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OCCUPATIONS IN THE
TELEPHONE INDUSTRY

Just ab o u t everyone has a te le ­
phone. Many households have two or
more, and large businesses and o r­
ganizations have hu ndreds. Some
people have telephones in their cars
and on their boats. A few even have
portable telephones that they carry
with them like briefcases. There also
are thousands of public telephones
on street corners and in airports, res­
ta u ra n ts, and sto res. A lto g e th e r,
m ore than 155 million telephones
were in use in the United States in
1976, and people made over 600 mil­
lion local and long-distance calls ev­
ery day.
To provide all this service, tele­
phone com panies employed approxi­
m ately 9 2 0 ,0 0 0 p ersons in 1976.
M ost w o rk ed in te le p h o n e c ra ft
occupations, in clerical occupations,
or as telephone operators.
The telephone industry offers
steady, year-round em ploym ent in
jobs requiring a variety of skills and
training. Most require a high school
education; some can be learned on
the job. Many require particular
skills that may take several years of
experience, in addition to 9 months
of training, to learn completely.
T elephone jobs are found in al­
m ost every com m unity, but m ost
telephone employees work in cities
that have large concentrations of in­
dustrial and business establishments.
The nerve center of every local tele­
phone system is the central office
that contains the switching equip­
ment through which one telephone
may be con n ected with any other
telephone. When a call is made, the
signals travel from the caller’s tele­
phone through wires and cables to
the cable vault in the central office.
Here thousands of pairs of wires, in­
cluding a pair for the caller’s tele­
phone, fan out to a distributing frame
w h ere e a c h p a ir is a tta c h e d to
738



switching equipm ent. As the num ber
is d ia le d , e le c tro m e c h a n ic a l and
e le c tr o n ic sw itc h in g e q u ip m e n t
make the connection autom atically,
and, in seconds, the caller hears the
telephone ringing. Only in a few re ­
maining switchboards and in unusual
situations does an operator make the
connection.
Because some custom ers make
and receive more calls than a single
telephone line can handle, a system
somewhat similar to a m iniature cen­
tral office may be installed on the
custom er’s premises. This system is
the private branch exchange (PBX),
usually found in office buildings, ho­
tels, dep artm en t stores, and o th er
business firms.
A nother type of service for busi­
nesses is called CENTREX, in which
incoming calls can be dialed to any
extension without an operator’s as­
sistance, and outgoing and interof­
fice calls can be dialed by the exten­
sion users. This equipm ent can be

located either on telephone company
premises or on the custom er’s prem ­
ises. CENTREX has replaced PBX in
popularity am ong business and in­
dustrial users that handle a very large
volume of calls. However, PBX is still
more popular with smaller users.
O ther com m unications services
provided by telephone com panies in­
c lu d e c o n fe re n c e e q u ip m e n t in ­
stalled at a PBX to perm it conversa­
tions among several telephone users
sim ultaneously; m obile ra d io -te le­
phones in autom obiles, boats, air­
planes, and trains; and telephones
equipped to answer calls autom ati­
cally and to give and take messages
by recordings.
Besides providing telephones and
switching
equipm ent,
telephone
companies build and maintain most
of the vast network of cables and
radio-relay systems needed for com ­
munications services, including those
that join the thousands of broadcast­
ing sta tio n s aro u n d the c o u n try .
These services are leased to networks
and th eir affiliated stations. T ele­
phone com panies also lease data and
private wire services to business and
government offices.
The Bell System owns more than 4
out of 5 of the N ation’s telephones.
Independent telephone companies
own the rem ainder. There are ap ­
proximately 1,600 independent tele­
p h o n e c o m p a n ie s in th e U n ited

Telephone craft workers and operators made up
more than one-half of all workers employed in the
industry in 1976
M an ag erial and

T elep h on e

739

O C C U P A T I O N S IN T H E T E L E P H O N E I N D U S T R Y

States. General Telephone and Elec­
tronics Corp., United Utilities, Inc.,
and C ontinental T elephone C orp.,
service about 2 out of every 3 tele­
phones owned by independent com ­
panies.

Telephone Occupations
Although the telephone industry
requires workers in many different
occupations, telephone craft workers
and operators make up more than
one-half of all workers. (See accom ­
panying chart.)
T elephone craft w orkers install,
repair, and maintain telephones, ca­
bles, switching equipm ent, and mes­
sage a c c o u n tin g sy stem s. T h ese
workers can be grouped by the type
of work they perform. Construction
workers place, splice, and maintain
telephone wires and cables; installers
and repairers place, m aintain, and re­
pair telephones and private branch
exchanges (PBX) in homes and offic­
es and other places of business; and
c e n tral office craft w orkers test,
m aintain, and repair equipm ent in
central offices.
O p erato rs m ake telephone co n ­
nections; assist custom ers in special­
ized services, such as reverse-charge
calls; and provide inform ation. De­
tailed discussions of telephone craft
occupations and telephone and PBX
operators are presented elsewhere in
the Handbook.
M ore than one-fifth o f all tele­
phone industry employees are cleri­
cal workers. They include stenogra­
phers, typists, bookkeepers, office
m achine and co m p u ter operators,
keypunch operators, cashiers, recep­
tionists, file clerks, accounting and
auditing clerks, and payroll clerks.
Clerical workers keep records of ser­
vices, make up and send bills to cus­
tom ers, and prepare statistical and
other reports.
About one-tenth of the industry’s
employees are professional workers.
Many of these are scientific and tech­
nical personnel such as engineers and
drafters. Engineers plan cable and
microwave routes, central office and
PBX eq u ip m en t installations, new
buildings, and the expansion of exist­
ing structures, and solve other engi­

neering problems.


Traffic operator uses computer terminal to complete customer’s call.

Some engineers also engage in re ­
se a rc h an d d e v e lo p m e n t o f new
equipm ent, and persons with engi­
neering backgrounds often advance
to fill top managerial and adm inistra­
tive positons. O ther professional and
technical workers are accountants,
personnel and labor relations w ork­
ers, public relations specialists and
publicity writers, com puter systems
analysts, c o m p u ter p ro g ram m e rs,
and lawyers.
About 1 in every 12 of the indus­
tr y ’s em ployees is a business and
sales representative. These em ploy­
ees sell new com m unications services
and directory advertising and handle
requests for installing or discontinu­
ing telephone service.
About 3 percent of the industry’s
workers maintain buildings, offices,
and warehouses; operate and service
m otor vehicles; and do other m ainte­

nance jo b s in offices and plants.
Skilled m aintenance workers include
s ta tio n a ry en g in e e rs, c a rp e n te rs ,
painters, electricians, and plumbers.
O ther workers em ployed by the telphone industry are janitors, porters,
and guards.

Employment Outlook
Telephone industry em ploym ent is
expected to increase about as fast as
the average for all industries through
the m id-1980’s. In addition to the
jobs from em ploym ent growth, tens
of thousands of openings will arise
each year because of the need to
replace experienced workers who re­
tire, die, or leave their jobs for other
reasons.
Em ploym ent will grow prim arily
because higher incomes and a larger
and more mobile population will in­

740

O C C U P A T IO N A L O U T L O O K H A N D B O O K

crease the use of telephone service.
G reater dem and for transmission of
com puter-processed data and other
information via telephone company
lines also will stimulate em ploym ent
grow th. L ab o rsav in g innovations,
however, will keep em ploym ent from
growing as rapidly as telephone ser­
vice.
Em ploym ent of telephone opera­
tors is expected to decline. As the
n u m b er o f te le p h o n e co m p an ie s
charging custom ers for directory as­
sistance calls increases, more people
will dial num bers directly and use
telephone directories to locate need­
ed num bers, thus reducing the need
for operators. Also, improved switch­
ing equipm ent will allow more calls
to be connected without an opera­
to r’s assistance, and more advanced
billing systems will autom atically re­
lay billing information to com puter­
ized files that are used in preparing
custom er’s billing statem ents. T ech­
nological innovations will re stric t
em ploym ent growth in some skilled
crafts. For example, m echanical im­
p ro v e m e n ts, su ch as p o le-liftin g
equipm ent and earth-boring tools,
have limited the em ploym ent of line
installers by increasing their efficien­
cy.
New technology, however, is ex­
pected to increase the dem and for
engineering and technical personnel,
especially electrical and electronic
engineers and technicians, com puter
program mers, and systems analysts.
Em ploym ent in adm inistrative and
sales occupations will rise as tele­
phone business increases.

generally takes 5 years, but operators
and clerical employees of some com ­
panies may reach the maximum rate
in 4 years.
More than two-thirds of the w ork­
ers in the industry, mainly telephone
o p e ra to rs and c ra ft w orkers, are
m em bers of labor unions. The two
principal unions representing work­
ers in the telephone industry are the
Com m unications W orkers of A m er­
ica and the International B ro th er­
hood o f E le c tric a l W o rk ers, b u t
many other employees are mem bers
of the 15 independent unions that
form the Telecom m unications Inter­
national Union.

U n io n c o n tr a c ts g o v ern w age
r a te s , w age in c r e a s e s , an d th e
am ount of time required to advance
from one step to the next for most
telep h o n e w orkers. The co n tra cts
also call for extra pay for work be­
yond the normal 8 hours a day, or 5
days a week, and for all Sunday and
holiday work. Most contracts p ro ­
vide a pay differential for night work.
O vertim e work som etim es is re ­
quired, especially during em ergen­
cies, such as floods, hurricanes, or
bad storms. During an “ emergency
call-out,” which is a short-notice re­
quest to report for work during nonscheduled hours, workers are guar-

Earnings and Working
Conditions
In 1976, earnings for nonsupervisory telephone employees averaged
$6.46 an hour. In com parison, nonsupervisory workers in all private in­
dustries, except farm ing, averaged
$4.87 an hour.
In late 1975, basic rates ranged
from an average of $3.75 an hour for
telephone
operator trainees to
$10.76 for professional and sem ipro­
fessional workers other than drafters.
A telephone employee usually
starts at the minimum wage for the
particular job. A dvancem ent from

the starting rate to the maximum rate


Some line installers work underground.

741

O C C U P A T I O N S IN T H E T E L E P H O N E I N D U S T R Y

Although employment in the telephone industry will
fluctuate due to economic cycles, moderate long-term
growth is expected
Waye and salary workers in telephone communication, 1950-76 and
projected 1985
E m p lo y e e s
1,200
(In th ousands)
1,000

Sources of Additional
Information

800
600

400

200

0
1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

anteed a minimum period of pay at
the basic hourly rate. Travel time be­
tween jobs is counted as worktime
for craft workers under some con­
tracts.
Paid vacations are granted accord­
ing to length of service. Usually, con­




telephone workers are covered by
paid sick leave plans and group insur­
ance which usually provide sickness,
accident, and death benefits and re­
tirem ent and disability pensions.
The telephone industry has one of
the best safety records in American
industry. The num ber of disabling
injuries has been well below the aver­
age.

More details about employment
opportunities are available from the
telephone company in your com m u­
nity or local offices o f the unions that
represent telephone workers. If no
local union is listed in the telephone
directory, write to:
Telecommunications International Union,
P.O. Box 5462, Hamden, Conn. 06518.

tracts provide for a 1-week vacation
beginning with 6 m onths of service; 2
weeks for 1 to 7 years; 3 weeks for 8
to 15 years; 4 weeks for 16 to 24
years; and 5 weeks for 25 years and
over. Depending on locality, holidays
range from 9 to 11 days a year. Most

International Brotherhood of Electrical Work­
ers, 1200 15th St. NW., Washington, D.C.
20005.
United States Independent Telephone Associ­
ation, 1801 K St. NW.; Suite 1201, Wash­
ington, D.C. 20006.

O C C U P A T IO N S IN THE
T R U C K IN G IN D U S T R Y

In 1976, the trucking industry em ­
ployed ap p ro x im ately 1.2 m illion
w o rk ers—m ore th an the rival rail,
air, and pipeline tran sportation in­
dustries com bined. It is a m ajor em ­
ployer o f persons not planning to a t­
tend college, since nearly 90 percent
o f its em ployees are freight handlers,
drivers, truck m aintenance person­
nel, o r clerical w o rk e rs—o c c u p a ­
tio n s w h ich on ly re q u ire a high
school education.

Nature and Location of the
Industry
T he trucking industry is m ade up
o f com panies th at sell transportation
and storage services. A lthough many
trucking com panies serve only a sin­
gle city and its suburbs, and others
carry goods only b etw een d istan t
cities, m ost large trucking firms p ro ­
vide b o th types o f service. Som e
firms operate one type of truck and
specialize in one type o f product. For
exam ple, they may carry steel rods
on flat trailers o r grain in open top
vans. In addition, trucking com pa­
nies may operate as either contract
or com m on carriers. C ontract carri­
ers haul com m odities o f one or a few
shippers exclusively; com m on carri­
ers offer transportation services to
businesses in general.

Trucking com panies vary widely in
size. A lm ost half o f the industry’s
workers are em ployed by less than 10
percent o f the com panies. But a large
proportion o f com panies are small,
particularly those which serve a sin­
gle city. Many com panies are ownerop erated , and the ow ner does the
driving.
Trucking industry em ployees work
in cities and towns o f all sizes and are
distributed m uch the same as the
N ation’s population.

Occupations in the Industry
A bout four-fifths o f all trucking
industry employees have blue-collar
jobs, including about 620,000
truckdrivers. O ther large blue-collar
occupations are m aterial handlers,
m echanics, washers and lubricators,
and supervisors. Most white-collar
employees are clerical workers, such
as secretaries and rate clerks, and
adm inistrative personnel, such as te r­
minal m anagers and accountants.
The duties and training req u ire­
ments o f some o f these occupations
are described briefly in the following
sections.

Clerical Occupations. About 1 out of
every 8 o f the industry’s employees is
a clerical worker. Many have general
clerical jobs, such as secretary or
clerk-typist, which are com m on to all
industries. O thers have specialized
jobs.
For example, dispatchers
(D.O.T. 919.168) coordinate the
m ovem ent of trucks and freight into
and out o f terminals; m ake up loads
for specific destinations; assign driv­
ers and develop delivery schedules;
handle custom ers’ requests for pick­
up of freight, and provide inform a­
tion on deliveries. Claims adjusters
(D.O.T. 241.368) handle claims for
freight lost or dam aged during tran ­
sit. Manifest clerks (D.O.T. 222.488)
p re p are form s th a t list d etails of
freight shipments. Parts-order clerks
(D.O.T. 223.387) supply m echanics
with replacem ent parts for trucks;
they also take care of most of the

Truckdriving Occupations. M ore than
half o f the industry’s employees are
drivers. Long-distance truckdrivers

T h e trucking industry em p loyed about 1.2 m illion w orkers in 1976.

742



(D.O.T. 904.883) spend nearly all
their working hours driving large
trucks o r tracto r trailers between te r­
minals. Some drivers load and unload
their trucks, but the usual practice is
to have o th e r em ployees do this
w ork. Local truckdrivers (D .O .T .
906.883) operate trucks over short
distances, usually within one city and
its suburbs. They pick up goods from,
and deliver goods to, trucking term i­
nals, businesses, and hom es in the
area.

Rate cle rk calcu la te s the cost for shipping
each item .

OCCUPATIONS IN THE TRUCKING INDUSTRY

clerical duties needed to maintain a
truck repair shop.
Administrative and Related Occupa­
tions. More than 1 out of 15 employ­
ees is an adm inistrator. Top execu­
tives m anage com panies and make
policy decisions. M iddle m anagers
supervise the operation of individual
departm ents, term inals, or warehous­
es. A small num ber of accountants
and lawyers are em ployed by these
com panies. The industry also em ­
ploys sales representatives to solicit
freight business.
Material
Handling
Occupations.
About 1 out of 12 employees moves
freight into and out of trucks and

warehouses. Much of this work is
done by material handlers (D.O.T.
929.887) who work in groups of
three or four under the direction of a
dock supervisor or gang leader. M a­
te ria l h a n d le rs load and u n lo ad
freight with the aid of handtrucks,
conveyors, and other devices. Heavy
items are moved by power truck op­
erators (D.O.T. 922.883) and crane
operators (D .O .T. 921.280). Gang
leaders determ ine the order in which
items will be loaded, so that the car­
go is balanced and items to be un­
loaded first are near the tru ck ’s door.
T r u c k d r i v e r s ’ h e l p e r s ( D .O .T .
905.887) travel with drivers to un­
load and pick up freight. O ccasional­
ly, helpers may do relief driving.

Much
 of the truck m e c h a n ic ’s tim e is spent in p reventive m ain ten ance.


743

Truck Maintenance
Occupations.
About 1 out of every 20 employees
takes care of the trucks. Truck m e­
ch a n ics (D .O .T . 6 2 0 .2 8 1) k eep
trucks and trailers in good running
condition. Much time is spent in p re­
ventive m aintenance to assure safe
operation, to check wear and dam ­
age to parts, and to reduce break­
downs. When breakdowns do occur,
these workers determ ine the cause
and m ake the n ecessary rep airs.
T ruck m echanic helpers (D .O .T .
620.884) and apprentices assist ex­
perienced m echanics in inspection
and repair work. Truck lubricators
and washers (D .O .T. 915.887 and
919.887) clean, lubricate, and refuel
trucks, change tires, and do other
routine m aintenance.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
W orkers in blue-collar o c c u p a ­
tions usually are hired at the un­
skilled level, as m aterial handlers,
tru c k d riv e rs’ helpers, lu b rica to rs,
and washers. No formal training is
required for these jobs, but many em ­
ployers prefer high school graduates.
Applicants must be in good physical
condition. New employees work un­
d er the guidance o f ex p erien ced
workers and supervisors while learn­
ing their jobs; this usually takes no
more than a few weeks. As vacancies
o c c u r, w orkers advance to m ore
skilled blue-collar jobs, such as pow­
er truck operator and truckdriver.
The ability to do the job and length
of service with the firm are the pri­
mary qualifications for prom otion.
Material handlers who dem onstrate
supervisory ability can become gang
leaders or dock supervisors.
Qualifications for truckdriving
jobs vary and depend on individual
employers, the type of truck, and
other factors. In most States, drivers
must have a chauffeur’s license,
which is a com m ercial driving perm it
obtained from State m otor vehicle
departm ents. The U.S. D epartm ent
of T ransportation establishes m ini­
mum qualifications for drivers who
tra n s p o r t goods b etw e en S ta tes.
They must be at least 21 years old, be
able-bodied, have good hearing, and
have at least 20/40 vision with or
w ith o u t glasses. H o w ev er, m any

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

744

firms will not hire long-distance driv­
ers under 25 years of age. Drivers
also m ust be able to read, speak, and
write English well enough to com ­
plete required reports. Drivers must
have good driving records.
People interested in professional
driving should take the driver-train­
ing co u rses offered by m any high
schools. A course in autom otive m e­
chanics also is helpful. Private tru ck ­
driving training schools offer another
opportunity to prepare for a driving
job; however, com pletion of such a
course does not assure em ploym ent
as a driver.
M ost truck m echanics learn their
skills informally on the job as helpers
to ex p erien ced m echanics. O thers
com plete formal apprenticeship p ro ­
grams th at generally last 4 years and
include on-the-job training and relat­
ed classroom instruction. Unskilled
w o rk e rs, such as lu b ric a to rs and
washers, frequently are prom oted to
jo b s as h e lp e rs an d a p p re n tic e s.
However, many firms will hire inex­
perien ced people, especially those
who have com pleted courses in auto­
motive m echanics, for helper or ap­
prentice jobs.
C om pletion o f com m ercial courses
in high school o r in a private business
school is usually adequate for entry
into general clerical occupations
such as secretary or typist. A ddition­
al on-the-job training is needed for
specialized clerical occupations such
as claims adjuster.
G enerally, no specialized educa­
tion is needed for dispatcher jobs.
Openings are filled by truckdrivers,
claim s adjusters, or o th er w orkers
who know th eir co m pany’s o p era­
tions and are familiar with State and
Federal driving regulations. C andi­
dates may im prove th eir qualifica­
tions by taking college or technical
school courses in transportation.
Adm inistrative and sales positions
frequently are filled by college
graduates who have m ajored in busi­
ness adm inistration, m arketing, ac­
co u n tin g , in d u strial re la tio n s, o r
tr a n s p o r ta tio n . S om e c o m p a n ie s
have m anagem ent training program s
for college graduates in which train­
ees work for brief periods in various
departm ents to get a broad under­
standing o f trucking operations be­
fore FRASER assigned to a particular
Digitized for they are


Substantial long-term employment growth is expected
in the trucking industry, although declines may occur
during economic downturns
Wage and salary employees in trucking and trucking terminals,
1964-76 and projected 1985
Employees
(in thousands)

400
200

0
1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

departm ent. High school graduates
may be prom oted to adm inistrative
and sales positions.

Employment Outlook
Em ploym ent in the trucking indus­
try is expected to grow about as fast
as th e av e rag e for all in d u strie s
through the m id-1980’s. In addition
to the large num ber of job openings
c r e a te d by e m p lo y m e n t g ro w th ,
thousands m ore will arise as experi­
enced workers retire, die, or transfer
to other fields. The num ber of jobs
may vary from year to year, however,
because the am ount o f freight fluctu­
ates with ups and downs in the econ­
omy.
Trucks carry virtually all freight
for local distribution and a great deal
of freight between distant cities. As
the volume o f freight increases with
the N ation’s econom ic growth, em ­
ploym ent in the trucking industry
will rise. M ore em ployees also will be
needed to serve the many factories,
warehouses, stores, and homes being
built where railroad transportation is
not available.
Em ployment will not increase as
fast as the dem and for trucking ser­
vices because technological develop­
ments will increase output per w ork­
er. F o r ex a m p le , m o re e ffic ie n t
freight-handling m ethods—such as
conveyors and draglines to m ove
freight in and out o f term inals and

w arehouses—will increase the effi­
ciency o f material handlers. Larger
trucks as well as more efficient packa g in g t e c h n i q u e s w ill a llo w
truckdrivers to carry m ore cargo.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
In 1976, nonsupervisory workers
in the trucking industry averaged
$6.57 an hour, com pared with $4.87
an hour for their counterparts in all
private industry, except farming.
Earnings are relatively high in the
trucking industry, because highly
paid drivers represent a large propor­
tion of employment; many long-dis­
tance drivers earn m ore than $300 a
week.
Most em ployees are paid an hourly
rate or a weekly or monthly salary.
However, truckdrivers on the longer
runs generally are paid on a mileage
basis while driving. For all other
worktim e, they are paid an hourly
rate.
W orking conditions vary greatly
among occupations in the industry.
While m aneuvering large trucks in
fast-moving traffic can cause tension,
m ore com fortable seating, power
steering, and air-conditioned cabs
have reduced physical strain. Long­
distance drivers frequently work at
night and may spend time away from
home; local drivers usually work d u r­
ing the day. M aterial handlers and

745

OCCUPATIONS IN THE TRUCKING INDUSTRY

truckdrivers’ helpers have strenuous
jobs, although conveyor systems and
o th er freig h t handling equipm ent
have reduced some of the heavier
lifting, making the work easier and
safer. T ruck m echanics and other
m aintenance personnel may have to
work in awkward or cram ped posi­
tions while servicing vehicles, and
frequently get dirty because of the
grease and oil on the trucks. In addi­
tion, most m aintenance shops are hot
in summer and drafty in the winter.




M echanics occasionally make repairs
outdoors when a truck breaks down
on the road.
Many large organizations operate
around the clock and require some
m aterial handling and m aintenance
personnel to work evenings, nights,
and weekends.
A large num ber of trucking indus­
try em ployees are m em bers of the
International Brotherhood of Team ­
sters, C h au ffeu rs, W arehousem en
and Helpers of Am erica (Ind).

Sources of Additional
Information
For general information about ca­
reer opportunities in the trucking in­
dustry, write to:
American Trucking Associations, Inc., 1616 P
St. NW„ Washington, D.C. 20036.

Information about specific jobs
may be available from the personnel
departm ents of local trucking com ­
panies or the local office of your
State employment service.

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE
Wholesaling and retailing are the
final stages in the transfer of goods
fro m p r o d u c e r s to c o n s u m e r s .
W holesalers assemble goods in large
lots for distribution to retail stores,
industrial firms, and institutions such
as schools and hospitals. R etailers
sell goods directly to consum ers in a
variety of ways—in stores, by mail, or
through door-to-door selling. A list
of the items sold by wholesale and
retail businesses would include al­
most every item produced by indus­
try — a u to m o b ile s, clo th in g , food,
furniture, and countless others.
In 1976, about 17.7 million people
(not counting an estim ated 1.7 mil­
lion who were self-employed persons
or unpaid family w orkers) worked in
wholesale and retail trade. The larg­
est num ber of w orkers— 13.4 million
or ab o u t th ree -fo u rth s o f them —
were employed in retail trade. The
majority of these workers held jobs in
departm ent stores, food stores, and
restaurants and other eating places.
About 4.3 million people worked in
wholesale trade.
W orkers with a wide range of edu­
cation, training, and skills hold jobs
in w holesale and retail trad e. As
shown in the accompanying tabula­
tion, alm ost 3 out of 5 workers in
these industry divisions are whitecollar w orkers (professional, m an­
agerial, clerical, and sales). Sales
w orkers, th e largest single group,
make up more than one-fifth of total
industry employment. Managers and
p r o p r ie to r s , th e s e c o n d la rg e s t
group, constitute nearly one-fifth of
the in d u s try ’s w ork fo rce. M any
m anagers and proprietors own and
operate small wholesale houses or re­
tail outlets such as food stores and
gas stations. Clerical workers make
up over one-sixth of the work force;
many hold jobs as cashiers, especially
in s u p e rm a rk e ts and o th e r food
stores. Im p o rtan t clerical o c c u p a ­
tions in retail trade also include sec­

746


retaries, typists, office m achine o p ­
e ra to rs , b o o k k e e p e rs , and
accounting clerks. Large numbers of
shipping and receiving clerks work in
both wholesale and retail trade.

Blue-collar workers (craftw orkers,
operatives, and laborers) constitute
nearly one-fourth o f the industry’s
jobholders. Many work as m echanics
and repairers, gas station attendants,

Wholesale and retail trade, 1976

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE

drivers and delivery workers, meatcutters, and materials handlers. Most
m echanics work for m otor vehicle
dealers and gasoline service stations.
A large num ber of m eatcutters work
in wholesale grocery establishments
and in superm arkets and other food
stores.
Service workers, employed mostly
in retail trade, constitute about 1 out
of 6 workers in the industry. Food
service workers, such as waitresses
and cooks, make up by far the largest




747

concentration of service workers.
O ther large groups of service w ork­
ers are janitors, cleaners, and guards.
Employment in wholesale and re ­
tail trade is expected to increase by
about the same rate as the average
for all industries throug m id-1980’s
as sales rise in response to growth in
population and income. Due to la­
borsaving innovations, however, em ­
ployment is not expected to grow as
fast as sales. The use of com puters
for inventory control and billing, for

example, may limit the need for addi­
tional clerical w orkers. Im proved
methods of handling and storing m er­
chandise will limit the dem and for
laborers.
The statem ents that follow discuss
job opportunities in restaurants and
food stores. More detailed inform a­
tio n a b o u t o c c u p a tio n s th a t cu t
across many industries appears else­
where in the Handbook.

O C C U P A T IO N S IN TH E
R E S T A U R A N T IN D U S T R Y

In 1976, the restau ran t industry
was the third largest industry in the
country, em ploying 3.7 million peo­
ple in establishm ents ranging from
roadside diners to luxurious restau­
rants. T he type of food and service a
restaurant offers varies with its size
and location, as well as with the kind
o f custom er it seeks to attract. Fastfood re sta u ran ts and cafeterias in
suburban shopping centers em pha­
size rapid service and inexpensive
meals. Steak houses and pizza places
consider the quality o f their specialty
m ost im p o rtan t. Som e re sta u ran ts
cater to custom ers who wish to eat a
leisurely m eal in elegant surround­
ings and their m enus often include
unusual dishes or “ specialties of the
house.”
M ost re sta u ra n ts are sm all and
have fewer than 10 paid employees;
some o f these are operated by their
owners. An increasing proportion of

restaurants, however, are part of a
chain operation.
R estaurant jobs are found alm ost
everywhere. A lthough em ploym ent
is concentrated in the States with the
largest populations and particularly
in large cities, even very small com ­
m unities have sandwich shops and
roadside diners.

Restaurant Workers
A bout three-fourths o f all restau­
ran t em ployees prep are and serve
food, and keep cooking and eating
areas clean. W aiters and waitresses,
and cooks and chefs m ake up the two
largest groups of workers. O thers are
counter workers, who serve food in
cafeterias and fast-food restaurants;
b a r te n d e r s , w ho m ix an d se rv e
drinks; dining room attendants, who
clear tables, carry dirty dishes back

to the kitchen, and sometimes set ta­
bles; dishwashers, who wash dishes
and help keep the kitchen clean; p an ­
try w o rk ers, who p re p are salads,
sandwiches, and certain other dishes;
and janitors and porters, who dispose
o f trash, sweep and m op floors, and
keep the restaurant clean. Some of
these w orkers o perate m echanical
equipm ent such as dishwashers, floor
polishers, and vegetable slicers. (D e­
taile d in fo rm a tio n on cooks and
chefs, w aiters and waitresses, b a r­
tenders, food counter workers, and
dining room atten d a n ts and d ish ­
w ashers is given elsew here in the
Handbook. )
A nother large group of restaurant
w orkers—about one-seventh of the
total—are managers and proprietors.
Many are owners and operators of
small restaurants and, in addition to
acting as managers, may cook and do
other work. Some are salaried em ­
ployees who manage restaurants for
others.
All other restaurant workers com ­
bined account for about one-sixth of
total industry employment. Most are
clerical w orkers—cashiers who re ­
ceive paym ents and m ake change for
custom ers; food checkers who total
the cost o f items selected by cafeteria
custom ers; and bookkeepers, typists,
and other office workers. A few res­
taurants em ploy dietitians to plan
menus, supervise food preparation,
and en fo rc e san itary regulations.
R estau ran t chains and some large
restaurants employ m echanics and
o th e r m a in te n a n c e w o rk e rs, a c ­
countants, advertising or public rela­
tions directors, personnel workers,
and m usicians and other entertain­
ers.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

With 3.7 million e m p loyees in 1976, re s taurants m ade up the third la rg e st industry in th e
country.

748



The skills and experience needed
for restaurant work vary from one
occupation to another. Many jobs
require no special training or experi­
ence, while others require some co l­
lege or managerial experience. Re­
q u ire m e n ts also v ary fro m o n e
restaurant to another; large or expen­
sive restaurants usually have higher
e d u c a tio n a l and ex p erien ce sta n ­
dards th an diners or small restau ­
rants.

749

OCCUPATIONS IN THE RESTAURANT INDUSTRY

Persons who have less than a high
school education and no previous
experience often qualify for jobs as
kitchen workers, dishwashers, or din­
ing room attendants. Although a high
school education is not m andatory,
some restaurants hire only those with
a diploma and some hire only experi­
enced waiters and waitresses, cooks,
and bartenders. Special training or
many years of experience or both
usually are required for chefs’ posi­
tions.
Newly hired restaurant workers
generally are trained on the job.
Kitchen workers, for example, may
be taught to operate a lettuce-shred­
der and m ake salads. W aiters and
waitresses are taught to set tables,
tak e o rd e rs from cu sto m ers, and
serve food in a courteous and effi­
cient m anner. In many restaurants,
new employees receive their training
under the close supervision of an ex­
perienced employee or the manager.
Large restaurants and some chain
restaurant operations may have more
formal programs that often include
several days of training sessions for
beginners. Some employers, such as
fast-food restaurants, use instruction­
al booklets and audio-visual aids to
train new employees.
Many public and private high
schools offer vocational courses for
persons interested in restaurant
training. Usually included are food
preparation, catering, restaurant
m a n a g e m e n t, and o th e r rela ted sub­
jects. Similar training programs are
available for a variety of occupations
through hotel and motel associations,
re sta u ra n t asso ciatio ns and trade
unions, technical schools, junior and
community colleges, and 4-year col­
leges. Programs range in length from
a few months to 2 years or more. The
A rm ed F o rce s are a n o th e r good
source of training and experience in
food service work.
When hiring food service workers
such as waiters and waitresses and
cooks and chefs, employers look for
applicants who have good health and
physical stamina because the work is
often tiring. Because of the need to
work closely with others and under
considerable pressure, applicants
should be able to remain calm under
stress. In addition, a neat appearance
Digitized for a pleasant m anner are im portant
and FRASER


for bartenders, waiters and waitress­
es and other employees who m eet the
public. A dvancem ent opportunities
in restaurants vary among the occu­
pations. They are best for cooks who
may advance to chef, or supervisory
or m anagem ent positions, particular­
ly in hotels, clubs, or larger, more
elegant restaurants. Experience as
maitre d ’hotel may lead to a position
as director of food and beverage ser­
vices in a large chain organization.
For m ost other restaurant occupa­
tions, however, advancem ent is limit­
ed, principally because of the small
size of most food service establish­
ments. For some occupations, such
as food counter workers in fast-food
restaurants, advancem ent is further
limited because most workers remain
employed for only a short time.
Although many restaurant m anag­
ers obtain their positions through
hard work and advancem ent within a
restaurant’s staff, it is becoming in­
creasingly im portant for restaurant
managers to have a college degree in
h o te l, re s ta u ra n t o r in stitu tio n a l
m anagem ent. G raduates em ployed
by hotels and restaurants usually go
through a m anagem ent training p ro ­
gram before being given much super­
visory and administrative responsibil­
ity. They often are hired as assistant

managers and subsequently advance
to manager. From there it is possible,
particularly in the large restaurant
chains, to advance to a top m anage­
ment position. Those with the neces­
sary capital may open their own eat­
ing establishments.

Employment Outlook
Employment in the restaurant in­
dustry is expected to increase faster
than the average for all industries
through the m id-1980’s. In addition
to the openings arising from employ­
ment growth, thousands of openings
are expected each year due to tu rn ­
o v er—the need to replace experi­
enced employees who find other jobs
or who retire, die, or stop working
for other reasons. Turnover is partic­
ularly high among part-tim e workers,
many o f whom are students. As a
result, there are plenty of jobs avail­
able in this industry for interested
persons, including those with limited
skills.
Most openings will be for waiters
and waitresses and cooks—both be­
cause o f th e ir high re p la c e m e n t
needs and because these w orkers
make up a very large proportion of
all r e s ta u r a n t e m p lo y e e s. H igh
school students make up a large per­
centage of the workers in fast-food

Em ploym ent in restaurants is expected to increase fas te r than th e a v e ra g e for all
industries.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

750

restaurants. Employment opportuni­
ties also are expected to be favorable
for food counter workers. The num ­
ber of openings in clerical jobs, such
as cashier, will be relatively small. A
few openings will occur in special­
ized positions, such as food manager
and dietitian.
Population growth, rising personal
incomes, and more leisure time will
contribute to a growing demand for
restaurant services. Also, as an in­
creasing num ber of wives work, more
and more families may find dining
out a welcom e convenience. Fastfood and other multiunit restaurants
constitute the fastest growing seg­
ment of this industry. Many food ser­
vice workers will be needed to serve
the increasing num ber of customers
served by these restaurants. Increas­
ing w orker productivity, how ever,
will prevent em ploym ent from grow­
ing as rapidly as dem and for restau­
rant services. Restaurants have be­
com e m o re efficien t as fast-food
service counters have become more
popular, and as managers have cen­
tralized the purchase o f food sup­
plies, in tro d u ced self-service, and
used p r e c u t m e a ts an d m o d e r n
equipm ent. Many restaurants now
use frozen entrees in individual por­
tions, which require less time and

skill to prepare than fresh foods.


Earnings and Working
Conditions
Earnings of restaurant workers d e­
pend on the location, size, type, and
degree of unionization of the restau­
rant in which they work. Also, w ork­
ers in some occupations receive tips
in addition to their wages.
In 1976, nonsupervisory workers
in the restaurant industry averaged
$2.50 an hour (excluding tips). Data
from union contracts covering eating
and drinking places in several large
cities indicate the following range o f
hourly earnings for individual occu­
pations:

Hourly rate
range 1
Chefs.................................................$3.11-6.01
Bartenders....................................... 2.8 5-5.3 3
Cooks................................................ 2.81-5.19
Pantry workers............................... 2.08-4.38
Kitchen helpers............................... 2.12-4.14
Assistant cooks...............
2.02-4.05
Checkers........................................... 2.25-3.94
Food counter workers................... 1.67-3.79
Porters.............................................. 2.24-3.75
Dishwashers..................................... 1.94—
3.75
Cashiers............................................ 2.24-3.5 8
Dining room attendants................. 1.26-3.41
Waiters and waitresses.................. 1.25-2.95
1 Tips not included.

Salaries of managerial workers dif­
fer widely because of differences in
duties and responsibilities. Many col­
lege graduates who had specialized
training in restaurant m anagem ent
receiv ed startin g salaries ranging
from $10,000 to $12,000 annually in
1976. M anagerial trainees w ithout
this background often started at low­
er salaries. Many experienced m an­
agers earned between $15,000 and
$30,000 a year.
In addition to wages, restaurant
employees usually get at least one
free meal a day, and often are provid­
ed with uniforms. W aiters, waitress­
es, and bartenders also may receive
tips.
Most full-time restaurant em ploy­
ees work 30 to 48 hours a week;
scheduled hours may include ev e­
nings, holidays, and weekends. Some
work on split shifts, which m eans
they are on duty for several hours
during one meal, take some time off,
and then return to work for the next
busy period.
Many restaurants have convenient
work areas, and are furnished with
the latest equipm ent and laborsaving
devices. Others, particularly small
restaurants, offer less desirable w ork­
ing conditions. In all re sta u ran ts,
workers may stand much of the time,
have to lift heavy trays and pots, or
work near hot ovens or steam tables.
Work hazards include the possibility
of burns; sprains from lifting heavy
trays and other items; and slips and
falls on wet floors.
The principal union in the restau­
rant industry is the Hotel and R estau­
rant Employees and B artenders In­
ternational Union (A FL-C IO ). The
proportion of w orkers covered by
union contracts varies greatly from
city to city.

Sources of Additional
Information
For additional inform ation about
careers in the restaurant industry,
write to:
National Institute for the Foodservice Indus­
try, 120 South Riverside Plaza, Chicago,
1 1 60606.
1.
The Educational Institute, American Hotel
and Motel Association, 1407 S. Harrison

OCCUPATIONS IN THE RESTAURANT INDUSTRY

Rd., Michigan State University, East Lan­
sing, Mich. 48823.

Information on vocational educa­
tion courses for restaurant work may




be obtained from the local director
of vocational education, the superin­
tendent o f schools in the local com ­
munity, or the State director of voca­

751

tional education in the departm ent of
education in the State capital.

superm arkets have expanded their
selection of goods and services, they
have tak en co n sid erab le business
away from specialty stores.

O C C U P A TIO N S IN RETA IL FO O D STO R ES

In the United States, grocery stores
and superm arkets are as common as
baseballs in summer, and almost al­
ways near at hand. The local foodstore is a small part of a large indus­
try—the retail foodstore industry—
which em ploys ab o u t 2.3 m illion
workers.
Jobs in foodstores vary, and work­
ers range in education and training
from high school dropouts to collegeeducated managerial and marketing
professionals. Jobs in foodstores are
especially attractive because em ploy­
ers often provide training and be­
cause the opportunities for prom o­
tion are good. The large num ber of
opportunities for part-tim e em ploy­
m ent may be of special interest to
hom em akers and students who do
not want full-time jobs. In fact, parttime w orkers account for over 50
percent of the work force in super­
markets, according to a recent sur­
vey.

Nature of the Work
The industry pioneered self-serv­
ice m arketing techniques that permit
c u s to m e rs to s e le c t item s f r om
shelves and refrigerated display cases
and bring them to checkout stands.
S elf-se rv ice m eth o d s re d u c e th e
number of employees needed. T here­
fore the cost of operating a store is
lower. As a result, food sold in large
self-service foodstores, or superm ar­
kets, generally is less expensive than
food sold in small stores.
There are three basic types of
foodstores: superm arkets, which sell
many items; small grocery stores, in­
cluding convenience stores; and spe­
cialty food stores, which emphasize a
particular type of food or service.
Superm arkets are large, self-serv­
ice grocery stores that may sell meat;
canned, frozen, or fresh vegetables;
dairy products; delicatessen; baked
foods; and other items. Many now
752



have large specialty food and non­
food departm ents and offer a wide
range of services. Pharm acies, liquor
departm ents, film processing, check
cashing, money orders, and catering
services are common.
Superm arkets and small grocery
stores account for the overwhelming
majority of establishm ents and em ­
ployees in the industry. While a su­
p e rm a rk e t generally em ploys b e ­
tween 25 and 75 persons, the average
num ber o f paid employees in all re ­
tail food stores is between 10 and 15.
Because prices generally are lower
than at any other type of foodstore,
superm arkets attract custom ers who
make many purchases. When only a
loaf of bread or a quart of milk is
needed, how ever, consum ers may
prefer a nearby neighborhood gro­
cery store or a specialty foodstore.
Small neighborhood grocery stores
are the most num erous of all
foodstores. Besides a small selection
of popular food items, they may fea­
ture ethnic foods. Usually, owners
personally manage these stores and
only employ additional help as need­
ed. Few owners operate more than
one store.
Convenience stores are small gro­
cery stores that specialize in a rather
limited selection of items that cus­
tom ers m ight want in a hurry. A l­
though many items are priced higher
than in superm arkets, custom ers are
attracted by longer hours, fast serv­
ice, and convenient location. As a
result, superm arkets have lost some
business to convenience stores in re ­
cent years.
Specialty food stores operate in
much the same m anner as small
neighborhood grocery stores. How­
ever, they may feature only one type
of food, such as dietetic or health
food, bakery products, dairy p ro d ­
ucts, or candy. Most are small and
usually are operated by the ow ner
and a few clerks. In recent years, as

Occupations in the Industry
About 40 percent of foodstore
workers are either clerical em ploy­
e e s — sto c k c le rk s, c a sh ie rs, an d
bookkeepers—or semiskilled w ork­
e r s — m e a tc u tte r s , m e a tw ra p p e rs,
fruit and vegetable processors, and
packers. Laborers, including stock
and m aterial handlers, order fillers,
and warehouse selectors, make up
about 25 percen t o f em ploym ent.
M anagers and adm inistrators includ­
ing buyers make up an additional 20
percent of total employment. The re­
maining 15 percent are accountants,
personnel and labor relations w ork­
e rs, ro u te d riv e rs, t r u c k d r i v e r s ,
cleaning, food, and o th e r service
workers, sales workers, bakers, m e­
chanics, and others. (Separate state­
ments on many of these occupations
found in retail foodstores, as well as
in other industries, appear elsewhere
in the Handbook.)
Retail foodstore managers (D.O.T.
185.168) c o o rd in a te store o p e ra ­
tions. They often plan work sched­
ules, deal with advertising and m er­
chandising, and always are
concerned with custom er relations.
O ther m ajor responsibilities include
store security, personnel m atters, ex­
pense control, and planning possible
com petitive maneuvers.
Clerks in superm arkets usually are
called stock, grocery, or produce
clerks. In the grocery departm ent,
stock clerks keep shelves filled with
m erchandise. For example, they may
count the cans of soup on the shelves
and in the stockroom and decide how
much to reorder from the warehouse.
Since storage space is limited, the
order should include only as much as
might be sold before another delivery
from the warehouse will be m ade.
Stock clerks frequently rearrange
food to create an attractive display.
They help custom ers Find what they
want and perform general clean-up
duties. In superm arkets, stock clerks
occasionally may operate cash regis­
ters or bag groceries.
Produce clerks m aintain the dis­
plays of fruits and vegetables. Be-

753

OCCUPATIONS IN RETAIL FOODSTORES

countants, bookkeepers, buyers, p er­
sonnel specialists, com puter special­
ists, clerks, secretaries, and o ther
office workers. Chain stores also em ­
ploy many truckdrivers, stock clerks,
and laborers in warehouses.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Produce clerk arranges food to c reate an attractive display.

cause fruits and vegetables are per­
ishable, clerks use special techniques
to keep the stock attractive. Fruits
and vegetables are rotated so that
goods received in the store first are
sold first. Lettuce and other greens
are moistened and chilled to preserve
crispness. In addition to caring for
the displays, produce clerks help un­
load delivery trucks, keep the pro­
duce departm ent clean, answer cus­
tom ers’ questions, and weigh and bag
produce.
In large stores that have bakery
and delicatessen departm ents, other
clerks may work behind counters
selling cakes or lunchmeats.
M eatcutters and wrappers order
and prepare meats for sale. Since
meat often is delivered to the store in
large pieces, m eatcutters use saws
and knives to cut the large pieces
into roasts, steaks, stew meats, and
other meal-size portions. After the
fat is cut away and bone chips are
removed, the m eat is placed in plas­
tic trays ready to be wrapped.
M eatwrappers use a machine to
wrap the package of m eat in clear
plastic. Then, the wrappers weigh the
packages and attach labels the
weighing m achine has printed which
identify the type of m eat, weight,
price per pound, and total price for

each package.


At the checkout counter, cashiers
ring up the price of each item on the
cash register, add sales tax, receive
checks or money, m ake change, and
bag purchases. An increasing num ­
b er o f sto re s have c o m p u teriz ed
checkout systems that automatically
perform some of these functions in
addition to others.
Cashiers, who are often the only
employees custom ers m eet, must be
pleasant, courteous, fast, and accu­
ra te . C ash iers m ust d e te c t p rice
changes on cans and boxes. For p ro ­
duce and other item s th at change
price frequently, price lists may be
used. W hen not serving custom ers,
cashiers clean counters and restock
small convenience items, such as ra ­
zor blades and candy, displayed near
the checkout counter.
Many superm arkets also employ
workers to bag and carry groceries
from the checkout counter to cus­
to m e rs’ cars. C leaning and o th e r
service workers polish floors, clean
windows, sanitize m eat preparation
rooms, and do other housekeeping
jobs. The store m anager observes the
activities of each departm ent, c o r­
rects problem s as they arise, and is
responsible for all activities and the
store’s success.
The central administrative offices
o f superm arket chains employ a c ­

In a large superm arket, a new em ­
ployee usually begins as a trainee in
one of the following occupations:
cashier, stock clerk, produce clerk,
m e a t w r a p p e r , or me a t c u t t e r . In
sm aller stores, how ever, new em ­
ployees usually are trained as com bi­
nation cashiers-clerks.
When hiring trainees, employers
look for high school graduates who
are good at arithm etic and who make
a neat appearance. An outgoing p er­
sonality and the ability to get along
with people also are im portant, par­
ticularly for cashiers. Applicants who
have less than a high school educa­
tion may be hired if they qualify in
other respects.
New workers learn their jobs
mostly by helping and observing ex­
perienced employees. A few years
may be needed to qualify as a skilled
m eatcutter, but cashiers and produce
clerks generally can learn their jobs
in several m onths. Jobs as stock
clerk s and m eatw rap p ers can be
learned in even less time.
Before being assigned to a store,
cashier trainees may attend a school
operated by a superm arket chain.
These short-term courses, which em ­
phasize rapid and accurate operation
of cash registers and com puter assist­
ed checkout systems, include instruc­
tions for treating custom ers co u rte­
ously and for handling com plaints.
Trainees who pass the examination
are assigned to a store to finish their
training; those who fail may be hired
for other jobs, such as stock or p ro­
duce clerk.
Some stores have m eatcutter ap­
prenticeship programs, which gener­
ally last 2 to 3 years, and include
classroom instruction as well as onthe-job training.
Foodstores provide ambitious em ­
ployees with excellent opportunities
for advancem ent. In superm arkets,
stock clerks frequently move up to
better paying jobs as head clerks or

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

754

grocery departm ent managers. Pro­
duce clerks may advance to jobs as
produce managers, produce buyers,
or p roduce supervisors of several
stores. M eatwrappers can learn to be
cutters, and then advance to m eat
departm ent managers. Cashiers and
departm ent m anagers may be pro­
m oted to assistant m anagers and,
eventually, managers of a supermark e t . A d v a n c e m e n t in s m a l l
foodstores usually is limited, but em ­
ployees may get all-round experi­
ence to start their own small busi­
nesses.
Many large firms have systematic
training programs for manager train­
ees. Several years of experience gen­
erally are required before one be­
comes a store manager. Some attend
a college or a training school or take
special correspondence courses, of­
ten paid for by the company.
Some superm arket employees and
managers advance to administrative
jobs in their com pany’s central offic­
es. They may specialize in personnel,
labor relations, buying, m erchandis­
ing, advertising, consum er affairs, or
re s e a rc h , or may b ec o m e d airy ,
meat, delicatessen, produce, grocery,
or nonfood specialists. Many of these
jobs may require college training.
In cooperation with the Food M ar­
keting Institute, C ornell University
offers about 20 home study courses
in m anagem ent for food industry em ­
ployees who wish to improve their
chances for advancem ent. All em ­
ployees are eligible to take these
courses. Included are courses on
food distribution, food warehousing
and transportation, checkout m an­
agement, store security, accounting,
economics o f food retailing, and oth­
ers.
Several universities offer b ache­
lo r’s, m a s te r’s, and d o cto ral p ro ­
gram s in food d istrib ution. These
curriculum s include special courses
related to the retail food store indus­
try in addition to general courses in
m an ag em en t, m ark etin g , finance,
business, law, accounting, econom ­
ics, and other disciplines. A num ber
of other colleges, junior colleges, and
technical institutes offer program s,
courses, and workshops in this field.
Asfor FRASER
Digitized the industry becom es more com ­


plex, firm s may increasingly seek
persons with formal training.
A person graduating from a food
m anagem ent curriculum with a
bachelor’s degree generally enters a
store m anagem ent trainee program
or a sales position with a supplier. A
graduate with an advanced degree
generally enters a research or plan­
ning position with a firm.

Employment Outlook
The outlook for jobs in the foodstore industry is good. Employment
through the m id-1980’s is expected
to grow about as fast as the average
for all industries. Large superm arkets
and small convenience stores are ex­
p ected to grow fa ste r than o th er
types of stores. In addition to new
jobs created by growth, many open­
ings will occur every year because of
death, retirem ents, and other separa­
tions from the labor force. Relatively
high turnover among nonm anagerial
workers will continue to create many
openings.
As p o p u la tio n in cre ases, m ore
food will have to be distributed; this
will increase foodstore sales and em ­
ployment. However, employm ent is
not expected to increase as rapidly as
foodstore sales because technologi­
cal innovations will increase em ploy­
ee productivity. For example, com ­
puter assisted checkout systems now
are being used in some stores as re­

placem ents for cash registers. An op­
tical or magnetic scanner transm its
the code num ber (Universal Product
C ode—UPC) of each purchase to a
com puter that is program m ed to rec­
ord a description and the price of the
item, add the tax, and print out a
receipt. The com puter can improve
w arehouse productivity by keeping
track o f the sto re ’s inventory and
placing orders with the w arehouse
when needed. The developm ent of
scales fo r w eighing and sim u lta ­
neously marking m eat and produce
with UPC should assist the diffusion
of the system. However, the high cost
of electronic registers and tom puters
and controversy among labor, co n ­
sumer, and industry groups may slow
adoption of the system. A nother in­
novation likely to affect future em ­
ploym ent growth is central cutting
and packaging of m eat and poultry.
As these practices becom es m ore
widespread, growth may be slowed
for many workers, including cashiers
and other clerks, m eatcutters, meatw rap p ers, and m a te ria l h an d lers.
Overall, however, em ploym ent is ex­
pected to rise and many workers will
be hired as additional superm arkets
are built to keep up with the develop­
m ent of new communities.
Persons with college backgrounds
in business adm inistration, m arket­
ing, and related disciplines, and p ar­
ticularly graduates o f food industry

OCCUPATIONS IN RETAIL FOODSTORES

m anagem ent cu rricu lum s, are ex­
pected to have the best opportunities
for managerial, sales, research, plan­
ning, and other professional positons.
The outlook for part-tim e jobs as
cashiers and stock clerks is very
good. Large numbers of foodstore
employees are students who are sup­
plem enting their incom e while a t­
ten d in g school. A fter com pleting
school, many leave for jobs in other
industries. Other part-tim e employ­
ees also may work only for short pe­
riods. As a result, there are many
part-time job opportunities that fre­
quently can lead to full-time jobs.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Earnings of nonsupervisory work­
ers in foodstores are among the high­
est in retail trade. In 1976, they aver­
aged $4.31 an hour, com pared with
$3.55 an hour for nonsupervisory
workers in retail stores as a whole.
Earnings vary considerably by oc­
cupation. Based on a 1975 Bureau of
L abor Statistics Survey of grocery
stores, average hourly wages for all
workers were $5.19; head cashiers,
$5. 78; o t h e r f ul l - t i me c a s h ie rs ,
$5.32; part-tim e cashiers, $4.31; bag­
gers, $2.87; head g rocery clerks,
$6.13; other full-time grocery clerks,
$5 .3 3 ; pa r t - t i me g ro c e ry clerk s,
$4.40; head m eatcutters $7.11; first
m e a tc u tte rs, $6.73; jo u rn e y level
m eatcutters, $6.50; m eat wrappers,
$5.06; head dairy clerks, $5.59; head
produce clerks, $6.13; o th er full­
time produce clerks, $5.21; and mis­




755

cellaneous full-tim e day Stockers,
$5.09.
Earnings tend to be highest in large
stores in m etropolitan areas; they are
highest in the North C entral region
and the West and lowest in the
South. Employees generally receive
health insurance, annual and sick
leave, pension benefits, and other
benefits usually available to workers
in other industries.
Based on limited information,
m anagem ent and sales trainees gen­
erally earn starting salaries in excess
of $10,000 a year. Experienced m an­
agers may earn considerably more
than this. As is the case with other
retail foodstore employees, m anage­
rial salaries usually are highest in
large stores in m etropolitan areas.
Research and planning positons gen­
erally pay considerably m ore than
m anagem ent or sales trainee jobs.
Almost all foodstore employees
must be able to stand for several
hours at a time. Stock clerks must be
capable o f lifting cases of m erchan­
dise which weigh up to 50 pounds,
and m e a tc u tte rs mus t be ca refu l
when handling knives and using m a­
chinery, such as electric saws. Be­
cause they frequently work in refrig­
erated rooms, m eatcutters also must
be able to tolerate low tem peratures
(35 to 50 degrees fahrenheit). The
frequency and severity of injuries in
retail foodstores have been consider­
ably higher than the average for all
wholesale and retail trade.
M anagers may work long hours,
often staying after regular store

hours to check work schedules, plan
merchandising strategy, take inven­
tory, or do paperw ork. Successful
store operation often depends on the
m anager’s ability to delegate respon­
sibility to assistants who run the store
in his or her absence and to be re­
sponsive to custom ers’ needs.
Many foodstore employees are
union members. Employees in the
m eat departm ent may be represented
by the Am algamated M eat C utters
and Butcher W orkmen of North
America. O ther employees in the
store may belong to the Retail Clerks
International Association; some may
belong to the International B rother­
h o o d o f T e a m ste rs, Chauf f e ur s ,
W a r e h o u s e m e n , a n d He l pe r s of
A m e r i c a ( I n d . ) , or t he Ret a i l ,
W holesale, and D epartm ent Store
Union.

Sources of Additional
Information
Details about em ploym ent oppor­
tu n itie s are availab le from local
foodstores and the local office of the
State em ploym ent service. For addi­
tional information on some specific
occupations in the industry, see sepa­
ra te sta te m e n ts elsew here in the
Handbook.
For additional information on ca­
reers in the retail foodstore industry,
write to:
National Association of Retail Grocers, P.O.
Box 17412, Washington, D.C. 20041.

FINANCE, INSURANCE, AND REAL ESTATE
Nearly every individual and o r­
ganization uses services that the fi­
nan ce, in su ran ce, and real estate
industry provides. Financial institu­

tions— banks, savings and loan com ­
panies, consum er cred it organiza­
tio n s, an d o th e rs —o ffer serv ices
ranging from checking and savings

Finance, insurance, and real estate, 1976

The occupational composition of employment in the
finance, insurance and real estate industries differs
greatly from each other and from the economy­
wide average

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics


756


accounts to the handling of stock and
bond transactions. Insurance com pa­
nies provide protection against losses
caused by fire, accident, sickness,
and death. Real estate firms serve as
agents in the sale or rental of build­
ings and property, and often manage
large offices and apartm ents.
In 1976, more than 4.3 million p er­
sons worked in the field of finance,
insurance, and real estate. Finance
alone em ployed close to 2 million
persons; another 1.5 million worked
in the insurance industry. The re­
m ainder, nearly 1 million, held jobs
in real estate.
The overwhelming majority of
these jobs are white collar. Clerical
workers alone make up a large p er­
centage of total em ploym ent. Many
clerical workers have jobs that are
unique to particular industries, such
as bank tellers in financial institu­
tions and claim representatives in in­
s u ra n c e co m p a n ie s. O th e r larg e
clerical occupations include secre­
tary, typist, bookkeeper, and office
m achine o p e ra to r—jo b s found in
nearly all industries. Sales workers
also constitute a sizable portion of
the work force. M ost of these are
insurance and real estate agents and
brokers. A relatively small num ber of
sales workers sell stocks and bonds.
M anagers and officials—bank offi­
cers, office managers, and oth ers—
c o n s titu te yet a n o th e r im p o rta n t
co m p o n en t o f em ploym ent, while
professional and technical w orkers—
such as accountants, lawyers, com ­
puter specialists, and financial an a­
lysts— acco u n t for a m uch sm aller
share.
T he ac co m p an y in g c h a rt illu s ­
trates the differences in the occupa­
tional com position of the finance, in­
surance, and real estate industries in
1976. In all three, professional and
technical employees made up a very
small share of the total, while the

FINANCE, INSURANCE, AND REAL ESTATE

Employment in finance, insurance, and real estate
has grown steadily, almost unaffected by economic
fluctuations
Wage and salary workers in finance, insurance, and real estate,
1958-76 and projected 1985
Employees
(in thousands)

Source: Bureau of

proportion o f m anagers exceeded the
average for the entire economy.
E m p lo y m e n t o f sales w o rk e rs,
however, differed greatly among the
three industries. In real estate, for
example, they form ed the largest sin­
gle category, accounting for 40 per­
cent o f total employm ent. This pro­
portion was m ore than 6 times the
average for the econom y as a whole.




In su ran ce co m panies em ployed a
slightly lower, though still very large,
share of sales workers. In finance,
however, sales w orkers m ade up a
m uch sm aller part of total em ploy­
ment.
The situation for clerical occupa­
tions was the reverse o f that for sales
personnel. A relatively small p ropor­
tion of the w orkforce in real estate

757

consisted of clerical workers; in fi­
nance and insurance, the proportion
was m uch higher—about 50 percent.
In the future, population, business
activity, and personal incomes all are
expected to rise, creating a need to
expand both the types of services
offered and the num ber of establish­
ments engaged in finance, insurance,
and real estate. The three industries
are expected to grow at different
rates, however, as shown in the ac­
com panying chart.
Between 1976 and 1985, em ploy­
m ent in both finance and real estate
is expected to grow faster than the
average for all industries, while em ­
ploym ent growth in insurance should
be about as fast as the average. As
the chart indicates, finance will grow
about twice as fast as insurance, with
real estate expanding at a more m od­
erate pace.
O c cu p atio n al grow th rates also
will vary, principally as a result of
changes in technology or ways of
doing business. For example, the in­
c re a s in g use o f d a ta p ro c essin g
should continue to lessen the d e­
mand for workers in routine clerical
and recordkeeping functions while
spurring dem and for workers in com ­
puter occupations.

OCCUPATIONS IN THE BANKING INDUSTRY

Banks have been described as “ d e­
partm ent stores o f fin ance” because
they offer a variety o f services rang­
ing fro m in d iv id u al ch e ck in g a c ­
counts to letters o f credit for financ­
ing w orld trad e . B anks safeguard
m o n ey a n d v alu ab les; a d m in iste r
trusts and personal estates; and lend
m oney to business, educational, reli­
gious, and other organizations. They
lend m oney to individuals to p u r­
c h a s e h o m e s , a u to m o b ile s , a n d
household items, and to cover unex­
pected financial needs. Banks co n ­
tinually adapt their services to m eet
th e ir c u s to m e rs ’ needs. In re c e n t
years, for exam ple, they have offered
revolving credit plans, charge cards,
accounting and billing services, and
m oney m anagem ent counseling.

Banks and Their Workers
Banks em ployed approxim ately
1.2 million w orkers in 1976. M ost

bank em ployees work in com m ercial
banks, which offer a wide variety o f
services. O thers work in m utual sav­
ings banks, which offer m ore limited
services—mainly savings deposit ac­
counts, m ortgage loans, safe-deposit
rentals, tru st m anagem ent, m oney
orders, travelers’ checks, and pass­
book loans. Still others work in the
12 Federal Reserve Banks (o r “ bank­
ers’ banks” ) and their 24 branches as
well as in foreign exchange firm s,
clearing house associations (w here
banks exchange checks and other p a­
p er), check cashing agencies, and
other related organizations. In addi­
tion, nearly 500,000 people in 1976
perform ed sim ilar w ork in savings
and loan associations, credit unions,
m ortgage brokerage firms, and other
nonbank credit agencies.
In 1976, com m ercial banks p ro ­
cessed about 25 billion checks and
handled an enorm ous am ount o f p a­

perw ork. Clerical workers accounted
for nearly two-thirds o f all bank em ­
ployees. Many tellers or clerks p ro ­
cess the thousands o f deposit slips,
checks, and o th er docum ents th at
banks handle daily. Banks also em ­
ploy m any se c re ta rie s, s te n o g ra ­
phers, typists, telephone operators,
and receptionists.
Bank officers and m anagers consti­
tute a large portion o f em ploym ent in
the banking industry. Approxim ately
1 out of 4 em ployees is an officer—a
president, vice president, treasurer,
com ptroller, branch m anager, loan
officer, personnel officer, or oth er
official. Professional and technical
occupations, which m ake up a small­
er segm ent o f em ploym ent, include
accountants, lawyers, labor relations
workers, com puter program m ers and
system s analysts, eco n o m ists an d
public relations specialists. Banks,
like o th er institutions, also em ploy
guards, elevator operators, and oth er
service workers.
T hree large occupational catego­
ries in banking—officers and m anag­
e rs, te lle rs , an d c le r k s —are d e ­
s c r ib e d in s e p a r a t e s ta te m e n ts
elsewhere in the Handbook.

Places of Employment
In 1976, there were over 15,000
com m ercial and m utual savings
banks in the U nited States. (Individ­
ual b ra n c h e s n u m b e re d a p p ro x i­
m ately 50,000, but hiring usually
takes place only at the main offices.)
Bank em ploym ent is concentrated in
a relatively small num ber o f very
large banks. In 1976, for example,
alm ost two-thirds o f all com m ercial
bank em ployees worked in the N a­
tio n ’s 800 largest com m ercial banks;
less than 6 percent were employed by
th e 6 ,0 0 0 s m a lle s t c o m m e rc ia l
banks.
M ost bank employees work in
heavily populated States, such as
New Y ork, California, Illinois, P enn­
sylvania, and Texas. New York City,
the financial capital o f the N ation,
has far m ore bank workers than any
other city.

Training and Advancement

About 25 billion checks are processed yearly.
Digitized5for FRASER
7 8


Professional and m anagerial bank
workers usually have com pleted col­
lege; m ost tellers and clerks have fin-

OCCUPATIONS IN THE BANKING INDUSTRY

Bank officers and managers account for about 1 out of 4 bank employees.

ished high school; guards and build­
ing service personnel may have less
than a high school education.
Most new employees receive some
form of in-service bank training.
Banks also provide other opportuni­
ties for w orkers to b ro ad en their
knowledge and skills. Many banks
encourage em ployees to take courses
at local colleges and universities. In
addition, banking associations spon­




sor a num ber of program s, som e­
times in cooperation with colleges
and u n iv e rsitie s. T h e A m e ric a n
Bankers A ssociation (ABA) offers
the most extensive national program
for bank officers. Each of its dozen
schools located all over the country
deals with a different phase of bank­
ing. Officers attend annual sessions
of one or two weeks and receive d e­
grees after one to three years in areas

759

such as commercial lending, install­
m ent credit, and international bank­
ing. ABA also sponsors annual semi­
nars and conferences and provides
textbooks and other educational m a­
terials. Many banks pay all or part of
the costs for those who successfully
com plete courses.
Support personnel can prepare for
better jobs through courses offered
by the American Institute of Banking
(AIB), an arm of the ABA. The
Institute, which has over 400 chap­
ters in cities across the country and
numerous study groups in small com ­
munities, also offers correspondence
study and assists local banks in con­
ducting co o p erativ e training p ro ­
grams. The great majority of banks
use AIB facilities; many banks use
other training sources as well.
Salary practices in banks resemble
those in many other industries. Most
banks review a new em ployee’s sal­
ary twice during the first year. T here­
after, employees generally are con­
sidered for a salary increase once a
year. In addition to salary, many
banks provide com pensation as an
incentive to outstanding perfo rm ­
ance, such as selling services or in­
creasing deposits. The employee usu­
ally receives this com pensation as an
immediate or yearend bonus.
Bank employees should enjoy
working with numbers and should be
able to handle large am ounts of m on­
ey. T hey should p re se n t a good
image to customers. Often bank offi­
cials are encouraged to participate in
community activities.

Employment Outlook
Banks should continue to be a m a­
jor source of job opportunities in of­
fice occupations. Banking em ploy­
ment is expected to rise faster than
the average for all industries through
the m id-1980’s. New jobs resulting
from employm ent growth, as well as
those that arise as employees retire,
die, or stop working for other rea­
sons, are expected to account for
tens of thousands of openings each
year. M o reo v er, m ost entry-level
openings should be open to all quali­
fied candidates. While a friend’s re­
ferral may help the applicant get his
or her foot in the door, especially in
smaller establishm ents, most banks

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

760

rely upon walk-in applicants as their
single largest source of new person­
nel.
Most openings occur at the clerical
level. High turnover among tellers
should result in num erous job open­
ings. Particularly strong dem and is
ex p ected for office m achine and
com puter operators.
Two kinds of opportunities exist
for the college graduate: As trainees
for officer or managerial positions,
and as professional personnel such as
accountants, auditors, statisticians,
com puter program mers, and systems
analysts.
A growth in bank facilities and a
rise in population, sales, and incomes
will result in more financial transac­
tions. Jobs also will be created as
banks continue to improve and ex­
pand services such as bank charge
cards and the handling of accounts
for retail stores. As banks strive to
bring these and other services closer
to suburban areas, branch banks will
grow in num ber and provide addi­
tional em ploym ent opportunities.
The continued conversion to elec­
tronic data processing may lessen d e­
mand for some bank workers, despite
the expected increase in bank servic­
es. The effect of this developm ent
will vary by occupation, as indicated
in the statem ents on specific banking
occupations elsewhere in the Hand­
book.
Bank employees are less likely to
be laid off during periods of low
business activity than workers in
many other fields. Even when a bank




is sold or merged, workers seldom
lose their jobs. Bank officials usually
reduce em ploym ent, when n e c e s­
sary, by not replacing employees who
leave their jobs.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
In addition to salaries, bank w ork­
ers generally receive liberal fringe
benefits. For exam ple, most banks
have some type of profit-sharing or
bonus plan. Group plans that provide
life insurance, hospitalization, surgi­
cal benefits, and retirem ent income
are com m on. Sometimes free check­
ing accounts or safe-deposit boxes
also are provided. These fringe bene­
fits, along with job stability, may
com pensate for the fact that banking
salaries tend to be lower than those
paid for com parable positions in o th ­
er industries.
The workweek in banks is general­
ly 40 hours or less; in a few localities,
a workweek of 35 hours is common.
Tellers and some other em ployees
may work at least one evening a
week when banks remain open for
business. C ertain check processors
and operators of com puting equip­
ment may work on evening shifts.

Sources of Additional
Information
G eneral information about bank­
ing occupations, training opportuni­
ties, and the banking industry itself is
available from:

American Bankers Association, Bank Person­
nel Division, 1120 Connecticut Ave.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.
National Association of Bank Women, Inc.,
National Office, 111 E. Wacker Dr., Chi­
cago, 11 . 60601.
1
National Bankers Association, 4310 Georgia
Ave. NW., Washington, D.C. 20011.

For information about career op­
portunities as a bank examiner, co n ­
tact:
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Di­
rector of Personnel, 550 17th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20429.

Inform ation on careers with the
Federal Reserve System is available
from:
Board of Governors, The Federal Reserve
System, Personnel Department, Washing­
ton, D.C. 20551 or from the personnel
department of the Federal Reserve bank
serving each geographic area.

S tate b a n k e rs’ associations can
furnish specific inform ation ab out
job opportunities. Writing directly to
a particular bank to inquire about job
openings also can produce favorable
results. For the names and addresses
of banks in a specific location as well
as the names of their principal offi­
cers, consult one of the following di­
rectories, which are published twice
each year:
The American Bank Directory, (Norcross, McFadden Business Publications).
Bankers Directory—The Banker's Blue Book,
(Chicago, Rand McNally International).
Polk's World Bank Directory, (Nashville, R.L.
Polk & Co.).

OCCUPATIONS IN THE
INSURANCE INDUSTRY

T h e in s u ra n c e in d u stry o ffe rs
m any e m p lo y m e n t o p p o rtu n itie s
both for recent high school and col­
lege graduates and for experienced
workers.
The 1,800 life and 2,800 propertyliability (also called casualty) insur­
ance com panies do business in home
and regional offices and also in thou­
sands o f sales offices throughout the
country.

Nature of the Business
T here are three m ajor types o f
insurance:
life, property-liability,
and health. Some com panies special­
ize in only one type; a growing num ­
ber o f large insurers now offer sever­
al lines o f insurance. For example,
several life insurance carriers can
now offer their policyholders protec­
tion for their homes and cars; at the
sam e tim e, m ajor property-liability
com panies sell life insurance poli­
cies. M any insurance com panies also
offer m utual fund shares and variable
annuities as ad d itional investm ent
choices for their custom ers.
Life insurance com panies sell poli­
cies th at provide benefits to survivors
upon the death o f the insured. Some
life insurance policies also provide
policyholders with a steady incom e
when they reach retirem ent age o r if
they becom e disabled; policies may
be designed to help provide funds to
edu cate children when they reach
college age, or give extra financial
p ro te c tio n while th e ch ild ren are
young. Life insurance policies also
may be used to pro tect business in­
terests and to g uarantee em ployee
benefits. Property-liability insurance
provides policyholders with protec­
tion against loss o r dam age to their
property, and protects them from fi­
nancial responsibility for injuries to
others o r dam age to other people’s
property. It covers hazards such as



fire, theft, and windstorm, as well as
w o rk e rs’ co m pensation and o th e r
claims. Most life and property liabil­
ity c o m p a n ie s sell a c c id e n t an d
health insurance, which helps pol­
icyholders pay medical expenses, and
may furnish other benefits for an in­
jury or illness.
An increasing num ber o f insurance
policies cover groups ranging from a
few individuals to many thousands.
These policies usually are issued to
em ployers for the benefit o f their
employees. Most com m on are group
life and health plans, although the
num ber of group autom obile and
hom eow ner policies is growing rapid­
ly. In 1976, group life insurance p ro ­
tected about 75 million persons; the
num ber of policies was about 60 p er­
cent higher than the num ber 10 years
earlier.

Insurance Workers
A bout 1.6 million people worked
in the insurance business in 1976.

The majority were in clerical and
sales jobs. (See accompanying
c h a rt.)
Nearly half of all insurance work­
ers have clerical jobs; only the bank­
ing industry has a larger proportion
of employees doing clerical work. In
insurance, clerical workers keep rec­
ords of prem ium payments, services,
and benefits paid to policyholders.
Most are secretaries, stenographers,
typists, statistical clerks, office m a­
chine o p erato rs, or general office
clerks. They do work similar to that
of their counterparts in other busi­
nesses.
O ther clerical workers have posi­
tions of greater responsibility that re­
quire extensive knowledge of some
phase o f insurance. They include
claim adjusters (D.O.T. 241.168) and
claim examiners (D .O .T. 249.268)
who decide whether claims are cov­
ered by the policy, see that paym ent
is made, and, when necessary, inves­
tigate the circum stances surrounding
the claim . (See the statem en t on
Claim R epresentatives elsewhere in
the Handbook.)
Nearly one-third o f all insurance
em ployees are sales workers—chiefly
agents and brokers who sell policies
to individuals and business firms.
Agents and brokers (D.O.T. 250.258)
usually find their own customers or
“ prospects,” and see that each policy
they sell m eets the individual needs

Nearly half of all insurance workers have clerical jobs.
761

762

of the policyholder. (See the state­
ment on insurance agents and brok­
ers elsewhere in the Handbook.)
About one out of eight insurance
workers has a managerial job. M an­
agers o f local sales offices often
spend part of their time selling. O th­
ers, who work in home offices, are in
charge of departm ents such as actu­
arial calculations, policy issuance,
accounting, and investments.
Professionals, employed mainly at
home offices, represent about 1 out
of 15 insurance workers. These spe­
cialists, who work closely with insur­
ance com pany m anagers, study in­
surance risks and coverage problem s,
analyze investment possibilities, pre­
pare financial reports, and do other
professional work. Among them is
the actuary (D.O.T. 020.188) whose
job is unique to the insurance field.
Actuaries make studies of the proba­
bility of an insured loss and deter­
mine premium rates. (See the state­
ment on actuaries elsewhere in the
Handbook.) Another specialist is the
underwriter (D.O.T. 169.188), who
evaluates insurance applications to
determ ine the risk involved in issuing
a policy. Underwriters decide w heth­
er to accept or reject the application;
they also determ ine which premium
rate should apply for each policy is­
sued. (See the statem ent on under­
writers elsewhere in the Handbook.)
O ther professional employees do
essentially the same work in insur­
ance com panies as in other business­
es. A ccountants, for example, ana­
lyze insurance com pany records and
financial problem s relating to prem i­
ums, investments, paym ents to pol­
icyholders, and other aspects of the
business. Safety engineers, fire pro­
tection engineers, and industrial hy­
gienists in casualty com panies con­
sult with industrial and commercial
policyholders on m atters concerning
the health and safety of their employ­
ees. (See the statem ent on occupa­
tional safety and health workers else­
where in the Handbook.) Lawyers
interpret the regulations that apply to
insurance com pany operations and
handle the settlem ent of some insur­
ance claim s. In v e stm en t analysts
evaluate real estate m ortgages and
new issues o f bonds and other securi­
 in v estm ents held by
ties, analyze


OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

As more computers are installed to pro­
cess insurance records, an increasing
number of data processing specialists are
being employed.

their com panies, and recom m end
when to hold, buy, or sell. As more
com puters are installed to process in­
surance records, an increasing num ­
ber of program m ers, systems a n a­
lysts, and o th e r d a ta p ro c essin g
specialists are being employed. Most
com panies also employ public rela­
tions, sales prom otion, and advertis­
ing specialists.
Insurance com panies require the
same kinds of custodial and m ainte­
nance work as other large organiza­
tions. A bout 1 out of 45 workers in
the in su ra n c e b u sin ess p e rfo rm s
these duties.

Places of Employment
Insurance company home and re ­
gional offices generally are located
near large urban centers. Nearly onehalf of all persons em ployed in these
large offices work in seven States:
New York, California, Illinois, Texas,
Pennsylvania, Ohio, and M assachu­
setts. Insurance workers who deal di­
rectly with the public—sales person­
nel and claim adjusters—are located
throughout the country. Almost all
insurance agents and brokers work
out of local company offices or in­
dependent agencies. Many claim ad ­
justers work in independent firms lo­
c a te d in sm all c itie s and tow ns
th ro u g h o u t the country. C om pany
operated drive-in claim centers are

lo c a te d in m any m e d iu m -s iz e d
towns.
A bout half of all insurance em ­
ployees work in life com panies and
agencies. Included in this group are
som e very large co m p an ie s w ith
thousands of employees; nearly onethird o f life com pany w orkers are
em ployed in firm s o f m ore than
1,000 people. Property-liability com ­
pan ies, alth o u g h m ore n u m ero u s
than life insurance com panies, gener­
ally have fewer workers; fewer than
one in five of those employed in ca­
sualty companies work in establish­
ments of 1,000 or more. Most local
agencies and sales offices are rela­
tively small, regardless of the types of
insurance handled. About 60 percent
of these offices employed fewer than
20 persons.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Insurance offers job opportunities
for people with different educational
backgrounds and talents. Some posi­
tions require specific college train ­
ing; others can be filled by workers
with limited academ ic training and
few skills.
G raduation from high school or
business school is enough training for
most beginning clerical jobs. Courses
in typing and business m ath are as­
sets; the ability to operate office m a­
chines also is helpful. These and o th ­
er sp e c ia l sk ills h e lp b e g in n e rs
advance to more responsible jobs.
Jobs in engineering, accounting,
and other professional fields general­
ly require the same kinds of college
training here as in other businesses.
College-trained people also are p re­
fe rre d fo r m a n a g e ria l p o sitio n s ,
many of which are filled by prom o­
tion from within.
In all work requiring contact with
the public, em ployees should have a
pleasant disposition and an outgoing
personality. Those in frequent co n ­
ta c t with policyholders should be
able to inspire confidence in their
ability to protect the custom er’s in­
terests. Because insurance com p a­
nies often encourage their m anagers
and adm inistrative em ployees to p ar­
ticipate in com m unity organizations,
they should be people who enjoy

763

OCCUPATIONS IN THE INSURANCE INDUSTRY

working with others in a social situ­
ation.
Insurance workers have ample op­
portunity to continue their educa­
tio n . T he In su ra n c e In stitu te o f
A m erica, for ex am ple, has hom e
study courses for claim adjusters,
claim examiners, underw riters, and
sales workers. The Am erican College
of Life U nderw riters, the National
A ssociation of Life U nderw riters,
and the Life U nderw riter Training
Council offer courses that stress the
se rv ic e s a g e n ts p ro v id e to p o l­
icyholders. Other courses, especially
designed to help clerical employees
better understand life insurance, re­
late to the organization and opera­
tion of both home and field offices.
These are given by the Life Office
M anagem ent Association, which also
provides programs for the develop­
ment of supervisors and managers.

Employment Outlook
Employment of insurance workers
is expected to increase about as fast
as the average for all occupations
through the m id-1980’s as the insur­
ance industry continues to expand. In
addition to new jobs that will become
available, thousands of openings will
occur as em ployees die, retire, or
leave their jobs to seek other work.
The expected increase in employ­
ment will result mainly from a grow­
ing volume of insurance business. As
a larger proportion of the population
enters the age group normally associ­
ated with family form ation, higher
in c o m e s, and g r e a te r c o n su m e r
spending, insurance sales should ex­
pand. Sales of life insurance will rise
as the grow ing n u m b er of young
adults attem pt to provide a secure
future for their families. Propertyliability insurance sales should ex­
pand as they buy hom es, cars, and
other item s that require insurance
protection. More business insurance
will be needed as new plants are
built, new equipm ent is installed, and
more goods are shipped throughout
the country and the world. A ddition­
al sales will be generated by a rising
dem and for relatively new services
such as d en tal, prepaid legal, and
kidnap insurance. Furtherm ore, the
growing concern over the health and

safety of industrial workers and con­


Most job openings in the insurance occupations will
be to replace workers who leave
Average annual openings, 1976-85 (in thousands)
Actuaries

Claim representatives

Insurance agents, brokers,
and underwriters

'

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

sumers will spur dem and for men and
women to work in the areas of occu­
pational safety and health, product
liability, and w orkers’ com pensation.
Growth of insurance employm ent,
however, is not expected to keep
pace with the expanding volume of
business for several reasons. Sales
workers are expected to become
more productive as more insurance is
sold through group contracts and
multiple-line policies (those that cov­
er many different risks formerly cov­
ered in separate policies). Although
the total num ber o f clerical jo b s
probably will continue to rise, the
increasing use of com puters to do
routine jobs will lessen the dem and
for many low-skilled clerical w ork­
ers. In addition, State “ no-fault” in­
su ran ce plans should red u ce th e
num ber and complexity of autom o­
bile claims to be adjusted, thus less­
ening the dem and for autom obile
claim adjusters.
The insurance industry has always
been a stable em ployer and most
insurance workers have better pros­
pects of regular em ploym ent than
w orkers in many o th e r industries.
Business people usually regard prop­
erty-liability insurance as a necessity,
both during economic recession and
in boom periods. Individuals who buy
insurance try to provide as much b a­

sic financial protection as possible,
even when their incomes decline.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Earnings of nonsupervisory office
workers in insurance companies av­
eraged $170 a week in 1976, slightly
below the average for all industries.
There were significant differences in
earnings depending upon the type of
insurance com pany. For exam ple,
workers in companies specializing in
accident and health insurance aver­
aged $164 a week, while employees
in life companies earned $167 and
workers in casualty com panies were
paid average weekly salaries of $ 174.
Salary levels in different parts of the
country also vary; earnings are gen­
erally lowest in southern cities and
highest in northeastern and western
m etropolitan areas. W ithin a geo ­
graphic region, salaries usually are
higher in the larger companies.
A 1976 survey of life insurance
companies revealed a wide range of
clerical salaries. File clerks earned
about $117 a week and typists re­
ceived about $124. Executive secre­
taries averaged about $234 and expe­
rienced co m p u ter o p erato rs were
paid average weekly salaries of $220.
Starting salaries for professional
workers are generally com parable to

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

764

those for similar positions in other
businesses. According to information
available from private surveys of life
and property-liability insurance com ­
panies, 1976 college graduates start­
ed at salaries ranging from $8,500 to
$ 1 2 ,0 0 0 a year. S p ecialists with
graduate degrees or several years’ ex­
perience may receive considerably
higher starting salaries. Unlike sala­
ried professional workers, agents and
bro k ers earn com m issions on the
policies they sell. (See the statem ent
on insurance agents and brokers else­
w here in the H andbook.) A nnual
salaries for supervisors in life and
property-liability com panies ranged
from $17,000 to $25,000. Those in
executive positions earned between
$35,000 and $50,000 a year in 1976,




depending upon their area of special­
ization and level of responsibility.
Except for agents and brokers who
sometimes must extend their working
hours to m eet with prospective cli­
ents, insurance com pany employees
w orked an average o f 37 hours a
week in 1976. The num ber of paid
holidays is somewhat greater than in
m any o th e r industries. Tw o-w eek
paid vacations generally are granted
em ployees after 1 year of service; in
most com panies, paid vacations are
extended to 3 weeks after 5 years
and, in som e, to 4 weeks after 10
years. Practically all insurance com ­
pany workers share in group life and
health plans, as well as in retirem ent
pensions.

Sources of Additional
Information
G eneral inform ation on em ploy­
ment opportunities in the insurance
business may be obtained from the
personnel departm ents of major in­
surance com panies or from insur­
ance agencies in local communities.
Other information on careers in
the insurance field is available from:
American Council of Life Insurance, 1850 K
St. NW„ Washington, D.C. 20006.
Insurance Information Institute, 1 10 William
St., New York. N.Y. 10038.
American Mutual Insurance Alliance, 20 N.
Wacker Dr., Chicago, 11 . 60606.
1
National Association of Independent Insurers,
Public Relations Department, 2600 River
Rd., Des Plaines, 111., 60018.

SERVICE AND MISCELLANEOUS INDUSTRIES
An increasing share of our national
wealth is being devoted to services as
a result of greater emphasis on am en­
ities such as health care, education,

Service industries, 1976




and recreation. In many ways, this
trend reflects the country’s goals of a
better and fuller life for all its citi­
zens.

In today’s job m arket, the service
industries are a major source of em ­
ployment, for new workers as well as
experienced ones. They offer job opportunites to people at all levels of
skill, training, and education.
In 1976, nearly 30 million people
worked in service industries. Nearly
one-half were wage and salary work­
ers in private firms, including over 1
million private household workers;
over 13.1 million more were govern­
m ent em ployees (mainly in educa­
tion, health, and public adm inistra­
tio n ); and about 2.3 million were
self-employed.
E d u ca tio n a l services, including
elem entary and secondary schools
and institutions of higher education,
make up the largest sector of the ser­
vice industry, and account for about
one-fourth of its work force. Medical
services, including hospitals, offices
o f physicians, and other establish­
m ents that provide health services,
constitute the next largest sector, and
account for about one-fifth of the
workers. The Postal Service and Fed­
eral, State, and local public adminis­
tration account for about one-sixth
of service workers. O ther service in­
dustries employing many workers are
hotels, laundries, beauty and barber
shops, private households, business
and repair services, welfare and reli­
gious organizations, and en tertain ­
ment.
As shown in the accom panying ta ­
bulation, white-collar workers (p ro ­
fessional, m anagerial, clerical, and
sales w o rk e rs) a c c o u n t for o v er
three-fifths of the service industry’s
em ploym ent. The industry employs
the highest proportion of profession­
al, technical, and kindred workers of
any m ajor industry; these workers ac­
count for about one-third of the in­
dustry’s employment. By far the larg­
est c o n c e n tra tio n o f professional
personnel is represented by teachers
in educational services. O ther major
765

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

766

em ployers of professional w orkers
are m edical and health services—
where doctors, dentists, and nurses
constitute a large share of the work
fo rc e . T h e g o v e rn m e n t em ploys
many professionals in administrative
jobs. Many professionals are self-em­
ployed. Clerical workers account for
about 1 out of 5 service industry em ­
ployees. M ost are stenographers, typ­
ists, secretaries, and office m achine
operators. M anagers, officials, and
proprietors, including health services
ad m inistrators, m ake up less than
one-tenth o f the industry’s em ploy­
ment.
Service workers represent over
one-fourth of the industry’s em ploy­
m ent. Some large service o cc u p a­
tions are private household worker,
practical nurse, hospital attendant,
janito r, w aiter and waitress, cook,
and protective service worker.




Blue-collar workers, mainly skilled
craft workers and semiskilled opera­
tives, constitute only one-tenth of the
industry’s employm ent. Many of the
craft workers are m echanics in auto­
mobile and other repair service in­
dustries, or m aintenance workers in
hotels, schools, and other establish­
m ents. O peratives work mainly in
laundries, auto repair shops, and oth­
er types of repair businesses. Most of
the relatively few laborers in this in­
dustry work in auto repair shops, on
golf courses, and in bowling alleys.
Em ployment in the service indus­
try is expected to increase faster than
the average for all industries through
the m id-1980’s. The growth in the
demand for services is expected to
stem from population grow th, ex­
panding business activity, and rising
personal incomes. Among the fastest

growing segments of the industry will
be hospitals, m edical services, and
com puter software firms.
The im portance of personal co n ­
tact in many service activities tends
to limit the effect o f technological
innovations on em ploym ent require­
m ents. A lth o u g h c o m p u te rs m ay
slow the em ploym ent growth in some
a re a s—for exam ple, in b o o k k ee p ­
ing— technological change is not ex­
pected to significantly limit the total
dem and for w orkers in the service
industry.
The statem ents that follow discuss
job opportunities in the hotel and
laundry and drycleaning industries.
More detailed inform ation about ser­
vices related to occupations that cut
across many industries appears else­
where in the Handbook.

HOTEL OCCUPATIONS

Hotels, motels, and resorts provide
lodgings to suit the needs of every
traveler. Some motels offer inexpen­
sive basic services for those who sim­
ply w ant a co m fo rta b le p lace to
sleep. O ther motels and most hotels
cater to persons who desire more
luxurious surroundings and offer fine
restau ran ts, personal service, and
many recreational facilities that may
in c lu d e sw im m in g p o o ls , g o lf
courses, tennis courts, horseback rid­
ing, game rooms, and health spas.
About 890,000 people worked in this
industry in 1976.
This statem ent gives an overview
of jobs in hotels, motels, and resorts.
Separate Handbook statem ents de­
scribe the work of hotel housekeep­
ers, m anagers, front office clerks,
and bellhops.

The Hotel Business

Hotel Workers

Hotels range in size from those
with only a few rooms and employees
to huge establishments with more
than 1,000 rooms and hundreds of
workers. Many of the motels built in
recent years are fairly large and em ­
ploy many workers, but the economy
motels and most older motels have
relatively small staffs. In fact, some
m otels are run entirely by owners
and their families.
Nearly all hotels and many motels
offer a variety of conveniences for
their guests, including restaurants,
b a n q u e t ro o m s, m eetin g ro o m s,
swimming pools, and gift shops. M o­
tels usually have simple coffee shops,
while hotels often have several res­
taurants and may offer live entertain­

As hotel operations become more
complex, the emphasis on training is
increasing. Demand for persons with
special skills and training at colleges,
junior colleges, technical institutes,
vocational schools, and high schools
is increasing. Also, many employees,
particularly managers, undergo com ­
prehensive on-the-job training p ro ­
grams.
To provide the many services they
offer, hotels and motels employ
workers in a wide variety of occupa­
tions. These usually are classified as
professional, m iddle m anagem ent,
and service and craft occupations.
Professional positions such as gener­
al manager, food and beverage m an­
ager, personnel director, and adm in­
is tra tiv e c h e f g e n e ra lly re q u ire
considerable formal training and job
e x p e rie n c e . M iddle m an ag e m en t
occupations such as auditor, p u r­
chasing agent, executive housekeep­
er, and chef generally require formal
train in g and extensive on-the-jo b
training. Jobs such as bellhop, clean­
er, bartender, and waitress generally
require less training.
Housekeeping is a very im portant
part of the business and more than a
fourth of all workers are concerned
with keeping hotels and motels clean
and attra ctiv e . The housekeeping
staff make beds, provide guests with
fresh linens and tow els, vacuum
rooms and halls, and move furniture.
Linen room attendants and laundry
room workers mark and inspect tow­
els, sheets, and blankets and operate
the washing and pressing machines in
the hotel laundry. Large hotels and
m o tels usually em ploy ex ecu tiv e
h o u se k e e p e rs to su p erv ise th ese
workers and purchase housekeeping
supplies. Some hotels also employ
managers to supervise laundry opera­
tions.
Food service personnel comprise

Some hotel occupations require little or no specialized training.



m ent at night. Hotels and motels in
resort areas often have a wide variety
of recreatio n al facilities including
golf coures, tennis courts, and swim­
ming pools. Large hotels also may
have newsstands, barber and beauty
shops, laundry and valet services,
and theater and airline ticket count­
ers.

767

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

768

the next largest group of hotel work­
ers. These workers include cooks and
chefs, waiters and waitresses, meatcutters, dining room attendants and
dishwashers, food counter workers,
and bartenders who work in the cof­
fee shops and restaurants found in
most motels and hotels. Detailed de­
scriptions o f their duties are found
elsewhere in the Handbook.
H o te l m a n a g ers an d a ssista n ts are

responsible for the profitable opera­
tion of their establishments. They d e­
termine room rates, oversee restau­

rant operations, and supervise the
staff. In smaller hotels and motels a
general m anager perform s all these
tasks, but in large hotels a general
m anager usually has several assis­
tants, each one responsible for a
separate departm ent, such as food
service, sales, or personnel.
Nearly all hotels and motels em ­
ploy clerical workers to take room
reservations, bill guests, and furnish
information. Most of these workers
are fro n t office clerks who g re et
guests, assign room s, handle mail,

Hotel reservation personnel coordinate reservations for all hotels and motels in the

company’s system.


and collect payments. The rem ainder
are cashiers, bookkeepers, telephone
o p e ra to rs , se c re ta rie s, and o th e r
clerical workers, whose jobs in hotels
are much like clerical jobs elsewhere.
Most hotels and some motels em ­
ploy a uniform ed staff to perform
services for guests. This staff includes
bellhops, who carry baggage and es­
cort guests to their rooms; doorkeep­
ers, who help guests out of their cars
or taxis and carry baggage into the
hotel lobby; and elevator operators.
In addition, hotels employ many
other workers who are also found in
other industries. Among these are
accountants, personnel workers, en­
tertainers, and recreation workers.
M aintenance workers, such as ca r­
penters, electricians, stationary engi­
neers, plum bers, and painters, also
work for hotels. Still others include
detectives, barbers, cosm etologists,
valets, gardeners, and parking atten ­
dants. Most of these occupations are
discussed elsewhere in the Handbook.

Employment Outlook
Employment in this industry is ex­
pected to expand m ore slowly than
the average for all industries through
the m id-1980’s. Although new hotels
and motels are expected to be built
to take advantage of in-town, inter­
state highway, or resort locations, de­
sirable sites are becoming scarce and
very expensive. As a result, many
owners are expected to rehabilitate
and modernize existing hotel pro p er­
ties rather than construct new p ro p ­
erties. In addition to openings result­
ing fro m g ro w th , th o u s a n d s o f
workers will be needed each year to
re p la ce those who re tire , die, or
leave the industry.
M ost of the anticipated em ploy­
m ent growth will stem from the need
to staff new hotels and motels. Al­
though em ploym ent is expected to
increase in both luxury and econom y
m otels as Federal expenditures for
highways and o th er tran sp o rtatio n
systems stim ulate travel,both busi­
ness and pleasure travel are sensitive
to econom ic and business conditions.
More hotels are adding facilities and
services for recreation in an effort to
attract greater num bers of travelers,
particularly from nearby areas. O lder
hotels unable to m odernize are likely

769

HOTEL OCCUPATIONS

to experience low occupancy rates
that may force them to reduce costs
by elim inating some services and
workers. M eanwhile, thousands of
tem porary jobs will continue to be
available each year in resort hotels
and motels that are open only part of
the year.
Most of the job openings in hotels
and motels will be for workers who
need limited training, such as clean­
ers, porters, and some dining room
employees. Large num bers of jobs
will be available for front office staff,
but opportunities may be limited by
the increasing use of com puter reser­
vation systems in hotel and m otel
chains.
Opportunities may be particularly
favorable for persons with training or
experience as cooks and chefs or as
food managers.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Earnings of hotel workers depend
on the location, size, and type of the
hotel in which they work. Large lux­
ury hotels and those located in m et­
ropolitan and resort areas generally
pay their employees more than less
expensive hotels and those located in
less p o p u lated areas. W orkers in
some occupations receive tips in ad­
dition to wages that add substantially
to th e ir incom e. N o nsupervisory
workers in the hotel industry aver­
aged $3.03 an hour in 1976, exclud­
ing tips—com pared to $4.87 an hour
for all nonsupervisory workers in pri­
vate industry, except farming. About
three-fourths of all hotel workers are
covered by Federal and State mini­
mum wage laws; in 1976, workers
covered by these laws earned at least
$2.20 an hour.
Salaries of hotel managers and as­
sistants are particularly dependent
upon the size and sales volume of the
hotel, and vary greatly because of
differences in duties and responsibil­




ities. Hotel m anager trainees who are
graduates of specialized college pro­
gram s g en e ra lly s ta rt a t a ro u n d
$10,000 a year and usually are given
periodic increases for the first year or
tw o. E x p e rie n c e d m an ag ers may
earn several times as much as begin­
ners. For example, salaries of hotel
general managers ranged from about
$16,000 to $50,000 a year in late
1975, according to a survey conduct­
ed by the American Hotel and Motel
Association. Hotel food and bever­
age m anagers earn ed from about
$12,000 to $30,000 and executive
housekeepers from about $7,000 to
over $20,000. M anagers may earn
bonuses ranging from 10 to 20 per­
cent of basic salary in some hotels. In
addition to salary, hotels customarily
furnish managers and their families
w ith lodging in the hotel, m eals,
parking facilities, laundry, and other
services.
The Am erican Hotel and Motel
Association also publishes wage data
taken from union contracts of hotels
and motels in m ajor U.S. cities.
Hourly rates during 1976 varied
widely from city to city. Bellhops
earned from $ 1.34 to $2.52 per hour,
cleaners from $2.17 to $4.22, laun­
dry w orkers from $2.25 to $4.52,
b a rte n d e rs from $2.48 to $ 5.85,
waiters and waitressess from $1.38 to
$3.05, elevator operators from $2.19
to $4.65, telephone operators from
$2.40 to $4.64, and m aintenance
workers from $2.36 to $5.30. Tips,
which represent a significant source
of income for many employees, are
not included in these data.
Since hotels are open continuous­
ly, employees must work on shifts.
Fewer employees work at night than
during the day; those who work on
night shifts often receive additional
com pensation. M anagers and house­
keepers who live in the hotel usually
have regular work schedules, but
may be called for work at any time.

Food service personnel may re­
ceive extra pay for banquets and
o th er special occasions and com ­
monly receive meals. In some hotels,
cleaners, elevator operators, room
clerks, and others also receive meals.
Most employees receive 5 to 10 paid
holidays a year, paid vacations, sick
leave, life insuance, medical benefits,
and pension plans. Some hotels offer
bonuses, profit sharing plans, educa­
tional assistance, and other benefits
to their employees.
The Hotel and R estaurant Employ­
ees and B arten d ers In tern atio n al
Union is the major union in the hotel
business. Some hotel w orkers, in­
cluding bellhops, porters, cleaners,
cooks, ho u sek eep ers, w aiters and
waitresses, m aintenance engineers,
elevator operators, guards, door at­
tendants, gardeners, laundry w ork­
ers, and others are members of the
S ervice E m p lo y ees’ In te rn a tio n a l
Union.

Sources of Additional
Information
Information on careers and schol­
arships in the lodging industry may
be obtained from:
The Educational Institute of the American
Hotel and Motel Association, 1407 S.
Harrison Rd., East Lansing, Mich. 48823.

For a directory of colleges and o th ­
er schools offering program s and
co u rses in h o sp itality e d u c a tio n ,
write to:
Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institution­
al Education, 11 Roger Executive Center,
Suite 219, Norfolk, Va. 23502.

Information on careers in house­
keeping and a list of schools offering
programs in institutional housekeep­
ing m anagem ent is available from:
National Executive Housekeepers A ssoci­
ation, Inc., Business and Professional
Building, 414 Second Ave., Gallipolis,
Ohio 45631.

OCCUPATIONS IN LAUNDRY AND
DRYCLEANING PLANTS

In 1976, approxim ately 418,000
persons were employed by establish­
ments that launder and dryclean gar­
ments, household furnishings, and in­
s titu tio n a l lin en s and u n ifo rm s.
T h e s e w o rk e rs w e re e m p lo y e d
th ro u g h o u t the co untry, but were
concentrated in m etropolitan areas.
Drycleaning firms and laundries
accounted for about three-fourths of
the industry’s workers. Most of the
rem ainder worked for firms that spe­
cialized in renting and cleaning uni­
forms, towels, diapers, and other lin­
e n s . A sm a ll p r o p o r ti o n w e re
employed in valet shops.
More than half of the industry’s
em ploym ent is found in firms that
have 20 employees or more. Most
firms, however, are ow ner-operated
and have fewer than 10 employees.
In 1976, about one-seventh of the
in d u s try ’s w o rk ers w ere self-em ­
ployed.

Nature of the Work
One way to describe the work
done in this industry is to follow an
imaginary bundle of clothes from the
time it leaves the custom er until it is
cleaned and returned. (See accom ­
panying chart.) The bundle consists
of some m en’s shirts, a business suit,
an d b ed lin e n s. A ro u te d riv e r
(D.O.T. 292.358) picks up the bun­
dle and, after leaving a receipt, takes
the bundle to the plant.
The owner of the bundle may in­
stead leave it at the plant or drive-up
store. In this case, a counter clerk
(D.O.T. 369.887) m akes out a re ­
ceipt. Either the route driver or the
counter clerk sorts the items in the
bundle into laundry and drycleaning.
The bundle is turned over to a
marker (D.O.T. 369.887), who puts
an identifying symbol on each item
so it may be m atched with the cus­
to m er’s receipt at some later time.

How work flows through a laundry and drycleaning plant

770



The m arker then sends the shirts and
sheets to the washroom and the suit
to the drycleaning room.
A
machine
washer
(D.O.T.
361.885)
puts several hundred
pounds o f sheets into a huge washing
machine. Shirts are loaded into an­
other washer. These m achines are
controlled autom atically, but the m a­
chine washer must understand how
to operate the controls—w ater tem ­
perature, suds level, time cycles, and
the am ount of agitation for different
fabrics. When the washing cycle is
com pleted, the laundry is transferred
to an extractor that removes about
half of the water. This stage is similar
to the “ spin” cycle on a home wash­
er. Conveyors move the laundry to
c o n d itio n e rs, d ry ers, or tu m b lers
where dry, heated air removes some
of the remaining moisture.
Sheets go from the drying area to
jlatwork finishers (D.O.T. 363.886),
who shake out folds and creases,
spread the sheets on moving belts,
and feed them into large flatwork
ironing m achines for ironing and p ar­
tial folding. W hen the sheets come
out of the m achine, other finishers
com plete the folding and stacking.
Shirts go directly from the extrac­
t o r to s h ir t f i n is h e r s ( D .O .T .
363.782) , who usually work in team s
of two or three. One finisher puts the
sleeves of the shirt on a “ sleever,”
which has two armlike forms. A sec­
ond finisher then puts the shirt on a
“ trip le -h e a d ” press th at irons the
front and back sim ultaneously. In
some plants, the first finisher either
folds the shirt or places it on a hang­
er, whichever the custom er has indi­
cated. A third finisher may do the
folding. In some laundries, one shirt
finisher perform s all these o p e ra ­
tions.
The jobs of the drycleaner (D.O.T.
362.782)
and
machine
washer
(D.O.T. 361.885) are similar, but the
cleaning solution for drycleaning is a
chemical solvent instead of water,
and drycleaning m achines generally
are smaller than the laundry washers.
The drycleaner sorts clothes acco rd ­
ing to color, fiber content, and fabric
construction and selects the proper
time cycle for each load. The dry­
cleaner may apply special prespot­
ting solutions to spots and stains be­
fore placin g the g arm e n ts in the

OCCUPATIONS IN LAUNDRY AND DRYCLEANING PLANTS

771

ords, handle co rresp o n d en ce, and
prepare bills. Sales personnel search
for new customers. M echanics keep
equipm ent and machinery operating
p ro p e rly . Som e serv ic e w o rk ers
clean, guard, and otherwise maintain
the plant; others plan and serve food
to plantw orkers. L aborers lift and
c a rry heavy lo ad s to m a c h in e s.
(Many of these occupations are dis­
cussed elsewhere in the Handbook.)

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Ratwork finishers shake out folds and creases, spread the sheets on moving belts, and
feed them into large flatwork ironing machines.

drycleaning machine. After cleaning,
a special machine removes the sol­
vent and then the clothes are dried in
a tum bler or hot-air cabinet. The
spotter (D .O .T . 362.381 ) will use
chemical reagents and steam to re­
move stubborn stains. In some plants,
the same person does drycleaning
and spotting.
If the clothes are made of a m ateri­
al that sheds wrinkles readily, the fin­
isher places them on hangers and
puts them in a steam tunnel or steam
cabinet. The steam will remove the
wrinkles and help the garm ent regain
its shape.
Some clothes, such as m en’s suits,
are made out of fabrics that require
more attention; they are finished dif­
fe r e n tly . A m e n 's s u it fin is h e r
(D.O.T. 363.782) puts the pants on
special “ to p p er” and “ legger” press­
es. The jack et is placed on a body
form that may have a second part
that comes down to press and shape
the shoulders and collar of the jacket
while the steam is forced from the
inside. Final finishing touches are
done on a steam -h e ated pressing
head and “ b uck,” a flat surface cov­
ered in fabric.
An inspector (D .O .T . 369.6 8 7 )
checks finished items to see that the
quality standards of the plant have
been maintained. Any item in need
of recleaning or refinishing may be
returned to the appropriate depart­
m ent; o ccasio n ally , th e in sp ecto r
works on them instead. Repair work
 rw a rd e d to a m ender
m ay be fo


(D.O.T. 782.884), who sews on but­
tons, mends tears, and resews seams.
Finally, assemblers (D.O.T. 369.687)
c o lle c t th e lin en s an d sh irts by
matching the sales invoice with the
identification marks. Assemblers or
baggers (D .O .T. 920.887) may re ­
move tags before putting the items in
bags or boxes for storage until called
for by the custom er or delivered by
the route driver.
In addition to workers who are
unique to laundry and drycleaning
plants, many other workers are found
in this industry. The m anager or pro­
prietor sees that the plant operates
efficiently. Office workers keep rec-

Some clothes are made of fabrics that
require special attention.

Many workers in this industry get
their first jobs without previous train­
ing. Persons who have little formal
education can get production line
jo b s in drycleaning plants. Basic
laundry and drycleaning skills may
be learned on the job in a short time.
Some jobs, such as folding towels and
feeding pillowcases and sheets into a
flatwork ironer, may require 1 or 2
days to learn. Some finishing jobs—
pants presser, or shirt finisher, for
exam ple — may require less than a
week’s training. O ther jobs, such as
counter clerk, m arker, inspector, and
a s s e m b le r, m ay r e q u ir e se v e ra l
weeks to learn. Several months or
m ore are needed to train a drycleaner or wom en’s apparel finisher.
It may take 6 to 12 months to be­
come a spotter because of the variety
of fibers and fabrics, spots and stains,
and chemicals used in treating the
stains.
Some preem ploym ent training in
finishing, drycleaning, and spotting
skills is available in vocational high
schools and trade schools. Home
study courses in all operations of the
industry are available from the Inter­
national Fabricare Institute.
Employers look for dependable
workers who have physical stam ina,
manual dexterity, and keen eyesight.
W orkers must be able to adjust to the
repetitive nature of many laundry
and drycleaning jobs.
Advancem ent for most workers in
this industry is limited. Many remain
perm anently in the same job. N ever­
theless, employers occasionally send
promising employees to technical or
m anagerial training programs given
by the International Fabricare Insti­
tute at its facility in Joliet, 111. Some
m en’s suit finishers becom e skilled

772

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

firms. More counter clerks will be
required due to growth in the num ­
ber of retail outlets operated by these
firms.

Earnings and Working
Conditions

enough to do w om en’s apparel finish­
ing. M arkers and assemblers interest­
ed in finishing work usually are given
an opportunity to move up to this
job. Finishers also may become in­
spectors. Supervisors and managers
frequently are chosen from experi­
enced employees already in the in­
dustry. Some drycleaners and spot­
ters establish their own drycleaning
plants.

Employment Outlook
Employment in this industry is ex­
pected to decline through the mid1980’s. Laborsaving m achinery and
more efficient m ethods of cleaning
and finishing laundry will enable the




industry to do more work with fewer
em ployees. Nevertheless, thousands
of workers will be hired to replace
those who retire, die, or transfer to
other fields.
Although the industry’s total em ­
ployment is expected to decline, em ­
ploym ent trends will differ am ong
occupations. Em ployment of spotters
is expected to decline because new
fibers and finishes make fabrics less
stainable. The num ber of finishers
should decrease as machinery does
more of the finishing work. On the
o th e r h an d , m ore p eople will be
needed in some m aintenance occu­
p atio n s to re p a ir th e in c re a sin g
am ount of machinery and equipm ent
used by laundry and drycleaning

Wage levels in the laundry and
drycleaning industry are not high. In
1976, the hourly average wage for
nonsupervisory workers in this indus­
try was $3.26 com pared to $4.36 for
all nonsupervisory workers in all ser­
vice industries and $4.87 for all such
workers in private industry, except
farm ing. E arnings are h ig h er for
workers in the more highly skilled
o c c u p a tio n s, such as d ry c le a n e r,
spotter, and machine washer.
Modern laundry and drycleaning
plants are clean and well-lighted. Be­
cause of the heat, hot air, and steam
of the cleaning processes, the plant
m ay be h o t d u rin g th e su m m er
months. Many new, small dryclean­
ing plants, how ever, are air-condi­
tioned in the office and custom er
areas and well-ventilated in the m a­
chinery areas. In addition, new m a­
chinery operates with a minimum of
noise. W ork in laundries and drycleaning plants is less hazardous than
in most m anufacturing plants.

Sources of Additional
Information
The local office of the State em ­
ploym ent service may have addition­
al information on training and em ­
ployment opportunities in this field.

GOVERNMENT
G overnm ent service, one of the
N a tio n ’s largest fields of em ploy­
ment, provided jobs for about 15 mil­
lion civilian workers in 1976—about

1 out of 6 employed persons in the
United States. State or local govern­
ments (county, city, township, school
district, o r o th er special division)

Government (including public education), 1976

em ployed 4 out o f 5 governm ent
workers; the rem ainder worked for
the Federal Governm ent.
G overnm ent employees represent
a significant portion of each S tate’s
work force. They work in large cities,
small towns, and even in remote and
isolated places such as lighthouses
and forest ranger stations. A small
num ber of Federal employees work
overseas.
Continuing the trend begun in the
late 1940’s, em ploym ent in State and
local governm ent is expected to grow
faster than the average for all indus­
tries through the m id-1980’s. Federal
em ploym ent, on the other hand, is
expected to grow much more slowly
than the average for all industries.
Many job opportunities also will arise
at all levels of governm ent as workers
retire, die, or leave governm ent ser­
vice.

Government Activities and
Occupations

Almost all of the growth in government employment is
at the State and local level
Civilian government employment,-^ 1950-76 and projected 1985

j

'

1950

1955

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics




-

’

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

H Includes public education

Two-fifths of all government work­
ers in 1975, or 6.3 million, provided
educational services, mostly at the
State and local levels in elem entary
an d se c o n d a ry sc h o o ls. B esid es
teachers, others who worked in edu­
cational services included adm inis­
trative and clerical workers, m ainte­
nance workers, librarians, dietitians,
nurses, and counselors.
More than 1 million civilian em ­
ployees in 1975 worked for Federal
agencies that are concerned with na­
tional defense and international rela­
tions. Principal occupations that deal
with these functions included adm in­
istrative and clerical workers, health
workers, teachers, engineers, scien­
tists, technicians, and craft and other
manual workers. People in these jobs
work in offices, research labo rato ­
ries, navy yards, arsenals, and missile
launching sites and in hospitals and
schools run by the military services.
773

774

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Major areas of government employment, 1975

Employment 1975 (in millions)
Education

t o

Health and hospitals

I
pa

1

National defense and international relations

1 1 1 !

m
m

Postal service
Police protection

1

1

■ Hi
■ tm
■ mm

I

■

Highways

i

General control
Natural resources
Financial administration

H

Space research and technology

1
1
i
1

mm

1

V

Ail other

2
F ederal I

Source: Bureau of the Census

S ta te and lo ca l

Table 1. Percent distribution of employment in government and private industry by
occupation, 1976

Government 1

Private
industry

100

100

White-collar workers............................................................................

68

46

Professional and technical.......................................................
Managers and administrators.....................................................
Clerical...........................................................................................
Sales..........................................................................................

36
8
24
(2)

11
10
18
7

Blue-collar workers..............................................................................

14

39

Craft and related workers...........................................................
Transport equipment operatives................................................
Other equipment operatives......................................................
Nonfarm laborers.........................................................................

6
3
1
4

14
4
15
6

Service workers....................................................................................
Farm workers........................................................................................

18
(2)

13
2

Occupation
Total............................................................................

1 Excludes Federal employment overseas.
2 Less than 0.5 percent
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics




A nother 1.4 million workers p ro ­
vided health services and staffed hos­
pitals, primarily for State and local
g o v ern m e n ts. M any w orkers also
were em ployed in housing and com ­
munity developm ent, police and fire
protection, social security and public
welfare services, transportation and
public utilities, financial adm inistra­
tio n , g en eral adm inistrative fu n c ­
tions, and judicial and legislative ac­
tiv itie s . T h e m a jo rity o f th e s e
w orkers also were State and local
governm ent em ployees. All of the
7 0 0 .0 0 0 g o v e rn m e n t w o rk e rs in
postal services and a majority of the
400.000 workers in natural resourc­
es, such as those in N ational Park
and Forest Services, were em ployed
by the Federal Governm ent.
Because of the special character of
many governm ent activities, the
occupational distribution of em ploy­
m ent is very different from that in
private industry, as shown in table 1.
A lthough the m any governm ent
activities require a diversified work
force having various levels of educa­
tion, training, and skill, 2 out o f 3
governm ent em ployees are w hitecollar w orkers. Among the largest
white-collar occupational groups are
te a c h e r s , a d m in is tr a to r s , p o s ta l
clerks, and office w orkers such as
stenographers, typists, and clerks.
Some im portant service, craft, and
manual occupations are aircraft and
autom otive mechanics, repairers, po ­
lice officers, firefighters, truckdrivers, skilled m aintenance workers (for
e x a m p le , c a r p e n t e r s , p a i n t e r s ,
plum bers, and electricians), custodi­
al workers, and laborers.
The following chapters discuss op­
portunities for civilian em ploym ent
in the m ajor divisions of governm ent
and in the various branches of the
Arm ed Forces. A separate chapter
gives in fo rm atio n on p o st office
occupations.

numbers of technicians in areas such
as engineering, electronics, survey­
ing, and drafting. Nearly two-thirds
of all engineers were in the D epart­
ment of Defense.
Of the 120,000 workers employed
FEDERAL CIVILIAN GOVERNMENT
in accounting and budgeting work,
35,000 were professional acco u n t­
ants or In tern al R evenue agents.
Among technician and adm inistra­
Nature and Location of
the largest agency. It employed over tive occupations in this field were
930.000 civilian workers in 1976. accounting technician, tax account­
Employment
The departm ents of Agriculture; ing technician, and budget adminis­
The F ederal G o vernm ent is the Health, Education, and Welfare; and trator. There also were large num ­
N a tio n ’s largest em ployer. It em ­ Treasury each employed more than b e r s o f c l e r k s in s p e c ia l iz e d
ployed a b o u t 2 ,7 5 0 ,0 0 0 civilian
100.000 workers. The two largest accounting work. Accounting work­
w orkers in 1976, including about independent agencies were the U.S. ers were employed throughout the
50.000 U.S. citizens in U.S. territo­ Postal Service, which employed Governm ent, particularly in the De­
ries and foreign countries. Although 680.000 workers, and the V eterans partm ent of Defense, the Treasury
the h ead quarters o f m ost G overn­ Adm inistration, which employed D epartm ent, and the G eneral A c­
ment departm ents and agencies are over 200,000.
counting Office.
Nearly 40,000 people worked for
in the W ashington, D.C. m etropoli­
Nearly 120,000 Federal employees
tan area, only 1 o u t o f 8 (a b o u t the legislative branch of government, worked in hospitals or in medical,
350,000) Federal em ployees worked which includes the Congress, the dental, and public health activities in
in that area in 1976. Nearly 300,000 Governm ent Printing Office, the
1975. Three out of 5 were either
worked in California, and more than General Accounting Office, and the professional nurses or nursing assis­
100.000 each in New York, Pennsyl­ Library o f Congress. More than tants. Professional occupations in
10.000 people worked for the judi­ this field included physician, dieti­
vania, Texas, and Illinois.
cial branch, which includes the Su­ tian, medical technologist, and phys­
Federal employees work in occu­
pations th at represent nearly every prem e C o u rt and th e o th e r U.S. ical therapist. Other technician and
aide jobs were medical technician,
kind of job in private employm ent, as courts.
medical laboratory aide, and dental
well as some others unique to the
Federal Governm ent, such as postal White-Collar Occupations. Because assistant. E m ployees in this field
clerk, regulatory inspector, foreign of its wide range of responsibilities, worked primarily for the V eterans
service officer, and Internal Revenue the F ed eral G overnm ent em ploys A dm inistration; others worked for
agent. Most Federal em ployees work white-collar workers in a great many the D e p artm en ts o f D efense and
for the d ep artm en ts and agencies occupational fields. Nearly 2 million Health, Education, and Welfare.
Almost 70,000 workers were en­
that make up the executive branch of white-collar workers, including post­
al workers, worked for the Federal gaged in administrative work related
the governm ent. About 50,000 are
employed in the legislative and judi­ Governm ent in 1975. A bout 1 out of to p riv ate business and industry.
4 of these were adm inistrative and They arranged and m onitored con­
cial branches.
tracts with the private sector, and
The executive branch includes the clerical workers.
More than 470,000 general cleri­ purchased goods and services needed
Executive Office of the President,
by the Federal Governm ent. Adm in­
th e 1 1 c a b in e t d e p a rtm e n ts, and cal workers were em ployed in all d e­
partm ents and agencies of the Feder­ istrative occupations included co n ­
nearly 90 in d e p e n d e n t ag encies,
al G overnm ent in 1975. Included in tra c t and p ro c u re m e n t specialist,
c o m m is s io n s , a n d b o a rd s . T his
this group were office machine o p ­ production control specialist, and In­
branch is responsible for activities
erators, secretaries, stenographers, ternal Revenue officer. Two out of
such as administering Federal laws, clerk-typists, mail and file clerks, th ree o f these w orkers w ere em ­
handling international relations, con­ telephone operators, and workers in ployed by the D epartm ents of D e­
serving n atural resources, treating com puter and related occupations. fense and Treasury.
and rehabilitating disabled veterans, In addition, there were over 500,000
A nother 60,000 persons worked in
delivering the mail, conducting sci­ postal clerks and mail carriers em ­ jobs concerned with the purchase,
entific research, maintaining the flow ployed by the Federal Governm ent. cataloging, storage, and distribution
of supplies to the Arm ed Forces, and
A bout 150,000 Federal G overn­ of supplies for the Federal G overn­
administering other program s to pro­ ment workers were employed in en ­ ment. This field included many m an­
mote the health and welfare of the gineering and related fields in 1975. agerial and administrative positions
people of the United States.
Included in this to tal were about such as supply m anagem ent officer,
The D epartm ent o f Defense,
80,000 engineers, representing virtu­ p u rchasing officer, and inventory
which includes the D epartm ents of ally every branch and specialty of the m anagem ent specialist, as well as
the Army, Navy, and Air Force, is profession. T here also were large large num bers of specialized clerical



775

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

776

positions. Most of these jobs were in
the D epartm ent of Defense.
T he F e d e ra l G o v e rn m e n t e m ­
ployed almost 60,000 persons in the
field o f law. T h e re w ere a b o u t
17,000 employees in professional po­
sitions, such as attorney or law clerk,
and administrative positions such as
passport and visa examiner or tax law
sp ecialist. T h ere also were m any
clerical positions that involve claims
examining work. W orkers in the legal
field were employed throughout the
Federal Governm ent.
A bout 50,000 persons were em ­
ployed in the social science field.
Professional econom ists were em ­
ployed throughout the Federal Gov­
ern m en t; psychologists and social
w orkers w orked prim arily for the
V eterans A dm inistration; and fo r­
eign affairs and international rela­
tions specialists for the D epartm ent
of State. One third of the workers in
this field were social insurance ad­
m inistrators, employed largely in the
D ep artm en t of H ealth, E ducation,
and Welfare.
About 45,000 biological and agri­
cultural science w orkers were em ­
ployed by the Federal Governm ent.
Many of these worked in forestry and
soil conservation activities. O thers
ad m in istered farm assistance p ro ­
grams. The largest n u m b e r w e r e e m ­
ployed as biology, forest and range
fire control, soil conservation, and
forestry technicians. Most of these
workers were employed by the D e­
partm ents o f Agriculture and Interi­
or.
T he F e d e ra l G o v e rn m e n t e m ­
ployed about 45,000 persons in in­
v estig ativ e and in sp ectio n w ork.
L arge n u m b ers o f th ese w orkers
were engaged in criminal investiga­
tion and health and regulatory in­
spection. Most of these jobs were in
the D epartm ents of T reasury, Ju s­
tice, and Agriculture.
In the physical sciences, the F eder­
al G overnm ent employed more than
40,000 persons. Professional workers
included chemists, physicists, m eteo­
rologists, cartographers, and geolo­
gists. Aides and technicians in this
field included physical science tech ­
nicians, m eteorological technicians,
an d c a r t o g r a p h e r ’s te c h n ic ia n s .
T hree o u t o f four w orkers in the

physical sciences were em ployed by


the D epartm ents of Defense, Interi­
or, and Com merce.
Am ong the 15,000 persons em ­
ployed in the m athem atics field were
p ro fe ssio n a l m a th e m a tic ia n s and
statisticians, and m athem atics tech ­
nicians and statistical clerks. M athe­
matics workers were employed pri­
m a rily by th e D e p a r tm e n ts o f
D efense, A g ricu ltu re, C om m erce,
and Health, Education, and Welfare.
Entrance requirements for whitecollar jobs vary widely. Entrants into
professional occupations usually
must have a college degree in a speci­
fied field or equivalent work experi­
ence. O c cu p atio n s typical of this
group are attorney, physicist, and en ­
gineer.
Entrants into administrative and
m anagerial occupations usually are
not required to have knowledge of a
specialized field, but rather must in­
dicate th at they have potential for
future developm ent by having a d e­
gree from a 4-year college or respon­
sible job experience. Entrants usually
begin at a trainee level and learn the
duties of the job after they are hired.
Typical jobs in this group are budget
analyst, claims examiner, purchasing
specialist, adm inistrative assistant,
and personnel specialist.
Technician, clerical, and aide-

erans A dm inistration, U.S. Postal
Service, General Services Adminis­
tration, D epartm ent of the Interior,
and Tennessee Valley Authority.
The largest single group of bluecollar workers consisted of mobile
equipm ent operators and m echanics.
These jobs included those of forklift
operator, chauffeur, truckdriver, and
autom obile m echanic. The second
largest group of workers consisted of
general laborers, who perform ed a
wide variety of manual jobs.
T he F e d e ra l G o v e rn m e n t e m ­
ployed many workers in machinery
o peration and repair occupatio n s,
such as boiler and steam plant o p era­
tor, m achinist, m achinery repairer,
m aintenance electrician, electronics
equipm ent repairer, and aircraft m e­
chanic.
Skilled construction workers also
were utilized widely throughout the
Federal G overnm ent in such jobs as
c a r p e n te r , p a in te r , p lu m b e r,
steam fitter and pipefitter, and sheetmetal worker. O ther im portant bluecollar occupations included w are­
house worker, food service worker,
and printer.
Entrance requirements.
Persons
with previous training in a skilled
trade may apply for a position with
the Federal G overnm ent at the jo u r­

a ssista n t jo b s h a v e e n tr y le v e l p o s i­

n ey m a n le v e l. T h o se w ith n o p r e v i­

tions that usually are filled by people
who have a high school education or
the equivalent. For many of these po­
sitions, no previous experience or
training is required. The entry level
position is usually th at of trainee.
Persons who have junior college or
technical school training, or those
who have specialized skills, may en ­
ter these occupations at higher lev­
els. Jobs typical of this group are en ­
gineering technician, supply clerk,
clerk-typist, and nursing assistant.

ous training may apply for appointm e n t to one of s e v e r a l
apprenticeship programs. Applicants
are given a written examination and
are rated on their potential for learn­
ing a skilled trade. A pprenticeship
programs generally last for 4 years;
trainees receive both classroom and
on-the-job training. After com pleting
this training, a person is eligible for a
position at the journey level. T here
also are a num ber of positions which
require little or no prior training or
e x p e rie n c e , in clu d in g c u sto d ia n ,
m aintenance worker, messenger, and
many others. (D etailed descriptions
o f the work duties, qualifications,
and training of m ost w hite-collar,
service, craft, and laborer jobs m en­
tioned above are provided in other
sections of the Handbook.)

Blue-Collar Occupations. Blue-collar
o ccu p atio n s—service, craft, o p era­
tive and laborer jobs—provided em ­
ploym ent for m ore than 520,000
workers in 1975. The D epartm ent of
D e fe n se em p lo y ed a b o u t th re e fourths of these workers in establish­
ments such as naval shipyards, arse­
nals, and air or army depots, as well
as on co n stru ctio n , h arbor, floodcontrol, irrigation, o r reclam ation
projects. Others worked for the V et­

The Merit System
More than 9 out o f 10 jobs in the
Federal G overnm ent are under a
m erit system. The Civil Service Act,

111

FEDERAL CIVILIAN GOVERNMENT

administered by the U.S. Civil Ser­
vice Commission, covers 6 out of 10
Federal jobs. This act was passed by
the Congress to insure that Federal
employees are hired on the basis of
individual m erit and fitness. It pro­
vides for com petitive examinations
and the selection of new employees
from am ong those who m ake the
hig h est sco res. T he com m ission,
through its netw ork of about 100
Federal Job Information Centers, ex­
amines and rates applicants and sup­
plies Federal departm ents and agen­
cies with names of persons eligible
for the jobs to be filled.
Some Federal jobs are exempt
from Civil Service requirem ents, ei­
ther by law or by action of the Civil
Service Commission. However, most
of these positions are covered by
separate m erit systems of other agen­
cies such as the Foreign Service of
the Departm ent of State, the D epart­
ment of Medicine and Surgery of the
Veterans Adm inistration, the Feder­
al Bureau of Investigation, the Ener­
gy Research and Development Ad­
ministration, the N uclear Regulatory
Commission, and the Tennessee Val­
ley Authority.
Civil service com petitive examina­
tions may be taken by any U.S. citi­
zen. To be eligible for appointm ent,
an ap p lican t m ust m eet minimum
age, train in g , and exp erien ce re ­
quirements for the particular job. A
physical handicap will not in itself
bar a person from a position if it does
not interfere with his or her perform ­
ance of the required duties. Exami­
nations vary according to the types of
positions for which they are held.
Some exam inations test the appli­
cant’s ability to do the job applied for
or his or her ability to learn how to
do it. Applicants for jobs that do not
require a written test are rated on the
basis of the experience and training
described in their applications and
any supporting evidence required.
Applicants are notified as to
whether they have achieved eligible
or ineligible ratings, and the names of
eligible applicants are entered on a
list in the order of their test scores.
When a Federal agency requests
names of eligible applicants for a job
vacancy, the area office sends the
agency the names at the top any one

of the top three. Names of those not


selected are restored to the list for
consideration for other job openings.

Employment Trends and Outlook
Federal employment is expected to
grow more slowly than the average
for all industries through the mid1980’s, continuing a trend begun in
the late 1960’s. Although total Fed­
eral Governm ent em ploym ent is ex­
pected to rise somewhat, some Fed­
eral agencies will reduce their staffs
as some adm inistrative responsibil­
ities will continue to be transferred to
State and local governments. In addi­
tion, the Postal Service is expected to
reduce staff while the D epartm ent of
Defense is expected to keep the num ­
ber of its civilian employees relative­
ly constant.
In addition to some new jobs there
will be openings due to the need to
replace employees who transfer out
of the Federal service, retire, or die.
Thus, many job opportunities will
occur in occupations where total em ­
ployment is relatively stable, as well
as in those in which it is rising.
The proportion of Federal workers
employed in professional, technical,
and administrative jobs has gradually
increased in recent years and the
proportion employed in clerical and
blue-collar jobs has fallen. This trend
is expected to continue, reflecting
the increasing dem and for existing
services by a growing population, as
well as dem ands for new services.
A cceptance of new or redefined re­
sponsibilities by the Federal G overn­
m ent is expected to result in rising
requirem ents for professional, ad ­
ministrative, and technical workers.
E m ploym ent in many clerical and
blue-collar occupations will be limit­
ed by the Federal G overnm ent’s in­
creasing use of laborsaving electron­
ic d a ta p ro c essin g and m aterials
handling equipm ent and the intro­
duction o f improved data transm is­
sion and com m unications systems.

Earnings, Advancement, and
Working Conditions
Most Federal civilian employees
are paid according to one of three
major pay systems; the General Pay
Schedule, the wage system, and the
Postal Service Schedule. (The Postal
Service Schedule is discussed in the

statem ent on the Postal Service else­
where in the Handbook.)
Nearly half of all Federal workers
are paid under the General Schedule.
The General Schedule is a pay scale
for workers in professional, adminis­
trative, technical, and clerical jobs,
and for workers such as guards and
messengers. G eneral Schedule jobs
are classified by the U.S. Civil Ser­
vice Commission in one of 18 grades,
according to the difficulty of duties
and responsibilities, and the knowl­
edge, experience, and skills required
o f the w orker. G eneral Schedule
(GS) pay rates are set by Congress
and apply nationwide. They are re­
viewed annually to insure that they
remain com parable with salaries in
private industry.
The distribution of Federal whitecollar employees by General Sched­
ule grade, the entrance and maxi­
mum salaries for each grade, and the
am ount of each grade’s periodic in­
creases are listed in table 1. Appoint­
ments usually are made at the mini­
mum rate of the salary range for the
a p p ro p ria te g rade. H ow ever, a p ­
pointm ents in hard-to-fill positions
may be at a higher rate.
Employees in all grades except the
highest, GS-18, receive within-grade
pay increases after they have worked
the req u ired time period, if th eir
work is at an acceptable level of
com petence. W ithin-grade increases
may be given also in recognition of
high-quality service.
High school graduates who have
no related work experience usually
start in GS-2 jobs, but some who
have special skills begin at grade GS3. G raduates of 2-year junior colleg­
es and technical schools often can
begin at the GS-4 level. Most people
appointed to professional and adm in­
istrative jobs such as psychologist,
statistician, econom ist, w riter and
editor, budget analyst, accountant,
and physicist, can enter at grades GS5 or GS-7, depending on their aca­
dem ic reco rd . Those who have a
m aster’s degree, or the equivalent
education or experience, usually en­
ter at the GS-9 or GS-11 level. A d­
vancem ent to higher grades generally
depends upon ability, work perform ­
ance, and openings in jobs with high­
er grades.

778

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

Table 1. Distribution of full-tim e Federal em ployees und er the G e n e ral Schedule by
grade level, M arch 3 1 ,1 9 7 6 , and salary scale effective February 20, 1977

week, Monday through Friday, but in
some cases, the nature of the work
requires a different workweek. A n­
nual earnings for most full-time Fed­
eral workers are not affected by sea­
sonal factors.
Federal employees earn 13 days of
annual (vacation) leave each year
during their first 3 years of service;
20 days each year until the end of 15
years; after 15 years, 26 days each
year. N ine paid holidays are o b ­
served annually. W orkers who are
members of military reserve organi­
zations also are granted up to 15 days
of paid military leave a year for train ­
ing purposes. A Federal worker who
is laid off is entitled to unem ploy­
m ent com pensation similar to that
provided for employees in private in­
dustry.
O ther benefits available to m ost
Federal employees include: A co n ­
tributory retirem ent system, optional
participation in low-cost group life
and health insurance program s which
are partly supported by the G overn­
ment, and training program s to de­
velop maximum job proficiency and
help w orkers achieve their highest
potential. These training program s
may be conducted in G overnm ent fa­
cilities or in private educational fa­
cilities at G overnm ent expense.

Salaries

Employees
General Schedule

Number

Percent

Total all grades......

1,358,489
2,256
25,526
99,330
174,146
182,211
85,741
127,553
27,790
139,334
22,090
146,954
139,692
107,310
49,379
24,530
3,309
990
348

0.2
1.9
7.3
12.8
13.4
6.3
9.4
2.0
10.3
1.6
10.8
10.3
7.9
3.6
1.8
0.2
0.1
(i)

Maximum

Periodic
increase

100.0

1..........................................
2 ..........................................
3 ..........................................
4 ..........................................
5 ..........................................
6 ..........................................
7 ..........................................
8 ..........................................
9 ..........................................
10..........................................
11..........................................
12..........................................
13..........................................
14..........................................
15..........................................
16..........................................
17..........................................
18..........................................

Entrance

$5,810
6,572
7,408
8,316
9,303
10,370
11,523
12,763
14,097
15,524
17,056
20,442
24,308
28,725
33,789
39,629
46,423
2 47,500

$194
219
247
277
310
346
384
425
470
517
569
681
810
958
1,126
1,321

$7,556
8,543
9,631
10,809
12,093
13,484
14,979
16,588
18,327
20,177
22,177
26,571
31,598
37,347
2 43,923
2 47,500
2 47,500
—

—

—

1 Less than 0.05 percent
2 The rate of basic pay for employees at these rates is limited by section 5308 of title 5 of
the United States Code to $47,500 as of the above date.
SOURCE: U.S. Civil Service Commission.

Table 2. C oordinated Fed eral W ag e System a v erage s a laries for selected
occupational groups, O ctober 31, 1975

Occupational group

Average Salary

Manual labor.......................................................................................
Mobile industrial equipment operation and maintenance..........
Fixed industrial equipment operation and maintenance............
Warehousing.......................................................................................
Metal work and processing..............................................................
Aircraft repair, propeller work, and engine overhaul.................
Electrical installation and maintenance.........................................
Machine tool work.............................................................................
Electronic equipment installation, maintenance, and operation
Woodworking.....................................................................................
Pipefitting............................................................................................
Printing and reproduction................................................................
Painting and paperhanging..............................................................

$9,895
12,942
13,607
11,558
13,676
13,712
14,052
13,660
14,198
13,271
13,786
14,339
13,006

SOURCE: U.S. Civil Service Commission.

About one-quarter of the Federal
civilian workers are paid according
to the coordinated Federal Wage
System. U nder this system, craft, ser­
vice, and manual workers are paid
hourly rates which are established on
the basis o f “ prevailing” rates paid
by private employers for similar work
in the same locations. As a result, the
Federal G overnm ent wage rate paid

for an occupation varies by locality.


Average salaries paid Federal w ork­
ers for some of the more common
types of blue-collar work appear in
table 2.
F ed eral G ov ern m en t em ployees
work a standard 40-hour week. Em ­
ployees who are required to work
overtime receive premium rates for
the additional time or com pensatory
time off at a later date. Most em ploy­
ees work 8 hours a day and 5 days a

Sources of Additional
information
Inform ation on em ploym ent o p ­
portunities in the Federal G overn­
m ent is available from a num ber of
sources. High school students are of­
ten able to get inform ation from their
high school guidance counselors. A
college placem ent office is often a
good source of such information for
college students. Inform ation also
may be available from State em ploy­
ment service offices.
The U.S. Civil Service Commission
operates 62 area offices and over 100
Federal Job Information C enters lo­
cated in various large cities through­
out the country. These offices an ­
nounce and conduct exam inations
required for various Federal G overn­
m ent jobs. They evaluate qualifica­
tions and refer eligible applicants to
em ploying agencies for their g eo ­
graphic areas. They also provide a
com plete one-stop inform ation ser-

FEDERAL CIVILIAN GOVERNMENT

vice on local and nationwide job op­
portunities in the Federal G overn­
m en t s e rv ic e . T h e F e d e ra l Job
Information C enters also operate a
toll-free telephone inform ation ser­
vice in nearly all States for those un­
able to visit them. Their telephone
numbers are listed in m ost telephone
books under “ U.S. G overnm ent.”
For information about jobs in a
specific agency, contact the agency
directly.

OCCUPATIONS IN THE
POSTAL SERVICE

The U.S. Postal Service handled
about 90 billion pieces of mail in
1976, including letters, magazines,
and parcels. About 680,000 workers
were required to process and deliver
this mail. The vast majority of Postal
Service jobs are open to workers with
4 years of high school or less. The
work is steady, and the pay starts at
about $12,000 a year for most work­
ers. Some of the jobs, such as mail




779

carrier, offer a good deal of personal
freedom . O ther jobs, however, are
more closely supervised and m ore
routine.

Nature and Location of the
Industry
Most people are familiar with the
duties of the mail carrier, yet few are
aware of the many different tasks re­
quired in processing mail and of the
variety of occupations in the Postal
Service.
At all hours of the day and night, a
steady stream of letters, packages,
magazines,
and
papers
moves
through the postal system. Mail carri­
ers collect mail from neighborhood
mailboxes and bring it to post offices
that truck it to the nearest mail p ro ­
cessing center for sorting by postal
clerks. T h ere are m ore than 300
large mail processing centers, each
responsible for sorting the outgoing
and incoming mail for an area of the
United States. Outgoing mail is sort­
ed and sent by truck or airplane to
the appropriate mail processing cen­
ter in another area o f the country.
Incoming mail is sorted for the var­

ious local post offices in the area,
trucked to the post offices, and then
sorted again for delivery by mail car­
riers to homes and business establish­
ments. (Detailed information on mail
carriers and postal clerks appears
elsewhere in the Handbook.)
M ailhandlers load, unload, and
move mail sacks and bulk mail, such
as parcels and packages. They sepa­
rate and distribute mail sacks to post­
al clerks for processing. Some also
rewrap parcels and packages or oper­
ate can celin g m ach in es, fo rk -lift
trucks, or addressograph and mimeo­
graph machines.
Technicians and m echanics m ain­
tain, test, repair, and overhaul m a­
chinery that processes mail or dis­
penses stam ps. Som e tech n ician s
specialize in m aintenance of elec­
tronic equipm ent.
To keep buildings and equipm ent
clean and in good working order, the
Postal Service employs a variety of
service and m aintenance workers. In­
cluded are janitors, laborers,, vehicle
m echanics, electricians, carpenters,
and painters.
Postal inspectors audit post offic­
es’ operations to see that they are run
efficiently, that funds are spent prop­
erly, and that postal laws and regula­
tions are observed. They also investi­
gate crim es such as theft, forgery,
and fraud involving use of the mail.
Postm asters and line supervisors
are responsible for the day-to-day
operation of the post office. They
supervise m ailhandlers, clerks, carri­
ers, and technicians; hire and train
employees; and set up work sched­
ules. Postm asters manage a post of­
fice, station, or branch.
More than 9 out of 10 postal w ork­
ers were employed in 1 of 5 occupa­
tions in 1976. The 270,000 postal
clerks and 250,000 mail carriers to­
gether accounted for 3 out of 4 post­
al jobs. The 40,000 m ailhandlers,
40,000 line supervisors, and 30,000
p o stm asters were the next largest
postal occupations. The postal ser­
vice also employs many postal in­
spectors, guards, truckdrivers, ad ­
ministrative workers, and secretaries.
The Postal Service operates more
than 40,000 post offices, stations and
branches, community post offices,

780

and contract postal stations and
branches. They range in size from the
large m etropolitan postal station that
employes hundreds of workers, to
the small contract station or branch
that occupies a corner of a country
store. Most are post offices, but some
postal facilities serve special purpos­
es, such as handling payroll records
or supplying equipm ent.
A lthough every co m m unity r e ­
ceives mail service, em ploym ent is
co n cen trated in large m etropolitan
areas. Post offices in cities such as
New York, Chicago, and Los Ange­
les employ a great num ber of work­
ers not only because they process
huge am ounts of mail for their own
populations but also because they
serve as mail processing points for
the sm aller com m unities th at su r­
round them .
The Postal Service also contracts
with private businesses to transport
mail. In 1976, there were more than
12,000 of these “ S ta r” route co n ­
tracts. Most “ S tar” route carriers use
trucks to haul mail, but some use air­
planes or boats instead.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
An applicant for a Postal Service
job must pass a written examination
and m eet m inim um age re q u ir e ­
ments. Generally, the minimum age
is 18, but a high school graduate may
begin work at 16 if the job is not
hazardous and does not require use
of a m otor vehicle. Many Postal Ser­
vice jobs do not require formal edu­
cation or special training. Applicants
for these jobs are hired on the basis
of their examination scores.
Applicants should apply at the post
office where they wish to work and
take the entrance examination for
the job they want. Examinations for
most jobs include a written test that
checks an applicants vocabulary and
reading ability, as well as any special
abilities required, such as aptitude
for rem em bering addresses. A phys­
ical examination is required, as well.
A p p lic a n ts fo r jo b s th a t re q u ire
strength and stamina are sometimes
given a special test. For exam ple,
m ailhandlers must be able to lift and
carry mail sacks weighing up to 70
 nam es o f applicants
pounds. T he


OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

w ho p a ss th e e x a m in a tio n s a re
placed on a list in the order of their
scores. Separate eligibility lists are
m aintained for each post office. Five
extra points are added to the score of
an h o n orably discharged v eteran,
and 10 extra points to the score of a
veteran wounded in com bat or dis­
abled. W hen a job opens, the a p ­
pointing officer chooses one of the
top three applicants. Others are left
on the list so that they can be consid­
ered for future openings.
New employees are trained either
on the job by supervisors and other
experienced employees or in local
training centers. Training ranges
from a few days to several m onths,
depending on the job. For example,
m ailh an d lers and c u sto d ia n s can
learn their jobs in a relatively short
tim e while postal inspectors need
months of training.
Postal workers are classified as ca­
sual, p art-tim e flexible, part-tim e
regular, or full-time. Casual workers
are hired to help handle the large
amounts of mail during the C hrist­
mas season and for other short-term
assignments. Part-tim e flexible em ­
ployees, although they have career
status, do not have a regular work
schedule but replace absent workers
or help with extra work loads as the
need arises. Part-tim e regulars have a
set work schedule—for example, 4

hours a day. C arriers, clerks, and
mailhandlers may start as part-tim e
flexible workers and move into full­
time jobs according to their seniority
as vacancies occur.
Postal workers can advance to b et­
ter paying positions by learning new
skills. Training program s are avail­
able for low -skilled w orkers who
wish to become technicians or m e­
chanics. Also, em ployees can get
preferred assignm ents, such as the
day shift or a more desirable delivery
route, as their seniority increases.
W hen an opening occurs, eligible
em ployees may subm it w ritten re­
quests, called “ bids,” for assignment
to the vacancy. T he b id d er who
meets the qualifications for the as­
signment and has the most seniority
gets the job.
Applicants for supervisory jobs
must pass an examination. A ddition­
al requirem ents for prom otion may
include training or education, a satis­
factory work record, and appropriate
personal characteristics such as lead­
ership ability. If the leading candi­
dates are equally qualified, length of
service also is considered. Although
opportunities for prom otion to su­
pervisory positions in smaller post of­
fices are limited, workers may apply
for vacancies in a larger post office
and thus increase their chances.

FEDERAL CIVILIAN GOVERNMENT

Employment Outlook
Employment in the Postal Service
is expected to decline through the
m id-1980’s as mail processing sys­
tems become more efficient and as
mail volume falls because of rising
postal rates and increasing reliance
on the telephone for personal com ­
munication. Anticipated cutbacks in
the frequency of home deliveries will
offset any employm ent growth stem ­
ming from increases in the num ber of
homes and business establishments.
Consolidation of the postal system is
expected to result in the closing of
many small post offices reducing re­
quirements for postmasters, guards,
and ma ntenance and support p er­
sonnel. N evertheless, thousands of
job openings will result annually as
workers retire, die, or transfer to oth­
er fields.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Postal Service employees are paid
under several separate pay schedules
depending upon the duties of the job,
knowledge, experience, or skills re­




781

quired. For example, there are sepa­
rate schedules for production w ork­
ers, such as clerks, city mail carriers,
and mailhandlers; for rural carriers;
for supervisors; for nonsuperisory ad ­
m inistrative, technical, and clerical
workers; and for postal executives. In
all pay schedules, except that of ex­
ecutives, employees receive periodic
“ ste p ” increases up to a specified
maximum if their job perform ance is
satisfactory. In addition, salaries of
most postal workers are autom atical­
ly adjusted for changes in the cost of
living.
Full-time employees work an 8hour day 5 days a week. Both full­
time and part-tim e employees who
work more than 8 hours a day or 40
hours a week receive overtim e pay of
one-and-one-half times their hourly
rates. They also receive extra pay for
night and Sunday work.
In 1976, postal em ployees earned
13 days of annual leave (vacation)
during each of their first 3 years of
service, including prior Federal civil­
ian and military service; 20 days each
year for 3 to 15 years of service; and
26 days after 15 years. In addition,

they earn ed 13 days of paid sick
leave a year regardless of length of
service.
O ther benefits include retirem ent
and survivorship annuities, and lowcost life and health insurance p ro­
grams supported in part by the Postal
Service.
Most post office buildings are
clean and well lighted, but some of
the older ones are not. The Postal
Service is in the process of replacing
and remodeling its outm oded build­
ings, and conditions are expected to
improve.
Most postal workers are members
of unions and are covered by one of
several negotiated bargaining agree­
m ents betw een the Postal Service
and the unions.

Sources of Additional
Information
Local post offices and State em ­
ployment service offices can supply
details about entrance examinations
and em ploym ent opportunities in the
Postal Service.

Employment Trends and Outlook
The long-range trend in State and
local governm ent em ploym ent has
been steadily upward. Much of this
growth results from the need to p ro ­
STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS
vide additional services as population
increases and as people move from
rural to urban areas. City develop­
m ent has required additional street
State and local governments pro­ sors, budget analysts, stenographers, and highway facilities; police and fire
protection; and public health, sanita­
vide a very large and expanding and clerks.
More than 600,000 people worked tion, w elfare, and o th e r services.
source of job opportunities in a wide
variety o f o cc u p atio n al fields. In in street and highway construction P opulation grow th and increasing
1976, a b o u t 12.2 m illion people and m aintenance. Highway workers personal income have generated d e­
worked for State and local govern­ include civil engineers, surveyors, m and for additional and im proved
m ent agencies; nearly three-fourths operators of construction machinery education, housing, health facilities,
and other services. Except for em ­
of these worked in units of local gov­ and equipm ent, truckdrivers, co n ­
ploym ent in elem entary and second­
ernm ent, such as counties, m unici­ crete finishers, carpenters, toll col­ ary school systems State and local
palities, towns, and school districts. lectors, and construction laborers.
governm ent em ploym ent is expected
Police and fire protection is anoth­
E ducational services account for
to grow faster than the average for all
about half of all jobs in State and er large field of employment. Over industries through the m id-1980’s.
local government. In 1975, about 6.3 600,000 persons were engaged in p o ­
A larger State and local work force
m illio n g o v e r n m e n t e m p lo y e e s lice work, including adm inistrative, also will be needed to provide im ­
worked in public schools, colleges, or clerical, and custodial personnel, as proved public tra n sp o rta tio n sys­
other educational services. In addi­ well as uniform ed and plainclothes tems, more urban planning and re­
tion to more than 3.5 million instruc­ police. Local governments employed new al program s, in creased police
tional personnel, school systems, col­ all of the nearly 300,000 fire protec­ protection, better m easures to guard
leges, and universities also employed tion em ployees, as well as most of the against air and water pollution, and
police. One out of three firefighters expanded natural resource develop­
2.7 ipillion administrative personnel,
was em ployed part time.
m ent program s. In addition, large
librarians, guidance counselors, nurs­
O ther State and local governm ent numbers of workers will be needed to
es, d ietitian s, clerks, and m ain te­
employees work in a wide variety o f replace em ployees who transfer to
nance workers. Three-fifths of these
activities: Local utilities (such as wa­ other fields of work, retire, or die.
worked in elem entary and secondary
Federal-State program s in educa­
ter or ele c tric ity ), tran sp o rta tio n ,
sch o o ls, w hich are a d m in iste re d
natural reso u rces, public w elfare, tion, vocational training, health, and
largely by local governments. State
parks and recreation, sanitation, co r­ other fields will increase the needs of
em ploym ent in education is concen­ rection, local libraries, sewage dis­ local and State governments for p ro ­
trated chiefly at the college, universi­ posal, and housing and urban renew ­ fessional, adm inistrative, and techni­
ty, and technical school levels.
al. These activities require workers in cal personnel. These will include en ­
The next largest field of State and diverse occupations such as econo­ gineers, scientists, social w orkers,
local governm ent em ploym ent was mist, electrical engineer, electrician, counselors, teachers, physicians, and
h e a lth serv ic es. T h e 1.2 m illion pipefitter, clerk, forester, and bus- librarians.
Most positions in State and local
workers employed in health and hos­ driver.
governments are filled by residents of
pital work included physicians, nurs­
C lerical, adm inistrative, m ain te­
es, m edical laboratory technicians, nance, and custodial work make up a the State or locality. If shortages of
particular skills exist however, it is
and hospital attendants.
large portion of em ploym ent in most often necessary to recruit from o u t­
General governm ental control and g o v ern m en t agencies. Am ong the
side the area.
fin an cial activ ities a c c o u n te d for workers involved in these activities
about 750,000 w orkers. These in­ are clerk-typists, stenographers, sec­
Earnings and Working
cluded c h ie f executives and th eir retaries, office managers, fiscal and
Conditions
staffs, legislative representatives, and budget adm inistrators, bookkeepers,
persons em ployed in the adm inistra­ a c c o u n ta n ts, ca rp e n te rs, p ain ters,
Earnings of State and local govern­
tion of justice, tax enforcem ent and plumbers, guards, and janitors. (D e­ m ent em ployees vary w idely, d e ­
other financial work, and general ad­ tailed discussions of m ost o ccu p a­ pending upon occupation and local­
tions in State and local governments ity. Salary differences from State to
m inistration. These functions require
the services of individuals such as are given elsewhere in the Handbook, State tend to reflect differences in
lawyers, judges and other court offi­ in the sections covering the individ­ the general wage level in various lo­
calities.
cials, city managers, property asses­ ual occupations.)

782


STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT

The Handbook statem ent for indi­
vidual occupations often gives salary
information for State and local gov­
ernm ent em ploym ent. Salary infor­
mation also can be obtained from the
appropriate State and local govern­
ment agencies.
A majority of State and local gov­
ernm ent positions are filled through
some type of formal civil service test,
that is, personnel are hired and pro­
moted on the basis of merit. In some




783

areas, groups of employees, such as
teachers and police, have separate
civil service coverage for their specif­
ic groups.
Most State and local governm ent
employees are covered by retirem ent
systems or by the Federal Social Se­
curity program. They usually work a
standard week of 40 hours or less,
with overtim e pay or com pensatory
time benefits for additional hours of
work.

Sources of Additional
Information
Persons interested in working for
State or local governm ent agencies
should contact the appropriate State,
county, or city agencies. Offices of
local school b o a rd s, city clerk s,
school and college counselors or
placem ent personnel, and local offic­
es of State employm ent services have
additional information.

THE ARMED FORCES

The A rm ed F orces offer young
p eo p le c a re e r o p p o rtu n itie s in a
range of occupations almost as wide
as that found in civilian life. Jobs in­
clude clerical and ad m in istrativ e
work, skilled co n stru ctio n trades,
e lec trical and e lec tro n ic o c c u p a ­
tions, auto repair, and hundreds of
o th er sp ecialties req uiring varied
amounts of education and training.
Each year the A rm ed Forces give

hundreds of thousands of men and
women basic and advanced training
that can be useful in both military
and civilian careers.
Since the draft was ended in 1973,
the various branches of the Armed
F o rc e s— A rm y, A ir F o rce , Navy,
M arine C orps, and C oast G uard—
are being staffed entirely through
voluntary enlistments. The military
services must com pete with civilian

employers, and they must offer occu ­
pational benefits and training p ro ­
grams that make military service an
attractive career alternative. These
benefits are explained in more detail
later in this statem ent.
A young person may enlist in any
one of a variety of programs that
involve different com binations of ac­
tive and reserve duty. Active duty
ranges from 3 to 6 years, with 3- and
4-year enlistm ents the m ost co m ­
mon. In general, enlistments for over
4 years are for job specialties that
require a considerable am ount of ad­
vanced technical training.

Places of Employment
At the end of 1976, over 2.1 mil­
lion persons were on active duty in
the A rm ed Forces—about 770,000
in the Arm y; 600,000 in the Air
Force; 525,000 in the Navy; 190,000
in the M arine Corps; and 38,000 in
the Coast Guard. In addition to those
on active duty, over 2.7 million p er­
sons were in reserve com ponents.
Military personnel are stationed
throughout the United States and in
many countries around the world. In
the United States, the largest num ­
bers are in California, followed by
Texas, North Carolina, Florida, and
the W ashington, D.C. m etropolitan
area. About 480,000 are outside the
U n ite d S ta te s . T h e m a jo rity o f
these—over 300,000 — are stationed
in E urope (particularly G erm any);
large numbers also are in the W est­
ern Pacific.

Job Training and Education for
Enlisted Personnel

The Arm ed Forces train personnel in hundreds o f different typ e s of Jobs.


784


The Arm ed Forces train personnel
in hundreds of different types of jobs.
Job training available to enlistees d e­
pends on the length of their service
com m itm ent, their general and tech ­
nical aptitude, the needs of the ser­
vice, and personal preferences. Fol­
lowing a basic training period o f
between 6 and 11 weeks, depending
on the service branch, a majority of
the recru its go directly to form al
classroom training to prepare for a
specialized field of work. The re ­
m ainder receive on-the-job training
at their first duty assignm ent. For
th o s e n o t a s s ig n e d d ir e c tly to
schools, there is opportunity for for-

THE ARMED FORCES

mal classroom training following onthe-job training.
A fter initial or advanced training,
recruits are sent to their service as­
signment. The type and location of
duty depend on the service vacan­
cies, personal qualifications, and per­
sonal preferences.
People planning to apply the skills
they gain through military training to
a civilian career should obtain cer­
tain inform ation before choosing a
m ilita ry o c c u p a tio n . F irs t, th ey
should determ ine how good the pros­
pects are for civilian em ploym ent in
jobs related to the particular military
specialty which interests them . Sec­
ond, they should know what the pre­
requisites are for the related civilian
job. M any o ccu p atio ns require li­
censing, certification, or a minimum
level o f education. Those who are
interested should find out w hether
military training is sufficient to enter
the field or, if not, what additional
training will be required.
M uch inform ation is given in other
Handbook statem ents on the em ploy­
m ent outlook for civilian jobs for
which military training helps prepare
an individual. Additional inform ation
often can be obtained from schools,
unions, trade associations, and other
organizations in the field of interest,
or from a school counselor. By look­
ing into this kind o f inform ation be­
fore choosing a specific military oc­
cupation, young people entering the
Arm ed Forces will help insure that
the type o f training they obtain will
fit their career plans.
A list o f m ajor jo b categories for
enlisted personnel is presented be­
low.

785

—Wire communications.

—Military intelligence.

—Missiles, mechanical and electrical.

—Combat operations control.

—Armament and munitions.

Medical and Dental Specialists:

—Shipboard propulsion.

—Medical care.

—Power generating equipment

—Technical medical services.

—Precision equipment.

—Related medical services.

—Aircraft launch equipment.
—Other mechanical and electrical equipment.

—Dental care.

Crafts:

Other Technical and Allied Special­
ists:

—Metalworking.

—Photography.

—Construction.

—Drafting, surveying, and mapping.

—Utilities.
—Construction equipment operation.

—Ordnance disposal and diving.

—Lithography.
—Industrial gas and fuel production.

—Personnel.
—Administration.
—Clerical personnel.
—Accounting, finance, and disbursing.
—Supply and logistics.
—Religious, morale, and welfare.
—Information and education.

—Firefighting and damage control.
—Other crafts.

Service and Supply Handlers:
—Food service.
—Motor transport.
—Material receipt, storage, and issue.
—Military police.
—Personal service.
—Auxiliary labor.
—Forward area equipment support.

Infantry, Gun Crews, and Seaman­
ship Specialists:
—Infantry.
—Armor and amphibious.
—Combat engineering.
—Artillery/gunnery, rockets, and missiles.
—Combat air crew.
—Seamanship.

Electronic Equipment Repairers:
—Fire control systems.
—Missile guidance and control.
—Sonar equipment.
—Nuclear weapons equipment.
—ADP computers.
—Teletype and cryptographic equipment.
—Other electronic equipment.

—Communications center operations.

Communications
Specialists:

Electrical and Mechanical Equipment
Repairers:

—Sonar

—Aircraft.

—Radar and air traffic control.

—Automotive.



and

—Scientific and engineering aides.
—Musicians.

—Fabric, leather and rubber.

—Radio/radar.

A d m in istr a tiv e S p e c ia lis ts and
Clerks:

—Weather.

Intelligence

—Radio and radio code.

—Signal intelligence/electronic warfare.

A brief description of each cate­
gory as it relates to civilian jobs fol­
lows:
Administrative specialist and clerk
jobs are found in most private busi­
nesses and governm ent agencies and
require the same basic skills as those
learned in the military services.
Electrical and mechanical equip­
ment repairers generally are instruct­
ed in the basic theories and advanced
troubleshooting techniques involved
in the operation and repair of equip­
ment. This instruction and training
make transfer to a similar civilian job
fairly easy in many career fields. In
others, some additional civilian train­
ing may be needed.
In general, the various skilled crafts
or trades require some kind of ap­
prenticeship program. In some ap­
prenticeship programs credit may be
given for skills acquired through mili­
tary training and experience.
Many of the service and supply
occupations are identical to those in
civilian life. Such military experience
is helpful in obtaining similar civilian
employment.
On the other hand, some of the
jobs in the infantry, gun crews and
seamanship specialist group are
unique to the Arm ed Forces—they
have few or no parallels in civilian
jobs. However, this work experience
may be helpful in developing leader­
ship and supervisory skills that p ro ­
vide a good base for future civilian
employment.
Those working as electronic equip­
m ent repairers generally m aintain
and repair specialized military equip-

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

786

ition, and related fees. O ther p ro ­
grams enable enlisted personnel to
take college courses and additional
military training so that they can be­
c o m e c o m m is s io n e d o f f ic e r s .
Courses also are available by other
institutions to help service personnel
earn their high school equivalency
diploma. In addition, programs are
being instituted to perm it the appli­
cation o f credit for military training
courses towards associate or bacca­
laureate college degrees from partici­
pating institutions.

Officer Training

Seaman looks through the ship’s telescope as he stands lookout watch.

ment. However, most of the training
and experience gained can be d irect­
ly re la te d to civilian o ccu p atio n s
such as electronics technician, air­
craft instrum ent m echanic, or radar
an d ra d io re p a ire r. T h e serv ic etrained specialist in electronic equip­
m en t re p a ir m ay n eed ad d itio n al
train in g on specialized equipm ent
before gaining journeym an status in
civilian em ploym ent. Again, credit
som etim es is given in an apprentice­
ship program for skills acquired in
the service. For certain occupations,
such as electrician, applicants for a
license may be required to dem on­
strate their proficiency by passing an
exam ination.
Some o f the communications and
intelligence specialist occupations
have civilian counterparts; for exam ­
ple, sonar, radar, and radio operators
may move into civilian jobs and use
the same skills. In general, however,
these specialists have a limited civil­
ian dem and. O ther jobs, such as mili­
tary intelligence or com bat o p e ra ­
tions control have very few o r no
directly parallel civilian occupations.
In recent years, changes in military
training and civilian requirem ents in
the medical and dental fields have
greatly increased civilian em ploy­
m en t o p p o r tu n itie s fo r se rv ic e trained personnel. An exam ination is
required in most fields to show profi­
ciency. Some
 of the civilian occupa­


tions in which service-trained indi­
viduals can becom e certified include:
P h y s ic ia n ’s a s s is ta n t; la b o ra to ry
technician; em ergency medical tech ­
nician; medical technologist; dental
assistant; nurse (m ost States allow
service-trained personnel to take the
Licensed Practical Nurse Exam ina­
tion; a few, the Registered Nurse Ex­
am ination); and physical therapists.
Other technical and allied special­
ists include a wide range o f jobs,
many having direct civilian parallels
such as photographer, m eteorologist,
musician, and others providing skills
with limited dem and in the civilian
sector such as ordnance disposal and
diving.
W om en are eligible for and e n ­
couraged to enter all military o ccu­
pational fields except those involving
actual com bat.

Other Educational Programs
In addition to on-duty training, a
variety o f program s are available to
help military personnel continue
their education. At most military in­
stallations, a Tuition Assistance p ro ­
gram is available for active duty p er­
sonnel who, during off-duty hours,
wish to take courses.
Each service branch also offers
program s for full-time education,
and provides full pay allowances, tu ­

Officer candidates in the Arm ed
Forces receive special training
through such program s as: The F ed­
eral Service Academ ies (Naval, Air
Force, Military, and Coast G uard);
R eserv e O ffic e r T ra in in g C o rp s
(R O TC ); Officer C andidate School;
National G uard (State Officer C andi­
date School program s); direct ap ­
pointm ent; and several o th er p ro ­
grams.
The Federal Service Academies,
which adm it women as well as men,
provide a 4-year college program
leading to a bachelor of science d e­
gree. T he m idshipm an or cad et is
provided free room and board, tu ­
ition, m edical care, and a monthly
allow ance. G raduates may receive
regular commissions in all branches
of the service and have a 5-year ac­
tive duty obligation.
To becom e a candidate for ap ­
pointm ent as a midshipman or cadet
in the Naval, Air Force, or Military
Academ y, most applicants obtain a
n o m in a tio n fro m an a u th o riz e d
nom inating source (usually a m em ­
ber of Congress). It is not necessary
to know a m em ber of Congress p e r­
sonally to request a nom ination. The
nom inee must m eet certain require­
m ents, which include an academ ic
record o f a specified quality, college
aptitude test scores above an estab­
lished minimum, and recom m enda­
tions from teachers or school offi­
cials. Also, the nom inee must pass a
medical examination. A ppointm ents
are m ade from eligible nominees ac­
cording to personal preference of the
nom inating authority and by a com ­
petitive system based on the nom i­
nees’ qualifications. The dependents

787

THE ARMED FORCES

The Armed Forces offer a variety of flight training programs, many of which lead to a
commission.

Table 1. Active duty military compensation in 1976 for members of the Armed Forces
who are single and have less than 2 years of service

Pay grade

Enlisted members:
E -l ...............................
E -2 ...............................
E -3 ...............................
E -4 ...............................
Commissioned officers:
O - l ...............................
0 - 2 ...............................
0 - 3 ...............................

Regular
military
compensation,
total
$6,346
6,915
7,227
7,566

10,553
12,263
13,973

Basic
pay

$4,493
5,008
5,198
5,407

8,280
9,540
10,944

Quarters
allowance

$886
940
1,062
1,192

1,606
2,056
2,362

Subsistence
allowance

$967
967
967
967

667
667
667

SOURCE: Department of Defense.

of certain veterans may autom atical­
ly gain admission if they apply. Ac­
tive and reserve service m em bers
also may receive such preferences.

A ppointm ents to the Coast Guard


Academy are made on a com petitive
basis. A nom ination is not required.
The Reserve Officer Training
Corps (R O TC ) Program involves the
training o f students in about 500

Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Air
Force units at participating colleges
and universities throughout the
United States and Puerto Rico. As a
part of the school curriculum , ROTC
training includes 2 to 5 hours of
military instruction a week in addi­
tion to regular college courses.
Students in the last 2 years of an
ROTC program and all those on
ROTC scholarships are paid a
monthly allowance while attending
school and receive additional pay for
sum m er training. Following gradu­
ation, ROTC students fulfill their
m ilitary obligations by serving as
regular or reserve officers for a stipu­
lated period of time.
A commission in the Armed
Forces can be earned without ROTC
training by those who enlist from
civilian life into one of the several
Officer Candidate School Programs.
The Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine
Corps, and Coast Guard train select­
ed college graduates to become com ­
m issioned officers. T he N atio n al
Guard also has several Officer C andi­
d ate P rogram s for qualified high
school graduates.
Many persons who are trained in
medicine or one of the related health
sciences may qualify for direct ap­
pointm ent as officers. Financial as­
sistance is available to students en­
rolled in training in one of these
fields. Direct appointm ents also are
available for those qualified to serve
in other special duties, such as the
judge advocate general or chaplain
corps.
The Armed Forces offer a wide
variety of flight training programs,
many of which lead to a commission.
All services have program s for quali­
fied en listed perso n n el to o b tain
commissions.

Salary, Allowances, Promotion,
and Working Conditions
In addition to a regular salary, mili­
tary personnel receive free room and
board, m edical and dental care, a
military clothing allowance, military
superm arket and departm ent store
shopping privileges, recreational fa­
cilities, 30 days of paid vacation a
year, and travel opportunities. When
room and board are not provided, a
living allow ance is given. Table l

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

788

gives examples of military pay and
allowances. Career officers and en­
listed personnel also are eligible for
retirem ent benefits after 20 years of
service.
The pay grades for enlisted person­
nel are E-l to E-9. The pay grades for
commissioned officers are 0-1 to O10 .

Enlisted personnel will normally
be prom oted to pay grade E-3 within
their first 12 months of service. Fur­
ther prom otions depend on individ­
ual m erit, but in-grade pay increases
are possible on the basis of length of
service.
The normal workweek in the
Armed Forces is 8 hours a day, 5 or 5
1/2 days a week. Due to the nature of
military work, an individual or group
may be called upon to work longer
hours without additional com pensa­
tion. W ith the wide range of jobs
found in the service, working condi­
tions vary substantially. Some jobs
that are extraordinarily dangerous,
or in an undesirable location, provide
additional income in the form of bo­
nuses or special payments.
Athletic and other recreational fa­
cilities—such as libraries, gymnasi­
ums, tennis courts, golf courses, and
movies—are available on most mili­
tary installations. Also available are
personal affairs officers, legal assist­
ance officers, and chaplains, as well
as supporting agencies, which mili­
tary personnel may go to for help
with personal or financial problems.




Veterans’ Benefits
The V eterans Adm inistration p ro ­
vides num erous benefits to those who
have served in the A rm ed Forces.
The educational assistance program
usually is the most im portant to those
considering enlisting.
Each month they are on active
duty, Arm ed Forces personnel may
set aside betw een $50 and $75 of
their pay into an educational fund.
The V eterans Adm inistration puts in
two dollars for every dollar contrib­
uted by the service m em ber, up to a
limit of $2,700 of the service m em ­
ber’s contribution. Upon separation
from active duty, the am ount in the
fund can be used to finance an edu­
cation at any approved institution.
One m onth of benefits is available for
each m onth the service m em ber con­
tributed; a service m em ber may re­
ceive benefits for a maximum of 36
months. Since the service m em ber’s
contributions are m atched 2 for 1,
this means that a maximum of $8,100
may be available over the 36-month
period ($2,700 paid into the fund by
the service m em ber, $5,400 by the
Armed Forces). Since most colleges
have about a 9 month academ ic year,
a regular 4-year college program can
be financed through this contribu­
tory arran g e m e n t. T hese benefits
may be received for education at any
approved institution, including pub­
lic or private elem entary, secondary,
v o catio n al, co rresp o n d en c e, busi­
ness, or flight training schools; com ­

m unity or ju n io r colleges; norm al
schools; teach er’s colleges; colleges
or universities; professional, scientif­
ic, or technical institutions; and var­
ious o th er institutions th at furnish
education at the elem entary level or
above.
More detailed or current inform a­
tion on educational benefits, as well
as other veterans benefits, is avail­
able from the Veterans A dm inistra­
tion office located in each State, the
District of Colum bia, Puerto Rico,
and the Philippines.

Other Sources of Information
Each of the military services p u b ­
lishes handbooks and pam phlets that
d e sc rib e e n tra n c e re q u ire m e n ts ,
training and advancem ent opportuni­
ties, and other aspects of military ca­
reers. These publications are avail­
able at all recruiting stations, most
S tate em ploym ent service offices,
high schools, colleges, and public li­
braries. Individuals may obtain addi­
tional information by writing to the
addresses below:
U.S. Army Recruiting Command, Fort Sheri­
dan, 111. 60037.
Navy Recruiting Command, (Code 40), 4015
Wilson Blvd., Arlington, Va. 22203.
USAF Recruiting Service, Directorate of Re­
cruiting Operations, Randolph Air Force
Base, Tex. 78148.
Director, Personnel Procument Division,
Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, Wash­
ington, D.C. 20380.
Commandant, (G-PMR), U.S. Coast Guard,
Washington, D.C. 20590.

Dictionary of Occupational Titles (D.O.T.) Index
The fourth edition of the Dictionary of Occupational Titles is in print. Listed below are the fourth
edition D.O.T. numbers that correspond to those from the third edition, which were used in the
Handbook.
D O T
3 r d E d itio n

N o.

4 t h E d itio n

D O T

N o.

Page

3 r d E d itio n

4 t h E d itio n

001.061-010 Architect.........................................
575
001.061-014 Architect, marine...........................
728
001.261-010 Drafter, architectural....................
384
002.
Aeronautical engineering
386
occupations................................
002.081 002.061-014 Aeronautical engineer...................
345
003.
003.
Electrical engineering
occupations................................
386
003.081 003.061-010 Electrical engineer.........................
348
003.151 003.151-010 Industrial-power engineer............
348
003.187 003.167- 018 Electrical engineer, power...........
348
003.167- 062 Systems engineer, electronic data
processing....................................115, 348
003.281 003.281- 010 Drafter, electrical...........................
384
003.281- 014 Drafter, electronic.........................
384
019.261-014 Estimator and drafter....................
384
005.
005.
Civil engineering occupations......
386
005.081 005.061-014 Civil engineer.................................
348
005.281 005.281- 010 Drafter, civil....................................
384
005.281- 014 Drafter, structural..........................
384
006.
006.
Ceramic engineering occupations..
386
006.081 006.061Ceramic engineer...........................
346
010, 014,
018, and
022
007.
007.
Mechanical engineering
occupations................................
386
007.081 007.061- 014 Air-conditioning engineer............
351
007.061- 014 Mechanical engineer..............351, 616, 648
007.061- 01 Refrigeration engineer..................
351
007.151 007.151-010 Heating engineer.................... 351, 616, 648
007.168 3rd edition
Chief engineer................................. 351, 616
title deleted
007.181 007.161- 026 Mechanical-engineering
technician....................................
648
007.161- 018 Engineering assistant,
mechanical equipment.............
648
007.187 007.167-014 Plant engineer.......................... 351, 616, 648
007.281 007.281-010 Drafter, mechanical......................
384
007.261-010 Lay-out checker.............................
384
008.
008.
Chemical engineering
occupations................................
386
008.081 008.061-018 Chemical engineer..........................347, 648
010.
010.
Mining and petroleum
engineering occupations...........
386
010.081 010.061- 014 Mining engineer.............................. 352, 616
010.061- 018 Petroleum engineer........................ 353, 619
010.061-026 Safety engineer, mines................... 203, 616
010.168 010.161-018 Observer, seismic prospecting.....
619
Mining investigator.........................352, 616
010.187 3rd edition
title deleted
010.281 010.281-014 Drafter, geological..........................348, 619
010.288 3rd edition
Computer, prospecting.................
619
title deleted
OIL
o il.
Metallurgy and metallurgical
engineering occupations...........
386

011.081

011.061-010 Foundry metallurgist................
351
011.061 -018
Metallurgist, extractive.
351
011.061-022 Metallurgist, physical...............
351
012.
Industrial engineering
occupations.........................
386
012.061-014 Safety engineer............ 2 0 2 ,3 5 0 ,6 4 8
012.167-014 Director, quality control................350, 648
012.167- 066
System analyst, business
electronic data processing 115, 350, 648
012.167-042 Manufacturing engineer..........
648
012.167- 030
Efficiency engineer............. 350, 648
012.167- 018
Factory lay-out engineer.....350, 648
012.167- 026
Fire protection engineer.....350, 648
012.167- 030
Industrial engineer...............350, 648
012.167- 034
Industrial-health engineer........ 203, 350,648
012.167- 046
Production engineer............ 350, 648
012.167-050 Production planner.........................350,648
012.167- 054
Quality-control engineer.
350
012.167- 070
Time-study engineer....
350
012.261-010 Air analyst.................................
648
013.
Agricultural engineering
occupations..........................
386
013.061Agricultural engineer..................... 345, 610
010, 014,
018 and 022
014.
Marine engineering occupations..
386
014.281-010 Drafter, marine........................
384
015.
Nuclear engineering occupations...
386
017.
Drafters, n.e.c............................ 384,386
017.281-018 Technical illustrator.................
628
018.261-010 Cartographer.............................
521
018.
Surveyors, n.e.c.........................
386
018.167Surveyor....................... 3 9 0 ,6 1 6 ,6 1 9
018, 038,
042, 046,
and 050
391
869.567-010 Surveyors helper-rod................
869.567-010 Surveyors helper-chain...........
391
019.
Architecture and engineering
n.e.c.......................................
386
587
001.061-018 Landscape architect.................
012.261-014 Quality-control technician..............
706
020.
Occupations in mathematics...........
386
020.062-010 Applications engineer..............
115
020.067-014 Mathematician.......................... 115,370
020.067-022 Statistician, mathematical.......
115
020.167-010 Actuary..........................1 2 3 ,372,762
020.162-014 Programmer, business.................... 113, 372
020.167- 022
Programmer, engineering and
scientific..................................... 113, 372
020.167- 026
Statistician, applied.......
372
021.
Occupations in astronomy..............
386
021.067-010 Astronomer...............................
375
022.
Occupations in chemistry.......
386

001.081
001.081
001.281
002.




3 r d E d itio n T itle

012.
012.081
012.168

012.187

012.188

012.281
013.
013.081

014.
014.281
015.
017.
017.281
018.
018.188

018.587
018.687
019.
019.081
019.281
020.
020.081
020.088
020.188

021.
021.088
022.

3 r d E d itio n T itle

Page

789

790
D O T N o.
3 r d E d itio n
4 th E d itio n

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

3 r d E d itio n T itle

Page

D O T. N o.
3 r d E d itio n
4 th E d itio n

050.118
022.061-010 Chemist, analystical.........................377,648
022.061- 014 Chemist, food...................... 377, 379, 610
051.088
022.061- 010 Chemist, inorganic..........................
377
052.038
377
022.061- 010 Chemist, organic.............................
052.088
022.168 022.161-010 Chemical-laboratory ch ief............
377
022.181 022.161-018 Perfumer...........................................
377
022.281 022.281-014 Chemist, water purification..........
377
054.088
023.
023.
Occupations in physics..................
386
055.088
023.081 023.061-014 Physicist............................................
380
023.061- 014 Physicist, light..................................
380
380
023.088 023.067-010 Physicist, theoretical......................
024.
024.
Occupations in geology..................
386
059.088
024.081 024.061-018 Geologist............................................355,618
070.
and 022
071.108
024.061Geophysicist..................................... 357,619
072.108
014, 026,
030, and
050
024.061- 038
Mineralogist..........................
618
073.081
024.061- 030 Oceanographer..............................
361
024.061- 042 Paleontologist................................
618
073.108
619
024.061 -046 Petrotogist......................................
024.061- 018 Photogeologist...............................
618
073.181
024.061- 054 Stratigrapher..................................
618
025.
025.
Occupations in meterology........................... 386 073.281
073.381
025.088 025.062-010 Meterologist.....................................
359
029. ' 029.
Occupations inmathematics and
074.181
physical sciences n.e.c...............
386
075.
029.088 029.067-010 Geographer......................................
521
077.
and 014
078.128
040.081 040.061-010 Agronomist.......................................365,609
040.061- 014 Animal scientist............................. 365, 609
078.168
041.081-010 Food technologist.......................... 365, 379
040.061- 034
Forester...................................334,674
078.281
337
040.061- 034
Range manager....................
and 046
040.061- 054
Soil conservationist.............
339
078.381
040.061- 058 Soil scientist...............................368, 610
041.081 041.061-010 Anatomist.......................................... 366,648
078.281-010 Cytotechnologist...........................476, 649
078.368
041.061- 026 Biochemist......................... 364, 379, 648
041.061- 030
Biologist.................................365,648
and 042
041.061- 038
Botanist..................................
365
041.061 -046 Entomologist..................................366, 610
041.061Geneticist................................365, 609, 648
078.687
014, 050,
and 082
079.108
041.061- 058 Microbiologist................... 366, 609, 648
041.061- 022
Marine biologist...................
361
041.061 -074 Pharmacologist...............................366, 648
041.061- 078 Physiologist.............................365, 609, 648
041.081 Plant scientist.................................366, 609
079.128
038, 042,
078, and
079.188
086
079.368
041.168 180.167-030 Fish culturist....................................
365
041.181 041.061 -054 Histopathologist............................ 365, 648
041.281 041.261-010 Public-health bacteriologist...........................365
528
045.088 045.061-010 Psychologist, developmental.........
079.378
045.067- 010
Psychologist, educational....
529
045.061- 014
Psychologist, engineering....
529
045.061- 018
Psychologist, experimental.................. 528
045.067- 014
Psychologist, social..............
528
090.118
045.108 045.107-010 Counselor........................ 5 2 8 ,5 3 6 ,5 3 8 ,5 3 9
045.107- 018
Director of guidance ....528, 536, 538, 539
090.168
045.107- 022
Psychologist, clinical...........
528
045.107- 026
Psychologist, counseling.....
529
045.107- 034
Psychologist, school............
529
045.107- 038
Residence counselor............
140
090.288
050.088 050.067-010 Economist................................. 3 7 9 ,5 1 9 ,6 0 8
050.067- 014
Market-research analyst I .. 133, 148

022.081



3 r d E d it io n T itle

Page

050.117-010 Employment research and
planning director.......................
519
051.067-010 Political scientist.............................
526
052.067-014 Director, state-historical society..
524
052.067Historian..........................................
524
010, 018,
and 022
054.067-014 Sociologist......................................... 5 31,610
055.067Anthropologist................................
517
010 ,0 1 4 ,
018, and
022

029.067-010
070.
071.108-010
072.101010, 022,
026, and
030
073.061-010

Economic geographer....................
Physicians and surgeons.................
Osteopathic physician....................
Dentist...............................................

521
463
461
449

Veterinarian, laboratory animal
care...............................................
467
073.101-010 Veterinarian...................................... 4 6 7,607
and 014
073.161-010 Veterinary livestock-inspector......
467
073.261-010 Veterinary virus-serum inspector...
467
073.361-010 Laboratory technician,
649
veterinary...................................
074.161-010 Pharmacist.......................................
512
488
075.
Registered nurses............................
077.
Dietitians..........................................
505
078.211-010 Medical technologist, teaching
supervisor................................... 476, 649
078.161-010 Medical technologist, chief........... 4 76,649
078.161-010 Radiologic technologist, chief....... 483, 649
078.261-010 Biochemistry technologist..............
649
078.361- 014
Medical technologist...........
476
078.261-014 Microbiology technologist.............
649
078.381-010 Medical-laboratory assistant.........
476
and 014
078.381-014 Tissue technician............................
649
078.361-010 Dental hygienist..............................
453
and 014
078.362- 018
Electrocardiograph technician. 470
078.362- 018
Electroencephalograph
technician...................................
472
078.362- 026
Radiologic technician.........
483
078.687-010 Laboratory assistant, plasma
649
drawing-off.................................
076.101-010 Audiologist.......................................
502
079.101- 010
Chiropractor........................
458
079.101- 018
Optometrist...........................
459
079.101- 022
Podiatrist...............................
466
502
076.107-010 Speech pathologist..........................
076.121-010 Occupational therapist...................
495
076.124-014 Recreational therapist.....................
556
079.161-010 Industrial hygienist........................... 202,203
079.361-010 Inhalation therapist.........................
485
076.364-010 Occupational therapy aid...............
497
and
355.377-010
079.371-010 Dental assistant................................
451
079.374- 014
Nurse, licensed practical.....
490
076.121-014 Physical therapist............................
498
079.374- 022
Surgical technician...............
480
090.117-018 Dean of students..............................
139
090.117-030 Financial-aids officer......................
139
090.167-010 Department head.............................
215
090.167- 014
Director o f admissions........
139
090.167- 022
Director o f student affairs.
139
090.167- 030
Registrar, college or university.... 139
090.227-010 Faculty member, college or
university.....................................
215

DICTIONARY OF OCCUPATIONAL TITLES (D O T.) INDEX
D O T N o.
3 r d E d itio n
4 t h E d itio n

3 r d E d itio n T itle

Page

3rd edition Teacher, agriculture........................
609
title deleted
213
091.227- 010
Teacher, secondary sch ool.
092.228 092.227-010 Teacher, elementary school..........
211
092.227- 014
Teacher, kindergarten.........
211
096.128 096.127-014 Extension service specialist............
550
096.127-014 Home economist..............................
551
096.121-014 Home economist, consumer
service.........................................
550
099.228 099.227-010 Child mentor....................................
183
100.
100.
Librarians..........................................
220
100.388 079.367-014 Medical-record librarian................
510
110.108 110.107-010 Lawyer..............................................
145
110.117- 014
Lawyer, criminal..................
145
110.118 110.117-018 Lawyer, admiralty...........................
145
110.117- 022
Lawyer, corporation...........
145
145
110.117- 026
Lawyer, patent.....................
110.117- 030
Lawyer, probate...................
145
110.117- 034
Lawyer, real estate..............
145
119.168 119.167-018 Title supervisor................................
145
120.108 120.007-010 Clergy........................................5 4 4 ,5 4 5 ,5 4 7
129.108 129.107-018 Director of religious activities......
139
132.088 131.067-014 Copywriter.......................................
133
132.268 131.267-018 Reporter............................................
593
132.388 132.367-010 Editor, index....................................
95
137.268 137.267-010 Interpreter.........................................
591
139.288 131.267-026 Writer, technical publications.......
597
141.031 141.031-010 Directors, art....................................
577
141.081 141.061-018 Cover design....................................
577
141.061- 022 Illustrator................................... 133, 577
141.061- 026
Medical illustrator...............
577
141.168 141.067-010 Production manager, advertising...
133
142.051 142.051-014 Interior designer and director.......
585
142.081 142.061-018 Clothes designer............................... 637,710
142.081-010 Floral designer.................................
581
142.061- 026
Industrial designer...............
583
143.062 143.062Photographer...................................
588
018,030,
and 034
588
143.282 143.062-026 Photographer, scientific.................
143.382 143.362-010 Biological photographer.................
588
143.062- 014
Photographer, aerial...........
588
150.028 150.027-010 Dramatic coach...............................
567
150.027- 014
Teacher, drama...................
567
150.048 150.047-010 Actor.................................................
567
151.028 151.027-010 Choreographer................................
569
569
151.027- 014
Instructor, dancing..............
151.048 151.047-010 Dancer..............................................
569
152.028 152.021-010 Teacher, music................................. 571,573
152.048 3rd ed. title Musical entertainer.........................
571
deleted
152-041-010 Musician, instrumental...................
571
152.047- 014
Orchestra leader.................
571
152.047- 022
Singer....................................
573
159.148 159.147-010 Announcer.......................................
596
159.147- 010
Announcer, international
broadcast.....................................
596
159.147- 014
Disc jock ey..........................
596
159.147- 010
Sports announcer................
596
556
159.228 159.124-010 Counselor, camp.............................
160.188 160.167-010 Accountant.................................
130
161.118 161.117-018 Treasurer..........................................
120
162.158 162.157-038 Purchasing agent..................... 1 3 3 ,1 3 5 ,1 5 6
163.118 163.117-018 Manager, promotion......................
142
164.
164.
Advertising management
occupations................................
133
165.068 165.067-010 Public relations practitioner.........
153
166.
166.
Personnel and training
administration occupations......
150
166.168 166.167-014 Director of placement......................139,150
166.268 166.267-010 Placement officer..............................150,541
168.168 168.167-030 Building inspector...........................
197
168.267-022 Customs inspector...........................
199



7 91

D O T. N o.
3 r d E d itio n
4 t h E d itio n

091.228

168.268
168.284
168.287

168.288
169.118
169.168
169.188
182.168
184.168
185.168
186.118
186.138
186.168
186.288
187.118

187.168

188.118
189.118
189.168
191.118
193.168

193.282
194.168
194.281
194.282
194.782
195.108

195.118
195.168
195.208
195.228
196.168
196.228
196.268
196.283

3 r d E d it io n T itle

Page

168.167- 018 Health officer, field.................. 199, 202
168.167- 022
Immigration inspector........
199
168.167- 054
Manager, credit and collection.... 141
168.167- 078 Safety inspector................ 197, 202, 204
168.264-010 Operations inspector......................
202
202
168.264-014 Safety-and-sanitary inspector........
168.264-014 Safety inspector..............................
202
168.267-074 Check viewer, mining....................
199
168.267- 042
Food and drug inspector....
199
168.267- 062
Inspector, weights and measures ...199
168.287- 010
Plant-quarantine inspector.
199
168.287- 010
Poultry grader......................
199
168.267- 042
Sanitary inspector...............
199
125
168.267-014 Claim examiner...............................
169.207-010 Conciliator.......................................
150
166.167- 034 Labor relations specialist.........150, 151
166.167- 022
Salary and wage administrator.150, 15 1
169.167-010 Administrative assistant.................
508
169.167- 014
Administrative secretary....
508
169.167-058 Underwriter..................................... 128,762
182.167-030 Superintendent, maintenance of
way...............................................
317
184.167Manager, traffic..............................
143
066, 090,
and 094
185.167-034 Manager, merchandise...................
136
185.167- 046 Manager, store.......................... 120, 752
186.117-038 Manager, financial institution......
120
186.137-010 Manager, safe deposits...................
120
186.167-050 Operations officer..........................
120
186.267-018 Loan officer....................................
120
187.117-038 Manager, hotel................................
142
187.117- 050
Public health service officer... 508
187.117- 018
Superintendent, institution.
508
187.117- 054
Superintendent, recreation..... 556
181
187.167-030 Director, funeral............................
187.167- 038
Director, volunteer services.... 508
187.167- 110
Manager, front office..........
142
187.167- 190
Superintendent, building....
162
188.117-114 Manager, city..................................
137
189.117-026 President.........................................
120
189.167-018 Manager trainee.............................
120
191.117-030 Lease buyer.....................................
619
193.162Air-traffic controller......................
290
010, 014,
and 018
193.167- 010
Chief Controller..................
290
193.262-022 Radio officer.................................... 302,728
383
962.167-010 Sound effects supervisor...............
962.281-014 Sound effects technician...............
383
194.262-014 Sound controller............................
383
194.262-018 Sound mixer....................................
383
194.362-010 Recording-machine operator.......
383
195.107-010 Caseworker.....................................
562
195.167- 014
Community-relations and
services advisor, public
housing........................................
562
195.164-010 Group worker.................................
562
562
195.107- 022
Social group worker............
195.107- 026
Social worker, delinquency
prevention..................................
562
195.117-010 Administrator, social welfare.......
562
166.117- 014
Director, welfare.................
562
195.137-010 Casework supervisor......................
562
195.167- 018
Director, camp....................
556
195.167- 026
Director, recreation center.
556
195.367-010 Case aide.........................................
560
195.227-010 Program aide, group work............
562
195.227-014 Recreation leader...........................
556
196.167-010 Chief pilot.......................................
294
196.223-014 Instructor, pilot..............................
294
196.263-022 Check p ilo t.....................................
294
196.263-010 Airplane pilot...................................294,608

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

792

D O T. N o.
3 r d E d itio n
4 th E d itio n

197.130
197.133
197.136
197.168

3 r d E d itio n T itle

Page

D O T. N o .
3 r d E d itio n
4 t h E d itio n

197.130-010 Engineer............................................
301
219.388
197.133-022 Mate, ship.......................................... 301,727
727
197.130-010 Engineer............................................
197.167-010 M astersh ip ...................................... 301,727
197.167-014 Purser.................................................. 302, 728
198.168 197.167Conductor........................................
311
010, 014,
and 018
199.168 199.167-014 Urban planner..................................
158
199.381 199.361-010 Radiographer...................................
634
201.268 201.162-010 Social secretary...............................
102
201.368 201.362-030 Secretary...........................................
102
219.488
202.388 202.362-010 Court reporter..!..............................
102
202.362- 014
Stenographer.........................
102
219.588
203.
203.
Typists...............................................
109
222.138
203.582 203.382-026 Varitypists........................................
109
222.368
203.588 203.582-066 Mortgage clerk................................
109
222.387
203.582- 066
Policy writer..........................
109
222.388
205.368 209.362-026 Personnel clerk............................... 95, 106
222.478
206.388 206.362File clerk..........................................
95
222.488
010, and
222.587
206.367-014
222.588
206.588 206.587-010 Brand recorder.................................
106
207.782 207.682-010 Duplicating-machine operator II
and 014
and III..........................................
98
222.687
207.884 3rd ed. title Duplicating machine operator I...
98
223.138
deleted
223.368
207.885 207.685-014 Duplicating machine operator IV ..
98
223.387
208.588 203.582-058 Transcribing machine operator....
109
203.582- 062
Typesetter-perforator operator.... 109, 706
208.782 208.582Embossing-machine operator........
98
014, and
208.682-010
209.138 202.132-010 Stenographic-pool supervisor........
102
209.382 203.582-062 Justowriter operator.......................
109
209.388 203.362-010 Clerk-typist......................................
109
249.382- 010
Mortgage clerk.....................
119
223.388
223.588
3rd ed. title Waybill clerk..................................... 106, 109
deleted
209.488 209.362-010 Circulation clerk.............................
109
223.687
209.587 209.587-046 Sample clerk, paper.......................
109
231.388
209.588 3rd ed. title Car checker...................................... 106, 109
231.688
deleted
232.138
209.688 209.687-010 Checker II........................................ 104,706
232.368
210.368 210.367-010 Account-information clerk...........
91
233.138
210.388 210.382-014 Bookkeeper (clerical) 1 ................. 9 1 ,118
233.388
210.382- 018
Bookkeeper (clerical) II..... 9 1 ,118
210.488 216.482-026 Dividend-deposit-voucher quoter..
91
91
210.588 205.567-010 Insurance clerk...............................
234.
211.
211.
Cashiers............................................
92
235.862
211.468 211.467-030 Station agent II............................... 9 2 ,3 1 6
212.368 211.362Teller.................................................
121
236.588
018, 022,
and 026
237.368
213.138 213.132-010 Supervisory, computer
239.588
operations....................................
I ll
213.132-014 Supervisory, machine-records
240.368
unit...............................................
111
241.168
213.382 213.382-010 Card-tape-converter operator.......
I ll
241.368
213.362- 010
Console operator.................
I ll
213.382- 010
High-speed printer operator...
I l l 242.368
213.582 203.582-030 Key-punch operator.......................
I ll
249.268
213.588 203.582-022 Data typist........................................
I ll
249.368
213.782 213.682-010 Tabulating-machine operator........
98
249.388
213.885 208.685-030 Sorting-machine operator.............
I ll
250.258
214.488 214.482-010 Billing-machine operator...............
98
215.388 210.382-022 Bookkeeping-machine operator I .. 98, 118
250.358
216.388 210.382-026 Bookkeeping-machine operator
251.258
91
II...................................................
26
216.488 216.482-014 Adding-machine operator..............
98
27
216.482-022 Calculating-machine operator.......
98
28
217.388 217.382-010 Proof-machine operator.................
118
266.158
217.382- 014
Transit clerk..........................
118



3 r d E d itio n T itle

Page

216.382-062 Actuarial clerk................................. 91, 106
214.382- 014 Billing clerk......................... 91, 106,728
209.387- 010
Coding clerk........................ 9 1 ,1 0 6
216.362- 014
Country-collection clerk.... 9 1 ,118
215.362- 010
Crew scheduler.................... 9 1 ,1 0 6
214.362- 010
Demurrage clerk.................. 91, 106
216.362- 018
Exchange clerk.................... 9 1 ,118
216.382- 038
Interest clerk......................... 91, 118
214.362- 014
Manifest clerk...................... 9 1 ,728
217.382- 010
Sorting clerk........................ 9 1 ,118
216.382- 062
Statistical clerk..................... 91, 106
216.482-010 Accounting clerk..................... 91, 106, 118
219.482-014 Policy checker................................ 9 1 ,1 0 6
216.587-014 Posting clerk.................................... 9 1 ,1 0 6
222.137-030 Shipping clerk.................................
104
222.367-018 Expediter..........................................
104
222.387-050 Shipping and receiving clerk........
104
248.367-022 Container coordinator...................
104
369.477-014 Retail-receiving clerk.....................
104
214.362-014 Manifest clerk................................. 104, 742
104
222.387-050 Shipping clerk.................................
214.587-014 Traffic clerk....................................
104
and
219.367- 030
222.687-030 Shipping checker.............................104, 106
222.137-034 Supervisor, stock.............................
108
249.367-066 Procurement clerk..........................
108
222.367-010 Checker............................................
104
222.387- 030
Linen room attendant.........
108
222.367- 038
Magazine keeper..................
108
222.387- 034
Material clerk ......................
108
222.367- 042
Parts clerk............................. 108, 742
222.387- 058
Stock clerk............................
108
222.387- 062
Storekeeper...........................
108
206.387- 030
Tape librarian......................
112
222.367- 062
Tool clerk.............................
108
222.387-026 Inventory clerk................................
108
222.587-050 Swatch clerk ...................................
108
222.587- 030
Tallier......................................106, 108
222.687-010 Checker I ........................................
108
222.387-038 Parcel-post clerk............................
99
209.687-014 Distribution clerk...........................
99
243.137-010 Supervisor, mails............................
99
243.367-014 Post-office clerk..............................
99
206
230.137-018 Supervisor, carrier.........................
230.363-010 Mail carriers....................................
206
and
230.367- 010
234.
Mail-preparing and mailhandling-machine operators....
98
235.662-018 Information operator...................... 101, 208
235.662-022 Telephone operator........................ 101, 208
236.562-010 Telegrapher..,..................................
317
and 014
101
237.367-038 Receptionist....................................
209.567-010 Meter reader...................................
726
222.587- 038
Router....................................
104
241.367-010 Collector..........................................
94
241.217-010 Claim adjuster................................. 125,761
241.367-014 Adjustment clerk...........................
742
97
238.362-010 Hotel clerk......................................
238.367- 030
Travel clerk..........................
248
241.267-018 Claim examiner............................... 125,761
249.367-046 Library assistant..............................
223
245.362-010 Medical record clerk.....................
478
250.257-010 Life underwriter...............................234,761
250.257-010 Sales agent, insurance.....................234, 761
250.357-018 Sales agent, real estate...................
240
251.157-010 Sales agent, securities..................... 246,761
26
27
Salesworkers, commodities...236, 242, 250
28
262.157-010 Pharmaceutical detailer.................
649

793

DICTIONARY OF OCCUPATIONAL TITLES (D O T.) INDEX
D O T. N o.
3 r d E d itio n
4 th E d itio n

3 r d E d it io n T itle

280.358 273.353-010 Sales associate, automobile..........
289.358 279.357-062 Salesperson, parts.........................
290.
290.
Sales clerks.....................................
292.358 292.353-010 Driver, sales route.......................... 244,
292.887 292.667-010 Driver helper, sales route............ 245,
297.868 297.667-014 Model...............................................
298.081 298.081-010 Merchandise displayer..................
299.381 864.381-010 Carpet layer...................................
299.468 211.462-014 Cashier-checker.............................
299.884 299.474-010 Optician, dispensing......................
301.887 301.687-014 Day worker.....................................
303.138 301.137-010 Housekeeper, hom e......................
304.887 3rd ed. title Caretaker........................................
deleted
301.687-018 Yard worker....................................
305.281 305.281-010 C o o k ................................................
306.878 301.474-010 Houseworker, general...................
307.878 301.677-010 Child monitor.................................
309.
309.
Domestic service occupations,
n.e.c..............................................
309.138 309.137-010 Butler..............................................
309.878 309.677-010 Companion......................................
309.674-014 Lady’s attendant............................
309.674-014 Gentleman’s attendant..................
311.
311.
Waiters, waitresses, and related
food servicing occupations.......
311.878 311.677-014 Counter attendant, cafeteria........
311.477-014 Counter attendant, lunchroom or
coffee shop.................................
311.677-018 Dining room attendant..................
312.878 312.477-010 Bar attendant.................................
312.474-010 Bartender........................................
312.887 312.687-010 Bartender helper............................
313.
313.
Chefs and cooks, large hotels
and restaurants...........................
314.
314.
Chefs and cooks, small hotels
and restaurants...........................
315.
315.
Miscellaneous cooks, except
domestic......................................
315.131 315.131-010 Cook, chief.............................168, 306,
316.
316.
Meatcutters, except in
slaughtering and packing
houses..........................................
318.887 318.687-014 Utility hand.................................... 306,
318.687-010 Dishwasher......................................
319.878 319.474-010 Fountain server..............................
321.138 321.137-010 Housekeeper..................................
321.137-014 Inspector.........................................
324.
324.
Bellhop and related occupations .
330.371 330.371-010 Barber.............................................
330.371-014 Barber apprentice..........................
331.878 331.674-010 Manicurist.......................................
332.271 332.271-010 Cosmetologist.................................
332.381 332.361-010 Wig dresser....................................
338.381 338.371-014 Embalmer........................................
339.371 339.371-010 Electrologist....................................
339.371-014 Scalp-treatment operator.............
350.138 350.137-014 Steward/stewardess, chief, cargo
vessel........................................... 305,
350.878 350.677-010 Mess attendant............................... 306,
352.878 352.367-010 Airplane-flight attendant..............
355.687 355.687-010 Clothes-room worker....................
355.878 355.354-010 Attendant, physical therapy.........
355.677-014 Emergency-entrance attendant....
355.677-014 Hospital guide................................
355.674-014 Nurse aid.........................................
355.674-018 Orderly............................................
355.377-014 Psychiatric aid................................
355.677-010 Tray-line worker............................
355.887 355.667-010 Morgue attendant..........................
356.381 418.381-010 Horseshoer......................................
361.885 361.665-010 Washer, machine...........................
362.381 362.381-010 Spotter............................................



Page

229
227
242
770
643
238
579
268
92
506
183
183
183
183
183
183
183

D O T. N o.
3 r d E d itio n
4 th E d itio n

362.782
363.782
363.884
363.885
363.886
365.381
369.687
369.887
372.868
373.
375.118
375.138
375.168

3 r d E d itio n T itle

Page

362.382-014 Dry cleaner.....................................
770
363.682-018 Presser, machine..................... 639,770,771
363.582-018 Shirt finisher.................................. 770, 771
363.684-018 Presser, hand...................................
639
363.685-018 Presser, form...................................
639
363.686-010 Flatwork finisher.............................
770
437
365.361-014 Shoe repairer ..................................
369.687-010 Assembler........................................
771
369.687- 022 Inspector..........................................
771
369.687-026 Counter clerk..................................
770
369.687- 026 Marker.............................................
770
372.667-030 Guard.................................................186,191
and 034
373.
Firefighter, firedepartment...........
189
375.117-010 Police ch ief.......................................193,195
375.137-014 Desk officer......................................193,195
375.137-022 Secretary of police........................ 193, 195
375.133Police officer.................. 1 8 6 ,1 8 8 ,1 9 3 ,1 9 5
010;

183
183
183
183
183
174
172
172
170
167
167
168

375.228
375.268

168
168
168
728

375.388
375.588
375.868

173
728
170
172
163
163
178
177
177
179
179
179
181
179
179

377.868

728
728
297
492
500
492
492
492
492
492
492
492
60
770
771

379.387
381.137
381.887

382.884
389.781
389.884
441.137
441.168
441.384
441.687
441.887

449.287
500.380
500.781
500.782

500.884

375.137026;
375.163010, and
014; and
375.167010, 014,
018, 022,
026, 030,
0 3 4 ,and
046
375.227-010 Police-academy instructor.......... 193, 195
375.263Police officer....................................193, 195
014, 022,
026, and
030; and
375.267-010
and 018
375.263- 018
State-highway policeofficer..... 195
375.387-010 Fingerprint classifier...................... 193,195
375.587-010 Parking enforcementofficer.........
193
375.363-010 Border guard..................................
193
375.367-010 Police officer III.............................186, 193
377.667-010 Bailiff..............................................
193
377.263- 010
Sheriff, deputy.....................
193
373.367-010 Fire inspector.................................
202
381.137-010 Charworker, head.........................
162
381.137-010 Porter, head..................................
162
381.687-014 Charworker....................................
162
381.687- 022
Cleaner, laboratory equipment.... 162
381.687- 014
Porter 1....................................162,170
381.687- 018 Porter II..................................... 162, 170
382.664-010 Janitor 1...........................................
162
383.364-010 Termite treater..............................
164
389.684-010 Exterminator..................................
164
452.687-014 Suppression-crew leader..............
336
336
452.367-010 Fire lookout...................................
452.167-010 Firewarden...................................
336
452.364-010 Forester aid..................................... 336,674
452.367-014 Fire ranger.....................................
336
452.687-014 Forest-fire fighter..........................
336
452.687- 010
Sprayer..................................
336
452.687- 018
Tree planter.........................
336
452.687- 010
Tree pruner..........................
336
459.387-010 Cruiser............................................
674
500.380-010 Plater...............................................
628
500.380-014 Plater apprentice...........................
66
500.381-010 Cylinder grinder............................
66
500.362-010 Electrogalvanizing-machine
operator.......................................
66
66
500.362-014 Plater, barrel.................................
512.382-010 Tin recovery worker....................
66
500.384-010 Matrix-plater..................................
66

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

794

D O T . N o.
3 r d E d itio n
4 th E dition

500.885
500.886
501.782
501.885
502.884
502.887
503.885
503.887
504.782
512.132
512.782
512.885

500.365-010
500.485- 010
500.686-010
500.682-010
501.685-010
502.664-010
502.687-010
509.687- 022
503.685-030
503.687-010
504.682-010
and 018
512.132-010
512.362-018
512.382- 010
512.382- 014
512.685-018
512.685- 022

514.687
514.782
514.884

514.687-010
514.662-010
514.684-022
514.664-014
514.887 519.684-010
518.381 518.381-014
518.381- 014
518.361- 010
518.381- 014
518.361- 010
518.782 518.682-010
518.884 518.684-010
518.885 518.685014, 018,

3 r d E d it io n T itle

Page

Plater, production.......................... 66, 682
Zinc-plating-machine operator .... 66, 682
Laborer, electroplating.................
66
Anodizer.........................................
654
Plater, hot dip................................
654
Blast-furnace keeper.....................
666
666
Blast-furnace-keeper helper.........
Charge-gang weigher....................
632
Pickier..............................................
69
Sandblaster (shotblaster)............. 69,658
Heat treater (annealer)........69, 628, 659
Melter supervisor............................ 633, 667
Furnace operator...........................
658
Oxygen-furnace operator.............
667
Stove tender....................................
666
Pot tender.......................................
632
Reclamation kettle tender, metal
(remelt operator)......................
632
Casting inspector...........................
659
Casting operator....................632, 658, 668
Pourer, m etal................................... 658, 668
Tapper..............................................
632
Tapper helper................................
632
Coremaker......................................
658
Coremaker, b ench........................
36
Molder, bench................................. 35, 658
Coremaker, floor........................... 36, 658
Molder, floor...................................
35
Machine molder............................. 35, 658
Core setter......................................
658
Coremaker, machine..................... 36, 658

022

519.132
519.884
519.887
520.884
520.885

521.885
524.884
524.885
526.781
526.885
526.886
530.782
532.782
532.885
533.782
534.782
539.782
541.782

518.685- 010
519.132-010
and 014
519.664-014
519.687-022
519.687- 022
519.687- 022
520.384-010
520.685-010
520.685- 086
520.685- 114
520.685- 138
520.685- 086
521.685-302
524.684-022
524.685-034
526.381-010
526.685-010
526.686-010
530.662-010
532.362-010
532.685-010
669.485-010
669.485- 010
534.682-038
539.362-014
541.382-010
541.382- 014

Core-oven tender...........................
Supervisor, blast furnace
(blow er)......................................
Pot liner..........................................
Foundry worker, general..............
Molder helper................................
Shake-out worker...........................
Bench hand.....................................
Batter mixer....................................
Dividing-machine operator..........
Icing mixer......................................
Mixer................................................
Molding machine operator..........
Slicing machine operator.............
leer, hand........................................
leer, machine.................................
Baker................................................
Oven tender....................................
Baker helper...................................
Beater engineer..............................
Digestor operator...........................
Back tender.....................................
Drum-barker operator...................675,
Power barker operator................... 675,
Supercalendar operator................
Fourdrinier-machine tender
(Paper machine operator)........
Coal washer....................................
Crude-oil treater (Dehydrationplant operator)...........................
014
Crude-oil treater (treater)...........
Refinery operator...........................
Preparation plant supervisor........
Still-pump operator.......................
Treater.............................................
Pumper helper...............................
Compounder...................................
Coater..............................................

541.382542.280 549.260-010
549.138 549.137-014
549.782 549.362-010
549.362- 014
549.884 549.684-010
550.885 550.685-046
554.782 554.382-010



658
666
633
658
658
658
642
642
642
643
643
642
643
643
643
643
642
643
697
697
698
696
696
698
698
616
620
619
701
616
701
701
701
649
649

D O T. N o .
3 r d E d itio n
4 t h E d itio n

3 r d E d it io n T itle

Page

556.782 556.382-010 Compressor......................................
649
558.885 558.585-014 Chemical operator II.......................
662
559.687 559.687-010 Ampoule examiner..........................
649
559.667-010 Tablet tester...................................
649
559.782 559.382-018 Chemical operator III....................
662
559.382- 026
Granulator-machine operator. 649
559.382- 042
Pharmaceutical operator, senior.. 649
559.682- 054
Pharmaceutical operator, senior.. 649
559.885 559.685-018 Ampoule filler..................................
649
675
563.381 563.382-010 Kiln operator....................................
579.782 570.682-018 Sand mixer, machine......................
658
590.885 590.685-030 Etcher, printed circuits..................
654
590.684- 014
Firer.......................................
654
590.685- 034
Firer.......................................
654
599.885 599.685-110 Tumbler operator............................
658
40
600.280 600.280-010 Instrument maker II........................
600.280- 022 Machinist 1........................... 11, 315, 628
600.280- 050 Patternmaker, m etal................ 33, 658
600.281 600.281-022 Machine builder.............................. 38,628
44
600.380 600.380-014 Job setter.........................................
600.381 600.281-018 Lay-outworker................................
38
601.280 601.280-022 Die sinker.........................................
45
601.280- 046
Tool-and-die maker............ 11,628
601.281 601.281-010 Die maker, bench, stamping.........
11,69
601.281- 026
Tool maker, bench..............
11
601.381 601.381-026 Plastic tool maker..........................
11
602.
602.
Gear machining occupations.......
42
603.
603.
Abrading occupations....................
42
604.
604.
Turning occupations......................
42
605.
605.
Mining and milling occupations...
42
605.782 605.682-022 Scalper operator.............................
633
606.
606.
Boring occupations........................
42
609.381 609.361-010 Inspector, floor...............................629,694
609.885 609.685-018 Production-machine operator
(machine to o l)...........................
628
610.381 610.381-010 Blacksmith...................................... 60,315
610.782 610.462-010 Drop-hammer operator...................
68
611.782 611.482-010 Forging-press operator I ................
68
611.462- 010
Upsetter................................
68
611.885 611.685-010 Forging-press operator II...............
68
612.281 612.261-010 Inspector..........................................
69
612.381 612.361-010 Hammersmith..................................
68
613.782 613.462-014 Furnace operator (soaking pit
operator).....................................
633
613.362- 010
Heater....................................
668
613.682- 010
Manipulator..........................
668
613.682- 018
Roller.....................................
668
633
613.462- 018
Rolling-mill operator...........
613.362- 018
Rougher................................
669
613.662-014 Rougher operator (pulpit)............
669
613.362- 022
Speed operator.....................
669
633
613.885 613.685-010 Coiler...............................................
613.685- 014
Heater helper.......................
668
613.685- 018
Piercing-mill operator (piercermachine ) .....................................
669
614.782 614.482-018 Extrusion-press operator I ............
633
614.382- 014
Wire drawer...........................6 33,669
615.782 615.482-034 Shear operator I (power)..............
628
615.482- 022
Punch press operator 1........
628
615.682- 014
Punch press operator II......
628
615.482- 034
Shear operator 1...................
668
615.885 615.685-034 Shear operator II.............................
628
617.782 617.682-014 Bumper operator (power
hammer)......................................
628
617.885 615.685-030 Trimming-press operator
(trimmer)....................................
69
617.685- 026
Punch-press operator IV.....
654
617.685- 030
Punch-press operator II......
654
619.782 619.682-022 Heater...............................................
68
619.582-010 Stretcher-leveler operator..............
633
j 619.886 619.686-030 Stretcher-leveler-operator helper...
633

DICTIONARY OF OCCUPATIONAL TITLES (D O T.) INDEX
D O T . N o.
3 r d E d itio n
4 t h E d itio n

3 r d E d itio n T itle

Page

620.131 3rd ed. title Automobile mechanic, chief........
408
deleted
620.281 620.261-010 Automobile mechanic....................
408
620.261- 018
Automobile-repair-service
estimator........................................ 231, 408
620.281- 054
Motorcycle repairer.............. 408, 433
620.261- 010 Truck mechanic................ 408, 440, 743
620.381 3rd ed. title Automobile-service mechanic......
408
deleted
620.384 620.384-010 Motorcycle tester............................
433
408
620.782 620.682-010 Brake-drum-lathe operator...........
620.884 620.684-014 Truck-mechanic helper...................408,743
620.885 620.685-010 Bonder, automobile brakes...........
408
621.281 620.281-014 Aircraft-and-engine mechanic......
292
622.381 622.381-014 Car repairer.....................................
314
623.281 623.281-038 Motorboat mechanic......................
411
624.281 624.281-010 Farm-equipment mechanic 1.........
422
624.381 624.381-014 Field equipment mechanic II........
422
625.281 625.281-010 Diesel mechanic............................... 4 11,419
625.281- 030 Rocket-engine-component
mechanic (assembly).................
629
411
623.261- 014
Outboard-motor tester........
626.
626.
Metalworking machinery
mechanics....................................
424
627.
627.
Printing and publishing
mechanics and repairers...........
424
628.
628.
Textile machinery and
equipment mechanics and
repairers................................
424
629.
629.
Special industry machinery
mechanics....................................
424
630.
630.
General industry mechanics and
repairers......................................
424
630.884 630.684-010 Anode rebuilder..............................
424
631.
631.
Powerplant mechanics and
repairers......................................
424
633.281 633.261-010 Assembly technicians.....................
414
414
633.281- 010
Cash register services..........
633.281- 014
Dictating-transcribing-machine
servicer........................................
414
633.261- 010
Machine analyst...................
414
633.261- 014 Mail-processing-equipment
mechanic.....................................
414
633.281- 018
Office-machine servicer......
414
633.281- 022 Office-machine-servicer,
apprentice....................................
414
633.281- 030
Statistical-machine servicer.... 414
637.281 637.261Air-conditioning and
010, 014,
refrigeration mechanic............. 403, 405
018, and
026
637.261- 018
Gas-appliance servicer.......... 403,405
637.381 637.381-010 Air-conditioning and
and 014
refrigeration mechanics............
403
638.281 638.281-018 Millwright.........................................
73
639.381 639.281-014 Vending machine repairer............
442
641.885 649.685-042 Envelope machine operator..........
698
649.687 649.687-010 Paper sorter and counter..............
698
650.582 650.582-010 Linotype operator...........................
48
650.582- 014
Monotype keyboard operator.
48
650.582- 022
Phototypesetter operator...
48
651.782 651.482-010 Offset press operator I
lithographic................................
53
3rd ed. title Printing press operator................. 53, 706
deleted
659.662-010 Printer-slotter operator..................
698
651.885 651.685-018 Offset press operator II.................. 5 3 ,7 0 6
651.886 651.686-010 Cylinder-press feeder..................... 5 3 ,7 0 6
654.782 654.382-010 Casting-machine operator
47
(m onotype)................................
661.281 661.281-022 Patternmaker, wood....................... 33,658



795
D O T. N o.
3 r d E d itio n
4 t h E d itio n

3 r d E d itio n T itle

Page

665.782 665.482-018 Planer operator...............................
676
667.782 667.482-022 Trimmer...........................................
675
667.682- 050
Pony edger............................
675
667.662-010 Head sawyer...................................
675
667.885 3rd ed. title Block setter....................................
675
deleted
675
667.887 667.687-010 Deck worker...................................
697
668.885 564.685-014 Chipper............................................
669.587 669.587-010 Grader............................................ 675,676
674.782 674.382-010 Glass lathe operator.......................
654
654
692.885 692.685Sealing machine operator..............
158, 162,
and 166
693.280 693.280-010 Form builder (jig and fixture)......
628
699.887 699.687-014 Machine cleaner (w iper)............. 305, 727
700.281 700.281-010 Jeweler..............................................
428
428
700.381 700.381-010 Chain maker, hard..........................
700.381- 014
Fancy-wire drawer1..............
428
700.381- 018
Goldbeater............................
428
700.381- 026
Lay-outworker....................
428
700.381- 030
Locket maker.......................
428
700.381- 034
Mold maker 1.......................
428
700.381- 042
Ring Maker 1........................
428
700.381- 054
Stone Setter.........................
428
705.884 705.484-010 Grinder..............................................
59
and 014
705.684Metal finisher.................................
682
026, 030,
and 034
705.684Polisher...........................................
682
058, 062,
and 066
706.687 706.687-026 Inspector, type................................
694
706.884 706.684-014 Assembler........................................
693
709.281 709.281-010 Locksmith........................................
429
429
709.281-014 Locksmith apprentice....................
709.884 709.684-090 Tube bender, hand I ......................
628
710.131 710.131-022 Instrument-repair supervisor.........
426
710.281 710.281-030 Instrument mechanic.....................
426
711.381 716.280-014 Bench technician, eye-glass lens..
76
455
712.381 712.381-018 Dental-laboratory technician........
506
713.251 713.361-014 Optician, dispensing.......................
713.381 716.280-014 Optician...........................................
506
716.280- 010
Optician apprentice............
506
713.884 713.384-010 Assembler, gold frame...................
76
713.684- 014
Assembler, molded frames.
76
716.685- 022
Contact-lens-curve grinder.
76
76
716.685- 022
Contact-lens-edge buffer....
76
716.682- 018
Contact-lens polisher..........
716.685- 022
Countersink grinder............
76
713.684- 022
Embosser and trimmer........
76
716.682- 010
Eyeglass-lens cutter.............
76
713.684- 030
Frame carver, spindle.........
76
713.684- 018
Groover.................................
76
713.687-042 Heating-fixture tender....................
76
711.381- 010
Lens assembler.....................
76
716.381- 014
Lens blank marker..............
76
716.682- 014
Lens generator 1...................
76
713.681- 010
Mounter and repairer.........
76
713.681- 010
Plastic-frame lens mounter.
76
713.684- 038
Polisher II..............................
76
713.684- 026
Spectacles truer...................
76
713.681- 010
Trim mounter.......................
76
715.281 715.281-010 Repairer (w atch )............................
445
720.281 720.281-010 Radio repairer..................................
439
720.281- 018
Television-and-radio repairer.. 439
720.884 726.684-026 Aliner................................................
653
726.684- 018
Cabinet mounter..................
653
721.281 721.261-010 Electric-motor analyst....................
408
721.281- 014
Electric-motor assembler and
tester............................................
408
721.281- 018
Electric-motor repairer.......
408

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

796
D O T N o.
3 r d E d itio n
4 t h E d itio n

3 r d E d itio n T itle

Page

721.281- 026 Propulsion-motor-and-generator
408
repairer........................................
721.381 721.381-010 Electric-motor fitter......................
315
722.281 726.381-010 Inspector, systems...........................655, 694
723.381 723.381-010 Electrical appliance repairer........
405
723.884 723.584-010 Appliance repairer..........................405, 654
654
724.781 724.684-026 Coil, winder 1..................................
724.884 724.684-026 Coil winder, hand..........................
654
725.884 725.384-010 Exhaust operator (la th e).............
654
725.384-010 Grid operator (lathe)....................
654
726.384 726.381-010 Inspector, subassemblies...............
694
726.781 726.684-018 Electronics assembler.................... 653, 693
726.884 728.684-010 Cable maker.....................................653, 693
726.684- 018 Capacitor assembler....................... 653, 693
726.684- 018 Capacitor winder....................................653,693
590.684- 022 Crystal finisher................................ 654, 693
590.684- 022 Crystal lapper.......................................... 654,693
726.887 726.687-018 Silk-screen printer..........................
654
729.281 729.281-026 Electrical-instrument repairer......
426
729.281- 034 Inside-meter tester..................................426,726
729.281- 014 Electric meter repairer..........................426,726
729.884 726.684-018 Chassis assembler...........................
653
730.281 730.281-038 Piano technician............................
435
730.381 730.361Pipe-organ technician ....................
435
014; and
730.381- 038
and 046
730.361- 010 Piano tuner.....................................
435
741.887 741.684-026 Sprayer.............................................
682
70
780.381 780.381-018 Furniture upholsterer....................
682
780.884 780.684-050 Cushion builder..............................
780.685- 014 Stuffing machine operator...........
682
637
781.381 781.381-022 Pattern cutter (grader).................
Patternmaker..................................
637
781.381026
638
781.484 781.384-014 Marker.............................................
638
781.687 781.687-010 Assembler (bundler or fitter)......
781.884 781.584-014 Cutter.................................................638, 682
and
781.684- 014
638
781.685- 010 Spreader II (m achine)..................
638
781.887 781.687-058 Spreader I (hand)..........................
639
781.687- 070 Trimmer, hand...............................
638
782.884 782.684-058 Sewer, hand....................................
771
782.684-042 Mender.............................................
639
783.381 783.381-014 Fur finisher.....................................
639
783.781 783.381-010 Fur cutter........................................
639
783.884 783.684-014 Fur nailer........................................
639
785.261 785.261-014 Tailor...............................................
and 022
639
785.281 785.261-010 Busheler..........................................
639
785.361 785.361-010 Dressmaker.....................................
637
785.381 785.361-018 Sample stitcher..............................
Tailor...............................................
639
785.361014, 018,
and 022
639
787.782 783.682-010 Fur machine operator...................
780.682-018 Sewing machine operator............. 638, 682
639
789.687 789.687-070 Inspector or checker.....................
628
800.884 800.684-010 Riveter, aircraft..............................
801.281 801.261-014 Fitter 1............................................... 273, 615
273
801.381 801.381-014 Fitter................................................
273
801.781 801.361-014 Structural-steel worker.................
801.361- 018 Structural-steel-worker
apprentice....................................
273
273
801.884 801.684-026 Reinforcing-iron worker...............
670
801.564-010 Roll turner......................................
801.887 869.687-026 Laborer, corrugated-iron-culvert
placing.........................................
273
261
869.687- 026 Structural-steel-worker helper.....
804.281 804.281-010 Sheet-metal worker.............. 285, 315, 628
285
804.884 869.664-014 Duct installer..................................



D O T. N o.
3 r d E d itio n
4 t h E d itio n

805.281
806.281
806.283
806.381

806.382
806.387
806.684
806.687
806.781
806.887
807.381
809.381

809.781
809.884
809.887
810.
810.782
810.884
811.
811.782
811.884
812.
812.884
813.
814.
815.
816.
819.
819.781
819.887
821.281
821.381
821.387
821.887
822.281

822.381

822.884
823.281
824.281
825.281
825.381
827.281
828.281
829.281

3 r d E d itio n T itle

Page

Boilermaker 1................................ 63,315
Dynamometer tester, motor........
682
Test driver II.................................
682
Final inspector, trucktrailer........
682
Inspector, assemblies and
installations................................. 629, 682
806.281- 046 Outside-production inspector.....692, 682
806.382-014 Hypoid-gear tester........................
682
806.384- 014 Inspector, returned materials......
682
806.684- 134 Transmission tester......................
682
806.687- 018 Final inspector..............................
682
806.361- 014 Assembler-installer, general
629
(final assembler).......................
806.684- 010 Assembler......................................
682
807.381- 010 Automobile body repairer..........
407
809.281- 010 Lay-out worker 1........................... 6 3 ,273
809.381- 022 Ornamental-ironworker...............
273
809.281- 010 Structural-steel lay-out worker ....
273
809.381- 014 Lay-out worker II.......................... 63,273
273
809.884-014 Assembler, production line I ......
809.684- 026 Grinder-chipper............................
658
869.687- 026 Laborer, steel handling................
261
869.664-014 Omamental-iron-worker helper...
261
810.
Arc welders....................................
85
810.382- 010 W elder........................................... 85,628
810.384- 014 W elder............................................ 85,628
811.
Gas welders.....................................
85
811.482-010 Welding-machine operator, gas ... 85, 628
811.684- 014 Welder, g a s.................................... 85,628
812.
Combination arc welders and gas
welders........................................
85
819.684- 010 Welder, production line............. 85, 628
813.
Resistance welders........................ 85,628
814.
Brazing, braze-welding, and
soldering occupations................
85
815.
Lead-burning occupations...........
85
816.
Flame cutters and arc cutters......
85
819.
Welders, flame cutters, and
related occupations, n e c ..........
85
819.381- 010 Welder assembler (fitter)............ 6 3,85
819.687- 014 Welder helper...............................
85
821.261- 026 Trouble shooter II.........................
725
821.361- 010 Cable installer repairer.............. 264, 724
821.361- 018 Line erector (line installer)........
724
821.361- 014 Electric-meter, installer 1.............
726
821.367-014 Safety inspector............................
202
821.684- 014 Ground helper..............................315, 725
395
822.281- 014 Central-office repairer.................
822.281- 022 Private-branch-exchange (PBX)
repairer........................................
400
822.281- 026 Signal maintainer..........................
315
822.281- 014 Telephone repairer.......................
400
and 022
822.361- 014 Central-office installer.................
397
822.381- 014 Line installer..................................
398
822.381- 018 PBX installer..................................
400
822.261- 022 Station installer (telephone
installer) ......................................
400
822.361- 030 Trouble locator.............................
395
395
822.684- 010 Frame wirer...................................
822.684- 018 Signal maintainer helper..............
315
823.281- 018 Meteorological-equipment
repairer........................................
426
824.261- 010 Electrician.......................................
420
824.281- 018 Neon-sign servicer........................
420
825.281- 014 Electrician............................264, 305, 431
825.281- 022 Electrician, automotive.................
408
825.361- 010 Elevator constructor.....................
266
405
827.261- 010 Electrical-appliance servicer........
828.281- 010 Electronics mechanic.................416, 426
829.281- 014 Electrical repairer............... 264, 412, 431
828.261- 010 Electronic-organ technician.........
435
805.261- 014
806.281- 010
806.283-010
806.361- 018
806.281- 022

DICTIONARY OF OCCUPATIONAL TITLES (D O T.) INDEX
D O T . N o.
3 r d E d itio n
4 t h E d itio n

3 r d E d itio n T itle

Page

797

D O
3 r d E d itio n

825.281-030 Elevator repairer............................266, 431
and 034
638.261- 022
Pinsetter mechanic, automatic................. 412
829.381 829.361-101 Cable splicer............................ 2 6 4 ,3 9 8 ,7 2 5
828.261- 010
Organ tuner, electronic.......
435
852.883
278
840.381 840.681-010 Painter, stage settings....................
840.781 840.381-010 Painter...............................................
278
840.884 869.664-014 Painter, rough.................................
278
869.664- 014
Painter, structural steel.......
278
852.884
840.887 842.664-010 Dry wall sander...............................
262
841.781 841.381-010 Paper hanger....................................
278
280
842.381 842.381-014 Stucco mason..................................
852.887
842.781 842.361-010 Lather...............................................
274
842.361-018 Plasterer.........................................
280
842.884 842.681-010 Dry-wall applicator........................
262
853.782
842.664- 010
Taper......................................
262
842.887 869.687-026 Plasterer helper...............................
261
284
843.884 869.664-014 Waterproofer..................................
853.883
844.884 869.664-014 Cement-sprayer, nozzle..................
259
844.364-010 Cement mason..............................
259
853.887
and 014
844.684-010 Concrete rubber............................
261
869.664- 014
Concrete-wall-grinder operator ...261
859.782
844.887 844.687-010 Cement-sprayer helper, nozzle ....
261
869.687- 026
Cement mason helper.........
261
869.687- 026
Concrete-vibrator operator.
261
869.687- 026
Concrete-vibrator-operator
helper..........................................
261
869.687- 026
Grouter helper.....................
261
869.687- 026
Inserter..................................
261
869.687- 026
Oil sprayer II........................
261
859.883
869.687- 026
Stone-and-concrete washer.
261
845.781 845.381-014 Painter, aircraft...............................
628
845.381-014 Painter, automobile......................
58
850.782 850.662-010 Horizontal-earth-boring-machine
276
operator.......................................
850.682- 010
Shield runner.......................
276
850.883 850.683-010 Bulldozer operator 1.......................
276
850.663- 010
Dredge operator...................
276
859.884
850.663- 018
Lock tender II......................
276
850.683- 026
Mucking-machine operator.
276
276
850.683- 030
Power-shovel operator........
850.683- 034
Rock-drill operator 1...........
276
850.683- 038
Scraper operator..................
276
850.683- 042
Tower-excavator operator.
276
850.683- 046
Trench-digging-machine operator276
859.887
850.884 869.687-026 Bell-hole digger...............................
276
869.687- 026
Trench trimmer, fin e ..........
276
850.684- 018
Stripping-shovel oiler..........
276
850.887 869.687-026 Crushed stone grader.....................
261
869.687- 026
Dredge pipe installer...........
261
850.684- 014
Horizontal-earth boring-machine261
operator helper...........................
869.687- 026
Laborer, pile driving, ground
w ork.............................................
261
869.687- 026
Laborer, road.......................
261
860.281
869.687- 026
Laborer, shore dredging.....
261
869.687- 026
Miner helper II.....................
261
869.687- 026
Mucker, cofferdam.............
261
860.381
869.687- 026
Sheeting puller.....................
261
869.687- 026
Sheet-pile hammer-operator
helper..........................................
261
869.687- 026
Splicer....................................
261
860.781
851.883 850.663-022 Blade-grader operator....................
276
850.663- 014
Elevating-grader operator..
276
860.884
850.663- 022
Motor-grader opeiator........
276
850.663- 022
Subgrader operator.............
276
860.887
850.683-046 Utility-tractor operator................
276
851.887 869.687-026 Dump grader....................................
261
869.687- 026
Form-stripper helper...........
261



T. N o .
4 t h E d itio n

3 r d E d i t i o n T it le

P age

3rd ed. title Form tamper l .......................................
261
deleted
869.687- 026
Grader I .....................................
261
261
869.687- 026
Grade tamper............................
869.687- 026
Pipe-layer helper.......................
261
853.663-014 Concrete-paver operator................
276
85 3.663-014 Concrete-paving-machine
operator............................................
276
850.683-022 Form-grader operator.....................
276
869.664-014 Cement mason, highways and
streets...............................................
259
869.664-014 Form setter, metal road-forms......
259
869.687-026 Joint filler..............................................
261
261
869.687- 026
Laborer, concrete paving........
869.687- 026
Mud-jack nozzle worker.........
261
3rd ed. title Asphalt-planer operator......................
276
deleted
570.682- 014
Asphalt-plant operator.............
276
853.663-010 Asphalt-paving-machine operator
276
276
853.663- 022
Stone-spreader operator.........
869.687-026 Cold-patcher.........................................
261
869.687- 026
Laborer, bituminous paving.... 261
869.687- 026
Squeegee, finisher....................
261
3rd ed. title Driller, water w ell................................
276
deleted
859.682- 010
Earth-boring-machine operator ...276
859.682- 014
Foundation drill operator.......
276
859.682- 018
Pile-driver operator..................
276
859.362- 010
Well-driller operator, cable tool..276
859.362- 010
Well-drill operator, rotary drill.... 276
276
859.362- 010
Well-reactivator operator.......
859.683-018 Ballast-cleaning-machine
operator............................................
317
850.683- 018 Dragline operator......................276, 615
859.683- 010
Operating engineer..................
276
859.683- 014
Operating engineer apprentice ....276
859.683- 026
Road-mixer operator................
276
859.683- 030
Road-roller operator.............
276
919.683- 022
Sweeper operator......................
276
317
859.683- 018
Tamping-machine operator.
869.361-010 Duct layer.............................................
261
869.664- 014
Foundation-drill-operator helper 261
3rd ed. title Laborer, paving brick.........................
261
deleted
869.687- 026
Paving-bed maker....................
261
869.664- 014
Well-drill-operator helper, cable
261
to o l...................................................
869.687-026 Air-hammer operator..........................
261
869.687- 026
Curb-setter helper....................
261
869.687- 026
Labor, stone-block ramming... 261
869.687- 026
Mucker.......................................
261
869.687- 026
Paving rammer..........................
261
261
869.687- 026
Puddler, pile driving................
869.687- 026
Reinforcing-steel worker, wire
mesh.................................................
261
261
869.687- 026
Riprap placer............................
869.687- 026
Well-digger helper...................
261
860.261-010 Carpenter inspector......................
257
860.281- 010
Carpenter, maintenance.....
257
860.281- 014 Carpenter, ship’s ....................... 305, 727
860.381-022 Carpenter.........................................
257
860.381- 026
Carpenter apprentice..........
257
860-381-046 Form builder..................................
257
860.381- 058
Shipwright.............................
257
860.381- 066
Tank builder and erector...
257
869.361-018 Billboard erector-and-repairer......
257
860.381- 042
Carpenter, rough..................
257
869.664-014 Form-builder helper........................
261
869.664- 014
Shorer...................................
261
869.664-014 Carpenter helper, maintenance ...
257
869.664- 014
Laborer, carpentry..............
261
869.664- 014
Laborer, carpentry, dock...
261

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK

798

D O T . N o.
3 r d E d itio n
4 t h E d itio n

861.381

861.781

861.884

861.887

862.281
862.381

862.884

862.887

863.381
863.781
863.884

869.687-026
861.381-018
861.381-022
861.381-026
861.381-030
861.381-038
861.381-042
861.381-046
861.381-050
861.381-054
861.381-058
869.664-014
869.664-014
869.664-014
869.664-014
869.687-026
869.687-026
861.687-010

3 r d E d itio n T itle

Laborer, shaft sinking..................
Bricklayer.......................................
Bricklayer apprentice...................
Bricklayer, firebrick.....................

261
255
255
255
755
255
255
259
259
286
286
261
261
261
261
261
261

Stonemason....................................
Stonemason apprentice................
Terrazzo worker............................
Terrazzo worker apprentice........
Tile setter.......................................
Tile-setter apprentice...................
Marble-setter helper....................
Terrazzo-worker helper..............
Tile-setter helper...........................
Brick cleaner..................................
Bricklayer helper..........................
Bricklayer helper, refractory
brick............................................
Stonemason helper.......................
Wall washer...................................
Oil burner mechanic....................
Furnace installer...........................
Gas-main fitter..............................
Pipe fitter I.....................................
Pipe-fitter apprentice...................
Pipe-fitter, welding.......................

869.687-026
869.687-026
862.281-018
862.361-010
862.361-014
862.381-018
862.381-026
862.381-018
867 381-030
862.381-034 Plumber apprentice......................
862.684-014 Laborer, construction or leak
862.684-018
869.664-014
869.687-026
869.687-026
869.687-026
869.687-026
869.687-026
869.687-026
869.687-026
863.381-014
863.381-010
863.684-010

Pane

Pipe-fitter helper...........................
Plumber helper.............................
Backer-up.......................................
Clamper.........................................
Connection hand...........................
Crank hand....................................
Laborer, pipe lin e........................
Laborer, plumbing.......................
Paperhanger, pipe........................
Pipe coverer and insulator..........
Cork insulator, interior surface ..
Composition-weatherboard
applier........................................
Blower insulator............................
Insulation installer........................
Insulation worker..........................
Insulation-worker apprentice......
Floor layer.....................................
Glazier.............................................
Glazier helper...............................
Roofer.............................................
Roofer helper................................
Furnace installer...........................
Rigger..............................................
Stopping builder............................
Rig builder.....................................

863.664-010
869.664-014
869.664-014
863.364-010
864.781 864.481-010
865.781 865.381-010
865.887 869.664-014
866.381 866.381-010
866.887 869.687-026
869.281 869.281-010
869.883 869.683-014
869.884 869.684-058
3rd ed. title
deleted
869.684-046 Roustabout.....................................
869.887 869.687-026 Concrete-pump-operator helper.
869.687-026 Construction worker II...............
869.687-026 Form-setter helper.......................
869.687-026 Form stripper................................
869.687-026 Hod carrier....................................
869.687-026 Laborer, cement-gun placing......
869.687-026 Laborer, wrecking and salvaging
869.687-026 Loft worker, pile^driving.............
869.687-026 Mixer, hand, cement gun............
869.687-026 Reinforcing-iron-worker helper..
3rd ed. title Rig-builder helper.........................
deleted
869.687-026 Track layer.....................................



281
281,
281,
281,
281
281
281,

261
261
261
403
403
403
403
403
403
403
403
261
261
261
261
261
261
261
261
261
261
271
271
271
271
271
271
271
268
269
261
284
261
403
273
615
619
619
261
261
261
261
261
261
261
261
261
261
619
317

D O T. N o.
3 r d E ditio n
4 th E d itio n

891.138
892.883
900.883
902.883
903.883
904.883
905.883
905.887
906.883
909.128
909.883

891.137-010
921.667-022
900.683-010
902.683-010
903.683-018
904.383-010
905.663-014
905.687-010
906.668-022
909.127-010
905.663-010
909.663-010
905.663-018
910.138 910.137-038
910.364 910.364-010
910.368 222.367-022
238.367-014
910.383 910.363-014
910.388 209.367-054
910.782 910.362-010
910.682-010
910.884 910.664-010
911.131 911.131-010
911.368 248.367-026
911.388 216.382-054
911.883 911.663-014
911.884 911.364-010
911.364-010
911.584-010
911.887 911.687-030
912.368 248.367-010
238.367-018
912.367-014
913.363 913.363-010
913.463-018
913.368 215.367-010
913.463 913.463-010
914.381 914.384-010
914.782 914.682-010
915.867 915.467-010
915.878
915.887
919.168
919.368
919.887

915.473-010
915.687-018
249.167-014
238.367-026
919.687-014
3rd ed. title
deleted
920.887 920.687-014
920.687-038
920.687-126
920.587-018
921.280 921.260-010
921.883 921.663-010
921.663-010
921.663-010
921.663-022

921.885
921.886
922.883

922.887
929.883
929.887
930.130

921.663-042
921.683-062
921.663-010
921.685-014
921.686-022
921.683-050
921.683-050
921.683-050
921.683-070
922.687-074
929.683-014
929.687-030
930.130-010

3 r d E d itio n T itle

Page

Maintenance supervisor.............
162
Laborer, hosting or hooker........
261
Concrete-mixing-truckdriver......
323
Dump-truckdriver.......................
323
Tank-truckdriver.......................... .323, 325
T ractor-trailer-truckdriver......... .325, 742
Truckdriver, heavy.......................
325
Truckdriver helper.......................
743
Truckdriver.................................... .323, 742
Safety engineer............................. .202, 203
Garbage collector I ...................... .3 2 3 ,3 2 5
Hostler...........................................
323
Van driver......................................
325
Station agent II.............................
316
Braker, passenger train................
309
104
Railway express clerk ..................
Reservation clerk..........................
104
Locomotive engineer I.................
312
Yard clerk......................................
108
Tower operator.............................
317
Track repairer...............................
317
Yard coupler.................................
309
Boatswain....................................... .305, 727
Clerk and dispatcher, pilot
station.........................................
728
Receipt-and-report clerk.............
728
Stevedore I.....................................
728
Able seam an................................. 305, 727
Deck hand, maintenance............ 305, 727
Marine oiler.................................. 305, 727
Ordinary seaman........................... .305, 727
Airplane-dispatch clerk................
298
Reservations agent.......................
298
Transportation agent....................
298
Bus driver....................................... .319, 321
Taxi driver.....................................
329
Assignment clerk..........................
106
Bus driver....................................... 319,321
Gager..............................................
619
Pumper...........................................
619
Automobile-service-station
attendant....................................
232
Parking-lot attendant...................
328
Lubrication servicer.....................
743
Dispatcher......................................
742
Ticket agent..................................
298
Truck washer................................
743
Track worker................................
317
Bagger........................................ 95, 104, 771
Blueprint trimmer........................
95
Marker II........................................ 95, 104
Packager, hand............................. 95, 104
Rigger.............................................
743
Charging-crane operator.............
667
Hot-metal crane operator........... 632, 668
Ingot stripper................................
668
Log-yard derrick operator
(loader engineer).....................
675
Scrap crane operator...................
667
Skip operator................................
666
Soaking pit crane operator.........
668
Bull-chain operator......................
675
Pond worker.................................
675
Electric-freight-car operator.......
79
Electric-truck-crane operator....
79
Industrial-truck operator............. 79,743
Straddle-truck operator..............
79
Sorter..............................................
675
Tractor operator........................... .615, 675
Material handler........................... .639, 743
Tool pusher....................................
619

D IC T IO N A R Y O F O C C U P A T IO N A L T IT L E S ( D O T .) I N D E X

D O T. N o.
3 r d E d itio n
4 t h E d itio n

3 r d E d itio n T itle

799

Page

930.281 939.462-010 Cementer, oil well...........................
620
930.782 939.462-010 Acidizer.............................................
620
3rd ed. title Rotary auger operator...................
615
deleted
930.382- 022
Rotary derrick operator......
619
930.482-010 Drilling-machine operator..............
615
930.382- 026
Rotary driller........................
619
930.883 930.683-010 Continuous-mining-machine
615
operator.......................................
930.683- 014
Cutter operator....................
615
930.683- 026
Roof bolter............................
615
930.382- 030
Well puller............................
620
619
930.884 930.684-026 Rotary-driller helper......................
931.281 931.261-010 Blaster (shot Firer)..........................
615
620
931.781 931.361-010 Sample-taker operator...................
931.782 931.382-010 Perforator operator, oil w ell.........
620
615
932.883 932.683-014 Loading-machine operator............
932.683- 022
Shuttle-car operator............
615
934.885 934.685Separation tender............................
616
010,018,
and 022
939.138 939.137-018 Section supervisor (face boss)......
615
939.387 168.267-074 Fireboss............................................
615
939.887 939.687-026 Rock-dust sprayer...........................
615
675
940.884 454.684-010 Bucker...............................................
454.384-010 Faller.................................................
674
941.488 455.487-010 Log scaler........................................
675
675
942.782 921.663-066 Donkey engineer.............................
942.884 921.364-010 Rigging slinger................................
675
675
942.887 921.687-014 Choker setter..................................
949.884 921.687-022 Second loader.................................
675
950.131 950.131-014 Stationary-engineer supervisor......
722
950.168 952.167-014 Load dispatcher..............................
724
950.782 950.382-010 Boiler operator......................... 8 2 ,3 0 5 ,7 2 2
950.382- 010
Control-room operator....... 82,722
950.382- 022
Rotary-rig engine operator. 82,619
950.362- 014
Refrigerating engineer........
82
950.382- 026
Stationary engineer............. 82,6 2 0
951.885 951.685-010 Firer, high pressure (boiler
tender)......................................... 65, 305
951.685- 014
Firer, low pressure (boiler
tender).........................................
65
951.685- 018
Firer-watertender................. 65,727
952.138 952.137-022 Turbine operator, head..................
722
952.782 952.362-010 Auxiliary-equipment, operator......
722
952.362- 026
Substation operator..............
724
721
952.362- 038
Switchboard operator.........
953.168 953.167-010 Gas dispatcher................................
106
953.380 3rd ed. title Gas-plant operator.........................
620
deleted
955.782 954.382-014 Sewage-plant operator...................
84
957.282 194.262-010 Audio operator...............................
383
194.282- 010
Master-control engineer.....
383
193.262-038 Transmitter operator......................
383
194.282- 010
Video operator.....................
383
960.382 960.362-010 Motion-picture projectionist.........
74




D O T. N o .
3 r d E d itio n
4 t h E d itio n

961.868
963.
969.387
970.281

970.381

971.281
971.381
971.382
972.281
972.381
972.382
972.781
973.381
974.381
975.782
976.381
976.687
976.782
976.884
976.885
976.886
976.887
977.781
979.381

3 r d E d it io n T itle

Page

961.667-010 Model, artists’ ..................................
238
961.367-010 Model, photographers’..................
238
963.
Occupations in radio and
television production n.e.c.......
383
108
969.367-010 Custodian, athletic equipment......
970.281-010 Airbrush artist................................. 77, 577
970.281- 014
Delineator............................. 77,577
970.361- 010
Form designer......................
77
970.681- 030
Painter, plate........................
77
970.281- 018
Photograph retoucher.........
77
970.681-010 Ben-day artist...................................
577
970.381- 010
Colorist, photography.........
577
970.661- 010
Engrosser..............................
577
970.381- 018
Lay-out former.....................
577
970.661- 014
Letterer.................................
577
970.581-010 Music grapher................................
577
970.381- 026
Painter, sign..........................
577
970.361- 014
Repeat chief.........................
577
970.381- 030
Retoucher, photoengraving.
577
970.281- 026
Sketch maker, photoengraving .... 51
971.261-010 Etcher, hand (artists and
letterers)...................................... 51,706
971.381-014 Gravure photoengraver.................. 52,706
971.381- 022
Photoengraver...................... 52, 706
971.381- 050
Stripper.................................
706
971.382-014 Photographer, photoengraving......
51
972.281-010 Process artist (lithographic
artist)........................................... 50, 706
972.381-010 Transferrer I (platemaker)...........
706
972.382-014 Photographer, lithographic........... 50,706
972.381-026 Transferrer II (platemaker)..........
50
973.381-010 Compositor..................................... 4 8 ,706
973.381- 026
Make-up arranger...............
706
974.381-010 Electrotyper.................................... 52,706
974.381- 014
Electrotyper apprentice...... 52,706
974.382-014 Stereotyper.......................................
52
974.382- 010
Stereotyper, apprentice.......
52
976.681-010 Color-laboratory technician..........
77
976.681- 010
Developer..............................
77
976.681- 010
Projection printer.................
77
976.687-014 Photo checker and assembler.......
77
976.682-014 Printer operator..............................
77
550.485-010 Chemical mixer...............................
77
970.381- 034
Negative-cutter-and-spotter
(stripper)....................................
77
976.685-026 Print developer machine................
77
976.685-022 Mounter, color film .....................
77
976.487-010 Photograph finisher........................
77
976.687-018 Film numberer................................
77
977.381-010 Bookbinder......................................
55
979.681-010 Letterer............................................
577
979.381- 014
Line-up examiner.................
577
979.381- 018
Paste-up copy-camera operator... 577
979.381- 022
Paste-up copy-camera operator,
apprentice...................................
577
979.681- 022
Silk-screen cutter.................
577
971.381- 042
Silk-screen maker...............
577
979.381- 038
Stencil maker.......................
577

Index to Occupations and Industries
Page

A
Able seam en, see:
M erchant m arine industry........................................
M erchant m arine sa ilo rs...........................................
A ccelerator operators, nuclear e n e rg y .....................
A ccount executives, advertising.................................
A ccount executives, see: Securities sales workers..
A cco u n tan ts......................................................................
See also: Insurance industry.....................................
A ccounting clerks, see:
Bank c le rk s ..................................................................
Bookkeeping w orkers.................................................
Acidizers, petroleum and natural g a s........................
Acquisition librarians.....................................................
A ctors and actresses.......................................................
A ctuaries............................................................................
See also: Insurance industry.....................................
Actuary clerks, see: Statistical c le rk s ........................
Adding m achine o p e ra to rs ...........................................
A djusters, claim, insurance...........................................
Adm inistrative and related o ccupations...................
Adm inistrative dietitians...............................................
Adm inistrative se c re ta rie s............................................
Adm inistrators, health services....................................
Adm inistrators, m edical re c o rd ..................................
Admissions counselors, see: College student
personnel w o rk e rs..................................................
A dult services lib rarian s...............................................
Advertising copyw riters.................................................
Advertising m an ag e rs....................................................
Advertising production m anagers...............................
Advertising w orkers........................................................
A eronautical tech n ician s..............................................
A erospace engineers.......................................................
A erospace in d u stry .........................................................
Agency cash iers...............................................................
Agents, see: Real estate agents and brokers............
Agents and brokers, insurance in d u stry ...................
A gricultural a c c o u n ta n ts..............................................
Agricultural chemical d ealers......................................
A gricultural chem ists.....................................................
Agricultural com m odity graders, see:
A g ricu ltu re....................................................................
H ealth regulatory inspectors....................................
Agricultural econom ists.................................................
Agricultural e n g in ee rs...................................................
See also: A g ricu ltu re..................................................
Agricultural jo u rn alists..................................................
Agricultural m arketing specialists..............................
800



727
305
688

133
246
130
762
118
91
620
221

567
123
762
106
98
125
130
505
103
508
510
140
221

133
133
133
133
386
345
626
92
240
761
608
608
610
610
197
608
345
610
609
608

Page

Agricultural p ilo ts............................................................ 608
Agricultural quarantine in sp ecto rs............................ 197
Agricultural re se a rc h e rs................................................. 609
Agricultural technicians.................................................. 388
Agricultural vocational teachers................................. 609
A griculture.......................................................................... 603
Agronomists, see:
A griculture................................................................... 609
Life scien tists................................................................ 365
A ir-conditioning and refrigeration m echanics........ 403
See also:
Electronics m anufacturing..................................... 655
Office m achine and com puter m anufacturing 694
Air-conditioning, heating, and refrigeration
technicians................................................................. 386
Air traffic controllers..................................................... 290
Air transportation occupations................................... 290
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft m anufacturing,
occupations i n ........................................................ 626
Airplane m ech an ics......................................................... 292
Airplane p ilo ts.................................................................. 294
A irport traffic controllers.............................................. 290
Alcohol, tobacco, and firearm s inspectors................ 200
Aluminum in d u stry .......................................................... 632
Ampoule examiners, drug industry.............................. 649
Ampoule fillers, drug industry...................................... 649
A natom ists......................................................................... 366
Animal breeders, agriculture........................................ 607
Animal husbandry specialists, life scientists............. 366
Animal physiologists........................................................ 609
Animal scientists............................................................. 609
Annealers, see: Aluminum industry............................. 633
A nnouncers, radio and television................................ 731
Anodizers, electronics m anufacturing...................... 654
A nthropologists................................................................. 517
A pparel industry, occupations in t h e ......................... 637
Appliance re p a ire rs......................................................... 405
Arc w elders....................................................................... 85
Archeologists, see: A nthropologists............................. 518
A rc h ite c ts........................................................................... 575
A rchitects, landscape...................................................... 587
Archivists, see: H istorians............................................. 524
A rm ed F o rce s.................................................................. 784
A rt directors, see: Com m ercial artists........................ 577
A rt, design, and com m unications related
occupations................................................................ 566
Artificial breeding distributors, agriculture.............. 607

IN D E X T O O C C U P A T IO N S A N D IN D U S T R IE S

801

Page

Page

Artificial breeding technicians, ag ricu ltu re.............
Artificial insem inators, agriculture............................
Artists, see:
Advertising w o rk e rs...................................................
Com m ercial a rtis ts .....................................................
Artists/letters, printing and publishing.....................
A ssem blers........................................................................
See also:
A pparel industry.....................................................
Electronics m anufacturing...................................
Laundry and dry cleaning p lan ts........................
M otor vehicle and equipm ent m anufacturing
Assembly inspectors, aircraft, missiles, and
sp a c e c ra ft.................................................................
Assignment clerks, see: Statistical clerks..................
Associate directors, radio and television..................
A strogeologists.................................................................
A stro n o m ers........................................ ............................
Astrophysicists, see: A stro n o m ers..............................
A ttendants, gasoline service s ta tio n ..........................
A tto rn ey s...........................................................................
Audio control technicians, broadcast technicians..
A udiologists......................................................................
Autom atic pinsetter m ech an ics..................................
A utom atic transm ission specialists, see:
A utom obile m echanics.........................................
Autom obile air-conditioning specialists, see:
A utom obile m echanics.........................................
A utom obile body rep airers..........................................
Automobile-glass m echanics, see: Autom obile
m ech an ics.................................................................
Autom obile m anufacturing occupations, see:
M otor vehicle and equipm ent m anufacturing
A utom obile m ech an ics..................................................
A utom obile p ain te rs......................................................
A utom obile parts co u nter w orkers............................
A utom obile-radiator m echanics, see: Autom obile
m echanics............. ...................................................
Autom obile sales w orkers.............................................
Autom obile service advisors........................................
Auxiliary equipm ent operators, see:
C om puter operating p erso n n el...............................
Electric power industry.............................................
Auxiliary nursing workers, see: Nursing aides........
Aviation safety o fficers..................................................

607
607
133
577
706
57
638
653
771
682
629
106
731
356
375
375
232
145
383
502
412
409
409
407
409
679
408
58
227
409
229
231

111
722
492
200

B
Backtenders, paper and allied p ro d u c ts...................
Baggers, laundry and drycleaning...............................
Bakers, a ll-ro u n d ............................................................
Bakery route d riv ers......................................................
Baking industry................................................................
Bank cle rk s.......................................................................
Bank officers and m an ag e rs........................................
Bank tellers.......................................................................
Banking industry.............................................................
Banking occupations......................................................
B arbers...............................................................................



698
771
643
245
642
118
120
121

758
118
177

Barker operators, see:
Lum ber m ills...............................................................
Paper and allied p ro d u c ts........................................
B artender h e lp e rs...........................................................
B artenders.........................................................................
B eater engineers, paper and allied p ro d u c ts............
B eauticians........................................................................
Beauty o p erato rs.............................................................
Bell c a p ta in s....................................................................
Bellhops and bell captains...........................................
Bench corem akers, foundry o ccu p atio n s................
Bench hands, baking......................................................
Bench molders, foundry occu p atio n s.......................
Bench technicians, ophthalm ic laboratory
technicians...............................................................
Bill clerks, see: M erchant m arine industry..............
Billing m achine operators.............................................
Biochem ists......................................................................
Biological oceanographers............................................
Biological scientists........................................................
Biological technicians....................................................
Biologists, see: Life scientists.......................................
Biomedical engineers.....................................................
B lacksm iths.......................................................................
See also: Railroad shop tra d e s ................................
Blocksetters, lum ber m ills...........................................
Blowers, iron and s te e l.................................................
Blue-collar w orker supervisors...................................
Boat-m otor m echanics..................................................
Boatswains, see:
M erchant m arine industry........................................
M erchant m arine sailo rs..........................................
Body repairers, au to m o b ile.........................................
Boiler operators, electric p o w e r.................................
Boiler te n d e rs ..................................................................
B oilerm akers....................................................................
See also:
Industrial chemical in d u stry ................................
Iron and steel industry..........................................
Railroad shop trades..............................................
Boilermaking o cc u p atio n s...........................................
Bookbinders and bindery w orkers.............................
B ookkeepers....................................................................
See also: Bank clerks.................................................
Bookkeeping clerks, bank clerk s................................
Bookkeeping m achine operators, see:
Bank c le rk s ..................................................................
Office m achine operators.........................................
Bookkeeping w o rk ers....................................................
Bosuns, see: M erchant m arine sailors.......................
B o tan ists...........................................................................
Bowling-pin-machine m ech an ics................................
Box office cashiers.........................................................
Brake m echanics, see: Autom obile m echanics.......
Brake operators, railroad..............................................
B ricklayers........................................................................
See also:
Aluminum industry................................................
Iron and steel industry..........................................

675
696
168
167
697
179
179
178
178
36
642
35
76
728
98
364
361
648
388
365
346
60
315
675
666
62
411
727
305
407
722
65
63
662
670
3 15
63
55
91
1 18
1 18
1 18
98
91
305
365
412
92
409
309
255
634
670

802

O C C U P A T IO N A L O U T L O O K H A N D B O O K

Page

Page

Bricklayers, stonem asons, and m arble setters .
B ricklayers’ te n d e rs ...............................................
Broadcast tech n ician s............................................
Brokers, real e sta te .................................................
Buckers, logging......................................................
Building custodians.................................................
Building in sp ecto rs.................................................
Bull-chain operators, lum ber m ills....................
Bulldozer o p e ra to rs...............................................
Bundlers, ap p a rel....................................................
Bus m ech an ics.........................................................
Busdrivers, intercity...............................................
Busdrivers, local tra n s it........................................
Bushelers, app arel...................................................
Business m achine repairers..................................
Butlers, see: Private household w o rk ers...........
B uyers........................................................................

255
261
383
240
675
162
197
675
276
638
440
319
321
639
414
184
135

C
Cabd rivers..................................................................
Cable splicers, see:
Electric power industry......................................
T elephone in d u stry .............................................
C alculating m achine o p e ra to rs............................
C am era operators, printing, see:
L ithographers........................................................
Printing and publishing......................................
Capsule co aters.........................................................
C aptain, see:
Airplane pilots......................................................
M erchant m arine industry.................................
M erchant marine officers..................................
C ar checkers, statistical c le rk s............................
C ard tenders, textile mill p ro d u c ts.....................
C areer planning counselors, college, see:
College career planning and placem ent
co u n selo rs.....................................................
College student personnel w o rk ers.................
C aretakers, see: Private household w orkers.....
C ar repairers, shop trades, railro ad ....................
C a rp e n te rs .................................................................
See also: Coal m ining.........................................
C arpet installers, see: Floor covering installers
C artographers, see: G eographers.........................
Casework aides, see: Social service aides.........
Casew orkers, so c ia l.................................................
C a sh ie rs......................................................................
Cashiers, retail food s to re s ....................................
C ashier checkers.......................................................
Casting inspectors, foundries................................
Casting operators, see: Aluminum industry......
Casualty insurance agents......................................
Catalogers, see: L ibrarians.....................................
C atholic p riests.........................................................
C attle dehorners,5cc: A griculture........................
C em ent masons and terrazzo w orkers...............
C em enters, petroleum and natural gas..............
C entral office crafts, telep h o n e...........................



329
725
398
98
50
706
649
294
727
301
106
710

541
140
183
314
257
615
268
522
560
563
92
753
92
659
632
234
221

547
607
259
620
395

C entral office equipm ent installers............................
C entral office repairers, telep h o n e............................
Ceram ic en g in eers..........................................................
See also: Electronics m anufacturing.....................
C ertified public accountants........................................
Chain workers, see: Surveyors....................................
Charge gang weighers, alum inum ...............................
Charging crane operators, iron and s te e l.................
C heck encoders, see: Bank c le rk s.............................
C heck inscribers, see: Bank c le rk s............................
C heck-out clerks, see: C ashiers..................................
C heckers, apparel industry...........................................
C heckers, see: D rafters..................................................
C heckers, m otor vehicle and equipm ent
m anufacturing..........................................................
Chefs, see: C ooks and c h e fs ........................................
Chem ical analysts, see: Aluminum industry............
Chem ical control tech n ician s......................................
Chemical engineers.........................................................
See also:
Aluminum industry................................................
Drug industry...........................................................
Industrial chemical in d u stry ................................
Paper and allied products industry....................
Petroleum refining.................................................
Chem ical mixers, see: Photographic laboratory
occupations..............................................................
Chem ical oceanographers.............................................
Chem ical operators........................................................
Chemical technicians.....................................................
C h em ists...........................................................................
See also:
Drug industry...........................................................
Electronics m anufacturing...................................
Industrial chem ical in d u stry ................................
Iron and steel industry..........................................
N uclear energy field ..............................................
Office m achine and com puter m anufacturing
Paper and allied products....................................
Petroleum refining.................................................
C hief cooks, see:
M erchant m arine industry........................................
M erchant m arine sailo rs..........................................
C hief engineers, see: M erchant marine o fficers.....
C hief engineers, radio and telev isio n .......................
C hief mates, see: M erchant marine officers............
C hief officers, m erchant m arine officers..................
C hief operators, petroleum refining..........................
C hief stewards, see:
M erchant m arine industry........................................
M erchant m arine sa ilo rs..........................................
Child welfare workers, see: Social w orkers.............
C hildren’s librarians.......................................................
C hippers, foundries.........................................................
Chippers, paper and allied products..........................
C hiropractors...................................................................
C hocker setters, logging...............................................
City m anagers..................................................................
Civil aviation o c c u p a tio n s............................................

397
395
346
653
130
391
632
667
119
1 19
92
639
385
682
168
634
693
347

634
648
661
698
702
78
361
662
387
377

648
653
661
670
688

692
698
702
728
306
301
732
301
301
701
728
305
563
221

658
697
458

675
137
7 16

IN D E X T O O C C U P A T IO N S A N D IN D U S T R IE S

803

Page

Page

Civil engineering tech nicians.....................................
Civil en g in eers...............................................................
See also: Iron and steel in d u stry ..........................
Civil service w orkers, Federal G o v ern m en t.........
Civilian governm ent, F e d e ra l....................................
Claim adjusters, see:
Insurance industry.....................................................
Insurance occupations..............................................
Trucking industry......................................................
Claim examiners, in su ran ce........................................
See also: Insurance in d u stry ...................................
Claim representatives, in su ran ce...............................
Classification clerks, statistical c le rk s .....................
C leaners, building c u sto d ian s.....................................
Cleaning and related o c c u p a tio n s............................
C le rg y ...............................................................................
Clerical o cc u p atio n s.....................................................
C lerk-typists.....................................................................
Clerks, see:
A ccounting clerks, bank clerks.............................
A ccounting clerks, bookkeeping w orkers...........
A ctuary clerks, statistical c le rk s...........................
Assignment clerks, statistical clerks.....................
Bank c le rk s .................................................................
Bookkeeping clerks, bank c le rk s ..........................
C heck-out clerks, c a sh ie rs......................................
Classification clerks, statistical clerk s..................
C lerk-typists................................................................
Coding clerks, statistical clerks.............................
C ontrol clerks, bank clerk s.....................................
C ounter clerks, laundry and drycleaning............
C ountry collection clerks, bank c le rk s ...............
Dem urrage clerks, statistical c le rk s .....................
D istribution clerks, postal c le rk s ..........................
Exchange clerks, see: Bank c le rk s .......................
File clerks.....................................................................
Interest clerks, bank clerk s.....................................
Inventory clerks, stock c le rk s................................
M anifest clerks, trucking in d u stry .......................
M edical record c le rk s ..............................................
M ortgage clerks, bank clerks.................................
Parts-order clerks, trucking in d u stry ...................
Personnel clerks, statistical c le rk s .......................
Postal clerk s................................................................
Posting clerks, statistical c le rk s ............................
Procurem ent clerks, stock clerks..........................
Receiving clerks, shipping and receiving clerks
Reservation clerks, h o tel.........................................
Room and desk clerks, h o te l.................................
Shipping and receiving c le rk s................................
Statistical c le rk s .........................................................
Stock clerks......... .......................................................
Tabulating clerks........................................................
Transit clerks, bank clerk s......................................
Window clerks, postal c le rk s.................................
Climatologists, see: M eteorologists...........................
Clinical dietitian s...........................................................
Clinical laboratory w o rk e rs........................................




387
348
670
776
775
761
125
742
126
761
125
106
162
162
544
90
109
118
91
106
106
1 18
118
92
106
109
106
119
770
118
106
99
119
95
1 19
108
742
478
119
742
106
99
106
108
104
97
97
104
106
108
106
118
99
359
505
476

Coal loading m achine o p erato rs.................................
C o a lm in in g ......................................................................
Coding clerks, statistical c le rk s..................................
Coil finishers, electronics m anufacturing................
Coiler operators, aluminum industry.........................
C ollection w orkers..........................................................
College and university teac h ers..................................
College career planning and placem ent
counselors.................................................................
College librarians............................................................
College placem ent officers, see:
College career planning and placem ent
co u n selo rs............................................................
College student personnel w orkers.......................
College student personnel w orkers............................
College union staff m em bers.......................................
C olor technicians, see: Photographic laboratory
occupations..............................................................
Colorists, textile mill products....................................
Com m ercial account u n d erw riters............................
Com m ercial artists..........................................................
Com m ercial p h o to g rap h e rs.........................................
Com m ercial tellers, banking........................................
Com m unications related occupations.......................
Com munity and public affairs d irecto rs...................
Com munity health nurses.............................................
Com munity planners......................................................
Com panions, see: Private household w o rk e rs........
Com position ro o fe rs......................................................
Com positors, printing occupations............................
See also: Printing and publishing...........................
C om pounders, see: Drug in d u stry .............................
Com pressors, see: Drug in d u stry ................................
C om puter and related o cc u p atio n s...........................
C om puter m anufacturing..............................................
C om puter operating p ersonnel...................................
C om puter operators, see: C om puter operating
p erso n n el..................................................................
C om puter program m ers, see: Paper and allied
products industry....................................................
C om puter salesworkers, office machine and
com puter m anufacturing......................................
C om puter service technicians.....................................
Com puters, prospecting, petroleum and natural
gas...............................................................................
C onductors, railro ad ......................................................
Conservation occupations.............................................
C onservationists, s o il.....................................................
Console operators, see: C om puter operating
p erso n n el..................................................................
C o n stru ctio n ...... ..............................................................
C onstruction electricians..............................................
C onstruction inspectors (governm ent).....................
C onstruction la b o re rs....................................................
C onstruction m achinery operators, see: Operating
engineers...................................................................
C onstruction occupations.............................................
Consultant designers, see: Industrial designers.......
C ontinuity directors, radio and television...............

615
614
106
654
633
94
215
541
222

541
140
139
140
78
710
128
577
589
121
591
731
488
158
183
284
47
706
649
649
1 11
692
Ill
1 11
699
693
416
6 19
3 11
334
339
1 11
622
264
197
261
276
252
584
731

O C C U P A T IO N A L O U T L O O K H A N D B O O K

804

Page

Page

Continuity writers, radio and telev isio n ..................
C ontinuous mining m achine o p erato rs....................
C ontrol chemists, quality, alum inum ........................
C ontrol clerks, see: Bank c le rk s................................
C ontrol room operators, electric p o w er..................
C onsole operators, com puter operating personnel
C onverter operators, com puter operating
p e rso n n e l.................................................................
Cooks, see: Private household w o rk e rs...................
C ooks and c h e fs .............................................................
C ooks’ helpers, see: Private household workers....
C ooperative extension service w o rk e rs...................
See also:
A g ric u ltu re..............................................................
Hom e eco n o m ists..................................................
C opilots.............................................................................
C ore setters, foundries..................................................
C ore-oven tenders, fo u n d rie s.....................................
C orem akers, see:
F o u n d rie s.....................................................................
Foundry occupations.................................................
M otor vehicle and equipm ent m anufacturing__
C orporate designers, see: Industrial designers.......
C orrection officers.........................................................
C orrection sergeants......................................................
C orrespondence secretaries, typists..........................
C orrespondent bank o fficers......................................
C osm etologists................................................................
C otton classers, a g ric u ltu re........................................
C ounseling o ccu p atio n s...............................................
Counselors, see:
College career planning and placem ent
co u n selo rs...........................................................
College student personnel w o rk ers......................
Em ploym ent co u n selors...........................................
R ehabilitation counselors........................................
School c o u n se lo rs.....................................................
C ounter clerks, laundry and d ry clean in g ...............
C ounter workers, fo o d ..................................................
C ounters, statistical clerk s...........................................
C ountry collection clerks, see: Bank c le rk s ...........
C ourt re p o rte rs...............................................................
Cow testers, see: A griculture......................................
C rane operators, see:
M otor vehicle and equipm ent m anufacturing....
O perating en g in eers..................................................
T rucking industry......................................................
C redit m anagers..............................................................
Crew chiefs, aircraft, missile, and sp ac ecraft........
Crew schedulers, statistical cle rk s............................
C rop reporters, see: A g ricu ltu re................................
Crystal finishers, electronics m anufacturing...........
Crystal grinders, electronics m anufacturing...........
Cushion builders, m otor vehicle and equipm ent
m anufacturing.........................................................
C ustom er engineers, see:
Business m achine re p airers.....................................
C om puter service tech n ician s................................
C ustom er service occupations, electric p o w e r......




731
615
634
119
722
112

112
183
168
183
550
609
552
294
658
658
658
36
681
584
186
187
109
121

179
610
536

541
140
538
539
536
770
172
106
1 18
103
607
682
276
743
141
629
106
609
654
654
682
414
416
726

C ustom ers’ brokers, see: Securities sales workers..
Custom s inspectors.........................................................
C utters, a p p a re l...............................................................
C utters, m otor vehicle and equipm ent
m anufacturing...............................
C utting m achine o p e ra to rs...........................................

246
200
638
682
615

D
D am pproof w orkers, see: R o o fers..............................
D ancers..............................................................................
D arkroom technicians, see: Photographic
laboratory o ccupations.........................................
D ata typists, see: C om puter operating p ersonnel...
Day workers, see: Private household w orkers........
D ean o f students, see: College student personnel
w o rk ers......................................................................
Deck officers, see:
M erchant m arine industry........................................
M erchant m arine officers.........................................
Deck utility hands, see:
M erchant m arine industry........................................
M erchant m arine sailo rs..........................................
Deck workers, lum ber mills.........................................
D econtam ination workers, nuclear energy..............
D ehydration-plant operators, petroleum and
natural g a s ................................................................
D em urrage clerks, statistical clerks...........................
Dental assistan ts.............................................................
Dental hygienists......... ...................................................
Dental laboratory technicians.......................................
Dental o ccupations.........................................................
D entists..............................................................................
D errick operators, petroleum and natural g a s .......
Design occupations.........................................................
Designers, a p p a re l..........................................................
Designers, flo ral..............................................................
Designers, in d u strial......................................................
Designers, in te rio r..........................................................
Detailers, see: D ra fte rs.................................................
D etectiv es.........................................................................
Developers, see: Photographic laboratory
occupations..............................................................
D evelopm ent engineers, radio and television..*.......
Diem akers, see:
Aluminum in d u stry ....................................................
Electronics m an u factu rin g ......... .............................
M achining o ccu p atio n s.............................................
Die m akers, to o l-an d -....................................................
See also listing under Tool-and-die makers.
Diesinkers, forge s h o p ...................................................
Diesel m ech an ics............................................................
Dietetic ed u cato rs...........................................................
D ietitians............................................................................
D igester operators, paper and allied p ro d u c ts .......
Dining room attendants, waiters and waitresses.....
Dining room attendants and dishw ashers.................
D irectors, program , radio and television..................

284
569
78
112
183
139
727
301
727
305
675
688
620
106
451
453
455
449
449
619
575
637
581
583
585
385
193
78
732
634
654
45
45
69
419
505
505
697
174
170
731

IN D E X T O O C C U P A T IO N S A N D IN D U S T R IE S

805

Page

Page

Directory assistance o p erato rs....................................
D ishw ashers.....................................................................
Dispatchers, see:
M erchant m arine industry.......................................
T rucking industry.......................................................
Dispensing o p tician s.....................................................
See also: O pto m etrists..............................................
Display workers (retail t r a d e ) ...................................
D istribution clerks, postal c le rk s...............................
District representatives, electric p o w er...................
Divider m achine operators, baking in d u stry ..........
D octors, m edical............................................................
Dough m olders, baking.................................................
D rafters.............................................................................
See also:
Aluminum industry...............................................
Electronics m anufacturing..................................
Industrial chem ical in d u stry ...............................
Iron and steel industry.........................................
M otor vehicle and equipm ent m anufacturing
Petroleum and natural gas production and
p ro cessin g ...........................................................
Petroleum refining................................................
Dragline operators, coal m ining................................
Drawing fram e tenders, textile mill p ro d u c ts........
Dressm akers, ap p arel....................................................
Drilling m achine o p e ra to rs.........................................
Drilling supervisors, petroleum and natural gas....
Driver-salesworkers, see: R oute drivers...................
Drivers, see:
Intercity b u sd riv ers...................................................
Local transit busdrivers............................................
Local truckdrivers.....................................................
Long distance tru ck d riv e rs.....................................
Taxicab drivers...........................................................
Driving o ccu pations......................................................
Drug industry, occupations in t h e ............................
D ruggists...........................................................................
D rycleaners, laundry and drycleaning.....................
Drycleaning p lan ts.........................................................
Dry-kiln operators, lum ber m ills...............................
Dry wall installers and finishers..................................
Duplicating m achine o perators..................................
Dye range operators, textile mill p ro d u c ts.............
Dye weighters, textile mill p ro d u c ts.........................
Dyers, textile mill p ro d u c ts ........................................

208
170
728
742
506
459
579
99
726
642
463
642
384
634
653
661
670
681
619
702
615
710
639
615
619
244
319
321
323
325
329
319
646
512
770
770
675
262
98
710
710
710

E
Ecologists, see: Life scientists.....................................
Econom ic g eo g rap h ers................................................
Econom ic geologists.....................................................
Econom ists.......................................................................
Education and related o ccu p atio n s..........................
EEG tech n ician s............................................................
EEG tech n o lo g ists...... ..................................................
EKG tech n ician s............................................................
Electric m eter rep airers...............................................
Electric power industry, occupations in th e ...........



366
522
355
519
210

472
472
470
726
719

Electric sign re p airers....................................................
Electrical en g in ee rs.......................................................
See also:
Aluminum industry................................................
Electronics m anufacturing...................................
Industrial chem ical in d u stry ................................
Iron and steel industry..........................................
M otor vehicle and equipm ent m anufacturing
Office m achine and com puter m anufacturing
Paper and allied products....................................
Electrical in sp ecto rs......................................................
Electrical repairers, see: Iron and steel industry....
Electrical workers, see: Shop trades, railroads.......
Electricians, co n stru c tio n .............................................
Electricians, m aintenance.............................................
See also listing under M aintenance electricians.
Electricians, see:
M erchant m arine industry........................................
M erchant m arine sailo rs..........................................
E lectrocardiograph tech n ician s..................................
Electroencephalographic tech n ician s.......................
Electronic assembly inspectors, see:
Electronics m anufacturing.......................................
Office m achine and com puter m anufacturing....
Electronic com puter program m ers............................
Electronic organ tech n ician s.......................................
Electronic reader-sorter operators, see: Bank
c le rk s.........................................................................
Electronic specialists, see: O ceanographers............
Electronics checkout workers, aircraft, missile,
and sp a c e c ra ft.........................................................
Electronics engineers, see: Electronics
m anufacturing..........................................................
Electronics m anufacturing...........................................
Electronics repairers, iron and steel..........................
Electronics subassembly inspectors, see:
Electronics m anufacturing.......................................
Office m achine and com puter m anufacturing....
Electronics technicians, see:
Electronics m anufacturing.......................................
Engineering and science tech n ic ia n s....................
Office m achine and com puter m anufacturing....
E lectroplaters...................................................................
See also:
Electronics m anufacturing...................................
M otor vehicle and equipm ent m anufacturing
Electrotypers and stereotypers, see:
Printing o cc u p atio n s.................................................
Printing and publishing.............................................
Elem entary school teac h ers.........................................
Elevator constructors.....................................................
Elevator m echanics........................................................
E m balm ers........................................................................
Embossing m achine o p erato rs....................................
Embryologists, life scientists........................................
Em ergency m edical technicians .................................
Em ployment aides, see: Social service a id e s...........
Em ployment counselors................................................

420
348
634
653
661
670
680
692
698
197
670
3 15
264
431

727
305
470
472
655
694
1 13
436
1 19
361
629
653
652
670
655
694
653
387
693
66
654
682
52
706
211
266
266
181
98
366
473
561
538

806

O C C U P A T IO N A L O U T L O O K H A N D B O O K

Page

Page

Em ploym ent interviewers, personnel.........................
Encoders, bank c le r k s ...................................................
Engine m echanics, aircraft, missile, and
sp a c e c ra ft.................................................................
Engineering aides, see:
Electronics m an u facturing.......................................
Engineering and science te c h n ic ia n s....................
Office m achine and com puter m anufacturing....
Engineering and science tech n ician s.........................
Engineering geologists...................................................
Engineering tech n icians.................................................
E n g in eers...........................................................................
See also:
A erospace engineers..............................................
Agricultural en g in ee rs...........................................
Biomedical engineers.............................................
C eram ic en g in eers..................................................
C hem ical e n g in e e rs...............................................
Civil eng in eers.........................................................
Electrical en g in ee rs................................................
Industrial e n g in e e rs................................................
M echanical en g in eers............................................
M etallurgical e n g in e e rs........................................
M ining en g in eers....................................................
Petroleum en g in eers..............................................
Engineers, lo co m o tiv e...................................................
Engineers, sta tio n a ry .....................................................
E nroute controllers, air traffic.....................................
Entomologists, ag ricu ltu re............................................
Envelope-m achine operators, paper and allied
p ro d u c ts.....................................................................
Environm ental en g in eers..............................................
Environm ental scientists...............................................
Etching equipm ent operators, electronics
m anufacturing..........................................................
Ethnologists, see: A nthropologists..............................
Exchange clerks, see: Bank clerk s..............................
Exhaust operators, electronics m an u factu rin g .......
Experim ental machinists, see: Instrum ent m arkers
(m e c h a n ic a l)...........................................................
Exploration geophysicists.............................................
Extension ag en ts..............................................................
Extension lib rarian s........................................................
Extension service w o rk e rs............................................
Extrusion press operators, alum inum in d u stry .......

150
1 19
629
653
386
693
386
356
634
342
345
345
346
346
347
348
348
350
351
351
352
353
312
82
290
610
698
702
355
654
517
1 19
654
40
357
550
221

550
633

F
Face bosses, see: Coal m in in g .....................................
Fallers, logging.................................................................
Family service w orkers, see: Social w o rk e rs...........
Farm equipm ent dealers, agriculture.........................
Farm equipm ent m echanics..........................................
Farm hands, general, se e : A g ric u ltu re.....................
Farm labor su p ervisors..................................................
Farm m an ag ers................................................................
Farm ers, see: A g ric u ltu re.............................................
Fashion m o d els................................................................
FBI special ag ents...........................................................




615
674
563
611
422
604
604
608
603
238
188

Federal civilian go v ern m en t........................................
Federal G overnm ent occupations...............................
Field engineers, see:
Business m achine re p airers......................................
C om puter service technicians.................................
Field technicians, radio and television.....................
File c le rk s..........................................................................
Film editors, telev isio n ..................................................
Film librarians, telev isio n .............................................
Film num berers, see: Photographic laboratory
technicians................................................................
Film strippers, see: Photographic laboratory
technicians................................................................
Final assemblers, aircraft, missile, and spacecraft..
Finance, insurance, and real e s ta te ...........................
Finishers, flatwork, laundry and d rycleaning.........
Finishers, m en’s suit, laundry and drycleaning.......
Finishers, ophthalm ic laboratory technicians.........
Finishers, shirt, laundry and drycleaning..................
Fire bosses, see: Coal m ining.......................................
Fire protection engineers..............................................
Firefighters........................................................................
Firers/w atertenders, see:
M erchant m arine industry........................................
M erchant m arine sailo rs...........................................
First assistant engineers, m erchant marine officers
First m ates, m erchant m arine officers......................
Fitters, apparel.................................................................
Fitters, boilerm aking o cc u p atio n s.............................
Fitters, see: Coal m ining...............................................
Fitting m odels..................................................................
Flatwork finishers, laundry and drycleaning...........
Flight a tte n d a n ts.............................................................
Flight en g in ee rs...............................................................
Floor corem akers, fo u n d ry ..........................................
Floor covering installers...............................................
Floor covering m echanics.............................................
Floor m anagers, television............................................
Floor molders, foundry occupations..........................
Food and drug inspectors.............................................
Food chemists, see: A g ric u ltu re.................................
Food counter w o rk e rs...................................................
Floral designers................................................................
Food scien tists.................................................................
Food service o cc u p atio n s.............................................
Food technologists..........................................................
Foreign b u y ers.................................................................
Forem en and forew om en..............................................
F o resters............................................................................
See also:
Logging and lum ber m ills.....................................
Paper and allied pro d u cts....................................
Forestry a id e s ..................................................................
Forestry technicians........................................................
See also: Logging and lum ber mills........................
Forge shop occupations.................................................
Forklift truck operators, see: Electronics
m anufacturing..........................................................

775
775
414
416
383
95
732
732
78
78
629
756
770
771
76
770
615
203
189
727
305
301
301
638
63
615
238
770
297
294
36
268
268
732
35
199
610
172
581
379
167
379
135
62
334
674
698
336
336
674
68
655

IN D E X T O O C C U P A T IO N S A N D IN D U S T R IE S

807

Page

Page

F o u n d ries...........................................................................
Foundry o ccu p atio n s.....................................................
Fram e spinners, textile mill p ro d u c ts........................
Fram e wirers, telephone central office craft
occupations...............................................................
Free-lance re p o rte rs ......................................................
Freelance illustrators, see: Com m ercial artists.......
Front-end m echanics, see: A utom obile m echanics
Front-office cash iers......................................................
Front-office clerks, h o te l..............................................
Fruit farm ers.....................................................................
Funeral directors and em balm ers...............................
Fur cutters, a p p a re l........................................................
Fur finishers, ap p a rel.....................................................
Fur m achine operators, a p p a re l.................................
Fur nailers, apparel........................................................
Furnace installers, heating m echanics......................
Furnace operators, see:
F o u n d ries......................................................................
Iron and steel in d u stry ..............................................
Furniture u p h o lsterers...................................................
Fusing m achine o p erato rs.............................................

657
33
710
395
103
578
409
92
97
604
181
639
639
639
639
403
658
667
70
639

G
Gas appliance se rv ic e rs................................................
Gas burner m ech an ics...................................................
Gas d ispatchers................................................................
Gas fitters, see: Plum bers and p ip efitters.................
Gas plant operators, petroleum and natural gas ....
Gas w elders.......................................................................
G as-com pressor operators, petroleum and natural
gas...............................................................................
Gasoline service station a tte n d a n ts ...........................
Gaugers, petroleum and natural gas..........................
Geom orphologists, see: G eologists............................
G eneral b o okkeepers.....................................................
G eneral h o u sew orkers...................................................
Geneticists, see:, ag ricu ltu re........................................
G eochem ists, see: G eologists.......................................
G eochronologists, see: Geologists...............................
Geodesists, see: G eophysicists....................................
G eographers......................................................................
Geological oceanographers..........................................
See also: O ceanographers.........................................
Geological technicians...................................................
G eo lo g ists.........................................................................
See also: Petroleum and natural gas production
and p ro cessin g ....................................................
G eom agneticians, see: G eophysicists.........................
G eophysicists...................................................................
See also: Petroleum and natural gas production
and p ro cessin g ....................................................
G eriatric aides, see: Nursing aides..............................
Glass blowers, electronics m anufacturing...............
Glass lathe operators, electronics m anufacturing...
G laziers..............................................................................
G o vernm ent......................................................................



403
403
106
282
620
85
620
232
619
356
91
183
609
356
356
357
521
356
361
388
355
619
358
357
619
492
654
654
269
773

G overnm ent occupations, F ederal.............................
G overnm ent occupations, State and local...............
G raders, lum ber m ills....................................................
G rain elevator operators, ag ricu ltu re.......................
G ranulator m achine operators, see: Drug industry
Gravure photoengravers, printing and publishing..
Grid lathe operators, electronics m anufacturing....
G rinders, see:
Forge shop occu p atio n s...........................................
F o u n d ries.....................................................................
G rocery clerks, see: C ashiers.......................................
G round helpers, electric p o w e r..................................
G u a rd s ...............................................................................
G uidance counselors......................................................

775
782
675
608
649
706
654
69
658
92
725
191
536

H
Hairstylists, see:
B arbers..........................................................................
C osm etologists............................................................
H am m er operators, forge sh o p ...................................
Hammersmiths, forge sh o p ..........................................
Hand assemblers, office m achine and com puter
m anufacturing.........................................................
Hand com positors, p rin tin g .........................................
Hand icers, baking.............................................
Hand molders, fo u n d rie s..............................................
Hand sewers, apparel.....................................................
Hand spreaders, ap p a rel...............................................
Hand trim m ers, ap p arel................................................
Head sawyers, lum ber m ills.........................................
Health and regulatory inspectors (governm ent) ....
Health physicists, nuclear e n e rg y ..............................
Health-physics technicians, nuclear energy.............
Health occupations........................................................
Health services adm inistrators....................................
Health services, home econom ists.............................
Heat treaters, see:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manufacturing
Forge shop o ccupations...........................................
F o u n d ries.....................................................................
Heaters, see:
Forge shop occu p atio n s...........................................
Iron and steel industry..............................................
Heating m echanics.........................................................
Helpers, baking...............................................................
Helpers, iron and steel.................
High school te a c h e rs .....................................................
High speed printer operators, see: C om puter
operating p ersonnel...............................................
Highway patrol officers, see: State police officers
H istorians..........................................................................
Hod carriers, see:
B ricklayers...................................................................
C onstruction laborers................................................
Home eco n o m ists...........................................................
Home housekeepers, see: Private household
w orkers.....................................................................

177
179
68
68
693
48
643
658
638
638
638
675
199
688
688
447
508
552
628
69
659
68
668
403
643
666
213
1 12
195
524
255
261
551
184

808

O C C U P A T IO N A L O U T L O O K H A N D B O O K

Page

Page

Hom em aker-hom e health a id e s ..........................
See also:
Nursing aid es....................................................
Social service aides.........................................
H orticulturists...........................................................
Hospital a tte n d a n ts..................................................
Hospital n u rs e s .........................................................
Hot-cell technicians, nuclear e n e rg y ..................
Hot m etal crane operators, see:
Alum inum in d u stry .............................................
Iron and steel in d u stry .......................................
Hotel front-office c le rk s ........................................
Hotel housekeepers and assistants......................
Hotel m anagers and assistants..............................
Hotel o ccu p atio n s....................................................
H ousekeepers, see: Private household workers
H ousekeepers and assistants, h o tel.....................
Hum an nutritionists, see: A griculture.................
Hum an service aid es................................................
Hydrogen furnace operators, electronics
m anufacturing...................................................
Hydrologic tech n ician s...........................................
Hydrologists, see: G eophysicists..........................
Hygienists, d en tal.....................................................

Icing mixers, baking........................................................
Income m aintenance workers, social service aides
Im m igration in sp ecto rs..................................................
Industrial buyers, see: Purchasing a g e n ts ................
Industrial chem ical industry, occupations in the....
Industrial designers.........................................................
See also: Electronics m an u factu rin g .....................
Industrial engineers.........................................................
See also:
A pparel industry.....................................................
Drug industry...........................................................
Electronics m anufacturing....................................
M otor vehicle and equipm ent m anufacturing
Office m achine and com puter m anufacturing
Industrial hygienists, insurance industry...................
Industrial hygienists, occupational safety and
health w o rk ers.........................................................
Industrial m achinery rep airers.....................................
Industrial nurses...............................................................
Industrial photographers...............................................
Industrial production and related occupations.......
Industrial technicians.....................................................
Industrial traffic m anagers............................................
Informal m odels...............................................................
Inform ation science specialists, lib rarian s...............
Infrared oven operators, electronics
m anufacturing..........................................................
Ingot strippers, iron and steel......................................
Inhalation therapy w orkers...........................................
Inspectors, co nstruction.................................................
Inspectors, laundry and drycleaning..........................



553
492
561
366
492
488
688
632
668

97
163
142
767
184
163
610
560
654
388
358
453

643
560

Inspectors, (m an u factu rin g )........................................
See also:
Apparel industry.....................................................
Electronics m anufacturing...................................
Forge shop occupations........................................
M otor vehicle and equipm ent m anufacturing
Instrum ent m akers (m echanical)................................
Instrum ent re p a ire rs......................................................
See also:
Drug industry...........................................................
Industrial chem ical in d u stry ................................
Paper and allied products industry....................
Instrum ent technicians, see: Engineering and
science technicians................................................
Instrum ent workers, see: S urveyors...........................
Insulating w orkers...........................................................
Insurance agents, see: U nderw riters..........................
Insurance agents and b ro k e rs......................................
Insurance in d u stry ..........................................................
Insurance o cc u p atio n s...................................................
Intercity busdrivers........................................................
Interest clerks, see: Bank c le rk s.................................
Interior d ec o rato rs..........................................................
Interior designers............................................................
International officers, banking....................................
In terp reters.......................................................................
Inventory clerks, see: Stock c le rk s............................
Investm ent analysts, see: Insurance in d u stry ...........
Iron and steel industry, occupations in t h e ..............
Ironw orkers.......................................................................

71
639
654
69
682
40
426
649
662
698
387
391
271
128
234
761
123
3 19
119
585
585
121
591
108
762
665
273

200

156
661
583
652
350
639
648
653
680
692
762
203
424
489
589
31
387
143
238
222

654

668
485
197
771

J
Janitors, see: Building custodians..............................
Je w e le rs.............................................................................
Jig and fixture builders, aircraft, missile, and
sp a c e c ra ft.................................................................
Job analysts, p erso n n el.................................................
Junior typists....................................................................

162
428
628
15 1
109

K
Keepers and helpers, iron and s te e l..........................
Keypunch o p erato rs.......................................................
Kindergarten teach ers....................................................
Knitting m achine fixers, textile mill p ro d u c ts........
Knitting m achine m echanics, textile mill products
Knitting m achine operators, textile mill products..

666
1 12
211
710
710
710

L
Laboratory technicians, see:
Aluminum in d u stry ....................................................
Drug in d u stry ..............................................................
Electronics m an u factu rin g .......................................
Industrial chem ical industry....................................
Petroleum re fin in g .....................................................
L aboratory technicians, d e n ta l...................................
Labor relations w orkers................................................
Laborers, construction...................................................

634
649
653
661
702
455
150
261

IN D E X T O O C C U P A T IO N S A N D IN D U S T R IE S

809

Page

Page

Lady’s and gentlem an’s attendants, private
household w orkers................................................
Landscape arc h ite c ts....................................................
L ath ers..............................................................................
Launderers, see: Private household w o rk e rs.........
Laundry and drycleaning p la n ts................................
Laundry and drycleaning route d riv ers...................
Law yers.............................................................................
See also: Insurance industry....................................
Layout artists, see: Com m ercial artists....................
Layout workers, ad v ertisin g .......................................
Layout workers, boilerm aking occupations............
Lease buyers, petroleum and natural g a s...............
Legal secretaries............................................................
Lens grinders, see: Ophthalm ic laboratory
technicians...............................................................
L etter sorting m achine clerks, p o sta l......................
Letterers, see: Com m ercial a rtists ............................
L ibrarians.........................................................................
Library o ccu pations......................................................
Library technicians and assistants............................
Licensed practical n u rs e s ............................................
Life insurance ag en ts....................................................
Life science o c c u p a tio n s.............................................
Life scientists..................................................................
Life u n d erw riters...........................................................
Lighting technicians, telev isio n .................................
Line installers and cable splicers, telep h o n e..........
Line installers and repairers, electric p o w e r..........
Linotype m achine operators, p rin tin g .....................
Linguistic anthropologists............................................
Lithographers, p rin tin g ................................................
Lithographic artists, p rin tin g ......................................
Load dispatchers, electric pow er...............................
L oader engineers, logging............................................
Loading m achine operators, see: Coal m in in g ......
Loan officers, see: Bank officers and m anagers....
Local governm ent occupations..................................
Local transit b u sd riv ers...............................................
Local truckdrivers, see:
Driving o ccu p atio n s..................................................
Trucking industry......................................................
Locksm iths.......................................................................
Locom otive engineers, railro a d .................................
See also: Iron and steel in d u stry ...........................
Log scalers, logging......................................................
L oggers.............................................................................
Logging and lum ber m ills............................................
Logging-tractor o p erato rs............................................
Long distance tru ck d rivers.........................................
See also: Trucking industry.....................................
Longwall m achine operators, see: Coal m ining.....
Loom fixers, textile mill p ro d u c ts............................
Loom winder tenders, textile mill p ro d u c ts...........
Loss control consultants, occupational safety and
health w o rk ers........................................................



183
587
274
183
770
244
145
762
577
133
63
619
103
76
99
577
220
220

223
490
234
364
365
234
383
398
724
48
518
50
50
724
675
615
120
782
321
323
742
429
312
670
675
674
674
675
325
742
615
710
710
204

M
M achine corem akers, foundry occupations.............
M achine designers, see: Engineering and science
technicians...............................................................
M achine icers, baking....................................................
M achine m olders, see:
F o u n d ries.....................................................................
Foundry occupations.................................................
M otor vehicle and equipm ent m anufacturing.....
M achine movers, see: Ironw orkers............................
M achine spreaders, ap p arel.........................................
M achine tool o p e ra to rs................................................
See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
m anufacturing.....................................................
Electronics m anufacturing...................................
M otor vehicle and equipm ent manufacturing
M achine washers, laundry and drycleaning plants
M achined parts inspectors, see:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft m anufacturing
Office m achine and com puter m anufacturing....
M achinery repairers, industrial...................................
M achining occupations.................................................
M achinists, all-ro u n d .....................................................
See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
m anufacturing.....................................................
Drug industry...........................................................
Railroad shop trades..............................................
Mail c a rrie rs ....................................................................
Mail preparing and mail handling machine
operators, office m achine operators.................
M ailhandlers, see:
Postal c le rk s................................................................
Postal service occu p atio n s......................................
M aintenance electricians..............................................
See also:
Aluminum industry................................................
Coal m in in g .............................................................
Drug industry...........................................................
Electronics m anufacturing...................................
Industrial chemical in d u stry ................................
Iron and steel industry..........................................
Office m achine and com puter m anufacturing
Paper and allied products industry....................
M aintenance m achinists, see:
Aluminum in d u stry ....................................................
Electronics m anufacturing.......................................
Industrial chem ical industry....................................
Office m achine and com puter m anufacturing....
Paper and allied products industry.......................
M aintenance m echanics, see:
Industrial m achinery re p a ire rs...............................
M otor vehicle and equipm ent m anufacturing.....
M aintenance technicians, radio and television.......
M akeup arrangers, printing and publishing.............
M akeup artists, television.............................................

36
387
643
658
35
681
273
638
42

628
654
681
770
629
694
424
38
38

628
649
3 14
206
98
99
779
431
634
615
649
655
662
670
694
698
634
655
662
694
698
424
682
383
706
732

O C C U P A T IO N A L O U T L O O K H A N D B O O K

810

Page

Page

M anagers, c ity .................................................................
M anagers, industrial traffic...........................................
M anagers, re sta u ra n t.....................................................
M anagers, retail food sto re s........................................
M anagers and assistants, h o te l....................................
M anifest clerks, see:
M erchant marine industry........................................
Trucking industry........................................................
M anipulator operators, iron and s te e l......................
M anufacturers’ sales w o rk e rs......................................
M an u factu rin g .................................................................
M arble s e tte rs..................................................................
M arine architects, see: M erchant m arine industry
M arine biologists, see: O cean o g rap h ers...................
M arine en g in eers.............................................................
M arine geologists, see: O ceanographers...................
M arkers, ap p arel..............................................................
M arkers, laundry and drycleaning..............................
M arket news reporters, a g ric u ltu re...........................
M arketing research w o rk ers........................................
M asters, see:
M erchant m arine industry........................................
M erchant m arine officers.........................................
M aterial handlers, ap p a rel............................................
M aterial handlers, see:
M otor vehicle and equipm ent m anufacturing.....
Trucking industry........................................................
M ates, see: M erchant m arine o ffic e rs......................
M athem atical assistants, electronics
m anufacturing..........................................................
M athem aticians................................................................
See also:
Electronics m anufacturing...................................
M otor vehicle and equipm ent m anufacturing
M athem atics o cc u p atio n s.............................................
M eat and poultry inspectors........................................
M eat cu tters......................................................................
See also: Retail food sto re s ......................................
M eat wrappers, see: Retail food stores.....................
M echanical artists, com m ercial a rtis ts .....................
M echanical en g in eers....................................................
See also:
Aluminum industry.................................................
Coal m in in g ..............................................................
Drug industry...........................................................
Electronics m anufacturing...................................
Industrial chem ical in d u stry ................................
Iron and steel industry...........................................
M otor vehicle and equipm ent m anufacturing
Office m achine and com puter m anufacturing
Paper and allied products industry....................
M echanical in sp ecto rs...................................................
M echanic-attendants, see: Gasoline service station
a tte n d a n ts.................................................................
M echanics, see:
Air-conditioning m ech an ics.....................................
Airplane m echanics....................................................
Autom obile m echanics..............................................




137
143
748
752
142
728
742
668
236
624
255
728
361
727
361
638
770
609
148
727
301
639
682
743
301
653
370
653
680
370
199
173
753
753
577
35 1
634
616
648
653
661
670
680
692
698
197
232
403
292
408

B o a t m o to r m e c h a n ic s ............................................. .
B o w lin g -p in -m a c h in e m e c h a n ic s ..........................
Bus m e c h a n ic s .............................................................. .
D iesel m e c h a n ic s ..........................................................
F a rm e q u ip m e n t m e c h a n ic s ...................................
G a s b u r n e r m e c h a n ic s ...............................................
H e a tin g m e c h a n ic s ......................................................
M o to rc y c le m e c h a n ic s ..............................................
O il b u r n e r m e c h a n ic s .................................................
R e frig e ra tio n m e c h a n ic s ..........................................
T ru c k m e c h a n ic s ..........................................................
V e n d in g m a c h in e m e c h a n ic s .................................
M e c h a n ic s a n d r e p a ir e r s ................................................
M e d ia d ir e c to r s , a d v e r tis in g .......................................
M e d ia sp e c ia lists, lib r a r ia n s .........................................
M e d ic a l g e o g ra p h e rs , see: G e o g r a p h e r s ................
M e d ic a l la b o ra to r y a s s is ta n ts ......................................
M e d ic a l la b o ra to r y t e c h n ic ia n s .................................
M e d ic a l la b o ra to r y w o rk e rs .........................................
M e d ic a l m ic ro b io lo g is ts .................................................
M e d ic a l p r a c titio n e r s ......................................................
M e d ic a l r e c o rd a d m in is tra to rs ....................................
M e d ic a l r e c o rd te c h n ic ia n s a n d c le r k s ...................
M e d ic a l s e c r e ta r i e s ..........................................................
M e d ic a l so c ial w o r k e r s ..................................................
M e d ic a l te c h n o lo g is t, te c h n ic ia n , a n d a ssista n t
o c c u p a tio n s .................................................................
M e d ic a l te c h n o lo g is ts .....................................................
M e lte rs, see:
Iro n a n d ste e l in d u s t r y ..............................................
M o to r v e h ic le a n d e q u ip m e n t m a n u fa c tu rin g .
M e n ’s su it fin ish e rs, la u n d ry a n d d r y c le a n in g ....
M e n d e rs, la u n d ry a n d d ry c le a n in g p la n ts .............
M e rc h a n d is e m a n a g e rs, b u y e r s ..................................
M e rc h a n t m a rin e i n d u s t r y ....'.....................................
M e rc h a n t m a rin e o c c u p a t io n s ...................................
M e rc h a n t m a rin e o f f ic e r s .............................................
M e rc h a n t m a rin e s a ilo r s ...............................................
M ess a tte n d a n ts , see:
M e rc h a n t m a rin e in d u s try .......................................
M e rc h a n t m a rin e s a i l o r s ..........................................
M e ta l fin ish e rs, m o to r v e h ic le a n d e q u ip m e n t
m a n u fa c tu r in g ...........................................................
M e ta l p a tte r n m a k e r s , fo u n d ry o c c u p a tio n s .........
M e ta l r o o f e r s ......................................................................
M e ta llu rg ic a l e n g in e e rs ..................................................

411
412
440
419
422
403
403
433
403
403
440
442
393
133

222
522
476
476
476
366
458
510
478
103
563
470
476
667
681
771
771
136

301/
304
728
306
682
33
284
351

See also:
E le c tro n ic s m a n u fa c tu r in g ..................................
Iro n a n d ste e l in d u s try ..........................................
M e ta llu rg ists, see:
E le c tro n ic s m a n u f a c tu r in g ......................................
Iro n a n d ste e l i n d u s t r y ..............................................
M o to r v e h ic le a n d e q u ip m e n t m a n u fa c tu rin g
M e ta llu rg ists, p h y s ic a l..................................................
M e ta llu rg ists, p r o c e s s ....................................................
M e te o ro lo g ic a l te c h n ic ia n s .........................................
M e te o r o lo g is ts ..................................................................
M e te r in sta lle rs, e le c tric p o w e r ................................

653
670
653
670
681
634
634
388
359
726

81 I

IN D E X T O O C C U P A T IO N S A N D IN D U S T R IE S

Page

M eter readers, electric p o w e r.....................................
M eter testers, electric p o w er.......................................
M icrobiologists, see:
A g ricu ltu re....................................................................
Life sciences.................................................................
M illwrights.........................................................................
See also:
Aluminum in d u stry.................................................
Iron and steel industry...........................................
M otor vehicle and equipm ent m anufacturing
Paper and allied products industry....................
Mine in sp ecto rs...............................................................
M ineralogists, see:
G eologists......................................................................
Petroleum and natural g a s .......................................
Mining and petroleum in d u stry ..................................
Mining en g in ee rs.............................................................
See also: Coal m in ing................................................
M inisters, P ro testan t.......................................................
Missile assembly m echanics, aircraft, missile, and
sp a c e c ra ft.................................................................
Missile m anufacturing o c c u p a tio n s...........................
Mixers, b a k in g .................................................................
Model m akers, see:
Instrum ent m akers (m ec h an ica l)...........................
M otor vehicle and equipm ent m anufacturing.....
M o d els...............................................................................
M olders, see: Foundry occupations...........................
M olders’ helpers, fo u n d rie s.........................................
Molding m achine operators, baking industry.........
M onotype caster operators, p rin tin g .........................
M onotype keyboard operators, printing...................
M ortgage clerks, see: Bank clerk s..............................
M others’ helpers, see: Private household workers
M otion picture p ro jectio n ists......................................
M otorcycle m echanics...................................................
M otor vehicle and equipm ent m anufacturing
occupations...............................................................
M otor vehicle body re p a ire rs......................................
Music directors, radio and telev isio n ........................
Music librarians, radio and television........................
M usicians...........................................................................

726
726
609
366
73
634
670
682
698
200
356
618
612
352
616
544
629
626
642
40
679
238
35
658
642
48
48
1 19
183
74
433
679
407
731
731
571

N
Natural gas production and processing....................
N eighborhood w orkers, see: Social service aides...
Neon sign repairers.........................................................
News directors, radio and telev isio n .........................
News reporters, radio and television.........................
News writers, radio and television..............................
Newspaper rep o rters.......................................................
N uclear energy field, occupations in th e..................
N uclear reactor operators, nuclear energy..............
Num erical control m achine operators, office
m achine and com puter m anufacturing.............
Nurse educators, see: Registered nurses...................



618
560
420
731
731
731
593
685
688
693
489

Page

Nurses, see:
Licensed practical nurses.........................................
Registered n u rse s.......................................................
Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants...................
Nursing assistants, see: Nursing aides......................
Nursing o cc u p atio n s......................................................
N utritionists......................................................................
See also:
D ietitia n s..................................................................
Life scientists...........................................................

490
488
492
492
488
551
505
366

O
Observers, petroleum and natural g a s......................
O ccupational health consultants.................................
O ccupational health n u rse s.........................................
O ccupational safety and health w o rk e rs..................
O ccupational th era p ists................................................
O ccupational therapy assistants..................................
O ceanographers..............................................................
O ceanographic engineers, see: O ceanographers.....
Office m achine and com puter m anufacturing........
Office m achine o p e ra to rs.............................................
Office m achine re p airers..............................................
Office nurses....................................................................
Office occupations..........................................................
Oil burner m ech a n ics....................................................
Oilers, see:
M erchant m arine industry........................................
M erchant m arine sailo rs..........................................
O perating en g in eers..................................................
O pener tenders, textile mill p ro d u cts.......................
O perating engineers, construction m achinery........
O perating room tech n ician s........................................
O perations officers, banking........................................
O perators, tele p h o n e .....................................................
O phthalm ic dispensers..................................................
Ophthalm ic laboratory technicians............................
O phthalm ologists............................................................
Optical m ech a n ics.........................................................
O pticians, dispensing.....................................................
O ptom etric assistants.....................................................
O p to m etrists....................................................................
O rderlies, see: Nursing a id e s .......................................
Ordinary seam en, see:
M erchant m arine industry........................................
M erchant m arine sailo rs..........................................
Organ tu n e rs ....................................................................
O rnam ental ironw orkers...............................................
O steopathic physicians.................................................
O utreach librarians........................................................
O utreach workers, see: Social service aid es............
Outside production inspectors, aircraft, missile,
and sp a c e c ra ft........................................................
Oven tenders, baking.....................................................
O verburden stripping operators, see: Coal mining

619
204
489
202
495
497
361
361
692
98
414
488
89
403
727
305
277
710
276
480
120
207
506
76
459
76
506
482
459
492
727
304
435
273
461
221
560
629
642
615

812

O C C U P A T IO N A L O U T L O O K H A N D B O O K

Page

Page

P
Packaging engineers, paper and allied products ....
Painters, au to m o b ile.......................................................
Painters, p ro d u c tio n .......................................................
See also: Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
m an u factu rin g ......................................................
Painters and paperhangers............................................
Paleom agneticians see: G eophysicists........................
Paleontologists, see:
G eologists......................................................................
Petroleum and natural g a s .......................................
Paper and allied products in d u strie s.........................
Paper chemists, paper and allied p ro d u cts..............
Paper m achine operators, paper and allied
p ro d u c ts.....................................................................
Paper sorters and counters, paper and allied
p ro d u c ts.....................................................................
P ap erh an g ers....................................................................
Park, recreation, and leisure service w o rk e rs........
Parking a tte n d a n ts..........................................................
Parts co u n ter w orkers, autom obile............................
P arts-order clerks, see: Trucking industry...............
Passenger agents, see: Reservation, ticket, and
passenger ag e n ts......................................................
Paste-up artists, see: C om m ercial a rtis ts ..................
Pathologists, See:
Life scien tists...............................................................
M edical laboratory w o rk ers.....................................
Pathologists, sp eech ........................................................
Patrol officers, see:
Police o ffic e rs..............................................................
State police o ffic e rs...................................................
P attern graders, a p p a re l...............................................
P atternm akers, a p p a rel..................................................
Patternm akers, see:
F o u n d ries......................................................................
Foundry occupations..................................................
M otor vehicle and equipm ent m anufacturing.....
PBX installers and repairers, te le p h o n e ...................
PBX operators, see: T elephone o p e ra to rs................
PBX re p a ire rs...................................................................
P erforator operators, petroleum and natural gas...
Perform ing a rtis ts ...........................................................
Personnel and labor relations w o rk e rs.....................
Personnel recru iters........................................................
Personal service occu pations.......................................
Personnel clerks...............................................................
Pest co n tro llers................................................................
Petroleum en g in eers.......................................................
Petroleum and natural gas production and
processing.................................................................
Petroleum geologists, see:
G eologists......................................................................
Petroleum and natural gas production and
p ro cessin g .............................................................
Petroleum refining..........................................................
Petrologists, petroleum and natural gas
production and p ro c essin g ...................................




698
58
81
628
278
358
356
618
696
699
698
698
278
556
328
227
742
298
577
366
476
502
193
195
637
637
658
33
681
400
208
400
620
567
150
150
177
106
164
355
618
355
618
701
619

P harm acists.......................................................................
Pharm aceutical detailers, see: Drug in d u stry .........
Pharm aceutical operators, see: Drug industry........
Pharm aceutical sales representatives, see: Drug
industry......................................................................
Pharm acologists, see: Life scientists..........................
Photocheckers and assemblers, see: Photographic
laboratory occu p atio n s.........................................
Photoengravers, printing, see:
Printing o c c u p a tio n s..................................................
Printing and publishing.............................................
Photogeologists, see: Petroleum and natural gas
production and pro cessin g ..................................
P hotographers..................................................................
Photographic laboratory occupations........................
Photographic m odels, see: M o d els............................
Photographic technicians..............................................
Phototypesetters, printing.............................................
Physical g eo g rap h ers.....................................................
Physical m eteorologists..................................................
Physical oceanographers...............................................
Physical scien tists...........................................................
Physical th e ra p ists..........................................................
Physical therapist assistants and aides......................
P hysicians.........................................................................
Physicists............................................................................
See also:
Electronics m anufacturing...................................
Office m achine and com puter m anufacturing
Physicists, health, nuclear energy...............................
Piano and organ tuners and re p a ire rs......................
Piano technicians............................................................
Piano tu n ers......................................................................
Picker tenders, textile mill products..........................
Picklers, forge s h o p .......................................................
Piercing-mill operators, iron and s te e l.....................
Pill and tablet coaters, drug in d u stry ........................
Pilots and c o p ilo ts..........................................................
Pinsetting m achine m echanics, see: Bowling-pinm achine m ech a n ics...............................................
Pipefitters..........................................................................
See also:
Industrial chem ical in d u stry ................................
Iron and steel industry..........................................
Paper and allied products industry....................
Pipe-organ technicians...................................................
Placem ent counselors, college....................................
Plainclothes officers, see: Police officers..................
Planer mill graders, lum ber m ill.................................
Planer operators, lum ber m ill......................................
Planetologists, see: G eophysicists...............................
Planning counselors, college........................................
Plant pathologists, ag ric u ltu re....................................
Plant physiologists, agriculture...................................
P la ste re rs...........................................................................
Plasterers’ ten d ers...........................................................

512
649
649
649
366
78
51
706
618
588
77
238
693
48
522
359
361
375
498
500
463
380
653
693
688
435
435
435
710
69
669
649
294
412
281
662
670
698
435
541
193
676
676
358
541
609
609
280
261

IN D E X T O O C C U P A T IO N S A N D IN D U S T R IE S

813

Page

Platem akers, printing, see:
Printing o c c u p a tio n s.................................................
Printing and publishing............................................
Platers, elec tro p laters...................................................
See also: Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
m anufacturing....................................................
Plum bers and p ip efitters..............................................
See also:
Aluminum industry...............................................
Drug industry..........................................................
M otor vehicle and equipm ent m anufacturing
P o d iatrists........................................................................
Police officers.................................................................
See also: State police officers.................................
Policy checkers, see: Statistical clerks.....................
Polishers, m otor vehicle and equipm ent
m anufacturing.........................................................
Political g eo g rap h ers....................................................
Political scien tists..........................................................
Pond workers, lum ber m ills........................................
Pony edgers, lum ber m ills...........................................
Portrait photographers..................................................
Postal clerks.....................................................................
Postal in sp ecto rs............................................................
Postal service o ccu pations...........................................
Posting clerks, see: Statistical c le rk s ........................
P ostm asters......................................................................
Pot liners, see: Aluminum industry...........................
Pot tenders, see: Aluminum industry........................
Pourers, see:
F o u n d ries.....................................................................
M otor vehicle and equipm ent m anufacturing....
Power dispatchers, electric pow er............................
Power ham m er operators, aircraft, missile, and
sp a c e c ra ft................................................................
Power shear operators, aircraft, missile, and
sp a c e c ra ft................................................................
Power truck o p e ra to rs..................................................
See also: Trucking industry.....................................
Pow erplant occupations, electric pow er..................
Powerplant operators, drug in d u stry ........................
Practical nurses, licensed....................................... .
Preparation plant central control operators, see:
Coal m in in g............................................................
Preshift examiners, coal m ining.................................
Press operators, forge s h o p ........................................
Pressers, ap p a rel............................................................
Press operators, printing, see:
Printing o cc u p atio n s.................................................
Printing and publishing............................................
Priests, Roman C a th o lic ..............................................
Print developers, m achine, see: Photographic
laboratory o ccu p ations........................................
Printer operators, see: Photographic laboratory
occupations..............................................................
Printer-slotter operators, paper and allied
p ro d u cts...................................................................



50
706
66

628
281
634
649
682
466
193
195
106
682
522
526
675
675
589
99
779
779
106
779
633
632
658
681
724
628
628
79
743
721
649
490
616
615
68
639
53
706
547

page
Printers, see: Photographic laboratory
occupations..............................................................
Printing and publishing.................................................
Printing o ccupations......................................................
Printing press operators and assistants, see:
Printing o cc u p atio n s.................................................
Printing and publishing.............................................
Private duty n u rse s ........................................................
Private household service occupations.....................
Private household w o rk e rs..........................................
Process engineers, paper and allied products.........
Procurem ent clerks, see: Stock clerks......................
Produce clerks, see: Retail food stores.....................
Produce packers, agriculture.......................................
Produce sorters, a g ric u ltu re........................................
Producer-directors, program , radio and television
Production m anagers, advertising..............................
Production m anagers, ap p a re l....................................
Production p a in te rs.......................................................
See also: Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
m anufacturing.....................................................
Production planners, aircraft, missile, and
sp a c e c ra ft.................................................................
Production technicians, see:
Engineering and science tech n ician s....................
Printing and publishing.............................................
Program assistants, radio and television...................
Program directors, radio and television...................
Programm ers, electronic c o m p u te r...........................
See also: Office machine and com puter
m anufacturing.....................................................
Proof m achine operators, see: Bank clerk s.............
Proofreaders, printing and publishing......................
Property handlers, radio and television....................
Protective and related service occupations.............
Protestant m inisters.......................................................
Psychiatric aides, see: Nursing a id e s .........................
Psychiatric social w o rk e rs...........................................
Psychologists....................................................................
Public librarians..............................................................
Public relations w o rk ers...............................................
Public works inspectors................................................
Pumpers, petroleum and natural g as.........................
Pumpers, petroleum refining.......................................
Punch press operators, see:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft m anufacturing
Electronics in d u stry ...................................................
Purchasing a g e n ts...........................................................
Pursers, see:
M erchant m arine industry........................................
M erchant officers.......................................................

78
705
47
53
706
488
183
183
699
108
752
604
604
731
133
639
81
628
628
387
706
731
731
1 13
693
118
706
732
186
544
492
563
528
221
153
197
619
701
628
654
156
728
302

Q
Quality control chemists, alum inum industry......... 634

78

R
78
698

R abbis................................................................................ 545
Rack clerks, h o te l........................................................... 97

O C C U P A T IO N A L O U T L O O K H A N D B O O K

814

Page

Page

R adiation m onitors, nuclear e n e rg y ....................
R adiation physicists, nuclear e n e rg y ...................
Radio and television an n o u n cers..........................
Radio and television broadcasting occupations.
Radio officers, see:
M erchant m arine industry...................................
M erchant m arine officers....................................
Radio service tech n ic ia n s.......................................
Radiographers, see:
Alum inum in d u stry ..............................................
N uclear energy.......................................................
R adioisotope-production operators, nuclear
en e rg y ...................................................................
Radiologic (X -ray) technologists..........................
Radiological physicists, nuclear e n e rg y ..............
R ailroad c o n d u c to rs .................................................
R ailroad in d u stry .......................................................
R ailroad o ccu p atio n s................................................
Range conservationists, see: Range m anagers...
Range ecologists, see: Range m anagers..............
Range m anagers.........................................................
Range scientists, see: Range m an ag ers...............
Real estate agents and b ro k ers..............................
R ealtors.........................................................................
R eceipt clerks, m erchant m arine industry..........
Receiving clerks, see: Shipping and receiving
c le rk s ....................................................................
R eceptionists...............................................................
R ecordkeepers, see: Statistical clerk s..................
R ecording technicians, radio and television......
R ecreation adm inistrators.......................................
R ecreation ed u c ato rs................................................
R ecreation program le a d e rs ..................................
R ecreation sp ecialists..............................................
R ecreation supervisors.............................................
R ecreation w orkers...................................................
R eference librarians..................................................
Refinery operators, p etroleum ...............................
Refrigeration engineers, see: M erchant marine
sailors....................................................................
Refrigeration m ech an ics.........................................
Regional g eo g rap h ers..............................................
Regional p lan n ers.....................................................
Registered nurses.......................................................
Registered representatives, see: Securities sales
w o rk ers................................................................
R ehabilitation co u n se lo rs.......................................
Reinforcing ironw orkers.........................................
Rem elt operators, see: Aluminum in d u stry .......
R enderers, see: Com m ercial a rtis ts .....................
Repairers, see:
A ppliance rep airers..............................................
Autom obile body re p a ire rs................................
Business m achine re p airers................................
C entral office repairers, te le p h o n e ..................
Electric sign re p a ire rs.........................................
Industrial m achinery re p a ire rs..........................




688
688

596
730
728
302
439
634
688
688

483
688
311
735
309
337
337
337
337
240
240
728
104
101

106
383
557
558
557
557
557
557
221

701
305
403
522
158
488
246
539
273
632
577
405
407
414
395
420
424

Instrum ent rep airers...................................................
Jewelry re p airers.........................................................
L ocksm iths...................................................................
Neon-sign re p airers....................................................
Piano and organ tuners and repairers...................
Shoe re p a ire rs.............................................................
Telephone and PBX repairers.................................
W atch repairers...........................................................
R eport clerks, m erchant m arine industry.................
R eporters, n ew sp ap er....................................................
R esearch dietitians..........................................................
R esearch directors, advertising...................................
R esearch technicians, see: A griculture.....................
R esearch workers, m ark etin g ......................................
Reservation, ticket, and passenger agents, airline..
R eservation clerks, h o te l..............................................
Residential carriers, mail ca rriers...............................
Resilient floor layers, see: Floor covering
installers.....................................................................
R espiratory therapy w o rk e rs.......................................
Resistance w elders..........................................................
R estaurant industry.........................................................
R estaurant m an ag e rs.....................................................
Retail food stores............................................................
Retail trade sales w orkers.............................................
R etouchers, photographic laboratory occupations
Rig builders, and helpers, petroleum and natural
gas...............................................................................
Riggers and m achine movers, ironw orkers..............
Rigging slingers, logging...............................................
Riveters, aircraft, missile, and spacecraft................
Rock-dust m achine operators, see: Coal m ining....
R ocket assembly m echanics, aircraft, missile and
sp a c e c ra ft.................................................................
Rod workers, see: Surveyors........................................
Roll turners, iron and steel..........................................
Rollers, iron and steel....................................................
Rolling mill operators, see: Aluminum industry.....
Rom an C atholic p rie sts................................................
R oof bolters, see: Coal m in in g ...................................
R o o fe rs..............................................................................
Room and desk clerks, h o te l.......................................
Rotary auger operators, coal m ining.........................
R otary drillers, petroleum and natural g as..............
R otary rig engine operators, p etro le u m ...................
Rougher pulpit operators, iron and steel..................
Roughers, see: Iron and steel.......................................
Roustabouts, petroleum and natural g a s ..................
R oute d riv ers...................................................................
R oute drivers, b a k in g ....................................................
R oute drivers, laundry and d rycleaning...................
R oute sales workers, see: R oute drivers...................
R oute supervisors, baking.............................................
Roving tenders, textile mill products.........................
Rural carriers, mail carriers.........................................
Rural sociologists, a g ric u ltu re .....................................

426
428
429
420
435
437
400
445
728
593
505
133
610
148
298
97
206
268
485
85
748
748
752
242
78
619
273
675
628
615
629
391
670
668
633
547
615
284
97
615
619
619
669
669
619
244
643
770
244
643
7 10
206
610

IN D E X T O O C C U P A T IO N S A N D IN D U S T R IE S

815

Page

Page

s
Safety engineers, see:
Coal m ining.................................................................
Insurance industry.....................................................
O ccupational safety and health w orkers.............
Salary and wage adm inistrators, p e rso n n e l............
Sales occupations...........................................................
Sales representatives, radio and television.............
Sales workers, see:
A utom obile parts counter w o rk e rs.......................
A utom obile sales w o rk e rs.......................................
Autom obile service ad v iso rs..................................
C om puter sales w o rkers...........................................
Insurance agents and b ro k e rs................................
M anufacturers’ sales w orkers.................................
Real estate agents and b ro k e rs..............................
Retail trade sales w o rk ers.......................................
Securities sales w o rk e rs...........................................
W holesale trade sales w o rk ers...............................
Sample m akers, ap p arel...............................................
Sam ple-taker operators, petroleum and natural
gas..............................................................................
Sand mixers, fo u n d rie s................................................
Sandblasters, forge s h o p ..............................................
Scale car operators, iron and ste e l...........................
Scalper operators, see: Aluminum industry............
Scenic designers, telev isio n ........................................
School co unselors..........................................................
School librarians............................................................
School social w o rk ers...................................................
School teachers, see:
A g riculture..................................................................
College and university te a c h e rs............................
Kindergarten and elem entary te a c h e rs...............
Secondary school te a c h e rs......................................
Science technicians........................................................
Scientific and technical o cc u p atio n s.......................
Scientists, en v iro n m ental.............................................
Scientists, physical.........................................................
Scientists, s o il.................................................................
Scouts, petroleum and natural g a s ...........................
Scrap crane operators, iron and steel......................
Screen m akers, textile mill p ro d u c ts........................
Screen printers, textile mill p ro d u c ts......................
Screen printing artists, textile mill products...........
Sealers, electronics m anufacturing...........................
Seamen, see: M erchant marine sa ilo rs....................
Second assistant engineers, see: M erchant marine
officers......................................................................
Second loaders, logging...............................................
Second mates, see: M erchant marine officers.......
Secondary school te a c h e rs .........................................
Secretaries and sten o g rap h ers...................................
Securities sales w o rk e rs...............................................
Seed analysts, ag ric u ltu re............................................
Seismologists, see: G eophysicists...............................
Senior ty p ists..................................................................



616
762
202
151
226
732
227
229
231
693
234
236
240
242
246
250
637
620
658
69
666

633
732
536
221

563
609
215
211
213
386
331
355
375
368
619
667
710
710
710
654
304
302
675
301
213
102

246
610
357
109

Separation tenders, see: Coal m in in g .......................
Service advisors, see: Autom obile service advisors
Service and miscellaneous industries.........................
Service o ccupations.......................................................
Service salesworkers, see: Autom obile service
advisors.....................................................................
Service station attendants, see: Gasoline service
station a tte n d a n ts..................................................
Service station m echanics.............................................
Service technicians, co m p u ter....................................
Service writers, see: Autom obile service advisors..
Service and repair occupations, see: Television
and radio service tech n ician s.............................
See also listing under Repairers.
Setup workers (m achine to o ls ) ..................................
Sewage plant operators.................................................
Sewing m achine operators, see:
Apparel in d u stry ........................................................
M otor vehicle and equipm ent m anufacturing.....
Shakeout workers, see: F o u n d ries.............................
Shear operators, iron and steel...................................
S h eet-m e ta lw o rk ers......................................................
See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
m anufacturing.....................................................
Railroad shop trades..............................................
Shipping checkers, see: Statistical clerks.................
Shipping and receiving clerks.....................................
Ship’s carpenters, see:
M erchant m arine industry.......................................
M erchant m arine sailo rs.........................................
Ship’s electricians, see:
M erchant m arine industry.......................................
M erchant m arine sailo rs.........................................
Shirt finishers, laundry and drycleaning...................
Shoe repairers..................................................................
Shop trades, ra ilro a d ....................................................
Shorthand re p o rters.......................................................
Showroom m o d e ls.........................................................
Shot firers, see: Coal m ining........................................
Shotblasters, see:
Forge shop occu p atio n s...........................................
F o u n d ries.....................................................................
Shuttle car operators, see: Coal m ining....................
Signal departm ent workers, ra ilro a d ........................
Signal m aintainers, railro a d .........................................
Signal installers, ra ilro a d ..............................................
Silk screen printers, electronics m anufacturing.....
S in g ers...............................................................................
Sketch artists, com m ercial artists..............................
Skip operators, iron and steel.....................................
Slasher tenders, textile mill p ro d u c ts.......................
Slate roofers.....................................................................
Slicing-and-wrapping m achine operators, baking...
Slide m ounters, see: Photographic laboratory
occupations..............................................................
Soaking pit crane operators, iron and steel.............
Soaking pit operators, alum inum ................................

616
231
765
160
231
232
232
416
231
439
44
84
638
682
658
668
285

628
3 15
106
104
727
305
727
305
770
437
314
103
238
615
69
658
615
3 15
315
3 15
654
573
577
666
710
284
643
78
668
633

O C C U P A T IO N A L O U T L O O K H A N D B O O K

816

Page

Page

Social scientists................................................................ 516
Social sec retarie s............................................................. 103
Social service aid es......................................................... 560
Social service occu p ations............................................ 534
Social w o rk e rs................................................................. 562
S ociologists....................................................................... 531
Soil con serv atio n ists....................................................... 339
Soil scien tists.................................................................... 368
Solid, earth geophysicists................................................ 357
Sorters, see: Bank clerks................................................ 1 18
Sorters, lum ber mills....................................................... 675
Sound effects technicians, radio and television...... 732
Space buyers, see: Advertising w orkers.................... 133
Spacecraft m anufacturing occupations..................... 626
Special agents, see: FBI Special A g e n ts ................... 188
Special lib raria n s............................................................. 222
Speech p ath o lo g ists........................................................ 502
Speed operators, iron and ste e l.................................. 669
Spooler tenders, textile mill p roducts........................ 710
Spotters, laundry and drycleaning.............................. 771
Sprayers, m otor vehicle and equipm ent
m anufacturing..................... .................................... 682
Sprinkler Fitters, see: Plum bers and pipefitters....... 282
Staff officers, see: M erchant m arine officers........... 302
State and local governm ent occupations.................. 782
State highway patrol o fficers....................................... 195
State police o fficers........................................................ 195
State tro o p e rs .................................................................. 195
Station agents, ra ilro ad .................................................. 316
Stationary en g in ee rs....................................................... 82
See also:
Alum inum industry................................................. 634
65
Boiler te n d e rs ..........................................................
P aper and allied p roducts..................................... 698
Statistical assistants......................................................... 106
Statistical clerk s............................................................... 106
S tatisticians....................................................................... 372
See also:
Electronics m anufacturing.................................... 653
M otor vehicle and equipm ent m anufacturing... 680
Steam fitters, see: Plum bers and pipefitters.............. 282
Steel industry o ccu pations............................................ 665
Steel pourers, iron and steel........................................ 668
S ten o g rap h ers.................................................................. 102
Stereotypers, printing, see:
Printing o c c u p a tio n s.................................................. 52
Printing and publishing............................................. 706
Stevedores......................................................................... 728
S tew ardesses..................................................................... 297
Stew ards............................................................................. 297
Still pum p operators, petroleum re fin in g ................. 701
Stock chasers, m otor vehicle and equipm ent
m anufacturing.......................................................... 682
Stock c le rk s ...................................................................... 108
See also .Retail food s to re s ....................................... 752
S tonem asons..................................................................... 255
Stopping builders, coal m ining.................................... 615
Stove tenders, iron and s te e l....................................... 666




Stratigraphers, see:
G eologists......................................................................
Petroleum and natural gas production and
p ro cessin g ............................................................
Stretcher-leveler-operators and helpers, aluminum
industry......................................................................
Strippers, printing see:
Printing o cc u p atio n s..................................................
Printing and publishing.............................................
Structural ironw orkers...................................................
Student activities personnel, college student
personnel w o rk e rs.................................................
Student advisors, foreign, college student
personnel w o rk e rs.................................................
Student financial aid personnel, college student
personnel w o rk e rs.................................................
Student housing officers, college student
personnel w o rk e rs..................................................
Studio supervisors, radio and television...................
Stylists, m otor vehicle and equipm ent
m anufacturing..........................................................
Substation operators, electric p o w er.........................
Supercalendar operators, paper and allied
p ro d u cts....................................................................
Surfacers, ophthalm ic laboratory tech n ician s........
Surgical technicians.......................................................
S urveyors..........................................................................
See also:
Coal m ining.............................................................
Petroleum and natural gas production and
p rocessing............................................................
Switchboard operators, electric pow er.....................
Switchers, petroleum and natural gas.......................
Synoptic m eteorologists................................................
Systems analysts..............................................................
See also:
Office m achine and com puter m anufacturing
Paper and allied products industry....................
Systems operators, electric p o w e r.............................

356
618
633
50
706
273
140
140
140
140
732
679
724
698
76
480
390
616
619
721
619
359
1 15
693
699
724

T
Tablet testers, drug industry........................................
Tabulating c le rk s ............................................................
Tabulating m achine o p e ra to rs....................................
Tailors, ap p a rel................................................................
Tape librarians, com puter operating personnel......
Tappers and helpers, see: Aluminum in d u stry .......
Taxicab d riv e rs................................................................
T eacher aides......................................................
Teachers, see:
College and university te a c h e rs.............................
D ancing.........................................................................
High school teac h ers..................................................
Hom e econom ists........................................................
Kindergarten and elem entary school teachers....
M usic..............................................................................

649
106
98
639
1 12
632
329
217
215
569
213
551
211
571

817

IN D E X T O O C C U P A T IO N S A N D IN D U S T R IE S

Page

Secondary school teac h ers......................................
Singing...........................................................................
V ocational teachers, agriculture...........................
Teaching o ccu p atio n s...................................................
Technical illustrators, see:
A ircraft, missile, and spacecraft m anufacturing
Electronics m an u facturing......................................
Technical sten ographers..............................................
Technical w riters...........................................................
See also: Electronics m an u factu rin g ....................
Technicians, b ro a d castin g ...........................................
Technicians, dental lab o ra to ry ..................................
Technicians, engineering and sc ie n c e .....................
Technicians, medical re co rd .......................................
Technicians, television and radio serv ice...............
Telegraphers, telephoners, and tow er operators,
ra ilro a d .....................................................................
T elephone and PBX installers and re p airers.........
Telephone craft o cc u p atio n s......................................
T elephone in d u stry ........................................................
T elephone installers......................................................
T elephone line and cable sp licers............................
Telephone o p erato rs.....................................................
Telephone rep airers......................................................
Telephoners, railroad....................................................
Television and radio service technicians................
Television an n o u n c ers..................................................
Television broadcasting occu p atio n s.......................
Tellers, b an k in g .............................................................
Terrazzo w o rk ers...........................................................
Testing technicians, paper and allied p ro d u c ts.....
Textile designers............................................................
Textile engineers............................................................
Textile mill products industry.....................................
Textile technicians.........................................................
T herapeutic d ietitian s...................................................
Therapists, in h alatio n ...................................................
Therapists, occu p atio nal..............................................
Therapists, p h y sical......................................................
Therapy and rehabilitation occupations..................
Therapy assistants, o cc u p atio n al...............................
Third assistant engineers, see: M erchant marine
officers......................................................................
Third m ates, see: M erchant marine officers...........
T hread trim m ers and cleaners, ap p arel...................
T icket agents, air tra n sp o rta tio n ...............................
Ticket sellers, see: C ashiers........................................
Tile ro o fe rs......................................................................
T ilesetters........................................................................
Tim ber cruisers, logging..............................................
Time buyers, see: Advertising w orkers....................
Tinners, electronics m anufacturing..........................
Tobacco g ra d ers............................................................
Tool-and-die m ak ers.....................................................
See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
m anufacturing....................................................



213
573
609
211
628
653
103
597
653
383
455
386
478
439
317
400
395
738
400
398
207
400
317
439
596
730
121

259
699
710
710
709
710
505
485
495
498
495
497
302
301
639
298
92
284
286
674
133
654
610
45

628

Office m achine and com puter m anufacturing
Tool designers, see: Engineering and science
technicians...............................................................
Tool pushers, see: Petroleum and natural gas
production and p rocessing..................................
Toolm akers, electronics m anufacturing...................
Tower operators, railroad.............................................
Tracers, see: D rafters.....................................................
T ractor operators, see: Coal m ining..........................
T rack workers, railro ad ................................................
Traffic controllers, airp o rt...........................................
Traffic m anagers, industrial.........................................
Traffic m anagers, radio and television.....................
Transcribing m achine operators, see: Typists.........
Transit clerks, see: Bank cle rk s..................................
Transmission and distribution occupations,
electric po w er.........................................................
Transm itter technicians, radio and television.........
Transportation activities...............................................
T ransportation, com m unication, and public
utilities......................................................................
Travel a g e n ts...................................................................
T reaters, see:
Petroleum and natural g a s .......................................
Petroleum re fin in g .....................................................
T reatm ent plant operators, w astew ater....................
Trim m er saw operators, lum ber mills.......................
Trim m ers, forge s h o p ....................................................
Trim m ers, hand, a p p a re l..............................................
Trouble locators, telephone.........................................
Trouble shooters, electric po w er................................
Truck lubricators, see: Trucking in d u stry ...............
Truck m echanic helpers, see: Trucking industry....
Truck m ech an ics............................................................
See also: Trucking industry.....................................
Truck m echanics and bus m echanics.......................
Truckdriver h e lp e rs.......................................................
Truckdrivers, see:
Baking in d u stry ..........................................................
Coal mining industry.................................................
Drug in d u stry ..............................................................
Electronics m anufacturing.......................................
Petroleum re fin in g .....................................................
Truckdrivers, local.........................................................
Truckdrivers, long-distance.........................................
Trucking in d u stry ...........................................................
Tube benders, aircraft, missile, and sp acecraft......
Tum bler operators, foundries.....................................
Tune-up m echanics, see: Autom obile m echanics...
Turbine operators, electric p o w e r.............................
Type inspectors, office m achine and com puter
m anufacturing.........................................................
Typesetters, hand, printing, see: Printing and
publishing ................................................................
Typesetter perforator o p e ra to rs.................................
Typists................................................................................

693
387
619
653
3 17
385
615
317
290
143
731
109
1 18
723
383
289
714
248
619
701
84
675
69
639
395
725
743
743
440
743
440
743
643
616
649
655
702
323
325
742
628
658
409
722
694
48
703
109

U
Underwriters, insurance................................................ 128
See also: Insurance industry.................................... 762

O C C U P A T IO N A L O U T L O O K H A N D B O O K

X 18

Pui>e

University librarians..........................................
University te a c h e rs ............................................
U pholsterers, see: Furniture upholsterers....
U psetters, forge sh o p ........................................
Urban g eo g rap h ers............................................
U rban p la n n e rs...................................................
Utility hands, see:
M erchant m arine industry...........................
M erchant m arine sa ilo rs..............................

222

215
70
68

522
158
728
306

V

Vari typists............................................................
Vending m achine m echanics..........................
Vending m achine route d riv ers.....................
V e te rin arian s.......................................................
See also:
A g ric u ltu re..................................................
Life scientists..............................................
V ideo-control technicians, telev isio n ...........
Video recording technicians, television.......
V ocational teachers, see: A griculture..........
V ocational counselors, see: Em ployment
counselors....................................................
Vocanologists, see: G eologists........................

109
442
245
467
607
366
383
383
609
538
356




445
284
710
85

628
634
655
694
86
86
620
746
250
99
727
305
633
669
33
597

X

X-ray technologists, radiologic................................... 483

W

W age-hour com pliance officers.....................
W aiters and w aitresses......................................
W arp tying m achine tenders...........................
W arper tenders, textile mill p ro d u cts..........
Wash box attendants, see: Coal m ining.......
W ashers, see: Trucking industry....................
W aste-disposal workers, nuclear energy......
W aste-treatm ent operators, nuclear energy
W astew ater treatm ent plant o p e ra to rs........
W atch engineers, electric p o w e r...................
W atch re p a ire rs..................................................

W atchm akers...................................................................
W aterproof workers, see: R oofers.............................
W eavers, textile mill p ro d u c ts....................................
W elders..............................................................................
See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
m anufacturing.....................................................
Aluminum industry................................................
Electronics m anufacturing...................................
Office m achine and com puter m anufacturing
W elders, m ain ten an c e...................................................
Welding m achine o p erato rs.........................................
Well pullers, petroleum and natural gas...................
W holesale and retail tra d e ............................................
W holesale trade sales w orkers....................................
Window clerks, postal clerk s.......................................
W ipers, see:
M erchant m arine industry........................................
M erchant m arine sa ilo rs..........................................
W ire draw operators, alum inum .................................
W ire drawers, iron and s te e l.......................................
W ood patternm akers, foundry o c c u p atio n s............
W riters, te c h n ic a l...........................................................

200

174
710
710
616
743
688

688
84
722
445

Y

Yard brake operators, ra ilro ad ...................................
Yard co n d u cto rs.............................................................
Yard couplers/helpers....................................................
Y arder engineers, logging.............................................
Young adult services lib raria n s..................................

310
31 1
310
675
221

Z

Zoologists, see: Life scientists.....................................

366

Occupational
Outlook
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Available for
50 Cents Each
Unlike past editions, in which the
majority of Handbook statements were
individually reprinted, all sections
of the 1978-79 Handbook are broadly
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A listing of the bulletin numbers and
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Philadelphia

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819

Occupational Outlook Reprints, 1978-79 Edition
B u lletin
No.

1955-1
1955-2
1955-3
1955-4
1955-5
1955-6
1955-7
1955-8
1955-9
1955-10
1955-11
1955-12
1955-13
1955-14
1955-15
1955-16
1955-17
1955-18
1955-19
1955-20
1955-21
1955-22
1955-23
1955-24
1955-25
1955-26
1955-27

1955-28
T itle

Tomorrow’s Jobs
Metal Working Occupations
Printing and Publishing Occupations
Factory Production Occupations
Clerical Occupations
Office Machine and Computer Occupa­
tions
Banking and Insurance Occupations
Business Occupations
Service Occupations
Food Merchandising Occupations
Protective and Related Service Occupa­
tions
Education and Related Occupations
Sales Occupations
Construction Occupations—Structural
Construction Occupations— Finishing
Air and Water Transportation Occupa­
tions
Railroad Occupations
Driving Occupations
Environmental Scientists and Conserva­
tion Occupations
Engineering and Related Occupations
Physical and Life Scientists
Mathematics and Related Occupations
Public Utilities Occupations
Motor Vehicle and Machinery Repairers
Machine Repairers and Operators
Small Business Occupations
Health Practitioners

ORDER FORM

1955-29

1955-30
1955-31
1955-32
1955-33
1955-34
1955-35
1955-36
1955-37
1955-38
1955-39
1955-40

1955-41
1955-42

Health Occupations
Dental auxiliaries, nursing, therapy
and rehabilitation, health services
administration
Health Occupations
Medical technologists, technicians,
and assistants; dispensing opticians;
ophthalmic laboratory technicians;
medical record personnel
Lawyers, City Managers, and Social
Science Occupations
Counseling and Related Occupations
Social Service Occupations
Performing Arts and Entertainment
Related Occupations
Design Occupations
Communications-Related Occupations
Agriculture and Logging and Lumber
Mill Products Industries
Energy Producing Industries
Petroleum Refining, Industrial Chemical,
Drug, and Paper and Allied Products
Industries
Aluminum, Iron and Steel, and Foundry
Industries
Aircraft, Missile, and Spacecraft; Office
Machine and Computer; and Motor
Vehicle and Equipment Manufacturing
Industries
Apparel, Baking, Laundry and Dry
Cleaning, and Textile and Mill
Products Industries
Government Occupations

Please send the following reprint(s) from the Occupational Outlook Handbook,
1978-79 Edition.
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A discount of 25 percent will be allowed on purchases of 100 or
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821

If you want
occupational
outlook
information
about.. .

then order
reprint
no. 1955-

Accountants .....................................................8 or 22
Actors and actresses...............................................33
Actuaries................................................................7 or22
Advertising workers .........................................8 or 35
Aerospace engineers...............................................20
Agricultural engineers.............................................20
Agriculture industry.................................................36
Air traffic controllers ............................................... 16
Air conditioning, refrigeration, and heating
m echanics........................................................... 15
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft in d u stry...............40
Airplane mechanics................................................. 16
Airplane pilots........................................................... 16
Aluminum industry...................................................39
Anthropologists .......................................................30
Apparel industry.......................................................41
Appliance repairers................................................. 25
Architects...........................................................
34
Armed Forces...........................................................42
Assemblers.............................................................. 4
Astronomers.............................................................21
Automobile body repairers....................................... 24
Automobile mechanics............................................. 24
Automobile painters................................................. 24
Automobile parts counter workers...........................24
Automobile sales w o rke rs....................................... 13
Automobile service advisors ................................... 24

Baking industry.......................................................41
Banking industry...................................................... 7
Bank clerks ............................................................ 7
Bank officers and m anagers..................
7
Bank tellers ............................................................ 7
Barbers..................................................................... 26
Bartenders............................................................... 10
Bellhops and bell captains...................................... 9
Biochemists............................................................. 21
Biomedical engineers............................................... 20
Blacksm iths............................................................ 2
Blue-collar worker supervisors .............................. 4
Boat-engine mechanics........................................... 24
Boilermaking occupations...................................... 4
Boiler tenders.......................................................... 4
Bookbinders and bindery w orkers.......................... 3
Bookkeeping workers ............................................ 5
Bowling-pin-machine mechanics.............................25
Brake operators (railroad)....................................... 17
Bricklayers, stonemasons, and marble setters . . . . 14
Broadcast technicians ..................................20 or 35
Building custodians ................................................ 9
Business machine repairers............................6 or 25

Buyers ..................................................................... 13


Carpenters............................................................... 14
Cashiers................................................................... 10
Cement masons and terrazzo workers ................... 14
Central office craft occupations (telephone)...........23
Central office equipment installers (telephone) . . . 23
Ceramic engineers................................................... 20
Chemical engineers................................................. 20
Chemists................................................................... 21
Chiropractors........................................................... 27
City managers ......................................................... 30
Civil aviation industry............................................... 16
Civil engineers......................................................... 20
Claim representatives ............................................ 7
Coal mining industry................................................. 37
Collection w orkers.................................................. 8
College and university teachers............................... 12
College career planning and placement
counselors........................................................... 31
College student personnel w orkers......................... 31
Commercial artists................................................... 34
Compositors............................................................ 3
Computer operating personnel................................ 6
Computer service technicians .........................6 or 25
Conductors (railroad)............................................... 17
Construction inspectors (Government)................... 11
Construction laborers............................................... 14
Cooks and chefs....................................................... 10
Cooperative extension service workers........ .......... 36
Coremakers............................................................2 or39
Correction office rs........ ....................................... 11
Cosmetologists......................................................... 26
Credit managers...................................................... 8
Customer service occupations (electric power) . . .23
D ancers................................................................... 33
Dental assistants..................................................... 28
Dental hygienists.....................................................28
Dental laboratory technicians .................................28
Dentists ................................................................... 27
Diesel mechanics.....................................................24
Dietitians .................................................................32
Dining room attendants and dishwashers............... 10
Dispensing opticians ............................................... 29
Display w o rkers.......................................................34
Drafters ................................................................... 20
Drug industry........................................................... 38
Drywall installers and finishers ............................... 15
EEG technicians..................................................... 29
EKG technicians....................................................... 29
Economists............................................................... 30
Electric power industry........................................23 or37
Electric sign repairers ............................................. 25
Electrical engineers................................................. 20
Electricians (construction) ..................................... 15
Electronics industry................................................. 40
Electroplaters.......................................................... 4
Electrotypers and stereotypers .............................. 3
Elevator constructors............................................... 14
Emergency medical technicians............................. 29
Employment counselors........................................... 31
Engineering and science technicians ..................... 20

822

F B I special agents
............................................. 11
Farm equipment mechanics ................................... 24
Federal civilian government.....................................42
File clerks................................................................ 5
Firefighters............................................................... 11
Flight attendants....................................................... 16
Floor covering installers........................................... 15
Floral designers....................................................... 34
Food counter workers ............................................. 10
Food scientists......................................................... 21
Foresters......................................................... 19 or 36
Forestry technicians............................................19 or36
Forge shop occupations.......................................... 2
Foundry industry....................................................2 or39
Funeral directors and em balm ers........................... 26
Furniture upholsterers............................................. 26
G asoline service station attendants .......................24
Geographers............................................................. 30
Geologists................................................................. 19
Geophysicists........................................................... 19
Glaziers ................................................................... 15
G uards..................................................................... 11
H ealth and regulatory inspectors (Government) ..11
Health services administrators ............................... 28
Historians................................................................. 30
Home economists ................................................... 32
Homemaker-home health aides...............................32
Hotel front office c le rk s .......................................... 9
Hotel housekeepers and assistants........................ 9
Hotel industry.......................................................... 9
Hotel managers and assistants.............................. 9
Industrial chemicals industry................................... 38
Industrial designers................................................. 34
Industrial engineers................................................. 20
Industrial machinery repairers................................ 4
Industrial traffic managers...................................... 8
Inspectors (manufacturing).................................... 4
Instrument makers (mechanical) .......................... 2
Instrument repairers ............................................... 25
Insulation w orkers................................................... 15
Insurance agents and brokers ......................... 7 or 13
Insurance industry.................................................. 7
Intercity busdrivers ................................................. 18
Interior designers..................................................... 34
Interpreters ............................................................. 35
Iron and steel industry............................................. 39
Ironworkers............................................................. 14
Jew elers................................................................... 26
K indergarten and elementary school teachers . . . . 12
Landscape architects ............................................. 34
Lathers..........................................................
15
Laundry and drycleaning industry......................... 9 or41
Lawyers.................................................................. 8 or30
Librarians................................................................. 12
Library technicians and assistants........................... 12
Licensed practical nurses ....................................... 28

Life scientists........................................................... 21


Line installers and cable splicers (telephone)......... 23
Lithographers.......................................................... 3
Local transit busdrivers........................................... 18
Local truckdrivers ................................................... 18
Locksmiths............................................................... 26
Locomotive engineers .............................................. 17
Logging and lumber mill industry............................. 36
Long distance truckdrivers....................................... 18

M achine tool operators.......................................... 2
Machinists, all-round.............................................. 2
Mail carriers........................................................
5
Maintenance electricians........................................ 4
Manufacturers sales workers................................... 13
Marketing research w o rke rs.................................. 8
Mathematicians....................................................... 22
Meatcutters ..............................................................10
Mechanical engineers............................................. 20
Medical laboratory w orkers..................................... 29
Medical record administrators................................. 29
Medical record technicians and c le rk s ................... 29
Merchant marine in d u stry....................................... 16
Merchant marine officers......................................... 16
Merchant marine sailors ......................................... 16
Metallurgical engineers........................................... 20
Meteorologists..........................................................19
Millwrights .............................................................. 4
Mining engineers..................................................... 20
M odels..................................................................... 33
M olders............................................................. 2 or 39
Motion picture projectionists................................... 25
Motor vehicle and equipment manufacturing
industry................................................................. 40
Motorcycle mechanics............................................. 24
Musicians................................................................. 33

N ewspaper reporters............................................3 or35
Nuclear energy fie ld .............................. >................ 37
Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants................. 28

O ccupational therapists ......................................... 28
Occupational therapy assistants............................. 28
Occupational safety and health w o rke rs................. 11
Oceanographers....................................................... 19
Office machine and computer manufacturing
industry.............................................................. 6 or40
Office machine operators.................................. 5 or 6
Operating engineers (construction machinery
operators)............................................................. 14
Operating room technicians..................................... 29
Ophthalmic laboratory technicians......................... 29
Optometric assistants ............................................. 29
Optometrists............................................................. 27
Osteopathic physicians ........................................... 27
Painters and paperhangers..................................... 15
Paper and allied products industry........................... 38
Park, recreation, and leisure service workers........ 32
Parking attendants....................................................18
Patternmakers........................................................ 2 or39

823

Personnel and labor relations workers.................... 8
Pest controllers ...................................................... 9
Petroleum and natural gas production and
gas processing industry....................................... 37
Petroleum engineers ............................................... 20
Petroleum refining industry............................. 37 or 38
Pharmacists............................................................. 27
Photoengravers ...................................................... 3
Photographers................................................... 3 or 35
Photographic laboratory occupations .................... 3
Physical therapist assistants and a ides...................28
Physical therapists................................................... 28
Physicians ........................................
27
Physicists................................................................. 21
Piano and organ tuners and repairers.....................26
Plasterers.................................................... ' ..........15
Plumbers and pipefitters ......................................... 14
Podiatrists................................................................. 27
Police officers........................................................... 11
Political scientists.....................................................30
Postal clerks............................................................ 5
Postal Service.......................................................... 5
Power truck operators............................................ 4
Powerplant occupations (electric p o w e r)...............23
Printing and publishing industry.............................. 3
Printing press operators and assistants.................. 3
Private household workers...................................... 9
Production painters ................................................ 4
Programmers ...................................................6 or 22
Protestant m inisters................................................. 31
Psychologists .................................................30 or 31
Public relations w o rkers................................... 8 or 35
Purchasing agents.................................................. 8

R a b b is ..................................................................... 31
Radio and television announcers................... 33 or 35
Radio and television broadcasting industry . . 33 or 35
Radiologic (X-ray) technologists.............................29
Railroad industry ..................................................... 17
Range managers..............................................19 or 36
Real estate agents and brokers............................... 13
Receptionists.......................................................... 5
Registered nurses ................................................... 28
Rehabilitation counselors......................................... 31
Reservation, ticket, and passenger agents............. 16
Respiratory therapy w o rke rs................................... 29
Restaurants........................................................9 or 10
Retail food stores..................................................... 10
Retail trade sales w orkers....................................... 13
Roman Catholic priests ........................................... 31
Roofers..................................................................... 14
Route drivers....................................................13 or 18

School counselors................................................... 31
Secondary school teachers..................................... 12
Secretaries and stenographers.............................. 5
Securities sales workers ......................................... 13
Setup workers (machine to o ls ).............................. 2
Sheet-metalworkers............................................... 15
Shipping and receiving clerks ................................ 5

Shoe repairers......................................................... 26


Shop trades (railroad) ............................................. 17
Signal department workers (railroad )..................... 17
Singers..................................................................... 33
Social scientists....................................................... 30
Social service a id e s................................................. 32
Social w o rkers......................................................... 32
Sociologists ............................................................. 30
Soil conservationists........................................19 or 36
Soil scientists........................................................... 21
Speech pathologists and audiologists..................... 28
State and local governments...................................42
State police office rs................................................. 11
Station agents (railroad) ......................................... 17
Stationary engineers .............................................. 4
Statisticians............................................................. 22
Statistical clerks...................................................... 5
Stock c le rk s ............................................................ 5
Surveyors................................................................. 20
Systems analysts............................................... 6 or 22

Taxicab drivers......................................................... 18
Teacher aides........................................................... 12
Technical writers............................................... 3 or 35
Telegraphers, telephoners, and tower operators
(railroad) ............................................................. 17
Telephone and PBX installers and repairers ...........23
Telephone industry................................................... 23
Telephone operators ............................................... 23
Television and radio service technicians.................26
Textile mill products industry..................................41
Tilesetters................................................................. 15
Tool-and-die makers .............................................. 2
Track workers (railroad) ......................................... 17
Transmission and distribution occupations
(electric pow er)...................................................23
Travel a g e n ts........................................................... 13
Truck mechanics and bus mechanics.....................24
Trucking industry..................................................... 18
Typists .................................................................... 5

U nderw riters.......................................................... 7
Urban planners.........................................................34

Vending machine mechanics .................................25
Veterinarians........................................................... 27

Waiters and waitresses........................................... 10
Waste water treatment plant operators.................. 4
Watch repairers....................................................... 26
Welders .................................................................. 2
Wholesale trade sales workers ............................... 13

BLS Materials
Useful to
Handbook Readers
Occupational Outlook Quarterly. . a periodical to help young
people, guidance counselors, education planners, and train­
ing officials keep abreast of occupational employment devel­
opments between editions of the biennial Occupational
Outlook Handbook. The Quarterly, written in nontechnical
language and illustrated in color, contains articles on emerg­
ing occupations, training opportunities, salary trends, career
counseling programs, and the results of occupational re­
search conducted by BLS. Price: $4 for a 1-year subscription;
$1.30, single copy. (Must be ordered from the Superintendent
of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington,
D.C. 20402, with check made payable to the Superintendent
of Documents.)
Occupational Outlook for College Graduates, 1978-79 Edition,
(Bulletin 1956). . .occupational outlook information about
more than 100 jobs for which an education beyond high
school is necessary or useful. The material is excerpted from
the 1978-79 edition of the Occupational Outlook Handbook.
(May be ordered from any regional office of BLS, with check
made payable to the Superintendent of Documents.)
Contact BLS regional office for price.
Occupational Projections and Training Data, (Bulletin 2020)
. . . a report with detailed statistics on employment in 1976,
projected requirements for 1985, average annual job open­
ings 1976-85, and a summary of available statistics on the
number of people completing training in each field. The bul­
letin discusses ways of analyzing supply and demand data for
educational planning. (May be ordered from any regional
office of BLS, with check made payable to the Superintendent
of Documents.) Contact BLS regional office for price.


824


Education and Job Leaflets. . . a series of five leaflets listing
jobs that require specified levels of education. Titles are:
Jobs for W hich. . .
. . .a High School Education is Preferred, but Not
Essential.
. . .a High School Education is Generally Required.
. . .Apprenticeships Are Available.
. . .Junior College, Technical Institute, or Other Special­
ized Training Is Usually Required.
. . . a College Education Is Usually Required.
For each job listed, information is included on the training
required and the employment outlook. (Free from BLS re­
gional offices.)
Motivational Leaflets. . . a series of 11 leaflets, each discuss­
ing the types of jobs that may be available to persons with an
interest or proficiency in a particular academic subject or
field. (Free from BLS regional offices.)
Titles are:
Thinking of a Clerical Job?
Ecology and Your Career.
English and Your Career.
Foreign Languages and Your Career.
Health Careers Without a College Degree.
Liberal Arts and Your Career.
Math and Your Career.
The Outdoors and Your Career.
Your Job as a Repairer or Mechanic.
Science and Your Career.
Social Science and Your Career.
Looking Ahead to a Career. . . a filmstrip with cassette sound
track showing employment trends in occupations and indus­
tries. This career guidance tool explores the many aspects of
the job market that a student should consider when choosing
a career. (Sold only by BLS regional offices; make check
payable to the Bureau of Labor Statistics.) Contact BLS re­
gional office for price.



Mailing List

. . . upon request, your regional
office will add your name to its
mailing list announcing new BLS
publications.
Bureau of Labor Statistics Regional Offices
Boston

1603 Federal Bldg., Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
New York

Suite 3400
1515 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10036
Philadelphia

P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101
Atlanta

1371 Peachtree St. N.E.
Atlanta, Ga. 30309
Chicago

9th Floor, Federal Office Bldg.
230South Dearborn St., Chicago, III. 60604
Dallas

2nd Floor, 555 Griffin Square Bldg.
Da lla s, Te x . 7 5 20 2

Kansas City

911 Walnut St.
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
San Francisco

450 Golden Gate Ave., Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102