. They also
work closely with personnel in vari­
ous departments of their own or­
ganization. For example, they may
discuss product design with com­
pany engineers or shipment
problems with workers in the
shipping and receiving or traffic de­
Once an order has been placed
with a supplier, the purchasing
agent makes periodic checks to in­
sure that it will be delivered on
time. This is necessary to prevent
work flow interruptions due to lack

business firms and government
agencies, however, have much
larger purchasing departments;
some employ as many as 100 spe­
cialized buyers or more.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

of materials. After an order has
been received and inspected, the
purchasing agent authorizes pay­
ment to the shipper.
Because of its importance,
purchasing usually is designated as
a separate responsibility within a
firm. In a large firm, the purchasing
manager directs the work of a staff
which includes purchasing agents,
purchasing assistants, and clerical
workers. In such a firm, purchasing
agents usually are responsible for
buying one or more specific items—
for example, steel, lumber, cotton,
or petroleum products. In smaller
firms, agents generally are assigned
certain categories of goods, such as
all raw materials or all office sup­
plies, furniture, and business

Places of Employment
Nearly 190,000 persons—18 per­
cent of them women—worked as
purchasing agents in 1974. Over
half worked in manufacturing in­
dustries. Large numbers also were
employed by government agencies,
construction companies, hospitals,
and schools. Since the early 1960’s,
employment of women purchasing
agents has increased much faster
than that of men. Particularly im­
pressive employment gains have
been made by women with college
degrees, and every indication points
toward continuing job opportuni­
ties for women.
About half of all purchasing
agents work in organizations that
have fewer than five employees in
the purchasing department. Many

Most large employers seek col­
lege graduates for entry positions as
assistant purchasing agents. A
growing number of large companies
look for applicants who have done
graduate work in purchasing
management or related fields.
Although companies that manufac­
ture complex machinery or chemi­
cals may prefer a background in en­
gineering or science, other compa­
nies hire business administration or
liberal arts majors for trainee jobs.
Courses in accounting, economics,
and purchasing are helpful.
Familiarity with the computer and
its uses also is desirable. Some small
firms prefer experience with the
company, and select purchasing
workers from among their own per­
sonnel, whether or not they have a
college education. For advance­
ment to management positions,
lowever, a college degree is
becoming increasingly important.
Regardless of previous training,
beginning purchasing assistants
must spend considerable time
learning about their company’s
procedures. They may be assigned
to the storekeeper’s section to learn
about purchasing forms, inventory
records, and storage facilities. Next
they may work with experienced
buyers to learn about types of goods
purchased, prices, and suppliers.
Following the initial training
period, assistant purchasing agents
are given responsibility for purchas­
ing standard catalog items. As they
gain experience and demonstrate
good judgment in performing vari­
ous purchasing tasks, they may be
promoted to purchasing agent.
Purchasing agents with proven
ability can move into a job as
manager of a purchasing depart­

ment; some advance to executive sistant purchasing agents in large
positions as corporate director of firms earned about $8,500 a year in
purchasing and material manage­ 1974, according to the limited data
Experienced agents purchasing
The purchasing agent must be
able to analyze numbers and techni­ standard items averaged about
cal data in order to make buying $10,000 a year; buyers purchasing
decisions and take responsibility for complex or technical goods
spending large amounts of company averaged between $12,100 and
money. The job requires the ability $14,700. Those responsible for the
to work independently and a good purchase of highly complex and
memory for details. In addition, a specialized items earned about
purchasing agent must be tactful in $17,400 in 1974. Managers of
dealing with salespersons and able purchasing departments earned
substantially more and many top
to motivate others.
purchasing executives earned over
$50,000 a year. Salaries generally
Employment Outlook
are lower in small companies. In
purchasing 1974, earnings of purchasing agents
agents is expected to increase much were about one and one-half times
faster than the average for all occu­ as much as the average for all nonpations through the mid-1980’s. supervisory workers in private in­
Several thousand jobs will be open dustry, except farming.
every year due to growth of the oc­
In the Federal Government,
cupation and the need to replace beginning purchasing agents who
those who die, retire, or transfer to had college degrees earned $8,500
other work.
or $10,500 in late 1974, depending
Growth in demand for industrial on scholastic achievement and rele­
machinery, including engines and vant-work experience. The average
computer salary for all purchasing agents in
equipment, and communications the Federal Service was $18,600.
equipment, will increase employ­ Salary levels vary widely among
ment opportunities. For example, State
purchasing agents will be needed to average earnings range from $9,000
develop reliable new sources of to $ 11,700 for purchasers of stand­
supply for materials which are in ard items, $11,900 to $15,600 for
short supply. In addition, the grow­ senior buyers purchasing highly
ing specialization of manufacturing complex items, and $18,000 to
processes will spur demand for $21,900 for State purchasing
purchasing agents with a technical directors.
background and those who have
completed graduate level courses in
Sources of Additional
purchasing management.
Many opportunities also should
Further information about a
occur in firms providing personal,
business, and professional services. career in purchasing is available
Strong growth is expected for this from:
sector of the economy, and a grow­
ing number of employers are recog­ National Association of Purchasing Manage­
ment, 11 Park Place, New York, N.Y.
nizing the importance of profes­
sional purchasers in relatively small
National Institute of Governmental Purchas­
ing, 1001 Connecticut Ave. NW.,

Earnings and Working
College graduates hired as as­

Washirgton, D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 199.168)

Nature of the Work
Urban planners, often called
community or regional planners,
develop programs to provide for fu­
ture growth and revitalization of
urban, suburban and rural commu­
nities. They help local officials
make decisions to solve social,
Planners examine community
facilities such as health clinics and
schools to be sure these facilities
can meet the demands placed upon
them. They also keep abreast of the
legal issues involved in community
development or redevelopment and
any changes in housing and building
codes. Because suburban growth
has increased the need for better
ways of traveling to the urban
center, the planner’s job often in­
cludes designing new transportation
and parking facilities.
Urban planners prepare for situa­
tions or needs that are likely to
develop as a result of population
growth or social and economic
change. They estimate, for exam­
ple, the community’s long-range
needs for housing, transportation,
and business and industrial sites.
Working within a framework set by
the community government, they
analyze and propose alternative
ways to achieve more efficient and
attractive urban areas.
Before preparing plans for longrange community development,
urban planners prepare detailed
studies that show the current use of
land for residential, business, and
community purposes. These reports
present information such as the ar­
rangement of streets, highways, and
water and sewer lines, and the loca­
tion of schools, libraries, and
playgrounds. They also provide in­
formation on the types of industries
in the community, characteristics of
the population, and employment
and economic trends. With this in-

formation, urban planners propose
ways of using undeveloped land and
design the layout of recommended
buildings and other facilities such as
subways. They also prepare materi­
als that show how their programs
can be carried out and the approxi­
mate costs.
Urban planners often confer with
private land developers, civic
leaders, and officials of public agen­
cies that do specialized planning.
They may prepare materials for
community relations programs,
speak at civic meetings, and appear
before legislative committees to ex­
plain and defend their proposals.
In small organizations, urban
planners must be able to do several
kinds of work. In large organiza­
tions, planners usually specialize in
areas such as physical design, com­
munity relations, or the reconstruc­
tion of run-down business districts.

Places of Employment
About 13,000 persons—about 10
percent of them women—were
urban planners in 1974. Most work
for city, county, or regional
planning agencies. A growing
number are employed by States or
by the Federal Government in
agencies dealing with housing,
transportation, or environmental
Many planners do consulting
work, either part time in addition to
a regular job, or full time working
for a firm that provides services to
private developers or government
agencies. Urban planners also work
for large land developers or
research organizations and teach in
colleges and universities.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Employers often seek workers

who have advanced training in
urban planning. Two years of grad­
uate study in city planning, or the
equivalent in work experience, are
required for most entry jobs in
Federal, State, and local govern­
ment agencies. Although the
master’s degree in planning is the
usual requirement at the entry
level, some people who have a
bachelor’s degree in city planning,
architecture, landscape architec­
ture, or engineering may qualify for
beginning positions.
In 1974, over 60 colleges and
universities gave a master’s degree
in urban planning. Although stu­
dents holding a bachelor’s degree in
architecture or engineering may
earn a master’s degree after 1 year,
most graduate programs in urban
planning require 2 or 3 years to
complete. Graduate students spend
considerable time in workshops or
laboratory courses learning to
analyze and solve urban planning
problems. Students often are
required to work in a planning of­
fice part time or during the summer
while they are earning the graduate
Candidates for jobs in Federal,
State, and local government agen­
cies usually must pass civil service
examinations to become eligible for
Planners must be able to think in
terms of spatial relationships and to
visualize the effects of their plans
and designs. They should be flexible
in their approaches to problems and
be able to cooperate with others
and reconcile different viewpoints
to achieve constructive policy
After a few years’ experience,
urban planners may advance to as­
signments requiring a high degree
of independent judgment, such as
outlining proposed studies, design­
ing the physical layout of a large
development, or recommending
policy, program, and budget op­
tions. Some are promoted to jobs as
planning directors, and spend a
great deal of time meeting with offi-

cials in other organizations, speak­
ing to civic groups, and supervising
other professionals. Further ad­
vancement is more difficult at this
level and often occurs through a
transfer to a large city, where the
problems are more complex and the
responsibilities greater.

Employment Outlook
Employment of urban planners is
expected to grow faster than the
average for other occupations
through the mid-1980’s. In addition
to opportunities created by future
growth of this relatively small occu­
pation, some jobs will open up
because of the need to replace plan­
ners who leave their jobs.
The number of persons enrolled
in graduate planning programs has
risen rapidly in recent years. If this
trend continues, the number of ap­
plicants may begin to outstrip
available openings, leading to in­
creased competition for jobs in this
field. However, well qualified appli­
cants should continue to find good
employment prospects.
Future growth of the occupation
will depend on the availability of
money for the development of new

communities and the restoration of
older urban areas. Funding for
these projects can be affected by
shortages of mortgage money and
higher costs for land, building
materials, and necessary communi­
ty services such as education and
police and fire protection. Further,
government programs to aid the
planning are subject to frequent
review. Future levels of Federal
spending will greatly influence the
growth of urban planning projects.
Over the longrun, however, the
Nation’s need for good quality
housing, transportation systems,
health care, and other social ser­
vices is expected to spur the de­
mand for additional urban planners.

Earnings and Working
Starting salaries for urban plan­
ners were about $ 11,000 a year in
1974. Planners with a master’s
degree were hired by the Federal
Government at $12,841 a year in
late 1974. In some cases, persons
having less than 2 years of graduate
work could enter Federal service as
interns at yearly salaries of either
$8,500 or $10,520.

The salaries of directors of
planning depend largely on the size
of the city where they work. In
1974, for example, the median
earnings of planning directors in the
Nation’s largest cities were well
over $30,000 a year. In smaller
towns, earnings may be less than
half as large. Consultants earn fees
that vary according to their reputa­
tion and previous experience.
Most planners have sick leave
and vacation benefits and are
covered by retirement and health
plans. Although most city planners
have a scheduled workweek of 40
hours, they sometimes work in the
evenings and on weekends to attend
meetings with citizens’ groups.

Sources of Additional
Facts about careers in planning
and a list of schools offering train­
ing are available from:
American Institute of Planners, 1776 Mas­
sachusetts Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.
American Society of Planning Officials,
1313 East 60th St., Chicago, III. 60637.

Workers in service occupations
perform a wide variety of tasks
ranging from policing streets and
fighting fires to serving food and
cleaning buildings. In 1974 nearly
11.4 million people were employed
in service jobs. The major groups of
service occupations are discussed
Food service occupations. The
largest group of service workers,
more than 3.5 million persons in
1974, prepared and served food in
restaurants, schools, hospitals, and
factory cafeterias. Workers in this
group included cooks and chefs,
waiters and waitresses, bartenders,
and kitchen workers.
Cleaning and related occupations.
Workers in these occupations clean
and maintain buildings such as
apartment houses, schools, and of­
fices. Over 2.1 million persons were
employed in these jobs in 1974. The
group included janitors, building
custodians, and pest controllers.

Health service occupations. More
than 1.6 million persons were em­
ployed as health service workers in
jobs such as practical nurse or
hospital attendant. Most of these
hospitals, but some worked in doc­
tors’ or dentists’ offices.
Personal service occupations.
Workers in this group range from
barbers and cosmetologists to ski
instructors and theater ushers.
About 1.6 million persons were em­
ployed in personal service jobs.
Protective and related service oc­
cupations. More than 1.2 million
people, or about one-tenth of all
service workers, were employed to
safeguard lives and property in
1974. The majority were police of­
ficers, guards, or firefighters. Most
police officers and detectives were
government employees, but some
worked for hotels, stores, and other
businesses. Guards, another large
group of protective service em­

More Than 11 Million People Work in
Service Occupations
EMPLOYMENT, 1974 (in millions)

Food service
C lean in g service
Health service
Personal service
Protective service
Private household
w o rkers
S o u rce :

Bureau of Labor Sta tistic s


ployees, worked chiefly for private
companies to protect their property
and enforce company rules and
regulations. Firefighters worked
mainly for city governments. The
remaining protective service work­
ers were sheriffs and bailiffs,
crossing guards and bridge tenders,
and marshals and constables.
Private household service occupa­
tions. Most of the 1.2 million
private household workers em­
ployed in 1974 were domestic
workers who cleaned their empolyer’s home, prepared meals, and
cared for children. Some worked as
launderers, caretakers, and com­

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Training and skill requirements
differ greatly among the various
service occupations. FBI special
agents, for example, must have a
college degree. Barbers and
cosmetologists need specialized vo­
cational training. Still other occu­
pations—household worker, build­
ing custodian, and hotel bellhop,
for example—have no specific edu­
cational requirements for entry,
although a high school diploma is
always an advantage.
For many service occupations,
personality traits and special abili­
ties may be as important as formal
schooling. Thus, physical strength
and endurance are a necessity for
work as a porter, lifeguard, or win­
dow cleaner; and a pleasing manner
and appearance are especially im­
portant for a waiter or waitress,
elevator operator, or usher. Other
service workers, such as store and
hotel detectives and travel guides,

need good judgment and should be
skillful in dealing with people.
Some service workers eventually
go into business for themselves as
caterers or restaurant operators, for
example, or proprietors of barber
or beauty shops. Advancement
from service occupations that
require little training or skill may be
difficult for people without a good
knowledge of the business in which
they work.

Employment Outlook
Employment in the service occu­
pations is expected to grow at about
the same rate as the average for all
occupations through the mid1980’s. The number of private
household workers, however, has
declined since the mid-1960’s and

this trend is expected to continue
despite a strong demand for these
workers. If private household work­
ers are excluded from the total,
service workers show a faster than
average rate of growth.
Most of the future employment
increase is expected to be among
the health care and protective
service occupations. Population
growth and the relative aging of the
population will cause the demand
for all health care occupations to
increase. The need for police of­
ficers, firefighters, and guards also
will increase as population grows
and urbanization continues.
Other occupations expected to
grow faster than the average are
cosmetologists, cooks and chefs,
and waiters and waitresses. Rising
incomes, increasing leisure time,

and the growing number of women
who combine family responsibilities
and a job are likely to cause the de­
mand for these workers to rise.
The following sections of the
Handbook contain detailed informa­
tion on most of the service occupa­
tions mentioned here. Others are
described in the industry statements
on government; transportation,
communications, and public utili­
ties; wholesale and retail trade; and
service and miscellaneous indus­
tries. The health service occupa­
tions are included in the section on
health care occupations, and state­
ments on Meatcutters, Pest Con­
trollers, and Funeral Directors can
be found elsewhere in the Hand­

Every public building and apart­
ment house needs to be kept clean
(D.O.T. 187.168, 381.137 and
and in good condition for the com­
.887; 382.884, 891.138)
fort and safety of the people who
work or live there. Much of this
Nature of the Work
work is done by persons in cleaning
and related occupations. These
Building custodians, sometimes
workers may clean floors and win­ called janitors or cleaners, keep of­
dows in hospitals, change linens in fice buildings, hospitals, stores, and
hotels, repair broken faucets in apartment houses clean and in good
apartments, or exterminate insects condition. They see that heating
and rodents in office buildings.
and ventilating equipment work
Workers in these occupations properly, clean floors and windows,
usually learn their skills on the job, and do other necessary main­
but other training is sometimes tenance tasks. On a typical day, a
available. Building custodians may custodian may wet- or dry-mop
attend training programs offered by floors, vacuum carpets, dust furni­
unions and government agencies; ture, make minor repairs, and ex­
hotel housekeepers may take cour­ terminate insects and rodents. (See
ses in housekeeping procedures and the statement on Pest Controllers
interior design offered by their em­ elsewhere in the Handbook for more
information on this occupation.)
Besides a knowledge of their job,
Custodians use many different
these workers must be courteous, tools and cleaning materials. For
tactful, and neat if their job requires one job they may need a mop and
contact with the public. Some per­ bucket; for another an electric
form monotonous and tiring tasks, polishing machine and a special
such as scrubbing and waxing cleaning
floors, and must be able to stand the cleaners and power equipment have
boredom of the job.
made many tasks easier and less
This section describes three time-consuming, but custodians
cleaning and related occupations: must know how to use them
Building Custodians, Pest Control­ properly to avoid harming floors
lers, and Hotel Housekeepers and and fixtures.
Some custodians supervise a
group of custodial workers and are
responsible for maintaining a sec­
tion of a building or an entire build­
ing. They assign tasks to each
worker, give instructions, and see
that jobs, such as floor waxing or
window washing, are done well.

worked as building custodians.
One-third worked part time.
Most custodians worked in office
buildings and factories, but schools,
apartment houses, and hospitals
also employed many. Some worked
for firms supplying building main­
tenance services on a contract
Although custodial jobs can be
found in all cities and towns, most
are located in highly populated
areas where there are many office
buildings, stores, and apartment

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

No special education is required
for most custodial jobs, but the
beginner should know simple
arithmetic and be able to follow in­
structions. High school shop
courses are helpful because minor
plumbing or carpentry work may be
a part of the job.
Most building custodians learn
their skills on the job. Usually,
beginners do routine cleaning and
are given more complicated duties
as they gain experience.
In some cities, unions and
developed programs to teach
custodial skills. Students learn how
to clean buildings thoroughly and
efficiently, and how to operate and
maintain machines, such as wet and
dry vacuums, buffers, and polishers
that they will use on the job. In­
struction in minor electrical,
plumbing, and other repairs is also
given. As part of their training, stu­
dents learn to plan their work, to
deal with people who live or work
in the buildings they clean, and to
work without supervision. A few
training programs offer remedial
courses in reading, writing, and
Building custodians usually find
work by answering newspaper ad­
Places of Employment
vertisements, applying directly to a
In 1974, more than 1.9 million company where they would like to
people—75 percent of them men— work, or applying to a building

evening work can expect to find
many opportunities.

Earnings and Working

Building custodians spend most
of their time on their feet, some­
times lifting or pushing heavy furni­
ture or equipment. Many tasks,
such as dusting or sweeping, require
constant bending, stooping, and

Earnings of building custodians
vary by industry and area of the
country; workers in large cities of
Sources of Additional
the North Central region earn the
highest wages. According to a Bu­
Information about custodial jobs
reau of Labor Statistics survey of
and training opportunities may be
urban areas, custodians working in
private industry had the following obtained from the local office of
average hourly earnings in 1973-74. your State employment service.
For general information on job
opportunities and wage rates in
local areas, contact:

maintenance service. They also get
jobs through State employment of­
fices. Custodial jobs in the govern­
ment are obtained by applying to
Advancement opportunities for
custodial workers are usually
limited because the custodian is the
only maintenance worker in many
buildings. Where there is a large
custodians can be promoted to su­
pervisory jobs. Having a high school
diploma improves the chances for
advancement. Some custodians go
into business for themselves, main­
taining buildings for clients for a

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities in this
occupation are expected to be good
through the mid-1980’s. The need
to replace workers who die, retire,
or leave the occupation will create
thousands of jobs each year. Con­
struction of new office buildings,
hospitals and apartment houses will
increase the demand for main­
tenance services causing employ­
ment of custodians to grow about as
fast as the average for all occupa­
Persons seeking part-time or

Public utilities...............................
Wholesale trade............................
Retail trade...................................


Service Employees International Union, 900
17th St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20006.


Custodial workers generally earn
(D.O.T. 321.138)
about three-fourths as much as the
average earnings for all nonsuperNature of the Work
visory workers in private industry,
A hotel’s or motel’s reputation
except farming.
Custodians working in the depends on how well it serves its
Federal Government are paid at the guests. Although some offer
same rates offered by private indus­ economical accommodations and
others stress luxurious surroundings
tries in the local area.
Most building service workers and attentive service, all are con­
receive paid holidays and vacations, cerned with their guests’ comfort.
Hotel housekeepers are responsible
and health insurance.
Because most office buildings are for keeping hotels and motels clean
cleaned during the evening while and attractive and providing guests
they are empty, custodians often with the necessary furnishings and
work evening hours. In buildings supplies. It is their job to hire, train,
requiring 24-hour maintenance, schedule and supervise cleaners,
linen and laundry workers, and
custodians may work a night shift.
Although custodians usually repairers. They also keep employee
work inside heated, well-lighted records and order supplies. More
buildines. thev sometimes work than 18,000 persons, most of them
outdoors sweeping walkways, mow­ women, worked as hotel house­
ing lawns, or shoveling snow. Work­ keepers in 1974.
Housekeepers who work in small
ing with machines can be noisy and
some tasks, such as cleaning or middle-sized establishments may
bathrooms and trash rooms, can be not only supervise the cleaning
dirty. Custodial workers often staff, but perform some of these du­
suffer minor cuts, bruises, and ties themselves. In large or luxury
burns caused by the machines, hand hotels, their jobs are primarily ad­
tools, and chemicals they use.
ministrative and they are frequently

called executive or head house­
Besides supervising a staff that
may number in the hundreds, ex­
ecutive housekeepers prepare the
budget for their departments; sub­
mit reports to the general manager
on the condition of rooms, needed
repairs, and suggested improve­
ments; and purchase supplies and
furnishings. Executive housekeep­
ers are assisted by floor house­
keepers, who supervise the clean­
ing and maintenance of one or
several floors in the hotel, and
assistant executive housekeepers,
who help with the administrative
Some large hotel and motel
chains assign executive house­
keepers to special jobs, such
procedures in an established hotel
or setting up the housekeeping de­
partment in a new motel.

preparation; interior decoration;
and the purchase, use, and care of
different types of equipment and
Although there are no specific fabrics.
Executive housekeepers should
be good at planning and organizing
housekeepers, most employers
prefer applicants who have at least work and must be able to get along
a high school diploma. Experience well with people, especially those
or training in hotel housekeeping they supervise. Housekeepers also
should like to work independently
also is helpful in getting a job.
Several colleges and universities and be able to keep records and
offer instruction in hotel adminis­ analyze numbers.
Although assistant housekeepers
tration that includes courses in
may be promoted to executive
housekeeping, and some of these
courses are offered in summer or housekeepers after several years of
evening classes. Many schools have experience,
developed programs under the limited because only one executive
guidance and approval of the Na­ housekeeper job is available in any
tional Executive Housekeepers As­ hotel or motel.
sociation. In addition, the Amer­
Employment Outlook
ican Hotel and Motel Association
offers courses for either classroom
Employment of hotel house­
or individual home study. Most
keepers is expected to grow about
helpful are courses on housekeep­
as fast as
ing; personnel management; budget occupations the average formidthrough the

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

1980’s as additional hotels and
motels are built. Most openings,
however, will result from the need
to replace workers who die, retire,
or leave the occupation.
usually fill vacancies by promoting
assistant housekeepers to executive
housekeepers, beginners will find
their best job opportunities in newly
built motels or hotels. Competition
is likely to be keen.
See the statement on the Hotel
Industry elsewhere in the Handbook
for information on earnings and
working conditions, sources of ad­
ditional information, and more in­
formation on the employment out­

(D.O.T. 389.781 and 389.884)

Nature of the Work
Executive housekeepers usually use the telephone to place orders with suppliers
or to inform the general manager of needed repairs or improvements in hotel
guest rooms.

Rats, mice, and common
household insects, such as flies and
roaches, contaminate food and
spread sickness; termites can eat

away houses. Protection of our
health and property from these
pests is the job of professional pest
controllers who are classified either
as pest control route workers or
termite specialists. Although these
fields of work are separate, many
controllers do both.
Pest control route workers serv­
ice restaurants, hotels, food stores,
homes and other customers who
have problems with rats, mice, and
common household insects. Since
these pests can be difficult to stamp
out, many customers have contracts
for regular service. Route workers
serving such commercial accounts
may visit a dozen or more locations
in 1 day, and return to most of them
1 week to a month later. Service to
homes may require only one to four
visits a year. Route workers usually
work alone.
Termite specialists, on the other
hand, may spend 1 day or more
servicing a single building. Addi­
tional visits are seldom necessary,
because a treatment usually keeps
termites away for many years. Ter­
mite specialists frequently work in
paris or are assisted by helpers.
Pest controllers load their trucks
or cars with chemical pesticides and
other supplies and receive written
instructions of services to be per­
formed. Most customers are billed,
but sometimes they pay the pest
controller who keeps work records,
including pesticides used and
amount of time spent at each loca­
To choose the safest and most ef­
fective pesticide for each job, route
workers must know the habits and
hiding places of different insects
and rodents, what attracts them,
and how they get into buildings.
Route workers spray liquid—
usually premixed—pesticides be­
hind cabinets, under sinks, and in
cracks and crevices. Dusting bulbs
are used in some areas.
Traps or poisonous baits are
placed near areas where rats or
mice nest. Route workers must be
careful not to apply poisons around

areas where food is exposed or
where there would be a danger to
children or pets. Most of their work
is fairly routine, but occasionally
they handle an unusual job, such as
removing bird nests from an attic.
Route workers tell customers
how to correct conditions that at­
tract pests. For example, they may
recommend replacing damaged
garbage containers, sealing open
food containers, and repairing
cracks in walls.
Subterranean termites, the most
common wood-attacking insects,
live in underground colonies and
build mud “commuter tubes” to
reach the house above. To destroy a
colony, termite specialists put a

between the colony and the wooden
parts of the house. One way is to
treat the soil around the foundation
of the house using special tools at­
tached to a pressure pump. To
block all avenues of entry, however,
it is sometimes necessary to get at
the soil underneath masonry sur­
faces, such as basement floors and
brick steps. Termite specialists drill
holes through these surfaces, and
pour or pump the chemical into the
holes. They seal these holes with a
cement like putty and replace any
floor coverings, such as tiles, which
had to be removed. Because
termites will not cross treated areas,
those in the ground must find food

Controllers know the habits and hiding places of different insects.

or starve and those trapped in the
house die for lack of moisture.
Termite specialists sometimes
have to alter buildings to prevent
pests from returning. For example,
they may raise foundations, install
concrete flash walls, or insulate
Helpers assist termite specialists
by digging around and underneath
houses, helping set up and operate
equipment, and mixing cement, and
doing general cleanup work.
Some highly experienced spe­
cialists inspect houses for termites,
estimate costs, and explain the
proposed work to customers. In
most exterminating Firms, however,
the manager, supervisor, or pest
control salesworkers do these jobs.

Places of Employment
More than half of the estimated
27,000 pest controllers employed in
1974 were route workers; the rest
were termite specialists and com­
bination route workers-termite spe­
Most pest controllers work for or
own firms that specialize in this
service. A small number work for
Federal, State, and local govern­
Jobs in this field can be found
throughout the country. Employ­
ment, however, is concentrated in
major metropolitan areas and large

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Beginning pest controllers are
trained by supervisors and ex­
perienced workers. Many large
firms also provide several weeks of
training, which includes classes on
the characteristics of termites or
other pests, the safe and effective
use of pesticides, customer rela­
tions, and the preparation of work
records. To aid beginners, many
manuals. Beginners gain practical

experience by helping pest control jobs resulting from employment
route workers or termite specialists growth, the need to replace ex­
on the job. Most can complete perienced workers who retire or die
training for routine work in one of or transfer to other occupations
these occupations after 2 to 3 also will create many job openings.
Because pests reproduce rapidly
About 30 States currently require and tend to develop resistance to
pest controllers to be licensed. In pesticides, their control is a never
most States, the license is only for ending problem. Population growth
registration, but a few require appli­ and
cants to pass a written examination. metropolitan areas will add to the
Beginning in October 1976, the En­ need for more pest controllers. The
vironmental Protection Agency will deterioration of older buildings also
require that pest controllers be cer­ is increasing the need for these
tified. All States will be required by workers, since buildings become
law to give written or other tests to more prone to infestation as they
determine that pest controllers are age.
able to use pesticides competently
and safely.
Earnings and Working
Employers prefer trainees who
are high school graduates, have safe
The starting pay for inex­
driving records, and are in good
health. Many firms require their perienced trainees ranged from
$2.50 to $3 an hour in 1974, based
employees to be bonded; applicants
for these jobs must have a record of on the limited information availa­
honesty and respect for the law. ble. Earnings of experienced pest
Because route workers frequently controllers ranged from $3 to $,4.50
deal with customers, employers an hour.
Some route workers are paid an
look for applicants who are cour­
teous, tactful, and well-groomed. hourly rate or weekly salary. Others
Termite specialists need manual receive a commission based upon
dexterity and mechanical ability. charges' to customers. Nearly all
Some firms give aptitude tests to termite specialists are paid an
determine an applicant’s suitability hourly rate or weekly salary.
for the work.
On the average, pest controllers
High school courses in chemistry work 40 to 44 hours a week. During
and business arithmetic provide a spring and summer, however, hours
helpful background for pest con­ may be longer because pests are
trollers. Students interested in more prevalent. Most work is done
becoming route workers also may during the day. Route workers,
benefit from courses in sales. Those however, occasionally work nights
interested in becoming termite spe­ because many restaurants and
cialists can gain valuable ex­ stores do not want them to work
perience by taking courses related while customers are present.
to building construction such as
Pest controllers work both in­
doors and outdoors in all kinds of
Experienced workers with ability weather. They frequently lift and
can advance to higher paying posi­ carry equipment and materials, but
tions, such as service manager or most items weigh less than 50
pounds. Route workers also do a
pest-control salesworkers.
great deal of walking. Termite spe­
Employment Outlook
cialists occasionally must crawl
Employment of pest controllers is under buildings and work in dirty,
expected to grow faster than the cramped spaces. Workers in these
average for all occupations through occupations are subject to some
the mid-1980’s. In addition to the hazards. Although most pesticides

are not harmful to humans, some
can cause injury if they are inhaled
or left on the skin. Such injuries,
however, are avoided if safety
precautions are followed. Because
they spend a lot of time driving,
route workers have a relatively high
exposure to traffic hazards. Termite
specialists risk injury from power
tools and sharp or rough materials
in buildings.

Pest controllers are on their own
to a great extent. They do not work
under strict supervision and, within
limits, may decide how they will
handle a job.

Sources of Additional
Further information about op­

portunities in this field is available
from local exterminating compa­
nies and the local office of the State
employment service. General infor­
mation about the work can be ob­
tained from:
National Pest Control Association, Inc..
8150 Leesburg Pike, Vienna, Va.

Food service workers make up
one of the largest and fastest grow­
ing occupational groups in the Na­
tion’s labor force. There are more
than three times as many persons
employed in food service as there
are in the production and refining
of oil, automobile manufacturing,
and steel manufacturing combined.
In 1974 more than 3 1/2 million
persons were employed in food
service, mostly in restaurants,
hotels, factory and school cafe­
terias, and catering firms. Job
opportunities can be found almost
everywhere, because even very
small communities have roadside
diners and school cafeterias.
There are no specific educational
requirements for most food service
work and skills usually can be
learned on the job. Many restau­
rants hire inexperienced persons for
jobs as dining room attendants,
dishwashers, food counter workers,
waiters and waitresses, and bar­
tenders. Experience is sometimes
needed, however, to get one of
these jobs in a large restaurant or
catering firm. Persons who want to
become cooks usually must have
some prior experience in a food
service occupation, such as kitchen
helper or assistant cook*. Ex­
perienced workers may advance to
food service manager, maitre
d’hotel, head cook, or chef.
Vocational schools, both public
and private, offer courses in cook­
ing, catering, and bartending. Em­
ployment of food service workers is
expected to increase faster than the
average for all occupations through
the mid-1980’s. The demand for
these workers will increase as new
restaurants, cafeterias, and bars
open in response to population

growth and increased spending for
food and beverages outside the
home. Higher average incomes and
more leisure time will allow people
to eat out more often. Also, as an
increasing number of wives work,
families are finding dining out a
welcome convenience. Detailed
discussions of the work, training,
outlook, and earnings of dining
room attendants and dishwashers,
food counter workers, waiters and
waitresses, cooks and chefs, and
bartenders are presented in the
statements that follow.

(D.O.T. 312.878)

Nature of the Work
Cocktails range from the ordina­
ry to the exotic and bartenders
make these concoctions by combin­
ing different kinds of liquor with
other ingredients such as soft
drinks, soda water, bitters, fruit ju­
ices, and cream. There are dozens
of combinations, and each one can
be made in several ways. Because
some people have preferences for
certain cocktail recipes, bartenders
are often asked to mix drinks to suit
customer’s taste.
cocktails, bartenders also serve
wine, draft or bottled beer, and a
wide variety of nonalcoholic
Most bartenders take orders,
serve drinks, and collect payment
from customers. Others simply
make drinks for waiters and
waitresses to serve.
Bartenders usually are responsi­
ble for ordering and maintaining an

inventory of liquor, mixes, and
other bar supplies. They also ar­
range bottles and glasses to form a
display, wash glassware, and clean
the bar.
Bartenders in large restaurants or
hotels usually have bartender hel­
pers (D.O.T. 312.887) to assist
them with their duties. Helpers
keep the bar supplied with liquor,
mixes, and ice; stock refrigerators
with wine and beer; and replace
empty beer kegs with full ones.
They also keep the bar area clean
and remove empty bottles and

Places of Employment
Most of the 233,000 bartenders
employed in 1974 worked in restau­
rants and bars, but many also had
jobs in hotels and private clubs.
Roughly one-fifth were self-em­
Several thousand people tend bar
part time, many of whom have full­
time jobs in other occupations or
attend college. Part-time workers
often serve at banquets and private
parties; usually they get these jobs
through union clearinghouses.
A growing proportion of bartend­
ers are women. About one-third
were women in 1974, compared to
only one-tenth in 1960.
Most bartenders work in the
urban population centers of New
York, California, and other large
States, but many are employed in
small communities also. Vacation
resorts offer seasonal employment,
and some bartenders alternate
between summer and winter resorts
rather than remain in one area the
entire year.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Most bartenders learn their trade
on the job. Although preparing
drinks at home can be good prac­
tice, it does not qualify a person to
be a bartender. Besides knowing a

Employment Outlook

Most bartenders learn their trade on the job.

variety of cocktail recipes, bartend­
ers must know how to stock a bar
properly, and be familiar with State
and local laws concerning the sale
of alcoholic beverages.
Young persons who wish to
become bartenders can get good
experience by working as bartender
helpers, dining room attendants,
waiters, or waitresses. By watching
the bartender at work, they can
learn how to mix drinks and do
other bartending tasks.
Some private schools offer short
courses in bartending that include
intruction on State and local laws
and regulations, cocktail recipes,
attire and conduct, and stocking a
bar. Some of these schools help
their graduates find jobs.
Bartenders should have pleasant
personalities because they deal with
the public. They need physical

stamina, since they stand while they
work and* also may have to lift
heavy kegs and cases.
Generally, bartenders must be at
least 21 years of age, although some
employers prefer those who are 25
or older. Some States require bar­
tenders to have health certificates
assuring that they are free from
contagious diseases. In some in­
stances, they must be bonded.
Small restaurants, neighborhood
bars, and resorts usually offer a
beginner the best entry opportuni­
ties. After gaining experience, a
bartender may wish to work in a
large restaurant or cocktail lounge
where pay is higher and promotion
opportunities are greater. Promo­
tion may be to head bartender, wine
steward, or beverage manager.
Some bartenders open their own

Employment of bartenders is ex­
pected to increase faster than the
average for all occupations through
the mid-1980’s. In addition to the
job openings caused by employ­
ment growth, several thousand will
arise annually from the need to
replace experienced bartenders
who retire, die, or transfer to other
The demand for bartenders will
increase as new restaurants, hotels,
and bars open in response to popu­
lation growth and as the amount
spent for food and beverages out­
side the home increases. Higher
average incomes and more leisure
time will allow people to go out for
dinner or cocktails more often, and
to take more vacations. Also, as
more wives work, families are find­
ing dining out a welcome con­
Job opportunities for bartenders
should be especially favorable in
States that have recently liberalized
their drinking laws. In the early
1970’s 25 States either lowered the
drinking age or legalized the sale of
liquor by the drink, or both, and
some other States may follow suit.

Earnings and Working
Hourly earnings of bartenders
ranged from $2.90 to $5.40 in
1974, according to limited data
from union contracts in the restau­
rant industry. Besides wages, bar­
tenders often receive tips that in­
crease their earnings.
Bartenders usually receive free
meals at work and may be furnished
bar jackets or complete uniforms.
Many bartenders work more than
40 hours a week, and night and
weekend work and split shifts are
common. For many bartenders,
however, the opportunity to social­
ize with customers and the possibili­
ty of someday managing or owning
a bar or restaurant more than offset
these disadvantages. For others, the

opportunity to get part-time work is

Sources of Additional
Information about job opportuni­
ties may be obtained from the Hotel
and Restaurant Employees and Bar­
tenders International Union, which
is the principal union organizing
bartenders, and from the State em­
ployment service.
For general information on job
opportunities in bartending, write
National Institute for the Food Service In­
dustry, 120 S. Riverside Plaza, Chicago,
11 . 60606.


cooks, and many kitchen helpers.
Each cook usually has a special as­
signment and often a special job
title—pastry, fry, or sauce cook, for
example. Head cooks or chefs coor­
dinate the work of the kitchen staff,
and often direct certain kinds of
food preparation. They decide the
size of servings, sometimes plan
menus, and buy food supplies.

Places of Employment
About 955,000 cooks and chefs
were employed in 1974. Most
worked in restaurants, but many
worked in schools, colleges, and
hospitals. Government agencies,
factories, private clubs, and many
other kinds of organizations also
employed cooks and chefs.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Most cooks acquire their skills on
the job while employed as kitchen
helpers although it is becoming
common for cooks to have high
school or post high school training
frequently, they are trained as ap­
prentices under trade union con­
tracts or in the training programs
some large hotels and restaurants
have for new employees. Inex­
perienced workers usually can
qualify as assistant or fry cooks
after several months of on-the-job
training, but acquiring all-round
skills as head cook or chef in a fine
restaurant often takes several years.
High school or vocational school
courses in business arithmetic and

(D.O.T. 313.131 through .887;
314.381 through .878; and
315.131 through .381)

Nature of the Work
A reputation for serving fine food
is an asset to any restaurant,
whether it prides itself on “ home
cooking” or exotic foreign cuisine.
Cooks and chefs are largely respon­
sible for the reputation a restaurant
acquires. Many chefs have earned
fame for both themselves and the
restaurants and hotels where they
work because of their skill in creat­
ing new dishes and improving
familiar ones.
A cook’s work depends partly on
the size of the restaurant. Many
small restaurants offer a limited
number of short order dishes that
are relatively simple to prepare,
plus pies and other baked goods
bought from bakeries. One cook
usually prepares all of the food with
the aid of a short order cook and
one or two kitchen helpers.
Large eating places usually have
more varied menus and prepare
more of the food they serve.
Kitchen staffs often include severat
cooks, sometimes called assistant

A restaurant’s reputation depends largely on the skills of its cooks.

business administration are helpful
in becoming a cook or chef.
Persons who have had courses in
restaurant cooking will have an ad­
vantage when looking for jobs in
large restaurants and hotels where
hiring standards are often high.
Many vocational programs in both
public and private high schools
offer this kind of training to stu­
dents. Other courses, ranging from
a few months to 2 years or more,
and open in some cases only to high
school graduates, are given under
the guidance of restaurant associa­
tions, hotel management groups,
trade unions, and technical schools
and colleges. The Armed Forces
are also a good source of training
and experience in food service
Although curricula may vary, stu­
dents usually spend most of their
time learning to prepare food
through actual practice in wellequipped kitchens. Students learn
to bake, broil, and otherwise
prepare food, and to use and care
for kitchen equipment. They also
may be taught to select and store
food, use leftovers, determine the
size of portions, plan menus, and
buy food supplies in quantity. Stu­
dents also learn hotel and restau­
rant sanitation and public health
rules for handling food.
Many school districts provide onthe-job training and sometimes
summer workshops for cafeteria
workers who wish to become cooks.
School cooks are selected from em­
ployees who have participated.
Persons who want to become
cooks or chefs should like to work
with people in a team relationship
and be able to work under pressure
during busy periods. Cleanliness
and a keen sense of taste and smell
also are important qualifications.
Most States require health cer­
tificates indicating that cooks and
chefs are free from contagious dis­
Many cooks acquire higher pay­
ing positions and new cooking skills
by moving from restaurant to

restaurant. Others advance to su­
pervisory jobs. Some eventually go
into business as caterers or restau­
rant owners; others may become in­
structors in vocational programs in
high schools, junior and community
colleges, and other institutions.

Employment Outlook
Employment of cooks and chefs
is expected to increase faster than
the average for all occupations
through the mid-1980’s. In addition
to employment growth, thousands
of job openings will arise annually
from the need to replace ex­
perienced workers who retire, die,
or transfer to other occupations.
The demand for cooks and chefs
will increase as population grows
and people spend more money on
eating out. Higher personal in­
comes and more leisure time will
allow people to go out for dinner
more often and to take more vaca­
tions. Also, as an increasing number
of wives work, more families are
finding dining out a welcome con­
Small restaurants and other eat­
ing places having simple food
preparation will provide the
greatest number of starting jobs for
cooks. However, beginners who
have had training in restaurant
cooking may find jobs available in
hotels and restaurants where foods
are prepared more elaborately.

Earnings and Working
In 1974, hourly pay rates ranged
from $3 to $5.90 for chefs, from
$2.60 to $4.90 for cooks of various
types, and from $2.30 to $2.90 for
assistant cooks, according to
limited data from union contracts in
several large metropolitan areas.
Wages of cooks and chefs vary
depending on the part of the
country and the type of establish­
ment in which they work. Wages
generally are higher in the West and
in large, well-known restaurants
and hotels. Cooks and chefs in

famous restaurants earn much more
than the minimum rates and several
chefs with national reputations earn
more than $40,000 a year. Hours in
restaurants may include late even­
ing, holiday, and weekend work,
and range from 40 to 48 hours a
week. Cooks employed in public
and private schools work regular
school hours during the school year
only, usually for 9 months.
Many kitchens are air-condi­
tioned and have convenient work
areas and modern equipment.
Others, particularly in older or
smaller eating places, are often not
as well equipped and working con­
ditions may be less desirable. In all
kitchens, however, cooks must
stand most of the time, lift heavy
pots and kettles, and work near hot
ovens and ranges.
The principal union organizing
cooks and chefs is the Hotel and
Restaurant Employees and Bar­
tenders International Union.
Sources of Additional
Information about job opportuni­
ties may be obtained from local em­
ployers, locals of the Hotel and
Restaurant Employees and Bar­
tenders International Union, and
local offices of the State employ­
ment service.
restaurant cooks and chefs is availa­
ble from:
American Culinary Federation, P.O. Box 53,
Hyde Park,N.Y. 12538.
Educational Director, National Institute for
the Foodservice Industry, 120 South
Riverside Plaza, Chicago, III. 60606.
The Educational Institute, American Hotel
and Motel Association, 1407 S. Har­
rison Rd., Michigan State University,
Stephen S. Nisbet Bldg., East Lansing,
Mich. 48823.
The Council on Hotel, Restaurant and In­
stitutional Education, 1522 K St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20005.
American Culinary Federation, 1407 S. Har­
rison Rd., Room 310, Michigan State
University, Stephen S. Nisbet Bldg.,
East Lansing, Mich. 48823.

(D.O.T. 311.878 and 318.887)

are from attendant to waiter, and
from dishwasher to cook’s helper or
short-order cook. Advancement
opportunities generally are best in
large restaurants.

Nature of the Work

Employment Outlook

Clean and attractive table
settings are as important to a
restaurant's reputation as the quali­
ty of food it serves. An egg-stained
fork, soiled tablecloth, or empty
salt shaker can make a customer
unhappy. Dining room attendants
and dishwashers provide the quick
hands and sharp eyes needed to
prevent such problems.
Attendants do many jobs that
otherwise waiters would have to do.
They clear and reset tables, carry
dirty dishes from the dining area to
the kitchen and return with trays of
food, and clean up spilled food and
broken dishes. By taking care of
these details, attendants give
waiters more time to serve
In some restaurants, attendants
also help by serving water and
bread and butter to customers.
When business is light, they do odd
jobs like refilling salt and pepper
shakers and cleaning coffee urns.
Dishwashers pick up where the
attendants leave off—with the dirty
dishes. They operate special
machines that clean silverware and
dishes quickly and efficiently. Oc­
casionally, they may have to make
machines operating properly. Dish­
washers scrub large pots and pans
by hand. In addition, they clean
refrigerators and other kitchen
equipment, sweep and mop floors,
and carry out trash.

Job openings for dining room at­
tendants and dishwashers are ex­
pected to be plentiful in the years
ahead. Most openings will result
from the need to replace workers
who find jobs in other occupations,
retire, or die. Turnover is particu­
larly high among part-time workers.
About one-half of the attendants
and dishwashers are students, most
of whom work part time while at­
tending school and then find other
jobs after graduation.
Additional ope'nings will result
from employment growth. Employ­
ment is expected to increase about
as fast as the average for all occupa­
tions through the mid-1980’s as
population growth and higher in­
come create more business for


Many dishwashers are students who
work part-time.

hotels. Dishwashers also work in
schools and hospitals.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Little formal education is needed
to qualify for jobs as dining room
attendants and dishwashers. Many
employers will hire applicants who
do not speak English. Some men­
tally retarded persons can be
trained as dishwashers.
Attendants and dishwashers must
have good health and physical
stamina because they stand most of
the time and work at a fast pace
during busy periods. State laws
often require them to obtain health
certificates to show that they are
free of contagious diseases. Attend­
ants must have a neat appearance
Places of Employment
and the ability to get along with
About 210,000 dishwashers and people.
Although little education is
160,000 attendants were employed
needed to do these jobs, the ability
in 1974. Many worked only part
to read, write, and do simple
Most attendants and dishwashers arithmetic is required for promo­
work in restaurants, bars, and tion. Typical lines of advancement

Earnings and Working
Dining room attendants and dish­
washers have relatively low
earnings. Limited data from union
contracts that cover restaurants and
bars in several large cities indicate
that hourly rates for these workers
ranged from $1.30 to $3 in 1974.
These amounts were below the
average earnings of most other nonsupervisory workers in private in­
dustry, except farming.
Attendants may receive a per­
centage of waiters’ tips in addition
to wages. Tips often average
between 10 and 20 percent of
patrons’ checks.
The majority of employers pro­
vide free meals at work and furnish
uniforms. Paid vacations are cus­
tomary, and various types of health
insurance and pension plans may be
Most attendants and dishwashers

work less than 30 hours a week.
Some are on duty only a few hours a
day during either the lunch or
dinner period. Others work both
periods but may take a few hours
off in the middle of the day.
Weekend and holiday work often is
Job hazards include the possibili­
ty of falls, cuts, and burns, but inju­
ries seldom are serious.

Sources of Additional
Information about job opportuni­
ties may be obtained from local em­
ployers, locals of the Hotel and
Restaurant Employees and Bar­
tenders International Union, and
local offices of the State employ­
ment service. Names of local
unions can be obtained from the
Hotel and Restaurant Employees
Union, 120 East 4th St., Cin­
cinnati, Ohio 45202.
For general information about
dining room attendants and dish­
washers, write to:
National Restaurant Association, One IBM
Plaza, Suite 2600, Chicago, 111. 60611.

(D.O.T. 311.878 and 319.878)

Nature of the Work
Counter workers serve customers
in eating places that specialize in
fast service and inexpensive food,
such as hamburger and fried
chicken carryouts, drugstore soda
fountains, and school and public
cafeterias. About 350,000 persons
had food counter jobs in 1974, most
of whom worked part time.
Typical duties of counter workers
include taking customers’ orders,
serving food and beverages, making
out checks, and taking payments.
At drugstore fountains and in
diners, they also may cook, make
sandwiches and cold drinks, and

Food counter worker takes order.

prepare sundaes and other ice
cream dishes. In hamburger carry­
outs, where food is prepared in an
assembly-line manner, counter
workers may take turns waiting
on customers, making French fries,
toasting buns, and doing other jobs.
Counter workers in cafeterias fill
plates for customers and keep the
serving line supplied with desserts,
salads, and other dishes. Unlike
other counter workers, they usually
do not take payments and make
Counter workers also do odd
jobs, such as cleaning kitchen
equipment, sweeping and mopping
floors, and carrying out trash.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
In the counter jobs that require

totaling bills and making change,
employers prefer to hire persons
who are good in arithmetic and
although a diploma usually is not
necessary. There usually are no
specific educational requirements
for counter jobs in cafeterias.
Because counter workers deal
with the public, a pleasant per­
sonality and neat appearance are
important. Good health and physi­
cal stamina also are needed because
they stand most of the time and
work at a fast pace during busy
periods. State laws often require
counter workers to obtain health
certificates to show that they are
free of contagious disease.
Opportunities for advancement
are limited, especially in small eat­
ing places. Some counter workers

move into higher paying jobs and
learn new skills by transferring to a
larger restaurant. Advancement
can be to cashier, cook, waiter or
waitress, or to counter or fountain
Many large companies, such as
the nationwide hamburger carryout
chains, operate formal management
training programs. Counter workers
who show leadership ability may
qualify for these programs.

Employment Outlook
Job openings for food counter
workers are expected to be plentiful
in the years ahead. Most openings
will result from turnover—replace­
ment of workers who find jobs in
other occupations, retire, or die.
Many counter workers are high
school and college students who
work part time while attending
school and find jobs in other occu­
pations after graduation. Because
of the high turnover, jobs for
counter workers are relatively easy
to find.
Additional job openings will
result from employment growth.
Employment is expected to in­
crease about as fast as the average
for all occupations through the mid1980’s as population growth and
higher income create more business
for eating places.

Earnings and Working
Hourly rates for food counter
workers ranged from $1.90 to
$2.60 in 1974, based on limited
data from union contracts that
covered eating places in several
large cities. These amounts were
well below the average earnings for
most other nonsupervisory workers
in private industry, except farming.
However, some counter workers,
such as those in drugstores and
diners, receive tips which can be
greater than hourly wages. Tips
usually average between 10 and 20
percent of patrons’ checks. Counter

workers usually receive free meals
at work, and may be furnished with
Most counter workers work less
than 30 hours a week. Some are on
duty only a few hours a day for
either the lunch or dinner period.
Many others work both periods, but
may take a few hours off in the mid­
dle of the day. Flexible schedules
often allow students to fit their
working hours around their classes.
Weekend and holiday work often is
Job hazards include the possibili­
ty of falls, cuts, and burns; but inju
ries seldom are serious.

Sources of Additional
Information about job opportuni­
ties may be obtained from local em­
ployers, locals of the Hotel and
Restaurant Employees and Bar­
tenders International Union, and
local offices of the State employ­
ment service. Names of local
unions are available from the
Hotel and Restaurant Employees
Union, 120 East 4th St., Cin­
cinnati, Ohio 45202.
For general information about
food counter workers, write to:

In preparing a beef carcass, meat­
cutters divide it into halves with a
band saw, and then into quarters by
cutting each half between the ribs
with a knife and sawing through the
backbone. A saw or knife is used to
divide the quarters into primal cuts
such as T-bone steaks or rib roasts.
Meatcutters divide the primal cut
into pieces small enough for an
average serving.
Meatcutters use a butcher knife
or sheer to divide boneless cuts and
a band saw or cleaver to divide
pieces that contain bones. Any
bone chips left on the meat are
scraped off with a knife or brushed
off by a machine. Cutters grind
trimmings into hamburger.

Places of Employment
About 200,000 persons worked
as meatcutters in 1974. They had
jobs in almost every city and town
in the Nation. Most meatcutters
worked in retail foodstores. A few
worked in wholesale stores, restau­
rants, hotels, hospitals, and other

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Meatcutters acquire their skills
on the job either informally or
National Restaurant Association, One IBM
through apprenticeship programs.
Plaza, Suite 2600, Chicago, III. 60611.
Generally, trainees begin by doing
odd jobs, such as removing bone
chips from retail cuts. Under the
guidance of skilled meatcutters,
they learn about the various cuts
(D.O.T. 316.781, 316.884)
and grades of meats and the proper
use of tools and equipment. After
Nature of the Work
demonstrating skill with tools, they
learn to divide primal cuts into in­
Meatcutters prepare meat, fish, dividual portions and to divide
and poultry in supermarkets or quarters into primal cuts. Trainees
wholesale food outlets. Their pri­ may learn to cut and prepare fish
mary duty is to divide animal car­ and poultry, roll and tie roasts,
casses into steaks, roasts, chops, prepare sausage, and cure and corn
and other serving-sized portions. meat. Later, they may learn mar­
They also may prepare meat
products such as sausage and keting operations such as inventory
control, meat buying and grading,
corned beef. Cutters who work in
and recordkeeping.
retail foodstores may set up counter
Meatcutters who learn the trade
displays and wait on customers.
through apprenticeship generally

complete 2 to 3 years of supervised
on-the-job training which may be
supplemented by some classroom
work. At the end of the training
period, apprentices are given a
meatcutting test which is observed
by their employer. A union member
is also present in union shops. Ap­
prentices who pass the test qualify
as meatcutters. Those who fail can
take the test again at a later time. In
many areas, apprentices may
become meatcutters in less than the
usual training time if they can pass
the test.
Employers prefer applicants who
have a high school diploma and the
potential to develop into meat de­
partment managers. High school or
vocational school courses in busi­
ness arithmetic are helpful in
weighing and pricing meats and in
making change.

Manual dexterity, good depth
perception, color discrimination,
and good eye-hand coordination
are important in cutting meat. A
pleasant personality, a neat ap­
pearance, and the ability to com­
municate clearly also are important
qualifications when cutters wait on
customers. Better than average
strength is necessary since cutters
work standing up and often lift
heavy loads. In some communities,
a health certificate may be required
for employment.
Meat cutters may progress to su­
pervisory jobs, such as meat depart­
ment managers in supermarkets. A
few become meat buyers for
chains. Some cutters open their
own meat markets or retail foodstores.

Employment Outlook
Little change in the number of
meatcutters is expected through
the mid-1980’s. Nevertheless,
thousands of entry jobs will be
available as experienced .workers
retire, die, or transfer to other oc­
Central cutting, the practice of
having one location at which meat
for several stores is cut and
wrapped, will limit the demand for
meatcutters. Central cutting, which
permits meatcutters to specialize in
both a type of meat and a type of
cut, increases efficiency. This spe­
cialization also reduces the amount
of training and skill necessary to
become a cutter.

Earnings and Working
According to union contracts in
six large cities, hourly earnings of
most meatcutters ranged from
about $4.70 to $6.80 in 1974.
Beginning apprentices usually
receive between 60 and 70 percent
of the experienced cutter’s wage
and generally receive increases
every 6 to 8 months.
Cutters work in coldrooms
designed to prevent meat from
spoiling. They must be careful when
working with sharp tools, especially
those that are powered.
Most cutters are members of the
Amalgamated Meat Cutters and
Butcher Workmen of North Amer­

Sources of Additional
Information about work opportu­
nities can be obtained from local
employers or local offices of the
State employment service. For in­
formation on training and other
aspects of the trade, contact:

American Meat Institute, 59 East Van Buren
St., Chicago, 111. 60605.
Amalgamated Meat Cutters and Butcher
Workmen of North America, 2800
North Sheridan Rd., Chicago, III.

can be to cashier or supervisory
jobs, such as maitre d’hotel, headwaiter, or hostess. Some superviso­
ry workers advance to jobs as
restaurant managers.

Employment Outlook

(D.O.T. 311.138 through .878)

Nature of the Work
Waiters and waitresses take
customers’ orders, serve food and
beverages, make out checks, and
sometimes take payments. In
diners, coffee shops, and other
About one-fourth of waiters and wait­
small restaurants they provide fast,
resses are students, most of whom
efficient service. In other restau­
work part-time.
rants, waiters and waitresses serve
food at a more leisurely pace and
offer more personal service to their waitresses
customers. For example, they may summer and winter resorts instead
suggest wines and explain the of remaining in one area the entire
preparation of items on the menu.
Waiters and waitresses may have
duties other than waiting on tables.
Training, Other Qualifications,
They set up and clear tables and
and Advancement
carry dirty dishes to the kitchen. In
very small restaurants they may
Most employers prefer to hire ap­
combine waiting on tables with
plicants who have had at least 2 or 3
counter service, preparing sand­
years of high school. Although most
wiches, or cashiering. In large
waiters and waitresses pick up their
restaurants and in places where
skills on the job, some public and
meal service is formal, waiters and private schools and restaurant as­
waitresses are relieved of most ad­ sociations offer special training.
ditional duties. Dining room attend­
A neat appearance, an even
ants often set up tables, fill water disposition, and stamina are impor­
glasses, and do other routine tasks.
tant qualifications. Waiters and
waitresses also should be good at
Places of Employment
arithmetic and, in a few restaurants,
About 1,180,000 waiters and knowledge of a foreign language is
waitresses were employed in 1974. helpful. State laws often require
More than half worked part time waiters and waitresses to obtain
(less than 35 hours a week). Most health certificates showing that
worked in restaurants; some they are free of contagious diseases.
In most small eating places op­
worked in hotels, colleges, and fac­
tories that have restaurant facilities. portunities for promotion are
Jobs are located throughout the limited. After gaining experience,
country but are most plentiful in however, a waiter or waitress may
large cities and tourist areas. Vaca­ transfer to a larger restaurant where
tion resorts offer seasonal employ­ earnings and prospects for advance­
ment and some waiters and ment may be better. Advancement

Job openings are expected to be
plentiful in the years ahead, mainly
due to the need to replace the
waiters and waitresses who find
other jobs or who retire, die, or stop
working for other reasons. Turn­
over is particularly high among
part-time workers. About onefourth of the waiters and waitresses
are students, most of whom work
part-time while attending school
and then find other jobs after
graduation. In addition to the job
openings from turnover, many will
result from employment growth.
Employment of waiters and
waitresses is expected to grow
about as fast as the average for
all occupations through the midr
1980’s as population growth and
higher incomes create more busi­
ness for restaurants. Higher in­
comes and.more leisure time will
permit people to eat out more oftea
Also, as an increasing number of
wives work, more and more fami­
lies may find dining out a welcome
Beginners will find their best op­
portunities for employment in the
thousands of informal restaurants.
Those who seek jobs in swank
restaurants may find keen competi­
tion for the jobs that become availa­

Earnings and Working
Hourly rates for waiters and
waitresses (excluding tips) ranged
from $1.20 to $3 in 1974, ac­
cording to limited data from union
contracts that covered eating and
drinking places in several large
cities. For many waiters and
waitresses, however, tips are
greater than hourly wages. Tips

generally average between 10 and
20 percent of guests’ checks. Most
waiters and waitresses receive
meals at work and many are
furnished with uniforms.
Some waiters and waitresses
work split shifts—that is, they work
for several hours during the middle
of the day, take a few hours off in
the afternoon, and then return to
their jobs for the evening hours.
They also may work on holidays
and weekends. The wide range in
dining hours creates a good oppor­
tunity for part-time work. Waiters
and waitresses stand most of the

time and often have to carry heavy
trays of food. During dining hours
they may have to rush to serve
several tables at once. The work is
relatively safe, but they must be
careful to avoid slips or falls, and
The principal union organizing
waiters and waitresses is the Hotel
and Restaurant Employees and Bar­
tenders International Union.

Sources of Additional
Information about job opportuni­

ties may be obtained from local em­
ployers, locals of the union previ­
ously mentioned, and local offices
of the State employment service.
General information on waiter and
waitress jobs is available from:
National Institute for the Food Service In­
dustry, 120 South Riverside Plaza,
Chicago, 1 1 60606.
Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institu­
tional Education, 1522 K St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20005.

greatest demand for their services
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Personal service workers perform
difficult or time-consuming tasks
for people, such as cleaning and
pressing clothes, carrying baggage,
or arranging funerals. Some of
these tasks require special skills
that must be learned through for­
mal training; others require skills
that can be learned on the job. For
some personal service jobs, workers
must obtain State licenses after
completing a training program or
Persons entering these occupa­
tions should be neat, tactful and
able to get along well with people
because success on the job depends
on the impression personal service
workers make on their customers.
Physical stamina is necessary for
those jobs that involve lifting heavy
objects or standing for long periods
of time.
Personal service workers may
receive salaries, commissions or
both. In many cases they also
receive tips that add substantially to
their income. Employers often
furnish uniforms for jobs that
require them. Some workers, like
barbers and cosmetologists, must
provide their own tools.
This section describes four per­
sonal service occupations: Barbers,
Cosmetologists, Funeral Directors
and Embalmers, and Bellhops and
Bell Captains.

(D.O.T. 330.371)

Nature of the Work
Although most men go to a
barber for just a haircut, other ser­

vices such as hairstyling and color­
ing are becoming increasingly
popular. Barbers trained in these
areas are called “ hairstylists” and
work in styling salons, unisex
salons, and some barbershops. They
cut and style hair to suit each
customer and may color or
straighten hair and fit hair pieces.
All barbers offer hair and scalp
treatments, shaves, facial massages,
and shampoos.
A small but growing number of
barbers cut and style women’s hair.
They usually work in unisex salons
and may have male and female
customers. Most States require a
cosmetologist’s license as well as a
barber’s license, however, to per­
manent wave or color women’s
As part of their responsibilities,
barbers keep their scissors, combs
and other instruments sterilized and
in good condition. They clean their
work areas and may sweep the shop
as well. Those who own or manage
a shop have additional responsibili­
ties such as ordering supplies, pay­
ing bills, keeping records, and hir­
ing employees.

Places of Employment
Most of the 130,000 barbers in
1974 worked in barbershops. Some
worked in unisex salons, and a few
worked for government agencies,
hotels or department stores. More
than half of all barbers operated
their own businesses.
About 95 percent of all barbers
are men.
All cities and towns have bar­
bershops, but employment is con­
centrated in the most populous cit­
ies and States. Hairstylists usually
work in large cities where the

All States require barbers to be
licensed. The qualifications neces­
sary to get a license vary from one
Generally a person must be a gradu­
ate of a State-approved barber
school, have completed the eighth
grade, pass a physical examination,
and be at least 16 (in some States
18) years old.
Nearly all States require a
beginner to take an examination for
an apprentice license, and serve 1
or 2 years as an apprentice before
taking the examination required for
a license as a registered barber. In
the examinations, the applicant
usually is required to pass a written
test and demonstrate an ability to
perform the basic services. Fees for
these examinations range from $5
to $75. A few States do not charge a
fee for the apprentice examination.
Because most States do not
recognize training, apprenticeship
work, or licenses obtained in
another State, persons who wish to
become barbers should review the
laws of the State in which they want
to work before entering a barber
Barber training is offered in many
public and private schools and a
few vocational schools. Courses
usually last 6 to 12 months.

Trainees buy their own tools which
cost about $200. They study the
basic services—haircutting, shav­
ing, facial massaging, and hair and
scalp treatments—and, under su­
pervision, practice on fellow stu­
dents and on customers in school
“clinics.” Besides attending lec­
tures on barber services and the use
and care of instruments, students
take courses in sanitation and hy­
giene, and learn how to recognize
certain skin conditions. Instruction
also is given in selling and general
business practices. Advanced cour­
ses are available in some localities
for barbers who wish to update
their skills or specialize in hairstyl­
ing, coloring, and the sale and
service of hairpieces.
Dealing with customers requires
patience and a better than average
disposition. Good health and
stamina also are important because
barbers stand a great deal and work
with both hands at shoulder level—
a position that can be tiring.
Beginners may get their first jobs
through the barber school they at­
tended, or through the local
barber’s union or employer’s as­
Some experienced barbers ad­
vance by becoming managers of
large shops or by opening their own
shops. A few may teach at barber
schools. Barbers who go into busi­
ness for themselves must have the
capital to buy or rent a shop and
install equipment. New equipment
for a one-chair shop cost from
$1,500 to $2,800 in 1974. Some
shopowners buy used equipment
and fixtures at reduced prices, how­

Employment Outlook
The employment decline of the
last decade is expected to level off
by the mid-1980’s as population
growth and the increasing populari­
ty of hairstyling offset the effect of
the fashion for longer hair.
Although little change is expected
in the level of employment, several

thousand job openings will result
each year from the need to replace
workers who retire, die, or transfer
to other occupations. Replacement
needs are relatively high because
barbers are somewhat older, on the
average, than workers in other oc­
The shift in consumer prefer­
ences from regular haircuts to
more personalized and intensive
services has greatly affected the oc­
cupation. Barbers who specialize in
hairstyling have been more success­
ful than those who offer conven­
tional services. This trend is ex­
pected to continue, and employ­
ment will probably decline in the
short run.
In the long run, however, em­
ployment prospects should improve
as population growth and the in­
creasing popularity of hairstyling
cause the demand for barbering
services to rise. Employment op­
portunities should be better for
hairstylists than for regular barbers.

ability to attract and hold regular
Most full-time barbers work
more than 40 hours a week and a
workweek of over 50 hours is not
uncommon. Although Saturdays
and lunch hours are generally very
busy, a barber may have some time
off during slack periods. To assure
an even workload, some barbers
ask customers to make appoint­
ments. Under some union con­
tracts, barbers receive 1- or 2-week
paid vacations, insurance, and
medical benefits.
The principal union which or­
ganizes barbers—both employees
and shopowners—is the Jour­
neymen Barbers, Hairdressers,
Cosmetologists and Proprietors’ In­
ternational Union of America. The
principal professional association
which represents and organizes
shopowners, managers and em­
ployees is the Associated Master
Barbers and Beauticians of Amer­

Earnings and Working

Sources of Additional

Barbers receive income from
commissions or wages and tips.
Most barbers who are not
shopowners normally receive 65 to
75 percent of the money they take
in; a few are paid straight salaries.
Weekly earnings of experienced
barbers (including tips) generally
ranged between $175 and $225 in
1974, according to limited informa­
tion available. Hairstylists usually
earned $275 to $350 a week,
because the services they provide
are more personalized and there­
more expensive.
hairstylists and a few barbers who
operated their own shops earned
more than $400 a week. Beginning
barbers usually earn about $155 to
$175 a week, hairstylists $175 to
$225 a week.
Earnings depend on the size and
location of the shop, customers’
tipping habits, competition from
other barbershops, and the barber’s

Information on State licensing
requirements and approved barber
schools is available from the State
Board of Barber examiners or other
State authority at each State
For general information on train­
ing facilities and State licensing
laws, contact:
National Association of Barber Schools, Inc.
361 24th St., Ogden, Utah 84401.

Additional information on this
occupation is available from:
Associated Master Barbers and Beauticians
of America, 219 Greenwich Road, P.O.
Box 17782, Charlotte, N.C. 28211.
National Barber Career Center, 3839 White
Plains Road, Bronx, N.Y. 10467.

Information on barber schools is
available from:
National Association of Trade and Technical
Schools, 2021 L St. NW., Room 440,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

Industry elsewhere in the Handbook
for information on earnings and
working conditions, sources of ad­
ditional information, and more in­
formation on employment outlook.

(D.O.T. 324.138 and .878)

Nature of the Work
Bellhops carry baggage for hotel
and motel guests and escort them to
their rooms on arrival. When show­
ing new guests to their rooms, bell­
hops make sure everything is in
order and may offer information
about valet services, dining room
hours, or other hotel services. Bell­
hops also run errands for guests and
may relieve elevator operators or
switchboard operators.
Large and medium-sized hotels
employ bell captains to supervise
bellhops on the staff. They plan
work assignments, record the hours
each bellhop is on duty, and train
new employees. Bell captains take
care of any unusual requests guests
may make and handle any com­
plaints regarding their department.
Sometimes they help arriving or de­
parting guests if a bellhop is
unavailable. In 1974, more than
17,000 persons, most of them men,
worked as bellhops and bell cap­
A few hotels have large service
departments and employ superin­
tendents of service to supervise bell
captains and bellhops, elevator
washroom attendants.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
No specific educational require­
ments exist for bellhops, although
high school graduation improves
the chances for promotion to a job
as desk clerk or reservation clerk.
Many hotels fill bellhop jobs by
promoting elevator operators.
Because bellhops have frequent
contact with guests, they must be
neat, tactful, and courteous. A
knowledge of the local area is an as­
set because guests often ask about
local tourist attractions, restau­

(D.O.T. 332.271 and .381;
331.878 and339.371)

Nature of the Work

rants, and transportation serv­
ices. Bellhops also must be able to
stand for long periods, carry heavy
baggage, and work independently.
Bellhops can advance to bell cap­
tain and then to superintendent of
service, but opportunities are
limited. Because there is only one
bell captain position in each hotel,
many years may pass before an
opening occurs. Opportunities for
advancement to superintendent of
service are even fewer.
Employment Outlook

Employment of bellhops is ex­
pected to grow more slowly than
the average for all occupations
through the mid-1980’s. Most
openings, however, will result from
the need to replace workers who
die, retire, or leave the occupation.
Although many motels now offer
services similar to those of a hotel
and employ bellhops, the growing
popularity of economy motels that
offer only basic services is expected
to limit employment growth. New
workers will have better opportuni­
ties in motels and small hotels
because the large luxury hotels
prefer to hire experienced workers.
Opportunities also will be available
in resort areas where hotels and
motels are open only part of the
See the statement on the Hotel

Hair has been a center of atten­
tion since women and men first
began to care about their ap­
pearance. Throughout history a
great deal of effort has gone into
acquiring a fashionable hairstyle or
Although styles change from year
to year, the cosmetologist’s task
remains the same; to help people
look attractive.
Cosmetologists, who also are
called beauty operators, hairdres­
sers, or beauticians, shampoo, cut
and style hair, and advise customers
on how to care for their hair.
Frequently they straighten or per­
manent wave a customer’s hair to
keep the style in shape. Cosmetolo­
gists may also lighten or darken the
color of the hair to better suit the
customer’s skin color. Cosmetolo­
gists may give manicures and scalp
and facial treatments, provide
makeup analysis for women, and
clean and style wigs and hairpieces.
Most cosmetologists make ap­
pointments and keep records of
hair color formulas and permanent
waves used by their regular
customers. They also keep their
work area clean and sanitize their
hairdressing implements. Those
who operate their own salons also
have managerial duties which in­
clude hiring and supervising work­
ers, keeping records, and ordering

Places of Employment
Most of the 500,000 cosmetolo-

gists employed in 1974 worked in
beauty salons. Some worked in
unisex shops, barber shops, or de­
partment stores, and a few were
employed by hospitals and hotels.
More than a third operated their
own businesses.
Over 90 percent of all cosmetolo­
gists are women, and the proportion
of men in the occupation has
declined slightly in recent years.
All cities and towns have beauty
salons, but employment is concen­
trated in the most populous cities
and States. Those cosmetologists
who set fashion trends with their
hairstyles usually work in New
York City, Los Angeles, and other
centers of fashion and the perform­
ing arts.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Although all States require
cosmetologists to be licensed, the
qualifications necessary to obtain a
license vary. Generally, a person
must have graduated from a Stateapproved cosmetology school, have
completed at least the 10th grade,
pass a physical examination, and be
at least 16 years old. In some States
completion of an apprenticeship
training program can substitute for
graduation from a cosmetology
school, but very few cosmetologists
learn their skills in this way.
Cosmetology instruction is of­
fered in both public and private vo­
cational schools, in either daytime
or evening classes. A daytime
course usually takes 6 months to 1
year to complete; an evening course
takes longer. Many public school
programs include the academic
subjects needed for a high school
diploma and last 2 to 3 years. An
apprenticeship program usually
lasts 1 or 2 years.
Both public and private programs
include classroom study, demon­
strations, and practical work. Most
schools provide students with the
necessary hairdressing implements,
such as scissors, razors, and hair

During a make-up analysis, cosmetologists show customers how to care for their
skin and enhance their appearance by using make-up.

rollers, and include their cost in the
tuition fee. Sometimes students
must purchase their own. A good
set of implements costs about
$65.00. Beginning students work on
manikins or on each other. Once
they have gained some experience,
students practice on customers in
school “ clinics.”
cosmetology course, students take
the State licensing examination.
The examination consists of a writ­
ten test and a practical test in which
applicants demonstrate their ability
to provide the required services. In
some States an oral examination is
included and the applicant is asked
to explain the procedures he or she
is following while taking the practi­
cal test. In some States a separate
examination is given for persons

who want only a manicurist’s
reciprocity agreements that allow a
cosmetologist licensed in one State
to work in another without re-examination.
Persons who want to become
cosmetologists must have finger
dexterity, a sense of form and artis­
try, and the physical stamina to
stand for long periods of time. They
should enjoy dealing with the public
and be willing and able to follow
customers’ instructions. Because
hairstyles are constantly changing,
cosmetologists must keep abreast of
the latest fashions and beauty
techniques. Business skills are im­
portant for those who plan to
operate their own salons.
Practically all schools help their
students find jobs. During their first

months on the job, new cosmetolo­
gists are given relatively simple
tasks, such as giving manicures or
shampoos, or are assigned to work
on customers who are not regular
patrons. Once they have demon­
strated their skill, they are assigned
to regular customers and perform
the more complicated tasks of styl­
ing, coloring, and permanent wav­
ing hair.
Advancement usually is in the
form of higher earnings as
cosmetologists gain experience and
build a steady clientele; but many
manage large salons or open their
own after several years of ex­
perience. Some teach in cosmetolo­
gy schools or use their knowledge
and skill to demonstrate cosmetics
in department stores. A few work as
inspectors for State cosmetology

for these workers because many
men go to unisex shops or beauty
salons for styling services. In addi­
tion to openings due to growth in
the occupation, thousands of
cosmetologists will be needed each
year to replace those who die,
retire, or leave the occupation.
Employment in this occupation is
not strongly affected by downturns
in the business cycle, and job op­
portunities are expected to be good
for both newcomers and ex­
perienced cosmetologists. Many
openings should be available for
persons seeking part-time work.

Earnings and Working

Cosmetologists receive income
from commissions or wages and
from tips. Those who are not shop
owners receive a percentage of the
money they take in, usually 50 per­
Employment Outlook
cent; a few are paid straight sala­
Employment of cosmetologists is ries.
expected to grow about as fast as the
Weekly earnings of experienced
average for all occupations through cosmetologists (including tips)
the mid-1980’s as population in­ generally ranged between $250 and
creases and the number of working $300 in 1974, according to limited
women rises. The trend to hairstyl­ information available. After 10
ing for men also creates a demand years of experience, they can earn
more than $400 a week. Beginners
usually earned $75 to $ 100 a week.
Those cosmetologists who cut
and style men’s hair often earn
more than those who work on
women’s hair because the services
they provide are more expensive.
The few cosmetologists who set
hairstyle trends earn $ 1,000 a week
or more.
Earnings also depend on the size
and location of the salon,
customers’ tipping habits, competi­
tion from other beauty salons, and
the individual cosmetologist’s abili­
ty to attract and hold regular
Many full-time cosmetologists
work more than 40 hours a week,
Some cosmetologists work for menu* including evenings and Saturdays
fecturers of heir-cere products end
when beauty salons are busiest.
demonstrete heir-cutting end styling
More than one-third of all
techniques at trade shows and conven­
cosmetologists work part time,

usually during these busy hours.
A few large salons and depart­
ment stores offer group life and
health insurance and other benefit
plans. Nearly all employers provide
annual paid vacations of at least 1
week after a year’s service.
The principal union which or­
ganizes cosmetologists—both em­
ployees and salon owners—is the
Journeymen Barbers, Hairdressers,
Cosmetologists, and Proprietor’s
International Union of America.
The principal trade association
which represents and organizes
salon owners and managers is the
Associated Master Barbers and
Beauticians of America. Other or­
ganizations include the National
Hairdressers and Cosmetologists
Association, Inc.; the National As­
sociation of Cosmetology Schools,
Inc., which represents school
owners and teachers; and the Na­
tional Beauty Culturists’ League,
representing black cosmetologists,
teachers, managers, and salon

Sources of Additional
A list of approved training
schools and licensing requirements
can be obtained from State boards
of cosmetology. Additional infor­
mation about careers in cosmetolo­
gy and State licensing requirements
is available from:
National Beauty Career Center, 3839 White
Plains Rd., Bronx, N.Y. 19467.
National Hairdressers and Cosmetologists
Association, 3510 Olive St., St. Louis,
Mo. 63103.

For general information about
the occupation, contact:
Cosmetologists, and Proprietors Inter­
national Union of America, 7050 West
Washington St., Indianapolis, Ind.
National Association of Cosmetology
Schools, 599 South Livingston Ave.,
Livingston, N.J. 07039.

(D.O.T. 187.168 and 338.381)

Nature of the Work
Few occupations require the tact,
discretion, and compassion called
for in the work of funeral directors
and embalmers. The family and
friends of the deceased may be
under considerable emotional stress
and bewildered by the many details
of the occasion. The funeral director
(D.O.T. 187.168) helps them to
make the personal and business ar­
rangements necessary for the serv­
ice and burial. The embalmer
(D.O.T. 338.381) prepares the
body for viewing and burial. In
many instances, one person per­
forms both functions.
The director’s duties begin when
a call is received from a family
requesting services. After arranging
for the deceased to be removed to
the funeral home, the director ob­
tains the information needed for the
death certificate, such as date and
place of birth and cause of death.
The director makes an appointment
with the family to discuss the details
of the funeral. These include: time
and place of service; clergy and or­
ganist; selection of casket and
clothing, and provisions for burial
or cremation. Directors also make
arrangements with the cemetery,
newspapers, and take care of other
details as necessary. Directors must
be familiar with the funeral and bu­
rial customs of various religious
faiths and fraternal organizations.
Embalming is a sanitary and
preservative measure, and under
certain circumstances, such as
delayed burials, is required by law.
Embalmers, perhaps with the help
of apprentices, first wash the body
with germicidal soap. The embalm­
ing process itself replaces the blood
with a preservative fluid. Embal­
mers apply cosmetics to give the
body a natural appearance and, if

necessary, restore disfigured fea­
tures. Finally, they dress the body
and place it in the casket selected
by the family.
On the day of the funeral,
directors provide cars for the family
and pallbearers, receive and usher
guests to their seats, and organize
the funeral procession. After the
service they may help the family file
claims for social security, in­
surance, and other benefits.
Directors may serve a family for
several months following the fu­
neral until such matters are satisfac­
torily completed.

Places of Employment
About 45,000 persons were
licensed as funeral directors and
embalmers in 1974. A substantial
number of the directors were fu­
neral home owners.
Most of the 23,000 funeral
homes in 1974 had 1 to 3 directors
and embalmers, including the
owner. Many large homes, how­
ever, had 20 or more. Besides the
embalmers employed by funeral
homes, several hundred worked for
morgues and hospitals.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A license is needed to practice
embalming. State licensing stand­
ards vary but generally an em­
balmer must be 21 years old, have a
high school diploma or its
equivalent, graduate from a mor­
tuary science school, serve an ap­
prenticeship, and pass a State board
examination. One-half of the States
require a year or more of college in
addition to training in mortuary
All but six States also require fu­
neral directors to be licensed.
Qualifications are similar to those
for embalmers, but directors may
have special apprenticeship training
and board examinations. Most peo­
ple entering the field obtain both
licenses. Information on licensing
requirements is available from the

State office of occupational
High school students can start
preparing for a career in this field
by taking courses in biology,
chemistry, and speech. Students
may find a part-time or summer job
in a funeral home. Although these
jobs consist mostly of maintenance
and clean-up tasks, such as washing
and polishing hearses, they can be
helpful in gaining familiarity with
the operation of funeral homes.
In 1974, 28 schools had mortuary
science programs accredited by the
American Board of Funeral Service
Education. About one-half were
private vocational schools that offer
1-year programs emphasizing basic
subjects such as anatomy and
physiology, as well as practical
techniques and restorative art. A
small number of colleges and
universities offer 2-year and 4-year
programs in funeral service. These
programs included liberal arts and
management courses as well as
mortuary science. All programs of­
fered courses in psychology, ac­
counting, and funeral law.
Apprentices work under the
guidance of experienced embal­
mers and directors. An apprentice­
ship usually lasts 1 or 2 years and
may be served before, after, or dur­
ing the time one attends mortuary
school, depending on State regula­
State board examinations consist
of written and oral tests and actual
demonstrations of skills. After
passing the examination, ap­
prentices receive a license to prac­
tice. If they want to work in another
State they may have to pass its ex­
amination, although many States
have mutual agreements which
make this unnecessary.
Important personal traits for fu­
neral directors are composure, tact,
and the ability to communicate
easily with the public. They also
should have the desire and ability to
comfort people in their time of sor­

Advancement opportunities are
best in large funeral homes where
directors and embalmers may earn
promotion to higher paying posi­
tions such as personnel manager or
general manager. Some workers
eventually acquire enough money
and experience to establish their
own businesses.

deaths increase. Most funeral
homes, however, will be able to
meet the demand without expand­
ing their employment. The average
funeral home conducts only one or
two funerals each week and is capa­
ble of handling several more
without hiring additional em­

Employment Outlook

Earnings and Working

Little change in the employment
of funeral directors and embalmers
is expected through the mid-1980’s.
In recent years, the number of mor­
tuary school graduates has approxi­
mately equaled the number of jobs
available due to retirements,
deaths, and transfers to other occu­
pations. Barring any significant
growth in enrollments, future grad­
uates should find employment op­
portunities available.
Demand for funeral services will
rise as the population grows and

In 1974, funeral directors and
embalmers generally earned from
$200 to $300 a week. Managers
generally earned between $10,000
and $15,000 a year, and many
owners earned more than $20,000.
Apprentices earned between $2.25
and $4 an hour.
In large funeral homes, em­
ployees usually have a regular work
schedule. Typically they put in 8
hours a day, 5 or 6 days a week.
Overtime, however, occasionally
may be necessary. Some employees

work shifts; for example, nights I
week, and days the next.
Occasionally embalmers may
come into contact with contagious
diseases but the possibility of their
becoming ill is remote, even less
likely than for a doctor or nurse.

Sources of Additional
Information about job opportuni­
ties in this field is available from
local funeral homes and from:
National Funeral Directors Association of
the United States, Inc., 135 W. Wells
St., Milwaukee, Wise. 53203.
National Selected Morticians, 1616 Central
St., Evanston, 111. 60201.

For a list of accredited schools of
mortuary science and information
about scholarship opportunities,
The American Board of Funeral Service
Education, Inc., 201 Columbia St., Fair­
mont, W. Va. 26554.

convalescent, elderly, or handi­
capped person who employs them,
An area many private household
workers specialize in is child care.
Child monitors bathe children,
prepare their meals, launder their
clothes, and supervise their play.
Those who care for very young chil­
dren are responsible for sterilizing
About 1.4 million workers were private household workers to help bottles, preparing formulas, and
employed in private households in care for children, clean and main­ changing diapers. A Child mentor ,
1974. The majority were domestic tain the house and yard, cook or tutor,usually has charge of
workers who performed household meals, or serve the family. Some school-age children and supervises
tasks such as cooking, cleaning, or household workers specialize in one their recreation, diet, and health, as
caring for children, but workers in of these jobs, but the duties of most well as their education. These
other occupations also are em­ workers change from day to day. workers also are responsible for
ployed by private households. Frequently, workers who specialize disciplining the children and ar­
Gardeners keep the grounds of live in their employer’s house.
ranging their activities. Sometimes
Most private household workers they teach art, music, or languages.
large estates looking attractive by
planting shrubs and flowers and are employed as general houseA household with a large staff of
cutting the lawn. Chauffeurs drive workers or mother’s helpers. These workers may employ a home
their employers’ cars and keep the workers clean the house and may housekeeper or a butler to supervise
vehicles clean and in good running also be responsible for meal prepa­ the staff and the operation of the
condition. Some households em­ ration, laundry, or caring for chil­ household. These workers usually
ploy private nurses and secretaries.
dren. When hired by the day or are responsible for hiring and firing
Most private household workers hour, they are called day workers. the other household employees. In
work for several different em­
Heavy household tasks and yard addition to these duties, butlers
ployers at once, spending a day or maintenance are usually performed receive and announce guests,
two a week with each one. Others by caretakers. They may wash win­ answer telephones, serve food and
work for only one employer, and in dows, paint fences and mow the drinks, and may act as gentleman’s
some cases live in their employer’s lawn.
attendants. Housekeepers order
In some households meals are
prepared by cooks. Some cooks do
discusses some of the most impor­ everything from planning menus
tant domestic occupations found in
and buying food to serving meals
and cleaning the kitchen. Others
general housekeeper, companion,
follow the instructions of a family
and child monitor. For information
on the services that nurses and member. Cooks may be assisted by
secretaries may perform in private a cook's helper, who is less skilled
households, see the statements on than a cook and performs simple
these occupations elsewhere in the tasks, such as peeling vegetables
and cleaning the kitchen.
A few households employ launderers to wash, iron, and fold the
Some private household workers
specialize in performing personal
services for members of the family.
(D.O.T. 099.228, 301.887,
Lady's and gentleman's attendants
303.138 and .878; 304.887,
serve their employers by keeping
305.281, 306.878, 307.878, and
their clothes pressed and hung,
309.138 through .999)
making their beds, helping them Cooks employed in private households
dress, and running errands. Com­ may be responsible for planning menus
Nature of the Work
panions do similar work, but they and buying food, as well as preparing
and serving meals.
Thousands of people employ also act as a friend or aide to the

food and cleaning supplies and
keep a record of expenditures.

Places of Employment
More than 1.2 million persons—
about 98 percent of them women—
household workers in 1974. Nearly
all worked in their employers’
homes, but a few specialized work­
ers, such as laundresses and child
monitors, worked at their own
Most private household workers
are employed part time, working
half-days or only 2 or 3 days a
week. Those who live in their em­
ployer’s house work longer hours.
Household jobs can be found
throughout the country, but most
are located in urban areas and in
the South.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
For most household jobs, formal
education is much less important
than experience and an ability to
cook, clean, or care for a yard. Em­
ployers prefer workers who know
how to operate vacuum cleaners,
floor waxers, and lawn mowers, but
most young people can learn these
skills while helping with the house
and yard work at home. Some
household workers acquire skills by
spending a year working as a
mother’s helper under the supervi­
sion of either an experienced
household worker or their em­
Home economics courses in high
schools, vocational schools, and
junior colleges offer training in child
development and meal preparation
that can be very useful to persons
interested in becoming cooks or
child care workers. Training pro­
grams sponsored by Federal agen­
cies, State employment service of­
fices, and local welfare departments
also teach many of the skills needed
for household work.
For a person wishing a job as a
child mentor or a companion, edu­

cational and cultural background is
more important than work ex­
perience Generally a companion’s
background, interests, and age
should be similar to his or her em­
ployer’s, and practical nursing ex­
perience is useful if the employer is
an invalid. Being able to read well
or carry on an interesting conversa­
tion also is helpful. A well-rounded
education, including art and music,
and teaching skills are important to
a child mentor, especially one who
is responsible for younger children.
Private household workers must
have physical stamina because they
are on their feet most of the time
and sometimes must do some heavy
lifting. The desire to do a job care­
fully and thoroughly is important.
Household workers should be able
both to get along well with people
and to work independently. Some
workers, particularly cooks and in­
fant’s nurses, need a health cer­
tificate showing that they are free of
contagious diseases. Many em­
ployers arrange and pay for the
necessary physical examination.
Advancement other than an in­
crease in wages generally is not
possible in private household work.
Few households require live-in
workers and even fewer require so
many that a butler or home
housekeeper is needed as a super­
visor. Workers can transfer to
better paying and more highly
skilled household jobs, such as
cook, lady’s or gentleman’s attend­
ant, or child monitor; but job
openings in these occupations are
limited. Private household workers
who are trained and experienced in
child care, however, may obtain
jobs in child or day care facilities.
Cooks may obtain jobs in cafeterias
or restaurants.

Employment Outlook
Although the number of private
household workers is expected to
decline through the mid-1980’s,
thousands of openings will result
each year from the need to replace

those who die, retire, or leave the
occupation. The demand for
household workers has exceeded
supply for some time, as more
women, especially those with young
children, enter the labor force. Low
wages, the tedious nature of some
household tasks, and the lack
of advancement opportunities
discourage many persons from en­
tering the occupation, however,
and some prospective employers
are turning to child-care ’centers
and commercial cleaning services
for help.
for domestic
housekeepers and child monitors,
will be good through the mid1980’s. Many openings will be
available for part-time work.

Earnings and Working
In 1974, full-time female private
household workers averaged $2,243 a year, less than half the aver­
age for all nonsupervisory work­
ers in private industry, except
unavailable for men in the occupa­
tion because they represent such a
small proportion of total employ­
ment. The provisions of Federal
and State minimum wage laws were
extended to private household
workers in May 1974.
Wages vary according to the
work performed, employer’s in­
come, and the custom of the local
area. Earnings are highest in large
cities, especially in the North,
workers who “live in” generally
earn more than those who must
travel to their jobs, but the latter
often receive transportation money
and a free meal.
Most private household workers
receive instructions from their em­
ployers, but are free to work on
their own. Frequently, they have a
key to the house or apartment.
Household work is often tedious,
especially for day workers who
generally are given the less desira­

ble tasks, such as cleaning
bathrooms or kitchen cupboards.
Long or irregular working hours
can isolate workers who “ live in”
from their families and friends, and
if they are the sole employees in the
households, they are likely to be
alone most of the time.

Sources of Additional

Information on laws affecting
household workers and guidelines
for work is available from:

Facts about employment oppor­
tunities and training programs in
private household work are availa­
ble from local offices of State em­
ployment services.

National Committee on Household Employ­
ment, 7705 Georgia Ave., NW, Suite
208, Washington, D.C. 20012.

The growth of our Nation’s popu­
lation and economy has put an in­
creasing emphasis on protective
services. Each city, suburban area,
and national port of entry requires
protective and related service wor­
kers to check crime, minimize loss
of life and property, and enforce
regulations that protect the health
and safety of our citizens at home
and on the job.
Careers in protective and related
service occupations require varied
combinations of education and ex­
perience. Workers such as FBI spe­
cial agents and some Federal
Government inspectors must have
at least a bachelor’s degree, while
guards may have less than a high
school education. Most occupa­
tions in this group, however,
require a high school diploma. In
many cases, a college degree is an
asset for advancement to higher
level positions.
In addition to educational
requirements, most workers in pro­
tective and related services must
undergo formal training programs
and get on-the-job experience be­
fore they are fully qualified. Train­
ing programs last from several days
to a few months and emphasize
specific job-related skills.
Personal qualifications such as
honesty and an understanding of
human nature are important. Per­
sons seeking careers in protective
and related service occupations
should sincerely desire to serve the
community and be able to exercise
proper judgment under a variety of
This section describes the work
of several occupations in protective

and related services: FBI Special
Agents, Firefighters, Police Of­
ficers, State Police Officers,
Guards, Occupational Safety and
Health Workers, and Health, Regu­
latory, and Construction Inspec­

their casework, Special Agents may
interview people, observe the ac­
tivities of suspects, and participate
in raids. Because the FBI’s work is
highly confidential, Special Agents
may not disclose any of the infor­
mation gathered in the course of
their official duties to unauthorized
persons, including members of their
families. At times, agents have to
testify in court about cases which
they investigate.
Although they work alone on
most assignments, agents commu­
nicate with their supervisors by
radio or telephone as the circum­
stances dictate. In performing
potentially dangerous duties, such
as arrests and raids, two or more
agents are assigned to work

(D.O.T. 375.168)

Nature of the Work
Federal Bureau of Investigation
(FBI) Special Agents investigate
violations of Federal laws such as
bank robberies, kidnappings, frauds
against the Government, thefts of
Government property, espionage,
and sabotage. The FBI, which is
part of the U.S. Department of
Justice, has jurisdiction over many
different Federal investigative mat­
ters. Special Agents, therefore, may
be assigned to any type of case,
although those with specialized
training usually work on cases re­
lated to their background. Agents
with an accounting background, for
example, may investigate bank em­
bezzlements or fraudulent bank­
Because the FBI is a fact-gather­
ing agency, its Special Agents func­
tion strictly as investigators, collect­
ing evidence in cases in which the
United States is or may be an in­
terested party. (The FBI does not
give personal protection to in­
dividuals or do police work to in­
sure that the law is obeyed. Such
matters are handled by local and
State law enforcement agencies.) In

Places of Employment
About 8,600 persons were Spe­
cial Agents in 1974. The FBI has
been accepting applications from
women since 1972, and 30 women
now work as Special Agents.
Most agents were assigned to the
FBI’s 59 field offices located
throughout the Nation and in Puer­
to Rico. They worked in cities
where field office headquarters are
located or in resident agencies
(suboffices) established under field
office supervision to provide
prompt and efficient handling of in­
throughout the field office territory.
Some agents are assigned to the Bu­
reau headquarters in Washington,
D.C., which supervises all FBI ac­

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
To be considered for appoint­
ment as an FBI Special Agent, an
applicant usually must be a gradu­
ate of a State-accredited law school
or a college graduate with a major
in accounting. The law school train­
ing must have been preceded by at
least 2 years of undergraduate col-

U.S. Marine Corps Base in Quantico, Va. before assignment to a
field office. During this period,
agents receive intensive training in
defensive tactics and the use of
firearms. In addition, they are
thoroughly schooled in Federal
criminal law and procedures, FBI
rules and regulations, fingerprint­
ing, and investigative work. After
assignment to a field office, the new
agent usually works closely with an
experienced agent for about 2
weeks before handling any assign­
ments independently.
All administrative and superviso­
ry jobs are filled from within the
ranks by selecting those FBI Special
Agents who have demonstrated the
ability to assume more responsibili­

Employment Outlook

FBI special agent photographs a weapon.

lege work. Accounting graduates
must have at least 1 year of ex­
perience in accounting, auditing, or
a combination of both.
From time to time, as the need
arises, the FBI accepts applications
from persons who have a 4-year
college degree with a physical
science major or fluency in a
foreign language, and also from
persons who have 3 years of profes­
sional, executive, complex in­
vestigative, or other specialized ex­
Applicants for the position of FBI
Special Agent must be citizens of
the United States, at least 23 and
not more than 35 years old, and
willing to serve anywhere in the
United States or Puerto Rico. They
must be capable of strenuous physi­
cal exertion, and have excellent

hearing and vision, normal color
perception, and no physical defects
which would prevent their using
firearms or participating in dan­
gerous assignments. All applicants
must pass a rigid physical examina­
tion, as well as written and oral ex­
aminations testing their knowledge
of law or accounting and their ap­
titude for meeting the public and
conducting investigations. All of
the tests except the physical ex­
aminations are given by the FBI at
its facilities. Background and
character investigations are made
of all applicants. Appointments are
made on a probationary basis and
become permanent after 1 year of
satisfactory service.
Each newly appointed Special
Agent is given about 14 weeks of
training at the FBI Academy at the

The jurisdiction of the FBI has
expanded greatly over the years.
Although it is impossible to forecast
Special Agent personnel require­
ments, employment may be ex­
pected to increase with growing FBI
The FBI provides a career service
and its rate of turnover is tradi­
tionally low. Nevertheless, the FBI
is always interested in applications
from qualified persons who would
like to be considered for the posi­
tion of Special Agent.

Earnings and Working
The entrance salary for FBI Spe­
cial Agents was $13,379 in late
1974. Special Agents are not ap­
pointed under Federal Civil Service
regulations, but, like other Federal
employees, they receive periodic
within-grade salary raises if their
work performance is satisfactory;
they can advance in grade as they
gain experience.
Special Agents are subject to call
24 hours a day and must be availa­
ble for assignment at all times.
Their duties call for some travel, for

they are assigned wherever they are
needed in the United States or
Puerto Rico. They frequently work
longer than the customary 40-hour
week and, under specified condi­
tions, receive overtime pay up to
about $3,350 a year. They are
granted paid vacations, sick leave,
and annuities on retirement.

Sources of Additional
The Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S.
Department of Justice, Washington,
D .C .20535.

(D.O.T. 373.1 18 through .884)

Nature of the Work
thousands of lives and property
Firefighters help protect the public
against this danger. This statement
gives information only about paid
professional firefighters; it does not
cover the many thousands of volun­
teer firefighters in local communi­
ties across the country.
During duty hours, firefighters
must be prepared to rush to a fire
and handle any emergency that
arises. Because firefighting is dan­
gerous and complicated, it requires
organization and teamwork. At
every fire, firefighters perform
specific duties assigned by their
commanding officer: they may con­
nect hose lines to hydrants, operate
a pressure pump, or position lad­
ders. Because their duties may
change several times while the com­
pany is in action they must be
skilled in many different firefighting
activities. In addition, they help
people to safety and administer first
Fire departments also are respon­
sible for fire prevention. Many de­
partments provide specially trained
personnel to
inspect public
buildings for conditions that might

cause a fire. They may check the
number and working condition of
fire escapes and fire doors, the
storage of flammable materials, and
other possible hazards. In addition,
firefighters educate the public
about fire prevention and safety
measures. They frequently speak on
this subject before school assem­
blies and civic groups, and, in some
communities, they inspect private
homes for fire hazards.
Between alarms, firefighters
spend much time improving their
skills and doing maintenance work.
They also have practice drills, clfean
and lubricate equipment, and
stretch hoses to dry.

Places of Employment
Nearly 220,000 persons, includ­
ing a small number of women,

worked as firefighters in 1974. Nine
out of ten worked in municipal fire
departments. Some very large cities
have several thousand firefighters
on the payroll while many small
towns have fewer than 25. Some
firefighters work in fire depart­
ments on State and Federal installa­
tions and others work in large
manufacturing plants.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
firefighting jobs must pass a written
intelligence test, a medical ex­
amination, and tests of strength,
physical stamina, and agility, as
specified by local civil service regu­
lations. These examinations are
open to men and women who are at
least 18 years of age, meet certain

height and weight requirements,
and have a high school education.
Those who receive the highest
scores on the examinations have the
best chances for appointment.
Extra credit usually is given for
military service, and experience
gained as a volunteer firefighter or
through training in the Armed
Forces also may improve an appli­
cant’s chances for appointment.
As a rule, beginners in large fire
departments are-trained for several
weeks at the city’s fire school.
Through classroom instruction and
practice drills, the recruits study
firefighting techniques, fire preven­
tion, local building codes, and first
aid; also, they learn how to use
axes, chemical extinguishers, lad­
ders, and other equipment. After
completing this training, they are
assigned to local fire companies.
Experienced firefighters often
continue study to improve their job
performance and prepare for pro­
motional examinations. Fire de­
partments frequently conduct train­
ing programs, and many colleges
and universities offer courses such
as Are engineering and fire science
that are helpful to firefighters.
Among the personal qualities
firefighters need are mental alert­
ness, courage, mechanical aptitude,
endurance, and a sense of public
judgment are extremely important
because firefighters often must
make quick decisions in emergency
situations. Because members of a
crew eat, sleep, and work closely
together under conditions of stress
and danger, they should be de­
pendable and able to get along well
with others in a group. Leadership
qualities are assets for officers who
must establish and maintain a high
degree of discipline and efficiency
as well as direct the activities of the
firefighters in their companies.
Opportunities for promotion are
good in most fire departments. As
firefighters gain experience, they
may advance to higher ratings.
After 3 to 5 years of service they

may become eligible for promotion
to the grade of. lieutenant. The line
of further promotion usually is to
captain, then battalion chief,
assistant chief, deputy chief, and
finally to chief. Chances for ad­
vancement generally depend upon
each candidate’s position on the
promotion list, as determined by
the score on a written examination,
his or her supervisor’s rating, and

cities usually is greater than the
number of job openings, even
though the written examination and
physical requirements eliminate
many applicants. Therefore, com­
petition among candidates in urban
areas is apt to remain keen. Oppor­
tunities should be much better in
smaller communities.

Employment Outlook

In 1974, average entrance sala­
firefighters ranged from $9,200 to
$ 11,000 a year, depending on city
size and region of the country.
Average maximum salaries also
varied—$10,100 in towns with a
population less than 25,000,
$ 11,900 in cities of 50,000 to
100,000 persons, and $12,800 in
those over 500,000 in population.
Earnings for firefighters are lowest
in the South and highest in the
West, and generally are higher in
suburban districts than in large
cities. Average earnings of all
firefighters are about one and onehalf times as much as the average of
all nonsupervisory workers in
private industry, except farming.
Fire chiefs in cities of 100,000 or
more averaged $25,800 a year in
1974. Those who headed fire de­
partments in cities with populations
of more than 1 million earned
Practically all fire departments
furnish allowances to pay for pro­
tective clothing (helmets, boots,
and rubber coats) and many also
provide dress uniforms.
In some cities, firefighters are on
duty for 24 hours, then off for 24
hours, and receive an extra day off
at intervals. In other cities, they
work a day shift of 10 hours or a
night shift of 14; shifts are rotated
at frequent intervals. The average
workweek for firefighters is 52
hours, but duty hours usually in­
clude some time when they are free
to read, study, or pursue other per­
sonal interests. In addition to

Employment of firefighters is ex­
pected to increase about as fast as
the average for all occupations
through the mid-1980’s to meet the
growing need for fire protection.
Several thousand jobs will become
available each year due to growth
and the need to replace those who
die, retire, or leave the occupation.
Employment should rise as new
fire departments are formed and as
others enlarge their fire prevention
sections. Much of the expected in­
crease will occur in smaller commu­
nities as volunteer fire companies
are replaced by professional fire de­
partments. Additional firefighters
also may be required as more and
more cities shorten the workweek
for firefighters and other municipal
The number of firefighters in a
community ultimately depends
upon the availability of funds from
the municipal government for sala­
ries and equipment. Fire protection
is an essential service and citizens
are likely to exert considerable
pressure on city officials to expand
fire protection coverage. However,
local governments must live within
their budgets. This means that in
some financially troubled cities,
firefighter employment probably
will remain at current levels or
decline while in other cities, em­
ployment is likely to increase sub­
stantially to meet the needs of an
expanding population.
The number of young people who
qualify for firefighter jobs in large

Earnings and Working

scheduled hours, firefighters often
must work extra hours when they
are bringing a fire under control.
When overtime is worked, most fire
departments give compensatory
time off or extra pay.
The job of a firefighter involves
risk of death or injury from sudden
cave-ins of floors or toppling walls
and danger from exposure to flames
and smoke. Firefighters also may
come in contact with poisonous,
flammable, and explosive gases and
chemicals. In addition, they
frequently work in bad weather.
covered by liberal pension plans
that often provide retirement at half
pay at age 50 after 25 years of serv­
ice or at any age if disabled in the
line of duty. Firefighters also
receive paid vacations. Provisions
for sick leave usually are liberal.
Health and surgical benefit plans
are offered in many fire depart­
ments and compensation is pro­
vided for firefighters injured in the
line of duty. Most fire departments
provide paid holidays—ranging to
11 or more a year—or compensato­
ry time off for working on holidays.
About 8 out of 10 firefighters are
members of the International As­
sociation of Firefighters (AFLCIO).

Sources of Additional
Information on obtaining a job as
a firefighter is available from local
civil service commission offices or
fire departments.
Information about a career as a
firefighter or specific job duties
may be obtained from:
International Association of Fire Fighters,
1750 New York Ave. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20006.
International Association of Fire Chiefs,
1725 K S t NW., Washington, D.C.

Additional information on the
salaries and hours of work of
firefighters in various cities is
published annually by the Interna­

tional City Management Associa­
tion in its Municipal Yearbook,
which is available in many libraries.

(D.O.T. 372.868)

Nature of the Work
Guards patrol and inspect pro­
perty to protect it against fire, theft,
vandalism, and illegal entry. The
specific duties of these workers,
however, vary by size, type, and lo­
cation of employer.
In office buildings, banks,
hospitals, and department stores,
guards protect records, merchan­
dise, money, and equipment. In de­
partment stores they often work
with undercover detectives watch­
ing for theft by customers or store
At ports and railroads, guards
protect merchandise in shipment as
well as property and equipment.
They insure that nothing is stolen
while being loaded or unloaded,
and watch for fires, prowlers, and
trouble among work crews. Some­
times they direct traffic.
Guards who work in public
buildings, such as museums or art
galleries, protect paintings or ex­
hibits from fire, theft, or damage.

They also answer routine questions
from visitors and sometimes guide
In large factories, aircraft plants,
and defense installations where
valuable information must be pro­
tected, some guards check the cre­
dentials of persons and vehicles en­
tering and leaving the premises.
University, park, or recreation
guards perform similar duties and
also may issue parking permits and
direct traffic.
At social affairs, sports events,
conventions, and other public
gatherings, guards maintain order,
give information, and watch for
suspicious persons.
In a large organization, a security
officer often is in charge of the
guard force; in a small organization
a single worker may be responsible
for security. Patrolling usually is
done on foot; but if the property is
large, guards may make their
rounds by car or motor scooter.
As they make their rounds,
guards check all doors and win­
dows, see that no unauthorized per­
sons remain after working hours,
and insure that fire extinguishers,
alarms, sprinkler systems, furnaces,
and various electrical and plumbing
systems are working properly. They
sometimes set thermostats or turn
on machines for janitorial workers.
Guards usually are uniformed
and often carry a nightstick or gun.
They also may carry a flashlight,
whistle, two-way radio, and a watch
clock—a device that indicates the
time at which they reach various

Places of Employment
In 1974, almost 475,000 per­
sons—over 95 percent of them
men—worked as guards. Most work
in office buildings, defense installa­
tions and other government
buildings, stores, hotels, banks, and
schools. Large numbers also work
in manufacturing industries.
Although guard jobs are found
throughout the country, most are

Employment Outlook

daytime, weekend, and holiday
work equally. Guards usually eat on
Employment of guards is ex­ the job instead of taking a regular
Training, Other Qualifications, pected to grow more slowly than lunch break.
and Advancement
the average for all occupations
Guards often work alone, so that
through the mid-1980’s. Most no one is nearby to help if an ac­
Most employers prefer guards openings will arise as guards retire,
who are high school graduates. Ap­ die, or leave their jobs for other cident or injury occurs. Some large
plicants with less than a high school reasons. Replacement needs in this firms therefore use a reporting
education usually are tested for occupation are relatively high service that enables guards to be in
their reading and writing abilities because guards are somewhat constant contact with a central sta­
and their competence in following older, on the average, than workers tion outside the plant. If they fail to
written and oral instructions. Em­ in most occupations. Opportunities transmit an expected signal, the
ployers also seek people who have will be most plentiful for persons central station investigates.
had experience in the military po­ seeking work on night shifts.
Sources of Additional
lice or in State and local police de­
An increase in crime and vandal­
ism will heighten the need for
Candidates for guard jobs in the security in and around plants,
Further information about work
Federal Government must be stores, and recreation areas. Addi­ opportunities for guards is available
veterans, have some experience as tional guards will be needed to pro­ from local employers and the
guards, and pass a written examina­ vide better security, but an in­ nearest State employment service
tion. For most Federal guard posi­ creased use of remote cameras, office.
tions, applicants must qualify in the alarm systems, and other electronic
use of firearms. A driver’s permit is surveillance equipment is expected
required for some jobs.
to limit employment growth.
Many employers give newly hired
guards instruction before they start
the job and also provide several
Earnings and Working
(D.O.T. 375.118 through .868
weeks of on-the-job training.
and 377.868)
Guards may be taught the use of
Guards averaged $2.71 an hour
firearms, the administration of first
Nature of the Work
aid, how to handle various emer­ in 1974, according to a Bureau of
gencies, and ways to spot and deal Labor Statistics survey of urban
The security of our Nation’s cit­
areas. Those working in the North ies and towns greatly depends on
with security problems.
Applicants are expected to have earned more than the average while the work of local police officers
good character references, no po­ guards employed in the South whose jobs range from controlling
lice record, good health—especially earned somewhat less. Guards earn traffic to preventing and investigat­
in hearing and vision—and good about four-fifths as much as the ing crimes. Whether on or off duty,
personal habits such as neatness average for all nonsupervisory these officers are expected to exer­
and dependability. They should be workers in private industry, except cise their authority whenever
mentally alert, emotionally stable, farming.
Police officers who work in a
Depending on their experience,
and physically fit to cope with
emergencies. Some employers newly hired guards in the Federal small community have many duties.
require guards to meet height and Government earned between $130 In the course of a day’s work, they
weight specifications or to be within and $146 a week. Top supervisory may direct traffic at the scene of a
guards in the Federal Government fire, investigate a housebreaking,
a certain age range.
Although guards in small compa­ may be paid up to $247 a week. and give first aid to an accident vic­
nies receive periodic salary in­ These workers usually receive over­ tim. In a large police department,
creases, advancement is likely to be time pay as well as a wage dif­ by contrast, officers usually are as­
limited. However, most large or­ ferential for the second and third signed to a specific type of duty.
ganizations use a military type of shifts. Guards generally have paid Most officers are detailed either to
ranking that offers advancement in vacations, sick leave, and insurance patrol or traffic duty; smaller num­
bers are assigned to special work
position and salary. Guards with and pension plans.
some college education may ad­
About two-thirds of all guards such as accident prevention or
vance to jobs that involve adminis­ work at night; the usual shift lasts 8 operation
trative duties or the prevention of hours. Some employers have three systems. Others work as detectives
espionage and sabotage.
shifts where guards rotate to divide (plain-clothes officers) assigned to

in highly industrialized

criminal investigation; still others, cumstances, such as open windows
as experts in chemical and micro­ or lights in vacant buildings, as well
scopic analysis, firearms identifica­ as hazards to public safety such as
tion, and handwriting and finger­ burned-out street lights or fallen
print identification. In very large trees. Officers also watch for stolen
cities, a few officers may work with automobiles and enforce traffic
special units such as mounted and regulations. At regular intervals,
motorcycle police, harbor patrols, they report to police headquarters
helicopter patrols, canine corps, through call boxes, by radio, or by
mobile rescue teams, and youth aid walkie-talkie. They prepare reports
about their activities and may be
Most newly recruited police of­ called on to testify in court when
ficers begin on patrol duty. Recruits cases result in legal action.
may be assigned to such varied
areas as congested business districts
Places of Employment
or outlying residential areas. They
may cover their beats alone or with
About 480,000 full-time officers
other officers, and they may ride in worked for local police depart­
a police vehicle or walk on “foot” ments in 1974. Although most were
patrol. In any case, they become men, an increasing number of
thoroughly familiar with conditions women are employed in police
throughout their area and, while on work.
patrol, remain.alert for anything
Some cities have very large po­
unusual. They note suspicious cir­ lice forces. For example, New York

has over 30,000 police officers and
Chicago over 13,000. Hundreds of
small communities employ fewer
than 25 each. Women police of­
ficers work mainly in large cities.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Local civil service regulations
govern the appointment of police
officers in practically all large cities
and in many small ones. Candidates
must be U.S. citizens, usually at
least 21 years of age, and must meet
certain height and weight stand­
ards. Eligibility for appointment
depends on performance in com­
petitive examinations as well as on
education and experience. The
physical examinations often include
tests of strength and agility.
Because personal characteristics
such as honesty, good judgment,
and a sense of responsibility are
especially important in police work,
candidates are interviewed b y a
senior officer at police headquar­
ters, and their character traits and
background are investigated. In
some police departments, can­
didates also may be interviewed by
a psychiatrist or a pyschologist, or
be given a personality test.
Although police officers work inde­
pendently, they must perform their
duties in line with laws and depart­
mental rules. They should enjoy
working with people, and should
want to serve the public.
In large police departments,
where most jobs are found, appli­
cants usually must have a high
school education. A few cities
require some college training and
some hire law enforcement students
as police interns. A few police de­
partments accept applicants who
have less than a high school educa­
tion as recruits, particularly if they
have worked in a field related to
law enforcement.
More and more, police depart­
ments are encouraging applicants
to take post-high school training in
sociology and psychology. As a

result, more than 500 junior col­
leges, colleges, and universities now
offer programs in law enforcement.
Other courses helpful in preparing
for a police career include English,
American history, civics and
government, business law, and
physics. Physical education and
sports are especially helpful in
developing the stamina and agility
needed for police work.
Young persons who have
completed high school can enter
police work in some large cities as
police cadets, or trainees, while still
in their teens. As paid civilian em­
ployees of the police department,
they attend classes to learn police
skills and do clerical work. They
may be appointed to the regular
force at age 21 if they have all the
necessary qualifications.
Before their first assignments, of­
ficers usually go through a period of
training. In small communities,
recruits learn by working for a short
time with experienced officers.
Training provided in large city po­
lice departments is more formal and
may last several weeks or a few
months. This training includes
classroom instruction in constitu­
tional law and civil rights; in State
laws and local ordinances; and in
accident investigation, patrol, and
traffic control. Recruits learn how
to use a gun, defend themselves
from attack, administer first aid,
and deal with emergencies.
Police officers usually become
eligible for promotion after a
specified length of service. In a
large department, promotion may
allow an officer to specialize in one
type of police work such as labora­
tory work, traffic control, commu­
nications, or work with juveniles.
Promotions to the rank of sergeant,
lieutenant, and captain usually are
made according to a candidate’s
position on a promotion list, as
determined by scores on a written
examination and on-the-job per­
Many types of training help po­
lice officers improve their per­

formance on the job and prepare
for advancement. Through training
given at police department acade­
mies and colleges, officers keep
techniques, civil defense, legal
developments that affect their
work, and advances in law enforce­
ment equipment. Many police de­
partments encourage officers to
work toward college degrees, and
some pay all or part of the tuition.

tial nature of police work, it is likely
that funding for law enforcement
will have high priority and that the
employment of city police officers
will rise faster than the average for
other occupations through the mid1980’s.

Earnings and Working

In 1974, entry level salaries for
police officers varied widely from
city to city. In some smaller com­
Employment Outlook
munities, officers earned less than
Police work is attractive to many. $600 a month, while some major cit­
The job frequently is challenging ies offered over $ 1,000 a month to
and involves much responsibility. new employees. Most officers
Furthermore, layoffs are rare. In receive regular salary increases dur­
periods of relatively high unem­ ing the first few years of employ­
ployment, the number of persons ment until they reach a set max­
seeking police employment may be imum for their rank. Maximum
greater than the number of earnings ranged from about $800 to
openings. However, the written ex­ over $ 1,200 a month in 1974.
Promotion to a higher rank
aminations and strict physical
requirements always eliminate brings a higher basic salary. Serge­
many applicants. The outlook ants, for example, started at a salary
should be good for persons having as high as $1,300 a month in 1974
some college training in law en­ and in the largest cities, lieutenants
forcement. Opportunities should began at over $1,400 a month. In
also be available for women and general, police officers are paid
minority applicants as many depart­ about one and one-half times as
ments recruit these workers to much as nonsupervisory workers in
make police departments more private industry, except farming.
Police departments usually pro­
representative of the populations
vide officers with special al­
they serve.
Law enforcement is complex and lowances for uniforms and furnish
requires an approach tailored to the revolvers, night sticks, handcuffs,
particular problems of each city. and other required equipment.
The scheduled workweek for po­
The police department of a city
with a large mobile population is lice officers usually is 40 hours.
likely to emphasize traffic control, Because police protection must be
preventive patrol, and cooperation provided around the clock, in all
with police agencies in the sur­ but the smallest communities some
rounding areas. In smaller cities, or officers are on duty over weekends,
those with well established commu­ on holidays, and at night. Police of­
nities and fewer employment and ficers are subject to call any time
recreation centers, police work may their services are needed and may
be less specialized. In either case, work overtime in emergencies. In
however, the usual way of increas­ some departments, overtime is paid
ing police protection is to provide at straight time or time and onehalf; in others, officers may be
more officers for duty.
The number of officers employed given an equal amount of time off
will depend on the amount of on another day of the week.
Police officers generally are
money made available by local
governments. Because of the essen­ covered by liberal pension plans,

enabling many to retire at half pay
by the time they reach age 55. In
addition, paid vacations, sick leave,
and health and life insurance plans
frequently are provided.
Police officers may have to work
outdoors for long periods in all
kinds of weather. The injury rate is
higher than in many occupations
and reflects the risks officers take in
pursuing speeding motorists, cap­
turing lawbreakers, and dealing
with public disorder.

Sources of Additional
about entrance
requirements may be obtained from
local civil service commissions or
police departments.
Additional information describ­
ing careers as police officers is
available from:
International Association of Chiefs of Police,
11 Firstfield Rd., Gaithersburg, Md.
Fraternal Order of Police, National
Headquarters, 3094 Bertha St., Flint,
Mich. 48504.

(D.O.T. 375.118, .138, .168,
.228, .268, and .388)

Nature of the Work
The laws and regulations that
govern the use of our Nation’s road­
ways are designed to insure the
safety of all citizens. State police of­
ficers (sometimes called State
troopers) patrol our highways and
enforce these laws.
State police officers issue traffic
tickets to motorists who violate the
law. At the scene of an accident,
they direct traffic, give first aid, call
for emergency equipment including
ambulances, and write reports to be
used in determining the cause of the
In addition, State police officers
provide services to motorists on the
highways. For example, they radio

for road service for drivers in
mechanical trouble, direct tourists
to their destination, or give infor­
mation about lodging, restaurants,
and tourist attractions.
State police officers also provide
traffic assistance and control during
road repairs, fires, and other emer­
gencies, as well as for special occur­
rences such as parades and sports
events. They sometimes check the
weight of commercial vehicles, con­
duct driver examinations, and give
information on highway safety to
the public.
In addition to highway responsi­
bilities, State police may investigate
crimes, particularly in areas that do
not have a police force. They some­
times help city or county police
catch lawbreakers and control civil
disturbances. State highway patrols,
however, normally are restricted to
vehicle and traffic matters.
Some police officers work with
special State police units such as
the mounted police, canine corps,
and marine patrols. Others instruct
trainees in State police schools,
pilot police aircraft, or specialize in
fingerprint classification or chemi­
cal and microscopic analysis of
criminal evidence.
State police officers also write re­
ports and maintain police records.
Some officers, including division or

bureau chiefs responsible for train­
ing or investigation and those who
command police operations in an
assigned area, have administrative

Places of Employment
About 45,500 State police of­
ficers were employed in 1974.
Although almost all were men, posi­
tions for women are expected to in­
crease in the future.
The size of State police forces va­
ries considerably. The largest force
(in California) has over 5,000 of­
ficers; the smallest (in North
Dakota) has fewer than 100. One
State (Hawaii) does not maintain a
police force.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
State civil service regulations
govern the appointment of State
police officers. All candidates must
be citizens of the United States.
Other entry requirements vary, but
most States require that applicants
have a high school education or an
equivalent combination of educa­
tion and experience and be at least
21 years old.
Officers must pass a competitive
examination and meet physical and
personal qualifications. Physical
requirements include standards of
height, weight, and eyesight. Tests
of strength and agility often are
required. Because honesty and a
sense of responsibility are impor­
tant in police work, an applicant’s
character and background are in­
Although State police officers
work independently, they must per­
form their duties in line with de­
partment rules. They should want
to serve the public and be willing to
work outdoors in all types of
In all States, recruits enter a for­
mal training program for several
months. They receive classroom in­
struction in State laws and jurisdic­
tions, and they study procedures for

accident investigation, patrol, and
traffic control. Recruits learn to use
guns, defend themselves from at­
tack, handle an automobile at high
speeds, and give first aid. After
gaining experience, some officers
take advanced training in police
science, administration, law en­
forcement, or criminology. Classes
are held at junior colleges, colleges
and universities, or special police
institutions such as the National
Academy of the Federal Bureau of
High school and college courses
in English, government, psycholo­
gy, sociology, American history,
and physics help in preparing for a
police career. Physical education
and sports are useful for developing
stamina and agility. Completion of
a driver education course and train­
ing received in military police
schools also are assets.
Police officer recruits serve a
probationary period ranging from 6
months to 3 years. After a specified
length of time, officers become
eligible for promotion. Most States
have merit promotion systems that
require officers to pass a competi­
tive examination to qualify for the
next highest rank. Although the or­
ganization of police forces varies by
State, the typical avenue of ad­
vancement is from private to cor­
poral, to sergeant, to first sergeant,
to lieutenant, and then to captain.
Police officers who show adminis­
trative ability may be promoted to
higher level jobs such as commis­
sioner or director.
In some States, high school grad­
uates may enter State police work
as cadets. These paid civilian em­
ployees of the police organization
attend classes to learn various
aspects of police work and are as­
signed nonenforcement duties.
Cadets who qualify may be ap­
pointed to the State police force at
age 21.

Employment Outlook
State police employment is ex­

pected to grow much faster than the
average for other occupations.
Although most jobs will result from
this growth, some openings will be
created as officers retire, die, or
leave the occupation for other
reasons. As job openings are filled
from the ranks of available appli­
cants, the increased interest of
women in police work will result in
greater employment of women for
patrol duties.
Although some State police will
be needed in criminal investigation
and other nonhighway functions,
the greatest demand will be for of­
ficers to work in highway patrol.
This is the result of a growing, more
mobile population. In ever increas­
ing numbers, Americans are using
the motor vehicle as a source of
recreation. Motorcycles, campers,
and other recreational vehicles will
continue to add to the Nation’s traf­
fic flow and require additional of­
ficers to insure the safety of
highway users.
Because law enforcement work is
becoming more complex, spe­
cialists will be needed in crime
laboratories and electronic data
processing centers to develop ad­
ministrative and criminal informa­
tion systems. However, in many de­
partments, these jobs will be filled
by civilian employees rather than
uniformed officers.

specified maximum is reached. In
1974, maximum rates ranged from
about $750 to over $ 1,200 a month;
maximum rates were most com­
monly between $900 and $1,000 a
month. Earnings increase with
promotions to higher ranks. The
most common maximum salaries
for State police sergeants in 1974
were between $1,000 and $1,200.
Lieutenants earned more, often
between $1,200 and $1,300 a
State police agencies usually pro­
vide officers with uniforms,
firearms, and other necessary
equipment, or give special al­
lowances for their purchase.
In many States, the scheduled
workweek for police officers is 40
hours. Although the workweek is
longer in some States, hours over
40 are being reduced. Since police
protection must be provided
around the clock, some officers are
on duty over weekends, on
holidays, and at night. Police of­
ficers also are subject to emergency
calls at any time.
State police usually are covered
by liberal pension plans. Paid vaca­
tions, sick leave, and medical and
life insurance plans frequently are
The work of State police officers
is sometimes dangerous. They al­
ways run the risk of an automobile
accid en t while pursuing speeding

Earnings and Working

motorists or fleeing criminals. Of­
ficers also face the risk of injury
while apprehending criminals or
controlling disorders.

In 1974, beginning salaries for
State police officers ranged from al­
most $600 to about $1,000 a
Sources of Additional
month. The most common entry
rates ranged from $600 to $700 a
Information about specific en­
month. Although starting salaries
are normally higher in the West and trance requirements may be ob­
lower in the South, State police of­ tained from State civil service com­
ficers on the average earn about 1 missions or State police headquar­
1/2 times as much as nonsuperviso- ters, usually located in each State
ry workers in private industry, ex­ capital.
cept farming.
State police generally receive
regular increases, based on ex­
perience and performance, until a

(D.O.T. 168.168)

Nature of the Work
Federal, State, and local govern­
ment construction inspectors insure
that recognized standards of safe
construction and quality workman­
ship are observed in public and
private construction. They inspect
the construction, alteration, or
repair of highways, streets, sewer
and water systems, dams, bridges,
buildings, and other structures to
insure compliance with building
codes and ordinances, zoning regu­
lations, and contract specifications.
Construction inspectors visit
worksites to inspect recently
completed construction. On large
projects, visits generally are
required after each new stage of
construction is completed. Mem­
bers of large inspection staffs may
be assigned to a single complex
project. Inspectors prepare written
reports and often keep a daily log of
their work. Inspections are primari­
ly visual in nature, although
blueprints, tape measures, standard
electrical metering devices, and
other types of testing equipment
frequently are used.
Construction inspectors notify
the construction contractor, su­
perintendent, or supervisor when
they discover a detail of a project
that is not in compliance with the
appropriate codes, ordinances, or
contract specifications. If the defi­
ciency is not corrected within a
reasonable period of time, they
have authority to issue a “stopwork” order.
Many inspectors also investigate
“ bootlegging,” construction or al­
teration that is being carried on
without proper permits. Persons
found in violation of permit laws
are directed to obtain permits and
submit to inspection.

Construction inspectors must
keep abreast of new building code
developments, since they advise
representatives of the construction
industry and the general public on
matters of code interpretation, con­
struction practices, and new techni­
cal developments. Senior inspectors
usually coordinate the inspection of
large projects and handle the most
complex inspection assignments.
In addition to their field inspec­
tion duties, supervisory construc­
tion inspectors assign and coor­
dinate the work of other inspectors
and review reports submitted to
them. They may review plans and
specifications of proposed con­
struction for compliance with
codes, interpret codes and or­
dinances, and prepare construction
progress reports. Supervisory build­
ing inspectors are often asked to
assist in drawing up or revising local
building codes and ordinances.
Construction inspectors general­
ly specialize in one particular
type of construction work. Broadly
categorized, these are building,
electrical, mechanical, and public
Building inspectors inspect the
structural quality of buildings. Be­
fore construction, they determine
whether the plans for the building
or other structure comply with local
zoning regulations and are suited to

the engineering and environmental
demands of the building site. They
visit the worksite before the foun­
dation is poured to inspect the posi­
tioning and depth of the footings.
They inspect the foundation after it
has been completed. The size and
type of structure and the rate of
completion determine the frequen­
cy and number of other visits they
must make. Upon completion of the
project, they conduct a final com­
prehensive inspection. Some build­
ing inspectors may specialize, for
example, in structural steel or rein­
forced concrete.
Electrical inspectors inspect the
installation of electrical systems
and equipment to insure that they
work property and are in com­
pliance with electrical codes and
standards. They visit worksites to
inspect new and existing wiring,
lighting, sound and security
systems, and generating equipment.
They also may inspect the installa­
tion of the electrical wiring for
systems, kitchen appliances, and
other components.
Mechanical inspectors examine
plumbing systems including septic
tanks, plumbing fixtures and traps,
and water, sewer, and vent lines.
They also inspect the installation of
the mechanical components of
kitchen appliances, heating and airconditioning equipment, gasoline
and butane tanks, gas piping, and
gas-fired appliances. Some special­
ize in inspecting boilers, mechani­
cal components, or plumbing.
Public works inspectors insure
that Federal, State, and local
government construction of water
and sewer systems, highways,
streets, bridges, and dams conforms
to detailed contract specifications.
They inspect excavation and fill
operations, the placement of forms
for concrete, concrete mixing and
pouring, and asphalt paving. They
also record the amount of work per­
formed and materials used so that
contract payment calculations can
be made. Public works inspectors

nity or junior college, with courses
blueprint reading, technical mathe­
matics, English, and building in­
Places of Employment
Construction inspectors must be
About 22,000 persons, nearly all in good physical condition in order
of them men, worked as govern­ to walk and climb about construc­
ment construction inspectors in tion sites. They also must have a
1974. More than three-fourths motor vehicle operator’s license. In
worked for municipal or county addition, Federal, State, and many
building departments. Public works local governments usually require
construction inspectors were em­ that construction inspectors pass a
ployed primarily at the Federal and civil service examination.
State level.
Construction inspectors receive
The employment of local govern­ most of their training on the job.
ment construction inspectors is During the first couple of weeks,
concentrated in cities and in subur­ working with an experienced in­
ban areas undergoing rapid growth. spector they learn about inspection
These governments employ large techniques; codes, ordinances, and
inspection staffs, including most of regulations; contract specifications;
the inspectors who specialize in and recordkeeping and reporting
reinforced duties. They begin by inspecting
concrete, and boiler inspection.
less complex types of construction
About half the construction in­ such as residential buildings. The
spectors employed by the Federal difficulty of their assignments is
Government work for the Depart­ gradually increased until they are
ment of Defense, primarily for the able to handle complex assign­
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
ments. An engineering degree is
frequently needed in order to ad­
Training, Other Qualifications, vance to supervisory inspector.
and Advancement
The Federal Government and
most State and large city govern­
To become a construction in­
spector, several years of experience ments conduct formal training pro­
as a construction contractor, super­ grams for their construction inspec­
visor, or craft worker are generally tors to broaden their knowledge of
required. Federal, State, and most construction materials, practices,
local governments also require an and inspection techniques and to
applicant to have a high school acquaint them with new materials
diploma. High school preparation and practices. Inspectors who work
should include courses in drafting, for small agencies which do not
mathematics, and English.
frequently can broaden their
Workers who want to become in­
spectors should have a thorough knowledge of construction and up­
knowledge of construction materi­ grade their skills by attending Stateals and practices in either a general conducted training programs or by
area like structural or heavy con­ taking college or correspondence
struction, or in a specialized area courses.
such as electrical or plumbing
systems, reinforced concrete, or
Employment Outlook
structural steel. Many employers
Employment of government con­
prefer inspectors to be graduates of
an apprenticeship program, to have struction inspectors is expected to
studied at least 2 years toward an grow faster than the average for all
engineering or architectural degree, occupations through the midor to have a degree from a commu­ 1980’s. Because of the increasing
may specialize in inspection of
highways, reinforced concrete, or

technology and the trend toward
the establishment of minimum
professional standards for inspec­
tors by State governments, job op­
portunities should be best for those
who have some college education
or knowledge of a specialized type
of construction.
In addition to growth needs, job
openings for construction inspec­
tors will occur each year to replace
those who die, retire, or transfer to
other occupations.
The number of new positions for
construction inspectors will be
largely affected by the level of
new housing and commercial
building activity. Because con­
struction activity is sensitive
to ups and downs in the economy,
the number of job openings may
fluctuate from year to year.
The demand for construction in­
spectors also should increase as
they are given more responsibility
for insuring quality workmanship
prefabricated building materials
and other components that are
mass-produced in factories and as­
sembled on the construction site.

Earnings and Working
Starting salaries of construction
inspectors working in cities and
towns averaged about $10,500 a
year in 1974, according to a survey
conducted by the Public Personnel
Association. Top salaries for senior
inspectors averaged $13,000. Sala­
ries for supervisory inspectors were
higher in large cities. Among geo­
graphic regions, the western region
of the United States tended to have
the highest salaries, cities in the
southern region the lowest.
In the Federal Government, con­
struction inspectors started at
$8,500 or $10,520 a year in late
1974, depending on the amount
and nature of their earlier work ex­
perience. Journeyman construction
inspectors were paid salaries rang­

ing from $12,841 to $17,497, and
more experienced workers were
paid salaries ranging from $15,481
to over $20,000.
Construction inspectors often
spend a large portion of their time
Usually, an automobile is furnished
for their use or their expenses are
reimbursed if they use their own.
Since they spend most of their time
outdoors or in partially enclosed
structures, they are exposed to all
types of inclement weather.
Unlike the seasonal and intermit­
tent nature of employment in many
of the occupations associated with
the construction industry, inspec­
tion work tends to be steady and

Sources of Additional

regulatory inspectors help insure
observance of the laws and regula­
tions that govern these responsibili­
ties. For discussion of a third, see
the statement on Construction In­
spectors (Government) elsewhere
in the Handbook.
The duties, titles, and responsi­
bilities of Federal, State, and local
health and regulatory inspectors
vary widely. Some types of inspec­
tors work only for the Federal
Government while others also are
employed by State and local
governments. Many other workers
employed as accountants, agricul­
tural cooperative extension service
workers, and other agricultural
professionals also have inspection

Health Inspectors. Health inspec­
tors work with engineers, chemists,
microbiologists, and health workers
Persons seeking additional infor­ to insure compliance with public
mation on a career as a State or health and safety regulations
local government construction in­ governing food, drugs, and various
spector should contact their State other consumer products. They also
or local employment service, or:
administer regulations that govern
International Conference o f Building Offi­ the quarantine of persons and
cials, 5360 South Workman Mill Rd.,
products entering the United States
Whittier, Calif. 90601.
from foreign countries. The major
Persons interested in a career as a types of health inspectors are: food
construction inspector with the and drug, meat and poultry, agricul­
Federal Government can get infor­ tural quarantine inspectors, and
mation from:
sanitarians. In addition, some in­
Interagency Board o f the U.S. Civil Service spectors work in a field which is
Examiners for Washington, D.C., 1900
closely related to food inspection—
E St. NW„ Washington, D.C. 20415.
agricultural commodity grading.
Most food and drug inspectors
specialize in one area of inspection
such as food, feeds and pesticides,
weights and measures, or drugs and
cosmetics. Some, especially those
who work for the Federal Govern­
ment, may be proficient in several
of these areas. Working individually
(D.O.T. 168.168, and .287)
or in teams under the direction of a
senior or supervisory inspector they
Nature of tha Work
travel throughout a geographical
Protecting the public from health area to check periodically firms
and safety hazards, prohibiting un­ that produce, handle, store, and
fair trade and employment prac­ market food, drugs, and cosmetics.
tices, and raising revenue are in­ They look for evidence of inaccu­
cluded in the wide range of respon­ rate product labeling, decomposi­
sibilities of government. Health and tion, chemical or bacteriological

contamination, and other factors
that could result in a product
becoming harmful to consumer
health. They assemble evidence of
violations, using portable scales,
cameras, ultraviolet lights, con­
tainer sampling devices, thermome­
ters, chemical testing kits, and
other types of equipment.
Product samples collected as part
of their examinations are sent to
laboratories for analysis. After
completing their inspection, inspec­
tors discuss their observations with
the management of the plant and
point out any areas where cor­
rective measures are needed. They
prepare written reports of their
findings, and, when necessary, com­
pile evidence that may be used in
court if legal actions must be taken
to effect compliance with the law.
Federal and State laws empower
meat and poultry inspectors to in­
spect meat, poultry, and their
byproducts to insure that they are
wholesome and safe for public con­
sumption. Working as part of a con­
stant onsite team under the general
supervision of a veterinarian, they
inspect meat and poultry slaughter­
ing, processing, and packaging
operations. They also check to see
that products are labeled correctly
and that proper sanitation is main­
processing operations.
Agricultural quarantine inspectors
protect American

products from the introduction and
spread of foreign plant pests and
animal diseases. To safeguard the
health of crops, forests, and
gardens, they inspect ships, aircraft,
railroad cars, and motor vehicles
entering the United States for the
presence of restricted or prohibited
plant or animal materials.
Sanitarians, working primarily
for State and local governments,
perform a variety of inspection du­
ties to help insure that the food peo­
ple eat, the water they drink, and
the air they breathe meet govern­
ment standards. They check the
cleanliness and safety of food and
beverages produced in dairies and
processing plants, or served in
restaurants, hospitals, and other in­
stitutions. They often examine the
handling, processing, and serving of
food for compliance with sanitation
rules and regulations.
Sanitarians concerned with waste
control oversee the treatment and
disposal of sewage, refuse, and gar­
bage. They examine places where
pollution is a danger, perform tests
to detect pollutants, and collect air
or water samples for analysis.
Sanitarians determine the nature
and cause of the pollution, then
initiate action to stop it.
In large local and State health or
agriculture departments, sanitari­
ans may specialize in areas of work
such as milk and dairy products,
food sanitation, waste control, air
pollution, institutional sanitation,
and occupational health. In rural
areas and small cities, they may be
responsible for a wide range of en­
vironmental health activities.
Agricultural commodity graders
apply quality standards to various
commodities to insure that retailers
and consumers receive good and re­
liable products. They generally spe­
cialize in an area such as egg
products, processed or fresh fruits
and vegetables, grain, or dairy
products. They inspect samples of a
particular product to determine its
quality and grade, and issue official
grading certificates. Graders also

may inspect the plant and equip­
ment to insure that adequate sanita­
tion standards are maintained.
Regulatory Inspectors. Regulatory
inspectors insure compliance with
various laws and regulations that
protect the public welfare. Impor­
tant types of regulatory inspectors
are: immigration; customs; aviation
safety; mine; wage-hour com­
pliance; alcohol, tobacco, and
firearms; and occupational safety
Immigration inspectors interview
and examine people seeking admis­
sion, readmission, or the privileges
of passing through or residing in the
United States. They inspect the
passports of those seeking to enter
the United States to determine
whether they are legally eligible to
enter and to verify their citizenship,
status, and identity. Immigration in­
spectors also prepare reports, main­
tain records, and process applica­
tions and petitions by aliens for
privileges such as immigrating to or
living temporarily in the United
Customs inspectors enforce the
laws governing U.S. imports and ex­
ports. Stationed at airports,
seaports, and border crossing
points, they count, weigh, gauge,
measure, and sample commercial
cargoes entering and leaving the
United States to determine the
amount of tax that must be paid.
They also inspect baggage and arti­
cles worn or carried by the passen­
gers and crew of ships, aircraft, and
motor vehicles to insure that all
merchandise being brought through
ports of entry is declared and the
proper taxes paid.
Aviation safety officers insure that
Federal Aviation Administration
(FAA) regulations that govern the
quality and safety of aircraft equip­
ment and personnel are maintained.
Aviation safety officers may inspect
tenance, or operations procedures.
They usually specialize in inspect­
ing either commercial or general

aviation aircraft. They are responsi­
ble for the inspection of aircraft
manufacturing and of major
repairs. They also certify aircraft
pilots and schools, pilot examiners,
flight instructors, and instructional
Mine inspectors work to enhance
the health and safety of miners and
to promote good mining practices.
To insure compliance with safety
laws and regulations, mine inspec­
tors visit mines and related facilities
to obtain information on health and
safety conditions.
Mine inspectors discuss their
findings with the management of
the mine, prepare written reports
that incorporate their findings and
decisions, and issue notices of
findings that describe violations and
hazards that must be corrected.
They also investigate and prepare
reports on mine accidents and
direct rescue and firefighting opera­
tions when fires or explosions
Wage-hour compliance officers in­
spect the employer’s time, payroll,
and personnel records to insure
compliance with the provisions of
various Federal laws on minimum
wages, overtime, pay, employment
of minors, and equal employment
opportunity. They often interview
employees to verify the employer’s
records and to check for any com­
Alcohol, tobacco, and firearms in­
spectors insure that the industries
which manufacture these products
comply with the provisions of
revenue laws and other regulations
on operating procedures, unfair
competition, and trade practices.
They spend most of their time in­
specting distilleries, wineries, and
breweries; cigar and cigarette
manufacturing plants; wholesale
liquor dealers and importers;
firearms and explosives manufac­
turers, dealers, and users; and other
regulated facilities. They periodi­
cally audit these establishments to
determine that appropriate taxes
are correctly determined and paid.

Places of Employment
Over 110,000 people, 5 percent
of them women, worked as health
and regulatory inspectors in 1974.
The largest single employer of food
and drug inspectors is the U.S.
Food and Drug Administration, but
the majority work for State govern­
ments. Meat and poultry inspectors
and commodity graders who work
in processing plants are employed
mainly by the U.S. Department of
Agriculture. Agricultural quaran­
tine inspectors work either for the
U.S. Public Health Service or the
U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Sanitarians work primarily for State
and local governments.
Regulatory inspectors work for
various agencies within the Federal
Government, mainly in regional
and district offices distributed
throughout the United States. For
example, aviation safety officers
work for the Federal Aviation Ad­
pliance officers, for the Department
of Labor; mine inspectors, the De­
partment of the Interior; and al­
cohol, tobacco, and firearms in­
spectors, the Treasury Department.
Immigration, customs, and agricul­
tural quarantine inspectors work at
U.S. airports, seaports, border
crossing points, and at foreign air­
ports and seaports. They are em­
ployed by the Justice and Treasury

Training, Advancement, and
Other Qualifications
Because inspectors perform such
a wide range of duties, qualifica­
tions for employment in these posi­
tions vary greatly. The Federal
Government requires a passing
score on the Professional and Ad­
ministrative Career Examination
(PACE) for several inspector occu­
pations, including immigration;
customs; wage and hour com­
pliance; alcohol, tobacco, and
firearms; occupational safety; and
consumer safety (food and drug).

To take this examination, a
bachelor’s degree or 3 years of
responsible work experience, or a
combination of the two, are
required. In some cases, agencies
will give preference to an applicant
whose course work or work ex­
perience is related to the field of
Other Federal inspectors must
pass an examination based on spe­
cialized knowledge, in addition to
having work experience in related
fields. These include commodity in­
spectors such as those in meat,
Air safety inspectors must have
considerable experience in aviation
maintenance, and an FAA Air
Frame and Power Plant certificate.
In addition, various pilot cer­
tificates and considerable flight ex­
perience‘are required, with the type
dependent on the inspection duties.
Many air safety inspectors receive
both their flight training and
mechanical training in the Armed
Forces. No written examination is
Applicants for mine safety in­
spector positions generally must
have specialized work experience in
mine management or supervision,
or possess a skill such as electrical
engineering (for mine electrical in­
spectors). In some cases, a general
aptitude test may be required. Ad­
vancement to a supervisory position
is competitive.
Some Civil Service registers in­
cluding those for agricultural
quarantine inspectors and fruit and
vegetable graders, rate applicants
solely on their experience and edu­
cation and require no written ex­
Qualifications for inspectors at
the State and local level are usually
similar to those for Federal em­
ployees. However, this may vary
among government employers, par­
ticularly at the local level.
All inspectors are trained in the
laws and inspection procedures re­
lated to their specific field through

a combination of classroom and onthe-job training. In general, people
who want to become health and
regulatory inspectors should be
able to accept responsibility and
like detailed work. They should be
neat and personable and able to ex­
press themselves well orally and in
All Federal Government inspec­
tors are promoted on a Civil Service
“career ladder.” This means that,
assuming satisfactory work per­
formance, workers will advance au­
tomatically, usually at 1-year inter­
vals, to a specified maximum level.
Above this level (usually superviso­
ry positions), advancement is com­
petitive, based on needs of the
agency and individual merit.

Employment Outlook
Employment of health and regu­
latory inspectors as a group is ex­
pected to increase faster than the
average for all occupations through
the mid-1980’s. The growth in em­
ployment of health inspectors is ex­
pected to be more rapid than that of
regulatory inspectors. In addition to
job opportunities stemming from
growth, many inspectors will be
needed each year to replace those
who die, retire, or transfer to other
Increased food consumption
caused by population growth and
greater public conce.m over poten­
tial health hazards, should create
additional jobs for food and drug,
meat and poultry, and other com­
modity inspectors and graders.
Public concerns for improved quali­
ty and safety of consumer products
also should result in new legislation
in these areas, requiring additional
inspectors to insure compliance.
Aviation industry growth, in­
creased international travel, and in­
creases in the volume of U.S. im­
ports and exports should continue
to create new openings for aviation
safety officers, quarantine and im­
migration inspectors, and customs
inspectors. Increasing coal mining

activity and concern over mine
safety should create additional
mine inspector jobs. Continued
public pressure for equal employ­
ment rights should cause a growing
need for wage-hour compliance of­

Earnings and Working
With the exception of mine in­
spectors and aviation safety of­
ficers, the Federal Government
paid health and regulatory inspec­
tors and graders starting salaries of
$8,500 or $10,520 a year in late
1974, depending on the type of
position and the qualifications of
the applicant. Aviation safety of­
ficers and mining inspectors usually
starting salaries of
Salaries of experienced meat and
poultry inspectors, egg product in­
spectors, agricultural quarantine in­
spectors, alcohol, tobacco, and
firearms inspectors, and customs
and immigration inspectors were al­
most $13,000 a year in late 1974.
Experienced food and drug inspec­
tors (consumer safety officers),
agricultural quarantine inspectors,
and wage-hour compliance officers
usually received salaries of about
$15,500 from the Federal Govern­
ment in late 1974. Mine inspector
and aviation safety officers earned
between $18,500 and $22,000.
Nonsupervisory sanitarians had
average starting salaries of almost
$10,000 in late 1974, according to
a survey by the International Per­
sonnel Management Association in
selected U.S. cities and counties.
Those working for State govern­
ments earned about $ 1,000 less.
Most health and regulatory in­
spectors live an active life, meeting
many people and working in a
variety of environments. Many
travel frequently and are usually
furnished with an automobile or
reimbursed for travel expenses.
At times inspectors must work
under unfavorable working condi­

tions. For example, meat and
poultry, and alcohol, tobacco, and
firearms inspectors frequently
come in contact with strong, un­
pleasant odors; mine inspectors
often spend a great deal of time in
mines where they are exposed to
the same hazards as miners. Many
inspectors work long and often ir­
regular hours.

Sources of Additional
For facts about inspector careers
in the Federal Government, con­
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil Service Ex­
aminers for Washington, D.C., 1900 E
St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20415.

More detailed information on
qualifications for Federal jobs is
available from local Civil Service
Commission offices or from in­
dividual Federal agencies.
Information about career oppor­
tunities as inspectors in State and
local governments is available from
State civil service commissions,
usually located in each State
capital, or from local government

(D.O.T. 010.081; 012.081 and
.188; 079.188; 168.168, .268, and
.284; 379.387; 821.387; and

Nature of the Work
People in the occupational safety
and health field have the challeng­
ing job of insuring a safe and
healthful environment for workers
and safe products for consumers.
Safety and health workers in a
number of different occupations
strive to control occupational ac­
cidents and diseases, property
losses, and injuries from unsafe
products. This statement discusses
both professional and paraprofes-

sional occupations in private indus­
try; for a discussion of related occu­
pations in government, see the
statement on Health and Regulato­
ry Inspectors elsewhere in the
The largest number of safety
workers are safety engineers.
Although alL of them are con­
cerned with preventing acci­
dents, their specific tasks de­
pend on where they work. For
example, the safety engineer
working in a large manufacturing
plant (D.O.T. 012.081) may
develop a comprehensive safety
program covering several thousand
employees. This usually entails
detailed analysis of each job in the
plant to identify potential hazards
so that preventive measures can be
taken. When accidents do occur,
safety engineers in manufacturing
plants investigate to determine the
cause. If poor design, improper
maintenance, or mechanical failure
is involved, they use their technical
skills to correct the situation and
prevent its recurrence. When
human error is the cause of an ac­
cident, safety engineers may
establish training courses for plantworkers and supervisors or re­
emphasize existing ones.
Safety engineers who work for
909.128) study schedules, routes,
loads, and speeds to determine their
influence on trucking accidents.
They also inspect heavy rigs, such
as trucks and trailers, to suggest
ways of safer operation. In the min­
ing industry, safety engineers
(D.O.T. 010.081) may inspect un­
derground or open-pit areas to in­
sure compliance with State and
Federal laws, design protective
equipment and safety devices for
mine machinery, or lead rescue ac­
tivities during emergencies.
Many safety engineers are
directly concerned with the safety
of their company’s product. They
work closely with design engineers
to develop models which meet all
safety standards and they monitor

the manufacturing process to insure
the safety of the finished product.
Safeguarding life and property
against loss from fire, explosion,
and related hazards is the job of the
fire protection engineer (D.O.T.
012.188). Those who specialize in
research investigate problems such
as fires in high-rise buildings or the
manufacture, handling, and storage
of flarpmable materials. Fire pro­
tection engineers in the field use
these research findings to identify
hazards and devise ways to correct
them. For example, new findings
concerning flashpoints (the tem­
perature at which different materi­
als will ignite) are valuable to the
engineer designing storage facilities
in a chemical plant.
Like safety engineers, fire protec­
tion engineers may have different
job duties depending on where they
work. One who works for a fire
equipment manufacturing company
may design new fire protection
devices, while engineers in consult­
ing firms work with architects and
others to insure that fire safety is
built into new structures. In con­
trast, fire protection engineers
working for insurance rating bu­
reaus (organizations that calculate
basic costs of insurance coverage in
particular areas) inspect private,
commercial, and industrial proper­
ties to evaluate the adequacy of fire
protection for the entire area. Many
fire protection engineers have spe­
cial expertise in one area or more of
fire protection, such as sprinkler or
fire detection systems.
Losses in the workplace cannot
be reduced without measures to
eliminate hazards to workers’
health. Designing and maintaining a
healthful work environment is the
job of the industrial hygienist
(D.O.T. 079.188). These health
professionals are concerned with
how noise, dust, vapors, and other
hazards common to the industrial
setting affect workers’ health. After
a problem is detected, perhaps by
records, the industrial hygienist at

the jobsite may take air samples,
monitor noise levels, or measure
radioactivity levels in the areas
under investigation.
Other industrial hygienists work
in private laboratories or in those
maintained by large insurance com­
panies or industrial firms. Labora­
tory hygienists analyze air samples,
do research on the reliability of
health equipment such as respira­
tors, or investigate the effects of ex­
posure to chemicals or radiation.
Some hygienists specialize in
problems of air and water pollution.
For example, these health profes­
sionals may work with government
officials, environmental groups, or­
ganized labor, and plant manage­
ment to develop a system to screen
harmful substances before they
enter and pollute a river.
Loss control and occupational

168.168) in property-liability in­
surance companies perform many
services for their clients. These
range from correcting a single
hazard in a small business to devis­
ing a program to eliminate or
reduce all losses arising out of a
large firm’s operation. When deal­
ing with a new account, the con­
sultant makes a thorough inspec­
tion of the plant and then confers
with management to formulate a
program that meets the company’s
needs. The consultant may, for ex­
ample, help set up plant health pro­
grams and medical services, assist
plant personnel to insure that a new
facility meets all safety require­
ments, or train plant safety people.
Safety and health consultants also
help their company’s underwriters
determine whether a risk is ac­
ceptable and the amount of premi­
um to charge.

Industrial hygienist taking an air sample.

emerging trends. Many insurance
companies offer training seminars
An estimated 25,000 persons and correspondence courses for
were engaged in occupational their staffs. The Occupational
safety and health work in 1974. Safety and Health Administration
About one-quarter of these carried (OSHA) conducts courses for
the professional designation, Cer­ safety and health workers on topics
tified Safety Professional, Certified such as occupational injury in­
Industrial Hygienist, or Member, vestigation and radiological health
Society of Fire Protection En­ hazards. The recognized marks of
gineers. Many others who are not achievement in the field are the
certified performed professional designations
level work, while a relatively small Professional; Certified Industrial
number were employed in the occu­ Hygienist; and Member, Society of
pational safety and health field as Fire Protection Engineers. Certifi­
technicians and inspectors. Proper­ cation is conferred by the Board of
ty and liability insurance companies Certified Safety Professionals, the
employ many occupational safety American Board of Industrial Hy­
and health workers to provide en­ giene, or the Society of Fire Protec­
gineering, consulting, and inspec­ tion Engineers after the candidate
tion services to their clients. Others completes the required experience
worked for a variety of industrial, and passes an examination.
manufacturing, and commercial
In addition to technical com­
petence, safety and health workers
These workers are needed wher­ must be able to communicate well
ever large numbers of people are and motivate others. They should
industrial be able to adapt quickly to different
development occurs. Insurance situations, being equally at ease
consultants generally have their with a representative of a local
headquarters in a region’s major union, a supervisor in the welding
city and travel to and from the sites shop, or a corporate executive.
they visit.
Because physical activity is basic to
the job, good physical condition is
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Workers with proven ability will
find much room for advancement.
Entry level safety and health
professionals generally need at least In the insurance business, safety
a bachelor’s degree in engineering and health workers can be
or a science. A more specialized promoted to department manager
degree, such as one in safety in a small branch office, move up to
management, industrial safety, or larger branch offices, and finally
fire protection engineering, often is take an executive position in the
helpful in getting a good job. Many home office. In industrial firms,
employers prefer applicants with a they can advance to plant safety
graduate degree in areas such as in­ and health manager or corporate
dustrial hygiene, safety engineering, manager over several plants.
or occupational safety and health Although extensive experience is
engineering, or those with prior in­ required, technicians can advance
dustrial work experience. Some em­ to professional safety and health
ployers will hire graduates of 2-year positions.
college curriculums as technicians,
particularly if they have work ex­
Employment Outlook
perience related to the job.
Continuing education is necessa­
Employment of safety and health
ry to stay abreast of changing workers is expected to increase
technologies, new ideas, and faster than the average for all occu­

Places of Employment

pations through the mid-1980’s as
growing concern for occupational
safety and health and consumer
safety continues to generate pro­
grams and jobs. Many openings will
arise also to replace workers who
die, retire, or leave their jobs for
other reasons.
Much of the employment growth
is expected to occur in industrial
and manufacturing firms. Many
firms now without a safety and
health program are expected to
establish one, and others will up­
grade and expand existing programs
in response to government require­
ments, union interest, and rising in­
surance costs. The number of safety
and health workers in casualty in­
surance companies also will in­
crease as more small employers
request the services of their in­
surer’s engineering or loss control
department. Prospects should be
best for graduates of occupational
safety or health curriculums.

Earnings and Working
Salaries of safety and health
workers vary widely accord­
ing to education, experience,
and specialty. In manufacturing
firms, persons with a bachelor’s
degree generally started at about
$10,000 a year in 1974, accord­
ing to the limited data available.
Those with a graduate degree
salaries, and technicians somewhat
lower ones. Safety and health
workers with several years’
to $20,000, and corporate man­
agers well over $20,000 a year.
their loss consultant trainees
at about $9,000; senior con­
sultants earned $12,000 to $16,000; and department managers
were paid over $20,000 in 1974.
The amount of travel required
depends upon job specialty and
geographic location. For example,
the plant safety engineer may travel
only to seminars and conferences,

Also available from the Society is
while the insurance consultant may
spend about half the time traveling a booklet which lists colleges and
between worksites. Usually, a car is universities offering degree pro­
furnished or safety professionals are grams in the occupational safety
reimbursed for the expenses of and health field.
Information concerning a career
using their own vehicles.
in industrial hygiene is available
Sources of Additional
For general information about
professional safety careers, write to:
American Society of Safety Engineers, 850
Busse Highway, Park Ridge, III. 60068.

American Industrial Hygiene Association,
665 Miller Rd., Akron, Ohio44313.

Career information concerning
fire protection engineering may be
obtained from:

Society of Fire Protection Engineers, 60 Batterymarch St., Boston, Mass. 02110.

Career information on insurance
loss control consulting is available
from the home offices of many
property-liability insurance com­

(D.O.T. 233.138 and 233.388)

Nature of the Work
Most mail carriers travel planned
routes delivering and collecting
mail. Carriers start work at the post
office early in the morning, where
they spend a few hours arranging
their mail for delivery, readdressing
letters to be forwarded, and taking
care of other details.
A carrier typically covers the
route on foot, toting a heavy load of
mail in a satchel or pushing it in a
cart. In outlying suburban areas
where houses are far apart, a car or
small truck is sometimes needed to
deliver mail. Residential carriers
cover their routes only once a day,
but carriers assigned a business dis­
trict may make two trips or more.
Deliveries are made house-to-house
except in large buildings, such as
apartments, which have all the
mailboxes on the first floor.
Besides making deliveries, car­
riers collect postage-due and c.o.d.
fees and obtain signed receipts for
registered and sometimes for in­
sured mail. If a customer is not
home the carrier leaves a notice
that tells where special mail is being
held. Carriers also pick up letters to
be mailed.
After completing their routes,
carriers return to the post office
with mail gathered from street col­
lection boxes and homes. They may
separate letters and parcels so that
stamps can be canceled easily, and
they turn in the receipts and money
collected during the day.
Many carriers have more special­
ized duties than those described
above. Some deliver only parcel

post. Others collect mail from street
boxes and office mail chutes. Rural
carriers provide a wide variety of
postal services. In addition to
delivering and picking up mail, they
sell stamps and money orders and
accept parcels and letters to be re­
gistered or insured.
All carriers answer customers’
questions about postal regulations
and service and provide change-ofaddress cards and other postal
forms when requested.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Mail carriers must be at least 18
and pass a four-part written ex­
amination. The first part tests cleri­
cal accuracy by asking the appli­
cant to compare pairs of addresses
and indicate which are identical.

Carriers can work at their own pace as
long as they cover their routes on time.

The second part tests ability to
memorize mail distribution systems.
The third measures reading ability,
including vocabulary, and the
fourth tests ability to do simple
Applicants must have a driver’s
license and pass a road test if the
job involves driving. They also must
pass a physical examination and
may be asked to show that they can
lift and handle mail sacks weighing
up to 70 pounds. Applicants who
have had health conditions that
might interfere with work must
have a special review to determine
their eligibility.
Applicants should apply at the
post office where they wish to work
because each post office keeps a
separate list of those who have
passed the examination. Appli­
cants’ names are listed in order of
their scores. Five extra points are
added to the score of an honorably
discharged veteran, and 10 extra
points to the score of a veteran
wounded in combat or disabled.
Disabled veterans who have a com­
pensable, service-connected disa­
bility of 10 percent or more are
placed at the top of the list. When a
vacancy occurs, the appointing of­
ficer chooses one of the top three
applicants; the rest of the names
remain on the list to be considered
for future openings.
Mail carriers are classified as
casual, part-time flexible, part-time
regular, or full time. Casual workers
are hired to help handle the Christ­
mas mail. Part-time flexible em­
ployees do not have a regular work
schedule but replace absent work­
ers and help with extra work as the
need arises. Part-time regulars have
a set work schedule—for example,
4 hours a day.
New carriers are trained on the
job. They may begin as part-time
flexible city carriers and become
regular or full-time carriers in order
of seniority as vacancies occur. Ad­
vancement possibilities are limited,
but carriers can look forward to ob­
taining preferred routes as city car­

riers or to obtaining jobs as rural
carriers or carrier technicians as
their seniority increases. A relative­
ly small number of carriers become

Employment Outlook
Employment of mail carriers—
who numbered 267,000 in 1974—is
expected to change very little
through the mid-1980’s. Although
the amount of mail may increase
along with growth in population
and business activity, more efficient
delivery of mail should limit the
need for additional carriers. Most
job openings will result from the
need to replace experienced car­
riers who retire, die, or transfer to
other occupations. Openings will be
concentrated in metropolitan areas.

Earnings and Working
In mid-1974, part-time flexible
carriers began at $4.77 an hour,
with periodic increases up to $6.06
an hour after 8 years of service.
Hourly wages of part-time regular
workers were $4.61 an hour, with
periodic increases up to $5.85 an
hour after 8 years of service. By
comparison, nonsupervisory work­
ers in private industry, except
farming, averaged $4.22 an hour.
Full-time city carriers are paid on
an annual basis, beginning at
$9,588 and increasing to a max­
imum of $12,173 after 8 years.
Rural carriers are paid a fixed an­
nual salary plus an amount varying
with the number of miles on their
routes. They also receive an al­
lowance of 15 1/2 cents a mile for
the use of their automobiles. For
example, as of mid-1974, the salary
of a carrier with a 61-mile route
(the average length) would begin at
$9,730 a year and increase to
$12,315 after 8 years. The automo­
bile allowance would provide an
extra $9.46 each workday. Sub­
stitute rural carriers receive the

same pay as the regular carriers
whose routes they are covering.
A full-time city carrier works an
8-hour day 5 days a week. City car­
riers who work more than 8 hours a
day or 40 hours a week are paid one
and one-half times their regular rate
of pay for the extra hours. City car­
riers who work either full or part
time receive 10 percent additional
pay for work between 6 p.m. and 6
a.m. Rural carriers work either a 5or 6-day week.
Most carriers begin work early in
the morning, in some cases as early
as 6 a.m. if they have routes in the
business district. Carriers spend
most of their time outdoors in all
kinds of weather, walking from
house to house with their heavy
mailbags. Even those who drive
must walk when making deliveries,
and must lift heavy sacks of parcel
post when loading their vehicles.
The job, however, has its ad­
vantages. Carriers who begin work
early in the morning are through by
early afternoon. They are also free
to work at their own pace as long as
they cover their routes within a cer­
tain period of time. Moreover, full­
time postal employees have more
job security than workers in most
other industries.
(For information on fringe
benefits, see the statement on
Postal Service Occupations el­
sewhere in the Handbook.)

Sources of Additional
Local post offices and State em­
ployment service offices can supply
details about entrance examina­
tions and employment opportuni­
ties for mail carriers.

Nature of the Work
Although millions of telephone
numbers are dialed each day

everyone sometimes makes a call
that requires help from the opera­
tor. Often the operator is asked to
reverse long distance charges,
locate an individual, or indicate the
cost of the call. Frequently the
customer needs a correct number.
The operator also may be needed to
contact the police in an emergency,
assist a blind person who is unable
to dial, or arrange a conference call
for business executives in different
These and many other services
are provided by two groups of
operators—those at switchboards in
telephone company central offices
and those at private branch
exchange (PBX) switchboards.
Usually operators place calls by in­
serting and removing plugs that
make switchboard connections and
by listening and speaking into their
headsets. Some switchboards are
operated by pushbuttons or dials.
Telephone company operators
may be assigned to handle either
long distance calls or give directory
assistance. Long distance operators
obtain the information needed to
complete the call, make the neces­
sary connections, and record the
details for billing.
235.862) look up and provide
assistants train and help new opera­
tors to complete difficult calls. PBX
operators (D.O.T. 235.862) run
switchboards for business offices
and other establishments. They
connect interoffice or house calls,
answer and relay outside calls,
assist company employees in mak­
ing outgoing calls, supply informa­
tion to callers, and record charges.
In many small establishments, PBX
operators work at switchboards that
serve only a limited number of
telephones. These operators may
do other office work such as typing
or sorting mail and many also act as
receptionists or information clerks.
(The work of receptionists is
described elsewhere in the Hand­

Some telephone operator switchboards
operate by push buttons.

Places of Employment
About 390,000 telephone opera­
tors were employed in 1974; about
one-half worked as operators in
telephone companies and the rest
as PBX operators in other types of
businesses. A large number of PBX
operators had jobs in manufactur­
ing plants, hospitals, schools, and
department stores. One-fourth of
all operators worked part time.
Telephone company and PBX
operators tend to be concentrated
in heavily populated areas. Nearly
one-fifth work in the New York,
metropolitan areas.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Persons planning to become
telephone operators should like to
serve the public, be pleasant and
courteous, and be able to sit in a
confined area for long periods. A
clear and pleasing voice and good
hearing also are important. High
school courses in speech, office

practices, and business math pro­
vide a helpful background. Most
telephone companies and many
large business firms require appli­
cants to pass physical examinations.
New operators receive on-the-job
training to become familiar with the
equipment, records, and work.
Operators first learn the procedures
used to handle calls. Then they put
through practice calls. After this in­
struction and practice—which
usually lasts from 1 to 3 weeks—
they are assigned to regular opera­
tor jobs and receive further instruc­
tion from supervisors.
PBX operators who handle rou­
tine calls may have a somewhat
shorter training period than
telephone company operators. In
large businesses, an instructor from
the local telephone company may
train new employees.
Experienced telephone company
operators may be promoted to cler­
ical, craft, or supervisory jobs.
Similar opportunities exist for PBX
operators in large firms; in many
small businesses, however, opportu­
nities for advancement are limited.

Employment Outlook
Employment of telephone and
PBX operators as a group is ex­
pected to show little or no change
through the mid-1980’s. Neverthe­
less, thousands of full-time and
part-time workers will be hired
each year. Some will be needed to
replace experienced operators who
die, retire, or stop working for other
reasons. Many other openings will
result from the need to replace
operators who advance to other oc­
Employment of telephone com­
pany operators is expected to
decline slightly. As more companies
start charging customers for
directory assistance and informa­
tion calls, more people will dial
numbers directly and use telephone
directories to locate unknown num­
bers, thus reducing the need for

Employment of PBX operators is
not expected to change significantly
even though more small businesses
will require PBX services. Employ­
ment growth will be limited as many
large businesses convert to Central
Exchange (CENTREX).
CENTREX, incoming and outgoing
calls can be dialed directly without
an operator’s assistance.

Earnings and Working
Telephone company operators in
training averaged $3.40 an hour in
early 1974; experienced operators
$4.20; service assistants $5.20; and
managers $7.12. Contracts between
unions and telephone companies
generally provide for periodic pay
increases and extra pay for work on
evenings, Sundays, and holidays.
Most telephone company and
PBX operators work between 35
and 40 hours a week. Often, their
scheduled hours are the same as
those of other clerical workers in
business community.
telephone companies, however, and
in hotels, hospitals, and other
places where telephone service is
on a 24-hour basis, operators
usually work on shifts and on
holidays and weekends. Some
operators work split shifts—that is,
they are on duty during the peak
calling periods in the late morning
and early evening, and have time
off between these two periods.
Operators usually work in welllighted and pleasant surroundings.
Lounges often are provided for
relaxation during breaks in their
scheduled hours. Insurance, pen­
sion programs, holidays, vacations,
and other fringe benefits are much
the same as those for other types of
clerical employees. For information
about fringe benefits for telephone
company operators, see the state­
ment on the Telephone Industry
elsewhere in the Handbook.
Many operators employed by
telephone companies are members
of the Communications Workers of

America, the International Brother­
hood of Electrical Workers, and the
Alliance of Independent Telephone

Sources of Additional
For more details about employ­

ment opportunities, contact the
telephone company in your com­
munity or local offices of the unions
that represent telephone workers.
For general information on
telephone operator jobs, write to:
Alliance of Independent Telephone Unions,
P.O. Box 5462, Hamden, Conn. 16518.

United States Independent Telephone As­
sociation, 1801 K St. NW., Suite 1201,
Washington, D.C. 20006.
Communications Workers of America, 1925
K St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20006.
International Brotherhood of Electrical
Workers, 1200 15th St. NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20005.

More and more people are going
to school for a greater portion of
their lives than ever before, as in­
creasingly complex and specialized
skills and knowledge are called for

in our growing economy. In addi­
tion, people of all ages are seeking
to use their leisure time for personal
growth and development. Teachers
and librarians play vital roles in the

educational process; their occupa­
tions are discussed in the following

ing numbers of teachers are freed
from routine duties and can give
more individual attention to stu­

Teaching is the largest of the
professions; over 2.7 million full­
time teachers were employed in
1973-74 in the Nation’s elementary
and secondary schools and colleges
and universities. In addition,
thousands taught part time; among
them were many scientists, physi­
cians, accountants, members of
other professions, and graduate stu­
dents. Similarly, large numbers of
craft workers instructed part time
in vocational schools. Many other
people taught in preschool and
adult education and recreation pro­
The number of teachers required
in the future will depend on the
number of students enrolled and
the number of persons who leave
the profession. New teachers also
will be needed to allow the average
size of classes to be lowered.
Detailed information on teaching
occupations and the outlook for
teachers through the mid-1980’s is
presented in the following state­

(D.O.T. 092.228)

Nature of the Work
Kindergarten and elementary
school teachers introduce children
to numbers, language, science and
social studies, and develop stu­
dents’ capabilities in these subject
areas. Their primary job is to pro­
vide a good learning environment
and to plan and present programs of
instruction using materials and

methods designed to suit the stu­
dents’ needs.
Most elementary school teachers
instruct a single group of 25 to 30
children in several subjects. In some
schools two teachers or more “team
teach” and are jointly responsible
for a group of students or for a par­
ticular subject. A recent survey in­
dicates that about 1 public elemen­
tary school teacher in 6 is a member
of a teaching team
An increasing number of elemen­
tary school teachers specialize in
one or two subjects and teach these
subjects to several classes; 1
teacher in every 5 teaches on this
departmentalized basis. Some teach
special subjects such as music, art,
or physical education, while others
teach basic subjects such as
English, mathematics, or social
Besides the actual student in­
struction, teachers participate in
many activities outside the class­
room. They generally must attend
meetings and may serve on faculty
committees. They must prepare les­
sons and evaluate student per­
formance. They also work with stu­
dents who require special help and
confer with parents and other
school staff. To stay up-to-date on
educational materials and teaching
techniques, they participate in
workshops and other inservice ac­
New forms of instructional media
give teachers more opportunities to
work with students. Also, about 4
out of every 10 public elementary
school teachers have aides who
generally do secretarial work and
playground activities. Thus, grow­

Places of Employment
About 1.3 million people—85
percent of them women—worked
as elementary school teachers in
1974. An increasing number of
men, concentrated heavily in the
upper grades, teach at the elemen­
tary level.
Most teachers work in public ele­
mentary schools that have six
grades; however, some teach in
middle schools—schools that cover
the 3 or 4 years between the lower
elementary grades and 4 years of
high school. Only about 12 percent
of elementary school teachers work
in nonpublic schools.
More than one-third of all public
elementary teachers teach in urban
areas; about one-fifth in cities of
250,000 or more; one-eighth in
rural areas; and the remainder in
small towns or suburban areas.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
All 50 States and the District of
Columbia require public elementa­
ry school teachers to be certified by
the department of education io the
State in which they work. Some
States also require certification of
teachers in private and parochial
To qualify for certification, a
teacher must study 4 years at an in­
stitution with an approved teacher
education program. Besides a
bachelor’s degree which provides
background, States require that
prospective teachers have student­
teaching and education courses.
In 1974, 13 States required
teachers to get supplementary post­
graduate education—usually a
master’s degree or a fifth year of
study—within a certain period after
their initial certification. Some
States required U.S. citizenship;

some an oath of allegiance; and
several a health certificate.
Local school systems sometimes
have additional requirements for
employment. Students should write
to the local superintendent of
schools and to the State department
of education for information on
specific requirements in the area in
which they want to teach.
In addition to educational and
teacher should be dependable, have
good judgment, and should have
the desire and ability to work with
children. Enthusiasm for teaching
and the competence to handle
classroom situations also are impor­
Opportunities for advancement
in elementary teaching come prin­
cipally with experience. Teachers
may advance within a school system
or transfer to another which recog­
nizes experience and has a higher
salary scale. Some teachers may ad­

vance to supervisory, administra­
tive, or specialized positions. Ad­
vancement for most teachers con­
sists of higher pay rather than more
responsibility or a higher position,

Employment Outlook

salaries and have more recent train­
Pupil enrollment is the basic fac­
tor underlying the need for
teachers. Because of fewer births in
the 1960’s, elementary enrollments
have been on the decline since they
peaked at nearly 32 million in 1967.
The National Center of Education
Statistics projects that by 1979 the
downward enrollment trend will
halt at a level of 27 million, and en­
rollments again will advance to
nearly 29 million by 1985.
However, a decline in the pro­
jected number of children born
over the next decade could lessen
the demand for teachers. While the
trend has not been clearly
established, since 1970 women
have continued to have fewer chil­
dren, and according to a recent sur­
vey, they expect to continue having
smaller families than were common
10 years ago.
Teachers will be needed to fill
new positions created by larger en­
rollments; to replace those who are
not now certified; to meet the ex­
pected pressure for an improved
pupil-teacher ratio; and to fill posi­
tions vacated by teachers who
retire, die, or leave the profession
for other reasons.
While the outlook based on past
trends points to a competitive em­
ployment situation through the
mid-1980’s, several factors could
influence the demand for teachers.
Increased emphasis on early child­
hood education, on special pro­
grams for disadvantaged children,
and on individual instruction may
result in larger enrollments, smaller
student-teacher ratios, and con­
sequently an increased need for
teachers. However, possible budget
restraints for educational services
might limit expansion.

Kindergarten and elementary
school teachers are expected to
face competition for jobs through
the mid-1980’s. If patterns of entry
and reentry to the profession con­
tinue in line with past trends, the
number of persons qualified to
teach in elementary schools will ex­
ceed the number of openings.
The basic sources of teacher
supply are recent college graduates
qualified to teach at the elementary
Earnings and Working
level and teachers seeking reentry
to the profession. Reentrants,
According to the National Edu­
although more experienced, will
face increasing competition from cation Association, public elemen­
new graduates who command lower tary school teachers in 1974-75

averaged $11,234 a year. Average
earnings in 1974 were over one and
one-third times as much as the
average earnings for all nonsupervisory workers in private industry,
except farming. In the five highest
paying States (Alaska, New York,
Hawaii, California, and Illinois),
teachers’ salaries averaged more
than $12,600; in the 10 States hav­
ing the lowest salaries (Mississippi,
Arkansas, Vermont, South Dakota,
Dakota, South Carolina, West Vir­
averaged less than $9,200.
Public schools systems enrolling
6,000 or more pupils paid teachers
with a bachelor’s degree average
starting salaries of $7,720 a year in
1973-74; those with a master’s
degree earned a starting average of
teachers worked an average of
about 36-1/2 hours a week in 1974.
Additional time spent preparing les­
sons, grading papers, making re­
ports, attending meetings, and su­
pervising extra-curricular activities
increased the total number of hours
to about 46.
The elementary school teacher
usually works 9 months and
averages 181 days in the classroom
and 4 workdays on nonteaching ac­
tivities. In addition, many teach
summer sessions, and others take
courses for professional growth or
work at other jobs during the
summer months.
Employment in teaching is
steady, and business conditions
usually do not affect the market for
teachers. In 1974, 38 States and the
District of Columbia had tenure
laws that insured the jobs of
teachers who had successfully
taught for a certain number of
Collective bargaining agreements
cover an increasingly large number
of teachers. In 1974, 31 States had
enacted laws which required collec­
tive bargaining in the teacher con­
tract negotiation process. Most

public school systems that enroll
1,000 students or more bargain
with teacher organizations over
wages, hours, and the terms and
conditions of employment.

Sources of Additional
Information on schools and cer­
tification requirements is available
from local school systems and State
departments of education.
Information on the Teacher
Corps, internships, graduate fellow­
ships, and other information on
teaching may be obtained from:
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare, National Center for Education
Statistics, Washington, D.C. 20202.

Other sources of general infor­
mation are:
American Federation of Teachers, 1012
14th St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20005.
National Education Association, 1201 16th
St. NW., Washington, D C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 091.228)

Nature of the Work
Secondary school teachers help
prepare their students for future
roles as citizens and jobholders.
They introduce students to subjects
ranging from world history and ele­
mentary algebra to anthropology
and computer mathematics.
usually specialize in a particular
field. English, mathematics, social
studies, and science are the subjects
most commonly taught. Other spe­
cialties include health and physical
education, business education,
home economics, foreign lan­
guages, and music. Increasingly,
teachers are developing courses
which deal with particular areas
within the broad subjects so stu­
dents may acquire in-depth as well
as general knowledge of a field.

usually conduct classes in their spe­
cialty for five groups of students a
day. The average daily pupil load
for public shool teachers is 136 stu­
Teachers design their classroom
presentation to meet the demands
of balanced curriculum and to suit
the individual student’s needs.
Secondary school teachers instruct
students at a single grade level or
from different grades. They must
consider instructional methods and
materials that best meet the stu­
dent’s needs, as well as the subject
Secondary school teachers also
homerooms, prepare lessons, grade
papers, evaluate students, and at­
tend meetings with parents and
school personnel. Often they work
with student groups outside of class.
Teachers also participate in activi­
ties, such as workshops and college
classes, to keep up-to-date on their
subject specialty and on current
trends in education.
Increasingly, in recent years,
teachers have been able to devote
more time towards improved in­
struction due to the increased
availability of teacher aides who
perform secretarial work, grade
papers, and do other routine tasks.
technology also have provided
teachers with instructional media
and other new materials and
techniques to improve student

Places of Employment
More than 1 million teachers
worked in secondary schools in
1974. Of these, about one-half were
According to a recent survey,
slightly more than one-half of all
public secondary teachers work in
senior high schools; about one-third
teach at the junior high level. About
one-tenth teach in junior-senior
high schools, and a very small

number are elementary-secondary
combination teachers.
Of those in public schools, about
1 teacher in 5 works in a city with a
population of 250,000 or more—1
in 8 in a city of less than 250,000.
Over one-half teach in small-town
or suburban schools; and about 1 in
7 in a rural location. Only about 1
teacher in 14 works in a nonpublic

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
All 50 States and the District of
Columbia require the certification
of public
teachers. Many States also require
certification of secondary teachers
in private and parochial schools.
In every State, the minimum edu­
cational requirement for certifica­
tion is a bachelor’s degree.
Moreover, 14 States have specified
that a secondary school teacher
must get additional education,
usually a fifth year of study or a
master’s degree, within a certain
period after beginning employment.
In 1974, the District of Columbia
was the only jurisdiction requiring a
master’s degree for initial certifica­
tion as a senior high school teacher.
However, according to a recent na­
tional survey, 2 out of every 5
public secondary school teachers
had a master’s or higher degree.
The educational qualifications

for secondary school teachers vary
by State and by school system. Ap­
proved colleges and universities in
every State offer programs which
include the education courses and
require. They also offer the
academic courses which qualify
teachers in subject specialties
taught at the secondary level.
States and local jurisdictions
often have general teacher require­
ments, such as the recommendation
of the college, a certificate of
health, and citizenship. Prospective
teachers may get complete informa­
tion on such educational and
general requirements from each
State department of education and
from the superintendent of schools
in each community.
Personal qualifications which a
secondary teacher must have in­
clude a desire to work with young
people, an interest in a special sub­
ject, and the ability to motivate stu­
dents and to relate knowledge to
For secondary teachers, educa­
tion and experience provide the pri­
mary bases for advancement. Ad­
vancement to supervisory and ad­
requires at least 1 year of profes­
sional education beyond the
bachelor’s degree and several years
of successful classroom teaching.
Some experienced teachers with
special preparation may work as
special school service personnel,
such as school psychologists, read­
ing specialists, or guidance coun­
selors. Often these jobs require spe­
cial certification as well as special

The prime sources of teacher
supply are recent college graduates
qualified to teach secondary school
and teachers seeking to reenter the
profession. Although reentrants
have experience in their favor,
many schools may prefer to hire
new graduates who command lower
salaries and whose training is more
Pupil enrollment is the basic fac­
tor underlying the demand for
teachers. The National Center for
Education Statistics’ projections in­
dicate that enrollments in seconda­
ry schools will begin to decline in
the mid-1970’s after continuous
growth through the 1960’s and into
the early 1970’s. This decline in en­
rollments is expected to reduce the
demand for teachers. As a result,
over the 1974-85 period, nearly all
teaching positions will stem from
the need to replace teachers who
die, retire, or leave the profession
for other reasons. As a result, an in­
creasing proportion of prospective
teachers will have to consider alter­
natives to secondary school
teaching. However, pressures for an
improved pupil-teacher ratio and
teachers could create additional
Although the overall outlook for
secondary teachers indicates a
highly competitive market, employ­
ment conditions may be more
favorable in certain fields. Accord­
ing to a recent survey, teacher
supply was least adequate in mathe­
matics, natural and physical
sciences, industrial arts, special
education, and some vocationaltechnical subjects.

Employment Outlook

Earnings and Working

The supply of secondary school
teachers through the mid-1980’s
will greatly exceed anticipated
requirements if past trends of entry
into the profession continue. As a
result, prospective teachers are
likely to face keen competition for

According to the National Edu­
cation Association, public seconda­
ry school teachers in 1974-75
averaged $11,826. This is one and
one-half times the average for nonsupervisory workers in private in­
dustry, except farming. In the five

highest paying States (New York,
California, Alaska, Illinois, and
averaged more than $13,000; in the
five States having the lowest sala­
ries (Arkansas, Kentucky, Missis­
Oklahoma), they averaged under
$9,300 a year.
Beginning teachers with a
bachelor’s degree in school systems
with enrollments of 6,000 or more
earned average salaries of $7,720 in
the school year 1973-74. New
teachers with a master’s degree
started at $8,586 a year. Beginning
teachers could expect regular salary
increases as they gained experience
and additional education.
A recent survey of public school
teachers indicated that the average
required school week for those in
secondary schools was 37 hours.
However, when all teaching duties,
including meetings, lesson prepara­
tion, and other necessary tasks are
taken into consideration, the total
number of hours spent working
each week was slightly more than
In some schools, teachers receive
supplementary pay for certain
school-related activities such as
coaching students in sports and
working with students in extracur­
ricular activities, in music, dra­
matics, or school publications.
About one-fourth of the public
secondary teachers receive pay for
extra duties, such as supervising ex­
tracurricular activities, and onethird supplement their incomes
with earnings from additional
school work.
One-sixth of public school
teachers also work in their school
systems during the summer. More
than one-fourth hold summer jobs
outside the school system. In all,
about three-fifths of public secon­
dary school teachers have extra
earnings from summer work, addi­
tional school-year work, or a com­
bination of the two.
During the school year, teachers
work an average of 181 days. They

average 26 teaching periods and 5
unassigned periods a week. Laws in
38 States and the District of Colum­
bia ensure the employment of those
who have achieved tenure status.
Laws requiring collective bargain­
ing of wages, hours, and the terms
and conditions of employment
cover increasing numbers of

Sources of Additional
Information on schools and cer­
tification requirements is available
from local school systems and State
departments of education.
Information on the Teacher
Corps, internships, graduate fellow­
ships, and other information on
teaching may be obtained from:
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare, National Center for Education
Statistics, Washington, D.C. 20202.

Other sources of general infor­
mation are:
American Federation of Teachers, 1012
14th St. NW„ Washington, D.C. 20005.
National Education Association, 1201 16th
St. NW„ Washington, D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 090.168 through .999)

Nature of the Work
About 30 percent of all persons
in the United States between the
ages of 18 and 21 attended college
in 1974. To meet the demand of
students for higher education, col­
leges and universities hire teachers
to provide instruction in many
fields. The most common subjects
include social sciences, teacher
education, the physical sciences,
health professions, fine and applied
English, the
sciences, mathematics, foreign lan­
guages, and business and com­

Slightly more than one-half of all
college and university teachers in­
struct undergraduates; another onethird teach both graduates and un­
dergraduates; and about one-tenth
work only with graduate students.
Most teachers lecture and con­
duct classroom discussions to
present subject matter effectively.
Many work with students in labora­
tories. Some teachers provide in­
dividual instruction or supervise in­
dependent study. Nearly one-third
of the faculty in universities have
teaching assistants. Some college
and university teachers use closedcircuit television. In 2-year colleges
especially, instruction is frequently
To be effective, college teachers
must keep up with developments in
their field by reading current
material, participating in profes­
sional activities, and conducting
research. Some publish books and
research and publication varies
from one institutional level to
another. In universities, about 70
percent of the faculty have
published professional articles com­
pared to 25 percent of 2-year col­
lege faculty. Also, in certain fields
such as engineering and the physi­
cal sciences, the demand for
research is strong.
In addition to time spent on
evaluation, college and university
teachers participate in faculty ac­
tivities; work with student organiza­
tions and individual students out­
side of classes; work with the col­
lege administration; and in other
ways serve the institution and the
community. Some are department
heads and have supervisory duties.

Places of Employment
In 1974, about 622,000 teachers
worked in more than 2,600 colleges
and universities. About one-fourth
of all college and university
teachers are women. An estimated
399,000—nearly two-thirds—were

and college-level teaching ex­
perience, outstanding academic,
administrative, and professional
contributions influence advance­
ment. Research, publication, and
work experience in a subject area
may hasten advancement.
The ranks of college and univer­
sity teachers and their educational
backgrounds differ by institutional
level. In universities, more than 50
percent of the faculty have doctoral
degrees compared with about 10
percent in 2-year colleges. Cor­
respondingly, more than 50 percent
of the faculty in universities are
either professors or associate
professors, while in 2-year colleges,
only 1 teacher in 4 is within these
upper ranks. Conversely, in com­
munity and junior colleges, where
the master’s is the highest degree
held by nearly three-fourths of the
faculty, instructors constitute a
relatively large faculty segment.

Employment Outlook
College and university teaching
candidates are expected to face
keen competition through the midfull-time senior staff. Of the academic
instructors, 1980’s. The demand for college and
associate university teachers is expected to
remainder, about 112,000 were assistant
part-time senior staff, and nearly professors, and full professors. fall. However, the principal source
16,000 were full-time junior in­ About 75 percent of all faculty are of teacher supply—master’s and Ph.
structors; the rest generally worked assistant, associate, or full profes­ D. degree recipients—is expected
as part-time assistant instructors, sors, with the three ranks equally to continue to grow. Consequently,
teaching distributed. Ten percent are in­ a smaller proportion of each year’s
degree recipients will be needed for
assistants, or laboratory assistants.
To get an initial appointment, in­ college teaching. An increasing
Of full-time faculty, about onethird teach in universities; nearly structors generally must have a proportion of prospective college
one-half work in 4-year colleges; master’s degree. For advancement teachers, therefore, will have to
and about one-seventh teach in 2- to higher ranks, they need further seek nonacademic jobs. Govern­
year colleges. About two-thirds of academic training plus experience. ment and private industry should
the faculty in universities and 4- Assistant professors usually need a provide some positions, but some
year colleges teach in public institu­ year of graduate study beyond the persons holding graduate degrees
tions; nearly nine-tenths of the master’s degree and at least a year may Find it necessary to enter occu­
faculty in 2-year institutions work or two of experience as an instruc­ pations that have not traditionally
in public junior and community col­ tor. Appointments as associate required advanced study.
professors frequently demand the
The basic factor underlying the
doctoral degree and an additional 3 demand for teachers is college en­
Training, Other Qualifications, years or more of college teaching rollment. During the 1960’s and
experience. For a full professorship, early 1970’s, teacher employment
and Advancement
the doctorate and extensive expanded due to growth in both the
Most college and university teaching experience are essential.
number of college-age persons and
faculty are classified in four
In addition to advanced study the proportion of 18- to 21-year

olds enrolled in college. The
number of college-age persons will
decline after 1978, and by the early
1980’s, enrollment will taper off
and begin to fall. As a result, the
total number of college teachers
needed over the 1974-85 period
will decline, as compared with an
80-percent increase over the previ­
ous 11-year period.
The type and level of the institu­
tion and the extent to which it
wishes to upgrade its faculty also
will influence the demand for
teachers. Although enrollments in
the 1970’s are expected to stabilize
in 4-year colleges and universities,
many institutions, including junior
and community colleges, may hire
additional Ph. D.’s to upgrade their
faculties. Master’s degree holders
also will continue to find jobs in 2year colleges. Public institutions are
expected to continue to attract an
increasing proportion of total col­
lege enrollment. Thus, opportuni­
ties in public colleges will be
greater than in private institutions.

Earnings and Working
In 1974-75, full-time college and
university faculty on 9-10 month
contracts averaged $16,704, or
twice the average earnings for all
nonsupervisory workers in private
industry, except farming. Salaries
varied, however, by teacher rank
and by institutional level. Average
salaries were:
Assistant professors...................
Associate professors..................


In general, larger institutions paid
higher salaries. Salaries of teachers

in 4-year colleges tended to be
higher than those in 2-year colleges;
university teachers averaged the
College and university teachers’
salaries also vary by geographic re­
gion. According to a recent survey
of 4-year colleges and universities,
schools in the Mideast, New Eng­
land, and Pacific regions paid the
highest full-time faculty salaries.
Since about 2 out of 3 college
teachers have 9 to 10-month con­
tracts, many have additional
summer earnings from research,
writing for publication, or other
employment. Royalties and fees for
speaking engagements may provide
additional earnings. Some teachers
also undertake additional teaching
or research projects or work as con­
College and university teachers
also may enjoy certain benefits, in­
cluding tuition waivers for depen­
dents, housing allowances, travel al­
lowances, and leaves of absence.
semester’s leave after 6 or 7 years
of employment.
About 85 percent of all college
and university teachers work in in­
stitutions which have tenure
systems. Of the full-time teachers
employed in these institutions, over
one-half are tenured. Under a
tenure system, a teacher usually
receives 1-year contracts during a
probationary period ranging from 3
to 7 years; some universities award
2- or 3-year contracts. After the
probationary period, institutions
consider teachers for tenure (the
assurance of continuing employ­
ment with freedom from dismissal
without cause).
The working hours and environ­
ment of college teachers generally

are favorable. Classrooms, office
facilities, and laboratories usually
are well-equipped and teachers
have access to library facilities and
clerical assistance.
College teachers usually have
flexible teaching schedules. Ac­
cording to a recent survey, the un­
dergraduate faculty in 4-year col­
leges and universities normally
teach 12 hours a week and seldom
more than 14 or 15 hours. Graduate
faculty have a teaching load of
about 10 hours a week. In addition
to time spent in the classroom, col­
lege and university teachers devote
much time to preparation and other
duties. Overall, full-time faculty
spend about 40 hours a week on
school-related activities. For facul­
ty in junior and community col­
leges, the normal teaching load is
slightly heavier, but the total
number of hours on the job are

Sources of Additional
Information on college teaching
as a career is available from:
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare, National Center for Education
Statistics, Washington, D.C. 20202.
American Council on Education, 1 Dupont
Circle NW„ Washington, D.C. 20036.
American Federation of Teachers, 1012
14th St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20065.

Professional societies in the vari­
ous subject fields will generally pro­
vide information on teaching
requirements and employment op­
portunities in their particular fields.
Names and addresses of societies
are given in the statements on
specific professions elsewhere in
the Handbook.

less frequently with the public;
they order, classify, catalog, and
in other ways prepare the materials
for use.
The size of the library determines
to a large extent the scope of a
librarian’s job. In small libraries, the
job may include both user and
technical services. The librarian
may select and organize materials,
publicize services, do research, and
give reference help to groups and
individuals. In large libraries,
librarians usually specialize in
either user or technical services.
They may specialize further in cer­
tain areas, such as science, busi­
ness, the arts, or medicine. Their
work may involve reviewing and ab­
stracting published materials and
preparing bibliographies in their
Librarians generally are classified
according to the type of library in
(D.O.T. 100.118 through .388)
which they work: public libraries,
school media centers, college and
Nature of the Work
university libraries, and special
Making information available to libraries.
people is the job of librarians. They
Public librarians serve all kinds of
select and organize collections of people—children,
books, pamphlets, manuscripts, research workers, teachers, and
periodicals, clippings, and reports, others. Increasingly, public librari­
and assist readers in their use. In ans are providing special materials
many libraries, they also provide and services to culturally and edu­
phonograph records, maps, slides, cationally deprived persons, and to
pictures, tapes, films, paintings, persons who because of physical
books, handicaps cannot use conventional
microfilms, and computer tapes.
User services and technical
The professional staff of a large
services are the two principal public library system may include
kinds of library work. Librarians the chief librarian, an assistant
in user services—
for example, chief, and several division heads
reference and children’s librar­ who plan and coordinate the work
ians-work directly with the of the entire library system. The
public. Librarians in technical system also may include librarians
services-for example, catalogers who supervise branch libraries and
and acquisitions librarians—
deal specialists in certain areas of library

People in all walks of life are in
the midst of an information explo­
sion. Worlds and ideas are being ex­
plored that just a few years ago
were beyond imagination, and in­
formation is growing at a rapid
pace. The main storehouses of in­
formation are the Nation’s libraries.
Librarians and library techni­
cians and assistants serve library
users of all ages and lifestyles. They
provide the public with access to
books, periodicals, and other
printed materials, as well as less
conventional forms of information
such as microfilms, slides, and com­
puter tapes. The following state­
ments describe their work in more

work. The duties of some of these
specialists are briefly described in
the following paragraphs.
Acquisition librarians purchase
books and other materials and
maintain a well-balanced library
that meets the needs and interests
of the public. Catalogers classify
these materials by subject and
otherwise describe them to help
users find what they are looking for.
Reference librarians answer specific
questions and suggest sources of in­
formation that may be useful.
Some librarians ' work with
specific groups of readers. Chil­
dren's librarians serve the special
needs of young people by finding
books they will enjoy and showing
them how to use the library. They
may plan and conduct special pro­
grams such as story hours or film
programs. Their work in serving
children often includes working
with school and community or­
ganizations. Adult services librarians
suggest materials suited to the
needs and interests of adults. They
may cooperate in planning and con­
ducting education programs, such
as community development, public
affairs, creative arts, problems of
the aging, and home and family.
Young adult services librarians help
junior and senior high school stu­

dents select and use books and
other materials. They may organize
programs of interest to young
adults, such as book or film discus­
sions or concerts of recorded popu­
lar and classical music. They also
may coordinate the library’s work
with school programs. Extension or
outreach librarians working in book­
mobiles offer library services to
people not adequately served by a
public library such as those in inner
city neighborhoods, migrant camps,
rural communities, and institutions,
including hospitals and homes for
the aged.
School librarians instruct students
in the use of the school library and
help them choose from the media
center’s collection of print and non­
print materials items that are re­
lated to their interests and to class­
room subjects. Working with
teachers and supervisors, school
librarians familiarize students with
the library’s resources. They
prepare lists of materials on certain
subjects and help select materials
for school programs. They also
select, order, and organize the
library’s materials. In some schools,
they may work with teachers to
develop units of study and indepen­
dent study programs, or they may
participate in team teaching. Very
large high schools may employ
several school librarians, each
responsible for a particular function
of the library program or for a spe­
cial subject area.
College and university librarians
serve students, faculty members,
and research workers in institutions
of higher education. They may pro­
vide general reference service or
may work in a particular subject
field, such as law, medicine,
economics, or music. Those work­
ing on university research projects
operate documentation centers that
use computers and other modern
devices to record, store, and
retrieve specialized information.
College and university librarians
may teach classes in the use of the

Special librarians work in libraries ans worked in correctional institu­
maintained by government agencies tions, hospitals, and State institu­
and by commercial and industrial tions, while a small number served
firms, such as pharmaceutical com­ as consultants, and State and
panies, banks, advertising agencies, Federal Government administrators
and research laboratories. They and faculty in schools of library
provide materials and services science. The Federal Government
covering subjects of special interest employed about 3,200 professional
to the organization. They build and librarians.
arrange the organization’s informa­
More than 85 percent of all
tion resources to suit the needs of librarians are women. In college
the library users. Special librarians and university libraries, however,
assist users and may conduct litera­ men make up about 35 percent of
ture searches, compile bibliogra­ the total professional staff. Men
phies, and in other ways provide in­ also are relatively numerous in law
formation on a particular subject.
libraries and in special libraries
Others called information science concerned with science and
specialists, like special librarians, technology.
work in technical libraries or infor­
Most librarians work in cities and
mation centers of commercial and towns. Those attached to bookmo­
industrial firms, government agen­ bile units serve widely scattered
centers. population groups.
Although they perform many duties
of special librarians, they must pos­
Training, Other Qualifications,
sess a more extensive technical and
and Advancement
scientific background and a
knowledge of new techniques for
A professional librarian ordinari­
handling information. Information
ly must complete a 1-year master’s
science specialists abstract com­
plicated information into con­ degree program in library science.
densed, readable form, and in­ A Ph. D. degree is an advantage to
those who plan a teaching career in
terpret and analyze data for a highly
library schools or who aspire to a
specialized clientele. Among other top administrative post, particularly
duties, they develop classification in a college or university library or
systems, prepare coding and pro­
gramming techniques for compu­ in a large library system. For those
who are interested in the special
terized information storage and
retrieval systems, design informa­ libraries field, a master’s degree or
doctorate in the subject of the libra­
tion networks, and develop
ry’s specialization is highly desira­
microfilm technology.
Information on library techni­
In 1974, 53 library schools in the
cians and assistants is found in a United States were accredited by
separate statement in the Hand­ the American Library Association
and offered a master’s degree in
library science (M.L.S.). In addi­
tion, many other colleges offer
Places of Employment
graduate programs or courses
Of the estimated 125,000 profes­ within 4-year undergraduate pro­
sional librarians employed in 1974, grams.
school librarians accounted for
Most graduate schools of library
nearly one-half; public libraries and science require graduation from an
colleges and universities each em­ accredited 4-year college or univer­
ployed about one-fifth. An esti sity, a good undergraduate record,
mated one-seventh worked in spe­ and a reading knowledge of at least
cial libraries, including libraries in one foreign language. Some schools
government agencies. Some librari­ also require introductory un­

dergraduate courses in library
science. Most prefer a liberal arts
background with a major in an area
such as the social sciences, the arts,
or literature. Some schools require
entrance examinations.
Special librarians and informa­
tion science specialists must have
extensive knowledge of their sub­
ject matter as well as training in
library science. In libraries devoted
to scientific information, librarians
should be proficient in one foreign
language or more. They also must
be well informed about compu­
terized methods for storing and
retrieving technical information.
Most States require that public
school librarians be certified and
trained both as teachers and librari­
ans. The specific education and ex­
perience necessary for certification
vary according to State and the
school district. The local superin­
tendent of schools and the State de­
partment of education can provide
information about specific require­
ments in an area.
In the Federal Government,
beginning positions require comple­
tion of a 4-year college course and a
master’s degree in library'science,
or demonstration of the equivalent
in experience and education by a
passing grade on an examination.
Many students attend library
schools under cooperative workstudy programs that combine the
academic program with practical
work experience in a library.
Scholarships for training in library
science are available under certain
State and Federal programs and
from library schools, as well as from
a number of the large libraries and
assistantships, and financial aid also
are available.
Librarians should be intellec­
tually curious and able to express
themselves verbally, and should
have the desire and ability to help
others use library materials.
Experienced librarians may ad­
vance to administrative positions or
to specialized work. Promotion to

these positions, however, is limited
primarily to those who have
completed graduate training in a
library school, or to those who have
specialized training.

Employment Outlook
The employment outlook for
librarians is expected to be
somewhat competitive through the
mid-1980’s. Although employment
in the field is expected to grow over
the period, the supply of persons
qualified for librarianship is likely
to expand as an increasing number
of new graduates and labor force
reentrants seek jobs as librarians.
The anticipated increase in de­
mand for librarians in the late
1970’s and early 1980’s will not be
nearly as great as it was in the
1960’s. Then, school enrollments
were rising rapidly and Federal ex­
penditures supported a variety of
library programs.
Fewer births during the 1960’s
will result in a slight, decline in ele­
mentary and secondary school en­
rollments through the remainder of
the 1970’s and early 1980’s. The ef­
fect of birth rates in the 1960’s will
begin to be manifested in colleges
and universities in the early 1980’s,
when total degree-credit enroll­
ment is expected to level off. In
both the schools and the colleges
and universities, as a result, the de­
mand for librarians will increase at
a slower pace than in the past.
On the other hand, requirements
for public librarians are expected to
increase through 1985. The growth
of a better educated population will
necessitate an increased number of
librarians to serve the public. The
educationally disadvantaged, hand­
icapped, and various minority
groups also will need qualified
librarians to provide special serv­
ices. Also, the expanding use of
computers to store and retrieve in­
formation will contribute to the in­
creased demand for information
specialists and library automation
specialists in all types of libraries.

In addition to openings from
growth, replacements will be
needed each year for librarians who
retire, die, transfer to other types of
work, or leave the labor force.
Employment opportunities will
vary not only by type of library but
also by the librarian’s educational
qualifications and area of spe­
cialization. Although the overall
employment outlook is competi­
tive, persons who are willing to seek
positions in other geographical
areas and in different types of libra­
ries will have better opportunities.
New graduates having more recent
training may have an employment
advantage over reentrants, delayed
entrants, or transfers to the profes­
sion. Their lower beginning salaries,
compared to more experienced
workers, may also be an employ­
ment advantage.

Earnings and Working
Salaries of librarians vary by type
of library, the individual’s qualifica­
tions, and the size and geographical
location of the library.
Starting salaries of graduates of
library school master’s degree pro­
grams accredited by the American
$9,423 a year in 1974, ranging from
$8,956 in public libraries to $9,864
in special libraries. The average an­
nual salary for special librarians was
$13,900 in 1974. For librarians in
college and university libraries,
average salaries ranged from
$8,700 a year for those with limited
experience working in private 4year colleges to over $13,000 for
university librarians with more ex­
tensive experience. Salaries for
somewhat higher. Department
heads in college libraries earned
between $10,000 and $14,000 a
year. In general, librarians earned
about one and one-half times as
much as the average for all nonsupervisory workers in private indus­
try, except farming.

In the Federal Government, the
entrance salary for librarians with a
master’s degree in library science
was $12,841 a year in late 1974.
The average salary for all librarians
in the Federal Government was
The typical workweek for librari­
ans is 5 days, ranging from 35 to 40
hours. The work schedule of public
and college librarians may include
some weekend and evening work.
School librarians generally have the
same workday schedule as class­
room teachers. A 40-hour week
during normal business hours is
common for government and other
special librarians.
The usual paid vacation after a
year’s service is 3 to 4 weeks. Vaca­
tions may be longer in school libra­
ries, and somewhat shorter in those
operated by business and industry.
Many librarians are covered by sick
leave; life, health, and accident in­
surance; and pension plans.

American Society for Information Science,
1140 Connecticut Ave. NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20036.

Individual State library agencies
can furnish information on scholar­
ships available through their of­
fices, on requirements for certifica­
tion, and general information about
career prospects in their regions.
State boards of education can
furnish information on certification
requirements and job opportunities
for school librarians.

(D.O.T. 249.368)

Nature of the Work
Library technicians and assistants
support and assist professional
librarians in providing information.
Many work directly with the library

users to explain and discuss availa­
ble services. They are supervised by
a librarian and have duties in either
technical services or user services.
In technical services, library
assistants prepare the library’s
materials and equipment for
readers’ use. For example, they may
keep current files of special materi­
als, such as newspaper clippings
and pictures. They may operate and
maintain audiovisual and data
processing equipment, including
slide projectors and tape recorders,
as well as readers that magnify, pro­
ject on a screen, and sometimes
print out information on microfilm
and microfiche cards. Library
assistants also may perform many of
the routine tasks involved in
purchasing and processing library
materials. The details of cataloging
new books and other additions to
the library’s collection are often an
important part of their job.

Sources of Additional
Additional information, particu­
larly on accredited programs and
scholarships or loans, may be ob­
tained from:
American Library Association, 50 East
Huron St., Chicago, 111. 60611.

For information on requirements
for special librarians, write to:
Special Libraries Association, 235 Park
Ave., South, New York, N.Y. 10003.

assistance for library training under
the Higher Education Act of 1965
is available from:
Office of Libraries and Learning Resources,
Office of Education, U.S. Department
of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Washington, D.C. 20202.

Those interested in a career in
Federal libraries should write to:
Secretariat, Federal Library Committee,
Room 310, Library of Congress,
Washington, D.C. 20540.

Material on information science
specialists may be obtained from:

Library assistant checking film for damage on inspecting machine.

In user’s services, library
assistants furnish information on
library services, facilities, and rules,
and answer questions that involve
simple factfinding in standard
reference sources. They also assist
readers in the use of catalogs and
indexes to locate books and other
materials. Library assistants may
check out, reserve, and receive
materials that users borrow. In ad­
dition, their duties include sorting
and shelving, inspection and repair
of books and other publications, is­
suing and checking library cards, is­
suing notices for overdue books,
and related clerical work.
In many libraries, more highly
trained personnel known as library
technicians perform duties similar
to those of assistants, but which
require more technical knowledge.
However, library technicians do not
usually sort or shelve books or han­
dle clerical or related tasks. Some,
in addition to their regular duties,
may supervise the work of others
who perform the more routine work
of the library.

may receive training for their work
either on the job or in a formal posthigh school program. Depending on
the library, on-the-job programs
generally require from 1 to 3 years
to complete.
Junior or community colleges
and technical institutes offer 2-year
formal educational programs which
lead to an associate of arts degree in
library technology. Many people
working in libraries take courses
part-time to get their degree.
Junior and community college
programs generally include 1 year
of liberal arts courses and a year of
library-related study on purposes
and organization of libraries, and
on procedures and processes in­
volved in operating a library. Stu­
dents learn to order and process,
catalog, and circulate library
materials. Some receive training in
data processing as it applies to
libraries. Many learn to use and
maintain audiovisual materials and
In 1974, 59 institutions offered
library technical assistant training.
These institutions—mostly 2-year
colleges—are in 23 States. Some
Places of Employment
programs teach skills for a particu­
lar type of library. Therefore, a
An estimated 135,000 people— prospective student should select a
four-fifths of them women— program with a knowledge of the
worked as library technicians and curriculum, instructional facilities,
assistants in 1974. Most worked in faculty qualifications, and the kinds
large public libraries or in college of jobs that graduates have found.
and university libraries. Smaller Also, while programs may lead to
numbers worked in school libraries an associate degree, credits earned
and in medical, law, scientific, in a library technology program
technical, and other special libra­ may not apply toward a profes­
sional degree in library science.
In 1974, the Federal Government
A high school diploma or its
employed about 3,200 library equivalent is the standard requirtechnicians. These people worked ment for both academic and on-thechiefly in the Department- of job training programs. Many pro­
Defense and the Library of Con­ grams also require typing.
gress, although some worked in
Library technicians and assistants
small Federal libraries throughout
should enjoy detail and have
the country.
manual dexterity, verbal ability to
explain procedures to library users,
and numerical ability to handle cir­
Training, Other Qualifications,
culation statistics. Jobs may require
and Advancement
much standing, stooping, bending,
Library technicians and assistants and reaching.

Employment Outlook
The number of library techni­
cians and assistants is expected to
grow faster than the average for all
occupations through the mid1980’s. More positions are likely to
be available in large public and col­
lege and university libraries, par­
ticularly for persons who graduate
from academic programs.
Factors influencing the demand
assistants are population and school
and college enrollment growth and
expansion of library service. Libra­
ry technicians and assistants in­
creasingly are performing some of
the routine tasks formerly done by
the professional staff.
In addition to openings created
by growth, many library technicians
and assistants will be needed an­
nually to replace those who die,
retire, or transfer to other fields.

Earnings and Working
Salaries for library technicians
and assistants vary widely depend­
ing on the size of the library or
library system in which they work
as well as the geographical location
and size of the community. How­
ever, in general, they averaged
about the same as all nonsupervisory workers in private industry, ex­
cept farming.
In the Federal Government, sala­
ries of library technicians generally
ranged from $6,764 to $10,520 ^
year in 1974. A few earned $ 12,841
a year, or more.
Library technicians in govern­
ment and special libraries usually
work a regular 40-hour week, but
persons in public libraries and col­
lege and university libraries may
have schedules that include
weekend and evening hours. In
schools, library assistants work dur­
ing regular school hours.
Most libraries provide fringe
benefits such as group insurance
and retirement pay. Additional
benefits offered by private busi-

nesses often include educational
assistance programs.
technicians employed
by the
Federal Government receive the
same benefits as other Federal

Sources of Additional

Council of Library Technical Assistants, De­
partment of Library Science, University
of Mississippi, University, Miss. 38677.

For information on institutions
offering programs for the training
of library technicians, write:

American Library Association, Office of
Library Personnel Resources, 50 East
Huron St., Chicago, 111. 60611.

Saleswork offers career opportu­
nities for people who have
completed high school as well as for
college graduates, for those who
want to travel and those who do
not, and for salaried workers as well
as for men and women who wish to
run their own businesses.
Workers in these jobs may sell for
wholesalers, or retailers. In 1974,
over 5.4 million people were in
sales occupations; almost 30 per­
cent worked part time. The accom­
panying chart shows employment in
the major sales occupations
discussed in this section. Other
statements in this section cover au­
tomotive salesworkers, automobile
parts counter workers, automobile
service advisors, gasoline service at­
tendants, models, and route drivers.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
saleswork are as varied as the work

itself. Salesworkers who sell
standardized merchandise such as
magazines, candy, cigarettes, and
cosmetics usually are trained on the
job by experienced salesclerks; in
some large stores, they may attend
brief training
salesworker who sells complex
products or services, such as elec­
tronic equipment or liability in­
surance, needs more education and
training than most retail salesclerks.
For some positions, salesworkers
must be college graduates with
majors in a field such as engineer­
ing. Others get the necessary
technical knowledge from universi­
ty or manufacturers’ courses. Still
others learn through years of onthe-job experience, often supple­
mented by home study. Thus, a real
estate agent may take university ex­
tension courses; a department store
beauty counselor may participate in
an industry-sponsored training pro­
gram; or a jewelry salesworker may
learn through years of observation
and study on the job.

About 5.4 Million Workers are in
Sales Occupations


PERCENT in Sa la s O ccu p a tio n s, 1 9 7 4









R a ta il sa le sw o rk e rs
W h o le sa le sa lesw o rk ers

In su ra n ce ag ents a n d brokers

R e a l estate a g e n ts a n d b rokers
M a n u fa ctu re rs’ sa lesw o rk ers
Securities sa lesw o rk ers
A ll other


Bureau of Labor S ta tis tic s

Even in the most routine kinds of
selling, a high school diploma is an
asset to a beginner. Courses in busi­
ness, as well as specialized courses
in distributive education, are par­
ticularly good preparation.
Salesworkers must understand
the needs and viewpoints of their
customers and be poised and at
ease with strangers. Other impor­
tant attributes for selling are ener­
gy, self-confidence, imagination,
self-discipline, and the ability to
communicate. Arithmetic skills are
an asset. In almost all saleswork ex­
cept retail trade, salesworkers need
initiative to locate prospective
customers and to plan work

Employment Outlook
Employment in sales occupations
is expected to rise about as fast as
the average for all occupations
through the mid-1980’s. In addition
to jobs resulting from growth,
thousands of openings will occur
each year as workers die, retire, or
leave the occupation for other
As employment rises, the propor­
tion of part-time workers—already
high—is likely to increase. Many
part-time jobs will be in suburban
shopping centers which have retail
stores open several nights a week.
Further information about em­
ployment prospects for saleswork­
ers is given in statements that

(D.O.T. 289.358)

Nature of the Work
Automobile parts counter work­
ers sell replacement parts and ac­
cessories for automobiles, trucks,
and other motor vehicles. Most of
them work in wholesale stores and
automobile dealerships. They sell
over the counter and take
telephone orders for items such as
piston rings, head gaskets, shock
absorbers, rearview mirrors, and
seat covers.
Parts counter workers for
wholesalers sell parts for many
makes of automobiles and trucks to
independent repair shops, service
stations, self-employed mechanics,
and “do-it-yourselfers.” Counter
workers for dealers usually sell
parts only for the makes of automo­
biles and trucks sold by the dealers.
They may spend most of their time
supplying parts to the dealer’s
Parts counter workers identify
and locate in the stockroom items
the customer needs—often only
from general descriptions. By
knowing parts catalogs and the
layout of the stockroom they
quickly can find any of several
thousand items. If a customer needs
a part that is not stocked, counter
workers may suggest one that is in­
terchangeable, place a special
order, or refer the customer
Counter workers determine the
prices of parts from lists, fill out
sales receipts, and accept pay­
ments. When necessary they
package items sold.
In addition to selling, counter
workers keep catalogs and price
lists up to date, replenish stock, un­
pack and distribute incoming ship­
ments, record sales, and take inven­
tories. Large firms employ stock

and receiving clerks to do some of
the work.
Counter workers use microme­
ters, calipers, fan belt measures,
and other devices to measure parts
for interchangeability. They also
may use coil condenser testers,
spark plug testers, and other equip­
ment to find defective parts. In
some firms, particularly small
wholesale stores, they repair parts
by using equipment such as brake
riveting machines and brake drum

Places of Employment
About 75,000 persons were em­
ployed as automobile parts counter
workers in 1974. Most worked for
automobile dealers and parts
wholesalers. Dealers typically em­
ployed one to four counter workers;
many wholesalers employed more
than four. Other employers include
truck dealers, retail automobile
parts stores, and warehouse dis­
tributors of automotive parts.
Trucking companies and buslines
employ counter workers to main­
tain stockrooms and dispense parts
to mechanics who repair their
Parts counter workers are
located throughout the country in
dealerships and automobile parts
wholesale stores. Those who work
for warehouse distributors, trucking
companies, and buslines are em­
ployed mainly in large cities.

catalogs and price lists, and the
layout of the stockroom. Although
trainees may wait on customers
after a few months’ experience,
generally about 2 years are required
for a counter worker to become
fully qualified.
Automobile parts counter wor­
kers should know the different
types and functions of motor vehi­
cle parts and be able to work with
numbers. Employers generally
prefer high school graduates for
entry jobs. Courses in automobile
mechanics, commercial arithmetic,
merchandising, selling, and book­
keeping are helpful to young per­
sons interested in becoming parts
counter workers. Practical ex­
perience from working in a gasoline
service station or automobile repair
shop, or working on cars as a hobby
also is helpful.
Persons considering careers as
automobile parts counter workers
should be neat, friendly, and tactful
since they deal with the public in
many cases. A good memory and
the ability to write legibly and con­
centrate on details also are desira­
Counter workers who have su­
pervisory and business management
ability may become parts depart­
ment managers or store managers.
Others may become outside sales
wholesalers and distributors. These
people call on automobile repair
shops, service stations, trucking
companies, and other businesses
that buy parts and accessories in
large quantities. Some counter
workers open their own automobile
parts stores.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Employment Outlook

Most parts counter workers learn
the trade on the job. Beginners
usually are hired as parts deliverers
or trainees. In some large firms,
beginners start as stock or receiving
clerks. Trainees gradually learn the
different types of parts, the use of

Employment of automobile parts
counter workers is expected to in­
crease faster than the average for
all occupations. Employment will
rise because more parts will be
needed to repair the Nation’s grow­
ing number of motor vehicles.

feurs, Warehousemen and Helpers
of America (Ind.).

Sources of Additional
Details about employment op­
portunities may be obtained from
local automobile dealers and parts
wholesalers, locals of the unions
previously mentioned, or the local
office of the State employment ser­
For general information about
the occupation, write to:
Automotive Service Industry Association,
230 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago, III.
National Automotive Parts Association,
10400 West Higgins Rd., Rosemont, III.

(D.O.T. 280.358)

Nature of the Work
Counter worker discusses parts order with auto mechanic.

In addition to jobs from employ­
ment growth, more than a thousand
openings are expected annually to
replace experienced workers who
retire, die, or transfer to other oc­
cupations. The number of openings
is not expected to fluctuate signifi­
cantly from year to year because
the demand for automobile parts,
unlike some products, is not very
sensitive to changing economic

Earnings and Working
Automobile parts counter work­
ers are paid a weekly or monthly
salary, or an hourly wage rate. In
addition, they may receive commis­
sions on sales. Counter workers em­
ployed by automobile dealers in 34
large cities had estimated average

earnings of $4.60 an hour in late
1974, slightly higher than the
average for all nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
Parts counter workers typically
work 40 to 48 hours a week. Many
work half a day on Saturday.
Stockrooms usually are clean and
well lighted. The work is not physi­
cally strenuous, but counter work­
ers spend much time standing or
walking. They have to work rapidly
when waiting on customers and an­
swering telephone calls at the same
Many parts counter workers be­
long to unions such as: the Interna­
tional Association of Machinists
and Aerospace Workers; the Sheet
Metal Workers’ International As­
sociation; and the International
Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauf­

Automobile salesworkers are im­
portant links between dealers and
car buyers. Many sell only new or
used cars. Others, particularly those
employed in small dealerships, sell
new and used cars, as well as trucks.
(This statement does not discuss
truck sales specialists.)
Automobile salesworkers spend
much time waiting on customers in
the showroom or used-car lot. They
find out the kind of car the
customer wants by asking questions
and encouraging comments about
cars on display. For example, one
customer may be interested
primarily in economy, but another
may be more impressed with styling
and performance. The salesworkers
emphasize the points that satisfy the
customers’ desires and stimulate
their willingness to buy. To illus­
trate features such as performance,
ride, and handling, the salesworker
invites the customer to test-drive
the car.

into frequent contact with people.
prospects by phone or mail.

Places of Employment
About 130,000 persons worked
as automobile salesworkers in
1974. New-car dealers employed
about four-fifths of the total, and
used-car dealers employed the
remainder. Although many usedcar dealers employ only one
salesworker, a few new-car dealers
employ more than 50.
Automobile salesworkers are em­
Auto salesworker discusses new car
features with customer.
ployed throughout the country, but
most are concentrated in heavily
Because cars are a major populated areas.
purchase, customers must be con­
vinced that they are making a wise Training, Other Qualifications,
decision. Successful salesworkers
and Advancement
can overcome the customer’s
Most beginners are trained on the
hesitancy to buy, and get the order.
Since closing the sale frequently is job by sales managers and ex­
difficult for beginners, experienced perienced salesworkers. Many large
salesworkers or sales managers dealers also provide several days of
often lend assistance. Salesworkers classroom training on how to obtain
may quote prices and trade-in al­ customer leads, make sales presen­
lowances, but these figures usually tations, and close sales. Automobile
require the approval of the manufacturers may furnish training
manager. Salesworkers register cars manuals and other educational
and may get license plates and ar­ material.
range financing and insurance for beginning salesworkers receive
continuing guidance and training
Salesworkers approve delivery, from their managers, both on the
and they answer customers’ job and at periodic sales meetings.
questions on subjects such as the They also may attend training pro­
car’s controls and the maintenance grams offered by automobile manu­
warranty. Following delivery, they facturers.
A high school diploma usually is
may contact customers to express
appreciation for their business and the minimum educational require­
to inquire about their satisfaction ment for beginners. Courses in
with the car. From time to time, public
they also may send literature to arithmetic, English, merchandising,
customers in order to build repeat selling, business law, and psycholo­
gy also provide a good background
Salesworkers develop and follow for this type of work. Previous sales
leads on prospective customers. For experience or other work requiring
example, they obtain names of contact with the public is helpful.
prospects from automobile registra­ Many persons in automobile sales,
tion records and dealer sales, serv­ for example, previously were in fur­
ice, and finance records. They also niture, appliance, or door-to-door
can get leads from gas station sales. However, automobile sales
operators, parking lot attendants, managers frequently will hire inex­
and others whose work brings them perienced applicants who have

satisfactory personal and educa­
tional qualifications.
Although age requirements for
beginners vary, many employers
prefer applicants who are at least in
their mid- or late twenties. As a
rule, however, 21 is the minimum
age for beginners. Age require­
ments may be waived for a mature
Automobile salesworkers must
be tactful, well-groomed, and able
to express themselves well. Initia­
tive and aggressiveness also are im­
portant since the number of cars
sold usually depends on the number
of prospective customers con­
salesworkers occasionally work for
days without making a sale, they
need self-confidence and deter­
mination to get through these slow
Successful employees who have
managerial ability may advance to
assistant sales manager, sales
manager, or general manager.
Some managers and general
managers open their own dealer­
ship or become partners in dealer­

Employment Outlook
salesworkers is expected to grow
faster than the average for all occu­
pations through the mid-1980’s as
the demand for automobiles in­
creases. In addition to jobs resulting
thousands of openings will occur as
salesworkers retire, die, or transfer
to other occupations.
Over the long run, rising popula­
tion and personal incomes will lead
to increased car sales, and employ­
ment of salesworkers will grow.
However, employment will fluctu­
ate from year to year because car
sales are affected by changing
economic conditions and consumer
preferences. Therefore, opportuni­
ties for beginners will be plentiful in
some years, scarce in others.

Earnings and Working
Most salesworkers are paid a
commission based on the selling
price of a car or the profit received
by the dealer. Additional commis­
sions may be paid when cars are
financed and insured through the
dealer. Although salesworkers are
employed year-round, their sales,
and therefore their commissions,
vary from month to month. Many
dealers pay a modest weekly or
monthly salary so that commis­
sioned salesworkers will have a
steady income. Others advance
them money against future commis­
sions. A few dealers pay a straight
salary. Dealers may guarantee
beginners a modest income for a
few weeks or months. Thereafter,
they are paid on the same basis as
the experienced staff.
Salesworkers employed by newcar dealers had estimated average
weekly earnings of about $260 in
1974. Earnings varied, depending
on individual ability and ex­
perience, geographic location, and
dealership size. For example,
salesworkers who worked for
dealers that sold between 100 and
149 new vehicles annually averaged
about $197 a week, while those em­
ployed by dealers that sold 1,000
cars or more averaged about $300
per week.
Earnings may fluctuate signifi­
cantly from year to year due to
changes in the demand for cars. In
lean years, workers with poor sales
records may be laid off or may quit
to find better paying jobs in other
fields. Many, however, return when
the demand for cars improves.
Many dealers furnish their sales
staffs with demonstrator cars free of
charge. Others sell or lease demon­
strators at a discount, often at
dealer’s cost. Salesworkers also
receive discounts on cars bought
for personal use.
Because most customers find
shopping after work convenient,

evenings. In some areas, they may
work Sunday and take a day off
during the week. Many dealers as­
sign salesworkers “floortime”—
hours they spend in the showroom
greeting customers. For example, a
salesworker may be in the
showroom from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m.
one week, from 3 p.m. to 9 p.m. the
next week, and all day on Satur­
days. When not assigned to the
showroom, they may spend a few
hours each day delivering cars to
customers and looking for new


the car is difficult to start, the ad­
visor may try to find out if this hap­
pens when the engine is cold or
after it warms up. The advisor then
writes a brief description of these
symptoms on the repair order to
help the mechanic locate the trou­
ble. Service advisors also include
the name of the customer and make
of the car on the repair order. If a
factory warranty covers the repairs,
the engine and body numbers, mile­
age, and date of purchase are
If customers request, service ad­
visors explain what repairs are
Sources of Additional
needed, their approximate cost, and
how long the work will take. Since
this cannot always be done until
Details on employment opportu­
mechanics have inspected the cars,
nities may be obtained from local
service advisors may phone the
automobile dealers of the local of­
customers later, give them this in­
fice of the State employment serv­
formation, and thank them for per­
ice. For general information about
mission to do the work. They may
the work, write to:
advise on the necessity of having
National Automobile Dealers Association,
work done, by pointing out that it
2000 K St NW„ Washington, D.C.
will assure improved performance,
safer operation, and prevent more
serious trouble. In addition to advis­
ing customers on service needs,
they may sell accessories such as
air-conditioners or radios.
Service advisors give repair or­
(D.O.T. 620.281)
ders to the shop dispatcher who
then figures cost of repairs and as­
Nature of the Work
signs work to mechanics. In some
shops, advisors compute repair
Many automobile dealers and costs. If mechanics have questions
some large independent garages about a repair order, they contact
employ service advisors to wait on the advisor who wrote it. After the
customers who bring their cars for mechanic has finished the work, the
maintenance and repairs. The serv­ service advisor may test drive the
ice advisor, sometimes called serv­ car to be sure the problem has been
ice salesworker or service writer, corrected.
confers with customers to deter­
When the customer returns for
mine their service needs and ar­ the car, the service advisor answers
ranges for a mechanic to perform questions regarding the repairs and
the work.
settles complaints about their cost
For a routine checkup, service or quality. If the car is to be
the returned to the shop because the
customer’s requests on a repair customer is dissatisfied or the cost
order. However, when the customer of repairs is to be adjusted, the ad­
complains of major trouble, the ad­ visor usually must get permission
visor asks about the nature of the from the service manager. In some
trouble and may test drive the car. dealerships, the most experienced
For example, if the customer says service advisors substitute for serv-

worker trainee. Some firms, how­
ever, prefer to hire fully ex­
perienced mechanics.
Because service advisors deal
directly with customers, employers
look for applicants who are neat,
courteous, even-tempered, atten­
tive listeners, and good conversa­
tionalists. High school and voca­
tional school courses in automobile
mechanics, commercial arithmetic,
sales, public speaking, and English
are helpful.
Service advisors with supervisory
ability may advance to shop super­
visors or to service managers. Some
open their own automobile repair

Employment Outlook

ice managers when they are absent.

the shop, to compute costs, and to
determine the time required for dif­
ferent repairs. The beginner usually
Places of Employment
can become a qualified service ad­
More than 20,000 persons visor in 1 to 2 years, but learning to
worked as automobile service ad­ estimate the cost of automobile
visors in 1974. Most worked for body repairs may take a longer
large automobile dealers that em­ time. In addition to on-the-job
ployed from one to four advisors, training, some advisors attend for­
but some worked for large indepen­ mal training programs conducted
dent automobile repair shops.
by automobile manufacturers.
For service advisor trainees, em­
ployers prefer high school gradu­
Training, Other Qualifications,
ates over 21 years of age with work
and Advancement
experience in automobile repair or
Service advisors are trained on related
the job under the guidance of ex­ usually promote persons from
perienced service advisors and the within their own organizations. For
service manager. In many shops, example, a person may apply for a
trainees begin by helping the serv­ job as service advisor trainee after
ice department dispatcher. They gaining experience in the firm as a
learn to route repair orders through mechanic trainee or parts counter

Employment in this small occu­
pation is expected to increase about
as fast as the average for all occupa­
tions through the mid-1980’s.
There will be more automobiles on
the road, and they will be more
complex. This will result in a need
for more service advisors. In addi­
tion to the job openings resulting
from employment growth, a few
hundred openings will arise each
year to replace experienced service
advisors who retire, die, or transfer
to other occupations. The number
of openings is not expected to fluc­
tuate significantly from year to year
because the demand for automobile
repairs is not very sensitive to
changing economic conditions.
Job openings for service advisors
will be concentrated in large au­
tomobile dealerships, most of which
are located in metropolitan areas.
In small towns, many dealers do not
have enough repair business to hire
service advisors; shop supervisors
do the work instead.

Earnings and Working
Service advisors employed by au­
tomobile dealers in 34 large cities
had estimated average earnings of
$5.95 an hour in late 1974, more
than one-third higher than the

average for all nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
Many service advisors are paid a
salary plus commission; others are
paid a straight commission. Com­
missions usually are based on both
the cost of repairs and the price of
accessories sold.
Most service advisors work 40 to
48 hours a week. They are busiest
in the early morning when most
customers bring their cars for
repairs, and in late afternoon when
they return. During these peak
hours advisors may be rushed to
wait on customers. Occasionally,
they have to deal with disgruntled
Service advisors stand much of
the time and may be outdoors in all
kinds of weather, but their work is
not physically strenuous.
Unions that organize service ad­
visors include the International As­
sociation of Machinists and
Aerospace Workers; the Sheet
Metal Workers’ International As­
sociation; and the International
Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauf­
fers, Warehousemen and Helpers of
America (Ind.).


(D.O.T. 915.867)
Nature of the Work
Gasoline service station attend­
ants help keep the Nation’s 125
million motor vehicles running and
in good operating condition.
Service station attendants pump
gasoline, clean windshields, and
offer the additional services of
checking water level, oil level, and
tire air pressure. They also may
check the tires, fan belt, and other
parts for excessive wear.
Attendants have other responsi­
bilities besides servicing cars. They
sell and install parts and accessories
such as tires, batteries, fan belts,
and windshield wiper blades. When
a customer pays the bill, attendants
either make change or prepare a
charge slip. They may do minor
maintenance and repair work, such
as changing oil, rotating tires, fixing
flats, or replacing mufflers. Some
attendants, called mechanic-attend­
ants, perform more difficult repairs,
Attendants also may keep the
service areas,
building, and
restrooms clean and neat. In some
stations, they help the station
manager take inventory, set up dis­
Sources of Additional
plays, and keep business records.
If a service station provides emer­
Details on employment opportu­ gency road service, attendants oc­
nities may be obtained from local casionally may drive a tow truck to
automobile dealers or repair shops; a disabled car to “ boost” the bat­
locals of the unions previously men­ tery, change a flat tire, or perform
tioned; or the local office of the other minor repairs. If more exten­
State employment service.
sive repairs are needed, they tow
For general information about the car back to the station.
the work of automobile service ad­
Attendants may use simple handvisors, write to:
tools such as screwdrivers, pliers,
and wrenches, and power tools such
Automotive Service Industry Association,
230 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111.
as pneumatic wrenches. Mechanic60601.
attendants frequently use more
Automotive Service Councils of America,
complex equipment, such as motor
Inc., 4001 Warren Blvd., Hillside, 111.
analyzers and wheel alignment

Places of Employment
Over 450,000 people worked as

gasoline service station attendants
in 1974. About one-third of these
were part-time employees. In addi­
tion to attendants, more than
225,000 gasoline service station
managers and owners did similar
Service station attendants work
in every section of the country, in
the largest cities, in the smallest
towns, and in outlying areas.

Training, Other Qualifications
and Advancement
Applicants for jobs as gasoline
service station attendants should
have a driver’s license, a general
understanding of how an automo­
bile works, and some sales ability.
They should be friendly people,
able to speak well, and presenting a
generally neat appearance. They
also need self-confidence. Appli­
arithmetic so they can make change
quickly and accurately and help
keep business records. They also
should be familiar with local roads,
highways, and points of interest in
order to give directions to
customers and to locate cars whose
owners have called for road service.
Although completion of high
school is not generally a require­
ment for getting an entry job, it is
an advantage because it indicates to
many employers that a young per­
son can “finish a job.” A high
school education usually is required
for service station management
training programs conducted by oil
Service station attendants receive
most of their training on the job,
although there are some formal
training programs. Trainees do rela­
tively simple work at first, such as
cleaning the station, pumping gas,
Gradually, they progress to more
advanced work such as doing sim­
ple maintenance work, installing
accessories on cars, and helping to
keep the station records. It usually
takes from several months to a year

to become a fully qualified attend­
Formal training programs for
gasoline service station work are of­
fered in many high schools around
the country. In this curriculum, stu­
dents in their last 2 years of high
school take business education
courses and work part-time in a
gasoline service station, where they
receive instruction in all phases of
service station work.
Some attendants are enrolled in
formal training program for serv­
ice station managers, which are
conducted by most major oil com­
panies. These programs usually last
from 2 to 8 weeks and emphasize
subjects such as simple automobile
maintenance, salesmanship, and
business management.
Several avenues of advancement
are open to service station attend­
ants. Additional training qualifies
attendants to become automobile
mechanics; those having business
management capabilities may ad­
vance to station manager. Many ex­
perienced station managers and au­
tomobile mechanics go into busi­
ness for themselves by leasing a sta­
tion from an oil company or buying
their own station. Oil companies
hire some service station managers
as sales representatives or district

Employment Outlook
Employment of gasoline service
station attendants should continue
to grow over the next few years.
However, the extent of longrun em­
ployment growth of gasoline service
station attendants is difficult to esti­
mate. The trend toward cars with
better gas mileage capabilities
could eventually reduce total
gasoline consumption, which might
severely limit growth in this occu­
pation over the long run. Selfservice gas stations also may limit
growth. However, in this occupa­
tion of many persons, thousands of
job openings are expected each
year to replace workers who retire,

die, or transfer to other occupa­

Earnings and Working
Earnings of gasoline service sta­
tion attendants vary considerably.
Hourly earnings for many attend­
ants ranged from $2 to $3 in 1974,
according to the limited informa­
tion available. Attendants em­
ployed in large metropolitan areas
generally had higher earnings than
those in small towns.
Full-time attendants work 40
hours a week or more. Work
schedules may include evenings,
weekends, and holidays.
Attendants work outdoors in all
kinds of weather. They do con­
siderable lifting and stooping and
spend much time on their feet.
Possible injuries include cuts from
sharp tools and burns from hot en­
gines. For many attendants, how­
ever, the opportunity to deal with
people and the possibility of some­
day managing their own service sta­
tions more than offset these disad­
vantages. For others, the opportuni­
ty to get part-time employment is
Some college students have been
able to work their way through
school as service station attendants.
Some workers also supplement
their income from regular jobs by
working part time as attendants.

Sources of Additional
For more details about work op­
portunities, contact local gasoline
service stations or the local office of
the State employment service.

(D.O.T. 250.258)

Nature of the Work
Insurance agents and brokers sell

policies that protect individuals and
businesses against future losses and
financial pressures. They may help
plan financial protection to meet
the special needs of a customer’s
family; advise about insurance pro­
tection for an automobile, home,
business, or other property; or help
a policyholder obtain settlement of
an insurance claim.
Agents and brokers usually sell
one or.more of the three basic types
of insurance: life, property-liability
(casualty), and health. Life in­
surance agents, sometimes called
life underwriters, offer policies that
pay survivors when a policyholder
dies. Depending on the pol­
icyholder’s individual
stances, a life policy can be
designed to provide retirement in­
come, funds for the education of
children, or other benefits. Casualty
agents sell policies that protect in­
dividual policyholders from finan­
cial losses as a result of automobile
accidents, fire or theft, or other
losses. They also sell industrial or
commercial lines, such as workers’
compensation, product liability, oi
medical malpractice insurance.
Health insurance policies offer pro­
tection against the costs of hospital
and medical care or loss of income
due to illness or injury, and most
life agents and casualty agents offer
this type of insurance to their
customers. Many agents also offer
securites, such as mutual fund
shares or variable annuities.
An insurance agent may be either
an insurance company employee or
an independent business person
authorized to represent one oi
more insurance companies. Brokers
are not under exclusive contract
with any single company; instead,
they place policies directly with the
company that best meets a client’s
needs. Otherwise, agents and
brokers do much the same kind of
They spend most of their time
discussing insurance policies with
prospective and existing customers.
Some time must be spent in of-

ficework to prepare reports, main­
tain records, plan insurance pro­
grams that are tailored to prospects’
needs, and draw up lists of prospec­
tive customers. Specialists in group
policies may help an employer’s ac­
countants set up a system of payroll
deductions for employees covered
by the policy.

Places of Employment
As many as 450,000 agents and
brokers sold insurance full time in
1974. In addition, thousands of
others worked part time. About half
of the agents and brokers special­
ized in life insurance; the rest, in
some type of property/liability in­
surance. A growing number of
agents offer both life and propertyliability policies to their customers.
Agents and brokers are employed
in cities and towns throughout the
country, but most work near large

population centers.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Although many employers prefer
college graduates for jobs selling in­
surance, most will hire high school
graduates with work experience.
College training may help the agent
grasp the fundamentals and
procedures of insurance selling
more quickly. Courses in account­
ing, economics, finance, business
law, and insurance subjects are
All agents and most brokers must
be licensed in the State where they
plan to sell insurance. In most
States, licenses are issued only to
applicants who pass written ex­
aminations covering insurance fun­
damentals and the State insurance
laws. Agents who plan to sell mu­
tual fund shares and other securities

also must be licensed by the State.
New agents usually receive training
at insurance company home offices
or at the agencies where they will
work. Beginners sometimes attend
company-sponsored classes to
prepare for examinations. Others
study on their own and accompany
experienced salesworkers when
they call on prospective clients.
Agents and brokers can broaden
their knowledge of the insurance
business by taking courses at col­
leges and universities and attending
seminars sponsored by insurance
organizations. The Life Un­
(LUTC) awards a diploma in life in­
surance marketing to agents who
successfully complete the Council’s
2-year life program. They also offer
courses in health insurance and
equity products. As agents or
brokers gain experience and
knowledge, they can qualify for the
Chartered Life Underwriter (CLU)
designation by passing a series of
examinations given by the Amer­
ican College of Life Underwriters.
In much the same way, a propertyliability agent can qualify for the
Chartered Property Casualty Un­
derwriter (CPCU) designation by
passing a series of examinations
given by the American Institute for
derwriters, Inc. The CLU and
CPCU designations are recognized
marks of achievement in their
respective fields.
Agents and brokers should be
enthusiastic, self-confident, and
able to communicate effectively.
Because agents usually work
without supervision, they need in­
itiative to locate new prospects. For
this reason, many employers seek
people who have been successful in
other jobs.
Insurance agents who show
unusual sales ability and leadership
may become a sales manager in a
district office or assume a
managerial job in a home office. A
few agents may advance to top posi­

tions as agency superintendents or
company vice-presidents. Many
who have built up a good clientele
prefer to remain in saleswork.
Some, particularly in the propertyliability field, eventually establish
their own independent agencies or
brokerage firms.

Employment Outlook
Employment of insurance agents
and brokers is expected to grow
about as fast as the average for all
occupations through the mid1980’s as the volume of insurance
sales continues to expand. Many
additional jobs will open as agents
and brokers die, retire, or leave
their jobs to seek other work. Due
to the competitive nature of in­
surance selling, beginners often
leave their jobs because they have
been unable to establish a suffi­
ciently large clientele. Therefore,
opportunities should be quite
favorable for ambitious people who
enjoy saleswork.
Future demand for agents and
brokers depends on the volume of
insurance sales. Volume should in­
crease rapidly over the next decade
as a larger proportion of the popu­
lation enters the period of peak
earnings and family responsibilities.
Life insurance sales should grow as
more families select policies
designed to provide educational
funds for their children and retire­
ment income. Rising incomes also
should stimulate the sale of equity
products such as mutual funds, vari­
able annuities, and other invest­
ments. Sales of property-liability in­
surance should rise as more con­
sumer purchases are insured and as
commercial coverages, such as
product liability and workers’ com­
pensation, are expanded.
However, employment of agents
and brokers will not keep pace with
the rising level of insurance sales
because more policies will be sold
to groups and by mail. Also, agents
should be able to handle more busi­
ness as computers relieve them of
timfe-consuming clerical tasks.

Earnings and Working
Beginners in this occupation
often are guaranteed moderate
salaries or advances on commis­
sions while they are learning the
business and building a clientele.
Thereafter, most agents are paid a
commission. The size of the com­
mission depends on the type and
amount of insurance sold, and
whether the transaction is a new
policy or a renewal. After a few
years, an agent’s commissions on
new policies and renewals may
range from $10,000 to $20,000 an­
nually. A number of established and
highly successful agents and
brokers earn more than $30,000 a
Agents and brokers generally pay
their own automobile and traveling
expenses. In addition, those who
own and operate independent busi­
nesses must pay office rent, clerical
salaries, and other operating expen­
ses out of their earnings.
usually are free to arrange their
own hours of work, they often
schedule appointments during
evenings and weekends for the con­
venience of clients. Some agents
work more than the customary 40
hours a week. (See the statement
on the Insurance Industry for more
information about work in life and
property-liability companies.)

Sources of Additional
General occupational informa­
tion about insurance agents and
brokers is available from the home
office of many life and property-lia­
bility insurance companies. Infor­
mation on State licensing require­
ments may be obtained from the de­
partment of insurance at any State
Information about a career as a
life insurance agent also is available
Institute of Life Insurance, 227 Park Ave.,
New York, N.Y. 10017.

Life Insurance Marketing and Research As­
sociation, 170 Sigourney St., Hart­
ford, Conn. 06105.
The National Association o f Life Under­
writers, 1922 F St., NW., Washington,
D.C. 20006.

For career information on property/liability agents, contact:
Insurance Information Institute, 110 William
St., New York, N.Y. 10038.
National Association of Insurance Agents,
Inc., 85 John St., New York, N.Y.

(D.O.T. 260. through 298.458)
Nature of the Work
Practically all manufacturers—
whether they make computers or
can openers—employ salesworkers.
Manufacturers’ salesworkers sell
mainly to other businesses—facto­
ries, railroads, banks, wholesalers,
and retailers. They also sell to
hospitals, schools, libraries, and
other institutions.
Most manufacturers’ saleswork­
ers sell nontechnical products.
They must be well informed about
their firms’ products and also about
the special requirements of their
customers. When salesworkers visit
firms in their territory, they use an
approach adapted to the particular
line of merchandise. A salesworker
who handles crackers or cookies,
for example, emphasizes the
wholesomeness, attractive packag­
ing, and variety of these products.
Sometimes salesworkers promote
their products by displays in hotels
and conferences with wholesalers
and other customers.
Salesworkers who deal in highly
technical products, such as elec­
tronic equipment, often are called
sales engineers or industrial
salesworkers. In addition to having
a thorough knowledge of their
firms’ products, they must be able
to help prospective buyers with
technical problems. For example,
they may try to determine the
proper materials and equipment for
a firm’s manufacturing process.

Manufacturers’ aalesworker takas order for camera equipment from photo buyer in
a department store.

They then present this information
to company officials and try to
negotiate a sale. Often, sales en­
gineers work with the research-anddevelopment departments of their
own companies to devise ways to
adapt products to a customer’s spe­
cialized needs. Salesworkers who
handle technical products some­
times train their customers’ em­
ployees in the operation and main
tenance of new equipment, anc
make frequent return visits to be
certain that it is giving the desired
salesworkers spend most of their
time visiting prospective customers,
they also do paperwork including
reports on sales prospects or
customers’ credit ratings. In addi­
tion, they must plan their work
schedules, draw up lists of
prospects, make appointments,
handle some correspondence, and
study literature relating to their

Places of Employment
Almost 380,000 people—10 per­

cent of them women—were manu­
facturers’ salesworkers in 1974.
About 21,000 were sales engineers.
Some work out of home offices,
often located at manufacturing
plants. The majority, however,
work out of branch offices, usually
in big cities near prospective
More salesworkers are employed
by companies that produce food
products than by any other indus­
try. Large numbers also work in the
printing and publishing, chemicals,
fabricated metal products, and
electrical and other machinery in­
dustries. Most sales engineers work
for companies that produce heavy
machinery, transportation equip­
ment, fabricated metal products,
and professional and scientific in­

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Although high school graduates
can be successful manufacturers’
salesworkers, college graduates are
preferred as trainees.
Manufacturers of nontechnical

products often hire college gradu­
ates who have a degree in liberal
arts or business administration.
Some positions, however, require
specialized training. Drug Sales­
workers usually need training
at a college of pharmacy. Man­
ufacturers of electrical equip­
ment, heavy machinery, and
some types of chemicals prefer
to hire college-trained engineers
or chemists. (Information on
chemists, engineers, and others
with the technical training suitable
for work as manufacturers’ sales­
workers is given eleswhere in
the Handbook.)
Beginning salesworkers take spe­
cialized training before they start
on the job. Some companies, espe­
cially those that manufacture com­
plex technical products, have for­
mal training programs that last 2
years or longer. In some of these
programs, trainees rotate among
jobs in several departments of the
plant and office to learn all phases
of production, installation, and dis­
tribution of the product. Other
trainees take formal class instruc­
tion at the plant, followed by onthe-job training in a branch office
under the supervision of field sales
A pleasant personality and ap­
pearance, and the ability to meet
and get along well with many types
of people are important. Because
salesworkers may have to walk or
stand for long periods or carry
product samples, some physical
stamina is necessary. As in most
selling jobs, arithmetic skills are an
Sales representatives who have
good sales records and leadership
ability may advance to sales super­
visors, branch managers, or district
managers. Those with managerial
ability eventually may advance to
sales manager or other executive
positions; many top executive jobs
in industry are filled by people who
started as salesworkers.
Because of frequent contact with
business people in other firms,

salesworkers often transfer to other
jobs. Some go into business for
agents selling similar products of
several manufacturers. Other ex­
perienced salesworkers find oppor­
tunities in advertising and market­
ing research.

Employment Outlook
Persons with sales ability should
find the best opportunities for jobs
as manufacturers salesworkers over
the next 10 years. Although
thousands of sales openings will
arise each year because of employ­
ment growth and the need to
replace experienced workers who
leave their jobs, manufacturers are
expected to be selective in hiring.
They will look for ambitious people
who are well trained and tempera­
mentally suited for the job.
Employment growth in this field
is expected to be slower than the
average for all occupations, chiefly
because of the trend toward
growth will occur, however,
because of the rising demand for
technical products and the resulting
need for trained salesworkers. In
addition, industrial firms, chain
institutions that
purchase large quantities of goods
at one time frequently buy directly
from the manufacturer. The need
for salesworkers will increase as
manufacturers emphasize sales ac­
tivities to compete for the growing
number of these valuable accounts.

Earnings and Working
According to the limited infor­
mation available, salaries for
beginning salesworkers averaged
about $9,000 a year in 1974, exclu­
sive of commissions and bonuses.
The highest starting salaries
generally were paid by manufac­
turers of electrical and electronic
equipment, construction materials,
hardware and tools, and scientific
and precision instruments.

Some manufacturing concerns
pay experienced salesworkers a
straight commission, based on their
dollar amount of sales; others pay a
fixed salary. The majority, however,
use a combination of salary and
commission, salary and bonus, or
salary, commission, and bonus.
Commissions vary according to the
salesworkers’ efforts and ability, the
commission rate, location of their
sales territory, and the type of
product sold. Bonus payments may
depend on individual performance,
on performance of all salesworkers
in the group or district, or on the
company’s sales. Some firms pay
annual bonuses; others offer
bonuses as incentive payments on a
quarterly or monthly basis. In
general, the earnings of manufac­
turers’ salesworkers are higher than
the average for all nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
Some manufacturers’ saleswork­
ers have large territories and do
considerable traveling. Others
usually work in the neighborhood
of their “home base.” When on
business trips, salesworkers are
reimbursed for expenses such as
transportation and hotels. Some
companies provide a car or pay a
mileage allowance to salesworkers
who use their own cars.
Manufacturers’ salesworkers call
at the time most convenient to
customers and may have to travel at
night or on weekends. Frequently,
they spend evenings writing reports.
However, some plan their schedules
for time off when they want it. Most
salesworkers who are not paid a
straight commission receive 2 to 4
weeks’ paid vacation, depending on
their length of service. They usually
share in company benefits, includ­
ing life insurance, pensions, and
hospital, surgical, and medical

Sources of Additional
For more information on the oc­

salesworker, write:
Sales and Marketing Executives Interna­
tional, Student Education Division, 380
Lexington Ave., New York, N.Y.

(D.O.T. 297.868 and 961.868)

Nature of the Work
Selling a product is always easier
if an attractive man or woman is
shown using it. In magazine adver­
tisements and television commer­
cials models can be seen posing
with a wide variety of products, in­
cluding cars, soft drinks, and per­
fume. Most models, however, are
used to show the latest in fashion
designs and cosmetics.
Models usually specialize in
either live or photographic work.
Fashion models generally work be­
fore an audience, modeling the
creations of well-known designers
at fashion shows. While the an­
nouncer describes what they are
wearing, they walk past customers
and photographers and point out
special features of the design. On
some jobs they may stop to tell in­
dividual customers a garment’s
price and style number.
Fashion models who work for
clothing designers, manufacturers,
showroom or wholesale models.
When new spring or fall designs are
being shown to prospective buyers,
these models are extremely busy.
During slack times, however, they
may have some general office du­
ties, such as typing or filing.
Some informal models work in
department stores and custom
salons where the pace is more lei­
surely than in showrooms. Others
demonstrate new products and
services at manufacturers’ exhibits
and trade shows.
Photographic models usually are
hired to pose for a particular assign­
ment. Although most model clothes

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

and cosmetics, they often pose with
other merchandise as well. In addi­
tion to fashion and photographic
work, some models pose for artists
or sculptors, or work in films or

Places of Employment
About 9,000 models were em­
ployed in 1974, most of them
women. Clothing manufacturers,
designers, and wholesalers employ
the largest number of models. In
New York City’s garment district,
hundreds of firms each employ one
or two permanent models to show
their latest fashion designs to
prospective retail buyers. Many
models work on a free-lance basis,
however, and either obtain assign­
ments through a modeling agency
or, in some cases, seek clients them­
selves. Advertising agencies, retail
stores, magazines, and photog­
raphers almost always employ
freelance models for their fashion
articles or advertisements.
Modeling jobs are available in
nearly all urban areas, but most jobs
are in New York City because it is
the center of the fashion industry.
Chicago and Los Angeles are two
other cities with many jobs for

The most important asset for a
model is a distinctive and attractive
physical appearance. Advertisers
and clothing designers hire models
who have the right “ look” for their
product and a face or style that will
be remembered. To develop an in­
dividual style, many models attend
a modeling school where they learn
to style their hair, walk and stand
gracefully, pose in front of a
camera, and apply makeup. Model­
ing agencies also provide this train­
ing, but normally accept only the
most promising beginners.
Female models must be at least S
feet 7 inches tall and weigh no more
than 120 pounds. Male models
must be 6 feet tall and wear a size
40 suit. Size requirements are quite
rigid because manufacturers’ and
designers’ samples are standard and
models must Fit the clothes without
Photographic models usually are
thinner than fashion models
because the camera adds at least 10
pounds to a person’s appearance. In
addition, they must have fine, regu­
lar features and good teeth and
There are no educational
requirements for models; some
have completed high school and
others have had college training.
Courses in drama, dancing, art, and
fashion design are useful because
they can develop poise and a sense
of style.
Models should enjoy working
with people and must be able to
withstand the pressures of competi­
tion, tight schedules, and quick
changes. Physical stamina is impor­
tant because models are on their
feet most of the time and must
sometimes assume rather awkward
positions when posing for photog­
Many beginners get their first job
through the modeling school they
attended. All agencies find jobs for
their models. Usually, they require

their models to obtain a portfolio of
photographs of themselves in vari­
ous styles and poses which the
agency can show to prospective
clients. Some department stores
hold auditions that give inex­
perienced models a chance to
model at a fashion show and per­
haps obtain other jobs if they do
In addition, many sales jobs in de­
partment stores provide useful ex­
perience in selecting and coordinat­
ing fashions, experimenting with
makeup, and occasional modeling.
Sometimes a model can gain ex­
perience by working in fashion
shows given by local community or­
Modeling can be a stepping stone
to other jobs in the fashion field,
such as staff editor of a fashion
magazine, consultant for a cosmetic
firm, or fashion coordinator for a
department store. Some models
take courses in art and design and
may become fashion illustrators or
designers. A few models who work
in television commercials become
actors or actresses.

Employment Outlook
Although employment of models
is expected to increase faster than
the average for all occupations
through the mid-1980’s, competi­
tion for the available jobs will be
keen. The glamour of modeling at­
tracts many more persons than are
needed in the occupation.
Rising advertising expenditures
and sales of clothing and accesso­
ries will cause the demand for both
photographic and fashion models to
increase. Most job openings, how­
ever, will result from the need to
replace models who have left the
occupation. Many models have to
retire when they lose their youthful
appearance because most em­
ployers prefer younger models.
Others leave the occupation
because their particular “ look”
goes out of style or becomes as­
sociated with an outdated product.

Earnings and Working
A model’s earnings depend on
the number and length of assign­
ments he or she receives. Although
a few top models earn as much as
business executives, most earn far
less. According to the limited infor­
mation available, fashion models
working full time for manufacturers
or wholesalers earned from $ 125 to
$200 a week in 1974. Models work­
ing for New York City retail stores
were paid from $110 to $200 a
week, and those working outside of
New York from $80 to $140.
Free-lance models are paid a fee
for their work. If they are registered
with an agency, they pay a commis­
sion for the services it provides. In
1974, free-lance models working in
fashion shows earned an average
fee of $50 an hour. Those in New
York earned as much as $75 an
hour. These rates are misleading,
however, because many models,
especially beginners, work only a
few hours each week and spend a
great deal of their time auditioning
for prospective clients. Although
photographic modeling often pays
well, models usually must provide
their own accessories, such as wigs
and hairpieces, and pay for their
transportation. Occasionally, a
model must buy a complete outfit in
order to get a particular job.
Models appearing in television
commercials earn at least $126 for
a job as an extra, and about $165
for one as a principal character;
they also receive additional income
each time the commercial is rerun.
Television models must be mem­
bers of the American Federation of
Television and Radio Artists or the
Screen Actors Guild, Inc.
Models sometimes must work
under uncomfortable conditions,
posing in a swimsuit in the middle
of winter, for example. The work
can also affect their personal lives
because models must always look
fresh and well-rested for the camera
and may have to limit evenings out

with friends. In addition, a female
model must spend part of each
night on beauty care, and some­
times has to prepare her clothing
and accessories for the next day’s

Sources of Additional
Employers of models such as
magazines and newspapers may be
able to recommend reputable
modeling agencies or schools.
A list of approved modeling
schools is available from individual
State departments of education.
Write the directors of particular
modeling schools for catalogs
describing their programs, entrance
requirements, and tuition costs.

(D.O.T. 250.358)

Nature of the Work
Real estate salesworkers and
brokers represent property owners
in selling or renting their properties.
They also are called real estate
agents or, if they are members of
the National Association of Real­
tors, “ realtors” or “ realtor as­
Brokers are independent business
people who not only sell real estate,
but also rent and manage proper­
ties, make appraisals, and develop
new building projects. In closing
sales, brokers usually arrange for
loans to finance the purchases, for
title searches, and for meetings
between buyers and sellers, when
details of the transaction are agreed
upon and the new owners take pos­
session. Brokers also must manage
their own offices, advertise the pro­
perties they list, and handle other
business operations. Some combine
other types of work such as selling
insurance or practicing law with

their real estate business.
Salesworkers or agents work for
brokers. They show and sell real
estate, handle rental properties, and
obtain “ listings” (owner agree­
ments to place properties for sale
with the firm). Because obtaining
listings is an important job duty,
salesworkers may spend much time
on the telephone exploring leads
gathered from advertisements and
personal contacts. They also answer
inquiries about properties over the
A worker who sells real estate or
handles rental properties often
must leave the office to call on
prospects and drive them to inspect
properties for sale. When a number
of houses are for sale in a new
development, the agent may
operate from a model home.
Most real estate salesworkers and
brokers sell residential property. A
few, usually in large firms, special­
ize in commercial, industrial, or
other types of real estate. Each spe­
cialty requires knowledge of that
particular type of property. Selling
or leasing business property, for ex­
ample, requires an understanding of
leasing practices, business trends,
and location needs. Agents who sell
or lease industrial properties must
know about transportation, utilities,
and labor supply. To sell residential
properties, the agent must know the

location of schools, churches,
shopping facilities, and public
transportation. Familiarity with tax
rates and insurance coverages also
is important.

Places of Employment
Nearly 400,000 persons sold real
estate full time in 1974; many
others sold on a part-time basis.
The number of people licensed to
sell totaled about 1.4 Tnillion in
1974, according to the National As­
sociation of Real Estate License
Law Officials.
Most real estate salesworkers
work for small establishments;
some, particularly in urban areas,
work for large firms with several of­
fices. A few sales agents are em­
ployed by builders to sell new
homes in a particular development.
Real estate is sold in all areas, but
employment is concentrated in
large urban areas and in smaller but
rapidly growing communities.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Real estate salesworkers and
brokers must be licensed in every
State and in the District of Colum­
bia. All States require prospective
agents to pass written tests. The ex­
amination—more comprehensive
for brokers than for salesworkers—
includes questions on basic real
estate transactions and on laws af­
fecting the sale of property. A
majority of States require can­
didates for a broker’s license to
have a specified amount of ex­
perience in selling real estate or the
equivalent in related experience oi
education (generally 1 to 3 years).
State licenses usually can be
renewed annually without reex­
Employers prefer applicants with
at least a high school education. As
real estate transactions have
become more complex, many of the
large firms have turned to college
graduates to fill sales positions.

Most agents have some college
training and the number of college
graduates has risen substantially in
recent years. However, many em­
ployers consider personality traits
as important as academic training.
They look for applicants who pos­
sess such positive characteristics as
a pleasant personality, honesty, and
a neat appearance. Maturity, tact,
and enthusiasm for the job are
required in order to motivate
prospective customers in this
keenly competitive field. Agents
also should have a good memory foi
names and faces and business
details such as taxes, zoning regula­
tions, and local land-use laws.
Young men and women in
terested in beginning jobs as real
estate salesworkers often apply in
their own communities, where their
knowledge of local neighborhoods
is an advantage. The beginner
usually learns the practical aspects
of the job under the direction of an
experienced agent.
Many firms offer formal training
programs for both beginners and
experienced salesworkers. About
360 universities, colleges, and jun­
ior colleges offer courses in real
estate. At some, a student can earn
an associate’s or bachelor’s degree
with a major in real estate; several
offer advanced degrees. Many local
real estate boards that are members
of the National Association of Real­
tors sponsor courses covering the
fundamentals and legal aspects of
the field. Advanced courses in ap­
praisal, mortgage financing, and
property development and manage­
ment also are available through
various National Association af­
salesworkers can advance in many
large firms to sales or general
manager. Licensed brokers may
open their own offices. Training
and experience in estimating pro­
perty value can lead to work as a
real estate appraiser, and people
familiar with operating and main­
taining rental properties may spe­

cialize in property management.
Those who gain general experience
in real estate, and a thorough
knowledge of business conditions
and property values in their locali­
ties, may enter mortgage financing
or real estate counseling.

Employment Outlook
Employment of real estate
salesworkers and brokers is ex­
pected to rise about as fast as the
average for all occupations in order
to satisfy a growing demand for
housing and other properties. In ad­
dition to opportunities that result
from this growth, several thousand
openings will occur each year as
employees die, retire, or leave for
other reasons. Replacement needs
are high, because a relatively large
number of people retire from the
real estate business every year.
Moreover, many beginners transfer
to other work after a short time
selling real estate.
The favorable outlook for em­
ployment in this field will stem
primarily from increased demand
for home purchases and rental
units. Shifts in the age distribution
of the population over the next
decade will result in a larger
number of young adults with
careers and family responsibilities.
This is the group that traditionally
makes the bulk of home purchases.
As their incomes rise, these families
also can be expected to purchase
larger homes and vacation proper­
ties. During periods of declining
economic activity and tight credit,
the volume of sales and the result­
ing demand for salesworkers
usually declines. During these
periods, the number of persons
seeking sales positions may out­
number openings. Over the long
run, however, the outlook for
salespeople is favorable.
Many job opportunities should
occur for both college graduates
and mature workers transferring
from other kinds of saleswork. This
field is likely to remain highly com­

earnings. A beginner’s earnings
often are irregular because a few
weeks or even months may go by
without a sale. Although some
brokers allow a salesworker a draw­
ing account against future earnings,
this practice is not usual with new
employees. The beginner, there­
fore, should have enough money to
live on until commissions increase.
Earnings and Working
Brokers provide office space, but
salesworkers generally furnish their
Commissions on sales are the own automobiles. Agents and
main source of earnings—very few brokers often work in the evenings
real estate agents work for a salary. and during weekends to suit the
The rate of commission varies ac­ convenience of customers. Some
cording to the type of property and firms, especially the large ones,
its value; the percentage paid on the furnish group life, health, and ac­
sale of farm and commercial pro- cident insurance.
'perties or unimproved land usually
Sources of Additional
is higher than that paid for selling a
Commissions may be divided
Details on licensing requirements
among several salespersons in a real for real estate salesworkers and
estate firm. The person who obtains
brokers are available from most
the listing often receives a part local real estate organizations or
when the property is sold; the from the real estate commission or
broker who makes the sale either board located in each State capital.
gets the rest of the commission, or Many States can furnish manuals
else shares it with the agent who helpful to applicants who are
handles the transaction. Although preparing for the required written
an agent's share varies greatly from examinations.
one firm to another, often it is
For more information about op­
about half of the total amount portunities in real estate work, as
received by the firm.
well as a list of colleges and univer­
Earnings of full-time real estate sities offering courses in this field,
agents generally range between contact:
$12,000 and $20,000 a year, ac­
cording to the limited data availa­ National Association of Realtors, 155 E. Su­
perior St., Chicago, 111. 60611.
ble. Beginners usually earn less.
Many experienced real estate
salesworkers earn $30,000 or more
a year. Full-time agents and brokers
earn nearly three times as much as
average earnings for all nonsupervisory workers in private industry,
(D.O.T. 260. through 290.877)
except farming.
Income usually increases as an
Nature of the Work
agent gains experience, but in­
dividual ability, economic condi­
The success of any retail business
tions, and the type and location of depends largely on its salesworkers.
the property also affect earnings. Courteous and efficient service
Salesworkers who are active in from behind the counter or on the
community organizations and local sales floor does much to satisfy
real estate boards can broaden their customers and build a store’s repu­
petitive and prospects will be best
for well-trained, ambitious people
who enjoy selling. The proportion
of part-time real estate salesworkers may decline, however, as State
licensing requirements change and
agents need more specialized
knowledge to handle real estate

tation. Even though contact with
customers is a part of all sales jobs,
the duties, skills, and responsibili­
ties of salesworkers are as different
as the kinds of merchandise they
In selling items such as furniture,
electrical appliances, or clothing,
the salesworker’s primary job is to
create an interest in the merchan­
dise. The salesworker may answer
questions about the construction of
an article, demonstrate its use, and
show various models and colors. In
some stores, special knowledge or
skills may be needed to sell the
merchandise. In a pet shop, for ex­
ample, the salesworker should
know about the care and feeding of
animals. People who sell stand­
ardized articles, such as many
items in hardware and drugstores,
often do little more than take pay­
ments and wrap customers’
purchases. (In supermarkets and
some drugstores, cashiers wrap or
bag purchases, receive payments,
and make change. See statement el­
sewhere in the Handbook on
In addition to selling, most retail
salesworkers make out sales or
charge slips, receive cash payments,
and give change and receipts. They
also handle returns and exchanges
of merchandise and keep their work
areas neat. In small stores, they may
help order merchandise, stock
shelves or racks, mark price tags,
take inventory, and prepare dis­
plays. (Route drivers, who sell
bread, milk, and other products
directly to customers on a regular
route, are discussed under Sales
Occupations elsewhere in the

Places of Employment
In 1974, about 2.8 million
salesworkers—three-fifths of them
women—were employed in retail
businesses. They worked in stores
ranging from the small drug or
grocery store that employs one
part-time salesclerk to the giant de-

jobs at the management level. Some
salesworkers are promoted to jobs
as buyers, department managers, or
store managers. Others, particularly
in large stores, may advance to ad­
ministrative work in areas such as
personnel or advertising. Opportu­
nities for advancement are limited
in small stores where one person,
often the owner, does most
managerial work. Retail selling ex­
perience may be an asset in qualify­
ing for saleswork with wholesalers
or manufacturers.

Employment Outlook

partment store that has hundreds of
salesworkers. They worked also for
door-to-door sales companies and
mail-order houses. The largest em­
ployers of retail trade salesworkers
are department stores and those
selling general merchandise, ap­
parel and accessories, and food.
Although sales jobs are found in
almost every community, most
salesworkers are employed in large
cities and nearby suburban areas.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Employers prefer high school
graduates for sales jobs. Subjects
such as commercial arithmetic and
merchandising provide a good
background for many selling posi­
tions. Some high schools have dis­
tributive education programs that
offer courses in principles of retail
selling; many give students a chance
to gain practical experience work­
ing part time in local stores. Such
part-time selling experience may be
helpful in getting a full-time job.
Persons interested in sales jobs
should apply to the personnel of­

fices of large retail stores, where
they are likely to be interviewed
and, in some cases, given an ap­
titude test. Employers prefer those
who enjoy working with people and
have the tact to deal with different
personalities. Among other desira­
ble characteristics are an interest in
saleswork, a pleasant personality, a
neat appearance, and the ability to
prospective salesworkers should be
healthy since they must stand for
long periods.
In many small stores, an ex­
perienced employee or the proprie­
tor instructs newly hired sales per­
sonnel in making out sales slips and
operating the cash register. In
larger stores, training programs are
likely to be more formal, and to in­
clude specialized training in selling
certain products.
Retail selling remains one of the
few fields in which able employees
may advance to executive jobs re­
background. Although large retail
businesses generally hire college
graduates as management trainees,
this is not the only way to move into

Retail trade selling will continue
to be an excellent source of job op­
portunities for high school gradu­
ates. In addition to full-time jobs,
there will be many opportunities for
part-time workers, as well as for
temporary workers during peak
selling periods such as the Christ­
mas season. Prospects are expected
to be good because retail selling is a
large occupation and turnover is
high. Most openings will occur as
experienced full and part-time
salesworkers leave their jobs.
Employment of salesworkers in
retail trade is expected to increase
about as fast as the average for all
occupations through the mid1980’s, as the volume of sales rises
and stores continue to remain open
longer. However, sales employment
will increase more slowly than the
volume of sales as self-service—al­
ready the rule in most foodstores—
is extended to drug, variety, and
other kinds of stores. At the same
time, rising income levels may in­
crease the demand for “big ticket
items,’’ such as television sets, that
require the salesworker to spend a
good deal of time with each

Earnings and Working
In 1974, salesworkers starting in
routine jobs where they did little
more than “wait on’’ customers
generally earned $1.90 or $2 an

hour, the Federal minimum wage.
In stores where selling is more im­
portant, starting salaries were
sometimes higher. Salaries usually
are lower in rural than in urban
Experienced salesworkers, in­
cluding those whose pay scales are
determined by union contracts,
often earn $3 to $6 an hour or
more. Many are paid a straight sa­
lary. In addition to their salary,
some salesworkers receive commis­
sions—that is, a percentage of the
sales they make. Still others are
paid a straight commission alone.
Those paid only by commission
may find their earnings greatly af­
fected by ups and downs in the
economy. Earnings are likely to be
highest in jobs that require special
skill in dealing with customers, or
of the
merchandise sold. Among the
highest paid are people who sell au­
tomobiles, major appliances, and
furniture. On the average, retail
trade salesworkers earn about as
much as nonsupervisory workers in
private industry, except farming.
Salesworkers in many retail
stores may buy merchandise at a
discount, often from 10 to 25 per­
cent below regular prices. This
privilege sometimes is extended to
the employee’s family. Some stores,
especially the large ones, pay all or
part of the cost of such employee
benefits as life insurance, health in­
surance, and a pension.
Many full-time salesworkers have
a 5-day, 40-hour week, although in
some stores the standard workweek
is longer. Because Saturday is a
busy day in retailing, employees
usually work that day and have
another weekday off. Longer than
normal hours may be scheduled be­
fore Christmas and during other
peak periods, and employees who
work overtime receive additional
pay or an equal amount of time off
during slack periods. Some, espe­
cially those employed by stores in
suburban shopping centers, regu­
larly work one evening a week or

Part-time salesworkers generally
work during the store’s peak hours
of business—daytime rush hours,
evenings, and weekends.
Salesworkers in retail trade
usually work in clean, well-lighted
places and many stores are air-con­
ditioned. Some jobs, however,
require work outside the store. A
Icitchen equipment salesworker
may visit prospective customers at
their homes, for example, to help
them plan renovations, and a usedcar salesworker may spend much
time at an outdoor lot.

Sources of Additional
Information about careers in
retail sales is available from:
The National Retail Merchants Association,
100 W. 31st St., New York, N Y. 10001.

careers in retailing may be obtained
from the personnel offices of local
stores; from State merchants’ as­
sociations; or from local unions of
the Retail Clerks International As­

(D.O.T. 292.358)

Nature of the Work
Route drivers use light trucks on
assigned routes to sell and deliver
goods or provide services. They are
sometimes known as driversalesworkers or route-salesworkers.
They must, through their selling
ability, increase sales to existing
customers and obtain new business
by finding additional customers
within their territories.
Route drivers’ duties vary ac­
cording to the industry in which
they are employed, the type of
route they have (retail or
wholesale), and the company em­
ploying them. Some specific exam­
ples, however, may describe in a

general way what most route
drivers do.
On a typical day, laundry and
drycleaning route drivers begin by
picking up cleaned garments at the
processing plant. They deliver the
clean garments to customers’
homes and pick up any dirty
clothing. Drivers mark the dirty
clothes so that they can be returned
to the owner. Sometimes, they
make notes of the type of stains to
be removed or of special processes
to be used, such as waterproofing.
After delivering the clean garments,
drivers present each customer with
an itemized bill and collect the
amount of money due.
Although all route drivers must
be able to get along well with peo­
ple, it is particularly important for
the drycleaning and laundry route
drivers. Their reactions to com­
plaints and requests for special
services may be the difference
between getting more business or
losing customers. Periodically, they
stop at homes along their routes to
try to sell their company’s services.
Wholesale bakery route drivers
deliver bread and other baked
goods to grocery stores. Before
starting on the route they check to
see whether the proper variety and
quantity of products have been
loaded. At each of the 10 to 50
grocery stores along their route,
they carry the orders of bread and
other baked goods into the store
and arrange them on the display
racks. Together with the store
owner or manager, bakery route
drivers check the merchandise
delivered and prepare a bill. They
also credit the store for the value of
the stale items left over from the
previous delivery.
Bakery route drivers prepare a
list of products they plan to deliver
the next day. These lists are esti­
mates of the amount and variety of
baked goods that will be sold by the
grocery stores. From time to time,
they visit grocers along the route
who are not customers and try to
get orders from them.

Vending machine route drivers
make certain the machines on their
routes are stocked with merchan­
dise and in good working order. At
each location, they check the items
remaining in machines and remove
the money deposited in the cash
boxes. Drivers also check vending
machines to see that merchandise
and change are dispensed properly,
and make minor adjustments to
machines that are broken. In addi­
tion, they clean machines and
replace stock. Route drivers keep
records of the merchandise placed
in each machine and the money
removed. They may try to find new
locations for vending machines by
visiting stores, factories, and other
businesses along their routes.

Places of Employment
About 190,000 route drivers
worked for a wide variety of busi­
nesses in 1974. Since most are em­
ployed by companies that distribute
food products or provide personal
services, they work in small towns
as well as in large cities. The
greatest concentration of employ­
ment is in dairies, bakeries, food
and beverage distribution firms,
and drycleaning plants in large

license can be obtained from State
motor vehicle departments.
Most employers prefer their
route drivers to be high school
graduates. Route drivers who han­
dle a great deal of money may have
to be bonded.
Most companies give their new
employees on-the-job training
which varies in length and
thoroughness, and many large com­
panies have classes in sales
School-and-work programs in
retail and wholesale merchandising
are helpful to a person interested in
entering this occupation. High
school courses in sales techniques,
public speaking, driver training,
arithmetic are helpful. Valuable ex­
perience may be obtained as a sales
clerk in a store or in some other
type of selling job.
Some people enter this occupa­
tion as route driver helpers (D.O.T.
292.887). Helpers receive on-thejob training from drivers. When
openings occur, they may be
promoted to drivers. Helpers, how­
ever, are not likely to be employed
in the dairy or vending machine in­
Route drivers may be promoted
to route or sales supervisor, but
these jobs are relatively scarce. Ad­
vancement usually is limited to
moving from a retail to a wholesale
route, where earnings generally are
higher. However, some drivers ob­
tain better-paying sales jobs as a
result of their experience in route

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Route drivers must be good
drivers, and must have sales ability.
To get people to buy, they must
have a thorough knowledge of the
product or service they sell and a
persuasive personality. Other im­
portant sales qualifications are a
Employment Outlook
pleasant voice, ability to speak well,
The total number of route drivers
and a neat appearance. They also
need self-confidence, initiative, and is expected to change little through
the mid-1980’s. However, some
Route drivers must be able to openings for new workers will arise
work without direct supervision, do as experienced route drivers
simple arithmetic, and write legibly. transfer to other fields of work,
In most States, a route driver is retire, or die. Applicants with sales
required to have a chauffeur’s experience and good driving
license, which is a commercial driv­ records have the best chance of
ing permit. Information on this being hired.

Although total employment is ex­
pected to remain about the same,
employment trends will differ for
various types of routes. For exam­
ple, employment of laundry and
drycleaning route drivers is ex­
pected to decline as more people
take their clothes to neighborhood
stores for quicker, cheaper service,
or use clothes made from material
which can be washed easily at
On the other hand, employment
of vending machine route drivers is
expected to grow due to the greater
use of automatic food service in
factories, schools, hospitals, and
other locations where machines are
the only practical way of providing
food and beverages.

Earnings and Working
Most route drivers receive a
minimum salary plus a percent of
the sales they make. Thus, earnings
are determined largely by their
selling ability and initiative. Ac­
cording to limited information
available in 1974, route drivers in
the dairy and baking industries
were guaranteed weekly wages of
$90 to $125 plus commissions on
sales. Many of these workers
earned more than $200 a week.
Wholesale route drivers who make
deliveries to stores usually earn
more than those who make delive­
ries to homes.
The number of hours worked by
route drivers varies. Some work
only about 30 hours a week; others
may work 60 hours or more de­
pending upon whether they have
well-established routes or are trying
to build up new ones, and how am­
bitious they are. The number of
hours worked may be limited by a
union contract, although many con­
tracts specify merely the earliest
hour that work may begin and the
latest quitting time. The hours also
may vary with the season. During
the spring-cleaning season, for ex­
ample, drycleaning route drivers

may work about 60 hours a week,
but in winter they may work less
than 30 hours.
Many companies require route
drivers to wear uniforms. Some em­
ployers pay for the uniforms and for
keeping them clean. Route drivers
do not work under close supervi­
sion. Within certain broad limits,
they decide how rapidly they will
work and where and when they will
have a lunch or rest period. On the
other hand, route drivers have to
make deliveries in bad weather and
do a great deal of lifting, carrying,
and walking. They also may have to
work unusual hours. For example,
drivers who have retail milk routes
generally start to work very early in
the morning.
Many route drivers, particularly
those who deliver bakery and dairy
products, are members of the Inter­
national Brotherhood of Teamsters,
Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and
Helpers of America (Ind.) Some
belong to the unions which
represent the plantworkers of their

Sources of Additional
For details on route driver em­
ployment opportunities, contact
local employers, such as bakeries
and vending machine companies, or
the local office of the State employ­
ment service.

(D.O.T. 251.258)

Nature of the Work
When investors buy or sell
stocks, bonds, or shares in mutual
funds, they call on securities
salesworkers to put the “ market
machinery” into operation. Both
the individual who invests a few
hundred dollars and the large in­
stitution with millions to invest

need such services. Often these
workers are called registered
account execu­
tives, or customers' brokers.
In initiating buy or sell transac­
tions, securities salesworkers relay
orders through their firms’ offices
to the floor of a securities
exchange. When the trade takes
place in the over-the-counter mar­
ket instead, they send the order to
the firm’s trading department. In
either case, the sales worker
promptly notifies the customer of
the completed transaction and the
final price.
In addition, they provide many
related services for their customers.
They may explain to new investors
the meaning of stock market terms
and trading practices; offer the
client complete financial counsel­
ing; devise an individual financial
portfolio including securities, life
insurance, and other investments
for the customer; and advise on the
purchase or sale of a particular
security. Some individuals may
designed for either capital growth
or income over the years; others
might want to make short-term in­
vestments which seem likely to rise
salesworkers furnish information
about the advantages and disad­
vantages of each type of investment
based on each person’s objectives.
They also supply the latest stock
and bond quotations on any securi­
ty in which the investor is in­
terested, as well as information on
the activities a'nd financial positions
of the corporations these securities
Securities salesworkers may
serve all types 6f customers or they
may specialize in one type only,
such as institutional investors. They
also may specialize in handling only
certain kinds of securities such as
mutual funds. Some handle the sale
of “new issues,” such as corpora­
tion securities issued for plant ex­
pansion funds.
Beginning securities salesworkers

spend much of their time searching
for customers. Once they have
established a clientele, however,
they put more effort into servicing
existing accounts and less into seek­
ing new ones.

Places of Employment
About 100,000 persons—about
10 percent of them women—sold
securities full time in 1974. It is esti­
mated that an additional 100,000
persons sold securities less than full
time. These include partners and
branch office managers in securities
firms, insurance agents and brokers
customers, and part-time mutual
fund representatives.
Securities salesworkers are em­
ployed by brokerage firms, invest­
ment bankers, and mutual funds in
all parts of the country. Many of
these firms are very small. Most
salesworkers, however, work for a
small number of large firms with
main offices in big cities (especially
in New York) or the approximately
6,000 branch offices in other areas.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Because a securities salesworker
must be well informed about
economic conditions and trends, a
college education is increasingly
important, especially in the larger
securities firms. This is not true,
however, for part-time work selling
mutual funds. Although employers
seldom require specialized training,
courses in business administration,
economics, and finance are helpful.
Almost all States require persons
who sell securities to be licensed.
State licensing requirements may
include passing an examination and
furnishing a personal bond. In addi­
tion, salesworkers usually must
register as representatives of their
firms according to regulations of
the securities exchanges where they
do business or the National As­
sociation of Securities Dealers, Inc.

managers, who supervise the work
of other salesworkers while execut­
ing “ buy” and “sell” orders for
their own customers. A few
representatives may become part­
ners in their firms or do administra­
tive work.

Employment Outlook

(NASD). Before beginners can
qualify as registered representa­
tives, they must pass the Securities
(SEC’s) General Securities Ex­
prepared by the exchanges or the
NASD. These tests measure the
knowledge of the securities busi­
ness. Character investigations also
are required. Before securities
salesworkers can sell insurance,
they must be licensed by the State
in which they live.
Most employers provide training
to help salesworkers meet the
requirements for registration. In
member firms of all major
exchanges the training period is at
least 4 months. Trainees in large
firms may receive classroom in­
struction in security analysis and ef­
fective speaking, take courses of­
fered by schools of business and
other institutions and associations,
and undergo a period of on-the-job
training. In small firms, and in mu­

tual funds and insurance compa­
nies, training programs may be brief
and informal. Beginners read as­
signed materials and watch other
salesworkers transact business.
Many employers consider per­
sonality traits as important as
academic training. Employers seek
applicants who are well groomed,
able to motivate people, and ambi­
tious. Because maturity and the
ability to work independently also
are important, many emexployers
prefer to hire those who have
achieved success in other jobs. Suc­
cessful sales or
perience is very helpful to an appli­
The principal form of advance­
ment for securities salesworkers is
an increase in the number and the
size of the accounts they handle.
Although beginners usually service
the accounts of individual investors,
eventually they may handle very
large accounts such a s . those of
banks and pension funds. Some ex­
perienced salesworkers advance to

number of securities
salesworkers is expected to grow
faster than the average for all occu­
pations through the mid-1980’s as
investment in securities continues
to increase. In addition to jobs
resulting from growth, several
thousand salesworkers will be
needed annually to replace those
who die, retire, or transfer to other
jobs. Replacement needs are rela­
tively large, due to the competitive
nature of the occupation. Many
salesworkers leave their jobs each
year because they are unable to
establish a successful clientele.
salesworkers is expected to expand
as economic growth and rising per­
sonal incomes increase the funds
available for investment. The for­
mation of investment clubs, which
enable small investors to make
toward the purchase of securities,
also will contribute to the demand
for securities salesworkers. Growth
in the number of institutional in­
vestors will be particularly strong as
more people purchase insurance;
participate in pension plans; con­
tribute to the endowment funds of
colleges and other nonprofit institu­
tions; and deposit their savings in
banks. In addition, more workers
will be needed to sell securities is­
sued by new and expanding cor­
porations and by State and local
governments financing public im­
The demand for securities
salesworkers fluctuates as the
economy expands and contracts.
Thus, in an economic downturn,
the number of persons seeking jobs

Earnings of full-time, ex­
may exceed the number of
openings—sometimes by a great perienced securities salesworkers
deal. Over the long-run, however, averaged about $21,000 a year in
job opportunities for securities 1974, according to the limited data
salesworkers are expected to be available. Many earned more than
favorable. During severe slumps in $30,000 a year. Full-time securities
market activity, job prospects and salesworkers earn about three times
income stability will be greater for as much as average earnings for
salesworkers who are qualified to nonsupervisory workers in private
provide their clients with complete industry, except farming.
financial services than those who
Securities salesworkers usually
rely strictly on commissions from work in offices where there is much
stock transactions.
activity. In large offices, for exam­
Mature individuals with success­ ple, rows of salesworkers sit at
ful work experience should find desks in front of “quote boards”
many job opportunities. Demand which continually flash information
will be strongest for well-rounded on the prices of securities transac­
persons who are willing to learn all tions.
aspects of the securities business. salesworkers usually work the same
Those seeking part-time work will hours as others in the business com­
be limited to selling shares in mu­ munity, beginners who are seeking
customers may work longer. Some
tual funds.
customers by meeting with them in
Earnings and Working
the evenings or on weekends.
Trainees usually are paid a salary
until they meet licensing and regis­
tration requirements. After regis­
tration, a few firms continue to pay
a salary until the new representa­
tive’s commissions increase to a
stated amount. The salaries paid
during training usually range from
$800 to $1,000 a month; those
working for large securities firms
may receive higher salaries.
After candidates are licensed and
registered, their earnings depend on
commissions from the sale or
purchase of stocks and bonds, life
insurance, or other securities for
customers. Commission earnings
are likely to be high when there is
much buying and selling, and lower
when there is a slump in market ac­
tivity. Most firms provide sales­
workers with a steady income by
paying a “draw against com­
mission” —
that is, a minimum
salary based on the commissions
which then can be expected to
earn. A few firms pay salesworkers
only salary and bonuses, that
usually are determined by the
volume of company business.

Sources of Additional
Further information concerning a
career as a securities salesworker
may be obtained from the person­
nel departments of individual secu­
rities firms.

(D.O.T. 260. through 289.458)

Nature of the Work
Salesworkers in wholesale trade
play an important role in moving
goods from the factory to the con­
sumer. Each salesworker may
represent a wholesaler that dis­
tributes hundreds of similar
products. A wholesale drug com­
pany, for example, may stock its
warehouse with many brands of
drugs, soap, and cosmetics to
supply stores that sell directly to the
consumer. Likewise, a wholesale
building materials distributor sells

hardware and construction materi­
als to builders who would otherwise
have to deal with many manufac­
At regular intervals, salesworkers
visit buyers for retail, industrial,
and commercial firms, as well as
buyers for institutions such as
schools and hospitals. They show
samples, pictures, or catalogs that
list the items which their company
stocks. Salesworkers seldom urge
customers to purchase any particu­
lar product, since they handle a
large number of items. Instead, they
offer prompt, dependable service so
buyers will
Wholesale salesworkers perform
many important services, such as
checking the store’s stock and or­
dering items that will be needed be­
fore the next visit. Some wholesale
salesworkers help store personnel
improve and update systems for or­
dering and inventory. In addition,
they often advise retailers about ad­
vertising, pricing, and arranging
window and counter displays. A
salesworker who handles special­
ized products, such as air-condi­
tioning equipment, may give techni­
cal assistance on installation and
Salesworkers do some record­
keeping and attend to other details.
They must forward orders to their
wholesale houses, prepare reports
and expense accounts, plan work
schedules, draw up lists of
prospects, make appointments, and
study literature relating to their
products. Some collect money for
their companies.

Places of Employment
About 770,000 persons were em­
ployed as wholesale salesworkers in
1974. Wholesale houses usually are
located in cities, but salesworkers
may be assigned territories in any
part of the country. Their territory
may cover a small section of a city
having many retail stores and indus­
trial users; in less populated regions

grams, some college students com­
bine academic study and on-the-job
experience. Graduates with this
background often begin outside
saleswork without further training.
High school graduates may begin
a career with a wholesale firm in a
n^nselling job or be hired as a sales
trainee. In either case, beginners
usually work in several kinds of
nonselling jobs before being as­
signed to sales. They may start in
the stockroom or shipping depart­
ment to become familiar with the
thousands of items the wholesaler
carries. Later they may learn the
prices of articles and discount rates
for goods sold in quantities. Next,
they are likely to work on “ inside”
sales, and write telephone orders.
Later, as they accompany an ex­
perienced salesworker on calls,
trainees come to know some of the
firm’s customers. The time spent in
these initial jobs varies among com­
panies, but usually it take 2 years or
longer to prepare trainees for out­
side selling.
Experienced salesworkers who
have leadership qualities and sales
ability may advance to supervisor,
sales manager, or other executive

Employment Outlook
it may cover half a State or more.
Firms selling machinery and
building materials to industrial and
business users are leading em­
ployers of wholesale salesworkers.
Other large employers are compa­
nies that sell food products.
Wholesalers dealing in drugs, dry
goods and apparel, motor vehicle
equipment, and electrical ap­
pliances employ many salesworkers
as well.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
In hiring trainees for sales work,
most wholesalers seek people who
are neat, outgoing, self-confident,
enthusiastic about the job, and un­
derstanding of human nature. As in

most selling jobs, skills in arithmetic
and a good memory are assets. High
school graduation is usually
required, although many companies
prefer applicants who have special­
ized training beyond high school.
An engineering degree may be
required to sell scientific and
technical products.
Newly hired salesworkers who
are college graduates usually par­
ticipate in formal training programs
that combine classroom instruction
and short rotations in various non­
selling jobs. By working a few
warehouse, a new employee may
gain first-hand experience in writ­
ing orders, pricing, and locating
stock. Through cooperative pro­

Employment opportunities for
salesworkers in wholesale trade are
expected to be good. In addition to
new positions created by growth,
many openings will stem from turn­
over, which is fairly high in this oc­
cupation. A person’s success in
selling greatly depends on his or her
ability to locate new customers and
persuade them to buy. A number of
new salesworkers find they are not
suited to the competitive nature of
selling and leave the occupation.
The number of wholesale
salesworkers is expected to grow
about as fast as the average for all
occupations through the mid1980’s. Businesses and institutions
will require a wide variety of
products for their own use and for

eventual resale. Although many
large purchasers and others who
require highly specialized products
will buy directly from manufac­
turers, the majority of transactions
will involve the wholesale distribu­
As chain stores and other large
firms centralize purchasing activi­
ties, the value of the sales made to
individual customers becomes
larger and competition for sales
Wholesalers can be expected to
meet this competition by emphasiz­
ing customer services and increas­
ing the size of their sales forces.

Earnings and Working
According to limited informa­
tion, most beginning salesworkers
earned around $9,000 a year in
1974. Experienced salesworkers
earned considerably more. Since
commissions often make up a large
proportion of the salesworker’s in­

come, earnings vary widely in this
occupation. In general, wholesale
salesworkers’ earnings are much
higher than those of nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
Most employers pay a salary plus
a percentage commission on sales;
others pay a straight commission.
Although most wholesale sales­
workers have steady, year-round
work, sales (and commissions) vary
products—for example, air-condi­
tioning—is greater during certain
seasons. To provide salesworkers
with a steady income, many compa­
nies pay experienced personnel a
“draw” against annual commis­
sions. Most companies furnish cars
or allowances for cars and reimbur­
sements for certain expenses on the
Salesworkers often have long, ir­
regular work hours. Although they
call on customers during business
hours, they may travel at night or
on weekends to meet their sched­

ule. However, most saleswork­
ers seldom are awav from home
for more than a few days at a time.
They may spend evenings writing
reports and orders, may carry heavy
catalogs and sample cases, and be
on their feet for long periods.
Depending on length of service,
most salesworkers have a 2- to 4week paid vacation. Many are
covered by company benefits, in­
cluding health and life insurance
and retirement pensions.

Sources of Additional
Information on jobs in wholesale
selling may be obtained directly
from local wholesale houses or
from associations of wholesalers in
many of the larger cities. If no local
association is available, write to:
National Association of Wholesaler-Dis­
tributors, 1725 K St. NW., Washington,
D .C .20006.
Sales and Marketing Executives Interna­
tional, Student Education Division, 380
Lexington Ave., New York, N.Y. 1001

represent the largest group ot
skilled workers in the Nation’s
labor force. Altogether, there were
3.4 million employed in 1974—
about 3 out of every 10 skilled wor­
The more than 2 dozen skilled
construction trades vary greatly in
size. Several major trades—car­
penter, painter, operating engineer,
plumber, and electrician—each had
more than a 200,000 workers; car­
penters alone numbered more than
1 million, about one-third of all
construction craft workers. In con­
trast, only a few thousand each
were employed in trades such as
marble setter, terrazzo worker, and

asbestos worker. Mechanical work:
Plumber, pipefitter, construction
electrician, sheet-metal worker,
elevator constructor, and mill­
Most construction trades are
described individually later in this
chapter. Boilermakers and mill­
wrights are described elsewhere in
the Handbook. These descriptions
are necessarily brief, and do not
apply fully to workers in all locali­
Also, they are not statements or

recommendations concerning the
work jurisdiction of these trades
and are inappropriate for use in ju­
risdictional negotiations or the set­
tlement of jurisdictional questions.

Places of Employment
Most jobs are with contractors in
the construction industry. There
are several hundred thousand con­
tractors, and most are small—
generally employing fewer than 10
people. Some large contractors,

What are the Construction
Workers in the construction
trades build, repair, and modernize
homes and all kinds of buildings.
They also work on a variety of other
structures, including highways, air­
ports, and missile launching pads.
Construction work may be di­
vided into three categories: struc­
tural, finishing, and mechanical. In
general, each trade falls in one of
these categories: Structural work-.
Carpenter, operating engineer
(construction machinery operator),
bricklayer, structural-iron worker,
ornamental-iron worker, cementmason, reinforcing-iron worker,
stonemason, and
Finishing work: Lather, plasterer,
marble setter, terrazzo worker,
roofer, floor covering installer, and

Construction is a major source of employment for skilled workers.


oyment in the Construction Trades


W O RKERS 1974 (in hundreds of thousands)




800 1000 1200

C a rp e n te rs
O p e ra tin g e n g in e e rs
Plum bers a n d pipefitters


B ric k la y e rs a n d sto n e m a so n s2

-, ,;-i


---------s :----------E lectricia n 1


Cem en t m a so n s'


Roofers a n d slaters
Stru ctu ra l m etal w orkers



?- l;

liH li



‘. v P?m§§

M \

P a p e rh a n g e rs
^ Exclud es m a in te n a n ce e lectricia n s.







^ Includes m arb le setters a n d tile setters.

3 Includ es terrazzo w orkers.

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

however, employ thousands. Large
numbers of construction trade
workers are employed in other in­
dustries, such as mining and manu­
facturing, mainly to do maintenance
and repair work. Chemical manu­
facturers, for example, need plum­
bers and pipefitters to maintain the
complex pipe networks in their
processing plants. Government
agencies employ construction trade
workers to maintain highways,
buildings, and sanitation systems.
Many construction tradeworkers
are self-employed and contract with
homeowners and businesses for
small jobs. Self-employment is most
common in paperhanging, painting,
and floor covering work, but it also
is found in other trades.
Employment in the construction
trades is distributed geographically
in much the same way as the Na­
tion’s population. Thus, the highest
concentration generally is in indus­
trialized and highly populated

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Most training authorities recom­
mend formal apprentice training as
the best way to acquire the all­
round skills in the construction

prescribed period of on-the-job
training, supplemented by related
classroom * instruction which is
designed to familiarize apprentices
with the materials, tools, and princi­
ples of their trade. Formal ap­
prenticeship agreements are reg­
istered with a State apprenticeship
agency or the U.S. Department of
Labor’s Bureau of Apprenticeship
and Training.
Although apprenticeship is the
best way to train, many people
acquire construction skills infor­
mally by working as laborers and
helpers and observing experienced
craft workers. Some acquire skills
by attending vocational or trade
schools or by taking correspond­
ence school courses.
Apprentices generally must be at
least 18 years old, and in good
physical condition. A high school or
vocational school education, or its
equivalent, including courses in
mathematics and mechanical draw­
ing, is desirable. Courses in con­
struction trades, such as carpentry
and electricity, also are recom­
mended. Often, applicants are
given tests to determine their ap­
titudes. For some trades, manual
dexterity, mechanical aptitude, and
an eye for proper alignment of
materials are important.

The formal apprenticeship agree­
ment generally calls for 3 to 4 years
of on-the-job training and 144
hours or more of related classroom
instruction each year. On the job,
most instruction is given by a par­
ticular craft worker to whom the
apprentice is assigned.
Classroom instruction varies
among the construction trades, but
usually includes courses such as his­
tory of the trade, characteristics of
materials, shop mathematics, and
basic principles of engineering.
In most communities, the ap­
prenticeship programs are super­
vised by joint apprenticeship com­
mittees composed of local em­
ployers and local union representa­
tives. The committee determines
the need for apprentices in the
minimum standards of education,
experience, and training. Whenever
an employer cannot provide all­
round instruction or relatively con­
tinuous employment, the commit­
tee transfers the apprentice to
another employer. Where spe­
cialization by contractors is exten­
sive—for instance, in electrical
work—customarily the committee
rotates apprentices among several
contractors at intervals of about 6
In areas where these committees
have not been established, the ap­
prenticeship agreement is solely
between the apprentice and the em­
ployer or employer group. Many
people have received valuable
training under these programs but
they have some disadvantages. No
committee is available to supervise
the training offered and settle dif­
ferences over the terms and condi­
tions of training. What the ap­
prentice learns depends largely on
the employer’s business prospects
and policies. If the employer lacks
continuous work or does only a
restricted type of work, the ap­
prentice cannot develop all-round
In many localities, craft work­
most commonly electricians

and plumbers—are required to
have a license to work at their
trade. To qualify for these licenses,
they must pass an examination to
demonstrate a broad knowledge of
the job and of State and local regu­
Construction trades craft work­
ers may advance in a number of
ways. Many become supervisors. In
most localities, small jobs are run
by “working supervisors” who work
at the trade along with members of
their crews. On larger jobs, the su­
pervisors do only supervisory work.
Craft workers also can become esti­
mators for contractors. In these
jobs, they estimate material
requirements and labor costs to
enable the contractor to bid on a
particular project. Some craft
workers advance to jobs as super­
intendents on large projects.
Others become instructors in trade
and vocational schools or sales
representatives for building supply
companies. A large number of
craft workers have become con­
tractors in the homebuilding field.
Starting a small contract con­
struction business is easier than
starting a small business in many
other industries. Only moderate
financial investment usually is
needed, and conducting a fairly
substantial business from the one’s
home is possible. However, the con­
tract construction field is very com­
petitive, and the rate of business
failure is high among small contrac­

Employment Outlook
Employment in the construction
trades is expected to increase faster
than the average for all occupations
through the mid-1980’s. In addition
to employment growth, many job
openings will result each year from
the need to replace experienced
workers who transfer to other fields
of work, retire, or die.
However, since construction ac­
tivity is sensitive to changes in the
Nation’s economy, the number of

openings may fluctuate sharply
from year to year.
Over the long run, construction
activity is expected to grow sub­
stantially. The anticipated increases
in population and households, and
the relatively low level of housing
construction in the mid-1970’s, are
expected to create strong pressure
for new housing. Among other fac­
tors that will stimulate construction
activity are a rise in spending for
new industrial plants and equip­
ment and higher levels of personal
and corporate income. Also, there
will be a growing demand for altera­
tion and modernization work on ex­
isting structures, as well as for
maintenance and repair work on
highway systems, dams, bridges,
and similar projects.
The increase in employment is
not expected to be as great as the
expansion in construction activity.
Continued technological develop­
ments in construction methods,
tools and equipment, and materials
will raise output per worker. One
important development is the grow­
ing use of prefabricated units at the
job site. For example, preassembled
outside walls and partitions can be
lifted into place in one operation.
An outgrowth of prefabrication is
“module building” in which units,
including complete rooms, are as­
sembled at a factory.
The rates of employment growth
will differ among the various con­
growth is expected to be fastest for
asbestos and insulation workers and
for operating engineers. Trades that
will have the slowest growth rates
are lathers and plasterers.

Earnings and Working
Hourly wage rates for construc­
tion trade workers are relatively
high. However, because construc­
tion work is seasonal and time also
may be lost because of occasional
unemployment between jobs, an­
nual earnings are not as high as the

hourly rates of pay would indicate
shows union hourly averages foi
selected construction trades in
large cities surveyed in 1974.
Hourly rate



Hourly wage rates for ap­
prentices generally start at 50 per­
cent of the rate paid to experienced
craft workers. These rates increase
at 6-month to 1-year intervals until
the full rate is achieved upon the
completion of training.
Construction work frequently
requires prolonged standing, bend­
ing, stooping, and working in
cramped quarters. Exposure to
weather is common as much of the
work is done outdoors or in par­
tially enclosed structures. Many
people prefer construction work
because it permits them to be out­
Construction jobs generally are
more dangerous than other jobs,
but the risk of injury is lessened
considerably when safe work prac­
tices are followed.
The construction trades offer
especially good opportunities for
young people who are not planning
to go to college, but who are willing
to spend several years in learning a
skilled occupation. Construction
workers can find job opportunities
in all parts of the country. Their
hourly wage rates generally are
much higher than those of most
other manual workers. As previ­
ously noted, construction trade
workers with business ability have
greater opportunities to open their
own businesses than workers in
most other skilled occupations.
A large proportion of construc­
tion workers are members of trade
unions affiliated with the Building
and Construction Trades Depart­
ment of the AFL-CIO.

Sources of Additional
Information about opportunities
for apprenticeship or other training
can be obtained from local con­
struction firms and employer as­
sociations, the local office of the
State employment service or State
apprenticeship agency, or the local
office of the Bureau of Apprentice­
ship and Training, U.S. Department
of Labor. Many apprenticeship pro­
grams are supervised by local
union-management committees. In
these instances, an apprentice ap­
plicant may apply directly to the
coordinator of the committee.
For additional information on
jobs in the construction trades, con­
American Federation of Labor and Congress
of Industrial Orgazations, Building and
Construction Trades Department, 8IS
16th St. NW„ Washington, D.C. 20006.
Associated General Contractors of America,
Inc., 1957 E St. NW„ Washington, D.C.
National Association of Home Builders,
1625 L St. NW., Washington, D.C.

For the names of labor organiza­
tions and trade associations con­
cerned with specific trades, see the
discussions of individual building
trades which follow.

(D.O.T. 863.381, .781, and .884)

Nature of the Work
Asbestos and insulation workers
cover pipes, boilers, furnaces, and
related equipment with asbestos
and other insulating materials.
These materials retain heat or cold,
absorb sound, and can act as a
vapor barrier. Insulated walls and
ceilings in a home, for example,
reduce fuel costs by preventing loss
of heat during the cold months.
Insulating materials are installed
by pasting, wiring, taping, stud­

welding, spraying, or plastering.
When covering pipework, asbestos
workers cut either block or formed
insulation to the required size and
shape, and then wrap it around the
pipe. They secure the insulating
material by using wire bands, or by
covering it further with tar paper,
cloth, or canvas, sewed or stapled
into place. Care is required to cover
joints completely.
When covering flat surfaces,
asbestos workers spotweld or screw
wire fasteners to the surface and in­
stall the insulating material. They
coat joints with an asbestos cement
and wrap them with tape for a tight
seal. They sometimes spray or
plaster insulating material to a wire
mesh placed on the surface to be
covered. The wire mesh provides a
surface for adhesion as well as
structural strength for the insula­
tion. A final coat is applied and
finished for a smooth appearance.
Asbestos and insulation workers
use common handtools—trowels,
brushes, scissors, sewing equip­
ment, and stud-welding guns.
Powersaws, as well as handtools,
are used to cut and fit insulating

Places of Employment
About 30,000 asbestos and insu­
lation workers were employed in
1974. Most worked for insulation
contractors. Others were employed
to alter and maintain insulated
pipework in chemical factories,
petroleum refineries, atomic energy
installations, and similar plants
which have extensive steam instal­
lations for power, heating, and
cooling. Some large firms which
have cold-storage facilities also em­
ploy these workers for maintenance
and repair.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Almost all asbestos and insula­
tion workers learn their trade
through either informal on-the-job
training or a formal 4-year

“ improvership” program. A trainee
in an informal on-the-job program
is assigned to an experienced insu­
lation worker for instruction and
supervision. A trainee begins with
simple tasks, such as supplying insu­
lation material to experienced
workers or holding the material
while they fasten it in place.
In about 6 to 8 months, assign­
ments become more complex,
and within a year a trainee usual­
ly learns to measure, cut, fit,
and install various types of
insulation. With experience, the
trainee receives less supervision
and more responsibility.
Trainees who receive informal in­
struction usually learn to specialize
in only three or four types of instal­
lation. In contrast, trainees in 4year “ improvership” programs
receive in-depth instruction in al­
most all phases of insulation work.
These programs consist of on-thejob training, as well as classroom in­
struction, and trainees must pass
practical and written tests to
demonstrate a knowledge of the
For entry, jobs, employers prefer
high school graduates who are in
good physical condition and
licensed to drive. High school
courses in blueprint reading, shop
math, and general construction
provide a helpful background.
“ improvership” positions must
have a high school diploma or its
equivalent, and be at least 18 years
Skilled asbestos and insulation
workers may advance to supervisor,
shop superintendent, or insulation
contract estimator, or may open an
insulation contracting business. *

Employment Outlook
Employment of asbestos and in­
sulation workers is expected to
grow much faster than the average
for all occupations through the mid1980*s. In addition to jobs from em­
ployment growth, several hundred

asbestos sometimes presents a
health hazard.
A large proportion of the workers
in this trade are members of the In­
ternational Association of Heat and
Frost Insulators and Asbestos

Sources of Additional
For information about asbestos
and insulation workers’ improvership programs or other work oppor­
tunities in this trade, contact a local
asbestos contractor; a local of the
union mentioned above; or the
nearest office of the State employ­
ment service or State apprentice­
ship agency.

(D.O.T. 861.381, .781, and .884)

Nature of the Work

openings will arise annually from
the need to replace workers who
transfer to other occupations,
retire, or die.
More workers will be needed to
install energy-saving insulation in
new homes and businesses. Insula­
tion for boilers and pipes in new
factories and power plants also will
stimulate employment growth.
Moreover, old buildings that need
extra insulation to save fuel will add
to employment requirements.
Employment opportunities will
be best in metropolitan areas where
most insulation contractors are
located. In small towns much of the
insulation work is done by persons
in other trades, such as carpenters
and bricklayers, rather than by
asbestos and insulation workers.

Earnings and Working
Union asbestos and insulation
workers in metropolitan areas had
estimated average wages of $9.35 in
1974, slightly higher than the
average for all union building trades
workers. Apprentice wage rates
start about half the rate paid to ex­
perienced workers and increase
Asbestos and insulation workers
spend most of the workday on their
feet, either standing, bending,
stooping, or squatting. Sometimes
they work from ladders or in tight
spaces when covering pipes and
ducts. Removing old insulation be­
fore installing new materials is often
dusty and dirty and working with

Bricklayers build walls, parti­
tions, fireplaces, and other struc­
tures with brick, cinder block, and
other masonry materials. They also
install firebrick linings in industrial
Stonemasons build the stone ex­
teriors of structures. They work
with two types of stones—natural
cut, such as marble, granite, and
limestone; and artifical stone made
from cement, marble chips, or
other masonry materials. Because
stone is expensive, stonemasons
work mostly on high-cost buildings,
such as offices, hotels, and
In putting up a wall, bricklayers
first build the corners at each end of
the wall, using plumblines and a
mason’s level. A line is then
stretched from corner to comer as a
guide for each course or layer of
brick. Bricklayers spread a bed of
mortar (cement mixture) with a
trowel, place the brick on the mor­
tar bed, and then tap it into place.

hammers, wooden or hard rubber
mallets, and chisels. For rapid
cutting, pneumatic tools are used.
They use special power tools to
smooth the surface of large stones.

Places of Employment

When necessary, they cut bricks to
fit around windows, doors, and
other openings. Mortar joints are
finished with jointing tools to leave
a neat and uniform appearance.
Bricklayers also weld metal sup­
ports for bricks.
brickhammers, levels, chisels, and
rules. Powersaws are often used for
cutting and fitting bricks and other
masonry materials.
Bricklayers are assisted by hod
carriers, or helpers, who supply
them with bricks and other materi­
als, mix mortar, and set up and
move scaffolding. (Detailed occu­
pational descriptions for Construc­
tion Laborers and Hod Carriers ap­
pear elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Stonemasons often work from a
set of drawings in which each stone
has been numbered for identifica­
tion. Helpers locate and bring the

pieces needed to the masons. A der­
rick operator using a hoist lifts large
pieces into place. Masons set the
stone in mortar and move it into
position with a mallet, hammer, or
crowbar. They align stones with a
plumbline and finish the joints with
a pointing trowel. When necessary,
they weld or fasten the stone to sup­
ports with metal ties or anchors.
To cut various shapes and sizes,
masons find the grain of each piece
of stone and use a special hammer
to strike it along a predetermined
line. Valuablp pieces often are cut
with an abrasive saw.
Stonemasons also do veneer
work, in which cut stone is applied
in various patterns. In one special­
ized branch of the trade known as
alberene stone setting, masons set
acid-resistant soapstone linings for
vats, tanks, and floors.
The principal handtools of the
stonemasons are trowels, heavy

About 165,000 bricklayers and
stonemasons were employed in
1974, most of whom were
bricklayers. Workers in these crafts
were employed primarily by special
trade, building, or general contrac­
tors. A relatively small number of
bricklayers work for government
agencies or business that do their
own construction and alteration
Workers in both trades are em­
ployed throughout the country, but
are concentrated in metropolitan
areas. In cities that are too small to
have a demand for full-time
stonemasons, some bricklayers do
stonework as a sideline.
About 1 out of 7 bricklayers and
stonemasons is self-employed—a
proportion higher than that in most
building crafts. Many of the selfemployed specialize in contracting
on small jobs such as patios, walks,
and fireplaces.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Most training authorities recom­
mend the completion of an ap­
prenticeship program as the best
way to become a bricklayer or a
stonemason. Many workers, how­
ever, pick up their skills informally
by working as a helper or a hod car­
rier and by observing and learning
from experienced workers.
A bricklayer or stonemason ap­
prenticeship program requires 3
years of on-the-job training, in addi­
tion to 144 hours of classroom in­
struction each year. Although these
programs have some similarities,
they provide different kinds of
On the job, bricklayer ap­
prentices begin by learning to

spread mortar and lay brick in sim­ trade is sensitive to ups and downs
ple patterns. Within a year, they in construction activity. For any
learn to weld and—in time—to given year, opportunities usually
operate equipment such as a are best during the spring and
masonry saw. Stonemason ap­ summer when construction activity
prentices, on the other hand, begin picks up.
by learning to recognize various
Employment of stonemasons is
types of stones, set and align them, not expected to change significantly
and finish the joints. With ex­ through the mid-1980’s. Stone has
perience, they also learn to weld lost popularity as a building materi­
and eventually to cut stone. Class­ al because it has become much
room instruction in either program more expensive than other materi­
includes blueprint reading, layout als such as brick and concrete.
work, and sketching.
Nevertheless, a relatively small
Applicants for bricklayer or number of jobs will become availa­
stonemason apprenticeships must ble due to the need to replace
be at least 17 years old and in good stonemasons who retire, die, or
physical condition. A high school or transfer to other occupations.
vocational school education is
Earnings and Working
preferable, as are courses in mathe­
matics, mechanical drawing, and
Bricklayers averaged $8.97 an
or hour and stonemasons $8.85 an
stonemasons can advance to super­ hour, according to a 1974 survey of
visory positions, or become estima­ union wage rates in metropolitan
tors. They also can open contract­ areas. In comparison, the average
ing businesses of their own.
for all building trades was $8.16 an
Although hourly rates for these
Employment Outlook
workers are relatively high, time
Employment of bricklayers is ex­ lost because of poor weather and
pected to increase about as fast as occasional unemployment between
the average for all occupations jobs makes annual earnings less
through the mid-1980’s. In addition than the hourly rates would imply.
to the job openings that result from
Wages for apprentices in either
many trade usually start at 50 percent of
openings will arise as experienced the rate paid to experienced work­
bricklayers retire, die, or transfer to ers and increase periodically ac­
other occupations.
cording to a set scale.
As population and business
The work of bricklayers and
growth create a need for new stonemasons is sometimes strenu­
homes, factories, offices, and other ous because it involves moderately
for heavy lifting' and prolonged stand­
bricklayers will grow. Stimulating ing and stooping. Most of the work
this growth will be the increasing is performed outdoors.
use of brick for decorative work on
A large proportion of bricklayers
building fronts and in lobbies and and stonemasons are members of
foyers. The use of brick, particu­ the Bricklayers, Masons and
larly for interior load-bearing walls, Plasterers’ International Union of
is growing and will add to overall America.
employment needs.
Over the long run, job openings
Sources of Additional
for bricklayers are expected to be
plentiful; however, the number of
For details about apprenticeships
openings may fluctuate from year
to year because employment in this or other work opportunities in these

trades, contact local bricklaying or
stonemasonry contractors; a local
of the union listed above; a local
prenticeship committee; or the
nearest office of the State employ­
ment service or State apprentice­
ship agency.
For general information about
the work of either bricklayers or
stonemasons, contact:
Bricklayers, Masons and Plasterers’ Interna­
tional Union of America, 815 15th St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20005.

Information about the work of
bricklayers also may be obtained
Associated General Contractors of America,
Inc., 1957 E St. NW., Washington, D.C.
Brick Institute of America, 1750 Old
Meadow Rd., McLean, Va. 22101.

(D.O.T. 860.281 through .781)

Nature of the Work
Carpenters, the largest group of
building trades workers, are em­
ployed in almost every type of con­
struction activity. They erect the
wood framework in buildings and
install windows, doors, paneling,
cabinets, and other items. They also
build stairs, lay hardwood floors,
and install other flooring materials
such as asphalt tile.
Carpenters install heavy timbers
used to build docks, railroad tres­
tles, and similar structures. They
build the forms needed to pour
concrete decks, columns, piers, and
retaining walls used in construction
of bridges, buildings, and other
structures. They erect scaffolding
and temporary buildings at the con­
struction site.
Because of the variety of work in
the trade, some carpenters special­
ize in a particular type of carpentry.
For example, some build forms to
receive concrete; others install millwork

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

(trimming), lay and finish hard­
wood floors, or build stairs. Spe­
cialization is more common in large
cities; in small communities, car­
penters often perform a wider range
of tasks. In rural areas, carpenters
may do insulating, painting, or roof­
ing. Carpenters generally stay in a
particular field of construction,
such as home, bridge, or highway
construction, or in industrial main­
Carpenters use nails, bolts, wood
screws, or glue to fasten lumber,
plywood, and other materials. They
use handtools such as hammers,
saws, and chisels, and power tools
such as electric saws, drills, and
powder-actuated fastening devices.

Places of Employment
About 1,060,000 carpenters
were employed in 1974. Most car­

penters work for contractors and
hom eb u ild ers w ho co n stru ct new

buildings and other structures. A
substantial number, however, alter,
remodel, or repair buildings. Some
carpenters alternate between wage
employment for contractors and
self-employment on small jobs.
Others work for government agen­
cies, utility companies, or manufac­
turing plants. A large number of
carpenters maintain and repair
facilities within factories, hotels, of­
fice buildings, and other large
establishments. Still others are em­
ployed in shipbuilding, in mining,
and in the production of many
kinds of display materials such as
signs and billboards.
Carpenters work throughout the
country and, because of their ver­
satility, are much less concentrated
geographically than any other con­
struction occupation.

Most training authorities recom­
mend the completion of an ap­
prenticeship program as the best
way to learn carpentry. A large
number of workers in this trade,
however, have acquired their skills
informally (for example, by work­
ing as carpenters’ helpers).
The . apprenticeship program
usually consists of 4 years of on-thejob training, in addition to a
minimum of 144 hours of related
classroom instruction each year. On
the job, apprentices learn elementa­
ry structural design and become
familiar with the common systems
of frame and concrete form con­
struction. They also learn to use the
tools, machines, equipment, and
materials of the trade. In addition,
they learn the many carpentry
techniques, such as laying out,
framing, and finishing.
Apprentices receive classroom
instruction in drafting and blueprint
reading, mathematics for layout
work, and the use of woodworking
machines. Both in the classroom
and on the job they learn the rela­
tionship between carpentry and the
other building trades, because the
work of the carpenter is basic to the
construction process.
Persons interested in carpentry
should obtain the all-round training
given in apprenticeship programs.
Carpenters with such training will
be in much greater demand and will
have better opportunities for ad­
vancement than those who can do
only the relatively simple, routine
types of carpentry.
generally must be at least 17 years
old. A high school or vocational
school education is desirable, as are
in carpentry,
mechanical drawing, and general
mathematics. Good physical condi­
tion, a good sense of balance, and
lack of fear of working on high
structures are important assets. Ap­
plicants should also have manual

dexterity and the ability to solve
arithmetic problems quickly and
accurately. In addition, they should
be able to work closely with others.
Carpenters may advance to car­
penter supervisors or to general
construction supervisors. Carpen­
ters usually have greater opportuni­
ties than most other construction
workers to become general con­
struction supervisors since they are
involved with the entire construc­
tion process. Some carpenters are
able to become contractors and em­
ploy others. About 1 out of 5 car­
penters is self-employed, a higher
proportion than the average for all
building trades.

Employment Outlook
Job opportunities for carpenters
should be plentiful over the long
run. Because of the large number of
people employed in this field,
replacement needs are high.
Besides the job openings that result
from the need to replace carpenters
who retire, die, or transfer to other
occupations, many openings will be
created by employment growth.
Employment of carpenters is ex­
pected to grow about as fast as the
average for all occupations through
the mid-1980’s. Population and
business growth will lead to a de­
mand for more houses and other
structures, thus increasing the de­
mand for carpenters. More carpen­
ters also will be needed for altera­
tion and maintenance work. How­
ever, because construction activity
is sensitive to ups and downs in the
economy, the number of job
openings may fluctuate greatly
from year to year.

Earnings and Working
According to a survey of
metropolitan areas, union wage
rates for carpenters averaged $8.41
an hour in 1974, compared with
$8.16 for union workers in all build­
ing trades. Annual earnings, how­
ever, may not be as high as the

hourly rates would indicate,
because carpenters lose some work­
time due to poor weather and occa­
sional unemployment between jobs.
Hourly wage rates for ap­
prentices usually start at about 50
percent of the rate paid to ex­
perienced carpenters and increase
by about 5 percent at 6-month in­
As in other building trades, the
carpenter’s work is active and
sometimes strenuous, but excep­
tional physical strength is not
required. However, prolonged
standing, as well as climbing and
squatting, often are necessary. Car­
penters risk injury from slips or
falls, from contact with sharp or
rough materials, and from the use
of sharp tools and power equip­
ment. Many people like carpentry
because they can work outdoors.
A large proportion of carpenters
are members of the United Brother­
hood of Carpenters and Joiners of

surfaces on many types of construc­
tion projects. The projects range
from finishing of small jobs, such as
patios and floors, to work on huge
dams and miles of concrete
highways. Finishing concrete can
provide work of widely varing
kinds; for example, cement masons
may color concrete surfaces, ex­
pose aggregate in walls and side­
walks, or fabricate concrete beams,
columns, and panels.
On small projects, a mason,
assisted by one or two helpers, may
do all of the masonry work; on large
projects, a crew of several masons
and many helpers may be em­
In preparing the site for pouring
the concrete mixture, the cement
mason makes sure that the forms
for molding the concrete are set for
the desired pitch and depth and are
properly aligned. The mason directs
the pouring of the concrete and su­
pervises laborers who use shovels or
special rakes to place and spread
the concrete. The mason then levels
Sources of Additional
the surface further using a
lightweight metal rod long enough
For information about carpentry
apprenticeships or other work op­ to extend across the freshly poured
portunities in this trade, contact concrete.) The concrete is now
local carpentry contractors, a local ready for intermediate and final
of the union mentioned above, a finishing.
The cement mason uses special
local joint union-management ap­
tools, such as a float, whip, or
prenticeship committee, or the
nearest office of the State employ­ darby, to fill minor depressions and
ment service of State apprentice­ remove high spots. Final finishing is
usually delayed until the concrete
ship agency.
For general information on ap­ has hardened sufficiently to support
the weight of a mason on
prenticeship in this trade, contact:
kneeboards. While the concrete is
Associated General Contractors of America,
still workable, the mason uses handInc., 1957 E St. NW., Washington, D.C.
tools—a wood or magnesium float
and a finishing trowel—to bring the
concrete to the proper consistency
and obtain the desired finish.
Concrete finishing may be done
also with power-operated trowels;
however, edges, corners, and other
hard-to-finish places must be
(D.O.T. 844.884 and 852.884)
troweled by hand.
On concrete work which is ex­
Nature of the Work
posed (for example, columns,
Cement masons finish concrete ceilings, and wall panels), cement

Cement masons prepare concrete floor.

masons correct surface defects and
air pockets after the forms are
stripped. This involves preparing
the surface with a hammer and
chisel and rubbing brick to remove
high spots. A rich cement mixture is
rubbed into the concrete surface
using a sponge rubber float or piece
of burlap to fill imperfections and
voids. The end result is a uniformly
smooth appearance.
Some cement masons specialize
in laying a mastic coat (a fine
asphalt - mixture) over concrete,