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Occupational Outlook
Handbook, 1978-79 Edition
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Bulletin 1955

pt. ( —5,5), S is pt. ( l , 1), and T is pt. (3,4).
Containing the longer diagonal of a quadrilateral v
pts. (2, 2), ( - 2 , -2 ) , (1, -1 ) , and (6, 4).
Show that the equations y — 1 =
+ 3) and y
are equivalent.
An equation of the line containing pts. ( —2, 3) am
written in the form y - 3 « - §(x + 2) or
y + 1“ —
— 4), depending upon which point
(*i. ^i). Show that the two equations are equivalent.
- Show th at th e eau atio n s nr

Occupational Outlook
Handbook, 1978-79 Edition
U.S. Departm ent of Labor
Ray Marshall, S ecretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Julius Shiskin, Commissioner
Bulletin 1955

Material in this publication is in the public domain and may be reproduced
w ithout permission of the Federal Government. Please credit the Bureau
of Labor S tatistics and cite the name and number of this publication.

For sale b y the Superintendent of Documents, U .S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D .C . 20402

(Cloth Cover) Stock N o. 029-001-02067-8
(Paper Cover) Stock N o. 029-001-02059-7

0 -2 4 8 -0 2 4


The difficulties young people experience when making the transition from school to work
has been recognized by leaders in governm ent and education as a serious national problem.
One way to help ease this transition is to provide young people with accurate and com prehen­
sive career guidance inform ation. By acquiring specific knowledge o f the various occupations
in our econom y, they can becom e aware of the opportunities and alternatives that are
available to them , and can plan for careers suited to their abilities and aspirations.
The Occupational Outlook Handbook is a m ajor source of vocational guidance inform ation
for hundreds of occupations. For each occupation, the Handbook describes what workers do
on the jo b , the training or education needed, and m ost im portantly, some idea o f the
availability of jobs in the years ahead.
A lthough many people who need career guidance inform ation are young, such as students
facing the transition from school to work, the Handbook also is a useful resource for those
entering o r reentering the work force at later stages in their lives. The process of vocational
choice and preparation may be accom panied by anxiety and uncertainty regardless of when in
the life cycle it occurs. O ur hope in the D epartm ent of Labor is that this publication will
continue to offer valuable assistance to all persons seeking satisfying and productive em ploy­

Ray Marshall, Secretary of Labor


Prefatory Note
In o ur constantly changing econom y, inform ation on future career opportunities and
educational requirem ents is necessary if w orkers are to be prepared for tom orrow ’s jobs. For
m ore than 30 years, the Bureau of L abor Statistics has conducted research on occupations and
industries for the purpose of providing this inform ation for use in vocational guidance.
T he m ajor product o f this research is the Occupational Outlook Handbook, which contains
inform ation on job duties, educational requirem ents, em ploym ent outlook, and earnings for
several hundred occupations and 35 industries. The Handbook inform ation is based on data
received from a variety of sources, including business firms, trade associations, labor unions,
professional societies, educational institutions, and governm ent agencies, and represents the
m ost cu rren t and com prehensive inform ation available.
This edition of the Handbook has been revised to enhance its usefulness. Many statem ents
contain expanded inform ation on occupational training; some include inform ation on the
m ovem ent of workers from one occupation to another and typical paths of advancem ent
within a career field. The new Handbook also contains a Dictionary o f Occupational Titles
index, referenced to the third edition o f the Dictionary and cross referenced to the fourth, and
m ost recen t edition.

Julius Shiskin, Commissioner, Bureau of Labor Statistics


Letter of Endorsement
W ork can be one o f life’s m ost rewarding experiences. A jo b can offer pride in achieve­
m ent and an opportunity for personal growth, as well as the security of an adequate income.
But finding work th at is satisfying seldom is easy. Many individuals m ake several different
career choices over tim e as their job needs and aspirations change. C areer planning with the
advice o f trained counselors can help a great deal.
To assist individuals with their educational and vocational choices, counselors m ust have
occupational inform ation that is current, accurate, and com prehensive. The Occupational
Outlook Handbook is a prim ary source of the inform ation needed for sound career planning.
For several hundred occupations and 35 m ajor industries, the Handbook describes what
w orkers do on the jo b , the training and education required, advancem ent possibilities,
em ploym ent outlook, and earnings and working conditions. Most statem ents also list profes­
sional societies, trade associations, unions, and other organizations that can supply additional
career inform ation.
C ounselors in all work settings will find the new edition of the Occupational Outlook
Handbook an invaluable tool for helping clients plan a satisfying future in the working world.

Dr. N orm an C. Gysbers, President
A m erican Personnel and
G uidance Association
William B. Lewis
A dm inistrator
U.S. Em ploym ent Service
U.S. D epartm ent o f Labor
Thom as W. C arr
D irector, Defense Education
U.S. D epartm ent of Defense
Max Cleland
A dm inistrator
V eterans A dm inistration

Dr. Ernest Boyer
Commissioner o f Education
Office of Education
U.S. D epartm ent of Health,
Education, and W elfare
R obert A. Derzon
A dm inistrator
Health C are Financing and
Adm inistration
U.S. D epartm ent o f Health,
Education, and W elfare

The Handbook was prepared in the Bureau o f Labor Statistics, Division of O ccupational
O utlook, under the supervision of Russell B. Flanders and Neal H. R osenthal. G eneral
direction was provided by Dudley E. Young, A ssistant Com m issioner for Em ploym ent
Structure and Trends.
The planning and coordination of the Handbook was done by M ichael J. Pilot.
Constance B. DiCesare, Alan Eck, Susan C. Gentz, Daniel E. H ecker, and Anne Kahl
supervised the research and preparation of individual Handbook sections. Max L. Carey
supervised work on special projects connected with the Handbook.
M em bers of the Division’s staff who contributed sections were Vance H. Anthony,
Douglas J. Braddock, Charles A. Byrne III, Donald Clark, Lisa S. Dillich, Conley Hall Dillion,
Jr., Lawrence C. Drake, Jr., John P. Griffin, Emily B. Hartnell, David B. Herst, H. Philip
Howard, Chester Curtis Levine, Thom as N ardone, Jam es V. Petrone, John E. Reiber, Jr.,
Debra E. Rothstein, Shirley G. Rudney, Jon Q. Sargent, Joan M. Slowitsky, and Patrick Wash.
Lois P. Terlizzi coordinated the com pilation and editing of charts. The gathering and
editing of photographs was done by Kevin Kasunic. Jean F. Whetzel prepared the Index to
O ccupations and Industries.
W ord processing was handled by Gloria D. Blue, Brenda M arshall, and Beverly A.
Williams. O ther typing support was provided by Sarah A. Biddix, Karen E. H arper, and
Vidella H. Hubbard.


Photograph Credits
T he Bureau of Labor Statistics gratefully acknowledges the cooperation and assistance of
the m any governm ent and private sources th at either contributed photographs or m ade their
facilities available to the U.S. D epartm ent of Labor photographers for this edition o f the
Occupational Outlook Handbook. Inclusion of photographs to illustrate Handbook statem ents
does n o t necessarily m ean th at the photographs are free o f every possible safety o r health
hazard. D epiction o f com panies o r trade nam e products in no way constitutes endorsem ent by
the D epartm ent o f Labor.

Government Sources
Federal. A dm inistration on Aging; Bureau of the Census;
Bureau o f Land M anagem ent; B ureau o f Mines; Bureau
o f Prisons; D epartm ent o f Agriculture; D epartm ent of
H ealth, E ducation, and W elfare; D epartm ent o f Labor;
D epartm ent of the Navy; Em ploym ent and Training A d­
m inistration; Energy R esearch and D evelopm ent A d­
m inistration; Federal Aviation A dm inistration; Federal
B ureau o f Investigation; G eneral Services A dm inistra­
tion; G eological Survey; G overnm ent Printing Office;
N ational A eronautics and Space A dm inistration; N a­
tional Highway Traffic Safety A dm inistration; National
Institutes o f H ealth; National O ceanographic and A tm o­
spheric Adm inistration; National Park Service; Office of
Safety and Health A dm inistration; U.S. Postal Service;
and V eterans Adm inistration.
State and Local. D istrict o f Colum bia—D epartm ent of
H um an R esources, Fire D epartm ent, Police D epart­
m ent, and Public Library; M ontgom ery County Public
Schools (M d.); Virginia—D epartm ent o f State Police;
and W ashington (D .C ) M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a T r a n s it A u­

Private Sources
Membership Groups. Aluminum Association; Am erican
Chem ical Society; A m erican C hiropractors Association;
A m erican D en tal A ssistants A ssociation; A m erican
Dental Hygienists Association; A m erican Personnel and
G uidance Association; A m erican Hom e Econom ics As­
sociation; Am erican Institute o f A rchitects; Am erican
M edical R ecord Association; A m erican O ccupational
T h erapy A ssociation; A m erican O ptom etric A ssoci­
ation; A m erican O steopathic A ssociation; A m erican
Physical Therapy Association; A m erican Psychological
A ssociation; A m erican Society o f Planning Officials;
A m erican Textile M anufacturers Institute; A m erican
Trucking Associations; Associated G eneral C ontractors
o f Am erica; Association o f Am erican G eographers; As­
sociation o f A m erican Railroads; Association o f O perat­

ing Room Technicians; Forging Industry Association;
Gypsum Drywall C ontractors, International; M otor V e­
hicle M anufacturer’s Association; Music Educators N a­
tio n al C o n feren ce ; N ational A ssociation o f B arber
Schools; N ational Association o f Social W orkers; N a­
tional Electric Sign Association; Public Relations Soci­
ety of Am erica; Society of A m erican Florists and O rna­
m ental H orticulturists; Tile C ontractors Association of
Am erica, Inc.; and United Auto W orkers.
Industry and Business. A cacia M utual Life Insurance
Co.; A m erican Airlines, Inc.; Am erican Telephone and
Telegraph Co.; Arm co Steel Corp.; Associated Truck
Lines, Inc.; A tlantic Richfield Co.; Bemar Service P har­
macy; Blake C onstruction Co.; C annelton Industries,
Inc.; C a n te e n C o rp .; C a p ta in S ta n ’s B oat C en ter;
Chessie System, Inc.; C inderella Shoe Shop; C larendon
Bank and Trust; C onsolidated Edison Co. o f N.Y., Inc.;
D eere and Co.; Del M onte C orp.; Garfinkle, Brooks
B ros., M iller and R hoades, Inc.; G eneral Dynamics
Corp.; G eneral Electric Co.; G eneral M otors Corp.; G et­
ty Oil Co. (E astern O perations), Inc.; Georgia-Pacific
C o.; G irard Bank; G oodyear T ire and R ubber Co.;
G rand Union Co.; G reyhound Corp.; Grum m an Corp.;
Hilton Hotels C orp.; Hoffman Interiors, Inc.; Household
Finance Corp.; Hyatt-Regency, W ashington, D.C.; In­
dustrial Publishing Co.; ITT Sheraton Corp.; Inland Steel
Co.; International Business M achines Corp.; Jones O pti­
cians; Jordon Kitt Co.; Kaiser Industries Corp.; Lebow
Bros. C o.; Lynchburg Foundry Co.; M arine M idland
Bank, Inc.; M arriott Corp.; M cDonnell Douglas Corp.;
M cNally Pittsburg Mfg. Co.; M elart Jewelers; M erck
and C o., Inc.; M erkle Press, Inc.; M onsanto Co.; NCR
C orp.; N ational B roadcasting C orp. Inc.; N orthw est
Ford Co.; O ber Travel Agency; Orkin Exterm inating
Co.; O ster Corp.; O ttenberg’s Bakery; Philadelphia Elec­
tric Co.; R ochester Gas and Electric Corp.; Royce TV
R epair Services; Santa Fe Industries, Inc.; Southern Rail­
way Co.; Sun C o., Inc.; Thom pson and Litton, Inc.; T. I.
Swartz Co.; Unilux, Inc.; U nited Air Lines, Inc.; V entura
Jew elers C o.; W ashington Post Co.; W eb er’s W hite
T rucks, Inc.; W eyerhaeuser Co.; and W oodward and
Lothrop, Inc.

Publications. Baltimore Jewish Times; Catholic Standard;
Contractor M agazine; Farm and Power Magazine; Mar­
keting News; and Women's Wear Daily.

County Public Schools (M d.); Towson State University
(M d.); University o f Delaware; and University of M ary­

Schools. C alifornia Institute o f Technology; California
College o f P ediatric M edicine; C ape F ear Technical
Institute (N .C .); Carnegie-M ellon University; G eorge­
town University M edical C enter; Kansas State Universi­
ty; M iam i-D ade Ju n io r C ollege (F la.); M ontgom ery

Other. C hildren’s M em orial Hospital of Chicago; Holy
Cross Hospital (Silver Spring, M d.); L utheran Council in
the U nited States o f Am erica; Peggy Kauders; United
N atio n s; W ash in g to n H ospital C e n te r (D .C .); and
W M AR-TV (Baltim ore, M d.).

A great many trade associations, professional societies, unions, and industrial organiza­
tions are able to provide career inform ation that is valuable to counselors and job seekers. For
the convenience o f Handbook users, some of these organizations are listed at the end o f the
statem ents on individual occupations and industries. A lthough these references were assem ­
bled carefully, the BLS has neither authority nor facilities for investigating the organizations
listed. Also, because the Bureau does not preview all the inform ation or publications that may
be sent in response to a request, it cannot guarantee the accuracy of such inform ation. The
listing o f an organization, therefore, does not constitute in any way an endorsement or recom­
mendation by the Bureau or the U.S. Department o f Labor, either o f the organization and its
activities or o f the information it may supply. Each organization has sole responsibility for
w hatever inform ation it may issue.
T he occupational inform ation contained in the Handbook presents a general, com posite
description of jobs and industries and cannot be expected to reflect work situations in specific
establishm ents or localities. The Handbook, therefore, is not intended and should not be used as
a guide fo r determining wages, hours, the right o f a particular union to represent workers,
appropriate bargaining units, or form al job evaluation systems.

Comments about the contents of this publication and suggestions for improving
it are welcome. Please address them to Chief, Division of Occupational Outlook,
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, D.C. 20212.

v iii



Stationary engineers..............................................
Waste w ater treatm ent plant o p erato rs............
W elders.....................................................................

HOW TO USE THE HAN DBOOK...........................


PR O JE C T IO N S......................................................


TOM ORROW ’S JO B S ...................................................


The Outlook for Occupations
OCCUPATION S.....................................................
Foundry occupations..................................................
P atternm akers..........................................................
M olders......................................................................
C o rem ak e rs.............................................................
M achining o ccu p atio n s.............................................
All-round m ach in ists.............................................
Instrum ent m akers (m e c h a n ic a l)......................
M achine tool o p e ra to rs........................................
Setup workers (m achine to o ls )..........................
Tool-and-die m akers..............................................
Printing o cc u p atio n s..................................................
C om positors.............................................................
L ith o g rap h ers..........................................................
P hotoengravers........................................................
Electrotypers and stereotypers...........................
Printing press operators and assistants.............
Bookbinders and bindery w orkers.....................
O ther industrial production and related
o ccu p atio n s..........................................................
A ssem blers................................................................
Autom obile p ain ters..............................................
Blacksm iths...............................................................
Blue-collar worker supervisors...........................
Boilermaking o cc u p atio n s....................................
Boiler te n d e rs..........................................................
E lectro p laters..........................................................
Forge shop occupations........................................
Furniture uph o lsterers...........................................
Inspectors (m an u facturing).................................
M illwrights................................................................
M otion picture p rojectionists..............................
Ophthalm ic laboratory tech n ic ia n s...................
Photographic laboratory occupations................
Power truck o p erato rs...........................................
Production p a in te rs...............................................




SERVICE O C CUPATION S.........................................
Cleaning and related occupations..........................



OFFICE O C C U PA TIO N S............................................
Clerical occupations...................................................
Bookkeeping w orkers............................................
C ashiers....................................................................
Collection w o rk e rs................................................
File clerk s.................................................................
Hotel front office clerk s.......................................
Office m achine o p erato rs....................................
Postal c le rk s ............................................................
R ecep tio n ists...........................................................
Secretaries and stenographers............................
Shipping and receiving clerks.............................
Statistical clerks......................................................
Stock c le rk s.............................................................
T y p ists.......................................................................
C om puter and related occupations........................
C om puter operating personnel...........................
P ro g ram m ers...........................................................
Systems an a ly sts.....................................................
Banking occupations..................................................
Bank clerk s..............................................................
Bank officers and m anagers................................
Bank tellers...............................................................
Insurance occupations...............................................
A c tu a rie s..................................................................
Claim representatives............................................
U nderw riters............................................................
Adm inistrative and related o cc u p atio n s..............
A ccountants.............................................................
Advertising w orkers...............................................
B uyers........................................................................
City m anagers..........................................................
College student personnel w o rk e rs...................
Credit m a n a g e rs.....................................................
Hotel m anagers and assistants............................
Industrial traffic m anagers....................................
L aw yers.....................................................................
M arketing research w orkers................................
Personnel and labor relations w o rk ers.............
Public relations w o rk ers.......................................
Purchasing ag en ts...................................................
Urban p lan n ers.......................................................

Guide to the Handbook






Building custodians................................................
Hotel housekeepers and assistan ts....................
Pest controllers........................................................
Food service occupations.........................................
B arten d e rs................................................................
Cooks and c h e fs.....................................................
Dining room attendants and dishw ashers........
Food counter w o rk e rs...........................................
M eatcutters...............................................................
W aiters and w aitresses.........................................
Personal service o cc u p atio n s..................................
B arb e rs......................................................................
Bellhops and bell captains...................................
Cosm etologists.........................................................
Funeral directors and em balm ers......................
Private household service o ccu p atio n s.................
Private household w o rk e rs..................................
Protective and related service o cc u p atio n s........
C orrection o ffic e rs................................................
FBI special agents...................................................
F irefig h ters...............................................................
G u a rd s.......................................................................
Police officers..........................................................
State police officers...............................................
C onstruction inspectors (G overnm ent)............
Health and regulatory inspectors
(G o v e rn m e n t)................................................
O ccupational safety and health w o rk ers..........
O ther service occupations........................................
Mail c a rrie rs ............................................................
Telephone o p erato rs..............................................



Teaching o cc u p atio n s............................................... 211
Kindergarten and elem entary school te a c h e rs.. 211
Secondary school te a c h e rs .................................. 213
College and university teach ers.......................... 215
T eacher a id e s .......................................................... 217
Library o ccu p atio n s................................................... 220
L ib rarian s................................................................. 220
Library technicians and assistants..................... 223
SALES O C C U PA T IO N S..............................................
A utom obile parts counter w orkers....................
Autom obile sales w o rk e rs....................................
Autom obile service advisors................................
Gasoline service station a tte n d a n ts...................
Insurance agents and b ro k ers..............................
M anufacturers’ sales w o rk ers..............................
M o d els................................................................. .....
Real estate agents and brokers...........................
Retail trade sales w o rk e rs....................................
R oute d rivers...........................................................
Securities sales w orkers........................................
Travel ag e n ts...........................................................
W holesale trade sales w o rk e rs ...........................


CONSTRUCTION O C C U PA TIO N S......................... 252
Bricklayers, stonem asons, and marble setters... 255
Cforrp e n te rs................................................................ 257
Digitized a FRASER

C em ent masons and terrazzo w orkers..............
C onstruction lab o rers............................................
Drywall installers and finishers...........................
Electricians (c o n stru ctio n )..................................
Elevator c o n stru c to rs............................................
Floor covering installers.......................................
G laziers......................................................................
Insulation w o rk e rs..................................................
Iro n w o rk ers..............................................................
L athers.......................................................................
Operating engineers (construction m achinery
o p e ra to rs).........................................................
Painters and p ap e rh an g e rs..................................
P la sterers..................................................................
Plumbers and pipefitters.......................................
R o o fers......................................................................
S h eet-m etalw o rk ers..............................................
T ilesetters.................................................................
Air transportation o cc u p atio n s...............................
Air traffic co n tro llers............................................
Airplane m echanics...............................................
Airplane p ilo ts.........................................................
Flight atten d a n ts.....................................................
Reservation, ticket, and passenger ag en ts.......
M erchant m arine o cc u p atio n s................................
M erchant m arine officers.....................................
M erchant m arine sailors.......................................
Railroad o cc u p atio n s.................................................
Brake o p e ra to rs......................................................
C o n d u cto rs...............................................................
Locom otive en g in eers...........................................
Shop tra d e s...............................................................
Signal departm ent w orkers..................................
Station a g e n ts..........................................................
Telegraphers, telephoners, and tower
o p e ra to rs ..........................................................
Track w o rk e rs.........................................................
Driving o cc u p atio n s...................................................
Intercity busdrivers.................................................
Local transit busdrivers........................................
Local tru ck d riv e rs..................................................
Long distance truckdrivers..................................
Parking atten d a n ts..................................................
Taxicab d riv ers........................................................
O C CUPATION S.....................................................
C onservation o ccupations........................................
F o resters....................................................................
Forestry te c h n ic ia n s..............................................
Range m an ag e rs......................................................
Soil conservationists..............................................
E ngineers.......................................................................
A erospace.................................................................
A g ricu ltu ral..............................................................
B iom edical................................................................






C era m ic....................................................................
C hem ical...................................................................
C iv il...........................................................................
E lec tric al..................................................................
M echanical...............................................................
M etallurgical............................................................
M in in g .......................................................................
P etro leu m .................................................................
Environm ental scien tists..........................................
G eologists.................................................................
G eophysicists...........................................................
M eteorologists.........................................................
O ceanographers......................................................
Life science occupations..........................................
Biochem ists...............................................................
Life scientists.................... ......................................
Soil scientists...........................................................
M athem atics occupations.........................................
M ath em atician s......................................................
Physical scientists.......................................................
A stronom ers............................................................
C h em ists...................................................................
Food scientists.........................................................
P hysicists..................................................................
O ther scientific and technical occupations..........
Broadcast technicians...........................................
D rafters......................................................................
Engineering and science technicians................


MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS..............................
Telephone craft occupations...................................
C entral office craft occupations.........................
C entral office equipm ent in stallers...................
Line installers and cable splicers.......................
Telephone and PBX installers and repairers...
O ther m echanics and rep airers...............................
Air-conditioning, refrigeration, and heating
m echanics.........................................................
A ppliance re p a ire rs...............................................
Autom obile body repairers..................................
Autom obile m ech anics.........................................
Boat-engine m echanics.........................................
Bowling-pin-machine m ech an ics........................
Business machine re p a ire rs.................................
C om puter service tech n ic ia n s............................
Diesel m echanics....................................................
Electric sign rep airers............................................
Farm equipm ent m ech an ics................................
Industrial m achinery repairers............................
Instrum ent re p a ire rs..............................................
Jew elers.....................................................................
L o ck sm ith s...............................................................
M aintenance electricians......................................
M otorcycle m echanics...........................................
Piano and organ tuners and re p a ire rs..............



Shoe repairers..........................................................
Television and radio service technicians.........
Truck m echanics and bus m echanics...............
Vending m achine m echanics...............................
W atch re p airers......................................................


HEALTH O C C U PA TIO N S.........................................
Dental o cc u p atio n s....................................................
D entists.....................................................................
Dental assistants.....................................................
Dental hygienists....................................................
Dental laboratory tech n ician s............................
M edical p ractitio n ers................................................
C hiropractors...........................................................
O ptom etrists............................................................
Osteopathic physicians.........................................
P hysicians.................................................................
P odiatrists.................................................................
V eterinarians...........................................................
Medical technologist, technician, and assistant
Electrocardiograph technicians..........................
Electroencephalographic technologists and
Emergency medical technicians.........................
Medical laboratory w o rk e rs................................
Medical record technicians and clerks.............
Operating room technicians................................
Optom etric assistants.............................................
Radiologic (X-ray) technologists......................
Respiratory therapy w o rk ers...............................
Nursing occupations...................................................
Registered nurses..................................................
Licensed practical n u rse s....................................
Nursing aides, orderlies, and a tte n d a n ts.........
Therapy and rehabilitation o ccu p atio n s..............
O ccupational therapists........................................
O ccupational therapy assistants.........................
Physical th era p ists.................................................
Physical therapist assistants and aides..............
Speech pathologists and audiologists...............
O ther health occupations.........................................
D ietitia n s..................................................................
Dispensing opticians..............................................
Health services adm inistrators............................
Medical record adm inistrators...........................
P harm acists..............................................................



SOCIAL SCIENTISTS...................................................
A nthropologists......................................................
E co n o m ists...............................................................
G e o g rap h ers............................................................
H istorians..................................................................
Political scien tists...................................................



SOCIAL SERVICE OCCUPATION S........................ 534
Counseling o cc u p atio n s............................................ 536
School counselors................................................... 536





Employment co u n selo rs....................................... 538
Rehabilitation co u nselors..................................... 539
College career planning and placem ent
counselors......................................................... 541
C lergy.......................................... ,................................. 544
Protestant m inisters............................................... 544
R abbis........................................................................ 545
Roman Catholic p riests........................................ 547
O ther social service o c c u p atio n s........................... 550
C ooperative extension service w orkers............ 550
Home eco n o m ists................................................... 551
Hom em aker-hom e health aid es.......................... 553
Park, recreation, and leisure service w o rk e rs... 556
Social service aides................................................ 560
Social w o rk ers......................................................... 562
Perform ing artists........................................................
Actors and actresses..............................................
D ancers......................................................................
M usicians..................................................................
S in g ers.......................................................................
Design o ccu p atio n s....................................................
A rc h ite cts.................................................................
Com m ercial artists..................................................
Display w o rk ers......................................................
Floral d esig n ers......................................................
Industrial designers................................................
Interior designers....................................................
Landscape arch itects.............................................
Com m unications-related o ccupations...................
In terp reters...............................................................
Newspaper re p o rte rs .............................................
Radio and television announcers........................
Technical w riters....................................................


The Outlook for Industries
A G R IC U L T U R E ............................................................ 603
MINING AND P E T R O L E U M .................................... 612
Coal m in in g............................................................. 614
Petroleum and natural gas production and
gas processing.................................................. 618
C O N STR U C TIO N .......................................................... 622
M A N U FA CTU RIN G .....................................................
A ircraft, missile, and sp acecraft.........................
A lum inum .................................................................
A p p arel......................................................................


D rug............................................................................
E lectronics................................................................
F oundries..................................................................
Industrial ch e m ic al................................................
Iron and steel...........................................................
Logging and lum ber m ills.....................................
M otor vehicle and eq u ip m en t............................
N uclear energy field ..............................................
Office m achine and co m p u ter............................
Paper and allied products.....................................
Petroleum refining..................................................
Printing and publishing.........................................
Textile mill p ro d u c ts.............................................


AND PUBLIC U TILITIES..................................
Civil av ia tio n ...........................................................
Electric p o w e r........................................................
M erchant m a rin e ....................................................
Radio and TV b ro adcasting................................
R ailroads...................................................................
T elephone.................................................................
T ru ck in g ...................................................................


W HOLESALE AND RETAIL T R A D E ................... 746
R estaurants.............................................................. 748
Retail food s to re s ................................................... 752
Banking...................................................................... 758
In su ran ce.................................................................. 761
IN D U STR IES.......................................................... 765
H o te ls........................................................................ 767
Laundry and drycleaning...................................... 770
G O V ERN M EN T.............................................................
Federal civilian governm ent.....................................
Postal S erv ice..........................................................
State and local governm ents...................................
Arm ed F o rc e s .............................................................


(D .O .T.) IN D E X .................................................... 789
AND IND USTRIES............................................... 800
R E PR IN T S ............................................................... 819
R E A D E R S ................................................................ 824

Guide to
the Handbook

W hat’s in the Handbook?
• Introductory sections that tell how to use the
Handbook, where to go for more career
information, how employment projections are
made, and where tomorrow’s jobs will be.
• 300 occupational briefs, grouped into 13
clusters of related jobs
• 35 industry briefs
• Index of job titles by
tional Titles code

Dictiof Occupa­

• Instructions for ordering Handbook reprints,
the Occupational Outlook Quarterly, and
other BLS publications that will keep you
informed about the economy and the job


How many kinds of jobs are there?
Several hundred occupations are
described in the Handbook, although
the total num ber of occupations in
the U.S. economy may be counted in
the thousands. Most occupations re­
quiring long periods o f education or
training are discussed, as are a num ­
ber of small but growing fields of em ­
ploym ent. A ltogether, the occupa­
tions in the Handbook account for
about 95 percent of all salesworkers;
ab o u t 90 p e rc e n t o f professional,
craft, and service workers; 80 per­
cent of clerical workers; 50 percent
of all operatives; and smaller propor­
tions of managerial workers and la­
borers. The main types of agricultur­
al occupations are described in the
Handbook. The long-term job o u t­
look for the Nation as a whole is dis­
cussed, too.
Where should I look first?
Start with w hat you know about
your own interests and abilities. Do
you like frequent contact with other
people or do you prefer to spend a lot
of time alone? Are you a good fol­
lower or som eone whose greatest re­
wards com e from directing others in
a work effort? The answers to these
and similar questions can help you
assess the personal traits and individ­
ual aptitudes that influence your job
satisfaction and perform ance. It may
be useful to discuss your personal
needs and abilities with a counselor
trained in exploring hum an behavior.
He or she is familiar with tests and
o th e r m e th o d s fo r m a k in g th is
unique, personal assessment.
The next step is to m atch your in­
dividual talents and goals with those
dem anded by various fields of work.
You may have discovered, for exam ­
ple, that one of your strong needs is
frequent interaction with people so
that social service work seems ap ­
pealing. To find out what kind o f jobs
there are in that field, consult the

Handbook's Table of C ontents under
Social Service O ccupations. All o f
the occupations in the Handbook are
arran g e d in “ c lu s te rs ” o f re la ted
jobs. There are 13 clusters altogeth­
er: Industrial production, office, ser­
vice, education, sales, construction,
transportation, scientific and techni­
cal, m echanics and repairers, health,
social science, social service, and art,
design, and com m unications occupa­
tions. M ost ca re e r clusters in the
Handbook describe a variety of jobs
in a single field o f work. Training and
skill requirem ents within a particular
cluster often vary a great deal. If you
are thinking about a future in health
work, for example, you will find that
a few jobs in the health occupations
cluster require only a high school di­
ploma; others require a degree from
a 2-year com m unity college or junior
college; still others require a bache­
lo r’s degree; and a few require 4
years or m ore o f form al training fol­
lowing college graduation.
If you know initially that the length
or type of career training open to you
is restricted by your own financial
limitations or family obligations, you
may want to narrow your job choices
to those requiring high school or 2year college preparation. The Bureau
of Labor Statistics has prepared sev­
eral pam phlets, based on inform ation
in the Handbook, that classify and d e­
scribe selected jobs by the type and
length of training required. Looking
first a t th e a p p ro p ria te p am p h let
from this series, such as Jobs fo r
Which a High School Education is R e­
quired, may be an efficient way to
narrow your career choices to those
that are realistic for you. See the sec­
tion on BLS Publications Useful to
H andbook Readers for a list of the
pam phlets in the Jobs fo r Which Se­
ries and inform ation on how to o b ­
tain them .
You may already have a specific
job or industry in mind. Or, if an im ­

portant industry is located in your
area, you may find it useful to read
the Handbook industry statem ent to
learn about the different jobs in that
industry and their varied training re­
quirem ents and earnings potefitial.
To find out where it is described,
turn to the Index of O ccupations and
Industries at the back o f the book.
There are 36 industry statem ents in
the Handbook, grouped according to
m ajor divisions in the economy: Ag­
ric u ltu re , m ining, and petroleu m ;
construction; m anufacturing; tran s­
portation, com m unications, and pub­
lic u tilities; w holesale and re ta il
trade; finance, insurance, and real
estate; services; and government.
What will I learn?
Once you have chosen a place to
b eg in —an occu p atio n o r industry
you’d like to learn m ore about—you
can use the Handbook to find out
what the job is like, what education
and training are necessary, and what
the advancem ent possibilities, earn­
ings, and em ploym ent outlook are
likely to be. E ach section o f the
Handbook follows a standard form at,
making it easier to com pare different
jobs. W hat follows is a description of
the type of inform ation presented in
each Handbook statem ent, with a few
words of explanation.
The num bers in parentheses that
appear just below the title of m ost
H andbook sta te m e n ts are D .O .T .
code num bers. D.O.T. stands for Dic­
tionary o f Occupational Titles, now in
its fourth edition, a U.S. D epartm ent
o f L ab o r p u b lic a tio n w hich “ d e ­
fines” each of about 20,000 jobs ac­
cording to a system that uses num ­
bers to classify each job by the type
o f w ork p e rfo rm e d , tra in in g r e ­
quired, physical dem ands, and work­
ing conditions. Because many Hand­
book users have not yet received the
recent fourth edition o f the D.O.T,


the D .O .T n um ber accom panying
each statem ent in this Handbook re­
fers to the previous, third edition of
th a t volum e. A co n v ersio n tab le
showing the fourth edition num ber
th at corresponds to th at from the
third edition, used in the Handbook,
appears in an Appendix. An index
listin g H andbook o c c u p a tio n s by
D.O.T. num ber precedes the alpha­
betical Index of Industries and O ccu­
pations. D.O.T. num bers are used
primarily by public em ploym ent ser­
vice agencies for classifying appli­
cants and job openings, and for re­
p o rtin g an d o th e r o p e ra tin g
purposes. They are included in the
Handbook because career inform a­
tion centers and libraries frequently
use them for filing occupational in­
The Nature of the Work section
describes the m ajor duties o f workers
in the occupation. It tells what w ork­
ers do on the job and how they do it.
A lth o u g h each jo b d esc rip tio n is
typical of the occupation, duties are
likely to vary by em ployer and size of
em ploying organization, geographic
location, and other factors. In some
occupations, individual workers spe­
cialize in certain tasks. In others they
perform the entire range of work in
the occupation. O f course, job duties
continually change as technology ad­
vances, new industrial processes are
developed, and products or services
The Places of Employment section
provides inform ation on the num ber
of workers in an occupation and tells
w h eth er they are co n c en trate d in
c e rta in in d u s trie s o r g eo g rap h ic
areas. W h e th e r an o c c u p a tio n is
larg e o r sm all is im p o rta n t to a
jobseeker because large occupations,
even th o se grow ing slowly, offer
more openings than small ones be­
cause o f the many workers who retire
or die each year.
Some occupations are concentrat­
ed in p a rtic u la r in d u stries. M ost
cooks and chefs, for exam ple, are
employed in the restaurant and hotel
industries while secretaries are em ­
ployed in alm ost every industry. If an
occupation is found primarily in ce r­
tain industries, this section lists them .
A few occupations are concentrat­
ed in certain parts o f the country.


A ctors and actresses, for exam ple,
usually work in C alifornia or New
York. This inform ation is included
for the benefit of people who have
strong preferences about where they
live—because they do not wish to be
sep arated from th eir fam ilies and
friends, for example. For most occu­
p atio n s, how ever, em p lo y m en t is
widely scattered and generally fol­
lows the same pattern as the distribu­
tion of the population.
In addition, inform ation on parttim e em p lo y m en t is included b e ­
cause it is im p o rtan t to students,
hom em akers, re tire d persons, and
others who may want to work part
time. Knowing which occupations of­
fer good opportunities for part-tim e
work can be a valuable lead.
T he Training, Other Q ualifica­
tion s, and A dvancem ent se c tio n
should be read carefully because the
decisions you m ake concerning prep­
aration for an occupation represent a
considerable investm ent of time and
m oney. E arly and w ise p lan n in g
toward a career goal can save you
un w arran ted expenditures later. If
you currently are in school, it’s a
good idea to look closely at the list o f
high school and college courses re ­
garded as useful preparation for the
career you have in mind. Nearly all
H a n d b o o k s t a t e m e n t s lis t su c h
W orkers can qualify for jobs in a
variety o f ways, including college
study leading to a certificate or asso­
ciate degree; program s offered by
p o stsecondary v o cational schools,
both public and private; hom e study
courses; governm ent training p ro ­
gram s; ex perience or training o b ­
tained in the Arm ed Forces; appren­
ticeship and o th er form al training
offered on the job or in the classroom
by e m p lo y e rs; an d h igh s c h o o l
courses. F or each occupation, the
Handbook identifies which of these
routes of entry is preferred. In many
cases, alternative ways of obtaining
training are listed as well. It is worth
rem em bering that the level at which
you e n te r an o cc u p atio n and th e
speed with which you advance often
are d eterm in ed by th e am ount o f
training you have.
M any o c c u p a tio n s are n a tu ra l
ste p p in g sto n e s to o th e rs . A fte r

working for a time as a program m er,
for example, many people advance to
jobs as systems analysts. The world of
work is dynam ic and few w orkers
spend their lives in one or even two
occupations. Some have several jobs
o v er a lifetim e, changing ca ree rs
when it is advantageous to do so. F re­
quently observed patterns of m ove­
m ent from one occupation to an oth­
e r , su c h as a d v a n c e m e n t fro m
program m er to systems analyst, are
discussed in the Handbook. This type
of inform ation can be useful in sever­
al ways.
It is helpful to know, for example,
that skills gained working at one job
can m ake you m ore employable in
another—perhaps a job that is m ore
desirable in term s o f earnings, w ork­
ing conditions, or scope for self-ex­
pression. On the other hand, it also is
useful to know which jobs offer the
most opportunity for transferring to
other work of a similar nature. P er­
sons trained in electrical or chem ical
engineering, for example, frequently
can transfer to another engineering
specialty where they can apply gen­
eral engineering knowledge in differ­
ent ways.
In some cases moving from one o c­
cupation to another takes m ore than
the training or experience acquired
on the job. Before a hospital aide can
advance to licensed practical nurse,
for example, ye or she m ust com plete
the year o f specialized training re­
quired for licensing. Many Handbook
statem ents describe the possibilities
fo r a d v a n c e m e n t a fte r a d d itio n al
training, and note any in-service p ro ­
grams th at allow em ployees to gain
n ee d ed skills while co ntinuin g to
work part time. C ertain occupations
offer em ploym ent opportunities to
persons w ith little or no previous
work experience. The Handbook in­
cludes many statem ents on such en ­
try level jobs, many in the office and
service clusters.
It usually is wise, how ever, to dis­
cuss the patterns of job transfer and
advancem ent described in the Hand­
book with counselors, local em ploy­
ers, and others who know about the
p a rtic u la r jo b m a rk e t w here you
w ant to w ork. T ypical p attern s o f
m ovem ent from one occupation to



another may not apply in every em ­
ployment setting.
All States have certification or li­
censing requirem ents for some occu­
pations. Physicians and nurses, ele­
m e n ta ry a n d s e c o n d a r y sc h o o l
teachers, barbers and cosmetologists,
electricians and plum bers are exam ­
ples of occupations that are licensed.
If you are considering occupations
that require State licensing, be sure
to check the req u irem en ts in the
State in which you plan to work.
An im p o rta n t fa c to r in c a re e r
choice is the extent to which a par­
ticular job suits your personality. Al­
though it often is difficult for people
to assess themselves, your counselor
u ndoubtedly is fam iliar with tests
that can help. Each statem ent in the
H a ndbook p ro v id e s in fo rm a tio n
which allows you to m atch your own
unique p erso n al c h a ra c te ris tic s —
your likes and d islik e s—w ith the
characteristics of the job. For a par­
ticular job, you may need the ability
—make responsible decisions.
—motivate others.
—direct and supervise others.
—work under close supervision.
—work in a highly competitive atmosphere.
—enjoy working with ideas and solving prob­
—enjoy working with people.
—enjoy working with things—good coordina­
tion and manual dexterity are necessary.
—work independently—initiative and self-dis­
cipline are necessary.
—work as part of a team.
—enjoy working with detail, either numbers or
technical written material.
—enjoy helping people.
—use creative talents and ideas and enjoy hav­
ing an opportunity for self-expression.
—derive satisfaction from seeing the physical
results of your work.
—work in a confined area.
—perform repetitious work.
—enjoy working outside, regardless of the

The Employment Outlook section
discusses prospective job opportuni­
ties. Knowing whether or not the job
m arket is likely to be favorable is
im p o rtan t in deciding w hether to
pursue a specific career. While your
interests, your abilities, and your ca­
reer goals are significant, you also

Figure I


Projected 1976-85
change in employment

Much faster than the average for all occupations......................
Faster than the average for all occupations.................................
About as fast as the average for all occupations 1......................
More slowly than the average for all occupations......................
Little change is expected................................................................
Expected to decline..........................................................................

50.0 percent or greater
25.0 to 49.9 percent
15.0 to 24.9 percent
5.0 to 14.9 percent
4.9 to — percent
— percent or greater

1 The average increase projected for all occupations for the 1976-85 period is 19.2

need to know something about the
availability of jobs in the fields that
interest you most.
The em ploym ent outlook section
of most Handbook statem ents begins
with a sentence about expected em ­
ployment growth through 1985. The
occupation or industry is described
as likely to grow about as fast as the
average for all occupations or indus­
tries; faster than the average; or more
slowly than the average (figure I).
Job opportunities in a particular occu­
pation or industry usually are favor­
able i f employment increases at least
as rapidly as in the economy as a
whole. Occupations or industries in
which em ploym ent stays about the
same or declines generally offer less
favorable job prospects than those that
are growing because the only openings
are those due to deaths, retirements,
and other separations from the labor
Some Handbook statem ents take
note 6f the effect of fluctuations in
economic activity. This information
is valuable to people looking into
long-range career possibilities at a
time when the economy is in a reces­
sion. Persons understandably w on­
der: W hat will the economy be like
when I enter the labor m arket? Will it
be harder to find a job 5 or 10 years
from now than it is today? The Hand­
book gives in fo rm atio n , w herever
feasible, on occupations and indus­
tries whose levels of em ploym ent

fluctuate in response to shifts in the
economic climate. It is im portant to
bear in mind th at em ploym ent in
many—but not all—occupations and
industries is directly affected by an
econom ic dow nturn. A sharp im ­
provem ent in the outlook for these
occupations and industries is likely as
the economy picks up. However, o th ­
er occupations and industries are less
affected by short-term changes in
economic activity. O ther factors in­
flu en c e th e ir grow th o r d ec lin e .
These m atters are explored in a num ­
ber of Handbook statem ents.
For som e occupations, inform a­
tion is available on the supply of
that is, the num ber of peo­
ple pursuing the type of education or
training needed and the num ber sub­
sequently entering the occupation.
When such information is available,
the Handbook describes prospective
job opportunities in terms of the ex­
pected dem and-supply relationship.
T he p r o s p e c t i v e j o b s i t u a t i o n is
term ed “ excellent” when demand is
likely to g re atly e x c e e d sup p ly ;
“ keen com petition” when supply is
likely to ex c eed d em an d . O th e r
terms used in Handbook statem ents
are shown in Figure II.
W orkers who transfer in to one oc­
cupation from an o th er som etim es
are a significant com ponent of sup­
ply; similarly, those who transfer out
may have a substantial effect on de-

Figure II
Job opportunities
Very good
Good or favorable
May face competition
Keen competition

Prospective demand-supply relationship
Demand much greater than supply
Demand greater than supply
Rough balance between demand and supply
Likelihood of more supply than demand
Supply greater than demand


mand because their leaving usually
creates a job opening. Although the
inform ation currently available on
transfers among occupations is limit­
ed, some statem ents in the Handbook
discuss transfer patterns and their ef­
fect on the supply for certain occupa­
tions. The employm ent outlook for
engineers, for exam ple, notes that
transfers into the field are likely to
constitute a substantial portion of
supply if past trends continue.
The inform ation in this section
should be used carefully. Getting a
job may be difficult if the field is so
small that openings are few (actu ar­
ies and blacksmiths are examples) or
so popular that it attracts many more
jobseekers than there are jobs (radio
and television broadcasting, journal­
ism, the perform ing arts, and m odel­
ing). Getting a job also can be diffi­
cult in occupations and industries in
which em ploym ent is declining (m er­
chant sailors, photoengravers, type­
setters), although this is not always
the case. But even occupations that
are small o r overcrow ded provide
som e jo b s. So do o cc u p atio n s in
which em ploym ent is growing very
slowly or even declining, for there is
a need to replace workers who leave
the occupation. If the occupation is
large, the num ber of job openings
arising from replacem ent needs can
be quite substantial. B ookkeepers,
telephone operators, and machinists
are exam ples of large occupations
that provide a significant num ber of
jo b o p en in g s ea ch y e a r b e c a u se
workers leave. On the average, open­
ings re s u ltin g from re p la c e m e n t
needs are expected to account for
nearly two-thirds of all job openings.
How reliable is the information on
the outlook for em ploym ent over the
next 10 years? No one can predict
future labor m arket conditions with
perfect accuracy. In every occupa­
tion and industry, the num ber o f
job seekers and the num ber of job
openings constantly changes. A rise
or fall in the dem and for a product or
service affects the num ber of w ork­
ers needed to produce it. New inven­
tions and technological innovations
create some jobs and eliminate oth­
ers. Changes in the size or age distri­
bution o f the population, work atti­


tu d e s, tra in in g o p p o rtu n itie s , o r
retirem ent program s determ ine the
n u m b er o f w orkers available. As
these forces in te ra c t in the labor
m arket, som e occupations ex p eri­
ence a sh o rtag e , som e a surplus,
some a balance between jobseekers
and o p e n in g s. M e th o d s used by
econom ists to develop inform ation
on future occupational prospects dif­
fer, and judgm ents that go into any
assessment of the future also differ.
Therefore, it is im portant to under­
stand what underlies each statem ent
on outlook.
For every occupation and industry
covered in the Handbook, an estim ate
of future em ploym ent needs is devel­
oped. These estimates are consistent
with a set of assumptions about the
future of the economy and the coun­
try. For m ore detail, see the section
entitled, Assumptions and M ethods
Used In Preparing the Employment
Finally, you should rem em ber that
job prospects in your community or
State may not correspond to the d e­
scription o f the em ploym ent outlook
in the Handbook. For the particular
job you are interested in, the outlook
in y o u r a re a m ay be b e tte r , o r
worse.The Handbook does not dis­
cuss the outlook in local areas b e­
cause the analysis is far too much for
a centralized staff to handle. Such
in fo rm atio n has b een d ev elo p ed ,
however, by many States and local­
ities. The local office of your State
em ploym ent service is the best place
to ask about local-area em ploym ent
projections. Names and addresses of
these S tate and local inform ation
sources and suggestions for addition­
al inform ation on the job m arket are
given in the following section, W here
to Go for More Information.
The Earnings section helps answer
many of the questions that you may
ask when choosing a career. Will the
income be high enough to m aintain
the standard of living I want and ju s­
tify my training costs? How much will
my earnings increase as I gain experi­
ence? Do some areas of the country
or some industries offer better pay
than o th e rs for the sam e type o f
Like m ost people, you probably
think of earnings as money. But m on­

ey is only one type of financial re­
ward for work. Paid vacations, health
insurance, uniform s, and discounts
on clothing or o th er m erchandise
also are part of total earnings.
About 9 out of 10 workers receive
money income in the form of a wage
or salary. A wage usually is an hourly
or daily rate of pay, while a salary is
a weekly, m onthly, or yearly rate.
Most craft workers, operatives, and
lab o re rs are wage e a rn e rs, while
m ost p ro fessio n al, tech n ic al, and
clerical workers are salary earners.
In addition to their regular pay,
wage and salary workers may receive
extra money for working overtim e,
or on a night shift or irregular sched­
ule. In some occupations, w orkers
also may receive tips or be paid a
commission based on the am ount of
sales or services they provide to cus­
tom ers. Factory workers are som e­
times paid a piece rate, which is an
extra paym ent for each item they
produce. For many w orkers, these
types of pay am ount to a large part of
their total earnings.
The rem aining 10 percent o f all
w orkers are in business for th em ­
selves and earn self-employment in­
come instead of wages or salaries.
This group includes w orkers in a
wide variety of occupations:Physicians, shopkeepers, barbers, writers,
photographers, and farmers are ex­
am ples of workers who frequently
are self-employed.
W orkers in some occupations earn
self-employment income in addition
to their wages or salaries. For exam ­
ple, electricians and carpenters often
do small repair or rem odeling jobs
during evenings or w eekends, and
college p ro fesso rs freq u en tly are
paid for publishing articles based on
independent research.
Besides money incom e, most wage
and salary workers receive a variety
of fringe benefits as part of their earn ­
ings on the job. Several are required
by Federal and State law, including
social security, w orkers’ com pensa­
tion, and unem ploym ent insurance.
These benefits provide incom e to
persons when they are not working
because of old age, work-related in­
jury or disability, or lack of suitable



Among the most common fringe Table 1. Average weekly earnings of beginning computer programmers, 1976, by
selected city
benefits are paid vacations, holidays,
and sick leave. In addition, many
Average weekly earnings
workers are covered by life, health,
and accident insurance; participate Detroit....................................................................................................
New York..............................................................................................
in retirem ent plans; and are entitled
to s u p p le m e n ta l u n e m p lo y m e n t
benefits. All o f these benefits are San Francisco-Oakland.......................................................................
provided—in part or in full—through Greenville-Spartanburg, S.C...............................................................
th eir em ployers. Som e em ployers Baltimore...............................................................................................
also offer stock options and profit- Salt Lake City-Ogden..........................................................................
sharing plans, savings plans, and bo­ Chattanooga..........................................................................................
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics.
W orkers in many occupations re­
ceive p art of their earnings in the
form of goods and services, or pay­ east regions than in the W est and counselor or with local employers if
ments in kind. Sales workers in de­ South, there are exceptions. You also you are interested in specific earn­
partm ent stores, for example, often should rem em ber th a t those cities ings information for occupations in
receive discounts on m erchandise. which offer the highest earnings are your area.
The Working Conditions section
Workers in other jobs may receive often those in which it is most expen­
provides information on factors that
free meals, housing, business expense sive to live.
accounts, or free transportation on
In addition, workers in the same can affect job satisfaction because
company-owned planes.
occupation may have different earn­ preferences for working conditions
Which jobs pay the most? This is a ings depending on the industry in vary considerably among individuals.
difficult question to answer because which they work. For example, sen­ Some people, for exam ple, prefer
good information is available for only ior accounting clerks in 1975 aver­ o u td o o r work while others prefer
one type o f ea rn in g s—wages and aged $206.50 a week in public utili­ working in an office. Some people
salaries—and for some occupations ties, $181 a week in m anufacturing, like the variety of shift work, and
even this is unavailable. N everthe­ $169.50 a week in wholesale trade, others want the steadiness of a 9-to-5
less, the Handbook does include some and $164 a week in services, but only jo b . Following is a list o f several
c o m p a riso n s o f e a rn in g s am ong $150.50 in retail trade and $154 in w orking conditions th a t apply to
occupations. M ost statem ents indi­
some of the occupations in the Hand­
finance, insurance, and real estate.
cate whether earnings in an occupa­
Salaries also vary by the type of
tion are greater than or less than the
work a person performs. The salaries
average earnings of workers who are
of Ph. D. chemists, for example, vary Overtime work. When overtime is re­
not supervisors and work in private
quired on a job, employees must give
industry, but not in farm ing. This considerably depending on the spe­
cific nature of the job, as shown in up some of their free time and need
group represented about 60 percent
of all workers in 1976 and had the table 2. In 1976, chemists in m anage­ to be flexible in their personal lives.
most reliable earnings data currently m ent jobs earned $7,000 a year m ore Overtime, however, does provide the
than those in m arketing and techni­ opportunity to increase earning pow­
available for com parison purposes.
Besides differences am ong occu­ cal services. C hem ists in research er.
pations, m any levels o f pay exist and developm ent, however, earned
within each occupation. Beginning $4,200 less than those in m arketing, Shift work. Evening or night work is
workers almost always earn less than but $4,800 more than chemistry p ro ­ part of the reqular work schedule in
some jobs. Employees who work on
those who have been on the job for fessors.
some time because pay rates increase
B eca u se o f th ese v aria tio n s in these shifts usually are working while
as w orkers gain experience or do earnings, you should check with a most other people are off. Some permore responsible work.
E arnings in an o ccu p atio n also Table 2. Average annual salaries of chemists, with Ph.D. degrees, by type of work,
vary by geographic location. The av­ 1976
erage weekly earnings of beginning
Type of work
com puter program m ers, for exam ­
Annual salaries
ple, vary considerably from city to
city. (See table 1.) The highest earn­ Marketing and technical services.................................................................
ings o f the nine cities listed occurred Research and development.............................................................................
in Detroit, Mich., and the lowest in Teaching............................................................................................................
C hattanooga, Tenn. Although it is
generally true that earnings are high­
SOURCE: American Chemical Society.
er in the North C entral and N orth­



sons prefer shift work, however, be­
cause they can pursue certain day­
tim e a c tiv itie s , su ch as h u n tin g ,
fishing, or gardening.
E n viro n m en t. W ork settings vary
from clean, air-conditioned offices to
places that are dirty, greasy, or poor­
ly ventilated. By knowing the setting
of jobs you find interesting, you can
avoid an environm ent that you may
find particularly unpleasant.

O utdoor work. P ersons who work
outdoors are exposed to all types of
weather. This may be preferred to
indoor work, however, by those who
consider outdoor work more health­
Hazards. In some jobs employees are
subject to possible burns, cuts, falls,
and other injuries and must be care­
ful to follow safety precautions.

Physical demands. Some jobs require
standing, stooping, or heavy lifting.
You should be sure that you have the
physical strength and stam ina re ­
quired before seeking one o f these
C onsidering w orking co nditio n s
when you make up your mind about
a career can help you choose a job
that brings you satisfaction and en­
joym ent.

W hether you have questions about
a particular job or are trying to com ­
pare various fields, the Occupational
Outlook Handbook is a good place to
begin. The Handbook will introduce
you to some of the im portant aspects
of an occupation and answer many of
your initial questions. But the Hand­
book is only one of many sources of
information about jobs and careers.
After reading a few Handbook state­
ments, you may decide that you want
m ore detailed inform ation about a
particular occupation. Or you may
want to find out where you can find
this kind of work in your community
or where you can go for appropriate
training. If you are willing to make an
effort, you will discover a wealth of
occupational inform ation—much of
it available at little or no cost.

Sources of Career Information
M uch inform ation on careers is
p u t o u t by go v ern m ent, industry,
trade unions, schools, professional
associations, private guidance serv­
ices, and other organizations. You
should be careful in assessing any sin­
gle piece of career guidance m ateri­
al. Keep in mind the date and source,
in particular. M aterial that is too old
may contain obsolete or even mis­
leading inform ation. Be especially
cautious ab o u t accepting inform a­
tion on em ploym ent outlook, earn­
ings, and training requirem ents if it is
more than 5 years old. You also need
to consider the source—and thus the
intent—o f the career guidance m ate­
rial you obtain.
Although some occupational m a­
terials are produced solely for the
purpose of objective vocational guid­
ance, o th ers are p ro d u ced for re ­
cruitm ent purposes. You should be
wary o f biased inform ation, which
may ten d to leave o u t im p o rtan t
items, overglamorize the occupation,

overstate the earnings, or exaggerate
the dem and for workers.
School counselors can be a very im­
portant source of guidance inform a­
tion. Counselors should be able to
refer you to the different types o f
ca ree r m aterials available in your
school or community. They are likely
to be familiar with the job m arket.
They also can discuss entry require­
ments and costs of the schools, col­
leges, or training program s that offer
preparation for the kind of work in
which you are interested. Most im­
p o rtan t o f all, your counselor can
help you consider the occupational
inform ation you obtain in relation to
your own abilities, personal aspira­
tions, and career goals.
Guidance offices usually have col­
lections o f c a ree r inform ation. In
fact, the copy o f the Handbook that
you’re reading now may have come
from the guidance office. Find out
what else the office has to offer.
Some schools have career centers;
often, these are located in or near the
library or media center. C areer cen­
ters provide a sam pling of printed
and audiovisual career inform ation
materials, and also may offer individ­
ual counseling, group discussions,
guest speakers, and field trips.
Libraries have books, brochures,
magazines, and audiovisual m aterials
that contain inform ation about jobs
and careers. Check your school li­
brary or media center, of course—
but d o n ’t forget the public library.
Many libraries have pam phlet files
d ev o ted to specific o c c u p a tio n s.
Some libraries also have collections
of filmstrips, records and tapes, and
microfilms with occupational infor­
mation. The reference shelf undoubt­
edly contains one directory or m ore
that you will find useful if you want
to get the names of specific schools,
colleges, or business concerns. The
library staff can direct you to the in­
formation best suited to your needs.

Trade unions, business firms, trade
associations, professional societies,
and educational institutions all pub­
lish career inform ation, and much of
this is available for the asking.
The Sources of Additional Infor­
m ation section at the end of most
Handbook statem ents lists organiza­
tions you can write to. This is a good
way to begin. For the names and ad­
dresses of other organizations, con­
sult the directories on your library’s
reference shelf. There, you are likely
to find directories that list:
—trade associations.
—professional associations.
—business firms.
—junior and community colleges.
—colleges and universities.
—home study and correspondence programs.
—business, trade, and technical schools.
—sources of scholarships and financial aid.

Your school library or career cen ­
ter may have one directory or more
put out by com m ercial publishers
that list sources of career inform a­
tion by occupation.
A n o th er useful d irecto ry is the
U.S. Office of E ducation’s Directory
o f Postsecondary Schools with Occu­
pational Programs, 1973-74, which
lists schools offering specific occupa­
tional training programs. The direc­
tory lists private business, trade, and
technical schools as well as com m u­
nity and junior colleges and 4-year
colleges and universities.
Computer-assisted occupational in­
form ation systems have been in ­
stalled in some schools and career
centers. These systems allow users to
obtain career inform ation stored in a
co m p u ter by entering specific re ­
quests and receiving im mediate an­
swers. Through the occupational in­
form ation systems, users are able to
examine the ways in which different
personal abilities, interests, and pref­
erences are related to different occu9



pations. The U.S. D epartm ent of La­
bor is currently providing funds for
such systems in eight States.
D on’t overlook the im portance of
personal contacts. An interview with
someone in a particular job can often
tell you much more than a booklet or
brochure can. By asking the right
questions, you find out what kind of
train in g is really im p o rta n t, how
workers got their first jobs as well as
the one they’re in now, and what they
like and dislike about the work.
State employment security agencies
in many States publish career briefs
for dozens of different occupations
and industries. These briefs usually
describe earnings and job outlook in­
formation for a particular State—and
sometimes for a city or m etropolitan
area. By contrast, the Handbook gives
in fo rm a tio n fo r th e N atio n as a
w hole. In ad d itio n , a n u m b er o f
States publish brochures on writing
resumes, finding job openings, p re­
paring for interviews, and other as­
pects of a job search. To find out
what m aterials are available for your
State, consult the U.S. Employment
and Training A dm inistration’s 1976
Guide to Local Occupational Informa­
tion. Or write directly to the chief
information officer in your State em ­
ployment security agency. Following
is a list of their titles and addresses:
Public Information Officer, Department of In­
dustrial Relations, Industrial Relations
Bldg., 649 Monroe St., Montgomery, Ala.

Information Officer, Employment Security Di­
vision, Department of Labor, P.O. Box 37000, Juneau, Alaska 99811.



Public Information Officer, Division of Em­
ployment, Department of Labor and Em­
ployment, 251 East 12th Ave., Denver,
Colo. 80203.

Public Relations Director, Department of Em­
ployment Security, P.O. Box 44094, Ba­
ton Rouge, La. 70804.

Public Information Supervisor, Connecticut
Employment Security Division, 200 Folly
Brook Blvd., Weatherfield, Conn. 06109.

Secretary, Department of Labor, 801 West
14th St., Wilmington, Del. 19899.


Director o f Public Relations, Department of
Employment and Social Services, Room
601, 1100 North Eutaw St., Baltimore,
Md. 21201.

District of Columbia
Chief, Community Relations and Information
Office, D.C. Department of Manpower,
Room 601, 500 C St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20212.

Information Director, Florida Department of
Commerce, Collins Bldg., Tallahassee,
Fla. 32304.

Chief of Public Relations and Information,
Georgia Department of Labor, 254 Wash­
ington St. SW., Atlanta, Ga. 30334.

Information Specialist, Department of Labor
and Industrial Relations, 825 Mililani St.,
Honolulu, Hawaii 96813.


Supervisor o f Information, Division of Em­
ployment Security, Hurley Bldg., Govern­
ment Center, Boston, Mass. 02114.

Director, Information Services Division, Em­
ployment Security Commission, Depart­
ment of Labor Bldg., 7310 Woodward
Ave., Detroit, Mich. 48202.

Director of Public Information, Department of
Employment Services, 390 North Robert
St., St. Paul, Minn. 55101.

Public Relations Representative, Employment
Security Commission, P.O. Box 1699,
Jackson, Miss. 39205.

Public Information Coordinator, Department
of Employment, P.O. Box 35, Boise, Ida­
ho 83707.



Information Supervisor, Division of Employ­
ment Security, Department of Labor and
Industrial Relations, P.O. Box 59, Jeffer­
son City, Mo. 65101.

Director, Communications and Public Infor­
mation, Illinois Department of Labor,
State Office Bldg., Room 705, Springfield, 111. 62706.

Director of Information and Education, Em­
ployment Security Division, 10 North
Senate Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46204.

Chief of Information and Education, Arizona
State Employment Security Commission,
P.O. Box 6123, Phoenix, Ariz. 85005.

Chairman, Employment Security Commission,
20 Union St., Augusta, Maine 04330.

Chief of Information Services, Employment
Security Commission, 1000 East Grand
Ave., Des Moines, Iowa 50319.


Information Officer, Employment Security Di­
vision, P.O. Box 1728, Helena, Mont.

Information Officer, Division of Employment,
Department of Labor, P.O. Box 94600,
State House Station, Lincoln, Nebr.


Public Information Officer, Employment Se­
curity Division, P.O. Box 2981, Little
Rock, Ark. 72203.

Public Relations Director, Department of Hu­
man Resources, 401 Topeka Ave., Tope­
ka, Kans. 66603.

Public Information Officer, Employment Se­
curity Department, 500 East Third St.,
Carson City, Nev. 89701.



New Hampshire

Supervisor, Public Information, Department
of Human Resources, 592 East Main St.,
Frankfort, Ky. 40601.

Commissioner, Department of Employment
Security, 32 South Maine St., Concord,
N.H. 03301.

Public Information Section, Employment De­
velopment Department, 800 Capitol Mall,
Sacramento, Calif. 95814.



New Jersey


Director of Public Information, Division of
Employment Security, Department of La­
bor and Industry, John Fitch Plaza, Tren­
ton, N.J. 08625.

Chief o f Public Relations, Department of Em­
ployment Security, 519 Cordell Hull
Bldg., Nashville, Tenn. 37219.

New Mexico
Information Officer, Employment Security
Commission, P.O. Box 1928, Albuquer­
que, N. Mex. 87103.

New York
Director, Division of Research and Statistics,
Department of Labor, 2 World Trade
Center, New York, N.Y. 10047.

North Carolina
Communications and Information Specialist,
Employment Security Commission, P.O.
Box 25903, Raleigh, N.C. 27602.

North Dakota
Public Information Section, Employment Se­
curity Bureau, 145 South Front St., Bis­
marck, N. Dak. 58501.


Public Information Officer, Texas Employ­
ment Commission, TEC Bldg., 15th and
Congress Ave., Austin, Tex. 78778.

Public Relations Director, Department of Em­
ployment Security, P.O. Box 11249, Salt
Lake City, Utah 84111.

Public Information Officer, Department of
Employment Security, P.O. Box 488,
Montpelier, Vt. 05602.

Director, Information Services, Virginia Em­
ployment Commission, P.O. Box 1358,
Richmond, Va. 23211.


Public Information Officer, Bureau of Em­
ployment Services, 145 South Front St.,
Columbus, Ohio 43216.

Information Officer, Employment Security
Department, P.O. Box 367, Olympia,
Wash. 98504.


West Virginia

Information Director, Employment Security
Commission, Will Rogers Memorial Of­
fice Bldg., Oklahoma City, Okla. 73105.

Information Representative, Department of
Employment Security, 4407 McCorkle
Ave. SE., Charleston, W. Va. 25305.



Information Officer, Employment Division,
875 Union St. NE., Salem, Oreg. 97310.

Director of Information, Department of Indus­
try, Labor, and Human Relations, P.O.
Box 2209, Madison, Wis. 53701.

Director of Public Relations, Bureau of Em­
ployment Security, Department of Labor
and Industry Bldg., 7th and Forster Sts.,
Harrisburg, Pa. 17121.

Puerto Rico
Information Officer, Bureau o f Employment
Security, 414 Barbosa Ave., Hato Rey,
P.R. 00917.

Rhode Island
Information Officer, Department of Employ­
ment Security, 24 Mason St., Providence,
R.I. 02903.

South Carolina
Public Information Director, Employment Se­
curity Commission, P.O. Box 995, Colum­
bia, S.C. 29202.

South Dakota
Public Information Director, Department of
Labor, Office Bldg. No. 2, Pierre, S. Dak.

Information Officer, Employment Security
Commission, P.O. Box 2760, Casper,
Wyo. 82601.

Career Information for Special
C ertain groups of jobseekers face
special difficulties in obtaining suit­
able and satisfying em ploym ent. All
too o ften , veterans, youth, h an d i­
capped persons, m em bers of ethnic
and racial m inorities, older workers,
and women experience difficulty in
the labor m arket. Choosing a career
wisely and realistically is im portant
for everyone, but it is doubly im por­
tan t for m em bers o f these groups.
S pecial co u n se lin g , train in g , and
p la c e m e n t are av ailab le in m any
c o m m u n itie s—th ro u g h the public
em ploym ent service, com m unity ser­

vice agencies, or other organizations.
In addition, literatu re on career
guidance and vocational training for
special labor force groups is available
from the Federal Governm ent. Most
of these publications can be obtained
free of charge. Following are select­
ed examples:
Employment and Training fo r Youth.
(p ro g ra m fa c t s h e e t) , F e b ru a ry
Office o f Information, Inquiries Section,
Room 10225, Employment and Training
Administration, U.S. Department of La­
bor, 601 D St. NW., Washington, D.C.

A Message to Young Workers About
the Fair Labor Standards A ct, As
Amended in 1974. (W H Publication
1236), 1976.
Office of Information, Room 4331, Employ­
ment Standards Administration, U.S. De­
partment of Labor, 200 Constitution Ave.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20210.

Mentally handicapped
These, Too, M ust Be Equal.America's
Needs in Habilitation and E m ploy­
ment o f the Mentally Retarded, 1974.
President’s Committee on Mental Retarda­
tion, Regional Office Building, 7th and D
Sts. SW., Washington, D.C. 20201.

Guide to Job Placement o f Mentally
Retarded Workers.
Preparing fo r Work, 1975.
How to Get a Job.
Jobs and M entally Retarded People,
President’s Committee on Employment of the
H andicapped, Room 600, Vanguard
Building, 1111 20th St. NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20036.

Affirm ative Action to Employ Handi­
capped People.
Office of Information, Room 4331, Employ­
ment Standards Administration, U.S. De­
partment of Labor, 200 Constitution Ave.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20210.

Physically handicapped
Careers fo r the Homebound.
People at Work:50 Profiles o f Men
and Women With M S, 1975.
President’s Committee on Employment of the
Handicapped, Room 600, Vanguard
Building, 1111 20th St. NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20036.



Affirmative Action to Employ Handi­
capped People.
Office of Information, Room 4331, Employ­
ment Standards Administration, U.S. De­
partment of Labor, 200 Constitution Ave.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20210.

Older workers
The Law Against Age Discrimination
in E m ploym ent. (W H P ublication
Office of Information, Room 4331, Employ­
ment Standards Administration, U.S. De­
partment of Labor, 200 Constitution Ave.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20210.

Services fo r Older Workers, (program
fact sheet), April 1977.
Memo to Mature Jobseekers, 1977.
Office o f Information, Inquiries Section,
Room 10225, Employment and Training
Administration, U.S. Department of La­
bor, 601 D St. NW., Washington, D.C.

Employment and Volunteer Opportu­
nities fo r Older People. (AoA Fact
Sheet), Revised 1976.
National Clearinghouse on Aging, Room
4146, U.S. Department of Health, Educa­
tion, and Welfare, 330 Independence
Ave. SW., Washington, D.C. 20201.

Steps to Opening the Skilled Trades to
Women, June 1974.
Why Not be an Apprentice and Be­
come a Skilled Craft Worker, (leaflet
52), 1974.
Publications o f the Women's Bureau,
January 1977.
Selected Sources o f Career Inform a­
tion, 1974.
Women’s Bureau, Employment Standards Ad­
ministration, U.S. Department of Labor,
200 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20210.

Out o f the Service and Looking fo r a
Job? Here's Help!, 1976.
Veterans fo r Hire: Good Business,
Office o f Information, Inquiries Section,
Room 10225, Employment and Training
Administration, U.S. Department o f La­
bor, 601 D St. NW., Washington, D.C.

V etera n s R e a d ju s tm e n t A p p o in t­
m e n t s — Q u e s t i o n s a n d A n5 w rj.(B R E -3 6 ), revised 1977.
Bureau o f Recruiting and Examining, Room
6552, Civil Service Commission, 1900 E
St. NW.,
 Washington, D.C. 20415.

T h e follow ing p u b lic a tio n s are
available from VA regional offices
(listed in the telephone directory un­
der “ U nited States G o vernm ent—
Veterans A dm inistration” ) or from:
Department of Veterans Benefits - 232A, Vet­
erans Administration Central Office, 810
Vermont Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.

A p p re n tic e sh ip or O th e r O n-Job
Training Benefits fo r Veterans With
Service Since January 31, 1975. (VA
pam phlet 20-69-4), M arch 1975.
A Sum m ary o f Employment Benefits
and Opportunities fo r Vietnam Era
Veterans. (V A pam phlet 20-69-6),
D ecem ber 1974.

Information on Finding a Job
Do you need help in finding a job?
For inform ation on job openings, fol­
low up as many leads as possible.
P are n ts, neighbors, te a c h e rs, and
counselors may know o f jobs. Check
the w ant ads. Investigate the local
office of your State em ploym ent ser­
vice. And find out w hether private or
nonprofit em ploym ent agencies in
your com m unity can help you. The
following section will give you some
idea of where you can go to look for
a job and what sort of help to expect.
Informal job search methods. Infor­
mal m ethods of job search are the
most popular, and also the most ef­
fective. Informal m ethods include di­
rect application to employers with or
w ithout referral by friends or rela­
tives. Jobseekers locate a firm that
might employ them and file an appli­
cation, often w ithout certain knowl­
edge that an opening exists.
You can find targets for your infor­
mal search in several ways. The Y el­
low P ages and local cham bers o f
com m erce will give you the nam es
and addresses of appropriate firms in
the com m unity w here you wish to
work. Y ou can also get listings o f
m ost firms in a specific industry—
banking, insurance, m anufacturing,
and new spaper publishing, for exam ­
ple—by consulting one of the direc­
tories on the reference shelf of your
public library. Friends and relatives
may suggest places to apply for a job,
and people you m eet in the course o f
your job search are also likely to give
you ideas.

Want ads. The “ Help W anted” ads in
a m ajor new spaper contain hundreds
o f job listings. As a job search tool,
they have two advantages: They are
cheap and easy to acquire, and they
often result in successful placem ent.
T h e re are d isad v an ta g es as w ell.
W ant ads give a distorted view o f the
local labor m arket, for they tend to
u n d e rre p re se n t sm all firm s. T hey
also tend to o v errep resen t certain
o cc u p atio n s, such as clerical and
sales jobs. How helpful they are to
you will depend largely on the kind
of job you seek.
Bear in mind that want ads do not
provide com plete inform ation; many
ads give little or no description of the
jo b , w orking conditions, and pay.
Some ads om it the identity o f the
em ployer. In addition, firms often
run multiple listings. Some ads offer
jobs in o th er cities (w hich do not
help the local w orker); others adver­
tise em ploym ent agencies rather than
If you use the want ads, keep the
following suggestions in mind:
* D o n ’t rely exclusively on the
want ads; follow up other leads, too.
* Answer ads prom ptly. The open­
ing may be filled before the ad stops
* Follow the ads diligently. C heck­
ing them every day as early as possi­
ble gives you the best advantage over
other applicants, which may m ean
the difference betw een a job and a
* D o n ’t ex p ect to o m uch from
“ blind ad s” th at do not reveal the
em ployer’s identity. Em ployers use
blind ads to avoid being swam ped
with applicants, or to fill a particular
vacancy quietly and confidentially.
The chances of finding a job through
blind ads tend to be slim.
* Be cautious about answering “ no
experience necessary” ads. Most em ­
ployers are able to fill job openings
that do not require experience w ith­
o u t advertising in the new spaper.
This type of ad may m ean th at the
jo b is h ard to fill because o f low
wages or poor working conditions, or
becau se it is straig h t com m ission
Public employment service. The p u b ­
lic em ploym ent service, also called



the Job Service, can be a good source
of information about job openings in
your community. Em ployment secu­
rity (ES) agencies in each of the 50
States and the D istrict of Columbia
are affiliated with the U.S. Employ­
m ent Service, and provide their ser­
vices w ith o u t c h a rg e . O p e ra tin g
through a network o f 2,500 local of­
fices, State agencies help jobseekers
find em ploym ent and help employers
find qualified workers. To find the
office nearest you, look in the State
government telephone listings under
“ Job Service” or “ Em ploym ent.” If
the local office does not provide the
information or services you are look­
ing for, write to the inform ation offi­
cer in your State capital. Addresses
are given in the first section of this
General services. Assuming you come
to your local em ploym ent service of­
fice because you’re looking for a job,
the first step is to fill out an applica­
tion that asks for general background
and work history. To speed up the
process, you should bring along com ­
plete inform ation on previous jobs,
in c lu d in g d a te s o f e m p lo y m e n t,
names and addresses of employers,
and pay levels.
After completing the application,
you will talk briefly with an inter­
viewer in order to be classified into a
particular jo b clu ster—professional
and m anagem ent, sales, clerical, and
so forth. This process, although cru­
cial, takes very little time. If you have
specific training and experience and
know exactly what you want, the ini­
tial interview may suffice. Most ap­
plicants, however, can benefit from
additional guidance services, which
are available on request. The un­
skilled and inexperienced may take a
gen eral ap titu d e test b attery th at
measures their abilities, and a voca­
tional interest questionaire that m ea­
sures th eir o ccu p atio n al interests.
Specific tests in typing and shorthand
may also be given.
You may also talk at length with
o c c u p a tio n a l c o u n s e lo r s . T h ese
counselors, or interviewers, can as­
sist in a wide range of areas. They
can help you pinpoint a suitable field
of interest, suggest training programs
and other means of preparing for a

particular occupation, or simply ad ­
vise you on compiling a resume.
One other aspect of your local of­
fice’s services deserves particular a t­
ten tio n —the occupational registers.
E m ploym ent service offices often
maintain files of resumes of qualified
workers in professional, clerical, and
craft occupations, for use by em ploy­
ers seeking such w orkers. Ask to
have your resume filed in the appro­
priate register.
Job Information Service. The Job In­
formation Service (JIS) plays an im­
portant role in m atching workers and
jobs. JIS provides a self-service list­
ing of job openings, as well as a li­
brary of occupational and job search
literature. Em ployment service offic­
es in m ost large cities have a Job
Bank as well— com puterized file o f
job openings, revised and printed out
daily. Because it is self-service, the
JIS unit is m eant for applicants who
know w hat kind of work they are
qualified to do. Those applicants can
look over Job Bank listings and select
the openings they want to apply for.
This gives them quick access to job
inform ation and frees em ploym ent
service staff to spend m ore time with
clients who need personal assistance.
The JIS may include the Job Bank
Openings Summary (JBOS) and the
Job Bank Frequently Listed O pen­
ings R eport (JOB-FLO). JBOS is a
monthly report that provides infor­
m ation on job opportunities listed
during th e previous m onth in Job
Banks across the Nation. JOB-FLO
provides similar inform ation, but fo­
cuses on the “ high volum e” occupa­
tions—those with the greatest num ­
ber of openings. JBOS and JOB-FLO
may not help you find a particular
opening, but they can describe em ­
ployment trends in a particular city
or pinpoint the cities that have the
greatest num bers of openings in a
particular occupation.
The JIS also includes a m onthly
publication, entitled “ O ccupations in
D em and,” that reports the num ber
and locations o f openings in highdem and occupations during the p re­
vious m onth. It is designed to be eas­
ily read by the average jobseeker and
can be found in libraries and counsel­
ing offices as well as at the em ploy­
m ent service.

Special services. Serving people with
job m arket disadvantages is an im­
portant function of the em ploym ent
service, and many local offices have
specially trained counselors who ad­
vise veterans, youth, handicapped, or
older workers.
By law, veterans are entitled to pri­
ority in interview ing, counselin g ,
testing, job developm ent, and jo b
placement. Special counselors called
veterans reem ploym ent represen ta­
tives are trained to deal with the p ar­
ticular problem s of veterans, many of
whom find it difficult to readjust to
civilian life. While such veterans of­
ten face multiple problem s, jobless­
ness alone is a m ajor barrier to re­
suming an ordinary life. Special help
for disabled veterans begins with o u t­
reach units in each State, whose job
it is to identify jobless disabled veter­
ans and m ake them aw are o f the
many kinds of assistance available to
As part of the effort to reduce ex­
cessive youth unem ploym ent, local
em ploym ent service offices test and
co u n sel young p e o p le , and re fer
them to training program s or jobs
whenever possible. These offices also
m anage sum m er youth program s.
Youthful jobseekers from very poor
families receive inform ation on the
various kinds of federally funded job
programs for young people, includ­
ing part-tim e and w ork-experience
projects and the Job Corps.
For people with m ental or physical
disabilities, the em ploym ent service
provides assistance in making realis­
tic job choices, and in overcoming
problem s related to getting and hold­
ing jobs. Job openings for h an d i­
capped workers are listed as well. Of­
t e n , t h e s e o p e n i n g s a r e w ith
governm ent co n tracto rs and o th er
firms that are making a positive ef­
fort to employ handicapped workers.
Older worker specialists in many
local em ploym ent service offices as­
sist middle-aged and older workers,
whose jo b search generally differs
from that of younger workers. Both
counseling and placem ent services
are tailored to the unique needs of
older w orkers. Jobseekers over 55
who have very low incomes may be
referred to one of the thousands of
part-tim e, com m unity service jobs



for the elderly funded by the Federal
Governm ent.
Private employment agencies. In the
appropriate section of the classified
ads or the telephone book you can
find num erous ad v ertisem ents for
private em ploym ent agencies. All are
in business to make money, but some
offer higher quality service and b et­
ter chances of successful placem ent
than others.
The th ree main places in which
private agencies advertise are news­
paper want ads, the Yellow Pages,
and trade journals. T elephone list­
ings give little m ore than the nam e,
address, phone num ber, and special­
ty of the agency, while trade journals
only list openings for a particular o c­
cupation, such as accountant or com ­
puter program mm er. W ant ads, then,
are the best source o f general listings
of agencies.
These listings fall into two catego­
ries—those offering specific open­
ings and those offering general prom ­
ise o f e m p lo y m e n t. Y ou sh o u ld
concentrate on the form er, using the
latter only as a last resort. With a
specific opening m entioned in the ad,
you have g reater assurance o f the
agency’s desire to place qualified in­
dividuals in suitable jobs.
W hen responding to such an ad,
you may learn m ore about the job
over the phone. If you are interested,
visit the agency, fill out an applica­
tion, present a resume, and talk with
an interviewer. The agency will then
arrange an interview with the em ­
ployer if you are qualified, and p er­
haps suggest alternative openings if
you are not.
Most agencies operate on a com ­
mission basis, with the fee contingent
upon a successful m atch. Agencies
advertising “ no fees, no contracts”
are paid by the em ployer and charge
the applicant nothing. Many other
agencies, however, do charge their
applicants. You should find out be­
fore using them exactly what the ser­
vices will cost you.
Com m unity agencies. A grow ing
num ber o f n onprofit organizations
throughout the Nation provide coun­
seling, career developm ent, and job
placem ent
services. These agencies

generally concentrate on services for
a p a rtic u la r la b o r fo rc e g ro u p —
women, the elderly, youth, m inori­
ties, or ex-offenders, for example.
Com munity em ploym ent agencies
serve an im portant function in p ro ­
viding the extensive counseling that
many disadvantaged jobseekers re ­
quire. They often help their clients
resolve p erso n al, fam ily, or o th er
fu n d a m e n ta l p ro b le m s th a t m ay
stand in the way o f finding a suitable
job. Some agencies provide neces­
sary job training, while others refer
th eir clients to train in g program s
elsewhere. For the m ost part, these
com m unity agencies take a strong
active interest in their clients, and
provide an array of services designed
to help people find and keep jobs.
It’s up to you to discover w hether
there are such agencies in your com ­
m unity—and whether they can help
you. The State em ploym ent service
should be able to tell you w hether
such an agency has been established
in your community. If the local office
cannot help, write the State inform a­
tion o ffic e r. Y o u r c h u rc h , sy n a­
gogue, or local library may have the
inform ation, too. The U.S. D epart­
m ent o f L abor is another possible
source of inform ation, for many o f
these agencies receive some or all of
their funding from the Federal Gov­
ernm ent, through the C om prehen­
sive Em ploym ent and Training A ct
(CETA ). Among its many and varied
provisions, CETA authorizes Federal
m oney for local organizations th at
offer job counseling, training, and
placem ent help to unem ployed and
disadvantaged persons. For further
inform ation, write:
Office of Comprehensive Employment Devel­
opment, Employment and Training Ad­
ministration, U.S. Department of Labor,
Room 6000, 601 D St. NW., Washington,
D.C., 20213; or the Office of Information,
Room 10406, at the same address.

A nother likely source of inform a­
tion is the U.S. D epartm ent of L a­
b o r’s Directory fo r Reaching Minority
Groups. Although the 1973 directory
is out of print, a revised edition is
being prepared, and will list organi­
zations th at provide job inform ation,
training, and other services to m inor­
ities. For inform ation, write to:

Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training, U.S.
Department o f Labor, 601 D St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20213.

A directory that lists em ploym ent
counseling and advocacy organiza­
tions for women is available for a
nominal charge from:
Wider Opportunities for Women (WOW),
1649 K St. NW., Washington, D.C.,

College career planning and place­
ment offices. For those who have ac­
cess to them , ca ree r planning and
p lacem en t offices a t colleges and
universities offer the jobseeker many
valuable services. Like the com m uni­
ty agencies that serve disadvantaged
jo b se e k e rs by offering suppo rtiv e
services, college placem ent offices
function as more than just em ploy­
m ent agencies. In addition to coun­
seling, they teach students to acquire
jo b seek in g skills. They em phasize
writing resumes and letters of appli­
cation, making a list of possible em ­
ployers, preparing for interviews, and
other aspects of job searching. C ol­
lege placem ent offices offer o th er
services, too. A t larg er cam puses
they bring students and em ployers
together by providing schedules and
facilities for interviews with industry
recruiters. Many offices also m ain­
tain lists of local part-tim e and tem ­
porary jobs, and some have files of
summer openings.

Labor Market Information
A ll S ta te em p lo y m en t se c u rity
agencies develop detailed labor m ar­
ket data needed by em ploym ent and
train in g specialists and ed u c ato rs
who plan for local needs. Such infor­
m ation helps policym akers decide
w hether or not to expand a vocation­
al training program , for exam ple—or
drop it altogether. Jobseekers and
counselors also may find these stud­
ies helpful. Typically, State agencies
publish reports that deal with future
occupational supply, characteristics
of the work force, changes in State
and area econom ic activities, and the
em ploym ent structure of im portant
industries. For all S tates, and for
nearly all Standard M etropolitan Sta­
tistical Areas (SM SA ’s) of 50,000 in­
habitants or m ore, d ata are available
th a t show cu rre n t em ploym ent as


well as estimated future needs. This
information is very detailed; general­
ly, each State issues a report covering
current and future employm ent for
as many as 200 industries and 400
occupations. In addition, major sta­
tistical indicators of labor m arket ac­
tivity are released by all of the States
on a monthly, quarterly, and annual
basis. For information on the various
labor m arket studies, reports, and
analyses available in a specific State,
co n tact the chief o f research and
analysis in the State employm ent se­
curity agency. Titles and addresses
are as follows:


District of Columbia


Chief, Division of Manpower Reports and
Analysis, Office of Administration and
Management Services, D.C. Department
6f Manpower, 605 G St. NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20001.

Acting Director, Research and Analysis, De­
partment o f Human Resources, 1 100
North Eutaw St., Baltimore, Md. 21201.

Director, Research and Statistics, Division of
Employment Security, Florida Depart­
ment of Commerce, 1720 South Gadsden
St., Tallahassee, Fla. 32304.

Director, Information Systems, Employment
Security Agency, Department of Labor,
254 Washington St. SW., Atlanta, Ga.

Assistant Director, Research and Information
Service, Division of Employment Securi­
ty, Hurley Bldg., Government Center,
Boston, Mass. 02114.

Director, Research and Statistics Division,
Employment Security Commission, De­
partment of Labor Bldg., 7310 Wood­
ward Ave., Detroit, Mich. 48202.



Chief, Research and Statistics, Department of
Industrial Relations, Industrial Relations
Bldg., 649 Monroe St., Montgomery, Ala.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Department of
Labor and Industrial Relations, 825 Mililani St., Honolulu, Hawaii 96813.

Chief, Research and Analysis, Employment
Security Division, Department of Labor,
P.O. Box 3-7000, Juneau, Alaska 99811.

Manager, Labor Market Information, Re­
search and Analysis, Department of Eco­
nomic Security, P.O. Box 6123, Phoenix,
Ariz. 85005.

Chief, Research and Analysis, Department of
Employment, P.O. Box 35, Boise, Idaho

Manager, Research and Analysis Division, Bu­
reau of Employment Security, Depart­
ment of Labor, 910 South Michigan Ave.,
Chicago, 1 1 60605.

Director, Research and Planning, Department
of Employment Services, 390 North Rob­
ert St., St. Paul, Minn. 55101.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Employment
Security Commission, P.O. Box 1699,
Jackson, Miss. 39205.

Chief, Research and Analysis, Division of Em­
ployment Security, Department of Labor
and Industrial Relations, P.O. Box 59, Jef­
ferson City, Mo. 65101.



Chief of Research, Employment Security Divi­
sion, 10 North Senate Ave., Indianapolis,
Ind. 46204.

Chief, Research and Analysis, Employment
Security Division, P.O. Box 1728, Helena,
Mont. 59601.




Chief, Research and Statistics, Employment
Security Commission, 1000 East Grand
Ave., Des Monies, Iowa 50319.

Chief, Employment Data and Research Divi­
sion, Employment Development Depart­
ment, 800 Capitol Mall, Sacramento,
Calif. 95814.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Division of Em­
ployment, Department of Labor, P.O.
Box 94600, State House Station, Lincoln,
Nebr. 68509.


Chief, Research and Statistics, Employment
Security Division, P.O. Box 2981, Little
Rock, Ark. 72203.

Chief, Research and Analysis, Division of Em­
ployment, Department of Labor and Em­
ployment, 251 East 12th Ave., Denver,
Colo. 80203.

Director, Research and Information, Con­
necticut Employment Security Division,
200 Folly Brook Blvd., Weatherfield,
Conn. 06109.

Chief, Office of Research, Planning, and
Evaluation, Department of Labor, 801
Digitized forWest 14th St., Wilmington, Del. 19899.


Chief, Research and Analysis Department,
Employment Security Division, Depart­
ment of Labor, 401 Topeka Ave., Tope­
ka, Kans. 66603.

Chief, Manpower Information and Research,
Employment Security Department, 500
East Third St., Carson City, Nev. 89701.


New Hampshire

Director, Research and Special Projects, De­
partment of Human Resources, State Of­
fice Building Annex, Frankfort, Ky.

Supervisor, Economic Analysis and Reports,
Department of Employment Security, 32
South Main St., Concord, N.H. 03301.


New Jersey

Acting Chief, Research and Statistics, Depart­
ment of Employment Security, P.O. Box
44094, Baton Rouge, La. 70804.

Director, Division of Planning and Research,
Department of Labor and Industry, John
Fitch Plaza, Trenton, N.J. 08625.


New Mexico

Director, Manpower Research Division, Em­
ployment Security Commission, 20 Union
St., Augusta, Maine 04330.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Employment
Security Commission, P.O. Box 1928, Al­
buquerque, N. Mex. 87103.



New York



Director, Division of Research and Statistics,
Department of Labor, 2 World Trade
Center, New York, N.Y. 10047.

Assistant Director, Research and Statistics,
Bureau of Employment Security, Depart­
ment of Labor and Industry, 7th and For­
ster Sts., Harrisburg, Pa. 17121.

Director, Reports and Analysis, Department
o f Employment Security, P.O. Box 11249,
Salt Lake City, Utah 84111.

North Carolina

Puerto Rico

Manager, Bureau of Employment Security Re­
search, Employment Security Commis­
sion, P.O. Box 25903, Raleigh, N.C.

Chief of Research and Statistics, Bureau of
Employment Security, 427 Barbosa Ave.,
Hato Rey, P.R. 00917.

North Dakota
Chief, Reports and Analysis, Employment Se­
curity Bureau, P.O. Box 1537, Bismarck,
N. Dak. 58501.

Director, Division of Research and Statistics,
Bureau o f Employment Services, 145
South Front St., Columbus, Ohio 43216.

Chief, Research and Planning Division, Em­
ployment Security Commission, Will Rog­
ers Memorial Office Bldg., Oklahoma
City, Okla. 73105.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Employment
Division, 875 Union St. NE., Salem, Oreg.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Department of
Employment Security, P.O. Box 488,
Montpelier, Vt. 05602.

Rhode Island


Supervisor, Employment Security Research,
Department o f Employment Security, 24
Mason St., Providence, R.I. 02903.

Chief, Manpower Research, Virginia Employ­
ment Commission, P.O. Box 1358, Rich­
mond, Va. 23211.

South Carolina


Director, Manpower Research and Analysis,
Employment Security Commission, 1550
Gadsden St., Columbia, S.C. 29202.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Employment
Security Department, P.O. Box 367,
Olympia, Wash. 98504.

South Dakota

West Virginia

Chief, Research and Statistics, Employment
Security Department, 607 North Fourth
St., Box 730, Aberdeen, S. Dak. 57401.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Department of
Employment Security, 112 California
Ave., Charleston, W. Va. 25305.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Department of
Employment Security, 519 Cordell Hull
Bldg., Nashville, Tenn. 37219.

Chief, Manpower Data Analysis and Research,
Texas Employment Commission, TEC
Bldg., 15th and Congress Ave., Austin,
Tex. 78778.

Director Research and Statistics, Department
o f Industry, Labor and Human Relations,
P.O. Box 2209, Madison, Wis. 53701.

Chief, Research and Analysis, Employment
Security Commission, P.O. Box 2760,
Casper, Wyo. 82601.

Although the discussions of future
job prospects contained in the Hand­
book are written in qualitative term s,
the analyses upon w hich they are
based begin with quantitative esti­
mates of projected em ploym ent, re­
placem ent openings, and—in a few
These projections were developed
using the m ost recent data available
on population, industry and occupa­
tio n al em p lo y m en t, p ro d u c tiv ity ,
consum er expenditures, and other
factors expected to affect em ploy­
ment. The B ureau’s research offices
provided m uch o f these d ata, but
many other agencies o f the Federal
G o v ern m en t w ere im p o rtan t co n ­
trib u to rs, including the B ureau of
Apprenticeship and Training and the
U.S. Em ploym ent Service, both in
the Em ploym ent and Training A d­
m inistration o f the D epartm ent o f
Labor; the Bureau o f the Census of
the D epartm ent of C om m erce; the
Office o f Education and the R eha­
bilitation Services Adm inistration of
the D ep artm en t o f H ealth, E duca­
tion, and W elfare; the V eterans A d­
ministration; the Civil Service Com ­
m ission; th e In tersta te C om m erce
Commission; the Civil Aeronautics
Board; the Federal Com m unications
C o m m issio n ; th e D e p a rtm e n t o f
Transportation; and the National Sci­
ence Foundation.
In addition, experts in industry,
unions, professional societies, and
trade associations furnished data and
supplied inform ation through inter­
views. Many of these individuals also
reviewed prelim inary drafts o f the
statements. The inform ation present­
ed in each statem ent thus reflects the
knowledge and judgm ent not only of
the Bureau of Labor Statistics staff,
but also o f leaders in the fields dis­
cu sse d , alth o u g h th e B u rea u , o f
course, takes full responsibility.
After the inform ation from these

sources was com piled, it was a n a­
lyzed in conjunction with the B u­
r e a u ’s m od el o f th e econom y in
1985. Like other m odels used in eco­
nom ic forecasting, it encom passes
the major facets of the economy and
represents a com prehensive view of
its projected structure. The B ureau’s
model is com prised of internally con­
sistent projections of gross national
p r o d u c t (G N P ) an d its c o m p o ­
nents—consum er expenditures, busi­
ness investm ent, governm ent expen­
ditures, and net exports; industrial
output and productivity; labor force;
average weekly hours of work; and
em ploym ent for detailed industry
groups and occupations. The m eth­
ods used to develop the em ploym ent
p ro jec tio n s in this ed itio n o f th e
Handbook are the same as those used
in other Bureau of Labor Statistics
studies o f the economy. Detailed d e­
scriptions of these m ethods appear in
The U.S. Economy in 1985, BLS Bul­
letin 1809, and the B L S Handbook o f
Methods fo r Surveys and Studies, Bul­
letin 1910.
Assumptions. The B ureau’s projec­
tions to 1985 are based on the fol­
lowing general assumptions:
—The institutional framework o f the U.S.
economy will not change radically.
—Current social, technological, and scientific
trends will continue, including values
placed on work, education, income, and
—The economy will gradually recover from
the high unemployment levels of the mid1970’s and reach full employment (de­
fined as an unemployment rate of 4 per­
cent) in the mid-1980’s.
—No major event such as widespread or longlasting energy shortages or war will signif­
icantly alter the industrial structure of the
economy or alter the rate of economic
—Trends in the occupational structure of in­
dustries will not be altered radically by
changes in relative wages, technological
changes, or other factors.

Methods. Beginning with popula­
tion projections by age and sex devel­
oped by the Bureau of the Census, a
projection of the total labor force is
derived using expected labor force
participation rates for each of these
groups. In developing the participa­
tion rates, the Bureau takes into ac­
count a variety of factors that affect a
person’s decision to enter the labor
force, such as school attendance, re­
tirem en t p ractices, and family re ­
The labor force projection then is
translated into the level of GNP that
would be produced by a fully em ­
ployed labor force. Unemployed per­
sons are subtracted from the labor
force estim ate and the result is m ulti­
plied by a projection of output per
worker. The estimates of future o u t­
p u t p er w o rk er are based on an
analysis o f tren d s in productiv ity
(output per work hour) among in­
dustries and changes in the average
weekly hours of work.
Next, the projection of GNP is di­
vided among its m ajor com ponents:
Consum er expenditures, business in­
v e s tm e n t, g o v e rn m e n t e x p e n d i­
tu re s—F ederal, S tate, and lo cal—
and net exports. Each of these com ­
ponents is broken down by produc­
ing industry. Thus, consum er expen­
d itu res, for exam ple, are divided
am ong industries producing goods
and services such as housing, food,
autom obiles, m edical care, and edu­
Once estimates are developed for
these products and services, they are
translated into detailed projections
of industry output, not only for the
industries producing the final prod­
uct, but also for the interm ediate and
basic industries that provide the raw
m aterials, electric power, transporta­
tion, com ponent parts, and other in­
puts required in the production p ro­
cess. To facilitate this translation, the


D epartm ent of Com m erce has devel­
oped input-output tables that indi­
cate the am ount of output from each
industry—steel, glass, plastics, etc.—
that is required to produce a final
product, automobiles for example.
By using estimates of future output
per w ork-hour based on studies of
p r o d u c tiv ity an d te c h n o lo g ic a l
trends for each industry, industry
employm ent projections are derived
from the output estimates.
These projections are then com ­
pared with em ploym ent projections
derived using reg ression analysis.
This analysis develops equations that
relate em ploym ent by industry to
com binations of econom ic variables,
such as population and incom e, that
are considered determ inants of longrun changes in employm ent. By com ­
paring projections resulting from in­
p u t-o u tp u t analysis and regression
analysis, areas may be identified
where one m ethod produces a pro­
jection inconsistent with past trends
or with the B ureau’s econom ic m od­
el. The projections are then adjusted
Occupational employment projec­
tions. Projections of industry em ploy­
m en t are tra n sla te d into o c c u p a ­
tional em ploym ent projections using
an industry-occupation matrix. This
matrix, which is divided into 200 in­
dustry sectors and 400 occupation
sectors, describes the cu rren t and
projected occupational structure of
each industry. By applying the pro­
je c te d o c c u p a tio n a l stru c tu re for
each industry to the industry employ­
m ent projection and aggregating the
resulting estim ates, em ploym ent pro­
jections for each o f the 400 occupa­
tions contained in the matrix are ob­
ta in e d . T h e g ro w th r a te o f an
occupation, thus, is determ ined by 1)
changes in the proportion of workers
in the occupation to the total work


force in each industry, and 2) the men and women by age group and
growth rate of industries in which an used to com pute an overall separa­
occupation is concentrated. An o c­ tion rate for the occupation. These
cupation that is projected to increase rates are used to estim ate average
as a proportion of the work force in annual replacem ent needs for each
each industry, for example, or one occupation over the projection peri­
that is concentrated in industries p ro ­ od.
jected to grow more rapidly than the
The Bureau is currently analyzing
average for all industries, would be data from the 1970 Census to d eter­
projected to grow faster than the av­ m ine th e e ffe c t o f o c c u p a tio n a l
erage for all occupations.
tran sfers on jo b openings. T hese
In some cases em ploym ent is relat­ transfers have not been taken into
ed directly to one of the com ponents account in calculating replacem ent
of the B ureau’s m odel— example, needs. Some d ata on occupational
the num ber of cosmetologists is relat­ transfers have been published in two
ed to c o n su m e r ex p e n d itu res fo r M o n th ly L a b o r R ev iew a r tic le s ,
beauty shop services. In others, em ­ “ O c c u p a tio n a l M o b ility in th e
ploym ent is related to an indepen­ American Labor F o rce” and “ O ccu­
dent variable not explicitly projected pational M obility of H ealth W ork­
in the m odel, but believed to be a ers,” January and May 1977, respec­
primary determ inant o f em ploym ent tively.
in that occupation. The projection o f
Supply. Supply estim ates used in
autom obile m echanics, for example, analysis of certain Handbook occupa­
is based on the expected stock of m o­ tions represent the num bers of work­
tor vehicles. Projections that are d e­ ers who are likely to seek entry to a
veloped independently are com pared
particular occupation if past trends
with those in the m atrix and revised,
of entry to the occupation continue.
if necessary, to assure consistency.
These estim ates are developed in­
Replacement needs. In addition to
d e p e n d e n tly o f the d em and e s ti­
a projection of em ploym ent for each
mates. Thus, supply and dem and are
occupation, a projection is made o f
the num ber of workers who will be not discussed in the usual econom ic
needed as replacem ents. Separations sense in which wages play a m ajor
c o n stitu te a significant source o f role in equating supply and dem and.
openings. In most occupations, m ore Statistics on college enrollm ents and
workers are needed to replace those graduations by field are the ch ief
who retire, die, or leave the occupa­ sources of inform ation on the poten­
tion than are needed to fill jobs creat­ tial supply of personnel in profession­
ed by grow th. C onsequently, even al, technical, and other occupations
som e declining o cc u p atio n s offer req u irin g extensive form al e d u c a ­
tion. D ata on persons completing ap­
em ploym ent opportunities.
To estim ate replacem ent openings, prenticeship program s provide some
the Bureau has developed tables o f inform ation on new e n tra n ts into
working life based on actuarial expe­ skilled trades. A Bureau publication,
rience for deaths and on decennial Occupational Supply: Concepts and
census data for general patterns of Sources o f Data fo r Manpower Analy­
labor force participation by age and sis (BLS Bulletin 1816, 1974), ex­
sex. W ithdrawals from each occupa­ plores several aspects o f o c c u p a ­
tion are calcu lated separately for tional supply.

Early in human history, people en­
tered occupations by simply follow­
ing their parents into one of the rela­
tively few occupations that existed.
Boys becam e farm ers, shepherds,
priests, artisans, or traders. Girls gen­
erally becam e housewives, helping
their husbands in their work, but hav­
ing no paid occupations. Not until
the In d u strial R ev olution did the
num ber of possible choices begin to
But as the choices have increased,
so has the difficulty o f making a deci­
sion. Today there are thousands of
occupations—the newest Dictionary
o f Occupational Titles lists 20,000
separate titles—and a variety of edu­
cation and training program s from
w hich to choose. M any questions
m ust be co n sid ered : W hat fields
m atch o n e ’s interests and abilities?
W hat types of education and training
are required to enter particular jobs?
W hat fields are expected to offer
good p ro sp e c ts for em ploym ent?
How do earnings com pare am ong
occupations requiring similar train­
ing? W hat types of employers pro­
vide which kinds of jobs? Does a par­
ticular job offer steady, year-round
employm ent or is it affected by mi­
nor swings in the economy?
T he answ ers to th ese questions
change as o u r eco n o m y changes.
C urrent inform ation therefore is a
necessity. While the individual occu­
pation and industry chapters in the
Handbook answer m ost of the ques­
tions raised here, two areas of par­
ticular concern, to educators and vo­
c a tio n a l p la n n e rs as w ell as to
individuals who are choosing their
careers, require a broader perspec­
tive. One concerns em ploym ent pro­
jections, the other, the relationship
betw een jo b prospects and educa­
tion. This section focuses on these
two aspects of choosing a career.

Employment Projections in a
Changing Economy

F ortunately, m ost o f the factors
that alter the dem and for workers in
various occupations do not change
overnight. Shifts in the state of the
econom y, the introduction o f new
technology, and the developm ent of
new organization and m anagem ent
techniques generally occur in an o r­
derly, fairly predictable fashion. Al­
though no one can forecast the fu­
ture with certainty, it is possible to
m ake industry and occupation em ­
ployment projections that are useful
to educators, vocational planners,
and individuals who are planning
their careers. The econom ic and sta­
tistical analysis used by the Bureau of
Labor Statistics to develop its projec­
tions is described in some detail in a
separate introductory section.
In 1985, approximately 104.3 mil­
lion persons will be in the civilian
labor force. This is an 19-percent in­
crease over the 1976 level of 87.5
million. As shown in chart 1, the size
of the civilian labor force increased
sharply after 1960, largely due to the
increase in the num ber of women en-

The dem and for workers in any o c­
cupation depends ultimately on the
tastes and desires of consum ers. If a
p ro d u c t o r serv ice is u n w a n te d ,
w hether by private o r public p u r­
chasers, no workers will be needed to
produce or provide it. Barbers would
becom e unnecessary if people decid­
ed to cut their own hair, as would
astro n a u ts if the F ederal G o v ern ­
m ent abandoned its space program .
Closely interw oven with the d e ­
mand for products or services is tech ­
nological innovation. In the 20th
century, technology has both created
and elim inated hundreds o f th o u ­
sands of jobs. The telephone, for ex­
ample, gave birth to an entire indus­
try at about the same time that the
autom obile put stable ow ners and
carriage m anufacturers out o f busi­
ness. Changes in the way businesses
are organized and m anaged have had
similar effects; the rise of superm ar­
ket chains has drastically reduced the
num ber o f self-employed grocers.

Civilian labor force growth, 1950-76
and projected 1980 and 1985
Persons 16 years and over (in millions)







Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics










2 0

The percent of women who are in the labor
force has been increasing, while the percent
of men has been declining


local governm ent services, and rising
incomes and living standards that re­
sulted in a dem and for im proved
health and education services. These
factors are expected to continue to
cause th e dem and for services to

Percent of persons 16 and over in the civilian labor force 1950-85









Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

tering the labor m arket. The labor
force participation rate for women
has continued to rise even while the
rate for men has declined. (See chart
2 .)

Industrial Profile
Economists custom arily divide our
economy into nine industry catego­
ries under two broad groups—goods
pro d u cin g and service producing.
M ost of the N atio n ’s workers cu r­
rently are em ployed in industries that
provide services, such as education,
health care, trade, repair and m ainte­

nance, governm ent, transportation,
banking, and insurance. The produc­
tion of goods through farming, co n ­
struction, mining, and m anufacturing
requires only about one-third of the
country’s work force. (See chart 3.)
As shown in chart 4, em ploym ent
in the goods-producing industries has
rem ained relatively co n stan t since
World W ar II, whereas the serviceproducing industries have expanded
rapidly. Among the factors contrib­
uting to this rapid growth were the
migration from rural to urban areas
and the accom panying need for m ore

Where people work, 1976

Wage and salary workers except agriculture, which includes self-employed
and unpaid family workers


Mining and petroleum 1 %
Contract construction


Transportation and
public utilities
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

Finance, insurance,
and real estate
Wholesale and retail trade

Service-Producing Industries. E m ­
ploym ent in the service-producing
industries is ex p ected to increase
from 56.1 million workers in 1976 to
71.0 million in 1985, an increase of
26 percent. O f course, growth rates
will vary among the industries within
this group. (See chart 5.)
Trade, the largest o f the service in­
d u strie s, is e x p e c te d to grow by
about 20 percent between 1976 and
1985, from 17.7 million to 21.3 mil­
lion workers.
B oth w holesale and retail trad e
have in cre ased as p o p u latio n has
grown and as rising incom es have en ­
abled people to buy a greater num ber
and variety o f goods. Retail trade has
grown m ore rapidly than wholesale
trade as the expansion of the suburbs
has created a dem and for m ore shop­
ping centers. Although self-service is
expected to become m ore prevalent,
em ploym ent in retail trade nonethe­
less will continue to grow faster than
in wholesale trade.
Government has been the second
fastest growing service industry. Em ­
ploym ent in State and local govern­
m ents doubled betw een 1960 and
1976. G row th has been greatest in
agencies providing education, health,
sanitation, welfare, and police and
fire protection. Federal G overnm ent
em ploym ent has increased only 20
percent during the same period.
Between 1976 and 1985, em ploy­
m ent in governm ent is expected to
rise 22 percent, from 14.9 million to
18.3 m illion w orkers. This grow th
rate is less than th a t expected for
services as a whole. Although State
and local governments will continue
to be the m ajor source of jobs, the
budget problem s many local govern­
ments now face are expected to re­
tard the expansion o f some govern­
m ent program s.
Service industries have been the
fastest growing group in the serviceproducing category, nearly doubling
in em ploym ent betw een 1960 and
1976. The growing need for health



growing industries have been bank­
ing and credit agencies. Em ployment
in banking nearly doubled between
1960 and 1976, reflecting a growing
population that increasingly pays its
bills by check. Em ploym ent require­
ments also grew as banks began to
provide m ore services, particularly
the bank credit cards, and rem ained
o p e n lo n g e r h o u rs . P o p u la tio n
growth also m eant an increased de­
m and fo r the services o f finance
companies, savings and loan associ­
ations, and o th e r c red it agencies.
These trends are expected to contin­
ue through the m id-1980’s.

Industries providing services offer more jobs than
those providing goods
Workers (in millions)^
Goods producing


Service producing
and public utilities
insurance and
real estate

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

J/W age and salary workers, except agriculture, which includes self-employed and
unpaid family workers.

care, m aintenance and repair, adver­
tising, and com m ercial cleaning ser­
vices has been the prim ary force be­
hind this growth.
In the future, service industries are
ex p e cted to c o n tin u e th e ir rapid
growth—em ploym ent is projected to
increase from 14.6 million workers in
1976 to 20.6 million in 1985. This
projected growth rate o f 40 percent
is nearly twice as rapid as that of the
serv ice-p ro d u cin g in d u stries as a
group. Em ployment requirem ents in
health care are expected to grow rap­
idly due to population grow th—in
particular the growth in the num ber
o f elderly p erso n s— and rising in­
comes that increase p eople’s ability
to pay for medical care. Business ser­
vices, in clu d in g ac c o u n tin g , d ata
processing, and m ain tenance, also
are expected to grow rapidly.
Transportation and public utility in­
dustries experienced a m uch slower
growth rate between 1960 and 1976
than any o f the other service-produc­
ing industries. This has largely been
due to em ploym ent declines in the
railroad and water transportation in­
Although em ploym ent in the rail­
road and w ater transportation indus­
tries is expected to continue to de­
cline (b u t a t a slo w er ra te than
before), oth er industries in this group
will ex p erien ce increases. The air
transportation industry, which nearly
doubled in size betw een 1960 and

1976, will continue to grow at a m od­
erate pace.
Between 1976 and 1985, em ploy­
m ent in tran sp o rtatio n and public
utilities industries is expected to rise
from 4.5 million to 5.2 million w ork­
ers, an increase of 16 percent.
Finance, insurance, and real estate
will grow faster than services as a
whole. Em ploym ent is expected to
increase from 4.3 million to 5.6 mil­
lion w o rk e rs b e tw e e n 1976 an d
1985, an increase of 30 percent.
Within this group, the two fastest

G o ods-P roducing In d u strie s. E m ­
ploym ent in the goods-producing in­
dustries—agriculture, m ining, co n ­
struction, and m anufacturing—has
changed very little since 1960. Sig­
nificant gains in productivity result­
ing from autom ated production, im­
p ro v e d m a c h in e ry , an d o th e r
tech n o lo g ical b re ak th ro u g h s have
perm itted large increases in output
without additional workers. Between
1976 an d 1985, e m p lo y m e n t in
goods-producing industries is expect­
ed to increase by about 17 percent,
from 26.6 m illion to 31.1 million
Growth rates will vary from indus­
try to industry within this group. Em ­
ploym ent in agriculture, which has
long been declining, stabilized at
about 3.5 million workers between

Through the mid-1980’s employment growth will
vary widely by industry
Percent change, 1976-85 projected
Contract construction
Finance, insurance and real estate

Transportation and public utilities

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics





1970 and 1975, but dropped again to
3.3 million in 1976. Since the 1950’s,
the tren d tow ard few er but larger
farms and the use of more and better
m achinery has reduced the need for
farmers and farmworkers. So too has
the developm ent of improved hybrid
crops. Recently, for example, a hy­
brid tom ato was developed that has a
harder skin and can be m achine h ar­
A lthough em ploym ent on farm s
has declined, rapid m echanization
c o m b in ed w ith b e tte r fe rtiliz e rs,
feeds, pesticides, and hybrids have
created large increases in outp u t.
The worldwide dem and for food is
risin g ra p id ly as p o p u la tio n in ­
creases, but production is expected
to continue to rise w ithout reversing
the em ploym ent decline in agricul­
ture. Between 1976 and 1985, em ­
ployment is expected to drop about
29 percent, from 3.3 million to 2.3
million workers.
Mining, once declining in em ploy­
m ent, in creased ab ruptly betw een
1970 and 1976, experiencing a 26percent growth rate during this peri­
od and m atching the growth rate of
the fastest growing industry group,
services. M ost of this growth was a
direct result of our need for addition­
al energy. Employment in the oil and
gas extraction industry rose 33 p er­
cent between 1970 and 1976, and is
expected to rise another 70 percent
by 1985. Coal, the m ost commonly
used alternative energy source, has
been and will continue to be in great
Em ployment in mining is expected
to grow 39 percen t betw een 1976
and 1985, from 0.8 to 1.1 million
Contract construction, which grew
fairly rap id ly b etw e en 1960 and
1968, stagnated betw een 1968 and
1976. The earlier growth, which re­
fle c te d an in c re a s in g n e e d fo r
houses, apartm ent and office build­
ings, highways, and shopping centers,
was d a m p e n e d by th e ec o n o m ic
d o w n tu rn th a t b eg an in th e late
Buildings that had been vacant are
now filling up, however, and as our
econom y recovers, em ploym ent in
construction is expected to increase,
rising by 38 percent between 1976
and 1985, or from 3.6 million to 4.9
million workers.

M anufacturing em ploym ent, also
adversely affected by the econom ic
conditions of the early 1970’s, is ex­
pected to grow from 18.9 million to
22.8 million between 1976 and 1985,
an increase of 20 percent.
M anufacturing is divided into two
b ro a d c a te g o rie s , d u ra b le goods
m a n u f a c tu r in g a n d n o n d u r a b le
goods m anufacturing. Em ploym ent
in durable goods m anufacturing is
expected to increase by about 25
percent, from 11.0 million to 13.8
million w orkers, while em ploym ent
in nondurable goods m anufacturing
is expected to increase by only 13
percent, from 7.9 million to 9.0 mil­
lion workers.
Growth rates will vary among indi­
vidual industries within each of these
categories. In nondurable goods in­
dustries, for example, em ploym ent in
tobacco m anufacturing is expected
to decline, while a m oderate rise in
em ploym ent is projected for the syn­
thetic fiber industry. Among durable
g o ods m a n u fa c tu rin g in d u s trie s ,
medical instrum ent m anufacturing is
expected to undergo a rapid em ploy­
m ent increase; m otor vehicle m anu­
facturing will employ about the same
num ber o f workers in 1985 as it did
in 1976.

Occupational Profile
Customarily, occupations also are
divided into several groups. W hite-

collar w orkers are those in profes­
sional and technical, clerical, sales,
an d m an ag e rial jo b s. B lu e-co llar
workers are those in craft, operative,
and lab o rer jobs. Service w orkers
and farm workers constitute separate
groups. C hart 6 illustrates the occu­
pational profile in 1976.
G row th rates among these groups
have differed m arkedly, as shown in
chart 7. Once a small proportion of
the to tal labor fo rce, w hite-collar
w orkers have steadily increased in
im portance until they now represent
about half o f the total. The num ber
of service workers also has risen rap ­
idly, while the blue-collar work force
has grown only slowly and the num ­
ber of farm workers has declined.
Most of these changes in occupa­
tional em ploym ent have been due to
variations in the growth rates of in­
dustries. Every industry group has a
unique occupational p attern. (S ee
chart 8.) Construction, for example,
employs mostly blue-collar workers,
while finance, insurance, and real es­
tate is predom inantly a white-collar
industry group. Growth in the co n ­
struction industry would result in an
increase in em ploym ent of blue-col­
lar workers. The same would be true
for growth in mining, m anufacturing,
o r tra n s p o rta tio n —in d u stries th a t
also employ mostly blue-collar w ork­
ers. The m agnitude o f the change

Employment in major occupational groups


Workers, 1976 (in millions)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics











would depend on both the rate of
growth and the size of the industry.
T he follow ing sections describe
the changes that are expected to oc­
cur am ong the broad occupational
groups between 1976 and 1985. (See
also chart 9.)
Professional and technical workers
include a wide range o f w orkers,
many of them highly trained. Among
this group are scientists and engi­
neers, m edical practitioners, teach­
ers, entertainers, pilots, and account­
ants. Em ploym ent in this group is
expected to grow by about 18 per­

cent between 1976 and 1985, rising
from 13.3 m illion to 15.8 m illion
G reater efforts in energy produc­
tion, tra n sp o rta tio n , and en v iro n ­
m ental protection will contribute to a
growing dem and for scientists, engi­
neers, and technicians. The medical
professions can be expected to grow
as the health services industry ex­
pands. The dem and for professional
workers to develop and utilize com ­
puter resources also is projected to
grow rapidly.
Some occupations will offer less


Industries differ in the kinds of workers
they employ
Percent distribution of employment, 1976
Finance, insurance, and
real estate


Transportation and
public utilities
Contract construction

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

favorable jo b p ro sp e cts, in m any
cases because the supply of workers
e x c e e d s th e a v a ila b le o p en in g s.
Teachers will continue to face com ­
petition, as will artists and entertain­
ers, airline pilots, and ocean o g ra­
M anagers and adm inistrators in­
clude workers such as corporate ex­
ecutives, school and health services
a d m in istra to rs, d e p a rtm e n t sto re
m anagers, and self-em ployed busi­
ness operators. This group is expect­
ed to grow from 9.3 million to 11.3
million workers, an increase of 21
percent. The rapidly expanding ser­
vice industries are expected to offer
m ore jo b s for m anagers than the
slowly growing m anufacturing indus­
Changes in business size and o r­
ganization have resulted in differing
trends for self-employed and salaried
m anagers. The num ber of self-em­
ployed managers will continue to de­
cline as many areas of business are
increasingly dom inated by large cor­
p o ra tio n s an d c h a in o p e ra tio n s .
Some kinds of small businesses, such
as quick-service groceries and fastfood restaurants, still will provide op­
p o rtu n itie s fo r se lf-e m p lo y m e n t,
however. The dem and for salaried
managers will continue to grow rap­
idly as firms increasingly depend on
trained m anagem ent specialists, par­
ticularly in highly technical areas of
Clerical workers co n stitu te both
the largest and the fastest growing
occupational group. Em ployment in
th ese o c c u p a tio n s is ex p ected to
grow about 29 percent between 1976
and 1985, rising from 15.6 million to
20.0 million workers.
New developm ents in com puters,
office m achines, and dictating equip­
m ent will greatly affect em ploym ent
in m any o c c u p a tio n s w ithin th is
group. As com puters are used m ore
extensively to store inform ation and
perform billing, payroll, and o ther
c a lc u la tio n s, em p lo y m en t o f file
clerks and many types of office m a­
chine operators will level off or de­
cline. At the same time, however, the
need for com puter and peripheral
equipm ent operators will increase.
D ic ta tio n m a c h in e s, w hich have
sharply reduced the need for stenog­
raphers, will continue to adversely



out co u n ters, suburban expansion nology, very little growth is anticipat­
and longer operating hours will cause ed in printing crafts.
Operatives are the largest blue-col­
em ploym ent to increase.
Craft workers include a wide vari­ lar group, including workers such as
ety of highly skilled workers, such as assem blers, packers, truck and bus
carpenters, tool-and-die makers, in­ drivers, and many types o f m achine
strum ent makers, all-round m achin­ operators. Em ploym ent of operatives
ists, electricians, and autom obile m e­ is tied closely to the production of
chanics. Between 1976 and 1985, goods, because the majority of these
em ploym ent of this group is expected w orkers are em ployed in m anufac­
to increase 22 percent, from 11.3 turing industries. The projected slow
growth o f m anufacturing, along with
million to 13.7 million workers.
C o n stru c tio n w o rk e rs and m e ­ improved production processes, will
chanics, the two largest occupations hold dow n the dem and for these
within this group, are expected to ac­ workers. Textile operatives, such as
count for about two-thirds of the em ­ spinners, knitters, and weavers, are
ployment gain for craft workers, and expected to decline due to increasing
blue-collar w orker supervisors and use of machinery in the textile indusm etalcraft workers for most of the try.
Outside of m anufacturing, em ploy­
rem ainder.
m ent o f most transportation o p era­
Nearly all construction trades are
expected to grow, but particularly tives, such as truckdrivers and bus
rapid increases are anticipated for drivers, will increase as the transpor­
heavy equipm ent operators, plum b­ tation industry grows. An exception
ers, ironw orkers, roofers, and c e ­ will be brake and switch operators;
m ent masons. Among m echanics and these occupations are expected to
repairers, the m ost rapid increases decline along with the railroad indus­
will be for workers who repair com ­ try.
Em ploym ent o f operatives is ex­
puters, office m achines, air condi­
pected to rise from 13.4 million to
tioners, and industrial machinery.
15.6 million workers between 1976
In contrast, a continuation of the
and 1985, an increase of 17 percent.
long-run em ploym ent decline in the
Laborers, (ex cep t farm ) include
railroad industry will lead to the d e­
workers such as garbage collectors,
cline of some craft occupations co n ­
centrated in that industry, such as co n stru c tio n lab o rers, freight and
stock handlers, and equipm ent wash­
railroad and car shop repairers. Be­
ers. Em ploym ent in this group is ex­
cause of advances in printing tech ­
pected to grow only slowly as m a­
chinery increasingly replaces m anual
labor in construction and m anufac­
Through the mid-1980’s employment growth will
turing, the two largest employers of
vary widely among occupational groups
these workers. Power-driven equip­
m ent, such as forklift trucks, cranes,
and hoists, will handle m ore and
Percent change in employment, 1976-85
m ore m aterial in factories, loading
docks, and w arehouses. O ther m a­
chines will do excavating, ditch dig­
ging, an d sim ilar w ork. B etw een
1976 and 1985, em ploym ent of la­
borers is expected to increase 11 p er­
cent, from 4.3 million to 4.8 million
Service workers in clu d e a w ide
range of w orkers—firefighters, jan i­
tors, cosm etologists, private house­
hold workers, and bartenders are a
few examples. These workers, m ost
of whom are employed in the serviceproducing industries, m ake up one of
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics
th e fa s te s t grow ing o c c u p a tio n a l

affec t em p lo y m en t p ro sp e cts for
workers in this occupation. The sole
exception will be stenographers who
are trained as court reporters.
M any types of clerical w orkers,
how ever, will n o t be affected by
tech n o lo g ical innovations because
their jobs involve a high degree of
personal contact. Substantial growth
is anticipated for secretaries, typists,
and receptionists, largely as a result
of growth in the expanding business
services and medical and health care
serv ices in d u strie s. C o u n te r and
fountain workers also are expected
to increase as the restaurant industry
Sales workers are em ployed pri­
marily by retail stores, m anufactur­
ing and wholesale firms, insurance
companies, and real estate agencies.
Em ploym ent of this group is expect­
ed to grow from 5.5 million to 6.4
million workers, an increase of 17
M uch o f the growth of sales work­
ers will be due to expansion in the
retail trade industry, which employs
about one-half of these workers. The
dem and for both full- and part-tim e
sales workers in retail trade is expect­
ed to increase as our growing popula­
tion requires an increasing num ber of
shopping centers and stores. Despite
the w idespread use o f laborsaving
m erchandising techniques, such as
self-service and com puterized check­




cator is the total num ber of job open­
ings expected in the occupation. The
total includes not only openings re ­
sulting from em ploym ent growth, but
also those resulting from labor force
separations (retirem ents and deaths)
and transfers to other occupations.
B etw een 1976 and 1985, re tire ­
ments and deaths alone are expected
to account for nearly two-thirds of all
job openings. (See ch a rt 10.) The
need to replace workers who retire
o r die will be a m ore significant
source o f job openings than em ploy­
ment growth in every m ajor occupa­
tional group, and in m ost individual
F urtherm ore, a large occupation
that is growing slowly may offer m ore
openings than a fast-growing small
one. For example, among the m ajor
occupational groups, total openings
for operatives will exceed total open­
ings for craft w orkers, despite the
fact that em ploym ent of craft w ork­
ers is expected to grow at a faster
Many job openings also are creat­
ed because of occupational transfers.
When a technician is upgraded to an
engineer, for example, a job opening
for a technician is created. O f course,
this shift also adds to the supply of
engineers. Data for estimating occu­
pational losses and gains resulting
from transfers are not yet available,
but work is continuing towards the
developm ent of such data.

Some of the main factors that are
expected to increase the need for
these workers are the rising demand
for medical care; the greater need for
commercial cleaning and protective
services; and the m ore frequent use
of restaurants, beauty salons, and lei­
sure services as incom es rise. The
em ploym ent o f p riv ate household
workers, however, will continue to
decline despite a rising dem and for
their services, because low wages and
the stren u o u s n atu re o f the work
make this occupation unattactive to
many people.
Employment of service workers is
expected to increase 23 percent be­
tween 1976 and 1985, from 12.0 mil­
lion to 14.8 million workers.
Farm workers include farm ers and
farm operators, as well as farm labor­
ers. Em ploym ent o f these w orkers
has declined for decades as farm pro­
ductivity has increased as a result of
the trend tow ard few er but larger
farms, the use of m ore and better
machinery, and the developm ent of
new feeds, fertilizers, and pesticides.
Between 1976 and 1985, the num ber
of farm w orkers is expected to de­
cline 34 percent, from 2.8 million to
1.9 million workers.

Job Openings
The rate of em ploym ent growth in
an occupation is only one indicator
of future jo b prospects; another indi­


Job openings are determined by replacement
plus growth
Workers needed—1976-85 (in millions)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics





BB Growth





Education and Employment
A high school diploma by itself is
not sufficient preparation for many
occupations. But neither is a college
degree. Different fields of work re­
quire different types of training. Just
as there are occupations that require
college degrees, so too th ere are
o c c u p a tio n s fo r w hich te c h n ic a l
training, work experience, or training
in a particular skill is the most im por­
tan t entry requirem ent. Em ployers
always wish to hire the best qualified
persons available, but this does not
mean that they always choose those
applicants who have the most educa­
tion. The type of education and train­
ing an individual has had is as im por­
tant as the amount. For this reason, a
vital part of the career planning p ro ­
cess is deciding what type as well as
how much education and training to
Persons who have definite career
goals may not find this decision diffi­
cult. Many occupations have specific
education requirem ents. Physicians,
for exam ple, m ust generally co m ­
plete at least 3 years of college, 4
years of medical school, and in most
States 1 year of residency. Cosm e­
tologists are required to com plete a
State-approved cosm etology course
that generally lasts 18 months.
But for most people, the decision is
more difficult. Either they have yet
to choose a field of work, or the field
they have selected may be entered in
a variety of ways. Some may know
only that they want jobs that provide
status and large incomes, for exam ­
ple. Or, an individual may wish to be
an auto mechanic but cannot decide
w hether to leave high school and
learn on the job, or graduate and at­
tend a vocational school, or seek an
M aking this type of decision re­
quires specific inform ation about the
types of education and training p re­
ferred for various occupations, and a
knowledge of o n e’s own abilities and
aspirations. Inform ation on how to
enter each of the occupations includ­
ed in the Handbook is contained in
th e individual o cc u p atio n al s ta te ­
m ents, but general inform ation on
the relationship of em ploym ent pros­
pects to education also is useful.




The unemployment rate is lowest for persons
with a college education
Percent unemployed, (March 1976)
2 0 ......... .........-

......- .....................................................

S ill
High school

8 or less



Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics



4 or more

Years of school completed

P ersons co n tem p lating dropping
out of high school should recognize
that a high school education has be­
come standard. The educational a t­
tainm ent o f the labor force has risen
from 10.9 years of school in 1952 to
12.6 in 1976. Thus, nongraduates are
likely to be at a serious disadvantage
when seeking jobs that offer better
pay or advancem ent opportunities,
unless they have participated in a
training program specific to the o c­
c u p a tio n th ey wish to e n te r. As
shown in ch art 11, the unem ploy­

m ent rate is much higher for persons
who did not finish high school than
for those who did.
For many individuals, the decision
they face is whether to extend their
ed u c atio n beyond high school by
going to college or by pursuing some
o th er po stseco n d ary education o r
training program . Looking again at
chart 11, for individuals who have
graduated from high school, the u n ­
em ploym ent rate drops steadily as
the am ount of education com pleted
increases. In addition, as chart 12

Income increases as the number of years of
schooling increases


Average income for year-round full-time workers, 1975





High school

8 or less




Years of school completed
Source: Bureau of the Census


5 or more

shows, average yearly incom e rises
with the num ber of years of school
com pleted. In 1975, college gradu­
ates, on the average, earned over
o n e -th ird m ore th a n high sch o o l
graduates, while persons with 5 years
or more o f college earned one-fifth
more than those with 4 years of col­
A lth o u g h college g ra d u ates do
earn m ore, on the average, than high
school graduates, there are num er­
ous well-paying occupations that do
not require a college degree. W ork­
ers in the construction crafts and in
m echanic and repairer occupations,
fo r e x a m p le , g e n e ra lly are h igh
sch o o l g ra d u a te s, y et m any ea rn
more than workers in some jobs that
require a college degree. In fact,
earnings in many occupations not re­
q u irin g college d e g re e s have in ­
creased faster than earnings in o ccu­
pations th a t do require a degree.
C hart 13 shows how m uch the differ­
ence betw een the earnings of high
school graduates and college gradu­
ates has narrowed.
Although data are not available on
the earnings of high school graduates
who have com pleted other postsec­
ondary education program s, it is like­
ly that m ost of those who earn rela­
tively high incom es have obtained
some type o f additonal education or
Traditionally, a college education
has been viewed as a gateway to b et­
ter pay, higher status, and more chal­
lenging work. As the opportunity to
obtain a college education has be­
com e m ore w idespread, m ore high
school graduates have attended col­
lege. Accordingly, the proportion of
workers in the labor force who have
com pleted at least 4 years o f college
rose from 7.9 percent to 16.5 percent
between 1952 and 1976, and college
graduates are expected to constitute
20 p e rc e n t o f the lab o r force by
1985. R ecent experience has shown,
how ever, th a t the trad itio n al view
has not been m atched by reality.
Between 1970 and 1976, the p ro­
portion of workers having 4 years or
more o f college increased by m ore
than 60 percent in clerical, sales, ser­
vice, and blue-collar occupations—
areas that have em ployed very few
college graduates in the past. This



“ spillover” reflects, at least in part,
the econom ic conditions of the 197075 period. Cutbacks in the aerospace
industry and the recession of 197071, followed by an oil em bargo in
1972-73 and recession in 1974-75,
d am p en ed the e c o n o m y ’s grow th
during the first half of this decade.
Analysis of the future demand for
college graduates, and o f future sup­
ply, indicates that more students are
expected to graduate, and more per­
sons currently holding degrees are
expected to reenter the labor force,
than will be needed to fill jobs that
currently dem and a college degree.
Prospects are no brighter for many
individuals who hold advanced de­
grees. Colleges and universities, the
prim ary em ployers o f this group,
have been faced with declining en­
rollments and budget cuts in recent
years. T heir need for teaching and
research staff is not expected to grow
as rapidly as the num ber of graduates
seeking these positons. Except for
persons whose degrees are in areas
dem anded by business and industry,
advanced degree holders may have

to take jobs that once went only to
graduates who had b a c h e lo r’s d e ­
Not all occupations requiring col­
lege degrees will be overcrow ded,
however. Nor will there be a lack of
dem and for graduates of other post­
s e c o n d a ry e d u c a tio n p ro g ra m s .
Many of the occupations that have
grown m ost rapidly or have provided
large num bers of job openings have
required vocational, apprenticeship,
or junior college education. Science
and health technicians have been in­
creasingly in dem and, as have televi­
sion and radio service technicians,
data processing m achine repairers,
an d a ir-c o n d itio n in g m e c h a n ic s.
Technological advances, in particu­
lar the com puter, have m ade many
office jobs m ore com plicated, thus
requiring people who hold these jobs
to have a higher level of skill.
Persons wishing to enter these and
other occupations have found post­
secondary training helpful because
employers prefer to hire applicants
who have had training in these areas,
ra th e r th a n provide such training

themselves. Over the past 10 years,
e n ro llm e n ts in p ublic v o c a tio n a l
schools, for exam ple, have tripled,
while the num ber o f persons regis­
tered in apprenticeship programs has
jum ped 40 percent.
The dem and for workers in these
an d o th e r o c c u p a tio n s re q u irin g
technical, vocational, or apprentice­
ship training is expected to continue
to rise through the m id-1980’s.
The need for w orkers who have
some type of postsecondary training
definitely is expanding. But the deci­
sion to go to college is an individual
m atter. Persons who choose occupa­
tions th a t require college degrees
should not necessarily be discour­
aged from pursuing careers that they
believe m atch th e ir in tere sts and
abilities. They may wish, however, to
acquire more inform ation on the em ­
ployment outlook for their fields, and
to retain the option of switching to
related occupations that offer better
opportunities. The introductory sec­
tio n o f th e O ccupational O utlook
Handbook fo r College Graduates con­
tains a detailed discussion of the job
prospects for college graduates.
Individuals who have less clear-cut
occupational goals may wish to re­
view their reasons for going to col­
lege. College can provide many valu­
a b le o p p o rtu n itie s fo r p e rs o n a l
growth and self-discovery, as well as
the chance to increase o n e’s knowl­
edge of particular subject areas. A t­
tending college for personal reasons
alone can be worthwhile, but a stu­
dent solely interested in career prep ­
aration may find alternative types of
e d u c a tio n and train in g p rog ram s
more appropriate—either as an addi­
tion to or as a substitute for college
W hatever o n e’s goals and aspira­
tions, beginning the planning process
early allows students time to consider
all the choices that are available for
preparing for tom orrow ’s jobs.


lllp l i i g g

■ M iiiliiW


■ ' ■ /' ‘

The Outlook
for Occupations




C ars, new spapers, radios, b a th ­
tubs, guided missiles, eating utensils,
books, and pencil sharpeners all have
at least one thing in common. They,
and almost all other products that we
use, are m ade by the m illions of
workers in industrial production and
related occupations.
M ost o f these skilled and sem i­
skilled blue-collar workers are em ­
ployed in factories in the mass pro­
d u c tio n o f g o o d s. O th e rs w ork
outside of m anufacturing in a wide
variety o f activ ities ranging from
showing m otion pictures to shoeing
Because mass production would
not be possible without interchange­
able parts, workers in the machining
and foundry occupations play a basic
role in the production process. These
workers make the tools, dies, molds,
cores, and other items that can be
used to make hundreds or even thou­
sands of identical parts. Assemblers
may then put these parts together to
m ake autom obiles, television sets,

and hundreds of other products. If
the parts or finished products require
painting, production painters do that

A very large number of jobs open each year in several
industrial production and related occupations
Selected industrial production and related occupations
Average annual openings, 1976-85 (in thousands)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics





liH Growth H Replacement

job. After the products are made, in­
spectors examine and test them to
insure quality.
Other factory workers are not di­
rectly involved in the p ro d u ctio n
process, but support it in some way.
Stationary engineers, for exam ple,
operate soilers and other equipm ent
used to heat and air-condition facto ­
ries and other buildings, Millwrights
move and install heavy m achinery
used in the production process and
power truck operators move m ateri­
als about the plant.
Printing is another type of mass
production. Printing craft w orkers
operate the machinery used to print
newspapers, books, and other publi­
Industrial w orkers also are em ­
ployed outside of m anufacturing in a
variety of ac tiv ities. A u to m o b ile
painters, for example, restore the fin­
ish on old and damaged cars. Photo­
graphic laboratory workers develop
film and make prints and slides.


Most jobs in industrial production
do not require a high school diploma.
However, many employers prefer
high school or vocational school
graduates who have taken courses
such as blueprint reading and m a­
chine shop.
Semiskilled w orkers, such as as­
semblers and power truck operators,
ordinarily need only brief on-the-job
training. Skilled workers, such as sta­


tionary engineers and machinists, re ­
quire considerable training to qualify
for their jobs. Many learn their trades
on the job, but training authorities
generally recom m end completion of
a 3- or 4-year apprenticeship p ro ­
gram as the best way to learn a
skilled trade.
This chapter includes statem ents
on 21 industrial production and re ­
lated occupations. Many other work­

ers who are involved in industrial
production are described elsewhere
in the Handbook because o f th eir
close a sso c ia tio n w ith p a rtic u la r
occupational groups. For exam ple,
engineers are included in the chapter
on scientific and technical occupa­

or the Bureau of Apprenticeship and
Training, U.S. D epartm ent of Labor.
Inform ation also is available from the
following organizations:
American Foundrymen’s Society, Golf and
Wolf Rds., Des Plaines, 11 . 60016.


International Molders’ and Allied Workers’
Union, 1225 E. McMillan St., Cincinnati,
Ohio 45206.

Many of the products that we use
every day are m ade by casting or
have parts that are m ade by casting.
Casting is a method of forming metal
into intricate shapes by pouring mol­
ten m etal into carefully p rep ared
molds and allowing it to solidify.
F o u n d ry w o rk e rs p ro d u c e m etal
castin g s fo r n u m e ro u s in d u stria l
household products th at range from
m achine tools and autom obiles to
The patternmaker, the molder, and
the coremaker each play an im por­
tant part in the process. A pattern­
maker m akes a wood or metal model
of the casting. A molder places it in a
box and packs sand around the m od­
el to form a mold. If the casting is to
have a hollow section, a coremaker
makes a core of packed and hard­
ened sand that is positioned in the
m old b efo re the m olten m etal is
poured in.
In 1976, ab o u t 18,000 p a tte rn ­
makers, 53,000 molders, and 22,000
corem akers worked in the foundry
in d u stry . A b o u t th re e -fo u rth s o f
them worked in shops that make and
sell castings. The rem ainder worked
in plants th at make castings to use in
their final products, such as plants
operated by m anufacturers of auto­
mobiles or machinery.
A high school education is the
minimum requirem ent for an appren­
ticesh ip in p a tte rn m a k in g . Som e
highly skilled molding and corem ak­
ing jo b s also may req u ire a high
sch o o l e d u c a tio n , b u t an eighth
grade education may be enough for
entry into many molding and core­
making jobs.
The production and use of castings
are expected to grow significantly
through the m id-1980’s. However,
because o f autom ation and other la­
borsaving im provem ents in produc­
tion m ethods, em ploym ent o f p at­
te rn m a k e rs , c o re m a k e rs , and
molders is expected to increase only

about as fast as the average for all
occupations. In addition to those job
openings th at result from em ploy­
m ent grow th, o th e r openings will
arise from the need to replace experi­
enced w orkers who die, retire, or
transfer to other occupations. The
num ber o f openings may fluctuate
from year to year because foundry
em ploym ent is very sensitive to ups
and downs in the economy.
Patternm akers, molders, and core­
makers are discussed in detail in the
following statem ents. (F or a general
description of many other jobs in­
volved in metal casting, see the state­
m ent on foundries elsewhere in the

Nature of the Work
Foundry patternm akers are highly
skilled craftworkers who make the
patterns used in making molds for
metal castings. Most of the workers
in the occupation are metal pattern­
makers (D.O.T. 600.280); a smaller
n u m b e r are wood p a tte rn m a k e rs
(D .O .T . 6 6 1 .2 8 1 ). Some p a tte rn ­
m akers work with both m etal and
wood as well as with plaster and plas­
P attern m ak ers w ork from blu e­
prints prepared by engineers or draft­
ers. They make a precise pattern for
the product, carefully checking each
dimension with instrum ents such as
m icrom eters and calipers. Precision
is im portant because any im perfec­
tions in the pattern will be re p ro ­
duced in the castings made from it.

Sources of Additional
For details about training opportu­
nities for p attern m ak ers, m olders,
and corem akers, contact local found­
ries, the local office of the State em ­
ployment service, the nearest office
of the State apprenticeship agency,

Although employment of foundry workers is expected
to show little change, some openings will be created
by growth and replacement needs

Average annual openings, 1976-85 (in hundreds)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics







Growth MSB Replacement



Wood patternm akers select the
wood stock, lay out the pattern, and
saw each piece of wood to size. They
then shape the rough pieces into final
form with various woodworking m a­
chines, such as lathes and sanders, as
well as many small handtools. Final­
ly, they assem ble the p attern seg­
ments by hand, using glue, screws,
and nails.
Metal patternm akers prepare p at­
terns from metal stock or from rough
castings m ade from a wood pattern.
To shape and finish the patterns, they
use many m etalw orking m achines,
including lathes, drill presses, shap­
ers, milling m achines, power hack­
saws, and grinders. They also use
small handtools, such as flies and

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Apprenticeship is the best means
of qualifying as an experienced p at­
ternm aker. Because of the high de­
gree of skill and the wide range of
knowledge needed for patternm ak­


ing, it is difficult to learn the trade on
the job, but in some instances skilled
m achinists have been able to transfer
to m etal patternm aking with addi­
tional on-the-job training or experi­
ence. High school courses in m e­
chanical drawing, blueprint reading,
and shop m athem atics are helpful to
persons interested in becoming p at­
ternm akers. In addition, vocational
and technical school training in p at­
ternm aking, metalworking, and m a­
chining provide useful preparation
for an apprentice, and may be credit­
ed toward com pletion of the appren­
The usual apprenticeship period
for patternm aking is 5 years; how ­
ever, a few apprenticeships last only
3 or 4 years. Each year at least 144
hours of classroom instruction usual­
ly are provided. A pprenticeship p ro ­
gram s fo r w ood an d m e ta l p a t ­
ternm aking are separate. Employers
almost always require apprentices to
have a high school education.
A pprentices begin by helping ex­
perienced patternm akers in routine

Patternmakers must carefully check each dimension.

duties. They m ake simple patterns
u n d e r close su p erv isio n ; as th ey
progress, the work becom es increas­
ingly com plex and the supervision
m ore general. P atternm akers earn
higher pay as their skill increases,
and some becom e supervisors.
Patternm aking,
strenuous, requires considerable
standing and moving about. M anual
dexterity is especially im portant be­
cause o f the precise nature o f the
work. The ability to visualize objects
in three dimensions also is im portant
when reading blueprints.

Employment Outlook
Em ploym ent o f foundry p attern ­
makers is expected to increase only
about as fast as the average for all
occupations through the m id-1980’s
d esp ite th e a n tic ip a te d large in ­
creases in foundry production. The
increased use of m etal patterns will
allow production to increase faster
than em ploym ent. M etal p attern s,
unlike w ooden ones, can be used
again and again, thus reducing the
num ber of patterns that have to be
In addition to those openings cre­
ated by em ploym ent growth, some
job openings will arise because of the
need to replace experienced pattern ­
m akers who retire, die, or transfer to
o th e r o ccu p atio n s. M ost o f th ese
openings will be for m etal pattern ­
m akers. T he num ber o f openings
may fluctuate from year to year since
the dem and for foundry products is
sensitive to changes in the economy.
B ecause patternm akers learn ei­
th er basic m etalw orking or w ood­
working, they are prepared for jobs
in related fields when patternm aking
em ploym ent is not available. W ood
patternm akers can qualify for wood­
working jobs such as cabinetm aker,
and m etal patternm akers can trans­
fer their skills to m etalworking jobs
such as machinist.

Earnings and Working
Patternm akers
higher earnings than other pro d u c­
tion w orkers in m anufacturing. In
January 1976, average straight-tim e
hourly earnings of wood patternm ak­
ers ranged from $6 in gray iron and



malleable iron foundries, to $6.25 in
nonferrous foundries, according to a
wage survey made by the National
Foundry Association. In com parison,
all production workers in m anufac­
turing industries averaged $5.19 an
P a tte rn m a k e rs w ork indoors in
w ell-lighted, w ell-ventilated areas.
The rooms in which they work gener­
ally are sep arated from the areas
where the casting takes place, so they
are not exposed to the heat and noise
of the foundry floor.
For sources of additional inform a­
tion, see the introductory section of
this chapter.

workers set up and adjust their own
In a few foundries, hand molders
still construct the sand molds, using
primarily manual m ethods. Power
tools, such as pneum atic ramm ers,
and handtools, such as trowels and
mallets, are used to sm ooth the sand.
Molds for small castings usually are
made on the workbench by bench
molders (D.O.T. 518.381); those for
large and bulky castings are made on
the foundry floor by floor molders
(D.O.T. 518.381). An all-round
hand m older makes many different
types of molds. A less skilled m older
specializes in a few simple types.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Nature of the Work
One of the oldest known methods
of making metal products is by metal
casting, or the process of pouring
molten metal into a previously made
mold and allowing the metal to hard­
en in the shape of the mold. There
are several different ways of making
molds, but sand molding is the most
common. In sand molding, molders
make the mold by packing and ram ­
ming specially prepared sand around
a pattern—a model of the object to
be d u p lic a te d —in a box called a
flask. A flask usually is made in two
parts th at can be separated to re­
move the pattern w ithout damaging
the mold cavity. W hen molten metal
is poured into the cavity, it solidifies
and forms the casting. (O ther types
of molds and molding processes are
described in the foundry industry
section of the Handbook).
Technologically advanced molding
machines th at pack and ram the sand
m echanically are now used to make
most molds. Thus, m ost of the work­
ers in this occupation are machine
m olders. Machine molders (D .O .T.
5 1 8 .7 8 2 ) o p e ra te m ach in e s th a t
speed up and simplify the making of
large q u an titie s o f id en tical sand
molds. M achine m olders assemble
the flask and pattern on the m achine
tab le, fill the flask with prepared
sand, and operate the m achine with
le ers and
 pedals. M any o f these

C om pletion o f a 4-year ap p ren ­
ticeship program , or equivalent expe­
rience, is needed to becom e a skilled
h an d m o ld e r. W o rk e rs w ith this
training also are preferred for some
kinds o f m achine m olding, but in
general a shorter training period is
required in order to becom e a quali­
fied m achine molder. Some people
learn molding skills informally on the
job, but this way of learning the trade
takes longer and is less reliable than
An eighth grade education usually
is the minimum requirem ent for ap-

prenticeship. Many employers, how­
ever, prefer high school graduates.
A pprentices, under close supervi­
sion by skilled molders, begin with
simple jobs, such as shoveling sand,
and then gradually take on more dif­
ficult and responsible work, such as
ram m ing m olds, w ithdraw ing p a t­
terns, and setting cores. They also
learn to operate the various types of
molding machines. As their training
progresses, they learn to make com ­
plete molds. In addition, the appren­
tice may work in other foundry de­
p a r tm e n ts to d e v e lo p a ll-ro u n d
knowledge of foundry m ethods and
practices. The apprentice usually re­
ceives a t least 144 hours of class­
room instruction each year in sub­
j e c t s s u c h as sh o p a r it h m e t i c ,
metallurgy, and shop drawing.
Hand molders who do highly re­
petitive work that requires less skill
usually learn their jobs during a brief
training period. Trainees work with a
molder to make a particular kind of
mold. After 2 to 6 months, the train­
ee usually is capable of m aking a
similar mold. Most m achine molding
jobs can be learned in 2 to 3 m onths
on the job.
Physical standards for molding
jobs are fairly high. Hand molders
stand while working, must move
about a great deal, and frequently
must lift heavy objects. They need
good vision and a high degree of
m anual dexterity. M olders may ad­
vance to a specialized molding job or
eventually to a supervisory position.

Employment Outlook

Molders need good vision and manual

Employment of m olders is expect­
ed to increase about as fast as the
average for all occupations through
the m id -1 9 8 0 ’s. A lthough the d e ­
mand for metal castings is expected
to increase significantly, the trend to
more m achine molding, such as the
sand slinging process, and other la­
b o rsa v in g in n o v a tio n s will allow
large increases in production with
only m oderate em ploym ent growth.
In addition to job openings created
by em ploym ent growth, openings will
arise from the need to replace experi­
enced m olders who retire, die, or
transfer to other occupations. The
num ber of openings, however, may
fluctuate greatly from year to year



b ecau se th e d em an d for foundry
products is sensitive to changes in the

Earnings and Working
In January 1976, floor molders av­
eraged $5.52 an h o u r and bench
molders averaged $4.98, according
to a wage survey m ade by the N ation­
al Foundry Association. By com pari­
son, production workers in all m anu­
facturing industries averaged $5.19
an hour. M olders who were paid on
an incentive basis generally had high­
er earnings.
W orking conditions vary consider­
ably from one foundry to another.
H eat, fum es, and dust, have been
greatly reduced in many plants by the
installation of im proved ventilation
systems and air-conditioning; how ­
ever, in many older foundries these
still are problems.
W orking in a foundry can be haz­
ardous, and the injury rate is higher
than the average for all m anufactur­
ing industries. Safety program s and
safety equipm ent, such as m etal-plat­
ed shoes, have helped reduce injuries
at many foundries; however, molders
must be careful to avoid burns from
h o t m etal and to avoid cu ts and
bruises when handling m etal parts
and power tools.
For sources of additional inform a­
tion, see the introductory section of
this chapter.

Nature of the Work
C orem akers prepare the “ cores”
that are placed in molds to form the
hollow sections in m etal castings.
The poured metal solidifies around
the core, so that when the core is
removed the desired cavity or con­
tour remains.
A co re may be m ade eith er by
hand or by machine. In both instanc­
es, sand is packed into a block of
wood or m etal in which a space of
the desired size and shape has been
hollowed out. A fter the core is re­
moved from
 this box, it is hardened

by baking or by another drying m eth­
od. W hen hand m ethods are used,
the corem aker uses mallets and other
handtools to pack sand into the core
box. Small cores are m ade on the
w o rk b e n c h by bench corem akers
(D.O.T. 518.381) and large ones are
made on the foundry floor by floor
coremakers (D.O.T. 518.381).
coremakers (D.O.T.
518.885) operate m achines that
make sand cores by forcing sand into
a core box. Some m achine corem akers are required to set up and adjust
their m achines and do finishing o p ­
erations on the cores. Others are pri­
marily m achine tenders. They are
closely su p erv ise d and th e ir m a ­
chines are adjusted for them. (To see
how the corem aker’s job is a basic
step in the casting process, read the
description of sand casting given in
the statem ent on foundries elsewhere
in the Handbook.)

equivalent experience is needed to
becom e a skilled hand corem aker.
Apprenticeships also are sometimes
required for the m ore difficult m a­
chine corem aking jobs. A pprentice­
ships in corem aking and molding of­
ten are com bined.
Experienced corem akers teach ap­
prentices how to m ake cores and op ­
erate ovens. Classroom instruction
covering subjects such as arithm etic
and the properties o f metals general­
ly supplem ents on-the-job training.
C orem akers earn higher pay as their
skill increases, and som e may ad ­
vance to supervisors.
An eighth grade education usually
is the minimum requirem ent for
corem aking apprentices; however,
most employers prefer high school
graduates, and some employers re­
quire apprentices to have graduated
from high school. Som e types o f
hand corem aking require a high de­
gree of m anual dexterity.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Employment Outlook

C om pletion of a 4-year a p p ren ­
ticesh ip train in g p ro g ram or th e

Although the production and use
of metal castings are expected to


increase substantially, employm ent
o f co rem ak ers is ex p e cted to in ­
crease only about as fast as the aver­
age for all occupations through the
m id-1980’s, as the growing use of
machine corem aking will allow large
increases in p ro d u ctio n with only
m oderate em ploym ent growth. In ad­
dition to those job openings created
by employm ent growth, other open­
ings will arise because o f the need to
replace experienced corem akers who
retire, die, or transfer to other occu­
pations. T he n u m b er o f openings
may fluctuate greatly from year to
year since the dem and for foundry


products is sensitive to changes in the

Earnings and Working
In January 1976, average hourly
earnings of floor corem akers were
$5.30; bench corem akers, $5.28; and
m achine corem akers, $5.31, accord­
ing to a wage survey m ade by the
N ational Foundry A ssociation. By
com parison, production workers in
all m an ufacturing industries av e r­
aged $5.19 an hour. C o rem ak ers
who were paid on an incentive basis
generally had higher earnings than

those who were paid a straight hourly
W orking conditions vary consider­
ably from one foundry to another.
H eat, fum es, and dust, have been
greatly reduced in many plants by the
installation of im proved ventilation
system s and air-co n d itio n in g . A l­
though the injury rate in foundries is
higher than the average for m anufac­
turing, corem aking is one o f the least
hazardous foundry jobs.
For sources of additional inform a­
tion, see the introductory section of
this chapter.

perform ed, training, and earnings of
these occupations are presented in
the chapters that follow.)

M achine tools are stationary, pow­
er-driven devices used to shape or
form metal by cutting, im pact, pres­
sure, electrical techniques, or a com ­
b in atio n o f these processes. M ost
m achine tools are nam ed for the way
in which they shape metal. For exam ­
ple, com m only used m achine tools
include boring m achines, milling m a­
chines, lathes, drilling machines, and
grinding machines. In 1976, over 1.1
million machinists, m achine tool op­
erators, tool-and-die m akers, setup
workers, and instrum ent m akers used
m achine tools to m ake precise metal
The m ost outstanding characteris­
tic of m achine tools is their precision
of operation. For exam ple, in this
cen tu ry th e accu racy o f m achine
tools has im proved from a th o u ­
sandth of an inch to about a millionth
of an inch. A millionth of an inch is
about 1/300th as thick as a human
hair. This precision m akes possible
the production of thousands of iden­

tical parts which may easily be inter­
changed in the assembly or repair o f
final products. The interchangeabil­
ity o f parts, m ade possible by m a­
chine tools, is the m ost im portant re ­
quirem ent for the mass production of
goods. As a result, nearly every prod­
uct of Am erican industry, from corn­
flakes to tu rb in es, is m ade eith er
using m achine tools or using m a­
chines m ade with m achine tools.
All-round m achinists can operate
most types o f m achine tools, whereas
machine tool operators generally
work with one kind only. Tool-anddie m akers m ake dies (m etal form s)
for presses and diecasting m achines,
devices to guide drills into metal, and
special gauges to determ ine w hether
the work m eets specified tolerances.
Instrum ent m akers use m achine tools
to pro d u ce highly accurate instru­
m ent parts from metal and other m a­
terials. Setup workers adjust tools for
sem iskilled m achine tool operators
to run. (D etailed discussions of work

Technological advances will limit growth in all
machining occupations. However, highly skilled
machinists and tool-and-die makers will not be affected
as much as less skilled operators and setup workers
Selected machining occupations
Average annual openings, 1976-85 (in thousands)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics







(D.O.T. 600.280, .281, and .381)

Nature of the Work
All-round m achinists are skilled
metal workers who can perform a
w ide variety o f m achining o p e ra ­
tions. They are able to set up and
operate m ost types o f machine tools
used to make metal parts for cars,
machines, and other equipm ent. M a­
chinists also know the working p ro p ­
erties of a variety of metals including
steel, cast iron, alum inum, brass, and
other metals. This knowledge o f m et­
als, plus their ability to work with
m achine tools, enables m achinists to
turn a block of metal into an intricate
part m eeting precise specifications.
All-round machinists plan and c a r­
ry through all the operations needed
to m ake a machined product. They
also often are able to switch from
making one product to another; as a
result, variety is a m ajor feature of
all-round m achinists’ work.
Before they begin actually making
a m achined product, m achinists usu­
ally co n su lt b lu ep rin ts o r w ritten
specifications for th e item . Using
these, they are able to select tools
and m aterials for the job and plan the
cu ttin g and finishing o p e ra tio n s.
They also m ake standard shop com ­
putations relating to dimensions o f
work and machining specifications.
To be sure their work is accurate,
they check it using precision instru­
m ents, such as m icrom eters, which
measure to thousandths or even mil­
lionths o f an inch. A fter com pleting
machining operations, they may use
hand files and scrapers to sm ooth
rough m etal edges before assembling
the finished parts with wrenches and
Like production machinists, all­
round machinists who work in plant
m aintenance shops have a broad
knowledge of m echanical principles
and machining operations. These
workers are responsible for repairing


parts or making new parts for m a­
chinery th at has broken down. They
som etimes also adjust and test the
parts they have made or repaired for
a machine.

Places of Employment
About 400,000 persons worked as
machinists in 1976. Almost every
factory using substantial am ounts of
m achinery employed all-round m a­
chinists to m aintain its m echanical
equipm ent. Some all-round m achin­
ists made large quantities of identical
parts such as autom obile axle shafts
in production departm ents of m etal­
working factories; others m ade limit­
ed num bers of varied products such


as missile m otor cases in m achine
Most all-round machinists worked
in the following industries: m achin­
ery, including electrical; transporta­
tion e q u ip m e n t; fa b ric a te d m etal
products; and primary metals. O ther
in d u s trie s e m p lo y in g s u b s ta n tia l
num bers of these w orkers were the
railroad, chem ical, food processing,
and textile industries. The Federal
G overnm ent also em ployed all-round
machinists in Navy yards and other
Although machinists work in all
parts of the country, jobs are most
plentiful in areas where many facto­
ries are located. Among the leading

Most machinists work in factories that produce metal products such as automobiles

and machinery.

areas of em ploym ent are Los Ange­
les, C hicago, New Y ork, Philadel­
phia, B oston, San F ran cisco , and

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A 4-year formal apprenticeship is
the best way to learn the machinist
trade, but some com panies have
training program s for single-purpose
m achines that require less than 4
years to com plete. Many machinists
do learn this trade on the job, how­
Persons interested in becoming
machinists should be mechanically
inclined and tem peram entally suited
to do highly accurate work that re­
quires concentration as well as phys­
ical effort. P rospective m achinists
should be able to work independent­
ly. Although the work sometimes is
ted io u s and re p etitio u s, all-round
machinists frequently have the satis­
faction o f seeing the final results of
their work.
A high school or vocational school
education, including m athem atics,
physics, or m achine shop training, is
desirable. Some com panies require
experienced machinists to take addi­
tional courses in m athem atics and
electronics at com pany expense so
that they can service and operate nu­
merically controlled m achine tools.
In addition, equipm ent builders gen­
erally provide training in the electri­
cal, hydraulic, and m echanical as­
p e c ts o f m a c h i n e - a n d - c o n t r o l
Typical m achinist apprentice p ro ­
grams consist of approxim ately 8,000
hours o f shop training and about 570
hours o f related classroom instruc­
tion. In shop training, apprentices
learn chipping, filing, hand tapping,
dowel fitting, riveting, and the opera­
tion of various m achine tools. In the
classroom, they study blueprint read­
in g , m e c h a n ic a l d ra w in g , sh o p
m athem atics, and shop practices.
All-round machinists have num er­
ous opportunities for advancem ent.
M any b e c o m e su p erv iso rs. Som e
take additional training and becom e
tool-and-die or instrum ent m akers.
Skilled m achinists may open th eir
own shops o r ad vance into othe



technical jobs in m achine program ­
ming and tooling.

Employment Outlook
The num ber of all-round m achin­
ists is expected to increase at about
the same rate as the average for all
occupations through the m id-1980’s.
Growth in the dem and for m achined
m etal parts will cause m ost o f the
increase. In addition to openings cre­
ated by growth in this large occupa­
tion, many openings will arise from
the need to replace experienced m a­
chinists who retire, die, or transfer to
other fields of work.
As population and income rise, so
will the dem and for m achined goods,
such as autom obiles, household ap­
plian ces, and in d u strial p ro d u cts.
H ow ever, te c h n o lo g ic a l d e v e lo p ­
ments that increase the productivity
of machinists are expected to keep
em ploym ent from rising as fast as the
demand for m achined goods.
Chief among these technological
innovations is the expanding use of
m achine
tools. These machines, which use
com puters to co n tro l various m a­
chining operations, significantly re­
duce the time required to perform
machining operations.
Much of the em ploym ent growth
will occur in the m aintenance shops
of m anufacturing plants as industries
continue to use a greater volume of
complex machinery and equipm ent.
More skilled m aintenance machinists
will be n ee d ed to p re v en t costly
breakdow ns in highly m echanized
plants. Often the breakdown of just
one m achine can stop an entire pro­
duction line for hours.

Earnings and Working
The earnings of machinists com ­
pare favorably with those of other
sk ille d w o rk e rs. M a c h in ists e m ­
ployed in m etropolitan areas had es­
tim ated average hourly earnings of
$6.76 in 1976. Average hourly rates
in 10 of the areas surveyed, selected
to show how wage rates differ in var­
ious parts o f the country, appear in
the accbm panying tab u latio n . Be­
cause machinists work indoors, they
are able to work year round and in all

Hourly rate
San Francisco—Oakland.................. $7.82
New York...............................................
Minneapolis—St. Paul..........................
Dallas—Fort Worth...............................
New Orleans...........................................

kinds of weather. As a result, their
earnings are relatively stable. Many
also receive num erous opportunities
for overtim e work.
Machinists must follow strict safe­
ty regulations when working around
hig h -sp eed m achine tools. S hortsleeved shirts, safety glasses, and o th ­
er protective devices are required to
reduce accidents. M ost shops are
c le a n an d w o rk p la c e s are w elllighted.
Many machinists are members of
unions including the International
Association of M achinists and A ero­
space W o rk ers; the In te rn a tio n a l
U nion, U nited A utom obile, A e ro ­
space and A gricultural Im plem ent
W orkers o f A m erica; the In te rn a ­
tional Union of Electrical, Radio and
Machine W orkers; the International
B rotherhood of Electrical W orkers;
an d th e U n ited S te e lw o rk e rs o f

Sources of Additional
The National M achine Tool Build­
ers Association, 7901 W estpark Dr.,
M cLean, Va. 22101—whose m em ­
bers build a large percentage of all
machine tools used in this country—
will supply, on request, inform ation
on career opportunities in the m a­
chine tool industry.
The National Tool, Die and Preci­
sion M achining A ssociation, 9300
L iv in g sto n R d., O xon H ill, M d.
20022, offers inform ation on appren­
ticeship training, including reco m ­
m ended apprenticeship standards for
tool and die m akers certified by the
U.S. D epartm ent of L ab o r’s Bureau
of Apprenticeship and Training.
The Tool and Die Institute, 777
Busse Highway, Park Ridge, 111.
60068 — a trade association—offers
inform ation on apprenticeship train­
ing in the Chicago area.

M any local offices of State em ­
ploym ent services provide free apti­
tude testing to persons interested in*
becom ing all-round m achinists or
tool and diemakers. In addition, the
State em ploym ent service refers ap­
plicants for apprentice programs to
em ployers. In m any com m unities,
applications for apprenticeship also
are received by labor-m anagem ent
apprenticeship com m ittees.
A pprenticeship inform ation also
may be obtained from the following
unions (which have local offices in
many cities):
International Association of Machinists and
Aerospace Workers, 1300 Connecticut
Ave. NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.
International Union, United Automobile,
Aerospace and Agricultural Implement
Workers of America, Skilled Trades De­
partment, 8000 East Jefferson Ave., De­
troit, Mich. 48214.
International Union of Electrical Radio and
Machine Workers, 1126 16th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 600.280)

Nature of the Work
Instrum ent makers (also called ex­
perim ental m achinists and m odelm akers) are among the most skilled
of all m achining workers. They work
closely with engineers and scientists
to translate designs and ideas into
experim ental models, special labora­
tory equipm ent, and custom instru­
m ents. E xperim ental devices c o n ­
structed by these craft workers are
used, for example, to regulate heat,
m e a su re d is ta n c e , re c o rd e a r t h ­
quakes, and control industrial p ro ­
cesses. The parts and m odels may
range from simple gears to intricate
parts of navigation systems for guid­
ed missiles. Instrum ent m akers also
modify existing instrum ents for spe­
cial purposes.
Instrum ent m akers perform many
tasks similair to those done by all­
round machinists, tool-and-die m ak­
ers, and setup workers. For example



they may set up and use m achine
tools such as lathes and milling m a­
chines to fabricate metal parts for the
instruments they make. In addition,
they use handtools such as files and
chisels to smooth rough metal parts.
As in other types of machining work,
accuracy is im portant. Like most m a­
chining workers, instrum ent makers
measure finished parts to make sure
they m eet sp ecificatio n s, using a
wide variety of precision measuring
equipm ent, including m icrom eters,
verniers, calipers, and dial indicators,
as well as standard optical measuring
U nlike o th e r skilled m achining
w orkers, instru m en t m akers often
are not given detailed instructions,
such as blueprints, for their work.
Instead, they may work from rough
sketches or verbal instructions, or
they may simply be given a concept
to work with. As a result, their work
often requires considerable imagina­
tion and ingenuity. In addition they
must often work to finer tolerances
th a n o th e r m a c h in in g w o rk e rs.

Som etim es specifications m ust not
vary more than 10 millionths o f an
inch. To m eet these standards, they
use special equipm ent or precision
devices, such as the electronic height
gauge, which other machining w ork­
ers seldom use. They also work with
a wider variety of materials than o th ­
er machining workers. These m ateri­
als include plastics and rare metals
such as titanium and rhodium.
In some instances, instrum ent
makers work on instrum ents from
start to finish. T hat is, they make all
the parts, assemble them , and then
test the finished product. However,
in large shops, or where time is im ­
p o rtan t, the work may be divided
among a num ber of workers. Similar­
ly, if an instrum ent has electrical or
electro n ic com ponents, electronic
specialists may be consulted.

Places of Employment
Many o f the approxim ately 6,000
instrum ent m akers employed in 1976
worked for firms that m anufactured
instrum ents. Others were in research

Instrument makers work closely with engineers and scientists.

and developm ent laboratories that
make special devices for scientific
research. The Federal Governm ent
em ployed many instrum ent makers.
The main centers of instrum ent
making are located in and around a
few large cities, particularly New
York, Chicago, Los Angeles, Boston,
Philadelphia, W ashington, D etroit,
Buffalo, and Cleveland.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Some instrum ent m akers advance
from the ranks of machinists or
skilled m achine tool operators.
These already skilled craft workers
begin by doing the sim pler instru­
m ent making tasks under close su­
pervision. Usually 1 to 2 years or
more of instrum ent shop experience
are needed to qualify as instrum ent
O ther instrum ent makers learn
their trade through apprenticeships
that generally last 4 years. A typical
4-year program includes 8,000 hours
of shop training and 576 hours of
related classroom instruction. Shop
training emphasizes the use of m a­
chine tools, handtools, and m easur­
ing in stru m en ts, and the w orking
p ro p e rtie s o f v a rio u s m a te ria ls .
Classroom instruction covers related
technical subjects such as m athem at­
ics, physics, blueprint reading, chem ­
istry, m etallurgy, elec tro n ics, and
fundam ental instrum ent design. A p­
prentices m ust learn enough shop
m athem atics to plan their work and
to use formulas. A basic knowledge
of m echanical principles is needed in
solving gear and linkage problems.
For apprenticeship programs, em ­
ployers generally prefer high school
graduates who have taken algebra,
geom etry, trigonom etry, science, and
m achine shopwork. F urther techni­
cal schooling in electricity, physics,
m achine design, and electronics of­
ten is desirable, and may make possi­
ble future prom otions to technician
Persons interested in becoming in­
s tru m e n t m a k e rs sh o u ld hav e a
strong interest in m echanical sub­
jects and better than average ability
to work with their hands. They must
have initiative and resourcefulness



becau se in stru m en t m akers often
work with little or no supervision.
Since instrum ent m akers often face
new problems, they must be able to
develop original solutions. F requent­
ly, they must visualize the relation­
ship between individual parts and the
complete instrum ent, and must un­
derstand the principles of the instru­
m ent’s operation. Because of the na­
ture of their jobs, instrum ent m akers
have to be very conscientious and
take considerable pride in creative
As instrum ent m akers’ skills and
knowledge im prove, they may ad ­
vance to m ore responsible positions.
For example, they may plan and esti­
m ate time and m aterial requirem ents
for the m anufacture o f instrum ents
o r provide specialized su p p o rt to
professional personnel. Others may
becom e supervisors and train less
skilled instrum ent makers.

Employment Outlook
Employment in this very small oc­
cupation is expected to increase at
about the same rate as the average
for all occupations through the mid1980’s. M ost openings, however, will
occur as workers retire, die, or leave
the o ccu p atio n for o th e r reasons.
Overall, replacem ent needs will be
small because there are so few w ork­
ers in this field.
Some workers will be needed to
make m odels of new instrum ents for
mass production and also to make
custom or special instrum ents, p ar­
ticularly in the expanding field o f in­
dustrial autom ation. Also, more ver­
s a t i l e a n d s e n s i t i v e p r e c i s io n
in s tru m e n ts can be e x p e c te d to
em erge from cu rren t research and
developm ent programs. Laborsaving
technological innovations, however,
will limit em ploym ent growth. N u­
m erically controlled m achine tools,
for example, reduce the am ount of
labor required in machining opera­

Earnings and Working
Earnings of instrum ent m akers
com pare favorably with those of o th ­
er highly skilled m etalw orkers. In
1976, instrum ent m akers generally
earned about
 $7 an hour.

Instrum ent shops usually are clean
and well-lighted, with tem peratures
strictly controlled. Instrum ent assem ­
bly rooms are som etimes known as
“ white room s,” because almost ster­
ile conditions are m aintained.
Serious work accidents are not
com m on, but m achine tools and
flying m etal particles may cause fin­
ger, hand, and eye injuries. Safety
rules generally require the wearing o f
special glasses, aprons, tightly fitted
clothes, and short-sleeved shirts.
Many instrum ent m akers are union
members. Among the unions rep re­
senting them are the International
Association o f Machinists and A ero­
space W o rk ers; th e In te rn a tio n a l
B rotherhood of Electrical W orkers;
and the International Union, United
Autom obile, A erospace and Agricul­
tural Im plem ent W orkers o f A m er­

Sources of Additional
See the list under this same head­
ing in the previous statem ent on all­
round machinists.

(D.O.T. 602., 603., 604., 605., and

ing m achine operator and drill press
Most m achine tool operators fall
into the semiskilled category. Their
jobs vary according to the type of
machine they work with; however,
there are many tasks com m on to
most m achine tools. Typically, semi­
skilled operators place rough m etal
stock in a machine tool on which the
speeds and operation sequence al­
ready have been set by skilled w ork­
ers. By using sp ecial, easy-to-use
gauges they watch the machine and
make m inor adjustm ents. However,
they depend on skilled m achining
workers for m ajor adjustm ents when
their m achine is not working proper­
tyThe work of skilled m achine tool
operators is similar to that of all­
round machinists, except that it usu­
ally is lim ited to only one type of
m achine and involves little or no
h a n d fittin g o r asse m b ly w o rk .
Skilled m achine tool operators plan
and set up the correct sequence of
m achining operations according to
blueprints, layouts, or other instruc­
tions. They adjust speed, feed, and
other controls, and select the proper
cutting instrum ents or tools for each
operation. Using m icrom eters, gaug­
es, and other precision m easuring in­
strum ents, they com pare the com ­
pleted work with the tolerance limits
given in the specifications. They also
may select cutting oils to keep the

Nature of the Work
M achine tool operators use m a­
chine tools such as lathes, drill press­
es, milling m achines, grinding m a­
chines, and punch presses to shape
m etal to p recise dim ensions. A l­
though som e o p e ra to rs can w ork
with a wide variety of machine tools,
most specialize in one or two types.
O perators fall into two broad skill
categories—semiskilled and skilled.
Semiskilled operators are essentially
m achine tenders who perform sim­
ple, repetitive operations that can be
learned relatively quickly. Skilled o p ­
erators can perform varied and com ­
plex m ach in in g o p e ra tio n s. B oth
skilled an d sem iskilled o p e ra to rs
have job titles related to the kind o f
m achine they operate, such as mill­

Machine tool operators must adjust ma­
chines with precision.



Although no special education is requirem ents th at will result from
required for semiskilled jobs, persons technological advances.
seeking such work can improve their
opportunities by com pleting courses
Earnings and Working
in m athem atics and blueprint read­
Places of Employment
ing. In hiring beginners, employers
M achine tool operators are paid
More than 500,000 m achine tool often look for persons with m echani­
operators were em ployed in 1976. cal ap titu d e and som e experience according to hourly or incentive
Most worked in factories that pro­ w orking with m achinery. Physical rates, or on the basis o f a com bina­
d u ce fa b ric a te d m etal p ro d u c ts, stamina is im portant since much time tion of both methods. Highly skilled
transportation equipm ent, and m a­ is spent standing. Applicants should operators in m etropolitan areas had
chinery in large quantities. Skilled be able to work independently. They estim ated hourly earnings of $7.11 in
machine tool operators also worked also should not mind working in a 1976. This com pares favorably with
in production departm ents, m ainte­ relatively small workspace. Although the average for nonsupervisory work­
much of the work is tedious, many ers in private industry, except farm ­
nance departm ents, and toolrooms.
M achine tool operators work in machine tool operators derive satis­ ing. Average hourly rates in 10 of the
every State and in almost every city faction from seeing the results o f areas surveyed, selected to show how
in the United States. They are con­ their work.
wage rates of m achine tool operators
centrated, however, in major indus­
Skilled m achine tool operators differ in various parts of the country,
trial areas such as the G reat Lakes may becom e all-round machinists, appear in the accom panying tabula­
Region. A bout one-fourth of all m a­ tool-and-die m akers, or advance to tion.
chine to o l o p erato rs work in the jobs in m achine program ming and
G reat Lakes cities of D etroit, Flint, m aintenance.
Hourly rate
Chicago, Cleveland, and Milwaukee.
Detroit................................................. $7.89
Am ong th e o th er areas th at have
Employment Outlook
large num bers of these workers are
7 .14
Los Angeles, Philadelphia, St. Louis,
Job opportunities for m achine tool St. Louis..............................................
and Indianapolis.
operators should be fairly plentiful in Baltimore................................................
the years ahead. Em ploym ent in the Cincinnati...............................................
occupation is expected to increase Houston..................................................
Training, Other Qualifications,
about as fast as the average for all Minneapolis—St. Paul..........................
and Advancement
occupations through the m id-1980’s. Dallas—FortWorth................................
5 .76
Most m achine tool operators learn In addition to openings arising from
their skills on the job. Beginners usu­ growth, many thousands of openings
M ost shops are clean and w ork­
ally start by simply observing experi­ are expected to occur each year in
enced operators at work. Later they this large occupation as operators places are well-lighted. M achine tool
learn to use m easuring instrum ents retire, die, or transfer to other fields operators must use protective glasses
to protect their eyes from flying m et­
and to m ake elem entary com puta­ of work.
More m achine tool operators will al particles. They cannot wear loosetions n eed ed in shopw ork. W hen
trainees first operate a m achine, they be needed as m etalw orking indus­ fitting garm ents as these might get
are supervised closely by more expe­ tries expand their output. However, caught in the m achine, injuring the
rienced workers. After gaining some the use o f faster and more versatile operator or causing damage to the
experience themselves, beginners of­ autom atic machine tools and num eri­ machine.
Most m achine tool operators be­
ten take over more o f the duties asso­ cally controlled m achine tools will
ciated with the tools they operate. result in greater output per worker long to unions, including the Interna­
For example, they may learn to ad­ a n d te n d to lim it e m p lo y m e n t tional Association of Machinists and
just feed speeds and cutting edges, growth. O ther factors that may slow A erospace W orkers; the Internation­
instead of calling upon other workers growth in this occupation are the in­ al Union, United A utom obile, A ero­
to perform these tasks. Some also creasingly im portant new processes space and A gricultural Im plem ent
may learn to read blueprints and plan in m etalw orking, such as electrical W orkers o f A m erica; the In tern a­
discharge and ultrasonic machining, tional Union of Electrical, Radio and
the sequence of machining work.
Individual ability and effort largely and the use o f powdered metals that M achine W orkers; the International
determ ine the time required to be­ reduce the machining necessary for a B rotherhood o f Electrical W orkers;
an d th e U n ited S te e lw o rk e rs o f
come a m achine tool operator. Most final product.
W o rk e rs w ith th o ro u g h b a c k ­ America.
semiskilled operators learn their jobs
in a few m onths, but becom ing a grounds in m achining o p eratio n s,
skilled operator often requires I to 2 m athem atics, blueprint reading, and
Sources of Additional
years. Some com panies have formal a good w orking know ledge o f the
training program s for new em ploy­ properties o f m etals will be better
able to adjust to the changing jo b
See the list under this same headmetal workpiece from getting too hot
and lubricating oils to keep the m a­
chine tools running smoothly.



ing in the statem ent on all-round m a­
chinists elsewhere in the Handbook.

(D.O.T. 600.380)

Nature of the Work
M achine tools used in shops that
do m achining in large volume usually

are both very large and very com ­
plex. Setup workers, often called m a­
chine tool jo b setters, are skilled
workers who specialize in preparing
these tools for use. Most setup w ork­
ers work on only one type of m a­
chine, such as a drill press o r lathe;
however, some set up several differ­
ent kinds.
Before they begin preparing a m a­
chine for use, setup workers consult
blueprints, written specifications, o r
job layouts. From these they can d e­
term ine how fast the m aterial to be
m achined should be fed into the m a­

chine, operating speeds, tooling, and
the order in which the m achine will
perform its operations (operation se­
quence). They then select and install
the proper cutting or other tools and
adjust guides, stops, and other co n ­
After setting up the m achine, they
usually m ake a trial run to be sure
that it is running smoothly and p ro ­
ducing parts that conform to specifi­
cations. W hen they are sure the m a­
chine is functioning properly, they
explain to semiskilled operators how
to run the m achine and how to be
sure that the m achine’s output meets
specifications. They then turn the
m achine over to the semiskilled op ­
erators to begin production.

Places of Employment
In 1976, an estim ated 60,000 setup
workers were em ployed in factories
that m anufactured fabricated metal
products, transportation equipm ent,
and machinery. Most worked for
large com panies that employed many
semiskilled m achine tool operators.
Setup w orkers usually are not em ­
ployed in m aintenance shops or in
small jobbing shops.
Setup workers are found in every
State. However, em ploym ent is co n ­
cen trated in m ajor industrial areas
such as Los Angeles, Philadelphia,
New Y ork, C hicago, D etroit, and

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Setup workers must m eet the same
qualifications as all-round m achin­
ists. They must be able to operate
one or m ore kinds o f machine tools
and select the sequence of operations
so that m etal parts will be made ac­
cording to specifications. The ability
to com m unicate clearly is im portant
in explaining the machining o p era­
tions to semiskilled workers. Setup
workers may advance within a shop
to supervisory jobs or transfer into
o th er jobs, such as parts program ­

Employment Outlook
Setup worker in a turret lathe operation.

Em ployment of setup workers is
expected to increase about as fast as



the average for all occupations
through the m id-1980’s. Although
consum er and industrial dem and for
machined goods will grow, partly off­
setting this will be greater productiv­
ity of setup workers due to the in­
c re a s in g use o f n u m e ric a lly
controlled m achined tools. In these
m achine tools, cu ttin g sequences,
feed speeds, tool selection, and other
operations are controlled by a com ­
puter. M ost job o p portunities will
arise from the need to replace experi­
enced w orkers who retire, die, or
transfer to other occupations.

Earnings and Working
The earnings of setup workers
com pare favorably with those of oth­
er sk illed m ach in in g w orkers. In
1976, setup workers in m etropolitan
areas had average earnings of about
$7 an hour.
Because they work with high­
speed m achine tools that have sharp
cutting edges, setup workers must
follow certain safety practices. For
example, they cannot wear loosefitting clothes as these might get
caught in the m achine and they must
wear safety goggles to protect their
eyes from flying m etal particles.
Many setup workers are members
of unions, including the International
Association of M achinists and A ero­
space W o rk ers; th e In tern atio n al
U nion, U nited A utom obile, A ero­
space and A gricultural Im plem en
W orkers o f America; and the United
Steelworkers of America.

ucts—tools, dies, and special guiding
and holding devices—are used by
o th er m achining w orkers to massp ro d u c e m etal p arts. T o o lm ak ers
produce jigs and fixtures (devices
th at hold m etal while it is shaved,
stam ped, or drilled). They also make
gauges and other m easuring devices
used in m anufacturing precision m et­
al parts. Diem akers construct metal
forms (dies) to shape m etal in stam p­
ing and forging operations. They also
make m etal molds for diecasting and
for m olding plastics. T ool-and-die
makers also repair worn or dam aged
dies, gauges, jigs, and fixtures, and
design tools and dies.
C om pared with m ost o th er m a­
chining workers, tool-and-die m akers
have a b ro ad er knowledge o f m a­
chining o p e ra tio n s, m ath em atics,

and blueprint reading. Like m achin­
ists, tool-and-die m akers use almost
every type of m achine tool and preci­
sion measuring instrum ent. Because
they work with all the m etals and
alloys com m only used in m anufac­
turing, tool-and-die m akers must be
familiar with the machining proper­
ties, such as heat tolerance, of a wide
variety o f metals and alloys.

Places of Employment
M ore than 180,000 tool-and-die
m ak ers w ere em p lo y ed in 1976.
Most worked in plants that produce
m an u fa ctu rin g , c o n stru c tio n , and
farm m achinery. O thers worked in
autom obile, aircraft, and other trans­
portation equipm ent industries; small

Sources of Additional
See the list under this same head­
ing in the statem ent on all-round m a­
chinists elsewhere in the Handbook.

(D.O.T. 601.280, .281, and .381)

Nature of the Work
T ool-and-die m akers are highly
skilled, creative workers whose prod­

Tool-and-die makers must have a broad knowledge of machine operations.


to o l-an d -d ie shops; and electrical
machinery and fabricated metal in­
Although tool-and-die m akers are
situated throughout the country, jobs
are most plentiful in areas where
many large factories are located.
About one-fifth of all tool-and-die
makers work in the D etroit and Flint,
Chicago, and Los Angeles areas,
which are major m anufacturing cen­
ters for autom obiles, machinery, and
a irc ra ft, resp ectiv ely . A m ong the
other areas that have large num bers
of these workers are Cleveland, New
York, Newark, Dayton, and Buffalo.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Tool-and-die m akers obtain their
skills in a variety of ways including
formal apprenticeship, vocational
school, and on-the-job training. For­
mal apprenticeship program s, how­
ever, are probably the best way to
learn the trade.
In selecting apprentices, most em ­
ployers p refer persons with a high
school or trad e school education.
Applicants should have a good work­
ing knowledge of m athem atics and
physics, as well as considerable m e­
chanical ability, finger dexterity, and
an aptitude for precise work. Some
employers test apprentice applicants
to determ ine their m echanical apti­
tudes and their abilities in m athem at­
Most of the 4 years o f a tool-anddie apprenticeship are spent in prac­
tical shop training. A pprentices learn
to operate the drill press, milling m a­
chine, lathe, grinder, and other m a­
chine tools. They also learn to use
handtools in fitting and assembling
tools, gauges, and other m echanical
equipm ent, and study heat treating
and oth er m etalw orking processes.
Classroom training consists of shop
m athem atics, shop theory, m echani­
cal drawing, tool designing, and blue­
print reading. Several years of expe­
rience after apprenticeship are often


necessary to qualify for more diffi­
cult tool-and-die work. Some com pa­
nies have sep arate ap p ren ticesh ip
program s for toolm aking and d ie­
Some m achining workers becom e
tool-and-die m akers w ithout co m ­
pleting formal apprenticeships. A fter
years of experience as skilled m a­
chine tool operators or machinists,
plus additional classroom training,
they develop into skilled all-round
w orkers who can m ake tools and
Skilled tool-and-die makers have
num erous paths for advancem ent.
Some advance to supervisory and
administrative positons in industry.
Many tool-and-die m akers becom e
tool designers and others may open
their own tool-and-die shops.

Employment Outlook

Earnings and Working
Tool-and-die m akers are among
the highest paid machining workers.
In 1976, tool-and-die m akers em ­
ployed in m etropolitan areas had es­
tim ated earnings of $7.21 an hour.
This was ab o u t one and o n e-h alf
times as much as the average for all
nonsupervisory workers in private in­
d u stry , e x c e p t fa rm in g . A v erag e
hourly rates in 13 of the areas sur­
veyed, selected to show how wage
rates for tool-and-die makers differ
in various parts of the country, ap­
pear in the accom panying tabulation.

Hourly rate

San Francisco—Oakland..................... $8.87
7.6 1
7 .18
7 .0 7
Dallas—Fort Worth...............................
New York...........................................
Salt Lake C ity...................................
5 .5 6

Em ployment of tool-and-die m ak­
ers is expected to increase at about
the same rate as the average for all
occupations through the m id-1980’s.
Most openings, however, will occur
as experienced tool-and-die m akers
retire, die, or transfer to other fields
of work.
The long-range expansion in m et­
As with other m achining workers,
alworking industries will result in a tool-and-die makers wear protective
continued need for tools and dies. glasses when working around m etal­
The growth of this occupation may c u ttin g m a c h in e s. T o o l-a n d -d ie
be limited, however, by the use of shops are usually safer than similar
electrical discharge m achines and operations in production plants.
Many tool-and-die makers are
numerically controlled machines that
have significantly changed toolm ak­ mem bers of unions, including the In­
ing p ro c e sse s. N u m eric ally c o n ­ ternational Union, United A utom o­
trolled machining operations require bile, Aerospace and Agricultural Im­
fewer of the special tools and jigs and plem ent W orkers o f A m erica; and
fixtures, and could increase the o u t­ the United Steelworkers of America.
put of each tool-and-die maker.
The extensive skills and knowledge
Sources of Additional
of tool-and-die m akers can be a c ­
quired only after many years of expe­
See the list under this same head­
rience. Because of this, tool-and-die
ing in the statem ent on all-round m a­
makers are able to change jobs w ith­
in the machining occupations m ore chinists elsewhere in the Handbook.
easily than other less skilled workers.



1976, about 390,0000 printing
workers were em ployed to pro­
new spapers, m agazines, busi­
form s, and hundreds o f other

p rin ted m aterials. A lth o u g h m ost
worked for publishers and com m er­
cial printing shops, many had jobs in
insurance com panies, p ap e r mills,

Most job openings in the printing occupations are to
replace persons who retire or leave their jobs for
other reasons
Selected printing occupations
Average annual openings, 1976-85 (in thousands)
Bookbinder and related

Composing room workers

Lithographic workers

Printing press operators
and assistants
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics






governm ent agencies, and many o th ­
er organizations that do their own
Printing craft workers usually spe­
cialize in one area o f printing opera­
tions: Type com position, platem ak­
ing, presswork, or binding. The most
com m on way to learn the skills need­
ed in m ost o f these fields is through
apprenticeship, which generally lasts
from 4 to 6 years. A pprenticeship
a p p lic a n ts u su ally m u st be high
school graduates who are at least 18
years of age, but requirem ents vary
am ong em p lo y ers. M ost p rin tin g
craft w orkers who are covered by
union contracts work fewer than 40
hours a week. Some contracts specify
a standard workweek of less than 35
hours, but most fall within a 35- to
37-1/2-hour range.
Through the m id-1980’s, opp ortu­
nities to en ter printing crafts will
stem mainly from the need to replace
experienced workers who retire, die,
or leave the field for other reasons.
Employment growth also will provide
job openings in some crafts, but la­
borsav in g tech n o lo g ic a l d e v e lo p ­
ments will restrict growth in others.
T he statem ents th a t follow deal
with em ploym ent opportunities for
the m ajor groups of printing workers:
Composing room occupations, pho­
toengravers, electrotypers and ste­
reotypers, printing press operators
and assistants, lith o g rap h ers, and

There will be fewer jobs in some printing occupations
in 1985 than in 1976, due to improved technology

Percent change in employment, 1976-85

(D.O.T. 650.582, 654.782, and

Electrotypers and

Nature of the Work

■ 1
Printing press operators
and assistants
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

In a small shop, one person may do
all the worked needed to com plete a
printing job. In large shops however,
the work is divided among special­
ists. Editors select the m aterial to be
p r in te d , w hile c o m p o sin g ro o m
workers prepare prelim inary printing
plates for press room workers who do
the actual printing. Com positors, the
m ost num erous o f the com posing
room occupations, are vital to insur47


ing that the job is com pleted accu­
rately and on time.
After deciding what is to be
printed and how it should look, edi­
tors send the m aterial or “ c o p y ”
along with a list of specifications to
the composing room. There, a com ­
posing room supervisor reviews the
editor’s specifications and marks the
m anuscript with instructions about
the style and size o f type, colum n
width, and size of pictures or illustra­
tions. The copy—the term given to
the m aterial to be printed—then is


given to a com positor who specializ­
es in typesetting.
973.381) make up the oldest com ­
posing room o c c u p a tio n . T o d ay ,
hand ty p esettin g only is used for
small jobs in which the setting of type
by m ach in e is im p ra c tic a l. H and
typesetters read from the copy and
set each line of type, letter by letter,
on a “ com positing stick,” a device
that holds type in place. They select
the place where words will be divided
and a hyphen placed if the w ord

 compositor apprenticeship generally covers a 6-year period.

doesn’t fit on a line (hyphenation), as
well as adjust the spacing of the type
with pieces of metal so that the line
o f type will be the width of the col­
umn. As each “ stick” is filled, they
slide the com pleted lines into a shal­
low metal tray called “ galley.”
Linotype and m onotype m achine
operators are craft workers who op ­
erate sem iautom atic m achines th at
set type m uch m ore rapidly th an
hand methods.
(D.O.T. 650.582) read from copy
clipped to the m achine and operate a
keyboard to select letters and other
characters. As they press the keys,
metal molds o f the letters are assem ­
bled into lines o f words. After com ­
pleting a line, operators touch a lever
and the m achine autom atically fills
the molds with lead, forming a line of
type into a solid m etal strip called a
“ slug.” The slugs are assembled into
the type fram es from which printing
plates are made.
(D.O.T. 650.582) also operate a key­
board m achine. However, instead of
selecting metal molds, the m onotype
machine produces a perforated p a­
per tape, monotype keyboard opera­
tors or monotype caster operators
(D.O.T. 650.782) feed the tape into
a m achine that reads the tape and
autom atically select metal molds for
each letter. The m achine then forces
molten m etal into each mold to form
the type.
While m achines m ake their tasks
easier, m onotype and linotype m a­
chine operators must hyphenate and
adjust type spacing to fit the width of
colum ns. In small plants, operators
also may maintain and repair typeset­
ting machines.
Some typesetting will continue to
be done by hand or with m onotype
and linotype machines. However,
more and m ore firms are using p h o ­
totypesetting m achines, which can
set type m uch m ore rapidly than lino­
type or m onotype m achines. W ith
this equipm ent, a photographic p ro ­
cess replaces the casting of type and
the final product is a photographic
film of the type rather than a m etal
In a com m on type of phototypeset­
tin g , a p h o to ty p e s e tte r (D .O .T .
650.582) types in the text without


regard to column width or hyphen­
ation and produces a m agnetic or
perforated paper tape. The operator
then feeds the tape containing the
text into a co m p u ter th at is p ro ­
grammed to do hyphenation and cre­
ate columns of text. The com puter
creates a second ta p e —containing
the text as it will appear when print­
ed—that phototypesetters insert into
a photocom position m achine. This
machine displays the individual char­
acters on the tape and photographs
them. The photo typesetter then de­
velops films of the m aterial to be
The most advanced method of
typesetting uses electronic p h o to ­
ty p esettin g eq u ip m en t. W ith this
equipm ent, an operator uses a key­
board to select the size and style of
type to select column width and pro­
vide spacing instructions, as well as
to store each character in a com put­
er. The com puter then displays col­
umns of type on a screen that is simi­
lar to a TV picture tube. Operators
visually check the text and make any
required corrections. They then pho­
tograph the screen to obtain a film of
the m aterial. T hese m achines can
prepare entire pages of type and any
accompanying pictures instead of a
single line o f type.
After the copy is set, typesetters
pass it to other com positors who ar­
range the columns of type, pictures,
and illustrations according to the de­
sired layout for each page. If 3etter
press printing equipm ent are being
used, they assemble the metal type
and photoengravings in a large metal
frame that clamps all the pieces to­
gether. If lithographic film equip­
ment is being used, they cut the film
of type and pictures and tape the
pieces in place. Either m ethod results
in a preliminary printing plate.
After arranging all the pages of a
particular job in p ro per sequence,
co m p o sito rs use a p ro o f press to
make a test of the entire job. Page
proofs are checked with the original
copy for errors and returned to the
editor for final changes. After final
changes have been put into the type,
the plate is sent to the pressroom
where production printing plates are


Places of Employment
About 152,000 workers were em ­
ployed in composing room occupa­
tions in 1976. About one-third work
for new spaper plants. Many others
work for com m ercial printing plants,
book and m agazine p rin ters, and
F ed eral, S tate, and local g o v ern ­
ments. Some work for banks, insur­
ance com panies, advertising agen­
cies, m anufacturers, and other firms
that do their own printing.
Composing room workers are lo­
cated in alm ost every com m unity
throughout the country, but they are
concentrated in large cities.

Training and Other
Individuals who want to be all­
round skilled com positors usually
learn their skills through apprentice­
ship programs.
Generally, apprenticeship covers a
6-year period of progressively a d ­
vanced training, supplem ented by
classroom instruction or correspon­
dence courses. However, this period
may be shortened by as much as 2 to
2-1/2 years for apprentices who have
had previous experience or schooling
or who show the ability to learn the
trade m ore rapidly.
After basic training as a hand com ­
positor, the apprentice receives in­
tensive training in one specialized
field or m ore, such as in the opera­
tion of typesetting machines, includ­
ing phototypesetting m achines, as
well as in specialized work in hand
composition and photocom position.
Applicants for apprenticeship gen­
erally m ust be high school graduates
and in good physical condition. They
usually are given aptitude tests. Im­
portant qualifications include train­
ing in m athem atics and English, es­
pecially spelling. Printing and typing
courses in vocational or high schools
are good preparation for apprentice­
ship applicants, and a general back­
ground in electronics and photogra­
phy is becoming increasingly useful.
Artistic ability is an asset for a com ­
positor in layout work. Many techni­
cal institutes, ju n io r colleges, and
colleges offer courses in printing
technology, which provide a valuable
background for people who are inter­

ested in becom ing all-round com ­
More and more com positors are
bypassing the traditional apprentice
approach and learning the work
through on-the-job experience. P er­
sons with good typing skills can learn
to be phototypesetting m achine op­
erators in a relatively short period of
tim e. T hese w orkers need not be
trained as skilled com positors but
they must be familiar with printing
terms and measurem ents.

Employment Outlook
Employment in composing room
occupations is expected to decline
through the m id-1980’s. N everthe­
less, a few thousand job openings are
expected each year as experienced
workers retire, die, or change occu­
In spite of the anticipated expan­
sion in the volume of printing, em ­
ployment in composing room occu­
p a tio n s is e x p e c te d to d e c lin e
because of the trend to high-speed
p h o to ty p e se ttin g and ty p esettin g
com puters. These high speed m a­
chines require fewer operators than
the traditional hot metal method of
For the jobs that do become avail­
able, opportunities should be best for
persons who have com pleted post
high school program s in printing
technology, such as those offered by
technical institutes and junior colleg­
es. Many em ployers prefer to hire
applicants who have tom pleted these
program s because the com prehen­
sive training that they receive helps
them learn composing room trades
and adapt to new processes and tech ­
niques more rapidly.
Although most job opportunities
will continue to be in the printing
industry, a growing num ber will be
found in other industries, such as
paper and textile mills, which are
doing their own typesetting instead
of contracting it to printing firms.

Earnings and Working
Union com positors on the day shift
in newspaper plants had an estim ated
average minimum rate of $7.91 an
hour in 1976, according to a survey



of 69 large cities. This rate was about
one-half more than the average for
nonsupervisory workers in all private
industries, except farming.
W orking conditions for com posi­
tors vary from plant to plant. Some
heat and noise are made by typeset­
ting m achines. In general, the new
plants are well-lighted and clean, and
m any are a ir-c o n d itio n e d . H and
com positors have to stand for long
periods and do some heavy lifting.
People with some types of physical
handicaps, such as deafness, have
been able to work in the trade.

Sources of Additional
Details about apprenticeship and
other training opportunities may be
obtained from local employers, such
as newspapers and printing shops,
the local office of the International
Typographical Union, or the local
office of the State em ploym ent ser­
For general inform ation 6n com ­
posing room occupations, write to:
American Newspaper Publishers Association,
11600 Sunrise Valley Dr., Reston, Va.
Graphic Arts Technical Foundation, 4615
Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 15213.
International Typographic Composition Asso­
ciation, Inc., 2233 Wisconsin Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20007.

as cam era operators, artists, strip­
pers, and platem akers.
972.382) start the process of making
a lithographic plate by photograph­
ing and developing negatives of the
m aterial to be printed. They general­
ly are classified as line cam era opera­
tors, h alfto n e o p erato rs, or co lo r
separation photographers. Negatives
may need retouching to lighten or
darken certain parts. Lithographic
artists (D.O.T. 972.281) make these
corrections by sharpening or reshap­
ing images on the negatives. They do
the work by hand, using chemicals,
dyes, and special tools. Like cam era
operators, they are assigned to only
one phase of the work, and may have
job titles such as d o t etchers, re ­
touchers, or letterers.
Strippers (D .O .T . 971.281 ) a r ­
range and paste the negatives onto
layout sheets, w hich are used by
platem akers to m ake press plates.
Platem akers (D.O.T. 972.78 1) cover
the surface of flat pieces of m etal
w ith a c o a tin g o f p h o to se n sitiv e
chemicals, or may use plates with the
coating already applied. They then
put the layout sheet on top of the
p late and expose b o th to b rig h t
lights. As the final step, platem akers
tre a t the plate with chem icals to
bring out the images o f the m aterial
to be printed. When a large num ber

Printing Industries of America, Inc., 1730 N.
Lynn St., Arlington, Va. 22209.

Nature of the Work
Lithography, also called offset
printing, is one of the most rapidly
growing m ethods of printing. It is a
process of photographing the m atter
to be printed, making a printing plate
from the photograph, and pressing
the inked plate against a rubber plate
which in turn presses it onto the
Lithographers are responsible for a
variety of printing activities ranging
from photographing copy and pic­
tures to m aking the final printing
plates. M ost lithographers are divid­
ed into specialized occupations such

of plates or a multiple num ber of im­
ages are needed, operators use a pho­
tocom position machine.

Places of Employment
About 29,000 skilled lithographers
were employed in 1976. Many work
for com m ercial printing plants, news­
p a p e rs, and b ook and m agazin e
printers. Some w ork for the U.S.
Governm ent Printing Office.
Although lithographic workers are
located in all parts of the country,
most are employed in large cities.

Training and Other
A 4- or 5-year apprenticeship p ro ­
gram usually is required in order to
become a well-rounded lithographic
craft worker. These program s may
emphasize a specific craft, such as
cam era operator or lithographic art­
ist, although an attem pt is made to
make the apprentice familiar with all
lithographic operations.
Usually, apprenticeship applicants
must be in good physical condition,
high school graduates, and at least 18
years of age. Aptitude tests usually
are given to prospective apprentices
to determ ine if they are suited for the
Many technical institutes, junior
colleges, and colleges offer 2-year
programs in printing technology,
w hich p ro v id e a v alu a b le b a c k ­
ground for persons who are interest­
ed in learning lithographic crafts.
High school and vocational school
training in printing, p h otograp h y ,
m athem atics, chemistry, physics, and
art also are helpful.

Employment Outlook

Many technical institutes, junior colleges,
and colleges offer 2-year programs in
printing technology.

Employment of lithographers is ex­
pected to increase faster than the av­
erage for all occupations through the
m id-1980’s. In addition to the job
openings resulting from em ploym ent
growth, the need to replace workers
who retire, die, or change occupa­
tions will provide some openings.
Em ployment of lithographic w ork­
ers is expected to increase in re ­
sponse to the continued growth of
offset printing. Com m ercial printing
firms and new spaper publishers in­



creasingly are using offset printing
methods instead of letterpresses. Em ­
ployment growth also will be stimu­
lated by the greater use of photo­
g ra p h s an d d ra w in g s in p rin te d
m atter, and by the m ore widespread
use of color in many printed prod­
Employment opportunities should
be best for people who have com plet­
ed p o st-h ig h sch o o l p ro g ram s in
printing technology, such as those of­
fered by technical institutes and ju ­
nior colleges. Many employers prefer
to hire applicants who have com plet­
ed these program s because the com ­
p re h e n siv e train in g th ey receiv e
helps them learn lithography and
adapt more rapidly to new processes
and techniques.

Earnings and Working
Based on a survey o f union wages
in 69 large cities, it is estim ated that
in 1976, average minimum wages for
lithographic artists w ere $8.98; for
strippers $8.67; for cam era operators
$8.78; and platem akers $8.78. These
rates were higher than the average
for all nonsupervisory workers in pri­
vate industry, except farming.
Lithographic workers are on their
feet much o f the time, but the work is
not strenuous. They sometimes are
under pressure to m eet publication
Many lithographic workers are
members o f the G raphic Arts Inter­
national Union.

Sources of Additional
Details on apprenticeship and oth­
er training o p p o rtu n itie s in litho­
graphic o cc u p atio n s are available
from local employers such as news­
papers and printing shops, local of­
fices o f the Graphic A rts Internation­
al Union, o r the local office of the
State em ploym ent service. For infor­
mation on schools th at offer courses
in printing technology, write to:
Graphic Arts Technical Foundation, 4615
Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 15213.

For general inform ation on litho­
graphic occupations, write to:

American Newspaper Publishers Association,
11600 Sunrise Valley Dr., Reston, Va.
American Photoplatemakers Association, 105
West Adams St., Suite 905, Chicago 111.
Graphic Arts International Union, 1900 L St.
NW„ Washington, D.C. 20036.
International Printing and Graphic Communi­
cations Union, 1730 Rhode Island Ave.
NW„ Washington, D.C. 20036.
Printing Industries o f America, Inc., 1730 N.
Lynn St., Arlington, Va. 22201.

(D.O.T. 971.281 and .382)

Nature of the Work
Photoengravers m ake metal print­
ing plates of pictures and other copy
that cannot be set up in type. In let­
terpress photoengraving, ink is rolled
over a printed surface which stands
higher th an the rest o f the plate.
W hen p aper is pressed against the
raised surface, the print or image is
picked up. Similarly, gravure p h o ­
toengravers make gravure cylinders
on which the image is etched below
the surface of the cylinder. Ink is
placed in the etched or sunken areas,
and when paper is pressed against the
surface the ink is lifted out and ap ­
pears on the paper. In both m ethods,
however, the work of photoengravers
is the same.
For a typical job, photoengravers
first m ount the picture or copy to be
reproduced on a board, adjust the
position and focus of a cam era, and
take a picture. After developing the
negative, they print its image on a
flat, m etal plate by coating the plate
with a chem ical solution sensitive to
light, placing the negative on the
plate, and exposing both to a bright
light. As the final step in making the
printing plate, photoengravers put
the plate in an acid bath which eats
the metal away from areas which will
not be covered with ink. The areas to
receive ink—those
shielded from the light by the nega­
tive—stand out to m ake contact with
the paper.

Most photoengravers learn their trade
through a 5-year apprenticeship program.

The num ber of photoengraving op ­
erations perform ed depends on the
quality of the printing required. Pho­
toengravings for very high quality
books or periodicals, for example, re­
quire m ore careful finishing th an
those for newspapers. Photoengrav­
ers use han d to o ls to in sp ect and
touch up the plates. They cut away
metal from the nonprinting part of
the plate to prevent it from touching
the inking rollers during printing.
In a small shop, the entire photo­
engraving operation usually is done
by one person. In large shops, how­
ever, the work is divided among spe­
cialists who perform a particular op­
e r a t i o n s u c h as c a m e r a w o r k ,
printing, or etching.

Places of Employment
An estim ated 10,000 skilled pho­
toengravers were employed in 1976.
More than half work in com m ercial
shops that m ake photoengravings for
other printing firms. Newspapers and
photogravure shops employ several
thousand photoengravers. Book and
m agazine printers and the Federal
G overnm ent also employ these w ork­
ers. Many photoengravers have their
own shops.
A lthough photoengravers are lo­
cated in all parts of the country, em-



ploym ent is co n c en trate d in large
printing centers, such as New York,
Chicago, Philadelphia, and Los A n­

Training and Other
Most photoengravers learn their
trade through a 5-year apprentice­
ship program that includes at least
800 hours of classroom instruction.
In addition to the care and use of
tools, the apprentice is taught to cut
and square negatives, inspect nega­
tives for defects, mix chemicals, sen­
sitize metals, and operate machines
used in the photoengraving process.
Apprenticeship applicants m ust be
at least 18 years of age and generally
must have a high school or vocation­
al school education or its equivalent,
preferably with courses in printing,
chem istry, and physics. Many em ­
ployers require a physical exam ina­
tion for prospective photoengravers.
Good eyesight is particularly im por­
tant because of the close work and
color discrim ination involved.

than the average for all nonsupervisory workers in private industry, ex­
cept farming.
Photoengravers stand up much o f
the time, but the work is not strenu­
ous. W ork areas usually are air-con­
ditioned and well-lighted. Most pho­
to e n g ra v e rs are m em b ers o f th e
Graphic Arts International Union.

Sources of Additional
Details about apprenticeship and
other training opportunities may be
obtained from local em ployers such
as newspapers and printing shops,
the local office o f the union m en­
tioned above, or the local office o f
the State em ploym ent service.
For general inform ation on pho­
toengravers, write to:
American Newspaper Publishers Association,
11600 Sunrise Valley Dr., Reston, Va.
American Photoplatemakers Association, 105
West Adams St., Suite 950, Chicago, 111.

Graphic Arts Technical Foundation, 4615
Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 15213.
Graphic Arts International Union, 1900 L St.
NW„ Washington, D.C. 20036.
Printing Industries of America, Inc., 1730 N.
Lynn St., Arlington, Va. 22201.

Nature of the Work
Electrotypers (D.O.T. 974.381)
and stereotypers (D.O.T. 975.782)
make duplicate press plates of m etal,
rubber, and plastic for letterpress
printing. These plates are m ade from
the m etal type forms prepared in the
composing room. Electrotypes are
used mainly in book and magazine
work. Stereotypes, which are less du ­
rable, are used chiefly for new spa­
pers. Electrotyping and stereotyping
are necessary because m ost volume
printing requires the use of duplicate
plates. W hen a large edition o f a

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
photoengravers are expected to be
scarce in the years ahead. Despite
the growing use of photographs and
other illustrations in publications,
em ploym ent of photoengravers will
decline as many firms switch from
letterpress to offset printing, which
requires no photoengraving. Also,
new technological advances such as
color scanners and color enlargers
plus the trend toward autom ated
platem aking should reduce the need
for these workers. However, some
job openings are expected each year
as experienced photoengravers re ­
tire, die, or leave the occupation for
other reasons.

Earnings and Working
It is estim ated that photoengravers
on the day shift in new spaper plants
earned an average minimum rate of
$8.47 an hour in 1976, based on a
union survey of 69 large cities. This
average was about two-thirds more

Stereotyper prepares mats for casting machines.



magazine or new spaper is printed,
several plates must be used to re­
place those that becom e too worn to
m ake clea r im pressions. Also, by
having duplicate plates, printers can
use several presses at the same time
and finish a big run quickly. F urther­
m ore, many big plants use rotary
presses, which require curved plates
made by either electrotyping or ste­
reotyping from flat type forms.
Electrotypers make a wax or plas­
tic mold of the metal type form. They
then coat the mold with chemicals
and place the mold into an electrolyt­
ic bath that puts a metallic shell on
the coated mold. Electrotypers then
strip the shell from the mold and fill
the back of the shell with molten lead
to form a plate. After removing ex­
cess metal from the edges and back
of the plate, electrotypers inspect the
plate for any defects.
The stereotyping process is sim­
pler, quicker, and less expensive than
electrotyping, but it does not yield as
durable or as fine a plate. Stereotyp­
ers make molds or mats of papierm ache’ instead of wax or plastic. The
mat is placed on the type form and
covered with a cork blanket and a
sheet o f fib erb o ard . The covered
form is run under heavy steel rollers
to impress the type and photoengrav­
ings on the mat. Then the m at is
placed in a stereotype casting m a­
chine which casts a composition lead
plate on the mold. In many of the
larger plants, au to m atic m achines
cast stereotype plates.
Some electrotypers and stereotyp­
ers do only one phase of the work,
such as casting, m olding, or finishing.
Others handle many tasks.

Places of Employment
About 4,000 electrotypers and ste­
reotypers were em ployed in 1976.
Many electro ty p ers work in large
plants th at print books and m aga­
zines. M ost stereo ty p ers work for
newspaper plants, but some work in
large co m m ercial p rinting plants.
Electrotypers and stereotypers also
are employed in service shops that do
this work for printing firms.
Jobs in these trades can be found
throughout the country, but employ­
ment is concentrated in large cities.

Training and Other

Much of the work in these trades
requires little physical effort since
the preparation of duplicate printing
plates is highly m echanized. How­
ever, some lifting of relatively heavy
press plates occasionally is required.
Nearly all electrotypers and ste­
reotypers are mem bers of the Inter­
national Printing and Graphic C om ­
munications Union.

Nearly all electrotypers and ste­
reotypers learn their trades through
5- to 6-year apprenticeships. Electrotyping and stereotyping are separate
crafts and relatively few transfers
take place between the two. The ap ­
prenticeship program of each trade
covers all phases of the work and
almost always includes classes in re­
lated technical subjects as well as
training on the job.
A pprenticeship applicants must be
at least 18 years of age and, in most
instances be able to pass physical
examinations that usually are given
to prospective apprentices. Due to
the decline in dem and for electrotyp­
ers and stereotypers, however, very
few apprenticeships have been o f­
fered in the last several years. Many
experienced electroplaters and ste­
reotypers are now being retrained as
plate m akers in offset and press op­

American Newspaper Publishers Association,
11600 Sunrise Valley Dr., Reston, Va.

Employment Outlook

Graphic Arts Technical Foundation, 4615
Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 15213.

Job opportunities for electrotypers
and stereotypers are expected to be
scarce through the m id-1980’s. D e­
spite the anticipated increase in the
volume o f printing, em ploym ent of
electrotypers and stereotypers is ex­
pected to decline because of laborsaving developm ents. For example,
autom atic plate casting elim inates
m any ste p s in p la te m a k in g . T h e u se

of plastic printing plates also requires
less labor because such plates are
m ore durable and reduce the d e ­
mand for duplicate plates. F urther­
more, the greater use of offset print­
ing reduces the need for electrotype
and stereotype plates, which are not
needed in offset printing.

Earnings and Working
Based on a union wage survey, it is
estimated that in 1976, union mini­
mum wage rates in 69 large cities
averaged $7.23 an hour for electro­
typers and $7.88 an hour for stereo­
typers in book and com m ercial print­
ing s h o p s . B o th a v e ra g e s w e re
considerably higher than the average
for all nonsupervisory workers in pri­
vate industry, except farming.

Sources of Additional
Details about apprenticeship and
other training opportunities may be
obtained from local employers, such
as newspapers and printing shops,
the local office of the International
Printing and G raphic C om m unica­
tions Union, or the local office of the
State em ploym ent service.
For general information on elec­
trotypers and stereotypers, write to:

International Printing and Graphic Communi­
cations Union, 1730 Rhode Island Ave.
NW„ Washington, D.C. 20036.
Printing Industries of America, Inc., 1730 N.
Lynn St., Arlington, Va. 22209.

(D.O.T. 651.782, .885. and .886)

Nature of the Work
Printing operations are perform ed
in a pressroom. Printing press opera­
tors prepare and operate the printing
Before actually starting the press,
press operators set up and adjust the
press to insure that the printing im­
pressions are distinct and uniform.
Press operators first insert and lock
type setups or plates into the press
bed and then tighten the locking at­
tachm ent with a wrench. The press
operator then levels the press plates
by placing pieces of paper that are



Press operator adjusts controls.

exactly the right thickness u n d er­
neath low areas of the plates.
Press operators also adjust control
margins and the flow of ink to the
inking roller. In some shops, they oil
and clean the presses and make mi­
nor re p airs. Press o p erato rs who
work with large presses have assis­
tants and helpers.
P ress o p e r a to r s ’ jo b s m ay d iffer

from one shop to another, mainly
because of differences in the kinds
and sizes of presses. Press operators
in small com m ercial shops generally
operate relatively simple manual
presses. On the other hand, a crew of
several press operators and press as­
sistants runs giant presses used by the
larg e n e w sp a p e r, m ag az in e, and
book printers. These presses are fed
paper znbig rolls called “ webs” up to
50 inches or more in width. Ot ey
print the paper on both sides; cut,
assem ble, and fold the pages; and
count the finished new spaper sec­
tions as they come off the press.
Most press operators are generally
designated according to the type of
press they operate: letterpress, gra­
vure, or offset.

Places of Employment
About 145,000 press operators
Digitized for assistants were employed in

1976. M ore than half work for com ­
mercial printing shops and book and
m agazine publishers. Many others
have jobs in newspaper plants. Some
press operators and assistants work
for b a n k s, in su ra n c e co m p an ies,
m anufacturers, and other organiza­
tions that do their own printing, such
as Federal, State, and local goverments.
Press operators and assistants can
find jobs throughout the country, but
employm ent is concentrated in large

Training and Other
Most press operators learn their
trade through apprenticeship, but
some workers learn as helpers or
press assistants. Others obtain their
skills through a com bination of work
experience and vocational or techni­
cal school training.
The length of apprenticeship and
the content of training depend
largely on the kind of press used in
the plant. The apprenticeship period
in com m ercial shops is 2 years for
press assistants, and 4 to 5 years for
press operators. In addition to onthe-job instruction, the apprentice­
ship includes related classroom or
c o r re s p o n d e n c e sc h o o l c o u rse s.

Courses in printing provide a good
background. Because of tech n ical
developm ents in the printing indus­
try, courses in chemistry and physics
also are helpful. M echanical aptitude
is im portant in making press adjust­
ments and repairs. An ability to visu­
alize color is essential for work on
color presses. Physical strength and
endurance are needed for work on
some kinds of presses, where opera­
tors lift heavy plates and stand for
long periods.
Technological changes have had a
trem endous effect on the skill re­
quirem ents of press operators. For
example, printing com panies which
change from sheet-fed offset presses
to web-offset presses have to retrain
their entire press crew because the
skill requirem ents for the two types
of press are very different. W eb-off­
set presses, with their faster op erat­
ing speeds, require faster decisions
m onitoring of more variables, and
greater physical effort.
Advancem ent opportunities gener­
ally are limited. Press operators may
advance in pay and responsibility by
taking a job working on a more com ­
plex printing press or by becoming a

Employment Outlook
Employment of press operators is
ex pected to increase m ore slowly
than the average for all occupations
through the m id-1980’s. Despite the
increased use of faster and more effi­
cient presses, more press operators
will be needed because of the growth
in the am ount of printed m aterials.
In addition to the jobs from em ­
ploym ent grow th, a few thousand
openings will arise each year as expe­
rienced workers retire, die, or leave
their job for other reasons. However,
printing press operators are expected
to face com petition for jobs. Since
there are generally long waiting lists
for apprenticeship program s, m ost
people will have to take jobs as press
assistants or unskilled laborers b e­
fore being selected for an apprentice­
ship. It is not uncom m on for a person
to work 2 or 3 years or more before
beginning apprenticeship training.
Since many firms are switching to
web offset presses from letterpresses
or sheet-fed presses, opportunities



are expected to be more favorable
for web-press operators.
Although most job opportunities
will continue to be in the printing
industry, a growing num ber of open­
ings will be found in other industries,
such as papermills, which are doing
more of their own presswork instead
of contracting it out to printing firms.

Earnings and Working
Based on a survey of union wages
in 69 large cities, it is estim ated that
in 1976 the average minimum hourly
rate for new spaper press operatorsin-charge was $8.18; for newspaper
press operators, $7.65; for book and
job cylinder press operators, $7.72;
and for book and job press assistants
and feeders, $6.84. These rates were
higher than the average for all nonsupervisory workers in private industy,
except farming. Many press opera­
tors work night shifts and receive ex­
tra pay.
Pressrooms are noisy, and workers
in certain areas frequently wear ear
protectors. Press operators are sub­
ject to hazards when working near
machinery. At times, they work un­
der pressure to m eet deadlines.
Many pressroom workers are cov­
ered by union agreem ents. The prin­
cipal union in this field is the Internatio n a l P r in tin g a n d G ra p h ic
Communications Union.

Printing Industries of America, Inc., 1730 N.
Lynn St., Arlington, Va. 22209.

Nature of the Work
Many printed items, such as books
and magazines, m ust be folded,
sewed, stapled, or bound after they
leave the printing shops. Much of this
work is done by skilled bookbinders
(D.O.T. 977.781).
Edition-binding—making books in
quantity from big, flat printed sheets
of paper—is the most com plicated
kind of binding. Bookbinders first
fold the printed sheets into units,
known as “ signatures,” so that the
pages will be in the right order. They
then insert any illustrations that have
been printed separately, gather and
assemble signatures in proper order,
and sew them together. They shape
the book bodies with presses and
trimming machines and reinforce
them with glued fabric strips. Covers
are glued or pasted onto the book
bodies, and then the books undergo a
variety of finishing operations and
frequently are wrapped in paper

Places of Employment
About 80,000 bookbinders and
bindery workers were employed in
1976. Many work in shops that spe­
cialize in bookbinding; others work
in the bindery departm ents of book
publishing firms, com m ercial print­
ing plants, and large libraries. Some
bookbinders work for the Federal
Governm ent.
Although bookbinders work in all
parts of the country, em ploym ent is
concentrated in large printing cen ­
ters such as New Y ork, C hicago,
W ashington, D.C., and Los Angeles.

Sources of Additional
Details about apprenticeship and
other training opportunities may be
obtained from local employers such
as newspapers and printing shops,
the local office of the union m en­
tioned above, or the local office of
the State em ploym ent service.
For general inform ation about
press operators and assistants, write

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

American Newspaper Publishers Association,
11600 Sunrise Valley Dr., Reston, Va.
Graphic Arts International Union, 1900 L St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.
Graphic Arts Technical Foundation, 4615
Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 15213.
International Printing and Graphic Communi­
cations Union, 1730 Rhode Island Ave.
Digitized forNW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

jackets. M achines are used ex ten ­
sively throughout the process.
Bookbinders seldom perform all
the different binding tasks, but many
have had training in all of them. In
large shops, bookbinders may be as­
signed to one or a few operations,
most often to the operation of com ­
plicated m achines, such as a large
paper cutter or a folding machine.
In many binding shops much of the
work is done by bindery workers who
are trained zn only one operation 6r
in a small num ber of relatively simple
tasks. For example, bindery workers
perform such tasks as wastening
sheets or signatures together using a
m achine stapler and feeding signa­
tu re s in to v ario u s m ach in e s fo r
stitching, folding, or gluing o p era­
Some bookbinders work in hand
binderies designing original bindings
and special bindings for a small num ­
ber of copies of a large edition or
restoring and rebinding rare books.
This skilled work requires creative
ability, knowledge of materials, and a
thorough background in the history
of binding. Hand bookbinding is p er­
haps the only kind of binding that
gives the individual an opportunity to
work at a variety of jobs.

Many bindery workers are trained in only
one operation.

A 4- or 5-year apprenticeship,
which includes on-the-job training as
well as related classroom instruction,
generally is required to qualify as a
skilled bookbinder. Apprenticeship
applicants usually m ust have a high
school education, m echanical ap ti­



tude, and be at least 18 years of age.
During the apprenticeship, trainees
learn to assemble signatures; to ren­
ovate old, worn bindings; and to use
various binding m achines, such as
punchers and folders.
Most bindery workers learn their
tasks through informal on-the-job
training th at may last from several
months to 2 years. A large num ber,
how ever, learn through formal ap­
prenticeship program s that include
classroom instruction as well as onthe-job training.
High school students interested in
bookbinding careers should take
shop courses to develop their m e­
chanical skills.
Advancem ent opportunities gener­
ally are limited. In large binderies
skilled bookbinders with consider­
able experience may advance to su­

Employment Outlook
Employment of bookbinders and
bindery w orkers is expected to in­
crease more slowly than the average
for all occupations through the mid1980’s. M ost job openings will arise
as experienced workers retire, die, or
change occupations.
Despite the anticipated growth in
the am ount of bound printed m ateri­

als, em ploym ent growth will be limit­
ed by the increasing m echanization
of bindery operations. For example,
the use of integral folders that auto­
matically fold pages as they come off
the press elim inates the need for
bindery workers to do the folding by

Earnings and Working
Wage rates for skilled bookbinders
tend to be below the average for
other printing crafts. Based on a sur­
vey of union wage rates in 69 large
cities, it is estim ated that mininimum
wage rates for bookbinders in pub­
lishing firms and bookbinding shops
averaged ab o u t $7.47 an h o u r in
1976. This rate was about one and
one-half tim es the average for all
nonsupervisory workers in private in­
dustry, except farming.
Wage rates for bindery workers
are considerably lower than the rates
for bookbinders, and are among the
lowest for printing industry workers.
A survey of union wages in 69 large
cities shows that in 1976 the average
minimum hourly rate for bindery
workers was $4.77.
A ccuracy, patience, neatness, and
good eyesight are among qualities
n e e d e d by b o o k b in d e rs . G o o d fin g e r

dexterity is essential for those who
count, insert, paste, and fold.
Bookbinding shops tend to be
noisy when m achinery is operating.
Bookbinders have some variety in
their jobs, but the jobs of bindery
workers tend to be m onotonous.
Long periods of standing and co n ­
stant use of the arms can be tiring.
Many bindery workers are m em ­
bers of The G raphic A rts Intern a­
tional Union.

Sources of Additional
Details about apprenticeship and
other training opportunities may be
obtained from local bookbinding
shops, local offices of the G raphic
Arts Union, or the local office of the
State em ploym ent service.
For general inform ation on book­
binding occupations, write to:
American Newspaper Association, 11600
Sunrise Valley Dr., Reston, Va. 20041.
Graphic Arts Technical Foundation, 4615
Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 15213.
Graphic Arts International Union, 1900 L St.
NW„ Washington, D.C. 20036.
Printing Industries of America, Inc., 1730 N.
Lynn St., Arlington, Va. 22201.


Nature of the Work
When Henry Ford began produc­
ing his autom obile on an assembly
line, m odern mass production was
born. W orkers who before had built
each autom obile independently, now
found themselves specializing in just
one part of the job. Production be­
came a team effort, with each worker
performing a single task on every car
rolling by on the line. Over the years,
the assembly line spread to other in­
dustries, until today alm ost every
m anufactured item is produced in
this way.
The workers who put together the
parts of m anufactured articles are
called assem blers. Som etim es hun­
dreds are needed to turn out a single
finished product.
Many assemblers work on items
that autom atically move past their
work stations on conveyors. In the
autom obile industry, for example,
one assembler may start nuts on bolts
by hand or with a hand tool, and the
next w orker down the line may tight­
en the nuts with a pow er wrench.
These workers must com plete their
job within the time it takes the part
or product to pass their work station.
O ther assemblers, known as bench
assemblers, do more delicate work.
Some m ake subassemblies. These
units are the interm ediate steps in the
production process; for example,
steering columns for autom obiles or
motors for vacuum cleaners. Others
make entire products. Assemblers in
rifle m anufacturing plants build com ­
plete rifles from a collection of parts
and subassemblies and then test all
the m oving parts to be sure they
function correctly. Bench work gen­
erally requires the ability to do pre­
cise and detailed work. Some elec­
tronics assemblers, for example, use

tweezers, tiny cutters, and magnify­
ing lenses to put together the small
com ponents used in radios and cal­
A nother group o f assemblers,
called floor assemblers, put together
large m achinery or heavy equipm ent
on shop floors. School buses, cranes,
and tanks are put together in this
m anner. Parts are installed and fas­
tened, usually with bolts, screws, or
rivets. Assemblers often use a power
tool, such as a soldering iron or pow­
er drill, to get a proper fit.

A small num ber o f assemblers are
skilled workers who work with little
or no supervision on the more com ­
plex parts of subassemblies, and are
responsible for the final assembly of
com plicated jobs. A skilled assem ­
bler may have to wire the tubes for a
television set or put together and test
a calculator. Some work with the en­
gineers and technicians in the facto­
ry, assem bling products that these
people have just designed. To test
new ideas and build m odels, these
w orkers m ust know how to read
b lu e p rin ts and o th e r en gineerin g
specifications, and use a variety of
tools and precision m easuring instru­

Places of Employment
A b o u t 1 ,1 0 0 ,0 0 0 a s s e m b le r s
worked in m anufacturing plants in
1976. A lm ost tw o-thirds were in
plants that made m achinery and m o­
tor vehicles. More than half of all

Skilled assemblers work on complex subassemblies.



assem blers were em ployed in the
heavily industrialized States of Cali­
fornia, New York, Michigan, Illinois,
Ohio, and Pennsylvania.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Inexperienced people can be
trained to do assembly work in a few
days or weeks. New workers may
have their job duties explained to
them by the supervisor and then be
placed under the direction of experi­
enced employees. W hen new w ork­
ers have developed sufficient speed
and skill, they are placed “ on their
ow n” and are responsible for the
work they do.
Employers seek workers who can
do routine work at a fast pace. A
high school diploma usually is not
For some types of assembly jobs,
applicants may have to m eet special
requirem ents. Some employers look
for applicants with m echanical apti­
tude and prefer those who have tak ­
en vocational school courses such as
machine shop. Good eyesight, with
or without glasses, may be required
for assemblers who work with small
parts. In plants that make electrical
and electronic products, which may
c o n ta in m any d iffe re n t c o lo re d
wires, applicants often are tested for
co lo r blindness. F loor assem blers
may have to lift and fit heavy objects,
thus they should be physically fit.
As assemblers becom e more expe­
rienced they may progress to assem ­
bly jobs that require more skill and
be given more responsibility. A few
advance to skilled assembly jobs. Ex­
p e rie n c e d asse m b le rs who have
learned many assembly operations
and thus understand the construction
of a product may becom e product
repairers. These workers fix assem­
bled articles th at in spectors have
ruled defective. Assemblers also may
advance to inspector and a few are
prom oted to supervisor. Some as­
semblers become trainees in skilled
trades jobs such as machinist.

Employment Outlook
Employment of assemblers is ex­
pected to grow faster than the aver­
age for all occupations through the
 with thousands of open­
m id-1980’s,

ings each year. Most job openings,
however, will result as workers retire,
die, or leave the occupation.
More assemblers will be needed in
m anufacturing plants to produce
goods for the N ations’s growing
economy. As population grows and
personal income rises, the dem and
for consum er products, such as auto­
mobiles and household appliances,
will increase. At the same time, busi­
ness expansion will increase the d e­
mand for industrial m achinery and
equipm ent.
Most assemblers work in plants
that produce durable goods, such as
autom obiles and aircraft, which are
particularly sensitive to changes in
business conditions and national d e­
fense needs. T herefore, even though
em ploym ent is ex p ected to grow,
jo b seek ers may find opportunities
scarce in some years.

Earnings and Working
Wage rates for assemblers ranged
from about $3 to $7 an hour in 1976,
according to inform ation from a lim­
ited n u m b e r o f u n io n c o n tra c ts.
M ost assem blers covered by these
contracts made between $4 and $6
an hour. Some assemblers are paid
incentive or piecew ork rates, and
therefore can earn more by working
more rapidly.
The working conditions of assem ­
blers differ, depending on the p a r­
ticular job perform ed. Bench assem ­
blers who put to g eth er electronic
equipm ent may work in a room that
is clean, well lighted, and free from
dust. Floor assemblers of industrial
m achinery may come in contact with
oil and grease, and their working
areas may be quite noisy from nearby
m achinery or tools th a t are used.
W orkers on assembly lines may be
under pressure to keep up with the
speed of the lines. Since most assem ­
blers only perform a few steps in the
assembly operation, assembly jobs
tend to be m ore m onotonous than
other blue-collar jobs.
Work schedules of assemblers may
vary at plants with m ore than one
shift. Usually in order of seniority,
workers can accept or reject a c e r­
tain job on a given shift.
Many assemblers are members of
labor unions. These include the In­

ternational Association of Machinists
and A erospace W orkers; the Interna­
tional Union of Electrical, Radio and
Machine W orkers; the International
U nion; U nited A utom obile, A e ro ­
space and A gricultural Im plem ent
W orkers o f A m erica; the In tern a­
tio n al B ro th e rh o o d o f E le c tric a l
W orkers; and United Steelworkers.

Source of Additional Information
Additional inform ation about em ­
ploym ent opportunities for assem ­
blers may be available from local of­
fic e s o f th e S ta te e m p lo y m e n t

(D.O.T. 845.781)

Nature of the Work
Automobile painters make old and
damaged m otor vehicles “ look like
new .” These skilled workers repaint
older vehicles that have lost the lus­
ter of their original paint and make
fender and body repairs almost in­
visible. (Painters who work on the
p ro d u ctio n lines at m otor vehicle
m anufacturing plants are discussed
e ls e w h e r e in th e H a n d b o o k .)
To prepare an autom obile for
painting, painters or their helpers re­
move the original paint or rust using
air-or electric-pow ered sanders and a
course grade of sandpaper. Before
painting, they also must remove or
protect areas which they do not want
painted, such as chrom e trim, head ­
lights, windows, and mirrors. Paint­
ers or their helpers cover these areas
with paper and masking tape.
When the car is ready, painters use
a spray gun to apply prim er coats to
the autom obile surface. After each
coat of prim er dries, they sand the
surface until it is sm ooth before ap­
plying an o th er coat. Final sanding
may be uone by hand, using a fine
grade of sandpaper. If the surface to
be painted is not sm ooth, the paint
job will be rough and uneven. Small
nicks and scratches that cannot be
removed by sanding are filled with
autom obile body putty.
Before painting repaired portions
of an autom obile, painters often have



to mix paints to m atch the color of
the car. This im portant part of the
job can be very difficult when paint­
ing repaired parts of older cars be­
cause the original color often fades
over the years.
Before applying paint, painters ad­
just the nozzle of the spray gun ac­
cording to the kind o f lacquer or
enamel being used and, if necessary,
they adjust the air-pressure regulator
to obtain the correct pressure. If the
spray gun is not adjusted properly,
the paint may run or go on too thinly.
To speed drying, they may place the
freshly p ain ted au tom obile under
heat lamps or in a special infrared
oven that is sealed to prevent dust
and bugs from getting onto the fresh
p ain t. A fte r the p a in t has d ried ,
painters or their helpers usually pol­
ish the newly painted surface.

Places of Employmant
About 30,000 persons worked as
automobile painters in 1976. Almost
two-thirds worked in shops that spe­
cialize in autom obile repairs. Most
others w orked for autom obile and
truck dealers. Some painters worked
for o rg an izatio n s th a t m aintained
and repaired their own fleets of m o­
tor vehicles, such as trucking com pa­
nies and buslines.
Painters are employed throughout
the county, but are concentrated in
m etropolitan areas.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Most autom obile painters start as
helpers and gain their skills informal­
ly by w o rk in g w ith e x p e rie n c e d
painters. Beginning helpers usually
perform tasks such as removing auto­
mobile trim , cleaning and sanding
surfaces to be painted, and polishing
the finished work. As helpers gain
experience, they progress to more
com plicated tasks, such as mixing
paint to achieve a good match and
using spray guns to apply prim er
coats and painting small areas. Be­
coming skilled in all aspects of auto­
mobile painting usually requires 3 to
4 years of on-the-job training.
A small num ber o f automobile
painters learn through ap p ren tice­
sh ip . A p p re n tic e s h ip p ro g ra m s,
which generally last 3 years, consist
Digitized of on-the-job training supplem ented

Automobile painters often acquire their skills by working with experienced painters.

by classroom in stru ctio n in areas
such as shop safety practices, proper
use of equipm ent, and general paint­
ing theory.
Persons considering this work as a
career should have good health, keen
eyesight, and a good color sense.
C ourses in autom obile-body repair
offered by high schools and vocation­
al schools provide helpful ex p eri­
ence. Com pletion of high school gen­
erally is not a requirem ent but may
be an advantage, because to many
employers high school graduation in­
dicates that the person has at least
some of the traits of a good worker,
such as reliability and perseverance.
An experienced autom obile paint­
er with supervisory ability may ad ­
vance to shop supervisor. Many ex­
p e r i e n c e d p a i n t e r s w ith t h e
n e c e ssa ry funds o p en th e ir ow n

retire or die. Openings also will occur
as some painters transfer to other
Employment of autom obile paintvrs is expected to increase primarily
because more 4otor vehicles will be
damaged in traffic accidents. As the
n u m b er o f v eh icle s on th e ro ad
grow s, a c c id e n t losses will grow ,
even though better highways, lower
speed limits, driver training courses,
and im proved bum pers and o th er
safety features on new vehicles may
slow the rate of growth.
Most persons who enter the occu­
pation can expect steady work be­
cause the autom obile repair business
is not affected much by changes in
economic conditions.
Job opportunities will be best in
heavily populated areas. Many shops
in small cities do not have enough
business to hire trainees.

Employment Outlook

Earnings and Working

Em ployment of autom obile paint­
ers is expected to increase about as
fast as the average for all occupations
through the m id-1980’s. In addition
to jobs created by growth, several
hundred openings are expected to
arise each year because of the need
to replace experienced painters who

Painters employed by autom obile
dealers in 36 large cities had estim at­
ed average hourly earnings of $8.50
in 1976, com pared to an average of
$4.87 for all nonsupervisory workers
in private industry, except farming.
Skilled painters usually earn between



two and three times as much as inex­
perienced helpers and trainees.
Many painters employed by auto­
mobile dealers and independent re­
p air shops receive a com m ission
based on the labor cost charged to
the custom er. U nder this m ethod,
e a rn in g s d e p e n d la rg e ly on th e
am ount of work a painter does and
how fast it is com pleted. Employers
frequently guarantee their com m is­
sioned painters a minimum weekly
salary. Helpers and trainees usually
receive an hourly rate until they b e­
come sufficiently skilled to work on a
commission basis. Trucking com pa­
nies, buslines, and o th er organiza­
tions that repair their own vehicles
usually pay by the hour. Most paint­
ers work 40 to 48 hours a week.
Autom obile painters are exposed
to fumes from paint and paint-mixing
ingredients. In most shops, however,
the painting is done in special venti­
lated booths that p rotect the paint­
ers. Painters also wear masks to pro­
tect their noses and mouths. Painters
m ust be agile b ecause they often
bend and stoop while w orking to
reach all parts of the car.
Many autom obile painters belong
to unions, including the International
Association of M achinists and A ero­
space W o rk ers; the In te rn a tio n a l
U nion, U nited A utom obile, A ero ­
space and A gricultural Im plem ent
W orkers of America; the Sheet M et­
al W o rk e rs’ In tern atio n al A ssoci­
ation; and the International B rother­
h o o d o f T e a m ste rs , C h a u ffe u rs,
W a re h o u s e m e n a n d H e lp e rs o f
America (Ind.). Most painters who
are union mem bers work for the larg­
er autom obile dealers, trucking com ­
panies, and buslines.

Sources of Additional
For more details about work op­
portunities, contact local employers,
su ch as a u to m o b ile -b o d y re p a ir
shops and autom obile dealers; locals
of the unions previously m entioned;
or the local office o f the State em ­
ployment service. The State em ploy­
ment service also may be a source of
in fo rm atio n ab o u t a p p ren ticesh ip
and o th e r p rogram s th a t provide
training opportunities.

For general inform ation about the
work of autom obile painters, write:
Automotive Service Industry Association, 230
North M ichigan A ve., C hicago, 111.
Automotive Service Councils, Inc., 188 Indus­
trial Dr., Suite 112, Elmhurst, 111. 60126.

(D.O.T. 356.381 and 610.381)

Nature of the Work
Years ago the village blacksmith
was as vital to a community as the
country doctor. No one else could
repair a broken wagon wheel, shoe a
horse, or forge a tool to suit a farm ­
e r’s needs. Today, the blacksm ith’s
work still is im portant in factories
and mines where heavy metal equip­
ment must be repaired, and at stables
and racetracks. Power hammers and
ready-m ade horseshoes have m ade
much of the work easier, but the b a­
sic tasks remain largely the same.
The first thing a blacksmith m ust
do when making or repairing any­
thing m ade of metal is to heat it in a
forge to soften it. O nce the m etal
begins to glow red, it is ready for the
blacksmith to pick it up with tongs,
place it on the anvil, and begin to
shape it using presses and pow er
ham m ers. On re p a ir jo b s bro k en
parts are rejoined by ham m ering
them together. The blacksm ith uses
handtools such as ham m ers and chis­
els to finish the task at hand, often
reheating the metal in the forge to
keep it soft and workable.
Before a metal article can be used,
it must be hardened. To com plete
this stage of the process, the black­
smith reheats the m etal to a high
tem perature in the forge and then
plunges it into a w ater or oil bath.
However, metal hardened in this way
is brittle and can break under stress.
If strength is im portant, blacksmiths
tem per the metal instead. To do this,
they heat the metal to a lower tem ­
perature than they use for hardening,
keep it hot for some time, and then
allow it to cool at room tem perature.
Blacksmiths who specialize in
shoeing horses are called farriers.
Today, m ost farriers use ready-m ade
horseshoes so that their primary job

is to adjust shoes for a proper fit. On
some occasions, however, they may
have to make the shoes themselves.
R acehorses need special care b e ­
cause they must withstand strenuous
punishm ent to their legs and hooves.
Im proper shoeing can perm anently
dam age a valuable horse. F arriers
who shoe racehorses need to be able
to recognize weaknesses in a ho rse’s
legs, and shoe it accordingly. Some
horses, for example, need shoes that
are thicker on the outside as com ­
pared to the inside edge in order to
walk correctly. To shoe a horse, far­
riers begin by removing the old shoe
with nail snippers and pincers. They
examine the horse’s hoof for bruises
and then clean, trim , and shape the
hoof. W hen the hoof is ready, they
position and nail a shoe onto the hoof
and finish by trimming the hoof flush
to the new shoe.
Industrial occupations that are
similar to blacksmith include forge
and ham m er operator, welder, and
boilerm aker. (These occupations are
discussed elsew here in the H and­

Places of Employment
O f th e a p p ro x im a te ly 1 0 ,0 0 0
blacksm iths em ployed in 1976, al­
most two-thirds worked in factories,
railroads, and mines. The rem ainder
w orked in small shops, and m ost
w ere self-em p lo y ed . B lacksm ith s
work in all parts of the country—in
rural com m unities as well as in large
industrial centers.
Most farriers are self-employed
and contract their services to horse
trainers at racetrack stables and to
owners of horses used for private or
public recreation.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Many beginners enter the occupa­
tion by working as helpers in black­
smith shops or large industrial firms
that employ blacksmiths. Others en­
ter through form al apprenticesh ip
programs and transfer from related
occupations such as forge operator
or ham m er operator. A ppren tice­
ship program s usually last 3 o r 4
years. The programs teach blueprint
re ad in g , p ro p e r use o f tools and
equipm ent, heat-treatm ent of m etal,



Those with sufficient skills to pass a
licensing examination may find em ­
ploym ent at racetracks.

Employment Outlook
Employment of blacksmiths is ex­
pected to decline through the mid1980’s. Forge shops are using m a­
chines to produce many of the metal
articles th a t w ere form erly h an d ­
m ade by blacksm iths. In addition,
welders are doing much of the metal
rep air w ork once done by b lack ­
smiths. Nevertheless, some job open­
ings will occur as experienced black­
sm ith s r e tir e , d ie , o r leav e th e
occupation for other reasons.
E m ploym ent o f farriers may in­
crease slightly due to the growing
popularity of horseracing and the in­
creasing use of horses for recreation­
al purposes. Since this is a small oc­
cupation, however, relatively few job
openings will become available.

Earnings and Working

Many beginners work as helpers in blacksmith shops.

and forging methods. Most appren­
tices are found in large industrial
firm s ra th e r th an in sm all re p air
shops. V ocational school or high
school courses in m etalworking and
blueprint reading are helpful to per­
sons interested in becom ing black­
Many farriers learn their craft by
assisting experienced farriers. Others
may take a short course in horse­
shoeing lasting about 3 or 4 weeks
before gaining experience on their
own or as farriers’ assistants. Courses
in horseshoeing are taught in several
colleges, as well as at private horse­
shoeing schools. M ost of these are
located in the Midwest. Persons con­
sid erin g e n ro llin g a t any sch o o l
should talk to a farrier in their area
concerning the school’s perform ance
in producing qualified farriers. At
least 3 to 5 years of special training
or experience are needed to obtain
the skills necessary to shoe ra c e ­
Farriers who wish to work at race­
 pass a licensing examina­
tracks m ust

tion. During the exam ination, they
must dem onstrate their knowledge of
corrective shoeing techniques and
the proper shoe to use depending on
the condition of the horse’s hoof or
leg, and the condition of the race­
track. The examination is a perform ­
ance test and does not require a writ­
ten examination.
Blacksmiths must be in good phys­
ical condition. Pounding metal and
handling heavy tools and parts re ­
q u ire c o n s id e ra b le s tre n g th an d
stamina. Farriers, o f course, must
have the patience to handle horses.
O pportunities for advancem ent
are lim ited , especially for b la c k ­
sm iths who w ork in sm all re p a ir
shops. How ever, blacksm iths may
advance to be supervisors or inspec­
tors in factories, or decide to open
their own repair shops. Blacksmiths
also may be able to transfer to relat­
ed occupations such as forge, ham ­
mer, and press operators.
Farriers may open their own shops
or travel from job to job with a
portable forge, if one is needed.

In union contracts covering a num ­
ber of blacksmiths in steel plants and
in the shipbuilding and petroleum in­
dustries, hourly pay ranged from $4
to $7.50 in 1976. Earnings of black­
sm iths in railroad shops averaged
$6.87 an hour in 1976. According to
limited information, yearly earnings
of farriers who shoed saddle horses
a v e ra g e d b e tw e e n $ 1 0 ,0 0 0 an d
$12,000 a year in 1976; those who
shoed racehorses averaged around
$15,000 a year.
Blacksmith shops tend to be hot
and noisy, but conditions have im­
proved in recent years because of
large ventilating fans and less vibra­
tion from new m achines. B lack­
smiths are subject to burns from forg­
es and heated metals and cuts and
bruises from handling tools. Safety
glasses, metal-tip shoes, face shields,
and o th er protective devices have
helped to reduce injuries.
The jobs of some farriers may be
During the summer
months, when horses are ridden
more often, farriers may work long
hours and even on weekends. Also,
those who specialize in shoeing race­
horses often work at several different
ra c e tra c k s w ithin th e ir area an d ,
therefore, must travel a great deal.
In areas where horseracing is season­



al, they may have to move to another
State during the off season.
Many blacksmiths are members of
the International Brotherhood of
Boilermakers, Iron Shipbuilders,
Blacksmiths, Forgers and Helpers.
O th er u nions re p resen tin g b la c k ­
smiths include the United Steelwork­
ers of America, the Industrial Union
of Marine and Shipbuilding W orkers
o f A m erica, and the International
Union of Journeymen Horseshoers.

Sources of Additional
For details about training opportu­
nities in this trad e , co n ta c t local
blacksmith shops and local offices of
the State employm ent service.

Nature of the Work
In any organization, som eone has
to be boss. For the millions of work­
ers who assemble television sets, ser­
vice automobiles, lay bricks, unload
ships, or perform any of thousands of
other activities, a blue-collar worker
su p erv iso r is th e b o ss. T h e se su p e r v i­

sors direct the activities of other em ­
ployees and frequently are respon­
sible fo r seeing th a t m illions o f
dollars worth of equipm ent and m a­
terials are used properly and effi­
ciently. While blue-collar worker su­
pervisors are most commonly known
as foremen or forewomen, they also
have many other titles. In the textile
industry they are referred to as sec­
ond hands; on ships they are known
as boatswains; and in the construc­
tion industry they are often called
overseers, straw bosses, or gang lead­
Although titles may differ, the job
of all blue-collar worker supervisors
is similar. They tell other employees
what jobs are to be done and make
sure the jobs are done correctly. For
example, loading supervisors at truck
terminals assign workers to load
trucks, and then check that the m ate­
rial is loaded correctly and that each
truck is fully used. They may mark
and keep charts to record
freight bills

the loads and weight of each truck. In
some cases, supervisors also do the
same work as other employees. This
is especially true in the construction
industry where, for example, brick­
layer supervisors also lay brick.
Because they are responsible for
the output of other workers, supervi­
sors make work schedules and keep
production and em ployee records.
They use considerable judgm ent in
planning and must allow for unfore­
seen problem s such as absent work­
ers and m achine breakdowns. T each­
ing em ployees safe work habits and
enforcing safety rules and regulations
are other supervisory responsibilities.
They also may dem onstrate timesav­
ing or lab o rsav in g tech n iq u e s to
workers and train new employees.
In addition to their other duties,
blue-collar w orker supervisors tell
their subordinates about com pany
plans an d p o licies; rew ard good
w orkers by m aking re co m m en d a­
tions for wage increases, awards, or
p ro m o tio n s; and d ea l w ith p o o r
workers by issuing warnings or rec­
ommending that they be fired or laid
off w ithout pay for a day or more. In
companies where employees belong
to lab o r unions, supervisors m ay
m eet with union representatives to
discuss work problems and grievanc­
es. They must know the provisions of

labor-m anagem ent contracts and run
their operations according to these

Places of Employment
worker supervisors were employed in
1976. Although they work for almost
all businesses and governm ent agen­
cies, over half work in m anufactur­
ing, supervising the production of
cars, washing m achines, or any of
thousands of other products. Most of
the rest work in the construction in­
dustry, in wholesale and retail trade,
and in public utilities. Because em ­
ployment is distributed in much the
same way as population, jobs are lo­
cated in all cities and towns.


Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
W hen choosing supervisors, em ­
ployers generally look for ex p eri­
ence, skill, and leadership qualities.
Employers place special emphasis on
the ability to m otivate em ployees,
maintain high morale, com m and re­
spect, and get along with people.
Completion of high school often is
the m inimum educational re q u ire­
ment, and 1 or 2 years of college or
technical school can be very helpful
to workers who want to become su­

Coordinating assignments is a responsibility of the blue-collar worker supervisor.



Most supervisors rise through the
ran k s—th a t is, they are prom oted
from jobs where they operated a m a­
chine, or w orked on an assembly
line, or at a construction craft. This
work experience gives them the ad­
vantage of knowing how jobs should
be done and w hat p roblem s may
arise. It also provides them with in­
sight into m anagem ent policies and
em ployee attitu d e s tow ards these
policies. Supervisors are sometimes
form er union rep resentatives who
are fam iliar with grievance proce­
dures and union contracts. To sup­
plem ent this work experience, larger
companies usually have training pro­
grams to help supervisors make m an­
agem ent decisions. Smaller com pa­
nies often use independent training
organizations or written training m a­
Although few blue-collar worker
supervisors are college graduates, a
growing num ber of employers are
hiring trainees with a college or tech­
nical school background. This prac­
tice is m ost prevalent in industries
with highly technical production pro­
cesses, such as the chemical, oil, and
electro n ics industries. Em ployers
generally prefer backgrounds in busi­
ness adm inistration, industrial rela­
tions, m athem atics, engineering, or
science. The trainees undergo onthe-job training until they are able to
accept supervisory responsibilities.
Supervisors with outstanding abil­
ity, particularly those with college
education, may move up to higher
m anagem ent positions. In m anufac­
turing, for exam ple, they may ad­
vance to jobs such as departm ent
head and plant m anager. Some su­
pervisors, p articularly in the co n ­
struction industry, use the experi­
ence and skills they gain to go into
business for themselves.

Employment Outlook
Employment of blue-collar worker
supervisors is expected to increase at
about the same rate as the average
for all occupations through the mid1980’s. In addition, many job open­
ings will arise as experienced supervi­
sors retire, die, or transfer to other
Population growth and rising in­
com es will stim u late dem and for
 as houses, air condition­
goods such

ers, TV sets, and cars. As a result,
m ore b lu e-c o lla r w o rk ers will be
needed to produce and sell these
items, and m ore supervisors will be
needed to direct their activities. Al­
though m ost of these supervisors will
continue to work in m anufacturing, a
large part o f the increase in jobs will
be due to the expansion of nonm anu­
facturing industries, especially in the
trade and service sectors.
There is usually keen com petition
for supervisory jobs.
C om petent
workers who possess leadership abil­
ity and have a few years of collge are
the most likely to be selected.

Earnings and Working
In 1976, average annual earnings
of blue-collar w orker supervisors
who worked full time were $15,149,
com pared with $12,946 for workers
in all occupations. Supervisors usu­
ally are salaried. Their salaries gener­
ally are determ ined by the wage rates
of the highest paid workers they su­
pervise. For example, some com pa­
nies keep wages of supervisors about
10 to 30 percent higher than those of
their subordinates. Some supervisors
may receive overtim e pay.
Since supervisors are responsible
for the work of other employees,
they generally work m ore than 40
hours a week and are expected to be
on the job before other workers ar­
rive and after they leave. They som e­
times do paperw ork at hom e, such as
making work schedules or checking
employee time cards, and may find
them selves worrying about job-relat­
ed problem s after work.
W orking conditions vary from in­
dustry to industry. In factories, su­
pervisors may get dirty around m a­
chinery and m aterials and have to
put up with noisy factory operations.
Some supervisors who have limited
authority may feel isolated, neither a
m em ber o f the work force nor an
im portant part of m anagem ent. On
the other hand, supervisors have
m ore challenging and prestigious
jobs than most blue-collar workers.

Sources of Additional
A bibliography of career literature
on m anagem ent occupations is avail­
able from:

American Management Rssociation, 135 West
50th St., New York, N.Y. 10020.

Nature of the Work
Boilers, vats, and other large ves­
sels that hold liquids and gases are
essential to many industries. Boilers,
for example, supply the steam that
drives the huge turbines in electric
utility plants and ships. Tanks and
vats are used to process and store
chemicals, oil, beer, and hundreds of
other products. Layout workers and
fitters help m ake the parts for these
vessels, and boilerm akers assemble
Layout workers (D.O.T. 809.381
and .781) follow blueprints in m ark­
ing off lines on m etal plates and
tubes. These lines serve as guides to
othe workers in the shop who cut
the m etal and then shape it on lathes
or use other shaping tools such as
grinders to produce the finished piec­
es. Layout w orkers use compasses,
scales, gauges, and other devices to
make m easurem ents. Their m easure­
ments m ust be precise because errors
may be difficult or impossible to co r­
rect once the m etal is cut.
Before the boiler parts are assem­
bled, fitte rs (D .O .T . 819.781) see
that they fit together properly. These
w o rk e rs use b o lts o r te m p o ra ry
welds, called tackwelds, to hold the
parts in place while they check the
parts to see that they line up accord­
ing to blueprints. W here alterations
are necessary, fitters use grinders or
cu ttin g to rc h e s to rem ove excess
metal, and welding m achines to fill in
small gaps. If large gaps appear, a
new piece may have to be cut. Also,
fitters use drills to line up rivet holes.
Small boilers may be assembled at
the plant where they are made; how­
ever, once the pieces for a larger
boiler or tank have been cut out and
checked for a proper fit, they are
transported to the shop or construc­
tion site where they are to be used.
T h e r e , b o ile r m a k e r s (D .O .T .
805.281) assemble and erect the ves­



sels using rigging equipm ent such as
hoists and jacks to lift heavy m etal
parts into place, and then weld or
rivet the parts together. After a boil­
er is com pleted, they test it for leaks
or other defects.
C onstruction boilerm akers also in­
stall auxiliary equipm ent on boilers
and other vessels. For example, they
install vapor barriers on open-top oil,
gas, and chem ical storage tanks to
prevent fumes from polluting in the
air. Boilermakers also install air pol­
lution co n tro l equipm ent, such as
precipitators and sm oke scrubbers,
in electric plants that burn high sul­
fur coal.
Boilermakers also do repair jobs.
For example, boilers occasionally de­
velop leaks. When they do, boiler­
makers find the cause of the prob­
lem, and then they may dismantle the
boiler, patch weak spots with metal
stock, replace defective sections with
new parts, or strengthen joints. In­
stallation and rep air work usually
m ust m eet S tate and local safety

Places of Employment
A bout 34,000 boilerm akers, lay­
out w orkers, and fitters were em ­
ployed in 1976. O f these, several
thousand boilerm akers worked in the
construction industry, mainly to as­
semble and erect boilers and other
pressure vessels. Boilerm akers also
were em ployed in the m aintenance
and repair departm ents of iron and
steel p lan ts, petro leu m refineries,
ra ilro a d s, sh ip y ard s, and e le c tric
powerplants. Large num bers worked
in Federal G overnm ent installations,
principally in Navy shipyards and
Federal powerplants. Layout work­
ers and fitte rs w orked m ainly in
plants that make fire-tube and watertube boilers, heat exchangers, heavy
tanks, and similar products.
B o ile rm ak in g w o rk ers are e m ­
ployed throughout the country, but
em ploym ent is concentrated in high­
ly industrialized areas, such as New
Y ork, Philadelphia, Chicago, Pitts­
burgh, Houston, San Francisco, and
Los Angeles.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Many people have becom e boiler­

makers by working for several years

as helpers to experienced boilerm ak­
ers, but m ost train in g a u th o rities
agree that a formal apprenticeship is
the best way to learn this trade. A p­
prenticeship program s usually co n ­
sist of 4 years of on-the-job training,
supplem ented by about 150 hours of
classroom instruction each year in
subjects such as blueprint reading,
shop m athem atics, and welding. A p­
prentices often have to travel from
one area to another, since there is
not always work available in their lo­
Most layout workers and fitters are
hired as helpers and learn the craft
by w orking with experienced em ­
ployees. It generally takes at least 2
years to becom e a highly skilled lay­
out w orker or fitter.
W hen hiring apprentices or help­
ers, employers prefer high school or
vocational school graduates. Courses
in shop, m athem atics, blueprint read­
ing, w elding, and m achine m etal­
working provide a useful background
for all boilerm aking jobs. Most firms
require applicants to pass a physical
exam in atio n because good h ealth
and the capacity to uo heavy work
are necessary in these jobs. M echani­
cal aptitude and the m anual dexterity
needed to handle tools also are im ­
portant qualifications.
Layout workers and fitters may
become boilerm akers or advance to
shop supervisors. Boilerm akers may
become supervisors for boiler instal­
lation contractors; a few may go into
business for themselves.

Employment Outlook
Em ploym ent
occupations is expected to increase
much wasterthan the average for all
occupations through the m id-1980’s.
In addition to the job openings result­
ing from em ploym ent growth, other
openings will arise each year as expe­
rienced workers retire, die, or trans­
fer to other fields of work.
The construction o f many new
electric pow erplants, especially n u ­
clear plants, will create a need for
additional boilers and will cause em ­
ploym ent o f b o ilerm ak e rs, layout
workers, and fitters to increase.
The expansion of other industries
that use boiler products, such as the
chemical, petroleum , steel, and ship­
building industries, will further in­

crease the dem and for these workers.
Also, as more laws are enacted to
provide cleaner air, m ore boilerm ak­
ers will be needed to install pollution
control equipm ent.
D espite the expected overall in­
crease in em ploym ent, most of the
industries that purchase boilers are
sensitive to econom ic conditio n s.
T herefore, during econom ic dow n­
turns some boilerm akers, fitters, and
layout workers may be laid off, and
others may have to move from one
area of the country to another to find

Earnings and Working
According to a national survey of
workers in the construction industry,
union wage rates for boilerm akers
averaged $10.03 an hour in 1976,
com pared with $9.47 for all building
trades. Boilermakers employed in
railroad shops averaged about $7 an
hour in 1976.
C om parable wage data were not
available for boilerm akers em ployed
in industrial plants. However, wage
rates were available from union co n ­
tracts that cover many boilerm akers,
layout workers, and fitters em ployed
in fabricated plate work and the pe­
troleum and shipbuilding industries
in 1976. M ost o f these co n tra c ts
called for hourly rates ranging from
about $5.50 to $10. Generally, lay­
out workers earned more than boiler­
m akers, and b o ilerm ak ers earn ed
more than fitters.
When assembling boilers or m ak­
ing repairs, boilerm akers often work
in cram ped quarters and sometimes
at great heights, since large boilers
may be over 10 stories tall. Some
work also m ust be done in dam p,
poorly ventilated places. Thus boiler­
making is more hazardous than many
o th e r m etalw o rk in g o c c u p a tio n s.
E m ployers and unions attem p t to
eliminate injuries by prom oting safe­
ty training and the use of protective
equipm ent, such as safety glasses and
metal helmets.
Most boilerm aking workers belong
to labor unions. The principal union
is the International B rotherhood of
Boilermakers, Iron
Blacksmiths, Forgers and Helpers.
O ther workers are m em bers of the
Industrial Union of M arine and Ship-



building W orkers of A m erica; the
Oil, Chemical and Atomic W orkers
International Union; and the United
Steelworkers of America.

Sources of Additional
For further information regarding
boilermaking apprenticeships or oth­
er training opportunities, contact lo­
cal offices of the unions previously
m entioned, local construction com ­
panies and boiler m anufacturers, or
the local office of the State employ­
ment service.

(D.O.T. 951.885)

Nature of the Work
Boiler tenders operate and main­
tain the steam boilers that power in­
dustrial m achinery and heat facto­
ries, offices, and o th e r buildings.
They also may operate waste heat
boilers that burn trash and other sol­
id waste.
B oiler ten d ers co n tro l the m e­
chanical or autom atic devices that
regulate the flow of air and fuel into
th e co m b u stio n c h a m b e rs. T hey
may, for example, start the pulveriz­
ers or stokers to feed coal into the
firebox or start the oil pumps and
heaters to ignite burners.
These workers may be responsible
for inspecting and maintaining boiler
equipm ent. This includes reading
m eters and gauges attached to the
boilers to ensure safe operation.
Sometimes boiler tenders make mi­
nor repairs, such as packing valves or
replacing faulty indicators.
Boiler tenders also chemically test
and treat water for purity. In this
way, they prevent corrosion of the
boiler and buildup of scale.
Boiler tenders often are supervised
by stationary engineers who operate
and maintain a variety o f equipm ent,
including boilers, diesel and steam
engines, and refrigeration and airconditioning systems. (Additional in­
fo rm atio n on stationary engineers

appears elsewhere in the Handbook.)

Boiler tenders may advance to stationary engineers.

Places of Employment
About one-half of the 73,000 boil­
er tenders employed in 1976 worked
in factories. Plants that m anufacture
lumber, iron and steel, paper, chem i­
cals, and stone, clay, and glass prod­
ucts are among the leading em ploy­
ers of boiler tenders. Public utilities
also employ many of these workers.
M any o th ers w orked in hospitals,
schools, and Federal, State, and local
A lthough boiler tenders are em ­
ployed in all parts of the country,
most work in the more heavily popu­
lated areas where large m anufactur­
ing plants are located.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Some large cities and a few States
require boiler tenders to be licensed.
An applicant can obtain the knowl­
edge and experience to pass the li­
cense examination by first working as
a helper in a boiler room. Applicants
for helper jobs should be in good
physical co n d itio n and have m e­

chanical aptitude and manual dexter­
ity. High school courses in m athe­
matics, m otor mechanics, chemistry,
and blueprint reading also are helpful
to persons interested in becom ing
boiler tenders.
There are two types of boiler ten ­
ders’ licenses—for low pressure and
high pressure boilers. Low pressure
te n d e rs o p e ra te b oilers generally
used for heating buildings. High
pressure tenders operate the more
powerful boilers and auxiliary boiler
equipm ent used to power m achinery
in fa cto ries as well as heat large
buildings, such as high-rise a p a rt­
ments. Both high and low pressure
te n d e r s , h o w e v e r, m ay o p e r a te
equipm ent of any pressure if a sta­
tionary engineer is on duty.
Due to regional differences in li­
censing requirem ents, a boiler tender
who moves from one State or city to
another 4ay have to pass an exami­
nation for a new license. However,
the National Institute for Uniform Li­
censing of Power Engineers is cu r­
rently assisting many State licensing
agencies in adopting uniform licens­


6 6

ing requirem ents th at would elim i­
n ate this problem by establishing
reciprocity of licenses.
Boiler tenders may advance to jobs
as stationary engineers. To help them
advance, they sometimes supplem ent
their on-the-job training by taking
courses in chemistry, physics, blue­
print reading, electricity, and airconditioning and refrigeration. Boil­
er tenders also may becom e m ainte­
nance mechanics.

Employment Outlook
Employment of boiler tenders is
expected to decline through the mid1980’s as more new boilers are
equipped with autom atic controls.
Nevertheless, a few thousand open­
ings will result each year from the
need to replace experienced tenders
who retire, die, or transfer to other

Earnings and Working
Boiler tenders had average hourly
earnings of $6.20, according to a
survey of 19 m etropolitan areas in
1976. This was higher than the aver­
age for all nonsupervisory workers in
priv ate in d u stry , e x c ep t farm ing.
The average for tenders in individual
areas ranged from $3.63 in G reen­
ville, S.C., to $7.48 in Detroit, Mich.
M odern boiler rooms usually are
clean and well-lighted. However,
boiler tenders may have to work in
awkward positions and be exposed to
noise, heat, grease, fumes, and
smoke. They also are subject to
burns, falls, and injury from defective
boilers or moving parts, such as pul­
verizers and stokers. M odern equip­
m ent and safety procedures, how ­
ever, have reduced accidents.
The principal unions organizing
boiler tenders are the International
Brotherhood of Firem en and Oilers
and the International Union of O per­
ating Engineers.

Sources of Additional
Information about training or work
opportunities in this trade is available
from local offices of State em ploy­
ment services, locals of the Interna­
tional B rotherhood of Firemen and

O ilers, locals o the In tern atio n al
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Union of Operating Engineers, and
from State and local licensing agen­
Specific questions about the n a ­
ture of the occupation, training, and
em ploym ent opportunities may be
referred to:
National Association of Power Engineers, Inc.,
176 West Adams St., Chicago, 11 . 60603.
International Union of Operating Engineers,
1125 17th St. NW., Washington, D.C.

For inform ation concerning reci­
procity o f boiler te n d e rs’ licenses
among various cities and States, co n ­
National Institute for Uniform Licensing of
Power Engineers, 176 West Adams St.,
Suite 1911, Chicago, 111. 60603.

(D.O.T. 500.380 and .781 through



Nature of the Work
Electroplating is a commonly used
m anufacturing process that gives
metal or plastic articles a protective
surface or an attractive appearance.
Products that are electroplated in­
clude items as different as autom o­
bile bum pers, silverw are, costum e
jewelry, and jet engine parts. In all
cases, however, the object being plat­
ed is connected to one end o f an
electric circuit and placed in an ap ­
propriate solution. The other end o f
the electric circuit is connected to
the plating m aterial. By controlling
the am ount of electricity that flows
from the plating m aterial through the
solution and to the object being plat­
ed, electroplaters control the am ount
of chrom ium , nickel, silver, or other
m etal th a t is applied to the final
Prior to electroplating any object,
electroplaters study the job specifica­
tions which indicate the parts of the
objects to be plated, the type of plat­
ing metal to be applied, and the d e­
sired thickness of the plating. Follow­
ing these specifications, they prepare
the plating solution by carefully add­
ing the proper am ounts and types of

In preparing an article for electro­
plating, platers may first cover parts
of it with lacquer, rubber, or tape to
keep these parts from being exposed
to The plating solution. They then ei­
ther scour the article or dip it into a
cleaning bath to rem ove dirt and
grease before putting it into the solu­
E lectroplaters m ust carefully in­
spect their work for defects such as
m inute pits and nodules. They may
use a magnifying glass to examine the
surface and m icrom eters and calipers
to check the plating thickness.
Skill requirem ents and work p er­
form ed vary by type of shop. A ll­
round platers in small shops analyze
solutions, do a great variety of plat­
ing, calculate the time and current
needed for various types of plating,
and perform other technical duties.
They also may order chemicals and
other supplies for their work. Platers
in larg er shops usually carry o u t
more specialized assignments that re­
quire less extensive knowledge.

Places of Employment
About 36,000 people worked as
electroplaters in 1976. About half of
them worked in shops that special­
ized in m etal plating and polishing
for m anufacturing firms and oth er
custom ers. Virtually all of the re ­
maining platers worked in plants that
m a n u fa c tu re d plum bing fix tu re s,
cooking utensils, household ap p li­
ances, electronic com ponents, m otor
vehicles, and other metal products.
The Federal G overnm ent em ployed
a few platers for m aintenance p u r­
poses at a num ber of military and
civilian installations.
Electroplaters work in almost ev­
ery p art o f the country, although
most work in the N ortheast and M id­
west, near the centers of the m etal­
working industry. Large num bers 6f
electroplaters work in Los Angeles,
San Francisco, Chicago, New York,
Detroit, Cleveland, Providence, and

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Most electroplaters learn the trade
on the job by helping experienced
platers. It usually takes at least 3
years to becom e an all-round plater.



Employment Outlook
Employment of electroplaters is
expected to grow more slowly than
th e av e ra g e fo r all o c c u p a tio n s
through the m id-1980’s. Besides em ­
ployment growth, other openings will
result from the need to replace expe­
rienced workers who retire, die, 6r
leave the occupation for other rea­
sons. O pportunities are expected to
be favorable for individuals who
want jobs as electroplaters.
Expansion of the m etalworking in­
dustries and the electroplating of a
broadening group of metals and plas­
tics are expected to increase the need
for electroplaters. However, em ploy­
m ent growth will be som ewhat re­
stricted by the increasing application
of autom ated plating equipm ent and
water effluent standards established
by the E n v iro n m en tal P ro te c tio n
Agency. Such standards will require
plants to install equipm ent with addi­
tional w ater pollution controls to
prevent pollution of streams and wa­
ters. This new non-polluting plating
equipm ent will increase cost of elec­
troplating and thus will reduce the
dem and for electroplated products
and electroplaters.

Earnings and Working
Electroplaters dip aircraft wing pivot in plating solution.

Platers in large shops usually are not
required to have an all-round knowl­
edge of plating, and can learn their
jobs in m uch less tim e. However,
w orkers who receive such limited
training generally have difficulty in
transferring to shops doing electro­
plating with metals outside their spe­
A small proportion of electroplat­
ers receiv e all-ro u n d train in g by
working 3 or 4 years as an appren­
tice. Apprenticeship program s com ­
bine on-the-job training and related
classroom instruction in the proper­
ties of metals, chemistry, and elec­
tricity as applied to plating. A ppren­
tices do progressively more difficult
work as their skill and knowledge in­
crease. By the third year, they deter­
mine cleaning m ethods, do plating
without supervision, make solutions,

examine plating results, and direct

helpers. Qualified platers may b e­
come supervisors. Some electroplat­
ers who understand the chem ical
processes of electroplating and the
chem ical characteristics of m etals,
and who have an outgoing personal­
ity, may becom e sales re p resen ta­
tives for metal products wholesalers
o r m a n u fa c tu re rs. E le c tro p la te rs
with the necessary capital may go
into business for themselves.
A few people take a 1- or 2-year
electroplating course in a junior col­
lege, technical institute, or vocation­
al high school. In addition, m any
branches of the Am erican E lectro­
platers Society give basic courses in
electroplating. Persons who wish to
become electroplaters will find high
school or vocational school courses
in ch e m istry , e le c tric ity , physics,
m athem atics, and blueprint reading

Hourly wage rates for electroplat­
ers ranged from $2.75 to $9.80 in
1976, according to the limited infor­
mation available. During apprentice­
ship or on-the-job training, a work­
e r’s wage rate starts at about 60 to 70
percent of an experienced w orker’s
rate and progresses to the full rate by
the end of the training period. Elec­
troplaters normally receive premium
pay for working night shifts.
O ccupational hazards associated
with plating work include burns from
splashing acids and inhalation of
toxic fumes. Humidity and odor also
are problem s in electroplating plants.
However, most plants have ventila­
tion systems and other safety devices
that have reduced occupational haz­
ards. Protective clothing and boots
provide additional protection. Elec­
troplaters are on their feet most of
their workday and do much reaching,
lifting, bending and carrying. G ener­
ally, m echanical devices are used for
lifting, but at times the worker must



lift and carry objects weighing up to
100 pounds.
Some platers are m em bers of the
Metal Polishers, Buffers, Platers and
Helpers International Union. O ther
platers have been organized by the
International U nion, U nited A uto­
mobile, Aerospace and Agricultural
Implement W orkers o f Am erica, and
the International Association of M a­
chinists and Aerospace W orkers.

er metals also are forged. Nonferrous forgings are useful in m any
critical ap p licatio n s, for exam ple,
aircraft landing gear. Some of the ad ­
vantages of nonferrous m etal forg­
ings are corrosion resistance and a
lighter weight to strength ratio.
Forged products may be as small
and lightweight as a key, or they may
be as bulky and heavy as a piece of
industrial m achinery.

Sources of Additional

Nature of the Work

Information on the availability of
apprenticeships or on-the-job train­
ing may be obtained from State em ­
ployment offices and local union of­
fices. T rain in g o p p o rtu n itie s may
also be located by contacting m anu­
facturing plants and job shops that do
For m ore specific information
about job opportunities and training,
write to:
American Electroplaters Society, Inc., 1201
Lousiana Avenue Winter Park, Florida
National Association of Metal Finishers, 22
South Park, Montclair, N.J. 07042.

Forging is one of the oldest m eth­
ods of working and shaping metals.
The exceptional strength of forged
metal parts makes this an often used
m eth o d o f form ing p ro d u c ts th a t
m ust w ithstand heavy wear. Many
machine tools such as wrenches and
drill bits are forged because they are
subjected to constant stress and pres­
The simplest forging m ethod is
hand forging done by a blacksmith.
Modern forge shops, however, sub­
stitute heavy power equipm ent and
dies (tools that shape m etal) for the
blacksm ith’s ham m er and anvil. In
this way, products can be forged in
much greater quantity. Five em ploy­
ees operating a large forging m achine
can turn o u t more forgings in an hour
than five blacksm iths can make in a
Most forgings are steel; but alum i­
 brass, bronze, and oth­
num, copper,

Before metal can be shaped, it
must be heated in intensely hot fu r­
naces (forges) until it is soft. W ork­
ers place the heated m etal between
two m etal dies that are attached to
power presses or hammers. With tre ­
m en d o u s fo rc e , th e ham m ers o r
presses pound or squeeze the m etal
into the desired shape. To finish the
forging, other workers remove rough
edges and excess m etal and perform
other finishing operations such as
heat treating and polishing.
Two kinds of dies are used. The
open die is flat and similar to the
blacksm ith’s ham m er, and is used
when only a limited quantity of forg­
ings o r larg e -size, sim p le -sh ap e d
forgings are needed. The impression,
or closed die, has a cavity shaped to
the form of the m etal part, and is
used to produce large quantities of
identical forgings.
Basic forge-shop equipm ent con­
sists o f various types of ham m ers,
presses, dies, upsetters, and furnaces.
F o r g e - s h o p w o r k e r s a ls o u s e
h an d to o ls, such as ham m ers and
tongs, to help mold and shape parts
to fit exact specifications. Measuring
devices such as rules, scales, and cali­
pers are needed to inspect the fin­
ished products.
Descriptions of some major forgeshop production occupations follow.
Hammersmiths (D.O.T. 612.381)
direct the operation of open die
power ham m ers. They follow blue­
prints and in terp re t drawings and
sketches so that the part being forged
will m eet specifications. H am m er­
smiths determ ine how to position the
metal under the ham m er and which
tools are needed to produce desired
angles and curves. They decide the
am ount o f ham m er force and if and
when the m etal n eed s ad d itio n al

Hammersmiths head crews of four
or more workers. A typical crew in­
cludes a ham m er driver or ham m er
runner who regulates the force o f the
forging blow; a crane operator who
transfers the metal from the furnace
to the ham m er and properly places it
under the hammer; and a heater who
controls the furnace that heats the
metal to correct tem peratures. The
rest of the crew consists of one or
more helpers to assist as needed.
The duties of ham m er operators
(D.O.T. 610.782), who operate im­
pression die pow er ham m ers, are
sim ilar to those ju st described for
ham m ersm iths. Generally the parts
forged by closed die ham m ers are
m ore in tric a te and d etailed , thus
these o p erato rs are highly skilled.
With the assistance o f a crew of help­
ers and heaters, ham m er operators
set and align dies in the hammers.
They correctly position the metal un­
der the ham m er, control the force of
the forging blow, and determ ine if
and when the metal needs additional
heating to make it easier to shape the
metal to that of the die impression.
Press operators (D .O .T. 611.782
an d .8 8 5 ) c o n tro l huge p re s se s
equipped with either impression or
open dies. These m achines press and
squeeze hot metal rather than ham ­
m er or pound it, and the operators
regulate m achine pressure and move
the hot m etal between the dies. They
also may control the metal heating
operations. Some operators set up
the dies in the presses, using instru­
ments such as squares and m icrom ­
eters to m ake sure these are in place.
Their skills are very similar to those
of ham m ersm iths or ham m er opera­
With the help of heaters and sever­
a l h e l p e r s , u p s e tte r s ( D .O .T .
61 1 .7 8 2 ) o p e ra te m a c h in e s th a t
shape hot metal by applying horizon­
tal pressure. The heads of nails and
bolts, for example, are m ade by upset
Heaters (D.O.T. 619.782) control
furnace tem peratures. They d e te r­
mine when the m etal has reached the
correct tem perature by observing the
m etal’s color and the furnace’s tem ­
perature gauge. Using tongs or m e­
chanical equipm ent, they transfer the
hot m etal from the furnace to ham-



remove surface scale and reveal any
s u r f a c e d e f e c ts . H e a t tr e a te r s
(D.O.T. 504.782) heat and cool forg­
ings to harden and tem per the metal.

Places of Employment
In 1976, about 71,000 production
w o rk ers w ere em ployed in forge
shops. About three-fourths of these
worked in shops that make and sell
forgings. The rem ainder worked in
plants that use forgings in their final
products, such as plants operated by
m anufacturers of autom obiles, farm
equipm ent, and handtools.
Although forge-shop workers are
found in all areas, they are concen­
trated near steel-producing centers
that provide the steel for forgings,
and near m etalworking plants that
are the major users of forged prod­
ucts. Large num bers of forge-shop
workers are employed in and around
the cities of Detroit, Chicago, Cleve­
land, Los Angeles, and Pittsburgh.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Hammer operator shaping metal parts.

mers or presses. Some heaters clean
Inspectors (D .O .T. 612.281) ex­
amine forged pieces for accuracy,
size, and quality. They use tools such
as gauges, m icrom eters, squares, and
calipers to measure the exact dim en­
sions of the forgings. Machines that
test strength and hardness and elec­
tronic testing devices also may be
Die sinkers (D.O.T. 601.280)
make the impression dies for the
forging hammers and presses. W ork­
ing from a blueprint, drawing, or
template, these skilled workers make
an outline o f the object to be forged
on two matching steel blocks. They
measure and mark the object’s shape
in the blocks to form the impression
cavity by using milling machines and
other m achine tools such as EDM

(electrical discharge m achinery) and
ECM (electrical chem ical m achin­
ery). Using handtools such as scrap­
ers and grinders, and m easuring tools
such as calipers and m icrom eters, die
sinkers sm ooth and finish the die cav­
ity to fit specifications. Finally, a
sample is prepared from the finished
cavity and is checked against specifi­
Many forge-shop workers clean
and finish forgings. For example,
trimmers (D.O.T. 617.885) remove
excess metal with presses equipped
with trimming dies. Grinders (D.O.T.
705.884) remove rough edges with
power abrasive wheels. Sandblasters
or shotblasters (D.O.T. 503.887) o p ­
erate sandblasting or shotblasting
equipm ent that cleans and smoothes
forgings. Picklers (D.O.T. 503.885)
dip forgings in an acid solution to

Most forge-shop workers learn
their skills on the job. They generally
join ham m er or press crews as help­
ers or heaters, and progress to other
jobs as they gain experience. A d­
vancem ent to hammersmith, for ex­
ample, requires several years of onthe-job training and experience.
Some forge shops offer apprentice­
ship training program s for skilled
jobs such as diesinker, heat treater,
ham m er o p e ra to r, h am m ersm ith ,
and press operator. These programs
usually last 4 years, and offer class­
room training and practical experi­
ence in metal properties, power ham ­
mer and furnace operation, handtool
use, and blueprint reading.
Training requirem ents for inspec­
tors vary. Only a few weeks of onthe-job training are necessary for
those who examine forgings visually
or use only simple gauges. O thers
who inspect forgings that must m eet
exact specifications may need some
background in blueprint reading and
m athem atics, and may be given sev­
eral months of training.
Employers usually do not require a
high school diploma, but graduates
may be preferred. Persons interested
in more skilled forge-shop jobs



should com plete high school and
take m athem atics (especially geom e­
try), drafting, and shopwork.
Although cranes are used to move
very large objects, forge-shop work­
ers must be strong enough to lift and
move heavy forgings and dies. They
also need stamina and endurance to
work in the heat and noise of a forge

Employment Outlook
E m ploym ent o f forge-shop p ro ­
duction w orkers is expected to in­
crease m ore slowly than the average
for all occupations through the mid1980’s. Some new jobs will becom e
av ailable b ecau se o f grow th, b u t
m ost openings will arise from the
need to replace experienced workers
who or transfer to o th er fields of
Employment will grow because of
expansion in industries that use forg­
ings, particularly autom obile and en­
ergy-related industries. The expan­
s io n o f n u c l e a r p o w e r p l a n t
construction will cause a great de­
mand for forged piping and fittings.
Likewise, many forged drilling bits
and o th er forged products will be
needed for oil drilling and coal m in­
ing o p erations. H ow ever, em ploy­
m ent will not keep pace with forge
shop production because improved
forging techniques and equipm ent
will result in greater output per work­
Em ployment in some forge shops
is sensitive to changes in econom ic
conditions. In shops th at make auto­
mobile parts, for example, employ­
m ent fluctuates with changes in the
dem and for new cars; thus, jobs in
these shops may be plentiful in some
years, scarce in others.

Earnings and Working
Average hourly earnings of forgeshop production workers are higher
than the average for all m anufactur­
ing p ro d u c tio n w orkers. In 1976,
production workers in iron and steel
forging p lan ts av erag ed $6.86 an
hour, com pared to $5.19 an hour for
production workers in all m anufac­
turing industries.
Forge-shop occupations are more
hazardous than most m anufacturing
o for FRASER
Digitizedc c u p a tio n s . H o w e v er, im p ro v e ­

ments in machinery and shop prac­
tices have reduced some noise and
vibration. For example, many forge
shops have heat deflectors and venti­
lating fans to reduce heat and smoke.
Also, labor and m anagem ent cooper­
ate to encourage good work practic­
es through safety training and the re­
quired use o f protective equipm ent
such as face shields, ear plugs, safety
glasses, m etal-toed shoes, helm ets,
and m achine safety guards.
Most forge-shop workers are union
members. Many are m em bers of the
International B rotherhood of Boiler­
m akers, Iron S hipbuilders, B lack­
smiths, Forgers and Helpers. Others
are m em bers o f the U nited S teel­
workers o f America; the Internation­
al Union, United Autom obile, A ero­
space and A gricultural Im plem ent
W orkers o f A m erica; the In tern a­
tional Association of Machinists and
Aerospace W orkers; and the Interna­
tional Die Sinkers’ C onference (Ind).

Sources of Additional
For inform ation on em ploym ent
opportunities in forging, contact lo­
cal offices of the State em ploym ent
service, personnel d ep artm en ts o f
forge shops, locals of the labor o r­
ganizations listed above, or:
The Forging Industry Association, 55 Public
Square, Cleveland, Ohio 44113.
The Open Die Forging Institute, 102 Pageant
Ave., Rogers, Ark. 72756.

(D.O.T. 780.381)

Nature of the Work
W hether restoring a treasured an ­
tique or simply giving an old living
room couch a facelift, upholsterers
combine artistic flair and skill to re ­
condition sofas, chairs, and other u p ­
h o ls te re d f u r n itu re . T h ese c r a ft
w orkers re p air or rep lace fabrics,
springs, padding, and other parts that
are worn or damaged. (W orkers em ­
ployed in the m anufacture of uphol­
stered furniture are not included in

this statem ent.)
The tasks involved in upholstering
any piece of furniture are basically
the same, although each job is unique
in some ways because of differences
in furniture construction. As the first
step, upholsterers usually place the
furniture on padded wooden benches
or some other type o f support so that
they may work at a convenient level.
Using ham m ers and tack pullers,
they remove tacks holding the old
fabric to the wooden frame. After
stripping the old fabric, they remove
the burlap and padding that cover
the springs. Upholsterers examine
the springs and remove broken or
bent ones. If the nylon or cotton
webbing—which hold the springs in
place—is worn, upholsterers remove
all the springs and all the webbing.
To rebuild the furniture, uphol­
sterers may reglue loose sections of
th e fra m e an d re fin ish e x p o se d
wooden parts. They then tack web­
bing to one side of the fram e, stretch
it tight, and tack it to the opposite
side. O ther webbing is woven across
the first and attached to the frame in
a similar fashion to form a mat. A fter
putting springs on the m at so they
compress evenly, upholsterers sew or
staple each spring to the webbing or
frame and tie each spring to the ones
next to it. Burlap then is stretched
over the springs, cut and sm oothed,
and tacked to the frame. To form a
sm ooth rou n d ed surface over the
springs and frame, upholsterers cov­
er all surfaces of the furniture with
foam rubber, cotton pads, or other
filling m aterial. After sewing the pad ­
ding to the burlap, they cover it with
heavy cloth and tack the cloth to the
frame. Finally, upholsterers put the
new fabric cover, which has been cut
to size and tem porarily stitched to ­
gether for fitting, on the furniture.
A fter checking th at the cover fits
tig h tly an d sm o o th ly — o r n o tin g
w here adjustm ents are necessary—
they remove the cover and sew it to ­
gether. To com plete the job, uphol­
sterers put the cover back on the fu r­
niture; sew or tack on fringe, buttons,
or other ornam ents; and m ake pillow
U p h o ls te re rs use a v a rie ty o f
handtools including tack and staple
rem overs, pliers, ham m ers, and hand
or pow er shears. They use special


Over three-fourths of all furniture uphol­
sterers own and operate, or work in, small
upholstery shops.

tools such as webbing stretchers and
upholstery needles. They also use
sewing machines.
Sometimes upholsterers pick up
and deliver furniture. Those who
own and m anage shops order sup­
plies and equipm ent and keep busi­
ness records.

Places of Employment
About 27,000 people worked as
furniture upholsterers in 1976. Over
three-fourths of all furniture uphol­
sterers own and operate, or work in
small upholstery shops. These shops
generally have less than three work­
ers. Some upholsterers are employed
by furniture stores. A few work for
businesses, such as hotels, that main­
tain their own furniture.
Upholsterers work in all parts of
the country. However, employment
is concentrated in metropolitan
areas, where the large population
provides the greatest dem and for the
upholsterer’s services.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
The most common way to enter
this trade is to start as a helper in an
upholstery shop and learn on the job.
Helpers learn by upholstering furni­
ture under
 the direction of experi­

enced workers. Much time and prac­
tice are needed to learn com plex
tasks such as m easuring and cutting
the new fabric and sewing and a t­
taching it to the fram e with a mini­
mum of waste. Usually about 3 years
of on-the-job training are required to
become a fully skilled upholsterer.
Inexperienced persons may get
valuable training from vocational or
high school courses in upholstery.
However, additional training and ex­
perience in a shop are usually re ­
q u ired b efo re th ese w orkers can
qualify as skilled upholsterers. In a
few large cities, locals of the Uphol­
sterers’ International Union of North
Am erica run formal apprenticeship
programs that last from 3 to 4 years.
The program s place graduates of lo­
cal vocational schools in upholstery
shops where they receive on-the-job
Persons interested in becoming up­
holsterers should have good manual
dexterity, coordination, and be able
to do occasional heavy lifting. An eye
for detail, good color sense, patience,
and a flair for creative work are help­
ful in making upholstered furniture
as attractive as possible.
The m ajor form of advancem ent
for upholsterers is opening their own
shop. It is easy to open a shop b e­
cause only a sm all investm ent in
handtools is needed. However, the
business is extremely com petitive, so
operating a shop successfully is diffi­

Employment Outlook
Little or no change is expected in
em ploym ent of upholsterers through
the m id-1980’s. Most job openings
will arise because of the need to
replace experienced workers who re ­
tire, die, or transfer to other occupa­
More upholstered furniture will be
used as population, personal income,
and business expenditures grow.
However, the dem and for upholster­
ers will be limited because more peo­
ple are buying less expensive furni­
tu r e an d re p la c in g r a th e r th a n
reupholstering it.

Earnings and Working
Hourly wages for experienced fur­
n itu re u p h o ls te re rs ra n g ed from


$4.25 to $8 in 1976. Some highly
skilled upholsterers earned over $10
an hour. W ages for inexperienced
trainees ranged from $2.50 to $4 an
hour. Upholsterers generally work 40
hours a week.
W orking conditions in upholstery
shops v ary —m any shops are sp a­
cious, adequately lighted, well-venti­
lated, and w ell-heated; others are
small and dusty. Upholsterers stand
while they work and do a consider­
able am ount of stooping and bending
and some heavy lifting.
Upholsterers usually buy their own
handtools; employers provide power
Some upholsterers are members of
U pholsterers’
Union o f North America.

Sources of Additional
For more details about work op­
portunities for upholsterers, contact
local upholstery shops or the local
office of the State em ploym ent ser­

Nature of the Work
M ost p r o d u c ts — in c lu d in g th e
things we eat, drink, wear, and ride
in—are checked by inspectors som e­
time during the m anufacturing p ro ­
cess to m ake sure they are of the
d esire d q u ality . In sp e c to rs also
check the quality of the raw m ateri­
als and parts that m ake up finished
A variety of m ethods are used to
make certain that products m eet
specifications. Inspectors may tastetest a soft drink or examine a jacket
for flaws, im perfections, or defects.
They may use tools such as m icrom ­
eters, protractors, gauges, and mag­
nifying glasses to make sure that air­
p la n e s a re a sse m b le d p ro p e rly .
Inspectors frequently m ake simple
calculations to m easure parts and ex­
amine work orders or blueprints to
verify that products conform to stan­



team. A few large com panies give
preem ploym ent tests to check skills
such as the ability to work with num ­
bers. Some employers may hire ap­
p lican ts who do n o t have a high
school diplom a but who have qualify­
ing aptitudes or related experience.
O ther employers prefer experienced
workers for inspection jobs. Many in­
spectors acquire the necessary skills
and experience by working at various
production line jobs, especially as­
Some semiskilled inspectors—p ar­
tic u la rly in m e ta lw o rk in g in d u s ­
trie s —who tak e co u rses, such as
blueprint reading and shop m ath e­
m atics, may advance to skilled in­
spectors. A fter acquiring sufficient
experience and knowledge, a few be­
come quality control technicians or

Employment Outlook

p o rta tio n e q u ip m e n t, e le c tro n ic s
equipm ent, and furniture. O thers
w o rk ed in p la n ts th a t p ro d u c e d
goods such as textiles, apparel, and
leather products.
Inspectors worked in every part of
the country, although they were co n ­
centrated in the industrialized States.
A lm ost tw o -th ird s w ere found in
Ohio, New York, Michigan, Illinois,
Pennsylvania, C alifornia, New J e r­
sey, North Carolina, and Indiana.

Em ploym ent o f inspectors is ex­
pected to increase faster than the av­
erage for all occupations through the
m id-1980’s, with thousands of open­
ings each year. As population and
personal incomes grow, m ost m anu­
facturing industries are expected to
increase their output, and thus em ­
ploym ent in the long run. This busi­
ness growth will create a need for
m o re in d u s tr ia l m a c h in e ry a n d
equipm ent. A dditionally, the grow­
ing co m p lex ity o f m a n u fa c tu re d
products should result in a need for
more inspectors. Many openings will
result as workers retire, die, or trans­
fer to other occupations.
Inspectors seeking jobs in com pa­
nies th a t p ro d u ce d u rab le goods,
which are particularly sensitive to
changes in business conditions, may
find jobs scarce in some years, plenti­
ful in others.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Earnings and Working

Inspectors generally are trained on
the job for a brief period—from a few
hours or days to several months, d e­
pending upon the skill required.
Employers look for applicants who
have good health and eyesight—with
or w ithout glasses—and who can fol­
low directions and con cen trate on
details. Applicants should be able to
get along with people since inspec­
tors occasionally work as part of a

Wages for inspectors ranged from
$2.70 to $7.02 an hour in 1976, ac­
cording to inform ation from a limited
num ber o f union contracts. Most in­
spectors covered by these contracts
earned between $3.50 and $5.50 an
W orking conditions vary consider­
ably for inspectors. For exam ple,
some have well lighted, air-co n d i­
tioned w orkplaces in an aircraft or

Inspectors use a variety of instruments to test product quality.

S e m isk ille d in s p e c to rs usu ally
work under close supervision, w here­
as skilled inspectors generally have
more responsibility and less supervi­
sion. For example, skilled inspectors
usually have authority to accept or
reject most products, and often an a­
lyze the reasons for faulty construc­
tion and recom m end corrective ac­
tio n . S killed in sp e c to rs also may
know how to use a wider variety of
complex testing instrum ents.
Some inspectors m ake m inor re­
pairs and adjustm ents, such as filing a
rough edge or tightening a bolt, and
grade products for quality. In many
plants, when the num ber of rejected
items rises above a certain propor­
tion, inspectors notify their supervi­

Places of Employment
About 692,000 inspectors were
1976. Two-thirds
worked in plants that produced dura­
Digitized forgoods such as m achinery, trans­



missile plant; others, who work on
the production floor of a machinery
or metal fabricating plant, often are
exposed to high tem peratures, oil,
grease, and noise.
Many inspectors are m embers of
labor unions, including the Interna­
tional U nion, U nited A utom obile,
A erospace and Agricultural Im ple­
ment W orkers of America; the Inter­
national Association o f M achinists
and Aerospace W orkers; the Interna­
tional Union of Electrical, Radio and
Machine W orkers; the International
Brotherhood of Electrical W orkers;
United Steelworkers; and the Allied
Industrial W orkers of America.

Sources of Additional
Information about employment
opportunities in this field may be
available from State em ploym ent ser­
vice offices.
The Am erican Society for Quality
Control certifies quality technicians.
They also publish a careers booklet
called “ C areers in the Quality Sci­
ences,” which describes the occupa­
tion of inspector and includes infor­
m ation on quality engineering and
m anagem ent careers as well. For in­
formation about the test required for
certification, or for a free copy of the
booklet, write to:
American Society for Quality Control, 161
West Wisconsin Ave., Milwaukee, Wis.

(D.O.T. 638.281)

Nature of the Work
With the coming of the Industrial
Revolution, machines replaced many
handcrafted items and new and big­
ger factories becam e necessary. The
textile industry in England was one of
the first to use m achinery to mass
produce its goods. The workers who
planned and built these textile mills,
and set up the equipm ent that was
needed, were called millwrights. The
occu p atio n gradually expanded to
other factories, and today the mill­

wright installs all types of m achinery
in almost every industry.
The millwright is a skilled craftworker who may perform any or all
o f the tasks involved in preparing
m achinery for use in a plant. This
often includes construction o f con­
crete foundations or w ooden p lat­
forms on which heavy m achines are
m ounted. As they either personally
prepare or supervise the construction
of these structures, millwrights must
know how to read blueprints and
work with various building materials.
Millwrights also may have to dis­
m antle existing equipm ent, for in­
stance when it becom es obsolete or
to make better use of factory space.
W renches, ham m ers, pliers, m etal
cutting torches, and other hand and
power tools are used to loosen and
disassemble parts.
To aid in moving m achinery, the
millwright may use any num ber of
rigging devices. For example, to in­
stall a new oven in a food processing
plant, millwrights may use a hoist or
a small crane to move the oven from
the truck on which it arrived to a
conveyor which would carry it into
the plant. Then it may be lifted, with
the aid o f a crow bar for leverage,
onto a dolly and taken to a founda­
tion for proper positioning.
In assem bling m ach in ery , m ill­
wrights fit bearings, align gears and
wheels, attach m otors and connect
belts to prepare a m achine for use.
Mounting and assembling a piece o f
equipm ent requires tools similar to
those used in the dism antling p ro ­
cess. W hen precision leveling is n ec­
essary, many measuring devices m ust
be used. To set up autom atic pin­
setting equipm ent in a bowling alley,
for example, plumb bobs—or weights
which determ ine perpendicularity—
m ust be attached. Millwrights also
use squares to test right angles and
calipers to m easure diam eter and
Many o f the millwright’s duties
also are perform ed by industrial m a­
chinery repairers. (See the statem ent
on in d u strial m achinery re p airers
elsewhere in the Handbook.) This in­
clu d es p re v en tativ e m ain ten an c e,
such as keeping m achinery regularly
oiled and greased, and fixing or re ­
placing worn parts.

Millwrights employed by contract
installation and construction com pa­
nies do a variety of installation work.
Those em ployed in factories usually
specialize in installing the particular
types of machinery used by their em ­
ployers. T hey also m ay m ain tain
plant equipm ent such as conveyors
and cranes.

Places of Employment
Most of the estim ated 96,000 mill­
wrights em ployed in 1976 worked for
m anufacturing com panies; the m a­
jority were in transportation equip­
m en t, m etal, p a p e r, lu m b er, and
chemical products industries. Others
worked for contractors in the con­
struction industry. M achinery m anu­
facturers employed a small num ber
to install equipm ent in custom ers’
Millwrights work in every State.
However, em ploym ent is concentrat­
ed in heavily industrialized areas
such as D etroit, Pittsburgh, C leve­
land, Buffalo, and the Chicago-Gary

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Some millwrights start as helpers
to skilled workers and learn the trade
informally on the job. This process
generally takes 6 to 8 years. Others
learn through formal apprenticeship
program s which last 4 years. A ppren­
ticeship program s include training in
dism antling, moving, erecting, and
repairing m achinery. H elpers also
may work with concrete and receive
instruction in related skills such as
carpentry, welding, and sheet-m etal
work. Classroom instruction is given
in shop m athem atics, blueprint read­
ing, hydraulics, electricity, and safe­
tyApplicants for apprentice or
helper jobs must be at least 17 years
old. Some employers prefer to hire
high school or vocational school
graduates. Courses
in science,
m athem atics, m echanical drawing,
and m achine shop practice are use­
ful. Because millwrights often put to ­
gether and take apart com plicated
m achinery, m echanical aptitude is
im portant. Strength and ability also
are im portant, because the work re­
quires a considerable am ount of lift­
ing and climbing.


are subject to usual shop hazards
such as cuts and bruises. A ccidents
have been reduced by the use of
protective devices such as safety
belts and hats.
Most millwrights belong to labor
unions, among which are the Interna­
tional Association of Machinists and
Aerospace W orkers; United B rother­
hood of C arpenters and Joiners of
Am erica (construction millwrights);
United Steelworkers of America; In­
ternational Union, United A utom o­
bile, Aerospace and Agricultural Im­
plem ent W orkers of Am erica; United
P aperw orkers International Union;
the International Union o f Electrical,
R adio and M achine W orkers; and
th e In te rn a tio n a l B ro th erh o o d o f
Firemen and Oilers.

Sources of Additional
For further inform ation on appren­
ticeship programs, write to the A p­
prenticeship Council of your S tate’s
labor d ep artm en t, local offices of
your State em ploym ent service, local
firms that employ millwrights or:

Employment Outlook
Employment of millwrights is ex­
pected to increase about as fast as
th e a v e ra g e fo r all o c c u p a tio n s
through th e m id-1980’s. Em ploy­
ment will increase as new plants are
built, as existing plant layouts are im­
proved, and as increasingly complex
m ach in ery is in stalled and m ain ­
tained. Besides job openings from
em ploym ent grow th, thousands o f
openings will arise annually as expe­
rienced m illw rights retire, die, or
transfer to other occupations.

Earnings and Working
According to a survey of m etropol­
itan areas, hourly wages for m ill­
wrights averaged $7.25 in 1976—
more than one-third higher than the
average wage for all nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
farming. Earnings for millwrights in
11 areas th at represent various re­
gions o f the country appear in the
accompanying tabulation:


Hourly rate

St. Louis..............................................
Minneapolis—St. Paul......................
New York...........................................
New Orleans.......................................


Millwrights employed by factories
ordinarily work year round. Those
employed by construction com panies
and com panies that m anufacture and
install m achinery may experience p e­
riods of unem ploym ent; how ever,
they usually are com pensated with a
higher hourly wage rate. Frequently
these millwrights must travel.
The work of millwrights involves
some hazards. For example, there is
the danger of being struck by falling
objects or machinery that is being
moved. T here also is the danger of
falling from high workplaces, for
millwrights must often climb up
walkways and platform s to install
equipm ent. In addition, millwrights

United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners
of America, 101 Constitution Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20001.

(D.O.T. 960.382)

Nature of the Work
Projectionists are key behind-thescenes w orkers in m otion p ictu re
theaters. From a booth in the back of
the th e a te r, p rojectionists op erate
movie projectors and sound equip­
ment. Their duties vary with the type
of equipm ent used.
In theaters with older equipm ent,
projectionists use two projectors,
sound equipm ent, a film rewinding
m achine, and seven reels of film or
more. Before the movie begins, they
examine the film, check the equip­
m ent to see that it works properly,
and load the projectors with the first
and second reels. A fter igniting and
adjusting the extrem ely bright p ro ­
jecto r lamp which provides light for
the screen, projectionists start the



first reel. If the picture is out of focus
or unsteady, they adjust the projector
lens. Volume controls also may be
adjusted if the sound is too loud or
too soft.
A reel of film lasts 20 minutes or
more. W hen the reel is almost com ­
plete, cue marks (small circles in the
upper right corner of the picture) sig­
nal that it is time to start the second
projector. After a second series of
cue marks appears, the projectionist
simultaneously closes the shutter on
the first projector and opens the sec­
ond one. This changeover happens so
quickly that the audience does not
notice an interruption on the screen.
Next, the projectionist removes the
first reel and rewinds it on the re­
winding machine. The entire process
is repeated until all the reels have
been shown. When the film breaks,
the p ro jectio n ist m ust reth read it
rapidly so that the show may contin­
Almost all new theaters and many
renovated theaters have autom ated
or sem i-autom ated equipm ent. When
the film is properly program ed or
“ set-up,” the machines automatically
can dim houselights, open curtains,
s ta rt th e show w ith p ic tu re and
sound, change from one projector to
another, and rewind the film. This
eq u ip m en t also uses larger reels,
which lessen the num ber of projector
changeovers. In theaters with auto­
mated equipm ent, the projectionist’s
main job is the “ setup” of the film.
A movie com es from a film ex­
change com pany on 7 to 12 individ­
ual reels o f film. The projectionist
splices the film from these reels and
rewinds it on 2 to 3 reels or on one
“ platter.” The projectionist also cues
the program by placing small m etal­
lic tabs on the film that activate the
various functions of the machinery
such as the film changeover. The film
must then be carefully inspected for
flaws, which may cause the film to
break during the showing. The pro­
jectionist loads the projector, ignites
the light, adjusts the sound and pic­
ture, and starts the show.
In case o f trouble such as a break
in the film, the equipm ent shuts off
until the projectionist can correct the
problem. W hen a movie has finished
its run in a theater, the projectionist
must replace
 the film on the smaller

reels for return to the film exchange
Projectionists also clean and lubri­
cate equipm ent, check for defective
parts and damaged film, and make
m inor repairs and adjustm ents. For
example, they may replace a badly
worn projector sprocket. M ajor re­
pairs are usually m ade by service
technicians who specialize in repair­
ing projection and sound equipm ent.
However, employers sometime seek
a projectionist who can do all the
repair work.

Places of Employment
An estim ated 16,500 motion pic­
ture projectionists w ere em ployed
full tim e in 1976. T h e m ajo rity
worked for indoor theaters; most of
the rem ainder worked for drive-ins.
Some projectionists worked for large
m anufacturing com panies, colleges,
television studios, and Federal, State,
and local governments.
Projectionists work in cities and
towns of all sizes throughout the
country. However, m ost jobs are in
large m etropolitan areas.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Most theaters in urban areas are
unionized and young people seeking
jobs as projectionists generally must
m eet unio n m em b ersh ip re q u ire ­
m ents. T he union locals establish
these mem bership requirem ents, and
they vary considerably among the lo­
cals. In n o nunion th e a te rs young
people may start as ushers or helpers
and learn the trade by working with
an experienced projectionist.
Generally, unions prefer that ap ­
plicants be high school graduates. In
a few cities and States, projectionists
must be licensed. The license often
must be obtained before applying for
union membership.
Some locals only adm it applicants
who have had experience with p ro ­
jection equipm ent. These applicants
may work for a trial period in several
theaters under the supervision of the
regular projectionist. If they dem on­
strate an adequate knowledge o f the
projection equipm ent and its opera­
tion, they may join the union. The
tria l p e rio d usually lasts sev eral
weeks and during that time the appli­
cant receives no pay.

Some locals conduct training p ro ­
grams which usually require no pre­
vious e x p e rie n c e w ith p ro jec tio n
equipm ent. Trainees learn the trade
by working with projectionists. They
firs t le a rn sim ple task s su ch as
threading and rewinding film, and
progress to m ore difficult assign­
ments such as adjusting and repairing
equipm ent. A trainee often works in
several theaters to becom e familiar
with different types o f equipm ent.
Som e tra in in g p ro g ra m s in clu d e
classroom instruction in basic elec­
tronics and mechanics. After train­
ing, the applicant must pass a written
exam about equipm ent use and m ain­
tenance; the applicant then becomes
a union m em ber. Trainees are not
paid for their work in the theaters.
Persons interested in becoming
projectionists should have good eye­
sight—including norm al color p e r­
c e p tio n — and good hearing. They
should be tem peram entally suited to
working alone. Manual dexterity and
mechanical aptitude also are im por­
ta n t q u a lific a tio n s . H igh sch o o l
courses in m echanics and electronics
or practical experience gained from
operating 16-millimeter projectors at
school or in the A rm ed Forces is
Advancem ent opportunities for
projectionists are limited. Some,
however, becom e projectionist-m an­
agers and run many of the th eate r’s
daily operations.

Employment Outlook
Little change is expected in em ­
ployment of motion picture projec­
tio n ists th ro u g h th e m id -1 9 8 0 ’s.
Most job openings will occur as expe­
rienced workers retire, die, or trans­
fer to o th er fields of work. A ppli­
cants may face keen com petition for
the jobs that becom e available. Be­
cause earnings of m otion picture p ro­
jectionists are relatively high, appli­
c a n ts fre q u e n tly o u tn u m b e r jo b
openings. In some areas, new union
m em bers may only be able to work
p art tim e as replacem ents for full­
time projectionists.
The num ber of movie theaters is
expected to increase more slowly
than in recent years, because lack of
new films will hurt the theaters’ abil­
ity to com pete with other forms of
e n te rta in m e n t such as television.



Furtherm ore, because of laborsaving
innovations in equipm ent and theater
design, em ploym ent of projectionists
will n o t k eep p ace w ith th e a te r
growth. While older theaters had one
screen and em ployed at least one
projectionist, many new theaters are
built with several screens side by side
so that one projectionist, aided by
autom ated projection m achines and
longer film reels, can run films for
more than one auditorium at a time.
The rep lacem en t o f single screen
th e a te rs by th o se w ith m u ltip le
screens will slow the growth of pro­
jectionist jobs caused by new theater

Earnings and Working
Average hourly earnings for pro­
je c tio n is ts in larg e m e tro p o lita n
areas ranged from $5.18 to $16.50 in
1976, according to inform ation from
several union contracts. Wages vary
among locals, the specific rate being
determ ined by the type of theater,
m o v ie, an d e q u ip m e n t inv o lv ed .
G enerally, downtown theaters pay
higher hourly rates than suburban or
drive-in theaters. Projectionists who
work more than one screen also re­
ceive extra pay.
Most projectionists work evenings;
generally 4 to 6 hours on weekdays,
and 10 hours or more on Saturday or
Sunday. In theaters with weekday
matinees, projectionists usually work
6 hours a day, 6 days a week. Some
projectionists work at several th e ­
aters. For example, a weekly sched­
ule may call for two evenings in each
of three theaters. In small towns, pro­
jectio n ists usually work only p art
time because of the small num ber of
shows. P ro jectionists em ployed at
drive-ins— particularly in northern
States—may be laid off for several
months during the winter.
Projection rooms usually have ade­
quate lighting and ventilation, and
some are air-conditioned. The work
is not strenuous and is relatively haz­
ard free, but there is danger of elec­
trical shock and acid burns from the
projector’s lamp if proper safety p re­
cautions are not tak en . A lthough
projectionists must stand a lot, they
may sit for short periods while the
equipm ent is operating. Most projec­
tionists work without direct supervi­

sion and have in fre q u en t c o n ta c t
with other theater employees.

Sources of Additional
Details about training program s
and em ploym ent opportunities may
be obtained from any local of the
International Alliance of Theatrical
Stage Employees and Moving Picture
Machine O perators o f the United
States and Canada.

(D.O.T. 711.381 and 713.884)

Nature of the Work
Ophthalmic laboratory technicians
(also called optical mechanics) make
eyeglasses ordered by dispensing o p ­
ticians, eye physicians (ophthalm ol­

ogists), and optom etrists. The two
types of ophthalm ic laboratory tech ­
nicians are surfacer (or lens grinder)
and bench technician (or finisher).
In small laboratories, one person may
perform the tasks of both a surfacer
and a finisher. Starting with standard
size lens blanks, which large optical
firms mass-produce, they set up and
operate machines to grind and polish
eyeglass lenses according to prescrip­
tion specifications. Surfacers use p re­
cision instrum ents to m easure the
lenses and make sure that they fit the
prescription. In large laboratories,
work is divided into separate o p era­
tions which are perform ed mainly by
workers who operate power grinding
and polishing machines.
Bench technicians mark and cut
lenses and smooth their edges to fit
fram es. T hey th en assem ble th e
lenses and frame parts into finished
glasses. Bench technicians use spe­
cial tools, such as lens cutters and
glass drills, as well as small files,
pliers, and o th er handtools. They
also use autom atic edging m achines

Technician grinds lens to prescription specifications.


to shape lens edges and precision in­
struments to detect imperfections. In
larg e la b o ra to rie s , th e d u ties o f
bench technicians are divided into
several o perations which are p e r­
formed mainly by semiskilled work­

Places of Employment
About 22,000 persons worked as
ophthalmic laboratory technicians in
1976. Most ophthalm ic laboratory
technicians work in ophthalm ic labo­
ratories. Some work for retail optical
dispensaries or other stores that sell
prescription lenses. A few work for
eye physicians or optom etrists who
dispense glasses directly to patients.
Ophthalmic laboratory technicians
are found in every State. However,
employm ent is concentrated in large
cities and in populous States.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
The vast majority of all ophthalmic
laboratory technicians learn their
skills on the job. At first, technician
trainees do simple jobs such as pro­
cessing lenses through a grinding m a­
chine. As they gain experience, they
progress to other operations such as
lens cutting and eyeglass assembly.
When the trainees have acquired ex­
perience in all types o f work, which
usually takes about 3 years, they are
co n sid ered all-ro u n d o p tical m e­
chanics. Some technicians specialize
in one type of job, such as surfacing
or bench work. The training time re­
quired to become a specialist is less
than that needed to becom e an all­
round technician.
High school graduates also can
prepare to become a technician
through 3- to 4-year formal appren­
ticeship programs. A pprentices with
ex cep tio n al ability m ay com plete
their training in a sh o rter period.
Most training authorities agree that
technicians who learn as apprentices
have m ore jo b o p p o rtu n itie s and
more opportunities for advancem ent
than those without such training.
A pprentices are generally trained
to be either ophthalm ic surfacers or
finishers. All apprentices receive in­
struction in optical m athem atics and
optical physics. O phthalm ic surfac­
ers receive training in lens grinding
and ophthalm ic finishers learn to as­


semble eyeglasses into frames and to
do frame repair.
Some technicians receive training
while in the Arm ed Forces or by
attending vocational schools which
offer 9-m onth full-time optical tech ­
nician courses. G raduates from these
types of program s generally need ad ­
ditional on-the-job training.
Employers prefer applicants for
entry jobs as ophthalm ic laboratory
technicians to be high school gradu­
ates who have had courses in the ba­
sic sciences. A knowledge of physics,
algebra, geom etry, and m echanical
drawing is particularly valuable. In­
terest in and ability to do precision
work are essential.
Some States require licenses for
ophthalm ic laboratory technicians.
To obtain a license, the applicant
generally m ust m eet certain m ini­
mum stan d ard s o f ed u c atio n and
training, and must also pass either a
written or practical examination, or
both. For specific requirem ents, the
licensing boards of individual States
should be consulted.
Ophthalm ic laboratory technicians
can becom e supervisors and m anag­
ers. Some technicians becom e dis­
pensing opticians, although the trend
is to train specifically for optician
jobs. Som e technicians, especially
those receiving their training in both
shop and dispensing work, may go
into business for themselves.

A list of schools offering courses
for people who wish to become oph­
thalm ic la b o ra to ry tech n ic ia n s is
available from:

Employment Outlook

National Academy of Opticianry, 514 Chest­
nut St., Big Rapids, Mich. 49307.

Em ploym ent of ophthalm ic labo­
ratory technicians is expected to in­
crease faster than the average for all
occupations through the m id-1980’s.
In addition to the job openings from
em ploym ent growth, some openings
will arise from the need to replace
experienced workers who retire, die,
or leave the occupation for other rea­
More technicians will be needed
due to the rising dem and for eye­
glasses. The dem and for eyeglasses is
expected to increase as a result of
increases in population and a greater
awareness of the need for eyeglasses.
State program s to provide eye care
for low-income families, union health
insurance plans, and M edicare also
will stim ulate dem and. M oreover,
the growing variety o f frame styles
and colors may encourage individ­

uals to buy more than one pair of

Earnings and Working
Hourly wage rates for ophthalm ic
technicians ranged from $4.60 to
$7.50 in 1976, based on information
from a small num ber of union con­
A pprentices start at about 60 p er­
cent of the skilled w orker’s rate; their
wages are increased periodically so
that upon com pletion of the appren­
ticeship program , they receive the
beginning rate for experienced w ork­
Most ophthalm ic laboratory tech ­
nicians work a 5-day, 40-hour week.
Work surroundings of the ophthal­
mic technician are pleasant, welllig h te d , and w e ll-v e n tila te d , b u t
noisy because of the power-grinding
and polishing machines.
Some ophthalmic laboratory tech­
nicians are members of unions. The
principal union in this field is the In­
ternational Union of Electrical, R a­
dio and M achine W orkers (A FLCIO).

Sources of Additional

National Federation of Opticianry Schools,
300 Jay St., Brooklyn, N.Y. 11202.

For general inform ation about the
occupation, contact:
International Union of Electrical, Radio and
Machine Workers, 1126 16th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.
Opticians Association of America, 1250 Con­
necticut Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.

(D.O.T. 970.281, 976.381, .687
through .887)

Nature of the Work
Am ateur snapshots, home movies,
professional p o rtra its, and ph o to -


graphs to illustrate publications re­
quire the skills of thousands of pho­
to g ra p h ic la b o ra to ry em ployees.
These workers develop film, make
prints and slides, and perform related
tasks, such as enlarging and retouch­
ing photographs. (This chapter does
not discuss employees o f laboratories
who specialize in processing profes­
sional motion picture film.)
All-round darkroom technicians
(D.O.T. 976.381) can perform all
tasks necessary to develop and print
film. They know how to develop film
manually, as well as how to operate
and maintain any autom atic equip­
m ent used in processing film. The
technician varies the developing pro­
cess according to the type of film —
b la c k -a n d -w h ite n e g a tiv e , c o lo r Some high schools and trade schools of­
negative, or color positive. For exam ­ fer photography courses that include
training in film processing.
ple, a developing process for blackand-white negative film covers five
steps: developer, stop bath, fixing technician places the negative b e­
bath, washing, and drying. The first tween the lamp and lens, and the p a­
three steps use chem ical solutions per below the lens. W hen the techni­
and are perform ed in darkness. In a cian turns on the lamp, light passes
hand operation, the technician first through the negative and lens and
immerses unwound film in the devel­ records a m agnified image o f the
oper, a solution that brings out the negative on the paper. During print­
image on exposed film. W hen the ing, the technician may vary the con­
film has remained in the developer trast of the image or remove unw ant­
ed b a c k g ro u n d by u sin g p a p e r
for a specified period, the technician
transfers it to a stop bath to prevent patterns to shade part of the photo­
overdevelopm ent. Next, the film is graphic p ap e r from the projected
placed in a fixing bath that makes it image. A fter removing the exposed
insensitive to light to prevent further photographic paper from the printer,
exp o su re. Finally, the tech n ic ia n the technician develops it in much
washes the film with water to remove the same way as the negative. If the
the fixing solution and places the film c u sto m e r d esires, th e te c h n ic ia n
in a drying cabinet. Although hand mounts the finished print in a frame
operations are perform ed in some or on a paper or cardboard back.
In addition to working in the labo­
small photographic studios, in many
photographic labs technicians regu­ ratory, darkroom technicians may set
late m achines that autom atically p er­ up lights and cam eras or otherwise
assist ex p erien ced p h o to g rap h ers.
form the steps described above.
Processes for developing color Many technicians, particularly those
films are more complex than those who work in portrait studios and as­
used for black-and-white. Thus, pire to becom e professional photog­
some labs employ color technicians raphers, divide their time between
(D.O.T. 976.381)—highly skilled taking and processing pictures. In
workers who specialize in processing some labs, helpers assist technicians.
They also may be assisted by workers
color film.
The darkroom technician makes a who specialize in a particular activi­
photograph by transferring the image ty , su c h as d ev e lo p e rs (D .O .T .
from a negative to photographic pa­ 976.38 1), printers (D.O.T. 976.381 ),
and retouchers (D.O.T. 970.281).
per. Printing frequently is perform ed
In most large photo labs where the
on a projection printer, which con­
sists of a fixture for holding negatives film-developing processes are largely
and photographic paper, an electric autom ated, darkroom technicians su­
lam p, and a m agnifying lens. The pervise semiskilled workers who do


specialized assignm ents requ irin g
only a limited knowledge of develop­
ing and printing. Included are film
numberers (D .O .T. 976.887), who
sort film according to the type of p ro ­
cessing needed and num ber each roll
fo r id e n tific a tio n ; film strip p ers
(D.O.T. .976.884), who unwind rolls
of film and place them in developing
machines; printer operators (D.O.T.
9 7 6 .7 8 2 ), who o p e ra te m achines
that expose rolls of photographic pa­
per to negatives; print developers, m a­
chine (D.O.T. 976.885), who operate
machines th at develop these rolls of
exposed photographic paper; chem i­
cal mixers (D .O .T. 976.884), who
m easure and com bine the various
chemicals that make up developing
solutions; slide m ounters (D .O .T .
9 7 6 .8 8 5 ), who o p e ra te m achines
that cut, insert, and seal slides in
card b o ard or plastic m ounts; and
p h o to c h e c k e r s a n d a s s e m b le r s
(D.O.T. 976.687), who inspect the
finished slides and prints and pack­
age them for customers.

Places of Employment
In 1976, about 35,000 persons
worked in photo lab occupations.
Most semiskilled workers are em ­
ployed by large photofinishing labs
that specialize in processing film for
am ateur photographers. A large p ro ­
p o rtio n o f d ark ro o m te c h n ic ia n s
work in photo labs operated by p o r­
trait and com m ercial studios and by
m a n u f a c tu r e r s , n e w s p a p e r a n d
m ag azin e p u b lish e rs, a d v e rtisin g
agencies, and o th er organizations.
Darkroom technicians also work in
com m ercial labs th at specialize in
processing the work of professional
Photo lab workers are situated in
all parts of the country, but em ploy­
m ent is co n centrated in the m ore
populous areas such as New York,
Los A ngeles, C hicago, and o th e r
large cities.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Most darkroom technicians learn
their skills through informal on-thejob training. Beginners start as help­
ers and gradually learn to develop
and print film by assisting experi­
enced technicians. It generally takes



about 3 years to becom e a fully quali­
fied d ark ro o m te c h n ic ia n . Som e
helpers become specialists in a par­
ticular activity, such as printing or
developing. G enerally, the training
time required in order to becom e a
specialist is less than is needed to
become an all-round darkroom tech­
When hiring darkroom technician
helpers, employers prefer applicants
who are high school graduates.
Courses in chemistry and m athem at­
ics are helpful to people interested in
this trade. Some high schools and
trade schools offer courses in pho­
tography that include training in film
processing. The Arm ed Forces also
offer training for darkroom techni­
cians. E x p erien ce gained through
processing film as a hobby is helpful.
Two-year curricula leading to an
associate degree in photographic
technology are offered by a few col­
leges. C om pletion o f college level
courses in this field is helpful to peo­
ple who are interested in supervisory
and m anagerial jobs in photo labs.
Many darkroom technicians even­
tually becom e professional photogra­
phers. (See statem ent on photogra­
phers elsew here in the Handbook.)
Others advance to supervisory posi­
tions in laboratories.
Training for workers in semiskilled
photolab occupations ranges from a
few weeks to several m onths of onthe-job training. For example, film
num berers and slide m o u n te rs u su a l­
ly can learn their jobs in a few weeks,
but printer operators and chemical
mixers may need several m onths or
longer. For many sem iskilled jobs,
manual dexterity, good vision includ­
ing norm al co lo r p e rc e p tio n , and
good hand-eye coordination are im­
portant qualifications.

Employment Outlook
Employment in photo lab occupa­
tions is expected to increase faster
than the average for all occupations
through the m id-1980’s. In addition
to jobs from em ploym ent grow th,
many openings will result from the
need to replace experienced workers
who retire, die, or transfer to other
The need for semiskilled workers
is for FRASER to the growth of am a­
Digitized tied closely

teur photography. Film purchases by
am ateur photographers are expected
to increase as a result of rising popu­
latio n an d p e rso n a l incom e. Im ­
provem ents in still and movie cam ­
eras that make them easier to load
and operate also should contribute to
an increase in the use of film. How­
ever, due to the growing popularity
o f self-processing in stan t cam eras
and the increased use of m echanized
film-processing equipm ent in photo
labs, em ploym ent will not grow as
fast as the am ount of film used.
The need for all-round darkroom
technicians is expected to increase as
a result of the growing dem and for
photography in business and govern­
ment. A m ajor factor contributing to
this dem and will be the increasing
variety of printed m atter that is illus­
trated with photographs. The grow­
ing use o f photography in research
and developm ent activities also will
contribute to the dem and for dark­
room technicians.

Earnings and Working
Earnings of photo lab workers vary
greatly and depend on factors such as
skill level, experience, and geograph­
ic location. Inexperienced photo lab
w orkers generally earned betw een
$2.40 and $3.50 an hour in 1976,
according to the limited inform ation
available. W orkers in sem iskilled
occupations earned from $2.40 to $5
an h o u r. A m ong th e se w o rk e rs,
printer operators and chemical mix­
ers generally had the highest earn­
ings. In general, darkroom tech n i­
c ia n s a n d th o s e in s u p e rv is o ry
positions earned more than the semi­
skilled specialized workers. Most of
the experienced darkroom te c h n i­
cians e a rn e d b etw een $4.50 and
$7.50 an hour in 1976.
The majority of photo lab em ploy­
ees work a 40-hour week and get p re­
mium pay for overtime. In labs that
specialize in processing film for am a­
teur photographers, employees may
work a considerable am ount of over­
time during the sum m er and for sev­
eral w eeks after C hristm as. M any
labs employ tem porary workers d u r­
ing these seasonal peaks.
Photo lab jobs are not physically
strenuous, but in many of the sem i­
skilled occupations the work is rep ­

etitious and the pace is rapid. Some
workers (for example, printer opera­
tors and photocheckers and assem­
b lers) are subject to eye fatigue.
P h o to fin ish in g labs are generally
clean, w ell-lighted, and air-co n d i­

Sources of Additional
For inform ation ab o u t em p lo y ­
m ent opportunities in photographic
laboratories and schools that offer
degrees in photographic technology,
write to:
Photo Marketing Association, 603 Lansing
Ave., Jackson, Mich. 49202.
Professional Photographers of America, Inc.,
1090 Executive Way, Des Plaines, 1 1
Photographic Art and Science Foundation,
111 Stratford Rd., Des Plaines, 11 . 60016.

(D.O.T. 922.883)

Nature of the Work
In the past, workers usually did the
hard physical labor of moving m ate­
rials and products. Today, many m a­
terials and products are moved by
workers who operate various types of
power trucks.
A typical power truck has a hy­
draulic lifting mechanism and forks
to carry a load on a wooden skid or
pallet, or other attachm ents to make
it m ore versatile. F or exam ple, a
truck may have a clamp lift to move
cartons, bales, or paper rolls, a scoop
to lift coal, or a tow bar to pull w are­
house trailers.
Because the trucks are steered by
the rear wheels and start and stop
very quickly, operators m ust use care
and skill in driving. Power trucks are
relatively easy to operate; however,
operators usually m ust follow special
procedures when using a truck at a
plant, warehouse, or construction
site. For example, forks must be kept
down if the truck is driven without a
load. If the load is too high or wide to
see around, the operator must drive
the truck in reverse. W hen loading or
removing materials that are stacked



on the floor or a platform, drivers
must judge distance accurately and
operate the truck smoothly so that no
damage occurs to the stock. O pera­
tors also must know the lifting capac­
ity of the truck and the kinds of jobs
it can do.
O perators may have to keep rec­
ords of materials moved and do some
manual loading and unloading. They
also may be responsible for keeping
their trucks in good working condi­
tion by cleaning and oiling them ,
checking the water in batteries, m ak­
ing simple adjustm ents, and report­
ing any m echanical problems.

Places of Employment
About 360,000 persons worked as
power truck operators in 1976.
About three-fourths of them worked
in m anufacturing industries. Large
numbers were employed in plants
that made autom obiles, m achinery,
fabricated metal products, paper,
building materials, and iron and
steel. Many power truck operators
also were employed in warehouses,
depots, freight and m arine term inals,
and mines.
P ow er tru ck o p e ra to rs are em ­
ployed in all parts o f the country.
A lth o u g h som e are em p lo y ed in
small towns, m ost work in heavily
populated areas where large factories
are located.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Power truck operators train on the
job. Most workers can learn to o p er­
ate a power truck in a few days. It
tak es several w eeks, how ever, to
learn the layout of the plant, the rules
for operating a truck in the plant, and
the m ost efficient way of handling
Many com panies have training
programs that include classroom in­
struction and practice with the power
truck. In the classes, trainees learn
how the vehicle and its lift operate,
proper m ethods of transporting m a­
terials, sim ple m aintenance p ro c e­
dures, and safe driving rules. The
program s stress p ra ctice w ith the
power trucks. Trainees even may be
required to operate them on an o b ­
stacle course. Training programs last
1 to 5 days. Because power trucks
are becom ing more versatile and ex­
pensive, firms are expected to place
g re ater em phasis on training p ro ­
grams to increase the skills of their
operators in order to avoid damage
to trucks and m aterials from acci­
E m ployers seek ap p lican ts who
h av e a v e ra g e m a n u a l d e x te r ity ,
strength, and stam ina because opera­
tors must get on and off the truck
fre q u e n tly a n d o c c a s io n a lly lo a d a n d

unload m aterial. Good eyesight, in­
cluding good depth preception, is re ­

 Power truck operators are employed in many industries.

quired to pick up, move, and deposit
loads with the pow er truck. Large
com panies generally require appli­
cants to pass a physical examination.
Some m echanical ability is helpful
because operators often are required
to perform m inor m aintenance on
their power trucks.
Opportunities for advancem ent
are limited. A few operators may
become supervisors.

Employment Outlook
Em ploym ent of pow er truck op ­
erators is expected to increase about
as fast as the average for all occupa­
tions through the m id-1980’s. In ad­
dition to jobs resulting from em ploy­
m ent growth, many operators will be
needed to replace those who retire,
die, or transfer to other occupations.
M ore goods will be m anufactured
as the population grows and our stan­
dard of living rises, and m ore power
truck o p erato rs will be needed to
move these goods and the materials
used to produce them . The need for
operators also will increase as m ore
firms use power trucks in place of
hand labor to move m aterials. The
num ber o f jobs available annually
will vary, because the occupation is
sensitive to changes in the dem and
for m anufactured goods.

Earnings and Working
In 1976, power truck operators in
m anufacturing earned an average of
$5.30 an hour, slightly above the
average for nonsupervisory workers
in private industry, except farming.
Earnings of operators varied slightly
by region and by industry.
Power truck operators are subject
to hazards such as collisions and fall­
ing objects. They may operate their
trucks outdoors where they are ex­
posed to all kinds of weather. Some
o p erato rs tran sp o rt loose m aterial
that is dirty or dusty.
A trend toward quieter, m ore com ­
fortable, and better handling trucks
and emphasis on training in safe op­
eration have im proved working co n ­
ditions. For example, all rider type
pow er tru ck s now have ov erh ead
guards and many which are used o u t­
doors are equipped with all-weather
cabs. Also, the increasing use of the
relatively noiseless and pollutant-free


b a tte ry -p o w e re d tru c k s is doing
much to improve the com fort of the
operator. Moving m aterials through­
out a plant also is likely to be less
routine and boring than many other
production jobs.

Sources of Additional
Information on work opportunities
for power truck operators may be
available from the local office of the
State em ploym ent service.

Nature of the Work
Almost every metal or wood prod­
uct m anufactured gets a coating of
paint or other finish before it leaves
the factory. Automobiles, for exam ­
ple, usually receive rust preventative,
primer, and paint totaling at least 10
coats. Even pencils are dipped in
paint several times before they are
packed into boxes.
The workers who apply the var­
nish, lacquer, paint, and other finish­
es used in factories are called pro­
d u c tio n p a in te r s . B e c a u se th ey
generally work on assembly lines,
production painters’ skills are differ­
ent from those of painters who repair
dam aged cars in body shops and
from those who p ain t newly co n ­
structed buildings. (Inform ation on
these painters can be found in sepa­
ra te s ta te m e n ts elsew here in the
Handbook.) The m ajority of produc­
tion painters use sprayguns to apply
finishes; while the rest operate auto­
m atic painting m achinery, such as
spraying m achines, dipping tanks,

Digitized Most paint is applied with spray guns.

and tumbling barrels. Since painters
m ay spray h u n d re d s o f id e n tic a l
items a day, the work may becom e
Painters mix the paint at the begin­
ning of the process. They first figure
areas to be covered, and then follow
directions to blend paint to its cor­
rect color and thickness. These steps
require simple arithm etic involving
decimals and fractions. Viscosity m e­
ters are used to make sure the paint is
the right consistency, for if it is too
thick or too thin, the paint has to be
mixed over. Pressure o f the spray gun
nozzles and spray pattern controls
also must be adjusted properly to en ­
sure that the paint is evenly applied.
Besides spraying, painters are re­
sponsible for other duties on the pro­
duction line. If an object is to be m ul­
ti-co lo re d , m asking tap e m ust be
applied to keep colors from overlap­
ping. Production painters who oper­
ate m achinery set up the painting
equipm ent at the beginning of the
shift and are responsible for keeping
it running. O ther m achines used in
the painting process may also be op­
erated by the painters. For example,
washing tanks are used to clean items
prior to painting and baking ovens
dry the painted articles. At the end of
the shift, painters m ust clean spray
guns and other equipm ent used, such
as mixing paddles or gauges which
check paint consistency.
An increasing num ber of produc­
tion lines use autom atic painting m a­
chinery. H ere, production painters
are necessary to check for im perfec­
tions and to paint parts of an article
that the m achine misses. For exam ­
ple, some m odern applicators cannot
paint inside surfaces, such as the in­
terior of a bucket. Painters use spray
guns to paint these areas. As produc­
tion lines become m ore autom ated,
p ain ters m ust learn to handle all
types of m odern painting m achinery,
such as electrostatic applicators and
powder-type painting systems.

Places of Employment
About 104,000 production paint­
ers were em ployed in 1976. A bout
tw o-thirds o f the to ta l w orked in
plants th a t m ade autom obiles, m a­
chinery, furniture and other wood
p ro d u c ts, or m a n u fa c tu re d m etal


products such as cans, tinware, and
h an d to o ls. A lthough p ro d u c tio n
painters are scattered geographical­
ly, large num bers are employed in
industrialized States. A fourth of all
furniture painters were employed in
N orth C arolina and Pennsylvania,
while o n e-th ird o f all autom obile
painters worked in M ichigan—over
half of these in Detroit. Over a quar­
ter of the painters employed by com ­
panies making machinery and metal
products worked in Ohio and Illinois.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Because no formal apprenticeship
or training program exists, new p ro ­
duction painters acquire their skills
on the job. Inexperienced workers
often start off loading and unloading
item s from conveyor lines. A fter
they becom e familiar with the p ro ­
d u ctio n p ro cess and as openings
arise, they may be taught new paint­
ing skills. They usually learn the
work by watching and helping expe­
rien ced painters. T raining varies
from a few days to several months.
Som e m odern painting processes,
such as those used to apply powdered
coatings, dem and m ore skill than
others and thus a correspondingly
longer training period. As painters
gain experience they can advance to
higher skill categories, assume more
responsibility, and r e c e iv e h ig h e r
Production painters usually have
to stand for long periods of time to
do their job. Although they seldom
have to lift heavy objects, the p ro ­
duction line nature of the job d e­
mands good physical condition, since
the painters may be exposed to fumes
or have to bend or stoop in their
work. For example, to paint the un­
derside or top of an object, such as a
car, may require reaching or crouch­
ing. Good eyesight is an asset to dis­
tinguish colors and check that paint
has been applied evenly. High school
graduation is generally not required
for entry level positions, but a diplo­
ma or its equivalent may be needed
to advance to higher skill levels.
O pportunities for advancem ent
are limited, although a small num ber



of production painters becom e su­

Association of M achinists and A ero­
space W orkers; and the United Steel­
workers o f America

Employment Outlook
Employment of production paint­
ers is expected to increase at about
the same rate as the average for all
occupations through the m id-1980’s.
Many job openings also will result as
experienced workers retire, die, or
transfer to other occupations.
Most m anufacturing industries are
expected to increase their output in
the years ahead. Demand for con­
sumer products, such as automobiles
and furniture, will increase as popu­
lation and personal incom e grow.
Business growth will create a need
for m ore industrial m achinery and
equipm ent. Employment of painters,
how ever, is not ex p ected to keep
pace with m anufacturing output be­
cause increased use o f autom atic
painting processes and other laborsaving innovations should raise out­
put per worker.
Most production painters work in
plants that produce durable goods,
such as automobiles, where em ploy­
m en t is p a rtic u la rly sen sitiv e to
changes in general econom ic and
business conditions. Therefore, these
painters may be subject to occasional

Earnings and Working
Hourly wage rates for production
painters ranged from $2.63 to $6.12
in 1976, based on inform ation from a
limited num ber of union contracts.
Most painters covered by these con­
tracts earned between $4 and $5 per
Because painters are exposed to
fumes from paint and paint-mixing
ingredients, they may wear masks
which cover the nose and mouth.
Many wear coveralls to protect their
clothes. T hey also may need e a r­
plugs, since noisy factory conditions
often exist. When painting large ob­
jects, such as a car or refrigerator,
they may have to work in awkward
and cram ped positions.
Among unions organizing produc­
tion p ain ters are the International
Union, U nited A utom obile, A ero ­
space and A gricultural Im plem ent
W orkers o f
 A m erica; International

Sources of Additional
More facts about job opportunities
in this field may be available from
local offices of the State em ploym ent
service. G eneral inform ation on p ro ­
duction painters may be obtained
Materials Marketing Associates, Inc., Shepard-Benning Building, 520 Pleasant, St.
Joseph, Mich. 49085.
Federation o f Societies for Coatings Technol­
ogy, 1315 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa.

(D.O.T. 950.782)

Nature of the Work
Stationary engineers operate and
maintain the m achinery that provides
power for industry; heat and air-con­
ditioning for factories, hospitals, and
other buildings; and light for every
city and town. Among the equipm ent
they tend and control are steam boil­
ers, diesel engines, turbines, gener­
ators, pum ps, condensers, and air
Stationary engineers m onitor the
various m eters and gauges that are
attached to equipm ent to m ake sure
they are running properly, and m ake
adjustm ents whenever necessary. On
a steam boiler, for example, they
check the m eters and gauges that
indicate steam pressure and the
am ount o f fuel being consumed.
Stationary engineers, or power en ­
gineers as they o fte n are ca lle d ,
check th e eq u ip m en t regularly to
m ake sure th at adequate pow er is
provided without wasting fuel. They
can control both the flow of fuel to
the boiler and the steam pressure by
adjusting throttles or valves. O ther
types of equipm ent may be regulated
using switches or levers.
Stationary engineers also protect
equipm ent from soot and corrosion.
Boiler w ater, for example, frequently
is tested for purity and treated with

These workers detect and identify
any trouble that develops. They
watch and listen to machinery and
routinely check the safety controls.
Often stationary engineers make mi­
nor repairs, such as replacing defec­
tive valves, gaskets, or bearings.
In a large plant, the stationary en­
gineer may be in charge of the boiler
room, and direct the work of assist­
ant stationary engineers, turbine op­
erators, boiler tenders, and air-condi­
tioning and refrigeration m echanics.
In a small plant, the stationary engi­
neer may be the only person op erat­
ing and maintaining equipm ent.

Places of Employment
In 1976, 194,000 stationary engi­
neers were employed in a wide vari­
ety o f places, including power sta­
tions, factories, sewage and watertreatm en t plants, office and ap a rt­
m ent buildings, hotels, and hospitals.
F ed eral, S tate, and local go v ern ­
ments also employed large num bers
of these workers. Usually, plants that
operate on three shifts employ four
to eight stationary engineers, b u t
some have more. In many plants,
only one engineer w orks on each
Because stationary engineers work
in so many different kinds of indus­
tries, they are employed in all parts
of the country. Although some are
employed in small towns and in rural
areas, m ost work in the more heavily
populated areas where large industri­
al and com m ercial businesses are lo­

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancment
Many stationary engineers start as
helpers or oilers and acquire their
skills through informal on-the-job ex­
perience. A good background also
can be obtained in the Navy or M er­
chant M arine. However, most train ­
ing au th o rities recom m end form al
apprenticeship program s because of
the increasing com plexity o f the m a­
chines and systems.
In selecting apprentices, m ost joint
labor-m anagem ent
com m ittees prefer high school or
trade school graduates who have re­
ceived instruction in m athem atics,
m echanical draw ing, m achine-shop



not autom atic. For example, an engi­
neer who has a first-class license may
work for some time as an assistant to
another first-class engineer before a
vacancy occurs. Some stationary en­
gineers eventually advance to jobs as
plant engineers and as building and
plant superintendents. A few obtain
jo b s as exam ining en g in eers and
technical instructors.

Employment Outlook

Stationary engineers operate generators and turbines.

p ra c tic e , physics, and chem istry.
M echanical aptitude, m anual dexter­
ity, and good physical condition also
are im portant qualifications.
The apprenticeship usually lasts 4
years. In ad d itio n to on-the-job
training, apprentices receive class­
room instruction in practical chemis­
try, b em en tary physics, blueprint
reading, applied electricity, and oth­
er technical subjects.
Becoming a stationary engineer
without going through a formal ap­
prenticeship program usually takes
m any y ears o f e x p e rie n c e as an
assistant to licensed stationary engi­
neers or as a boiler tender. This prac­
tical experience can be supplem ent­
ed by te c h n ic a l o r o th e r school
training or home study.
Many States, the District of C o­
lumbia, and many large and medium ­
sized cities have licensing require­
ments for stationary engineers. Al­
though requirem ents for a license
differ from place to place, applicants
usually must be at least 18 years of
age, reside for a specified period in
the State or locality in which the ex­
amination is given, m eet the experi­
ence requirem ents for the class of
license requested, and pass a written
 there are several classes

of stationary engineer licenses. Each
class specifies the steam pressure or
horsepower of the equipm ent the en ­
gineer can operate. The chief engi­
neer license perm its the stationary
engineer to operate equipm ent of all
types and capacities. An applicant
for this license may be required to
have a high school education and an
approved apprenticeship or on-thejob training. The lower class licenses
limit the capacity of the equipm ent
the engineer may operate without the
supervision o f a higher rated engi­
Because of regional differences in
licensing requirem ents, a stationary
engineer who moves from one State
or city to another may have to pass
an examination for a new license.
However, the National Institute for
Uniform Licensing of Power Engi­
neers is now assisting many States in
adopting a stan d ard ized licensing
program th at would elim inate this
problem by establishing reciprocity
of licenses.
Stationary engineers advance to
more responsible jobs by being
placed in charge of larger, more pow­
erful, or m ore varied equipm ent.
G e n e ra lly , e n g in e e rs ad v a n ce to
these jobs as they obtain higher class
licenses. A dvancem ent, however, is

E m ploym ent of stationary engi­
n ee rs is e x p e c te d to show little
ch a n g e th ro u g h th e m id -1 9 8 0 ’s.
N evertheless, several thousand job
openings will arise annually because
of the need to replace experienced
workers who retire, die, or transfer to
other occupations.
Industrial growth will result in an
increased use of large boilers and
auxiliary equipm ent in factories,
powerplants, and other buildings.
The need for additional stationary
engineers, however, will be limited
by she trend toward more powerful
and more centralized equipm ent.
For example, a large boiler operated
by one stationary engineer can sup­
ply heat and refrigeration for several
buildings, instead of each building
having its own small boiler and its
own engineer.

Earnings and Working
Stationary engineers had average
hourly earnings of $7.03 in 1976,
according to a survey of 21 m etro­
politan areas. This was alm ost 50
percent higher than the average for
all nonsupervisory workers in private
industry, except farming. Averages
fo r en g in eers in individual cities
ranged from $4.69 in G reenville,
S.C. to $7.99 in the San Francisco
Stationary engineers generally
have steady year-round employment.
They usually work a 5-day, 40-hour
week. In plants that operate around
the clock, they may be assigned to
any one of three shifts—often on a
rotating basis—and to Sunday and
holiday work.
Engine rooms, powerplants, or
boiler room s usually are clean and
well-lighted. Even under the most
favorable conditions, however, some



stationary engineers are exposed to
high tem peratures, dust, and dirt
from the equipm ent. General m ainte­
nance duties may cause contact with
oil and grease, and fumes or smoke.
W orkers also may have to crawl in­
side boilers and work in crouching or
kneeling positions to inspect, clean,
or repair the interiors.
Because stationary engineers often
work around boilers and electrical
and m echanical equipm ent, they
must be alert to avoid burns, electric
shock, and injury from moving m a­
Among the unions to which these
workers belong are the International
Union o f Operating Engineers and
the International B rotherhood of
Firemen and Oilers.

Sources of Additional
Information about training or work
opportunities is available from local
offices of State em ploym ent services,
locals of the International Union of
Operating Engineers, and from State
and local licensing agencies.
Specific questions about the occu­
pation may be referred to:
International Union of Operating Engineers,
1125 17th St. NW„ Washington, D.C.
National Association of Power Engineers, Inc.
176 West Adams St., Chicago, 111. 60603.

For questions concerning licensing
requirem ents, contact:
National Institute for Uniform Licensing of
Power Engineers, 176 West Adams St.,
Chicago, 111. 60603.

OPERATORS (SewagePlant Operators)
(D.O.T. 955.782)

Nature of the Work
C lean w ater is essential for our
health and recreation and for the ex­
istence of fish and wildlife. W astewa­
ter trea tm e n t plant o perators help
keep A m erica’s w ater clean by re ­
moving harmful dom estic and indus­
trial waste.

Waste m aterials are carried by wa­
ter through sewer pipes to treatm ent
plants. O perators control equipm ent
to remove these m aterials or render
them harm less. By o p eratin g and
m aintaining pumps, pipes, and valves
that connect the collection system to
th e tre a tm e n t fa c ility , o p e ra to rs
m ove the w astew ater through the
various treatm ent processes.
O perators read and interpret m e­
ters and gauges to m ake sure plant
equipm ent is working properly. O th­
er jobs include operating chem ical
feeding devices to remove pollutants
from wastewater; taking samples o f
the w ater for laboratory analysis; and
testing and adjusting the level o f
chlorine in the water. O perators also
m ak e m in o r r e p a ir s on v a lv e s,
pumps, and other equipm ent. They
use gauges, w renches, pliers, and
other com m on handtools, as well as
special tools. Occasionally operators
must work under em ergency condi­
tio n s—for exam ple, a heavy ra in ­
storm may cause abnorm al am ounts
o f w astew ater to flow into sew er
p ip es a n d th r e a te n to ex c eed a
plant’s treatm ent capacity.
The duties of operators vary d e­
pending on the type and size of plant.
For example, the treatm ent process
in an industrial plant, such as a foodprocessing com pany, may be simple
since the wastewater is of a known
content. T reatm ent plants that serve
entire cities, on the other hand, m ust
be equipped to tre a t a m ixture o f
waste products that varies daily, thus
making the operator’s job more com ­
plicated. In smaller plants, one op­
erator may be responsible for the en ­
tire system —making repairs, keeping
plant records, handling com plaints,
and doing the m aintenance work for
the facility. In larger plants, the staff
may include chem ists, lab o ra to ry
technicians, m echanics, helpers, su­
pervisors, and a superintendent.
As a result of the passage of the
Federal W ater Pollution Control A ct
of 1972, water pollution standards
will becom e increasingly stringent in
the future. In order to m eet these
higher requirem ents, operators will
have to be able to operate m ore
sophisticated systems.

Places of Employment
About 100,000 people worked full
time as wastewater treatm ent plant
operators in 1976, o f whom about
58.000 worked in municipal plants,
40.000 in private industry, and 2,000
in Federal installations.
W astewater treatm ent plant op era­
tors are em ployed throughout the
country. G eog rap h ically , em p lo y ­
m ent is distributed much like the N a­
tion’s population, with most jobs in
larger towns and cities. Many opera­
tors in small towns are employed part

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Trainees usually start as helpers
and learn their skills on the job under
the direction of an experienced op­
erator. They learn by doing routine
tasks such as recording m eter read ­
ings; taking samples o f w astew ater
and sludge; and doing simple m ainte­
nance and repair w ork on pum ps,
electric m otors, and valves. They
also are expected to perform house­
keeping tasks such as cleaning and
m ain tain in g p lan t e q u ip m en t and
Persons interested in entering the
field should have some m echanical
aptitude and should be com petent in
basic m athem atics. Employers gener­
ally prefer trainees who have a high
school diploma or its equivalent, and
in some States this is a minimum edu­
c a tio n a l re q u irem en t. Some p o si­
tions, particularly in larger cities and
towns, are covered by civil service
regulations, and applicants may be
required to pass w ritten exam ina­
tions testing elem entary m athem atics
skills, m echanical aptitude, and gen­
eral intelligence. O perators m ust be
agile, since they have to climb lad­
ders and move easily around heavy
Some 2-year program s leading to
an associate degree in wastewater
technology are available; these p ro ­
vide a good general knowledge of the
w ater pollution control field as well
as basic preparation for becoming an
operator. Since plants are becom ing
m ore com plex, com pletion of such
c o u rse s in c re a s e s an a p p lic a n t’s
chances for em ploym ent and prom o­



Most State water pollution control
agencies offer training courses to im­
prove the skills of treatm ent plant
operators. These courses cover prin­
ciples of sludge digestion, odors and
their control, chlorination, sedim en­
tation, biological oxidation, and flow
measurements. Some operators take
correspondence courses on subjects
related to wastewater treatm ent, and
some employers will pay part of the
tuition for courses leading to a col­
lege degree in science or engineer­
O perators may be prom oted to po­
sitions such as supervisor and super­
in ten d en t. A high school diplom a
and increasingly responsible opera­
tor experience may be sufficient to
qualify as superintendent of a small
plant, since at many small plants the
superintendent also serves as an op­
erato r. E d u catio n al requirem ents,
however, are rising as larger, more
complex treatm ent plants are being
built to m eet new w ater pollution
control standards. S uperintendents
of large plants are expected to have
an engineering or science degree.
Training in m anagem ent techniques
is becom ing increasingly im portant
for operators seeking positions with
supervisory responsibilities. A limit­
ed num ber of operators may become
technicians employed by State water
pollution control agencies to monitor
and provide technical assistance to
plants throughout the State. Some
technical-vocational school or junior
college training generally is preferred
for technician jobs.
In 40 States, supervisors and cer­
tain operators must pass an examina­
tion to certify that they are capable
of overseeing treatm ent plant opera­
tions. V oluntary certification p ro ­
grams are in effect in the remaining
States, with the exception of Alaska.
Under a typical program , there are
different classes of certification for
different sizes of treatm ent plants.
For example, to be certified a “ class
I o p erator” capable of operating a
small plant with simple equipm ent,
an applicant should be a high school
dem onstrate
knowledge of treatm ent operations
by passing a written test, and com ­
plete 1 year of satisfactory employ­
m ent at a treatm ent plant. R equire­

ments for certification as a class IV

operator who supervises a large plant
employing complex technology may
require a bachelor’s degree in sci­
ence or engineering; 4 years of trea t­
m ent plant experience, 2 years o f
which were in a position o f m ajor
responsibility; and specific know l­
edge of the entire field of wastewater
treatm ent as dem onstrated through a
written test. Typically, a large plant
would employ mostly operators certi­
fied for operating small or m edium sized plants, but always under the su­
pervision of a class IV operator.

Employment Outlook
Employment of wastewater treat­
m ent plant operators is expected to
increase much faster than the aver­
age for all occupations through the
m id-1980’s, mainly as a result of the
construction of new treatm ent plants
to process the increasing am ount o f
domestic and industrial wastewater.
Also, m ore highly trained operators
will be needed as existing plants ex­
pand and modernize their facilities to
cope more effectively with water pol­
lution. In addition to new jobs from
em ploym ent growth, many job open­
ings will occur as experienced opera­
tors retire, die, or transfer to other
People who enter this field should
have fairly steady em ploym ent in the
years ahead. Even during economic
downturns, treatm ent plants seldom
lay off employees.

Earnings and Working
O perators employed at small and
medium-sized wastewater treatm ent
plants generally earned between
$9,000 and $13,000 a year in 1976.
Some experienced operators earned
more than $20,000 a year in large
plants. Superintendents of small
plants earned about the same as o p ­
erators, but superintendents of m edi­
um-sized plants generally earned b e­
tween $13,000 and $20,000 and as
m uch as $25,000 or more in large
plants. S alaries for tra in e e s w ere
roughly 80 p e rc e n t o f o p e ra to rs ’
salaries in most cities.
Because pollution control is a nev­
er-ending task, operators work dif­

ferent shifts and in an em ergency
may have to work overtim e. O pera­
tors may be exposed to unpleasant
odors, as well as noise from the op­
e ra tio n o f e le c tric a l m o to rs and
pumps. However, odor is kept to a
minimum by the use of chlorine or
other chemicals.

Sources of Additional
People interested in a career in
wastewater treatm ent should contact
their local or State water pollution
control agencies. A dditional infor­
mation is available from:
Water Pollution Control Federation, 2626
Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington,
D.C. 20037.
Manpower Planning and Training Branch
(WH-596), Office of Water Programs,
Environmental Protection Agency, Wash­
ington, D.C. 20460.

(D.O.T. 810. through 819.887)

Nature of the Work
Welding consists of joining pieces
of m aterial, usually m etal, by fusing
or bonding them together. It is the
most common m ethod of perm anent­
ly connecting metal parts that go into
th e c o n stru c tio n o f au to m o b iles,
spacecraft, ships, household appli­
ances, construction equipm ent, and
thousands of other products. Beams
and steel reinforcing rods in bridges,
buildings, and roads frequently are
jo in ed by w elding. In ad d itio n , a
growing num ber of plastic parts are
welded to make a variety of p ro d ­
Welding processes differ in the
way heat is created and applied to
the parts being joined. In arc weld­
ing, the m ost frequently used p ro ­
cess, h eat is created as electricity
flows across a gap from the tip of the
welding electrode to the metal. In
resistance welding, heat is created by
re sistan c e to the flow o f c u rre n t
through the metal. In gas welding,
the co m b u stio n o f burn in g gases
m elts the m etal. As p art of many
welding processes, filler m aterials,
called welding electrodes or welding


rods, are m elted and added to the
joint to give it greater strength. W hen
the heat is removed, the metal and
filler m aterial solidify and join the
parts. It is the w elder’s job to control
the heat and the weld pool size and to
add the filler material so that togeth­
er they form a strong joint.
Since welding processes differ and
are used for a wide variety o f purpos­
es, the equipm ent used and the skill
levels of welders vary. Jobs vary from
those of highly skilled manual weld­
ers who can use gas and electric arc
welding equipm ent in m ore than one
position and who can plan their work
from drawings or other specifications
to those o f unskilled welding m a­
chine tenders who simply press a but­
ton to sta rt the welding m achine.
Skilled w elders know the m aterial
c h a ra c te ris tic s and p ro p e rtie s o f
steel, alum inum , and other m etals
and can weld joints in all positions.
For example, m aintenance welders,
pipe welders, and many o f the weld­
ers who construct ships are skilled
Ship welders join the steel plates,
beams, and pipes used to build ships.
Some welded joints are on the floor,
some are on the wall, and some are
overhead. All must be carefully
welded to insure that the ship will not
break apart in rough seas.
Ship welders generally use arc
welding equipm ent, although gas
equipm ent also is used in many areas.
After reading instructions or specifi­
cations to learn which m aterials and
welding m ethod to use and obtaining
supplies from the storage area, ship
w elders are ready to begin w ork.
When employing shielded metal' arc
welding they use a rod in a holder
attached to an electric cable coming
from a welding pow er supply. The
other pow er supply cable is attached
to the m etal being w elded w hich
com pletes the electrical circuit and
controls are adjusted to provide the
correct am ount o f welding current.
When the power is turned on they
“ strike an a rc ” by briefly touching
the rod to the metal to start the elec­
tricity flowing and then pulling the
rod back to create a small gap which
the cu rren t m ust jum p. If the dis­
tance between the rod and the m etal
is correct, an
 arc will jum p across the


space; the heat from the electric arc o th er w orker. Like o th er w elders,
melts the rod and the metal. W elders they are responsible for the sound­
control the arc m ovem ent along the ness of the joint. However, they need
joint. As the rod melts and becomes less skill because all parts they weld
shorter they move the holder closer are identical and each is welded in
to the m etal to keep the correct arc the same position.
If the factory is large, and many
length. W hen the rod becomes very
short, it is discarded and replaced identical parts are to be welded, the
com pany may save money by using
with a new one.
M aintenance welders repair tools, autom atic welding machines. Such
m achines, and equipm ent—for ex­ machines may be used, for example,
ample, a leaking pipe. In such cases, in making autom obile mufflers and
welders may bring their equipm ent to washing machines. The workers who
the job. Gas welding is used in many operate these m achines need little
knowledge o f welding and are fre­
cases because electrical power may
quently called welding machine op­
not be available and the torch, hoses,
e ra to rs to distinguish them from
and tanks of gas are portable.
more skilled, m anual welders. W eld­
A fter examining the pipe and p re­
ing m ach in e o p e ra to rs p lace the
paring the break for repair—usually parts to be joined in holders on the
by grinding—m aintenance w elders machine. To com plete the weld, op ­
select the proper welding filler rod erators simply push a button. T he
for the job. Next, they light the torch m achine th en clam ps the p a rt in
and adjust regulators on the tanks o f place and rotates it, as necessary, to
fuel gas, such as acetylene, hydrogen, com plete the welding cycle. A fter
etc., and oxygen to obtain the right
gas m ixtures and flame. With the fill­
er rod in one hand and the torch in
the other, they heat the edges o f the
break and apply the heat. As the m et­
al begins to melt, the welders period­
ically m elt the end of the filler rod in
the hot, liquid m etal while they care­
fully move the torch and rod along
the crack to com plete the repair.
Welders m ust be careful to keep the
torch at the right distance from the
metal in order to apply the heat co r­
rectly and to add filler material, as
needed, to fill the crack.
Not all welders have the skills re ­
quired o f shipbuilding or m ain te­
nance w elders. F or exam ple, less
skilled w orkers use sem iautom atic
arc welding equipm ent to speed up
th e jo b o f w e ld in g a u to m o b ile
fram es. S em iautom atic equipm ent
consists of a welding gun that welders
must m anipulate but which autom ati­
cally supplies the proper am ount o f
arc heat and filler m aterial to the
jo in t. In this case, assem bly lines
bring car frames to welders and put
them in place. W elders then position
their welding guns on the parts to be
welded and operate a switch on the
handle which autom atically “ strikes
an a rc ” . They guide the arc to com ­ Jobs for welders are concentrated in the
plete one or two joints before the manufacturing centers of the Great Lakes
assembly line takes the frame to an ­



the welding cycle is finished, opera­
tors rem ove the w elded parts and
load the m achine again.
Closely related to welders are cut­
ters. C utters use the heat from burn­
ing gases or an electric arc to cut and
trim metal rather then join it. Some
cutters operate electrically or m e­
chanically controlled m achines that
a u to m a tic a lly follow th e p ro p e r

Places of Employment
About 660,000 welders and flame
cutters were employed in 1976, in­
cluding a relatively small num ber of
cutters who used both flame and arc­
cu ttin g e q u ip m e n t. A lm o st twothirds of all welders help m anufac­
tu re d u rab le goods; for exam ple,
boilers, bulldozers, trucks, ships, and
heavy m achinery. M ost of the rest
repair m etal products or help con­
struct bridges, large buildings, and
W elders are concentrated in the
manufacturing centers of the G reat
Lakes States. About one-third work
in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan, In­
diana, and Illinois. Because o f the
widespread use of welding, the rest
are distributed much the same as the
po p u latio n is with large num bers
working in New York, Texas, Wis­
consin, and California.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and A dvan cem en t

Generally, it takes several years of
training to become a skilled welder.
Some of the less skilled jobs, how­
ever, can be learned on the job in a
few months. Some welding machine
operators, for example, learn to op­
erate a m achine in a few hours and
becom e com pletely qualified in a
Beginners often start in simple pro­
du ctio n jo b s w here the type and
thickness o f the metal and the posi­
tion of the welding operation rarely
change. As the need arises, supervi­
sors or experienced w orkers teach
new employees how to weld different
types of metals, and how to weld ver­
tical and overhead joints. Many large
companies conduct program s to train
people as welders. A fter completing
the course, individuals are offered
 companies offer employ­
jobs. A few

ees welder apprenticeship programs
th a t last several years, including
classroom and on-the-job training.
Persons planning careers as weld­
ers or cutters need m anual dexterity,
good eyesight, and good eye-hand
coordination. They should be able to
co n c e n tra te on detailed work for
long periods, and should be free of
any physical disabilities that would
prevent them from bending, stoop­
ing, and working in awkward posi­
tions. Most employers prefer appli­
c a n ts w ho h av e h igh sc h o o l o r
vocational school training in welding.
Courses in shop m athem atics, m e­
chanical drawing, blueprint reading,
physics, and chemistry also are help­
New developm ents are requiring
new skills of welders. This is particu­
larly true in fields such as atomic en ­
ergy or aerospace m anufacturing,
which have high standards for the
reliability of welds. Before being as­
signed to work on buildings, bridges,
pipelines, or other jobs where the
strength o f the weld is highly critical,
welders may be required to pass an
exam ination of their welding skills
given by an employer or governm ent
agency. W elders who pass such ex­
aminations generally are referred to
as “ certified welders.”
Prom otion opportunities for weld­
ers are good. Some welding machine
operators learn skilled welding jobs;
skilled welders may be prom oted to
welding inspectors, technicians, or
supervisors. E x p erien ced w orkers
who have obtained college training
on the properties of metals often b e­
come welding engineers and are in
great dem and to develop new appli­
cation for welding. A small num ber
o f experienced welders open their
own welding repair shops.

Employment Outlook
Job opportunities for welders
should be very good in the years
ahead. Em ployment in this large field
is expected to increase faster than
the average for all occupations
through the m id-1980’s. The faster
increase will be caused by the gener­
ally favorable long run outlook for
metalworking industries and by the
greater use of welding in particular.

In addition to openings created by
e m p lo y m e n t g ro w th , m any jo b s
should arise each year because of the
need to replace experienced welders
who retire, die, or transfer to other
occupations. Job opportunities may
vary from year to year, however, be­
cause em ploym ent o f welders in the
m anufacturing and construction in­
d u stries flu c tu a te s w ith ups and
downs in the economy.
Increases in population and in­
come are expected to stimulate de­
mand for cars, buildings, heavy m a­
chinery, appliances, and thousands
of other products that welders help
make. Employment o f welders also is
expected to increase as welding re­
places other methods of joining m et­
als. W elding generally is ch eap er
than other methods of joining metal
parts, and it is being used more fre­
quently in the m anufacturing and
construction industries.

Earnings and Working
National wage data on welders are
not available. However, the limited
data available indicate that welding
machine operators earned from
$3.93 to $5.10 in 1976. Welders in
the construction industry earned $6
to $12 an hour, depending on loca­
W elders and cutters use protective
clothing, safety shoes, goggles, hel­
mets with protective lenses, and o th ­
er devices to prevent burns and eye
injuries. Although lighting and venti­
lation usually are adequate, welders
occasionally work in the presence of
toxic gases and fumes created when
some metals melt. They are often in
contact with rust, grease, and dirt on
metal surfaces. Welding machine op­
erators are largely free from the haz­
ards associated with manual welding.
A face shield or goggles generally of­
fer a d e q u a te p ro te c tio n to th ese
Many welders are union members.
However, because welding also is
done by other craft workers, for ex­
ample by pipefitters, and only recen t­
ly has received recognition as a dis­
tinct craft, welders belong to many
different unions. Am ong these are



the International Association of M a­
chinists and Aerospace W orkers; the
International Brotherhood of Boiler­
m akers, Iron S hipbuilders, B lack­
smiths, Forgers and Helpers; the Inte r n a t io n a l U n io n , U n ite d
Autom obile, Aerospace and Agricul­
tural Im plem ent W orkers of A m er­
ica; the United Association of Jo u r­
ney m en an d A p p re n tic e s o f th e

Plumbing and Pipe Fitting Industry
of the United States and Canada; and
the United Electrical, Radio and M a­
chine W orkers of Am erica (Ind.).

Sources of Additional
For further inform ation on training
and work opportunities for welders,

contact local employers or the local
office o f the State em ploym ent ser­
vice. For general inform ation about
welders, write to:
The American Welding Society, 2501 NW.
7th St., Miami, Fla. 33125.
International Union, United Autom obile,
Aerospace and Agricultural Implement
Workers o f America, 8000 East Jefferson
Ave., Detroit, Mich. 48214.


Office occupations, 1976

O ffice w orkers p erform a wide
range o f tasks th at are needed to
keep business and o th er organiza­
tions running on a day to day basis.

Clerical workers, such as secretaries
and typists, maintain files, type, and
operate office machines. Profession­
al and technical em ployees give legal

advice, prepare and analyze financial
rep o rts, design co m p u ter system s,
and arrange bank loans.
O pportunities in office work exist
for people with widely different edu­
cational backgrounds. Some jobs can
be entered with only a high school
education; many others, however, re­
quire at least a college degree.
Many clerical em ployees work
with things and often do detailed,
repetitive tasks. M ost professional
office workers, on the other hand,
work with ideas; they apply their
skills to solving problem s and devis­
ing ways to provide better services to
those who depend on them. Besides
the technical skills required to do
their jobs, office workers need judg­
m ent and the ability to com m unicate
their ideas to others.
This chapter of the Handbook de­
scribes office work in clerical occu­
pations, com puter and related o ccu­
p a t i o n s , b a n k in g o c c u p a t i o n s ,
insurance occupations, and adminis­
trative and related occupations.


ence, and knowledge o f the overall
operations of the organization.

Employment Outlook


About 16 million people worked in
clerical jobs in 1976. Many keep rec­
ords and do other office paperwork.
Others handle com m unications, op­
erate office m achines, ship and re­
ceive m erchandise, and ring sales on
cash registers.
W orkers in clerical jobs have a
wide variety of skills and experience.
They include highly skilled title
searchers in real estate firms and
executive secretaries in business of­
fices as well as relatively unskilled
messengers and file clerks. Despite
the diversity of jobs and duties, much
clerical em ploym ent is concentrated
in just a few familiar jobs. Roughly 1
of every 5 clerical workers is a secre­
tary or stenographer. One in 10 is a
b o o k k e e p e r. T h e a c c o m p a n y in g
chart shows em ploym ent in these and
other m ajor clerical occupations dis­
cussed in the Handbook.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Clerical workers need high school
diplomas for all but the most routine
jobs, and many employers prefer ap ­
p lic a n ts w ho h av e h ad b u sin ess
courses. Some com panies cooperate
with local high schools and business
schools in office education program s
th at en able students to work p art
time while attending school. This ex­
p erie n ce is help fu l fo r beginners
seeking jobs after graduation. Many
States and localities sponsor p ro ­
grams to train unem ployed and lowskilled workers for entry-level cleri­
cal jobs.
Beginning clerical workers often
receive on-the-job training. They
learn how their em ployers keep rec­
ords and becom e familiar with the
kinds o f business forms used. Some
new w orkers learn to operate adding
and duplicating m achines and other
kinds of office equipm ent. They may
attend classes to learn how to o p er­
ate tabulating m achines and other

specialized equipm ent. Secretaries,
stenographers, and typists need spe­
cial skills th a t m ust be learned in
schools or formal training programs.
Many clerical jobs require reading
com prehension, a knowledge of
spelling and gramm ar, and arithm etic
skills. Employers prefer applicants
for alm ost all clerical jobs to have
basic typing skills. Some employers
test applicants for clerical aptitude.
A dvancem ent opportunities for
clerical workers are good, and many
employers provide courses so that
their employees can learn the skills
needed for m ore dem anding jobs. As
workers becom e more highly skilled,
they are assigned m ore difficult
tasks. F or example, junior typists
may be prom oted to m ore respon­
sible jobs as senior typists as their
typing speed and accuracy improves.
Receptionists who learn typing and
office procedures may becom e secre­
taries or typists. Prom otion to super­
visor or m anager generally depends
on leadership ability, work experi­

Em ployment of clerical workers is
expected to increase faster than the
average for all occupations through
the m id-1980’s. In addition to the
new jobs created by this growth,
many other openings will occur as
employees die, retire, or leave their
Future growth in the num ber of
clerical workers is expected to result
primarily from the increasing paper­
work that will accom pany the expan­
sion of large and complex organiza­
tions. A great deal of this paperwork
is handled by com puter. The im pact
of autom ation on office equipm ent
and procedures is considerable, but it
is more im portant in some jobs than
in others. In general, long-term em ­
ploym ent prospects are best in cleri­
cal occupations that are not affected
by autom ation, in those that are com ­
patible with com puter applications,
and in jobs that have developed as a
result of new technologies. Job op­
portunities are especially favorable
for re c e p tio n ists, sec retarie s, and
typists. D em and for these w orkers
will be particularly strong in banks,
insurance com panies, m anufacturing
firm s, and professional service o r­
As m ore firms use com puters and
business m achines, routine clerical

Openings for secretaries are expected to be more than
three times the number of openings for any other
clerical occupation through 1985
Selected clerical occupations
Average annual openings, 1976-85 (in thousands)
Secretaries & stenographers


Bookkeeping workers


Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics







Growth H I Replacement



jobs such as payroll, bank, and file
clerk may be reduced or eliminated.
Also, as work is shifted from clerks to
machines, many clerical workers will
have to becom e familiar with com ­
puter operations, particularly in large
Persons with clerical skills, partic­
ularly secretarial and typing skills,
should find extensive opportunities
for tem porary or part-tim e work as
m ore em ployers use these workers
during peak business periods.

Earnings and Working
Clerks in routine jobs earned as
little as $113 a week, while many
highly skilled workers were paid
$200 or m ore, according to a 1976
survey. Salary variations within an
occupation are relatively common
and these usually reflect differences
in edu catio n al level, work experi­
ence, and level of responsibility.
Salaries in different parts of the
country also vary; earnings generally
are lowest in southern cities and
highest in northeastern and western
urban areas. For example, secretaries
averaged $197 a week in the N orth­
east, $201 in the W est, and $181 in
southern cities.
Clerical employees work a 40-hour
week in m ost cities. In some, espe­
cially in the N ortheast, the scheduled
workweek is 35 hours.
Most clerical workers in large
cities receive 7 paid holidays or more
a year and 2 weeks’ vacation after
working 1 year. Longer vacations,
based on added years o f service, may
range to 4 weeks or m ore. Group life
and health insurance plans, sick
benefits, and retirem ent plans often
are available.

A d irec to ry o f private business
schools located in cities throughout
the country may be obtained from:
United Business Schools Association, 1730 M
St., NW„ Washington, D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 210.368 through .588,
216.388, and 219.388 and .488)

Nature of the Work
Every business needs system atic
and up-to-date records of accounts
and business tra n sa c tio n s. B o o k ­
keeping workers m aintain these re c­
ords in journals, ledgers, and on o th ­
er a c c o u n tin g fo rm s. T hey also
prepare periodic financial statem ents
showing all money received and paid
o u t. T h e d u tie s o f b o o k k e e p in g
w orkers vary with th e size of the
In many small firms, general book­
keepers (D .O .T . 210.3 8 8 ) are the
only b o o k k ee p in g w o rk ers. T hey
analyze an d re c o rd all fin a n c ia l
transactions, such as orders and cash
sales. They also check money taken

in against that paid out to be sure
accounts “ b alan c e,” and calculate
the firm ’s payroll. Although most of
this work is done by hand, bookkeep­
ing workers generally use simple of­
fice equipm ent such as calculating
machines. G eneral bookkeepers also
prepare and mail custom ers’ bills and
answer the telephone.
In large businesses, a num ber of
bookkeepers and accounting clerks
work under the direction of a head or
supervisory bookkeeper. In these or­
ganizations bookkeepers often spe­
cialize in certain types of work. For
exam ple, some prepare statem ents
on a com pany’s income from sales or
its daily operating expenses. Others
may post payments and charges on
cards using bookkeeping machines,
or feed information on accounts re­
ceivable and accounts payable into
th e c o m p u te r. A cc o u n tin g clerks
(D.O.T. 219.488), sometimes known
as bookkeeping clerks, perform a va­
riety of routine duties. They record
details o f business transactions, in­
cluding deductions from payrolls and
bills paid and due. They also may
type vouchers, invoices, and other
financial records.

Sources of Additional
Many State em ploym ent service
offices can provide information
about earnings, hours, and employ­
m ent opportunities in clerical jobs.
Inform ation concerning training
for clerical occupations in your State
is available from:
State Supervisor of Office Occupations Educa­
tion, State Department o f Education,

State capital.

Bookkeeping workers need a knack for working with numbers.



Places of Employment

Employment Outlook

Bookkeeping workers num bered
almost 1.7 million persons in 1976.
Jobs for bookkeeping workers are
found in all kinds of firms, with an
especially large num ber in wholesale
and retail trade. M ore than 1 of every
3 bookkeepers work for a retail store
or wholesale firm. In addition, many
work in factories, banks, insurance
companies, hospitals, and schools.

Thousands o f job openings for
bookkeepers are expected every year
through 1985. Jobs will be num erous
even though em ploym ent o f book­
keepers is expected to grow slowly
over this period, for the occupation is
large and turnover is high. Most job
openings will occur because o f the
need to replace workers who die, re ­
tire, or stop working for other rea­
Future em ploym ent growth in this
occupation will be slowed by the
increasing use of various types o f
bookkeeping m achines and electron­
ic com puters that process data m ore
accurately, rapidly, and econom ical­
ly than workers doing it by hand.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
High school graduates who have
taken business arithm etic, bookkeep­
ing, and p rin cip les o f accounting
m eet the minimum requirem ents for
m ost bookkeeping jobs. Some em ­
ployers, however, prefer applicants
w h o h a v e c o m p l e t e d b u s in e s s
courses at a junior college or busi­
ness school and have had some expe­
rience working with accounts pay­
able and receivable. A knowledge of
how com puters are used to perform
bookkeeping operations is an asset.
Persons also may qualify for book­
k ee p in g jo b s th ro u g h o n -th e -jo b
training. In some areas, com panies
cooperate with business schools and
high schools in work-study programs.
These program s offer part-tim e expe­
rience th at helps students get jobs
soon after graduation.
Bookkeeping workers need above
average aptitude for working with
num bers and a knack for concentrat­
ing on details. They should be able to
type and operate various office m a­
chines. Because they depend on oth­
er office w orkers for inform ation,
bookkeepers should be able to work
as part of a team.
Newly hired bookkeeping workers
begin by recording routine transac­
tions in accounts receivable or ac­
counts payable units. They advance
to m ore re sp o n sib le assignm ents,
such as preparing incom e statem ents
and operating complex bookkeeping
machines o r com puters. Some w ork­
ers are prom oted to supervisory jobs.
Bookkeepers who com plete courses
in college accounting may becom e
accountants. (The occupation of ac­
co u n tan t is discussed elsew here in
Digitized forHandbook.)

Earnings and Working
Beginning accounting clerks in pri­
vate firms averaged $637 a m onth in
1976, according to a Bureau o f L a­
bor Statistics survey of clerical occu­
pations. They had higher salaries, on
th e a v e ra g e , th a n b eg in n in g file
clerks or typists, but earned less than
beginning secretaries or sten o g ra­
ph e rs . E x p e r ie n c e d a c c o u n tin g
clerks earned $805 a m onth, about
the same as the average for all nonsupervisory workers in private industry,
except farming.
In 1977, starting salaries in the
Federal G overnm ent ranged from
$6,572 (GS-2) to $7,408 (GS-3) for
bookkeeping workers right out o f
high school. Starting salaries were
higher for bookkeeping workers with
at least 2 years’ work experience or 2
years of college education. These
salaries ranged from $8,316 (GS-4)
to $9,303 (GS-5) per year. Average
salaries in the Federal G overnm ent
in 1977 for general accounting clerks
were $13,443 per year.
W orking conditions for bookkeep­
ers are similar to those of other office
workers in the same firms. (See in­
troductory section to this chapter for
m ore inform ation on earnings and
working conditions and for sources
of additional inform ation.)

(D.O.T. 211.138, .368, .468, .488,
and 299.468)

Nature of the Work
Superm arkets, movie theaters, and
restaurants are among the many busi­
nesses that employ cashiers to handle
paym ents from cu sto m ers. M ost
c a s h ie r s r e c e iv e m o n e y , m a k e
change, fill out charge forms, and
give receipts. The related occupation
of bank teller is discussed elsewhere
in the Handbook.
In addition to these duties, cash­
iers, depending on their employers,
may do other jobs and have different
job titles. Those who work in th e­
aters, for example, are often called
box office cashiers or ticket sellers.
They operate ticket-dispensing m a­
chines and answer telephone inquir­
ies. R estaurant cashiers, sometimes
called cashier checkers, may handle
reservations for m eals and special
parties, type menus, or sell items at
the candy and cigarette counter. In
superm arkets and other self-service
stores, cashiers known as checkout
clerks, checkers, or grocery clerks
wrap or bag purchases. They also
may restock shelves and m ark prices,
rearrange displays o f m erchandise,
and take inventory. In many offices,
cashiers known as agency or frontoffice cashiers, ty p e, o p e ra te the
sw itchboard, do bookkeeping, and
act as receptionists.
Cashiers operate several types of
machines. Many use cash registers
that print the am ount of the sale on a
paper tape. A rapidly growing num ­
ber o f cashiers op erate electronic
registers, com puterized point-of-sale
registers, or com puterized scanning
systems. D epending upon its co m ­
plexity, a com puterized system may
autom atically calculate the necessary
taxes and record inventory num bers
and other inform ation. Such registers
are replacing less versatile, conven­
tional models in many stores. C ash­
iers who work in hotels and hospitals
use m achines that record charges for
telephone, m edical, and other servic­
es and prepare itemized bills. C ash­
iers also operate adding and change­
dispensing machines.



Places of Employment
In 1976, about 1,250,000 persons
worked as cashiers. M ore cashiers
work in superm arkets and other food
stores than in any other kind of store.
However, cashiers are needed in
businesses and organizations of all
types and sizes, and many find jobs in
departm ent stores, drugstores, shoesto res, h ard w are sto res, fu rn itu re
stores, and in other kinds of retail
s to re s . R e s ta u r a n ts , th e a te r s ,
schools, and hospitals also employ a
large num ber of cashiers. Businesses
em ploying cashiers are located in
large cities, in suburban shopping
centers, in small towns, and in rural
areas. The Federal G overnm ent em ­
ploys a small num ber, primarily in
the D epartm ent of Defense.
Opportunities for part-tim e work
are very good. Nearly half of all
cashiers work part time; about 1 in 4
is a student.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Employers prefer beginning cash­
iers w ith high s c h o o l d ip lo m a s.
Courses in business arithm etic, book­

keeping, typing, and other business
subjects are good p re p ara tio n for
cashier jobs. Cashier training is of­
fered as part of many public school
vocational programs.
Many employers offer on-the-job
training for cashiers. In a small firm,
the beginning cashier is trained on
the job by an experienced worker. In
large firms, cashier training program s
often include classroom instruction
in the use of electronic or com puter­
ized registers and in other phases of
cashiers’ jobs.
Many persons enter cashier posi­
tions w ithout significant prior work
experience. For some cashier jobs,
how ever, em ployers seek persons
who have special skills or business
experience, such as typing or selling.
Many cashier openings also are filled
by prom oting other qualified workers
who are already em ployed by the
Persons who want to become cash­
iers should be able to do repetitious
work accurately. They need finger
dexterity, a high degree of eye-hand
co o rd in a tio n , and an aptitude for
working with figures. Because they
m eet the public, cashiers should be

Nearly half of all cashiers work part time.

neat in appearance and able to deal
tactfully and pleasantly with custom ­
Prom otion opportunities as cash­
iers tend to be limited. However, the
cashier’s job affords a good opportu­
nity to learn an em ployer’s business
and so may serve as a steppingstone
to a m ore responsible clerical jo b ,
such as bookkeeper or sales clerk, or
to a m anagerial position. Cashiers
w orking in ch ain sto res and o th e r
large retail businesses, for example,
may advance to departm ent or store

Employment Outlook
Job openings for cashiers are ex­
pected to be plentiful through 1985.
E m ploym ent is ex p e cted to grow
faster than the average for all occu­
pations. Some new jobs will result
from future growth in retail trade.
However, much more im portant than
growth as a source of jobs for cash­
iers is the need to replace workers
who die, retire, or stop working for
other reasons. Because the occupa­
tion is large and turnover is high,
many cashier jobs will be available
over the next 10 years.
Future em ploym ent of cashiers is
likely to be affected by the use of
com puterized checkout systems,
which are beginning to replace cash
registers in some superm arkets. An
optical or m agnetic scanner tran s­
m its the code n um ber (U niversal
P ro d u ct C ode-U PC ) o f each p u r­
chase to a co m p u ter th a t is p ro ­
grammed to record a description and
price of the item, add the tax, and
print out a receipt. The com puter
also keeps track of the store’s inven­
tory and places orders with the w are­
house when stock is needed. T he
w idespread adoption of autom ated
ch eck o u t system s in superm arkets
and other establishm ents is expected
to slow em ploym ent growth of cash­
iers and other workers. However, re­
sistance from consum er and labor
groups may slow th e adoptio n of
such systems.

Earnings and Working
Beginning cashiers often earn the
minimum wage required by law. In
establishm ents covered by the F eder­
al law, the minimum was $2.30 an



hour in early 1977. In addition, mini­
mum wages in many establishments
are governed by State law. Cashiers
earn wages ranging from the mini­
mum in a given establishm ent to sev­
eral times that amount. According to
a 1975 B ureau o f L abor Statistics
Survey of grocery stores, head cash­
iers averaged $5.78 an hour; other
full-time cashiers, $5.32 an hour; and
part-tim e cashiers, $4.31 an hour.
Wages tended to be highest in the
West and N orth C entral Regions and
lowest in the South; wages generally
were higher in large m etropolitan
areas than in smaller cities.
Cashiers belong to a num ber of
unions, principally the Retail Clerks
In tern atio n al A ssociation; In tern a­
tio n al B ro th erh o o d o f T eam sters;
and Retail, W holesale, and D epart­
m ent Store Union. They generally re­
ceive health insurance, annual and
sick leave, pension benefits, and o th ­
er benefits available to other w ork­
Cashiers often work during rush
periods such as holidays, weekends,
late afternoons, and evenings. W ork
at these times often is required in
theaters, restaurants, and foodstores.
Many cashiers in these places work
part time or on split shifts. Full-time
cashiers in superm arkets and other
large retail stores usually work a 5day, 40-hour week; however, they
may work on weekends and have
time off during the week.
Most cashiers work indoors, often
in small booths or behind counters
located near store entrances.
some cases, they are exposed to cold
drafts in the winter and considerable
heat during the summer. (See intro­
ductory section o f this chapter for
sources of additional inform ation.)

(D.O.T. 240.368)

Nature of the Work
Com panies that lend money or ex­
tend credit expect to be repaid. How­
ever, custom ers who “ buy now ” are
not always able to “ pay later.” C ol­

lection workers, often called bill col­

lectors, help m aintain a com pany’s
financial well-being by keeping bad
debts to a minimum.
A collector’s prim ary job duty is to
convince people to m ake good on
unpaid bills. The collector usually
receives a bad debt file after norm al
billing m ethods, such as m onthly
statem ents and collection form let­
ters, have failed to elicit paym ent.
The file contains inform ation about
the debtor, the nature and am ount o f
the unpaid bill, and the last time pay­
m ent was made.
The collector then contacts the
debtor, determ ines why the bill is
unpaid, and tries to get the debtor to
pay or m ake new arrangem ents for
The approach that collectors use
depends on the type of paym ent
problem they are handling. Som e­
times custom ers feel that the bill is
incorrect, or th at the m erchandise
they bought is faulty, or that services
they were billed for were not proper­
ly perform ed. C ollectors norm ally
recom m end that the debtors resolve
these disagreem ents by contacting
the original sellers. In large stores,
p ro b lem s are re fe rre d to sp ecial
“ custom er service” departm ents, set
up to deal with disputed accounts. If
the problem s are not settled, the col­
lectors again contact the custom ers
to co n v in ce them th a t they w ere
properly charged and should pay the
W hen custom ers have m et with
financial em ergencies o r m ism an­
aged th e ir m oney, collectors may
work out new paym ent schedules. If
collectors find custom ers fraudulent­
ly avoiding paym ent o f their bills,
they may recom m end that the files
be turned over to an attorney.
When a debtor moves w ithout
leaving a forwarding address, the col­
lector may inquire at the post office,
search telephone directories, and call
on the person’s friends and form er
neighbors. In large collection opera­
tions, this may be done by collection
workers known as “ tracers.”
In small organizations, bill collec­
tors may perform other functions b e­
sides contacting delinquent custom ­
ers. They may advise custom ers with
financial problem s, or contact cus­
tom ers to determ ine if they are satis­
fied with the way their accounts are

being handled. Some collectors su­
pervise the repossession procedure
for businesses th a t reclaim goods
when paym ent is not made.
Although most collectors do their
work by phone, some m ake personal
visits to the debtor. These visits usu­
ally a re n e c e ssa ry w hen a larg e
am ount of money is involved and the
d e b to r has been u n resp o n siv e to
phone contact.

Places of Employment
About 64,000 persons were collec­
tion workers in 1976. Although col­
lectors work for a variety o f business­
es, most are employed by banks, loan
com panies, and collection agencies.
M any o th e rs w ork for re ta il and
wholesale businesses.
Jobs for collectors are found
throughout the United States, but
opportunities are best in heavily
populated urban centers. Many firms
with branch offices in rural areas
locate their collection departm ents
in the business district of nearby

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A high school education usually is
sufficient for entry into the collection
field. Because a collector handles
delinquent accounts on a person-toperson basis, high school courses in
psychology and speech may be use­
ful. Previous em ploym ent as a sales
clerk can help the collection w orker
learn how credit transactions origi­
nate and how they are handled at the
point of sale. Knowledge o f a foreign
language may be an asset for persons
seeking collection jobs in areas with
large non-English-speaking popula­
Most of a collector’s training is on
the job. The em ployer may provide
training m anuals that explain collec­
tion procedures, but m ore often the
new employee gains collection skills
inform ally. F or exam ple, the new
c o lle c to r le a rn s te le p h o n e t e c h ­
niques by listening as experienced
workers m ake collection calls.
A collector’s most im portant asset
is the ability to get along with differ­
ent people. He or she m ust be alert,
imaginative, and quick-w itted to h an ­
dle the difficult situations that are a
part of collection work. While collec­


tors should be sym pathetic to the
billpayers’ problems, they also must
be p ersuasive to o v ercom e som e
debtors’ reluctance to fulfill their fi­
nancial obligations. Because a collec­
tor spends most of the day on the
telephone, a pleasant speaking voice
and m anner are im portant.
The collector’s job generally offers
limited opportunities for advance­
ment; com petition for the few super­
visory positions is keen. The collec­
to r w ith ab o v e -a v e ra g e ab ilitie s,
however, may becom e a collection
manager or supervisor of a staff of
collectors. Some collection workers
progress to o th er positions in the
credit field, such as bank loan officer
or outside representative for a collec­
tion agency. Further education, such
as that available through professional
associations of collectors or college
courses, may be helpful for advanced
positions in the credit and collection

Employment Outlook
The applicant with a background
of high school business courses who
can dem onstrate effective telephone
skills should find good job opportuni­
ties in the collection field. Demand is
strongest for people who are person­
able, outgoing, and aggressive, for
traits such as these are likely to lead
to success on the job.
In the past, some jobseekers have
been reluctant to accept collection
work. More recently, however, the
im age o f the o cc u p atio n has im­
proved. The role of the collector has
expanded to include custom er debt
counseling, and collection methods
have been modified in line with m od­
ern m anagem ent techniques and re­
cent consum er legislation. Despite
this improved image, the num ber of
persons seeking collection jobs is ex­
pected to fall short of the need for
additional workers. Em ployers will
need large numbers of collectors to
fill vacancies created by turnover,
which is relatively high in this occu­
pation. In addition, new positions will
open up as the occupation grows.
Employment opportunities should
be best in collection agencies, where
replacem ent needs continue to be
high, and in retail trade firms, where
earnings often are som ewhat lower

than the average. The strongest com


The demand for collection workers will be
spurred by the expansion of credit card

petition for collection positions will
be in large m etropolitan banks that
generally offer higher salaries and
b e tte r o p p o rtu n itie s for ad v a n ce­
m ent than other employers.
The dem and for collection work­
ers will be spurred by the expansion
of credit card services and the fur­
ther growth of suburban retail stores.
D elinquent accounts, unfortunately,
are an unavoidable aspect o f the
credit system. As businesses extend
attractive credit term s for the p u r­
chase of greater num bers of goods
and services to more and more peo­
ple, the num ber of delinquent a c ­
counts can be expected to increase.
Additional collection workers will be
required to service these accounts on
a person-to-person basis.

Earnings and Working
Although earnings for collectors
vary among employers, the limited
inform ation available indicates that
beginning collectors earned about
$125 a week in 1976, or about
$6,500 a year. M anagers of collec­
tio n d e p a r tm e n ts o fte n e a rn e d
$17,000 a year and more.
A survey by the Am erican C ollec­
tors A ssociation showed that te le ­
phone collectors working for collec­
tio n a g e n c ie s h a d an a v e r a g e
m onthly incom e of $823, or about
$9,900 a year. Incomes of individual
w orkers can vary substantially b e ­
cause collection agencies generally
use some form of salary plus com m is­
sion plan as an incentive to their col­

Commission schedules vary widely
from agency to agency. A collector
may be paid a relatively high salary
with a low commission percentage or
receive a low salary and a high rate
on the money he or she collects for
the agency. In some agencies, a
quota is assigned to a collector or
group of collectors and a bonus paid
if the quota is reached. Earnings o f a
few collection workers are only from
In addition to salary, collectors re­
ceive the benefits com m on to other
office occupations, such as paid va­
cations and health insurance. Those
who occasionally m ake visits outside
the office usually are furnished a
company car or are paid expenses for
using their own autom obile.

Sources of Additional
Information on jobs as collection
workers as well as other positions in a
credit collection office is available
American Collectors Association, 4040 W.
70th St., Minneapolis, Minn. 55435.

(D.O.T. 132.388, 205.368, 206.388,
219.588, 920.887)

Nature of the Work
An orderly file system is often the
key to an efficient office. In most
offices, records are arranged so that
information can be located quickly.
This creates many job opportunities
for file clerks, who keep records ac­
c u ra te , up to d a te , and p ro p e rly
File clerks classify, store, update,
and retrieve office information on
request. To do this, they read incom ­
ing m aterial and put it in order for
future use by means of some system,
such as by num ber, letter of the al­
phabet, or subject m atter. W hen
th ese re c o rd s are re q u e ste d , file
clerks locate them and turn them
over to the borrow er. They keep
track of m aterials rem oved from the
files and make sure that those given
out are returned.


tailed work. Most file clerks must be
able to type. They should be neat,
able to work as part o f a team , and
not be easily bored by repeated tasks.
File clerks can advance to m ore
difficult filing duties and to jobs su­
pervising o th er file clerks. Those
who learn additional skills may be
prom oted to office m achine opera­
tors, receptionists, and typists.

Employment Outlook

Some clerks operate m echanized
files th at rotate to bring the needed
reco rd s to them . O th ers retrieve
docum ents or spools o f m icrofilm
and p lace th em in an e le c tro n ic
transm itter that displays the inform a­
tion on video term inals located else­
where in the organization. Records
also m ust be up to date in order to be
useful. File clerks m ake sure that
new inform ation is added to existing
files shortly after it is received.
From time to time, file clerks may
destroy outdated file m aterials or
transfer them to inactive storage.
They check files at regular intervals
to insure th at all items are correctly
placed. W henever data cannot be
located, the file clerk searches for
the missing records. As an organiza­
tion’s needs for inform ation change,
file clerks modify old filing systems
or establish new ones.
In small offices, file clerks often
type, sort mail, or operate duplicat­
ing m achines. Those who work with
autom ated filing systems may code
and m icrofilm all incom ing d o cu ­

Places of Employment
About 270,000 persons worked as
file clerks in 1976. In addition, many
other clerical workers perform some
filing tasks in connection with their
work. O pportunities for part-tim e
Digitized for are abundant in this occupa­

tion; in 1976, approxim ately 1 of ev­
ery 4 file clerks worked part time.
Although filing jobs are found in
almost every kind of organization,
about one-half o f all file clerks work
in banks, insurance com panies, fac­
tories, or governm ent agencies.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Employers prefer high school
graduates for beginning file clerk po­
sitions. M ost seek applicants who
can type, and many prefer those who
have some knowledge o f office p rac­
tices as well. High schools, junior
colleges, and private business schools
teach these and other skills that help
a beginner get a job. Many States
and localities sponsor program s to
train unem ployed and low -skilled
workers who can read and spell well
for entry level clerical jobs such as
file clerk.
Some on-the-job training usually is
necessary because each organization
has its own filing systems and office
procedures. In organizations that
have their own filing procedures,
clerks learn their jobs in a few weeks.
Learning to operate m echanical fil­
ing systems usually takes more time.
W here file clerks have a variety o f
related duties, training may take up
to 3 months.
File clerks m ust read accurately
and rapidly, spell well, and like d e­

Em ploym ent o f file clerks is ex­
pected to grow about as fast as the
average for all occupations through
the m id-1980’s as business expansion
creates a need for m ore and better
recordkeeping. In addition, a large
num ber o f file clerks will be needed
each year to replace those who die,
retire, or transfer to other jobs.
The growing volume of paper work
and continued expansion o f those
businesses that traditionally have em ­
ployed many file clerks should assure
steady em ploym ent grow th. H ow ­
ever, this growth should be slower
than in past years as com puters are
used m ore extensively to arrange,
s to re , an d tra n s m it in fo rm a tio n .
Jobseekers who have typing and o th ­
er secretarial skills and are familiar
with a wide range of office m achines
sh o u ld have b e tte r o p p o rtu n itie s
than less experienced applicants. File
clerks should find many opportuni­
ties for tem porary or part-tim e work,
especially during peak business p eri­

Earnings and Working
According to a recent survey, b e­
ginning file clerks in urban areas av­
eraged $113 a week in 1976. Those
w ith so m e e x p e rie n c e a v e ra g e d
$ 128; those with a great deal o f expe­
rien c e, $158. File clerks ea rn ed
som ewhat less than three-fourths of
the average earnings of nonsupervisory workers in private industry, ex­
cept farming.
In the Federal G overnm ent, begin­
ning file clerks without high school
diplom as started at ab o u t $112 a
week in 1977, and high school gradu­
ates began at $126 a week. Experi­
enced file clerks in the Federal G ov­
e rn m e n t a v e ra g e d a b o u t $171 a
week in 1977.



Working conditions for file clerks
usually are similar to those for other
office workers in the same organiza­
tion. Although they do not do heavy
lifting, they often m ust stoop, bend,
and reach. (See the statem ent on
Clerical O ccupations for inform a­
tion on fringe benefits and sources of
additional inform ation.)

(D.O.T. 242.368)

Nature of the Work
Hotels and motels employ front of­
fice clerks to handle room reserva­
tions, greet guests, issue keys, and
collect payments. In small hotels and
in many m otels, front office clerks
also may work as bookkeepers, cash­
iers, or telephone operators. Large
hotels usually employ several front
office clerks to handle different jobs,
such as receiving mail, providing in­
form ation, or issuing keys. In the

largest hotels, floor clerks distribute
m ail, p ack ag es, and telegram s to
g u e s ts . A b o u t 6 2 ,0 0 0 p e r s o n s
worked as front office clerks in 1976.
Room or desk clerks assign room s
to guests and answer questions about
hotel services, checkout time, or
parking facilities. In assigning rooms,
they must consider guests’ preferenc­
es while trying to maximize hotel rev­
enues. These clerks fill out guests’
re g istra tio n form s and som etim es
collect paym ents. Room clerks are
always in the public eye and through
their attitude and dem eanor, greatly
influence g u ests’ im pressions and
prom ote a hotel’s reputation.
Reservation clerks record w ritten
or telephoned requests for room s,
prepare registration forms, and noti­
fy room clerk s o f g u e sts’ arriv al
Rack clerks keep records of room
assignments to advise housekeepers,
telep h o n e o p e ra to rs, and m a in te­
nance workers that room s are occu­

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Employers usually select high
school graduates who have some

Neatness, a courteous and friendly manner, and a desire to help people are important

for front office clerks.

clerical aptitude as
front office
clerks. A knowledge of bookkeeping
is helpful for work in a small hotel or
on the night shift, because clerks
often have a wider range of duties
u n d er these circum stances. O c ca­
sionally, em ployees in o th er hotel
occupations, such as bellhops or ele­
vator operators, may be transferred
to front office jobs.
Front office work traditionally has
been the pathway to m anagerial posi­
tions in the hotel industry. Although
education beyond high school gener­
ally is not required for front office
work, college training is an asset for
ad v a n cem en t to m an ag erial jo b s.
Neatness, a courteous and friendly
m anner, and a desire to help people
are im portant traits for front office
clerks. Knowledge o f a foreign lan­
guage can be helpful for work in
large hotels or resorts that receive
many foreign guests.
Newly hired workers usually begin
as mail, inform ation, or key clerks
and receive their training on the job.
The training period is usually brief
and includes an explanation of the
jo b ’s duties and inform ation about
the hotel, such as room locations and
services offered. Once on the job,
they receive help and supervision
from the assistant m anager or an
experienced front office worker.
Some clerks may need additional
training in data processing or office
machine operation because of the
increased use of com puterized reser­
vation systems.
Most hotels prom ote front office
workers from within so that a key or
mail clerk may be prom oted to room
clerk, then to assistant front office
m anager, and later to front office
m anager. Clerks may improve their
opportunities for prom otion by tak ­
ing hom e study courses in hotel m an­
agem ent such as those sponsored by
th e E d u c a tio n a l In s titu te o f th e
Am erican Hotel and M otel Associ­
ation. (See the statem ent on Hotel
M anagers and Assistants elsewhere
in the Handbook.)

Employment Outlook
Em ployment of front office clerks
is expected to grow m ore slowly than
the average for all occupations
th ro u g h the m id -1 9 8 0 ’s. E m ploy­



ment growth will be limited by the
use of com puterized reservation sys­
tems in most hotel and motel chains,
and m ost jo b openings will result
from the need to replace w orkers
who die, retire, or leave the occupa­
See the statem ent on the Hotel
Industry elsewhere in the Handbook
for information on earnings and
working conditions, sources of addi­
tional inform ation, and more infor­
mation on em ploym ent outlook.

(D.O.T. 207.782, .884, and .885;
208.782; 213.782; 214.488;
215.388; 216.488; and 234.)

Nature of the Work
To speed the paperw ork involved
in operating a business, most firms
employ office machine operators to
record inform ation, determ ine bills
and inventories, and perform other
c a lc u la tio n s . T his s ta te m e n t d e ­
scribes some of the m ore com m on
machine operating jobs.

Advances in data transmission devices
will enable large employers to centralize

Billing machine operators (D.O.T.
214.488) p rep are cu sto m er sta te ­
ments by typing inform ation, such as
cu sto m ers’ nam es, purchases, and
am ount of sales, on a billing machine
that autom atically com putes the bal­
ances and required payments.
B ookkeeping m achine operators
(D.O.T. 215.388) record a firm ’s fi­
nancial transactions on a bookkeep­
ing m achine and calculate trial bal­
ances, sum m ary reports, and other
necessary data.
Adding and calculating machine op­
erators (D .O .T . 216.488) use m e­
chanical adding m achines and elec­
t r o n ic c a l c u l a t o r s to c o m p u te
payrolls and invoices and do other
statistical work. Som e calculators
can also be used to com pute square
roots and percent distributions.
Mail preparing and mail handling
machine operators (D.O.T. 234.) use
machines to open incoming mail and
prepare bills and letters for mailing.
Some m achines fold and insert enclo­
sures, while others address, seal, and
stam p envelopes. A ddressing m a­
chines print addresses on envelopes
using stencils or m etal plates p re ­
pared by embossing machine opera­
tors (D.O.T. 208.782) using special
machine operators
(D.O.T. 207.782, .884, and .885)
operate equipm ent th at can rep ro ­
duce letters, bills, invoices, and other
d o cu m en ts. Included are m im eo ­
g ra p h , s te n c il, and copying m a ­
chines. These workers keep the m a­
chines loaded with paper, see that
they are properly adjusted for the
num ber o f copies to be made, and
may collate—put together—pages o f
lengthy docum ents by hand or m a­
(D.O.T. 213.782) operate m achines
that sort and total large quantities of
accounting and statistical inform a­
tion and print the results on special
business forms.
Inform ation about workers in sev­
eral other occupations that use office
machines can be found elsewhere in
the Handbook, in the statem ents on
com puter and peripheral equipm ent
o p e ra to rs , ty p ists, and sta tistic a l

Places of Employment
In 1976, about 163,000 people
worked as office m achine operators.
About one-fifth worked for m anufac­
turing companies; large numbers also
were employed by banks, insurance
companies, and wholesale and retail
stores. Many office m achine o p era­
tors work for service firms that p re­
pare monthly bills and mailing circu­
lars for businesses that do not have
their own office machinery.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Employers prefer high school or
business school graduates for jobs as
office machine operators. Most new­
ly hired workers are expected to be
able to type and operate adding m a­
chines and calculators. A knowledge
of business arithm etic is helpful.
The am ount of instruction and onthe-job training beginners receive de­
pends on the types o f machines they
o p e ra te . A lthough a few days of
training usually are sufficient to train
duplicating m achine operators, sev­
eral weeks may be needed to train
b o o k k e e p in g m ach in e o p e ra to rs .
Some office m achine operators are
tr a in e d a t c o m p a n y e x p e n se in
schools run by equipm ent m anufac­
Finger dexterity, good eye and
hand coordination, and good vision
are im portant for m ost office m a­
chine operator jobs. Billing and cal­
culating m achine operators should
know simple arithm etic so they can
d etect obvious errors in co m p u ta­
tions. Some m echanical ability is ad­
vantageous, especially for duplicat­
in g a n d t a b u l a t i n g m a c h i n e
Most employers prom ote from
within and give strong consideration
to seniority and job perform ance as
shown by supervisors’ ratings. P ro ­
motion may be from a routine m a­
chine job to a more complex one, or
to a related clerical job. Employers
often provide any additional training
that may be required. In firms having
large clerical staffs, office m achine
operators may advance to jobs where
they train beginners or to supervisory



positions as section or departm ent

Employment Outlook
Employment of office machine op­
erato rs is expected to grow m ore
slowly than the average for all occu­
p atio n s th ro u g h th e m id -1 9 8 0 ’s.
Most openings will result from the
need to replace workers who die, re­
tire, or leave the occupation.
Despite expected growth in the
volume of billing, com puting, and
duplicating work, the occupation will
expand slowly as com puterized rec­
ordkeeping and processing systems
spread. In addition, advances in data
transmission devices will enable large
employers to centralize recordkeep­
ing, and to reduce the requirem ents
for operators in branch offices.

(D.O.T. 231.388 and 688, 232.138
and .368)

Earnings and Working
A 1975 Bureau of Labor Statistics
survey of earnings for several office
machine operator occupations in ur­
ban areas showed th a t the lowest
salaries were paid in the South and
the highest in the N orth and West.
For some occupations averages are
given separately for different skill
groups. O perators in Class A were
very experienced and perform ed
comparatively difficult work. Those
in Classes B and C had some or no
experience, worked on more routine
assignments, and used simpler equip­
m ent. The average weekly salaries
reported in this survey are shown in
the accom panying tabulation:

Billing machine operators................
Bookkeeping machine operators:
Class A ........................................
Class B ........................................
Tabulating machine operators:
Class A ........................................
Class B ........................................
Class C ..........................

the average for all nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
Because some types of office m a­
chines are very noisy, operators may
work in special areas apart from o th ­
er co m pany offices. In o th e r r e ­
spects, their working conditions are
similar to those of other office work­
ers in the same firms. (See the state­
m ent on clerical occupations for furt h e r i n f o r m a t i o n o n w o r k in g
conditions and for sources of addi­
tional inform ation.)

$ 160

Billing and bookkeeping m achine

op erato rs earned slightly less than

Nature of the Work
Most people are familiar with the
post office window clerk who works
behind the counter selling stamps or
accepting parcel post. However, the
majority o f postal clerks are distribu­
tion clerks who sort incoming and
outgoing mail in workrooms.
Postal clerks work either at local
post offices or at large central mail
processing facilities. At local post
offices postal clerks sort the mail for
delivery to individual customers. In­
coming mail collected from the local
neighborhood boxes is forwarded to
the n earest mail processing cen ter
where clerks continue the process o f
sorting and preparing the mail for
There are more than 300 mail p ro ­
cessing centers throughout the coun­
try which service the local post offic­
es in designated geographic areas.
Once mail is received at a center,
letter sorting m achine clerks, distri­
bution clerks, and m ailhandlers sepa­
rate the mail into groups of letters,
parcel post, magazines, and newspa­
pers. Then m ailhandlers feed the let­
ters th ro u g h stam p-canceling m a­
chines. A fter this step is com pleted,
m ailhandlers take the mail into other

workroom s to be sorted according to
destination. T here, clerks read the
ZIP codes and simply push keys co r­
responding to the le tte rs’ d estin a­
tions on electronic mail-sorting m a­
ch in es; th e le tte rs d ro p into the
proper slots. Finally, the mail is sent
from the mail processing center to
local post Offices or to other centers
for further sorting.
The clerks at post office windows
provide a variety of services in addi­
tion to selling stamps and money o r­
ders. They weigh packages to d eter­
m ine postage and check to see if
th e ir co n d itio n is satisfactory for
mailing. Clerks also register and in­
sure mail and answer questions about
postage rates, m ailing restrictions,
and other postal m atters. O ccasional­
ly they may help a custom er file a
claim fo r a dam aged package. In
large post offices, a window clerk
may provide only one or two of these
services and may be called a registry,
stamp, or money order clerk.

Places of Employment
Two out of every five employees of
the U.S. Postal Service were postal
clerks in 1976. The majority of the
270,000 postal clerks work at mail
processing centers, although many
still sort mail and provide window
services at local post offices through­
out the country.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Postal clerks must be at least 18
(at least 16 if they have a high school
diplom a) and qualify on a four-part
w ritten exam ination. The first p art
tests clerical accuracy by asking the
applicant to com pare pairs of ad ­
dresses and indicate which are identi­
cal. The second part tests ability to
memorize mail distribution systems.
The third m easures reading ability,
including vocabulary, and the fourth
tests ability to do simple arithm etic.
Applicants must also pass a physical
exam ination and may be asked to
show th at they can lift and handle
mail sacks weighing up to 70 pounds.
Applicants who are to work with an
electronic sorting m achine must pass



cities, and ZIP codes. To help clerks
learn these groups, many post offices
offer classroom instruction.
A good memory, good coordina­
tion, and the ability to read rapidly
and accurately are im portant. Distri­
bution clerks work closely with other
clerks, frequently under the tension
and strain of m eeting mailing d ead­
lines. Window clerks must be co u rte­
ous and tactful when dealing with the
public, especially when answ ering
questions or receiving complaints.
Postal clerks are classified as casu­
al, part-tim e flexible, part-tim e regu­
lar, or full time. Casual workers are
h ire d to h elp h a n d le th e la rg e
amounts of mail during peak mailing
periods at various times throughout
the year, such as the Christmas sea­
son. Part-tim e flexible employees do
not have a regular work schedule,
but replace absent workers or help
with extra work loads as the need
arises. P art-tim e re g u la r w o rk ers
have a set work schedule—for exam ­
ple, 4 hours a day.
Most clerks begin as part-tim e
flexible employees and become full­
time workers as vacancies occur.
Full-tim e clerks may bid for p re ­
ferred assignments such as the day
shift, a window job, or a higher level
nonsupervisory position as expediter
or window service technician. Clerks
may qualify to become supervisors.

Employment Outlook

Postal clerks sorting incoming mail.

a special examination which includes
a m achine aptitude test
Applicants should apply at the post
office or sectional center where they
wish to work because each keeps a
s e p a ra te list o f th o se who have
passed the examination. A pplicants’
nam es are listed in o rder of their
scores. Five extra points are added to
the score of an honorably discharged
veteran, and 10 extra points to the

score of a veteran wounded in com ­

bat or disabled. Disabled veterans
who have a com pensable, serviceconnected disability of 10 percent or
more are placed at the top of the list.
When a vacancy occurs, the appoint­
ing officer chooses one of the top
th ree a p p lic a n ts; th e re st o f th e
names remain on the list for future
appointm ents.
New clerks are trained on the job.
Most clerks begin with simple tasks
to learn regional groupings of States,

Employment of postal clerks is ex­
pected to decline through the mid1980’s due to falling mail volume and
installation of more efficient sorting
machines. The am ount of mail h an­
dled by the postal service is expected
to decrease because of rising postal
rates, greater use of telephones, and
developm ent of other ways of distrib­
uting advertising circulars. N everthe­
less, many job openings will result
from the need to replace clerks who
retire, die, or transfer to other o ccu ­

Earnings and Working
Postal clerks working full time
started at $ 12,422 a year in 1976, but



could advance to $15,007 after 8
years with satisfactory perform ance.
Clerks working part-tim e flexible
schedules started at $6.18 an hour
and could advance to $7.46 an hour
after 8 years. Clerks working parttime regular schedules started at
$5.97 an hour and could advance to
$7.21 an hour after 8 years. All
clerks who work night shifts receive
10 percent additional pay. Besides
good pay, full-time postal employees
have m ore job security than workers
in most other industries. (For infor­
mation on fringe benefits, see state­
m ent on Postal Service occupations
elsewhere in the Handbook.)
W orking conditions of clerks differ
according to the specific work as­
signments and the am ount and kind
of laborsaving m achinery in the post
office. In small post offices, clerks
may carry heavy mail sacks from one
part of the building to another, and
sort the mail by hand. In large post
offices and mail processing centers,
chutes and conveyors move the mail
and much o f the sorting is done by
machine. In either case, clerks are on
their feet m ost of the time, reaching
for sacks and trays of mail and plac­
ing packages and bundles into sacks
and trays while walking around the
Distribution clerks may become
bored with the routine of sorting mail
unless they enjoy trying to improve
their speed and accuracy. They also
may have to work at night or on
weekends, because most large post
offices process mail around the
A window clerk, on the other
hand, has a greater variety of duties,
has frequent contact with the public,
generally has a less strenuous job,
and rarely has to work a night shift.

(D.O.T. 235.862, 237.368)

Nature of the Work
All organizations want to m ake a
good first impression on the public.
This is an im portant part of the job of
the receptionist, who generally is the
first person a caller sees.
R eceptionists greet custom ers and
other visitors, determ ine their needs,
and refer callers to the official who
can help them . R eceptionists in hos­
pitals, after obtaining personal histo­
ries, d irec t patients to the p ro p er
waiting rooms; in beauty shops, they
arrange appointm ents and show cus­
tom ers to the o p erato r’s booth; and
in large plants, they provide callers
with identification cards and arrange
escorts to take them to the proper
Many receptionists keep business
records o f callers, the times at which
they called, and the persons to whom
they were referred. W hen they are
not busy with callers, receptionists

may type, file, or operate a switch­
board. Some receptionists open and
sort mail and collect and distribute
messages. Still others prepare travel
vouchers and do simple bookkeep­

Places of Employment
About 500,000 persons worked as
receptionists in 1976. Part-tim e em ­
ploym ent is readily available for re­
ceptionists, and about 1 in 3 works
part time.
Although receptionists work in al­
m ost every kind o f o rg a n izatio n ,
about half work for doctors, dentists,
hospitals, and o th er health service
providers. Large num bers of recep­
tionists also work in insurance com ­
panies, banks, factories, and firms
providing business and personal ser­

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A high school diploma generally is
required for work as a receptionist.
Courses in English, spelling, typing,

Sources of Additional
Local post offices and State em ­
ployment service offices can supply
details about entrance examinations
and em ploym ent opp ortunities for
postal clerks.

Liking people and wanting to help them are important assets for receptionists.



elem entary bookkeeping, and busi­
ness practices are helpful to the be­
Liking people and wanting to help
them are assets to the receptionist. A
neat appearance, a pleasant voice,
and an even disposition also are im­
portant. Because receptionists do
not work u nder close supervision,
common sense and a thorough un­
derstanding of how the business is
organized help them handle various
situations that arise.
P ro m o tio n o p p o rtu n ities for re ­
ceptionists are limited, especially in
small offices. In large workplaces,
h o w ev er, a re c e p tio n is t who has
clerical skills may advance to a better
paying job as a secretary, adm inistra­
tive assistant, or bookkeeper. Many
com panies have their own training
programs so that the skills needed for
advancem ent can be learned on the
job. College or business school train­
ing also can be helpful in advancing
to better paying office jobs.

Earnings and Working
Full-time switchboard operator-re­
ceptionists working in urban areas
averaged $141 a week in 1976. This
was about three-quarters as much as
the average earnings for nonsupervisory workers in private industry, ex­
cept farming. Receptionists working
in the western United States had av­
e ra g e w eek ly e a rn in g s o f $ 1 4 9 .
Those in southern cities averaged
$133 a week. In the Federal G overn­
m ent, beginning inform ation recep­
tionists averaged $171 a week in
R eceptionists usually work in areas
that are com fortably furnished. Al­
though m ost have regular hours, re­
ceptionists in hospitals and beauty
shops may work evenings and w eek­

ends. (See the statem ent on clerical
occupations for sources of additional
inform ation.)

(D.O.T. 201.268 and .368, 202.388,
and 209.138)

Nature of the Work
The efficiency o f any organization
depends upon secretaries and stenog­
raphers, who are a t the ce n te r o f
com m unications within their firm.
They tran sm it inform ation to the
staff and to persons in other organi­

Employment Outlook
Employment of receptionists is ex­
pected to grow faster than the aver­
age for all occupations through the
mid-1980’s. Thousands of openings
will result each year as businesses
expand and as receptionists who die,
retire, or transfer to other jobs are
replaced. T he num ber o f re p la ce­
ments will be quite large because the
occupation is large and turnover is
Within the fast-growing clerical
field, receptionist em ploym ent is ex­
pected to grow rapidly. This is largely
because so many receptionists work
for firms providing business, person­
al, and professional services—a sec­
tor of the economy which is expected
to show very strong growth in the
future. In addition, m ore and more
firms recognize the im portance of
the receptionist in prom oting good
public relations. Also, because the
receptionist’s work is o f a person-toperson nature, it is unlikely to be af­
fected by office autom ation.
Job opportunities should continue
to be excellent for persons who do
not wish to work full time. This occu­
pation also offers many opportunities
for those without prior work experi­

Secretaries and stenographers are at the center of communications within their firms.



Secretaries (D .O .T. 201.368) re­
lieve their employers of routine du­
ties so that they can work on more
im p o rtan t m atters. A lthough m ost
secretaries type, take shorthand, and
deal with callers, the time spent on
these duties varies in different types
of organizations.
In offices where dictation and typ­
ing are handled in word processing
c e n te rs, a d m inistrative secretaries
handle all o ther secretarial duties.
(For more inform ation on these cen­
ters, see the statem ent on typists else­
where in the Handbook.) They often
work in clusters of three or four so
that they can readily help each other.
Because they are released from dic­
tation and typing, they can serve sev­
eral m em bers o f th e professional
staff. Their duties range from filing,
rou tin g m ail, and answ ering te le ­
phones to more responsible jobs such
as answering letters, doing statistical
research, and writing reports.
Some secretaries are trained in
specific skills needed in certain types
of work. Medical secretaries prepare
case histories and medical reports;
legal secretaries do legal research and
help prepare briefs; and technical sec­
retaries assist engineers or scientists
in drafting reports and research pro­
posals. A nother specialized secre­
tary is the social secretary (D.O.T.
201.268), who arranges social func­
tions, answers personal correspon­
dence, and keeps the em ployer in­
formed about all social activities.
Stenographers (D.O.T. 202.388)
take dictation and then transcribe
their notes on a typewriter. They
may either take shorthand or use a
stenotype m achine that prints sym­
bols as c e rtain keys are pressed.
G eneral sten o g ra p h ers, in clu d in g
most beginners, take routine dicta­
tion and do other office tasks such as
typing, filing, answering telephones,
and operating office machines. Ex­
perienced and highly skilled stenog­
raphers take difficult dictation and
do m ore responsible clerical work.
They may sit in on staff meetings and
give a summary report or a word-forw ord re c o rd o f th e p ro ceed in g s.
They also supervise other stenogra­
phers, typists, and clerical workers.
Technical stenographers must know
the term s used in a particular profes­

sion. They include m edical, legal,
and engineering or scientific stenog­
raphers. Some experienced stenog­
raphers take dictation in foreign lan­
g u a g e s ; o th e r s w o rk as p u b lic
stenographers serving traveling busi­
ness people and others.
Shorthand reporters are specialized
stenographers who record all state­
ments m ade in a proceeding. Nearly
half of all shorthand reporters work
as court reporters attached to courts
of law at different levels of govern­
ment. They take down all statem ents
made at legal proceedings and p re­
sent their record as the official tran ­
script. Many other shorthand rep o rt­
ers work as free-lance reporters who
record out-of-court testimony for a t­
torneys, m eetings and conventions,
and other private activities. Still o th ­
ers reco rd the proceedings in the
C ongress of the U nited S tates, in
State legislatures, and in both State
and Federal agencies.
Most reporters dictate notes on
magnetic tapes that a typist can tran ­
scribe later. Because the re p o rter’s
transcript is the official record of a
proceeding, accuracy is vitally im ­

Places of Employment
About 3.5 million persons worked
in jobs requiring secretarial or steno­
graphic skills in 1976; m ost were sec­
retaries. Only about 100,000 persons
worked as stenographers in 1976.
Opportunities for part-tim e work
are increasing in these and other
clerical occupations. In 1976, ap ­
proximately one of every five secre­
taries and one in six stenographers
worked p art time.
Secretaries and stenographers are
employed throughout the economy.
A bout two-thirds of them , however,
work in banks, insurance com panies,
real estate firms, governm ent agen­
cies, and other establishm ents p ro ­
viding services to the public. M ost
specialized stenographers and secre­
taries work for doctors, lawyers, and
other professional people.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Generally, graduation from high
school is required for a job as a

secretary or stenographer.
employers prefer applicants who
have additional secretarial training at
a college or private business school.
Courses vary from a few m onths’
instruction in basic shorthand and
typing to longer program s teaching
specialized skills such as shorthand
reporting or legal or medical secre­
tarial w ork. S horthand re p o rters
generally m ust com plete a 2-year
c o u rse in a sh o rth a n d re p o rtin g
An increasing num ber of private
firms and governm ent agencies have
th eir own training facilities w here
em ployees can upgrade their skills
and broaden their knowledge of the
organization. Also, many State and
local governments sponsor program s
to train unem ployed and low-skilled
workers for entry jobs as secretaries.
Fourteen States require court re­
porters to be a Certified Shorthand
R eporter (C SR). In some of these
States, reporters can be hired with
the understanding th at they will be
certified within 1 year. Certification
is adm inistered by a board of examin­
ers in each of the 14 States. The N a­
tional Shorthand R eporters Associ­
a tio n c o n f e r s th e d e s i g n a t i o n
R eg istere d P ro fe ssio n a l R e p o rte r
(RPR) upon those who pass a twopart examination and participate in
continuing education programs. The
RPR designation is recognized as the
m ark of excellence in the profession.
Employers usually have no prefer­
en ces am ong th e m any d iffe re n t
shorthand methods. The most im­
portant factors in hiring and prom o­
tion are speed and accu racy . To
qualify for jobs in the Federal Gov­
e rn m e n t—and for em ploym ent in
many private firm s—stenographers
must be able to take dictation at 100
words per minute and type 50 to 60
words per minute. Many shorthand
reporting jobs require m ore than 225
words of dictation per m inute; short­
hand reporters in the Federal Gov­
ern m e n t generally m ust tak e 175
words a minute.
should have good hearing; a knowl­
edge o f spelling, punctuation, and
gram m ar and a good vocabulary are
essential. The ability to concentrate
amid distractions is vital for short­
hand reporters. Employers look for



persons who are poised and alert,
and who have pleasant personalities.
Discretion, judgm ent, and initiative
are im portant for the more respon­
sible secretarial positions.
Many stenographers who improve
their skills advance to secretarial
jobs; others who acquire the neces­
sary speed through additional train­
ing can becom e shorthand reporters.
Secretaries can increase their skills
and broaden their knowledge o f their
c o m p a n y ’s o p e ra tio n s by ta k in g
courses offered by the com pany or
by local business schools, colleges,
and universities. As secretaries gain
knowledge and experience, they can
qualify for the designation Certified
P ro fe ssio n a l S e c re ta ry (C P S ) by
passing a series of exams given by the
N a tio n al S e c re ta rie s A ssociation.
This designation is recognized by a
growing num ber of em ployers as the
mark of achievem ent in the secretar­
ial field. M any executive secretaries
are prom oted to m anagem ent posi­
tions on the basis o f their extensive
knowledge of their em ployer’s opera­

Employment Outlook
Em ploym ent of secretaries is ex­
pected to increase faster than the av­
erage for all occupations through the
m id-1980’s as the continued expan­
sion o f business and governm ent cre­
ates a growing volume of paperwork.
Hundreds o f thousands of jobs will
become available each year due to
growth and the need to replace those
who die, retire, or stop working for
other reasons.
Demand for secretaries will rise
mainly as those organizations that
require large secretarial staffs ex­
pand their operations. New govern­
m ent agencies, p articularly at the
State and local level; insurance com ­
panies offering new forms of pro tec­
tion; and banks providing financial
counseling for an increasingly afflu­
ent population are just a few of the
org an izatio n s th a t will need welltrained and versatile secretaries in
the years ahead. A lthough many new
types o f autom atic office equipm ent
h av e b ee n in tro d u c e d in re c e n t
years, no adverse im pact on em ploy­
m ent of secretaries is expected. How­
ever, jo b se e k e rs who are fam iliar
Digitized for a wide range o f office m achines

and pro ced u res are likely to have
better prospects than other workers.
Persons with secretarial skills
should find extensive opportunities
for tem porary or part-tim e work as
employers increasingly turn to these
workers during peak business peri­
ods. Such arrangem ents may be es­
pecially attractive to students, p e r­
sons w ith fam ily re sp o n sib ilitie s,
retired persons, and others interested
in flexible work schedules.
Em ploym ent o f stenographers is
expected to continue the decline o f
recent years. The increased use of
dictation m achines has severely re ­
duced the need for office stenogra­
phers, and fewer jobs will be avail­
able than in the past. Dem and for
skilled shorthand reporters, in co n ­
trast to the overall outlook for ste­
nographers, should remain strong as
State and Federal court systems ex­
pand to handle the rising num ber of
crim inal co u rt cases and civil law­
suits. C o m p etitio n fo r entry level
jobs is increasing as m ore students
enter the field. O pportunities will be
best for those who have earned certi­
fication by the N ational Shorthand
Reporters Association.

Earnings and Working
According to a Bureau of Labor
Statistics (BLS) survey, general ste­
nographers working in urban areas
averaged $706 a m onth in 1976; ex­
perienced workers who were highly
skilled averaged $788. Shorthand re ­
porters generally earn higher salaries
than other stenographic workers. A c­
cording to a survey conducted by
The N ational S horthand R eporters
Association, shorthand reporters av­
eraged about $15,000 a year in 1976.
According to the BLS survey, sec­
retaries to supervisors in small offices
ea rn ed m onthly salaries o f $741.
Secretaries to officers in small com ­
panies had average monthly salaries
o f $804; those working for middle
m anagem ent in large com panies av­
e ra g e d $ 8 6 8 . S e c re ta rie s h aving
greater responsibilities, such as ex­
ecutive secretaries to corporate offi­
cers, earned average m onthly salaries
o f $954.
Beginning clerk-stenographers in
the Federal G overnm ent earned
from $548 to $775 a m onth in 1977

depending on education, training,
and experience. Earnings of begin­
ning sh o rth a n d re p o rte rs ra n g ed
from $864 to $1,175 a m onth d e­
pending on speed, education, and ex­
perience. Starting salaries for secre­
taries in the F ederal G o v ern m en t
ranged from $775 to $960 a m onth,
while the average for all secretaries
was $982 a m onth. In 1976, earnings
of stenographers were slightly less
and those o f secretaries slightly m ore
than average earnings for all nonsupervisory workers in private industry,
except farming.
W orking conditions for secretaries
and stenographers generally are simi­
lar to those o f other office workers in
the same organization. Shorthand re­
porters, however, often sit for long
periods of time while recording an
event. (See the statem ent on clerical
occupations for more inform ation on
earnings and working conditions.)

Sources of Additional
For inform ation on careers in sec­
retarial work, write to:
National Secretaries Association (Internation­
al), 2440 Pershing Rd., Suite G10, Kansas
City, Mo. 64108.

Additional inform ation on careers
in secretarial work and a directory of
business schools are available from:
Association of Independent Colleges and
Schools, 1730 M St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.

For inform ation about shorthand
reporting, contact:
National Shorthand Reporters Association,
2361 South Jefferson Davis Hwy., Arling­
ton, Va. 22202.

(D.O.T. 209.688, 219.388, 222.138
through .687, 223.387, 239.588,
910.368 and 920.887)

Nature of the Work
Shipping and receiving clerks keep
track of goods transferred betw een
businesses and their custom ers and
suppliers. In small com panies, one



clerk may keep records of all ship­
ments sent out and received; in larger
companies, many clerks take care of
this recordkeeping.
Shipping clerks are responsible for
all shipments leaving a business
place. Before goods are sent to a
custom er, these clerks check to be
sure the order has been filled cor­
rectly. Some shipping clerks fill o r­
ders them selves. They obtain m er­
chandise from the stockroom and
wrap it or pack it in shipping contain­
ers. C lerks also p u t addresses and
o th e r id en tify in g in fo rm a tio n on
packages, look up and com pute ei­
ther freight or postal rates, and rec­
ord the weight and cost of each ship­
m e n t. T h e y a ls o m ay p r e p a r e
in v oices an d fu rn ish in fo rm atio n
about shipments to other parts o f the
company, such as the accounting de­
p a r tm e n t. O n c e a s h ip m e n t is
checked and ready to go, shipping
clerks may move it to the shipping
dock and direct its loading on trucks
according to its destination. Shipping
and receiving clerks working in small
businesses may com bine these tasks
w ith th e v ario u s d u tie s o f sto ck
clerks. (F or more inform ation about
th e ad d itio n a l d u ties o f shipping

clerks in small firms, see the state­
m ent on stock clerks elsewhere in the
W hen shipments arrive, receiving
clerks perform tasks similar to those
o f shipping clerks. They determ ine
whether their em ployer’s orders have
been correctly filled by verifying in­
coming shipm ents against the origi­
nal order and the accom panying bill
o f lading o r invoice. They record the
receip t and condition o f incom ing
shipments. Clerks also make adjust­
ments with shippers for lost and dam ­
aged m erchandise. Routing or m ov­
in g s h i p m e n t s to t h e p r o p e r
d epartm ent, w arehouse section, or
stockroom and providing inform a­
tion that is needed to com pute inven­
tories also may be part of their job.

Places of Employment
About 440,000 persons worked as
shipping and receiving clerks in
1976. M ore than half worked in fac­
tories; large num bers also were em ­
ployed by wholesale houses or retail
stores. A lthough jobs for shipping
and receiving clerks are found in all
localities, most clerks work in urban
a re a s, w h ere m any fa c to rie s and
wholesale houses are located.

Receiving clerk carefully checks manifest.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
High school g rad u ates are p re ­
ferred for beginning jobs in shipping
and receiving departm ents. Business
arith m etic, typing, and o th er high
school business subjects are helpful.
The ability to write legibly is im por­
tant. Dependability and an interest in
learning about the firm ’s products
and business activities also are quali­
ties that employers seek. In addition,
shipping and receiving clerks should
be able to work under close supervi­
sion at repetitive tasks.
New employees usually are trained
on the job by an experienced worker.
As part of their training they often
file, check addresses, attach labels,
and check item s included in ship­
m ents. As clerks gain experience,
they may be assigned tasks requiring
a good deal o f in d ep en d en t ju d g ­
ment, such as handling problem s of
dam aged m erchandise, or supervis­
ing other workers in shipping or re­
ceiving rooms.
A job as a shipping or receiving
clerk offers a good opportunity for
new workers in a firm to learn about
their com pany’s products and busi­
ness practices. Some clerks may be
prom oted to head shipping or receiv­
ing clerk or w arehouse m anager.
Others may enter related fields such
as industrial traffic m anagem ent or
purchasing. (Industrial traffic m an­
agers and purchasing agents are dis­
cussed elsewhere in the Handbook.)

Employment Outlook
Em ploym ent o f shipping and re ­
ceiving clerks is ex p ected to rise
about as fast as the average for all
occupations through the m id-1980’s
as business expands and there are
more goods to be distributed. Several
thousand jobs will becom e available
each year as em ploym ent grows and
as workers retire, die, or transfer to
other occupations.
Although substantial growth is ex­
pected in the volume of goods to be
moved, em ploym ent o f shipping and
receiving clerks will not increase as
rapidly because of changes in tech ­
nology th at enable few er clerks to
handle m ore goods. Growing num ­
bers of firms are using com puters to
keep track o f shipping and receiving



records, and moving belts to handle
shipments once lifted by hand.

Earnings and Working
Shipping and receiving clerks in
urban areas averaged $200 a week,
according to a 1976 survey. This is
about as m uch as the average earn­
ings for all nonsupervisory workers in
p riv ate in d u stry , e x c e p t farm ing.
Salaries varied substantially, how ­
ever, by type of employer. Shipping
and receiving clerks em ployed by
m anufacturing firms averaged $200,
those working for wholesale houses
averaged $210, and those employed
by public utilities averaged $248.
Most shipping and receiving clerks
receive tim e-and-a-half for work
over 40 hours. Night work and over­
tim e, including work on Saturdays,
Sundays, and holidays, may be neces­
sary when shipm ents have been un­
duly delayed or when materials are
needed im m ediately on production
lines. Although shipping and receiv­
ing clerks do much of their work in
w arehouses or in shipping and re ­
ceiving room s, they may do some of
it on o u ts id e lo ad in g p la tfo rm s.
W orkplaces often are large, unparti­
tioned areas that may be drafty, cold,
and littered with packing materials.
M ost clerks must stand for long
periods while they check m erchan­
dise. Locating num bers and descrip­
tions on ca rto n s often req u ires a
great deal o f bending, stooping, and
stretching. Also, under the pressure
of getting shipments moved on time,
clerks sometimes may help load or
unload m aterials in the warehouse.
(See the statem ent on clerical occu­
pations for additional inform ation on
fringe benefits.)

Sources of Additional
Inform ation about the work and
earnings o f shipping and receiving
clerks in wholesale establishm ents is
available from:
National Association of Wholesaler-Distribu­
tors, 1725 K St. NW., Washington, D.C.

ords and reports into com puter codes
for data processing. Personnel clerks
(D.O.T. 205.368, 206.588, 209.388, (D.O.T. 205.368) gather and file in­
fo rm atio n on the em ployees o f a
219.388, .488, and .588, 222.687,
business; th e ir w ork may include
223.588, 913.368, and 953.168)
some typing and preparation o f re­
Nature of the Work
Computing and tabulating. O rgani­
A dm inistrators and m anagers in all
types of organizations depend on nu­ zations frequently use num erical rec­
merical records to help make deci­ ords for reports and research. Statis­
sions. Statistical clerks prepare and tical clerks gather inform ation from
insure the accuracy and com plete­ records to present in a chart or table
ness of these records. Although the for analysis. Actuary clerks (D.O.T.
occupational title “ statistical clerk ” 219.388) use certain formulas, statis­
covers a num ber o f different jobs tical charts, and insurance rate books
perform ed by statistical workers, the to assist actuaries in determ ining in­
jobs in this field can be grouped into surance rates for com pany custom ­
four categories: recording, com pil­ ers. They also prepare charts and ta ­
ing and coding, com puting and tabu­ bles for studies on general insurance
practices. Policy checkers (D .O .T .
lating, and scheduling.
Recording. This work involves col­ 219.488) verify the accuracy of in­
lecting and verifying the accuracy of surance com pany records. Statistical
in f o r m a tio n . S h ip p in g c h e c k e rs assistants (D .O .T . 2 1 9 .3 8 8 ), also
(D.O.T. 222.687) in m anufacturing known as tabulating clerks, calculate
com panies and wholesale and retail and com pute num erical data on the
businesses insure th at m erchandise population and its characteristics for
to be shipped is properly labeled and governm ent and business research
c o n ta in s th e d e s ire d n u m b e r o f projects. Demurrage clerks (D.O.T.
219.388) , em ployed by railroads, use
ite m s . C ar c h e c k e r s (D .O .T .
209.588) keep records of shipments rate tables to com pute railway freight
as they arrive at or leave a railroad charges and calculate the weight of
freig h t te rm in a l. T hey ch eck th e shipm ents or distance railroad cars
num ber o f railroad cars and verify have traveled.
Scheduling. Statistical clerks may
their contents with the specifications
on the invoice. C ounters (D .O .T . schedule business activities that in­
223.588) , who may have a title speci­ volve the m ovem ent of people and
fying th eir work or the item s th at things. Through planning, they as­
they co u n t, record the num ber o f sure that these activities run sm ooth­
m aterials received, tran sferred , o r ly and efficiently. For example, as­
produced. For example, lum ber tal- signm ent clerks (D .O .T . 9 1 3 .3 6 8 )
liers or lum ber checkers record the work for bus com panies and assign
am o u n t an d type o f lum ber p ro ­ drivers to m eet riders’ transportation
cessed in sawmills; pit recorders col­ needs. Drivers are selected on the
lect production data in the steel in­ basis o f experience, seniority, and
n a tu re o f th e a ssig n m e n t. Crew
Compiling and coding. In organiza­ schedulers (D.O.T. 219.388) do simi­
tions of all types, inform ation m ust lar work for airlines; they assign pi­
be properly filed, verified, or a n a­ lots to scheduled flights and log the
lyzed for d ata processing. Posting mileage each pilot has flown. Gas dis­
clerks (D.O.T. 219.588) do this work patchers (D .O .T . 9 5 3 .1 6 8 ) d e te r­
by m aking entries in registers and mine the proper pressure in a natural
journals. They receive and sort re c­ gasline to m eet custom ers’ require­
ords o f shipm ents, production, and m ents after considering inform ation
fin an c ial tra n s a c tio n s to p ro v id e such as the weather, time of day, and
company officials with current infor­ other factors that affect the use of
mation on business activities. Record gas.
keep ers (D .O .T . 2 0 6 .5 8 8 ) , also
known as classification clerks, record
Places of Employment
data systematically for easy location.
Coding clerks (D.O.T. 219.388) co n ­
About 337,000 persons worked as
vert inform ation obtained from re c­ statistical clerks in 1976. Although




working with others in the same of­
M ost employers follow a prom otion-from -w ithin policy th at allows
experienced w orkers to qualify for
m ore responsible jobs as they b e­
come available. Qualified statistical
clerks may perform m ore difficult as­
signments or advance to supervisory
positions. Some statistical clerks are
able to advance to a technician level
where they may deal with the techni­
cal problem s of statistical research
projects. Some clerks becom e com ­
puter programmers.

Employment Outlook

Statistical clerks compile the numerical records often used by management to make

statistical clerks are employed in
nearly every industry, over half
worked in finance, insurance, and
real estate com panies; m anufactur­
ing firms; and Federal, State, and lo­
cal government.
Because businesses o f almost every
size require num erical records, statis­
tical clerk s w ork th ro u g h o u t the
United States. Jobs are concentrated,
however, in heavily populated cities
that are centers of industry and gov­
ernm ent activities.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Most employers prefer to hire high
school graduates for statistical clerk
jobs. They also seek applicants who
have an aptitude for working with
num bers and the ability to do d e­
tailed w ork. High school students
may p rep are for jobs as statistical
clerks by taking courses in general
m athem atics, algebra, and geometry.

Also recom m ended are courses in
data processing, office procedures,
bookkeeping, and typing.
In many com panies, general clerks
who have becom e familiar with their
em ployers’ record systems and office
procedures are prom oted to statisti­
cal clerk positions. On-the-job train­
ing that equips the em ployee to spe­
c ia liz e in n u m e ric a l w o rk m ay
include the use of calculators, tab u ­
lating machines, and typewriters.
Statistical clerks m ust be familiar
with the items or inform ation which
they observe and record. For exam ­
ple, lum ber checkers m ust know the
various types and qualities of wood
products. In preparing data for p ro ­
cessing, coding clerks must use the
proper com puter codes to avoid e r­
Statistical clerks should be able to
do prom pt and accurate work under
close supervision. Also, they should
be tactful and even tem pered when

Employment of statistical clerks is
expected to grow about as fast as the
average for all occupations through
the mid-1980’s. In addition to job
opportunities arising from
growth, many additional openings
will occur as clerks die, retire, or
leave the occupation for other rea­
This occupation includes a wide
range of jobs, and the prospects for
statistical clerks are better in certain
areas than in others. Some routine
jobs, for example, may be eliminated
as com puters are increasingly used to
collect and process information.
However, statistical clerks in jobs
such as those that require personal
contact or involve the preparation of
data for com puter analysis are ex­
pected to be in great demand.
Among the factors that will con­
tribute to the dem and for statistical
clerks is the expected increase in
business and governm ent activities,
including projects requiring the col­
le c tio n an d p ro c e ssin g o f la rg e
amounts of num erical data. In addi­
tion, adm inistrators increasingly will
rely on num erical records to analyze
and control all aspects of their o r­
ganization’s work.

Earnings and Working
Limited inform ation indicates that
beginning statistical clerks earn
about as much as workers in other
entry level clerical jobs such as office
clerks or file clerks; salaries for these
workers ranged between $110 and
$130 a week in 1976. The entrance
salary for beginning statistical assis­



tants employed by the Federal Gov­
ernm ent was $142 a week in 1977.
Most experienced workers doing
statistically related clerical work, in­
cluding the operation o f tabulating
machines or calculators, earned be­
tw een $155 and $200 a w eek in
1976. Top level clerks and supervi­
sors averaged about $235 a week.
Earnings usually are highest in m anu­
facturing, transportation, and utili­
ties industries; they are lower in retail
trade, finance, insurance, and real
estate, and service industries.
Nearly every em ployer of statisti­
cal clerks offers some form of health
plan, life insurance coverage, and re­
tirem en t benefits. M ost statistical
clerks work in clean, well-lighted and
w e ll-v e n tila te d o ffic es. (S ee th e
statem ent on clerical occupations for
sources of additional inform ation.)

ing clerks. (F o r m ore inform ation
about the additional duties of stock
clerks in small firms, see the state­
m en t on sh ip p in g an d re c e iv in g
clerks elsewhere in the Handbook.)
In large firms with specialized jobs,
inventory clerks (D .O .T . 223.388)
periodically count items on hand and
make reports showing stock balanc­
es. P ro c u re m e n t c le rk s (D .O .T .
223.368) work in factories and p re­
pare orders for the purchase of new
equipm ent.
The duties of stock clerks also
depend on the items they handle. For
example, stock clerks who work with
food and drugs must m aintain proper
tem perature and humidity conditions
to prevent spoilage; those who han­
dle construction items such as lum ­
ber and bricks must do much walking
and climbing to note the condition
and quantity of that stock.

Places of Employment

(D.O.T. 223.138, .368, .387, .388,
.588, .687; 910.388; 969.387)

About 490,000 persons worked as
stock clerks in 1976. A bout threefourths of them worked in factories,
wholesale firms, and retail stores.

Many others were employed by air­
lines, governm ent agencies, hospi­
tals, and o th e r organizations th a t
keep large quantities o f goods on
hand. Although jobs for stock clerks
are found in all parts of the country,
most work in urban areas where fac­
to ries, w arehouses, and stores are

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Although there are no specific
educational requirem ents for begin­
ning stock clerks, employers prefer
high school graduates. Reading and
writing skills and a basic knowledge
of m athem atics are necessary; typing
and filing abilities also are useful.
G ood health, especially good eye­
sight, is im portant. Generally, those
who handle jewelry, liquor, or drugs
must be bonded.
Stock clerks usually receive onthe-job training. New workers begin
with simple tasks such as counting
and marking stock. Basic responsibil­
ities o f the job usually are learned
within several weeks. As they prog-

Nature of the Work
Most employers recognize the im­
po rtan ce o f keeping w ell-balanced
inventories to prevent sales losses or
slowdowns in production.
Stock clerks (D.O.T. 223.387) help
protect against such losses by con­
trolling the flow o f goods received,
stored, and issued. They usually re­
ceive and u n p ack incom ing m e r­
chandise o r m aterial. They re p o rt
damaged or spoiled goods and pro­
cess papers necessary for obtaining
replacem ents or credit. On outgoing
orders, they may check the items for
quality and quantity and sometimes
make m inor repairs or adjustments.
M aterials are stored in bins, on the
floor, or on shelves according to the
plan of the stockroom . Stock clerks
organize and m ark item s with identi­
fying codes or prices so that invento­
ries can be located quickly and eas­
ily. T h ey k eep re c o rd s o f item s
entering or leaving the stockroom .
Sometimes they label, pack, crate, or
address goods for delivery.
Stock clerks working in small firms
also may perform various duties usu­
Digitized for handled by shipping and receiv­

Some competition is likely for stock clerk positions because many young people seek
this work as a first job.


ress, stock clerks learn to keep rec­
ords of incoming and outgoing m ate­
rials, tak e in v en to ries, and o rd er
supplies. In small firms, stock clerks
may advance to sales positions or be­
come assistant buyers or purchasing
agents. In large firms, stock clerks
can ad v an ce to m ore responsible
stock handling jobs such as invoice
clerk, stock control clerk, or p ro ­
curem ent clerk. A few may be pro­
moted to stockroom supervisor, but
a d d itio n a l e d u c a tio n o ften is re ­

Employment Outlook
Employment of stock clerks is ex­
pected to increase about as fast as
th e a v e ra g e fo r all o c c u p a tio n s
through the m id-1980’s. Many thou­
sands of job openings will occur each
year as em ploym ent grows and as
workers die, retire, or transfer to oth­
er occupations.
Growth in em ploym ent of stock
clerks probably will be slower than in
the past as com puters are used in­
creasingly for inventory control. Be­
cause entrance into this occupation
is relatively easy and many young
people seek this work as a first job,
some co m p etitio n for openings is

Earnings and Working
Experienced stock clerks earned
a v e rag e w ee k ly sa la rie s o f $ 1 9 2 in

1976, according to the limited data
available. This was slightly above the
average for nonsupervisory workers
in private industry, except farming.
In the Federal G overnm ent, begin­
ning stock clerks without experience
were paid $126 a week in late 1976;
those with general work experience
received $142 a week. Experienced
stock clerks in the Federal G overn­
m ent averaged about $203 a week in
Stock clerks generally receive
tim e-and-one-half for work over 40
hours. Overtim e may be required
when large shipments are delivered
and when inventory is taken.
Although stock clerks usually
work in relatively clean, heated, and
well-lighted areas, some stockroom s
may be dam p and drafty. Clerks han­
dling refrigerated goods may spend


som e tim e in cold storage room s.
Stock clerks are on their feet m uch
of the working day, often on a con­
crete floor. T he jo b also involves
co n sid erab le bending, lifting, and
clim bing. (S ee th e sta te m e n t on
clerical occupations for additional
inform ation on working conditions
and fringe benefits.)

Sources of Additional
Inform ation about the work and
earnings o f stock clerks in wholesale
establishm ents is available from:
National Association of Wholesaler-Distribu­
tors, 1725 K St. NW., Washington, D.C.

(D.O.T. 203.138 through .588;
208.588; and 209.382 through

Nature of the Work
A rapid flow of written com m uni­
cation is essential to the m odern of­
fice. The typist helps to maintain this
flow by making neat, typed copies o f
handw ritten, printed, and recorded
Beginning or junior typists usually
type headings on form letters, copy
directly from handw ritten drafts, and
address envelopes. O ften, they do
other office tasks, including answer­
ing telephones, filing, and operating
office m achines such as copiers and
M ore experienced typists do work
that requires a high degree of accura­
cy and independent judgm ent. Sen­
ior typists work from rough drafts
which are difficult to read or which
co n tain tech n ic al m aterial. They
may plan and type com plicated sta­
tis tic a l ta b le s , c o m b in e an d r e ­
a rra n g e m a te ria ls from d iffe re n t
sources, o r prepare m aster copies to
be reproduced on copying machines.
Clerk typists (D.O.T. 209.388)
com bine typing with filing, sorting
mail, answering telephones, and o th ­
er general office work. Varitypists
(D .O .T . 2 0 3 .5 8 2 ) produce m aster
copies, such as stencils, on m achines
similar to typewriters.

Transcribing machine operators
(D.O.T. 208.588) type letters and
reports as they listen to dictation
recorded on magnetic tape. O ther
typists who have special duties in­
c l u d e p o l i c y w r i t e r s ( D .O .T .
203.588) in insurance com panies,
waybill clerks (D .O .T. 209.588) in
railroad offices, and mortgage clerks
(D .O .T . 2 0 3 .5 8 8 ) w ho w ork in
In some offices, many typists are
grouped in a specialized word p ro ­
cessing center that handles all the
transcription and typing for several
departm ents. These workers, usually
called correspondence secretaries, op­
erate various kinds o f high-speed
typew riters eq u ip p ed w ith a p ro ­
gram m ed m em ory w hich en ab les
them to produce final copy with a
minimum of retyping.

Places of Employment
About 1 million persons worked as
typists in 1976. In addition, many
o th e r w o rk e rs —in c lu d in g s e c r e ­
taries, new spaper reporters, writers,
and editors—use typing skills in the
perform ance of their jobs.
Part-tim e em ploym ent is readily
available for workers with clerical
skills, and nearly one typist out of
four works part time. Typists are em ­
ployed throughout the entire econ­
omy. Over half of them work in fac­
tories, banks, insurance com panies,
real estate firm s, and governm ent
ag e n cies.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
T y p ists g e n e ra lly n e e d a h igh
sch o o l d ip lo m a. G o o d sp ellin g ,
punctuation, and gram m ar are essen­
tial. Ability to operate office equip­
m ent, such as copying and adding
m achines, and also a knowledge of
office procedures, are assets.
An increasing num ber of com pa­
nies and governm ent organizations
have their own typist training p ro ­
gram s. T h ese give em p lo y ees a
chance to learn or upgrade skills so
that they can advance to more re­
sponsible positions within the organi­
zation. M any States and localities
sponsor program s to train u n em ­
ployed and low-skilled workers for
entry jobs as typists.



ticu larly strong for highly skilled
workers and those who can handle
other office jobs in addition to typ­
ing. Many employers will prefer typ­
ists who are familiar with new kinds
o f word processing equipm ent. Be­
cause an increasing num ber of em ­
p lo y ers are using te m p o ra ry and
part-tim e workers during peak busi­
ness periods, opportunities should
continue to be excellent for typists
who do not wish to work full time.

Earnings and Working

Nearly 1 out of 4 typists works part time.

M any em p lo y ers re q u ire a p p li­
cants for typing jobs to take a test
that shows their speed and accuracy.
For m ost jobs, a speed of 50 to 60
words per m inute is required. All
typists who transcribe recorded dic­
tation need sharp hearing and must
be especially good in spelling. Suc­
cessful typists are neat, accurate, and
able to c o n c e n tra te am id d istrac­
As beginners increase their skills,
they often advance to higher level
typing jobs. Some typists are prom ot­
ed to supervisor jobs in word p ro ­
cessing centers. Others who m aster
additional skills can move into secre­
tarial jobs.

Employment Outlook
The num ber of typists is expected
to grow about as fast as the average
for all occupations through the mid19 8 0 ’s as business exp an sio n in ­
creases th e volum e o f paperw ork.
Many job openings will occur every
year because turnover in this occupa­
tion is very high. Jobs for typists also
will becom e available as em ploym ent
continues to grow.
C ontinued growth of the economy,
particularly those industries that gen­
erate vast quantities o f written re c­
ords and correspondence, will assure
very good prospects for typists in the
years ahead. Dem and should be p ar­

According to a recent survey, be­
ginning typists averaged $142 a week
in 1976. T hose w ith ex p e rien ce
earned $166 a w eek, slightly less
than the average earnings for nonsupervisory workers in private industry,
except farming.
In the Federal Governm ent, the
starting salary for typists without ex­
perience was $126 a week in 1977,
c o m p a re d w ith $160 a w eek for
th o se w ith e x p e rie n c e . A v e rag e
weekly earnings for all typists in the
Federal G overnm ent were $157.
W orking conditions for typists usu­
ally are similar to those for other of­
fice employees. Typists, like other
clerical w orkers, sit for periods of
time and often m ust contend with
high noise levels caused by office m a­
chines lo cate d nearb y . (S ee th e
statem ent on clerical occupations for
m ore inform ation on working condi­
tions and also for a list o f places to
write for additional inform ation on
clerical jobs.)


increasingly im portant part of every­
day life. Today these machines bill
custom ers, pay em ployees, record

Since 195 1 when the first com put­
er was installed for com m ercial use,
com puter systems have become an

Most openings for programmers and systems analysts will
result from growth
Average annual openings, 1976-85 (in thousands)


Computer operating



H H le ik s v

Systems analysts







Growth H i Replacement

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

Employment of programmers and systems analysts,
negligible in 1960, is expected to grow to half
a million workers by 1985

airline and hotel reservations, and
monitor factory production process­
es. S cientific and engineering re ­
search relies on com puter systems to
solve complex equations as well as to
collect, store, and sort vast am ounts
of data.
W orkers in com puter and related
occupations design systems for p ro ­
cessing inform ation, write instru c­
tions and translate them into m a­
c h i n e - r e a d a b l e la n g u a g e , a n d
operate com puters and peripheral
Most com puter careers require
some type of specialized training. Al­
though not a universal requirem ent,
a college degree is increasingly im­
portant for systems analysts and p ro­
g ra m m e rs — e s p e c ia lly fo r th o s e
working in scientific and technical
research operations. C om puter op ­
erators usually need a high school
diploma, but specialized training and
experience are more im portant than
formal education. For all com puter
occupations, employers stress the im­
portance of learning on the job.
In addition to technical knowledge
and skills, com puter personnel must
be able to concentrate on their work
and should enjoy working with de­
tails. T hose who o p erate e q u ip ­
m ent—keypunchers or console op ­
e ra to rs, for exam ple — m ust have
manual dexterity and some m echani­
cal aptitude. Program m ers and sys­
tems analysts must be able to think
logically and should enjoy solving
This chapter describes three com ­
puter occupations: C om puter O per­
ating Personnel, Program m ers, and
Systems Analysts.

Employment (in thousands)

aa# u,,m,/ w, u


(D.O.T. 213.138, .382, .582, .588,
and .885, and 223.387)


Nature of the Work


Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics




All data systems require special­
ized workers to enter data and in­
stru ctio n s, o p erate the co m p u ter,
and retrieve the results. The data to



be processed and the instructions for
the com puter are called “ input;” the
results are called “ o u tp u t.”
Inform ation is entered into a com ­
puter system in a variety of ways. In
m any system s, keypunch operators
(D.O.T. 213.582) prepare input by
punching patterns o f holes in cards to
represent different letters, num bers,
and special characters, using a m a­
chine similar to a typewriter. In o th ­
ers, data typists (D .O .T . 213.588)
use special m achines th at convert the
inform ation they type to holes in
cards or magnetic impulses on tapes
or disks. Many newer systems are ca­
pable o f rem ote data entry. The user
sits at a m achine equipped with a
typewriter keyboard and an electron­
ic screen th at displays the data as it is
entered directly into the com puter.
Once the input is coded, prepared
in a form the com puter can read, it is
ready to be processed. Console opera­
tors (D.O.T. 213.382) examine the
pro g ram m er’s instructions for p ro ­
cessing th e in p u t, m ake sure the
com puter has been loaded with the
c o rre c t card s, m ag n etic tap es, or
disks and then start the com puter.
While it is running, they watch the
machine, paying special attention to
the error lights th at could signal a
malfunction. If the com puter stops or
one o f the lights goes on, operators
must locate the problem and remove
the faulty input materials.
In some systems, m achines directly

Some operators work evenings or night
shifts because computers are used 24
hours a day.

connected to the com puter translate
output into the form desired by the
program m er. In others, high-speed
printers o r converters run by auxilia­
ry equipm ent operators—high-speed
printer operators (D .O .T. 213.382)
and co n v erter operators (D .O .T .
213.382)—perform this function.
Frequently, d ata on punched
cards, magnetic tape, or disks are
kept for future use. Tape librarians
(D.O.T. 223.387) classify and cata­
log this m aterial and m aintain files o f
current and previous versions of p ro ­
gram s, listings, and te st d ata. In
smaller organizations, librarians may
do some keypunching as well as co ­
ordinate activities between the p ro ­
grammer and the operations d epart­

Places of Employment
About 565,000 persons worked as
console, auxiliary equipm ent, and
keypunch operators in 1976.
Although workers in these occupa­
tions are em ployed in almost every
industry, most work in m anufactur­
ing firms, wholesale and retail trade
establishm ents, banks, and govern­
ment agencies. Many com puter and
p e r ip h e ra l e q u ip m e n t o p e r a to rs
work for insurance com panies and
firms th a t provide data processing
services for a fee.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
In firms that have just installed a
new com puter system, tabulating and
bookkeeping m achine operators may
be transferred to jobs as keypunch or
auxiliary equipm ent operators, or
console operators. Most often, how­
ever, employers recruit workers from
the outside. Some organizations train
typists to o p e ra te k ey p u n c h m a ­
chines, but most seek workers who
already have this skill. Many high
schools, public and private vocation­
al schools, private com puter schools,
and business schools and colleges of­
fer training in com puter operating
skills. Y oung m en and w om en in
military service also can learn valu­
able skills in com puter operations. In
addition, a growing num ber of busi­
ness firms across the country hold
weekend seminars on data process­
ing for high school students.
Employers in private industry usu­

ally require applicants to have a high
school education, and many prefer
console operators to have some col­
lege training, especially in data p ro ­
cessing. The Federal G overnm ent re­
quires a high school diploma, unless
applicants have had specialized train­
ing or experience. Many employers
test applicants to determ ine their ap­
titude for com puter work, particular­
ly their ability to reason logically.
Keypunch operators and other data
entry personnel often are tested for
their ability to work quickly and ac­
Beginners usually are trained on
the job. The length of training
needed varies—auxiliary equipm ent
operators can learn their jobs in a
few weeks, but console operators re­
quire several months o f training be­
cause they must becom e sufficiently
fam iliar with the co m puter eq u ip ­
m ent to be able to trace the causes of
Keypunch and auxiliary equipm ent
operators should be able to work
under close supervision as part o f a
team. They also must like working
with m achines and not becom e easily
bored by repetitious tasks. Console
o p e ra to rs m ust be capable o f in ­
d e p e n d e n t ju d g m e n t, e s p e c ia lly
when working without supervision on
second and third shifts.
Although advancem ent opportuni­
tie s fo r k e y p u n c h an d a u x iliary
eq u ip m en t o p e ra to rs are lim ited ,
prom otion to a supervisory position
is possible after several years on the
job. With additional training, often
including college study, a few ad ­
vance to jobs as console operators.
Console operators also may be
prom oted to supervisory positions, or
to jobs that combine supervision and
console operation. Through on-thejob-experience and additional train ­
ing, some console operators advance
to jobs as program mers.

Employment Outlook
Changes in data processing tech ­
nology will have differing effects on
c o m p u te r o p e ra tin g o c c u p a tio n s
over the next decade. Em ploym ent
o f console and peripheral equipm ent
operators is expected to rise about as
fast as the average for all occupations
while em ploym ent o f keypunch op ­
erators should continue the decline



Sources of Additional
The discovery of new ways to prepare and enter data
into computers has contributed to the growing need
for peripheral equipment operators, but has caused
demand for keypunch operators to decline

Further inform ation on data p ro­
cessing careers is available from:
American Federation of Information Process­
ing Societies, 210 Summit Ave., Montvale, N.J. 07645.

Advances in technology create some jobs and eliminate others
...... equipment

(in thousands)

(D.O.T. 020.188)

Nature of the Work





Source: Bureau o f Labor Statistics

of recent years. R ecent advances in
m iniaturizing circuits have enabled
m an u factu rers to red uce both the
size and the cost of com puter com po­
nents. As this technology develops, a
continued expansion in the use o f
com puters is expected, especially by
sm all businesses. E m ploym ent o f
console and perip h eral equipm ent
operators in data processing service
firms may grow less rapidly than in
the past as more small firms install
th e ir own c o m p u ter system s, but
overall dem and for these w orkers
should remain strong.
This same technology will further
reduce dem and for keypunch opera­
tors. The prim ary reason for this de­
cline is the increased use of com put­
er term inals. As d irec t data entry
techniques becom e m ore efficient,
the im portance of punched cards as a
form o f input will diminish. Despite
the anticipated decline in em ploy­
ment, several thousand openings will
occur each year as workers die, re­
tire, or transfer out o f the occupa­

Earnings and Working
Average weekly earnings of key­
punch operator trainees in private in­
dustry ranged from $120 to $140 in
1976, according to surveys conduct­
ed in urban areas by the Bureau of
Labor Statistics and firms engaged in

research on data processing occupa­
tions. Lead operators earned from
$150 to $180 weekly.
Average weekly earnings o f begin­
ning co n so le o p e ra to rs av erag ed
ab o u t $150. E xperienced w orkers
earned from $205 to $215, and lead
operators earned from $230 to $260
weekly. The average weekly earnings
for tape librarians in 1976 was $160.
In the Federal G overnm ent, con­
sole operators and keypunch opera­
tors without work experience started
at $126 a w eek, and the average
weekly salary was $245 for console
operators and $160 for keypunch op­
erators. T hroughout the economy in
1976, c o n so le o p e r a to rs e a rn e d
slightly m ore and keypunch o pera­
tors earned slightly less than average
earnings for all nonsupervisory w ork­
ers in private industry, except farm ­
electronic com puters
m ust be operated at carefully co n ­
trolled tem peratures, operators work
in air-conditioned rooms. One disad­
vantage, however, is the high noise
level g en erated by som e auxiliary
equipm ent. Some console and auxil­
iary equipm ent operators work eve­
ning or night shifts because many o r­
ganizations use their com puter 24
hours a day. Tape librarians usually
work only day shifts.

Com puters can process masses of
inform ation rapidly and accurately,
but only if they are given step-by-step
instructions to follow. Because the
m achines c a n n o t th in k for th e m ­
selves, com puter program m ers must
write detailed instructions called p ro ­
grams that list in a logical order the
steps the m achine m ust follow to
solve a problem.
Program m ers usually work from
problem descriptions prep ared by
systems analysts who have examined
th e problem and d e te rm in e d th e
steps necessary to achieve the de­
sired results. (Systems analysts are
described elsew here in the Hand­
book.) In organizations that do not
em ploy system s analysts, w orkers
called program mer-analysts may be
responsible for both systems analysis
and programming. Once this analysis
has b een c o m p leted , a sp ec ia list
called an applications program m er
writes detailed instructions for p ro ­
cessing the data, using one of the lan­
guages developed especially for com ­
Programs vary with the type of
problem to be solved. For example,
the m ath em atica l ca lcu latio n s in­
volved in payroll accounting proce­
dures are different from those re ­
quired to determ ine the flight path of
a space probe. A business applica­
tio n s p ro g ram m e r d eveloping in ­
s tru c tio n s fo r b illin g c u s to m e rs
would first decide w hat com pany
records the com puter would need
and then draw a flow chart or dia­
gram showing the steps the com puter
must follow to obtain old balances,
add new charges, calculate finance
charges, and deduct paym ents before



tific operations. A different type of
specialist, the systems program m er,
m aintains the general instructio n s
(called software) that control the op­
eration o f the entire com puter sys­
tem. These workers m ake changes in
these sets of instructions that d eter­
mine how the com puter’s resources
are to be allotted am ong the various
jobs it has been given. Because of
th eir know ledge o f operating sys­
tem s, system s program m ers often
help applications program m ers de­
term ine the source o f problem s with
their programs.

Places of Employment
In 1976, about 230,000 persons
worked as com puter program m ers.
Most were employed by m anufactur­
ing firms, banks and insurance com ­
panies, d ata processing service o r­
g a n iz a tio n s , an d g o v e rn m e n t
Programm ers usually work in large
firms that need and can afford exten­
sive com puter systems. Small firms
generally require com puters only for
payroll or billing purposes and fre­
quently pay data processing service
organizations to do this work. Sys­
tem s program m ers usually work in
re se a rc h o rg a n iz atio n s, c o m p u ter
m anufacturing firms, and large com ­
puter centers.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Computer programmers write instructions that list the steps the computer must take to
solve a problem.

determining a custom er’s bill. Using
th e flow c h a rt, th e p ro g ra m m e r
co d es th e ac tu a l in stru ctio n s the
com puter will follow.
The program m er then checks the
operation o f the program to be sure
the instructions are correct and will
produce the desired information.
This check is called “ debugging.”
The program m er tries a sample of
the data with the program and re­
views the results to see if any errors
are made. If errors occur, the pro­
gram m u s t be c h a n g e d an d r e ­
checked until it produces the correct

Finally, an instruction sheet is p re­
pared for the com puter operator who
will run the program. (The work o f
com puter operators is described in
the statem ent on C om puter O perat­
ing Personnel.)
Although simple program s can be
written in a few days, programs that
use complex m athem atical formulas
or many data files may require m ore
than a year of work. In such cases,
several program m ers may work to ­
gether u n d er an experienced p ro ­
gram m er’s supervision.
A pplications program m ers usually
specialize in either business or scien­

There are no universal training re­
quirem ents for progam m ers because
em p lo y ers’ needs vary. M ost p ro ­
gramm ers are college graduates; o th ­
ers have tak en special courses in
co m puter program m ing to sup p le­
m ent their experience in fields such
as accounting or inventory control.
Employers using com puters for
scientific or engineering applications
prefer college graduates with degrees
in com puter science, m athem atics,
engineering, or the physical sciences.
G raduate degrees are required for
som e jobs. Very few scientific o r­
ganizations are interested in appli­
cants with no college training.
Although some em ployers who use
com puters for business applications
do not require college degrees, they
prefer applicants who have had col­
lege courses in data processing, ac­
counting, and business adm inistra­



tion. Occasionally, workers who are
experienced in com puter operation
or payroll accounting but have no
college training are prom oted to pro­
gramming jobs; however, they need
additional data processing courses to
become fully qualified programmers.
Prior work experience is not essential
for a job as a program m er; in fact,
about half o f all entrants to the occu­
pation have no significant work expe­
C om puter programming is taught
at public and private vocational
schools, colleges, and universities.
Instruction ranges from introductory
home study courses to advanced
courses at the graduate level. High
schools in many parts of the country
also offer courses in com puter pro­
In hiring program m ers, employers
look for people who can think logi­
cally and are capable o f exacting
analytical work. The job calls for pa­
tience, persistence, and the ability to
work with extrem e accuracy even
under pressure. Ingenuity and imagi­
n atio n are p artic u la rly im p o rtan t
when program m ers m ust find new
ways to solve a problem.
Beginning applications program ­
mers usually spend their first weeks
on the job attending training classes.
A fter this initial in stru ctio n , they
work on simple assignm ents while
completing further specialized train­
ing programs. Program m ers general­
ly must spend at least several m onths
working under close supervision be­
fore they can handle all aspects of
their job. Because o f rapidly chang­
ing technology, program m ers must
co n tin u e th e ir train in g by taking
courses offered by th eir em ployer
and softw are vendors. F or skilled
workers, the prospects for further ad­
vancem ent are good. In large organi­
zations, they may be prom oted to
lead program m ers and be given su­
pervisory responsibilties. Some appli­
cations program m ers advance to systems p r o g r a m m i n g . Both
applications program m ers and sys­
tems program m ers often are prom ot­
ed to the more dem anding occupa­
tion o f systems analyst.

Employment Outlook
Employment of program m ers is
expected to grow faster than the av­

erage for all occupations through the
m id-1980’s as com puter usage ex­
pands, particularly in firms providing
ac co u n tin g and business m an ag e­
m ent services and organizations in­
volved in research and developm ent.
In addition to job openings resulting
from growth of the occupation, sev­
eral th o u san d openings will arise
each year from the need to replace
w orkers who leave the occupation.
Because many program m ers are rela­
tively young, few openings will result
from death s o r retirem ents. H ow ­
ever, many vacancies will be created
as experienced workers transfer into
jobs as systems analysts.
The dem and for applications p ro ­
grammers will increase as many p ro ­
cesses once done by hand are auto­
m ated, but em ploym ent will not grow
as rapidly as in the past for several
reasons. Improved software, such as
utility program s that can be used by
other than data processing personnel
will simplify or eliminate some p ro ­
gramming tasks. Also, em ploym ent
of program m ers in d ata processing
firms is not expected to rise as fast as
in recent years. Technology has re ­
duced both the size and cost of com ­
puter hardw are, bringing a com puter
system within reach of small busi­
nesses. As m ore small firms install
their own com puter, rather than rely
on a data processing firm, em ploy­
m ent growth in these data processing
firms may slow somewhat. Demand
throughout the econom y, however,
should remain strong over the next
decade. Prospects should be bright­
est for college graduates who have
had com puter-related courses, p ar­
ticularly for those with a m ajor in
com puter science or a related field.
G raduates of 2-year program s in data
processing technologies also should
find am ple opportunities, although
generally limited to business applica­

ly e a rn m o re th a n a p p lic a tio n s
program m ers. For example, experi­
enced system s program m ers av er­
aged about $360 a week com pared to
$310 for applications program mers.
Average salaries for lead program ­
mers were $385 and $355, respec­
tively. In general, program m ers earn
about twice as much as average earn­
ings of all nonsupervisory workers in
private industry, except farming.
In the Federal Civil Service, the
entrance salary for persons with a
college degree was about $180 a
week in 1977. Salaries for Federal
Governm ent program m ers at all lev­
els are generally com parable to those
in private industry.
Program m ers working in the North
and W est earned som ewhat more
than those working in the South.
Those working for data processing
services and public utilities had
higher earnings than program m ers
employed in banks, advertising, or
educational institutions.
Programm ers work about 40 hours
a week, but their hours are not al­
ways from 9 to 5. Once or twice a
week a program m er may report early
or work late to use the com puter
when it is available. Occasionally,
they work on weekends or are tele­
phoned to advise com puter operators
working a second or third shift.

Sources of Additional
A d d itio n a l in fo rm a tio n a b o u t th e

occupation of program m er is avail­
able from:
American Federation of Information Process­
ing Societies, 210 Summit Ave., Montvale, N.J. 07645.
Association for Computing Machinery, 1133
Avenue of the Americas, New York, N.Y.

Earnings and Working


Average weekly earnings of p ro ­
gramm er trainees in private industry
ranged from $190 to $200 in 1976,
according to surveys conducted in
urban areas by the Bureau o f Labor
Statistics and firms engaged in re ­
search on data processing occupa­
tions. Systems program m ers general­

(D.O.T. 003.187, 012.168, 020.081
and 020.088)

Nature of the Work
Many essential business functions
and scientific research projects de­
pend on systems analysts to plan effi-



Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

System analysts devising a new system.

cient m ethods of processing data and
handling the results. Analysts begin
an assignment by discussing the data
processing problem with managers or
specialists to determ ine the exact na­
ture of the problem and to bre4akit
down into its com ponent p4artsJf a
new inventory system is desired, for
example, systems analysts m ust de­
term ine what new data need to be
collected, the equipm ent needed for
com putation, and the steps to be fol­
lowed in processing the information.
Analysts use various techniques,
such as co st accounting, sampling,
and m athem atical m odel building to
analyze a problem and devise a new
system. Once a system has been de­
veloped, they prepare charts and dia­
grams th at describe its operation in
term s th at m anagers o r custom ers
can understand. They also may p re­
pare a cost-benefit analysis to help
the client decide w hether the p ro ­
posed system is satisfactory.
If the system is accepted, systems
analysts translate the logical require­
ments o f the system into the capabili­
ties o f the com puter m achinery or
“ h a r d w a r e .” T h ey also p re p a re
specifications for p rogram m ers to
follow and work with them to “ de­
bug,” or elim inate errors from the
system. (The
 job o f the com puter

program m er is described elsewhere
in the Handbook.)
The problem s systems analysts
must solve range from monitoring
nuclear fission in a pow erplant to
forecasting sales for an appliance
m anufacturing firm. Because the
work is so varied and complex, ana­
lysts specialize in either business or
scientific and engineering applica­
Some analysts improve systems al­
ready in use by developing b etter
procedures or adapting the system to
handle additional types of data. O th­
ers do research, called advanced sys­
tems design, to devise new m ethods
of systems analysis.

Places of Employment
About 160,000 persons worked as
systems analysts in 1976. Em ploy­
m ent of these workers is concentrat­
ed in two geographic regions—m ore
than one-third o f the total are em ­
ployed in the M idw est and ab o u t
one-fourth work in the northeastern
portion o f the U nited States. M ost
system s analysts w orked in urban
areas for m anufacturing firms, banks,
insurance com panies, and data p ro ­
cessing service organizations. In ad ­
dition, large num bers w orked fo r
wholesale and retail businesses and
governm ent agencies.

There is no universally acceptable
way o f preparing for a job as a sys­
tem s an aly st b e c a u se em p lo y ee s’
p re fe re n c e s d ep e n d on tjie w ork
being done. However, college gradu­
ates generally are sought for these
jobs, and for some o f the m ore com ­
plex jobs, persons with graduate d e­
grees are preferred. Employers usu­
ally want analysts with a background
in accounting, business m anagem ent,
or econom ics for work in a business
environm ent while a background in
the physical sciences, m athem atics,
or engineering is preferred for work
in scientifically oriented organiza­
tions. A growing num ber o f em ploy­
ers seek applicants with a degree in
com puter science, inform ation sci­
ence, or data processing. Regardless
o f college m ajor, m ost em ployers
look for people who are familiar with
programming languages. Courses in
com puter concepts, systems analysis,
and d ata retrieval techniques offer
good preparation for a job in this
P rior work experience is im por­
tant. Nearly half of all persons en ter­
ing this occupation have transferred
from o th er occupations, especially
fro m c o m p u te r p ro g ra m m e r. In
many industries, all systems analysts
begin as program m ers and are p ro­
m oted to analyst positions after gain­
ing experience.
Systems analysts m ust be able to
think logically and should like w ork­
ing with ideas. The ability to concen­
trate and pay close attention to de­
tails also is im portant. Although m ost
systems analysts work independently,
they som etim es work in team s on
large projects. They m ust be able to
com m unicate effectively with techni­
cal personnel such as program m ers
as well as with clients who have no
com puter background.
In order to advance, systems ana­
lysts m ust continue their technical
education. T echnological advances
come so rapidly in the com puter field
that continuous study is necessary to
keep o n e’s skills up to date. Training
usually takes the form of 1-and 2week courses offered by em ployers
and software vendors.



An indication of experience and
professional com petence is the C er­
tificate in D ata Processing (C D P).
This designation is conferred by the
Institute for C ertification of C om put­
er P ro fessio n als u p o n c a n d id a tes
who have com pleted 5 years’ experi­
ence and passed a five-part examina­
In large data processing d ep a rt­
ments, persons who begin as junior
systems analysts may be prom oted to
senior or lead systems analysts after
several years of experience. Systems
analysts who show leadership ability
also can advance to jobs as managers
of systems analysis or data processing
departm ents.

Employment Outlook
Employment o f systems analysts is
expected to grow faster than the av­
erage for all occupations through the
m id-1980’s as com puter usage ex­
p an d s, p artic u la rly in acco u n tin g
firms and organizations engaged in
research and developm ent. In addi­
tion to opportunities that will result
from growth, some openings will oc­
cur as systems analysts advance to
m anagerial positions or enter other
occupations. Because many of these
workers are relatively young, few po­
sitions will result from retirem ent or
The dem and for systems analysts is
expected to rise as com puter capa­
bilities are increased and com puters
are used to solve problem s in a larger
variety o f areas. Sophisticated ac­
counting system s, telecom m unica­
tions networks, and complex m athe­
m atical system s used in scientific
research are exam ples o f new ap­
proaches in problem -solving. Over
the next decade, we can expect sys­

tem s analysts to be harnessing the
com puter’s resources to solve prob­
lems we have not yet recognized. A d­
vances in technology that have dras­
tically reduced the size and cost of
com puter hardware will have differ­
ing effects on em ploym ent of systems
analysts. Em ploym ent in data p ro ­
cessing firms may not grow as rapidly
as in recent years as m ore small busi­
nesses install th eir own co m p u ter
rather than rely on a data processing
service. This will be offset, however,
by a rising dem and for analysts to
design system s especially for th e
small com puter and geared specifi­
cally for the problem s of small firms.
The outlook for graduates o f com ­
puter-related curriculum s should be
e x c ellen t. C ollege g ra d u ates who
have, had courses in com puter p ro ­
gramming, systems analysis, and o th ­
er data processing areas should also
find m any o p p o rtu n itie s. P ersons
without a college degree and college
graduates unfamiliar with data p ro ­
cessing may face com petition from
the large n u m b er o f ex p erien ced
workers seeking jobs as systems ana­

Earnings and Working
Earnings for beginning systems
analysts in private industry averaged
$250 a week in 1976, according to
surveys conducted in urban areas by
the Bureau of Labor Statistics and
private firms engaged in research on
com puter occupations. Experienced
workers earned from $340 to $380,
and lead systems analysts earned
from $385 to $400 weekly. Overall,
systems analysts earn well over twice

as much as the average for all nonsupervisory workers in private industry,
except farming.
In the Federal G overnm ent, the
entrance salary for recent college
graduates was about $180 a week in
1977. Salaries for systems analysts at
all levels of responsibility generally
are com parable to those in private
Systems analysts working in the
North and W est earned somewhat
more than those in the South and
generally their earnings were greater
in data processing service firms or in
heavy m anufacturing than in insur­
ance com panies or educational insti­
Systems analysts usually work
about 40 hours a w eek—the same as
other professional and office w ork­
ers. Unlike many com puter o p era­
tors, system s analysts are n o t as­
signed to evening o r night shifts.
O ccasionally, how ever, evening or
weekend work may be necessary to
com plete emergency projects.

Sources of Additional
Further inform ation about the oc­
cupation of systems analyst is avail­
able from:
American Federation of Information Process­
ing Societies, 210 Summit Ave., Montvale, N.J. 07645.
Association for Systems Management, 24587
Bagley Rd., Cleveland, Ohio 44138.

Inform ation about the C ertificate
in D ata Processing is available from:
The Institute for Certification of Computer
Professionals, 35 E. Wacker Dr., Suite
2828, Chicago, 11 . 60601.


Com mercial banks constitute one
of the fastest growing industries in
our economy. To keep pace with re­
quirem ents of the com m unity, they
offer a variety o f services: Checking,
savings, and cred it card accounts,
co m m erical and c o n su m er loans,
trust fund m anagem ent, and financial
Banks em ploy highly specialized
techniques and equipm ent in very
detailed work. C onsequently, m ost
employees gain experience and skill
th ro u g h o n -th e -jo b tra in in g . A l­
though banks usually seek college
graduates for officer trainee jobs,
many openings exist for high school
graduates in other bank positions.
Bank employees generally have good
opportunities for advancem ent. They
can qualify for b etter positions by
enrolling in programs offered by the
A m e ric a n B a n k e rs A s s o c ia tio n ,
A m erican Institute o f Banking, or
State banking associations, or by tak­
ing college courses in finance and

B ank e m p lo y e e s sh o u ld en jo y
working with num bers and be able to
p erfo rm d e ta ile d w ork. P erso n a l
qualifications such as honesty and
the ability to com m unicate with cus­
tom ers are im portant.
This section discusses three cate­
g o rie s o f b a n k in g o c c u p a tio n s :
Clerks, officers and m anagers, and

(D.O.T. 209.388, 210.388, 215.388
217.388, 219.388 and .488)

Nature of the Work
All organizations need clerks to
handle paperw ork. Because of the
specialized nature of banking, some
clerical duties in banks differ from
those o f other businesses. (S ecre­
ta rie s, ty p ists, re c e p tio n is ts , file
clerks, and o th e r clerical w orkers
whose jo b s are m uch the same in

Many employment opportunities are expected in
banking occupations
Average annual openings, 1976-85 (in thousands)
Bank clerks



Bank officers

Bank tellers
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics


Growth B


banks as in other businesses are dis­
cussed in greater detail elsewhere in
the Handbook.)
In a small bank, one clerk may do
several jobs, such as sorting checks,
totaling debit and credit slips, and
preparing monthly statem ents for de­
positors. In a large bank, however,
each clerk usually specializes and
frequently has a special job title, as
Many bank clerks use office m a­
chines unique to banking. C lerks
known as sorters (D.O.T. 219.388)
separate docum ents—checks, depos­
it slips, and other item s—into differ­
e n t g ro u p s an d ta b u la te ea c h
“ batch” so they may be charged to
the proper accounts. Often clerks use
canceling and adding m achines in
their work. Proof machine operators
(D .O .T . 2 1 7 .3 8 8 ) use e q u ip m en t
that sorts checks and deposit slips,
adds their am ounts, and records the
Bookkeeping workers are the larg­
est single group of bank clerks. Book­
keeping machine operators (D .O .T.
2 1 5 .3 8 8 ) m ay use c o n v e n tio n a l
bookkeeping m achines or electronic
posting m achines to record financial
transactions. In banks, these workers
are som etim es know n as a c co u n t
clerks, posting m achine operators, or
recording clerks. T he job titles of
bookkeepers (D.O.T. 210.388) som e­
times relate to the kinds of records
they k eep —for example, Christmas
club b o o k k e e p e r, d isco u n t b o o k ­
keeper, interest-accrual bookkeeper,
tru st b o o k k eep er, and com m odity
loan clerk. Thousands o f bookkeeping
a n d a c c o u n tin g c le r k s ( D .O .T .
219.488) also do routine typing, cal­
culating, and posting. Included in this
group are reconcilem ent clerks, who
process statem ents from other banks
to aid the auditing of accounts, and
trust investm ent clerks, who post the
daily investm ent transactions of bank
O ther clerical em ployees whose
duties and job titles are unique to
banking include country collection
clerks (D.O.T. 219.388), who sort
thousands of pieces o f mail daily and
determ ine which items m ust be held
at the main office and which should
be routed to branch banks for collec­
tion. Also em ployed are transit clerks
(D.O.T. 217.388), who sort checks



Clerks in large banks are usually assigned specialized duties.

and drafts on other banks, list and
total the am ounts involved, and pre­
pare docum ents to be mailed for col­
lectio n ; exchange clerks (D .O .T .
219.388), who service foreign depos­
it accounts and determ ine charges
for cashing or handling checks drawn
against such accounts; interest clerks
(D.O.T. 219.388), who keep records
on interest-bearing items that are due
to or from the bank; and mortgage
clerks (D .O .T. 209.388), who type
legal papers dealing with real estate
upon which money has been loaned,
and m aintain records relating to tax­
es and insurance on these properties.
Electronic data-processing has
created several new clerical occupa­
tions unique to banking. These in­
clude the electro n ic re ad er-so rter
operator who runs electronic check
sorting equipm ent; the check inscriber or encoder who operates machines
th at p rint inform ation in m agnetic
ink on checks and o ther docum ents
for m achine reading; and the control
clerk who keeps track o f the large
volume o f docum ents flowing in and
out o f the com puter division. O ther
occupations include card-tape con­
verter o p erator, coding clerk, con­
sole operator, data typist, data con­
v e rtin g m a c h in e o p e r a to r , d a ta
examination clerk, high speed printer
operator, tape librarian, teletype op­
erator, and
verifier operator.

Banks em ployed approxim ately
456,000 clerical workers in 1976;
almost one-fifth were bookkeepers;
one-fourth were stenographers, typ­
ists or secretaries; and almost onefifth were office m achine operators.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
High school graduation is consid­
ered adequate preparation for m ost
beginning c lerical jo b s in b anks.
C o u rses in b o o k k e e p in g , typ in g ,

business arithm etic, and office m a­
chine operation are desirable. Appli­
cants may be given brief tests to de­
term ine their ability to work rapidly
and accurately, and to com m unicate
effectively with others. They should
be able to work under close supervi­
sion as part o f a team.
Beginners often are hired as file
clerks, keypunch operators, transit
clerks, or clerk-typists. Some are
trained by the bank to operate var­
ious office machines. A few start as
A clerk in a routine job may be
prom oted to a clerical supervisory
position, to teller or credit analyst,
and eventually to senior supervisor.
A dvancem ent to a bank officer posi­
tion is a possibility for outstanding
clerks who have had college training
or have taken specialized courses in
banking. Additional education—p ar­
tic u la rly c o u rse s o ffe re d by th e
Am erican Institute of Banking—may
help w orkers advance. (See sta te ­
m ent on the banking industry for in­
form ation on the Institute’s educa­
t i o n a l p r o g r a m . ) In g e n e r a l ,
prom otion depends upon the w ork­
e r’s perform ance, qualifications, and
m otivation as well as the available

Employment Outlook
Em ployment of bank clerks is ex­
pected to grow faster than the aver-

Weekly salary ranges for clerical occupations in
banking, 1976

File clerk
Keypunch operator
Senior keypunch
Proof machine operator
Safe deposit clerk
General stenographer
Senior stenographer
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics







age for o th er occupations through
the m id-1980’s. In addition to oppor­
tunities stemming from em ploym ent
growth, many jobs will open up from
the need to replace the large num ber
of clerks who leave their jobs each
year. As a result, banking should
continue to be a good source of em ­
ploym ent opportunities for clerical
Jobs for clerks will arise as estab­
lished banks expand th eir services
and new banks and branches open.
Future em ploym ent growth will dif­
fer m arkedly among individual cleri­
cal occupations. Nearly all banks use
electronic equipm ent th at lessens de­
mand for workers such as check sort­
ers and bookkeeping m achine opera­
to rs . M o re o v e r, th e n e e d fo r
keypunch operators is declining as
banks shift from punched card- to
m agnetic tape-based com puter sys­
No evidence suggests, however,
that new technologies will displace
large num bers o f workers. Overall,
the b anking industry and em ploy­
m ent of clerks in the banking indus­
try are expected to grow. W orkers
whose duties are given to a m achine
most likely will be reassigned to new
jobs created by the change or to du­
ties related to new banking services.

(D.O.T. 186.118, .138, .168, and
.288; 161.118, 189.118 and .168)

Nature of the Work
Practically every bank has a pres­
ident who directs operations; one or
m ore vice presidents who act as gen­
eral m anagers or who are in charge
of bank departm ents such as trust o r
credit; and a com ptroller or cashier
who, unlike cashiers in stores and
other businesses, is an executive offi­
cer generally responsible for all bank
property. Large banks also may have
treasurers and other senior officers,
as well as junior officers, to supervise
the various sections within different
departm ents. Banks em ployed over
300,000 officers and m anagers in
Bank officers m ake decisions
within a fram ework o f policy set by
the board of directors and existing
laws and regulations. They m ust have
a broad knowledge o f business activi­
ties to relate to the operations o f
their departm ent. For example, loan
officers evaluate the credit and col­
lateral of individuals and businesses
applying for a loan. Similarly, trust

officers m ust understand each ac­
co u n t before they invest funds to
support families, send young people
to college, or pay retirem en t p en ­
sions. Besides supervising financial
services, officers advise individuals
and businesses and p a rtic ip a te in
com m unity projects.
Because banks offer many servic­
es, a wide choice of careers is avail­
able to workers who specialize.
Loan officers may handle install­
m ent, com m ercial, real estate, or ag­
ricultural loans. To evaluate loan ap­
plications properly, officers need to
be familiar with econom ics, produc­
tio n , d istrib u tio n , m erch an d isin g ,
and com m ercial law. Also, they need
to know business o p e ra tio n s and
should be able to analyze an indus­
try ’s financial statem ents.
Bank officers in trust m anagem ent
require knowledge o f financial plan­
ning and investm ent for investm ent
research and for estate and trust ad­
m inistration.
O perations officers plan, coordi­
nate, and control the work flow, up­
date systems, and strive for adminis­
trative efficiency. C areers in bank
o p erations include electronic d ata
processing m anager and other posi­
tions involving internal and custom er

Beginning salaries for clerical
workers depend upon the w orker’s
actual position and length o f experi­
ence, as well as the size and location
of the bank. For reference, an inex­
perienced typist usually earned be­
tween $95 and $120 a week in 1976.
The accom panying chart indicates
salary ranges for various clerical
occupations in banking in 1976. In
general, financial institutions have
paid clerical workers lower salaries
than have other industrial groups,
such as wholesale trade or m anufac­
turing. In 1973, clerical salaries in
banking ran below the average for all
in d u strie s; by 1976 th is re la tiv e
standing had not im proved.
See the statem ent on the banking
industry for additional inform ation.

A loan officer evaluates an individual’s credit rating before approving a loan.



A correspondent bank officer is
responsible for relations with other
banks; a branch m anager, for all
functions o f a branch office; and an
international officer, for advising
custom ers with financial dealings
abroad. A working knowledge of a
foreign country’s financial system,
trade relations, and econom ic condi­
tions is beneficial to those interested
in international banking.
O ther career fields for bank offi­
cers are auditing, econom ics, person­
nel adm inistration, public relations,
and operations research.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

banks th at have special training p ro ­
grams, prom otions may occur m ore
quickly. For a senior officer position,
however, an employee usually needs
many years o f experience.
A lthough experience, ability, and
leadership are em phasized for p ro ­
m otion, advancem ent may be accel­
erated by special study. The A m eri­
can B a n k e rs A sso c ia tio n (A B A )
offers courses, publications, and o th ­
er training aids to officers on every
phase of banking. The Am erican In­
stitute o f B anking, an arm o f the
ABA, has long filled the same educa­
tional need among bank support p er­
sonnel. (S ee the statem ent on the
banking industry elsew here in the
Handbook for m ore inform ation on
these and o th er training program s
sponsored by universities and local
bankers’ associations.)

Bank officer and m anagem ent po­
sitions generally are filled by m an­
agem ent trainees, and occasionally
by p ro m o tin g o u ts ta n d in g b an k
clerks or tellers. College graduation
usually is required for m anagem ent
Employment Outlook
trainees. A business adm inistration
Through the m id-1980’s, em ploy­
major in finance or a liberal arts cur­
riculum including accounting, eco­ m ent of bank officers is expected to
nom ics, com m ercial law, political increase faster than the average for
science, and statistics serves as excel­ all occupations. Rising costs due to
lent preparation for officer trainee expanded banking services and the
positions. In fact, a M aster of Busi­ increasing dependence on com puters
ness Adm inistration (M BA) in addi­ will require m ore officers to provide
tion to a social science b ach elo r’s sound m an ag e m en t and effective
degree com es closest to the “ ideal” quality control. O pportunities also
college education. However, banks will arise as ex p e rien ce d officers
do hire people with diverse back- leave th eir jobs. College graduates
gounds such as chem ical engineer­ who m eet the standards for m anage­
ing, nuclear physics, and forestry to m ent trainees should find good o p ­
m eet the needs o f com plex, high- portunities for entry positions.
tech n o lo g y in d u stries w ith w hich
they deal. Valuable experience may
be gained through sum m er employ­
Officer trainees at the bachelor’s
m ent programs.
A m anagem ent or officer trainee level generally earned between $800
may spend a year or two learning the and $900 a m onth in 1976. Those
various banking areas before choos­ with an M.A. or M.S. started at b e­
ing a perm anent position. This prac­ tween $ 1,000 and $ 1,200 a m onth. A
tice is common but not universal. A M aster o f Business A dm inistration,
bank may hire an applicant with spe­ however, appears to be worth m ore
cific skills for a position that is clear­ in salary terms: graduates with an
MBA were offered starting salaries of
ly defined at the outset.
Persons interested in becoming $1,300 to $1,400 a m onth in 1976.
Salaries o f senior bank officers
bank officers should like to work
in d ep en d en tly and to analyze d e­ may be several times as m uch as
tailed inform ation. They also need starting salaries. The actual salary
tact and good judgm ent to counsel level depends upon the particular
custom ers and supervise employees. position and the size and location o f
A dvancem ent to an officer or the bank. For officers, as well as for
m anagem ent position may come other bank employees, earnings are
slowly in small banks where the num ­ likely to be lower in small towns than
Digitized for of positions is limited. In large
in big cities.

See the statem ent on the banking
industry elsewhere in the Handbook
for additional inform ation on bank­
ing occupations.

(D.O.T. 212.368)

Nature of the Work
Most bank custom ers have contact
with the teller, the man or woman
behind the window who cashes
checks and processes deposits or
withdrawals. Many banks employ
one or two “ all-purpose” tellers;
larger banks employ tellers in m ore
specialized functions. One teller, for
example, sells saving bonds; another
accepts paym ent for custom ers’ util­
ity bills. A third receives deposits for
C h ristm a s clu b a c c o u n ts ; and a
fourth keeps records and perform s
the necessary paperw ork for custom ­
er loans. Still other tellers handle f o r ­
e ig n c u r r e n c ie s , s e ll t r a v e l e r s ’
checks, or com pute interest on sav­
ings accounts.
Com mercial tellers, the m ost com ­
m on, cash cu sto m ers’ checks and
h an d le d ep o sits and w ith d raw als
from checking and savings accounts.
Before cashing a check, the teller
must see that the written and num eri­
cal am ounts agree, verify the identity
o f the person to receive paym ent,
and be certain that the payee’s ac­
count has sufficient funds to cover
the check. The teller m ust carefully
count out the cash to avoid errors.
Often a custom er withdraws money
in th e form o f a c a sh ie r’s ch eck ,
which the teller types up and verifies.
W hen accepting a deposit, the teller
checks the accuracy o f the deposit
slip and enters the total in a passbook
or on a deposit receipt. Tellers may
use m achines to m ake change and
total deposits. In some banks, tellers
use com puter term inals to record de­
p o sits an d w ith d ra w a ls In o th e r
banks, they w rite deposit receipts
and passbook entries by hand.
Tellers’ duties begin before and
continue after banking hours. A
teller begins the day by receiving and
counting an am ount o f working cash


for his or her drawer; this am ount is
verified by a supervisor, usually the
head teller. The tellers use this cash
for paym ents during the day and are
responsible for its safe and accurate
handling. After banking hours, tellers
count cash on hand, list the curren­
cy-received tickets on a settlem ent
sh eet, and b alan ce th e d ay 's a c ­
counts. They also sort checks and
deposit slips. Paying and receiving
tellers may supervise one clerk or
more. A teller generally works 37 to
40 hours per week.
For many young people just out of
school, working as a teller is their
first job. Because the job involves
repetitive work with great attention
to detail and long periods o f time on
one’s feet, this occupation does not
suit some people. The high rate of
turnover suggests that, after a couple
of years’ work, many tellers seek
other positions.
A bout 310,000 tellers were em ­
ployed in 1976. A large n u m b er
worked p art time.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
In hiring tellers, banks seek people
with basic qualities: clerical skills,
friendliness, attentiveness. Although
not required, a high school diploma
is generally preferred. M aturity,
neatness, tact, and courtesy are im­
portant because custom ers deal with
tellers far m ore frequently than with
other bank employees. Although tell­
ers work independently, their record­
keeping is closely supervised. They
work with detail and are confined to
a small work area.
New tellers usually observe experi­
enced workers for a few days before
doing the work themselves. Training
may last from a few days to 3 weeks
or longer. Beginners usually start as
com m ercial tellers; in large banks
which have a separate savings teller’s
“ cage,” they may start as savings tell­
ers. Often banks simultaneously train
tellers for other clerical duties.
T h e c o n d itio n s g o v e rn in g a d ­
vancem ent of tellers are m uch the
same as those for clerks. The teller
interested in prom otion has access to
 o ther sources of addi­
courses and

tional training. Such self-im prove­
m ent efforts, coupled with satisfac­
tory perform ance on the job, would
make a teller an attractive candidate
for prom otion. After gaining experi­
ence, a teller in a large bank may
advance to head teller; those who
have had some college or specialized
training offered by the banking in­
dustry may be prom oted to an offi­
cer’s or m anagerial position. (See the
statem ent on the banking industry
for inform ation about the education­
al program s of the Am erican Insti­
tute of Banking.)

Employment Outlook
The num ber of bank tellers is ex­
pected to increase faster than the av­
erage for all occupations through the
m id-1980’s as banks expand services.
T housands o f openings will o ccur
each year as a result o f em ploym ent
growth and the need to replace tell­
ers who retire, die, or stop working
for other reasons. The relatively high
replacem ent needs in this occupation
are e x p e cted to be an im p o rta n t
source o f job opportunities. Q uali­

fied applicants should find good em ­
ploym ent prospects.
A lthough in cre ased use o f m e­
chanical and electronic equipm ent
may elim inate some routine duties
and speed other work, total em ploy­
m ent is not likely to be adversely af­

Most beginning tellers earned be­
tween $95 and $120 a week in 1976.
Experienced tellers generally earned
between $125 and $175 a week. The
a c tu a l sa la ry d e p e n d s u p o n th e
length o f service, the location and
size of the bank, and the w orker’s
specific duties. Most savings tellers,
for exam ple, earned between $125
and $145 a week in 1976, while note
tellers usually earned between $150
and $170 a week. In general, the
greater the range of responsibilities
the teller perform s, the higher his or
her salary.
See the statem ent on the banking
industry elsewhere in the Handbook
for additional inform ation on this
and other banking occupations.

An increasing number of tellers will be needed to work part time.

Insurance protection is an integral
part of our lives. It frees policyhold­
ers and their beneficiaries from wor­
ry about the enormous financial bur­
dens th a t so m etim es re su lt from
death, illness, or other losses. Busi­
nesses could not operate, nor could
most people buy hom es or other m a­
jor items, without the assurance of
protection from sudden disaster. In­
surance w orkers ad ap t policies to
m eet changing needs, decide which
applications can be accepted and es­
tablish premium rates on the policies,
and investigate and settle claims.
A college degree is increasingly
im p o rta n t for m an agerial, p ro fes­
sional, and sales jobs in insurance,
although some positions are open to
high school graduates who have ap­
p ro p r ia te e x p e rie n c e . In su ra n c e
workers in clerical positions need a
high school diploma. Regardless of
th eir p revious train in g , insurance
workers m ust continually learn while
on the job. Many professional associ­
ations sponsor courses in all phases
of insurance work; em ployees are en­
couraged to participate to prepare
th em selv es fo r m o re re sp o n sib le
This section describes three insur­
ance occupations: actuaries, claim
rep resen ta tiv e s, and underw riters.
(Statem ents on the insurance indus­
try and insurance agents and brokers
are included elsewhere in the Hand­
book. )

pension plans that can be m aintained
on a sound fin an cial basis. T hey
assemble and analyze statistics to cal­
culate probabilities o f death, sick­
ness, injury, disability, unem ploy­
m ent, retirem ent, and property loss
from accident, theft, fire, and other
potential hazards. Actuaries use this
inform ation to determ ine the expect­
ed insured loss. For example, they
may c a lc u late how m any persons
who are 21 years old today can be
expected to live to age 65—the prob­
ability th at an insured person might
die during this period is a risk to the
co m p an y . T hey th e n c a lc u la te a
price for assuming this risk that will
be profitable to the com pany yet be
co m p etitiv e w ith o th e r in su ran ce
companies. Finally, they must m ake
sure that the price charged for the
insurance will enable the company to
pay all claims and expenses as they
occur. In the same m anner, the actu­
ary calculates premium rates and d e­
term ines policy co n tract provisions
for each type of insurance offered.
M ost actuaries specialize in either
life and health insurance or property
and liability (casualty) insurance; a

growing num ber specialize in p en­
sion plans.
To perform their duties effectively,
actuaries must keep inform ed about
general econom ic and social trends,
and legislative, health, and other de­
velopm ents that may affect insurance
p ra ctices. B ecause o f th e ir broad
know ledge o f insurance, com pany
actuaries may work on problems aris­
ing in th eir com pany’s investm ent,
group underwriting, or pension plan­
ning departm ents. A ctuaries in ex­
ecutive positions help determ ine gen­
eral com pany policy. In th at role,
they may be called upon to explain
complex technical m atters to com pa­
ny executives, governm ent officials,
policyholders, and the public. They
may testify before public agencies on
proposed legislation affecting the in­
surance business, for example, or ex­
plain intended changes in premium
rates or contract provisions.
A ctuaries who work for the F eder­
al G overnm ent usually deal with a
particular insurance or pension p ro­
gram, such as social security or life
insurance for veterans and mem bers
o f the A rm ed Forces. Actuaries in
State governm ent positions regulate
insurance com panies, supervise the
o p eratio n s o f S tate re tire m en t or
pension systems, and work on prob­
lems connected with unem ploym ent
insurance or w orkers’ com pensation.
Consulting actuaries set up pension
and welfare plans for private com pa-

(D.O.T. 020.188)

Nature of the Work
Why do young persons pay more
for autom obile insurance than older
persons? How much should an insur­
ance policy cost? Answers to these
and similar questions are provided by
actuaries who design insurance and




nies, unions, and governm ent agen­
cies. They calculate future benefits
and determ ine the am ount of the an­
nual employer contribution. A ctuar­
ies w ho a re e n ro lle d u n d e r th e
provisions of the Employee R etire­
ment Income Security Act of 1974
(E R IS A ) e v a lu a te th e se p en sio n
plans and subm it reports certifying
their financial soundness.

Places of Employment
A p p ro x im a te ly 9 ,0 0 0 p e rs o n s
worked as actuaries in 1976. Four of
every 10 actuaries worked in five m a­
jor cities—New Y ork, H artford, C hi­
cago, Philadelphia, and Boston.
About two-thirds of all actuaries
worked for private insurance com pa­
nies. A lm ost 90 p e rc e n t of these
worked for life insurance companies;
the rest worked for property and li­
ability (c asu alty ) co m panies. The
num ber of actuaries employed by an
insurance com pany depends on the
volume of its business and the num ­
ber and types of insurance policies it
offers. Large com panies may employ
over 100 actuaries on their staffs;
others, generally sm aller com panies,
may rely instead on consulting firms
or rating bureaus (associations that
supply a c tu a ria l d a ta to m em ber
com panies).
C onsulting firm s and rating bu­
reaus employ about one-fifth of all
actuaries. O ther actuaries work for
private organizations adm inistering
in d e p e n d e n t p ension and w elfare
plans or for Federal and State gov­
ern m en t agencies. A few teach in
colleges and universities.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A good educational background
for a beginning job in a large life or
casualty com pany is a bachelor’s d e­
gree with a major in m athem atics or
statistics; a degree in actuarial sci­
ence is even better. Some com panies
hire applicants with a m ajor in engi­
neering, econom ics, or business ad­
m inistration, provided they dem on­
s tra te a th o ro u g h fo u n d a tio n in
calculus, probability, and statistics
(2 0 -2 5 h o u r s ) . O th e r d e s ira b le
courses are insurance law, econom ­
ics, and accounting. Although only
25 colleges and universities offer a
degree in actuarial science, several

hundred schools offer a degree in
m athem atics or statistics.
A strong background in m athem at­
ics is essential for persons interested
in a career as an actuary. O f equal
im portance, however, is the need to
pass while in school one or more of
the examinations offered by profes­
sional societies. Three societies spon­
sor program s leading to full profes­
sional status in their speciality. The
Society of Actuaries gives 9 actuarial
examinations for the life and health
in su ra n c e and p en sio n field, th e
Casualty A ctuarial Society gives 10
examinations for the property and li­
ability field, and the Am erican Soci­
ety of Pension Actuaries gives nine
exam inations covering the pension
field. Because the first parts of the
exam ination series o f each society
cover sim ilar m a te ria ls, stu d e n ts
need not com m it themselves to a ca­
reer specialty until they have taken
about four examinations. Success in
passing the first few exam inations
helps students evaluate their poten­
tial as actu aries. T hose who pass
these examinations usually have b et­
ter o p p o rtu n itie s for em ploym ent
and receive a higher starting salary.
Actuaries are encouraged to com ­
plete an entire series o f examinations
as soon as possible. It generally takes
from 5 to 10 years to com plete the
series required for full professional
status. Examinations are given twice
each year. Extensive home study is
required in o rd e r to pass the a d ­
vanced examinations; many actuaries
spend as m uch as 20-25 hours a week
studying. A ctuaries who com plete
five exam inations in either the life
insurance series or the pension series
or seven examinations in the casualty
series are awarded “ associate” m em ­
bership in their respective society.
Those who have passed an entire se­
ries receive full m em bership and the
title “ fellow.”
Consulting pension actuaries who
service private pension plans and
certify th eir solvency m ust be e n ­
rolled by the Joint Board for the E n­
rollment o f Actuaries. Applicants for
enrollm ent must m eet certain experi­
ence and education requirem ents as
stipulated by the Joint Board.
Beginning actuaries often rotate
among different jobs to learn various
actuarial operations and to becom e

familiar with different phases of in­
surance work. At first, their work
may be rather routine, such as p re­
paring calculations or tabulations for
actuarial tables or reports. As they
gain experience, they may supervise
actuarial clerks, prepare correspon­
dence and reports, and do research.
Advancem ent to m ore responsible
work as assistant, associate, and chief
actuary depends largely on job p er­
form ance and the num ber of actuar­
ial examinations passed. Many actu ­
a rie s , b e c a u s e o f th e ir b ro a d
knowledge of insurance and related
fields, are selected for administrative
positions in other com pany activities,
p a rtic u la rly in u n d e rw ritin g , a c ­
counting, or data processing dep art­
m ents. Many actuaries advance to
top executive positions.

Employment Outlook
E m ploym ent of actu aries is ex­
pected to rise faster than the average
for all occupations through the mid1980’s. In addition to job openings
resulting from this growth, several
hundred actu aries will be need ed
each year to replace those who re­
tire, die, or transfer to other occupa­
tions. Job opportunities will be best
for new college graduates who have
passed at least two actuarial exami­
nations while still in school and have
a strong m athem atical and statistical
background. H ow ever, because o f
the large num ber of persons expect­
ed to receive degrees in actuarial sci­
en ce, m athem atics, and statistics,
and the large num ber of students tak ­
ing actuarial examinations, com peti­
tion for beginning jobs should remain
Employment in this occupation is
influenced to a great extent by the
volume of insurance sales, which will
continue to grow over the next d ec­
ade. Shifts in the age distribution of
th e p o p u la tio n th ro u g h th e m id1980’s will result in many more p eo ­
ple with established careers and fam ­
ily responsibilities. This is the group
that traditionally has accounted for
the bulk of private insurance sales.
Increased sales, however, are only
one determ inant of the dem and for
actuaries. In addition, changes in ex­
isting insurance practices are creat­
ing a need for more actuarial servic­
es. As m ore and m o re in su ran ce


co m p an ies b ran ch o u t into m ore
than one kind of insurance coverage,
a greater num ber of actuaries will be
needed to establish the rates for the
variety of insurance offered. Growth
in sales of relatively new forms of
protection, such as dental, prepaid
legal, and kidnap insurance will cre­
ate additional dem and for actuaries.
As more States pass competitive rat­
ing laws, many com panies that previ­
ously relied o r rating bureaus for ac­
tu a ria l d a ta can be e x p e c te d to
expand existing a c tu a ria l d e p a rt­
ments or create new ones.
R ecent court decisions concerning
product liability have focused much
attention on this complex area. In the
years ahead, actuaries will be spend­
ing a lot o f time developing better
ways to provide p ro d u c t liability,
m edical m alpractice, and w orkers’
com pensation insurance protection.
Adoption of a “ no-fault” autom o­
bile insurance plan requires com pa­
nies writing autom obile insurance to
reevaluate their pricing structures in
light of no-fault requirem ents. It is
uncertain whether Federal no-fault
legislation will be enacted soon; how­
ever, the growing num ber of States
enacting no-fault plans or revising
existing ones in d icates co n tin u ed
strong dem and for actuaries to make
the required analyses.
ERISA has imposed strict respon­
sibilities on actuaries for the opera­
tion and funding of pension plans. As
the num ber of pension plans contin­
ues to grow, there will be an increas­
ing need for pension specialists to
develop adequately financed plans
and to prepare the reports that certi­
fy their solvency.

Earnings and Working
In 1976, actuaries had average
salaries more than twice as high as
the average for all nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
farming. New college graduates en­
tering the life insurance field without
having passed any actuarial exams
averaged $10,600 in 1976, according
to a survey of U.S. com panies by the
Life Office M anagem ent Association
(LOM A). Applicants who had suc­
cessfully com pleted the first exam re­
ceived $11,200 and those who had
exams averaged $11,800.
passed two


In the Federal G overnm ent, new
graduates with the bachelor’s degree
could start at $9,300 a year in 1977.
Applicants with either 1 year of
graduate study or relevant work ex­
perience were hired at $11,500, and
those with the m aster’s degree or 2
years’ experience started at $14,100
a year. A ctuaries in the Federal Gov­
ernm ent averaged $25,100 a year in
Beginning actuaries can look for­
ward to a m arked increase in earn­
ings as they gain professional experi­
ence and advance in an actuarial
society’s examination program. Life
in su ran ce com panies usually give
m erit increases averaging from $500
to $850 to their actuaries as they pass
each successive examination leading
to mem bership in the Society of A c­
tuaries. Associates who received that
d e s i g n a t i o n in 1 9 7 6 a v e r a g e d
$16,500 a year; salaries for actuaries
who were awarded a full fellowship
during that year averaged $24,800.
Fellows with additional years of ex­
perience earned substantially m ore—
top a c tu a rial executives averaged
about $43,000 in 1976.
Although data are not available for
salaries paid actuaries in casualty
com panies or consulting firms, it is
believed that salaries for these spe­
cialists generally are com parable to
those paid by life insurance com pa­

Sources of Additional
For facts about actuarial opportu­
nities and qualifications, contact:
American Society of Pension Actuaries, 1700
K St., NW„ Washington, D.C. 20006.
Casualty Actuarial Society, 200 East 42nd St.,
New York, N.Y. 10017.
Society of Actuaries, 208 South LaSalle St.,
Chicago, 111. 60604.

(D.O.T. 168.288, 241.168, and

Nature of the Work
Fast and fair settlem ent of all
claims is essential to any insurance

company if it is to m eet its com m it­
ments to policyholders and also pro­
tect its own financial well-being. The
people who investigate claims, nego­
tiate settlem ent with policyholders,
and authorize paym ent are known as
claim representatives—a group that
includes claim adjusters and claim
When a property-liability (casual­
ty) insurance com pany receives a
claim, the claim adjuster determ ines
whether the policy covers it and the
am ount of the loss. Adjusters use re­
ports, physical evidence, and testi­
mony of witnesses in investigating a
claim. When their com pany is liable,
they negotiate with the claim ant and
settle the case.
Adjusters must make sure that set­
tlements are in line with the real ex­
tent of the loss. They must protect
their company from false or inflated
claims but, at the same time, settle
valid claim s fairly and prom ptly.
Some adjusters are allowed to issue
ch ecks on com pany funds; m ost,
how ever, subm it th eir findings to
claim examiners who review them to
insure that proper procedures have
been follow ed and then authorize
Some adjusters work with all lines
of insurance. Others specialize in
claims from property damage by fire,
marine loss, autom obile damage,
w orkers’ com pensation loss, or prod­
uct liability. Several States have “ no­
fa u lt” autom obile insurance plans
that relieve the adjuster from d eter­
mining responsibility for a loss. A d­
justers in these States still must de­
cide the am ount of loss, however. A
growing num ber of casualty com pa­
nies employ special claims people to
settle small claims, usually minor au­
to m o b ile o r h o m eo w n e r dam age
claims. These claim workers, gener­
ally called “ inside a d ju s te rs ” or
“ te le p h o n e a d j u s t e r s ,” c o n ta c t
claimants by telephone or mail and
have the policyholder send repair
costs, medical bills, and other state­
m ents to the company. Many com pa­
nies centralize this operation in a
drive-in claims center where the cost
of repair is determ ined and a check is
issued on the spot.



phia, where most home offices are
Adjusters may travel to almost any
area of the United States, since
claims must be settled locally. O cca­
sionally, an ex p e rien ce d ad ju ster
may travel to the scene of a disaster,
such as a hurricane or a riot, to work
with local personnel. Some cases re­
sult in trav el o u tsid e the U n ited

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Claims adjuster gathering evidence in investigating a claim.

Adjusters work away from the of­
fice most of the time. They may be
called to the site of an accident or to
the location of a fire or burglary. A d­
justers m ake their own schedules of
the activities needed to dispose of a
claim properly. They also keep writ­
ten or taped records of information
obtained from witnesses and other
sources and prepare reports of their
In life insurance com panies, the
counterpart of the claim adjuster is
the claim examiner, who investigates
the details surrounding questionable
claims or those exceeding a specified
amount. They may check claim ap­
plications for com pleteness and ac­
curacy, interview medical specialists,
consult policy files to verify inform a­
tion on a claim, or calculate benefit
payments. Generally, examiners are
au th o rized to investigate and a p ­
prove paym ent on all claims up to a
certain limit; larger claims are re ­
ferred to a senior examiner.
Examiners checking incorrect or
questionable claims may correspond
with investigating com panies, field
managers, agents, or the family of the
insured. Claim examiners occasional­
ly travel to obtain inform ation by
personal interview, or contact State
insurance departm ents and other in­
surance com panies. In addition to
verifying claims and approving pay­
ment, examiners also m aintain rec­

ords o f settled claims and prepare

reports to be subm itted to their com ­
pany’s d ata processing departm ent.
Some experienced exam iners serve
on com m ittees, conduct surveys of
claim practices within their com pa­
ny, and help devise m ore efficient
ways to process claims. They, like
claim adjusters, sometimes testify in
court on contested claims.

Places of Employment
About 155,000 persons worked as
claim representatives in 1976.
The majority of claim adjusters
worked for insurance com panies that
sell property and liability coverage.
Some were em ployed by in depen­
dent adjusting firms th at co n tra ct
their services for a fee. These in­
dependent firms range from national
com panies em ploying hundreds of
adjusting specialists to small 3- or 4person local operations. A relatively
small num ber of adjusters represent
the insured rather than the insurance
com pany. These “ public adjusters”
usually are retained by banks, finan­
cial organizations, and other business
firms to handle fire and other losses
to property. They negotiate claims
against in su ran c e co m p an ies and
deal with adjusters for such com pa­
Most claim examiners worked for
life insurance com panies in large
cities such as New York, San F ran­
cisco, Chicago, Dallas, and Philadel­

Although a growing num ber of in­
surance com panies prefer claim rep ­
resentatives to have a college degree,
m any h ire th o se w ith o u t co lleg e
training, particularly if they have spe­
cialized experience. For exam ple,
persons experienced in autom obile
repair work may qualify as auto ad­
justers, and those with clerical work
experience might be hired as inside
No specific field of college study is
recom m ended. Although courses in
insurance, economics, or other busi­
ness subjects are helpful, a m ajor in
almost any college field is adequate
preparation. An adjuster who has a
business or accounting background
might specialize in loss from business
interruption or damage to m erchan­
dise. Those with college training in
engineering will find their education
helpful in adjusting industrial claims.
A legal background is most helpful to
those handling w orkers’ com pensa­
tion and product liability cases.
Most large insurance com panies
provide beginning claim adjusters
and examiners on-the-job training
and home study courses. Claim rep ­
resentatives are encouraged to take
courses designed to enhance their
professional skills. For example, the
Insurance Institute of Am erica offers
a six-semester study program leading
to an associate degree in claims ad­
justing upon successful com pletion
of six exam inations. A djusters can
prepare for these exam inations by in­
dep en d en t hom e study or through
com pany or public classes. A profes­
sional C ertificate in Insurance A d­
justing also is available from the C ol­
lege of Insurance in New York City.
The Life Office M anagem ent As­
sociation (L O M A ) in cooperatio n
with the International Claim Associ­



ation offers a claims education pro­
gram for life and health examiners.
The program is part o f the LOMA
Institute Insurance E ducation P ro­
gram leading to the professional des­
ignation, FLMI (Fellow, Life M an­
agem ent Institute) upon successful
com pletion of eight written examina­
About three-fourths of the States
require adjusters to be licensed. De­
spite wide variation in State licensing
re q u ire m e n ts , a p p lic a n ts usually
must comply with one or more of the
following: Pass a written examination
covering the fundamentals of adjust­
ing; furnish character references; be
20 or 21 years of age and a resident
of the State; offer proof that they
have com pleted an approved course
in insurance or loss adjusting; and file
a surety bond.
Because they often work closely
with claim ants, witnesses, and other
insurance professionals, representa­
tives must be able to adapt to many
d iffe re n t p erso n s an d situ atio n s.
They should be able to com m unicate
effectively and gain the respect and
cooperation of people from different
backgrounds. For example, when ad­
ju sters’ evaluations of claims differ
from those of the persons who have
suffered the loss, they should be able
to explain their conclusions tactfully.
Examiners need to be familiar with
medical and legal term s and practic­
es and Federal and State insurance
laws and regulations. Because they
may have to check prem ium pay­
ments, policy values, and other nu­
merical items in processing a claim,
examiners should be adept at making
m athem atical calculations. Both ad­
justers and examiners should have a
good m em ory and enjoy w orking
with details.
Beginning adjusters and examiners
work on small claims under the su­
pervision of an experienced worker.
As they learn more about claim in­
vestigation and settlem ent, they are
assigned claims that are higher in loss
value and m ore difficult. Trainees
are prom oted as they dem onstrate
com petence in handling assignments
and progress in the courses they take.
Because of the complexity of insur­
ance regulations and claims proce­
dures, workers who lack formal aca­

dem ic training may advance m ore

slowly th an those w ith 2 years o r
m ore o f college. E m ployees who
show unusual com petence in claims
work or outstanding adm inistrative
skills may be prom oted to d ep a rt­
m ent supervisor in a field office or to
a m anagerial position in the hom e
office. Qualified adjusters and exam ­
iners som etimes transfer to other d e­
partm ents, such as underwriting or

Employment Outlook
Em ploym ent of claim representa­
tives is expected to grow about as fast
as the average for all occupations
through the m id-1980’s as the num ­
ber of insurance claims continues to
increase. In addition to jobs created
by growth of the occupation, many
others will result from the need to
replace workers who die, retire, or
transfer to other jobs.
Several factors point to a growing
volume of insurance and a resulting
need for claim adjusters. Over the
next decade a steadily rising num ber
of workers will be entering their m ost
productive years. These workers and
their families are likely to seek insur­
ance p ro te c tio n as they pu rch ase
homes, autom obiles, and other con­
sum er durables. New or expanding
businesses will need protection for
new plants and equipm ent and for
insurance covering their em ployees’
health and safety. As m ore people
live and work in densely populated
areas, the increased risk of autom o­
bile accident, fire, or theft should re­
sult in a greater num ber of claims.
As ways of doing business continue
to change, the dem and for certain
kinds of claim adjusters will be stron­
ger than for others. For example, the
growing trend toward drive-in claim
centers and claim handling by tele­
phone should reduce the dem and for
autom obile adjusters while it stim u­
lates dem and for inside adjusters. In­
dependent adjusters who specialize
in autom obile damage claims should
continue to suffer some loss of busi­
ness. Prospects should be very good,
however, for adjusters who specialize
in highly complex types of business
in su ra n c e such as m arin e carg o ,
w orkers’ com pensation, and product
A similar situation exists for claim
examiners. Em ploym ent of exam in­

ers in casualty com panies should rise
about as fast as for adjusters; how­
ever, m uch slower growth is expect­
ed for life insurance examiners as in­
creased use o f co m puters enables
them to process more claims, espe­
cially routine ones and those th at
arise under group policies.

Earnings and Working
According to a recent survey of
property and liability com panies,
claim adjusters averaged about
$13,000 a year in 1976; inside adjust­
ers earned average salaries o f about
$9,900. M ost public adjusters are
paid a percentage o f the am ount of
the se ttle m e n t—generally 10 p e r­
cent. Adjusters are furnished a com ­
pany car or are reim bursed for use of
their own vehicles for business p ur­
poses. Salaries of claim adjusters are
about one and one-half times the av­
erage earnings for all nonsupervisory
w orkers in private industry, except
farming; salaries of inside adjusters
are slightly above the average for all
nonsupervisory work
A survey of life insurance com pa­
nies by the Life Office M anagem ent
Association revealed that claim ex­
am iners earned average salaries of
$13,300 a year in 1976. According to
the survey of property and liability
com panies, casualty claim examiners
averaged $15,280. Claim supervisors
in casualty com panies and life com ­
pan ies averaged $ 1 7 ,3 0 0 a year.
Claim examiners earn m ore than 1
1/2 times the average for all nonsu­
pervisory workers in private industry,
except farming.
Claim adjusting is not a desk job. It
requires that a person be physically
fit because much of the day may be
spent in traveling from one place to
another, walking about outdoors,
and climbing stairs. Adjusters may
have to work evenings or weekends
in order to interview witnesses and
claimants when they are available.
Since m ost com panies provide 24h o u r claim serv ice to th e ir p o l­
icyholders, som e ad ju sters always
must be on call. (See the statem ent
on the Insurance Industry for addi­
tional inform ation on working condi­
tions and employee benefits.)
Claim examiners have desk jobs
that require no unusual physical ac­



tivity. Although the average w ork­
week for examiners is 35 to 40 hours,
they may work longer at tim es of
peak claim loads or when quarterly
and annual statem ents are prepared.
They also may need to travel occa­

Sources of Additional
G eneral inform ation about a ca­
reer as a claim exam iner or adjuster
is available from the hom e offices of
many life and property and liability
insurance com panies.
In fo rm atio n ab o u t licensing re ­
quirem ents for claim adjusters may
be obtained from the departm ent of
insurance in each State.
Inform ation about career opportu­
nities in these occupations also may
be obtained from:
Insurance Information Institute, 110 William
St., New York, N.Y. 10038.
American Mutual Insurance Alliance, 20 N.
Wacker Dr., Chicago, 111. 60606.
The National Association of Independent In­
surers, Public Relations Department,
2600 River Rd., Des Plaines, 111. 60018.

For inform ation about public in­
surance adjusting, contact:
National Association of Public Adjusters,
1613 Munsey Building, Baltimore, Md.
21202 .

C areer inform ation on life insur­
ance claim exam ining is available
American Council of Life Insurance, 1850 K
St., NW., Washington, D.C. 20006.

(D.O.T. 169.188)

Nature of the Work
Insurance com panies assume mil­
lions of dollars in risks each year by
transferring chance o f loss from their
policyholders to themselves. U nder­
writers appraise and select the risks
their com pany will insure. (The term
underwriter sometimes is used in re­
ferring to insurance agents; see the
statem ent on insurance agents and
brokers elsewhere in the Handbook

for a discussion o f th at occupation.)

Underwriters analyze information pre­
sented on policy applications.

Underwriters decide w hether their
companies will accept risks after ana­
lyzing inform ation in insurance appli­
cations, re p o rts from loss co n tro l
consultants, medical reports, and ac­
tuarial studies (reports that describe
the probability of insured loss). Some
routine applications that require very
little independent judgm ent are han­
dled by com puters. Generally, how­
ever, underwriters use considerable
personal judgm ent in making deci­
sions. B ecause these decisions are
seldom reviewed at a higher level,
underwriters have great responsibil­
ity. Their com panies may lose busi­
ness to com petitors if they appraise
risks too conservatively or may have
to pay m any future claims if their
underwriting actions are too liberal.
When deciding that a policy is an
acceptable risk, an underw riter may
outline the term s of the contract, in­
cluding the am ount of the premium.
Underwriters frequently correspond
with policyholders, agents, and m an­
agers about policy cancellations or
requests for inform ation. In addition,
they som etim es accom pany salespeo­
ple on appointm ents with prospec­
tive custom ers.
Most underw riters specialize in
one of three m ajor categories of in­
surance: life, property and liability,

or health. They further specialize in
group o r individual policies. T he
p ro p erty and liability u n d erw riter
specializes by type of risk insured,
such as fire, autom obile, m arine, or
w orkers’ com pensation. Some under­
writers, called com m ercial account
underwriters, handle business insur­
ance exclusively. They often m ust
evaluate a firm ’s entire operation in
appraising its insurance application.
There is a growing trend in casualty
com panies toward “ package” under­
writing, where various types o f risks
are insured under a single policy. In
such a situ atio n , th e u n d e rw rite r
would have to be familiar with sever­
al different lines of insurance rather
than specializing in a single line.
An increasing proportion of total
insurance sales is being made
through group contracts. A standard
group insurance policy insures all
persons in a specified group through
a single contract at uniform premium
rates; this type of group policy gener­
ally provides life or health insurance
protection. The group underw riter
analyzes the overall com position of
the group to be sure that total risk is
not excessive. A different type of
group policy finding increasing ac­
ceptance is the policy that provides
the m em bers of a g ro u p —a labor
union, for example—with individual
policies geared to their own circum ­
stances. These policies generally are
in the casualty field, covering au to ­
mobiles, pleasure boats, and homes.
The casualty u nderw riter analyzes
the application of each group m em ­
ber and makes individual appraisals.
Som e g ro u p u n d e rw rite rs a tte n d
m eetings with union o r em plo y er
representatives to discuss the types
of policies available to their groups.

Places of Employment
An estim ated 25,000 persons
worked as insurance underw riters in
1976. Over three-fourths were p ro p ­
erty and liability underw riters w ork­
ing in re g io n a l o r hom e o ffic es
throughout the United States; m ost
life in su ran ce underw riters are in
hom e offices in a few large cities,
such as New Y ork, San Francisco,
Chicago, Dallas, and Philadelphia.


Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
For beginning underwriting jobs,
most large insurance com panies seek
college graduates who have a degree
in liberal arts or business adm inistra­
tion, but a major in almost any field
provides a good general background.
Some small companies hire persons
with less than a college degree for
underwriter trainee positions. In ad­
dition, some high school graduates
who begin as underw riting clerks
may be trained as underwriters after
they dem onstrate an aptitude for the
Underwriter trainees begin by
evaluating routine applicants under
the close supervision of an experi­
enced risk ap p raiser. They study
claim files to become familiar with
factors associated with certain types
of losses. As they develop the sound
judgm ent that is required, they are
assigned policy applications that are
m ore com plex and have a greater
face value.
Continuing education is a necessi­
ty if the underw riter expects to ad­
vance to senior level positions. Insur­
ance com panies generally place great
em phasis on com pletion of one or
more of the recognized independent
study program s. M any com panies
pay tuition and the cost of books for
those who satisfactorily com plete un­
derwriting courses; some offer salary
increases as an additional incentive.
In d e p e n d e n t study p ro g ram s are
available through the Am erican Insti­
tute of Property and Liability U nder­
writers, the American College of Life
Underwriters, the Academy of Life
Underwriters, the Health Insurance
Association of Am erica, and the Life
Office M anagem ent Association.
Underwriting can be a satisfying
career for persons who like working
with details and enjoy relating and
evaluating information. In addition
to analyzing problems, underwriters
must make prom pt decisions and be
able to com m unicate their ideas to
others. They must also be imagina­
tive and aggressive, especially when
they have to get additional inform a­
tion from outside sources.
Experienced underwriters who

complete study courses may advance


to chief underw riter or underwriting
manager. Some underwriting m anag­
ers are prom oted to senior m anageri­
al jobs after several years.

Employment Outlook
Em ployment of underwriters is ex­
pected to rise about as fast as the
average for all occupations through
the m id -1 9 8 0 ’s as insurance sales
continue to expand. Each year many
jobs will becom e available as the o c­
cupation grows and as those who die,
retire, or transfer to other work are
Several factors underlie the ex­
pected growth in the volume of insur­
ance and the resulting need for un­
derwriters. Over the next decade, a
much larger portion o f our popula­
tion will enter their m ost productive
years. As this traditional m arket for
life insurance expands, the volume of
insurance sales also should rise. This
will occur as more individuals p u r­
chase life insurance to protect their
families’ standard of living, finance
their children’s education, or provide
retirem ent income. Property and li­
ability insurance sales also should ex­
pand as purchases of autom obiles,
pleasure boats, and other consum er
durables increase. Both spending for
new h o m e c o n s tru c tio n and th e
Am erican public’s growing security
consciousness should contribute to
dem and for m ore extensive insur­
ance protection. New or expanding
businesses will need protection for
new plants and equipm ent and insur­
ance for w orkers’ com pensation and
product liability. Heightened com pe­
tition am ong insurance com panies
and changes in regulations affecting
investm ent profits also are expected
to increase the insurance industry’s
need for com petent underwriters.

Earnings and Working
Underwriters in life insurance who
had 2 to 4 years’ experience aver­
aged $12,600 a year in 1976, accord­
ing to a Life Office M anagem ent As­
sociation (L O M A ) survey. Senior
life underw riters (those with 5 to 8
y e a rs ’ e x p e rie n c e ) a v e ra g e d
$16,600, while senior group under­
w riters earn ed average salaries o f

$17,400. Supervisors of underwriting
in life insurance com panies averaged
$17,500 to $23,000. In most cases,
u n d erw riters in larger com p an ies
earned higher salaries.
A recent survey of com panies that
sell property and liability insurance
showed that underwriters with 2 to 4
years’ experience averaged $12,300
a year in 1976. Earnings varied sub­
stantially by underwriting specialty,
however: personal lines underwriters
earned average salaries of $11,700,
while those specializing in surety
bonds averaged $14,300. Senior un­
derwriters earned substantially high­
er incom es—personal lines un d er­
writers averaged $15,200 while those
specializing in com m ercial lines re­
ceived an average of $15,000 a year.
Experienced underwriters earn about
1 1/2 times the average earnings of
nonsupervisory workers in private in­
dustry, except farming. Underwriting
supervisors in property and liability
com panies averaged $17,500 a year
in 1976.
Most underwriters have desk jobs
that require no unusual physical ac­
tivity. Although the average week is
37 hours, underw riters som etim es
work overtime. Most insurance com ­
panies have liberal vacation policies
and other em ployee benefits. (See
the statem ent on the Insurance In­
dustry for additional information on
w orking conditions and em ployee

Sources of Additional
G eneral inform ation about a ca­
reer as an insurance underw riter is
available from the hom e offices of
many life insurance and property and
liability insurance com panies. Infor­
mation about career opportunities as
an underw riter also may be obtained
American Council of Life Insurance, 1850 K
St., NW., Washington, D.C. 20006
Insurance Information Institute, 110 William
St., New York, N.Y. 10038.
American Mutual Insurance Alliance, 20 N.
Wacker Dr., Chicago, 111. 60606.
The National Association of Independent In­
surers, Public Relations Department,
2600 River Rd., Des Plaines, 111. 60018.

M ost adm inistrative w orkers are
professional office em ployees who
run, or help run, business and other
organizations. Some are m anagers,
who supervise, plan operations, and

make com pany policy. Others p ro ­
vide assistance to m anagers, such as
personnel workers who recruit and
hire staff m em bers or accountants,
whose inform ation helps m anagers

The number of employees in administrative occupations
varies widely by occupation
Employment (in thousands)



■; -






. Accountants


. . . . . . Lawyers
Personnel and
labor relations
.............. ••Purchasing
,, §s J U s <4iH * i t s
......... ............................................ Credit


200 - ~ j




Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

Openings vary greatly among administrative and
related occupations
Selected administrative and related occupations
Average annual openings, 1976-85 (in thousands)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics


make difficult decisions. The success
or failure of an organization depends
heavily on the way adm inistrative
workers do their jobs.
Nearly all administrative jobs re­
quire a college degree, although em ­
ployers vary in the specific area of
study they prefer. Some seek busi­
ness adm inistration or liberal arts
graduates; others want a background
in a technical area such as engineer­
ing or science.
Many adm inistrative workers solve
problems and make decisions using
numbers and technical data. In addi­
tion, these workers must be tactful
and able to get along with others.
They also must be able to handle the
uneven flow of work in offices.
This section describes several ad­
m inistrative occupations including
city m anagers, accountants, cred it
officials, and personnel and labor re­
lations workers.


Growth |


(D.O.T. 160.188)

Nature of the Work
Managers must have up-to-date fi­
nancial inform ation to make im por­
tant decisions. A ccountants prepare
and analyze financial reports th at
furnish this kind of information.
Three major accounting fields are
public, m anagem ent, and g o v ern ­
m ent accounting. Public acco u n t­
ants have their own businesses or
work for accounting firms. M anage­
m ent accountants, also called indus­
trial or private accountants, handle
the financial records of the com pany
they work for. G overnm ent account­
ants examine the records of govern­
m ent agencies and audit private busin e s s e s a n d i n d i v id u a ls w h o s e
dealings are subject to governm ent
A ccountants often concentrate on
one particular phase of accounting.
For example, many public account­
ants specialize in auditing (reviewing
a clien t’s financial records and re­
ports to judge their reliability). O th ­
ers specialize in tax m atters, such as
preparing income tax forms and ad ­
vising their clients of the advantages
and disadvantages of certain business



Many accountants in the Federal
G overnm ent work as Internal Rev­
enue agents, investigators, and bank
exam iners; o th e r governm en t a c ­
countants have regular accounting

Places of Employment
About 865,000 people worked as
accountants in 1976. Almost 20 p er­
cent were Certified Public A ccount­
ants (C P A ’s) and nearly 12 percent
w ere C ertifie d In te rn a l A u d ito rs
(C IA ’s).
About 60 percent of all account­
an ts do m a n a g e m e n t a c c o u n tin g
work; one-fifth of these work as in­
ternal auditors. An additional 25 per­
cent are engaged in public account­
ing as p r o p r ie to r s , p a r tn e rs , or
employees of independent account­
ing firms. O ther accountants work
for Federal, State, and local govern­
m ent agencies, and a small num ber
teach in colleges and universities.
O pportunities are plentiful for parttime work in accounting, particularly
in smaller firms.
Accountants are found in all busi­
ness, industrial, and government o r­
ganizations. Most, however, work in
large urban areas where many public
accounting firms and central offices
of large businesses are concentrated.
For example, over 20 percent of all
ac co u n tan ts are em ployed in ju st
four major cities: Chicago; Los A n­
geles; New York; and W ashington,

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Traveling auditor reviewing financial records at a company plant.

decisions. Still others becom e spe­
cialists in m anagem ent consulting
and give advice on a variety of m at­
ters. They might develop or revise an
accounting system to serve the needs
of clients more effectively or give ad­
vice about different types of account­
ing equipm ent.
M anagem ent accountants provide
the financial information executives
Digitized need to make sound business deci­

sions. They may choose to work in
areas such as taxation, budgeting, or
investm ents. Internal auditing is an
area of specialization within m anage­
ment accounting that is rapidly grow­
ing in im portance. A ccountants who
work as internal auditors exam ine
and evaluate their firm ’s financial
system s and m an ag em en t co n tro l
procedures to ensure efficient and
econom ical operation.

Training in accounting is available
at colleges and universities, account­
ing and business schools, and co rre­
spondence schools. Although many
graduates of business and correspon­
dence schools are successful in small
firms, most large public accounting
and business firms require applicants
for accountant and internal auditor
positions to have at least a bachelor’s
degree in accounting or a closely re­
lated field. Many employers prefer
those with the m aster’s degree in ac­
counting. A growing num ber of large
employers prefer applicants who are
familiar with com puter technology
for both accounting and internal au­
ditor positions. For beginning a c ­
counting positions, the Federal Gov-



ernm ent requires 4 years of college
training (including 24 sem ester hours
in accounting) or an equivalent com ­
bination o f education and ex p eri­
ence. For teaching positions, most
colleges and universities require at
least the m aster’s degree or the C er­
tified Public A ccountancy C ertifi­
Previous work experience in ac­
counting can help an applicant get a
job. Many colleges offer students an
o p p o rtu n ity to g ain e x p e rie n c e
through intern sh ip program s co n ­
ducted by public accounting or busi­
ness firms.
Anyone working as a “ certified
public accountant” m ust hold a cer­
tificate issued by the State board of
accountancy. All states use the CPA
examination, prepared by the Am eri­
can Institute of Certified Public A c­
countants, to establish certification.
Most successful candidates have col­
lege degrees, and three-fourths of the
States require CPA candidates to be
college graduates. Nearly all States
require applicants to have at least 2
years of public accounting experi­
ence for a CPA certificate.
Requirem ents vary, but more than
half the States restrict the title “ pub­
lic accountant” to those who are li­
censed or registered.
Some States
require only a high school diploma
while others require 2 years of col­
lege or m ore. In form ation on re ­
quirem ents may be obtained directly
from individual State boards of ac­
countancy or from the National Soci­
ety of Public Accountants.
The recognized m ark of com pe­
tence and experience in the field of
internal auditing is the designation,
C ertified In tern al A u d ito r (C IA ).
The Institute of Internal A uditors,
Inc., confers this designation upon
candidates who have com pleted 3
years’ experience in internal auditing
and who have passed a four-part ex­
a m in a tio n . B eg in n in g in 1978, a
bachelor’s degree from an accredited
college or university also will be re­
Persons planning a career in ac­
counting should have an aptitude for
m athem atics. Neatness and accura­
cy also are n ecessary. Em ployers
seek applicants who can handle re­
sponsibility and work with little su­


To get to the top in the profession,
accountants usually must continue
their study of accounting even
though they already have a college
degree or professional certificates.
They may participate in seminars
sponsored by various professional as­
sociations or take courses offered by
their employers. A growing num ber
of States require both C PA ’s and li­
censed public accountants to com ­
plete a certain num ber of hours of
continuing education courses before
their licenses can be renewed. An
increasing num ber o f acco u n tan ts
study com puter operation and p ro ­
gramming to adapt accounting p ro ­
c e d u re s to new d a ta p ro c e ssin g
m eth o d s. A lth o u g h c a p ab le a c ­
countants should advance rapidly,
those having inadequate academ ic
preparation may be assigned routine
jobs and find prom otion difficult.
Junior public accountants usually
start by assisting with auditing work
for several clients. They may ad ­
vance to interm ediate positions with
more responsibility in 1 or 2 years
and to senior positions within anoth­
er few years. In larger firms, those
who deal successfully with top indus­
try executives often becom e supervi­
sors, m anagers, or partners, or trans­
fer to executive positions in private
firms. Some open their own public
accounting offices.
Beginning m anagem ent acco u n t­
ants often start as ledger account­
ants, junior internal auditors, or as
trainees for technical accounting p o ­
sitions. They may advance to jobs
such as chief plant accountant, chief
cost accountant, budget director, or
manager o f internal auditing. Some
becom e co n tro llers, treasurers, fi­
nancial vice-presidents, or corpora­
tion presidents. In the Federal Gov­
e rn m e n t, b e g in n e rs are h ired as
trainees and usually are prom oted in
a year or so. In college and universi­
ty teaching, those having minimum
training and experience may receive
the rank o f instructor w ithout tenure;
advancem ent and perm anent faculty
status depend upon further educa­
tion and teaching experience.

for all occupations through the mid1980’s as businesses and governm ent
agencies continue to expand in size
and complexity. In addition to jobs
resulting from growth, many th o u ­
sands o f openings will result each
year when w orkers die, retire, or
leave the occupation.
Demand for skilled accountants
will rise as managers rely more on
accounting inform ation to make
business decisions. For example, offi­
cers of large corporations base their
decisions concerning proposals such
as plant expansion, mergers, or for­
eign in v e stm e n ts on in fo rm atio n
about the financial condition of the
firm , tax im plications of the p ro ­
posed action, and o th er consid er­
ations. On a smaller scale, owners of
small businesses are expected to rely
more and more on the expertise of
public accountants in planning their
operations. G overnm ent legislation
to m onitor business activity also is
expected to add to the dem and for
accountants. An example is the Pen­
sion Reform Act of 1974, which es­
tablishes minimum standards for pri­
vate pension plans. This and other
legislation should create many new
jobs for m anagem ent accountants to
m aintain new systems and public ac­
countants to audit them.
Because of the growing complexity
of business, college graduates will be
in greater dem and than applicants
who lack this training. Many em ploy­
e rs p r e f e r g r a d u a te s w ho h a v e
worked p art time in a business or
ac co u n tin g firm w hile in sch o o l.
Those who have been trained in a
specific phase of accounting should
find ample opportunities.
As data processing systems contin­
ue to replace manual preparation of
accounting records and statem ents,
the need for some accountants to
perform routine tasks, particularly in
large firms, may be reduced. How­
ever, many opportunities will arise
for accountants w ithout a college de­
gree, mainly in small businesses and
public accounting firms.

Employment Outlook

Starting salaries o f beginning ac­
countants in private industry were
$ 11,500 a year in 1976, according to
a survey in urban areas. Earnings of

E m ploym ent is ex p e cted to in ­
crease about as fast as the average

Earnings and Working



experienced accountants ranged be­
tween $ 15,400 and $23,400, depend­
ing on their level of responsibility
and the complexity of the accounting
system. In general, experienced ac­
countants earn about twice as much
as nonsupervisory workers in private
industry, except farming. Chief ac­
countants who direct the accounting
program of a company or one of its
e s ta b lis h m e n ts e a rn e d b e tw e e n
$20,500 and $ 3 3 ,9 0 0 , depending
upon the scope of their authority and
size of professional staff.
According to the same survey, be­
ginning auditors averaged $ 11,800 a
year in 1976, while experienced au­
d ito r s ’ ea rn in g s ra n g ed b etw een
$16,100 and $20,000.
In the Federal Civil Service, the
entrance salary for junior account­
ants and auditors was about $9,300
in 1977. Candidates who had a supe­
rio r acad em ic re c o rd receiv ed a
starting salary of about $ 11,500. Ap­
plicants with a m aster’s degree or 2
years’ professional experience began
at about $14,100. A ccountants in the
Federal Governm ent averaged about
$21,800 a year in 1977.
Accountants who specialize in in­
com e tax p re p a ra tio n w ork long
hours under heavy pressure during
the tax season; those em ployed by
national accounting firms may travel
extensively to co n d u ct audits and
perform other services for their cli­
ents. The majority, however, work in
one office between 35 and 40 hours a
week, under the same general condi­
tions as fellow office workers.

Sources of Additional
Information about C PA ’s and
about aptitude tests in high schools,
colleges, and public accounting firms
may be obtained from:
American Institute of Certified Public Ac­
countants, 1211 Avenue of the Americas,
New York, N.Y. 10036.

Further inform ation on specialized
fields of accounting is available from:
National Association of Accountants, 919
Third Ave., New York, N.Y. 10022.
National Society of Public Accountants, 1717
Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20006.
Institute of Internal Auditors, 249 Maitland
Ave., Altamonte Springs, Fla. 32701.

(D.O.T. 050.088; 132.088; 141.081
and .168; 162.158; and 164.068
through .168)

Nature of the Work
Almost every business, from a
small grocery store to a large bank,
does some form of advertising to
pursuade people to buy its products
or use its services. Advertising re ­
quires the talents of people in many
d iffe re n t kinds o f jo b s. C rea tiv e
workers such as writers, artists, and
designers develop and produce ad ­
vertisem ents, while people with busi­
ness and sales ability handle the ar­
ra n g e m e n ts fo r b ro a d c a stin g th e
advertisem ents on radio and televi­
sion, publishing them in newspapers
or magazines, mailing them directly,
or posting them on billboards. The
following occupations are those most
commonly associated with advertis­
Advertising managers direct the ad ­
vertising program of the businesses
for which they work. They determ ine
the size of the advertising budget, the
type of ad and the m edia to use, and
what advertising agency, if any, to
employ. M anagers who decide to em ­
ploy an agency work closely with the
advertising specialists from the agen­
cy. These m anagers may supervise
the preparation of pam phlets, b ro ­
chures, or other materials developed
to prom ote the firm ’s products or
services. Advertising m anagers w ork­
ing for new spapers, radio stations,
and o th e r com m unications m edia
have so m ew h a t d iffe re n t d u ties.
They are responsible for selling ad ­
vertising time or space, and do work
that is similar to the work of sales
managers in other businesses.
Account executives are em ployed
by advertising agencies to develop
advertising programs for client firms
and individuals. They first study the
client’s sales, public image, and ad ­
vertising problem s, and then create a
program that suits the client’s needs.
In m ost agencies, artists and copy­
writers are responsible for develop­
ing the actual artwork and advertis­
ing copy, but in some small agencies,
the account executives have this re ­

Research directors and their assis­
tants study the m arket. They review
possible uses for the product or ser­
vice being sold, com pare its advan­
tages or disadvantages with those of
co m p etito rs, and suggest ways of
reaching potential buyers. To devel­
op m arket inform ation, these work­
ers may survey buying habits and m o­
tives of custom ers, or try out sample
ads to find the them e or medium that
best sells the product. (See the state­
m ent on marketing research workers
for more information on this occupa­
Advertising copywriters develop
the headlines and text to be used in
the ads. By studying information
about the product and its potential
custom ers, they are able to write
copy aimed at the particular group of
custom ers the advertiser seeks to at­
tract. They may specialize in writing
copy for a certain group of people,
such as business m anagers, teenag­
ers, or sports lovers, or for a class of
products, such as cars or com puter
e q u ip m e n t. C o p y w rite rs u su ally
work closely with acco u n t execu­
tives. In some agencies, they may be
supervised by copy chiefs.
Artists and layout workers create
the visual impact of an ad by select­
ing photographs, draw ing illu stra­
tions or figures, and selecting the size
or type of print to be used in a m aga­
zine or newspaper ad. When televi­
sion commercials are planned, they
usually sketch sample scenes for the
client to consider. (See the state­
m ents on com m erical artists and
photographers for more information
on this type of work.)
Media directors (or space buyers
and time buyers) negotiate contracts
for advertising space or air time.
They determ ine the day and time
when a television com m ercial will
reach the largest group of prospec­
tive buyers at the lowest cost. To se­
lect the best medium for the advertis­
er, m edia directors m ust know the
costs of using various media and the
c h a r a c te r is tic s o f th e a u d ie n c e
reached by specific publications or
television stations.
Production managers and their as­
sistants arrange to have the ad print­
ed for publication, filmed for televi­
sion, or recorded for radio. They



must know which firms or freelance
workers will be able to produce the
best ad for the least cost.

Places of Employment
In 1976, about 180,000 people
worked in jobs requiring consider­
able knowledge of advertising. Those
em ployed in ad v ertising agencies
were heavily co n cen trated in New
York City, Los Angeles, and C hica­
goMany others worked in the adver­
tising departm ents of m anufacturing
firm s, re ta il sto res, banks, pow er
com panies, professional and trade
associations, and many other organi­
zations. Some people had advertising
jobs with television or radio stations,
newspapers, and magazines. Still oth­
er people in th e advertising field
worked for printers, art studios, let­
ter shops, package design firms, and
similar businesses.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Most employers prefer college
graduates. Some em ployers seek p er­
sons with degrees in advertising with
heavy emphasis on m arketing, busi­
ness, and journalism ; others prefer
g r a d u a te s with a lib e ra l a rts b a c k ­
ground (social scien ce, lite ratu re ,
art, and other disciplines); some em ­
ployers place little emphasis on the
type of degree.
No p articu lar educational b ac k ­
ground is equated with success in ad­
vertising. In fact, relevant work expe­
rience may be more im portant than
educational background. Experience
selling ads for school publications or
radio stations, or on a summer job
with a m arketing research service,
can be a distinct advantage to the
Some organizations recru it o u t­
standing college graduates for train­
ing program s that cover all aspects of
advertising work. In other firms, em ­
ployees immediately enter a specialty
and do not gain such all-round expe­
rience. Some beginners start as re­
search or production assistants or as
space or time buyers. A few begin as
junior copywriters.
Many advertising jobs require
 creativity, and a flair for

language. These traits are especially
im portant to artists, layout workers,
and account executives. All creative
effort m ust be directed toward the
sales function. People interested in
becoming advertising managers, ac­
count executives, m edia buyers, and
production managers must be able to
get along well with people and be
able to sell their ideas. Research di­
rectors and their assistants must have
an understanding of hum an behavior.
All advertising workers must be able
to accept criticism of their work and
be able to function as part of a team.
O pportunities for advancem ent in
this field generally are excellent for
creative, talented, and hard-working
people. For example, copywriters
and account executives may advance
to more responsible work in their
specialties, or to managerial jobs, if
they dem onstrate ability in dealing
with clients. Some especially capable
workers may becom e partners in an
existing agency, or they may estab­
lish their own agency.

Employment Outlook
Em ployment of advertising w ork­
ers is expected to increase faster than
th e a v e ra g e fo r all o c c u p a tio n s
through the m id-1980’s. Most open­
ings, however, will result from the
need to replace workers who die, re­

tire, or leave the occupation for o th ­
er reasons.
The growing num ber of consum er
and industrial goods and increasing
com petition in many product and
service m arkets will cause advertis­
ing expenditures to rise. Such expen­
ditures also may be spurred by the
growing tendency toward self service
in retail m arketing. An additional
factor is the growing need of small
businesses for professional advertis­
ing services. Em ployment in advertis­
ing occupations is strongly affected
by general business conditions b e­
cause firms expand or contract their
ad v e rtisin g b u d g ets a c co rd in g to
their financial success. Although op ­
portunities should be favorable for
highly qualified applicants, particu­
larly in re ta il ad v ertisin g , o th e rs
seeking entry jobs will face keen
com petition because the glamorous
nature of the field attracts many peo ­
Local television, radio, and news­
papers are expected to increase their
share o f total advertising expendi­
tures while direct mail, m agazines,
and national newspapers continue to
lose ground. The few very large agen­
cies that account for nearly all na­
tional advertising are expected to
maintain fast growth because of their
expanding international business.

Advertising can be a satisfying career for persons who enjoy variety, creative challeng­
es, and competition.



Earnings and Working
Based on limited inform ation, an­
nual salaries for beginning advertis­
ing workers with bachelor’s degrees
ranged from $8,000 to $10,000 in
1976. Higher starting salaries gener­
ally were paid by the largest firms or
advertising agencies to outstanding
applicants, particularly those with
advertising experience.
Salaries of experienced advertising
workers varied by size and type of
firm as well as by type of job. Ac­
cording to a survey of advertising
agencies taken in 1975, average an­
nual salaries of workers in selected
occupations were as follows: Chief
executive officer, $45,300; account
supervisor, $28,400; account execu­
tive, $18,500; executive art director,
$24,400; art director, $17,100; sen­
ior layout artist, $ 12,900; junior lay­
o u t a r ti s t , $ 9 ,3 0 0 ; co p y c h ie f,
$22,300; senior copywriter, $16,600;
ju n io r copyw riter, $10,500; m edia
director, $16,800; space or time buy­
e r , $ 9 ,4 0 0 ; r e s e a r c h d i r e c t o r ,
$24,000; research analyst, $13,500;
production m anager, $14,400. Sev­
eral other surveys yielded these re­
sults: In 1976, the top advertising of­
ficers in large retail firms averaged
over $32,000 a year; in 1975, the
m edian salary of advertising direc­
to rs in larg e b an k s ran g ed from
$16,000 to $17,000 a year; in 1975,
the av erag e salary o f advertising
managers in a wide variety of com pa­
nies ranged from $18,000 to $34,000
a year, depending upon the annual
sales volume of the firm. Salaries of
advertising m anagers generally are
higher in consum er than industrial
products firms, and many receive in­
centive com pensation.
People in advertising work under
great pressure, and do not have the
job security enjoyed by workers in
many other occupations. These
workers are expected to produce
quality ads in as short a time as
possible. Sometimes they must work
long or irregular hours to m eet dead­
lines or m ake last-m inute changes.
A c co u n t ex e cu tiv es, co p y w riters,
and lay o u t w orkers may becom e
frustrated by a clien t’s inability to
define the type of ad he or she wants
for a FRASER
Digitized for product.

Advertising can be a satisfying c a ­
reer for persons who enjoy variety,
excitem ent, creative challenges, and
com petition. Unlike workers in many
other occupations, advertising w ork­
ers ex p erien ce the satisfaction of
having their work in print, on televi­
sion, or on radio, even though they
rem ain unknow n to the public at

Sources of Additional
Inform ation on advertising agen­
cies and the careers they offer is
available from:
American Association of Advertising Agen­
cies, 200 Park Ave. New York, N.Y.

For additional inform ation on ca­
reers and a list of colleges that p ro ­
vide training in advertising, contact:
American Advertising Federation, 1225 Con­
necticut Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.

(D.O.T. 162.158 and 185.168)

Nature of the Work
The Am ericans have been invited
to a private showing in Paris. R epre­
senting a m ajor New York d epart­
m ent sto re, they sit with a select
g ro u p in an ele g a n tly fu rn ish e d
room. They watch closely as graceful
models float down the runway before
them to display the latest creations
by the w orld’s most famous design­
ers. A fter some consultation, they
m ake choices involving thousands,
perhaps millions of dollars. All in a
day’s work.
The job of retail buyer often brings
to mind the glamour o f high fashion;
indeed, many fashion buyers do lead
exciting, fast-paced lives involving
frequent travel abroad. Not every
buyer, however, deals in fashion. All
m erchandise sold in a retail store—
garden furniture, autom obile tires,
toys, aluminum pots, and canned
soups alike—appears in that store on
the decision of a buyer. Although all
buyers seek to satisfy their stores’
custom ers and sell at a profit, the
kind and variety of goods they p u r­

chase depend on the store w here
they work. A buyer for a small cloth­
ing store, for example, may purchase
its com plete stock o f m erchandise
from sportsw ear to form al evening
clothes. Buyers who work for larger
retail businesses often handle one or
a few related lines of goods, such as
m en ’s w ear, ladies’ sportsw ear, or
children’s toys. Some, known as for­
eign buyers, purchase m erchandise
outside the United States.
In order to purchase the best selec­
tion of goods for their stores, buyers
must be familiar with the m anufac­
turers and distributors who handle
the m erchandise they need. They
also m u st k ee p in fo rm e d a b o u t
changes in existing products and the
developm ent of new ones. To learn
ab o u t m erchandise, buyers atten d
fashion and trade shows and visit
m a n u fa c tu re rs ’ show room s. T hey
usually order goods during buying
trip s, and also place o rd e rs w ith
wholesale and m anufacturers’ sales
workers who call on them to display
their m erchandise.
Buyers must be able to assess the
resale value of goods after a brief
inspection and make a purchase de­
cision quickly. They are aw are of
their stores’ profit margins and try to
selec t m erc h an d ise th a t will sell
quickly at well above the original
cost. Since most buyers work within
a limited budget, they must plan their
purchases to keep needed items al­
ways in stock but also allow for unex­
pected purchases when a “ good buy”
presents itself.
B ecause buyers p u rc h ase m e r­
chandise for their firms to resell (u n ­
like p u rc h a sin g a g e n ts w ho buy
goods for direct use by the firm —see
the statem ent on purchasing agents
elsew here in the H andbook), they
must know what m otivates custom ers
to buy. Before ordering a particular
line o f m erchandise, buyers study
m arket research reports and analyze
past sales records to determ ine what
products are currently in dem and.
They also work closely with assistant
buyers and sales clerks whose daily
contact with custom ers furnishes in­
form ation about consum er likes and
dislikes. In ad d itio n , buyers read
fashion and trade magazines to keep
abreast of style and m anufacturing
trends; follow ads in newspapers and



jobs for buyers are found in all parts
of the country, most jobs are in m ajor
m etropolitan areas where retail
stores are concentrated. M arket rep ­
resentatives work for buying offices
in major m arket areas such as New
York, Chicago, and Dallas.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Buyer in a large department store discusses quality of merchandise with manufactur­
er’s representative.

other m edia to check retail com peti­
to rs’ sales activities; and watch gen­
eral econom ic conditions to antici­
pate consum er buying patterns.
Merchandise managers (D.O.T.
185.168) plan and coordinate buying
and selling a c tiv itie s f o r la rg e a n d
medium-sized stores. They divide the
budget among buyers, decide how
much m erchandise to stock, and as­
sign each buyer to purchase certain
goods. M erchandise m anagers may
review buying decisions to insure
that needed categories of goods are
in stock, and help buyers to set gen­
eral pricing guidelines.
Buyers and m erchandise m anagers
usually have very busy schedules and
deal with many different people in
the course of a day. They work with
m anufacturers’ representatives, o th ­
er store personnel including store ex­
ecutives and sales workers, and cus­
t o m e r s . A s s i s t i n g w ith s a l e s
prom otions and creating enthusiasm
among sales personnel are part o f the
buyer’s jo b , and he or she may be
asked to provide inform ation such as
dress sizes and product descriptions
to the advertising departm ent for a
sales p ro m o tio n , or to m eet with
floor sales workers before a new line

of m erchandise is introduced. Some
buyers direct assistants who handle
routine aspects of purchasing such as
verifying shipments; others supervise
departm ent managers.
Some buyers represent large stores
o r c h a in s in citie s w h e re many m anu­
facturers are located. The duties of
these “ m arket representatives” vary
by em ployer; some purchase goods,
while others supply inform ation and
arrange for store buyers to m eet with
m a n u fa c tu re rs w hen they are in
New technology has altered the
buyer’s role in retail chain stores. In
the past, firms employed a buyer for
each store or group of stores in a
local area. Now cash registers co n ­
n ec te d to a co m p u te r, know n as
point-of-sale term inals, allow retail
chains to m aintain centralized, up-tothe-m inute inventory records. With
these records, a single garden furni­
ture buyer, for exam ple, can p u r­
chase lawn chairs and picnic tables
for the entire chain.

Places of Employment
In 1976, approxim ately 109,000
buyers and m erchandise m anagers
worked for retail firms. Although

Distributive education program s at
thousands of high schools have
launched careers in retailing leading
to a buyer’s position. (A dditional in­
form ation on distributive education
appears in the statem ent on retail
trade sales workers elsewhere in the
H andbook.) Indeed, m any a good
buyer began in a stockroom or be­
hind a counter and worked up the
ladder without any college training.
However, new buyers will find a col­
lege degree increasingly necessary.
Many junior and 4-year colleges of­
fer program s in m arketing and p u r­
chasing and confer thousands of de­
g r e e s e a c h y e a r . In a d d i t i o n ,
num erous trad e schools train stu ­
dents for careers in fashion m erchan­
dising. Courses in m erchandising or
m arketing may help in getting a first
jo b , b u t m o st em p lo y e rs a c c e p t
graduates in any field of study and
train them on the job.
Many stores, especially the larger
ones, have formal training program s
for m anagem ent or executive train­
ees, including buyers. T hese p ro ­
grams usually last from 6 to 8 months
and com bine classroom instruction
in m erch an d isin g and pu rch asin g
with short rotations to various jobs in
the store. This training introduces
the new worker to store operations
and policies, and provides the funda­
m entals of m erchandising and m an­
agem ent as well.
The trainee’s first job is likely to be
that of assistant buyer. The duties
include supervising sales workers,
checking invoices on m aterial re ­
ceived, and keeping account of stock
on hand. Assistant buyers gradually
assum e purchasing responsibilities,
d e p e n d in g u pon th e ir in d iv id u a l
abilities and the size of the dep art­
m ent where they work. Training as
an assistant buyer usually lasts at
least a year. After years of working as
a buyer, those who show exceptional
ability may advance to m erchandise



manager. A few find further prom o­
tion to top executive jobs such as
general m erchandise m anager for a
retail store or chain. The length of
time it takes to reach any of these
levels depends not just on the indi­
v id u al’s ability but on the sto re ’s
need for m anagem ent personnel. The
faster the company grows, the great­
er the opportunity for a worker to
acquire responsibility.
Buyers should be good at planning
and decisionmaking and have an in­
terest in m erchandising. They need
leadership ability and com m unica­
tions skills to supervise sales workers
and assistant buyers and to deal ef­
fectively with m anufacturers’ repre­
sentatives and store executives. Be­
cause of the fast pace and constant
pressure of their work, buyers need
physical stamina and em otional sta­

Employment Outlook
Employment of buyers is expected
to grow more slowly than the average
for all occupations through the mid1980’s. Centralized buying is gaining
popularity among chain stores, which
are expected increasingly to dom i­
nate general m erchandise retailing.
Although anticipated growth of in­
dependent food stores should partial­
ly offset these trends, they will still
reduce the num ber of openings for
buyers. M ost job openings will arise
each year from the need to replace
workers who leave the o c c u p a tio n .
Com petition for these jobs is expect­
ed to be keen, for m erchandising a t­
tra c ts la rg e n u m b e rs o f co lleg e
graduates every year. Prospects are
likely to be best for qualified appli­
cants who enjoy the com petitive na­
ture of retailing and work best in a
demanding, fast-paced job.

line purchased, the sales volume of
the store, and the individual’s senior­
Buyers often earn large bonuses
for exceptional perform ance. In ad ­
dition, many stores have incentive
plans, such as p ro fit sharing and
stock options.
Buyers regulate their own hours,
and often work more than 40 hours a
week because of special sales, co n ­
ferences, and travel. The am ount of
traveling a buyer does varies with the
type of m erchandise bought and the
location o f suppliers, but most spend
4 or 5 days a m onth on the road.
M erchandise m anagers also travel
frequently, averaging several trips a
month in many cases.

Sources of.Additional
G eneral inform ation about a c a ­
reer in retailing is available from:
National Retail Merchants Association, 100
West 31st St., New York, N.Y. 10001.

Inform ation on schools that teach
retailing is available from:

United States Office of Education, Division of
Vocational/Technical Education, Wash­
ington, D.C. 20202.
National Association of Trade and Technical
Schools, 2021 L St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 188.118 and 188.168)

Nature of the Work
Population growth and industrial
expansion place increasing pressure
on housing, transportation, and other
facilities of cities. Problems associat­
ed with growing m odern com m uni­
ties, such as air and water pollution
and rising crime rates, also demand
attention. To cope effectively with
these problem s, many communities
hire a specialist in m anagem ent tech ­
niques—the city manager.
A city m anager usually is appoint­
ed by the com m unity’s elected offi­
cials and is responsible directly to

Earnings and Working
Buyers for discount departm ent
stores and other mass merchandising
firms are among the m ost highly paid
in the industry, as are those who buy
centrally for large chain departm ent
M ost
$15,000 and $25,000 a year in 1976,
though many earned salaries outside
this range. M erchandising managers
earned considerably more. The actu­
al income depends upon the product

A city manager often deals with members of the community.



them. Although duties vary by city
size, city managers generally adm in­
ister and coordinate the day-to-day
operations of the city. They are re­
sponsible for functions such as tax
collection and disbursem ent, law en­
forcem ent, and public works. They
also hire departm ent heads and their
staffs and prepare the annual budget
to be approved by elected officials.
In addition, they study current prob­
lem s, such as traffic co n g e stio n ,
crime, or urban renewal, and report
their findings to the elected council.
City managers must plan for future
growth and developm ent of cities
and surrounding areas. To provide
for an expansion of public services,
they frequently appear at civic m eet­
ings to advocate certain programs or
to inform citizens of current govern­
m ent operations.
City m anagers work closely with
planning departm ents to coordinate
new and existing programs. In small­
er cities th a t have no p erm a n en t
planning staff, coordination may be
done entirely by the manager.
To aid the city m anager, many
cities employ management assistants:
assistant city managers, departm ent
head assistants, and administrative
assistants. U nder the m anager’s di­
rection, m anagem ent assistants ad­
minister program s, prepare reports,
receive visitors, answ er correspon­
dence, generally help to keep the city
go v ernm ent functioning sm oothly.
Assistant city managers organize and
coordinate city program s, supervise
city em ployees, and act for the city
m anager upon occasion. They also
may assume responsibility for some
projects, such as the developm ent of
a preliminary annual budget. D epart­
m ent head assistants generally are re­
sponsible for one activity, such as
personnel, finance, or law enforce­
ment, but they also may assist in oth­
er areas. A dm inistrative assistants,
also called executive assistants or as­
sistants to the city m anager, usually
do administrative and staff work in
all departm ents under the city m an­
ager. For instance, they may compile
o p eratin g statistics o r review and
analyze work procedures.

Places of Employment
About 3,000 city m anagers were
employed in 1976. In addition,

nearly 9,000 persons worked as ad ­
m inistrative assistants, d ep artm en t
head assistants, and assistant city
m a n a g e rs . M o st c ity m a n a g e rs
worked for cities and counties that
had a council-m anager form of gov­
ernment. U nder this type of govern­
ment, an elected council appoints a
m anager who is responsible for the
day-to-day operation o f the govern­
m ent as well as for the hiring and
firin g o f a s s is ta n ts , d e p a rtm e n t
heads, and other staff. Many other
city m anagers worked for m unicipal­
ities that had the mayor-council form
of governm ent, in which the mayor
appoints the city m anager as his or
her chief adm inistrative officer. A
few city m anagers also worked for
county governments, m etropolitan or
regional planning organizations, and
councils o f governments. All types o f
local governm ents em ployed m an­
agement assistants, but larger juris­
dictions generally employed them in
greater numbers.
Although over three-quarters of all
city m anagers work for small cities
having less than 25,000 inhabitants,
many larger cities also employ a city
manager. About half of the cities
having a population of between
10,000 and 500,000 have city m an­
agers. City m anagers work in all
States, but one-half are concentrated
in the eastern part of the Nation.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A m aster’s degree, preferably in
public or business adm inistration, is
becoming essential for those seeking
a ca re e r in city m anagem ent. A l­
though some applicants with only a
bachelor’s degree may find em ploy­
m ent, strong com petition for posi­
tions, even am ong m aster’s degree
recipients, will m ake the graduate
degree a requirem ent for most entry
level jobs. In some cases, employers
may hire a person with training in a
field related to public adm inistration,
such as engineering, recreation, so­
cial work, or political science.
In 1976, 185 colleges and universi­
ties o ffered g rad u ate degree p ro ­
grams in public or municipal adm in­
istratio n . D egree re q u irem en ts in
som e sc h o o ls in c lu d e su cc essfu l
com pletion of an internship program
in a city m anager’s office. During this

internship period, w hich may last
from 6 months to a year, the degree
candidate observes local governm ent
operations and does research under
the d irec t supervision o f the city
Nearly all city m anagers begin as
m anagem ent assistants. Most new
graduates work as administrative as­
sistants to city m anagers for several
years to gain experience in solving
urban problem s, coordinating public
services, and applying m anagem ent
techniques. Others work in a govern­
m ent d ep artm en t such as finance,
public w orks, or public planning.
They may acquire supervisory skills
and additional experience by w ork­
ing as assistant city m anager or de­
partm ent head assistant. City m anag­
ers often are first em ployed in small
cities, but during their careers they
may work in several cities of increas­
ing size.
Persons who plan a career in city
m anagem ent should like to work
with detail and to be a part of a team .
They m ust have sound judgm ent,
self-confidence, and the ability to
perform well under stress. To handle
emergency situations, city m anagers
must quickly isolate problems, iden­
tify their causes, and provide a num ­
ber of possible solutions. City m anag­
ers should be tactfu l and able to
com m unicate and w ork well with
City managers also must be dedi­
cated to public service since they of­
ten put in long, hard hours in times of

Employment Outlook
Employment of city managers and
local governm ent m anagem ent assis­
tants is expected to expand faster
than the average for all occupations
through the m id-1980’s as m anage­
m ent of our governm ents becom es
more complex. Examples of m ore so­
phisticated m anagem ent techniques
include com puterized tax and utility
billing, electronic traffic control, and
application of systems analysis to ur­
ban problem s. The dem and for city
m anagers also will increase as more
cities convert to the council-m anager
form of governm ent, currently the
fastest growing form of city govern­
m ent. F u rth erm o re, city m anagers
and m anagem ent assistants will be



employed by other types of local gov­
ernment to help elected officials with
day-to-day o p e ra tio n s of go v ern ­
ment. Increased emphasis on region­
al solutions to urban problems should
result in additional job opportunities
for city managers and managem ent
assistants in councils of government.
Persons who seek beginning m an­
ag e m e n t assistan t jo b s may face
strong com petition through the mid1980’s, especially if they do not have
a graduate degree in public adminis­
tration or related m anagem ent expe­
rience. Com petition should be keen
among the growing num ber of ad­
m inistrative assistants, departm ent
head assistants, and assistant city
managers for the relatively few city
m anager positions. However, many
of those unable to find employment
in this area should find jobs in other
fields of public administration.

Earnings and Working
Salaries of city managers and m an­
agement assistants vary according to
education, experience, job responsi­
bility, and city size. Generally, city
m an ag e rs’ earnings are very high
relative to the average earnings for
nonsupervisory workers in private in­
dustry, except farming. In 1976, av­
erage annual salaries of city m anag­
ers ranged from ab out $20,000 in
cities of 5,000 inhabitants to more
th a n $ 4 0 ,0 0 0 in c itie s o f o v e r
100,000 in h ab itan ts, according to
the International City M anagem ent
Association. The average annual sal­
ary for all city m anagers was more
than $23,000. City m anagers in cities
not having council-m anager govern­
ments received slightly less.
Salaries o f m anagem ent assistants
averaged $17,000 in 1976, and
ranged from about $12,000 in small
cities to more than $20,000 in large
ones. Salaries of assistant city m anag­
ers generally were higher than those
of other m anagem ent assistants.
City managers often work more
than 40 hours a week. Emergency
problems may require evening and
weekend work and meetings with in­
dividuals and citizen’s groups con­
sume additional time.
Fringe benefits usually include
health and
 life insurance programs,

pension plans, sick leave, vacation
time, and often a car for official
business. Managers generally are re­
imbursed for expenses incurred while
attending professional meetings and

Sources of Additional
For information on a career in city
m anagem ent, contact:
International City Management Association,
1140 Connecticut Ave. NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 045.108, 090.118 and .168,
129.108, and 166.168)

Nature of the Work
A student’s choice o f a particular
institution of higher education is in­
fluenced by many factors. Availabil­
ity of a specific educational program ,
quality of the school, cost, and loca­
tion all may play im portant roles.
For many students, however, an
equally im portant factor is the insti­
tu tio n ’s ability to provide for their
housing, social, cultural, and recrea­
tional needs. Developing and adm in­
istering these services are the tasks of
college student personnel workers.

The admissions officer, the registrar,
the dean of students, and the career
planning and placem ent counselor
are probably the best known among
these. O ther workers that make up
this broad occupational field include
student activities and college union
personnel, student housing officers,
counselors in the college counseling
center, financial aid officers, and for­
eign student advisers.
Titles of student personnel w ork­
ers vary from institution to institution
and from program to program within
a single school. Titles also vary with
the level o f responsibility within a
s tu d e n t p e rso n n e l p ro g ram . T he
more com m on titles include dean, di­
rector, officer, associate dean, assist­
ant director, and counselor.
The dean o f students, or the vice
president for student affairs, heads
the student personnel program at a
school. Among his or her duties are
evaluating the changing needs of the
students and helping the president of
the college develop institutional poli­
cies. For example, to m eet the needs
of an increasing num ber of older,
part-tim e students, colleges and uni­
versities have been changing policies
in areas such as student housing and
student participation in decisions on
graduation requirem ents and course
offerings. In addition, the dean of
students generally coordinates a staff

Student financial aid personnel help students obtain financial support for their educa­



of associate or assistant deans who
are in charge of the specific p ro ­
grams that deal directly with the stu­
At some schools, the admissions
office and the records office are
separate. Admissions counselors in­
terview and evaluate prospective stu­
dents and process their applications.
They may travel extensively to re­
cruit high school, junior college, and
older students and to acquaint them
with opportunities available at their
college. They work closely with fac­
ulty, ad m in istrato rs, financial aid
personnel, and public relations staff
to determ ine policies for recruiting
and adm itting students. Personnel in
the office o f the registrar m aintain
the academ ic records of students and
provide current enrollm ent statistics
to those who require them both with­
in the college and in the community.
S tu d en t fin a n cia l aid perso n n el
help students obtain financial sup­
port for their education. W orkers in
this field m ust keep well-inform ed
about the sources and m anagem ent
of all forms of financial aid—scholar­
ships, grants, loans, em ploym ent, fel­
lowships, and teaching and research
assistan tsh ip s. T hey w ork closely
with adm inistrators and the adm is­
sions, counseling, business, and aca­
demic office staffs.
Career planning and placement
counselors, sometimes called college
placem ent officers, assist students in
career selections and also may help
them get part-tim e and summer jobs.
On many campuses, they arrange for
prospective employers to visit the
school to discuss their personnel
needs and to interview applicants.
(For further inform ation on this
field, see statem ent on college career
planning and placem ent counselors.)
The student personnel staff in
charge of student activities work with
m em bers o f p ro p o sed and e sta b ­
lished stu d en t organizations, espe­
cially with student government. They
help the student groups to plan, im­
plem ent, and evaluate their activi­
ties. Often, the student activities staff
will assist in the orientation of new
College union staff m em bers work
with students to provide intellectual,
cultural, and
 recreational programs.

Many college union staff m em bers
direct the operation o f the physical
facilities and services o f the building,
such as food and recreational servic­
es, building m aintenance, fiscal plan­
ning, and conference facilities.
Student housing officers sometimes
live in the dorm itories and, in gener­
al, help the students to live together
in harmony. They may serve as coun­
selors to individual students with p er­
sonal problems. Housing officers also
may be involved in managing the fis­
cal, food service, and housekeeping
operations of student residences.
Counselors help students with p er­
sonal, educational, and vocational
problems. Students may come to the
counselors on their own or be re ­
ferred by a faculty m em ber, a resi­
dence hall counselor, or a friend.
C ounseling needs may arise from
lack of self-confidence or m otivation
on the part of the student, failure in
academic work, desire to leave col­
lege or transfer to another college,
inability to get along with others,
loneliness, drug abuse, or m arriage
problem s. In ad d itio n , th ere is a
growing trend for counselors to try to
reach m ore students by establishing
group sensitivity sessions and tele­
phone “ hotlines.” Counselors often
a d m in is te r te s ts th a t in d ic a te a p t i­

tudes and interests to students having
trouble understanding them selves.
Some also teach in the college or as­
sist with admissions, orientation, and
training o f residence hall staff. (F or
further inform ation on this field, see
statem ent on psychologists.)
Foreign student advisers adm inister
and coordinate many of the services
that help to insure a successful aca­
demic and social experience for stu­
dents from o th er co u n tries. They
usually assist with foreign student ad ­
missions, orientation, financial aid,
housing, English as a foreign lan ­
guage, academ ic and personal coun­
seling, student-com m unity relation­
ships, jo b p lacem en t, and alum ni
relations. In addition, they may be an
adviser for international associations
and nationality groups and for U.S.
students interested in study, educa­
tional travel, work, or service proj­
ects abroad.

Places of Employment
An estim ated 57,000 college stu­
d en t personnel w orkers w ere em ­
ployed in 1976. Every college and
university, whether a 2-year or a 4year school, has a staff perform ing
stu d en t personnel functions. They
are not always organized as a unified
program. Large colleges and univer­
sities generally have specialized staffs
for each personnel function. In many
small colleges a few persons may car­
ry out the entire student personnel

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Because of the diversity in duties,
the education and backgrounds of
college student personnel workers
vary considerably. G enerally, how ­
ever, a m aster’s degree is preferred
and a doctoral degree may be neces­
sary for advancem ent to top-level po ­
sitions. Schools often prefer persons
with a bachelor’s degree in a social
science, such as economics or histo­
ry, and a m aster’s degree in student
personnel work. In 1976, 120 colleg­
es and universities offered graduate
programs in this area.
O ther specialized training may also
be required for some student person­
nel occupations. A m aster’s degree in
clinical or counseling psychology
usually is required for work as a col­
lege counselor. This degree also is
helpful in other student personnel
fields such as career planning and
placem ent. Familiarity with data p ro ­
cessing is an asset, especially for
work in admissions, records, or fi­
nancial aid. Social science and recre­
ation degrees also are useful, as is
work experience in business, govern­
m ent, or educational associations.
College student personnel workers
must be interested in, and able to
work with, people of all backgrounds
and ages. They m ust have the p a­
tience to cope with conflicting view­
points o f students, faculty, and p ar­
ents. People in this field often deal
with the unexpected and the unusual;
therefore em otional stability and the
ability to function while under pres­
sure are necessities.
Entry level positions usually are
those of student activities advisers,
admissions counselors, financial aid



counselors, residence hall directors,
and assistants to deans. Persons with­
out graduate degrees may find ad­
vancem ent opportunities limited. A
doctorate usually is necessary for the
top student personnel positions.

Employment Outlook
The employm ent outlook for col­
lege stu d en t personnel w orkers is
likely to be som ewhat com petitive
through 1985. Tightening budgets in
both public and private colleges and
universities, are expected to limit
growth in employment. Student per­
sonnel positions least likely to be af­
fected if some reduction becom es
necessary are those in admissions, fi­
nancial aid, and records. Most open­
ings will result from the need to re­
place personnel who transfer to other
positions, retire, or leave the field for
other reasons.
Any em ploym ent growth that does
occur is expected to be in junior and
community colleges. Enrollm ent at
this level of education has been rising
and many new schools have opened.
If these recent trends continue, some
additional student personnel workers
will be needed in 2-year institutions.

Earnings and Working
Salaries vary greatly depending on
geographic location and the size of
the school. According to the limited
data available, top adm inistrators
with at least 5 years of experience
averaged between $28,000 and
$30,000 a year in 1976. In the larger
colleges and universities, salaries
reached as high as $46,000.
College student personnel workers
frequently wok more than a 40-hour
week; often irregular hours and over­
time work are necessary. Em ploy­
ment in these occupations usually is
on a 1 2 -m o n th b a s is. In m any
schools, they are entitled to retire­
ment, group medical and life insur­
ance, and sabbatical and other bene­

Sources of Additional
A pam phlet, Careers in Higher

 available from:
Education, is

The American Personnel and Guidance Asso­
ciation, 1607 New Hampshire Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20009.

(D.O.T. 168.168)

Nature of the Work
Both businesses and individuals
may require cred it (th e postpone­
m ent of paym ent until a future date)
to m eet their daily needs for a variety
o f goods and serv ices. F or m ost
forms of credit, a credit m anager has
final authority to accept or reject a
credit application.
In extending credit to a business
(com m ercial credit), the credit m an­
ager, or an assistant, analyzes d e ­
tailed financial reports subm itted by
the applicant, interviews a represent­
ative of the company about its m an­
agement, and reviews credit agency
reports to determ ine the firm ’s re c­
ord in repaying debts. The m anager
also checks at banks where the com ­
pany has deposits or previously was
granted credit. In extending credit to
individuals (consum er cred it), d e ­
tailed financial reports usually are
not available. The credit m anager
m ust rely m ore on personal in ter­
views, credit bureaus, and banks to
provide inform ation about the p er­
son applying for credit.
Particularly in large organizations,
executive level credit managers are
responsible for formulating a credit
policy. They must establish financial
standards to be m et by applicants
and thereby determ ine the am ount of
risk that their com pany will accept
when offering its products or services
for sale on credit. M anagers usually
cooperate with the sales departm ent
in developing a credit policy liberal
enough to allow the com pany’s sales
to increase and yet strict enough to
deny credit to custom ers whose abil­
ity to repay their debts is question­
able. Many credit m anagers establish
o ffic e p ro c e d u re s an d su p erv ise
w o rk ers who g ath er in fo rm atio n ,
analyze facts, and perform general
office duties in a credit departm ent;
they include application clerks, col­
lection w orkers, bookkeepers, and

In smaller com panies that handle a
limited num ber of accounts, credit
managers may do much of the work
of granting credit themselves. They
may interview applicants, analyze the
information gained in the interview,
and make the final approval. They
frequently must contact custom ers
who are unable or refuse to pay their
debts. They do this through writing,
telephoning, or personal contact. If
these attem pts at collection fail,
credit m anagers may refer the ac­
count to a collection agency or assign
an attorney to take legal action.

Places of Employment
About 53,000 persons worked as
credit managers in 1976. About onehalf were employed in wholesale and
retail trade, but many others, about
one-third of the total, worked for
m anufacturing firms and financial in­
throughout the United States, most
credit managers work in urban areas
where many financial and business
establishments are located.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A college degree is becoming in­
creasingly im portant for entry level
jobs in credit managem ent. Employ­
ers usually seek persons who have
m ajored in business adm inistration,
economics, or accounting, but may
also hire graduates holding liberal
arts degrees. Some employers p ro ­
mote high school graduates to credit
manager positions if they have expe­
rience in credit collection or process­
ing credit information.
Newly hired workers normally be­
gin as m an ag e m en t tra in e e s and
work under the guidance of more ex­
perienced personnel in the credit de­
partm ent. Here they gain a thorough
u n d e rs ta n d in g o f th e c o m p a n y ’s
credit procedures and policies. They
may analyze previous credit transac­
tions to learn how to recognize which
applicants should prove to be good
custom ers. Trainees also learn to
deal with credit bureaus, banks, and
other businesses that can provide in­
form ation on the past credit dealings
o f their customers.



of bank credit cards. As stores substi­
tute bank credit cards for their own
charge accounts, credit departm ents
may be reduced or eliminated.

Earnings and Working

A college degree is becoming increasingly Important for entry level jobs in credit

Many formal training programs are
available through the educational
branches o f the associations that
serve the credit and finance field.
This training includes home study,
college and university programs, and
special instruction to improve begin­
n e rs’ skills and keep experienced
credit managers aware of new devel­
opm ents in their field.
A person interested in a career as a
credit m anager should be able to
analyze detailed inform ation and
draw valid conclusions based on this
analysis. Because it is necessary to
m aintain good cu sto m er re la tio n ­
ships, a pleasant personality and the
ability to speak and write effectively
also are characteristics of the suc­
cessful credit manager.
The work perform ed by credit
managers allows them to become fa­
m iliar with alm ost every phase of
their co m p an y ’s business. Highly
qualified and experienced managers
can advance to top-level executive
positions. However, in small and m e­
dium-sized companies, such opportu­
nities are limited.

Employment Outlook
Through the mid-1980’s em ploy­
ment is expected to grow more slow­
ly than the average for all occupa­
tions. D espite this relatively slow
 jobs will becom e avail­
growth, many

able each year due to the need to
replace persons who leave the occu­
pation. Although there will be oppor­
tunities throughout the country, em ­
ployment prospects should continue
to be best for well-qualified jobseek­
ers in m etropolitan areas.
The volume of credit extended
rose very rapidly during the past dec­
ade. In the years ahead, businesses
can b e e x p e c te d to req u ire in c r e a sin g

amounts o f credit to secure raw m a­
terials for production and obtain fin­
ished goods for eventual resale. It is
in the area of business credit where
dem and for credit m anagers will be
C onsum ers, whose p erso n al in ­
com es have risen, are expected to
finance g re a te r num bers o f highpriced items. In addition, the use of
credit for everyday purchases is ex­
pected to grow as dem and increases
for recreation and household goods
as well as for consum er services. D e­
spite increases in consum er debt, the
use of com puters for storing and re ­
trieving inform ation will enable this
greater volume of inform ation to be
processed more efficiently. The use
of telecom m unications networks en ­
ables retail outlets to have im mediate
access to a central credit office, re ­
gardless o f distance.
A nother factor that is expected to
slow the growth in the num ber of
credit m anagers is the increased use

In 1976, credit m anager trainees
who had a college degree earned
annual salaries that ranged from
about $10,000 to $11,000, depend­
ing on the type of em ployer and the
geographic location of the job.
A ssistant c red it m anagers av e r­
aged about $12,000 to $14,000 a
year and credit m anagers had aver­
age earnings of about $17,000. Indi­
viduals in top-level positions often
earn over $40,000 a year.
Credit managers normally work
the standard workweek of their com ­
pany— 35-40 hours, but some work
longer hours. In wholesale and retail
trad e, for exam ple, a seasonal in­
crease in credit sales can produce a
greater work volume. Some credit
m anagers attend conferences spon­
sored by industry and professional
organizations where managers m eet
to develop and discuss new te c h ­
niques for the m anagem ent of a cred ­
it departm ent.

Sources of Additional
Information about a career in con­
sum er credit may be obtained from:
International Consumer Credit Association,
375 Jackson Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 63130.
National Consumer Finance Association,
1000 16th St., NW., Washington, D.C.

F or in fo rm atio n a b o u t train in g
program s available in com m ercial
credit, write:
National Association of Credit Management,
475 Park Ave. South, New York, N.Y.

(D.O.T. 163.118 and 187.118,

Nature of the Work
Hotel managers are responsible for
operating their establishm ents profit­


ably and satisfying guests. They de­
termine room rates and credit policy,
direct the operation of the kitchen
and dining rooms, and manage the
housekeeping, accounting, and main­
tenance d ep artm ents o f the hotel.
Handling problems and coping with
the unexpected is an im portant part
of the job.
M anagers who work in small hotels
may do much of the front office
clerical work, such as taking room
reservations and assigning rooms. In
some small hotels and many motels,
the m anager is also the owner and
may be responsible for all aspects of
the business.
General managers of large hotels
usually have several assistants who
manage various parts of the opera­
tion. Because the hotel restaurant
and cocktail lounge are im portant to
the success of the entire establish­
ment, they almost always are operat­
ed by managers with experience in
the restaurant field. O ther areas that
usually are handled separately are
advertising, rental o f banquet and
meeting facilities, personnel, and ac­
Large hotel and m otel chains often
centralize some activities, such as
purchasing and advertising, so that
individual hotels in the chain may not
need m an ag ers fo r th ese d e p a rt­
m en ts. M a n a g e rs w ho w ork fo r
chains may be assigned to organize a
newly built or purchased hotel or to
reorganize an existing hotel or motel
that is not operating successfully.

General managers of large hotels usually
have several assistants who manage var­
ious parts of the operation.

About 137,000 hotel and motel
managers worked in 1976. More
than a third were self-employed.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Experience generally is the most
im portant consideration in selecting
managers. However, employers in­
creasingly are em phasizing college
education. A b a c h e lo r’s degree in
hotel and restaurant adm inistration
provides particularly strong prepara­
tion for a career in hotel m anage­
ment. In 1976, about 30 colleges and
universities offered 4-year programs
in this field. However, applicants to
these program s may face increasing
com petition in the coming years. The
courses in hotel work that are avail­
able in m any ju n io r colleges and
technical institutes and through the
American Hotel and Motel Associ­
atio n also p ro v id e a good b a c k ­
A college program in hotel m an­
agem ent usually includes courses in
h o tel a d m in istra tio n , a c co u n tin g ,
econom ics, d ata processing, food
service m anagem ent and catering,
and hotel m aintenance engineering.
Students are encouraged to work in
hotels or restaurants during summer
vacations because the experience
gained and the contacts made with
employers may help them to get b et­
ter hotel jobs after graduation.
M anagers should have initiative,
self-discipline, and the ability to o r­
ganize work and direct the work o f
others. They must be able to concen­
trate on details and solve problems.
Some large hotels have special onth e-jo b m an ag e m en t train e e p ro ­
grams in which trainees rotate among
various d ep a rtm en ts to acquire a
thorough knowledge of the h o tel’s
o p eratio n . O utstanding em ployees
who have not had college training
may receive financial assistance to
help them acquire a degree.
Most hotels prom ote employees
with proven ability, usually front of­
fice clerks, to assistant m anager and
eventually to general m anager. New­
ly b uilt h o tels, p artic u la rly those
w ithout well-established on-the-job
training program s, often prefer expe­
rienced personnel for managerial p o ­
sitions. Hotel chains may offer better
opportunites for advancem ent than


independent hotels, because em ploy­
ees can transfer to another hotel in
the chain or to the central office if an
opening occurs.

Employment Outlook
Employment of hotel m anagers is
expected to grow m ore slowly than
the average for all occupations
through the m id-1980’s. Some job
openings will occur as additional ho­
tels and motels are built and chain
and fran ch ise o p e ra tio n s sp read .
However, most openings will occur
as experienced managers die, retire,
or leave the occupation. Applicants
having college degrees in hotel ad­
ministration will have an advantage
in seeking entry positions and later
advancem ent.
See the statem ent on the Hotel
Industry elsewhere in the Handbook
for information on earnings and
working conditions, sources of addi­
tional inform ation, and more infor­
mation on em ploym ent outlook.

(D.O.T. 184.168)

Nature of the Work
In d u stria l firms w a n t to receive
raw materials and deliver custom ers’
goods prom ptly, safely, and with
minimum cost. Arranging for the
transportation of materials and fin­
ished products is the job of an indus­
trial traffic manager. Industrial traf­
fic m a n a g e r s a n a ly z e v a r io u s
tr a n s p o r ta t io n p o s s ib ilitie s an d
choose the m ost efficient type for
th eir c o m p a n ie s’ n e e d s—rail, air,
road, water, pipeline, or some com bi­
nation. Then they select the route
and the particular carrier. To make
their decision, traffic m anagers con­
sider factors such as freight classifi­
c a tio n s an d re g u la tio n s , fre ig h t
charges, time schedules, size of ship­
ments, and loss and damage ratios.
(This statem ent does not cover traf­
fic managers who sell transportation
services for railroads, airlines, tru ck ­
ing firms, and other freight carriers.)


Activities of industrial traffic m an­
agers range from checking freight
bills to deciding w hether the com pa­
ny should buy its own fleet of rail
cars or trucks or contract for servic­
es. They route and trace shipments,
arrange with carriers for transporta­
tion services, prepare bills of lading
and other shipping docum ents, and
handle claim s for lost or dam aged
goods. Traffic m anagers keep re c ­
ords of shipments, freight rates, com ­
modity classifications, and applicable
governm ent regulations. They also
must stay informed about changing
transportation technology.
Traffic managers often consult
with other company officials about
the firm ’s transportation needs. They
may, for example, work with produc­
tion d epartm ent personnel to plan
shipping schedules, or with m embers

of the purchasing departm ent to d e­


Some traffic managers work for co n ­
sulting firms that handle transporta­
tion problems for clients; a few run
their own consulting businesses.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

termine what quantities of goods can
be transported most economically.
Since many aspects of transporta­
tion are subject to Federal, State, and
local governm ent regulations, traffic
managers must know about these and
any other legal m atters that apply to
th e ir c o m p a n ie s’ shipping o p e ra ­
tions. High level traffic m anagers
re p resen t th eir co m panies b efo re
ratem aking and regulatory bodies
such as th e In te rsta te C om m erce
Commission, State commissions, and
local traffic bureaus.

Places of Employment
More than 21,000 persons were
involved in industrial traffic m anage­
m ent in 1976. Although most jobs
are found in m anufacturing firm s,
som e tra ffic m a n a g e rs w ork fo r
wholesalers or for large retail stores.

Although high school graduates
with experience in traffic d e p a rt­
ments sometimes are hired as traffic
managers, a college education is in­
creasingly im portant in this field. For
some kinds of work, college training
is required. To argue cases before the
Interstate C om m erce C om m ission,
for example, a traffic m anager m ust
m eet standards that include at least 2
years of college. Som e em ployers
p refer g rad u ates o f tech n ical and
trade school programs in traffic m an­
agem ent. O thers seek college and
university graduates who have either
majored, or taken courses, in trans­
portation, logistics, physical distribu­
tion, m anagem ent, economics, statis­
tics, m arketing, com puter science,
and com m ercial law.
Industrial traffic training is avail­
able through colleges and universi­
ties, technical and trade schools, and
sem inars sponsored by professional
associations. More than 100 colleges
and universities offer program s or
courses in traffic m anagem ent. C ol­
lege courses in this field often are
offered as part of a m ajor program in
business adm inistration. In some col­
leges and universities, however, traf­
fic m anagem ent is taught in dep art­
ments o f logistics, transportation, or
m arketing and distribution. In addi­
tion to degree programs at the asso­
ciate, baccalau reate, and graduate
levels, a num ber of colleges and uni­
versities offer workshops, seminars,
and o th er short-term program s in
transportation and traffic m anage­
Industrial traffic m anagers should
be able to analyze num erical and
technical data such as freight rates
and classifications to solve transpor­
tatio n problem s. T he job also re ­
quires the ability to work indepen­
d en tly and to p re s e n t fa c ts an d
figures in a convincing m anner.
Newly hired traffic specialists of­
ten com plete shipping d ocum en ts
and calculate freight charges. After
gaining experience, they do m ore
te c h n ic a l work such as analyzing



transportation statistics. A com pe­
tent worker may advance to a super­
visory job such as supervisor of rates
and routes; a few are prom oted to
assistant traffic m anager and eventu­
ally to traffic m anager. Industrial
traffic managers can sometimes help
their chances for advancem ent by
participating in com pany-sponsored
tra in in g p ro g ram s o r tak in g a d ­
vanced courses in traffic m anage­
ment. A growing num ber are certi­
fied by th e A m erican Society of
Traffic and Transportation, Inc.

Employment Outlook
Industrial traffic m anagem ent is a
relatively small occupation and is ex­
pected to grow about as fast as the
average for all occupations through
the m id-1980’s. Openings will occur
each year as new jobs are created,
and as traffic managers die, retire, or
leave the field for other reasons. Col­
lege graduates with a major in traffic
m anagem ent or transportation can
ex p ect first consid eration for the
available jobs.
Growth in the occupation will stem
from an increasing emphasis on re­
ducing the cost of receiving raw m a­
terials and distributing finished prod­
u c ts . As th e d is ta n c e b e tw e e n
m arkets becom es g reater and rate
schedules and regulations governing
transportation more complex, m anu­
facturers increasingly will require the

Sources of Additional
Answers to specific questions
about a career in traffic m anagem ent
are available from:
American Society of Traffic and Transporta­
tion, Inc., 547 West Jackson Blvd., Chica­
go, III. 60606.

For a list of colleges, universities,
and technical institutes that offer in­
struction in transportation and relat­
ed areas, see: Directory o f Transpor­
tation Education, published in 1976
by the U.S. D epartm ent of Transpor­
tation (W ashington, D.C., U.S. Gov­
ernm ent Printing Office). The direc­
tory is available in many school and
public libraries.
For a copy of the American T ruck­
ing A ssociation’s Directory o f Trans­
portation Education in U.S. Colleges
and Universities, write:
American Trucking Associations, Inc., 1616 P
St. NW„ Washington, D.C. 20036.

For inform ation on p ro p rietary
schools that offer programs in traffic
m anagem ent, contact:
National Association of Trade and Technical
Schools, 2021 L St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 1 10.108, .118, and
1 19.168)

e x p e r tise o f th e tra ffic m a n a g er.

Earnings and Working
Industrial traffic specialists’ sala­
ries started at about $ 1 1,000 a year
in 1976, according to the limited in­
formation available. Although earn­
ings of experienced traffic managers
vary, in general they are much higher
than the average for all nonsupervisory workers in private industry, ex­
cept farming. Some traffic executives
earned $50,000 a year or more.
Although industrial traffic m anag­
ers usually have a standard w ork­
week, some of them have to spend
time outside regular working hours
preparing reports, attending m eet­
ings, and traveling to hearings before
State and Federal regulatory agen­

Laws perm eate every aspect of our
society. T hey reg u late the en tire
spectrum of relationships among in­
dividuals, groups, businesses, and
governm ents. They define rights as
well as restrictions, covering such di­
verse hum an activities as judging and
punishing crim inals, granting p a t­
ents, drawing up business contracts,
paying taxes, settling labor disputes,
constructing buildings, and adm inis­
tering wills.
Because social needs and attitudes
are continually changing, the legal
system that regulates our social, p o ­
litical, and econom ic relationships
also is subject to change. The task of
keeping the law responsive to hum an
needs is the work of lawyers. Also
called attorneys, lawyers are the link
between the legal system and society.
To perform this role, they must un­

derstand the world around them and
be sensitive to the num erous aspects
of society that are touched by the
law. They must com prehend not only
the words of a particular statute, but
the human circum stances it address­
es as well.
As our body of laws grows more
voluminous and complex, as the legal
system takes on new regulatory tasks
in social welfare, racial integration,
energy conservation, and other
areas, the work of lawyers takes on
wider significance.

Nature of the Work
Lawyers perform a wide variety of
tasks, but certain basic activities are
common to nearly every attorney’s
work. Probably the most fundam ent­
al of all is interpretation of the law.
Every attorney, w hether representing
the defendant in a m urder trial or the
plaintiff (suing party) in a lawsuit,
com bines an understanding of the
relevant laws with knowledge of the
facts in the particular case in order to
determ ine how the first affects the
second. Based on this determ ination,
the attorney decides what courses of
action would best serve the interests
of the party he or she represents.
In order to interpret the law
knowledgeably, lawyers do research.
They must stay abreast of their field,
in both legal and nonlegal matters.
An attorney representing electronics
m anufacturers, for example, must
follow trade journals as well as the
latest Federal regulations affecting
his or her clients. A ttorneys in the
State D epartm ent must remain wellversed in current events and interna­
tional law, while divorce lawyers
spend a certain portion of their time
reading about the changing role of
the family in m odern society. Re­
search also includes specific, indepth reading on the legal questions
or substantive m atters of an individ­
ual case. In any event, the o v e r­
whelming volume of literature to be
digested requires a lawyer to conduct
research efficiently, quickly picking
out and evaluating the substance o f a
particular article or court case.
Usually a law yer’s work also in­
volves contact with people. A tto r­
neys consult with their clients to de­
termine the details o f their specific



problem s, advise them of the law,
and suggest actions that m ight or
must be taken. To be effective, a law­
yer learns to deal with people in a
courteous, efficient fashion.
Finally, most lawyers must do
some writing in the course of their
work. This may take the form of
reports, legal briefs, or adm inistra­
tive paperwork. In all cases, the at­
torney calls upon his or her ability to
com m unicate clearly and precisely.
The m ore detailed aspects of the
legal profession depend upon the
lawyer’s individual Field and position.
Most lawyers are engaged in general
practice and handle all kinds o f legal
work for clients. They counsel the
individual who wants to buy proper­
ty, make a will, sign a contract, or
settle an estate. These lawyers per­
form whatever tasks are necessary to
help their client comply with the law.
A significant num ber specialize in
one branch of law, such as corporate,
criminal, labor, patent, real estate,
tax, or international law. C om m uni­
cations lawyers, for exam ple, may
rep resent radio and television sta­
tions in their dealings with the Feder­
al C o m m u n ic a tio n s C om m ission
(F C C ). They help established sta­
tions prepare and file license renewal
ap p licatio n s, em ploym ent reports,
and other docum ents required by the
FCC on a regular basis. They also
keep their clients informed of chang­
es in FCC regulations. C om m unica­
tions lawyers give similar assistance
to individuals or corporations wish­
ing to buy or sell a station or establish
a new one.
O ther lawyers specialize in repre­
senting public utilities before the
Federal Pow er Commission (F P C )
and other regulatory agencies. For
example, they handle m atters involv­
ing th e re a so n a b le n e ss o f utility
rates. They help a firm develop its
case, assist in preparing strategy, a r­
guments, and testimony, prepare the
case for presentation at a trial or ad­
ministrative hearing, and argue the
case. These lawyers also keep clients
inform ed about changes in regula­
tions and advise them as to the legal­
ity of their actions.
Private practitioners specialize in
other areas, too. Some draw up wills,
trusts, contracts, mortgages, and o th ­
er legal docum ents; conduct out-of­

Corporate lawyers reviewing legal matters pertaining to the company.

court negotiations; and do investiga­
tive and other legal work to prepare
for trials. Some may act as trustees
by managing a person’s property and
funds, or as executors by seeing that
the provisions of their client’s will are
carried out. A small num ber of law­
yers devote them selves entirely to
courtroom work. An increasing num ­
ber handle only so-called public in­
terest cases. These cases, either civil
or crim inal, have a potential im pact
extending well beyond the individual
clien t. A tto rn ey s who take th ese
cases hope to use them as a vehicle
for legal and social reform.
Some lawyers are em ployed full
time by a single client. Known as
house counsel, these lawyers usually
work for a corporate firm, advising
and acting on legal questions th at
arise from the com pany’s business
activities. These questions may in­
volve patents for new productions,
FTC regulations, a business contract
with another com pany, or a collec­
tive bargaining ag reem en t with a
A ttorneys em ployed at the various
levels of governm ent constitute still

another category. Criminal lawyers
may work in the office of a State
attorney general; they also may be
employed by a prosecutor’s or public
defender’s office, or by the court
itself. At the Federal level, attorneys
perform investigations for the Justice
D epartm ent and regulatory agencies.
Lawyers at every level of governm ent
also help develop laws and programs;
they prepare drafts o f proposed legis­
latio n , establish law en fo rce m e n t
procedures, and argue cases.
Many people who have legal train ­
ing do not work as lawyers but use
their knowledge of law in other occu­
pations. They may, for example, be
journalists, m anagem ent consultants,
financial analysts, insurance claim
adjusters, tax collectors, probation
officers, and credit investigators. A
legal background also is an asset to
those seeking or holding public of­

Places of Employment
About 396,000 persons worked as
lawyers in 1976. Almost threefourths of them , 280,000, practiced
privately, with about 40 percent in


solo practice and the other 60 per­
cent working in law firms. Of the re­
m aining 116,000, ab out one-third
were employed as house counsel by
various business firms; one-fourth
worked in the Federal Governm ent;
the rem ainder held positions in State
and local government. In addition,
about 8,000 lawyers taught full or
part time in law schools. Some sala­
ried lawyers also have independent
practices; others do legal work part
time while in another occupation.

Although there is no nationwide
bar exam, most States and the Dis­
trict of Columbia participate in the
M ultistate Bar Examination (M BE).
The MBE, covering issues of broad
interest, is given in addition to the
State bar exam; how the MBE score
is treated varies from State to State.
The required college and law
school education usually takes 7
years of full-time study after high
school—4 years of undergraduate
study followed by 3 years in law
school. Although a num ber of law
schools accept students after 3 years
Training, Other Qualifications,
of college, an increasing num ber re­
and Advancement
quire applicants to have a bachelor’s
In order to practice law in the degree. To m eet the needs of stu­
courts of any State, a person must be dents who can attend only part time,
admitted to its bar. Applicants for a num ber of law schools have night
admission to the bar must pass a or part-tim e divisions which usually
written examination; however, a few require 4 years of study. In 1976,
States drop this requirem ent for about one-fifth of all graduates of
graduates of their own law schools. A B A -approved schools were partLawyers who have been adm itted to time students.
Com petition for admission to law
the bar in one State occasionally may
be admitted in another without tak­ school has become intense in the last
ing an exam ination provided they few years. Enrollments rose very rap­
m eet that S tate’s standards of good idly between 1969 and 1972, and,
moral character and have a specified according to one estim ate, applica­
period of legal experience. Each Fed­ tions outnum bered available open­
eral co u rt or agency sets its own ings by almost 10 to 1 in the midqualifications for those practicing be­ 1970’s. Although the increase in en ­
rollments is expected to slow by the
fore it.
To qualify for the bar examination 1980’s, law school admission will re­
in most States, an applicant must main the first of several hurdles for
have com pleted 3 years of college prospective lawyers.
Preparation for a career as a law­
and have graduated from a law
school approved by the American yer really begins in college. Although
Bar Association (ABA) or the proper there is no such thing as a “ prelaw
State authorities. (ABA approval sig­ m ajor,” the undergraduate program
nifies that the law school m eets the alm ost always m akes a difference.
minimum standards necessary to al­ Certain courses and activities are d e­
low its g rad u ates to take the bar sirable because they give the student
exam and practice law in any State. the skills needed to succeed both in
G raduates of nonapproved schools law school and in the profession. Es­
are restricted to the State in which sential skills—the ability to write, to
the school is located.) A few States read and analyse, to think conceptu­
accept the study of law wholly in a ally and logically, and to com m uni­
law office or in com bination with cate verbally—are learn ed during
study in a law school; only California high school and college. The best un­
accepts the study of law by corre­ dergraduate program is one that cul­
spondence as qualification for taking tivates these skills while at the same
the bar exam. Several States require time broadening the student’s view of
registration and approval of students the world. Majors in the social sci­
by the State Board of Examiners, ei­ ences, natural sciences, and hum an­
ther before they enter law school or ities all fill the bill, as long as the
during the early years o f legal study. student does not specialize too nar­
In a few States, candidates must com ­ rowly.
Students interested in a particular
plete clerkships before they are ad­
aspect of the law may find it helpful
mitted to the


to take related courses; for example,
engineering and science courses for
the prospective patent attorney, and
accounting for the future tax lawyer.
In addition, typing is advisable simply
for convenience in law school.
A cceptance by most law schools
depends on the applicant’s ability to
dem onstrate an aptitude for the
study of law, usually through good
grades and the Law School Admis­
sion Test (LSA T), adm inistered by
the Educational Testing Service. In
1976, 163 law schools had American
Bar Association approval. O thers—
ch iefly n ig h t s c h o o ls —w ere a p ­
proved by State authorities only.
The first year or year and a half of
law school generally is devoted to
fundam ental courses such as consti­
tutional law, contracts, property law,
and judicial procedure. In the re ­
maining time, students may elect spe­
cialized courses in fields such as tax,
labor, or corporation law. Practical
experience often is acquired by p ar­
ticipation in school-sponsored legal
aid activities, in the school’s practice
court where students conduct trials
under the supervision of experienced
lawyers, and through writing on legal
issues for the school’s law journal.
G raduates receive the degree of juris
doctor (J.D .) from most schools as
the first professional degree. A d­
vanced study often is desirable for
those planning to specialize, do re­
search, or teach in law schools.
The practice of law involves a
great deal of responsibility. Persons
planning careers in law should like to
work with people and ideas, and be
able to win the confidence of their
Most beginning lawyers start in
salaried positions, although some go
into independent practice im m edi­
ately after passing the bar examina­
tion. Newly hired salaried attorneys
usually act as research assistants (law
clerks) to experienced lawyers or
judges. A fter several years of p ro ­
gressively responsible salaried em ­
p lo y m en t, m any law yers go into
practice for themselves. Some law­
yers, after years of practice, become

Employment Outlook
A rapid increase in the num ber of
law school graduates has created



keen com petition for the available
jobs. In the years ahead, the num ber
of graduates is expected to increase
further and intensify this com peti­
Employers will be selective in hir­
ing new lawyers. G raduates of wellknown law schools and those who
rank high in their classes should find
salaried positions with law firms, on
the legal staffs of corporations and
go v ern m en t agen cies, and as law
clerks for judges. G raduates of less
prom inent schools and those with
lower scholastic ratings will experi­
ence some difficulty in finding sala­
ried jobs. However, many will find
opportunities in fields where legal
training is an asset but not normally a
requirem ent.
The em ploym ent of lawyers is ex­
pected to grow faster than the aver­
age for o th er occupations through
the m id-1980’s as increased business
activity and population create a de­
mand for attorneys to deal with a
growing num ber of legal questions.
Supreipe C ourt decisions extending
the right to counsel for persons ac­
cused of lesser crimes, the growth of
legal action in the areas of consum er
p ro te c tio n , the en v iro n m e n t, and
safety, and an expected increase in
the use of legal services by middleincome g ro u p s th ro u g h p rep a id legal
service program s also should provide
em p lo y m en t o p p o rtu n itie s. O th er
jobs will be created by the need to
replace lawyers who die, retire, or
leave the occupation for other rea­
Prospects for establishing a new
practice probably will continue to be
best in small towns and expanding
suburban areas, as long as there al­
ready exists an active m arket for le­
gal services in which the new lawyer
can find clients. In such communities
com petition is likely to be less than in
big cities and new lawyers may find it
easier to becom e known to potential
clients; also, rent and other business
costs are som ewhat lower. N everthe­
less, starting a new practice will re­
main an expensive and risky proposi­
t i o n t h a t s h o u ld b e w e ig h e d
carefully. Salaried positions will be
limited largely to urban areas where
the chief employers o f legal talent—
governm ent agencies, law firms, and
Digitized forcorporations—are concentrated.

Earnings and Working
Lawyers entering practice in 1976
earned a wide range of starting sala­
ries—from about $10,000 to $23,000
a year. M ost fell in the $15,000 to
$18,000 range. Factors affecting the
salaries offered to new graduates in­
clude: their academ ic records; type,
size, and location of their employers;
and whether the new lawyer has any
specialized educational background
that the em ployer requires. The field
of law makes a difference, too. P at­
ent law yers, for exam ple, tend to
earn more than general corporate a t­
to rn ey s. Law yers w ith at least a
year’s experience working in m anu­
facturing and business firms earned
about $18,000 a year; those with a
few y e a rs o f e x p e rie n c e e a rn e d
$30,000 or m ore annually. In the
Federal Governm ent, annual starting
salaries for attorneys in 1977 were
$14,097 or $17,056, depending upon
academ ic and p erso n al q u alifica­
tions. Federal attorneys with some
experience earned $24,308 or m ore
a year.
Beginning lawyers engaged in le­
gal-aid work usually receive the low­
est startin g salaries. New law yers
starting their own practices may earn
little more than expenses during the
first few years and may need to work
part time in other occupations.
L aw y ers on salary re c e iv e in ­
creases as they assume greater re ­
sponsibility. Incom es of lawyers in
private practice usually grow as their
practices develop. Private practition­
ers who are partners in law firms gen­
erally ea rn m ore th an those who
practice alone.
Lawyers often work long hours
and are under considerable pressure
when a case is being tried. In addi­
tion, they must keep abreast of the
latest laws and court decisions. How­
ever, since lawyers in private prac­
tice can determ ine their own hours
and workload, many stay in practice
well past the usual retirem ent age.

Sources of Additional
Persons considering law as a c a ­
reer will find inform ation on law
schools and prelaw study in the Pre­
law Handbook, published annually
(P rinceton, N.J.: Educational T est­

ing Service). Copies may be available
in public or school libraries. In addi­
tion, many colleges and universities
have a prelaw advisor who counsels
undergraduates about their un d er­
graduate course work, the LSAT, law
school applications, and other m at­
Information on law schools and
law as a career is available from:
Information Services, The American Bar As­
sociation, 1155 East 60th St., Chicago, 11 .
60637. (There may be a slight charge for

Information on law school accredi­
tation is available from:
Association of American Law Schools, Suite
370, 1 Dupont Circle NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.

For advice on financial aid, co n ­
tact a law school financial aid officer.
The specific requirem ents for ad­
mission to the bar in a particu lar
State may be obtained at the State
capital from the clerk of the Supreme
C ourt or the secretary of the Board
of Bar Examiners.

(D.O.T. 050.088)

Nature of the Work
Businesses require a great deal of
information to make sound decisions
on how to m arket their products.
M arketing research workers provide
much of this information by analyz­
ing available data on products and
sales. If additional inform ation is re­
quired but not available, they con­
d u ct m arketing surveys, by in te r­
view ing th o se likely to have the
needed data. They also prepare sales
fo recasts and m ake reco m m en d a­
tions on product design and advertis­
Most m arketing research starts
with the collection of facts from
sources such as com pany records,
published m aterials, and experts on
the subject under investigation. For
exam ple, m arketing research w ork­
ers making sales forecasts may begin
by studying the growth of sales vol­
ume in several different cities. This
grow th may then be traced to in­
creases in p o p u latio n , size of the



com pany’s sales force, or am ount of
money spent on advertising. O ther
m ark etin g re se a rc h w orkers may
study changes in the quantity of com ­
pany goods on store shelves or make
door-to-door surveys to get informa­
tion on com pany products.
M arketing research workers often
are concerned with custom ers’ opin­
ions and tastes. For example, to help
decide on the design and price of a
new line of television sets, marketing
research w orkers may survey con­
sumers to find out what styles and
price ranges are most popular. This
type of survey usually is supervised
by m arketing researchers who spe­
cialize in consum er goods; that is,
m erchandise sold to the general pub­
lic. They may be helped by statisti­
cians who select a group (or sample)
to be interviewed and “ motivational
re s e a rc h ” sp ecialists who phrase
questions to produce reliable infor­
mation. Once the investigation is un­
derw ay, the m ark etin g researcher
may supervise the interview ers as
well as direct the office workers who
tabulate and analyze the information
M arketing surveys on products
used by business and industrial firms
may be conducted differently from
surveys for consum er goods. M arket­
Digitized forresearchers often conduct the in­

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

terviews themselves to gather opin­
ions of the product. They also may
speak to com pany officials about
new uses for it. They must therefore
have specialized knowledge of both
marketing techniques and the indus­
trial uses of the product.

Places of Employment
About 25,000 full-time m arketing
research workers were employed in
1976. M ost jobs for m arketing re ­
search workers are found in m anu­
fa c tu rin g co m p a n ie s, ad v e rtisin g
agencies, and independent research
organizations. Large num bers are
employed by stores, radio and televi­
sion firms, and newspapers; others
work for university research centers
and governm ent agencies. M arketing
research organizations range in size
from one-person enterprises to firms
with a hundred employees or more.
New York City has a large num ber
of m arketing research workers.
Many m ajor advertising agencies, in­
dependent m arketing organizations,
and central offices of large m anufac­
tu rers are located th ere. A nother
large co n centration is in C hicago.
However, marketing research w ork­
ers are employed in many other cities
as well—w herever there are central
offices of large m anufacturing and
sales organizations.

Although a bachelor’s degree usu­
ally is sufficient for trainees, gradu­
ate education is necessary for many
specialized positions in marketing re­
search. G raduate study usually is re­
quired for advancem ent, and a siz­
able num ber of m arket researchers
have a m aster’s degree in business
administration or other graduate de­
gree as well as a bachelor’s degree in
marketing. Some people qualify for
jobs through previous experience in
o th er types of research; university
teachers of m arketing or statistics,
for example, may be hired to head
m arketing research departm ents in
business firms or advertising agen­
B achelor’s programs in marketing
and related fields, including courses
in statistics, English composition,
speech, psychology, and economics,
are valuable preparation for work in
marketing research. Some marketing
research positions require special­
ized skills such as engineering, or
substantial sales experience and a
thorough knowledge of the com pa­
n y ’s products. Knowledge of d ata
processing is helpful because of the
increasing use of com puters in sales
forecasting, distribution, and cost
College graduates may find their
first job in any of a num ber of places:
in the m arket research departm ent of
a large company, with a research
firm, in a governm ent planning
agency, or even in a university m ar­
keting departm ent.
Trainees usually start as research
assistants or junior analysts. At first,
they may do considerable clerical
work, such as copying data from pub­
lished sources, editing and coding
questionnaires, and tabulating survey
returns. They also learn to conduct
interviews and write reports on sur­
vey findings. As they gain experi­
ence, assistants and junior analysts
may assume responsibility for specif­
ic m arketing research projects, or ad­
vance to supervisory positions. An
exceptionally able w orker may be­
come m arketing research director or
vice p re sid e n t for m arketing and



Either alone or as part of a team ,
marketing research workers must be
able to analyze problems objectively
and apply various techniques to their
solution. As advisers to m anagem ent,
they should be able to write clear
reports informing company officials
of their findings.

Employment Outlook
Opportunities should be best for
applicants with graduate training in
marketing research or statistics. The
growing complexity of m arketing re­
search techniques also may expand
o p p ortunities in this field for psy­
chologists, economists, and other so­
cial scientists.
M arketing research em ploym ent
rises as new products and services
are developed, particularly when
business activity and personal in­
comes are expanding rapidly. In pe­
riods of slow economic growth, how­
e v e r, th e r e d u c e d d e m a n d fo r
marketing services may limit the hir­
ing of research workers.
Over the long run, population
growth and the increased variety of
goods and services that businesses
and individuals will require are ex­
pected to stimulate a high level of
marketing activity. As a result, em ­
p lo y m e n t o f m a rk e tin g re se a rc h
workers is expected to grow much
faster than the average for o th er
occupations through the m id-1980’s.
C om petition am ong m anufactur­
ers of both consum er and industrial
products will make the appraising of
marketing situations increasingly im­
portant. As techniques improve and
statistical data accum ulate, company
officials are likely to turn more often
to m arketing research workers for in­
formation and advice.

Earnings and Working
Salaries for m arketing research
trainees were about $11,000 a year
in 1976, according to the limited
information available. Persons with
m aster’s degrees in business adminis­
tra tio n and related fields usually
started with salaries around $15,000
a year. Starting salaries varied ac­
cording to the type, size, and location
of the firm as well as the exact nature
of the position. G enerally, though,

starting salaries were som ewhat high­

er and prom otion som ewhat slower
than in other occupations requiring
similar training.
Experienced workers such as sen­
ior analysts received salaries over
$19,000 a year. Earnings were high­
est, however, for workers in m anage­
ment positions of great responsibil­
ity. D irectors of m arketing research
earned well over $25,000 a year in
M arketing research workers usual­
ly work in m odern, centrally located
offices. Some, especially those em ­
p loyed by in d e p e n d e n t re se a rc h
firm s, m ay trav el for th eir w ork.
Also, they may frequently work un­
der pressure and for long hours to
m eet deadlines.

Sources of Additional
A pam phlet, “ C areers in M arket­
ing” (M onograph Series No. 4), may
be purchased for $1.50 from:
American Marketing Association, 222 South
Riverside Plaza, Chicago, 1 60606.

(D.O.T. 166.088 through .268;

Nature of the Work
Attracting the best employees
available and m atching them to the
jobs they can do best is im portant for
the success of any organization. T o ­
day, most businesses are much too
large for close contact between own­
ers and their employees. Instead, p er­
sonnel and labor relations workers
provide the link betw een m anage­
m ent and em ployees—assisting m an­
agement to make effective use of em ­
p lo y e e s ’ s k ills , a n d h e lp in g
employees to find satisfaction in their
jobs and w orking co n d itio n s. A l­
though some jobs in this field require
only limited contact with people o u t­
side the office, most involve frequent
contact with other people. Dealing
with people is an essential part of the
Personnel workers and labor rela­
tions workers concentrate on differ­

en t aspects of em ployer-em ployee
relations. Personnel w orkers in ter­
view, select, and recom m end appli­
cants to fill job openings. They han­
dle wage and salary adm inistration,
train in g and c a re e r d evelopm en t,
and employee benefits. “ Labor rela­
tions” usually means union-m anage­
m ent relations, and people who spe­
cialize in this field work for the m ost
part in unionized business firms and
governm ent agencies. They help offi­
cials prepare for collective bargain­
ing sessions, participate in contract
negotiations with the union, and h an ­
dle labor relations m atters that com e
up every day.
In a small com pany, personnel
work consists mostly of interviewing
and hiring, and one person usually
can handle it all. By contrast, a large
organization needs an entire staff,
which might include recruiters, inter­
view ers, co unselors, jo b analysts,
wage and salary analysts, education
and training specialists, and labor re­
lations specialists, as well as techni­
cal and clerical workers.
Personnel work often begins with
the personnel recruiter or employment
interviewer (D.O.T. 166.268), who
works on a person-to-person basis
with p re sen t and prospective em ­
ployees. Recruiters travel around the
country, often to college campuses,
in the search for promising job appli­
cants. Interviewers talk to applicants,
and selec t and recom m end those
who appear qualified to fill vacan­
cies. They often adm inister tests to
applicants and interpret the results.
H iring and p la c e m e n t sp ec ia lists
need to be thoroughly familiar with
the organization and its personnel
policies, for they m ust be prepared to
discuss wages, working conditions,
and prom otional opportunities with
prospective and newly hired em ploy­
ees. They also need to keep informed
about equal em ploym ent opportunity
and affirm ative action guidelines.
Equal em ploym ent opportunity is a
com plex and sensitive area of p e r­
sonnel work which in some large o r­
ganizations is h an d led by special
EEO counselors or coordinators. The
w ork o f e m p lo y m en t co u n se lo rs,
which is similar in a num ber of ways,
is described in a separate statem ent
elsewhere in the Handbook.



Knowledge of rules and reg u la­
Job analysts (D.O.T. 166.068) and bility of the personnel departm ent—
salary and wage administrators or of the labor relations specialist, if tions pertaining to affirmative action
(D.O.T. 169.118) do very exacting the union has a safety representative. and equal opportunity program s is
work. Job analysts collect and ana­ In creasin g ly , h o w ever, th e re is a im portant in public personnel work.
lyze detailed information on jobs, job separate safety departm ent under the In 1972, the U.S. Civil Service C om ­
qualifications, and worker character­ direction of a safety and health p ro ­ mission established a specialization
istics in order to prepare job descrip­ fessional, generally a safety engineer for Federal personnel workers co n ­
tions, sometimes called position clas­ or industrial hygienist. (The work o f cerned with prom oting equal oppor­
sifications, that tell exactly what the occupational safety and health w ork­ tunity in hiring, training, and a d ­
duties of a job are and what training ers is discussed elsew here in the v a n c e m e n t. S im ilar a tte n tio n to
equal em ploym ent opportunity, ac­
and skills it requires. W henever a Handbook.)
Labor relations specialists (D.O.T. com panied by a need for qualified
government agency or large business
firm introduces a new job or evalu­ 169.118) advise m anagem ent on all staff, is evident in State and local
ates existing ones, it calls upon the aspects o f union-m anagem ent rela­ governm ent agencies.
Labor relations is an increasingly
expert knowledge of the job analyst. tions. W hen the contract is up for
Accurate information about job du­ n e g o tia tio n , th ey p ro v id e b a c k ­ im portant specialty in public person­
ground info rm ation and technical nel adm inistration. Labor relations in
ties also is req u ired when a firm
evaluates its pay system and consid­ support, a job that requires extensive this field have changed considerably
ers changes in wages and salaries. Es­ knowledge of economics, labor law, in re cen t years, as union strength
tablishing and maintaining pay sys­ and collective bargaining trends. A c­ am ong g o v e rn m e n t w o rk e rs has
tem s is the principal job of wage tual negotiation of the agreem ent is grown. This has created a need for
administrators. They devise ways of conducted at the top level, with the more and better trained workers to
making sure that pay rates within the director of labor relations or other handle negotiations, grievances, and
firm are fair and equitable, and con­ top-ranking official serving as the arbitration cases on behalf of F eder­
duct surveys to see how their pay em ployer’s representative, but m em ­ al, State, and local governm ent agen­
rates com pare with those elsewhere. bers of the com pany’s labor relations cies.
Being sure that the firm ’s pay system staff play an im portant role through­
Places of Employment
complies with laws and regulations is out the negotiations.
Much o f the everyday work of the
another part of the job, one that re­
In 1976, about 335,000 people
quires knowledge of com pensation labor relations staff concerns inter­ were personnel and labor relations
pretation and adm inistration of the workers. Nearly 3 out of 4 worked in
structures and labor law.
Training specialists supervise or contract, the grievance procedures in private industry, for m anufacturers,
conduct training sessions, prepare particular. Members of the labor re ­ banks, insurance com panies, airlines,
manuals and other materials for lations staff m ight w ork with the departm ent stores, and other busi­
these courses, and look into new union on seniority rights under the ness concerns. Some worked for pri­
methods of training. They also coun­ layoff procedure set forth in the con­ vate em ploym ent agencies, including
sel employees on training opportuni­ tract, for example. Later in the day, executive job-search agencies, “ of­
ties, which may include on-the-job, they might m eet with the union stew­ fice tem poraries” agencies, and o th ­
apprentice, supervisory, or m anage­ ard a b o u t a w o rk e r’s g riev a n ce. ers.
Doing the job well m eans staying
ment training.
A large num ber of personnel and
Employee-benefits supervisors and abreast o f current developm ents in labor relations workers, over 90,000
other personnel specialists handle labor law, including arbitration deci­ in 1976, worked for Federal, State,
the em ployer’s benefits program, sions, and maintaining continuing li­ and local governm ent agencies. M ost
which often includes health insur­ aison with union officials.
of these were in personnel adminis­
Personnel workers in governm ent tration; they handled recruitm ent, in­
ance, life insurance, disability insur­
ance, and pension plans. These work­ agencies generally do the same kind terviewing, testing, job classification,
ers also coordinate a wide range of of work as those in large business training, and other personnel m atters
employee services, including cafete­ firms. There are some differences, for the N atio n ’s 15 million public
rias and snack bars, health rooms, however. Public personnel workers employees. Some were on the staff of
re c re a tio n a l facilities, new sletters deal with employees whose jobs are the U.S. Em ploym ent Service and
and com m unications, and counseling governed by civil service regulations. State em ploym ent agencies. Still o th ­
for work-related personal problems. Civil service jobs are strictly classi­ ers worked for agencies that oversee
Counseling em ployees who are ap­ fied as to duties, training, and pay. com pliance with labor laws. Some,
proaching retirem ent age is a partic­ This requires a great deal of em pha­ for example, were wage-hour com pli­
ularly im portant part of the job of sis on job analysis and wage and sal­ ance officers; their work is described
ary classification; m any people in in another part of the Handbook, in
these workers.
public personnel work spend their the statem ent on health and regula­
O ccupational safety and health
programs are handled in various time classifying and evaluating jobs, tory inspectors (G overnm ent). O ther
ways. Quite often, in small com pa­ or devising, adm inistering, and scor­ public employees in this field carried
ing com petitive exam inations given out research in econom ics, labor law,
nies especially, accident prevention
Digitized forindustrial safety are the responsi­
to job applicants.
personnel practices, and related sub­


jects, and sought new ways of ensur­
ing that w orkers’ rights under the law
are understood and protected.
In com parison with private indus­
try, labor unions do not employ a
la rg e n u m b e r o f p ro f e s s io n a lly
trained labor relations workers. An
elected union official generally han­
dles labor relations m atters at the
company level. At national and inter­
national union h ead q u arters, how ­
ever, th e re searc h and ed u catio n
staff usually includes specialists with
a degree in industrial and labor rela­
tions, economics, or law.
A few personnel and labor rela­
tions w orkers are in business for
them selves as m anagem ent consul­
tants or labor-m anagem ent relations
experts. In addition, some people in
the field teach college or university
courses in personnel adm inistration,
industrial relations, and related sub­
Most jobs for personnel and labor
relations workers are located in the
highly industrialized sections of the

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Many employers seek to fill begin­
ning positions in personnel and labor
re la tio n s w ith co lleg e g ra d u a te s.
Some employers look for graduates
who have m ajored in personnel ad­
m inistration or industrial and labor
relations, while others prefer college
g rad u ates with a gen eral business
background. Still o th er em ployers
feel that a well-rounded liberal arts
education is the best preparation for
personnel work. A college m ajor in
personnel adm in istration, political
science, or public adm inistration can
be an asset in looking for a job with a
governm ent agency.
At least 200 colleges and universi­
ties have program s leading to a de­
gree in the field o f personnel and
labor relations. (W hile personnel ad­
m in istratio n is widely taught, the
num ber of programs that focus pri­
m arily on labor relatio n s is quite
small.) In addition, many schools of­
fer course work in closely related
fields. An in terd iscip lin ary b a c k ­
ground is appropriate for work in this
area, and a com bination of courses in
Digitized for social sciences, behavioral sci­


ences, business, and econom ics is
Prospective personnel workers
might include courses in personnel
m anagem ent, business adm inistra­
tion, public adm inistration, psychol­
ogy, sociology, political science, eco­
nom ics, and statistics. C ourses in
labor law, collective bargaining, la­
bor economics, labor history, and in­
dustrial psychology provide valuable
backgound for the prospective labor
relations worker.
G raduate study in industrial or la­
bor relations is often required for
work in labor relations. While a law
degree seldom is required for jobs at
the entry level, most of the people
with responsibility for contract nego­
tiations are lawyers, and a com bina­
tion of industrial relations courses
and a law degree is becoming highly
A college education is im portant,
but it is not the only way to enter
personnel work. Some people enter
the field at the clerical level, and
advance to professional positions on
the basis of experience. They often
find it helpful to take college courses
part time, however.
New personnel workers usually en ­
ter formal or on-the-job training p ro ­
grams to learn how to classify jobs,
interview applicants, or adm inister
employee benefits. After the training
period, new workers are assigned to
specific areas in the com pany’s em ­
ployee relations departm ent. A fter
gaining experience, they usually can
advance within their own com pany
or transfer to another employer. At
this point, some people move from
personnel to labor relations work.
A growing num ber o f people enter
the labor relations field directly, as
trainees. They usually are graduates
of m aster’s degree program s in indus­
trial relations, or may have a law d e­
gree. Quite a few people, however,
begin in personnel work, gain experi­
ence in th at area, and subsequently
move into a labor relations job.
W orkers in the middle ranks o f a
large organization often transfer to a
top job in a smaller one. Employees
with exceptional ability may be p ro ­
moted to executive positions, such as
director o f personnel or director o f
labor relations.

Personnel and labor relations
workers should speak and write ef­
fectively and be able to work with
people o f all levels of education and
experience. They also must be able
to see both the em ployee’s and the
em ployer’s points of view. In addi­
tion, they should be able to work as
part of a team. They need superviso­
ry abilities and must be able to ac­
cept responsibility. Integrity and fairm indedness are im portant qualities
for people in personnel and labor re­
lations work. A persuasive, congenial
personality can be a great asset.

Employment Outlook
The num ber of personnel and la­
bor relations workers is expected to
grow faster than the average for all
occupations through 1985, as em ­
ployers, increasingly aw are o f the
benefits to be derived from good la­
bor-m anagem ent relations, continue
to su p p o rt sound, capably staffed
employee relatb ns programs. In ad­
dition to new jobs created by growth
o f the occupation, many openings
will becom e available each year be­
cause of the need to replace workers
who die, retire, or leave their jobs for
other reasons.
Legislation setting standards for
em ploym ent practices in the areas of
occupational safety and health, equal
em ploym ent opportunity, and p en ­
sions has stimulated dem and for p er­
sonnel and labor relations workers.
Continued growth is foreseen, as em ­
ployers throughout the country re­
view existing program s in each of
these areas and, in many cases, estab­
lish entirely new ones. This has creat­
ed job opportunities for people with
appropriate expertise. The effort to
en d d is c rim in a to ry e m p lo y m e n t
p ractices, for exam ple, has led to
scrutiny o f the testin g , selectio n ,
p lacem en t, and p ro m o tio n p ro c e ­
dures in many com panies and gov­
ernm ent agencies. The findings are
causing a num ber o f em ployers to
modify these procedures, and to take
steps to raise the level of profession­
alism in their personnel departm ents.
Substantial em ploym ent growth is
foreseen in the area o f public person­
nel ad m in istra tio n . O p p o rtu n itie s
probably will be best in State and
local governm ent, areas that are ex­


pected to experience strong employ­
ment growth over the next decade.
By c o n tra st, F ed eral em ploym ent
will grow slowly. M oreover, as union
strength am ong public em ployees
continues to grow, State and local
agencies will need many more work­
ers qualified to deal with labor rela­
tions. E nactm ent of collective bar­
gaining legislation for State and local
government employees could greatly
stimulate dem and for labor relations
workers knowledgeable about public
sector negotiations.
Although the num ber of jobs in
both personnel and labor relations is
projected to increase over the next
decade, com petition for these jobs
also is increasing. Particularly keen
competition is anticipated for jobs in
labor relations. A small field, labor
relations traditionally has been diffi­
cult to break into, and opportunities
are best for applicants with a mas­
te r’s degree or a strong undergrad­
uate m ajor in industrial relations,
economics, or business. A law degree
is an asset.

Earnings and Working
Beginning job analysts in private
industry started at $ 11,200 a year in
1976, according to a Bureau of La­
bor S tatistics survey. Experienced
job analysts earned $19,200 a year,
about twice the average for all nonsupervisory workers in private indus­
try, except farming. Wage and salary
adm inistrators earned about $19,800
and p ersonnel m anagers averaged
$21,100, according to a survey con­
ducted by the Administrative M an­
agement Society. Top personnel and
labor relations executives in large
c o rp o ra tio n s ea rn ed considerably
Average salaries for personnel spe­
cialists em ployed by State govern­
m e n ts r a n g e d fro m $ 9 ,9 0 0 to
$13,000 a year in 1976, according to
a survey conducted by the U.S. Civil
Service Commission. Personnel spe­
cialists who had supervisory respon­
sibilities averaged from $14,800 to
$19,500 and State directors o f per­
sonnel earned average salaries rang­
ing from $27,400 to $31,900 a year.
In the Federal Governm ent, new
graduates with a bachelor’s degree
generally started at $9,300 a year in


1977. Those with a m aster’s degree
started at about $14,100 a year. Av­
erage salaries of Federal employees
in several different areas of person­
nel work ranged from about $19,300
to $24,500 in 1977, as follows:

(D.O.T 165.068)

Nature of the Work
Staffing specialists..........................
Position classifiers..........................
Personnel management specialists..
Employee development
Salary and wage administrators....
Occupational analysts....................


Federal employees in the field of
labor relations had generally com pa­
rable salaries. L ab o r-m anagem ent
and em ployee relations specialists
and labor-m anagem ent relations offi­
cers av erag ed $ 2 1 ,8 0 0 a year in
1977. F ed eral m e d ia to rs’ salaries
were higher, about $30,800 a year,
on the average.
Employees in personnel offices
generally work 35 to 40 hours a
week. As a rule, they are paid for
holidays and vacations, and share in
retirem ent plans, life and health in­
surance plans, and o th er benefits
available to all professional workers
in their organizations.

Sources of Additional
For general inform ation on careers
in personnel and labor relations
work, write to:
American Society for Personnel Administra­
tion, 19 Church St., Berea, Ohio 44017.

For inform ation concerning a ca­
reer in employee training and devel­
opm ent, contact:
American Society for Training and Develop­
ment, P.O. Box 5307, Madison, Wis.

Inform ation about careers in pub­
lic personnel adm inistration is avail­
able from:
International Personnel Management Associ­
ation, 1313 E. 60th St., Chicago, 111.

A brochure describing a career in
la b o r-m a n a g e m e n t re la tio n s as a
field exam iner is available from:
Director of Personnel, National Labor Rela­
tions Board, 1717 Pennsylvania Ave.
NW„ Washington, D.C., 20570.

P ublic re la tio n s w o rk ers apply
their talen t for com m unication in
many different areas. They may han­
dle press, community, or consum er
relations, sales prom otion, political
cam paigning, interest-group re p re­
sentation, fund raising, or employee
recruitm ent. The role they play is
crucial to im proved understanding
and cooperation among the diverse
individuals, groups, organizations,
and institutions that make up our so­
How successfully an organization
presents goals and policies may af­
fect its public acceptance, prosper­
ity, and even its continued existence.
Public relations workers help organi­
zations build and maintain positive
public reputations. Public relations is
m ore th an telling the e m p lo y er’s
“ story,” however. Understanding the
attitudes and concerns of custom ers,
employees, and various other “ pub­
lics”—and com m unicating this infor­
mation to m anagem ent—is an im por­
tant part of the job.
Public relations departm ents are
found in organizations of all kinds,
and w orkers m ust tailor their p ro ­
gram s to an em ployer’s particular
needs. A public relations director for
a college or university, for example,
may devote most of his or her ener­
gies to attracting additional students,
while one in a large corporation may
handle the em ployer’s relations with
stockholders, governm ent agencies,
and community groups.
Public relations w orkers put to ­
gether inform ation th at keeps the
public aware of their em ployer’s ac­
tivities and accom plishm ents and
keeps m anagem ent aware of public
attitudes. After preparing the infor­
mation, they may contact people in
the media who might be interested in
publicizing their material. Many ra­
dio or television public service an­
n o u n c e m e n ts o r sp e c ia l re p o rts ,
newspaper items, and magazine arti-



Public relations workers help organizations build and maintain a positive public image.

cles start at public relations w orkers’
desks. Som etim es the subject is a
company and its policies towards its
employees or its role in the com m u­
nity. Often the subject is a public
issue, such as health, nutrition, ener­
gy, or the environm ent.
Public relations workers also a r­
ra n g e an d c o n d u c t p ro g ra m s in
which com pany representatives will
have direct contact with the public.
Such work includes setting up speak­
ing engagem ents for com pany offi­
cials and writing speeches for them.
These workers often serve as an em ­
ployer’s representative during com ­
munity projects or occasionally may
show films at school assemblies, plan
conventions, or manage fund-raising
Public relations staffs in very large
firms may num ber 200 or more, but
in most firms the staff is much
smaller. The director of public rela­
tions, who is often a vice president,
may develop overall plans and poli­
cies with a top m anagem ent execu­

tive. In addition, large public rela­

tions dep artm en ts em ploy w riters,
research workers, and other special­
ists who prepare m aterial for the dif­
ferent media, stockholders, and o th ­
er publics.
W orkers who handle publicity for
an individual or direct public rela­
tions for a university or small busi­
ness may handle all aspects of the
job. They make contacts with people
outside the organization, do the n ec­
essary planning and research, and
p re p are m a te ria l for p u b licatio n .
These workers may com bine public
relations duties with advertising or
sales prom otion work; some are toplevel officials and others have lower
level positions. The m ost skilled pub­
lic relations work of making overall
plans and maintaining contacts usu­
ally is done by the departm ent direc­
to r and highly e x p e rie n c e d sta ff

Places of Employment
About 1 15,000 persons were pub­
lic relations workers in 1976. M anu­
facturing firms, public utilities and

transportation com panies, insurance
com panies, and trade and profession­
al associations employ many public
relations workers. A sizable num ber
work for governm ent agencies (the
Federal G overnm ent alone employs
several thousand public inform ation
specialists), or for schools, colleges,
museums, and other educational, re­
ligious, and human service organiza­
tions. The rapidly expanding health
field also offers o p p o rtu n ities for
public relations work, in hospitals,
p h a r m a c e u tic a l c o m p a n ie s , an d
medical associations, for example. A
num ber of public relations workers
are em ployed by public relatio n s
consulting firms which furnish public
relations services to clients for a fee.
Some work for advertising agencies.
Public relations workers are co n ­
centrated in large cities where press
services and other com m unications
facilities are readily available, and
where many businesses and trade as­
sociations have their headquarters.
M ore th an h a lf o f th e estim ated
2,000 public re la tio n s co nsu ltin g
firms in the United States are in New
Y ork, Los A ngeles, C hicago, and
W ashington, D.C. A m ajor tren d ,
however, is the dispersal of public
relations jobs throughout the Nation,
including smaller towns.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A college education com bined
with public relations experience is an
excellent preparation for public rela­
tions work. Although most beginners
have a college degree in journalism ,
com m unications, or public relations,
some employers prefer a background
in a field related to the firm ’s busi­
ness—science, finance, or engineer­
ing, for example. Some firms want
college graduates w ith experien ce
working for the news media. In fact,
many editors, reporters, and workers
in closely related fields enter public
relations work.
In 1976, about 90 colleges and
m ore than 30 graduate schools of­
fered degree program s or special curriculums in public relations, usually
adm inistered by the journalism or
com m unications departm ent. In ad­
dition, about 200 colleges offered at
least one course in this field. Courses
include public relations theory and



techniques, organizational com m uni­
cation, public relations managem ent
and administration, practical courses
in public relations, and others. Spe­
cialties are offered in public relations
in business, governm ent, and non­
profit organizations. Persons with a
bachelor’s degree in public relations
or a related field generally enter staff
positions whereas those with a gradu­
ate degree are more qualified for ad­
ministrative and managerial jobs.
Public relations workers must have
considerable ability to gather infor­
mation, write, speak, and deal effec­
tively with people. Courses in jo u r­
n alism , b u sin ess a d m in is tra tio n ,
psychology, sociology, political sci­
ence, advertising, English, and public
speaking help in preparing for a pub­
lic relations career. Extracurricular
activities such as writing for a school
publication or television or radio sta­
tion provide valuable experience.
M any schools help stu d en ts gain
part-tim e or summer internships in
public relations which provide train­
ing that can help in com peting for
entry positions. M embership in the
Public Relations Student Society of
America provides an opportunity for
students to exchange views with pub­
lic re la tio n s p ra c titio n e rs and to
make professional contacts that may
be helpful in later securing a job in
the field. A portfolio of published
articles, television or radio programs,
slide presentations, and other work
sa m p les u su a lly is an a ss e t in fin d in g

a job.
Creativity, initiative, and the abil­
ity to express thoughts clearly and
simply are im portant to the public
relations worker. Fresh ideas are so
vital in public relations that some ex­
perts spend all their time developing
new ideas, leaving the job of carrying
out program s to others.
People who choose public rela­
tions as a career need an outgoing
personality, self-confidence, and an
understanding of hum an psychology.
They should have the enthusiasm
necessary to motivate people. Public
relations workers need a highly de­
veloped sense of com petitiveness and
the ability to function as part of a
Public inform ation specialist posi­
tions in the Federal G overnm ent gen­
erally require
 a college degree. Me­

dia, writing, or editing experience
may be quite helpful in gaining such
a position. Requirem ents for similar
positions in State and local govern­
ments vary.
com panies—particularly
those with large public relations
sta ffs—have form al train in g p ro ­
gram s for new w orkers. In o th e r
firms, new employees learn by w ork­
ing under the guidance of experi­
enced staff m em bers. Beginners of­
ten m aintain files of material about
company activities, scan newspapers
and magazines for appropriate arti­
cles to clip, and assemble inform a­
tion for speeches and pamphlets. Af­
ter gaining experience, they work on
more difficult assignments, such as
writing press releases, speeches, and
a rtic le s fo r p u b lic a tio n . In som e
firms, workers get all-round experi­
ence whereas in other firms, public
relations workers tend to specialize.
Prom otion to supervisory jobs may
come as workers show they can han­
dle more dem anding and creative as­
signments. Some experienced public
relations workers start their own con­
sulting firms.
The Public Relations Society of
America accredits public relations
workers who have at least 5 years’
experience in the field and have
passed a com prehensive 6-hour ex­
amination (4 hours written, 2 hours
oral). However, because of disagree­
m ents over the appropriateness of
formal licensing requirem ents in this
field, such requirem ents are not ex­
pected in the immediate future.

Employment Outlook
Employment of public relations
workers is expected to increase faster
than the average for all occupations
through the m id-1980’s. In addition
to new jobs created by this growth,
openings will occur every year b e­
cause of the need to replace workers
who die, retire, or leave the field for
other reasons.
Demand for public relations w ork­
ers may be affected by econom ic
conditions, slackening as employers
delay expansion or impose staff cuts
during business slowdowns. Over the
long run, however, expenditures on
public relations are expected to in­
crease substantially. C orporations,
associations, and other large organi­

zations are likely to expand their
public relations efforts to gain public
support and approval.
Com petition for beginning jobs is
keen, for public relations work has
an aura of glamour and excitem ent
that attracts large num bers of
jobseekers. Furtherm ore, the num ­
ber of people who transfer into pub­
lic relations from newspaper, adver­
tising, or other closely related jobs is
e x p e c te d to ex c e e d th e n u m b e r
transferring out. This factor should
serve to stiffen com petition.
Prospects for a career in public
relations are best for highly qualified
applicants—talented people with
sound academic preparation and
some media experience. Most open­
ings are expected to occur in large
organizations—corporations, public
relations consulting firms, m anufac­
turing firms, educational institutions,
and others.

Earnings and Working
Starting salaries for college gradu­
ates beginning in public relations
work generally ranged from $7,500
to $10,000 a year in 1976; persons
with a g rad u ate degree generally
started at a higher salary.
The salaries of experienced work­
ers generally are highest in large or­
ganizations with extensive public re­
lations program s. A ccording to a
1976 survey, median annual salaries
of public r e la tio n s w o r k e r s w ere as
follows: Presidents of public relations
consulting firms, $38,000; public in­
form ation or relations directors and
m anagers in the F ed eral G o v e rn ­
ment, $23,500; in State government,
$ 1 7 ,0 0 0 ; in lo c a l g o v e r n m e n t,
$22,000; in ed u catio n al organ iza­
tions, $23,500. According to a 1975
survey o f a wide range of firms, pub­
lic re la tio n s ex e cu tiv es averag ed
$29,000-49,000 a year, while public
re la tio n s m a n a g e rs a v e ra g e d
$21,000-31,000 a year, depending
on the annual sales volume of the
firm. Many firms offered incentive
com pensation. Based on a 1975 sur­
vey of advertising agencies, public
relations directors averaged $20,100
a year, while public relations account
executives averaged $15,100.
Public relations consulting firms
often pay higher salaries than organi-



zations with their own public rela­
tions departm ents. Salaries in m anu­
facturing firms are among the highest
while salaries in social welfare agen­
cies, nonprofit organizations, hospi­
tals, and universities are among the
In th e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t,
bachelor’s degree holders generally
started at $9,303 or $1 1,523 a year
in 1977, depending upon the appli­
can t’s academ ic record; m aster’s de­
gree h o ld ers g en erally sta rte d at
$14,097 a year; additional education
or experience could qualify appli­
cants for a higher salary. Public in­
formation specialists averaged about
$24,300 a year in 1977.
Although the workweek for public
relations staffs usually is 35 to 40
hours, overtime often is necessary to
prepare or deliver speeches, attend
m eetings and com m unity activities,
or travel out of town. Occasionally,
the natu re of th eir regular assign­
ments or special events requires pub­
lic relations workers to be on call
around the clock.

Sources of Additional
For career inform ation and a list of
schools offering degrees and courses
in the field, write to:
Career Information, Public Relations Society
of America, Inc., 845 Third Ave., New
York, N.Y. 10022.

an organization’s work may be inter­
rupted or halted. M aintaining an ade­
quate supply of items an organization
needs to operate is the purchasing
agent’s job.
Purchasing agents, also called in­
dustrial buyers, obtain goods and ser­
vices of the required quality at the
lowest possible cost, and see th a t
a d e q u a te su p p lies are a v a ila b le .
Agents who work for m anufacturing
firms buy machinery, raw materials,
product com ponents, and services;
those working for governm ent agen­
cies may purchase office supplies,
furniture, and business machines. In­
formation on retail buyers, who p u r­
chase m erchandise for resale in its
original form , is presented in the
statem ent on buyers elsewhere in the
Purchasing agents buy when stocks
on hand reach a predeterm ined reo r­
der point, or when a departm ent in
the organization requisitions items it
needs. Because agents often can p u r­
chase from many sources, their main
job is selecting the seller who offers
the best value.
Purchasing agents use a variety of
means to select among suppliers.
They com pare listings in catalogs and
trade journals and telephone suppli­
ers to get in f o r m a tio n . They a ls o
m eet with salespersons to examine
sam ples, w atch dem onstrations of

equipm ent, and discuss items to be
purchased. Frequently agents invite
suppliers to bid on large orders; then
they select the lowest bidder among
those who m eet req u irem en ts for
quality of goods and delivery date.
In some cases, however, purchas­
ing agents must deal directly with a
m anufacturer to obtain specially de­
signed item s m ade exclusively for
their organization. These agents must
have a high degree of technical ex­
pertise to insure th a t all p ro d u c t
specifications are met.
It is im p o rtan t th a t p u rchasin g
agents develop good business rela­
tions with their suppliers. This can
result in savings on purchases, favor­
able term s of paym ent, and quick de­
livery on rush orders or m aterials in
short supply. They also work closely
with personnel in various d e p a rt­
ments of their own organization. For
example, they may discuss product
design with com pany engineers or
shipm ent problems with workers in
the traffic departm ent.
Once an order has been placed
with a supplier, the purchasing agent
makes periodic checks to insure that
it will be delivered on time. This is
necessary to prevent work flow inter­
ruptions due to lack of materials. Af­
ter an o r d e r has been received and
inspected, the purchasing agent au­
thorizes paym ent to the shipper.

C urrent inform ation on the public
relations field, salaries, and o th er
items is available from:
PR Reporter, Dudley House, P.O. Box 600,
Exeter, N.H. 03833.

For additional inform ation on job
opp o rtu n ities and the public rela­
tions field in general, write to:
Service Department, Public Relations News,
127 East 80th St., New York, N.Y.

(D.O.T. 162.158)

Nature of the Work
If m aterials, supplies, or eq u ip ­

 on hand when needed,
ment are not

Purchasing agents must develop good business relations with their suppliers.



Because of its im portance, p u r­
chasing usually is designated as a
separate responsibility within an or­
ganization. In a large firm or govern­
ment agency, purchasing agents usu­
ally specialize in one or more specific
item s—for exam ple, steel, lum ber,
cotton, or petroleum products. The
ag en ts are divided into sectio n s,
headed by assistant purchasing m an­
agers, th a t are resp o n sib le for a
group o f related com m odities. In
smaller organizations, agents gener­
ally are assigned certain categories of
goods, such as all raw materials or all
office supplies, furniture, and busi­
ness machines.

Places of Employment
About 190,000 persons worked as
purchasing agents in 1976. Over half
worked in m anufacturing industries.
Large num bers also were employed
by governm ent agencies, construc­
tio n c o m p a n ie s , h o s p ita ls , an d
About half of all purchasing agents
work in organizations that have few­
er than five employees in the pur­
chasing d e p a rtm e n t. M any large
business firms and governm ent agen­
cies, however, have m uch larger pur­
chasing departm ents; some employ
as many as 100 specialized buyers or

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Although there are no universal
educational requirem ents for entry
level jobs, most large com panies now
require a college degree, and prefer
applicants with a m aster’s degree in
business adm inistration. Training re­
quirem ents vary with the needs of the
firm. For example, com panies that
m anufacture complex machinery or
chemicals may prefer applicants with
a background in engineering or sci­
ence, while o th er com panies hire
business adm inistration or liberal arts
majors for trainee jobs. Courses in
purchasing, accounting, econom cs,
and statistics are very helpful. Famil­
iarity with the com puter and its uses
also is desirable.
Small com panies generally have
less rigid educational requirem ents
because they often purchase less
complex goods in much smaller

quantities. Some require a bachelor’s
degree; many others, however, hire
graduates of associate degree p ro ­
grams in purchasing for entry level
jobs. Prom otion of clerical workers
or technicians into purchasing jobs is
much m ore common in small firms.
Regardless of size of com pany, a col­
lege degree is becoming increasingly
im portant for advancem ent to m an­
agement positions.
The purchasing agent must be able
to analyze num bers and technical
data in order to make buying deci­
sions and tak e re sp o n sib ility fo r
spending large am ounts of money.
The job requires the ability to work
independently and a good memory
for details. In addition, a purchasing
agent m ust be tactful in dealing with
salespersons and able to m otivate
Regardless of their educational
background, beginning purchasing
agents initially spend considerable
time learning about com pany opera­
tions and purchasing p ro c ed u re s.
They may be assigned to the store­
keeper’s section to learn about the
purchasing system , inventory re c ­
ords, and storage facilities. Next they
may work with experienced buyers to
learn a b o u t ty p es o f goods p u r ­
chased, prices, and suppliers.
Following the initial training peri­
od, junior purchasing agents are giv­
en the responsibility for purchasing
standard and catalog items. As they
gain experience and develop exper­
tise in their assigned areas, they may
be prom oted to purchasing agent,
then senior purchasing agent. W ork­
ers with proven ability can move into
a job as assistant purchasing m anager
in charge of a group of purchasing
agents and then advance to m anager
of the entire purchasing departm ent.
M any pu rch asin g m anagers m ove
into executive positions as director o f
purchasing or director of m aterials
m anagem ent.
Continuing education is essential
for purchasing agents who want to
advance in their careers. Purchasing
agents are encouraged to participate
in frequent seminars offered by p ro ­
fe s s io n a l s o c ie tie s an d to ta k e
courses in purchasing at local colleg­
es and universities. The recognized
m ark of experience and professional
com petence in private industry is the

d esig n a tio n C ertifie d P u rch asin g
M anager (CPM ). This designation is
conferred by the N ational Associ­
ation o f Purchasing M anagem ent,
In c ., upo n c a n d id a te s who have
passed four exam inations and who
m eet educational and experience re­
quirem ents. In governm ent agencies,
the indication of professional com pe­
tence is the designation C ertified
Public Purchasing Officer (C PPO ),
which is conferred by the National
Institute of G overnm ental Purchas­
ing, Inc. The CPPO is earned by pass­
ing two exam inations and m eeting
educational and experience require­

Employment Outlook
Employment of purchasing agents
is expected to increase faster than
the average for all occupations
through the m id-1980’s. Several
thousand jobs will be open every year
due to growth of the occupation and
the need to replace those who die,
retire, or transfer to other work.
O pportunities will be excellent for
persons with a m aster’s degree in
business adm inistration. Persons with
a bachelor’s degree in engineering,
science, or business adm inistration
whose college program included one
course or m ore in purchasing also
should have bright prospects. G radu­
ates of 2-year program s in purchas­
ing should continue to find ample op­
p o r t u n i t ie s , a lth o u g h th e y w ill
probably be limited to small firms.
Demand for purchasing agents is
expected to rise as their im portance
in reducing costs is increasingly rec­
ognized. In large industrial organiza­
tions, the purchasing departm ent will
be expanded in order to handle the
growing complexity of m anufactur­
ing p ro cesses. In co m panies th a t
m anufacture complex items such as
industrial engines and turbines, elec­
tro n ic c o m p u te r e q u ip m e n t, and
com m unications equipm ent, th ere
will be a growing need for persons
with a technical background to select
highly technical goods.
Many opportunities also should
occur in firms providing personal,
business, and professional services.
Strong growth is expected for this
sector of the economy, and a growing
num ber of hospitals, school districts,
and other relatively small employers



are recognizing the im portance of
professional purchasers in reducing
their operating costs.

Earnings and Working
College graduates hired as junior
purchasing agents in large firms
earned about $ 11,700 a year in 1976,
according to surveys conducted by
the Bureau of Labor Statistics and
Purchasing Magazine. Experienced
agents purchasing standard items av­
eraged about $14,200 a year; senior
p u rch asin g agents sp ecializing in
complex or technical goods averaged
about $17,000. Assistant purchasing
m anagers received average salaries
of about $20,000 a year, while m an­
agers of a purchasing departm ent re­
ceived about $24,700. Many corpo­
ra te d ir e c to r s o f p u rc h a s in g o r
m aterials m anagem ent earned well
over $50,000 a year. Salaries gener­
ally are higher in large firms where
responsibilities often are greater. In
1976, earnings of purchasing agents
were about 1 1/2 times as much as
the average for all nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
In the Federal Governm ent, begin­
ning purchasing agents who had col­
leg e d e g r e e s e a rn e d $ 9 ,3 0 0 or
$11,500 in 1977, depending on scho­
lastic achievem ent and relevant work
experience. The average salary for all
purchasing agents in the Federal Ser­
vice was $20,500. Salary levels vary
widely am ong State governm ents;
ho w ev er, averag e earnings range
from $10,600 to $13,900 for p u r­
chasers of standard items, $14,200 to
$18,800 for senior buyers purchasing
highly complex items, and $21,000
to $26,000 for State purchasing di­

(D.O.T. 199.168)

Nature of the Work
Urban planners, often called com ­
munity or regional planners, develop
p ro g ra m s to p ro v id e fo r fu tu re
growth and revitalization of urban,
su b u rb an , and rural com m unities.
They help local officials make deci­
sions to solve social, econom ic, and
environm ental problems.
Planners examine com m unity fa­
cilities such as h ealth clinics and
schools to be sure these facilities can
m eet the dem ands placed upon them .
They also keep abreast of the legal
issues involved in community devel­
o p m e n t o r r e d e v e lo p m e n t a n d
changes in housing and building
codes. Because suburban growth has
increased the need for better ways o f
traveling to the urban center, the
planner’s job often includes design­
ing new transportation and parking
Urban planners prepare for situ­
ations or needs that are likely to d e­
v elop as a re s u lt o f p o p u la tio n
g ro w th o r so c ia l a n d e c o n o m ic
change. They estim ate, for example,
the com m unity’s long-range needs
for housing, transportation, and busi­
ness and industrial sites. W orking
within a fram ework set by the com ­
m unity g o v ern m en t, they analyze
and p ro p o se a lte rn a tiv e ways to

Places of Employment

Sources of Additional
Further inform ation about a career
in purchasing is available from:
National Association of Purchasing Manage­
ment, Inc., 11 Park Place, New York,
N.Y. 10007.
National Institute of Governmental Purchas­
ing, Inc., 1001 Connecticut Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

achieve more efficient and attractive
urban areas.
Before preparing plans for longrange com m unity developm ent, u r­
ban planners prepare detailed studies
that show the currentTise of land for
residential, business, and com m unity
purposes. These reports present in­
formation such as the arrangem ent of
streets, highways, and w ater and sew­
er lines, and the location of schools,
libraries, and playgrounds. They also
provide inform ation on the types of
industries in the com m unity, charac­
teristics o f the population, and em ­
ployment and economic trends. With
this inform ation, urban planners p ro ­
pose ways of using undeveloped land
and design the layout of recom m end­
ed buildings and other facilities such
as subways. They also prepare m ate­
rials that show how their programs
can be carried out and the approxi­
m ate costs.
Urban planners often confer with
private land developers, civic lead­
ers, and officials of public agencies
th at do specialized planning. They
may prepare m aterials for com m uni­
ty relations programs, speak at civic
meetings, and appear before legisla­
tive com m ittees to explain and de­
fend their proposals.
In small organizations, urban plan­
ners must be able to do several kinds
of work. In large organizations, plan­
ners usually specialize in areas such
as physical design, com m unity rela­
tions, or the reconstruction of ru n ­
down business districts.

Urban planners view the present and fu­
ture development of the east coast.

About 16,000 persons were urban
planners in 1976. M ost work for city,
county, or regional planning agen­
cies. A grow ing n u m b er are em ­
ployed by States or by the Federal
G overnm ent in agencies dealing with
housing, transportation, or environ­
m ental protection.
Many planners do consulting
work, either part time in addition to a
regular job, or full tim e working for a
firm that provides services to private
developers or governm ent agencies.
Urban planners also work for large
land developers or research organi­
zations and teach in colleges and uni­



Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Employers often seek workers who
have advanced training in urban
planning. Most entry jobs in Federal,
State, and local governm ent agencies
require 2 years of graduate study in
urban or regional planning, or the
equivalent in work experience. Al­
though the m aster’s degree in plan­
ning is the usual requirem ent at the
entry level, some people who have a
bach elo r’s degree in city planning,
architecture, landscape architecture,
or engineering may qualify for begin­
ning positions.
In 1976, over 80 colleges and uni­
versities gave a m aster’s degree in
urban planning. A lthough students
holding a bachelor’s degree in archi­
tecture or engineering may earn a
m aster’s degree after 1 year, most
graduate programs in urban planning
require 2 or 3 years to com plete.
G raduate students spend consider­
able time in workshops or laboratory
courses learning to analyze and solve
urban planning problem s. Students
often are required to work in a plan­
ning office part time or during the
summer while they are earning the
graduate degree.
Candidates for jobs in Federal,
State, and local governm ent agencies
usually must pass civil service exami­
nations to becom e eligible for ap­
Planners must be able to think in
terms of spatial relationships and to
visualize the effects of their plans and
designs. They should be flexible in
their approaches to problem s and be
able to cooperate with others and
reconcile different viewpoints to
achieve constructive policy recom ­
After a few years’ experience, ur­
ban planners may advance to assign­

ments requiring a high degree of in­
d e p e n d e n t j u d g m e n t , su c h as
outlining proposed studies, designing
the physical layout of a large devel­
opm ent, or recom m ending policy,
program , and budget options. Some
are prom oted to jobs as planning di­
rectors, and spend a great deal of
time m eeting with officials in other
o rg a n iz a tio n s , sp e a k in g to civic
groups, and supervising other profes­
sio n als. F u rth e r a d v a n c e m e n t is
more difficult at this level and often
occurs through a transfer to a large
city, where the problem s are more
com plex and th e re sp o n sib ilitie s

Employment Outlook
Employment of urban planners is
expected to grow faster than the av­
erage for all occupations through the
m id-1980’s. In addition to openings
created by future growth of this rela­
tively small occupation, some jobs
will open up because of the need to
re p la ce p lan n ers who leave th eir
Future growth of the occupation
will depend to a great extent on the
availability of money for urban plan­
ning projects. Growth in Federal sup­
port for State and local community
developm ent, urban restoration, and
land use planning program s should
in cre ase re q u ire m e n ts fo r u rb an
p lan n ers. M any o p p o rtu n itie s for
planners should arise in fields in
which they have not traditionally
been employed, such as environm en­
tal and social service planning.

Earnings and Working
Starting salaries for urban planners
r a n g e d b e tw e e n $ 1 1 ,0 0 0 a n d
$14,000 a year in 1976. Planners
with a m aster’s degree were hired by
the Federal G overnm ent at $14,097

a year in 1977. In some cases, p er­
sons having less th an 2 years of
graduate work could enter Federal
service as interns at yearly salaries of
either $9,303 or $ 1 1,523.
State governm ents paid urban
planners average beginning salaries
of about $ 11,000 a year in mid-1976,
although planners started at more
than $14,000 in some States. Salaries
of experienced State planners ranged
from an average minimum of nearly
$16,000 a year to an average maxi­
mum of more than $21,000 a year.
Salaries of State planning directors
ranged from an average minimum of
about $24,000 to an average maxi­
mum of nearly $28,000 in m id-1976.
City, county, and other local gov­
ernm ents paid urban planners aver­
age s ta r tin g s a la r ie s e x c e e d in g
$14,000 in 1976, alth o u g h som e
communities in the East and South
paid less. In 1976, experienced urban
and re g io n a l p la n n e rs g en e rally
earned m ore than one and one-half
times as much as the average earn­
ings for all nonsupervisory workers in
private industry, except farming.
Most planners have sick leave and
vacation benefits and are covered by
re tire m e n t and h e a lth plans. A l­
though m ost city planners have a
scheduled w orkw eek of 40 hours,
they sometimes work in the evenings
and on weekends to attend meetings
with citizens’ groups.

Sources of Additional
Facts about careers in planning
and a list of schools offering training
are available from:
American Institute of Planners, 1776 Massa­
chusetts Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.
American Society of Planning Officials, 1313
East 60th St., Chicago, 1 60637.

W orkers in service occupations
perform a wide variety of tasks rang­
ing from policing streets and fighting
fires to serving food and cleaning
buildings. In 1976, about 12 million
people w ere em ployed in service
jobs. T he m ajor groups of service
occupations are discussed below:
Food service occupations. The larg­
est group of service workers, almost
4 million persons in 1976, prepared
and served food in restaurants, cafe­
terias, schools, hospitals, and other
institutions. W orkers in this group
included cooks and chefs, w aiters
and w a itre s s e s , b a r te n d e r s , and
kitchen workers.
Cleaning and related occupations.
W orkers in these occupations clean
and m aintain buildings such as apart­
m ent houses, schools, and offices.
Almost 2.3 million persons were em ­
ployed in these jobs in 1976. The
group included janitors, building cus­
todians, and pest controllers.
Health service occupations. More
than 1.7 million persons were em ­
ployed as health service workers in

Service occupations, 1976

Digitized 0 FRASER
1 6 for

jobs such as practical nurse or hospi­
tal attendant. Most of these workers
were em ployed in hospitals, but some
worked in doctors’ or dentists’ offic­
W orkers in this group range from
barbers and cosmetologists to ski in­
structors and theater ushers. A bout
1.6 million persons were employed in
personal service jobs.
Protective and related service occu­
pations. A bout 1.3 million persons
were em ployed to safeguard lives and
property in 1976. The majority were
police officers, guards, or firefight­
ers. Most police officers and d etec­
tives w ere governm ent em ployees,
but some worked for hotels, stores,
and other businesses. Guards, anoth­
er large group of protective service
em ployees, worked chiefly for p ri­
vate com panies to protect com pany
property and enforce com pany rules
and regulations. Firefighters worked
mainly for city governments. The re­
maining protective service workers
were sheriffs and bailiffs, crossing

guards and bridge tenders, and m ar­
shals and constables.
Private household service occupa­
tions. Most of the 1.1 million private
h o u se h o ld w o rk e rs em p lo y ed in
1976 w ere dom estic w orkers who
cleaned their em ployer’s hom e, p re­
pared meals, and cared for children.
Some worked as launderers, caretak ­
ers, and companions.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
T raining and skill req u irem en ts
differ greatly among the various ser­
vice occupations. FBI special agents,
for example, must have a college de­
gree. B arbers and cosm etolo g ists
need specialized vocational training.
Still other occupations—household
worker, building custodian, and hotel
bellhop, for exam ple—have no spe­
cific educational requirem ents for
entry, although a high school diplo­
ma is always an advantage.
For many service occupations,
personality traits and special abilities
may be as im portant as formal
schooling. Thus, physical strength
and endurance are a necessity for
work as a porter, lifeguard, or win­
dow cleaner; and a pleasing m anner
and appearance are especially im por­
tant for a waiter or waitress, elevator
o p e ra to r, or usher. O th er service
workers, such as store and hotel de­
tectives and travel guides, need good
judgm ent and should be skillful in
dealing with people.
Some service workers eventually
go into business for themselves as
caterers or restaurant operators, for
example, or proprietors of barber or
beauty shops. A dvancem ent from
service occupations that require little
training or skill may be difficult for
people w ithout a good basic educa­
tion and some knowledge of the busi­
ness in which they work.



More than 12 million people work in
service occupations
Employment, 1976 (in millions)
Food service

Cleaning service

Health service

Personal service

Protective service
Private household

Source: Bureau of Labor Statists

Employment Outlook
Employment in the service occu­
pations is expected to grow at about
the same rate as the average for all
occupations through the m id-1980’s.
The n um ber of private household
workers, however, has declined since

the m id-1960’s and this trend is ex­
pected to continue despite a strong
dem and for these workers. If private
h o u se h o ld w o rk ers are ex clu d ed
from the total, service workers show
a faster than average rate of growth.
Most of the future em ploym ent in­
crease is expected to be among the

health care and protective service
occupations. Population growth and
the aging of the population will cre­
ate more dem and for all health care
occupations. M ore police officers
and guards will be needed in the fu­
ture as population increases and the
need for protection against crim e,
th eft, and vandalism continues to
grow. Rising incomes, increasing lei­
sure time, and the growing num ber of
women who combine family respon­
sibilities and a job are likely to cause
the num ber of cooks and chefs to
grow faster than the average.
The following sections of the
Handbook contain detailed inform a­
tion on most of the service occupa­
tions m entioned here. Others are de­
scribed in the industry statem ents on
government; transportation, com m u­
nications, and public utilities; whole­
sale and retail trade; and service and
miscellaneous industries. The health
service occupations are included in
the section on health care occupa­
tions, and statem ents on m eatcutters,
pest controllers, and funeral direc­
tors can be found elsewhere in the


Every public building and ap art­
ment house needs to be kept clean
and in good condition for the com ­
fort and safety of the people who
work or live there. M uch of this work
is done by persons in cleaning and
related occupations. These workers
may clean floors and windows in hos­
pitals, change linens in hotels, repair
broken faucets in apartm ents, or ex­
term inate insects and rodents in of­
fice buildings.
W orkers in these occupations usu­
ally learn their skills on the job, but
other training is som etimes available.
Building custodians may attend train­
ing program s offered by unions and
governm ent agencies; hotel house­
keepers may take courses in house­
keeping procedures and interior de­
sign o ffe re d by th e ir e m p lo y e r.
W orkers who learn their jobs thor­
oughly and show that they can han­
dle responsibility may advance to su­
pervisory positions.
Besides a knowledge of their job,
these workers must be courteous,
tactful, and neat if their job requires
contact with the public. Some p er­
form m onotonous and tiring tasks,
such as scrubbing and waxing floors,
and must be able to stand the bore­
dom of the job.
This section describes three clean­
ing and related occupations: build­
ing custodians, pest controllers, and
hotel housekeepers and assistants.

(D.O.T. 187.168, 381.137 and .887;
382.884, 891.138)

Nature of the Work
Building cu sto d ian s, som etim es
called janitors or cleaners, keep of­
fice buildings, hospitals, stores, and
apartm ent houses clean and in good
1 2
Digitized6 for FRASER

condition. They see that heating and
ventilating equipm ent work properly,
clean floors and windows, and do
other necessary m aintenance tasks.
On a typical day, a custodian may
wet- or dry-mop floors, vacuum c a r­
pets, dust furniture, make m inor re ­
pairs, and exterm inate insects and ro ­
Custodians use many different
tools and cleaning materials. For one
job they may need a mop and bucket;
for another an electric polishing m a­
chine and a special cleaning solution.
Chemical cleaners and power equip­
m ent have made many tasks easier
and less time consuming, but custodi­
ans m ust know how to use them
properly to avoid harming floors and
Some custodians supervise a group
of custodial workers and are respon­
sible for m aintaining a section of a
building or an entire building. They
assign tasks to each worker, give in­
structions, and see that jobs, such as
floor waxing or window washing, are
done well.

Places of Employment

tic and be able to follow instructions.
High school shop courses are helpful
because minor plumbing or carp en ­
try work may be a part of the job.
Most building custodians learn
their skills on the job. Usually, begin­
ners do routine cleaning and are giv­
en more com plicated duties as they
gain experience.
In some cities, unions and govern­
ment agencies have developed p ro ­
grams to teach custodial skills. Stu­
dents learn how to clean buildings
thoroughly and efficiently, and how
to operate and m aintain m achines,
such as wet and dry vacuums, buff­
ers, and polishers that they will use
on the job. Instruction in m inor elec­
trical, plumbing, and other repairs is
also given. As part of their training,
students learn to plan their work, to
deal with people in the buildings they
clean, and to work without supervi­
Building custodians usually find
work by answering new spaper adver­
tisements, applying directly to a com ­
pany where they would like to work,
or applying to a building m ain te­
nance service. They also get jobs
through State em ploym ent offices.
Custodial jobs in the governm ent are
obtained by applying to the civil ser­
vice personnel headquarters.
Advancem ent opportunities for
custodial workers are usually limited
because the custodian is the only
m aintenance worker in many build­
ings. W here there is a large m ainte-

In 1976, m ore than 2.1 m illion
people worked as building custodi­
ans. O ne-third worked part time.
Most custodians worked in office
buildings and factories, but schools,
apartm ent houses, and hospitals also
employed many. Some worked for
firm s supplying b u ild in g m a in te ­
nance services on a contract basis.
Although custodial jobs can be
found in all cities and towns, m ost
are located in highly populated areas
where there are many office build­
ings, stores, and apartm ent houses.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
No special education is required
for most custodial jobs, but the b e­
ginner should know simple arithm e­

One-third of all building custodians work
part time.



nance staff, however, custodians can
be prom oted to supervisory jobs. A
high school diplom a im proves the
chances for advancem ent. Some cus­
todians go into the m aintenance busi­
ness for themselves.

Building custodians spend most of
their time on their feet, sometimes
lifting or pushing heavy furniture or
equipm ent. Many tasks, such as dust­
ing or sw eeping, require co n stan t
bending, stooping, and stretching.

Employment Outlook

Sources of Additional

Employment opportunities in this
occupation are expected to be good
through the m id-1980’s. The need to
replace workers who die, retire, or
leave the o cc u p atio n will c re a te
many jobs each year. C onstruction of
new office buildings, hospitals and
apartm ent houses will cause employ­
ment of custodians to grow about as
fast as the average for all occupa­
Persons seeking part-tim e or eve­
ning work can expect to find many

Earnings and Working
In 1976, building custodians aver­
aged $3.63 an hour, which is about
three-fourths as much as the average
earnings for all nonsupervisory work­
ers in private industry, except farm ­
ing. Earnings, however, vary by in­
d u stry and a re a o f th e c o u n try .
Workers in large cities of the N orth­
east and North C entral regions usual­
ly earn the highest wages.
Custodians working in the Federal
G overnm ent are paid at the same
rates offered by private industries in
the local area.
Most building service workers re­
ceive paid holidays and vacations,
and health insurance.
Because most office buildings are
cleaned while they are empty, custo­
dians often work evening hours. In
buildings requiring 24-hour m ainte­
nance, custodians may work a night
Although custodians usually work
inside heated, well-lighted buildings,
they sometimes work outdoors
sweeping walkways, mowing lawns,
or shoveling snow. W orking with m a­
chines can be noisy and some tasks,
such as cleaning bathroom s and trash
rooms, can be dirty. Custodial work­
ers often suffer minor cuts, bruises,
and burns from machines, handtools,
Digitized forchemicals.

Inform ation about custodial jobs
and training opportunities may be
obtained from the local office of your
State em ploym ent service.
For general information on job op­
portunities in local areas, contact:
Service Employees International Union, 2020
K St. NW„ Washington, D.C. 20006.

(D.O.T. 321.138)

Nature of the Work
A hotel’s or m otel’s reputation d e­
pends on how well it serves its guests.
Although some offer economical ac­
c o m m o d a tio n s and o th e rs stress
luxurious surroundings and attentive
service, all are concerned with their
guests’ com fort. Hotel housekeepers
are responsible for keeping hotels
and m otels clean and attractive and

providing guests with the necessary
furnishings and supplies. It is their
job to hire, train, schedule, and su­
pervise the housekeeping staff, in­
cluding linen and laundry workers,
and repairers. They also keep em ­
ployee records and order supplies.
About 17,000 persons worked as ho­
tel housekeepers in 1976.
Housekeepers who work in small
or middle-sized establishm ents may
not only supervise the housekeeping
staff, but perform some of these du­
ties them selves. In large or luxury
hotels, their jobs are primarily ad­
ministrative and they are frequently
called executive or head housekeep­
Besides supervising a staff that
may num ber in the hundreds, execu­
tive housekeepers prepare the bud­
get for their departm ents; submit re­
ports to the general m anager on the
condition of rooms, needed repairs,
and suggested im provem ents; and
purchase supplies and furnishings.
Executive housekeepers are assisted
by floor housekeepers, who supervise
the cleaning and m aintenance of one
or several floors in the hotel, and
assistan t executive h o u sek e ep ers,
who help with the adm inistrativ e
Some large hotel and motel chains
assign executive housekeepers to
special jobs, such as reorganizing
housekeeping procedures in an es­
tab lish ed hotel o r setting up the

Hotel housekeepers are responsible for keeping hotels and motels clean and attractive.



housekeeping departm ent in a new

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A lthough th ere are no specific
educational requirem ents for house­
keepers, most em ployers prefer ap­
plicants who have at least a high
school diploma. Experience or train­
ing in h o tel hou sek eeping also is
helpful in getting a job.
Several colleges, junior colleges,
and technical insititutes offer instruc­
tion in hotel adm inistration that in­
clu d es c o u rses in h o u se k e e p in g ;
some of these courses are offered in
sum m er or evening classes. Many
schools have d ev elo ped program s
under the guidance and approval of
the National Executive H ousekeep­
ers Association, an organization that
confers certified m em bership status
upon those mem bers who com plete
certain education and experience re­
quirements. In addition, the Am eri­
can Hotel and M otel Association of­
fers courses for either classroom or
home study. Most helpful are courses
on housekeeping; personnel m anage­
m ent; b udget prep aration; re c o rd ­
keeping; interior decoration; safety
practices; environm ental controls;
and the purchase, use, and care of
different types of equipm ent and fab­
Executive housekeepers should be
good at planning and organizing
work and must be able to get along
well with people, especially those
they supervise. H ousekeepers also
should like to work independently
and be able to keep records and
analyze numbers.
Although assistant housekeepers
may be prom oted to executive
housekeepers after several years of
experience, opportunities are limited
because only one executive house­
keeper job is available in any hotel or
motel. Those with degrees or courses
in institutional housekeeping m an­
agement may have the best advance­
ment opportunities.

ings will result from the need to re ­
place w orkers who die, retire, or
leave the occupation.
Because established hotels usually
fill vacancies by prom oting assistant
h o u sekeepers to executive ho u se­
keepers, beginners will find their best
job opportunities in newly built m o­
tels or hotels.
See the statem ent on the Hotel
Industry elsewhere in the Handbook
for inform ation on earnings and
working conditions, sources of addi­
tional inform ation, and more infor­
mation on the em ploym ent outlook.

(D.O.T. 389.781 and 389.884)

Nature of the Work
Rats, m ice, and com m on house­
hold insects such as flies and roaches
contam inate food and spread sick­
ness; term ites can eat away houses.

Protection of our health and proper­
ty from these pests is the job of p ro ­
fessional pest controllers, who are
classified either as pest control route
w orkers or term ite specialists. A l­
though these fields o f work are sepa­
rate, many controllers do both.
Often working alone, a pest co n ­
trol route worker usually begins the
day by making sure the route truck
has the necessary pesticides, spray­
ers, traps, and other supplies for ser­
vicing custom ers’ facilities. With the
supervisor’s instructions, the route
worker starts out to visit the 5 to 15
custom ers on the route list.
A route worker generally services
restaurants, hotels, food stores,
homes, and other facilities that have
problems with rats, mice, or insects.
Com mercial custom ers commonly
have service contracts calling for
regular visits, such as once a month.
Service to homes usually is less fre­
quent, or only as required.
A route worker, who must know
pests’ habits and hiding places, care­
fully inspects the facility to d e te r­
mine the extent of the pest problem .

Employment Outlook
Employment of hotel housekeep­
ers is expected to grow more slowly
than the average for all occupations
 m id-1980’s. Most open­
through the

Pest controllers know the habits and hiding places of different insects.


To eliminate pests and prevent their
return, the route worker sprays pesti­
cides in and around areas such as
cabinets and sinks where insects usu­
ally live, and sets traps and poisonous
bait near areas where rats or mice
nest and along paths they travel.
While regular visits are of help, the
route worker may suggest to custom ­
ers ways to eliminate conditions that
attract pests. They may, for example,
recommend replacing damaged gar­
bage containers, sealing open food
containers, and repairing cracks in
Term ite specialists are pest con­
trollers who work to eliminate ter­
mites and prevent them from reach­
ing wood stru ctu res. T erm ites eat
wood. W ith o u t p ro p e r co n tro ls,
these insects can go virtually unno­
ticed while they severely undermine
the wood structure of a home or oth­
er building.
Termite specialists, usually work­
ing in pairs, can effectively control
term ites by providing a barrier be­
tw een th e te rm ite s ’ u n d erg ro u n d
colonies and the wood structure. The
most common barrier is term ite poi­
To provide a poisonous barrier,
they stick a steel nozzle into the
ground and pump poison through a
hose attached to the nozzle. Pumping
forces the poison through the holes
in the nozzle and into the soil. They
repeat the process at numerous
points around the foundation. To
reach soil beneath or behind cem ent
or other surfaces, they drill holes
through the surface, insert the nozzle
into the soil, and pump in the poison.
W orkers then seal these holes with
cement. Specialists also may spray
poison directly to the w ood’s surface.
This is done commonly on older, all­
wood structures.
Since term ites will not cross poi­
sonous areas, those term ites in the
ground must find food elsewhere or
starve while those trap p ed in the
wood stru c tu re die from lack o f
m oisture. Because barriers last for
y ears, te rm ite sp ec ia lists seldom
need to revisit a treated facility.
have to alter buildings to prevent
pests from returning. For example,
they may remove and rebuild foun­

1 65

dations or insulate w ood-to-earth
contacts with concrete.
Helpers assist term ite specialists by
digging around and underneath
houses, helping set up and operate
equipm ent, mixing cem ent, and
doing general cleanup work.
Some highly experienced special­
ists inspect houses for term ites, esti­
m ate costs, and explain the proposed
work to custom ers. In most exterm i­
nating firms, however, managers, su­
pervisors, or pest control sales w ork­
ers do these jobs.

Places of Employment
M ore than half of the estim ated
27,000 pest controllers employed in
1976 were route workers; the rest
were term ite specialists and com bi­
nation route workers-term ite special­
Most pest controllers work for or
own firms that specialize in this ser­
vice. A small num ber work for Fed­
eral, State, and local governments.
Jobs in this field can be found
th ro u g h o u t the co u n try . E m ploy­
m ent, how ever, is concentrated in
major m etropolitan areas and large

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
B eginning p e st c o n tro lle rs are
trained by supervisors and experi­
enced w orkers. Many large firms
also provide several weeks of train­
ing, w hich includes classes on the
characteristics of term ites or other
pests, the safe and effective use of
pesticides, custom er relations, and
the preparation of work records. To
aid beginners, many employers p ro ­
vide training manuals. Beginners gain
practical experience by helping pest
control route workers or term ite spe­
cialists on the job. They can learn
many of the basic concepts for pest
control within 2 or 3 months. At this
stage, however, they lack the experi­
ence to work alone.
Almost all States require pest con­
trollers to pass a written test dem on­
strating com petent and safe use of
pesticides. Those few States not re ­
quiring a written test are expected
within the next 3 years to pass legisla­
tion that would require pest control­
lers to pass a similar test. C urrently,

about 30 States require pest control­
lers be licensed, which in most States
is only for registration.
Employers prefer trainees who are
high school graduates, have safe driv­
ing records, and are in good health.
Many firms require their employees
to be bonded; applicants for these
jobs must have a record of honesty
and respect for the law. Because
route workers frequently deal with
customers, employers look for appli­
cants who are courteous, tactful, and
w ell-groom ed. T erm ite specialists
need manual dexterity and m echani­
cal ability. Some firms give aptitude
tests to determ ine an applicant’s suit­
ability for the work.
High school courses in chemistry
and business arithm etic provide a
helpful background for pest control­
lers. Students interested in becoming
route workers also may benefit from
courses in sales. Those interested in
becoming term ite specialists can gain
v a lu a b le e x p e r ie n c e by ta k in g
courses related to building construc­
tion such as carpentry.
Experienced workers with ability
can advance to higher paying posi­
tions, such as service m anager or
pest-control sales worker.

Employment Outlook
Employment of pest controllers is
expected to grow faster than the av­
erage for all occupations through the
m id-1980’s. In addition to the jobs
resulting from em ploym ent growth,
th e n eed to re p la c e ex p e rien ce d
workers who retire or die or transfer
to other occupations also will create
many job openings.
Because pests reproduce rapidly
and tend to develop resistance to
pesticides, their control is a neverending problem. Population growth
and further congestion of m etropoli­
tan areas will add to the need for
more pest controllers. The deterio­
ration o f older buildings also is in­
creasing the need for these workers
since buildings becom e more prone
to infestation as they age.

Earnings and Working
The starting pay for inexperienced
trainees ranged from $3 to $4 an


hour in 1976, based on the limited
inform ation available. Earnings of
experienced pest controllers ranged
from $5 to $8 an hour.
Some route workers are paid an
hourly rate or weekly salary. Others
receive a commission based upon
charges to customers. Nearly all ter­
mite specialists are paid an hourly
rate or weekly salary.
On the average, pest controllers
work 40 to 44 hours a week. During
spring and summer, however, hours
may be longer because pests are
more prevalent. Most work is done
during the day. Route workers, how­
ever, occasionally work nights b e­
cause many restaurants and stores do
not want them to work while custom ­
ers are present.


Pest controllers work both indoors
and outdoors in all kinds of weather.
They frequently lift and carry equip­
ment and m aterials, but most items
weigh less than 50 pounds. Route
workers also do a great deal of walk­
ing and driving. Term ite specialists
occasionally must crawl under build­
ings and work in dirty, cram ped spac­
es. W orkers in these occupations are
subject to some hazards. Although
most pesticides are not harmful to
hum ans, some can cause injury if
they are inhaled or left on the skin.
Such injuries, however, are avoided
if safety precautions are followed.
Term ite specialists risk injury from
power tools and sharp or rough m ate­
rials in buildings.

Pest controllers are on their own to
a great extent. They do not work
under strict supervision and, within
limits, may decide how they will han­
dle a job.

Sources of Additional
Further inform ation about oppor­
tunities in this field is available from
local exterm inating com panies and
the local office of the State em ploy­
m ent service. General information
a b o u t th e w ork can be o b ta in e d
National Pest Control Association, Inc., 8150
Leesburg Pike, Vienna, Va. 22180.

waitresses, cooks and chefs, and b ar­
tenders are presented in the state­
m ents that follow.

Food service workers make up one
of the largest and fastest growing
occupational groups in the N ation’s
labor force. T here are m ore than
four times as many persons employed
in food service as there are in auto­
m o b ile m a n u fa c tu rin g and steel
m anufacturing com bined. In 1976,
about 3.9 million persons were em ­
ployed in food service, mostly in res­
taurants, hotels, factory and school
cafeterias, and catering firms. Job
o p p o rtu n itie s exist alm ost ev ery ­
where and for almost any interested
person, including those with limited
There are no specific educational
requirem ents for most food service
w o rk an d sk ills u su a lly can be
learned on the job. Many restaurants
hire inexperienced persons for jobs
as dining room attendants, dishwash­
ers, food co u n ter w orkers, waiters
and waitresses, and bartenders. Ex­
perience sometimes is needed, how­
ever, to get one of these jobs in a
large restaurant or catering firm. Per­
sons who want to becom e cooks usu­

ally must have some prior experience
in a food service occupation, such as
kitchen helper or assistant cook. Ex­
perienced workers may advance to
food service m anager, m aitre d ’hotel,
head cook, or chef.
Vocational schools, both public
and private, offer courses in cooking,
catering, and bartending. E m ploy­
m ent of food service workers is ex­
pected to increase faster than the av­
erage for all occupations through the
m id-1980’s. The dem and for these
workers will increase as new restau­
rants, cafeterias, and bars open in
response to population growth and
increased spending for food and bev­
erages outside the home. Higher av­
erage incomes and more leisure time
will allow people to eat out more of­
ten. Also, as an increasing num ber of
wives work, families are finding din­
ing out a welcome convenience. D e­
tailed discussions of the work, train­
ing, outlook, and earnings of dining
room a tten d a n ts and dishw ashers,
food co u n ter w orkers, waiters and

(D.O.T. 312.878)

Nature of the Work
Cocktails range from the ordinary
to the exotic. B artenders make these
concoctions by com bining different
kinds of liquor with other ingredients
such as soft drinks, soda water, bit­
ters, fruit juices, and cream . There
are dozens o f com binations, and
each one can be m ade in several
ways. B ecause som e people have
preferences for certain cocktail receipes, bartenders often are asked to
mix drinks to suit a custom er’s taste.
Besides cocktails, bartenders serve
wine, draft or bottled beer, and a
wide variety of nonalcoholic bever­
Most bartenders take orders, serve
drinks, and collect paym ent from
c u s to m e rs . O th e rs sim ply m ak e

A large number of jobs will open each year in the
food service occupations, mainly to replace workers
who leave

Average annual openings, 1976-85 (in thousands)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics





Bartenders often are asked to mix drinks
to suit a customer’s taste.



drinks for waiters and waitresses to
Bartenders usually are responsible
for ordering and maintaining an in­
ventory of liquor, mixes, and other
bar supplies. They also arrange bot­
tles and glasses to form a display,
wash glassware, and clean the bar.
B artenders in large restaurants or
hotels usually have bartender helpers
(D.O.T. 312.887) to assist them with
their duties. Helpers keep the bar
supplied with liquor, mixes, and ice;
stock refrigerators with wine and
beer; and replace empty beer kegs
with full ones. They also keep the
bar area clean and remove empty
bottles and trash.

Places of Employment
M ost of the 261,000 bartenders
employed in 1976 worked in restau­
rants and bars, but many also had
jo b s in h o tels and p riv ate clubs.
R oughly o n e -fifth w ere se lf-e m ­
Several thousand people, many of
whom have full-time jobs in other
occupations or attend college, tend
bar part time. Part-tim e workers of­
ten serve at banquets and private
Most bartenders work in the urban
population centers of New York,
California, and other large States,
but many are employed in small com ­
munities also. Vacation resorts offer
seasonal em ploym ent, and some bar­
tenders altern ate betw een sum m er
and winter resorts rather than remain
in one area the entire year.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Most bartenders learn their trade
on th e jo b . A lth o u g h p re p a rin g
drinks at hom e can be good practice,
it does not qualify a person to be a
bartender. Besides knowing a variety
of cocktail recipes, bartenders must
know how to stock a bar properly
and be familiar with State and local
laws concerning the sale of alcoholic
Persons who wish to becom e bar­
tenders can get good experience by
working as bartender helpers, dining
room atten d an ts, w aiters, or w ait­
resses. By watching the bartender at
w ork, they can learn how to mix
drinks and do
 other bartending tasks.

Some private schools offer short
courses in bartending that include
instruction on State and local laws
and regulations, cocktail recipes, a t­
tire and conduct, and stocking a bar.
Some o f these schools help th eir
graduates find jobs.
Bartenders should have pleasant
personalities and be neat and clean in
personal appearance because they
deal with the public. They need
physical stam ina, since they stand
while they work and also may have to
lift heavy beer kegs or boxes of bev­
Generally, bartenders must be at
least 21 years of age, although some
employers prefer those who are 25 or
older. Some States require bartend­
ers to have health certificates assur­
ing that they are free from co n ta­
gious diseases. In some instances,
they must be bonded.
Small restaurants, neighborhood
bars, and resorts usually offer a b e­
ginner the best entry opportunities.
After gaining experience, a bartend­
er may wish to work in a large restau­
rant or cocktail lounge where pay is
higher and prom otion opportunities
are greater. A lthough prom otional
opportunities in this field are limited,
it is possible to advance to head b ar­
tender, wine stew ard, or beverage
m anager. Some b a rte n d e rs open
their own business.

Employment Outlook
Em ployment of bartenders is ex­
pected to increase about as fast as
th e a v e ra g e fo r all o c c u p a tio n s
through the m id-1980’s. In addition
to the job openings caused by em ­
ploym ent growth, several thousand
will arise annually from the need to
replace experienced bartenders who
retire, die, or leave the occupation
for other reasons.
The dem and for bartenders will
increase as new restaurants, hotels,
and bars open in response to popula­
tion growth and as the am ount spent
for food and beverages outside the
home increases. Higher average in­
comes and more leisure time will al­
low people to go out for dinner or
cocktails m ore often, and to take
more vacations. Also, as more wives
work, families are finding dining out
a welcome convenience.

Job opportunities for bartenders
should be especially favorable in
States that have recently liberalized
their drinking laws. In the early
1970’s, 25 States either lowered the
drinking age or legalized the sale of
liquor by the drink, or both, and
some other States may follow suit.

Earnings and Working
H ourly ea rn in g s o f b a rte n d e rs
ranged from $2.86 to $5.33 in 1976,
according to limited data from union
contracts in the restaurant industry.
Besides wages, bartenders may re­
ceive tips that increase their ea rn ­
Bartenders usually receive free
meals at work and may be furnished
bar jackets or com plete uniforms.
Many bartenders work more than
40 hours a week, and night and
weekend work and split shifts are
com m on.
For many bartenders,
however, the opportunity for friendly
conversation with custom ers and the
possibility of someday managing or
owning a bar or restaurant more than
offset these disadvantages. For o th ­
ers, the opportunity to get part-tim e
work is im portant.

Sources of Additional
Inform ation about job opportuni­
ties may be obtained from the Hotel
and R estaurant Employees and Bar­
tenders International Union, which is
the principal union organizing b ar­
tenders, and from the State em ploy­
m ent service.
For general information on job op ­
portunities in bartending, write to:
Culinary Institute of America, P.O. Box 53,
Hyde Port, N.Y. 12538.

(D.O.T. 313.131 through .887;
314.381 through .878; and 315.131
through .381)

Nature of the Work
A reputation for serving fine food
is an asset to any restaurant, whether



A restaurant’s reputation depends largely on the skills of its cooks.

it prides itself on “ home cooking’’ or
exotic foreign cuisine. Cooks and
chefs are largely responsible for the
re p u ta tio n a re s ta u ra n t acq u ires.
Many chefs have earned fame for
both themselves and the restaurants
and hotels where they work because
of their skill in creating new dishes
and improving familiar ones.
A co o k ’s work depends partly on
the size of the restaurant. Many small
restaurants offer a limited num ber of
short order dishes that are relatively
simple to prepare, plus pies and other
baked goods bought from bakeries.
One cook usually prepares all of the
food with the aid of a short order
cook and one or two kitchen helpers.
Large eating places usually have
more varied menus and prepare
more of the food they serve. Kitchen
staffs often include several cooks,
sometimes called assistant cooks,
and many kitchen helpers.
cook usually has a special assignment
and often a special job title—pastry,
fry, or sauce cook, for example.
Head cooks or chefs coordinate the
work of the kitchen staff, and often
direct certain kinds of food prepara­
tion. They decide the size of serv­
ings, sometimes plan menus, and buy
food supplies.

Places of Employment
About 1,065,000 cooks and chefs
w ere e m p lo y e d in 1976. M ost
worked in restaurants and hotels, but
many w orked in schools, colleges,
and hospitals. G overnm ent agencies,
factories, private clubs, and many
other kinds of organizations also em ­
ployed cooks and chefs.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Most cooks start work in an un­
skilled position such as kitchen help­
er and acquire their skills on the job.
However, an increasing num ber of
cooks are obtaining high school and
post-high school vocational training
in food p re p ara tio n . O ccasionally
they are trained in apprenticeship
programs offered by professional as­
sociations and trade unions, or in a 3year apprenticeship program adm in­
istered by an office of the Am erican
Culinary Federation in cooperation
with local employers and junior col­
leges. A few are trained in program s
th at some large hotels and restau­
rants have for new employees.
Inexperienced workers usually can
qualify as assistant or fry cooks after
several m onths of on-the-job train­
ing, but acquiring all-round skills as
head cook or chef in a fine restaurant
often tak es several years. A high
school diplom a is not required for

m ost beginning jobs; it is re co m ­
m ended, however, for those planning
c a re e rs as co o k s o r chefs. High
school or vocational school courses
in business arithm etic and business
adm inistration are helpful in becom ­
ing a cook or chef. High school stu­
dents can get experience as a cook by
working part time in a fast-food res­
taurant or other limited service op ­
Persons who have had courses in
com m ercial food preparation will
have an advantage when looking for
jobs in large restaurants and hotels
where hiring standards are often
high. Some vocational programs in
high schools offer this kind of train­
ing to students. M ore often, these
courses, ranging from a few months
to 2 years or more, and open in some
cases only to high school graduates,
are given by trade schools, vocation­
al centers, junior colleges, universi­
ties, professional associations, hotel
m a n a g e m e n t g ro u p s , an d tr a d e
unions. Training in supervisory and
m anagem ent skills sometimes is em ­
p h a s iz e d by p riv a te v o c a tio n a l
schools in courses offered by profes­
sional associations, and in university
program s. The A rm ed Forces are
also a good source of training and
experience in food service work.
Although curricula may vary, stu­
dents usually spend m ost of their
tim e le a r n in g to p r e p a r e fo o d
th ro u g h a c tu a l p ra c tic e in w ellequipped kitchens. They learn to
bake, broil, and otherwise prepare
food, and to use and care for kitchen
equipm ent. Training programs often
include courses in selection and stor­
age of food, use of leftovers, determ i­
nation o f portion size, menu plan­
ning, and purchasing food supplies in
quantity. Students also learn hotel
and restaurant sanitation and public
health rules for handling food.
Many school districts in coopera­
tion with school foodservices divi­
sions of State departm ents of educa­
tion provide on-the-job training and
som etim es sum m er w orkshops for
cafeteria w orkers who wish to be­
com e cooks. Some junior colleges,
State departm ents of education, and
school associations also provide such
training. School cooks often are se­
lected from em ployees who have p ar­
ticipated in these training programs.



Persons who want to becom e
cooks or chefs should like to work
with people in a team relationship
and be able to work under pressure
during busy periods and in close
quarters. Cleanliness and a keen
sense of taste and smell and the phys­
ical stamina to stand for hours at a
time also are im p o rtan t qualifica­
tions. Most States require health cer­
tificates indicating th at cooks and
chefs are free from contagious dis­
Advancem ent opportunities for
cooks are better than for most other
food service occupations. Many
cooks acquire higher paying posi­
tions and new cooking skills by mov­
ing from re sta u ran t to restaurant.
Others gradually advance to chef po­
sitions or supervisory or m anagem ent
positions, particulary in hotels, clubs,
or the larger, more elegant restau­
rants. Some eventually go into busi­
ness as caterers or restaurant owners;
others may become instructors in vo­
cational programs in high schools, ju ­
nior and com m unity colleges, and
other academ ic institutions.

Employment Outlook
Employment of cooks and chefs is
expected to increase faster than the
average for all occupations through
the m id-1980’s. In addition to em ­
ploym ent growth, thousands of job
openings will arise annually from the
need to replace experienced workers
who retire, die, or transfer to other
o c c u p a tio n s . S m all re s ta u r a n ts ,
school cafetrias, and o th er eating
places with simple food preparation
will provide the greatest num ber of
starting jobs for cooks.
The dem and for cooks and chefs
will increase as population grows and
people spend more money on eating
out. Higher personal incomes and
more leisure time will allow people to
go out for dinner more often and to
take more vacations. Also, as an
increasing num ber of wives work,
more families are finding dining out a
welcome convenience.

Earnings and Working
In 1976, hourly pay rates ranged
from $3.11 to $6.01 for chefs, from
$2.81 to $5.19 for cooks of various

types, and from $2.02 to $4.05 for
assistant cooks, according to limited
data from union contracts in several
large m etropolitan areas.
Wages of cooks and chefs vary
depending on the part of the country
and the type of establishm ent in
which they work. Wages generally
are higher in the W est and in large,
well-known restaurants and hotels.
Cooks and chefs in famous restau­
rants earn much more than the mini­
mum rates and several chefs with n a­
tional reputations earn m ore than
$40,000 a year. Hours in restaurants
may include late evening, holiday,
and weekend work, and range from
37 1/2 to 48 hours a week. Cooks
em p lo y ed in p u b lic and p riv a te
schools work regular school hours
during the school year only, usually
for 9 months.
Many kitchens are air-conditioned
and have convenient work areas and
modern equipm ent. Others, particu­
larly in older or smaller eating places,
are often not as well equipped and
working conditions may be less desir­
able. In all kitchens, however, cooks
m ust stand m ost of the tim e, lift
heavy pots and kettles, and work
near hot ovens and ranges.
The principal union organizing
cooks and chefs is the Hotel and
R estaurant Employees and B artend­
ers International Union.

Sources of Additional
Information about job opportuni­
ties may be obtained from local em ­
ployers, locals of the Hotel and Res­
tau ran t Em ployees and B artenders
International Union, and local offices
of the State em ploym ent service.
General information about restau­
ra n t cooks and chefs is available
Culinary Institute of America, P.O. Box 53,
Hyde Park, N.Y. 12538.
Educational Director, National Institute for
the Foodservice Industry, 120 South Riv­
erside Plaza, Chicago, III. 60606.
The Educational Institute, American Hotel
and Motel Association, 1407 S. Harrison
Rd., Michigan State University, Stephen
S. Nisbet Bldg., East Lansing, Mich.

For inform ation on the Am erican
Culinary F ederation’s apprenticeship

program for cooks and chefs, write
American Culinary Federation, Educational
Institute, 1407 S. Harrison Rd., East Lan­
sing, Mich. 48823.

(D.O.T. 31 1.878 and 381.887)

Nature of the Work
Clean and attractive table settings
are as im portant to a re sta u ra n t’s
reputation as the quality of food it
serves. An egg-stained fork, a soiled
tablecloth, or an empty salt shaker
can make a custom er unhappy. Din­
ing room attendants and dishwashers
provide the quick hands and sharp
eyes needed to prevent such p ro b ­
A ttendants do many jobs that o th ­
erwise waiters and waitresses would
have to do. They clear and reset ta­
bles, carry dirty dishes from the din­
ing area to the kitchen and return
w ith trays o f food, and clean up
spilled food and broken dishes. By
taking care of these details, atten ­
dants give w aiters and w aitresses
more time to serve customers.
In some restaurants, attendants
also help by serving w ater and bread
and butter to custom ers. W hen busi­
ness is light, they do odd jobs like
refilling salt and pepper shakers and
cleaning coffee urns.
Dishwashers pick up where the at­
ten d an ts leave off—with the dirty
dishes. They o p e ra te special m a­
ch in es th a t clean silverw are and
dishes quickly and efficiently. O cca­
sionally, they may have to make mi­
nor adjustm ents to keep m achines
o p e ra tin g p ro p e rly . D ish w ash e rs
scrub large pots and pans by hand. In
addition, they clean refrigerators and
other kitchen equipm ent, sweep and
mop floors, and carry out trash.

Places of Employment
A bout 250,000 dishw ashers and
190,000 attendants were em ployed
in 1976. Many w orked only p art



Most attendants and dishwashers
work in restaurants, bars, and hotels.
Dishwashers also work in schools and

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A high school ed u cation is not
needed to qualify for jobs as dining
room atten d an ts and dishw ashers,
and many employers will hire appli­
cants who do not speak English. A t­
tendants and dishwashers must be in
good physical condition and have
physical stamina because they stand
most of the time, lift and carry trays,
and work at a fast pace during busy
periods. S tate laws often require
them to obtain health certificates to
show that they are free of contagious
diseases. Because of their close con­
tact with the public, it is im portant
that attendants have a neat appear­
ance and the ability to get along with

Prom otions for dining room atten ­
dants and dishwashers are limited.
A tten d an ts som etim es advance to
positions as waiter or waitress, and
dishwashers occasionally advance to
co o k ’s helper or short-order cook.
The ability to read, write, and do sim­
ple arithm etic is required for prom o­
tio n . A d v a n c e m e n t o p p o rtu n itie s
generally are best in large restau ­

Employment Outlook
Job openings for dining room a t­
tendants and dishwashers are expect­
ed to be plentiful in the years ahead.
Most openings will result from the
need to replace w orkers who find
jobs in other occupations, retire, or
die. T u rn o v er is particularly high
am ong p art-tim e w orkers. A b o u t
one-half of the attendants and dish­
washers are students, most of whom
w ork p a r t tim e w hile a tte n d in g

Attendants and dishwashers must have good health and physical stamina.

school and then find other jobs after
Additional openings will result
from em ploym ent growth. Employ­
m ent of dining room attendants is
expected to increase faster than the
average for all occupations and em ­
ploym ent of dishwashers is expected
to grow about as fast as the average
for all occupations through the mid19 8 0 ’s as p o p u latio n grow th and
higher incomes create more business
for restaurants.

Earnings and Working
Dining room attendants and dish­
washers have relatively low earnings.
Lim ited data from union contracts
th at cover restaurants and bars in
sev eral large cities in d ic a te th a t
hourly rates for these workers ranged
from $1.46 to $3.75 in 1976. These
am o u n ts w ere below the average
earnings of most other nonsupervisory workers in private industry, ex­
cept farming.
A ttendants may receive a percent­
age of w aiters’ and waitresses’ tips in
addition to wages. Tips often average
between 10 and 20 percent of p a­
trons’ checks.
The majority of employers provide
free meals at work and furnish uni­
forms. Paid vacations are custom ary,
and various types of health insurance
and pension plans may be offered.
Most attendants and dishwashers
work less than 30 hours a week.
Some are on duty only a few hours a
day during either the lunch or dinner
period. Others work both periods but
may take a few hours off in the
middle of the day. W eekend and
holiday work often is required.

Sources of Additional
Information about job opportuni­
ties may be obtained from local em ­
ployers, locals of the Hotel and Res­
tau ra n t Em ployees and B artenders
International Union, and local offices
o f th e S tate em ploym ent service.
Names of local unions can be ob­
tained from:
Hotel and Restaurant Employees and Bartend­
ers International Union, 120 East 4th St.,
Cincinnati, Ohio 45202.



For general inform ation about din­
ing room attendants and dishwash­
ers, write to:
Educational Director, National Institute for
the Food Service Industry, 120 S. River­
side Plaza, Chicago, 111. 60606.
Culinary Institute of America, P.O. Box 53,
Hyde Park, N.Y. 12538.

(D.O.T. 31 1.878 and 319.878)

Nature of the Work
C ounter workers serve custom ers
in eating places that specialize in fast
service and inexpensive food, such as
ham burger and fried chicken carry­
outs, drugstore soda fountains, and
school and public cafeterias. About
4 2 0 ,0 0 0 p e rso n s, m o st o f whom
worked p art time, had food counter
jobs in 1976.
Typical duties of counter workers
include taking custom ers’ orders,
serving food and beverages, making
out checks, and taking payments. At
drugstore fountains and in diners,
they also may cook, m ake sandwich­
es and cold drinks, and prepare sun­
daes and other ice cream dishes. In
hamburger carryouts, where food is
prepared in an assembly-line m an­
ner, counter workers may take turns
waiting on custom ers, making french
fries, toasting buns, and doing other
C ounter workers in cafeterias fill
plates for custom ers and keep the
serving line supplied with desserts,
salads, and other dishes. Unlike other
counter workers, they usually do not
take paym ents and m ake change.
C ounter workers also do odd jobs,
such as cleaning kitchen equipm ent,
sweeping and mopping floors, and
carrying o u t trash.

ers of fast-food restaurants often hire
young people still in high school as
part-tim e c o u n te r w orkers. T here
usually are no specific educational
re q u ire m e n ts for c o u n te r jo b s in
Many large com panies, such as the
ham burger
chains, operate formal m anagem ent
training programs. C ounter workers
who show leadership ability may
qualify for these programs.
Because counter workers deal with
the public, a pleasant personality and
neat appearance are im portant.
Good health and physical stam ina
also are needed because they stand
most of the time and work at a fast
pace during busy periods. State laws
often require counter workers to ob­
tain health certificates to show that
they are free of contagious disease.
Opportunities for advancem ent
are limited, especially in small eating
places. Some counter workers move
into higher paying jobs and learn new
skills by transferring to a larger res­
ta u ra n t. A d v a n cem en t can be to
cashier, cook, w aiter or w aitress,
counter or fountain supervisor, or, in
the case o f counter workers in cafe­
terias, to line supervisor or m erchan­
diser (person in charge of stocking
Most counter workers learn their
skills on the job by observing and
working with more experienced
workers. Some employers, including
some fast-food restaurants, use selfstudy instructional booklets and au ­

dio-visual aids to train new em ploy­

Employment Outlook
Job openings for food c o u n te r
workers are expected to be plentiful
in the years ahead. M ost openings
will result from turnover—replace­
m ent of workers who find jobs in o th ­
er occupations, retire, or die. Many
counter workers are high school and
college students who work part time
while attending school and find jobs
in o th er occu p atio n s after g rad u ­
ation. Because of the high turnover,
jobs for counter workers are relative­
ly easy to find.
Additional job openings will result
from em ploym ent growth. Em ploy­
m ent is expected to increase faster
than the average for all occupations
through the m id-1980’s, as popula­
tion growth and higher incomes cre­
ate more business for eating places.

Earnings and Working
H ourly ra te s for food c o u n te r
workers ranged from $1.67 to $3.79
in 1976, based on limited data from
union contracts that covered eating
places in several large cities. These
am ounts were well below the average
earnings for most other nonsupervisory workers in private industry, ex­
cept farming. However, some co unt­
e r w o r k e r s , s u c h as t h o s e in
drugstores and diners, receive tips
which can be g reater than hourly

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
In the counter jobs that require to ­
taling bills and making change, em ­
ployers prefer to hire persons who
are good in arithm etic and have a t­
tended high school, although a diplo­
ma usually is not necessary. M anag­

Flexible schedules often allow students to fit their working hours around their classes.



wages. Tips usually average between
10 an d 20 p e r c e n t o f p a t r o n s ’
checks. C ounter workers usually re­
ceive free meals at work, and may be
furnished with uniforms.
Most counter workers work less
than 30 hours a week. Some are on
duty only a few hours a day for either
the lunch or dinner period. Many
others work both periods, but may
take a few hours off in the middle of
the day. Flexible schedules often
allow students to fit their working
hours around their classes. W eekend
and holiday work often is required.
Job hazards include the possibility
of falls, cuts, and burns, but injuries
seldom are serious.

Sources of Additional

In preparing beef quarters, m eat­
cutters divide them into primal cuts
such as rounds, loins, and ribs with a
band saw, and then use knives or
saws to divide these large cuts into
custom er-sized cuts such as steaks,
roasts, and chops. M eatcutters use
knives or sheers or power cutters to
divide boneless cuts and a band saw
or cleaver to divide pieces that con­
tain bones. Any bone chips left on
the m eat are scraped off with a knife
or brushed off by a m achine. Cutters
grind trimmings into ham burger.

Places of Employment
About 215,000 persons worked as
m eatcutters in 1976. They had jobs
in almost every city and town in the
Nation. Most m eatcutters worked in
retail foodstores. A few worked in

wholesale stores, restaurants, hotels,
hospitals, and other institutions.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
M ost m e a tc u tte rs acquire th eir
skills on the job. Although many are
in fo rm a lly t r a i n e d , m o st le a r n
through apprenticeship programs. A
few m eatcutters learn their skills by
attending private schools specializing
in this trade.
Generally, on-the-job trainees be­
gin by doing odd jobs, such as rem ov­
ing bones and fat from retail cuts.
Under the guidance of skilled m eat­
cutters, they learn about the various
cuts and grades of m eats and the
proper use of tools and equipm ent.
After dem onstrating skill with tools,
they learn to divide quarters into pri-

Information about job opportuni­
ties may be obtained from local em ­
ployers, locals of the Hotel and Res­
tau ran t Em ployees and B artenders
International Union, and local offices
o f the S tate em ploym ent service.
Names of local unions are available
from the Hotel and R estaurant Em­
ployees and Bartenders International
Union, 120 East 4th St., Cincinnati,
Ohio 45202.
For general inform ation about
food counter workers, write to:
Educational Director, National Institute for
the Food Service Industry, 120 S. River­
side Plaza, Chicago, 111. 60606.
Culinary Institute of America, P.O. Box 53,
Hyde Park, N.Y. 12538.

(D.O.T. 316.781 and .884)

Nature of the Work
M eatcu tters p rep are m eat, fish,
and p o u ltry in s u p e rm a rk e ts or
wholesale food outlets. Their prim a­
ry duty is to divide animal quarters
and carcasses into steaks, roasts,
chops, and other serving-sized por­
tions. They also may prepare m eat
products such as sausage and corned
beef. C u tte rs who w ork in retail
foodstores may set up counter dis­
plays and wait on customers.

Meatcutters acquire their skills on the job either informally or through apprenticeship



mal cuts and to divide primal cuts
into individual p o rtions. T rainees
may learn to cut and prepare fish and
poultry, roll and tie roasts, prepare
sausage, and cure and corn m eat.
Later, they may learn m arketing op­
erations such as inventory control,
m eat buying and grading, and rec­
M eatcutters who learn the trade
through apprenticeship generally
com plete 2 to 3 years of supervised
on-the-job training that may be sup­
plem ented by some classroom work.
At the end of the training period,
apprentices are given a m eatcutting
test which is observed by their em ­
ployer. A union m em ber also is pre­
sent in union shops. Apprentices who
pass the test qualify as m eatcutters.
Those who fail can take the test again
at a later time. In many areas, ap­
prentices may become m eatcutters in
less than the usual training time if
they can pass the test.
Employers prefer applicants who
have a high school diploma and the
potential to develop into m eat de­
partm ent managers. High school or
vocational school courses in business
arithm etic are helpful in weighing
and pricing m eats and in m aking
Manual dexterity, good depth p er­
ception, color discrim ination, and
good eye-hand coordination are im­
portant in cutting m eat. A pleasant
personality, a neat appearance, and
the ability to com m unicate clearly
also are im p o rta n t q u alifica tio n s
when cutters wait on customers. Bet­
ter than average strength is needed to
lift heavy pieces of m eat. In some
co m m u n ities, a h ea lth c e rtificate
may be required for employment.
M eatcutters may progress to su­
pervisory jobs, such as m eat depart­
m ent m anagers in superm arkets. A
few become m eat buyers for whole­
salers and superm arket chains. Some
cutters becom e grocery store m anag­
ers or open their own m eat markets.

Employment Outlook
The num ber of m eatcutters is ex­
pected to decline slightly through the
m id-1980’s. Nevertheless, thousands
of entry jobs will be available as ex­
p erie n ced w orkers re tire , die, or
leave the occupation for other rea­

Em ployment of m eatcutters in
food stores will be limited by central
cutting—the practice of cutting and
wrapping m eat for several stores at
one location. C entral cutting, which
permits m eatcutters to specialize in
both a type of m eat and a type of cut,
increases efficiency. In addition,
more central cutting is expected to
be done in m eatpacking plants, thus
reducing the am ount of m eat cu t—
and the need for m eatcutters—in
food stores.

Earnings and Working
Hourly earnings of most m eatcut­
ters averaged $7.10 in 1976, accord­
ing to a 1975 survey of union wage
rates for grocery store employees in
citie s o f 100,0 0 0 in h a b ita n ts o r
more. M eatcutters working in cities
with 500,000 inhabitants or m ore
tended to earn more than those in
smaller cities. Among grocery store
occupations, m eatcutters have the
highest wages.
Beginning apprentices usually re ­
ceive between 60 and 70 percent o f
the experienced c u tte r’s wage and
generally receive increases every 6 to
8 months.
C u tte rs w ork in coldroom s d e ­
signed to prevent m eat from spoiling.
They m ust be careful when working
with sharp tools, especially those that
are powered.
Most cutters are members of the
Amalgamated M eat Cutters and
Butcher W orkmen of North A m er­

Sources of Additional
Information about work opportu­
nities can be obtained from local em ­
ployers or local offices of the State
em ploym ent service. For information
on training and other aspects of the
trade, contact:
Amalgamated Meat Cutters and Butcher
Workmen of North America, 2800 North
Sheridan Rd., Chicago, 111. 60657.

(D.O.T. 311.138 through .878)

Nature of the Work
W aiters and waitresses take cus­
tom ers’ orders, serve food and bever­
ages, m ake out checks, and som e­
tim e s ta k e p a y m e n ts. In d in e rs ,
coffee shops, and other small restau­
rants they provide fast, efficient ser­
vice. In o th er restau ran ts, w aiters
and waitresses serve food at a more
leisurely pace and offer more person­
al service to their custom ers. For ex­
ample, they may suggest wines and
explain the preparation of items on
the menu.
W aiters and waitresses may have
duties other than waiting on tables.
They set up and clear tables and
carry dirty dishes to the kitchen. In
very small restaurants they may com ­
bine waiting on tables with counter
service, p rep arin g sandw iches, or
cashiering. In large restaurants and in
places where meal service is formal,
waiters and waitresses are relieved of
most additional duties. Dining room
attendants often set up tables, fill wa­
te r glasses, and do o th e r ro u tin e

Places of Employment
About 1,260,000 waiters and wait­
resses were employed in 1976. M ore
than half worked part time (less than
35 hours a week). Most worked in
restaurants; some worked in hotels,
colleges, and factories that have res­
tau ra n t facilities. Jobs are located
throughout the country but are most
plentiful in large cities and tourist
areas. V acation resorts offer seasonal
em ploym ent and some waiters and
waitresses alternate between sum m er
and winter resorts instead of rem ain­
ing in one area the entire year.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Most employers prefer to hire ap­
plicants who have had at least 2 or 3
years of high school. A person may
start as a waiter or waitress, or ad­
vance to that position after working
as a dining room attendant, car hop,
or soda fountain worker. Although
most waiters and waitresses pick up
th eir skills on the jo b , at least 3
m onths’ experience is preferred by
larger restaurants and hotels. Some
p u b lic a n d p r i v a t e v o c a ti o n a l



graduation. In addition to the job
openings from turnover, many will
result from em ploym ent growth.
Em ployment of waiters and wait­
resses is expected to grow about as
fast as the average for all occupations
through the m id-1980’s, as popula­
tion growth and higher incomes cre­
ate m ore business for restaurants.
H igher incom es and m ore leisure
time will perm it people to eat out
m ore often. Also, as an increasing
num ber o f wives w ork, m ore and
more families may find dining out a
welcome convenience.
Beginners will find their best op­
portunities for em ploym ent in the
thousands o f inform al restaurants.
Those who seek jobs in expensive
restaurants may find keen com peti­
tion for the jobs that become avail­

Earnings and Working

schools, restaurant associations, and
some large restaurant chains provide
classroom training. O ther employers
use self-instruction program s to train
new employees. In these programs,
an employee learns food preparation
and service skills by observing film
strips and reading instructional book­
Because people in this occupation
are in close and constant contact
with the public, a neat appearance
and an even disposition are im por­
tant qualifications. Physical stamina
also is im portant, as waiters and wait­
resses are on their feet, lifting and
carrying trays of food from kitchen
to table, for hours at a time. Waiters
and waitresses also should be good at
arithm etic and, in restaurants spe­
cializing in foreign foods where cus­
to m e rs m ay n o t s p e a k E n g lish ,
knowledge of a foreign language is
helpful. State laws often require wait­
ers and waitresses to obtain health
certificates showing th a t they are
free of contagious diseases.
Opportunities for prom otion in
this occupation are limited, due to

the small size of most food-serving
establishments. After gaining experi­
ence, however, a waiter or waitress
may transfer to a larger restaurant
where earnings and prospects for ad ­
vancem ent may be better. The most
successful waiters and waitresses are
those who genuinely like people, are
interested in offering service, and
possess the ability to sell rather than
just take orders. A dvancem ent can
be to cashier or supervisory jobs,
such as maitre d ’hotel or dining room
supervisor. Some supervisory w ork­
ers advance to jobs as re sta u ran t

Employment Outlook
Job openings are expected to be
plentiful in the years ahead, mainly
due to the need to replace the waiters
and waitresses who find other jobs or
who retire, die, or stop working for
other reasons. Turnover is particular­
ly high am ong p art-tim e w orkers.
About one-fourth of the waiters and
w a itre sse s are s tu d e n ts , m ost o f
whom work part time while attending
school and then find other jobs after

Hourly rates for waiters and wait­
resses (excluding tips) ranged from
$1.25 to $3.33 in 1976, according to
lim ited data from union contracts
th a t co v ered eating and drinking
places in several large cities. For
many waiters and waitresses, how ­
ever, tips are g reater than hourly
wages. Tips generally average b e­
tween 10 and 20 percent of guests’
checks. Most waiters and waitresses
receive meals at work and many are
furnished with uniforms.
Some waiters and waitresses work
split shifts—that is, they work for
several hours during the middle of
the day, take a few hours off in the
afternoon, and then return to their
jobs for the evening hours. They also
may work on holidays and weekends.
The wide range in dining hours cre­
ates a good opportunity for part-tim e
work. W aiters and waitresses stand
most of the time and often have to
carry heavy trays o f food. During
dining hours they may have to rush to
serve several tables at once. T he
work is relatively safe, but they must
be careful to avoid slips or falls, and
The principal union organizing
waiters and waitresses is the Hotel
and R estaurant Employees and Bar­
tenders International Union.



Sources of Additional
Information about job opportuni­
ties may be obtained from local em ­
ployers, locals of the union previous­
ly m entioned, and local offices of the

State em ploym ent service. G eneral
inform ation on waiter and waitress
jobs is available from:

The Educational Institute, American Hotel
and Motel Association, 1407 S. Harrison
Rd., Michigan State University, East Lan­
sing, Mich. 48823.

National Institute for the Foodservice Indus­
try, 120 South Riverside Plaza, Chicago,
111. 60606.

Culinary Institute of America, P.O. Box 53,
Hyde Park, N.Y. 12538.

Places of Employment


Personal service workers perform
a variety of tasks for people, such as
styling or cutting hair, making airline
passen g ers safe and co m fo rtab le,
conducting tours, carrying baggage,
or arranging funerals. Some of these
tasks require special skills that must
be learned through formal training.
O th ers req u ire skills th a t can be
learned on the job. For some person­
al service jobs, workers must obtain a
State license after completing a train­
ing program or apprenticeship.
P ersons en terin g these o cc u p a­
tions should be neat, tactful and able
to get along well with people because
success on the job depends on the
impression personal service workers
make on their custom ers. Physical
stamina is necessary for those jobs
that involve lifting heavy objects or
standing for long periods of time.
Personal service workers may re­
ceive salaries, commissions or both.
In many cases they also receive tips
th a t add substantially to th eir in­
come. Employers often furnish uni­
form s for jobs th at require them .
Some workers, like barbers and cos­
metologists, must provide their own
This section describes four person­
al service occupations: barbers, cos­
m etologists, fu n eral d irecto rs and
em balm ers, and bellhops and bell

lons, “ unisex” salons, and some bar­
bershops. They cut and style hair to
suit each custom er and may color or
straighten hair and fit hair pieces.
M ost barbers offer hair and scalp
treatm ents, shaves, facial massages,
and shampoos.
A sm all but growing num ber o f
barbers cut and style w om en’s hair.
They usually work in unisex salons—
shops that have male and female cus­
tomers. Some States require a cos­
m etologist’s license as well as a b ar­
b er’s license, however, to perm anent
wave or color w om en’s hair.
As part of their responsibilities,
barbers keep their scissors, combs,
and other instrum ents sterilized and
in good condition. They clean their
work areas and may sweep the shop
as well. Those who own or manage a
shop have additional responsibilities
such as ordering supplies, paying
bills, keeping records, and hiring em ­

(D.O.T. 330.371)

Nature of the Work
Although most men go to a barber
for just a haircut, other services such
as hairstyling and coloring have be­
come increasingly popular. Barbers
train ed in these areas are called
“ hairstylists” and work in styling sa­

More than half of all barbers operate their
own businesses.

Most o f the 124,000 barbers in
1976 worked in barbershops. Some
worked in unisex salons, and a few
worked for governm ent agencies, ho­
tels, or departm ent stores. More than
half of all barbers operated their own
Almost all cities and towns have
barbershops, but em ploym ent is con­
centrated in the most populous cities
and States. Hairstylists usually work
in large cities where the greatest de­
mand for their services exists.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
All States require barbers to be li­
censed. The qualifications necessary
to get a license vary from one State
to an o th er, how ever. G enerally a
person must be a graduate of a Stateapproved barber school, have com ­
pleted the eighth grade, pass a phys­
ical examination, and be at least 16
(in some States 18) years old.
Many States require a beginner to
take an examination for an appren­
tice license, and serve 1 or 2 years as
an apprentice before taking the ex­
amination required for a license as a
registered barber. In the exam ina­
tions, the applicant usually is re ­
quired to pass a written test and dem ­
onstrate an ability to perform the
basic services. Fees for these exami­
nations range from $10 to $75.
Because most States do not recog­
nize training, apprenticeship work,
or licenses obtained in another State,
persons who wish to become barbers
should review the laws of the State in
which they want to work before en­
tering a barber school.
Barber training is offered in about
350 schools; 3 out of 4 barber
schools are private. Some public high
schools offer barbering in their voca­
tional programs. Barber school p ro ­
grams usually last 9 to 12 months.
Students buy their own tools, which
cost about $200. They study the ba­
sic services—haircutting, shaving, fa­
cial massaging, and hair and scalp
treatm ents—and, under supervision,
practice on fellow students and on
custom ers in school “ clinics.” Be­
sides attending lectures on barber
services and the use and care of in­
strum ents, students take courses in



san itation and hygiene, and learn
how to recognize certain skin condi­
tions. Instruction also is given in sell­
ing and general business practices.
A dvanced courses are available in
some localities for barbers who wish
to update their skills or specialize in
hairstyling, coloring, and the sale and
service of hairpieces.
Dealing with custom ers requires
patience and a better than average
disposition. Good health and stam ­
ina also are im portant because b ar­
bers stand a great deal and work with
both hands at shoulder level—a posi­
tion that can be tiring.
Beginners may get their first jobs
through the barber school they a t­
tended, or through the local barber’s
union or em ployer’s association.
Som e e x p e rie n c e d b a rb e rs a d ­
vance by b eco m in g m an ag ers o f
large shops or by opening their own
shops. A few may teach at barber
schools. Barbers who go into busi­
ness for them selves m ust have the
capital to buy or rent a shop and in­
stall equipm ent. New equipm ent for
a one-chair shop cost from $1,500 to
$3,000 in 1976. Some shopowners
buy used equipm ent and fixtures at
reduced prices, however.

Employment Outlook
The em ploym ent decline of the
last decade is expected to level off by
the m id-1980’s as population growth
and the increasing popularity of hair­
styling offset the effect of the fashion
fo r lo n g e r h a ir. A lth o u g h little
change is expected in the level of
em ploym ent, several thousand job
openings for barbers will occur each
year because of the need to replace
workers who retire, die, or transfer to
oth er kinds of work. R eplacem ent
needs in barbering are high, com ­
pared with many other occupations.
The shift in consum er preferences
from regular haircuts to more p er­
sonalized and intensive services has
greatly affected the occupation. Bar­
bers who specialize in hairstyling
have been m uch m ore successful
than those who offer conventional
services. This trend is expected to
continue, and em ploym ent opportu­
nities should be better for hairstylists
than for regular barbers.

Earnings and Working
Barbers receive income from com ­
missions or wages and tips. M ost
barbers who are not shopowners n o r­
mally receive 60 to 70 percent of the
money they take in; a few are paid
straight salaries.
Weekly earnings of experienced
barbers (including tips) generally
ranged between $200 and $250 in
1976, according to limited inform a­
tion available. H airstylists usually
earned $315 to $400 a week, b e­
cause the services they provide are
m ore p e rso n a liz e d and th e re fo re
m ore expensive. Some hairstylists
and a few barbers who operated their
own shops earned more than $400 a
w eek. B eginning barb ers usually
earn about $175 to $200 a week,
hairstylists $200 to $250 a week.
Earnings depend on the size and
location o f the shop, custom ers’ tip­
ping habits, com petition from other
barbershops, and the b arb er’s ability
to attract and hold regular custom ­
Most full-time barbers work m ore
than 40 hours a week and a w ork­
week of over 50 hours is not uncom ­
mon. Although Saturdays and lunch
hours are generally very busy, a b ar­
ber may have some time off during
slack periods. To assure an even
workload, some barbers ask custom ­
ers to m ake appointm ents. Some b ar­
bers receive 1- or 2-week paid vaca­
t i o n s , i n s u r a n c e , a n d m e d ic a l
The principal union that organizes
barbers—both em ployees and shopowners— is the Journeym en Barbers,
H a ird re sse rs, C o sm eto lo g ists and
P roprietors’ International Union of
Am erica. The principal association
that represents and organizes shopowners, m anagers, and employees is
the Associated M aster Barbers and
Beauticians of America.

Every State maintains inform ation
on State licensing requirem ents and
approved barber schools. For details,
contact the State board of barber ex­
aminers or the equivalent authority
at your State capital.
Additional inform ation on this oc­
cupation is available from:
National Barber Career Center, 3839 White
Plains Rd., Bronx, N.Y. 10467.

(D.O.T. 324.138 and .878)

Nature of the Work
Bellhops carry baggage for hotel
and motel guests and escort them to
their rooms on arrival. W hen show­
ing new guests to their rooms, bell­
hops make sure everything is in order
and may offer inform ation about va­
let services, dining room hours, or
other hotel services. Bellhops also
run errands for guests and may re­
lieve elevator operators or sw itch­
board operators.
Large and medium-sized hotels
employ bell captains to supervise
bellhops on the staff. They plan work
assignments, record the hours each
bellhop is on duty, and train new
employees. Bell captains take care of
any unusual requests guests may
make and handle any com plaints re­
garding their departm ent. Sometimes
they help arriving or departing guests
if a bellhop is unavailable. In 1976,
more than 16,000 persons worked as
bellhops and bell captains.
A few hotels have large service
departm ents and employ superinten­
dents of service to supervise bell cap ­
tains and bellhops, elevator o p era­
to rs, d o o rk e ep ers, and w ashroom

Sources of Additional

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Lists of barber schools, by State,
are available from:

No specific educational req u ire­
m ents exist for bellhops, although
high school graduation improves the
chances for prom otion to a job as
desk clerk or reservation clerk. Many
hotels fill bellhop jobs by prom oting
elevator operators.

National Association of Barber Schools, Inc.,
338 Washington Ave., Huntington, W.Va.
National Association of Trade and Technical
Schools, 2021 L St., NW., Room 440,
Washington, D.C. 20036.



areas where hotels and m otels are
open only part of the year.
See the statem ent on the Hotel
Industry elsewhere in the Handbook
for inform ation on earnings and
working conditions, sources of addi­
tional inform ation, and more infor­
mation on em ploym ent outlook.

(D.O.T. 332.271 and .381; 331 and
339.371 )
Because bellhops and captains have fre­
quent contact with guests, they must be
neat, tactful, and courteous.

Because bellhops have frequent
contact with guests, they must be
neat, tactful, and courteous. A
knowledge of the local area is an
asset because guests often ask about
local tourist attractions, restaurants,
and transportation services. Bellhops
also must be able to stand for long
periods, carry heavy baggage, and
work independently.
Bellhops can advance to bell cap­
tain and then to superintendent of
service, but opportunities are limit­
ed. Because there is only one bell
captain position in each hotel, many
years may pass before an opening oc­
curs. O pportunities for advancem ent
to superintendent of service are even

darken the color of the hair to better
suit the p atro n ’s skin color. Cosm e­
tologists may give m anicures, scalp
and facial treatm ents, provide m ake­
up analysis for women, and clean and
style wigs and hairpieces.
M ost co sm e to lo g ists m ake a p ­
pointments and keep records of hair
color formulas and perm anent waves
used by their regular patrons. They
also keep their work area clean and
sanitize th e ir h aird ressin g im p le­
ments. Those who operate their own
salons also have m anagerial duties
which include hiring and supervising
workers, keeping records, and order­
ing supplies.

Nature of the Work
Hair has been a center of attention
since women and men first began to
c a re a b o u t th e ir a p p e a ra n c e .
Throughout history a great deal of
effort has gone into acquiring a fash­
io n a b le h a irsty le o r a p e rfe c tly
trim m e d b e a rd . A lth o u g h styles
change from year to year, the cosm e­
tologist’s task remains the sam e—to
help people look attractive.
Cosmetologists, who also are
called beauty operators, hairstylists,
or beauticians, sham poo, cut, and
style hair, and advise patrons on how
to care for their hair. Frequently they
straighten or perm anent wave a pa­
tro n ’s hair to keep the style in shape.
Cosmetologists may also lighten or

Places of Employment
Most of the m ore than 534,000
co sm etologists em ployed in 1976
w o rk e d in b e a u ty salo n s. Som e
worked in “ unisex” shops, b arb er­
styling shops, or departm ent stores,
and a few were employed by hospi­
tals and hotels. More than one-third
operated their own businesses.
All cities and towns have beauty
salons, but em ploym ent is con cen ­
trated in the most populous cities and
States. Those cosmetologists who set
fashion trends with their hairstyles
usually work in New York City, Los
Angeles, and other centers of fashion
and the performing arts.

Changing hairstyles have caused a drop in employment
of barbers, but cosmetology has continued to grow

Employment Outlook

Little or no change in employment
of bellhops is expected through the
m id-1980’s. Most openings will result
from the need to replace workers
who die, retire, or leave the occupa­
Although many motels now offer
services similar to those of a hotel
and employ bellhops, the growing
popularity of economy motels that
offer only basic services is expected
to limit em ploym ent growth. New
workers will have b etter opportuni­
ties in m otels and small hotels be­
cause the large luxury hotels prefer
to hire experienced workers. O ppor­
tunities also will be available in resort


I 960 1962

1964 1966 1968 1970 1972 1974

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

1976 1978 1980 1982 1984



Employment Outlook

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Although all States require cosm e­
tologists to be licensed, the qualifica­
tions necessary to obtain a license
vary. Generally, a person must have
g ra d u ated from a S ta te-a p p ro v ed
cosmetology school, have com pleted
at least the 10th grade, pass a phys­
ical examination, and be at least 16
years old. In some States com pletion
o f an apprenticeship training p ro ­
gram can substitute for graduation
from a cosmetology school, but very
few cosmetologists learn their skills
in this way.
Cosmetology instruction is offered
in both public and private vocational
schools, in either daytime or evening
classes. A daytime course usually
takes 9 m onths to 1 year to com plete;
an evening course takes longer.
M any public school program s in ­
clude the academ ic subjects needed
for a high school diplom a and last 2
to 3 years. An apprenticeship pro­
gram usually lasts 1 or 2 years.
Both public and private programs
include classroom study, dem onstra­
tio n s, and p ra c tic a l w ork. M ost
schools provide stu d ents with the
necessary hairdressing im plem ents,
su c h as m a n ic u r e im p le m e n ts ,
combs, scissors, razors, and hair roll­
ers, and include their cost in the tu ­
ition fee. Sometimes students must
purchase their own. A good set of
im plem ents costs over $50. Begin­
ning students work on manikins or on
each other. Once they have gained
some experience, students practice
on patrons in school “ clinics.”
After graduating from a cosm etol­
ogy course, students take the State
licensing examination. The exam ina­
tion consists of a written test and a
p ractical test in w hich applicants
dem onstrate their ability to provide
the required services. In some States
an oral examination is included and
the applicant is asked to explain the
p ro ced u res he or she is following
while taking the p ra ctical test. In
some States a separate examination
is given for persons who want only a
m a n ic u ris t’s license. Som e S tates
have reciprocity agreem ents that al­
low a cosm etologist licensed in one
State to work in another without re­

Cosmetologists must keep up with the lat­
est fashions.

Persons who want to become cos­
metologists must have finger dexter­
ity, a sense of form and artistry, and
the physical stamina to stand for long
periods o f time. They should enjoy
dealing with the public and be willing
and able to follow patrons’ instruc­
tions. B ecause hairstyles are c o n ­
stan tly c h a n g in g , co sm e to lo g ists
must keep abreast of the latest fash­
ions and beauty techniques. Business
skills are im portant for those who
plan to operate their own salons.
Many schools help their students
find jobs. During their first m onths
on the job, new cosmetologists are
given relatively simple tasks, such as
giving m anicures or shampoos, or are
assigned to perform the simpler hair­
styling p a tte rn s. O nce they have
dem onstrated their skills, they are
gradually perm itted to perform the
more com plicated styling tasks such
as hair coloring and perm anent wav­
A dvancem ent usually is in the
form of higher earnings as cosm e­
tologists gain experience and build a
steady clientele; but many m anage
large salons or open their own after
several years of experience. Some
teach in cosmetology schools or use
their knowledge and skill to dem on­
s tr a te c o s m e tic s in d e p a r tm e n t
stores. A few work as examiners for
State cosmetology boards.

Em ploym ent of cosm etologists is
expected to grow about as fast as the
average for all occupations through
th e m id -1 9 8 0 ’s as p o p u latio n in ­
creases and the num ber of working
women rises. The trend to hairstyling
for men also creates a dem and for
these workers because many men go
to unisex shops or beauty salons for
styling services. In addition to open­
ings due to growth in the occupation,
thousands of cosmetologists will be
needed each year to replace those
who die, retire, or leave the occupa­
Employment in this occupation is
not strongly affected by downturns in
the business cycle, and job opportu­
nities are expected to be good for
both new com ers and ex perien ced
c o s m e to lo g is ts . M any o p e n in g s
should be available for persons seek­
ing part-tim e work.

Earnings and Working
C o sm eto lo g ists re ceiv e incom e
from commissions or wages and from
tips. Those who are not salon owners
receive a percentage of the money
they take in, usually 50 percent; a
few are paid straight salaries.
Weekly earnings of experienced
cosmetologists (including tips) gen­
erally ra n g ed b etw e en $285 an d
$340 in 1976, according to limited
information available. After 10 years
o f experience, they can earn m ore
than $450 a week. Beginners usually
earned $95 to $125 a week. Those
co sm etologists who cu t and style
m e n ’s h air often ea rn m ore th an
those who work on w om en’s hair be­
cause the services they provide are
m ore expensive.
Earnings also depend on the size
and location of the salon, patro n s’
tipping habits, com petition from o th ­
er beauty salons, and the individual
cosm etologist’s ability to attract and
hold regular patrons.
Many full-time
work m ore than 40 hours a week,
including evenings and Saturdays
when beauty salons are busiest. M ore
than one-third of all cosmetologists


work part time, usually during these
busy hours.
A few large salons and departm ent
stores offer group life and health
(D.O.T. 187.168 and 338.381)
insurance and other benefit plans.
Nearly all employers provide annual
paid vacations of at least 1 week after
Nature of the Work
a year’s service.
The principal union which organiz­
Few occupations require the tact,
es cosm etologists—both employees discretion, and compassion called for
and salon ow ners—is the Journey­ in the work of funeral directors and
men Barbers, Hairdressers, Cosm e­ embalmers. The family and friends of
tologists, and P ro p rieto r’s Interna­ the deceased may be under consider­
tio n a l U n io n o f A m e ric a . T h e able em otional stress and bewildered
prin cip al trad e asso ciation which by the many details of the occasion.
represents and organizes salon own­ T h e f u n e r a l d ir e c to r ( D .O .T .
187.168) helps them to m ake the
ers, managers, and employees is the
A s s o c ia te d M a s te r B a rb e rs and personal and business arrangem ents
Beauticians of A m erica. O ther o r­ necessary for the service and burial.
g an iza tio n s in clu d e th e N atio n al The embalmer (D.O.T. 338.381) p re­
Hairdressers and Cosmetologists As­ pares the body for viewing and buri­
sociation, Inc.; the National Associ­ al. In many instances, one person
ation of Cosmetology Schools, Inc., performs both functions.
The director’s duties begin when a
which represents school owners and
teachers; and the N ational Beauty call is received from a family request­
C u ltu r is ts ’ L ea g u e, re p re s e n tin g ing services. After arranging for the
black cosmetologists, teachers, m an­ deceased to be removed to the funer­
al home, the director obtains the in­
agers, and salon owners.
formation needed for the death c e r­
tificate, such as date and place of
Sources of Additional
birth and cause of death. The direc­
tor makes an appointm ent with the
A list of approved training schools family to discuss the details of the
and licensing requirem ents can be fu n e ra l. T h ese in clu d e tim e and
place of service, clergy and organist,
obtained from State boards of cos­
selection o f casket and clothing, and
metology or from:
provision for burial or crem ation. Di­
Cosmetology Accrediting Commission, 1707
rectors also make arrangem ents with
L Street, N.W., Room 440, Washington,
the cem etery, place obituary notices
D.C. 20036
in newspapers, and take care of other
A dditional inform ation about ca­ details as necessary. D irectors m ust
reers in cosm etology and State li­ be familiar with the funeral and buri­
censing re q u irem en ts is available al custom s of various religious faiths
and fraternal organizations.
Embalming is a sanitary, preserva­
National Beauty Career Center, 3839 White
tive and cosm etic measure. Em balm ­
Plains Rd„ Bronx, N.Y. 19467.
ers, perhaps with the help of appren­
National Hairdressers and Cosmetologists As­
tic e s , firs t w ash th e bod y w ith
sociation, 3510 Olive St., St. Louis, Mo.
germicidal soap. The embalming p ro ­
cess itself replaces the blood with a
For general inform ation about the preservative fluid. Em balm ers apply
occupation, contact:
cosmetics to give the body a natural
appearance and, if necessary, restore
Journeymen Barbers, Hairdressers, Cosme­
disfig u red fe a tu re s. F inally, they
tologists, and Proprietors International
Union of America, 7050 West Washing­
dress the body and place it in the
ton St., Indianapolis, Ind. 46241.
casket selected by the family.
National Association of Cosmetology Schools,
On the day of the funeral, directors
599 South Livingston Ave., Livingston,
provide cars for the family and pall­
N.J. 07039.
bearers, receive and usher guests to

their seats, and organize the funeral


procession. A fter the service they
may help the family file claims for
social security, insurance, and other
benefits. Directors may serve a fam ­
ily for several months following the
funeral until such m atters are satis­
factorily completed.

Places of Employment
A b o u t 4 5 ,000 p erso n s w ere li­
censed as funeral directors and em ­
balmers in 1976. A substantial num ­
ber of the d irec to rs w ere funeral
home owners.
Most of the 22,000 funeral homes
in 1976 had 1 to 3 directors and
embalmers, including the owner.
Many large homes, however, had 20
or more. Besides the em balm ers em ­
ployed by funeral hom es, several
hundred w orked for m orgues and

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A license is needed to practice em ­
balm ing. State licensing standards
vary but generally an em balm er must
be 21 years old, have a high school
diploma or its equivalent, graduate
from a m o rtu ary scien ce sch o o l,
serve an apprenticeship, and pass a
State board examination. One-half of
the States require a year or more of
college in addition to training in m or­
tuary science.
All but six States also require fu­
neral directors to be licensed. Quali­
fications are similar to those for em ­
balm ers but directors may have to
take special apprenticeship training
and board examinations. Most peo­
ple entering the field obtain both li­
censes, however some States issue a
single license to em balm er/funeral
directors. Inform ation on licensing
requirem ents is available from the
State office of occupational licens­
High school students can start p re­
paring for a career in this field by
taking courses in biology, chemistry,
and speech. Students may find a parttim e or sum m er jo b in a fun eral
hom e. A lthough these jobs consist
mostly of m aintenance and clean-up
tasks, such as washing and polishing
hearses, they can be helpful in gain­


ing familiarity with the operation of
funeral homes.
In 1976, 34 schools had m ortuary
science programs accredited by the
American Board of Funeral Service
Education. About one-half were pri­
vate vocational schools that offer 1year p ro g ram s em phasizing basic
subjects such as anatom y and physi­
ology as well as practical skills such
as embalming techniques and restor­
ative art. Community colleges offer
2-year programs, and a small num ber
of colleges and universities offer 2and 4-year programs in funeral ser­
vice. These programs included liber­
al arts and m anagem ent courses as
well as m ortuary science. All p ro ­
grams offered courses in psychology,
accounting, and funeral law.
Apprentices work under the guid­
ance of experienced em balm ers and
directors. An apprenticeship usually
lasts 1 or 2 years and may be served
before, after, or during the time one
attends m ortuary school, depending
on State regulations.
State board examinations consist
of written and oral tests and actual
dem onstration of skills. After passing
the examination and meeting other
requirem ents, apprentices receive a
license to practice. If they want to
work in another State, they may have
to pass its examination, although
many States have m utual agreem ents
that make this unnecessary.
Im portant personal traits for funer­
al directors are com posure, tact, and
the ability to com m unicate easily
with the public. They also should


have the desire and ability to com fort
people in their time of sorrow.
A dvancem ent opportunities are
best in large funeral homes where
directors and em balm ers may earn
prom otion to higher paying positions
such as personnel m anager or gener­
al m anager. Some workers eventually
acquire enough m oney and experi­
ence to establish their own business­
es. „

Employment Outlook
Little change in the em ploym ent o f
funeral directors and em balm ers is
expected through the m id-1980’s. In
recent years, the num ber of m ortuary
school graduates has approxim ately
equaled the num ber of jobs available
due to retirem ents, deaths, and trans­
fers to other occupations. Many stu­
dents secure a prom ise of em ploy­
m ent before entering a program and,
barring any significant growth in en ­
rollm ents, future graduates should
find job opportunities available.
Dem and for funeral services will
rise as the population grows and
deaths increase. Most funeral homes,
however, will be able to m eet the
demand w ithout expanding their em ­
ployment. The average funeral hom e
conducts only one or two funerals
each week and is capable of handling
several m ore without hiring addition­
al employees.

Earnings and Working
In 1976, funeral directors and em ­
balmers generally earned from $200

to $300 a week. M anagers generally
e a r n e d b e tw e e n $ 1 0 ,0 0 0 a n d
$16,000 a year, and many owners
earned more than $20,000. A ppren­
tic e s e a rn e d b etw e en $2.25 an d
$4.60 an hour.
In large funeral hom es, employees
usually have a regular work schedule.
Typically they put in 8 hours a day, 5
or 6 days a week. Overtim e, how­
ever, occasionally may be necessary.
Some employees work shifts; for ex­
ample, nights 1 week, and days the
em balm ers
come into contact with contagious
diseases but the possibility of their
becoming ill is rem ote, even less
likely than for a doctor or nurse.

Sources of Additional
Information about job opportuni­
ties in this field is available from local
funeral homes and from:
National Funeral Directors Association of the
United States, Inc., 135 W. Wells St., Mil­
waukee, Wise. 53203.
National Selected Morticians, 1616 Central
St., Evanston, 1 60201.

For a list of accredited schools of
m ortuary science and inform ation
about scholarship opportunities, con­
The American Board of Funeral Service Edu­
cation, Inc., 201 Columbia St., Fairmont,
W. Va. 26554.


A bout 1.4 million w orkers were
em ployed in private households in
1976. The m ajority were dom estic
workers who perform ed household
tasks such as cooking, cleaning, or
caring for children, but workers in
o th e r o cc u p a tio n s also w ere em ­
ployed by private households. G ar­
deners keep the grounds of large es­
tates looking attractive by planting
shrubs and flowers and cutting the
lawn. Chauffeurs drive their employ­
ers’ cars and keep the vehicles clean
and in good running condition. C ar­
p en ters, p ain ters, and o th er craft
w orkers m ain tain and re d e c o ra te
hom es. P rivate nurses, secretaries,
and cu rato rs or librarians are em ­
ployed in some households.
The following statem ent discusses
the dom estic occupations most fre­
quently found in private households,
in c lu d in g g e n e ra l h o u s e k e e p e r ,
m other’s helper, and com panion.

w orkers clean the house and may
also be responsible for meal prepara­
tion, laundry, or caring for children.
W hen hired by the day or hour, they
are called day workers.
Heavy household tasks and yard
m aintenance are usually perform ed
by caretakers. They may wash win­
dow s, p a in t fen ces and mow th e
In some households, meals are p re­
p a re d by cooks. Som e co o k s do
everything from planning menus and

buying food to serving m eals and
cleaning the kitchen. Others follow
the instructions of a family mem ber.
C ooks may be assisted by a cook's
helper, who is less skilled than a cook
and perform s simple tasks, such as
peeling vegetables and cleaning the
A few households em ploy launderers to wash, iron, and fold the
Some private household workers
specialize in perform ing personal ser­
vices for mem bers of the family. La­
dy's and gentleman's attendants keep
their em ployer’s clothes pressed and
hung, m ake their beds, help them
dress, and run errands. Companions
do similar work, but they also act as a
friend or aide to the convalescent,
elderly, or handicapped person who
employs them.
Some private households employ
workers whose sole job is child care.

(D.O.T. 099.228, 301.887, 303.138,
304.887, 305.281, 306.878,
307.878, and 309.138 through

Nature of the Work
Thousands of people employ pri­
vate household workers to help care
for children, clean and m aintain the
house and yard, cook meals, or serve
the family. Some household workers
specialize in one o f these jobs, but
the duties o f most workers change
from day to day. Frequently, workers
who specialize live in their employ­
e r’s house.
M ost private household workers
are e m p lo y e d as g en era l houseworkers or m other's helpers. These

Most private household workers are employed as general houseworkers or mothers’



Unlike m others’ helpers, whose du­
ties generally entail light housekeep­
ing as well as child care, these work­
ers have no general housekeeping
responsibilities. Such workers bathe
the ch ild ren , p rep are th eir m eals,
launder their clothes, and supervise
their play. Those who care for very
young children are responsible for
sterilizing bottles, preparing form u­
las, and ch a n g in g d ia p e rs. Som e
households employ tutors, who usu­
ally are in charge of school-age chil­
dren and supervise their recreation,
diet, and health, as well as their edu­
cation. These w orkers also are re ­
sponsible for disciplining the chil­
dren and arranging their activities.
A household with a large staff of
workers may employ a home house­
keeper or a butler to supervise the
staff and the operation of the house­
hold. These workers usually are re­
sponsible for hiring and firing the
other household employees. In addi­
tion to these duties, butlers receive
and announce guests, answ er tele­
phones, serve food and drinks, and
may act as gentlem an’s attendants.
H ousekeepers order food and clean­
ing supplies and keep a record of ex­

Places of Employment
N early 1.1 million persons were
employed as private household work­
ers in 1976. M ost are employed part
time, working half-days or only 2 or 3
days a week. Those who live in their
em ployer’s house work longer hours.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
For m ost household jobs, experi­
ence and an ability to cook, clean, or
care for a yard is im portant; formal
education is not. Em ployers prefer
workers who know how to operate
vacuum cleaners, floor waxers, and
lawn mowers, but m ost young people
can learn these skills while helping
with the house and yard work at
home. Some household workers ac­
quire skills by spending a year work­
ing as a m o th er’s helper under the
supervision of either an experienced
household worker or their employer.
Home econom ics courses in high
schools, vocational schools, and ju ­
 offer training in child
nior colleges

developm ent and m eal preparation
that can be very useful to persons
in te re ste d in b eco m in g cooks o r
child ca re w orkers. T raining p ro ­
grams sponsored by Federal agen­
cies, State em ploym ent service offic­
es, and local w elfare departm ents
also teach many of the skills needed
for household work.
For a person wishing a job serving
as a com panion or caring for chil­
dren, educational and cultural back­
ground is more im portant than work
experience. Generally a com panion’s
b a c k g r o u n d , in te r e s ts , an d ag e
should be similar to the em ployer’s,
and practical nursing experience is
useful if the em ployer is an invalid.
Being able to read well or carry on an
interesting conversation is helpful. A
well-rounded education and teaching
skills are im portant for persons inter­
ested in caring for children.
Private household workers m ust
have physical stam ina because they
are on their feet most o f the time and
sometimes must do some heavy lift­
ing. The desire to do a job carefully
and thoroughly is im portant. H ouse­
hold workers should be able both to
get along well with people and to
work independently. Some workers,
particularly cooks and infant’s nurs­
es, need a health certificate showing
that they are free of contagious dis­
eases. Many em ployers arrange and
pay for the necessary physical exam i­
A dvancem ent o th e r than an in ­
crease in wages generally is not possi­
ble in private household work. Few
households require live-in workers,
and even few er re q u ire so m any
workers that a butler or home house­
keeper is needed as a supervisor.
W orkers can transfer to better pay­
ing and m ore highly skilled house­
hold jobs, such as cook or lady’s or
gentlem an’s attendant, but job open­
ings in these occupations are limited.
However, many private household
workers use their training and experi­
ence to transfer to related jobs—in
child care or day care facilities, or as
kitchen workers in restaurants. Some
may go to work as building cleaners,
em ployed by com m erical cleaning
services. O thers may go to work as
nursing aides in hospitals, or nursing

homes, or hom em aker-hom e health
aides employed by health agencies,
public welfare departm ents, or com ­
merical firms.

Employment Outlook
A lthough the num ber o f private
household w orkers is expected to
d e c lin e th ro u g h th e m id -1 9 8 0 ’s,
th o u san d s o f openings will re su lt
each year from the need to replace
those who die, retire, or leave the
occupation. The dem and for house­
hold w orkers has exceeded supply
for some time, as m ore women, espe­
cially those with young children, en ­
ter the labor force. Low wages, the
tedious nature o f som e household
tasks, and the lack o f advancem ent
opportunities discourage many p er­
sons from entering the occupation,
however, and some prospective em ­
ployers are turning to child-care cen ­
ters and com m ercial cleaning servic­
es for help.
Job openings for dom estic w ork­
ers, particularly for general house­
keepers and m others’ helpers, will be
plentiful th rough th e m id -1 9 8 0 ’s.
Many openings will be available for
part-tim e work.

Earnings and Working
In 1975, full-time female private
household workers averaged $2,413
a year, less than half the average for
all nonsupervisory workers in private
industry, except farm ing. Earnings
data are not available for men in the
occupation because men represen t
such a small proportion of total em ­
ployment. The provisions of Federal
and State minimum wage laws were
extended to private household w ork­
ers in May 1974.
Wages vary according to the work
perform ed, em ployer’s incom e, and
the custom of the local area. E arn ­
ings are highest in large cities, espe­
cially in the North.
Most private household workers
receive instructions from their em ­
ployers, but are free to work on their
own. Frequently, they have a key to
the house or apartm ent. Household
work is often tedious, especially for
day workers who generally are given


the less d esira b le task s, such as
cleaning bathroom s or defrosting the
refrigerator. Long or irregular work­
ing hours can isolate workers who
“ live in ” from th eir fam ilies and
friends, and if they are the sole em ­
ployees in the households, they are
likely to be alone most of the time.


Sources of Additional
Facts about em ploym ent opportu­
nities and training program s in pri­
vate household work are available
from local offices of State em ploy­
m ent agencies.

Inform ation on laws affecting
household workers and guidelines for
work is available from:
National Committee on Household Employ­
ment, 7705 Georgia Ave. NW., Suite 208,
Washington, D.C. 20012.

(D.O.T. 372.868 and 375.168 and


The growth of our N ation’s popu­
lation and economy has put an in­
creasing emphasis on protective ser­
vices. Each city, suburban area, and
national port of entry requires pro­
tective and related service workers to
check crim e, minimize loss of life
and p ro p erty , and enforce regula­
tions that protect the health and safe­
ty of our citizens at home and on the
Careers in protective and related
service occupations require varied
com binations of education and expe­
rience. W orkers such as FBI special
agents and some F ederal G overn­
m ent inspectors must have at least a
bachelor’s degree, while guards may
have less than a high school educa­
tion. Most occupations in this group,
however, require a high school diplo­
ma. In many cases, a college degree
is an asset for advancem ent to higher
level positions.
In addition to educational require­
m ents, m ost w orkers in protective

Nature of the Work

and related services m ust undergo
formal training program s and get onthe-job experience before they are
fully qualified. T raining program s
last from sev e ral days to a few
months and emphasize specific jobrelated skills.
Personal qualifications such as
honesty and an understanding of h u ­
man nature are im portant. Persons
seeking careers in protective and re ­
lated service occupations should sin­
cerely desire to serve the community
and be able to exercise proper judg­
m ent under a variety of conditions.
This section describes the work of
several occupations in protective and
related services: correction officers,
FBI sp e c ia l a g e n ts, fire fig h te rs ,
guards, police officers, State police
officers, o c c u p a tio n a l safety and
health w orkers, and health, regula­
tory, and construction inspectors.

Except for guards, most openings in the protective
service occupations result from growth in
employment needs
Selected protective and related service occupations
Average annual openings, 1976-85 (in thousands)


Health and regulatory
inspectors (government)

Police officers

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics




C o rrectio n officers are charged
with the safekeeping of persons who
have been arrested, are awaiting tri­
al, or who have been tried and co n ­
victed of a crime and sentenced to
serve time in a correctional institu­
tion. They m aintain order within the
institution, enforce rules and regula­
tions, and often counsel inmates.
To make sure inmates are orderly
and obey rules, correction officers
keep a close watch on everything the
immates do—working, exercising,
eating, and bathing. They give and
oversee work assignm ents for in­
mates, as well as instruct and help
them on specific tasks. Sometimes it
is necessary to search inm ates for
forbidden items, such as weapons or
drugs, to settle disputes between in­
m ates, and to en fo rce discipline.
They cannot show favoritism to any
inmate and must report all who vio­
late rules. To prevent escapes, offi­
cers serve as guards on towers and at
gates. They count inm ates to m ake
sure all are present during transfers
and activities.
C orrection officers examine facili­
ties to assure the safety and security
of prisoners. They check cells and
o th e r areas o f the in stitu tio n for
unsanitary conditions, fire hazards,
and evidence of infraction of rules by
inm ates. Periodically, they inspect
locks, windowbars, grill doors, and
gates for tampering.
C orrection officers report orally
and in writing on inm ate conduct and
on the quality and quantity of work
done by inmates. Officers also report
disturbances, violations of rules, and
any unusual occurrences. They keep
a record of their activities in a n o te­
C orrection officers escort inm ates
to and from cells and other areas and
admit and accom pany authorized
visitors within the facility. From time
to time, they may censor mail, ad­
m inister first aid, or assist police au­
thorities by investigating crimes com ­
mitted within the institution and by
searching for escaped inmates.



m ainder work for the Federal Gov­
Most correction officers work in
relatively large institutions located
outside m etropolitan areas, although
a significant num ber work in smaller
facilities located in towns.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Correction officers oversee work assignments of inmates and instruct them in specific

Counseling inmates and helping
them with problems also is an im por­
tant part o f the correction officer’s
job. Officers play a key role in efforts
to rehabilitate inm ates by helping
them adjust to life in the institution,
preparing them for later civilian life,
and counseling them on how to avoid
future criminal behavior. In some in­
stitutions, officers lead or participate
in group counseling sessions. More
often, however, the counseling is in­
fo rm a l. O ffic e rs m ay a rra n g e a
change in a daily schedule so that an
inmate has an opportunity to visit the
library, help inm ates get news of
th for fam ilies, talk o ver personal
Digitizedeir FRASER

problems that may have led to com ­
mitting a crime, or suggest where to
look for a job after release from pris­
C orrection sergeants directly su­
pervise correction officers. They usu­
ally are responsible for maintaining
security and directing the activities
of a group of inmates during an as­
signed watch.

Places of Employment
There were about 90,000 co rrec­
tion officers in 1976. More than 9
out of 10 correction officers work for
State and local governments; the re ­

The Federal Governm ent, as well
as almost every State and a few local­
ities, provides training for correction
officers. Some States—Maryland and
New Y ork are two — have special
train in g ac ad em ies. M ost S ta tes,
how ever, provide inform al on-thejob training.
A cadem y train e es generally re ­
ceive 4 to 8 weeks o f instruction on
institutional policies, regulations and
procedures, the behavior and custo­
dy of inm ates, writing reports, and
security. On-the-job trainees receive
2 to 6 months of similar training in an
actual job setting under the guidance
o f an experienced officer. Experi­
enced officers sometimes receive inservice training to keep abreast of
new ideas and procedures.
Most penal systems require that
correction officers be at least 21
years old and have a high school
education or its equivalent, or else
work experience that qualifies them.
They must be in good health. Many
States require candidates to m eet
formal standards of height, weight,
vision, and hearing. Strength, good
judgm ent, and the ability to think
and act quickly are assets. Some
States require candidates to have 1
or 2 years’ experience in corrections
or related police work. A few States
require candidates to pass a written
With additional education, experi­
ence, and training, qualified officers
may advance to correction sergeant
or other supervisory or adm inistra­
tive positions. O fficers som etim es
transfer to related areas, such as p ro ­
bation and parole.

Employment Outlook
Employment of correction officers
is expected to increase about as fast
as the average for all occupations
through the m id-1980’s. The likely
population increase within c o rrec­
tional facilities is expected to create



growth in the em ploym ent of correc­
tion officers. Many additional open­
ings will result from job turnover and
the need to replace workers who die
or retire.

Earnings and Working
In 1976, salaries for correction of­
ficers varied widely by level of gov­
ernm ent. A t the Federal level, the
starting salary was $10,370 per year;
the average salary for all Federal co r­
rection officers and correction ser­
geants was $12,675 per year. At the
State level, starting salaries averaged
$8,900 per year while maximum sala­
ries averaged $11,400 per year. Sala­
ries o f co rrectio n sergeants range
fro m an a v e r a g e m in im u m o f
$10,259 to an average maximum of
$13,426 at the State level.
C orrection officers usually work
an 8-hour day, 40-hour week. Prison
security m ust be provided around the
clock, which m eans some officers
work weekends, holidays, and nights.
During em ergencies, officers may
work overtim e, for which they are
paid straight time, or time-and-onehalf, or are given equal time off.
Officers may work either indoors
with inm ates or outdoors on towers
or at gates. Although corrections
work is not normally hazardous,
there is always the th reat of trouble
by inmates.

(D.O.T. 375.168)

Nature of the Work
F ed eral B ureau o f Investigation
(FBI) special agents investigate vio­
lations of Federal laws in connection
with bank robberies, kidnappings,
white-collar crime, thefts of G overn­
m ent property, organized crime, es­
p ionage, and sab o tag e. T he FBI,
which is part of the U.S. D epartm ent
of Justice, has jurisdiction over many
different Federal investigative m at­
ters. Special agents, therefore, may
be assigned to any type of case, al­
though those with specialized train­
ing usually work on cases related to
their background. Agents with an
accounting background, for exam ­
ple, m ay in v estig ate w h ite-c o lla r
crimes such as bank em bezzlem ents,
or fraudulent bankruptcies or land
Because the FBI is a fact-gathering
agency, its special agents function
strictly as investigators, collecting
evidence in cases in which the U.S.
G overnm ent is or may be an interest­
ed party. In their casework, special
agents conduct interviews, examine
records, observe the activities of sus­
pects, and participate in raids. Be­

cause the FBI’s work is highly confi­
d e n tia l, sp e c ia l a g e n ts m ay n o t
disclose any of the inform ation gath­
ered in the course of their official
duties to unauthorized persons, in­
cluding m em bers of their families.
Frequently agents m ust testify in
court about cases that they investi­
Although they work alone on m ost
assignments, agents com m unicate
with their supervisors by radio or
telephone as the circum stances dic­
tate. In performing potentially dan ­
gerous duties, such as arrests and
raids, two agents or m ore are as­
signed to work together.

Places of Employment
About 8,600 persons were special
agents in 1976. Most agents were as­
signed to the FBI’s 59 field offices
located throughout the Nation and in
Puerto Rico. They worked in cities
where field office headquarters are
located or in resident agencies (suboffices) established under field office
supervision to provide prom pt and
efficient handling o f investigative
m atters arising throughout the field
office territory. Some agents are as­
signed to the Bureau headquarters in
W ashington, D.C., which supervises
all FBI activities.

Sources of Additional
In fo rm atio n ab o u t e n tra n ce re ­
quirem ents, training, and career op­
p o rtu n ities for co rrec tio n officers
may be obtained from Federal and
State civil service commissions, State
departm ents of corrections, or near­
by correctional institutions and fa­
Additional inform ation describing
a career as a correction officer is
available from:
American Correctional Association, National
Offender’s Services Contact Center, P.O.
Box 81826, Lincoln, Neb. 68501.

Special agents process a car for fingerprints.


Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
To be considered for appointm ent
as an FBI special agent, an applicant
usually must be a graduate of a Stateaccredited law school or a college
graduate with a major in accounting.
The law school training must have
been preceded by at least 2 years of
undergraduate college work.
From time to time, as the need
arises, the FBI accepts applications
from persons who have a 4-year col­
lege degree with a physical science
major or fluency in a foreign lan­
guage, or who have 3 years of profes­
sional, executive, complex investiga­
tive, or other specialized experience.
Applicants for the position of FBI
special agent must be citizens of the
United States, be at least 23 years old
but not have reached their 35th
birthday before they begin duty and
be willing to serve anywhere in the
United States or Puerto Rico. They
must be capable of strenuous phys­
ical ex e rtio n , and have excellent
hearing and vision, normal color per­
ception, and no physical defects that
would prevent their using firearms or
p articip atin g in d an gerous assign­
ments. All applicants must pass a
rigid physical examination, as well as
written and oral examinations testing
their aptitude for meeting the public
and conducting investigations. All of
the tests except the physical exami­
nations are given by the FBI at its
facilities. Background and character
investigations are made of all appli­
cants. Appointm ents are made on a
probationary basis and become per­
m anent after 1 year of satisfactory
Each newly appointed special
agent is given about 15 weeks of
training at the FBI Academy at the
U.S. Marine Corps Base in Quantico,
Va. before assignment to a field of­
fice. During this period, agents re­
ceive intensive training in defensive
tactics and the use of firearms. In
a d d itio n , th e y a re th o ro u g h ly
schooled in Federal criminal law and
pro ced u res, FBI rules and regula­
tions, fingerprinting, and investig a
tive work. After assignment to a field
office, the new agent usually works
closely with
 an experienced agent for

about 2 weeks before handling any
assignments independently.
All administrative and supervisory
jobs are filled from within the ranks
by selecting those FBI special agents
who have dem onstrated the ability to
assume more responsibility.

Employment Outlook
The jurisdiction of the FBI has ex­
panded greatly over the years. Al­
though it is impossible to forecast
sp ec ia l a g e n t p e rso n n e l r e q u ir e ­
ments, em ploym ent may be expected
to increase with growing FBI respon­
The FBI provides a career service
and its rate of turnover is traditional­
ly low. Nevertheless, the FBI is al­
ways interested in applications from
qualified persons who would like to
be considered for the position of spe­
cial agent.

Earnings and Working
The entrance salary for FBI special
agents was $15,524 in late 1976.
Special agents are not appointed un­
der Federal Civil Service regulations,
but, like other Federal employees,
they receive periodic within-grade
salary raises if their work perform ­
ance is satisfactory; they can advance
in grade as they gain experience.
Salaries o f supervisory agents start at
$28,725 a year.
Special agents are subject to call
24 hours a day and must be available
for assignment at all times. Their
duties call for some travel, for they
are assigned wherever they are
needed in the United States or
Puerto Rico. They frequently work
longer than the custom ary 40-hour
week and, under specified co n d i­
tions, receive overtim e pay up to
about $3,900 a year. They are grant­
ed paid vacations, sick leave, and an ­
nuities on retirem ent. Agents are re ­
quired to retire at age 55 if they have
served at least 20 years.

Sources of Additional
The Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S. De­
partment of Justice, Washington, D.C.


(D.O.T. 373.1 18 through .884)

Nature of the Work
Every year fires destroy thousands
of lives and property worth millions
of dollars. Firefighters help protect
the public against this danger. This
sta te m e n t gives in fo rm atio n only
about paid (professional) firefight­
ers; it does not cover the many thou­
sands o f volunteer firefighters in
communities across the country.
During duty hours, firefighters
must be prepared to respond to a fire
and handle any emergency that
arises. Because firefighting is danger­
ous and com plicated, it requires or­
ganization and teamwork. At every
fire, firefighters perform specific du­
ties assigned by a com pany officer
such as lieutenant, captain, or other
departm ent officer: they may co n ­
nect hose lines to hydrants, operate a
pump, or position ladders. Because
their duties may change several times
while the company is in action they
must be skilled in many different fire­
fighting activities such as rescue,
ventilation, and salvage. Some fire­
fighters operate fire apparatus, em er­
gency rescue vehicles, and fire boats.
In addition, they help people to safe­
ty and administer first aid.
Most fire departm ents also are re­
sponsible for fire prevention activi­
ties. They provide specially trained
personnel to inspect public buildings
for conditions that might cause a fire.
They may check building plans, the
num ber and working condition of
fire escapes and fire doors, the stor­
age of flammable materials, and o th ­
er possible hazards. In addition, fire­
fighters educate the public about fire
p re v e n tio n and safety m easu res.
They frequently speak on this subject
before school assemblies and civic
groups, and, in some communities,
they inspect private homes for fire
Between alarms, firefighters spend
much time improving their skills and
doing m aintenance work. They also
have practice drills, clean and lubri­
cate equipm ent, and stretch hoses to



Firefighting requires organization and teamwork.

Places of Employment
M o re th a n 2 1 0 ,0 0 0 p e r s o n s
worked as firefighters in 1976. Nine
out of ten worked in municipal fire
departm ents. Some very large cities
have several thousand firefighters on
the payroll while many small towns
have fewer than 25. Some firefighters
work in fire departm ents on Federal
installations; others work in large
m anufacturing plants.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Applicants for m unicipal firefight­
ing jobs m ust pass a written test, a
m edical exam ination, and tests of
strength, physical stam ina, and agil­
Digitized foras specified by local regulations.

These examinations are open to men
and women who are at least 18 years
of age, m e e t c e rta in h eig h t and
weight requirem ents, and have a high
sc h o o l e d u c a tio n o r e q u iv a le n t.
Those who receive the highest scores
on the exam inations have the best
chances for appointm ent. Extra cred­
it usually is given for military service.
E xperience gained as a volunteer
firefighter or through training in the
Armed Forces also may improve an
applicant’s chances for appointm ent.
As a rule, beginners in large fire
departm ents are trained for several
weeks at the city’s fire school.
Through classroom instruction and
practice drills, the recruits study fire­
fighting techniques, fire prevention,

local building codes, and first aid;
also, they learn how to use axes,
chemical extinguishers, ladders, and
o th er equipm ent. A fter com pleting
this training, they are assigned to a
fire company where they are evaluat­
ed during a probationary period.
Experienced firefighters often con­
tinue study to improve their job p er­
form ance and prep are for p ro m o ­
tio n a l e x a m in a tio n s . F ire
d e p a rtm e n ts fre q u e n tly c o n d u c t
training program s, and many colleges
and universities offer courses such as
fire engineering and fire science that
are helpful to firefighters.
Among the personal qualities fire­
fighters need are m ental alertness,
courage, m echanical aptitude, en ­
durance, and a sense of public ser­
vice. Initiative and good judgm ent
are extrem ely im p o rta n t becau se
firefighters often m ust m ake quick
decisions in em ergency situations.
B ecause m em bers o f a crew e a t,
sleep, and work closely together un­
der conditions of stress and danger,
they should be dependable and able
to get along well with others in a
group. Leadership qualities are assets
for officers who m ust establish and
maintain a high degree of discipline
and efficiency as well as direct the
activities of the firefighters in their
Opportunities for prom otion are
good in most fire departm ents. As
firefighters gain experience, they
may advance to a higher rank. After
3 to 5 years of service they may
become eligible for prom otion to the
grade of lieutenant. The line of fur­
ther prom otion usually is to captain,
then battalion chief, assistant chief,
deputy chief, and finally to chief.
Chances for advancem ent generally
depend upon each candidate’s posi­
tion on the prom otion list, as d eter­
mined by the score on a written ex­
am ination, his or h er su p erv iso r’s
rating, and seniority.

Employment Outlook
Em ployment of firefighters is ex­
pected to increase about as fast as
th e a v e ra g e fo r all o c c u p a tio n s
through the m id-1980’s to m eet the
grow ing need for fire p ro te c tio n .
Thousands of jobs will becom e avail­
able each year due to growth and the


need to replace those who die, retire,
or leave the occupation.
Employment should rise as new
fire departm ents are form ed and as
others enlarge their fire prevention
sections. M uch of the expected in­
crease will occur in smaller com m u­
nities as volunteer firefighters are re­
placed by professionals. Additional
firefighters also may be required as
more cities shorten the workweek for
The num ber of firefighters in a
community ultimately depends upon
the availability of funds from the
municipal government for salaries
and equipm ent. Fire protection is an
essential service and citizens are
likely to exert considerable pressure
on city officials to expand fire pro­
tectio n co v erag e. H ow ever, local
governm ents m ust live within their
budgets. This means that in some fi­
nancially troubled cities, firefighter
employm ent probably will remain at
current levels or decline while in oth­
er cities, em ploym ent is likely to in­
c rease s u b sta n tia lly to m e e t the
needs of an expanding population.
The num ber of people who qualify
for firefighter jobs in large cities usu­
ally is greater than the num ber of job
openings, even though the written
exam ination and physical req u ire­
m ents elim in ate m any applicants.
Therefore, com petition among can­
didates in urban areas is apt to re­
main keen. Opportunities should be
much better in smaller communities.

Earnings and Working
In 1976, average entrance salaries
for beginning full-tim e firefighters
ranged from $9,900 to $12,200 a
year, depending on city size and re­
gion of the country. Average maxi­
mum salaries varied from $12,600 to
$14,850 annually. Earnings for fire­
fighters are lowest in the South and
highest in the West, and generally are
higher in suburban districts than in
large cities. Average earnings of all
firefighters are about one and onehalf times as much as the average of
all nonsupervisory workers in private
industry, except farming.
Fire lieutenants started at an aver­
age salary o f $13,700 a year in 1976
Digitized forearned an average maximum sal­

ary of $16,100. Fire captains started
at an average salary of $15,450 a
year and earned an average m axi­
mum of $ 18,300.
Practically all fire departm ents fur­
nish allowances to pay for protective
clothing (helm ets, boots, and rubber
coats) and many also provide dress
In some cities, firefighters are on
duty for 24 hours, then off for 48
hours, and receive an extra day off at
intervals. In other cities, they work a
day shift o f 10 hours and a night shift
of 14; shifts are rotated at frequent
intervals. The average workweek for
firefighters is 52 hours, but is only 42
hours in many large cities, particular­
ly in the East. Some firefighters work
as many as 84 hours a week. Fire
lieutenants and fire captains work
the sam e hours as the firefighters
they supervise. Duty hours may in­
clude som e tim e when firefighters
are free to read, study, or pursue o th ­
er personal interests. In addition to
scheduled hours, firefighters often
must work extra hours when they are
bringing a fire under control. W hen
overtime is worked, m ost fire depart­
ments give com pensatory time off or
extra pay.
The job of a firefighter involves
risk of death or injury from sudden
cave-ins o f floors or toppling walls
and danger from exposure to flames
and smoke. Firefighters also may
come in contact with poisonous,
flam m able, and explosive gases and
chemicals. In addition, they work in
all types o f weather.
Firefighters generally are covered
by liberal pension plans that often
provide retirem ent at half pay at age
50 after 25 years of service or at any
age if disabled in the line of duty.
Firefighters also receive paid vaca­
tions. Provisions for sick leave usual­
ly are liberal. H ealth and surgical
benefit plans are offered in many fire
d e p a rtm e n ts and co m pensation is
provided for firefighters injured in
the line o f duty. M ost fire d ep a rt­
ments provide paid holidays—rang­
ing to 11 or more a year—or com ­
pensatory time off for working on
A bout 8 out of 10 firefighters are
mem bers of the International Associ­
ation of Firefighters (AFL-CIO ).


Sources of Additional
Inform ation on obtaining a job as a
firefighter is available from local civil
service commission offices or fire de­
partm ents.
Inform ation about a career as a
firefighter may be obtained from:
International Association of Fire Chiefs, 1725
K St. NW„ Washington, D.C. 10006.
National Fire Protection Association, 470 At­
lantic Ave., Boston, Mass. 02210.

Additional inform ation on the
salaries and hours of work of fire­
fighters in various cities is published
annually by the International City
M anagem ent Association in its M u­
nicipal Yearbook, which is available
in many libraries.

(D.O.T. 372.868)

Nature of the Work
Guards patrol and inspect property
to protect it against fire, theft, van­
dalism, and illegal entry. The specific
duties o f these w orkers, how ever,
vary depending on the size, type, and
location of their employer.
In office buildings, banks, hospi­
tals, and departm ent stores, guards
protect records, m erchandise, m on­
ey, and equipm ent. In departm ent
stores they often work with under­
cover detectives watching for theft
by custom ers or store employees.
At ports and railroads, guards p ro ­
tect m erchandise in shipm ent as well
as property and equipm ent. They in­
sure th a t nothing is stolen while
being loaded or unloaded, and watch
fo r fire s, p ro w le rs, an d tro u b le
among work crews. Sometimes they
direct traffic.
Guards who work in public build­
ings, such as m useum s or art gal­
leries, pro tect paintings or exhibits
from fire, theft, or damage. They also
answer routine questions from visi­
tors and sometimes guide traffic.
In large factories, aircraft plants,
and defense installations where valu­
able inform ation m ust be protected,
some guards check the credentials of
persons and vehicles entering and



device th at indicates the time at
which th ey re a c h various c h e c k ­
points. (T he related occupation of
correction officer also is discussed in
this section on p ro tec tiv e service

Places of Employment
In 1976, almost 500,000 persons
worked as guards. Most work in of­
fice buildings, governm ent installa­
tions and buildings, stores, hotels,
banks, schools, and m anufacturing
plants. Industrial security firms and
guard agencies employ about 40 p er­
cen t of all guards; agency guards
work under contract in private busi­
ness establishm ents o f all types, as
well as in some governm ent facilities.
Although guard jobs are found
throughout the country, most are lo­
cated in highly industrialized areas.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Bank guards maintain the security of the
bank by monitoring closed circuit televi­
sion cameras.

leaving th e prem ises. U niversity,
park, or recreation guards perform
sim ilar d u ties and also may issue
parking permits and direct traffic.
At social affairs, sports events,
conventions, and other public gath­
erings, guards m aintain order, give
inform ation, and watch for persons
who may cause trouble.
In a large organization, a security
officer often is in charge of the guard
force; in a small organization, a sin­
gle w orker may be responsible for
security. Patrolling usually is done on
foot; b u t if the p ro p erty is large,
guards may make their rounds by car
or m otor scooter.
As they make their rounds, guards
check all doors and windows, see
that no unauthorized persons remain
after working hours, and insure that
fire extinguishers, alarms, sprinkler
systems, furnaces, and various elec­
tric a l and p lu m b in g system s are
working properly. They som etimes
set therm ostats or turn on machines
for janitorial workers.
Guards usually are uniform ed and
often carry a nightstick or gun. They
also may carry a flashlight, whistle,
two-way radio, and a watch clock—a

Most employers prefer guards who
are high school graduates. A ppli­
cants with less than a high school
education usually are tested for their
reading and writing abilities and their
com petence in following written and
oral in stru ctio n s. E m ployers also
seek people who have had experi­
ence in the military police or in State
and local police departm ents. Most
persons who enter guard jobs have
prior work experience, although it is
usually unrelated. Many have retired
from careers in the military or other
protective services, and their guard
em ploym ent is a second career.
C andidates for guard jobs in the
Federal G overnm ent m ust be veter­
ans, have some experience as guards,
and pass a written examination. For
most Federal guard positions, appli­
cants m ust qualify in the use of fire­
arms. A driver’s perm it is required
for some jobs.
Many employers give newly hired
guards instruction before they start
the job and also provide several
weeks of on-the-job training. G uards
may be taught the use of firearms,
the adm inistration of first aid, the
procedure to use in handling various
em ergencies, and ways to spot and
deal with security problems.
Applicants are expected to have
good character references, no police

record, good health—especially in
hearing and vision—and good p e r­
sonal habits such as neatness and dependabiluty.They should be mentally
alert, emotionally stable, and physi­
cally fit to cope with em ergencies.
Some em ployers require guards to
m eet height and w eight specifica­
tions or to be within a certain age
Although guards in small com pa­
n ies re c e iv e p e rio d ic salary in ­
creases, advancem ent is likely to be
limited. However, m ost large organi­
zations use a military type of ranking
that offers advancem ent in position
and salary. Guard experience enables
some persons to transfer to police
jobs that offer higher pay and greater
o p p o r tu n itie s fo r a d v a n c e m e n t.
Gards with some college education
may advance to jobs that involve ad­
ministrative duties or the prevention
of espionage and sabotage.

Employment Outlook
Employment of guards is expected
to grow faster than the average for all
occupations through the m id-1980’s.
Increased concern for crime and van­
dalism will heighten the need for se­
curity in and around plants, stores,
and recreation areas and is expected
to cause rapid grow th o f agency
g u a rd e m p lo y m e n t. A d d itio n a l
guards will be n eed ed by banks,
m anufacturing plants, and Federal,
State, and local governments to p ro­
vide better security and m onitor re­
m ote cam eras, alarm systems, and
other electronic surveillance equip­
ment. Many openings also will arise
as guards retire, die, or leave their
jobs for other reasons. O pportunities
will be m ost plentiful for persons
seeking work on night shifts.

Earnings and Working
Wages of guards working in 36 ur­
ban areas were estim ated to average
$3.23 an hour in 1976. Those w ork­
ing in the North earned more than
the average while guards employed
in the South and W est earned som e­
what less. Hourly wages of guards
were estim ated to average $5.04 in
m anufacturing; $5.29 in transporta­
tion and public utilities; $4.10 in
banking, finance, insurance, and real



estate; $4.22 in w holesale trad e;
$3.70 in retail trade; and $2.61 in the
various service industries, including
security and guard agencies. Guards
who were members of unions earned
more than average.
Depending on their experience,
newly hired guards in the Federal
Governm ent earned between $142
and $160 a week. Top supervisory
guards in the Federal Governm ent
may be paid up to $271 a week.
These workers usually receive over­
time pay as well as a wage differential
fo r th e sec o n d and th ird shifts.
G uards generally have paid vaca­
tions, sick leave, and insurance and
pension plans.
About two-thirds of all guards
work at night; the usual shift lasts 8
hours. Some employers have three
shifts where guards rotate to divide
daytime, weekend, and holiday work
equally. Guards usually eat on the
job instead of taking a regular lunch
Guards often work alone, so that
no one is nearby to help if an acci­
dent or injury occurs. Some large
firms therefore use a reporting ser­
vice that enables guards to be in con­
stant contact with a central station
outside the plant. If they fail to trans­
mit an expected signal, the central
station investigates.

course of a day’s work, they may
direct traffic at the scene of a fire,
investigate a housebreaking, and give
first aid to an accident victim. In a
large police departm ent, by contrast,
officers usually are assigned to a spe­
cific type of duty. Most officers are
detailed either to patrol or to traffic
duty; smaller num bers are assigned
to special work such as accident p re­
vention or operation of com m unica­
tions systems. Others work as d etec­
tives (plainclothes officers) assigned
to criminal investigation; still others,
as experts in chem ical and m icro­
scopic analysis, firearm s identifica­
tion, and handwriting and fingerprint
identification. In very large cities, a
few officers may work with special
units such as m ounted and m otorcy­
cle police, harbor patrols, helicopter
patrols, canine corps, mobile rescue
teams, and youth aid services.
Most new recruits begin on patrol
duty. R ecruits may be assigned to
such varied areas as congested busi­
ness districts or outlying residential
areas. They may cover their beats
alone or with other officers. They
may ride in a police vehicle or walk
on “ foot” patrol. In any case, they
becom e thoroughly fam iliar w ith
conditions throughout their area and,
while on patrol, remain alert for any­

thing unusual. They note suspicious
circum stances, such as open win­
dows or lights in vacant buildings, as
well as hazards to public safety such
as burned-out street lights or fallen
trees. Officers also watch for stolen
autom obiles and enforce traffic regu­
lations. At regular intervals, they re­
port to police headquarters through
call boxes, by radio, or by walkietalkie. They prepare reports about
their activities and may be called on
to testify in court when cases result in
legal action.

Places of Employment
A bout 500,000 full-time officers
worked for local police departm ents
in 1976. Some cities have very large
police forces. For exam ple, New
York has about 30,000 police offi­
cers and Chicago has nearly 13,000.
Hundreds of small communities em ­
ploy fewer than 25 officers each.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Local civil service regulations gov­
ern the appointm ent of police offi­
cers in practically all large cities and
in many small ones. Candidates must
be U.S. citizens, usually at least 21

Sources of Additional
F urther inform ation about work
opportunities for guards is available
from local employers and the nearest
State em ploym ent service office.

(D.O.T. 375.1 18 through .868, and

Nature of the Work
The security of our N ation’s cities
and towns greatly depends on the
work of local police officers whose
jobs range from controlling traffic to
preventing and investigating crimes.
W hether on or off duty, these offi­
cers are expected to exercise their
authority whenever necessary.
Police officers who work in a small
have many duties. In the

Police officers often work independently in carrying out their duties.


19 4

years of age, and must m eet certain
height and weight standards. Eligi­
bility for appointm ent depends on
perform ance in com petitive exami­
nations as well as on education and
experience. The physical exam ina­
tions often include tests of strength
and agility.
Because personal characteristics
such as honesty, good judgm ent, and
a sense of responsibility are especial­
ly im portant in police work, candi­
dates are interviewed by a senior of­
ficer at police h e a d q u a rte rs, and
their character traits and background
are investigated. In some police de­
partm ents, candidates also may be
interview ed by a psychiatrist or a
pyschologist, or be given a personal­
ity test. A lthough police officers
work independently, they must per­
form their duties in line with laws and
departm ental rules. They should en­
joy working with people and serving
the public.
In large police departm ents, where
most jobs are found, applicants usu­
ally must have a high school educa­
tion. A few cities require some col­
lege tra in in g and som e hire law
enforcem ent students as police in­
terns. A few police departm ents ac­
cept applicants who have less than a
high school education as recruits,
particularly if they have worked in a
field related to law enforcem ent.
M ore and m ore, police d e p a rt­
ments are encouraging applicants to
take post-high school training in soci­
ology and psychology. As a result,
more than 1,000 junior colleges, col­
leges, and universities now offer pro­
grams in law enforcem ent or criminal
justice. O ther courses helpful in pre­
paring for a police career include
English, Am erican history, civics and
government, business law, and phys­
ics. Physical education and sports
are especially helpful in developing
the stam ina and agility needed for
police work.
In some large cities, young persons
who have com pleted high school can
enter police work as police cadets, or
trainees, while still in their teens. As
paid civilian employees of the police
departm ent, they attend classes to
learn police skills and do clerical
work. They may be appointed to the
regular force at age 21 if they have
allfor FRASER
Digitized the necessary qualifications.

Before their first assignments, offi­
cers usually go through a period of
training. In small comm unities, re­
cruits learn by working for a short
tim e w ith e x p e rie n c e d o ffic e rs.
Training provided in large city police
departm ents is more formal and may
last several weeks or a few months.
This training includes classroom in­
struction in constitutional law and
civil rights; in State laws and local
ordinances; and in accident investi­
gation, patrol, and traffic control.
Recruits learn how to use a gun, d e­
fend themselves from attack, adm in­
ister first aid, and deal with em ergen­
Police officers usually become eli­
gible for prom otion after a specified
length of service. In a large depart­
ment, prom otion may allow an offi­
cer to specialize in one type of police
work such as laboratory work, traffic
control, com m unications, or work
with juveniles. Prom otions to the
rank of sergeant, lieutenant, and cap ­
tain usually are made according to a
candidate’s position on a prom otion
list, as determ ined by scores on a
written examination and on-the-job
perform ance.
Many types of training help police
officers improve their perform ance
on the job and prepare for advance­
ment. Through training given at po­
lice departm ent academ ies and col­
leges, officers keep abreast of crowdcontrol techniques, civil defense, le­
gal developm ents th at affect their
work, and advances in law enforce­
ment equipm ent. Many police d e­
p a rtm e n ts e n c o u ra g e o ffic ers to
work tow ard college degrees, and
some pay all or part of the tuition.

Employment Outlook
Police work is attractive to many.
The job frequently is challenging and
involves m uch responsibility. F u r­
therm ore, layoffs are rare. In periods
of relatively high unem ploym ent, the
num ber o f persons seeking police
em ploym ent may be greater than the
num ber o f openings. However, the
written examinations and strict phys­
ical requirem ents always elim inate
many applicants. The outlook should
be good for persons having some col­
lege training in law enforcem ent.
Law enforcem ent is complex and
requires an approach tailored to the

particular problems of each city. The
police departm ent of a city with a
large, mobile population is likely to
emphasize traffic control, preventive
patrol, and cooperation with police
agencies in the surrounding areas. In
smaller cities, or those with wellestablished com m unities and fewer
em ploym ent and recreation centers,
police work may be less specialized.
In either case, however, the usual
way of increasing police protection is
to provide more officers for duty.
The num ber of officers employed
will depend on the am ount of money
m ade av a ila b le by local g o v e rn ­
ments. Because police work is essen­
tial, it is likely that funding for law
enforcem ent will have high priority,
and that the em ploym ent of city po ­
lice officers will rise faster than the
a v e ra g e fo r o th e r o c c u p a tio n s
through the m id-1980’s.

Earnings and Working
In 1976, entry level salaries for po­
lice officers averaged nearly $11,300
a year, although they varied widely
from city to city. In some sm aller
communities, officers started at less
than $8,400 a year, while some m ajor
cities offered over $15,000 a year to
new em ployees. M ost officers re ­
ceive regular salary increases during
the first few years of em ploym ent un­
til they reach a set maximum for their
rank. Maximum earnings averaged
$13,900 a year in 1976, and exceed­
ed $17,000 a year in some areas.
Prom otion to a higher rank brings
a higher basic salary. The average
starting salary for sergeants, for ex­
ample, was almost $14,500 a year in
1976; m ore than $18,000 a year in
the largest cities. Beginning salaries
for lieutenants averaged more than
$16,300 a year in 1976. In general,
police officers are paid about 1 1/2
tim es as m uch as nonsuperviso ry
workers in private industry, except
Police dep artm en ts usually p ro ­
vide officers with special allowances
for uniform s and furnish revolvers,
night sticks, handcuffs, and other re­
quired equipm ent.
The scheduled workweek for po ­
lice officers usually is 40 hours. Be­
cause police protection must be pro-



vided around the clock in all but the
smallest communities, some officers
are on duty over weekends, on holi­
days, and at night. Police officers are
subject to call any time their services
are needed and may work overtime
in em ergencies. In som e d e p a rt­
ments, overtim e is paid at straight
time or time and one-half; in others,
o ffic e rs m ay be given an eq u al
amount of time off on another day of
the week.
Police officers generally are cov­
ered by liberal pension plans, en ­
abling many to retire at half pay by
the time they reach age 55. In addi­
tion, paid vacations, sick leave, and
health and life insurance plans fre­
quently are provided.
Police officers may have to work
outdoors for long periods in all kinds
of weather. The injury rate is higher
than in many occupations and re­
flects the risks officers take in pursu­
ing speeding m o to rists, capturing
lawbreakers, and dealing with public

Sources of Additional
In form ation ab o u t en tra n ce re ­
quirem ents may be obtained from lo­
cal civil service commissions or po­
lice departm ents.
Additional information describing
careers as police officers is available
International Association of Chiefs of Police,
11 Firstfield Rd., Gaithersburg, Md.

(D.O.T. 375.1 18, .138, .168, .228,
.268, and .388)

Nature of the Work
The laws and regulations that gov­
ern the use of our N ation’s roadways
are designed to insure the safety of
all citizen s. S tate p o lice officers
(som etim es called S tate troopers)
p atro l o u r highw ays and enforce
these laws.
State police officers issue traffic
tickets to motorists who violate the
law. At the
 scene of an accident,

State police officers usually take care of vehicle and traffic matters on the State’s

they direct traffic, give first aid, call
for em ergency equipm ent including
am bulances, and write reports to be
used in determ ining the cause of the
In addition, State police officers
provide services to motorists on the
highways. For example, they radio
for road service for drivers with m e­
chanical trouble, direct tourists to
their destination, or give information
about lodging, restaurants, and to u r­
ist attractions.
State police officers also provide
traffic assistance and control during
road repairs, fires, and other em er­
gencies, as well as during special o c ­
currences such as parades and sports
events. They sometimes check the
weight of commercial vehicles, co n ­
duct driver exam inations, and give

information on highway safety to the
In addition to highway responsibil­
ities, State police may investigate
crimes, particularly in areas that do
not have a local police force. They
sometimes help city or county police
catch lawbreakers and control civil
disturbances. State highway patrols,
however, normally are restricted to
vehicle and traffic m atters.
Some officers work with special
State police units such as the
m ounted police, canine corps, and
marine patrols. Others instruct train­
ees in State police schools, pilot po­
lice aircraft, or specialize in finger­
print classification or chemical and
m icroscopic analysis of criminal evi­
State police officers also write re­
ports and m aintain police records.



Some officers, including division or
bureau chiefs responsible for training
or investigation and those who com ­
m and police o p eratio n s in an as­
signed area, have administrative du­

Places of Employment
About 48,000 State police officers
were employed in 1976.
The size of State police forces var­
ies considerably. T he largest force
(in California) has over 5,000 offi­
cers; the smallest (in North D akota)
has fewer than 100. One State (H a­
w aii) does not m ain tain a police

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
State civil service regulations gov­
ern the appointm ent of State police
officers. All candidates must be citi­
zens of the United States. O ther en­
try re q u ire m e n ts v ary , b u t m ost
States require that applicants have a
high school education or an equiv­
alent com bination of education and
experience and be at least 21 years
Officers must pass a competitive
examination and m eet physical and
personal qualifications. Physical re­
q u ire m e n ts in clu d e s ta n d a rd s o f
height, weight, and eyesight. Tests of
stren g th an d agility often are re ­
quired. Because honesty and a sense
of responsibility are im portant in po­
lice work, an ap p lican t’s character
and background are investigated.
Although State police officers
work independently, they must per­
form their duties in line with depart­
m ent rules. They should w ant to
serve the public and be willing to
work outdoors in all types of w eath­
In all States, recruits enter a formal
training program for several months.
They receive classroom instruction
in State laws and jurisdictions, and
they study procedures for accident
investigation, patrol, and traffic con­
trol. Recruits learn to handle fire­
arms, defend themselves from attack,
handle an autom obile at high speeds,
and give first aid. After gaining expe­
rience, some officers take advanced
training in police science, adminis­
tration, law
 enforcem ent, or crim i­

nology. Classes are held at junior col­
leges, colleges and universities, or
special police institutions such as the
N ational A cadem y o f the F ederal
Bureau of Investigation.
High school and college courses in
English, governm ent, psychology, so­
ciology, Am erican history, and phys­
ics help in preparing for a police c a ­
reer. Physical education and sports
are useful for developing stam ina and
agility. Driver education courses and
military police training also are help­
Police officer recruits serve a pro­
b atio n ary p erio d ranging from 6
months to 3 years. After a specified
length of time, officers becom e eligi­
ble for prom otion. Most States have
merit prom otion systems that require
officers to pass a com petitive exam i­
nation to qualify for the next highest
rank. Although the organization of
police forces varies from State to
State, the typical avenue of advance­
ment is from private to corporal, to
sergeant, to first sergeant, to lieuten­
ant, and then to captain.
In some States, high school gradu­
ates may enter State police work as
cadets. These paid civilian em ploy­
ees of the police organization attend
classes to learn various aspects of p o ­
lice work and are assigned nonen­
forcem ent duties. C adets who qual­
ify may be appointed to the State
police force at age 21.

Employment Outlook
State police em ploym ent is expect­
ed to grow about as fast as the aver­
age for other occupations. Although
m o st jo b s will r e s u lt fro m th is
growth, some openings will be creat­
ed as officers retire, die, or leave the
occupation for other reasons.
Although some State police will be
needed in criminal investigation and
other nonhighway functions, the
greatest dem and will be for officers
to work in highway patrol. This is the
result of a growing, more mobile
population. In ever-increasing num ­
bers, Am ericans are using the m otor
vehicle as a means of transportation
and a source of recreation. M otorcy­
cles, cam pers, and other recreational
vehicles will continue to add to the
N ation’s traffic flow and require ad ­
ditional officers to insure the safety
of highway users.

Because law enforcem ent work is
becoming more complex, specialists
will be needed in crime laboratories
and electronic data processing cen­
ters to develop adm inistrative and
criminal information systems. How­
ever, in m any d ep a rtm en ts, these
jobs will be filled by civilian em ploy­
ees rather than uniform ed officers.

Earnings and Working
In 1976, beginning salaries for
State police officers averaged about
$10,400 a year. Officers generally re­
ceive regular salary increases, based
on experience and perform ance, un­
til a specified maximum is reached.
Maximum salaries averaged $13,600
a year in 1976, but ranged to more
than $15,000 a year in some States.
Although starting salaries are n o r­
mally higher in the W est and lower in
the South, State police officers on
the average earn about 1 1/2 times as
much as nonsupervisory workers in
private industry, except farming.
Earnings increase with prom otions
to higher ranks. S tate police se r­
geants received average starting sala­
ries of $12,350 a year in 1976, and
average maximum salaries of close to
$15,800. Lieutenants received aver­
age starting salaries of $14,200 a
year and average maximum salaries
of more than $18,300.
State police agencies usually p ro ­
vide officers with uniforms, firearm s,
and other necessary equipm ent, or
give special allowances for their p u r­
In many States, the scheduled
workweek for police officers is 40
hours. Although the workweek is
longer in some States, the trend is
toward a 40-hour week. Since police
protection must be provided around
the clock, some officers are on duty
over weekends, on holidays, and at
night. Police officers also are subject
to emergency calls at any time.
State police usually are covered by
liberal pension plans. Paid vacations,
sick leave, medical insurance, and
life insurance plans frequently are
The work of State police officers is
sometimes dangerous. They always
run the risk of an autom obile acci­
dent while pursuing speeding m otor­


ists or fleeing criminals. Officers also
face the risk of injury while appre­
hending criminals or controlling dis­

Sources of Additional
In fo rm atio n a b o u t specific e n ­
trance requirem ents may be obtained
from State civil service commissions
or State police headquarters, usually
located in each State capital.

(D.O.T. 168.168)

Nature of the Work
Federal, State, and local govern­
ment construction inspectors insure
th at recognized stan d ards of co n ­
struction are observed in public and
private construction. They inspect
the construction, alteration, or repair
of highways, streets, sewer and water
system s, dam s, bridges, buildings,
and other structures to insure com ­
pliance with building codes and ordi-

An inspector’s job is to insure compliance
with building codes and ordinances, zon­
ing regulations, and contract specifica­

nances, zoning regulations, and con­
tract specifications.
C onstruction inspectors visit w ork­
sites to inspect recently com pleted
construction. On large projects, they
generally are re q u ired to in sp ect
each new stage of construction. Sev­
eral m em bers o f large inspection
staffs may be assigned to a single
complex project.
C onstruction inspectors generally
specialize in one particular type of
construction work. Broadly catego­
rized, these are building, electrical,
m echanical, and public works.
B uilding inspectors in sp ect th e
structural quality of buildings. Some
m ay sp e c ia liz e — fo r ex a m p le , in
structural steel or reinforced co n ­
crete buildings. Before construction,
in sp ecto rs d eterm in e w hether the
plans for the building or other struc­
ture comply with local zoning regula­
tions and are suited to the engineer­
ing and environm ental dem ands of
the building site. They visit the work­
site before the foundation is poured
to inspect the positioning and depth
o f the footings. They inspect the
foundation after it has been com plet­
ed. The size and type of structure and
the rate o f completion determ ine the
num ber o f o th er visits they m ust
make. Upon com pletion of the proj­
ect, they conduct a final com prehen­
sive inspection.
Electrical inspectors inspect the in­
stallation of electrical systems and
equipm ent to insure that they work
properly and are in com pliance with
electrical codes and standards. They
visit worksites to inspect new and ex­
isting wiring, lighting, sound and se­
curity systems, and generating equip­
m ent. T hey also may inspect the
installation of the electrical wiring
for heating and air-conditioning sys­
tems, kitchen appliances, and other
com ponents.
M echanical inspectors exam ine
plum bing systems including septic
tanks, plum bing fixtures and traps,
and w ater, sew er, and vent lines.
They also inspect the installation of
the m echanical com ponents of kitch­
en appliances, heating and air-condi­
tioning equipm ent, gasoline and bu­
tane tanks, gas piping, and gas-fired
appliances. Some specialize in in­
specting boilers, m echanical com po­
nents, or plumbing.


Public works inspectors insure that
Federal, State, and local government
construction of water and sewer sys­
tems, highways, streets, bridges, and
dams conforms to detailed contract
specifications. They inspect excava­
tion and fill operations, the place­
m ent of forms for concrete, concrete
mixing and pouring, and asphalt pav­
ing. They also record the am ount of
work perform ed and materials used
so th at co n tra ct paym ent calcula­
tions can be made. Public works in­
spectors may specialize in inspection
of highways, reinforced concrete, or
While inspections are primarily
visual, inspectors often use tape m ea­
sures, m etering devices, co n crete
strength m easurers, and other test
equipm ent during inspections. They
often keep a daily log of their work,
file written reports, and, if necessary,
act on their findings. For example,
co n stru ctio n inspectors notify the
construction contractor, superinten­
dent, or supervisor when they discov­
er a detail of a project that is not in
co m p lian ce with th e a p p ro p ria te
codes, ordinances, or contract speci­
fications. If the deficiency is not cor­
rected within a reasonable period of
time, they have authority to issue a
“ stop-w ork” order.
Many inspectors also investigate
reported incidents of “ bootlegging,”
construction or alteration that is
being carried on without proper per­
mits. Violators of perm it laws are di­
rected to obtain permits and submit
to inspection.

Places of Employment
About 22,000 persons worked as
governm ent construction inspectors
in 1976. M ore than th ree-fo u rth s
w o rk ed for m u n icip al or co u n ty
building departm ents. Public works
co n stru c tio n in sp ecto rs were em ­
ployed primarily at the Federal and
State levels.
The em ploym ent o f local govern­
m ent construction inspectors is con­
centrated in cities and in suburban
a re a s u n d e rg o in g ra p id g ro w th .
These governments employ large in­
spection staffs, including most of the
inspectors who specialize in structur­
al steel, reinforced co n c rete, and
boiler inspection.


A bout h alf the co nstruction in­
spectors em ployed by the Federal
G overnm ent work for the D epart­
m ent of Defense, primarily for the
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement


creased until they are able to handle
complex assignments. An engineer­
ing degree is frequently needed in
order to advance to supervisory in­
Since they advise representatives
of the contruction industry and the
general public on m atters of code
interpretation, construction practic­
es, and technical developm ents, con­
s tr u c tio n in s p e c to rs m u st k e e p
abreast of new building code devel­
opm ents. The Federal G overnm ent
and most State and large city govern­
ments conduct formal training pro­
grams for their construction inspec­
tors to broaden their knowledge of
co n stru c tio n m ateria ls, p ra c tic e s,
and inspection techniques and to ac­
quaint them with new materials and
practices. Inspectors who work for
small agencies that do not conduct
train in g p rogram s freq u en tly can
broaden th eir know ledge o f c o n ­
struction and upgrade their skills by
attending S tate-conducted training
programs or by taking college or co r­
respondence courses.

To become a construction inspec­
tor, several years of experience as a
construction contractor, supervisor,
or cra ft w orker are generally re ­
quired. Federal, State, and most local
governm ents also require an appli­
cant to have a high school diploma.
High school preparation should in­
clude courses in drafting, m athem at­
ics, and English.
W orkers who want to become in­
sp ecto rs should have a th o ro u g h
knowledge of construction materials
and practices in either a general area
like structural or heavy construction,
or in a specialized area such as elec­
trical or plum bing system s, re in ­
forced concrete, or structural steel; a
significant num ber of construction
inspectors have recent experience as
carpenters, electricians, plumbers, or
Employment Outlook
Many employers prefer inspectors
Em ploym ent of governm ent con­
to be graduates of an apprenticeship
struction inspectors is expected to
program , to have studied at least 2 grow faster than the average for all
years toward an engineering or archi­ occupations through the m id-1980’s.
tectural degree, or to have a degree Because o f the increasing complexity
from a community or junior college, of construction technology and the
with courses in construction technol­ trend tow ard the establishm ent o f
ogy, b lu e p rin t read in g , tech n ic al minimum professional standards for
m athem atics, English, and building inspectors by State governments, job
o p p o rtu n itie s should be best fo r
Construction inspectors must be in those who have some college educa­
good physical condition in order to tion or who are currently employed
walk and climb about construction as carpenters, electricians, or plum b­
sites. They also must have a m otor ers.
vehicle o p e ra to r’s license. In addi­
In addition to growth needs, job
tion, Federal, State, and many local openings for construction inspectors
go v ern m en ts usually req u ire th a t will occur each year to replace those
construction inspectors pass a civil who die, retire, or leave the occupa­
tion for other reasons.
service examination.
Construction inspectors receive
The num ber of new positions for
most of their training on the job. construction inspectors will be
During the first couple of weeks, largely affected by the level of new
working with an experienced inspec­ housing and com m ercial building ac­
tor, they learn about inspection tech ­ tivity. Because construction activity
niques; codes, ordinances, and regu­ is sensitive to ups and downs in the
lations; contract specifications; and economy, the num ber of job open­
recordkeeping and reporting duties. ings may fluctuate from year to year.
The dem and for construction in­
They begin by inspecting less com ­
plex types of construction such as spectors also should increase as they
residential buildings. The difficulty are given more responsibility for in­
of their assignments is gradually in­ suring safe construction of prefabri­

ca te d buildings m ass-produced in
factories and assembled on the con­
struction site.

Earnings and Working
Starting salaries of construction in­
spectors working in cities and towns
averaged about $10,500 a year in
1974, according to a survey conduct­
ed by the Public Personnel Associ­
ation. Top salaries for senior inspec­
tors averaged $13,000. Salaries for
supervisory inspectors were higher in
large cities. Among geographic re­
gions, the West had the highest aver­
age salaries, cities in the South the
In the Federal G overnm ent, con­
struction inspectors started at $9,300
or $ 11,500 a year in 1977, depending
on the am ount and nature of their
e a rlie r w ork e x p e rie n c e . E x p e ri­
enced construction inspectors were
paid salaries ranging from $ 14,000 to
$ 1 9 ,5 0 0 , an d m o re e x p e rie n c e d
workers were paid salaries ranging
from $17,000 to over $22,000.
C onstruction
spend a large portion of their time
traveling between worksites. Usually,
an autom obile is furnished for their
use or their expenses are reim bursed
if they use their own. Since they
spend m ost of their time outdoors or
in partially enclosed structures, they
are exposed to all types of inclem ent
Unlike the seasonal and interm it­
tent nature of em ploym ent in many
o f the occupations associated with
the construction industry, inspection
work tends to be steady and year
round. In 1976, according to limited
inform ation, unem ploym ent was esti­
m ated to be less than 3 percent, a
figure significantly lower than th at
for the Nation.

Sources of Additional
Persons seeking additional infor­
m ation on a career as a State or local
governm ent construction inspector
should contact their State or local
em ploym ent service, or:
International Conference o f Building Officials,
5360 South Workman Mill Rd., Whittier,
Calif. 90601.

Persons interested in a career as a
construction inspector with the F ed­


eral Governm ent can get information
Interagency Board of the U.S. Civil Service
Examiners for Washington, D.C., 1900 E
St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20415.

(D.O.T. 168.168, and .287)

Nature of the Work
Protecting the public from health
and safety hazards, prohibiting unfair
trade and em ploym ent practices, and
raising revenue are included in the
wide range of responsibilities of gov­
ernm ent. Health and regulatory in­
spectors help insure observance of
the laws and regulations that govern
these responsibilities. For discussion
of a third type of inspector, see the
statem ent on construction inspectors
(G o v e rn m e n t) e lse w h e re in th e
The duties, titles, and responsibil­
ities o f F e d e ra l, S ta te, and local
health and regulatory inspectors vary
widely. Som e types o f inspectors
work only for the Federal Govern­
ment while others also are employed
by S tate and local go v ern m en ts.
Many other workers employed as ac­
countants, agricultural cooperative
extension service workers, and other
agricultural professionals also have
inspection duties.
Health Inspectors. Health inspectors
work with engineers, chemists, mi­
crobiologists, and health workers to
insure com pliance with public health
and safety re g u la tio n s governing
food, drugs, and various other con­
sumer products. They also adminis­
ter regulations that govern the quar­
a n tin e o f p e rso n s an d p ro d u c ts
entering the United States from for­
eign countries. The m ajor types of
health in sp ecto rs are: Food and
drug, m eat and poultry, and agricul­
tural quarantine inspectors. In addi­
tion, some inspectors work in a field
that is closely related to food inspec­
tion—agricultural com m odity grad­

Most food and drug inspectors spe­
cialize in one area of inspection such
as food, feeds and pesticides, weights
and m easures, or drugs and cosm et­
ics. Some, especially those who work
for the Federal G overnm ent, may be
proficient in several o f these areas.
W orking individually or in teams un­
der the direction of a senior or super­
visory inspector, they travel through­
o u t a geographical area to check
periodically firms that produce, han­
dle, store, and m arket food, drugs,
and cosm etics. They look for evi­
dence of inaccurate product labeling,
decom position, chem ical or bacteri­
ological co n tam in atio n , and o th er
factors that could result in a product
b e c o m in g h a rm fu l to c o n s u m e r
health. They assemble evidence of
v io latio n s, using p o rta b le scales,
cam eras, ultraviolet lights, container
sam pling d ev ice s, th e rm o m e te rs,
chemical testing kits, and other types
of equipm ent.
Product samples collected as part
of their examinations are sent to
laboratories for analysis. After com ­
pleting their inspection, inspectors
discuss their observations with the
m anagem ent of the plant and point
out any areas where corrective m ea­
sures are needed. They prepare writ­
ten re p o rts of their findings, and,
when necessary, com pile evidence
that may be used in court if legal
actions m ust be taken to effect com ­
pliance with the law.
Federal and State laws em power
meat and poultry inspectors to inspect
m eat, poultry, and their byproducts
to insure that they are wholesome
and safe for public consum ption.
W orking as part of a constant onsite
team under the general supervision
of a veterinarian, they inspect m eat
and poultry slaughtering, processing,
and packaging operations. They also
check to see that products are la­
beled correctly and that proper sani­
tation is m aintained in slaughtering
and processing operations.
Agricultural quarantine inspectors
protect Am erican agricultural prod­
u c ts fro m th e in tr o d u c tio n an d
spread of foreign plant pests and ani­
mal diseases. To safeguard crops,
forests, and gardens, they inspect
ships, aircraft, railroad cars, and m o­
to r v eh icle s e n te rin g th e U n ited
States for the presence of restricted


or prohibited plant or animal m ateri­
Environmental health inspectors, or
sanitarians, work primarily for State
and local governm ents. These in­
spectors perform a variety of inspec­
tion duties to help insure that the
food p e o p le e a t, th e w ater they
drink, and the air they breathe m eet
governm ent standards. They check
the cleanliness and safety of food and
beverages produced in dairies and
processing plants, or served in res­
taurants, hospitals, and other institu­
tions. They often examine the han­
dling, processing, and serving of food
for com pliance with sanitation rules
and regulations.
Environm ental health inspectors
concerned with waste control over­
see the trea tm e n t and disposal of
sewage, refuse, and garbage. They
examine places where pollution is a
danger, perform tests to detect pollu­
tants, and collect air or water sam ­
ples for analysis. They determ ine the
nature and cause of the pollution,
then initiate action to stop it.
In large local and State health or
ag ricu ltu re d ep a rtm en ts, en v iro n ­
m ental health inspectors may spe­
cialize in areas of work such as milk
and dairy products, food sanitation,
waste control, air pollution, institu­
tional sanitation, and occupational
health. In rural areas and small cities,
they may be responsible for a wide
range of environm ental health activi­
Agricultural commodity graders ap­
ply quality standards to various com ­
modities to insure that retailers and
consumers receive good and reliable
products. They generally specialize
in an area such as eggs and egg prod­
ucts, processed or fresh fruits and
vegetables, grain, or dairy products.
They inspect samples of a particular
product to determ ine its quality and
grade, and issue official grading cer­
tificates. G raders also may inspect
the plant and equipm ent to insure
that adequate sanitation standards
are maintained.
Regulatory Inspectors. Regulatory
inspectors insure com pliance with
various laws and regulations that p ro ­
tect the public w elfare. Im portant
types o f regulatory inspectors are:
Immigration; customs; aviation safe-


2 0 0

Most health and regulatory inspectors are employed
by the Federal Government
1976 employment (in thousands)








Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

ty; mine; wage-hour com pliance; al­
cohol, to b acco , and firearm s; and
occupational safety inspectors.
Im m igration inspectors interview
and examine people seeking adm is­
sion, readmission, or the privileges of
passing through or residing in the
United States. They inspect the pass­
ports of those seeking to enter the
United States to determ ine w hether
they are legally eligible to enter and
to verify their citizenship, status, and
identity. Immigration inspectors also
prepare reports, m aintain records,
and process applications and peti­
tions by aliens for privileges such as
immigrating to or living tem porarily
in the United States.
C ustom s inspectors en fo rce the
laws governing U.S. im ports and ex­
ports. Stationed at airports, seaports,
and b o rd e r cro ssing p o in ts, they
count, weigh, gauge, m easure, and
sample com m ercial cargoes entering
and leaving the United States to de­
termine the am ount of tax that must
be paid. They also inspect baggage
and articles worn or carried by the
passengers and crew o f ships, air­
craft, and m otor vehicles to insure
that all m erchandise being brought
through ports of entry is declared
and the proper taxes paid.
Aviation safety officers insure that
Federal Aviation A dm inistration
(FAA) regulations that govern the
quality and safety o f aircraft equip­
ment and personnel are m aintained.

ees to verify the em ployer’s records
and to check for any complaints.
Alcohol, tobacco, and firearms in­
spectors insure th a t the industries
which m anufacture these products
comply with the provisions of rev­
enue laws and other regulations on
operating procedures, unfair com pe­
titio n , and tra d e p ra c tic e s. T hey
spend m ost of their time inspecting
distilleries, wineries, and breweries;
cigar and cig arette m anufacturing
plants; wholesale liquor dealers and
im porters; firearm s and explosives
m anufacturers, dealers, and users;
and other regulated facilities. They
periodically audit these estab lish ­
ments to determ ine that appropriate
taxes are correctly determ ined and

Places of Employment
Aviation safety officers may inspect
a ir c r a f t m a n u fa c tu rin g , m a in te ­
n an ce, o r o p eratio n s p ro c ed u re s.
They usually specialize in inspecting
eith er com m ercial or general avi­
ation aircraft. They are responsible
for the inspection of aircraft m anu­
facturing and of m ajor repairs. They
also c e r tif y a i r c r a f t p ilo ts a n d
schools, pilot exam iners, flight in­
structors, and instructional m aterials.
Mine inspectors work to insure the
health and safety of miners and to
prom ote good mining practices. To
insure com pliance with safety laws
and regulations, mine inspectors visit
mines and related facilities to obtain
in fo rm atio n on h ea lth and safety
Mine inspectors discuss their find­
ings w ith the m anagem ent o f the
mine, prepare written reports that in­
co rp o rate th eir findings and d ec i­
sions, and issue notices of findings
that describe violations and hazards
that must be corrected. They also in­
v estigate and p re p a re re p o rts on
mine accidents and direct rescue and
firefighting operations when fires or
explosions occur.
Wage-hour compliance officers in­
spect the em ployer’s time, payroll,
and personnel records to insure com ­
pliance with the provisions of various
F ederal laws on m inim um wages,
overtim e, pay, em ploym ent of m i­
nors, and equal em ploym ent oppor­
tunity. They often interview em ploy­

About 115,000 persons worked as
health and regulatory inspectors in
1976. Nearly two-thirds of all health
and regulatory inspectors work for
the Federal G overnm ent, although
State and local governments also em ­
ploy large numbers. The largest sin­
gle em ployer of food and drug in­
spectors is the U.S. Food and Drug
A d m in istra tio n , b u t th e m ajo rity
work for State governm ents. M eat
and poultry inspectors and com m od­
ity graders who work in processing
plants are employed mainly by the
U.S. D epartm ent of Agriculture. Ag­
ricultural quarantine inspectors work
either for the U.S. Public Health Ser­
vice or the U.S. D epartm ent of Agri­
cu ltu re . E nvironm ental health in ­
spectors work primarily for State and
local governments.
Regulatory inspectors work for
various agencies within the Federal
G overnm ent, mainly in regional and
district offices throughout the United
States. Aviation safety officers work
for the Federal Aviation Adm inistra­
tion; wage-hour com pliance officers,
for the D epartm ent of Labor; mine
inspectors, the D epartm ent of the In­
terior; and alcohol, tobacco, and fire­
arm s inspectors, the Treasury D e­
partm ent. Immigration, customs, and
ag ric u ltu ral q u aran tin e in sp ecto rs
work at U.S. airports, seaports, b o r­
der crossing points, and at foreign
airports and seaports. They are em ­
ployed by the Justice and Treasury
D epartm ents.


Training, Advancement, and
Other Qualifications
Because inspectors perform such a
wide range of duties, qualifications
for em ploym ent in these positions
vary greatly. The Federal G overn­
ment requires a passing score on the
Professional and Administrative C a­
reer Examination (PA C E) for sever­
al inspector occupations, including
im m ig ratio n ; cu sto m s; wage and
hour com pliance; alcohol, tobacco,
and firearm s; o ccu pational safety;
and c o n s u m e r safety (fo o d and
drug). To take this exam ination, a
bachelor’s degree or 3 years of re­
sponsible work experience, or a com ­
bination of the two, are required. In
some cases, agencies will give prefer­
ence to an applicant whose course
work or work experience is related to
the field of employment.
Other Federal inspectors must pass
an examination based on specialized
knowledge, in addition to having
work experience in related fields.
These include commodity inspectors
such as those in m eat, poultry, live­
stock, and egg products.
Air safety inspectors must have
considerable experience in aviation
m aintenance, and an FAA Air Frame
and Power Plant certificate. In addi­
tion, various pilot certificates and
considerable flight experience are re­
quired, with the type dependent on
the inspection duties. Many air safety
inspectors receive both their flight
training and m echanical training in
the Armed Forces. No written exami­
nation is required.
Applicants for mine safety inspec­
to r positions generally m ust have
specialized work experience in mine
m anagem ent or supervision, or pos­
sess a skill such as electrical engi­
neering (for mine electrical inspec­
to rs ). In som e c a s e s , a g e n e ra l
aptitude test may be required.
Some Civil Service registers, in­
cluding those for agricultural quaran­
tine inspectors and fruit and vegeta­
ble graders, rate applicants solely on
their experience and education and
require no written examination.
Qualifications for inspectors at the
State and local level usually are simi­
lar to those for Federal employees.
However, this may vary among gov­
ernm ent em ployers, particularly at

the local level. Environm ental health
inspectors, called sanitarians in many
States, m ust have a bachelor’s degree
in environm ental health or the phys­
ical or biological sciences. In 35
States, they are licensed and their
qualifications regulated by exam in­
ing boards.
All inspectors are trained in the
laws and inspection procedures relat­
ed to their specific field through a
com bination of classroom and onthe-job training. In general, people
who w ant to beco m e h ea lth and
regulatory inspectors should be able
to accept responsibility and like d e­
tailed work. They should be neat and
personable and able to express them ­
selves well orally and in writing.
All Federal G overnm ent inspec­
tors are prom oted on a Civil Service
“ career ladder.” This means that, as­
suming satisfactory work perform ­
ance, workers will advance autom ati­
cally, usually at 1-year intervals, to a
specified maximum level. Above this
level (usually supervisory positions),
advancem ent is com petitive, based
on needs of the agency and individ­
ual merit.

Employment Outlook
Employment of health and regula­
tory inspectors as a group is expected
to increase faster than the average
for all occupations through the mid1980’s. The growth in em ploym ent
of health inspectors is expected to be
m ore rapid than that of regulatory
inspectors. In addition to job oppor­
tunities stemming from growth, many
inspectors will be needed each year
to replace those who die, retire, or
transfer to other occupations.
consum ption
caused by population growth and
greater public concern over potential
health hazards should create addi­
tional jobs for food and drug, m eat
and poultry, and other com m odity
inspectors and graders. Public con­
cern for improved quality and safety
of consum er products also should re­
sult in new legislation in these areas,
requiring additional inspectors to in­
sure com pliance.
A v ia tio n in d u stry g ro w th , i n ­
creased international travel, and in­
creases in the volume of U.S. imports
and exports should continue to cre­
ate new openings for aviation safety
officers, quarantine and immigration


inspectors, and customs inspectors.
Increasing coal mining activity and
concern over mine safety should cre­
ate additional mine inspector jobs.
Continued public pressure for equal
em ploym ent rights should cause a
growing need for wage-hour com pli­
ance officers.

Earnings and Working
With the exception of mine inspec­
tors and aviation safety officers, the
Federal G overnm ent paid health and
regulatory inspectors and graders
starting salaries of $9,303 or $ 11,523
a year in 1977, depending on the
type of position and the qualifica­
tions of the applicant. Aviation safety
officers and mining inspectors usual­
ly re c e iv e d s ta rtin g s a la rie s o f
Salaries of experienced m eat and
poultry inspectors, egg product in­
spectors, agricultural quarantine in­
spectors, alcohol, tobacco, and fire­
arm s inspectors, and custom s and
im m igration inspectors w ere over
$14,000 a year in 1977. Experienced
food and drug inspectors (consum er
safety officers), mine inspectors, and
wage-hour compliance officers usu­
ally re c e iv e d s a la r ie s o f a b o u t
$20,000 from the Federal G overn­
m ent in 1977. Experienced aviation
s a f e ty o f f ic e r s a v e r a g e d o v e r
$24,000 a year.
environm ental
health inspectors working for select­
ed U.S. cities and counties received
a v e ra g e s ta rtin g s a la r ie s a b o u t
$11,000 in 1976; those working for
State governments started at about
$1,000 less. Experienced environ­
m ental health inspectors working for
State governments earned between
$11,500 and $15,200, but those in
top supervisory and adm inistrative
p o s itio n s h a d s a la r ie s b e tw e e n
$15,500 and $20,500 in 1976.
Most health and regulatory inspec­
tors live an active life, meeting many
people and working in a variety of
environments. Many travel frequent­
ly and are usually furnished with an
autom obile or reim bursed for travel
At times inspectors must work un­
der unfavorable working conditions.
For example, m eat and poultry, and
alcohol, tobacco, and firearm s in-


20 2

More detailed information on
qualifications for Federal jobs is
available from local Civil Service
Commission offices or from individ­
ual Federal agencies.
Information about career opp ortu­
nities as inspectors in State and local
governments is available from State
civil service commissions, usually lo­
cated in each State capital, or from
local governm ent offices.

(D.O.T. 010.081; 012.081 and .188;
079.188; 168.168, .268, and .284;
379.387; 821.387; and 909.128)

Nature of the Work

Public concern for improved quality and safety of consumer products will require
additional inspectors to insure compliance.

spectors frequently com e in contact
with strong, unpleasant odors; mine
inspectors often spend a great deal of
time in mines where they are exposed
to the same hazards as miners. Many
inspectors work long and often ir­
regular hours.

Sources of Additional
For facts about inspector careers
in the Federal G overnm ent, contact:
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil Service Exam­
iners for Washington, D.C., 1900 E St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20415.

People in the occupational safety
and health field have the challenging
job of insuring a safe and healthful
environm ent for w orkers and safe
products for consumers. Safety and
health workers in a num ber of differ­
en t o cc u p atio n s strive to c o n tro l
occupational accidents and diseases,
property losses, and injuries from un­
safe products. This statem ent dis­
cusses occupations in private indus­
try ; fo r a d isc u ssio n o f re la te d
occupations in government, see the
statem ent on health and regulatory
inspectors elsew here in the Hand­
The largest group of safety w ork­
ers is safety engineers. Although all of
them are concerned with preventing
accidents, their specific tasks depend
on where they work. For example,
the safety engineer working in a large
m a n u f a c t u r i n g p l a n t ( D .O .T .
012.081) may develop a com prehen­
sive safety program covering several
thousand employees. This usually en ­
tails detailed analysis of each job in
the plant to identify potential hazards
so that preventive m easures can be
tak en . W hen accid en ts do o ccu r,
safety engineers in m anufacturing
plants investigate to determ ine the
cause. If poor design, im proper m ain­
tenance, or m echanical failure is in­
volved, they use their technical skills
to correct the situation and prevent
its recurrence. When hum an error is


Safety engineer inspecting plant machinery for potential hazards.

the cause o f an accident, safety engi­
neers may establish training courses
for plantworkers and supervisors or
reemphasize existing ones.
Safety eng in eers who work for
t r u c k i n g c o m p a n i e s ( D .O .T .
909.128) study sch ed ules, ro u tes,
loads, and speeds to determ ine their
in flu en c e on tru c k in g ac cid en ts.
They also inspect heavy rigs, such as
trucks and trailers, to suggest ways of
safer operation. In the mining indus­
tr y , s a f e ty e n g i n e e r s ( D .O .T .
010.081) may inspect underground
or open-pit areas to insure com pli­
ance with State and Federal laws, d e­
sign protective equipm ent and safety

devices for mine m achinery, or lead
rescue activities during emergencies.
Many safety engineers are directly
concerned with the safety of their
com pany’s product. They work
closely with design engineers to d e­
velop m odels th at m eet all safety
sta n d a rd s , and they m o n ito r th e
m anufacturing process to insure the
safety of the finished product.
Safeguarding life and property
against loss from fire, explosion, and
related hazards is the job of the fire
p r o t e c t i o n e n g i n e e r ( D .O .T .
012.188). Those who specialize in
research investigate problem s such


as fires in high-rise buildings or the
m anufacture, handling, and storage
of flammable materials. Fire protec­
tion engineers in the field use these
research findings to identify hazards
and devise ways to correct them. For
exam ple, new findings concerning
fla sh p o in ts (th e te m p e ra tu re s at
which different materials will ignite)
are valuable to the engineer design­
ing storage facilities in a chemical
Like safety engineers, fire protec­
tion engineers may have different job
d u ties d e p e n d in g on w here they
w ork. O ne who w orks for a fire
equipm ent m anufacturing company
may design new fire protection de­
vices, while engineers in consulting
firms work with architects and others
to insure that fire safety is built into
new structures. In contrast, fire p ro ­
tection engineers working for insur­
ance rating bureaus (organizations
th at calculate basic costs of insur­
ance coverage in particular areas) in­
spect private, com m ercial, and in­
dustrial properties to evaluate the
adequacy of fire protection for the
entire area. Many fire protection en­
gineers have special expertise in one
area or more of fire protection, such
as sprinkler or fire detection systems.
Losses in the workplace cannot be
reduced without m easures to elimi­
nate hazards to w orkers’ health. De­
signing and maintaining a healthful
work environm ent is the job of the
i n d u s t r i a l h y g i e n i s t (D .O .T .
079.188). These health professionals
are concerned with how noise, dust,
vapors, and other hazards common
to the industrial setting affect w ork­
ers’ health. After a problem is detect­
ed, perhaps by analyzing employee
m edical records, the industrial hy­
gienist at the jobsite may take air
sam ples, m o n ito r noise levels, or
m easure radioactivity levels in the
areas under investigation.
O ther industrial hygienists work in
private laboratories or in those m ain­
tained by large insurance com panies
or industrial firms. Laboratory hy­
gienists analyze air samples, do re­
search on the reliability of health
equipm ent such as respirators, or in­
vestigate the effects of exposure to
chemicals or radiation. Some hygien­
ists specialize in problem s of air and
water pollution. For example, these



health professionals may work with
government officials, environm ental
g ro u p s, lab o r o rg a n iz a tio n s, and
plant m anagem ent to develop a sys­
tem to screen harmful substances be­
fore they enter and pollute a river.
L oss c o n tro l an d o cc u p a tio n a l
health consultants (D.O.T. 168.168)
in property-liability insurance com ­
panies perform many services for
their clients. These range from co r­
recting a single hazard in a small
business to devising a program to
eliminate or reduce all losses arising
out of a large firm ’s operation. When
dealing with a new account, the con­
sultant makes a thorough inspection
of the plant and then confers with
m anagem ent to form ulate a program
that m eets the com pany’s needs. The
consultant may, for example, help set
up plant health program s and m edi­
cal services, assist plant personnel to
insure that a new facility meets all
safety requirem ents, or train plant
safety people. Safety and health con­
sultants also help th eir com pany’s
underw riters d eterm in e w hether a
risk is acceptable and the am ount of
premium to charge.

Places of Employment
An estim ated 28,000 persons were
engaged in occupational safety and
health work in 1976. A bout onequarter of these carried the profes­
sional designations, Certified Safety
Professional; Certified Industrial Hy­
gienist; or M ember, Society of Fire
P rotection Engineers. Many others
who are not certified perform ed pro­
fessional level work, while a relative­
ly small num ber were employed in
the occupational safety and health
field as technicians and inspectors.
Property and liability insurance com ­
panies em ploy m any occupational
safety and health workers to provide
engineering, consulting, and inspec­
tion services to their clients. Others
worked for a variety o f industrial,
m anufacturing, and com m ercial con­
These workers are needed wherev­
er large num bers of people are con­
c e n tra te d and in d u strial d ev elo p ­
m ent occurs. Insurance consultants
generally have their headquarters in
a region’s m ajor city and travel to
and from the
 sites they visit.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Entry level safety and health pro­
fessionals generally need at least a
bachelor’s degree in engineering or
science. A more specialized degree,
such as one in safety m anagem ent,
industrial safety, or fire protection
engineering, often is helpful in get­
ting a good job. Many employers p re­
fer applicants with a graduate degree
in areas such as industrial hygiene,
safety engineering, or occupational
safety and h ealth engineering, or
those with prior industrial work ex­
perience. Some employers will hire
graduates of 2-year college curriculums as technicians, particularly if
they have work experience related to
the job.
Continuing education is necessary
to stay abreast of changing technol­
o g ies, new id e a s, an d e m erg in g
trends. Many insurance com panies
offer training sem inars and c o rre ­
spondence courses for their staffs.
The O ccupational Safety and Health
A dm inistration (O S H A ) co n d u cts
courses for safety and health workers
on topics such as occupational injury
investigation and radiological health
hazards. The recognized m arks of
achievem ent in the field are the des­
ignations Certified Safety Profession­
al; Certified Industrial Hygienist; and
M ember, Society of Fire Protection
Engineers. Certification is conferred
by the Board of Certified Safety P ro­
fessionals, the Am erican Board of In­
dustrial Hygiene, or the Society of
Fire Protection Engineers after the
candidate com pletes the required ex­
perience and passes an examination.
In addition to possessing technical
com petence, safety and health w ork­
ers m ust be able to com m unicate
well and m o tiv a te o th e rs . T hey
should be able to adapt quickly to
different situations, being equally at
ease with a representative of a local
union, a supervisor in the welding
shop, or a corporate executive. Be­
cause physical activity is basic to the
job, good physical condition is neces­
In the insurance industry, safety
and health workers can be prom oted
to departm ent m anager in a small
branch office, move up to larger

branch offices, and finally take an
executive position in the home of­
fice. In industrial firms, they can ad­
vance to plant safety and health m an­
ag e r o r c o rp o ra te m an ag e r o v er
several plants. A lthough extensive
experience is required, technicians
can advance to professional safety
and health positions.

Employment Outlook
Employment of safety and health
workers is expected to increase faster
than the average for all occupations
through the m id-1980’s as growing
concern for occupational safety and
health and consum er safety contin­
ues to generate program s and jobs.
Many openings will arise also to re­
place w orkers who die, retire, or
leave their jobs for other reasons.
Much of the em ploym ent growth is
expected to occur in industrial and
m anufacturing firms. Many firms
now without a safety and health p ro­
gram are expected to establish one,
and others will upgrade and expand
existing programs in response to gov­
ernm ent requirem ents, union inter­
est, and rising insurance costs. The
num ber of safety and health workers
in casualty insurance companies also
will increase as more small em ploy­
ers request the services of their insur­
e r’s engineering or loss control de­
partm ent. Prospects should be best
for graduates of occupational safety
or health curriculums.

Earnings and Working
Salaries of safety and health w ork­
ers vary widely according to educa­
tion, experience, and specialty. In
manufacturing firms, persons with a
bachelor’s degree generally started at
between $ 12,000 and $ 15,000 a year
in 1976, according to the lim ited
data available. Those with a graduate
degree usually received higher start­
ing salaries, and technicians som e­
what lower ones. Safety and health
workers with several years’ experi­
ence averaged $18,000 to $22,000,
and co rp o rate m anagers well over
$25,000 a year.
The am ount of travel required de­
pends upon job specialty and geo­
graphic location. For exam ple, the
plant safety engineer may travel only
to seminars and conferences, while


the insurance consultant may spend
about half the time traveling between
worksites. Usually, a car is furnished
or workers are reim bursed for the
expenses of using their own vehicles.

Sources of Additional
For g en eral in fo rm atio n ab o u t
safety careers, write to:
American Society of Safety Engineers, 850
Busse Highway, Park Ridge, 11 . 60068.

Also available from the Society is a
booklet that lists colleges and univer­
sities offering degree programs in the
occupational safety and health field.

Information concerning a career in
industrial hygiene is available from:
American Industrial Hygiene Association, 66
S. Miller Rd., Akron, Ohio 44313.

C a re e r in fo rm atio n c o n c ern in g
fire protection engineering may be
obtained from:
Society of Fire Protection Engineers, 60 Batterymarch St., Boston, Mass. 02110.

C areer inform ation on insurance
loss control consulting is available
from the home offices of many prop­
erty-liability insurance companies.
The National Institute for O ccupa­


tional Safety and Health of the U.S.
Public Health Service provides gen­
eral information on requirem ents for
various careers in the occupational
safety and health field, as well as lists
of college and universities that award
degrees in the various occupational
safety and health disciplines. This in­
formation is available from:
Division of Training and Manpower Develop­
ment, National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health, Robert A. Taft Labo­
ratories, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cin­
cinnati, Ohio 45226.




(D.O.T. 233.138 and 233.388)

Nature of the Work
Most mail carriers travel planned
routes delivering and collecting mail.
Carriers start work at the post office
early in the m orning, where they
spend a few hours arranging their
mail for delivery and taking care of
other details.
A carrier may cover the route on
foot, by vehicle, or a com bination of
both. On foot, they tote a heavy load
of mail in a satchel or push it in a
cart. In outlying suburban or rural
areas a car or small truck is used to
deliver mail. Residential carriers cov­
er their routes only once a day, but
carriers assigned to a business district
may make two trips a day. Deliveries
are made house-to-house, to road­
side mailboxes, and to large build­
ings, such as apartm ents, which have
all the mailboxes on the first floor.
Besides making deliveries, carriers
collect postage-due and c.o.d. fees
and obtain signed receipts for regis­
tered, certified, and som etimes for
insured mail. If a custom er is not
home the carrier leaves a notice that
tells where special mail is being held.
After completing their routes, car­
riers return to the post office with
mail gathered from street collection
boxes and homes. They turn in the
accountable mail receipts and money
collected during the day and may
separate letters and parcels so that
they can be canceled easily, and they
turn in the receipts and money col­
Many carriers have more special­
ized duties. Some deliver only parcel
post while others collect mail from
street boxes and office mail chutes.
In contrast, rural carriers provide a
wide variety of postal services. In ad­

dition to delivering and picking up

mail, they sell stamps and money o r­
ders and accept parcels and letters to
be registered or insured.
All carriers answer custom ers’
questions about postal regulations
and service and provide change-ofaddress cards and other postal forms
when requested.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Mail carriers must be at least 18
and qualify on a four-part written ex­
amination. The first part tests clerical
accuracy by asking the applicant to
com pare pairs of add7essesand indi­
cate which are identical. The second
part tests ability to m emorize mail
distribution systems. The third m ea­
sures reading ability, including vo­
cabulary, and the fourth tests ability
to do simple arithm etic.
If the carrier job involves driving,
applicants m ust have a driver’s li­
cense, a good driving record, and
pass a road test. Before appointm ent,
mail carriers must pass a physical ex­
amination and may be asked to show
that they can lift and handle mail
sacks weighing up to 70 pounds.
Applicants for mail carrier jobs
should apply at the post office where
they wish to work because each post
a separate list of those
who have passed the exam ination.
A pplicants’ names are listed in order
of their scores. Five extra points are
added to the score of an honorably
d ischarged v eteran , and 10 ex tra
points to the score o f a v eteran
w ounded in c o m b a t or disab led .
When a vacancy occurs, the appoint­
ing officer chooses one of the top
th re e a p p lic a n ts; th e rest o f th e
names remain on the list to be con­
sidered for future openings.
Mail carriers are classified as casu­
al, part-tim e flexible, part-tim e regu­
lar, or full time. Casual workers are
hired to help deliver m ail during
peak mailing periods during the year.

Part-tim e flexible employees, do not
have a regular work schedule but re­
place absent workers and help with
extra work as the need arises. Parttime regulars have a set work sched­
ule—for example, 4 hours a day.
New carriers are trained on the
job. They may begin as part-tim e
flexible city carriers and become
regular or full-time carriers in order
of seniority as vacancies occur. A d­
vancem ent possibilities are limited,
but carriers can look forward to ob­
taining p referred routes or higher
level jobs such as carrier technician
as their seniority increases. A rela­
tively small num ber of carriers b e­
come supervisors.

Employment Outlook
E m ploym ent o f m ail c a rrie rs —
who num bered 250,000 in 1976—is
e x p e c te d to c h a n g e v ery little
through the m id-1980’s. A lthough
the num ber of homes and business
estab lish m en ts is ex p e cted to in ­
crease along with growth in popula­
tion and business activity, anticipat­
ed cutbacks in the frequency of mail
delivery should limit the need for ad­
ditional carriers. Most job openings
will result from the need to replace
experienced carriers who retire, die,
or tra n sfe r to o th e r o cc u p atio n s.
O penings will be c o n c e n tra te d in
m etropolitan areas.

Earnings and Working
Part-time flexible carriers began at
$6.18 an hour in 1976, with periodic
increases up to $7.46 an hour after 8
years of satisfactory service. Hourly
wages of part-tim e regular workers
were $5.97 an hour, with periodic
increases up to $7.21 an hour after 8
years of service. Full-tim e carriers
were paid on an annual basis, begin­
ning at $12,422 and increasing to a
maximum of $15,007 after 8 years.
Rural carriers are paid tim e-and-onehalf for each hour they work over 40
hours a week or for each route mile
over 42 miles. They also receive an
allowance of 18 cents a mile for the
use of their autom obiles. Substitute
rural carriers receive the same pay as
th e reg u lar ca rriers whose ro u tes
they are covering. R ural c a rrie rs
work either a 5- or 6-day week.



at their own pace as long as they cov­
er their routes within a certain period
o f time. M oreover, full-time postal
em ployees have m ore job security
than w orkers in m ost other indus­
(For inform ation on fringe bene­
fits, see the statem ent on Postal Ser­
vice occupations elsew here in the

Sources of Additional
Local post offices and State em ­
ployment service offices can supply
details about entrance examinations
and em ploym ent opportunities for
mail carriers.

Nature of the Work

Carriers can work at their own pace as long as they cover their routes on time.

A full-time city carrier works an 8hour day 5 days a week. City carriers
who work more than 8 hours a day or
40 hours a week also are paid 1 1/2
times their regular rate of pay for the
extra hours. City carriers also receive
10 percent additional pay for work
between 6 p.m. and 6 a.m.
Most carriers begin work early in
the m orning, in some cases as early
as 4 a.m. if
 they have routes in the

business district. Carriers spend most
of their time outdoors in all kinds of
weather delivering mail. Even those
who drive often m ust walk when
making deliveries, and must lift
heavy sacks of parcel post when
loading their vehicles.
The job, however, has its advan­
tages. C arriers who begin work early
in the morning are through by early
afternoon. They are also free to work

A lthough m illions o f telep h o n e
numbers are dialed directly each day,
there are times when making a call
requires the assistance of a telephone
operator. Often an operator is need­
ed because a caller wants to reverse
long-distance charges, locate a tele­
phone num ber in another city, or
know the cost of a call. O perators
also may be needed to contact the
police or fire departm ent in an em er­
gency or arrange a conference call
for business executives.
Providing these service are two
groups of telephone operators. The
operators who work in telephone
company central offices probably are
the most familiar. But many business
and large organizations receive so
many calls that they also employ
operators to run their private branch
e x c h a n g e (P B X ) s w itc h b o a r d s .
Sometimes operators place calls by
inserting and rem oving plugs th at
make switchboard connections and
by listening and speaking into their
h ead sets. H ow ever, m any sw itch ­
boards, especially those in telephone
company central offices, are now op­
erated by pushbuttons or dials.
T e le p h o n e co m p an y o p e ra to rs
may be assigned eith er to handle
long-distance calls or to give directo­
ry assistance. Long-distance opera-



training period than telephone com ­
pany operators. In large businesses,
an in stru cto r from the local te le ­
phone com pany may train new em ­
Experienced telephone company
operators may be prom oted to super­
visory jo b s or tran sfer to clerical
o c c u p a tio n s such as secretary or
bookkeeper. They also may have the
opportunity to advance to jobs as
telephone craft workers such as tele­
phone installers and repairers. PBX
operators in large firms may advance
to more responsible clerical positons;
however, in many small business, op ­
portunities for advancem ent usually
are very limited.

Employment Outlook

During peak calling periods, the pace at the switchboard may be very hectic.

tors obtain the inform ation needed to
com plete the call, make the neces­
sary connections, and record the de­
tails for billing. Directory assistance
operators (D.O.T. 235.862) look up
and provide telephone num bers. Ser­
vice assistants train and help new op­
erators to com plete difficult calls.
PBX operators (D.O.T. 235.862)
run switchboards for business offices
and other establishm ents. They con­
nect interoffice or house calls, an­
swer and relay outside calls, assist
company em ployees in making o u t­
going calls, supply inform ation to
callers, and record charges. In many
small establishm ents, PBX operators
work at switchboards that serve only
a lim ited n u m b er o f te le p h o n e s.
These operators may do other office
work such as typing or sorting mail
and many also act as receptionists or
information clerks. (The work of re­
ceptionists is described elsewhere in
the Handbook.)

Places of Employment
About 340,000 telephone o pera­
tors were em ployed in 1976. More
than one-half worked as PBX opera­
tors in m anufacturing plants, hospi­
tals, departm ent stores, or business­
e s . T h e r e m a i n d e r w o rk e d in
telep h o n e com panies. A bout one

fourth of all operators work only part
Both telephone com pany and PBX
operators are concentrated in heavily
populated areas. Nearly one-fifth
work in the New Y ork, Chicago, and
Los Angeles m etropolitan areas.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Persons planning to becom e tele­
phone operators should like to serve
the public, be pleasant and courte­
ous, and not mind sitting at a switch­
board for long periods. A clear and
pleasing voice and good hearing also
are im portant. Many telephone com ­
panies and business firms require ap ­
plicants, including operators, to pass
physical exam inations. High school
courses in speech, office practices,
and business m ath provide a helpful
background for persons interested in
this occupation.
New operators are taught on the
job how to use the equipm ent and
keep records of calls. Once they have
learned the procedure, they put
through practice calls. Instruction
and practice usually last from 1 to 3
weeks. O perators then are assigned
to regular operator jobs and receive
further instruction from supervisors.
PBX operators who handle routine
calls may have a som ewhat shorter

E m p lo y m en t o f te le p h o n e an d
PBX operators as a group is expected
to decline slightly through the mid19 8 0 ’s. N evertheless, thousands of
full-time and part-tim e workers will
be hired each year to replace experi­
enced operators who die, retire, or
stop working for other reasons. Many
other openings will result from the
need to replace operators who ad­
vance to other occupations.
Employment of telephone com pa­
ny operators is expected to decline
more than em ploym ent of PBX op­
erators. As more telephone com pa­
nies start charging custom ers for di­
rectory assistance and inform ation
calls, more people will dial num bers
directly and use telephone directo­
ries to locate unknown num bers, thus
red u cin g th e need for o p e ra to rs.
A lso, technological im provem ents
will limit the em ploym ent of o p era­
tors. For example, m ore telephone
com panies are installing electronic
switching systems in their central of­
fices, thus reducing the need for
manual switching of calls. In addi­
tion, traffic service position systems
are being added, which autom atically
feed data about each telephone co n ­
nection, such as the length and cost
of the call, into a com puter that p ro ­
cesses the billing statem ents. F o r­
merly this inform ation was tabulated
by an operator and then transferred
to the statem ent.
Even though more small business­
es will require PBX services, em ploy­
m ent growth of PBX operators will
be limited as many large businesses



convert to Central Exchange (C EN ­
TREX). With CENTREX, incoming
and outgoing calls can be dialed di­
rectly w ithout an o p erato r’s assist­

Earnings and Working
Telephone company operators in
training averaged $3.75 an hour in
late 1975; ex p erien ced o p erato rs
$4.90; service assistants $5.92; and
supervisors or chief operators, $8.63.
Contracts between unions and tele­
phone companies generally provide
for periodic pay increases and extra
pay for work on evenings, Sundays,
and holidays.
Most telephone company and PBX
operators work between 35 and 40
hours a week. Often, their scheduled
hours are the same as those of other
office clerical workers. In telephone
companies, however, and in hotels,
hospitals, and other places where
telephone service is needed on a 24-

hour basis, operators work on shifts
and on holidays and weekends. Some
operators work split shifts—that is,
they are on duty during the peak
calling periods in the late morning
and early evening, and have time off
between these two periods.
O perators usually work in welllighted and pleasant surroundings.
The job of a telephone operator does
not require any physical exertion;
however, during the peak calling p e­
riods in the late m orning and late
afternoon, the pace at the sw itch­
board may be very hectic. Often op­
erators are unable to leave their seats
during these periods.
Insurance, pension programs, holi­
days, vacations, and o th e r fringe
benefits are much the same as those
for other types of clerical employees.
For specific information about fringe
benefits for telephone company op­
erators, see the statem ent on the tele­
p h o n e in d u stry elsew h ere in th e

Many operators employed by tele­
phone com panies are members of the
Com munications W orkers of Am er­
ica, the International Brotherhood of
E lectrical W orkers, and the T ele­
c o m m u n ic a tio n s In te r n a tio n a l

Sources of Additional
For m ore details about em ploy­
ment opportunities, contact the tele­
phone company in your community
or local offices of the unions that
re p resen t telephone w orkers. For
general information on telephone op­
erator jobs, write to:
Telecommunications International Union,
P.O. Box 5462, Hamden, Conn. 06518.
United States Independent Telephone Associ­
ation, 1801 K St. NW„ Suite 1201, Wash­
ington, D.C. 20006.
International Brotherhood of Electrical Work­
ers, 1200 15th St. NW„ Washington, D.C.

The im portance of an education
has grown considerably since the
birth of our Nation. Once primarily

an agrarian economy, we have
evolved into a highly sophisticated,
technical, and urban society. M a­

Education and related occupations, 1976

2 1 0

chinery and p ro d u cts never en v i­
sioned before are constantly being
invented, calling for new jobs and
skills to produce and use them. As a
result, m ore educated workers are
needed to fill a variety of positions at
all levels of society.
In addition, as our economy has
p ro sp e re d , it has allow ed peo p le
more time for personal developm ent
and leisure. No longer required to
labor from early morning until dusk,
workers have sought new avenues for
personal enrichm ent. A dult educa­
tion and craft courses, for example,
draw increasingly larger num bers of
interested students.
T eachers, teac h er aides, and li­
brarians play vital roles in the educa­
tion of people of all ages. In large
urban classrooms or rural county li­
braries, teachers and librarians are
the people we turn to for inform a­
tion. T hese o c c u p a tio n s are d is­
cussed in the following sections.


Most people would agree that
education is a life-long process. At
every age we learn from our friends,
family, and associates. We also teach

others along the way, often unwit­
tingly. But perhaps our most influen­
tial educational experiences occur
during the years of formal education.

During those years, students explore
them selves and learn about many
subjects. They make career decisions
and train for productive work. Most
significantly, they learn to think for
Today, more than 3 million teach­
ers are involved at all levels of this
educational process. Teachers work
with people of all ages in a variety of
d if f e r e n t s u b je c ts . S om e te a c h
youngsters in their first years away
from hom e, while others work pri­
marily with adults who are taking
courses to expand or change their job
potential, or as a source of recre­
ation. Some teachers are members of
other professions who instruct part
Detailed information on teaching
o c c u p a tio n s and th e ou tlo o k for
teachers through the m id-1980’s is
p re sen ted in the follow ing s ta te ­

(D.O.T. 092.228)

Nature of the Work

Employment of teachers generally will follow
enrollment trends, rising or falling according to the
number of students through 1985

Employment (in thousands)



Source: National Center for Educational Statistics




K in d e r g a rte n an d e le m e n ta ry
school teachers play a vital role in
the developm ent of children. W hat is
learned or not learned in these early
years can, to a large measure, shape
students views o f them selves, the
world and the process of education.
elem entary
school teachers must introduce chil­
dren to the basic concepts of m athe­
matics, language, science, and social
studies to provide a sound founda­
tion for more advanced study in the
higher grades. They also try to instill
in the students good study and work
habits and an appreciation for learn­
ing while closely watching and evalu­
ating each child’s perform ance and
Elem entary school teachers often
devise creative means to present a
specific subject m atter. They may
use films, slides, com puters, or devel­
op instructional games. They also ar211



Most elementary school teachers instruct a single group of children in several subjects.

range class trips, speakers, and class
projects. All o f this w ork involves
m uch tim e and effort, often after the
regular school day is finished.
T eachers also are concerned with
the social developm ent and health of
their students. They study each
child’s interactions with his or her
classm ates and discuss any problem s
with the parents. T eachers may, for
example, m eet with the parents of a
child who habitually resists authority
to discover the causes of these ac­
tions and work out a solution. T each­
ers also rep o rt any possible health
p ro b le m s to p a r e n ts an d sch o o l
health officials. The te a c h e r’s prim a­
ry concern is to insure th at each child
receives as m uch personalized help
as required.
M ost elem entary school teachers
instruct a single group o f children in
several subjects. In some schools,
two teachers or m ore “ team te a c h ’’
and are jointly responsible for a
group o f students o r for a particular
subject. An increasing num ber of ele­
m entary school teachers specialize in
one or two subjects and teach these
su b jects to several classes. Som e
teach special subjects such as music,
art, o r physical education, while o th ­
ers teach basic subjects such as Eng­
lish, m athem atics, o r social studies.
T eachers participate in many ac­
tivities outside the classroom. They
g e n e ra lly m u st a tte n d re g u la rly
scheduled faculty m eetings and may
serve on faculty com m ittees, such as

those to revise curricula, or to evalu­
ate the school’s objectives and the
student’s perform ance. T eachers also
may supervise after-school activities
such as glee clubs, dram a clubs, o r
arts and crafts classes. To stay up-todate on educational m aterials and
teaching techniques, they participate
in workshops and other inservice ac­
tivities, and take courses at local col­
leges and universities.
A growing num ber of elem entary
school teachers have aides to do sec­
re ta ria l w ork and help su pervise
lunch and playground activities. As a
result, teachers can be free from ro u ­
tine duties to give m ore individual
attention to students.

Places of Employment
A bout 1.4 million people worked
as e lem e n ta ry school te a c h e rs in
1976. M ost e le m e n ta ry te a c h e rs
work in public schools that have six
grades; however, some teach in m id­
dle schools—schools that cover the 3
or 4 years between the lower elem en­
tary g ra d e s an d 4 years o f high
school. Only about 13 percent o f ele­
m entary school te a c h e rs w ork in
nonpublic schools.
A large proportion of all public
elem entary school teachers teach in
urban areas, including cities and
their suburbs.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
All 50 States and the District o f
Colum bia require public elem entary

school teachers to be certified by the
departm ent of education in the State
in which they work. Some States also
require teachers in private and p aro ­
chial schools to be certified.
To qualify for certification, a
teacher must have a bachelor’s d e­
gree from an institution with an ap­
proved teacher education program.
Besides a bachelor’s degree, which
provides the necessary liberal arts
background, States require that p ro ­
s p e c tiv e te a c h e rs h av e s tu d e n t­
te a c h i n g a n d o t h e r e d u c a t i o n
In 1976, 14 States required teach­
ers to get supplem entary postgrad­
uate education—usually a m aster’s
degree o r a fifth year of study—after
their initial certification. Some States
required U.S. citizenship; some an
o ath o f allegiance; and several a
health certificate.
Local school systems sometimes
have additional requirem ents for em ­
ployment. Students should write to
the local superintendent of schools
and to the State departm ent of edu­
cation for information on specific re­
quirem ents in the area where they
want to teach.
In addition to meeting educational
requirem ents,
teachers should be creative, depend­
able, and patient. Most im portant,
they should want to be directly in­
volved in the educational and em o­
tio n a l d e v e lo p m e n t o f c h ild re n .
C om petence in handling classroom
situations also is im portant.
As a teacher gains experience, he
or she may advance within a school
system or transfer to another which
recognizes experience and has a
higher salary scale. Some teachers
may advance to supervisory, adm in­
istrative, or specialized positions. Of­
ten, however, these positions require
additional training and certification.
As a result, for most teachers, ad­
v ancem ent consists o f higher pay
rather than more responsibility o r a
higher position.

Employment Outlook
K in d e r g a rte n a n d e le m e n ta ry
school teachers are expected to face
com petition for jobs of their choice
through the m id-1980’s. If patterns
of entry and reentry to the profession
continue in line with past trends, the



num ber o f persons qualified to teach
in elem entary schools will exceed the
num ber o f openings.
The basic sources o f teacher sup­
ply are re c e n t co lleg e g ra d u a te s
qualified to teach at the elem entary
level and teachers seeking reentry to
the profession. R eentrants, although
more experienced, will face increas­
ing com petition from new graduates,
who co m m and low er salaries and
have m ore recent training.
Pupil enrollm ent is the basic factor
underlying the need for teachers. Be­
cause o f fewer births in the 1960’s,
elem entary enrollm ents have been
on the decline since 1967, when they
peaked at nearly 32 million. The N a­
tional C enter for Education Statistics
projects that by 1982 the downward
enrollm ent trend will halt at a level of
28 m illion, and enrollm ents again
will advance to about 29 million by
Teachers will be needed to fill new
positions created by larger enroll­
ments; to replace those who are not
now certified; to m eet the expected
p re ssu re fo r an im p ro v e d pupilteacher ratio; and to fill positions va­
cated by teachers who retire, die, or
leave the profession for other rea­
However, a decline in the project­
ed num ber of children bom over the
next decade could lessen the dem and
for teachers. While the trend has not
been clearly established, since 1970
w o m e n h a v e c o n tin u e d to h a v e fe w e r

children, and according to a recent
survey, they expect to continue hav­
ing sm aller families than were com ­
mon 10 years ago.
Several factors could alter the out­
look for teachers. Increased em pha­
sis on early childhood education, on
special program s for disadvantaged
children, and on individual instruc­
tion may result in larger enrollm ents,
sm aller stu d en t-teach er ratios, and
consequently an increased need for
teachers. Possible budget restraints
for educational services, on the other
hand, might limit expansion.

Earnings and Working
According to the National Educa­
tion Association, public elem entary
school teachers averaged $1 1,870 a

year in 1976. Average earnings in

1976 were m ore than one and onethird times as m uch as the average
earnings for all nonsupervisory w ork­
ers in private industry, except farm ­
ing. Generally, States in the N orth­
east and in the W est paid the highest
Collective bargaining agreem ents
cover an increasingly large num ber
of teachers. In 1976, 31 States had
enacted laws that required collective
bargaining in the teacher contract
negotiation process. Most public
school systems that enroll 1,000 stu­
dents or m ore bargain with teacher
organizations over wages, hours, and
the term s and conditions o f em ploy­
Public school systems enrolling
6,000 or m ore pupils paid teachers
with a bachelor’s degree average
starting salaries of $8,233 a year in
1974-75. Those with a m aster’s d e­
gree earn ed a starting average o f
$9,159 a year.
Public elem entary school teachers
worked an average o f about 36-1/2
hours a week in 1976. Additional
time spent preparing lessons, grading
papers, making reports, attending
m eetings, and supervising extracur­
ricular activities increased the total
num ber of hours to about 46.
In addition to their regular teach­
ing assignm ents, som e elem entary
school teachers teach sum m er ses­
sions, take courses, or work at other
jobs, such as cam p counselors. Most
e le m e n ta ry school teachers work a
trad itio n al tw o-sem ester, 9-m onth
school year. Some, however, work in
year-round schools where they work
an 8-week session, are off 1 week,
and have a longer midwinter break.
This type of schedule may m ake find­
ing additional em ploym ent outside o f
the school system difficult.
T eachers spend much o f their time
walking, kneeling, or even sitting on
the floor. For example, kindergarten
teachers may join their students on
the floor to finger paint, cut out
pictures, or do other crafts.
Employment in teaching is steady,
and business conditions usually do
not affect the m arket for teachers. In
1976, 38 States and the District o f
Colum bia had tenure laws that in­
sured the jobs of teachers who had
successfully taught for a certain num ­
ber of years.

Sources of Additional
Inform ation on schools and certifi­
cation requirem ents is available from
local school systems and State de­
partm ents o f education.
Inform ation on the Teacher Corps,
internships, graduate fellowships,
and other inform ation on teaching
may be obtained from:
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare, Office of Education, Washing­
ton, D.C. 20202.

O ther sources of general inform a­
tion are:
American Federation of Teachers, 1012 14th
St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20005.
National Education Association, 1201 16th St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 091.228)

Nature of the Work
The high school years are the years
o f tra n s itio n from c h ild h o o d to
young adulthood. They are the years
when students delve m ore deeply
into subject m atter introduced in ele­
m entary school and learn more about
themselves and the world. It is also a
time of preparation for their future
lives as citizens and jobholders. Sec­
ondary school teachers have a direct
role in this process.
The prim ary function of the sec­
ondary school teacher is to instruct
students in a specific subject such as
English, m athem atics, social studies,
or science. Within a teacher’s spe­
cialized subject area, he or she may
teach a variety of courses. A social
studies teacher, for example may in­
s tr u c t tw o 9 th g ra d e classes in
A m erican History, two 12th grade
classes in C ontem porary Am erican
Problems, and another class in World
G e o g ra p h y . F o r e a c h class, th e
teacher develops lesson plans, p re­
pares and gives examinations, and ar­
ranges other activities, such as a class
project to devise an urban redevelop­
m ent plan for the city.
Teachers also must design their
classroom presentations to m eet the


individual needs and abilities of their
students. They may arrange tutoring
for students, or give advanced assign­
m ents for highly m otivated pupils.
Recognizing the needs of each stu­
dent can be difficult because most
te a c h e r s c o n d u c t five s e p a ra te
classes a day.
Teachers use a variety of instruc­
tio n a l m a te ria ls in clu d in g film s,
slides, and com puter terminals. They
also may arrange for speakers or trips
to supplem ent their classroom lec­
tures such as a visit to the planetar­
ium after a discussion on the ea rth ’s
Some teachers train students for
specific jobs after graduation such as
welding, autom echanics, or distribu­
tive education. These teachers in­
struct with the actual tools of the
trade w hether they be adding m a­
chines or an 8-cylinder car engine.
Secondary school teachers also su­
pervise study halls and hom eroom s,
and attend meetings with parents and
school personnel. Often they work
with student groups outside of class
to help solve sp ec ific p ro b lem s.
Teachers also participate in w ork­
shops and college classes to keep upto-date on their subject specialty and
on current trends in education.
In recent years, teachers have been
able to spend more time teaching due
to the increased availability of

teacher aides who perform secretar­


ial work, grade papers, and do other
routine tasks.

Places of Employment
In 1976, m o re th a n 1 m illion
teachers taught in secondary schools.
More than 90 percent of them taught
in public schools. A lthough they
work in all parts o f the co u n try ,
teachers are concentrated in cities
an d in su b u rb a n a re a s.

According to a recent survey,
slightly more than one-half of all
public secondary teachers teach in
senior high schools; about one-third
teach at the junior high level. About
one-tenth teach in junior-senior high
schools, and a very small num ber are
elem entary-secondary com bination

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
All 50 States and the District of
C olum bia require public secondary
school teachers to be certified. Many
States also require certification of
secondary teachers in private and
parochial schools.
The minimum educational require­
m ent for certification is a bachelor’s
degree. In 1976, the District of C o­
lumbia was the only jurisdiction re ­
quiring a m aster’s degree for initial
certification as a senior high school
teacher. F ourteen States, however,

have sp ec ifie d th a t a se c o n d a ry
school teacher m ust get additional
ed u catio n , usually a fifth year of
study or a m aster’s degree, within a
certain period after beginning em ­
ploym ent. As a resu lt, m ore and
more secondary school teachers are
obtaining advanced degrees.
The educational requirem ents for
secondary school teachers vary by
S tate and by school system . A p ­
proved colleges and universities in
every State offer program s that in­
clude the education courses and the
student-teaching that States require.
They also offer the academ ic courses
that are necessary to qualify teachers
in the various su b ject sp ecialties
taught at the secondary level.
States and local jurisdictions often
have general teacher requirem ents,
such as the recom m endation of the
college, a certificate of health, and
U.S. citizenship. Prospective teach ­
ers may get com plete inform ation on
such e d u c atio n al and g en eral re ­
quirem ents from each State d ep art­
ment of education and from the su­
p e r in te n d e n t o f sch o o ls in ea c h
Aside from educational req u ire­
m ents, a secondary school teacher
must want to work with young peo ­
ple, have an interest in a special sub­
ject, and have the ability to m otivate
students and to relate knowledge to
Education and experience provide
the primary basis for advancem ent,
usually in the form of higher salaries
rather than a different job. A dvance­
m ent to supervisory and adm inistra­
tive positions usually requires at least
1 year of professional education be­
yond the bachelor’s degree and sev­
eral years o f successful classroom
teaching. Only a small proportion of
secondary school teachers, however,
advance to administrative positions.
Some experienced teachers with
specific preparation may work as
special school service personnel,
such as school psychologists, reading
specialists, or guidance counselors.
Often these jobs require special certi­
fication as well as special education.

Employment Outlook
The supply of secondary school
teachers through the m id-1980’s will
greatly exceed anticipated req u ire­



ments if past trends of entry into the
profession continue. As a result, pro­
spective teachers are likely to face
keen com petition for jobs.
The prime sources of teacher sup­
ply are re c e n t co llege g ra d u ates
qualified to teach secondary school
and teachers seeking to reenter the
profession. Although reentrants have
e x p e rie n c e in th e ir fav o r, m any
sch o o ls m ay p re fe r to h ire new
graduates who com m and lower sala­
ries and whose training is more re­
Pupil enrollm ent is the basic factor
underlying the dem and for teachers.
The National C enter for Education
Statistics projects that enrollm ent in
secondary schools will decline and,
in turn, reduce the dem and for teach­
ers. As a result, over the 1976-85
period, nearly all teaching positions
will stem from the need to replace
teachers who die, retire, or leave the
profession for other reasons. Thus,
an increasing proportion of prospec­
tive teachers will have to consider
a lte rn a tiv e s to sec o n d ary school
Although the overall outlook for
secondary teachers indicates a highly
competitive m arket, employm ent
conditions may be more favorable in
certain fields. According to a recent
survey, the supply of teachers of vo­
cational subjects was not adequate to
m eet th e d em an d . M a th e m a tic s,
natural sciences, and physical scienc­
es should not experience as large an
oversupply as some other subjects.

Earnings and Working
According to the National Educa­
tion A ssociation, public secondary
school teach ers averaged $12,395
per year in 1976. This is 1 1/2 times
the average for nonsupervisory work­
ers in private industry, except farm ­
ing. Generally, salaries were higher
in the Northeast and in the West than
they were in the Southeast and in the
Middle States.
In school systems with enrollments
of 6,000 or more, beginning teachers
with a bachelor’s degree earned aver­
age salaries of $8,233 in the school
year 1974-75. New teachers with a
m aster’s degree started at $9,159 a

year. Beginning teachers could ex­

pect regular salary increases as they
gained ex p e rien ce and ad d itio n al
A recent survey of public school
teachers indicated that the average
required school week for those in
secondary schools was 37 hours.
However, when all teaching duties,
including m eetings, lesson prepara­
tion, and other necessary tasks are
taken into consideration, the total
num ber o f hours spent working each
week was slightly m ore than 48.
In some schools, teachers receive
supplem entary
pay for certain
school-related activities such as
coaching in sports and working with
students in extracurricular activities,
such as music, dram atics, or school
publications. Some public school
teachers also work in their school
systems during the summer. Others
hold sum m er jobs outside the school
While many teachers work the tra ­
ditional 9-m onth school year with a
3-month summer vacation, some dis­
tricts have converted to a year-round
schedule. T eachers on this type of
schedule may work 8 weeks, be on
vacation for 1 week, and have a 5week midwinter break. Laws in 38
States and the District of Columbia
ensure the em ploym ent of those who
have achieved tenure status. Laws re ­
q u irin g c o lle c tiv e b a rg a in in g o f
wages, hours, and the term s and co n ­
ditions of employm ent cover increas­
ing num bers of teachers.

(D.O.T. 090.168 and .228)

Nature of the Work
Each year thousands of Americans
enter college. Some view college as a
p e rso n a l e n ric h m e n t e x p e rie n c e .
Others seek higher education to ob­
tain a lucrative and interesting job.
Many persons attend college for a
variety o f reasons. To m eet these di­
versified dem ands, colleges and uni­
versities hire well-educated teachers
to provide instruction in various sub­
The primary function of the col­
lege or university teacher is to p re­
sent an in-depth analysis of a particu­
lar subject m atter. Many teach ers
conduct a variety of courses such as a
basic, freshm an English composition
course and an advanced poetry class
for stu d en ts m ajoring in English.
Many instruct undergraduates only,
while some instruct both undergrad­
uates and graduate students. Still
few er in stru ct only g rad u ate stu ­
dents. Usually, the m ore experienced
and educated teachers conduct the
higher level classes.
C ollege and university teach ers
use various p resen tatio n s in th eir
classes, depending on the subject, in­
terest, and level of their students.

Sources of Additional
Information on schools and certifi­
cation requirem ents is available from
local school systems and State d e­
partm ents of education.
Inform ation on the Teacher Corps,
internships, graduate fellowships,
and other information on teaching
may be obtained from:
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare, Office of Education, Washing­
ton, D.C. 20202.

O ther sources of general inform a­
tion are:
American Federation of Teachers, 1012 14th
St. NW„ Washington, D.C. 20005.
National Education Association, 1201 16th St.
NW„ Washington, D.C. 20036.

Professor instructing teacher education


2 1 6

Many college teachers, in addition to teaching, participate in professional activities and
conduct research.

Some conduct large lecture classes
for basic courses while others lead
advanced seminars with only a few
students. Still others work primarily
in laboratories for subjects such as
biology, engineering, or chemistry.
Some teachers have the aid of teach­
ing assistants who usually are study­
ing for advanced degrees. Closed-cir­
cuit television, tape recorders, and
other machines frequently are used.
To be effective, college teachers
must keep up with developm ents in
their field by reading current m ateri­
al, participating in professional ac­
tivities, an d co n d u c tin g research.
Some publish books and articles. The
im portance of research and publica­
tion varies from one institutional lev­
el to another. For example, a recent
survey indicated that more than onethird of the Ph. D. faculty in doctor­
ate level science and engineering de­
partm ents spent m ore than half of
their time in research activities. R e­
search usually is stressed more at 4year colleges and universities than at
junior and com m unity colleges.
In addition to time spent on prepa­
ration, instruction, and evaluation,
college and university teachers par­
ticipate in faculty activities; work
with student organizations and act as
student advisors; work with the col­

lege ad m in istratio n ; and in o th er

ways serve the institution and the
community. Those who are depart­
ment heads have supervisory and ad ­
ministrative duties.

Places of Employment
In 1976, about 593,000 teachers
worked in more than 3,000 colleges
and universities. A bout 70 percent of
them taught in public institutions. An
estim ated 441,000 w ere full-tim e
senior staff; ab o u t 145,000 w ere
p art-tim e sen io r staff; and 7,000
were full-