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ontgom Co




Public Library

JUN27 1968

Pointers on Using the Handbook
To find out what is in this

page 3.

Handbook and

how it is arranged,

To locate an occupation or industry in this book,

Table of Contents, page xi.
Alphabetical Index, page 735.



general view of work and jobs

Jobs, page 13.

see Guide to the Handbook,


in the United States, read the chapter on Tomorrow’s

In interpreting the statements on the outlook in each
occupation, keep in mind the points made on page 4, as well as the methodology
presented in the Technical Appendix, page 733.

Forecasts of the future are precarious!

To find out how you can keep your information
up to date, see the chapter on Where To Go For More Information or Assistance,
page 7.

The job picture is constantly changing.

The Handbook gives facts about each occupation for
the United States as a whole. For suggestions on where to get information for your
own locality, see page 10.

You may need local information too.

Revision of Bulletin 1450

Willard Wirtz, Secretary
Arthur M. Ross, Commissioner

196S-69 Edition
A Revised Edition of the Handbook Is Published Every 2 Years
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $4.25



The major manpower challenge of this decade is to insure that our citizens receive the
training and education they need to perform useful and rewarding work in our changing
economy; that our education and training are geared to the needs of the individual as well as
the needs of society.
The Department of Labor’s Occupational Outlook Handbook, with its broad coverage
of occupations and industries, seeks to define the various facets of the 20th Century world of
work. In doing so, it serves as a basic tool for helping prospective workers to make intelligent
decisions about the occupational course they will follow.

W illard W irtz, Secretary of Labor

Prefatory Note

Recent legislation in the fields of manpower and education has heightened the demand
for counseling services. Because only a limited number of counselors are available to meet this
demand, occupational information has become more vital than ever as a tool in the guidance
The 1968-69 edition of the Occupational Outlook Handbook continues the progress that
has characterized the Bureau’s occupational outlook program for more than a quarter of a
century. It includes more statements on occupations for which people having relatively low
levels of skill and education may qualify. In addition, an introductory statement for each major
industry group highlights occupational trends in the industry. The introduction, “Tomorrow’s
Jobs,” has been completely revised to provide young people with a brief overview of the
world of work and the economic and other factors that affect the choice of a career. The new
Handbook includes many changes recommended by counselors and other readers; its for­
mat has been changed to make the volume easier to read.
This Handbook—eighth in a series which began in 1949—provides counselors and others
with the latest information about the employment outlook, earnings, training requirements,
and related information for over 700 occupations. It also assesses the impact of future economic,
social, and educational trends on the employment outlook in industries and occupations. The
Handbook is used extensively in various Federal programs concerned with vocational counseling,
such as those of the Veterans Administration, the Department of Defense, and the U.S.
Employment Service, as well as in the State employment services.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics also issues the Occupational Outlook Quarterly, a periodical
which keeps readers informed of the latest developments between editions of the Handbook,
and the Occupational Outlook Reprint Series, a set of over 100 reprints of the Handbook
statements on different fields of work. Both of these publications offer assistance to young
people seeking career information.
Hundreds of officials in industry, labor organizations, trade organizations, professional
societies, government agencies, educational institutions, and other organizations have cooperated
with the Bureau of Labor Statistics in preparing the Handbook. Their assistance is acknowledged
with gratitude.
A rthur M. Ross, Commissioner of Labor Statistics

Letter From the American Personnel and Guidance Association

Each year the growth and development of the Nation’s economy bring many changes in
employment outlook important to our youth. New occupations emerge. Old ones change in
content and attractiveness. The outlook in both the old and the new may be affected markedly
by such factors as the level of defense expenditures, automation and technological development,
the birth rate, consumer expenditures, and other influencing factors.
To keep abreast of the results of these changes, counselors and young persons need an
authoritative, current source of information. The Occupational Outlook Handbook continues
to provide, in its biennial edition, just the kind of sophisticated economic analysis counselors
need. Each one should make sure they have the latest edition on hand.
Guidance and counseling personnel are fortunate that the wide-ranging research activity
of the Bureau of Labor Statistics has been put to such good use in compiling this compact,
readable guidance encyclopedia and its companion periodical, the Occupational Outlook
Quarterly. Another new edition continues our good fortune as we seek to aid each individual
to find that type of work suited to his interest and aptitude.
E. G. W illiamson , President
American Personnel and Guidance Association

Letter From the Veterans Administration

The beneficiaries served by the Veterans Administration cover a broad spectrum, from
the teenage war orphan who needs to plan his post-high school education to the severely
disabled veteran requiring vocational rehabilitation. In the wide array of counseling and
rehabilitation problems presented by this diverse group, one factor is common. All need to
make their educational and vocational plans in the context of current, sound information
about the rapidly changing occupational structure of the world of work they will enter. The
Occupational Outlook Handbook, revised biennially, is a major source of such information.
The Handbook, in its present form, is an outgrowth of a project originated to meet the
needs for occupational information in the Veterans Administration counseling and training
program for World War II veterans. Greatly expanded in aims, scope, and coverage, it has
for many years provided a useful tool for counselors and those being counseled. The Veterans
Administration looks forward to the Handbook’s continued usefulness and welcomes the
publication of the 1968-69 edition.
W. J. D river
Administrator of Veterans Affairs

Letter From Hie Bureau of Employment Security

In 1966, more than 10.5 million individuals came to the public employment service for
jobs. Many thousands of them also needed information about jobs—job content, job quali­
fications, earning potential, possibilities of advancement, and outlook for employment.
This need is especially true of youth seeking work for the first time, of adults wishing
to change vocations, and for senior citizens who have been displaced from their jobs.
Counseling such individuals is a keystone in the work of the public employment service.
Annually, over a million individuals benefit from job counseling. During these interviews, the
Occupational Outlook Handbook is used to supplement the knowledge of the counselor and to
satisfy more fully the jobseeker’s desire for information.
The Bureau of Employment Security welcomes this new edition of the Occupational
Outlook Handbook. Its improved, comprehensive format and expanded content will contribute
immeasurably to the effectiveness of job counseling in the 2,000 local offices and 170 Youth
Opportunity Centers which make up the employment service network.
R obert C. G oodwin , Administrator
Bureau of Employment Security
US. Department of Labor

Letter From the Vocational Rehabilitation Administration

, The 154,000 handicapped people who were rehabilitated in our Federal-State program
in 1966 went into almost every kind of employment there is. A number of blind people were
trained as computer programers and got the jobs in that highly specialized work. Men and
women with all kinds of physical and mental handicaps went to work as teachers, auditors,
nurses, dentists, draftsmen, policemen, elevator operators, homemakers—the list is long.
This year, there will be an even greater variety of jobs open to our program’s clients, as
larger numbers of them are rehabilitated and as more and more employers learn that disabled
people, like anybody else, have many abilities as workers.
know that your handbook of occupations is being used often by the vocational rehabilita­
tion counselors who are seeking and finding jobs for their clients all across the country. I know
this new edition of valuable career information will be used even more frequently in our
expanded effort to place disabled people in the most appropriate employment that can be
M ary E. S witzer , Commissioner of Vocational Rehabilitation
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare

Letter From the United States Office of Education

America has set a goal that is simple to state but intensely difficult to carry out: Each
member of our society, we say, should have the opportunity to develop his talent and interests
to the maximum for his own good and for the good of the country.
Each year millions of young men and women begin earnest pursuit of this objective. They
stand on the threshold of the job market, each qualified by ability and ambition, each intent
on satisfaction and fulfillment in a career.
Their choice is not a simple one: There are thousands of different ways in which a person
can earn a living. In a massive pairing exercise, talent must be matched with opportunity,
desire with need, individual with job.
To the vocational counselor seeking to bring about the best solutions, there is one indis­
pensable reference, the Occupational Outlook Handbook, through its previous seven editions
the basic work on occupational information.
Compiling the eighth edition of this invaluable guide, the Bureau of Labor Statistics has
managed to improve upon its excellent predecessors and produce an even finer compilation of
job information. To the Bureau—and particularly to the Handbook staff—I would like to
extend the congratulations and the thanks of the Office of Education.
H arold H owe II, U.S. Commissioner of Education
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare

Letter From the Department of Defense

Armed Forces counselors have been using the Occupational Outlook Handbook for many
years. It is a primary source of occupational information used in guiding members of the
Armed Forces with respect to their off-duty educational programs or in preparation for their
return to civilian life.
Servicemen have many opportunities to participate in off-duty educational programs
throughout their military service; they are encouraged to pursue educational goals that will
help their military careers and prepare them for future civilian careers. The Occupational
Outlook Handbook has been tremendously useful to Armed Forces counselors in providing
career information for both professional and citizen soldiers.
On the basis of our experience with this valuable career guide, we commend it to all
concerned with career planning.

L ynn M. Bartlett, Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Education


The Handbook was prepared in the Bureau of Labor
Statistics, Division of Manpower and Occupational Out­
look, under the supervision of Howard V. Stambler and
Sol Swerdloff. General direction was provided by Harold
Goldstein, Assistant Commissioner for Manpower and
Employment Statistics.
The general planning and coordination of the Hand­
book was done under the direction of Morton Levine.
Russell B. Flanders supervised the research underlying
the occupational statements.
The research and the preparation of the various chap­
ters were carried on under the direct supervision of
Richard Dempsey, Melvin C. Fountain, David P.
Lafayette, L. A. O’Donnell, Neal H. Rosenthal, Joe L.
Russell, and Gerard C. Smith.
Members of the Division staff who contributed sections
were: Elinor W. Abramson, Annie B. Asensio, Delores F.
Booker, William L. Brown, Max L. Carey, Michael F.
Crowley, Penny M. Friedman, Edward H. Ghearing,
William F. Hahn, Daniel E. Hecker, Janice N. Hedges,

Kevin Kasunic, Jerry F. Kursban, Annie Lefkowitz,
Maxine J. Mitchell, Ludmilla K. Murphy, H. James
Neary, Irving P. Phillips, Michael J. Pilot, Charlotte
Richmond, Joseph J. Rooney, and Janet L. Wildman.
Gary G. Rubenstein also contributed sections and acted
as photographic editor.
The statistical checking of charts and manuscripts was
supervised by Everett J. McDermott, with the assistance
of Olive B. Clay, Sally G. Curry, Catherine G. Gilbert,
Beatrice H. Meadows, Evelyn T. Polance, and Jean F.
Whetzel, who also prepared the index to the occupations
and industries.
Analyses of the occupational composition of industries
for use in the Handbook were prepared in the Division of
Occupational Employment Statistics, Robert B. Steffes,
Chief, under the supervision of Harry Greenspan.
The chapter on Agricultural Occupations was pre­
pared in the Farm Economics Division, Economic Re­
search Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, under
the direction of Wylie D. Goodsell.

Photograph Credits

The Bureau of Labor Statistics gratefully acknowledges the cooperation and assistance of the many government
and private sources that either contributed photographs or made their facilities available to U.S. Department of
Labor photographers for this edition of the Occupational Outlook Handbook.
Government Sources

Federal. Atomic Energy Commission; Department of Ag­
riculture—Forest Service; Department of Commerce—
Environmental Science Services Administration, and Na­
tional Bureau of Standards; Department of Health, Edu­
cation, and Welfare—National Institutes of Health, and
Vocational Rehabilitation Administration; Department
of the Interior—Bonneville Power Administration, and
Bureau of Land Management; Department of Justice—
Federal Bureau of Investigation; Department of Labor—
Bureau of Employment Security; Department of the
Navy—Naval Gun Factory, Naval Observatory, and
Naval Research Laboratory; Department of Transporta­
tion—Federal Aviation Administration; Federal Power
Commission; General Services Administration—National
Archives and Records Service; Government Printing
Office; National Aeronautics and Space Administration;
Office of Economic Opportunity; Post Office Depart­
ment; and Smithsonian Institution.
State and Local. Arlington County (Va.) Public Schools;
Commonwealth of Virginia, State Police Department;
District of Columbia Police Department; and Grant
County (Wash.) Public Utilities District.
Private Sources

Individuals. Harold C. Conklin, Ph. D.; George De Vin­
cent, Arena Stage; and Jerome Footer, D.D.S.
Membership Groups. Amalgamated Clothing Workers
of America; American Association of Medical Record
Librarians; American Bar Association; American Chi­
ropractic Association; American Dental Association;
American Dietetic Association; American Federation of
Teachers; American Forest Products Industries, Inc.;
American Geological Institute; American Occupational
Therapy Association, Inc.; American Optometric Associa­
tion; American Paper and Pulp Association; American
Podiatry Association; American Psychological Associa­
tion; American Society of Planning Officials; American
Speech and Hearing Association; American Trucking

Associations, Inc.; American Veterinary Medical Asso­
ciation; Association of American Geographers; Brother­
hood of Painters, Decorators and Paperhangers of
America; College Placement Council, Inc.; Guild of
Prescription Opticians of America, Inc.; International
Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employers and Moving Pic­
ture Machine Operators of the United States and
Canada; International Association of Heat and Frost
Insulators and Asbestos Workers; International Associa­
tion of Machinists and Aerospace Workers; International
Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union; Manufacturing Jewel­
ers and Silversmiths of America, Inc.; National Associa­
tion for Practical Nurse Education and Service, Inc.;
National Association of Barber Schools; National Asso­
ciation of Metal Finishers; National Association of Sani­
tarians; National Beauty Culturists’ League, Inc.;
National Committee for Careers in Medical Technol­
ogy; National Restaurant Association; National Terrazzo
and Mosaic Association, Inc.; Printing Industries of
America, Inc.; Sales and Marketing Executives, Inter­
national; Society for Industrial and Applied Mathe­
matics; Society of Technical Writers and Publishers,
Inc.; Southeast Women’s Club of Washington, D.C.;
United Association of Journeymen and Apprentices of
the Plumbing and Pipe Fitting Industry of the United
States and Canada; and United Brotherhood of Carpen­
ters and Joiners of America.
Industry and Business. Air Reduction Co., Inc.; Ameri­
can Airlines, Inc.; American Telephone and Telegraph
Co.; Armstrong Cork Co.; Atchinson, Topeka and Santa
Fe Railway Co.; Atlantic Research Corp.; Babcock and
Wilcox Co.; Banning and Sons Motors, Inc.; Bob Peck
Chevrolet; Burroughs Corp.; Carrier Corp.; Chesapeake
and Potomac Telephone Co.; Chrysler Corp.; Cincinnati
Milling Machine Co.; Cities Service Oil Co.; CleaverBrook Co.; Cluett, Peabody and Co., Inc.; Collins Radio
Co.; Columbia Records; Container Corporation of
America; E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Co.; El Paso
Natural Gas Co.; Esso Research and Engineering Co.;
Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corp.; First National
City Bank of New York; Ford Motor Co.; General
Dynamics/Electronics; General Electric Co.; General



Motors Corp.; Hart, Schaffner and Marx; Hobart Broth­
ers Co.; Hughes Aircraft Co.; Humble Oil and Refining
Co.; Inland Steel Co.; International Business Machines
Corp.; John Hancock Mutual Life Insurance Co.; Leeds
and Northrup Co.; Litton Industries; Lofland Upholster­
ing; Louisville and Nashville Railroad Co.; Macke Co.;
Marriott-Hot Shoppes, Inc.; McCann-Erickson, Inc.;
McDonnell Aircraft Corp.; Melpar, Inc.; Merkle Press,
Inc.; Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner, and Smith, Inc.;
Mobil Oil Corp.; Monsanto Co.; New York Life Insur­
ance Co.; North American Aviation, Inc.; Oklahoma
Publishing Co.; Ottenberg’s Bakers, Inc.; Pako Corp.;
Penton Publishing Co.; Philco Corp.; Potomac Electric
Power Co.; Radio Corporation of America; Reynolds
Metals Co.; Rothstein Dental Laboratories, Inc.; Safe­
way Trails, Inc.; Sheffield Corp.; Sheraton-Park Hotel
and Motor Inn; Smith, Kline and French Laboratories;
Standard Studios; Texas Instruments, Inc.; Union Car­

bide Corp.; United States Steel Corp.; WETA-TV;
WMAL-TV; Washington Gas Light Co.; Western Elec­
tric Co., Inc.; Westinghouse Astronuclear Laboratory;
West Virginia Pulp and Paper Co.; White Motor Corp.;
Woodward and Lothrop; and Wyman-Gordon Co.
Publications. Electric Appliance Service News; Imple­
ment and Tractor; Industrial Photography; National
Jewelers; Shoe Service; Signs of the Times; Traffic
World; The Washington Post; and The Washington
Schools. Culinary Institute of America; George Wash­
ington University; International Institute of Interior
Design, Inc.; Joseph Bulova School of Watchmaking;
and Washington School of the Ballet, Inc.
Others. Argonne National Laboratory; Johns Hopkins
University Applied Physics Laboratory; Oak Ridge Na­
tional Laboratory; and Washington Hospital Center.


A great many trade associations, professional societies, unions, and industrial organizations
are in a position to supply valuable information to counselors or young people seeking informa­
tion about careers. For the convenience of Handbook users, the statements on separate occupa­
tions or industries list some of the organizations or other sources which may be able to provide
further information. Although these references were assembled with care, the Bureau of Labor
Statistics has no authority or facilities for investigating organizations. Also, since the Bureau
has no way of knowing in advance what information or publications each organization may send
in answer to a request, the Bureau cannot evaluate the accuracy of such information. The
listing of an organization, therefore, does not in any way constitute an endorsement or recom­
mendation by the Bureau or the U.S. Department of Labor, either of the organization and its
activities or of the information it may supply. Such information as each organization may issue
is, of course, sent out on its own responsibility.
The occupational statements in this Handbook are not intended, and should not be used,
as standards for the determination of wages, hours, jurisdictional matters, appropriate bargain­
ing units, or formal job evaluation systems. These descriptive statements are presented in a
general, composite form and, therefore, cannot be expected to apply exactly to specific jobs in
a particular industry, establishment, or locality.

GUIDE TO THE HANDBOOK.........................
How the handbook is organized......................
Some important facts about the occupational
TION OR ASSISTANCE..................................
Occupational outlook service publications. . .
Services to jobseekers at public employment
TOMORROW’S JOBS........................................
Business administration and related profes­
sions ..................................................................
Advertising workers....................................
Marketing research workers......................
Personnel workers.......................................
Public relations workers.............................
Protestant clergymen..................................
Roman Catholic priests.............................
Conservation occupations.................................
Forestry aids................................................
Range managers..........................................
School counselors........................................
Rehabilitation counselors..........................
Vocational counselors.................................
Health service occupations...............................
Dental hygienists.........................................



Health service occupations—Continued
Dental laboratory technicians..........
Hospital administrators.....................
Licensed practical nurses...................
Medical laboratory assistants............
Medical record librarians..................
Medical technologists.........................
Medical X-ray technicians................
Occupational therapists.....................
Osteopathic physicians......................
Physical therapists..............................
Registered professional nurses..........
Speech pathologists and audiologists
Mathematics and related fields...............
Natural sciences.........................................
Biological sciences...............................
Earth sciences......................................
Physical sciences.................................
Performing arts..........................................
Actors and actresses............................
Musicians and music teachers..........
Singers and singing teachers.............
Other art related occupations..................
Commercial artists..............................
Industrial designers............................
Interior designers and decorators. . .
Social sciences............................................



Social sciences—Continued
Political scientists........................................
Kindergarten and elementary school
Secondary school teachers.........................
College and university teachers................
Engineering and science............................
Writing occupations..........................................
Newspaper reporters..................................
Technical writers........................................
Other professional and related occupations. .
College placement officers.........................
Home economists........................................
Landscape architects..................................
Recreation workers....................................
Social workers.............................................
Systems analysts..........................................
Urban planners...........................................
MANAGERIAL OCCUPATIONS.....................
Industrial traffic managers........................
Purchasing agents.......................................
TIO N S...................................................................
Stenographers and secretaries...................
Bookkeeping workers..................................
Office machine operators..........................
Electronic computer operating personnel.
Telephone operators..................................
Shipping and receiving clerks...................
SALES OCCUPATIONS.....................................
Salesmen and saleswomen in retail trade.
Automobile salesmen..................................
Automobile parts countermen..................
Automobile service advisors......................
Salesmen in wholesale trade......................
Manufacturers’ salesmen...........................
Insurance agents and brokers...................
Real estate salesmen and brokers.............
Securities salesmen.....................................



SERVICE OCCUPATIONS................................
Private household workers.........................
FBI Special Agents.....................................
Policemen and policewomen.....................
State police officers.....................................
Cooks and chefs...........................................
Waiters and waitresses...............................
Hospital attendants.....................................
Skilled workers...................................................
Semiskilled workers...........................................
Unskilled workers...............................................
Building trades...................................................
Asbestos and insulating workers...............
Cement masons (cement and concrete
finishers)....................................... ............
Construction laborers and hod carriers..
Electricians (construction).........................
Elevator constructors..................................
Floor covering installers.............................
Lathers................................................... ..
Marble setters, tile setters, and terrazzo
Operating engineers (construction ma­
chinery operators)...................................
Painters and paperhangers................
Plumbers and pipefitters............................
Sheet-metal workers...................................
Structural-, ornamental-, and reinforcingiron workers, riggers, and machine
Driving occupations..........................................
Over-the-road truckdrivers........................
Local truckdrivers.......................................
Intercity busdrivers.....................................
Local transit busdrivers.............................
Taxi drivers.................................................
Forge shop occupations....................................
Machining occupations.....................................
All-round machinists..................................
Machine tool operators..............................
Tool and die makers...................................
Instrument makers (mechanical).............
Setup men (machine tools).......................
Layout m en.................................................




Mechanics and repairmen................................
Air-conditioning, refrigeration, and heat­
ing mechanics..........................................
Appliance servicemen................................
Automobile body repairmen.....................
Automobile mechanics...............................
Bowling-pin-machine mechanics..............
Business machine servicemen....................
Diesel mechanics.......................... ..............
Electric sign servicemen.............................
Farm equipment mechanics......................
Industrial machinery repairmen..............
Instrument repairmen................................
Maintenance electricians...........................
Television and radio service technicians.
Truck mechanics and bus mechanics. . . .
Vending machine mechanics....................
Watch repairmen........................................
Printing (graphic arts) occupations................
Composing room occupations...................
Electrotypers and stereotypers..................
Printing pressmen and assistants..............
Lithographic occupations..........................
Bookbinders and related workers..............
Some other manual occupations.....................
Automobile painters...................................
Automobile trimmers and installation men
(Automobile upholsterers)......................
Boilermaking occupations..........................
Dispensing opticians and optical mechan­
Furniture upholsterers................................
Gasoline service station attendants..........
Inspectors (manufacturing).......................
Jewelers and jewelry repairmen...............
Motion picture projectionists....................
Photographic laboratory occupations....
Power truck operators................................
Production painters....................................
Shoe repairmen...........................................
Stationary engineers...................................
Stationary firemen (boiler)........................
Welders and oxygen and arc cutters........
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manu­
facturing ...................................................
Aluminum industry....................................
Apparel industry.........................................


Atomic energy field....................................
Baking industry...........................................
Electronics manufacturing.........................
Industrial chemical industry.............
Iron and steel industry...............................
Motor vehicle and equipment manufac­
Petroleum and natural gas production and
Petroleum refining occupations................
Pulp, paper, and allied products indus­
tries ............................................................
Civilian employment..................................
Federal Government............................
Post office occupations..................
Mail carriers............................
Postal clerks.............................
State and local governments..............
Armed Forces..............................................
Bellmen and bell captains.........................
Front office clerks........................................
Housekeepers and assistants......................
Managers and assistants..............
469 AGRICULTURE....................................................
Opportunities on farms.....................................
Opportunities on specific types of farms........
Occupations related to agriculture.................
Cooperative extension service workers. . .
Soil scientists................................................
Soil conservationists....................................
Other professional workers........................
Farm service jobs........................................
491 AND PUBLIC U TILITIES...............................
Civil aviation......................................................
Pilots and copilots.......................................
Flight engineers...........................................
Aircraft mechanics......................................
Airline dispatchers......................................
Air traffic controllers..................................
Ground radio operators and teletypists. . .
Traffic agents and clerks.............................





Electric power industry.....................................
Powerplant occupations.............................
Transmission and distribution occupa­
tions ...........................................................
Customer service occupations...................
Radio and television broadcasting..................
Radio and television announcers..............
Broadcast technicians...............................
Locomotive engineers................................
Locomotive firemen (helpers)...................
Telegraphers, telephoners, and towermen ...........................................................
Station agents..............................................
Shop trades..................................................
Signal department workers.......................
Track workers.............................................
Bridge and building workers....................





Telephone industry........................................... 694
Telephone craftsmen.................................. 697
Central office craftsmen...................... 697
Central office equipment installers... 699
Linemen and cable splicers................ 700
Telephone and PBX installers and
repairmen........................................... 702
CONSTRUCTION................................................. 705
TATE..................................................................... 707
Banking............................................................... 709
Bank clerks................................................... 711
Tellers........................................................... 713
Bank officers................................................. 714
Insurance business............................................. 717
M INING................................................................... 722
Petroleum and natural gas production occu­
pations .............................................................. 724
Natural gas processing occupations................ 729
TECHNICAL APPENDIX................................... 733
TRIES .................................................................... 735


“Let each become what he is ca­
pable of becoming.” To become voca­
tionally mature one must have in­
formation about the world of work.
The more information and knowledge
an individual possesses, the better his
plans will be to achieve his role in
the world of work, and the world of
In recent years, knowledge has
been multiplying at an ever increas­
ing rate. Consequently, most occupa­
tions which are affected by new
knowledge— and what job is not?—
will be subject to change. As work
patterns change with the times, work­
er functions also will shift.
The Occupational Outlook Hand­
book, now in its eighth edition, has
become an invaluable tool in coun­
seling and placement programs. Over
the years, as both the Handbook and
guidance services have matured, they
have become mutually dependent on
each other. Surveys of counselors and

other users of the Handbook indicate
that it is the best single source of oc­
cupational information and is the
publication most frequently used.
The Handbook, like other source
materials, is intended to provide the
individual with information about oc­
cupations and to assist him with his
career decisions. It is a bound volume
of occupational briefs providing perti­
nent information concerning occupa­
tions in which over 75 percent of all
workers in the United States are en­
gaged. Descriptions include the na­
ture of the job, location of employ­
ment, training and other qualifica­
tions required, employment outlook,
earnings and working conditions, and
where additional information may be
The Handbook service includes:
—Reprints of individual occupa­
tions which permit filing by oc­
cupation in each counselor’s of­
fice as well as in the library.

—Supplementary charts illus­
trating occupational trends and
guidance principles and con­
The Handbook is current. It is re­
vised every 2 years and permits the
counselor and counselee to keep
abreast of the rapid changes in the
occupational structure. This is im­
portant since most authorities agree
that all occupational materials more
than 5 years old should be discarded.
The Handbook is used in a variety
of counseling and educational set­
tings : Junior and senior high schools,
vocational and technical schools, jun­
ior and community colleges, counselor
preparation programs, college student
personnel centers, private and public
placement and counseling agencies,
and youth opportunity centers.
Its primary contribution is in the
field of career counseling and educa­
tional planning. Properly used, the
Handbook can broaden the coun1


selee’s background of occupational
information by revealing the impor­
tant factors influencing occupations;
this will help him to develop desir­
able and satisfying plans for the fu­
ture. By carefully studying the Hand­
book, counselors, parents, and pupils
can learn the many ways in which
occupations are changing, growing,
and declining, and the necessity for
flexible planning in the choice of a
major interest area.
Helping individuals to achieve vo­
cational maturity is a very compli­
cated process. Many persons play
important roles in such development,
but key roles should be played by
trained personnel in the helping pro­
fessions: Counselors, teachers, guid­
ance workers. The Handbook is a
basic source for these people.
One publication cannot appeal
equally to all grade levels, reading
levels, and levels of vocational ma­
turity. However, the Bureau of Labor
Statistics has overcome many of the
limitations common to the printed
word by liberal use of graphics and
pictures, and by simplifying the lan­
guage as much as possible. In school,
students can receive group instruction
in the use of the Handbook. They
need to know what the Handbook
can and cannot do for them. They
need to know where the Handbook
can be found. They need to know


that it supplements other sources of
information, such as that derived
from observational and exploratory
work, experience, education, and dis­
cussions with employers and recent
graduates who are engaged in occu­
pations in which students are inter­
Since many occupations which will
be important a decade hence have
not yet evolved, a student having
some years of preparation before him
may be encouraged to elect a broad
curriculum and perhaps identify a
general area of interest, such as sci­
ence, social studies, or art. Specializa­
tion may be delayed until a later date.
The further he goes in school, the
better opportunity he will have to se­
lect his major field of interests. The
more familiar he is with areas of
work as described in the Handbook,
the better prepared he will be to plan
his own future as his education
Counselors can use the Handbook
and related materials not only with
students but also with parents in help­
ing them counsel their children. The
reprints are especially valuable be­
cause they may be borrowed easily for
home reading.
The local guidance worker should
supplement the Handbook’s national
occupational data with local com­
munity occupational and educational

Use of the Handbook in individual
and group counseling is important in
helping the individual to perceive
himself in the world of work. How­
ever, the Handbook should not be
considered a substitute for individual
exploration of vocational interests.
The individual has the privilege of
making his own decisions. He also
has the privilege to seek and to ob­
tain reliable information.
Schools and other local agencies
will have to decide how much to
budget for the occupational file.
There are approximately 300 private
and public sources of information. An
agency can spend several hundred
dollars a year purchasing materials re­
viewed by the career guidance serv­
ice of the National Vocational Guid­
ance Association and references con­
tained in bibliographies prepared by
the Bureau of Labor Statistics and
several private publishers. Materials
should be ranked on a priority basis
depending upon the budget and other
factors. Most agencies have found
that the Occupational Outlook Hand­
book service, including the Reprint
Series, has a very high priority.
Harold J. Reed, Chief
Occupational and Career Guidance
Office of Education, U.S. Depart­
ment of Health, Education, and

This book answers many questions
young people ask when they are in­
terested in choosing an occupation.
It provides many types of informa­
tion on occupations—the employ­
ment outlook in each field, the nature
of the work, training and other quali­
fications needed for entry, lines of ad­
vancement, where jobs are located,
and earnings and working conditions.

The Handbook starts with three
introductory chapters designed to
help counselors and students make
effective use of the book and to give
them a general view of the world of
This chapter, the Guide to the
Handbook, describes the contents and
organization of the book. It tells how
262-057 0 — 68----- 2

the information was assembled and
discusses a number of points which
need to be kept in mind in interpret­
ing the statements. The second intro­
ductory chapter gives suggestions re­
garding supplementary sources of oc­
cupational information and tells how
readers can keep up to date on devel­
opments affecting the employment
outlook in different occupations. This
introductory chapter also contains a
brief description of the counseling,
placement, and other services avail­
able to jobseekers at local offices of
State employment services affiliated
with the U.S. Employment Service.
The final introductory chapter de­
scribes some of the most important
trends in population and employment,
both current and prospective, and
provides a background for interpret­
ing the reports on particular

Occupational Reports

The reports on different fields of
work make up the main body of the
book. The seven major divisions of
the book are: Professional and re­
lated occupations; managerial occu­
pations; clerical and related occupa­
tions, sales occupations, service occu­
pations, skilled and other manual oc­
cupations, and some major industries
and their occupations. Within each
of these major divisions, occupations
are grouped into related fields. The
introductory statement for each ma­
jor industry group provides occupa­
tional trends in the industry.
Indexes and Appendix

To help the readers locate infor­
mation on the occupations in which
they are interested, a detailed list of
the occupational reports, by field of



work, is included in the table of con­
tents at the front of the book. The in­
dex at the back of the book lists occu­
pations and industries alphabetically.
The technical appendix contains a
discussion of the sources and methods
used in analyzing the occupational
outlook in different fields of work. It
is designed for readers wishing more
information on this subject than is in­
cluded in this chapter. The appendix

also contains an explanation of the
D.O.T. numbers given in the occupa­
tional reports, to indicate where each
occupation fits into the classification
system of the Dictionary of Occupa­
tional Titles.
D.O.T. Numbers: The occupations covvered in the Occupational Outlook Hand­
book are organized according to the oc­
cupational classification system developed
by the Bureau of Employment Security

of the U.S. Department of Labor and pub­
lished in the Dictionary of Occupational
Titles. This Dictionary provides a code
number (the so-called D.O.T. number)
for each occupation included in it. The
code numbers of the D.O.T. are listed in
parentheses immediately below the main
occupational group headings in the
Handbook. Volumes I and II of the
D.O.T. contain job definitions; the sup­
plement lists individual physical demands,
working conditions, and training time data
for each job defined in the Dictionary.

Occupations Covered

The more than 700 occupations dis­
cussed in this Handbook generally
are those of greatest interest to young
people. Most of the large ones requir­
ing long periods of education or train­
ing are discussed, as are a number of
small but rapidly growing fields and
other occupations of special interest.
Altogether, the occupations covered
account for about 90 percent of all
workers in professional and related
and in sales occupations; nearly as
high a proportion in skilled occupa­
tions; about half in clerical and about
40 percent in service occupations;
and sm aller proportions in semi­
skilled occupations. The main types
of farming occupations also are
General information on many
fields of work not covered in the oc­
cupational reports is contained in the
introductions to the major divisions
of the book. These introductions are
designed to aid the reader in inter­
preting the reports on individual
Sources of Information

Information on employment trends
and outlook and the many related
topics discussed in the occupational
reports was drawn from a great va­
riety of sources. It is based in part on
extensive field investigation carried
out by the Bureau of Labor Statistics
professional staff. Interviews with
hundreds of persons in industry, un­

ions, trade associations, and public
agencies provided a wealth of the
latest information. In addition, the
Bureau’s other research programs
supplied data on employment in dif­
ferent industries, productivity and
technological developments, wages
and working conditions, trade union
agreements, industrial hazards, and a
number of other topics. Additional
data regarding the nature of the work
in various occupations, training and
licensing requirements, wages, and
employment trends were provided by
other agencies of the Federal Govern­
ment—among them, the Bureau of
Apprenticeship and Training and the
Bureau of Employment Security in
the Department of Labor; the Bu­
reau of the Census of the Department
of Commerce; the Office of Educa­
tion and the Vocational Rehabili­
tation Administration of the Depart­
ment of Health, Education, and Wel­
fare; the Veterans Administration;
the Civil Service Commission; the
Interstate Commerce Commission;
the Civil Aeronautics Board; the Fed­
eral Communications Commission;
and the Department of Transporta­
tion. Many other public and private
organizations—including State licens­
ing boards, educational institutions,
business firms, professional societies,
trade associations, and trade un­
ions—also made available published
and unpublished data and supplied
much helpful information through
After the information from these
many sources was brought together

and analyzed, conclusions were
reached as to prospective employ­
ment trends in the occupations. In
addition, estimates were made of the
numbers of job openings that will be
created by retirements and deaths
and transfers out of the occupation.
The supply of new workers likely to
be available in particular fields also
was analyzed, by studying statistics on
high school and college enrollments
and graduations, data on the number
of apprentices in skilled trades, re­
entries to an occupation, and trans­
fers into an occupation.
Preliminary drafts of the occupa­
tional reports were reviewed by offi­
cials of leading companies, trade
associations, trade unions, and pro­
fessional societies, and by other
experts. The information and con­
clusions presented in each report
thus reflect the knowledge and judg­
ment not only of the Bureau of
Labor Statistics staff, but also of
leaders in the field discussed, al­
though the Bureau, of course, takes
full responsibility for all statements
made. (See the technical index at the
back of the book for a more detailed
discussion of the sources of informa­
tion used in the occupational
Points To Bear in-Mind in Using the

In using the information on em­
ployment prospects which this book
contains, it is important to keep in
mind that all conclusions about the



economic future necessarily rest on
certain assumptions. Among the as­
sumptions which underlie the state­
ments on employment outlook in this
Handbook, are that high employment
levels will be maintained and that no
cataclysmic events will occur, such as
a war or a severe and prolonged eco­
nomic depression. Such catastrophes
would, of course, create an entirely
different employment situation from
that likely to develop under the
assumed conditions. But young peo­
ple would find it impossible to build
their lifetime plans in expectation of
such unpredictable catastrophes,
although, on the basis of historical ex­
perience, they must be prepared to
weather economic ups and downs
during their working lives. The
assumptions and methodology used
in employment outlook analysis are
discussed in detail in the technical
appendix, page 733.
To avoid constant repetition, the
assumptions seldom are mentioned
in the reports on the many fields of
work where the impact of a general
decline in business or a change in the
scale of mobilization would probably
be about the same as in the economy
as a whole. On the other hand, in the
statements on occupations where
employment tends to be either un­
usually stable or especially subject to
ups and downs, the factors affecting

employment are delineated. Even in
the latter occupations, however,
long-term trends in employment are
more important than short-run
fluctuations when appraising the
prospects of an individual in a par­
ticular occupation.
The picture of employment oppor­
tunities given in this book applies to
the country as a whole unless other­
wise indicated. People who want
supplementary information on job
opportunities in their communities
should consult local sources of infor­
mation, as suggested in the next
The information presented on
earnings and working conditions, as
on other subjects, represents the most
recent available when the Handbook
was prepared early in 1967. Much of
the information came from Bureau of
Labor Statistics surveys, but many
other sources were utilized also. For
this reason, the earnings data pre­
sented in the various occupational
reports often refer to different periods
of time, cover varying geographic
areas, and represent different kinds
of statistical measures. Comparisons
between the earnings data for differ­
ent occupations should, therefore, be
made with great caution.
Reference has been made in sev­
eral occupational statements to train­
ing programs established under the

Manpower Development and Train­
ing Act (MDTA), to equip unem­
ployed and underemployed persons
with skills needed in today’s world
of work. However, the absence of a
reference to MDTA training for a
particular occupation does not neces­
sarily mean that programs are not in
operation. In 1967, training programs
(which last from several weeks to 2
years) covered several hundred occu­
pations—technical and semiprofes­
sional, skilled and semiskilled, clerical
and sales, service and nonagricultural.
To obtain information about MDTA
training offered in your area, contact
the local office of the State employ­
ment service.
Finally, it should be kept in mind
that information on occupations and
the employment opportunities they
offer is only part of that needed in
making a career decision, which
means matching a person and an oc­
cupation. The other part relates, of
course, to the aptitudes and interests
of the potential worker himself. In
assessing their own abilities and in­
terests and in selecting the occupa­
tion for which they are best suited,
people can obtain help from voca­
tional counselors in schools and col­
leges, State employment service of­
fices, Veterans Administration re­
gional offices and guidance centers,
and many community agencies.


Persons using this Handbook may
want more detail on the occupations
discussed in the occupational reports,
or information on fields of work which
are not covered in this publication.
Suggestions as to sources of addi­
tional information on the occupations
discussed are given in most of the oc­
cupational reports. In addition, sev­
eral types of publications of the U.S.
Department of Labor, including peri­
odicals described on pages 757-759,
provide further information on topics
such as earnings, hours of work, and
working conditions. Other sources
likely to be helpful include public
libraries; schools; State employment
services; business establishments; and
trade unions, employers’ associations,
and professional societies. A brief de­
scription of each follows.

Public Libraries

These libraries usually have many
books, pamphlets, and magazine ar­
ticles giving information about differ­
ent occupations. They also may have
several books and current, indexes
which list the great numbers of publi­
cations on occupations, and the librar­
ians may be of assistance in finding
the best ones on a particular field of

School libraries and guidances of­
fices also often have extensive reading
materials on occupations. In addition,
school counselors and teachers usually
know of any local occupational infor­

mation which has been assembled
through special surveys made by
schools or other community agencies.
Teachers of special subjects such as
music, printing, and shorthand can
often give information about occu­
pations related to the subjects they
State Employment Services

Counselors in local public employ­
ment offices are in a particularly good
position to supply information about
job opportunities, hiring standards,
and wages in their localities. (The
services available through the public
employment offices are described in
the concluding section of this


Business Establishments

Employers and personnel officers
usually can supply information about
the nature of the work performed by
employees in their industry or busi­
ness and the qualifications needed for
various jobs, as well as other facts

about employment conditions and
oportunities. The names of local
firms in a particular industry can be
found in the classified sections of
telephone directories or can be ob­
tained from local chambers of com­

Trade Unions, Employers’ Associa­
tions, and Professional Societies

Frequently, these organizations
have local branches; their officials can
supply information relating to the oc­
cupations with which they are


The Bureau of Labor Statistics has
published a Counselor’s Guide to
Occupational and Other Manpower
Information, An Annotated Bibliog­
raphy of Selected Government Pub­
lications. The bibliography, as the
title suggests, lists the major occupa­
tional and other manpower publica­

tions of Federal and State govern­
ment agencies that will be useful to
counselors and others interested in
trends and developments that have
implications for career decisions. This
bulletin, No. 1421, is available from
the Superintendent of Documents,
G overnm ent Printing Office, Wash­
ington, D.C. 20402, at 50 cents a copy.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics also
issues a periodical, the Occupational
Outlook Quarterly, to keep readers
up to date between editions of the
Handbook, on developments affecting
employment opportunities and on the
findings of new occupational outlook
research. In addition, the Bureau
issues at irregular intervals occupa­
tional outlook bulletins which give
much more detailed information on
various fields of work than can be
included either in the Handbook or
in the Occupational Outlook Quar­
terly. Further information about these
publications, and directions for

ordering them, will be found on
page 757.
The Bureau also has developed a
new visual aid for counselors entitled
Looking Ahead To A Career. It con­
sists of a set of 36 color slides that
show the changing occupational and
industrial mix and what this implies
for manpower development, educa­
tion, and training. The slides and the
narrative used in presenting the slides
are available directly from the
Bureau of Labor Statistics, for $10
a set.
The Bureau will be glad to place
the name of any user of this Hand­
book on its mailing list to receive
announcements of new publications
and releases summarizing the results
of new studies. Anyone wishing to
receive such materials should send
the request, with his address, to the
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. De­
partment of Labor, Washington, D.C.

ment service network of offices,
information is also available on job
opportunities in other areas of the


Local offices of State employment
services specialize in finding jobs for
workers and workers for jobs. The
State employment services are affil­
iated with the U.S. Employment
Service of the Manpower Administra­
tion’s Bureau of Employment Secu­
rity and constitute a Federal-State
partnership. Employment and related
services are available without charge
in every State.
At each of the over 2,000 public
employment service offices across the
Nation, jobseekers are aided in ob­
taining employment, and employers
are assisted in finding qualified
There are four basic services pro­
vided to workers by the public em­
ployment service: (1) Job informa­
tion; (2) employment counseling;
(3) referral to job training or other
needed service; and (4) job place­
Job Information. The personnel who
staff the public employment service
offices are familiar with their areas
and thus know what kinds of workers
are employed in local industry, what
jobs are available, what the hiring
requirements and the opportunities
for advancement are, and the wages
that are paid. The staff conduct man­
power surveys to determine the area’s
available skills, training needs, and
what the future occupational oppor­
tunities will be. Through the employ10

Employment Counseling. Employ­
ment counseling assists young people
who are starting their careers, as well
as experienced workers who wish or
need to change their occupation. The
major purposes of employment coun­
seling are to help people understand
their actual and potential abilities,
their interests, and their personal
traits; to know the nature of occupa­
tions; and to make the best use of
their capacities and preferences in the
light of available job opportunities.
The employment counselor is a
specially trained individual who has
access to a large store of occupational
information. Testing facilities are one
resource available to him. Most local
offices provide testing services to help
the counselor appraise the applicant’s
abilities, aptitudes, and preferences.
Often such tests reveal aptitudes the
jobseeker did not know he had. The
General Aptitude Test Battery, for
instance, measures basic abilities for
broad fields of work and for specific
Referral to Training. Many individ­
uals seek work for which they lack
some qualifications. Sometimes it is
a matter of basic education or the
level of skill which the job requires.
One of the most important functions
of the public employment service,
short of actually referring a jobseeker
to a job, is referral to a training op­
portunity where he can improve his
employability and thereby qualify for
a job or secure a better one.
Jobs change and so do job require­
ments. In today’s fast-paced world,
important considerations when se­
lecting a vocation are the training
required to perform the work, and
how that training need can be met.

job openings must be filled with oc­
cupationally qualified workers, and
employment suited to the worker’s
skills, knowledge, and abilities must
be found. By performing this dual
function, the public employment
service eliminates the waste of “hitor-miss” job hunting.
The method of operation is basi­
cally simple. Regular contact is
maintained with local employers in
order to learn about their job open­
ings. Requests are received from em­
ployers for many different kinds of
workers. As a result, registered ap­
plicants have access to a variety of job
vacancies with many employers, just
as the employer has access to many
If job openings are not available
locally, applicants may be offered the
opportunity to apply for employment
elsewhere in the State, in another
area, or even in a foreign country.
Each State employment service pre­
pares inventories of its hard-to-fill
jobs so that other State employment
services may refer local workers to
out-of-area jobs for which they
qualify. In addition, a national net­
work of highly specialized profes­
sional placement offices operates
within the employment service net­
work to speed the matching of jobs
and applicants in professional fields.

Special Services for Youth. The full
range of employment services is avail­
able to youth. Specialized youth units
have been established in most local
offices. In addition, some 170 Youth
Opportunity Centers (YOC) have
been established in high population
areas, as a part of the public employ­
ment service system, to assist young
people, particularly school dropouts,
to prepare for and obtain jobs. YOC
representatives go into neighborhoods
where disadvantaged youth live to
recruit and motivate those who do
not come on their own to the center
for help. These centers, established
in early 1965, provide complete em­
Job Placement. A primary objective ployment services and cooperate
of the public employment service is closely with other community agen­
to place workers in jobs. Employers’ cies serving youth.


Special Services for Disadvantaged
Adults. Through its recently estab­
lished human resources development
program, the employment service
seeks to improve the employability of
adults who have withdrawn from the
work force because of some social or
cultural disadvantage. An important
part of this program is “outreach”
into slum areas.
Other Special Services. Individuals
with mental or physical disabilities
which constitute vocational handi­
caps are given special consideration
by the employment service.

Veterans also receive special serv­
ices. Each local office has a veterans’
employment representative who is in­
formed about veterans’ rights and
benefits, and seeks to develop jobs for
Middle-age and older workers are
assisted in making realistic job
choices and overcoming problems
related to getting and holding jobs.
Employers are encouraged to remove
unreasonable age restrictions and to
base hiring on the individual’s ability
to perform the work.
Similar attention is given to the
employment problems of minority

group members and all others facing
special difficulties in obtaining suit­
able employment.
Community Manpower Service. Job­
seekers, employers, schools, civic
groups, and public and private agen­
cies concerned with manpower prob­
lems are invited to utilize the service
of the public employment office in
their community, and avail them­
selves of the job information in that
office. The local office which serves
you is listed in the phone book as an
agency of your State government.


Choosing a career is one of the
most important decisions a young per­
son will ever make. This choice de­
pends on an appraisal of his interests
and abilities, as well as on a knowl­
edge of the economic and other fac­
tors that are likely to affect his future
career and employment opportuni­
ties. Among these factors are changes
in the composition of the country’s
work force and in its businesses and
industries, as well as changing oc­
cupational trends. These develop­
ments in the economy are ceaseless
and ever present. They affect the
kinds of work that people will do and
determine the changes in education
and training that are required to pre­
pare individuals for different kinds of
The Handbook contains economic
information which will provide stu­
dents and their counselors, teachers,
and parents with answers to such

questions as: What kind of jobs will
there be? What industries will pro­
vide these jobs? What qualifications
will be necessary for these jobs? What
fields of work look especially promis­
ing? What will the competitive situa­
tion be for young people seeking to
enter the labor force?
The charts that follow will serve as
a useful tool for counselors who share
the major responsibility for helping
young people to decide about their
future educational and job plans.
They graphically answer questions
about the changing nature of occupa­
tions and industries and discuss the
implications of these trends for career
The ability of young people to
maximize the opportunities that
await them will depend to a great
extent on their education and train­
ing. There is a need for workers to
be broadly educated so that they can

more readily adapt to changing job
requirements and absorb the training
and retraining that may be necessary
to permit them to switch jobs.
Workers who have completed the
most education generally have the
highest incomes. Yet, experience has
shown that the amount of money one
can earn over a lifetime should not
be the compelling consideration in
choosing a career. Job satisfaction and
the many other personal rewards that
flow from the right choice of a career
may be even more important than
monetary considerations. It follows,
therefore, that a young person must
first of all consider his own interests,
talents, and abilities in making alter­
native occupational choices. (See also
Using the Handbook in Guidance
Services, p. 1 and Services to Job­
seekers at Public Employment Offices,
p. 10.)


About 40 percent of our total pop­
ulation is working to provide our
growing national requirements for
food, clothing, shelter, and services.
More than a third of these workers
(27.2 million) are women.

Most People Make Their Living
As Private Wage And Salary Workers - 1965






f f






__ L4


Most people work for someone else,
either for a salary or a wage. Yet 1
out of every 7 workers is either selfemployed or contributing his services
to a family enterprise. The majority
of workers are employed in private
industry, and about 13 percent work
for Federal, State, and local govern­



Despite the long-term shift away
from employment in goods producing
industries to employment in the serv­
ice industries, manufacturing is still
the largest employer among the
major industry divisions. About 19
million persons worked in manufac­
turing in 1965. The second and third
largest industries, trade and services
accounted for nearly 14 and 13 mil­
lion workers, respectively.
The principal occupations in these
industry groups are:
Manufacturing: Operatives of
machines, assemblers, engineers,
stenographers, production man­
agers, tool and die makers,
traveling salesmen, and unskilled
Trade: Sales workers, clerical
workers, truckdrivers, deliverymen, elevator operators, pack­
agers, and repair workers.
Government: Teachers, police­
men, firemen, sanitation work­
ers, welfare workers, clerical
workers, post office workers, and
public health workers.
Gains, as well as losses in employ­
ment, may result from technological
innovations. Agriculture is a good ex­
ample of an industry in which laborsaving technologies have been devel­
oped to such an extent that employ­
ment declines accompany increases
in farm production. However, the
opposite is true in the concrete prod­
ucts industry, where, despite rapid
increases in output per man-hour,
employment is rising.




Employment Growth Will Vary Widely



Industries Differ
In The Kinds Of Workers They Employ






Compared with a 20-percent in­
crease in total employment over the
next decade, employment in govern­
ment, services, and the contract con­
struction industries will grow much
faster. Although employment in man­
ufacturing is expected to grow only
half as fast as total employment, this
industry will continue to employ the
greatest number of workers.
Recent developments in the fields
of education, manpower, and health
and welfare have intensified the de­
mand for services of all kinds. These
and other factors, such as technologi­
cal innovations, have resulted in dif­
ferential growth rates of industries
and changes in occupational require­
The future employment level of
individual industries is the primary
determinant of occupational require­
ments. This is so because each in­
dustry has a unique occupational
structure. For example, the structure
of the insurance industry, which em­
ploys a large number of clerical, sales,
and other white-collar workers, dif­
fers markedly from that of the con­
struction industry, where employment
is concentrated in blue-collar occupa­
tions—carpenters, electricians, and
laborers. Consequently, a sharp
change in total employment in the
construction industry will have a
marked effect on the requirements for
blue-collar workers. Conversely, if
employment in the insurance industry
changes sharply, requirements for
workers in white-collar occupations
will be significantly affected. The sec­
ond factor influencing the trend in
occupational employment is the
changing occupational structure
within industries.



Semiskilled workers constitute the
largest occupational group. In 1965,
more than 13 million workers (fac­
tory assemblers, inspectors, machine
operators, and apprentices; truck,
taxicab, and bus drivers; and others)
were employed in this occupational
group, which represents an important
source of work for new young male
workers. The second and third largest
occupational groups, clerical and
service workers, are a major source
of work for women. Craftsmen—the
skilled worker category—make up the
fourth largest occupational group;
and professional workers—most of
whom have had some college train­
ing—make up the next largest group.
Within each occupational group,
there is a diversity of jobs requiring
differing levels of education and skill.
For instance, among professional and
related workers are nuclear physicists
as well as athletes; and among service
workers are FBI agents and house­
hold workers. Similarily, among sales
workers, there are technical sales rep­
resentatives with engineering back­
grounds, as well as retail salesclerks.
In general, employment growth
will be fastest among those occupa­
tions requiring the most education
and training to enter.
Employment in professional and
related occupations will show the fast­
est growth over the next 10 years—
twice as fast as overall employment.
These occupations generally require
the most formal educational prepara­
tion to qualify for employment.
The completion of a high school
education has become standard for
American workers. Employers are
seeking people with higher levels of
education because job content is more
complex and requires higher levels
of skill. Many rapidly growing jobs in
the clerical, sales, and service fields
reflect this trend.

Employment In Major Occupational Groups, By Sox


More Jobs Will Require Extensive Education And Training



(MEDIAN) 1965

10 8



12 6














Even among unskilled workers, an
occupational group which is not ex­
pected to increase at all during the
next decade, roughly one-half million
jobs will need to be filled to replace
workers who die or retire.
Semiskilled workers have, on the
average, about a year and a half less
education than the typical American
worker. Though the growth rate
anticipated for this group is relatively
low, 4 million semiskilled jobs are ex­
pected to be available over the next
Service workers are a very diverse
group and include workers with both
high and low levels of education and
skill. Service jobs requiring high levels
of educational attainment will ac­
count for most of the projected
growth of about 3 million workers.
Nevertheless, due to the size of this
group, another 3 million job openings
will arise because of replacement

Training Needs Are Determined
By Replacement Plus Growth




Job opportunities spring from two
sources: Net growth and replacement
needs. In rapidly growing occupa­
tions made up mainly of young men
with a long working life ahead of
them, growth in the occupation will
be the principal source of new jobs.
On the other hand, replacement
needs will be particularly high in oc­
cupations with a large proportion of
older workers who have relatively few
years of working life left. Similarly,
job openings also arise as many wom­
en leave the labor force to take care
of family responsibilities.


Engineering And Teaching
Are The Largest Professional Occupations






Teaching is the largest profession
and, like nursing, represents a major
source of employment for women.
Engineering is the major field of pro­
fessional employment for men.
Altogether, nearly 9 million per­
sons work in these and other profes­
sional and technical fields.
Scientific and engineering employ­
ment is expected to grow faster than
that of the professional group as a
whole. The growth rate for scientists
is likely to be greater than that of
Technicians who assist engineers
and scientists will also show a rapid
rate of growth.
During the 1965 school year, 53 mil­
lion persons—more than one-fourth
of the country’s population—were
enrolled in schools and colleges.
These enrollments are likely to exceed
60 million by 1975. To take care of
this growth, the Nation’s teaching
staff will have to increase by about
one-third (650,000); nearly three
times this number (1.8 million) will
be required to fill teaching positions
vacated because of retirements, trans­
fers, and deaths.







Rapid Growth Is Expected
In Scientific And Technical Occupations
neering & Science)

Replacement Needs Will A a o u *
For Most Job Opportunities in Teaching
1965 (FALL)

(including transfers)



262-057 O— 68-










Growth Rates In Health Occupations
Will Vary Widely







Strong Demand Expected
For People In "Helping” Occupations











Continued rapid growth in em­
ployment is likely among paramedical
workers in the health field. Persons
in these occupations assist profes­
sional workers, who are in short sup­
ply, in performing the more routine
aspects of their work. Educational re­
quirements in these occupations are
lower than those for entrance into the
professional health occupations, and
training facilities can be expanded
more rapidly. Yet, in both cases, the
supply of workers will have to be ex­
panded greatly to meet health man­
power requirements.
For many years, the demand for
people in the “helping” professions—
counselors, social workers, librarians,
and others—has exceeded the avail­
able supply. The recently passed so­
cial welfare, education, and man­
power legislation heightens the de­
mand for their services. The result is
that opportunities for work in these
fields are virtually unlimited for
qualified people.

Most Clerical Workers
Are In These Occupations



Seven out of every ten persons em­
ployed in clerical occupations are
women. This field is also a major
source of employment for young
Clerical workers represent a large
variety of skills. This occupational
group includes, for example, highly
skilled workers such as title research­
ers and examiners in real estate firms
and confidential secretaries in busi­
nesses of all kinds. It also includes oc­
cupations such as messengers and file
clerks which can be entered with lit­
tle specialized training.



Technological innovations in this
field, including the use of computers,
have tended to reshape the nature of
the work of office machine operators
and create entirely new functions such
as those performed by electronic com­
puter personnel. Employment in these
fields, though less numerous than
among the traditional clerical occu­
pations, is growing the fastest.

Employment trends among man­
agers and proprietors have followed
the longrun shift from small to large
business organizations. Many inde­
pendently run retail shops and firms
have disappeared, and chainstores of
all kinds and complex corporations
have replaced them. Thus, the re­
quirements for salaried managers and
officials have far outpaced the need
for self-employed proprietors, who, in
fact, have been declining in number.
As a result, many thousands of job
opportunities will be available for col­
lege-trained people in fields such as
advertising, banking, and hotel and
restaurant management, as well as in
occupations such as industrial pur­
chasing agent and industrial traffic

Jobs For Salaried Managers Grow
As Number Of Proprietors Decreases




About 5 million persons are em­
ployed in sales occupations. Of this
number, about one-fourth are em­
ployed on a part-time basis. Salesworkers employed in retail stores ac­
count for over one-half of the employ­
ment in this occupational group. Most
of these workers are women. Almost
all persons employed outside of retail
trade—in wholesale trade, manufac­
turing, insurance companies, real
estate firms, and other companies—
are men.
In the 1965-75 period, employ­
ment in this occupational group may
rise by 25 percent, totaling around 6
million workers. Most of this growth
is likely to occur in occupations out­
side the retail field, among real estate
salesmen, insurance agents, manufac­
turer’s salesmen, and others.

Sales Work Offers Many
Employment Opportunities For Men And Women


(wholesale, manufacturer's. Insurance, real estate)

about a fourth
of salespeople
part time

More Than 9 Million People
Worked In Service Occupations




Private household workers are the
largest single group of service work­
ers, accounting for one-fourth of total
employment in 1965. Virtually all are
women, many of whom work part
time as dayworkers and babysitters.
Almost as many service workers are
employed as waiters, bartenders, and
countergirls. This occupational group
also includes protective service work­
ers such as FBI agents and policemen
who have much more education, on
the average, than the group as a



The greatest growth is anticipated
among service workers outside of
private households, mainly among
protective service workers, food serv­
ice workers, and hospital attendants.

Construction workers, mechanics
and repairmen, and machinists make
up the majority of the country’s
skilled work force. New entrants into
these fields generally have at least a
high school education; many acquire
their skills through apprenticeship
training programs, through experi­
ence gained on the job, and
by completing a vocational school
Earnings of skilled workers are rel­
atively high, reflecting the level of
the work they are required to per­
form, their extensive training, and the
exercise of independent judgment.
They generally have more job se­
curity, better chances for promotions,
and more opportunities to open their
own businesses than semiskilled or
unskilled workers.

Most Skilled Workers Are
In These Occupations
PAINTERS (constr & m aint.)
ELECTRICIANS (constr. & maint.)



Replacement Needs Are High
In Skilled Occupations


(retirements & deaths)

'excavating, grading, road
machinery operators


1 Worker In Every 6
Is Employed In A Semiskilled Job



Requirements for skilled workers
will rise by nearly one-fourth between
1965 and 1975 from about 9 million
to nearly lV /t million. Of the 4 mil­
lion job openings that are anticipated,
slightly over one-half will result from
growth in the field and the remainder
from deaths and retirements.
Job opportunities will vary greatly
among the skilled occupations that
make up this group. For example,
despite the small employment growth
anticipated for carpenters, the great­
est number of jobs will be found in
this occupation, mainly because of its
size and high replacement needs. On
the other hand, business machine
servicemen, a relatively small occupa­
tion, is likely to grow very rapidly. Yet
this occupation will offer relatively
few employment opportunities.


Although employment growth in
this group, which includes factory
workers as well as operators of motor
vehicles, will be less than average be­
tween 1965, and 1975, many thou­
sands of job opportunities will be
available to young people. This is the
largest of all the occupational groups
and replacement needs are high.
Drivers and deliverymen account
for roughly one out of every five semi­
skilled workers. Employment of local
and over-the-road truckdrivers is ex­
pected to grow between 1965 and
1975, offering many employment op­
portunities for young men seeking to
enter the work force.


Just as the country’s population
furnishes the market for most of the
goods and services it produces, it also
provides the men and women who
produce these goods and services.
The labor force, that part of our
population age 16 years and over who
are working or looking for work, is
likely to have a faster rate of growth
than our population during the 196575 decade, reaching a total of 92 mil­
lion people.
The rising proportion of women
who work will continue to be a major
factor (along with the growth in the
number of young workers) contribut­
ing to the anticipated increase in the
labor force. By 1975, women will ac­
count for about 36 percent of all
workers, compared with 34 percent
The highest proportion of working
women is found in the 45-54 age
group. Slightly over 50 percent of all
women in that age group were work­
ing in 1965 and almost 60 percent are
expected to be working in 1975.
About 50 percent of all women be­
tween the ages of 20 and 24 will be
in the labor force by 1975.


Major Changes
In The Labor Force






New Workers
Will Be Better Educated ...


Dropouts Are More Likely To Be Unemployed
Than Graduates


By 1975, one-fourth of all persons
between the ages of 16 and 25 will
be in the labor force (including the
Armed Forces), compared with fewer
than one-fifth some 20 years earlier.
Thus, the economy will be required
to absorb increasing numbers of
young persons who must be trained
to meet technological and other
changes anticipated over the next
The prime working age group (2534) will increase twice as fast as the
labor force between 1965 and 1975.
Workers in this age group have been
in relatively short supply for many
years and actually declined by about
750,000 between 1955 and 1965. The
anticipated increase in their numbers
will help to alleviate the shortages of
well-qualified workers in many oc­
The workers who will be entering
the labor force in the next decade will
have more years of schooling than
their predecessors. More of them will
have completed high school, more
will have gone to college, and a
smaller proportion will be high school
dropouts. Nevertheless, if trends con­
tinue, more than a quarter of the new
entrants will have less than a high
school education.
Aside from the loss of earnings that
poorly educated workers will experi­
ence over their lifetimes, they will not
share in other benefits that stem from
a good education: Cultural enrich­
ment; a satisfying way of life, both
as workers and as responsible citizens;
and other intangible social ad­



The unemployment rates of young
people are much higher at every
educational level but dropouts are hit
the hardest.
Young people seeking a toehold in
the labor force often have difficulties
simply because they lack relevant
work experience. In addition, they
face competition for jobs from other
persons who are better educated.
Thus, it is not uncommon for young
people—regardless of their educa­
tional attainment—to experience
high levels of unemployment.

The picture of the future as re­
flected in the Handbook and in these
charts is based on four fundamental
1. That high levels of economic
activity and employment will be
maintained over the long run, even
though there may be temporary reces­
2. A defense program similar to
that prevailing immediately prior to
the Vietnam buildup will exist.
3. That scientific and technologi­
cal advances will continue.
4. That the institutions and funda­
mental economic structure of the
United States will not change signifi­

Unemployment Rates
Are Highest For Young Workers

■ IH
■■■ 1




rm m







Professional occupations have
many attractions for young people
choosing a career. These occupations
offer opportunities for interesting
and responsible work and, in many
cases, lead to high earnings. As a rule,
however, they can be entered only
after long periods of specialized edu­
cation or other preparation, because
a broad knowledge of one’s field is
an essential requirement for success
in these types of work.
About 1 out of 8 workers in 1966
was in a professional and related
occupation. These occupations—em­
ploying more than 9.3 million peo­
ple—accounted for more than
one-fourth of all white-collar
The professions generally require
either college graduation—often with
an advanced degree—or experience
of such kind and amount to provide
comparable knowledge. Professional
occupations are of two main types.
Most professional occupations, in­
cluding those of engineer, architect,
physician, lawyer, and teacher, re­
quire specialized, theoretical knowl­
edge of a specific field. The other
group, including occupations such as
editor and actor, does not require as
much specialized, theoretical knowl­
edge, but demands a great deal of
creative talent and, also, skill ac­
quired chiefly through experience.
Licenses are required for practice in
many professions—medicine, den­
tistry, and pharmacy, for example—
with licensing authorities deter­
mining the minimum qualifications

Teaching & Engineering Are The Largest Professional Occupations
Employment In Selected Professional, Technical, and Kindred Occupations






Growth Of Professional, Technical
And Kindred Occupations








Graduates As A Percent
Of All Pe rsons 22 Years

Number Of
Bachelor’s Degrees Granted

Of Age



10% 20%

ematicians, physicians, and other
professional personnel. Their job
titles include those of draftsman;
engineering aid; programer; and
electronics, laboratory, or X-ray tech­
nician. Employment in these techni­
cal occupations usually requires a
combination of basic scientific knowl­
edge and specialized education or
training in some particular aspect of
technology or science. Such training
may be obtained in technical insti­
tutes, junior colleges, and other
schools, or through equivalent onthe-job training.
The major professional and related
occupations are shown in chart 33.

S O U R C E : U S . D E P A R T M EN T O F H E A L T H , ED U C A T IO N , AND W E L F A R E , O F F IC E OF ED U C A '

Employment Trends

@ Number Of Master’s And Doctor’s Degrees Granted









which members must have. In addi­
tion, professional societies set up
membership standards, which tend to
define their respective fields.
The professions provide many em­
ployment opportunities for women.
They represented slightly over onethird of all professional and kindred
employment in 1966. In several very
large professional occupations—
teaching, nursing, library work, and
social work—women predominate.



It is not easy to prepare for and
enter professional work. Often, insti­
tutions do not accept applicants for
professional training unless their
school grades are high, and employers
generally give preference to grad­
uates whose grades are high in their
Closely related to the professions
is a wide variety of technical occu­
pations. People in these occupations
work with engineers, scientists, math­

Employment in professional and
related occupations has risen rapidly
over the years. From 1.2 million in
1900, the number of these workers
has grown to about 9.3 million in
1966. (See chart 34.) Moreover,
during the 1950 decade, the rate of
growth in the professions was more
than twice that for clerical workers,
the second fastest growing occupa­
tional group at that time. Thus far
in the 1960’s, growth in the profes­
sional and related worker group
continues to exceed that of any other
broad occupational group.
A major reason for the increase in
the total number of workers in pro­
fessional and related occupations
has been the development of various
fields, some unknown until recent
years. Engineering, mathematics,
and other closely related scientific
professions have had a spectacular
growth over the past 60 years. Other
major fields, which have developed
wholly or largely during the present
century include social work, account­
ing, personnel work, programing,
other data-processing specialties, and
electronics. Some of this growth has
accompanied the expansion in scien­
tific and engineering professions. As
scientific and technical work has
become more highly organized, par­
ticularly in the laboratories and engi­
neering departments of large firms


and in government agencies, more
technical assistance has been pro­
vided for the professional worker.
Similarly, large numbers of techni­
cians and assistants work in the health
fields, thereby freeing the profes­
sional personnel for work requiring
more training.
Between 1966 and 1975, employ­
ment in the professional and techni­
cal group is expected to rise by nearly
40 percent—about twice the rate for
total employment. However, there
will continue to be differences in the
rates of growth among the profes­
Educational Trends

Professional occupations accounted
for about two-thirds of all workers
having a college education in 1966.
The concentration of college gradu­
ates among these occupations is in­
creasing steadily. In addition to the
many professional occupations for
which college graduation long has
been an entry requirement, the de­
mand for graduates at the entry level
in other professional, administrative,
and related occupations is increasing.
College graduates are now filling
many positions which did not exist
a few decades ago or which formerly
were held by employees because of
their experience and personal char­
Emphasis on a college education
will be reinforced in the years ahead
in view of the growing complexity
of modern industry and technology,
which is constantly increasing the
amount of technical knowledge re­
quired for effective performance in
many professional and administra­
tive jobs.
A great increase in the number of
young men and women graduating
from college, which is the chief source
of professionally trained workers, has

accompanied the growth in the pro­
fessional and related occupations. As
a percent of all persons 22 years of
age, the proportion of young people
completing college rose from 2.5 per­
cent in 1920 to 8 percent in 1940, and
to 19 percent in 1966, as shown on the
inset in chart 35. (The level reached
in 1950 is artificially high, reflecting
the large number of veterans who
went to college under the veterans’
education program. In many cases,
they would have completed college
earlier if it had not been for the war.)
The recent rapid increase in the
proportion of young people gradu­
ating from college (chart 35) reflects
a number of basic social trends. Fam­
ily incomes are higher, thus more
people can afford to postpone going
to work and to pay the costs of edu­
cation. More families want a college
education for their children. Scholar­
ships and loans are available for more
students; part-time work opportuni­
ties are also available. Finally, a col­
lege education is becoming necessary
for an increasing proportion of jobs,
and in many professions the amount
of education needed is increasing.
Since these factors will probably con­
tinue to be influential in the future,
the proportion of young people who
are being graduated from college is
expected to go on increasing for many
years. The college-age population is
also growing. The number of people
age 18 to 21 is expected to increase
by nearly 3.4 million between 1966
and 1975. These factors, considered
together, indicate a great increase in
college graduations, assuming that the
Nation’s colleges and universities
build the classrooms, laboratories,
dormitories, and other facilities and
hire the faculty members needed to
provide for the greatly increased
numbers of students. The number of
bachelor’s degrees awarded annually
will be about two-thirds greater by

1975 than in 1966. Projections pre­
pared by the U.S. Office of Education
in 1966 indicate an increase from
about 536,000 bachelor’s degrees
granted in 1966 to 894,000 in 1975.
The number of students taking
graduate training has also risen very
rapidly during the last few decades,
and will probably continue to mount
in the years ahead. A master’s degree
is usually earned through 1 or 2 years
of study beyond the bachelor’s de­
gree. The Ph. D. degree usually re­
quires 3 years or more beyond the
bachelor’s degree. As a rule, gradu­
ate study is concentrated in the major
subject field of the student’s interest,
whereas undergraduate study is
broader in content.
Chart 36 shows the vast increase in
graduate degrees awarded since 1920
in all fields taken together. The num­
bers of master’s and doctor’s degrees
granted reached unprecedented
heights in the early 1950’s, following
the record number of bachelor’s de­
grees granted a few years before.
After a slight decline in the mid1950’s, master’s degrees rose to about
126,000 in 1966, and are expected to
approach 220,000 in 1975, if past
trends continue. The number of doc­
torates awarded (about 17,500 in
1966) may reach 35,000 by 1975.
These projections obviously imply
a great increase in the supply of per­
sonnel which will be available for
professional employment. Since the
overall demand for personnel is also
expected to show continued growth,
there is promise of expanding employ­
ment opportunities for the increasing
numbers of college graduates. The
anticipated increases in collegetrained personnel raise the possibility,
however,. of increasing competition
during the late 1960’s and early
1970’s for the better professional posi­
tions in at least some fields of work.


Many professional workers play a
major role in administering businesses
and a wide variety of other organiza­
tions, both private and governmental.
People in these occupations generally
need a college degree to qualify for
work in their respective fields. Though
their disciplines are oriented toward
business management, they perform
functions which are highly special­
ized and varied. Whether their or­
ganizations are small or large, em­
ploying only a few people or many
thousands, the decisions they reach
and their effectiveness in getting these
decisions carried out contribute great­
ly to the success or failure of the

This chapter describes a few select­
ed professional occupations that are
of vital importance to the Nation’s
businesses—accountants, advertising
workers, marketing research workers,
personnel workers, and public rela­
tions workers. Workers engaged pri­
marily in managerial duties are cov­
ered in the section on Managerial
Occupations elsewhere in the

(D.O.T. 160.188)

cial reports, such as profit and loss
statements, balance sheets, cost stud­
ies, and tax reports. The major fields
of specialization are public, manage­
ment (private), and government ac­
counting. Public accountants are in­
dependent practitioners who work on
a fee basis for business enterprises or
for individuals wishing to use their
services, or as a member or employee
of an accountancy firm. Management
accountants, often referred to as in­
dustrial or private accountants, han­
dle the financial records of the par­
ticular firm for which they work on a
salary basis. Government accountants
work on the financial records of gov­
ernment agencies and often audit the
records of private business organiza­
tions and individuals whose dealings
are subject to government regulations.
Accountants in any field of em­
ployment may specialize in such areas
as auditing, taxes, cost accounting,
budgeting and control, information
processing, or systems and proce­
dures. Public accountants are likely
to specialize in auditing—that is, in
reviewing financial records and re­
ports and giving opinions as to their
reliability. They also advise clients
on tax matters and other financial
and accounting problems. Most man­
agement accountants are involved in
some aspects of providing manage­
ment with information for decision
making. Sometimes they specialize in
taxes, budgeting or in internal audit­
ing—that is, examining and apprais­
ing financial systems and manage­
ment control procedures in their com­
pany. Many accountants in the Fed­
eral Government are employed as In­
ternal Revenue agents, investigators,
and bank examiners, as well as in
regular accounting positions.
Where Employed

Accountants numbered about 500,000 in early 1967, of whom about
100,000 were certified public account­
Nature of Work
ants. Accounting is one of the largest
Accountants compile and analyze fields of professional employment for
business records and prepare finan- men. Only about 2 percent of the

CPA’s, and less than 10 percent of all
accountants are women.
Nearly three-fifths of all account­
ants do management accounting work
for the business and industrial firms
that employ them. An additional onefifth are engaged in public account­
ing as proprietors, partners, or em­
ployees of independent accounting
firms. Over 10 percent work for Fed­
eral, State and local government
agencies. A small number teach in
colleges and universities.
Accountants are employed wher­
ever business, industrial, or govern­
mental organizations are located. The
majority, however, work in large
metropolitan centers where there is
a particularly heavy concentration of
public accounting firms and central
offices of large business organizations.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

Training in accounting can be
obtained in universities, 4-year col­
leges, junior colleges, accounting and
private business schools, and corre­
spondence schools. Graduates of all
these institutions are included in the
ranks of successful accountants; how­
ever, a bachelor’s degree with a major
in accounting or a closely related field
is increasingly an asset, and for better
positions it may be required. Candi­
dates with a master’s degree in ac­
counting, as well as college training
in other business and liberal arts sub­
jects, are preferred by many firms.
Previous work experience can be of
great value also, in qualifying for em­
ployment. A number of colleges offer
students an opportunity to get such
experience through internship pro­
grams conducted in cooperation with
public accounting or business firms.
For beginning accounting positions,
the Federal Government requires 4
years of college training (including
24 semester hours in accounting) or
an equivalent combination of educa­
tion and experience. Most universities
require the master’s degree or the
doctorate with the Certified Public



Accountancy Certificate for teaching
All States require that anyone prac­
ticing in the State as a “certified pub­
lic accountant” hold a certificate
issued by the State board of account­
ancy. Well over half the States also
restrict the title “public accountant”
to those who are licensed or registered.
Requirements for licensing and regis­
tration vary considerably from one
State to another, and information on
these requirements may be obtained
directly from the board of account­
ancy in the State where the student
plans to practice. Almost half the
States have laws that will, by 1970,
require CPA candidates to be college
graduates. All States use the CPA
examination provided by the Amer­
ican Institute of Certified Public Ac­
countants. In recent years, more than
9 out of 10 successful CPA candidates
have been college graduates. Before
the CPA certificate is issued, at least
2 years of public accounting experi­
ence, or its equivalent, is required in
nearly all States.
Inexperienced accountants usually
begin with fairly routine work. Junior
public accountants may be assigned
to detailed work such as verifying
cash balances or inspecting vouchers.
They may advance to semisenior
positions in 1 or 2 years and to senior
positions within another 1 or 2 years.
In the larger firms, those successful
in dealing with top industry execu­
tives often become supervisors, man­
agers, or partners, or transfer to
executive positions in private account­
ing. Some become independent prac­
titioners. Beginners in management
accounting may start as ledger ac­
countants, junior internal auditors, or
as trainees for technical accounting
positions. They may rise to chief plant
accountant, chief cost accountant,
budget director, senior internal audi­
tor, or manager of internal auditing,
depending on their specialty. Some
become controllers, treasurers, or cor­
poration presidents. In the Federal
Government, beginners are hired as
trainees and usually are promoted in
a year or so. In colleges and univer­
sities, those with minimum training

Accountant analyzes financial records.

and experience may receive the rank
of instructor without tenure; ad­
vancement and permanent faculty
status are dependent upon further
Accountants who want to get to
the top in their profession usually find
it necessary to continue their study
of accountancy and related prob­
lems—even though they already may
have obtained college degrees or
CPA certificates. Even experienced
accountants may spend many hours
in study and research in order to keep
abreast of legal and business develop­
ments that affect their work. More
and more accountants are studying
computer operation, programing,
mathematics, and quantitative meth­

ods in order to adapt accounting pro­
cedures to new methods of processing
business data. Although advancement
may be rapid for capable accountants,
those with inadequate academic
preparation are likely to be assigned
to routine jobs and find themselves
handicapped in obtaining promotion.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for ac­
countants are expected to be excellent
through the 1970’s. As many as 12,000
accountants may be needed annually
during this period to replace those
who retire, die, or transfer to other
occupations. Provided no major set­

back occurs in the general level of
business activity, at least an equal
number of accountants probably will
be needed each year due to growth
in the occupation. Demand for
college-trained accountants will rise
faster than demand for people with­
out this broad background of
training, because of the growing com­
plexity of business accounting require­
ments. However, graduates of
business and other schools which
offer thorough training in accounting
should have good job prospects dur­
ing this period, also.
Accounting employment is ex­
pected to expand rapidly in the 1970’s
because of such factors as the greater
use of accounting information in busi­
ness management; complex and
changing tax systems; the growth in
size and number of business corpora­
tions required to provide financial re­
ports to stockholders; and the increas­
ing use of accounting services by small
business organizations.
The computer is having a major
effect on the accounting profession.
Electronic data processing systems are
replacing manual preparation of ac­
counting records and financial state­
ments. As a result the need for junior
accountants at the lower level may be
reduced or eliminated. On the other
hand, computers can process vast
quantities of routine data which will
require the employment of additional
accountants so that these data can be
analyzed. Also, the computer is ex­
pected to bring about radical changes
in management information systems
and decisionmaking processes in large
companies. Additional highly-trained
accountants will be required to pre­
pare, administer and analyze the in­
formation made available by these


Smaller firms, especially the small
CPA firms, generally pay lower start­
ing salaries.
Average earnings of experienced
accountants, in other than public ac­
counting, ranged between $7,300 and
$12,300 a year in 1966 according to
information provided from a Bureau
of Labor Statistics study. Chief ac­
countants averaged between $11,000
and $18,000 a year. Accountants in
managerial positions such as con­
trollers, treasurers, and financial vice
presidents earned much more. The
earnings of self-employed accountants
vary depending on factors such as
their qualifications, experience, and
In the Federal Civil Service, the
entrance salary for junior accountants
and auditors was $6,211 in 1966.
Some candidates with superior aca­
demic records could qualify for a
starting salary of $7,090. Many ex­
perienced accountants in the Federal
Government earned more than $11,000 a year. Those with administrative
responsibilities earned more.
Public accountants are likely to
work especially long hours under
heavy pressure during the tax season.
They do most of their work in their
clients’ offices,- and sometimes do
considerable traveling to serve dis­
tant clients. A few management and
government accountants also do a
great deal of traveling and work
irregular hours, but the majority
remain in one office and work
between 35 and 40 hours a week,
under the same general conditions
as their fellow office workers.
Where To Go for More Information

Information, particularly on
CPA’s and on the aptitude and
Earnings and Working Conditions achievement tests now given in
many high schools and colleges and
Starting salaries for new college by many public accounting firms,
graduates averaged about $7,000 a may be obtained from:
year in 1966 according to a private American Institute of Certified Pub­
survey of large business organizations
lic Accountants, 666 Fifth Ave.,
recruiting for accounting positions.
New York, N.Y. 10019.

Further information on specialized
fields of accounting may be obtained
National Association of Accountants,
505 Park Ave., New York, N.Y.


Financial Executives Institute, 50
West 44th St., New York, N.Y.
The Institute of Internal Auditors,
Inc., 60 Wall St., New York,
N.Y. 10005.

Information describing accounting
as a career may be obtained free
Accounting Careers Council, National
Distribution Center, P.O. Box
650, Radio City Station, New
York, N.Y. 10010.

(D.O.T. 050.088; 132.088; 141.081;
through .168; 164.068 through .168;
and 219.488)
Nature of Work

Through advertisements published
in newspapers and magazines, broad­
cast on the radio, shown on tele­
vision, displayed on billboards, sent
through the mail, or even written in
smoke in the sky, businessmen try to
reach potential customers and per­
suade them to buy their products or
services. Advertising workers plan and
prepare these advertisements and get
them before the public. They include
executives responsible for planning
and overall supervision, copywriters
who write the text, artists who pre­
pare the illustrations, layout special­
ists who put copy and illustrations into
the most attractive arrangement pos­
sible, administrative and technical
workers who are responsible for the
satisfactory reproduction of the “ads,”
and salesmen who sell advertising
space in publications or time on radio
and television programs. In a very
small advertising organization, one
person may do all these things. Large
organizations employ specialists for



research, copywriting, and layout
work. They sometimes have staff
members who specialize in writing
copy for particular kinds of products
or for one type of advertising media
such as radio, popular magazines, or
direct mail. The following are the
specialized occupations most com­
monly found in advertising work.
Advertising managers head the ad­
vertising departments of manufac­
turing companies and other adver­
tisers and of newspapers and other
media. Since most businesses use the
services of advertising agencies to
handle all or part of their advertising
programs, the company’s advertising
manager works mostly on policy ques­
tions—for example, the type of ad­
vertising, the size of the advertising
budget, and the agency to be em­
ployed. He then works with the
agency in planning and carrying
through the program. He may also
supervise the preparation of special
sales brochures, display cards, and
other promotional materials.
The advertising manager of a
newspaper, radio station, or other ad­
vertising medium is concerned chiefly
with selling advertising time or space;
his functions are similar to those of
the sales manager in other businesses.
Account executives are employed
in advertising agencies to handle rela­
tions between the agency and its
clients. An account executive stud­
ies the client’s sales and advertising
problems, develops a plan to meet the
client’s needs, and seeks his approval
of the proposed program. Account
executives must be able to sell ideas
and maintain good relations with
clients. They must know how to write
copy and use artwork, even though
copywriters and artists usually carry
out their ideas and suggestions.
Some advertising agencies have ac­
count supervisors who oversee the
work of the account executives. In
others, account executives are directly
responsible to agency heads.
Advertising copywriters create the
headlines, slogans, and text that at­
tract buyers. They collect informa­
tion about the products and the peo­
ple who might use them. They use

262-057 0— 68 4
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Copywriter develops new advertising slogan.

psychology and writing techniques
to prepare copy especially suited for
readers or listeners and for the type
of advertising medium to be used.
Copywriters may specialize in copy
that appeals to certain groups—
housewives, businessmen, scientists,
or engineers—or even in copy that
deals with specific products such as
lipsticks or washing machines. In ad­
vertising agencies, copywriters work
closely with account executives, al­
though they may be under the super­
vision of a copy chief.
Advertisers and advertising agen­
cies employ media directors (or
space buyers and time buyers) to de­
termine where and when advertising
should be carried to reach the largest
group of prospective buyers at the
least cost. They must have a vast
amount of information about the cost
of advertising in all media and the
relative size and characteristics of the
reading or listening audience which
can be reached in various parts of the
country by specific publications,
broadcasting stations, and other
Production managers and their as­
sistants arrange to have the final copy
and artwork converted into printed
form. They deal with printing, en­
graving, and other firms involved in

the reproduction of advertisements.
The production manager must have
a thorough knowledge of various
printing processes, typography, pho­
tography, paper, inks, and related
technical materials and processes.
Research directors and their as­
sistants assemble and analyze infor­
mation needed for effective advertis­
ing programs. They study the
possible uses of the product, its ad­
vantages and disadvantages com­
pared with competing products, and
the best ways of reaching potential
purchasers. Such workers may make
special surveys of the buying habits
and motives of customers, or may try
out sample advertisements to find the
most convincing selling theme or
most efficient media for carrying the
advertising message. The research di­
rector is an important executive in
advertising organizations. More in­
formation on this occupation is con­
tained in the statement on Marketing
Research Workers.
Artists and layout men are part of
a key creative group in advertising
work. They work closely with adver­
tising managers, copywriters, and
other advertising personnel in plan­
ning advertisements. More informa­
tion about this group appears in the
separate statements on Commercial
Artists and on Photographers.
Where Employed

In early 1967, more than 125,000
men and women were employed in
professional or other positions re­
quiring considerable knowledge of
advertising. Perhaps a third of these
workers are employed in advertising
agencies, and more than half of the
agency workers are employed in the
New York City and Chicago metro­
politan areas. However, there are
many independent agencies in other
cities, and many leading agencies op­
erate branch offices outside the major
Advertising workers not employed
in advertising agencies work for
manufacturing companies, stores,
and other organizations having prod-

ucts or services to sell; for advertising
media, such as newspapers and mag­
azines; and for printers, engravers,
art studios, product and package de­
signers, and others who provide serv­
ices to advertisers and advertising
Training, Other Qualifications, and

Most employers, in hiring advertis­
ing trainees, prefer college graduates
with liberal arts training or majors in
marketing, journalism, or business
administration. However, there is no
typical educational background for
success in advertising. Some success­
ful advertising people have had no
college training; others started in
such varied occupations as engineer,
teacher, chemist, artist, or salesman.
Most advertising jobs require a
flair for language, both spoken and
written. Since every assignment re­
quires individual handling, a liking
for problem-solving is also very im­
portant. Advertising personnel should
have a great interest in people and
things, to help them sell their ideas
to their superiors, to advertisers, and
to the public. They must be able to
accept criticism and to gain impor­
tant points with tact.
Young people planning to enter
the advertising field should get ex­
perience in copywriting or other
work for their school publications
and, if possible, through summer jobs
in selling, interviewing, or other work
connected with marketing research
services. Some large advertising or­
ganizations recruit outstanding col­
lege graduates and train them
through programs which cover all as­
pects of advertising work. Most be­
ginners, however, have to locate their
own jobs by applying directly to pos­
sible employers. Young men some­
times begin as mail clerks, or as mes­
sengers and runners who pick up and
deliver messages and proofs for de­
partments and agency clients. Some
start as assistants in research or pro­
duction work or as space or time
buyers. A few begin as junior copy­


writers. In most advertising organiza­
tions, women begin as secretaries or,
if they have the required education,
as research assistants. The best ave­
nue of entrance to advertising work
for women is through advertising de­
partments in retail stores.
Employees with initiative, drive,
and talent may progress from begin­
ning jobs to creative, research, or
managerial work. Management po­
sitions require experience in all
phases of the advertising business in­
cluding some work with advertising
agencies, media, and advertisers.
Copywriters and account execu­
tives can usually look forward to
rapid advancement if they demon­
strate exceptional ability in dealing
with clients, since the success of an
advertising organization depends
upon satisfied advertisers. Many of
these workers prefer to remain in
their own specialties and for them ad­
vancement is to more responsible
work at increased pay. Some topflight
copywriters and account executives
establish their own agencies.
Employment Outlook

Advertising attracts many young
people; those seeking entry will face
stiff competition through the 1970’s.
Good opportunities, however, will
continue for those who have the back­
ground and aptitude.
Employment in advertising is ex­
pected to increase rapidly during the
rest of the 1960’s and through the
1970’s. Among the factors that will
contribute to the demand for adver­
tising workers are the overall growth
of industry, the development of new
products and services, and the in­
crease in competition among pro­
ducers of industrial and consumer
goods. In addition to those needed to
fill new positions, several thousand
advertising workers will be needed
each year to replace those who trans­
fer to other types of work, or who
retire, die, or leave the field for other
reasons. The greatest demand is likely
to occur in advertising agencies, since
advertisers are turning over more and

more of their advertising work to
Earnings and Working Conditions

Starting salaries for beginning ad­
vertising workers ranged from $4,000
to $8,000 per year in 1966-67 accord­
ing to the limited information avail­
able. The higher salaries were most
frequently paid in very large firms re­
cruiting outstanding college gradu­
ates; the lower salaries were received
in stores and small advertising
Salaries of workers above the
trainee level are also likely to be
highest in the largest firms. A private
survey reports that the salaries of
copywriters ranged from $8,000 to
$20,000 annually; account executives,
salaries from $15,000 to $25,000; and
those of senior media buyers from
$8,000 to $15,000 a year. Copy chiefs,
account supervisors, media directors
and other top agency executive per­
sonnel often receive substantially
higher salaries. For example, the re­
ported earnings for advertising agency
creative directors ranged from $20,000 to $70,000 a year. The earnings
of advertising managers and directors
employed by firms other than adver­
tising agencies ranged from $8,000 to
$30,000 annually. The wide spread in
the salaries reported reflects the great
differences in experience, talent,
function, and degree of responsibility
among workers who have the same
job title.
Advertising workers frequently
work under great pressure. Working
hours are sometimes irregular, be­
cause publication deadlines must be
met and last minute changes are not
uncommon. People in creative jobs
often work evenings and weekends to
finish important assignments.
At the same time, advertising
offers a satisfying career to people
who enjoy variety, excitement, and
a constant challenge to their creative
ability, and who can meet the com­
petition. Advertising workers have
the satisfaction of seeing their work
in print or hearing it over the radio



or television even though they remain pany’s sales force, and the amounts
unknown to the public at large.
spent by the company for advertising
in each city and, from these com­
parisons, discover the reasons for
Where To Go for More Information
changes in the volume of sales. Other
marketing research workers may
American Advertising Federation,
655 Madison Ave., New York,
study changes in the quantity of
N.Y. 10021.
company goods on store shelves, or
make door-to-door surveys to learn
American Association of Advertising
how many company products already
Agencies, 200 Park Ave., New
York, N.Y. 10017.
are used in households.
Marketing research is often con­
cerned with the personal opinions of
the people who are using company
(D.O.T. 050.088)

products or who might use them in
the future. For example, a survey in­
tended to help management decide
on the design and pricing of a new
line of television sets may involve the
use of a questionnaire to learn from
a limited number of consumers the
price they would be willing to pay
and their preferences in such things
as the color and size of the set.
A survey of this kind is usually car­
ried on under the supervision of mar­
keting research workers who spe­
cialize in research on consumer

Nature of Work

Businessmen make decisions daily
regarding the marketing of their
goods and services. Marketing re­
search workers help to increase the
fund of information upon which these
basic business decisions are made.
They act as factfinders—seeking out,
analyzing, and interpreting many dif­
ferent kinds of information. They
prepare reports and recommenda­
tions to help management make de­
cisions on such widely differing prob­
lems as forecasting sales; selecting a
brand name, package, or design;
choosing a new plant location; decid­
ing whether to move goods by rail,
truck, or other method; and de­
termining the kinds of advertising
likely to attract the most business. In
investigating these and other prob­
lems, they consider expected changes
in population, income levels, and
consumer credit policies, or other
subjects relevant to marketing
Most marketing research starts
with the collection of facts from pub­
lished materials, from the firm’s own
records, and from specialists on the
subject under investigation. For ex­
ample, research workers analyzing the
fluctuations in a company’s sales, may
first study sales records in a number
of different cities to determine
periodical changes in sales volume.
They may then compare these
changes with changes in population,'
income levels, the size of the com­

Marketing research workers appraise success of new product.



goods—that is, merchandise sold to
the general public. In planning the
survey, the marketing research
worker may get help from a statis­
tician in selecting a group (or
“sample”) of individuals to be-inter­
viewed, in order to be confident that
the opinions obtained from them
represent those held by the many
other potential customers. He may
also consult a specialist in “motiva­
tional research”—an expert in fram­
ing questions that will produce reli­
able information about the motives
that lead people to make the pur­
chases they do. When the investiga­
tion gets underway, the marketing
research worker may supervise a
number of interviewers who call on
consumers to obtain answers to the
questions. He also may direct the
work of the office employees who tab­
ulate and analyze the information
collected. His report summarizing the
survey findings also may include other
information that company officials
need in making decisions about the
new line.
Marketing research surveys con­
cerned with products used by busi­
ness and industrial firms may be con­
ducted somewhat differently from
consumer goods surveys. Because re­
search on some industrial products
requires interviewers with a technical
knowledge of the product involved,
the interviews are often conducted
by the marketing research worker
himself (or by several research work­
ers, if the survey is a particularly ex­
tensive one). In his interviews, the
worker not only tries to get opinions
about the proposed product, but
keeps on the lookout for possible new
ways of adapting it to industrial
needs. He must, therefore, be a spe­
cialist both in marketing research and
in the industrial uses of the product
Where Employed

About 20,000 marketing research
workers were estimated to be em­
ployed full time in 1967. This number
included research assistants and

marketing research. A master’s degree
in business administration is becom­
ing increasingly desirable, especially
for advancement to higher level posi­
tions. Many people qualify for posi­
tions in marketing research through
experienced gained in other kinds of
research jobs or in work related to
the field of marketing. University
teachers with experience in teaching,
marketing research, or statistics some­
times are sought by employers to head
new marketing research departments.
Among the college courses consid­
ered valuable as preparation for work
in marketing research are marketing,
statistics, English composition, speech,
psychology, and economics. Candi­
dates for some marketing research
positions need specialized training in
engineering or other technical sub­
jects, or a substantial amount of sales
experience and a thorough knowl­
edge of the company’s products. A
knowledge of electronic data-processing procedures is becoming important
because of the growing use of elec­
tronic computers in sales forecasting,
distribution, cost analysis, and other
aspects of marketing research. Gradu­
ate training may be necessary for
some kinds of work—for example,
motivational research or sampling
and other statistical work connected
with large-scale surveys.
Trainees in marketing research
usually start as research assistants or
junior analysts. At first, they are likely
to do considerable clerical work, such
as copying information from pub­
lished sources, editing and coding
questionnaires, and tabulating results
of questionnaires returned in surveys.
They also learn how to conduct inter­
views and how to write reports on
survey findings.
After a few years of experience, as­
sistants and junior analysts may ad­
vance to higher level positions, with
responsibility for specific marketing
research projects, or to supervisory
positions. An exceptionally able indi­
Training, Other Qualifications, and
vidual may eventually become mar­
keting research director or vice presi­
A bachelor’s degree is usually re­ dent in charge of marketing and
quired to enter trainee positions in sales.
others in junior positions, who helped
experienced analysts collect informa­
tion and prepare reports, as well as
research supervisors and directors.
The majority of these workers were
men; positions held by women were
most frequently at the junior profes­
sional levels.
In addition to these marketing re­
search workers, a limited number of
other professional employees (statis­
ticians, economists, psychologists, and
sociologists) and several thousand
clerical workers (clerks who code and
tabulate survey returns, typists, and
others) were employed full time in
this field. Thousands of additional
workers, many of them women, were
employed on a part-time or tem­
porary basis as survey interviewers.
Among the principal employers of
marketing research workers are
manufacturing companies and in­
dependent advertising and marketing
research organizations which do this
kind of work for clients on a contract
basis. Marketing research workers
also are employed by very large stores,
radio and television firms, and news­
papers; others work for university re­
search centers, government agencies,
and other organizations which pro­
vide information for businessmen.
Marketing research organizations
range in size from one-man enter­
prises to large firms with a hundred
employees or more.
The largest number of marketing
research workers are in New York
City, where many major advertising
and independent marketing research
organizations are located and where
many large manufacturers have their
central offices. The second largest
concentration is in Chicago. How­
ever, marketing research workers are
employed in many other cities—
wherever there are central offices of
large manufacturing and sales or­


Marketing research workers must
have exceptional ability in recogniz­
ing and defining problems, and imag­
ination and ingenuity in applying
marketing research techniques to
their solution. Above all, this work
calls for the ability to analyze infor­
mation and to write reports which
will convince management of the
significance of the information.
Employment Outlook

College graduates well prepared in
marketing research methods and sta­
tistics are likely to find very good job
opportunities in this growing occupa­
tion through the 1970’s. It is ex­
pected that existing marketing re­
search organizations will expand and
that many new marketing research
departments and new independent
research firms will be set up. In addi­
tion to growth needs, many openings
will occur each year as persons retire,
die, or leave the field for other
The demand for marketing re­
search services is expected to increase
during the next 10 years as the con­
stant stream of new products height­
ens competition for customers. Busi­
ness managers will find it increasingly
important to obtain the best informa­
tion possible for appraising market­
ing situations and planning market­
ing policies. As marketing research
techniques improve and more statis­
tical data accumulate, company of­
ficials are likely to turn to marketing
research workers for information and
advice with increasing frequency.

ample, in 1966, earnings of market­ Additional information on market­
ing research directors averaged about ing research may be obtained from:
$16,000; earnings of senior analysts American Marketing Association,
generally ranged between $12,000 230 North Michigan Ave., Chicago,
111. 60601.
and $15,000 a year.
Marketing research workers usu­
ally work in modem, centrally located
offices. Some, especially those em­
ployed by independent research firms, (D.O.T. 166.088 through .268 and
do a considerable amount of traveling
169.118 and .168)
in connection with their work. Also
they may frequently work under pres­
sure and for long hours to meet dead­
Nature of Work
Attracting and keeping the best em­
ployees available, and matching them
Where To Go for More Information to jobs they can do effectively are im­
the successful operation
Information about specialized types portant for and government. Person­
of business
of marketing research is contained in
a report entitled “Selecting Market­ nel workers are responsible for help­
ing Research Services” which may be ing their employers attain these ob­
jectives. They develop recmiting and
obtained from:
hiring procedures, interview job ap­
Small Business Administration,
plicants, and select and recommend
Washington, D.C. 20416.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Annual starting salaries for market
research trainees averaged about
$6,900 in 1967, according to the
limited data available. People with
master’s degrees in related fields usu­
ally started at higher salaries.
Earnings are substantially higher
for experienced marketing research
workers who attain positions with
considerable responsibility. For ex­


Interviewing job applicants is an important responsibility in personnel work.

the ones they consider best qualified
for the openings to be filled. In addi­
tion, personnel workers counsel em­
ployees, deal with disciplinary prob­
lems, classify jobs, plan wage and
salary scales, develop safety programs,
and conduct research in personnel
methods. Employee training, the ad­
ministration of retirement and other
employee benefit plans, and labormanagement relations—including the
negotiation of agreements with
unions—are also important aspects
of their work.
Many personnel jobs require only
limited contact with people; others
involve frequent contact with em­
ployees, union representatives, job
applicants, and other people in and
outside the company.
Business organizations with large
personnel departments employ per­
sonnel workers in many different
levels of responsibility. Usually, the
department is headed by an executive
with the title of Personnel Director;
other titles sometimes used are Indus­
trial Relations Director, Labor Rela­
tions Director, or Employee Relations
Director. The department head for­
mulates personnel policy, advises
other company officials on personnel
matters, and administers his depart­
ment. Within the department, super­
visors and various specialists—in
labor relations, wage administration,
training, safety, job classification, and
other aspects of the personnel pro­
gram—may be responsible for the
work of staff assistants and clerical
employees. Small business organiza­
tions employ relatively few personnel
workers. Sometimes one person may
be responsible for all the personnel
activities as well as other types of
Personnel workers in Federal, State,
and local government agencies do
much the same kind of work in about
the same kind of departmental organ­
ization as do those employed in large
business firms. Government personnel
workers, however, spend considerably
more time in activities related to
classifying jobs, and in devising, ad­
ministering, and scoring the competi­


tive examinations given to job appli­ who are not college graduates entered
the field in this way.
College graduates with a major in
personnel administration are pre­
ferred for beginning positions by
Where Employed
many employers in private industry;
Personnel workers are employed in graduates with a general business ad­
nearly all kinds of business enterprises ministration background are pre­
and government agencies. The total ferred by others. A liberal arts educa­
number employed in 1967 was esti­ tion is considered the most desirable
mated to be more than 100,000. Well preparation for personnel work by
over half of all personnel workers still other employers. Young people
were employed by private firms. Large interested in personnel work in gov­
numbers also were employed by Fed­ ernment are often advised to major
eral, State, and local government in public administration, political
agencies. A small group of personnel science, or personnel administration;
workers were in business for them­ however, those with other college
selves, often as management con­ majors also are eligible for personnel
sultants or labor relations experts. In positions in government.
addition, colleges and universities For some positions, more specialized
employed some professionally trained training may be necessary. Jobs in­
personnel workers as teachers of volving testing or employee counsel­
courses in personnel administration, ing often require a bachelor’s degree
industrial relations, and similar with a major in psychology and some­
times a graduate degree in this field.
Most personnel workers are em­ An engineering degree may be desir­
ployed in large cities and in the highly able for work dealing with time
industrialized sections of the country. studies or safety standards, and a
More than three-fourths of all per­ degree with a major in industrial rela­
sonnel workers are men. Many tions may be helpful for work involv­
women, however, occupy personnel ing labor relations. A background in
positions in organizations that employ accounting may be useful for positions
large numbers of women workers— concerned with wages, or pension and
for example, in department stores,
telephone companies, insurance com­ other employee benefit plans. orienta­
After the initial period
panies, banks, and government tion, through formal or of
training programs, college graduates
may progress to classifying jobs, inter­
Training, Other Qualifications, and viewing applicants, or handling other
personnel functions. After they have
gained experience, those with excep­
A college education is becoming tional ability may be promoted to
increasingly important for entrance executive positions such as that of
into personnel work. Some employers
hire new graduates for junior posi­ personnel director. Personnel work­
tions, and then provide training pro­ ers sometimes advance by transfer­
grams to acquaint them with their ring to other organizations with
larger personnel programs or from a
operations, policies, and problems.
Other employers prefer to fill their middle-rank position in a big cor­
personnel positions by transferring poration to the top job in a smaller
people who already have firsthand one.
Personal qualities regarded as
knowledge of operations, such as
employees in industrial engineering important for success in personnel
production supervision, and payroll work include the ability to speak and
accounting positions. A large number write effectively and a better-thanof the people now in personnel work average aptitude for working with



people of all levels of intelligence
and experience. In addition, the
prospective personnel worker should
be the kind of person who can see the
employee’s point of view as well as
the employer’s, and should be able
to give advice in the best interests of
both. A liking for detail, a high
degree of persuasiveness, and a pleas­
ing personality are important also.
Employment Outlook

employed as job analysts in private
industry was about $7,100 in early
1966; experienced job analysts aver­
aged $11,300; directors of personnel
generally earned between $10,000 and
$18,000 and some top personnel and
industrial relations executives in very
large corporations earned consider­
ably more.
In the Federal Government, inex­
perienced graduates with bachelor’s
degrees started at $5,331 a year in
early 1967; those with exceptionally
good academic records or master’s
degrees began at $6,451; a few
master’s degree holders who ranked
high in their respective classes re­
ceived $7,696 a year. Federal Govern­
ment personnel workers with higher
levels of administrative responsibility
and several years of experience in the
field were paid about $13,000; some
in charge of personnel for major de­
partments of the Federal Govern­
ment earned $18,000 or more a year.
Employees in personnel offices gen­
erally work 35 to 40 hours a week.
During a period of intensive recruit­
ment or emergency, they may work
much longer. As a rule, personnel
workers are paid for holidays and
vacations, and share in the same re­
tirement plans and other employee
benefits available to all professional
employees in the organizations where
they work.

College graduates are expected to
find many opportunities to enter
personnel work through the 1970’s.
While employment prospects will
probably be best for college grad­
uates who have specialized training
in personnel administration, positions
will be available also for people with
degrees in other fields. Opportunities
for young people to advance to per­
sonnel positions from production,
clerical, or subprofessional jobs will
be limited.
Employment in personnel work is
expected to expand rapidly as the
Nation’s employment rises. More per­
sonnel workers will be needed to
carry on recruiting, interviewing, and
related activities. Also, many employ­
ers are recognizing the importance of
good employee relations, and are
depending more heavily on the
services of trained personnel workers
to achieve this.
Employment in some specialized
areas of personnel work will rise Where To Go for More Information
faster than others. More people will
probably be engaged in psychological
General information on personnel
testing; the need for labor relations work as a career may be obtained by
experts to handle relations with writing to:
unions will probably continue to American Society for Personnel Ad­
increase; and the growth of employee
services, safety programs, pension and 52 East Bridge St., Berea, Ohio
other benefit plans, and personnel
research also is likely to continue.
Information about government
careers in personnel work may be ob­
Earnings and Working Conditions tained from:
A national survey indicated that
the average annual salary of trainees

Public Personnel Association,
1313 East 60th St., Chicago, 111.


(D.O.T. 165.068)
Nature of Work

All organizations—both profit and
nonprofit—want the public to view
them in a favorable light. Public rela­
tions workers help their employers
build and maintain such a public im­
age by keeping themselves informed
about the attitudes and opinions of
customers, employees, and other
groups important to the interests of
their employers.
Public relations workers provide
information about their employers’
business to newspapers and maga­
zines, radio and television, and other
channels of communication. They
plan the kind of publicity that they
believe will be most effective, contact
the people who may be interested in
using it, and prepare and assemble the
needed material. Many items in the
daily papers, human interest stories
in popular magazines, and pamphlets
giving information about a company,
the product it makes and job oppor­
tunities with it, have their start at
public relations workers’ desks. These
workers also may play an important
part in arranging speaking engage­
ments for company officials, and
sometimes write speeches for them to
deliver. Often they participate in
community affairs, serving as their
employers’ representatives during
safety campaigns and other commu­
nity projects. Showing a film at a
school assembly, staging a beauty
contest, calling a press conference,
and planning a convention may all
be part of a public relations worker’s
Public relations workers tailor their
programs to their employers’ partic­
ular needs. In a business firm, the
public relations worker is usually con­
cerned with his employer’s relation­
ships with employees, government
agencies, civic organizations, and
other community groups.
Public relations staffs in large firms
sometimes number 100 or more. Re­



sponsibility for developing overall
plans and policies may be shared be­
tween a vice president or other top
executive who is responsible for final
decisions, and the director of a public
relations department. In addition to
the public relations department’s
writers and research workers, there
may be specialists in different kinds
of public relations work—in prepar­
ing material for publication in the
daily press, for example, or in writing
reports sent to stockholders.
Public relations workers who han­
dle publicity for an individual or who
are in charge of a limited public rela­
tions program for a university, fra­
ternal organization, or small business
firm may handle all aspects of the
work. They make their own contacts
with outsiders, do the necessary plan­
ning and research, prepare material
for publication, and carry out other
duties. Such public relations workers
may be top-level officials or they may
occupy positions farther down the
management ladder. They may com­
bine public relations duties with ad­
vertising or other managerial work.
Where Employed

In 1967, more than 50,000 public
relations workers were employed ac­
cording to the limited data available.
About one-fourth were women. In
recent years, an increasing number of
women have entered public relations
work, particularly in department
stores, hospitals, hotels, and restau­
The majority of public relations
workers are employed by manufac­
turing firms, stores, public utilities,
trade and professional associations,
and labor unions. Others are in con­
sulting firms which provide counsel
and other kinds of public relations
services to clients on a fee basis.
Employment in public relations
work tends to be concentrated in big
cities where press services and other
communications facilities are readily
available and where large corpora­
tions and trade, professional, and

other associations have their head­
quarters. More than half of the con­
sulting firms are either in New York
City or in Los Angeles, Chicago, and
Washington, D.C.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

A college education is generally
regarded as the best preparation for
public relations work; however, em­
ployers differ in the specific type of
college background they require of
applicants. Some prefer graduates
with majors in English, journalism,
or public relations; others prefer
candidates with a background in
science or some other field related to
the firm’s business activities. In 1966,
seven colleges offered a bachelor’s
degree in public relations and six
offered the master’s degree. In addi­
tion, over 150 colleges offered at least
one course in public relations.
Among the college subjects con­
sidered desirable as preparation for a
career in public relations are journal­
ism, economics and other social
sciences, business administration, psy­
chology, public speaking, literature
and physical sciences. Extracurricular
activities, which may provide students
with some valuable experience,
include writing or other work con­
nected with school publications, par­
ticipation in student government
activities, and part-time or summer
employment in selling, public rela­
tions, or related fields of work.
Among the personal qualifications
usually considered important for
work in this field are creativity, initia­
tive, drive, the ability to express
thoughts clearly and simply. Fresh
ideas are so important to effective
public relations work that some ex­
perts in this field spend all of their
time providing ideas and planning
programs but take no active part in
carrying out the programs. In select­
ing new employees, many employers
prefer people who have had some
previous work experience, par­
ticularly in journalism or some
related field.

S o m e companies—particularly
those with large public relations pro­
grams have formal training programs
for new employees. In other com­
panies, new employees learn on the
job by working under the guidance
of experienced staff members. Begin­
ners often start out maintaining files
of material about the company and
its activities, scanning newspapers
and magazines for appropriate
articles to clip, and doing the research
needed to assemble information for
speeches and pamphlets. After gain­
ing experience, they may be given
progressively more difficult assign­
ments, such as writing press releases,
speeches, and articles for publication.
Promotion to supervisory and man­
agerial positions may come as the
worker demonstrates ability to handle
more difficult and creative assign­
ments. The most skilled public rela­
tions work—initiating and develop­
ing plans and maintaining the outside
contacts which are so important in a
successful program—is usually in the
hands of the director of the depart­
ment and his most experienced staff
members. Some experienced public
relations workers eventually open
their own consulting firms as others
move on to better positions with other
Employment Outlook

Employment in this field is ex­
pected to expand rapidly through the
1970’s. In addition to the new jobs
created as expanding business firms
require the services of more public
relations specialists, other openings
will occur because of the need to re­
place workers who retire or leave the
field for other reasons.
The demand for public relations
workers is expected to grow through
the 1970’s as population increases
and the general level of business
activity rises. In recent years there has
been an increase in the amount of
funds spent on public relations, and
many companies have newly orga­
nized public relations departments.



This development will continue in relations programs are likely to be
future years.
more extensive than elsewhere. In
1966, directors of public relations
employed by medium-size firms gen­
Earnings and Working Conditions erally earned $12,000 or more annu­
ally, and those employed by large
Starting salaries for public rela­ corporations had salaries in the
tions workers averaged about $5,500 $15,000 to $25,000 range, according
a year in 1966, according to the lim­ to the Public Relations Society of
ited data available. The highest America. Some officials, such as vice
starting salaries were paid chiefly to presidents in charge of public rela­
beginners who were employed by tions, earned from $25,000 to $50,000
consulting firms in major cities and or more a year. Many consulting
who were very well qualified from firms employ fairly large staffs of
the standpoint of educational back­ experienced public relations special­
ground and previous work experi­ ists and often pay salaries which are
ence. Many public relations workers somewhat higher than the salaries
with a few years of experience earned paid public relations workers in other
between $8,000 and $12,000 a year. business organizations. In social wel­
The salaries of experienced public fare agencies, nonprofit organiza­
relations workers are generally high­ tions, and universities, salary levels
est in large companies, where public tend to be somewhat lower.

The workweek for public relations
workers is usually the same as for
other officials in their organizations—
35 to 40 hours. Irregular hours and
overtime often may be necessary,
however, to meet deadlines, prepare
or deliver speeches, attend meetings
and community functions, and make
trips out of town. Sometimes, because
of the nature of their regular assign­
ments or because of special events,
they may be on call on a round-theclock basis causing the workweek to
stretch to 6 or 7 days instead of the
usual 5.
Where To Go for More Information

The Information Center, Public Rela­
tions Society of America, Inc.
845 Third Ave., New York, N.Y.


The choice of the ministry, priest­
hood, or rabbinate as one’s lifework
involves considerations that do not in­
fluence to the same degree the selec­
tion of a career in most other occupa­
tions. When young people decide to
become clergymen, they do so pri­
marily because of their religious faith
and their desire to help others. Never­
theless, it is important for them to
know as much as possible about the
profession and how to prepare for it,
the kind of life it offers, and its needs
for personnel. They should under­
stand also that the civic, social, and
recreational activities of clergymen
are often influenced, and sometimes
restricted, by the customs and atti­
tudes of their community.
The number of clergymen needed
is broadly related to the size and
geographic distribution of the Na­
tion’s inhabitants and their participa­
tion in organized religious groups.
These factors affect the number of
churches and synagogues that are
established and, thus, the number of
pulpits to be filled. A sharp rise in
church and synagogue membership
has occurred since 1940. About 125
million people were members of orga­
nized religious groups in 1967—repre­
senting nearly two-thirds of the total
population, whereas in 1940, slightly
less than half the population belonged
to religious groups. In addition to
those who serve congregations, many
clergymen teach in seminaries and
other educational institutions, serve
as missionaries, and perform various

other duties in meeting their religious
Young people considering a career
as a clergyman should seek the coun­
sel of a religious leader of their faith
to aid them in evaluating their quali­
fications for the profession. Besides a
desire to serve the spiritual needs of
others and to lead them in religious
activities, they need a broad back­
ground of knowledge and the ability
to speak and write clearly. Emotional
stability is necessary, since a clergy­
man must be able to help others in
times of stress. Furthermore, young
people should know that clergymen
are expected to be examples of high
moral character.
The amount of income clergymen
receive depends, to a great extent, on
the size and financial status of the
congregation they serve and usually
is highest in large cities or in pros­
perous suburban areas. Earnings of
clergymen, as of most other profes­
sional groups, usually rise with
increased experience and responsibil­
ity. Most Protestant churches and a
number of Jewish congregations pro­
vide their spiritual leaders with
housing. Roman Catholic priests
ordinarily live in the rectory of a par­
ish church or are provided lodgings
by the religious order to which they
belong. Many clergymen receive al­
lowances for transportation and other
expenses necessary in their work.
Clergymen often receive gifts or fees
for .officiating at special ceremonies
such as weddings and funerals. In
some cases, these gifts or fees are an
important source of additional
income; however, they are frequently
donated to charity by the clergymen.
Some churches establish a uniform
fee for these services, which goes
directly into the church treasury.
More detailed information on the
clergy in the three largest faiths in
the United States—Protestant,
Roman Catholic, and Jewish—is
given in the following statements
which were prepared in cooperation
with leaders of these faiths. Informa­
tion on the clergy in other faiths may
be obtained directly from leaders of

the respective groups. Numerous
other church-related occupations—
those of the missionary, teacher,
director of youth organizations,
director of religious education, edi­
tor of religious publications, music
director, church secretary, recreation
leader, and many others—offer inter­
esting and satisfying careers. In addi­
tion, opportunities to work in connec­
tion with religious activities are
present in many other occupations.
Clergymen or educational directors
of local churches or synagogues can
provide information on the churchrelated occupations and other areas
offering opportunities for religious

(D.O.T. 120.108)
Nature of Work

Protestant clergymen lead their
congregations in worship services and
may administer the rites of baptism,
confirmation, and Holy Communion.
They prepare and deliver sermons
and give other talks, instruct people
who are to be received into member­
ship of the church, perform marriages,
and conduct funerals. They counsel
individuals who seek guidance, visit
the sick and shut-in, comfort those
who are bereaved, and serve their
church members in many other ways.
Protestant ministers may also write
articles for publication and engage in
interfaith, community, civic, educa­
tional, and recreational activities
sponsored by or related to the interests
of the church. A few clergymen teach
in seminaries, colleges, and uni­
The types of worship services which
ministers conduct differ among Prot­
estant denominations and also among
congregations within a denomination;
in some denominations, ministers fol­
low a traditional order of worship,
whereas in others they adapt the serv­
ices to different occasions. Most of
these services include Bible reading,



hymn singing, prayers, and a sermon.
Bible reading by a member of the
congregation and individual testi­
monials may constitute a large part
of the service in some denominations.
Ministers serving small congrega­
tions generally work on a close per­
sonal basis with their parishioners.
Those serving large congregations
usually have greater administrative
responsibilities and spend consider­
able time working with committees,
church officers, and staff, besides per­
forming their other duties. They may
have one associate or assistant or
more who share specific aspects of the
ministry, such as a Minister of Educa­
tion who assists in educational pro­
grams for different age groups.
Where Employed

In 1967, about 240,000 people
were serving as ministers of churches,
composing over 225 Protestant de­
nominations or other groups. In ad­
dition, thousands of ordained clergy­
men were in other occupations—
many closely related to the ministry.
The greatest number of clergymen
are affiliated with the four largest
groups of churches—Baptist, Meth­
odist, Lutheran, and Presbyterian—
to which about 7 out of every 10 of
nearly 70 million Protestant church
members belong. Most ministers
serve individual congregations; some
are engaged in missionary activities
in the United States and in foreign
countries; others serve as chaplains in
the Armed Forces, in hospitals, and
in other institutions; still others teach
in educational institutions, engage in
other religious educational work, or
are employed in social welfare and
related agencies. Less than 5 percent
of all ministers are women; however,
about 80 denominations ordain wom­
en. In addition, in some denomina­
tions an increasing number of women
who have not been ordained are serv­
ing as pastors’ assistants. Also, in a
growing number of denominations
certain orders of women workers are
to as
Digitized for

All cities and most towns have one
Protestant church or more with a
full-time minister. The majority of
ministers are located in cities and
towns. Many others live in less dense­
ly populated areas where each may
serve the religious needs of two con­
gregations or more in different com­
munities. A larger proportion of
Protestants than members of other
faiths live in rural areas.
Training and Other Qualifications

The educational preparation re­
quired for entry into the ministry has
a wider range than for most profes­
sions. Some religious groups have no
formal educational requirements, and
others ordain persons who have re­
ceived varying amounts of training in
liberal arts colleges, Bible colleges, or
Bible institutes. An increasingly large
number of denominations, however,
require a 3-year course of professional
study in theology following college
graduation. After completion of such
a course in a theological school, the
degree of bachelor of divinity or
sacred theology is awarded.
Ninety of the theological institu­
tions in the Nation in 1967 were
accredited by the American Associa­
tion of Theological Schools. Ac­
credited institutions admit only
students who have received the bach­
elor’s degree, or its equivalent, from
an approved college. In addition, cer­
tain character and personality quali­
fications m ust be met, and endorse­
ment by the religious group to which
the applicant belongs is required. The
American Association of Theological
Schools recommends that presemi­
nary studies be concentrated in the
liberal arts. Although courses in
English, philosophy, and history are
considered especially important, the
pretheological student should take
courses also in the natural and social
sciences, religion, and foreign lan­
guages. The standard curriculum
recommended for accredited theo­
logical schools divides the course of
studies into four major fields: Bibli­

cal, historical, theological, and prac­
tical. There is a trend toward adding
more courses in psychology, pastoral
counseling, sociology, religious educa­
tion, administration, and other stud­
ies of a practical nature. Many ac­
credited schools require that students
gain experience in church work un­
der the supervision of a faculty mem­
ber or experienced minister. Some
institutions offer the master of theol­
ogy and the doctor of theology de­
grees to students completing 1 year
or more of additional study. Scholar­
ships and loans are available for stu­
dents of theological institutions.
In general, each large denomina­
tion has its own school or schools of
theology which reflect its particular
interests and needs; however, many
of these schools are open to students
from various denominations. Several
interdenominational schools associ­
ated with universities give both un­
dergraduate and graduate training
covering a wide range of theological
points of view.
Among the personal qualifications
which most denominations seek in a
candidate for the ministry are a deep
religious conviction, a sense of dedi­
cation to Christian service, a genuine
concern for and love of people, a
wholesome personality and high
moral and ethical standards, and a
vigorous and creative mind. Because
of the demands of the ministry, good
health is a valuable asset.
Persons who have met denomina­
tional qualifications for the ministry
are usually ordained following grad­
uation from a seminary. In denomina­
tions which do not require seminary
training, clergymen are ordained at
various appointed times. Clergymen
often begin their careers as pastors of
small congregations or as assistant
pastors in large churches. Protestant
clergymen in many of the larger de­
nominations—especially those groups
which have a well-defined church or­
ganization—often are requested to
serve in positions of great administra­
tive and denominational responsi­



The supply of well-qualified Prot­
estant ministers probably will con­
tinue to be less than the demand
through the 1970’s, especially among
those denominations where the ex­
tent of formal training requires many
years of preparation for the ministry.
Although the number of students
graduating from theological schools
has increased over the past 10 years,
the gains have not been great enough
to replace the thousands of ministers
who retire, die, or leave the profes­
sion each year and at the same time
to meet the needs of newly established
congregations and to supply assistant
ministers where needed.
Many congregations—mainly those
in rural areas—did not have a full­
time ordained minister in 1967. Some
had to rely on the services of theo­
logical students or lay persons or
share the services of a pastor with
another congregation. Some large
congregations were unable to fill
openings for assistant ministers with
specialized skills. In addition, or­
dained ministers were being sought
for teaching positions; to serve in for­
eign missions, in relief work, and in
religious educational activities; as
chaplains in the Armed Forces; and
in universities, hospitals, peniten­
tiaries, and other institutions.
The total number of ministers
needed by Protestant churches will
probably increase as a result of the
expected growth in population and in
the number of congregations. The
greatest expansion is anticipated in
the suburbs of large cities. The in­
creasing opportunities for ministers in
fields such as youth and family rela­
tions work, the campus ministry, and
religious activities including chap­
laincies in institutions and industry,
also point toward a need for addi­
tional clergymen. Replacement of
those who retire, die, or leave the
ministry for other causes also will re­
quire an ever-increasing number of
newly trained ministers. In addition,
there is a growing demand for clergy­
men to serve as faculty members in

departments of religion in public and differ in the extent to which they
follow the traditional form of wor­
private universities.
ship—for example, in the wearing of
head coverings or in the use of He­
Where To Go for More Information brew as the language of prayer, or
in the use of music. Because of these
Young people who wish to enter differences, the format of the worship
the Protestant ministry should seek service and therefore the ritual that
the counsel of a minister or church the rabbis use may vary even among
guidance worker. Additional infor­ congregations belonging to the same
mation on both the ministry and other branch of Judaism.
church-related occupations are also
available from many denominational
offices. Information on admission re­
Where Employed
quirements may be obtained directly
from each theological school.
More than 5,000 rabbis served
about 5% million followers of the
Jewish faith in this country in 1966.
Most are Orthodox rabbis; the rest
are about equally divided between the
(D.O.T. 120.108)
Conservative and Reform branches
of Judaism. Most rabbis act as spirit­
ual leaders of individual congrega­
Nature of Work
tions; some serve as chaplains in the
Rabbis are the spiritual leaders of Armed Forces, in hospitals, and in
their congregations and teachers and other institutions; others teach in
interpreters of Jewish law and tradi­ educational institutions or are em­
tion. They conduct daily services and ployed in religious education work
hold special services on the Sabbath for such organizations as the Hillel
and on holidays. Rabbis are custom­ Foundation; and still others are em­
arily available at all times for counsel ployed by Jewish social welfare
to members of their congregations, agencies.
Although rabbis serve Jewish com­
other followers of Judaism , and the
munities throughout the Nation, they
community at large. Many of the
rabbis’ functions—preparing and de­ are concentrated in those States
livering sermons, performing wedding which have sizable Jewish popula­
ceremonies, visiting the sick, conduct­ tions, particularly New York, Cal­
ing funeral services, comforting the ifornia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey,
bereaved, helping the poor, supervis­ Illinois, and Massachusetts.
ing religious education programs,
engaging in interfaith activities, as­
suming community responsibilities, Training and Other Qualifications
and counseling individuals—are sim­
become eligible for
ilar to those performed by clergymen as Torabbi, a student mustordination
of other faiths. Rabbis may also write thea prescribed course of study at a
for religious and lay publications, and Jewish theological seminary.
teach in theological seminaries, col­
Entrance and training require­
leges, and universities.
ments depend upon the branch of
Rabbis serve congregations affil­ Judaism with which the seminary is
iated with 1 of the 3 branches of associated. The Hebrew Union Col­
Judaism—Orthodox (traditional), lege—Jewish Institute of Religion is
Conservative, or Reform (liberal). the only seminary that trains rabbis
Regardless of their particular point for the Reform branch of Judaism.
of view, all Hebrew congregations The Jewish Theological Seminary of
preserve the substance of Jewish re­ America is the only seminary that
ligious worship. The congregations trains rabbis for the Conservative



branch of Judaism. Both seminaries
require the completion of a 4-year
college course, as well as prior prep­
aration in Jewish studies, for admis­
sion to the rabbinic program leading
to ordination. Although 5 years are
normally required to complete the
rabbinic course at the Reform sem­
inary, exceptionally well-prepared
students can shorten this period of
study to a minimum of 3 years. The
course at the Conservative seminary
can be completed in 4 years if the
student has a strong background in
Jewish studies; otherwise, the course
may take as long as 6 years.
About 15 seminaries train Ortho­
dox rabbis. These schools have pro­
grams of various lengths, all leading
to ordination. Two of the larger
Orthodox seminaries require the com­
pletion of a 4-year college course to
qualify for ordination. However, stu­
dents who are not college graduates
may spend a longer period at each
of these seminaries and complete the
requirements for the bachelor’s de­
gree at the same time they are pursu­
ing the rabbinic course. Other
Orthodox seminaries do not require
a college degree to qualify for ordina­
tion; however, in most cases students
qualifying for ordination have com­
pleted 4 years of college.
In general, the curriculums of Jew­
ish theological seminaries provide
students with a comprehensive grasp
of all aspects of Jewish knowledge,
Bible, Talmud, Rabbinic literature,
Jewish history, theology, and courses
in education, pastoral psychology, and
public speaking. The Reform semi­
nary places less emphasis on the study
of Talmud and Rabbinic literature
and offers a broad course of study that
includes such subjects as human rela­
tions and community organization.
Some seminaries grant advanced
academic degrees in such fields as
Biblical and Talmudic research. All
Jewish theological seminaries make
scholarships and loans available to
Newly ordained rabbis usually be­
gin as leaders of small congregations,
as assistants to experienced rabbis, or

as chaplains in the Armed Forces. As
a rule, the pulpits of large and wellestablished Jewish congregations are
filled by experienced rabbis.
The choice of a career as a rabbi, of
course, should be made on the basis of
a fervent belief in the religious teach­
ings and practices of Judaism and of
a desire to serve the religious needs of
others. In addition to having high
moral and ethical values, the prospec­
tive rabbi should have good judgment
and be able to write and speak

In 1967, the number of rabbis in
this country was inadequate to meet
the expanding needs of Jewish con­
gregations and other organizations
desiring their services. This situation
is likely to persist through the 1970’s.
In recent years, many congregations—
especially those located in States
where there are relatively few
persons of the Jewish faith—
were unable to secure the spiritual
leadership of a full-time ordained
rabbi and had to rely on the services
of senior theological students and lay
readers. Rabbis also have been sought
to lead the many new congregations
which had been organized in and
around New York, Chicago, Los An­
geles, Philadelphia, Boston, and other
cities with large Jewish populations.
The recent increases in Jewish re­
ligious affiliation and in the number
of synagogues and temples seem likely
to continue. Furthermore, an increas­
ing demand for rabbis to work with
social welfare and other organizations
connected with the Jewish faith is
Although the number of students
graduating annually from the Jewish
theological seminaries is expected to
increase, there will probably not be
enough new graduates to replace the
rabbis who retire or die, and to fill the
openings which will be created by the
expanding work of the large congre­
gations and by the formation of new
congregations. Immigration, once an

important source of supply of rabbis,
is no longer significant. In fact, grad­
uates of American seminaries are now
in demand for Jewish congregations
in other countries.
Where To Go for More Information

Young people who are interested in
entering the rabbinate should seek the
guidance of a rabbi. Additional in­
formation on how to prepare for serv­
ice in the rabbinate of a particular
branch of Judaism, including school
admission requirements, may be ob­
tained from each theological school.

(D.O.T. 120.108)
Nature of Work

Roman Catholic priests attend the
spiritual, moral, and educational
needs of the members of their
church. Their duties include offering
the Sacrifice of the Mass; hearing
confessions; administering the Sacra­
ments (including the sacrament of
marriage) ; visiting and comforting
the sick; conducting funeral services
and consoling survivors; counseling
those in need of guidance; and
assisting the poor. Priests give reli­
gious instruction at Mass in the form
of a sermon. They have numerous
other responsibilities to assure that
the work of the church continues.
Priests spend long hours perform­
ing services for the church and the
community. Their day usually begins
with morning meditation and Mass
and may end with an evening visit
to the local hospital or the hearing
of confessions. In addition, each day
priests spend time in prayer. Many of
them serve on church committees or
in civic organizations and assist in
community projects. Various socie­
ties that carry on charitable and
social programs also depend upon
priests for direction.
Although all priests have the same
powers acquired through ordination



by a bishop, they are classified in two
main jpategories—diocesan and re­
ligious—by reason of their way of life
and the type of work to which they
are assigned. Diocesan priests (some­
times called secular priests) generally
work as individuals in the parishes to
which they are assigned by the bishop
of their diocese. Religious priests are
members of religious orders—for
example Jesuits, Dominicans, or
Franciscans—and generally work as
members of a community in special­
ized activities, such as teaching or
missionary work, assigned to them by
the superiors of the orders to which
they belong.
Both religious and secular priests
hold teaching and administrative
posts in the Catholic seminaries, uni­
versities and colleges, and high
schools. Priests attached to religious
orders staff a large proportion of the
institutions of higher education and
many high schools, whereas secular
priests are primarily concerned with
the parochial schools attached to
parish churches and with diocesan
high schools. The members of reli­
gious orders do most of the missionary
work conducted by the Catholic
Church in this country and in the
foreign field.
Where Employed

More than 59,000 priests served
over 46 million Catholics in the
United States in 1967. There are
priests in nearly every city and town
and in many rural communities; how­
ever, the majority are in heavily pop­
ulated metropolitan areas, where
most of the Catholic population is
located. Catholics are concentrated
in the Northeast and the Great Lakes
regions, with smaller concentrations
in California, Texas, and Louisiana.
A large number of priests are located
in communities near Catholic educa­
tional and other institutions. Many
are stationed throughout the world
as missionaries. Others travel con­
stantly on missions to local parishes
throughout the country. Some priests

serve as chaplains with the Armed sities in Rome. Many priests also do
Forces or in hospitals or other graduate work at other universities
in fields unrelated to theology. Priests
are commanded by the law of the
Catholic Church to continue their
studies, at least informally, after
Training and Other Qualifications
The course of study for the priest­
Young men are never denied entry
hood takes at least 8 years after grad­ into seminaries because of lack of
uation from high school. Most stu­ funds. In seminaries for secular
dents take this training in theological priests, the bishop may make arrange­
seminaries—first, in a minor seminary ments for loans to the students. Those
(usually for 2 years), then in a major in religious seminaries are often fi­
seminary which offers 6 years of ad­ nanced by contributions of bene­
vanced training. In 1967, over 48,000 factors.
students, known as seminarians, were
Among the qualities considered
enrolled in more than 600 seminaries most desirable in candidates for the
in the United States. High school Catholic priesthood are a love of and
graduates with the desired scholastic concern for people, a deep religious
background—an academic course, in­ conviction, a desire to spread the
cluding Latin—can complete the mi­ Gospel of Christ, at least average in­
nor seminary in 2 years and then ad­ tellectual ability, capacity to speak
vance to the major seminary. Ele­ and write correctly, and more than
mentary school graduates may enter average skill in working with people.
the minor seminary where they com­ Candidates for the priesthood must
plete their high school work before understand that priests are not per­
taking the 2 years of college level mitted to marry and are dedicated to
work. Courses include Christian doc­ a life of chastity.
trine, Latin, Greek, English, at least
The first assignment of a newly
one other modern language, rhetoric ordained secular priest is usually that
and elocution, history, geography, of assistant pastor or curate. Newly
bookkeeping, mathematics, and nat­ ordained priests of religious orders
ural sciences.
are assigned to the specalized duties
At the major seminary, the first 2 for which they are trained.
years are devoted to the study of
philosophy, scripture, church history,
and the natural sciences as related to
religion. During the remaining 4
A growing number of priests will
years, the course of study includes
sacred scripture; apologetics; dog­ be needed in the years ahead to pro­
matic, moral, and pastoral theology; vide for the spiritual, educational,
homiletics; church history; liturgy; and social needs of the rising number
and canon law. Diocesan and religious of Catholics in the Nation. Although
priests attend different major semi­ the number of seminarians has in­
naries, where slight variations in the creased steadily in recent years, the
training reflect the differences in the number of ordained priests is not suf­
type of work expected of them as ficient to fill the needs of newly
priests. During the later years of his established parishes and expanding
seminary course, the candidate re­ colleges and other Catholic institu­
ceives from his bishop a succession of tions, and to replace priests who die.
orders culminating in his ordination Although priests usually continue at
their work longer than persons in
to the priesthood.
Most postgraduate work in the­ other professions, the varied demands
ology is taken either at Catholic Uni­ and long hours create a need for
versity of America (Washington, young priests to assist the older ones.
D.C.) or at the ecclesiastical univer­ Also, an increasing number of priests


have been serving in many diverse
areas—for example, in religious
radio, newspaper, and television
work, labor-management mediation
and in foreign posts, particularly in
countries with a shortage of priests.
Continued expansion of such activi­
ties, in addition to the expected fur­
ther growth in Catholic population,

will require a steady increase in the priest. Additional information re­
number of priests through the 1970’s. garding different religious orders and
the secular priesthood, as well as a
list of the various seminaries which
Where To Go for More Information
prepare students for the priesthood,
Young men interested in entering may be obtained from Diocesan
the priesthood should seek the guid­ Directors of Vocations, or from the
ance and counsel of their parish diocesan chancery office.

Forests, rangelands, wildlife, and
water are part of our country’s great
wealth of natural resources. Con­
servationists protect, develop, and
manage natural resources to assure
that they are not needlessly ex­
hausted, destroyed, or damaged, and
that future needs for the resources
will be met.
Specialized training is generally re­
quired to work in conservation occu­
pations. Many positions can be filled
only by those having at least a bache­
lor’s degree. For other positions, the
desired training may be obtained on
the job.
This chapter includes descriptions
of three conservation occupations—
forester, forestry aid, and range man­
ager. Soil conservationist, a related
occupation, is discussed elsewhere in
this Handbook.

supervise the harvesting and cutting
of trees, purchase and sale of trees
and timber, and reforestation activ­
ities (renewing the forest cover by
seeding or planting). Foresters also
safeguard forests from fire, destruc­
tive animals and insects, and diseases.
Other responsibilities of foresters in­
clude wildlife protection and water­
shed management, and the manage­
ment of camps, parks, and grazing
Foresters usually specialize in one
area of work, such as timber manage­
ment, fire control, forest economics,
outdoor recreation, watershed man­
agement, wildlife management, or
range management. Some of these
specialized activities are becoming
recognized as distinct professions.
The profession of range managers,
for example, is discussed in a separate
statement in this chapter. Foresters
may also engage in research activi­

ties, extension work (providing for­
estry information to farmers, logging
companies, and the public), forest
marketing, and college and university
Where Employed

An estimated 23,000 persons were
employed as foresters in the United
States in early 1967. About 8,000
were employed by the Federal Gov­
ernment, mainly in the Forest Service
of the Department of Agriculture.
Other Federal agencies employing
significant numbers of foresters were
the Departments of the Interior and
Defense. State governments em­
ployed several thousand foresters,
and a few hundred were employed
by local governments.
About 8,000 foresters were em­
ployed in private industry in early


(D.O.T. 040.081)
Nature of Work

Forests are one of America’s great­
est natural resources, covering more
than one-third of the land area of the
country. Foresters manage, develop,
and protect these valuable lands and
their resources—timber, water, wild­
life, forage, and recreation areas.
They estimate the amount and value
of these resources. They plan and

Forester locates his position on aerial photograph.



1967, mainly by pulp and paper, lum­
ber, logging, and milling companies.
Some foresters were managers of
their own land. Others were in busi­
ness for themselves as consultants, or
were employed by consulting firms.
Colleges and universities employed
more than 1,000 foresters.
Training, Other Qualifications, aad

A bachelor’s degree with a major
in forestry is the minimum educa­
tional requirement for young persons
seeking professional careers in for­
estry. An advanced degree is gen­
erally required for teaching and
research positions.
Training in forestry leading to a
bachelor’s or higher degree was of­
fered in 1966 by 47 colleges and uni­
versities. The curriculums in most of
these schools include specialized for­
estry courses in five essential areas:
(1) Silviculture (methods of growing
and improving forest crops); (2) for­
est protection (primarily against fire,
insects, and disease); (3) forest man­
agement (the application of business
methods and technical forestry prin­
ciples to the operation of a forest
property); (4) forest economics
(study of the factors affecting the
supply of and the demand for for­
est products); and (5) forest utili­
zation (the harvesting, processing,
and marketing of the forest crop and
other forest resources). The curric­
ulums also include related courses
in the management of recreational
lands, watershed management, and
wildlife management, as well as
courses in mathematics, science, en­
gineering, economics, and the hu­
manities. Most colleges require that
students spend one summer in a field
camp operated by the college. Fores­
try students are also encouraged to
work other summers in jobs that will
give them firsthand experience in
forest or conservation work.
Beginning positions for forestry
graduates often involve work in a
broad range of relatively routine for­
estry activities under the supervision

 68------ 5
262-057 0 —

of experienced foresters. As they gain
experience, foresters may advance to
increasingly responsible positions in
management of forest lands or related
research activities.
Qualifications for success in fores­
try include an enthusiasm for outdoor
work and the ability to meet and
deal effectively with people. Many
jobs also require physical stamina and
a willingness to work in remote areas.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for for­
estry graduates are expected to be
good through the 1970’s. Among the
major factors underlying this antici­
pated demand are the country’s grow­
ing population and rising living
standards, which will tend to increase
the demand for forest products, and
the use of forests for recreation areas.
Forestry and related employment may
also be favorably influenced by the
growing awareness of the need to
conserve and replenish our forest re­
Private owners of timberland are
expected to employ increasing num­
bers of foresters to realize the higher
profitability of improved forestry and
logging practices. The forest products
industries also will require additional
foresters to apply new techniques for
utilizing the entire forest crop, to de­
velop methods of growing superior
stands of trees over a shorter period
of time, and to do research in genetics
and fertilization. In addition, com­
petition from metal, plastics, and
other materials is expected to stimu­
late further research to develop new
and improved wood products.
The Federal Government is likely
to offer increasing employment op­
portunities for foresters in the years
ahead, mainly in the Forest Service
of the Department of Agriculture.
Among the factors expected to con­
tribute to this expansion are the
demands for the use of national forest
resources, the trend toward more sci­
entific management of these lands,
and expanding research and conser­
vation programs in areas such as out­

door recreation, watershed manage­
ment, wildlife protection, and range
State government agencies should
also offer additional employment op­
portunities for foresters. Forest fire
control, protection against insects and
diseases, provision of technical assist­
ance to owners of private forest lands,
and other Federal-State cooperative
programs are usually channeled
through State forestry organizatons.
Growing demands for recreation fa­
cilities in forest lands are likely to
result in expansion of State parks and
other recreational areas.
College teaching and research in
such areas as forest genetics, forest
disease and insect control, forest
products utilization, and fire behavior
and control are other avenues of fa­
vorable employment opportunity for
foresters, but primarily for those with
graduate degrees.
In addition to new positions
created by the rising demand for for­
esters, a few hundred openings will
arise each year due to retirements,
deaths, and transfers out of the pro­
Opportunities for women in out­
door forestry is somewhat limited,
largely because of the strenuous phys­
ical requirements of much of the
work. The few women presently em­
ployed in forestry are engaged chiefly
in research, administration, and edu­
cational work; future opportunities
for women are also likely to be pri­
marily in these fields.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In the Federal Government in
1967, beginning foresters with the
bachelor’s degree could start at either
$5,331 or $6,451 a year, depending
on their academic record. Those with
1 or 2 years of graduate work could
begin at $6,451 or $7,696; those with
the Ph. D. degree, at $9,221 or
$10,927. District rangers employed
by the Federal Government in 1966
generally earned between $9,000 and
$12,000 a year. Foresters in top level
positions earned considerably more.

Beginning salaries of foresters em­
ployed by State governments vary
widely; but, with a few exceptions,
they tend to be lower than Federal
salaries. Entrance salaries in private
industry, according to limited data,
are fairly comparable to Federal sal­
ary levels.
College and university average
(median) salary was among the high­
est in the forestry profession in 1964,
approximately $11,000 a year, ac­
cording to a survey conducted in
1965. However, the salaries of forestry
teachers at a particular level of re­
sponsibility were generally the same as
those paid other faculty members.
(See statement on College and Uni­
versity Teachers.) Foresters in educa­
tional institutions sometimes supple­
ment their regular salaries with
income from part-time consulting,
lecturing, and writing books and
As part of his regular duties, the
forester—particularly in beginning
positions—spends considerable time
outdoors under all kinds of weather
conditions. Many foresters put in
extra hours in emergency duty, such
as firefighting.


Forestry aids are often engaged in
all phases of fire prevention and con­
trol. They instruct persons using the
forest in fire precautions and preven­
tion. If a fire does occur, they may
lead firefighting crews. After the fire
has been suppressed, they take inven­
tory of the burned out area and plant
new trees and shrubs.
Where Employed

Forestry aid wraps pine tree to keep squirrels
from disturbing cones.

forest lands and their resources. (See
statement on Foresters earlier in this
Society of American Foresters,
chapter.) Their duties include scaling
1010 16th St. NW., Washington,
logs, marking trees, and collecting
D.C. 20036.
and recording such data as tree
Forest Service, U.S. Department of
heights, diameters, and mortality. On
Washington, D.C. 20250.
simple watershed improvement proj­
ects, aids install, maintain, and col­
American Forest Products Industries,
lect records from rain gauges, stream1835 K St. NW., Washington, D.C.
flow recorders, and soil moisture
measuring instruments. They may
American Forestry Association,
serve as rodmen, chainmen, or level
919 17th St. NW., Washington, D.C.
instrumentmen on road survey crews.
Forestry technicians have more re­
sponsible and difficult duties, such as
supervising on-the-ground operations
in timber sales, supervising recrea­
(D.O.T. 441.384)
tion-area use, and performing labo­
ratory research activities that require
the use of practical skills and experi­
Nature of Work
ence. Forestry technicians also super­
Forestry aids, called forestry tech­ vise survey crews engaged in road
nicians at higher career levels, assist building projects that make timber
foresters in managing and caring for accessible for harvesting.
Where To Go for More Information

An estimated 12,000 persons were
employed as forestry aids in early
1967. About 5,000 were employed by
the Federal Government, mainly by
the Forest Service of the U.S. Depart­
ment of Agriculture. Approximately
2,000 were working for State govern­
ments. About 5,000 were employed in
private industry, primarily by lum­
ber, logging, and paper milling
companies. Forestry aids also worked
in tree nurseries and in forestation
projects of mining, railroad, and oil
Many forestry aids are employed
in the heavily forested States of
Washington, California, Oregon,
Idaho, Utah, and Montana.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

Young persons qualify for begin­
ning positions as forestry aids either
by completing a specialized 1- or 2year post-secondary-school curricu­
lum or through work experience.
Curriculums designed to train for­
estry aids are offered in technical in­
stitutes, junior colleges, and ranger
schools (schools that specialize in
training forestry aids).
Among the specialized courses pro­
vided for aid training are forest men­
suration (measurement of the num­
ber and size of trees in the forest),
forest protection, dendrology (iden­
tification of trees and shrubs), wood
utilization, and silviculture (methods
of growing and improving forest
crops). In addition, the student takes
courses, such as drafting, surveying,
report writing, mathematics, and first



aid and spends time in a forest or
camp operated by the school, where
he obtains experience in forestry
Persons who have not had post-sec­
ondary-school training must usually
have had experience in forest work,
such as felling or planting trees and
fighting fires, to qualify for beginning
forestry aid jobs. In the Federal Gov­
ernment, the minimum experience
requirement is two seasons of related
work. Those who had some tech­
nical experience, such as estimating
timber resources, may qualify for
more responsible positions.
Qualifications considered essential
for success in this field are an en­
thusiasm for outdoor work, physical
stamina, and the ability to carry out
tasks without direct supervision. The
forestry aid also should be able to
work well with others, for much of
his work is with survey crews or in­
volves contact with users of the forest­
lands. Many jobs also require a will­
ingness to work in remote areas.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for for­
estry aids are expected to increase
rapidly through the 1970’s. Prospects
will be especially good for those with
post-high-school training in a forestry
curriculum. As the employment of
foresters continues to grow, increas­
ing numbers of forestry aids will be
needed to assist them. Also, it is ex­
pected that forestry aids will assume
some of the more routine jobs now
being done by foresters.
Private industry is expected to pro­
vide many additional employment op­
portunities for forestry aids. Forest
products industries are becoming in­
creasingly aware of the profitability
of employing technical persons knowl­
edgeable in the practical application
of scientific forest practices.
The Federal Government is also
likely to offer increasing employment
opportunities through the 1970’s,
mainly in the Forest Service of the
Department of Agriculture. Similar­
ly, State governments will probably

increase their employment of forestry
aids. Growth in Government em­
ployment will stem from factors such
as increasing demand for recreational
facilities, the trend toward more sci­
entific management of forest land
and water supplies, and an increasing
amount of timber cutting on Federal
forest land.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Annual earnings of forestry aids
range from about $4,000 to over
$7,500 a year; those with high earn­
ings usually have many years of ex­
perience. In the Federal Government,
beginning forestry aids and techni­
cians earned between $3,925 and
$5,331 a year in 1966, depending on
the applicant’s education and experi­
ence. Beginning salaries in private
industry were similar, according to
limited data.
As part of their regular duties, for­
estry aids must spend considerable
time outdoors during all weather con­
ditions. In emergencies, such as fire­
fighting and flood control, forestry
aids work many extra hours. In addi­
tion to those employed full time,
many forestry aids are hired on a sea­
sonal basis, working 3 to 6 months a
year. Climatic conditions in some
areas limit year-round field work and
jobs such as firefighting are seasonal

in nature.

Where To Go for More Information

Forest Service, U.S. Department of
Washington, D.C. 20250.

(D.O.T. 040.081)
Nature of Work

Rangelands cover more than 700
million acres in the United States,
mostly in the Western and Southern
States. Range managers, also called

range conservationists or range scien­
tists, are responsible for the manage­
ment, development, and protection
of these rangelands and their re­
sources. They establish systems and
plans for grazing that will yield a
high production of livestock while
preserving conditions of soil and veg­
etation necessary to meet other landuse requirements—wildlife grazing,
recreation, growing timber, and
watersheds. Range managers evaluate
forage resources; decide on the num­
ber and appropriate type of livestock
to be grazed and the best season for
grazing; restore deteriorated rangelands through seeding or plant con­
trol; and determine other range con­
servation and development needs.
Range fire protection, pest control,
and grazing trespass control are also
important areas of work. In addition,
multiple use of rangelands often ex­
tends the manager’s work into such
closely related fields as wildlife and
watershed management, land classifi­
cation, forest management, and
The range manager’s activities may
include research in range mainte­
nance and improvement, report
writing, teaching, extension work
(providing information about range
management to holders of privately
owned grazing lands), or performing
technical assignments in foreign
Where Employed

In early 1967, an estimated 3,500
professional range managers were
employed in the United States. Ap­
proximately 1,500 were employed by
Federal Government agencies, pri­
marily in the Forest Service and the
Soil Conservation Service of the De­
partment of Agriculture and in the
Bureau of Land Management of the
Department of the Interior. State
governments also employed signifi­
cant numbers of range managers.
In private industry, many range
managers are employed by privately
owned range livestock ranches. Some



The essential courses for a degree
in range management are botany,
plant ecology, and plant physiology;
zoology; animal husbandry; soils;
chemistry; mathematics; and special­
ized courses in range management,
such as identification and character­
istics of range plants, range improve­
ment, and range sampling and inven­
tory techniques. Desirable elective
courses include economics, statistical
methods, physics, geology, watershed
management, wildlife management,
surveying, and forage crops.
Federal Government agencies—
primarily the Forest Service and the
Bureau of Land Management—hire
many college juniors and seniors for
summer jobs in range management.
This experience helps students qualify
for permanent positions as range
managers when they complete col­
Because most range managers must
meet and deal with other people, in­
dividually or in groups, they should
be able to communicate their ideas
effectively, both in writing and
speaking. Many jobs require the
stamina to perform vigorous physical
activity and a willingness to work in
arid and sparsely populated areas.
Range managers record condition of range vegetation.

are in business for themselves as con­
sultants, or are employed by consult­
ing firms. Others are employed by
manufacturing, sales, and service
enterprises, and by banks and real
estate firms which need rangeland ap­
praisals. Colleges and universities
also employ range managers in teach­
ing and research positions.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

The bachelor’s degree with a major
in range management or range con­
servation is the usual requirement for
persons seeking employment as range
managers in the Federal Govern­

ment. A bachelor’s degree in a closely
related subject-matter field, such as
agronomy, animal husbandry, botany,
forestry, soil conservation, or wildlife
management, with courses in range
management and range conservation,
is also accepted as adequate prepara­
tion. Graduate degrees are generally
required for teaching and research
Training leading to a bachelor’s
degree with a major in range man­
agement was offered in 1966 by 18
colleges and universities, mainly in
Western and Southwestern States.
Most of these schools also grant the
master’s degree, and a few award the

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
graduates with degrees in range man­
agement are expected to be good
through the 1970’s. The demand will
be especially good for well-qualified
persons with advanced degrees to fill
research and teaching positions.
Opportunities will probably be best
in Federal agencies. Favorable op­
portunities are also expected in
private industry, since range livestock
producers and private timber opera­
tors are hiring increasing numbers of
range managers to improve their
range holdings. Some openings are
expected for range managers to give
technical assistance to developing
countries of the Middle East, Africa,
and South America.
Among the major factors under­
lying the anticipated growth in de­


mand for range managers are popula­
tion growth, increasing per capita
consumption of animal products, and
the growing use of rangelands for
hunting and other recreational activi­
ties. Many openings are expected
because of the more intensive man­
agement of range resources with
increasing emphasis on multiple uses
of rangelands. Range managers will
also be needed to help rehabilitate
deteriorated rangelands, improve
semiarid lands, and deal with water­
shed problems.
Opportunities for women in this
profession are limited because of the
rigorous work generally required and
the remote locations of employment.
However, a few women, usually with
training in botany, work on classifica­
tion and identification of range

Earnings and Working Conditions

In the Federal Government in
early 1967, starting salaries for range
managers with the bachelor’s degree
were either $5,331 or $6,451 a year,
depending upon their college record.
Beginning salaries for those with 1 or
2 years of graduate work were $6,451
or $7,696; and for those with the
Ph. D., $9,221 or $10,927.
Starting salaries for range managers
employed by State governments and
private industry in 1967 were about
the same as those paid by the Federal
Government. In colleges and univer­
sities, starting salaries were generally
the same as those paid other faculty
members. (See statement on College
and University Teachers.) Range
managers in educational institutions
sometimes augment their regular sal­

aries with income from part-time con­
sulting and lecturing and from writ­
ing books and articles.
Range managers may spend consid­
erable time away from home working
outdoors in remote parts of the range.
Where To Go for More Information

American Society of Range Manage­
Box 13302, Portland, Oreg. 97213.
Bureau of Land Management,
U.S. Department of Interior,
Washington, D.G. 20240.
Forest Service,
U.S. Department of Agricultui
Washington, D.C. 20250.
Soil Conservation Service,
U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Washington, D.C. 20250.

with other professional occupations
also provide counseling services. The
occupation most closely related to
counselor is counseling psychologist.
Many social workers also provide
counseling services. These two occu­
pations as well as others in which
workers do some counseling but
whose primary work is in teaching,
health, law, religion, or other fields
are described elsewhere in the Hand­
book. For information on counseling
services provided by college and uni­
versity staff members and by person­
nel workers in government and indus­
try, see the statements on College
The primary objectives of profes­ Placement Officers and Personnel
sional counseling are to help persons Workers.
understand themselves and their
opportunities better, so that they can
make and carry out decisions and
plans that hold potential for a more
(D.O.T. 045.108)
satisfying and productive life. What­
ever the area of counseling—per­
sonal, educational, or vocational—
Nature of Work
counselors need a concern for indi­
viduals combined with a capacity for
The personal and social develop­
objectivity; and a belief in the
ment of students, the prevention or
worthwhileness and uniqueness of
each individual, in his right to make correction of problems that may in­
and accept responsibility for his own terfere with their success, and their
decisions, and in his potential for educational and vocational decisions
are the concern of school counselors.
This chapter deals in detail with In carrying out their responsibilities,
three generally recognized specialties counselorsand in with students indi­
groups, with their
in the field: School counseling, reha­ vidually
parents, and with teachers and other
bilitation counseling, and vocational
school personnel.
or employment counseling.
Counselors in secondary schools
School Counselors are the largest
counseling group. They are concerned obtain information relevant to educa­
with the personal and social devel­ tional and vocational planning from
opment of pupils and the planning student interviews, school and other
and achievement of their educational records, and tests that assist in esti­
and vocational goals.
mating a student’s chances of success
Rehabilitation Counselors work in a given occupation. The counselor
with persons who are physically, may administer the tests. The coun­
mentally, or socially handicapped. selor helps the student analyze and
Their counseling is vocationally interpret the data and develops with
oriented but involves personal coun­ him, and sometimes with his parents,
seling as well.
a course of study and an educational
Vocational Counselors are con­ plan fitting his abilities, interests, and
cerned primarily with career plan­ vocational opportunities.
ning and job adjustment. They may
In their work, counselors may pro­
work with the young, the old, the vide occupational information, in­
cluding description of the work, train­
able-bodied, and the disabled.
Some people who are identified ing requirements, earnings, and out­

look. They maintain files or libraries
of occupational literature for students
and parents to use. They also arrange
trips to factories and business firms
and show vocational films. Many
counselors conduct “career day” pro­
grams. School counselors also provide
information and reference materials
on various sources of post-high school
education and training, including 2and 4-year colleges; trade, technical
and business schools; apprenticeship
programs, programs under the Man­
power Development and Training
Act of 1962; and other training
Counselors in secondary schools
also may help students find part-time
work while in school to enable them
to stay in school or as part of their
vocational preparation. They may
also assist students in locating full­
time employment after leaving school
or may refer them to community em­
ployment services. Some counselors
conduct followup studies of recent
graduates and dropouts, cooperate in
surveys of local job opportunities, and
conduct or cooperate in research con­
cerning the effectiveness of the edu­
cational and guidance programs.
Many secondary school counselors
help students individually with per­
sonal and social problems that are
common to adolescence. They may
lead discussion groups on various
topics related to student interests and
The elementary school counselor
is an emerging specialization. These
counselors assist children to make
maximum use of their abilities
through early identification of their
intellectual, emotional, social, and
physical characteristics, and diagno­
sis of learning difficulties.
The methods used in counseling
elementary school children neces­
sarily differ in many respects from
those used with older students.
Classroom observation and play ac­
tivity are among the techniques used
with children in the lower grades.
Elementary school counselors spend
much of their time consulting with



parents and teachers. They also work
closely with other staff members of
the school, including psychologists
and social workers.
Some school counselors, particu­
larly in secondary schools, may teach
classes in occupational information,
social studies, or other subjects in ad­
dition to counseling. They also may
supervise school clubs or other extra­
curricular activities, often after regu­
lar school hours.
Where Employed

Approximately 45,000 persons per­
formed some counseling functions in
the public secondary schools during
the 1965-66 school year, according
to the U.S. Office of Education.
More than 25,000 persons were full­
time counselors. Counseling services
in the elementary schools are being
steadily expanded, but the number
of trained counselors at this level is
still small.
The majority of counselors are in
large schools. An increasing number
of school districts, however, are pro­
viding guidance services to their
High school counselor and student discuss postgraduation plans.
small schools by assigning several
schools to a counselor.
About one-half of all high school
counselors are women.
selors usually enroll in the regular in an increasing number of training
program of teacher education, pref­ programs. Counselor education pro­
erably taking additional courses in grams at the graduate level are avail­
psychology and sociology. After able in about 350 colleges and uni­
Training, Other Qualifications, and
graduating from college, they may versities, most frequently in the
acquire the teaching or other experi­ departments of education or psychol­
ence required either before or while ogy. To obtain a master’s degree, a
Most States require counselors to studying for their advanced degrees. student must complete 1 to 2 years
have both a counseling and a teach­ In some States, teachers who have of graduate study. School counselors
ing certificate. (See statement on completed part of the courses required may advance to counselor supervisors
Elementary and Secondary School for the master’s degree are eligible or directors of pupil personnel
Teachers for teaching certificate re­ for provisional certification and may services.
quirements.) A counseling certifi­ counsel under supervision while tak­
cate requires graduate level work and ing additional courses. The subject
usually from 1 to 5 years of teaching areas of the required graduate level
Employment Outlook
experience. A person planning to courses usually include individual ap­
counsel should obtain the specific re­ praisal, vocational development and
Employment opportunities for
quirements of the State in which he informational services, counseling well-trained school counselors are ex­
plans to work since requirements vary theory, statistics and research, group pected to be excellent through the
considerably among the States and procedures, professional relations and 1970’s. In early 1967, the supply of
are changing rapidly.
ethics, and program development qualified counselors was inadequate
Undergraduate college students and management. Supervised field to meet the existing demand, and this
interested in becoming school coun­ experience or internship is provided imbalance is expected to persist in

the years ahead. Job openings for
counselors are expected to increase
rapidly through the 1970’s just to
keep pace with the anticipated
growth in school enrollments. Thus,
a substantial increase in the demand
for counselors is expected even with­
out allowing for any further strength­
ening of counseling services. The
average ratio of counselors to stu­
dents as a whole is still well below
generally accepted standards, despite
the financial aid which the Federal
Government has provided to States
for school counseling programs un­
der the National Defense Education
Act of 1958, as amended and other
In addition to the number of
counselors needed to take care of en­
rollment growth and strengthening
of counseling services, several thou­
sand new counselors will also be re­
quired each year to replace those
leaving the profession. According to
recent data from the U.S. Office of
Education, about 10 percent of all
counselors leave the field annually
because of family responsibilities, re­
tirement, promotion to administrative
jobs, or for other reasons.
Among the factors affecting the
employment growth of school coun­
selors is the increasing recognition of
counseling as an essential educational
service for all pupils—the average,
the gifted, the slow, and the handi­
capped. Moreover, recent Federal
legislation has extended support of
school counseling services to elemen­
tary schools, technical schools, and
junior colleges.
Also contributing to the increased
demand for counseling services is the
growing public awareness of the value
of guidance services in helping stu­
dents with personal and social prob­
lems which, in turn, may help reduce
the number of school dropouts. The
employment growth of counselors also
will be influenced by the great num­
ber of high school students planning
to go to college when admission re­
quirements are being tightened and
the large number of young people


who will be entering the labor force REHABILITATION COUNSELORS
for the first time. Many students will
(D.O.T. 045.108)
be seeking advice from school coun­
selors about rising educational re­
quirements for entry jobs, the job
changes caused by automation and
Nature of Work
other technological advances, and
places where employment can be Helping handicapped persons make
a satisfactory occupational adjust­
ment is the primary responsibility of
the rehabilitation counselor. The
Earnings and Working Conditions
counselor interviews handicapped
persons to obtain necessary informa­
According to the U.S. Office of Ed­ tion about their abilities, interests,
ucation, the average annual salary of and limitations. Information devel­
school counselors was about $8,000 in oped in the interviews is used with
the 1965-66 school year. Many school other medical, psychological, and
counselors had annual earnings higher social data to help the handicapped
than those of classroom teachers with person evaluate himself in relation to
comparable educational preparation the kind of work that is suitable to his
and experience. (See statements on physical and mental capacity, in­
Kindergarten and Elementary School terests, and talents. A plan of rehabil­
Teachers and Secondary School itation may then be worked out
Teachers.) Some of these counselors jointly by the counselor, the handi­
had extra earnings because they work capped person, and those providing
1 or 2 months longer each year than medical treatment, occupational
the classroom teachers. However, training, and other special services.
some school systems paid counselors The counselor holds regular inter­
an additional amount unrelated to views with the disabled person to
the numbers of months worked.
discuss the program, check on the
In most school systems, counselors progress made, and help resolve prob­
receive regular salary increments as lems. When the individual is ready
their counseling experience increases for employment, the counselor assists
and as they obtain additional educa­ in finding a suitable job and often
tion. Some counselors supplement makes followup visits to be sure that
their income by part-time consulting the placement is satisfactory.
An increasing number of coun­
or other work with private or public
counseling centers, government agen­ selors specialize in a particular area
of rehabilitation; for example, some
cies, or private industry.
work almost exclusively with the
blind, some with alcoholics, and
others with the mentally ill or re­
Where To Go for More Information
tarded. Additional specialties are ex­
Information on colleges and uni­ pected to develop as services for other
versities offering training in guidance types of difficulties are included in
and counseling, as well as on the cer­ rehabilitation programs.
The time spent in the direct coun­
tification requirements of each State,
seling of each individual varies with
may be obtained from the State de­
partment of education at the State the person and the nature of his dis­
ability as well as with the counselor’s
workload. Some rehabilitation coun­
Additional information on this field selors are responsible for many,
of work may be obtained from:
persons in various stages of rehabil­
American School Counselor Associa­
itation; on the other hand, less
experienced or specialized counselors
1605' New Hampshire Ave. NW.,
working with the severely handi­
Washington, D.C. 20009.



capped may handle relatively few
cases at a time. In addition to work­
ing with the handicapped person, the
counselor must also maintain close
contact with other professional people
working with handicapped persons,
members of their families, other agen­
cies and civic groups, and private
employers who hire the handicapped.
The counselor is often responsible for
related activities, such as employer
education and community publicity
for the rehabilitation program.
Where Employed

About 6,700 rehabilitation coun­
selors were employed in early 1967,
approximately four-fifths were full­
time counselors. About three-fourths
of all rehabilitation counselors were
employed in State and local rehabil­
itation agencies financed coopera­
tively with Federal and State funds.
The remainder were employed by
hospitals, labor unions, insurance
companies, special schools, rehabil­
itation centers, sheltered workshops,
and other public and private agencies
that conducted rehabilitation pro­
grams and provided job placement
services for the disabled. In addition,
nearly 350 counseling psychologists
in the Veterans Administration pro­
vided rehabilitation counseling.
An estimated 20 percent of all re­
habilitation counselors are women.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

A general educational requirement
for entry into this occupation is grad­
uation from a college or university
with course credits in counseling,
psychology, and related fields. At
present, however, uniform require­
ments have not been established.
Most employers prefer to hire people
who have a master’s degree in voca­
tional or rehabilitation counseling or
in a related discipline such as psy­
chology, education, or social work; a
few require a doctorate in counseling
psychology. Employers are placing

increasing emphasis on the master’s
degree as the minimum educational
standard for the profession. Work
experience in related fields, such as
vocational counseling and placement,
social work, psychology, education,
and other types of counseling, is also
given considerable weight by some
employers, especially when consider­
ing applicants who have only the
bachelor’s degree.
Two years usually are required to
complete the master’s degree in the
fields of study preferred for rehabil­
itation counseling. The curriculum
for the master’s degree may include a

basic foundation in psychology and
courses in: Medical aspects of reha­
bilitation, cultural and psycho-social
aspects of disability, survey of thera­
peutic care and rehabilitation, legis­
lative aspects of rehabilitation, coun­
seling theories and techniques, occu­
pational and educational information,
community resources, placement and
follow-up, and tests and measure­
To earn the doctorate in rehabilita­
tion counseling or in counseling psy­
chology may require a total of 4 to 6
years of graduate study. Intensive
training in psychology, other social



sciences, and the biological sciences
as well as research methodology is re­
quired for the doctorate.
In the 1966-67 school year, 56 col­
leges and universities offered financial
assistance to a limited number of
graduate students specializing in re­
habilitation counseling through train­
ing grants provided by the U.S. De­
partment of Health, Education, and
Welfare, Vocational Rehabilitation
Administration. In these graduate
programs an internship (supervised
work in a rehabilitation setting) is
In approximately three-fourths of
the State Rehabilitation Agencies, ap­
plicants are required to comply with
State civil service and merit system
rules. In most cases these regulations
require the applicants to take a writ­
ten competitive examination, which
is sometimes supplemented by an in­
dividual interview and evaluation by
a board of examiners. A few States
require counselors to be residents of
the State in which they work.
Counselors who have limited expe­
rience usually are assigned the least
difficult cases; experienced and highly
trained counselors are assigned per­
sons with extreme or multiple dis­
abilities that represent difficult re­
habilitation problems. After obtaining
considerable experience, rehabilita­
tion counselors may be advanced to
supervisory positions or to top ad­
ministrative jobs.
Among the personal qualifications
needed for success in this field are an
understanding of human behavior,
patience, and a capacity for working
with people in solving their problems.
Employment Outlook

The outlook for well-qualified re­
habilitation counselors is expected to
remain excellent through the 1970’s.
Persons with graduate work in reha­
bilitation counseling or in related
fields will have the best opportunities
for employment. Opportunities will
be available also for persons with a
bachelor’s degree and related work

The supply of qualified rehabilita­
tion counselors was inadequate to
meet the counseling needs of the
mentally and physically handicapped
in early 1967. The Vocational Reha­
bilitation Administration estimates
that at least 2,000 new counselors
will be needed annually through the
1970’s to staff new and expanding
programs and to replace counselors
who leave the profession. This annual
demand exceeds considerably the
number presently being trained at
graduate levels and entering the field.
Over the next few years, the supply
of rehabilitation counselors will be
augmented to some extent by people
from related fields, but the most
closely related disciplines (psychol­
ogy, social work, and education) are
those in which the demand for quali­
fied workers with graduate degrees is
also expected to exceed the supply for
several years to come.
Among the factors contributing
substantially to the long-run demand
for the services of rehabilitation
counselors will be population growth,
with related increases in the number
of handicapped to be served; the
extension of vocational rehabilitation
to greater numbers of more severely
disabled persons; increasing support
for social welfare in general; and the
growing awareness that expenditures
for rehabilitation are often returned
as savings on the appropriations for
custodial care or health and social
welfare programs.

Counselors may spend only part of
their time counseling in their offices,
and the remainder in the field work­
ing with prospective employers, train­
ing agencies, and the disabled per­
son’s family. The ability to drive a
car is often necessary for field work.
Rehabilitation counselors generally
work a 40-hour week or less with little
overtime work required; however,
they often attend community and
civic meetings in the evenings. They
are usually covered by sick and an­
nual leave benefits, and pension and
health plans.

Earnings and Working Conditions


According to the U.S. Department
of Health, Education, and Welfare,
the beginning salary of rehabilitation
counselors employed in State agencies
in mid-1966 generally ranged from
$5,500 to $7,500 a year. Counselors
with a doctorate in psychology work­
ing with the disabled in the Veterans
Administration were hired in early
1967 at annual salaries ranging gen­
erally from $11,111 to $13,321, de­
pending on the applicant’s experience
and other qualifications.

Where To Go for More Information

Additional information on reha­
bilitation counseling as a career may
be obtained from:
American Psychological Association,
1200 17th St. NW., Washington, D.C.
American Rehabilitation Counseling
1605 New Hampshire Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20009.
National Rehabilitation Counseling
1522 K St. NW., Washington, D.C.

A list of colleges and universities
that have received grants to provide
rehabilitation traineeships on a grad­
uate level is available from:
U.S. Department of Health, Educa­
tion, and Welfare,
Vocational Rehabilitation Admin­
istration, Washington, D.C. 20201.

(D.O.T. 045.108)
Nature of Work

Vocational counselors (including
employment counselors) help people
develop and accept an adequate
career goal that will use the individ­
ual’s potential and bring personal
satisfaction. They assist clients by
planning with them on how to pre­
pare for, enter, and progress in their



work. The extent of the counseling
assistance available, however, differs
among agencies.
Counselors interview the person
seeking counsel to obtain vocation­
ally significant information about his
personal traits, interests, training,
work experience, and work attitudes.
They may assist the individual in
filling out questionnaires concerning
his personal history and background,
which are then reviewed together.
Additional data on the person’s gen­
eral intelligence, aptitudes and
abilities, physical capacities, knowl­
edge, skills, interests, and values are
also obtained from tests and personal
inventories which may be admin­
istered or recorded by the counselor
or a specialist in testing. Further in­
formation may be assembled by the
counselor or by the client from
sources such as former employers,
schools, and health or other agencies.
In subsequent interviews, coun­
selors assist the applicant in evaluat­
ing and understanding his own work
potential and provide him the in­
formation he needs in making plans
appropriate to his talents and inter­
ests. Job requirements and employ­
ment opportunities or training pro­
grams are discussed. An employment
plan is developed jointly by the coun­
selor and his client, and a training or
work program may be developed. In
some agencies a vocational plan may
be worked out in a staff conference—
which may be attended by super­
visors, the psychologist, the testing
specialist, and a job market or oc­
cupational analyst.
In many cases the vocational or
employment counselor will refer the
client to another agency for physical
restoration, psychological, or other
services before, or concurrent with,
counseling. The vocational counselor
must be familiar with the services
available in the community and be
able to recognize what services might
be beneficial to a particular client.
Counselors may help the client by
suggesting feasible employment
sources and appropriate ways of ap­
plying for work. In instances where
the client needs further support and

assistance, the counselor may contact
employers, although clients seeking
employment are usually sent to place­
ment interviewers following counsel­
ing. After job placement or entrance
into training, counselors may follow
up to determine if additional as­
sistance is needed. The expanding re­
sponsibility of public employment
counselors for improving the employability of disadvantaged persons has
increased their contacts with these
persons during training and on the
job. It also has led to group counsel­
ing and the stationing of counselors
in neighborhood and community
Where Employed

In early 1966, the largest number
of vocational counselors—about 2,800
full time and nearly 1,500 part time—
were employed in State employment
service offices, located in every large
city and in many smaller towns. The
next largest number—probably about
1,500—worked for various private or
community agencies offering voca­
tional counseling, primarily in the

larger cities. In addition, some
worked in institutions such as prisons,
training schools for delinquent youths,
and mental hospitals. The Federal
Government employed a limited
number of vocational counselors,
chiefly in the Bureau of Indian Affairs
and the Veterans Administration.
Some people trained in vocational
counseling are engaged in research
or graduate teaching in the vocational
guidance field. About half of all voca­
tional counselors are women.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

The generally accepted minimum
educational requirement for employ­
ment counselors in State employ­
ment service offices is a bachelor’s
degree, preferably with a major in
one of the social sciences, plus 15
semester hours in counseling and re­
lated courses. An increasing number
of States are adopting a three-level
counselor classification system which
includes a counselor intern or trainee,
requiring a bachelor’s degree with 15
hours of undergraduate or graduate

Vocational counselor discusses possible jobs with client.

work in counseling related courses; a
counselor requiring a master’s degree
or 30 graduate hours in counselor re­
lated courses; and a master counselor
requiring a master’s degree and 3
years of experience, 1 of which should
be in employment service counseling.
Minimum entrance requirements
are not standardized among private
and community agencies, but most of
them prefer, and many require, a
master’s degree in vocational counsel­
ing or in a related field such as psy­
chology, personnel administration,
education, or public administration.
Most private agencies prefer to have
at least one staff member with a
doctorate in counseling psychology or
a related field. For those lacking an
advanced degree, employers usually
emphasize experience in closely re­
lated work such as rehabilitation
counseling, employment interviewing,
school or college counseling, or
The public employment service of­
fices in each State provide in-service
training programs for their new coun­
selors or trainees; their experienced
counselors frequently are given addi­
tional training at colleges and univer­
sities, often leading to a master’s de­
gree in counseling and guidance.
Private and community agencies also
often provide in-service training
The professional educational cur­
riculum for employment counselors
generally includes, at the under­
graduate level, a basic foundation in
psychology with some emphasis on
sociology. At the graduate level, re­
quirements usually include courses in
techniques of appraisal and counsel­
ing for vocational adjustment, group
guidance methods, placement, coun­
seling followup techniques, psycho­
logical tests in vocational counseling,
educational psychology, psychology of
occupations, industrial psychology,
job analysis and theories of occupa­
tional choice, administration of guid­
ance services, and some course work
in research methods and statistics.
Counselor education programs at
the graduate level are available in
about 350 colleges and universities,


most frequently in the departments
of education or psychology. To obtain
a master’s degree, students must com­
plete 1 to 2 years of graduate study.
All States require counselors in their
public employment offices to meet
State civil service or merit system re­
quirements that include certain min­
imum educational and experience
standards. They also require a writ­
ten or oral examination, or both.
Counselors who are well qualified
may advance, after considerable ex­
perience, to supervisory or adminis­
trative positions in their own or other
organizations; some may become di­
rectors of agencies or of other counsel­
ing services, or area supervisors of
guidance programs; some become
consultants; and others, who have
the doctorate, may become professors
in the guidance field.
Employment Outlook

Vocational counselors who have a
master’s degree and those who have
recognized related experience in the
field will have excellent employment
opportunities in both public and pri­
vate agencies through the 1970’s. In
addition, college graduates with a
bachelor’s degree and 15 hours of
undergraduate or graduate work in
counselor related courses who are
interested in becoming counselor
trainees will find many opportunities
in State and local employment
service offices.
The employment of counselors in
State employment service offices is
expected to increase rapidly through
the 1970’s. Among the factors con­
tributing to the increasing demand
for counseling services in these offices
are three recent major Federal laws:
the Vocational Education Act of
1963, which provides for vocational
guidance and counseling for people
who are out of school and seeking
employment; the Manpower Devel­
opment and Training Act of 1962, as
amended, which provides for coun­
seling in connection with the occu­
pational training or retraining of
large numbers of unemployed work­

ers; and the Economic Opportunity
Act of 1964, as amended, which pro­
vides for counseling to implement
such programs as Job Corps, Neigh­
borhood Youth Corps, Work Train­
ing, Work Experience, and Urban
and Rural Community Action. State
employment service offices also will
employ additional counselors to work
with older persons, American Indians,
and inmates of correctional institu­
tions. Moreover, population growth
and particularly the large number of
young workers entering the labor
force each year will be reflected in
larger numbers seeking vocational
In addition to the counselors
needed to take care of growth in the
occupation, many more will be
needed to replace workers who retire,
die, or leave the profession for other
reasons, each year through the
Earnings and Working Conditions

The annual average (mean) sal­
ary for employment counselors in
State employment service offices in
1966 was about $6,400. Salaries
ranged up to $11,000 for highly
experienced counselors. Trainees for
vocational counseling positions in
some voluntary agencies in large
cities were being hired at about $5,500
a year; annual salaries reported for
experienced counselors ranged up to
$15,000 or more in early 1967.
Most counselors work about 40
hours a week and have various bene­
fits, including vacations, sick leave,
pension plans, and insurance cover­
age. Counselors employed in commu­
nity agencies may work overtime.
Where To Go for More Information

General information on employ­
ment or vocational counseling may be
obtained from:
National Vocational Guidance Asso­
ciation, Inc.,
1605 New Hampshire Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20009.


National Employment Counselors
1605 New Hampshire Ave., NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20009.
United States Department of Labor,
Bureau of Employment Security,
U.S. Employment Service, Branch of
Counseling and Testing Services,
Washington, D.C. 20210.

Information on entrance require­
ments for positions in the public em­
ployment service offices may be
obtained from the State civil service
or merit system office in each State
capital, or from local employment
A list of private agencies offering
vocational counseling services that

meet certain professional criteria set
forth by the American Board on
Counseling Services, Inc., is provided
in the Directory of Approved Coun­
seling Agencies, 1967-68, available
from the American Personnel and
Guidance Association, Inc., 1605
New Hampshire Ave. NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20009, at $2.50 a copy.

Nature of Work

Engineers contribute in countless
ways to the welfare, technological
progress, and defense of the Nation.
They develop complex electric power,
water supply, and waste disposal sys­
tems to meet the problems of urban
living. They design industrial machin­
ery and equipment needed to manu­
facture goods on a mass production
basis, and heating, air conditioning,
and ventilation equipment for the
comfort of man. Also, they develop
scientific equipment to help probe the
mysteries of outer space and the
depths of the ocean, and design and
supervise the construction of high­
ways and rapid transit systems for safe
and more convenient transportation.
In addition, they design and develop
consumer products such as automo­
biles and refrigerators.
This chapter contains an overall
discussion of engineering, followed by
separate statements on several
branches of the field—aerospace,
agricultural, ceramic, chemical, civil,
electrical, industrial, mechanical,
metallurgical, and mining, engineer­
ing. Although most engineers special­
ize in these or other specific branches
of the profession, a considerable body
of basic knowledge and methodology
is common to most areas of engineer­
ing. Therefore, young people consid­
ering engineering as a career should
become familiar with the general na­
ture of engineering as well as with its
various branches.

Engineers develop methods for
converting the raw materials and
sources of power found in nature into
useful products at a reasonable cost
in time and money. They use basic
scientific principles to solve the prac­
tical problems involved in designing
goods and services and developing
methods for their production. The
emphasis on the application of scien­
tific principles, rather than on their
discovery, is the main factor that dis­
tinguishes the work of the engineer
from that of the scientist. For ex­
ample, a physicist may discover that
the properties of a gas change when it
is converted into a liquid at extremely
low temperatures, but it is the engi­
neer who develops uses for the liquid,
or economical methods for its pro­
In designing or developing a new
product, engineers must consider
many factors. For example, in design­
ing a space capsule they must calcu­
late just how much heat, radiation,
air pressure, and other forces the cap­
sule must withstand during its flight.
Experiments must be conducted
which relate these factors to various
construction materials, as well as to
the many possible capsule sizes,
shapes, and weights. In addition, the
engineer must take into account the
relative cost of the required mate­
rials and the cost and time of the
fabrication process. Similar factors
must be considered by engineers who
design and develop a wide variety of
products ranging from transistor ra­
dios and washing machines to elec­
tronic computers and industrial
Besides design and development,
engineers are engaged in many other
activities. Many work in inspection,
quality control, and other activities
related to production in manufactur­
ing industries, mines, and farms.
Others are in administrative and
management positions where knowl­
edge of engineering methods is of
great importance. A large number
plan and supervise the construction
of buildings and highways. Many are

employed in sales positions, where
they must discuss the technical as­
pects of a product or assist in plan­
ning its installation or use. (See state­
ment on Manufacturers’ Salesmen.)
Some conduct research aimed at sup­
plying the basic technological data
needed for the design and production
of new or improved products. Some
engineers with considerable experi­
ence work as consultants. A relatively
small group teach in the engineering
schools of colleges and universities.
Most engineers specialize in one of
the many branches of the profession.
More than 25 engineering specialties
are recognized by the profession or in
engineering school curriculums. Be­
sides these major branches—10 of
which are discussed separately in this
chapter—there are many subdivi­
sions of the branches. Structural and
highway engineering, for example,
are subdivisions of civil engineering.
Engineers may also become specialists
in the engineering problems of one
industry, or in a particular field of
technology such as propulsion or
guidance systems. Nevertheless, the
basic knowledge required for all areas
of engineering often makes it possible
for engineers to shift from one field of
specialization to another, particular­
ly for those beginning their careers.
Engineers within each of the
branches may apply their specialized
knowledge to engineering problems
in many fields. For example, electrical
engineers may work in the fields of
medicine, missile guidance, or electric
power distribution. Because engineer­
ing problems are usually complex,
the work in some applied fields cuts
across the traditional branches. Thus,
engineers in one field often work
closely with specialists in other
scientific and engineering occupa­
Where Employed

Engineering is the second largest
professional occupation, exceeded in
size only by teaching; for men it is
the largest profession. Approximately
1 million engineers were employed in
the United States in early 1967.



Manufacturing industries em­
ployed more than half of all engi­
neers—about 550,000 in early 1967.
The manufacturing industries em­
ploying the largest numbers of en­
gineers were the electrical equipment,
aircraft and parts, machinery, chem­
icals, ordnance, instruments, primary
metals, and fabricated metal pro­
ducts industries. About 275,000 en­
gineers were employed in nonmanu­
facturing industries in early 1967,
primarily in the construction, public
utilities, engineering and architec­
tural services, and business and man­
agement consulting services indus­
Federal, State, and local govern­
ment agencies employed another large
group of engineers—more than 150,000 in early 1967. About half of these
were employed by the Federal Gov­
ernment, chiefly by the Department
of Defense. Other Federal agencies
which employed significant numbers
of engineers were the Departments of
the Interior, Agriculture, and Com­
merce, and the National Aeronautics
and Space Administration. Most en­
gineers in State and local govern­
ment agencies were employed by
highway and public works depart­
Educational institutions employed
almost 40,000 engineers in early 1967,
in research as well as in teaching po­
sitions. A small number were em­
ployed by nonprofit research organi­
Engineers are employed in every
State, in small cities as well as large,
and in some rural areas. The profes­
sion also offers opportunities for em­
ployment overseas. Some branches of
engineering are concentrated in par­
ticular industries, as indicated in the
statements presented later in this
Training, Other Qualifications, and

A bachelor’s degree in engineering
is the generally accepted educational
requirement for entrance into engi­
neering positions. Well-qualified col­

Many engineers are engaged in research and development work.

lege graduates with training in phys­
ics, one of the other natural sciences,
or in mathematics may qualify for
some beginning positions in engineer­
ing. Some persons without a degree
are able to become engineers after
long experience in a related occupa­
tion—such as draftsmen or engineer­
ing technician—and some collegelevel training.
Advanced training is being empha­
sized for an increasing number of
jobs. Graduate degrees are desirable
for beginning teaching and research
positions, and are helpful for ad­
vancement in most types of work.
Furthermore, in some engineering
specialties, such as nuclear engineer­

ing, training is generally available
only at the graduate level.
Education leading to a bachelor’s
degree in engineering is offered by
about 250 colleges, universities, and
engineering schools located through­
out the country. Although curriculums in the larger branches of engi­
neering are offered in most schools,
some of the smaller engineering spe­
cialties are taught in relatively few
institutions. A student who desires to
specialize in one of the smaller
branches should, therefore, investi­
gate the curriculums offered by the
various schools before selecting his
college. For admission to an under­
graduate program, engineering



schools usually require high school
courses in mathematics and the phys­
ical sciences and place emphasis on
the general quality of the applicant’s
high school work.
In the typical 4-year engineering
curriculum, the first 2 years are spent
mainly in studying basic science—
mathematics, physics, and chemis­
try—and the humanities, social sci­
ences, and English. The last 2 years
are devoted chiefly to advanced study
in basic science, and to engineering
courses with emphasis on the branch
of engineering in which the student
is specializing. Some engineering pro­
grams offer only general engineering
training in the undergraduate cur­
riculum, allowing the student to
choose a specialty in graduate school
or acquire one through work expe­
Some engineering curriculums re­
quire more than 4 years to complete.
Approximately 25 institutions have 5year programs leading to the bache­
lor’s degree. In addition, about 50
engineering schools have arrange­
ments with liberal arts colleges where­
by a student spends 3 years in the col­
lege and 2 years in the engineering
school, receiving a bachelor’s degree
from each. This type of program usu­
ally offers the student an opportunity
for greater diversification in his
Some institutions have 5- or 6-year
cooperative plans under which stu­
dents spend alternate periods in en­
gineering school and in employment
in industry or government. Under
most such plans, classroom study is
coordinated with practical industrial
experience. In addition to the prac­
tical experience he gains in this type
of program, the student is provided
an opportunity to finance part of his
Engineering graduates usually be­
gin work as trainees or as assistants
to experienced engineers. Many large
companies have special training pro­
grams for their beginning engineers
which are designed to acquaint them
with specific industrial practices.
These programs are valuable in deter­

mining the type of work for which the
individual is best suited. As they gain
experience, engineers may move up to
positions of greater responsibility.
Those with proven ability are often
able to advance to the high-level tech­
nical and administrative positions,
and an increasingly large number are
being promoted to top executive
All 50 States and the District of
Columbia have laws providing for the
licensing (or registration) of those
engineers whose work may affect life,
health, or property; or who offer their
services to the public. In 1966, about
270,000 engineers were registered
under these laws in the United States.
Generally, registration requirements
include graduation from an accred­
ited engineering curriculum, plus at
least 4 years of experience and the
passing of a State examination. Ex­
amining boards may accept a longer
period of experience as a substitute
for a college degree.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for en­
gineers are expected to be very good
through the 1970’s. Engineering has
been one of the fastest growing pro­
fessions in recent years and require­
ments for engineers are expected to
increase very rapidly. However, en­
gineers who are not well grounded in
engineering fundamentals and those
whose specialization is very narrow
could be affected adversely by skill
obsolescence caused by shifts in de­
fense activities and by rapidly chang­
ing technology. There will probably
be an especially strong demand for
new engineering graduates who have
training in the most recently devel­
oped engineering principles and tech­
niques, and for engineers who can
apply engineering principles to the
medical and other sciences. New
graduates with advanced degrees will
have excellent opportunities in re­
search and teaching.
Among the factors underlying the
anticipated increase in demand for
engineers is the growth in population,

and the resulting expansion of indus­
try to meet the demand for additional
goods and services. The need for en­
gineers will probably also rise as a
result of the increasingly larger
amount of engineering time required
for the development of complex in­
dustrial products and processes and
the increasing automation of indus­
Another factor which will tend to
increase the demand for engineers is
the expected continued growth of ex­
penditures for research and develop­
ment. Such expenditures have in­
creased very rapidly in recent years,
and it is likely that they will continue
to rise through the 1970’s, although
somewhat more slowly than in the
past. The growth of research activi­
ties will result in the expansion of
existing fields of work and in the
creation of new ones, especially in
the fields of automated machinery
and computers.
The level of defense expenditures
is an important determinant of the
demand for engineers, because a large
proportion of all engineers (at least
25 percent in 1965) are engaged in
activities related to national defense.
The outlook for engineers is based on
the assumption that defense activity
in the late 1970’s will approximate the
level prior to the Vietnam buildup.
In addition to the engineers needed
to fill new positions, thousands more
will have to be trained to replace
those who transfer to other occupa­
tions, retire, or die. These losses to
the profession are expected to create
over 40,000 job openings annually
through the 1970’s.
Along with the anticipated growth
in demand for engineers, the number
of new engineering graduates at all
academic levels is also projected to
increase in the late 1960’s and during
the 1970’s. Despite this increase, the
number of new graduates seeking em­
ployment in the profession may still
fall short of demand. Thus, employ­
ment opportunities for new graduates
will probably continue to be very
good through the 1970’s. Women en­
gineers, who represent less than 1 per­
cent of the profession, are also ex-



pected to have favorable employment
The preceding analysis relates to
the outlook for the engineering pro­
fession as a whole. The employment
outlook in various branches of en­
gineering is discussed in the state­
ments on these branches later in this

a year in private industry in mid1966, according to a survey conducted
by the Engineering Manpower Com­
mission. Graduates with the master’s
degree and no experience usually re­
ceived from $1,000 to $2,000 a year
more than those with only the bache­
lor’s degree. Salaries for graduates
with the doctor’s degree were gen­
erally between $11,000 and $14,500
a year.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Starting salaries for new engineer­
ing graduates with the bachelor’s de­
Average (median) starting salaries gree varied considerably by industry,
for engineering graduates with the as may be seen in the following tabu­
bachelor’s degree were about $8,300 lation based on the same 1966 survey.

M edian1

Aerospace and defense............................................................... $8,450
Business machines....................................................................... 8,550
Chemicals..................................................................................... 8,450
Construction................................................................................ 8,250
Consulting and engineering..................................................... 7,750
Electrical equiptment................................................................ 8,300
Electronic equipment................................................................ 8,350
Machinery.................................................................................... 8,250
Research and development activities.................................... 8,500
Utilities.......................................................................................... 7,950
150 percent earned more and 50 percent earned less than amounts shown.
310 percent earned more than amounts shown.
3 90 percent earned more than amounts shown.

In the Federal Government service
in early 1967, engineers with the
bachelor’s degree and no experience
could start at $6,387 or $7,729 a year,
depending on their college records.
Beginning engineers with the bache­
lor’s degree and 1 or 2 years of grad­
uate work could start at $7,729 or
$9,001. Those with the Ph. D. degree
could begin at $10,481 or $11,306.
In colleges and universities, the
salary of beginning engineers with the
bachelor’s degree averaged about
$6,800 a year; with the master’s de­
gree, $7,600 a year; and with the
Ph. D. degree, $9,900. (Also see state­
ment on College and University
Most engineers can look forward
to an increase in earnings as they
gain experience. For example, in in­
dustry in 1966, the average (median)
salary of engineers with 21 to 23 years
of experience was about $15,500,
nearly twice that of beginning engi­
neers. Only 10 percent of those with
21 to 23 years of experience earned
less than $11,100 a year, and over 10

262-057 O— 68------ 6




National Society of Professional
Engineers, 2029 K St. NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20006.

Information on engineering schools
and curriculums and on training and
other qualifications needed for en­
trance into the profession may also
be obtained from the Engineers’
Council for Professional Develop­
ment. Information on registration of
engineers may be obtained from the
National Society of Professional En­
In addition to the organizations
listed above, other enginering socie­
ties represent the individual branches
of the enginering profession; some are
listed with the branches presented
later in this chapter. Many other en­
gineering organizations are listed in
the following publications available
in most libraries.
Engineering Societies Directory, pub­
lished by Engineers Joint Council.
Scientific and Technical Societies of
the United States and Canada,
published by the National Academy
of Sciences, National Research

Some engineers are members of la­
percent earned $22,200 or more. A bor unions. Information on engineer­
small number in top-level executive ing unions may be obtained from:
positions had much higher earnings.
Although engineers generally work The American Federation of Tech­
nical Engineers (AFL-CIO),
900 F St. NW., Washington, D.C.
under quiet conditions found in
modem offices and research labora­
tories, they may be involved in more
active work—at a missile site preced­
ing the launching of a space vehicle,
in a mine, at a construction site, or
(D.O.T. 013.081)
at some other out-of-doors location.
Nature of Work
Where To Go for More Information

General information on engineer­
ing careers—including student selec­
tion and guidance, professional train­
ing and ethics, and salaries and other
economic aspects of engineering—
may be obtained from:
Engineers’ Council for Professional
Development, 345 East 47th St.,
New York, N.Y. 10017.

Engineering Manpower Commission,
Engineers Joint Council, 345 East
47th St., New York, N.Y. 10017.

Aerospace engineers play a vital
role in America’s space age activities.
Engineers in this branch of the pro­
fession work on all types of aircraft
and spacecraft including missiles,
rockets, and conventional propellerdriven and jet-powered planes. They
are concerned with all phases of the
development of aerospace products
from the initial planning and design
to the final manufacture and testing.
Aerospace engineers usually spe­
cialize in a particular area of work,



Aerospace engineer inspects research model of new aircraft.

such as structural design, guidance
and control, instrumentation, propul­
sion, materials, testing, or production
methods. They may also specialize in
a particular type of aerospace prod­
uct such as conventional passenger
planes, jet-powered military aircraft,
rockets, satellites, or manned space
capsules. Engineers working in the
conventional aircraft field are usually
called aeronautical engineers. Those
in the field of missiles, rockets, and
spacecraft are often referred to as astronautical engineers.
Where Employed

More than 55,000 aerospace engi­
neers were employed in early 1967,
mainly in the aircraft and parts in­
dustry. Some worked for Federal

Government agencies, primarily the
National Aeronautics and Space Ad­
ministration and the Department of
Defense. Small numbers worked for
commercial airlines, consulting firms,
and colleges and universities.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for aer­
ospace engineers are expected to be
favorable through the 1970’s. Con­
tinuing developments in supersonic,
subsonic, and vertical lift aircraft and
advancement in space and missile ac­
tivities should result in a moderate
increase in requirements for aero­
space engineers. Additional job op­
portunities will also rise from the need
to replace engineers who transfer to
other fields of work, retire, or die.

However, engineers who are not well
grounded in engineering fundamen­
tals, and those whose specialization
is very narrow could be affected ad­
versely by skill obsolescence caused
by shifts in defense activities and by
rapidly changing technology.
The level of defense expenditures
is an important determinant of the
demand for aerospace engineers be­
cause the majority of these engineers
are engaged in activities related to
national defense. If defense activity
should differ substantially from the
level prior to the Vietnam buildup,
the demand for aerospace engineers
will be affected accordingly. (See in­
troductory section of this chapter for
discussion on training requirements
and earnings. See also chapter on Oc­
cupations in Aircraft, Missile, and
Spacecraft Manufacturing.)


Where To Go for More Information

American Institute of Aeronautics and
Astronautics, Inc.,
1290 Avenue of the Americas,
New York, N.Y. 10019.

Service of the Department of Agri­
culture. Colleges and universities
employed nearly an equal number.
A few were employed by State and
local governments.


Employment Outlook

(D.O.T. 013.081)

Employment of agricultural engi­
neers is expected to grow moder­
ately through the 1970’s. Among the
factors which will contribute to a
greater demand for these engineers
are the growing mechanization of
farm operations, increasing empha­
sis on conservation of resources, ex­
panding population—with a corre­
sponding demand for food and
fibre—and the broadening use of
agricultural products and wastes as
industrial raw materials. Additional
engineers will be needed to work on
problems concerning the enormous
energy and power requirements of
farms. (See introductory section of
this chapter for discussion on train­
ing requirements and earnings. See
also chapter on Occupations in

Nature of Work

Agricultural engineers use basic
engineering principles and concepts
to develop equipment and methods
to improve the efficiency and econ­
omy of the production, processing,
and distribution of food and other
agricultural products. They are
concerned primarily with the design
of farm machinery, equipment, and
structures; the utilization of electri­
cal energy on farms and in food and
feed processing plants; the conserva­
tion and management of soil and
water resources; and the design and
operation of processing equipment to
prepare agricultural products for
market. They usually specialize in
a particular area of work, such as
research and development, design,
testing and application, production,
sales, or management.

Where Employed

Most of the estimated 5,000 to
10,000 ceramic engineers in early
1967 were employed in manufactur­
ing industries—primarily in the stone,
clay, and glass industries. Others
worked in the iron and steel, elec­
trical equipment, aerospace, and
chemicals industries which produce
or use ceramic products. Some were
employed by educational institutions,
independent research organizations,
and the Federal Government.

Where To Go for More Information

American Society of Agricultural
420 Main St., St. Joseph, Mich. 49085

Where Employed

Most of the estimated 10,000 ag­
ricultural engineers in early 1967,
were employed in private industry,
especially by manufacturers of farm
equipment and specialized lines of
field, barnyard, processing, and
household equipment; electrical serv­
ice companies; and distributors of
farm equipment and supplies. Some
worked for engineering consultants
who supply technical or management
services to farmers and farm related
industries; others were independent
The Federal Government employs
about 1,000 agricultural engineers—
chiefly in the Soil Conservation
Service and Agricultural Research

Some are employed in administra­
tion, production, and sales; others
work as consultants or teach in col­
leges and universities.
Ceramic engineers usually special­
ize in one or more products—for ex­
ample, products of refractories (fireand heat-resistant materials, such as
firebrick) ; whiteware (such as por­
celain and china dinnerware or high
voltage electrical insulators); struc­
tural materials (such as brick, tile,
and terra cotta) ; protective and re­
fractory coatings for metals; glass;
abrasives; and fuel elements for
atomic energy.


(D.O.T. 006.081)
Nature of Work

Ceramic engineers develop meth­
ods for processing clay, silicates, and
other nonmetallic minerals into a
wide variety of ceramic products,
ranging from glassware, cement, and
bricks, to coatings and refractories
for missile nose cones. They may also
design and supervise the construction
of the plant and equipment used in
the manufacture of these products.
Many ceramic engineers are engaged
in research and development work.

Employment Outlook

The outlook is for moderate growth
in the employment of ceramic engi­
neers through the 1970’s. Although
ceramic engineering is a small field
and the number of openings in any
one year will be small compared with
those in the large branches of engi­
neering, the number of graduates with
degrees in ceramic engineering is also
small. Thus, opportunities for new
graduates should be excellent.
The growth of programs related to
nuclear energy, electronics, and space
exploration will provide many of the
opportunities for ceramic engineers.
Ceramic materials which are cor­
rosion-resistant, and capable of with­
standing radiation and extremely
high temperatures are becoming in­
creasingly important in the develop­
ment of nuclear reactors and space



vehicles. Increasing use of the more
traditional ceramic products such as
whiteware and abrasives, both for
consumer and industrial use, will also
require additional ceramic engineers
to improve and adapt these products
to new requirements. The growing use
of structural clay and tile products in
construction will add to employment
opportunities in the production of
these items. Furthermore, the devel­
opment of new glasses of unusual
properties and the expanding use of
conventional glasses in the construc­
tion and in the container field prob­
ably will create additional openings
for ceramic engineers. (See intro­
ductory section of this chapter for dis­
cussion on training requirements and
Where To Go for More Information

National Institute of Ceramic
4055 North High St., Columbus,
Ohio 43214.

(D.O.T. 008.081)
Nature of Work

Chemical engineers designed the
chemical plants and equipment re­
quired to manufacture chemicals.
They also determine the best com­
bination of the many, chemical opera­
tions that will result in the most effec­
tive manufacturing process. They
often test their work by designing and
operating pilot plants.
The work in this branch of engi­
neering is so diversified and complex
that chemical engineers frequently
become specialists in a particular type
of chemical operation such as oxida­
tion, polymerization, distillation, or
hydrogenation. Others specialize in
the manufacture of a specific product
such as plastics, paper, or rubber.
Chemical engineers may be engaged
in research and development, produc­

tion, plant operation, design, sales,
management, or teaching.
Where Employed

Where To Go for More Information

American Institute of Chemical
345 East 47th St., New York,
N.Y. 10017.

Approximately four-fifths of the es­
timated 50,000 chemical engineers in
the United States in early 1967 were
(D.O.T. 005.081)
employed in manufacturing indus­
tries—primarily in the chemicals in­
dustry. Some were employed by gov­
Nature of Work
ernment agencies and by colleges and
universities. A small number worked
for independent research institutes or vise the engineers design roads,super­
construction of
engineering consulting firms, or as in­ bors, airfields, tunnels, bridges, water
dependent consulting engineers.
supply and sewage systems, buildings,
and many other types of structures.
Civil engineering is so broad that
Employment Outlook
many specialties have developed with­
The outlook is for rapid growth of in it—among them are structural,
employment in chemical engineering highway, hydraulic, and sanitary
through the 1970’s. The major fac­ engineering.
tors underlying this expected growth
are expansion of industry—the chem­
icals industry in particular—and con­
tinued high levels of expenditures for
research and development, in which
about one-third of all chemical engi­
neers are employed. The growing
complexity of chemical processes and
the automation of these processes, es­
pecially in the chemicals and petro­
leum industries, will require addi­
tional chemical engineers for work
related to designing, building, and
maintaining the necessary plants and
equipment. Chemical engineers will
also be needed in many relatively new
areas of work, such as the design and
Many civil engineers are in super­
development of nuclear reactors and
visory or administrative positions,
nuclear fuel processing for industrial
use, and research aimed at develop­ ranging from that of site supervisor of
ing new and better solid and liquid a construction project or head of a
fuels for rockets. Furthermore, the drafting department to top-level ex­
development of new chemicals for ecutive positions. Some are engaged
use in the manufacture of consumer in design, planning, research, inspec­
goods such as fertilizers, drugs, and tion, or maintenance activities. Others
paints will probably create additional teach in colleges and universities or
openings for chemical engineers. work as consultants.
(See introductory section of this
chapter for discussion on training re­
quirements and earnings. See also
Where Employed
statement on Chemists and chapter
More than 180,000 civil engineers
on Occupations in the Industrial
were employed in the United States
Chemical Industry.)



in early 1967. The majority were em­
ployed by Federal, State, and local
government agencies and the con­
struction industry. Large numbers
were employed by consulting engi­
neering and architectural firms, or
worked as independent consulting
engineers. Some were employed by
public utilities, railroads, and educa­
tional institutions. Others worked in
the iron and steel industries and other
major manufacturing industries.
Civil engineers work in all parts of
the country, in every State and city—
usually in or near the major in­
dustrial and commercial centers.
However, since these engineers are
frequently called upon to work at
construction sites, they are sometimes
stationed in remote areas of the
United States or in foreign countries.
Furthermore, civil engineers in some
positions are often required to move
from place to place to work on dif­
ferent projects.
Employment Outlook

The outlook in civil engineering—
one of the largest and oldest branches
of the profession—is for continued
growth through the 1970’s.
The expanding employment op­
portunities for civil engineers will
result from the growing needs for
housing, industrial buildings, and
highways created by an increasing
population and expanding economy.
Work related to the problems of
urban living, such as water and sew­
age systems, air and water pollution,
and giant urban redevelopment proj­
ects, may also require additional
civil engineers.
Large numbers of civil engineers
will be needed each year to replace
those who retire or die. The number
of civil engineers needed annually to
fill such vacancies—estimated to be
about 3,400 in 1966—will probably
rise slowly in the future. (See intro­
ductory section of this chapter for
discussion on training requirements
and earnings.)

Where To Go for More Information

American Society of Civil Engineers,
345 East 47th St., New York, N.Y.

ployed by telephone and telegraph
and electric light and power com­
panies. Sizable numbers were em­
ployed by government agencies and
by colleges and universities. Others
worked for construction firms, for
engineering consultants, or as in­
dependent consulting engineers.

(D.O.T. 003.081, 151, and 187)
Employment Outlook
Nature of Work

Employment opportunities for elec­
trical engineers are expected to in­
crease very rapidly through the
1970’s. An increased demand for
electrical equipment to automatically
control production processes, using
such items as computers and sensing
devices, is expected to be among the
major factors contributing to this
growth. The anticipated growing
need for electrical and electronic con­
sumer goods is also expected to create
many job openings for electrical
A large number of electrical engi­
neers are engaged in defense and
space work. Employment of electrical
engineers in defense activities during
the 1970’s should not vary signifi­
cantly from current levels, assuming
defense activity in the late 1970’s ap­
proximates the level prior to the Viet­
nam buildup.
In addition to those needed to fill
new positions, many electrical engi­
neers will be required to replace per­
sonnel lost to the profession because
of retirement or death. The number
needed to fill such vacancies, esti­
mated to be about 2,200 in 1966, will
probably rise slowly in the future.
(See introductory section of this
Where Employed
chapter for discussion of training re­
Electrical engineering is the largest quirements and earnings. See also
branch of the profession. It is esti­ chapter on Occupations in Electronics
mated that approximately 220,000 Manufacturing.)
electrical engineers were employed in
the United States in early 1967. They
were employed chiefly by manufac­ Where To Go for More Information
turers of electrical and electronic
equipment, aircraft and parts, busi­ Institute of Electrical and Electronic
ness machines, and professional and
345 East 47th St., New York, N.Y.
scientific equipment. Many were em­

Electrical engineers design, de­
velop, and supervise the manufacture
of electrical and electronic equip­
ment—including electric motors and
generators; communications equip­
ment; electronic apparatus such as
television, radar, computers, and mis­
sile guidance systems; and electrical
applicances of all kinds. They also
design and participate in the opera­
tion of facilities for generating and
distributing electric power.
Electrical engineers usually spe­
cialize in a major area of work such
as electronics, electrical equipment
manufacturing, communications, or
power. Many specialize in subdivi­
sions of these broad areas; for ex­
ample, electronics engineers may
specialize in computers, or in missile
guidance and tracking systems.
A large number of electrical en­
gineers are engaged in research,
development, and design activities.
Another large group is employed in
administrative and management posi­
tions. Others are employed in various
manufacturing operations, or in tech­
nical sales or teaching positions.



(D.O.T. 012.081, .168 and .188)

Industrial engineers determine the
most effective methods of using the
basic factors of production—man­
power, machines, and materials. They
are concerned with people and
“things,” in contrast to engineers in
other specialties who generally, are
concerned more with developmental
work in subject fields, such as power,
mechanics, structures, or materials.
They may design systems for data
processing and apply operations re­
search techniques to complex orga­
nizational, production, and related
problems. Industrial engineers also
develop management control systems
to aid in financial planning and cost
analysis; design production planning
and control systems to insure coordi­
nation of activities, and to control the
quality of products; and may design
and improve systems for the physical
distribution of goods and services.

Other activities of industrial engi­ ing firms. A few were independent
neers include plant location surveys, consulting engineers.
where consideration is given to
sources of raw materials, availability
Employment Outlook
of a work force, financing, and taxes;
and the development of wage and
salary administration and job evalua­ The outlook is for continued rapid
growth of employment in this branch
tion programs.
of the profession through the 1970’s.
The increasing complexity of indus­
trial operations and the expansion of
Where Employed
automated processes, coupled with
More than two-thirds of the esti­ the continued growth of the Nation’s
mated 115,000 industrial engineers industries, are among the major fac­
employed in early 1967 were in manu­ tors expected to increase the demand
facturing industries. They were more for industrial engineers. Growing rec­
widely distributed among manufac­ ognition of the importance of scien­
turing industries than were those in tific management and safety engi­
other branches of engineering. Some neering in reducing costs and increas­
worked for insurance companies, con­ ing productivity is also expected in
stimulate the demand for persons
struction and mining firms, and pub­ this branch of engineering.
lic utilities. Others were employed by
Besides those needed to fill
retail organizations and other large positions, additional numbers ofnew
business enterprises to improve oper­ dustrial engineers will be required
ating efficiency. Still others worked each year to replace those who retire
for government agencies, educational or die. The number needed to fill such
institutions, and consulting engineer­ vacancies, estimated to be approxi­
mately 1,300 in 1966 will probably
rise slowly in the future. (See intro­
ductory section of this chapter for
discussion on training requirements
and earnings.)
Where To Go for More Information

American Institute of Industrial
345 East 47th St., New York, N.Y.

(D.O.T. 007.081, .151, .168, .181, and
.187; 011.081; and 019.187)

Nature of Work

Industrial engineers plan production operations.

Mechanical engineers are con­
cerned with the production, trans­
mission, and use of power. They de­
sign and develop machines which
produce power, such as internal com­
bustion engines, steam and gas tur­
bines, jet and rocket engines, and nu­



clear reactors. They also design and
develop a great variety of machines
which use power—refrigeration and
air-conditioning equipment, eleva­
tors, machine tools, printing presses,
steel rolling mills, and many others.
Many specialized areas of work
have developed within mechanical
engineering. Among these specialties
are those concerned with motor vehi­
cles, marine equipment, railroad
equipment, rocket engines, steampower, heating, ventilating and air
conditioning, hydraulics or fluid
mechanics, instrumentation, ord­
nance, and machines for specialized
industries, such as petroleum, rubber
and plastics, and construction.
Large numbers of mechanical en­
gineers are engaged in research, de­
velopment, and design. Many are
also employed in administrative and
management activities. Others work
in maintenance, sales, and activities
related to production and operations
in manufacturing industries. Some
teach in colleges and universities or
work as consultants.
Where Employed

Almost 200,000 mechanical en­
gineers were employed in the United
States in early 1967. Nearly all manu­
facturing and nonmanufacturing in­
dustries employed some members of
the profession. However, nearly threefourths of all mechanical engineers
were employed in manufacturing in­
dustries—mainly in the primary and
fabricated metals, machinery, trans­
portation equipment, and electrical
equipment industries. Others were
employed in government agencies,
educational institutions, and consult­
ing engineering firms. Some worked
as independent consulting engineers.
Employment Outlook

The outlook in mechanical engi­
neering—the second largest branch of
the profession—is for rapid growth
through the 1970’s. The expected ex­

pansion of industry with the conse­
quent demand for industrial machin­
ery and machine tools, and the in­
creasing technological complexity of
industrial machinery and processes
will be among the major factors con­
tributing to greater employment.
Continued growth of expenditures for
research and development will also be
a factor in the growth of this branch
of the profession. Moreover, newer
areas of work, such as atomic energy
and aerospace development, will
probably provide additional openings
for large numbers of mechanical
Besides those needed to fill new
positions, large numbers of mechani­
cal engineers will be required each
year to replace those who retire or
die. The number needed to fill such
vacancies, estimated to be about 2,700
in 1966 will probably rise slowly in the
future. (See introductory section of
this chapter for discussion on training
requirements and earnings.)
Where To Go for More Information

The American Society of Mechanical
United Engineering Center,
345 East 47th St., New York, N.Y.

(D.O.T. 011.081)
Nature of Work

Metallurgical engineers develop
methods of processing and converting
metals into useful products. These
engineers usually work in 1 of 2 main
branches of metallurgy—extractive or
physical. Extractive metallurgy deals
with the extraction of metals from
their ores, and with refining them to
obtain pure metal. Physical metal­
lurgy deals with the properties of
metals and their alloys, and with
methods of converting refined metals
into useful final products. Persons
working in the field of metallurgy

may be referred to as either metal­
lurgists or metallurgical engineers.
Where Employed

The metal working industries—pri­
marily the iron and steel and nonferrous metals industries—employed
over one-half of the estimated 5,000
to 10,000 metallurgical engineers in
early 1967. Many metallurgical en­
gineers worked in the machinery,
electrical equipment, and aircraft and
parts industries. Others were em­
ployed in the mining industry, and
in government agencies, consulting
firms, independent research organi­
zations, and educational institutions.
Employment Outlook

Employment in this small branch
of the profession is expected to grow
rapidly through the 1970’s. Increas­
ing numbers of metallurgical en­
gineers will be needed by the metal­
working industries to work on prob­
lems involved in the adaptation of
metals and alloys to new needs. For
example, the development of such
products as supersonic jet aircraft,
missiles, satellites, and spacecraft has
brought about a need for lightweight
metals capable of withstanding both
extremely high and extremely low
temperatures. Metallurgical engineers
will also be needed to solve metal­
lurgical problems connected with the
efficient use of nuclear energy. Fur­
thermore, as the supply of high-grade
ores diminishes, more metallurgical
engineers will be needed to find ways
of processing low-grade ores now re­
garded as unprofitable to mine. (See
introductory section of this chapter
for discussion on training require­
ments and earnings. Also see chapter
on Occupations in the Iron and Steel
Where To Go for More Information

American Institute of Mining, Metal­
lurgical, and Petroleum Engineers,
345 East 47th St., New York, N.Y.



(D.O.T. 010.081, .168, and .187)

Nature of Work

Mining engineers are responsible
for the extraction of minerals from the
earth and for the preparation of min­
erals for use by manufacturing indus­
tries. They design the layouts of
mines, supervise the construction of
mine shafts and tunnels in under­
ground operations, and devise meth­
ods of transporting extracted minerals
to processing plants. Mining engi­
neers are responsible for the efficient
operation of mines and mine safety,
including ventilation, water supply,
communications, and maintenance of
equipment. Some mining engineers
work with geologists, locating and ap­
praising new ore deposits. Others con­
duct research to develop new mining
equipment and to devise improved
methods of processing extracted min­
Mining engineers frequently spe­
cialize in the extraction of specific
metal ores or coal and other nonmetallic minerals. Engineers who spe­
cialize in the extraction of petroleum

and natural gas are usually considered transfer to other fields of work, or
members of a separate branch of the die. For example, it is estimated that
profession—Petroleum Engineering. about 200 mining engineers retired or
died in 1966, while only 153 bachelor
degrees were granted in mining
Where Employed
Exploration for minerals is increas­
Approximately three-quarters of ing, both in the United States and in
the estimated 13,500 mining engi­ other parts of the world. Easily mined
neers were employed in the mining deposits are being depleted, creating
and petroleum industries in early a growing need for engineers to mine
1967. Most of the remainder worked newly discovered mineral deposits and
in colleges and universities or govern­ to devise more efficient methods for
ment agencies, or as independent con­ mining low-grade ores. Additional
employment opportunities for mining
Mining engineers are usually em­ engineers will arise as the develop­
ployed at the location of mineral de­ ment of new alloys and discovery of
posits, often near small communities. new uses for metals increases the de­
However, those engaged in research, mand for less widely used ores. Re­
teaching, management, or consulting, covery of metals from the sea and the
are often located in large metropoli­ development of oil shale deposits
could present major challenges to the
tan areas.
mining engineer in the future. (See
introductory section to chapter for
Employment Outlook
discussion on training requirements
and earnings. See also chapter on
Employment opportunities for min­ Petroleum Production and Refining.)
ing engineers are expected to be
favorable for the remainder of this
decade and throughtout the 1970’s. Where To Go for More Information
The number of new graduates in min­
ing engineering entering the industry American Institute of Mining, Metal­
lurgical, and Petroleum Engineers,
is expected to be fewer than the num­ 345 East 47th St., New York, N.Y.
ber of mining engineers who retire,

Almost everyone knows something
about the professional services pro­
vided by doctors, dentists, and phar­
macists. Many people also have some
firsthand knowledge of the duties per­
formed by nurses, attendants, and
other workers who take care of pa­
tients in hospitals. Less well known,
but also of great importance to the
public health, is the large number of
people employed behind the scenes in
other health service occupations, such
as laboratory or X-ray technician.
Altogether, about 3 million people
were employed in health occupations
in 1966. Employment in this field has
increased rapidly in recent years.
Nurses, physicians, pharmacists,
and dentists constituted the largest
number in the professional health oc­
cupations in 1966, ranging from
nearly 100,000 dentists to about 620,000 registered professional nurses.
Other professional health occupations
with sizable employment are dietitian,
veterinarian, optometrist, chiroprac­
tor, osteopathic physician, and hos­
pital administrator. Other health
service workers include technicians of
various types, such as medical tech­
nologist, medical X-ray technician,
dental hygienist, and dental labora­
tory technician. Large numbers—
nearly 1 million—worked as practical
nurses and auxiliary nursing workers,
including orderlies, nursing aids, hos­
pital attendants, and psychiatric

Workers in the health field are em­
ployed in hospitals, clinics, labora­
tories, pharmacies, nursing homes, in­
dustrial plants, public health agencies,
mental health centers, private offices,
and patients’ homes. Those employed
in health occupations work mainly in
the more heavily populated and pros­
perous sections of the Nation.
Many women are employed in the
health field. Nursing, the largest of
the major health service occupations,
is second only to teaching as a field
of professional employment for
women. Other health service occupa­
tions in which women predominate
are practical nurse, medical X-ray
technician, medical technologist,
dietitian, physical therapist, occupa­
tional therapist, speech pathologist
and audiologist, dental hygienist, and
medical record librarian. On the
other hand, the majority of dentists,
optometrists, physicians, veterinari­
ans, pharmacists, hospital administra­
tors, and sanitarians are men.
The educational and other require­
ments for work in the health field are
as diverse as the health occupations
themselves. For example, professional
health workers—physicians, dentists,
pharmacists, and others—must com­
plete a number of years of preprofes­
sional and professional college educa­
tion and pass a State licensing
examination. On the other hand,
some health service occupations can
be entered with little specialized
A continued rapid expansion of
employment in the health field is ex­
pected through the 1970’s, although
the rates of growth will differ con­
siderably among individual health
occupations. The factors which are
expected to contribute to an increase
in the demand for health care are the
following: The country’s expanding
population; wider health education
and the resultant rising health con­
sciousness of the general public;
growth of coverage under prepay­
ment programs for hospitalization and
medical care, including Medicare;
rapid expansion of expenditures for
medical research; and increasing ex­

penditures by Federal, State, and
local governments for health care and
services. In addition, many new work­
ers will be needed each year to replace
those who retire, die, or—particularly
in the case of women—leave the field
for other reasons. Thus, there will be
many opportunities for employment
in the health services.

(D.O.T. 079.108)
Nature of Work

Chiropractic is a system of treat­
ment based on the principle that a
person’s health is determined largely
by his nervous system, and that inter­
ference with this system impairs his
normal functions and lowers his
resistance to disease. Chiropractors
treat their patients primarily by man­
ual manipulation of parts of the body,
especially the spinal column. Many

Chiropractor adjusts patient’s spine.




also use such supplementary measures
as water, light, and heat therapy and
prescribe diet, exercise, and rest. Be­
cause of the emphasis on the impor­
tance of the spine and its position,
most chiropractors use X-ray exten­
sively to aid in locating the source of
patients’- difficulties. Chiropractic as
a system for healing does not include
the use of drugs or surgery.
Where Employed

About 23,500 chiropractors were
employed in the United States in
early 1967; about 9 percent were
women. Most chiropractors were en­
gaged in independent private prac­
tice. Some were salaried assistants of
established practitioners, or worked
for chiropractic clinics and industrial
firms. Others taught or conducted
research at chiropractic colleges.
About 45 percent of all chiropractors
were located in California, New York,
Texas, Missouri, and Pennsylvania.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

Most States and the District of
Columbia regulate the practice of
chiropractic and grant licenses to
chiropractors who meet certain edu­
cational requirements and pass a State
board examination. The type of prac­
tice permitted and the educational
requirements for licensure vary con­
siderably from one State to another.
In 1967, the States of Louisiana and
Mississippi did not regulate the prac­
tice of chiropractic nor issue licenses
to chiropractors.
Most States require the successful
completion of a 4-year chiropractic
course following high school gradua­
tion. About one-half of the States
also require 1 or 2 years of prepara­
tory college work before chiropractic
training. About half the States also
require that chiropractors pass a basic
science examination. Chiropractors
licensed in one State generally may

obtain a license in another State with­
out further examination.
Some of the 12 chiropractic colleges
in the United States in 1967 restricted
their teaching to manipulation and
spinal adjustments, while the others
offered a broader curriculum includ­
ing such subjects as chiropractic
physiotherapy and nutrition. In most
chiropractic colleges, the first 2 years
of the 4-year curriculum are devoted
chiefly to classroom and laboratory
work in subjects such as anatomy,
physiology, and biochemistry. The
last 2 years are spent in obtaining practical experience in the colleges’
clinics. The degree of Doctor of
Chiropractic (D.C.) is awarded to
students completing 4 years of chiro­
practic training.
Among the personal qualities con­
sidered desirable for a chiropractor
is the ability to deal with people
sympathetically. The work requires
considerable hand dexterity but does
not call for unusual strength or
Most newly licensed chiropractors
either set up a new practice or pur­
chase an established practice. Some
start as salaried chiropractors to
acquire experience and funds neces­
sary to establish their own practice.
A moderate financial investment is
usually necessary to open and equip
an office.

Opportunities for new graduates to
begin their own practice are likely to
be best in those parts of the country
where chiropractic is most fully ac­
cepted as a method of treatment.
Opportunities also should be good
for those who wish to enter salaried
positions in chiropractic clinics,
chiropractic colleges, and other or­
ganizations employing chiropractors.
The expected slight growth in de­
mand for chiropractors’ services will
be related to an expanding population
and its increasing demand for various
types of health care, including chiro­
practic treatment.
Women are expected to have good
opportunities in chiropractic, since
some women and children prefer to
be treated by women chiropractors.
All chiropractic colleges accept
women as students.

Employment Outlook

Where To Go for More Information

The employment outlook for chiro­
practors is expected to be favorable
through the 1970’s. Only a slight in­
crease in the demand for chiropractic
services is expected, but the number
of new graduates of chiropractic col­
leges also is expected to be small and
probably will be barely enough to fill
openings left by chiropractors who
retire, die, or stop practicing for other
reasons. In view of the trend in many
States toward raising educational re­
quirements for chiropractic practice,
opportunities may be best for those
with the most thorough training.

Information on State licensing re­
quirements may be obtained from the
State Board of licensing in the capital
of the State in which the individual
plans to practice.
General information on chiro­
practic as a career may be obtained

* V


>: '
^ °•** '
Earnings and Working Conditions







In chiropractic, as in other types
of independent practice, earnings are
relatively low at the beginning but
rise after the first few years. Though
incomes of chiropractors vary widely,
experienced chiropractors generally
had average yearly incomes ranging
from $11,000 to $16,000 in early
1967, according to the limited data



.V , - ~

American Chiropractic Association,
American Building, 2200 Grand Ave.,
P.O. Box 1535, Des Moines, Iowa

International Chiropractors Associa­
741 Brady St., Davenport, Iowa



(D.O.T. 078.368)
Nature of Work

Dental hygienists work under the
supervision of a dentist; they clean
teeth by removing stains and calcium
deposits, polish teeth, and massage
gums. While performing this work
(oral prophylaxis), they chart condi­
tions of decay and disease for diag­
nosis by the dentist. They may also
take and develop X-rays, mix filling
compounds, apply solutions to the
teeth for the control of dental decay,
administer prescribed medicaments,
sterilize instruments, and act as chairside assistants to the dentists. Hy­
gienists provide dental health educa­
tion, including the techniques of
mouth care and proper diet.
Dental hygienists working in school
systems promote dental health by ex­
amining children’s teeth, assisting
dentists in determining the dental
treatment needed, and reporting their
findings to parents. They also perform
oral prophylaxes and give instruction
on correct care and brushing of teeth.
Some help to develop classroom proj­
ects or assembly programs on oral
health. Dental hygienists employed
by health agencies work on dental
health projects or perform clinical
duties. A few assist in research proj­
ects. Those with advanced training
may teach in schools of dental
Where Employed

Approximately 16,000 dental hy­
gienists were employed in 1966; al­
most all were women. Many work
part time. The majority of all dental
hygienists were employed in private
dental offices; about one-fourth
worked for public health agencies or
school systems; and others worked in
industrial plants, clinics, hospitals,
dental hygiene schools, and as civilian
employees of the Armed Forces.
Although some hygienists are em­
ployed in small towns, the majority
work in metropolitan areas.

Training and Other Qualifications

Dental hygienists must pass an ex­
amination to be licensed by the State
in which they wish to practice. In all
States except Alabama and Georgia,
eligibility for a license is limited to
graduates of accredited dental hy­
giene schools. In 1966, candidates
could complete part of the State li­
censing requirements by passing a
written examination given by the Na­
tional Board of Dental Examiners in
41 States. Upon being licensed, a hy­
gienist becomes a Registered Dental
Hygienist (R.D.H.). In order to prac­
tice in a different State, a licensed

dental hygienist must take that State’s
In 1967, 60 schools of dental hy­
giene in the United States were ac­
credited or provisionally accredited
by the Council on Dental Education
of the American Dental Association.
Most of these schools provide a 2-year
dental hygiene certification course.
Some have 4-year programs leading
to the bachelor’s degree, and others
offer both programs. Programs lead­
ing to a master’s degree are offered in
three schools.
For dental hygienists interested in
practicing in a private dental office,
completion of the 2-year program is



usually sufficient. In order to work in
research, teaching, and in public or
school health programs, the comple­
tion of a 4-year program is usually
The minimum requirement for ad­
mission to a school of dental hygiene
is graduation from high school. Sev­
eral schools which offer the bachelor’s
degree admit students to the dental
hygiene program only after they have
completed 2 years of college. The ma­
jority of schools also require that ap­
plicants take aptitude tests conducted
by the American Dental Hygienists’
The curriculum at a school of den­
tal hygiene consists of courses in the
basic sciences, dental sciences, and
liberal arts. These schools offer labo­
ratory work, clinical experience, and
classroom instruction in such subjects
as anatomy, chemistry, histology,
pathology, pharmacology, and nu­
trition. The ability to work well with
people, and patience as well as man­
ual dexterity and attentiveness to de­
tail are essential in this field.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for den­
tal hygienists are expected to be ex­
cellent through the 1970’s. Despite
the anticipated continued rise in the
number of graduates from schools of
dental hygiene, the demand is ex­
pected to be greater than the number
available for employment, as in re­
cent years.
The demand for hygienists is ex­
pected to grow as a result of the ex­
panding population and the growing
awareness of the importance of regu­
lar dental care. Increasing interest in
dental care programs for children will
lead to more employment opportuni­
ties in school systems. Increased par­
ticipation in dental prepayment plans
and more group practice among den­
tists may also result in new jobs for
dental hygienists. In addition, a great
number of job openings will be creat­
ed by young women leaving their jobs
for marriage and family responsi­

Mature women who wish to return tirement benefits as other workers in
to the field and those who desire part- these organizations.
time positions can expect to find good
opportunities for employment.

•' ■

''.V *-;

C - V ;• -•.‘■

Where To Go for More Information

Information about approved
schools and the educational require­
Earnings of dental hygienists are af­ ments needed to enter this field may
fected by the type of employer, edu­ be obtained from:
cation, and experience of the indi­ American Dental Hygienists’ Associa­
vidual hygienist, and the part of the
211 East Chicago Ave., Chicago, 111.
country in which the job is located.
Dental hygienists working in private
Information concerning licensing
dental offices are usually salaried em­
ployees although some are paid a requirements can be obtained from
commission for work performed or a the State Board of Dental Examiners
combination of salary and commis­ in each State.
sion. Those employed in research,
administrative, supervisory, or teach­
ing positions often earn higher
Salaries of dental hygienists em­
(D.O.T. 712.381)
ployed full time in private offices
averaged about $5,500 a year in 1965,
according to a survey conducted by
Nature of Work
the American Dental Association.
The annual beginning salary for a
dental hygienist employed by the Fed­ bridges, and dentures—teeth, crowns,
other dental and
eral Government was either $4,776 dontal appliances—used to be ortho­
or $5,331 in early 1967, depending by dentists. Now, dental laboratory
on education and experience. Most technicians do most of this highly
of those in the Federal Government skilled work. These technicians do
earned between $5,300 and $6,000 not deal directly with patients but
per year.
Dental hygienists employed full receive prescriptions from artificial
In making many kinds of
time in private offices usually work
between 35 and 40 hours a week. dentures, dental laboratory techni­
dental stone
They may work on Saturdays or dur­ cians form models inimpressions of
(hard plaster) from
ing evening hours. Some hygienists patients’ mouths taken by dentists.
work for two dentists or more.
metal castings
Most dental hygienists are em­ They also may makeand finish den­
for dentures, polish
ployed in clean, well-lighted offices
or porcelain
but may have to stand for long tures, construct metal partially de­
crowns or inlays for
periods of time. Regular medical stroyed teeth,
gold and other
checkups and strict adherence to es­ metal bridges, make make appliances
tablished procedures for using X-ray to correct such abnormalities as cleft
equipment and for disinfection are palates. In performing this work,
important health protections for per­ dental laboratory technicians use
sons in this occupation.
handtools, special electric
A paid vacation of 2 or 3 weeks is small drills, high-heat furnaces,lathes
common among hygienists who work
other kinds of specialized laboratory
full time in dental offices. Dental hy­
gienists employed by school systems, equipment.
Some dental laboratory technicians
health agencies, and the Federal or
do all types of dental laboratory work.
State governments have the same
hours, vacation, sick leave, and re­ Others specialize in such areas as
Earnings and Working Conditions



fabricating crowns and bridges, ar­
ranging artificial teeth on dental
appliances so that they function
properly, processing plastic materials,
working with dental ceramics (por­
celain), or making castings of gold
or nonprecious metal alloys used in
dentistry. In beginning jobs, trainees
usually perform relatively simple jobs
such as mixing and pouring plaster
into casts and molds. As they gain
experience, they are assigned more
difficult laboratory work and may use
expensive metals.
Where Employed

An estimated 26,000 dental lab­
oratory technicians were employed in
1966. Most of these technicians
worked in commercial laboratories,
either as employees or as owners of
the business. Commercial laborato­
ries, which handle orders from dent­
ists, are usually one- or two-man
shops. However, a few large labora­
tories employ many technicians.
About 4,000 dental laboratory
technicians were employed by indi­
vidual dentists. Some worked in hos­
pitals that provided dental services.
Others were employed by the Federal
Government, chiefly in the Veterans
Administration and in the Depart­
ment of the Army. Women, who
account for about 10 percent of all
dental laboratory technicians, worked
mainly in large commercial labora­
Dental laboratory technicians, like
the dentists who use their services,
are located mainly in cities and in the
States with large populations.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

Although no minimum formal edu­
cational requirements prevail for
entry into this occupation, graduation
from high school is an asset. The most
common method of becoming a dental
laboratory technician is to secure a
trainee position and learn the craft
on the job, usually in a commercial

Dental laboratory technician forms dentures.

laboratory or a hospital offering
dental services. Typically, on-the-job
training lasts 3 or 4 years, depending
on such factors as the trainee’s previ­
ous experience, his ability to master
the techniques, and the number of
specialized areas to be learned.
Courses in dental laboratory work are
offered in some public vocational
high schools and junior colleges; the
course-work may be taken in con­
junction with on-the-job training.
Persons also may qualify by taking 1to 2-year programs in dental labora­
tory technology offered by a few
schools. But regardless of a student’s
educational background, employers
consider actual work experience to be
necessary for an applicant to qualify
as a full-fledged technician.
In 1967, 10 schools, accredited by
the American Dental Association, of­
fered 2-year educational programs to
high school graduates (or those with
equivalent education). The first year
of training in these schools includes
formal classroom instruction in dental

law and ethics, chemistry, ceramics,
metallurgy, and other related sub­
jects. During the second year, the
student is provided supervised prac­
tical experience in the school or a
dental laboratory. After completion of
the 2-year training program, an addi­
tional 3 years of practical experience
in a dental office or a laboratory gen­
erally is needed to become recognized
as a well-qualified dental technician.
A formal apprenticeship program
was instituted in 1966 by the National
Association of Certified Dental Lab­
oratories. The program includes
about 8,000 hours of on-the-job train­
ing and a minimum of 144 hours a
year of related home study.
The National Association of Certi­
fied Dental Laboratories sponsors a
certification program for dental lab­
oratory technicians who can meet
certain training and other require­
ments. Certification may become im­
portant for obtaining employment as
a dental laboratory technician, be­
cause many employers are likely to



regard it as evidence of the techni­
cian’s competence.
Among the personal qualifications
which employers look for in selecting
trainees are a high degree of manual
dexterity, good color preception, pa­
tience, and a liking for detailed work.
Preference also may be given to young
people who have completed high
school courses in art, ceramics and
pottery, sculpturing, blueprint read­
ing, plastics and metalworking.
Employment Outlook

Job opportunities for both wellqualified craftsmen and for special­
ists are expected to be very good
through the 1970’s. Opportunities for
trainees should be very favorable also.
In addition to an expected rapid in­
crease in employment, many openings
for dental laboratory technicians will
probably occur because of the need to
replace technicians who transfer to
other fields of work, retire, or die.
Opportunities for salaried employ­
ment for both experienced and
trainee dental laboratory technicians
will be best in commercial laborato­
ries and in the Federal Government.
Some experienced technicians also
should be able to establish labora­
tories of their own. A technician
whose work has become known to
several dentists in a community will
have the best prospect of building a
successful business.
Among the factors underlying the
expected rapid growth in demand
are the growing public awareness of
the importance of preventive den­
tistry; the availability of new dental
prepayment plans to help people of
moderate income; and the increasing
number of older people with an ac­
companying increase in the number
of persons requiring artificial den­
tures. Moreover, the number of den­
tists is not expected to keep pace with
the demand for their services; hence,
in order to devote more time to treat­
ment of patients, dentists will send
more and more of their laboratory
work to commercial firms.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Apprentice or beginning dental lab­
oratory technicians employed in com­
mercial laboratories in 1966 usually
earned between $56 and $80 a week.
Experienced technicians in commer­
cial laboratories generally earned be­
tween $100 and $150 a week, depend­
ing on their skill level and experience.
Ceramist technicians and crown and
bridge technicians received the high­
est salaries. Foremen and managers
in large dental laboratories may earn
$200 or more per week. In general,
net earnings of self-employed tech­
nicians are higher than those of
salaried workers.
The starting salary for dental lab­
oratory technicians employed in the
Federal Government was about $102
a week in early 1967. The majority
of experienced dental laboratory
technicians employed in the Federal
Government earned between $124
and $140 a week.
Salaried technicians usually work
the standard 40-hour week, but selfemployed technicians frequently
work longer hours. Many technicians
in commercial laboratories receive
paid holidays and vacations, and
some also are provided paid sick
leave, bonuses, and other fringe bene­
fits. Technicians employed by the
Federal Government have the same
benefits as other Federal employees.
The work of dental laboratory
technicians is not strenuous and most
jobs can be done by handicapped
workers provided they have good use
of their hands and fingers.
Where To Go for More Information

Information about the training and
lists of approved schools are avail­
able from:
American Dental Association, Coun­
cil on Dental Education,
211 East Chicago Ave., Chicago,
111. 60611.

Information on career opportuni­
ties in commercial laboratories,
scholarships, requirements for certi­

fication, and apprenticeship pro­
grams may be obtained from:
National Association of Certified
Dental Laboratories, Inc.,
1330 Massachusetts Ave. NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20005.

(D.O.T. 072.108)
Nature of Work

Dentists look for and fill cavities in
the teeth, straighten teeth, take Xrays of the mouth, and treat gum dis­
eases. Dentists also extract teeth and
substitute artificial dentures especial­
ly designed for the individual patient.
In addition, they clean teeth and ex­
amine the mouth for diseases. They
spend most of their time with pa­
tients, but some time may be devoted
to laboratory work such as making
dentures and inlays. Many dentists,
however—particularly in large
cities—send most of their laboratory
work to commercial firms. Some den­
tists employ dental hygienists to
clean patients’ teeth. (See statement
on Dental Hygienists.) They also em­
ploy other assistants who perform of­
fice work and assist the dentist in his
“chairside” duties.
Most dentists are general practi­
tioners who provide many types of
dental care; only about 6 percent are
recognized as specialists. More than
half of these specialists are orthodon­
tists, who straighten teeth. The next
larger number, oral surgeons, per­
form operations in the mouth and
jaws. The remainder specialize in periodontology (treating the tissues that
support the teeth), prosthodontics
(making artificial teeth or dentures),
pedodontics (dentistry for children),
oral pathology (diseases of the
mouth), endodontics (root canal
therapy), and public health dentistry.
About 3 percent of all dentists are
employed primarily in work that
does not involve “chairside” practice,
such as teaching and research. Many
dentists in private practice, however,
do this work on a part-time basis.


Where Employed

About 97,500 dentists were at work
in the United States in 1966. Nine out
of every ten were in private practice.
Of the remainder, about 6,500 served
as commissioned officers in the Armed
Forces; about 1,300 had other types
of Federal Government positions—
chiefly in the hospitals and clinics of
the Veterans Administration and the
Public Health Service; and about
1,200 held full-time positions in
schools, hospitals, or State and local
health agencies. Women dentists rep­
resented only about 2 percent of the
Dentists tend to be concentrated in
large cities and in populous States.
In 1966, about a third of all dentists
were located in the four States of New
York, California, Pennsylvania, and
Training, Other Qualifications, and

A license to practice dentistry is
required in all States and the District
of Columbia. To qualify for a license,
a candidate must be a graduate of an
approved dental school and pass a
State Board examination. In 1966, 44
States and the District of Columbia
recognized the examination given by
the National Board of Dental Ex­
aminers as a substitute for the written
part of the State Board examinations.
One State, Delaware, also requires
new graduates to serve 1 year of hos­
pital internship. Most State licenses
permit dentists to engage in both gen­
eral and specialized practice. In 10
States, however, a dentist cannot be
licensed as a “specialist” unless he
has 2 or 3 years of graduate educa­
tion, several years of specialized ex­
perience, and passes a special State
examination. Few States permit den­
tists licensed in other States to prac­
tice in their jurisdictions without fur­
ther examination.
The minimum education require­
ments for graduation from an ap­
proved dental school is 2 years of pre­
dental college work followed by 4

years of professional dental school
training; 7 of the 49 dental schools in
operation in the United States in
1966 required 3 years of predental
study. Predental education must in­
clude at least a half-year course in
organic chemistry and full-year

courses in English, biology, physics,
and inorganic chemistry.
In dental college, the first 2 years
are usually devoted to classroom in­
struction and laboratory work in basic
sciences such as anatomy, bacteriol­
ogy, and pharmacology. The last 2

years are spent chiefly in the school’s
dental clinic, treating patients. The
degree of Doctor of Dental Surgery
(D.D.S.) is awarded by most dental
colleges. An equivalent degree,
Doctor of Dental Medicine (D.M.D.)
is conferred by a few schools.
Competition is keen for admittance
to dental schools. In selecting stu­
dents, schools give considerable
weight to college grades and amount
of college education; more than half
of the students enrolling in dental
schools have bachelor’s degrees. In
addition, all dental schools par­
ticipate in a nationwide aptitude test­
ing program, and scores earned on
these tests are considered along with
information gathered about the ap­
plicant through recommendations
and interviews. Many State-sup­
ported dental schools also give pref­
erence to residents of their particular
Dentists interested in research or
teaching, or in becoming specialists,
often take graduate work. Graduate
training may be obtained at most
schools of dentistry, or by serving an
internship or residency at 1 of the 270
approved hospitals that offer these
Dental education is very costly be­
cause of the length of time it takes to
earn the dental degree. However, the
Health Professions Educational As­
sistance Act of 1963, as amended,
provides Federal funds for loans and
scholarships up to $2,500 a year to
help needy students pursue full-time
study leading to the degree.
The profession of dentistry requires
both manual skills and a high level of
intelligence. Dentists should have
good visual memory, excellent judg­
ment of space and shape, delicacy of
touch, and a high degree of manual
dexterity, as well as scientific ability.
A liking for people and a good busi­
ness sense are helpful in achieving
success in private practice.
The majority of newly qualified
dentists open their own offices or pur­
chase established practices. Some
start in practice with established den­
tists, to gain experience and to save
the money required to equip an of­


fice; others may enter residency or
internship training programs in ap­
proved hospitals. Dentists entering
the Armed Forces are commissioned
as captains in the Army and Air Force
and as lieutenants in the Navy, and
may progress to higher ranks. Gradu­
ates of recognized dental schools are
eligible for Federal Civil Service posi­
tions and for commissions in the U.S.
Public Health Service.

is very good. Despite this favorable
outlook, the number of men and
women who will be able to enter this
field will be restricted by the present
limited capacity of dental schools.
However, opportunities to obtain
dental training are expected to in­
crease because of recent Federal
legislation which provides Federal
funds to assist in the construction of
additional training facilities for den­

Employment Outlook

Opportunities for dentists are
expected to be very good through the
1970’s. It is anticipated that the
demand for dental services will in­
crease along with an expanding pop­
ulation; the growing awareness of the
importance of regular dental care,
and the development of new payment
arrangements which make it easier
for people of moderate means to
obtain dental service. Expanded
dental research activities will re­
quire more trained personnel; den­
tal public health programs will need
qualified administrators; and dental
colleges will need additional faculty
members. Many dentists will continue
to serve in the Armed Forces.
Improved dental hygiene and
fluoridation of community water
supplies may prevent some tooth and
gum disorders, but such measures—
by preserving teeth that might other­
wise be extracted—may tend to in­
crease rather than decrease the
demand for dental care. Other new
techniques, equipment, and drugs, as
well as the more extensive use of
dental hygienists, assistants, and
laboratory technicians may permit
individual dentists to care for more
patients. However, these develop­
ments are not expected to offset the
need for more dentists.
Over the next decade, the number
of dental school graduates will be
barely enough to maintain the
present ratio of dentists to popula­
tion. The majority of graduates will
be needed to replace dentists who
retire or die. Thus, the outlook for
those who complete dental training

Earnings and Working Conditions

During the first year or two of prac­
tice, dentists often earn little more
than the minimum needed to cover
expenses, but their earnings usually
rise rapidly as their practice develops.
Specialists generally earn considerably
more than general practitioners. Av­
erage income above expenses for all
self-employed dentists in 1966 was
about $21,000 a year. In the Federal
Government, new graduates of dental
schools in early 1967 could receive
starting yearly salaries ranging from
$9,221 to $12,056, depending on col­
lege records and other qualifications.
Location is one of the major fac­
tors affecting the income of dentist?
who open their own offices. For ex­
ample, in high-income urban areas,
dental services are in greater demand
however, a practice can be developed
most quickly in small towns where
new dentists can easily become known
and where there may be less compe­
tition with established practitioners.
Although the income from practice in
small towns may rise rapidly at first,
over the long run the level of earnings,
like the cost of living, may be lower
than that in larger communities.
Most dental offices are open 5 days
a week and some dentists have eve­
ning hours. Dentists usually work be­
tween 40 and 50 hours a week, al­
though many spend more than 50
hours a week in the office. Dentists
often work fewer hours as they grow
older, since the hours of work are
usually determined by the dentist
himself. A considerable number con­



tinue in part-time practice well be­ and prepare records and reports.
yond the usual retirement age.
Dietitians who are directors of a die­
tary department also formulate de­
partmental policy; coordinate dietary
Where To Go for More Information
service with the activities of other de­
partments; and are responsible the
People wishing to practice in a development and managementfor the
given State should get the require­ dietary department budget, which in
ments for licensure directly from the large organizations may amount to
board of dental examiners of that millions of dollars annually.
State. Lists of State boards and of ac­
Therapeutic dietitians
credited dental schools, as well as in­ pervise the preparationplan and su­
formation on dentistry as a career, meals for patients on modifiedspecial
may be obtained from:
taking into consideration the nutri­
American Dental Association, Coun­
tional value of foods. They discuss
cil on Dental Education,
food likes and dislikes with patients
211 East Chicago Ave., Chicago, 111.
and note their intake of food. Other
duties of therapeutic dietitians in­
American Association of Dental
clude conferring with doctors regard­
ing patients’ diets, instructing patients
211 East Chicago Ave., Chicago, 111.
and their families on the requirements
and importance of their diets, and

suggesting ways to help them stay on
these diets after leaving the hospital.
In a small institution, one person may
serve as both the administrative and
therapeutic dietitian.
Some dietitians, particularly those
in hospitals affiliated with medical
centers, teach dietetic, medical, den­
tal, and nursing students such subjects
as dietetics, foods and nutrition, and
diet therapy. A few dietitians act as
consultants to commercial enterprises,
including food processors, equipment
manufacturers, and utility companies.
Other members of the profession,
called public health nutritionists, con­
duct studies or surveys of food and
nutrition. They also take part in re­
search projects, such as those con­
cerned with the nutritional needs of
the aging, persons with chronic dis­
eases, or space travelers.


(D.O.T. 077.081 through .168)
Nature of Work

Dietitians plan appetizing and nu­
tritious meals to help people maintain
or recover good health. Their work
includes selecting foods; planning
general menus and modified diets
that meet nutritional requirements
for health or for medical treatment;
supervising the personnel who pre­
pare and serve the meals; managing
purchases and accounts; and provid­
ing guidance on good eating habits.
Administrative dietitians form the
largest group in this occupation; the
others are therapeutic dietitians,
teachers, or research workers.
Administrative dietitians apply the
principles of nutrition and sound
management to large-scale meal plan­
ning and preparation such as that
done in hospitals, universities, schools,
and other institutions. They supervise
the preparation of meals; select, train,
and direct food-service supervisors
and workers; arrange for the buying
of food, equipment, and supplies; en­
force sanitary and safety regulations;

262-057 0—

Dietitian supervises meal preparation.


Where Employed

Approximately 30,000 dietitians
were employed in 1967, of whom less
than 10 percent were men. More than
two-fifths of all the dietitians worked
in hospitals and related institutions,
including about 1,100 who were em­
ployed by the Veterans Administra­
tion and the U.S. Public Health
Service. A sizable number were em­
ployed by colleges, universities, and
school systems as teachers or as dieti­
tians in food-service programs. Most
of the remainder worked for public
health agencies, restaurants or cafe­
terias, and large companies that op­
erate food-service programs for their
employees. Some dietitians were com­
missioned officers in the Armed
Training, Other Qualifications, and

The minimum educational require­
ment for dietitians is a bachelor’s de­
gree with a major in foods and nutri­
tion or institution management. This
education can be obtained in about
350 colleges and universities. Under­
graduate work should include courses
in foods and nutrition, institution
management, chemistry, bacteriology,
and physiology, and such related
courses as mathematics, psychology,
sociology, and economics.
To qualify for professional recog­
nition, The American Dietetic Asso­
ciation recommends the completion
of a 1-year dietetic internship pro­
gram approved by the Association, or
3 years of experience. Many em­
ployers prefer to hire dietitians who
have completed an internship. An im­
portant phase of the intern’s educa­
tion is on-the-job experience; the re­
mainder of the internship is devoted
to classroom study of menu planning,
budgeting, institution management,
other advanced subjects, and to spe­
cial projects. In 1967, 65 internship
programs were approved by The
American Dietetic Association—56

for hospitals, 8 for business firms or
colleges and universities, and 1 for a
food clinic.
Experienced dietitians may be ad­
vanced to assistant director or director
of a dietary department in a large hos­
pital or other institution. Graduate
education is usually required for ad­
vancement to higher level positions in
teaching and research. Those inter­
ested in becoming public health nu­
tritionists must usually earn a grad­
uate degree in this field. Graduate
study in institutional or business ad­
ministration is valuable to those inter­
ested in administrative dietetics.
Qualifications needed for work in
this field are an interest in and an
aptitude for the sciences, particularly
chemistry and mathematics. Ability
to organize and manage work pro­
grams and to work well with others
is also important.
Employment Outlook

Opportunities for qualified dieti­
tians are expected to be excellent
through the 1970’s. The supply of
trained dietitians is expected to be
considerably less than the demand for
them. As a result, opportunities will
be good for college graduates with
suitable undergraduate education to
assist dietitians. Small hospitals and
other institutions that cannot obtain
dietitians for full-time positions may
employ them on a part-time basis.
The major factors expected to con­
tribute to increasing opportunities for
dietitians include the expansion of
hospital and nursing home facilities,
more widespread use of hospitals and
medical services by an increasing pop­
ulation, and the growth of commu­
nity health programs. An increasing
number of dietitians will also be
needed to direct food services for
schools, industrial plants, and com­
mercial eating places, and to engage
in food and nutrition research
programs. In addition, since many
women select this field because of
their interest in food and homemak­

ing and then leave the profession for
marriage and family responsibilities,
replacement needs will probably con­
tinue to be high.
The number of men employed as
dietitians has been growing slowly but
steadily. Men are likely to find in­
creasing employment opportunities,
especially as administrative dietitians
in college and university food services,
hospitals, and commercial eating
Earnings and Working Conditions

In early 1967, hospitals offered
new graduates of approved internship
programs annual salaries ranging
from $6,000 to $6,500, according to
The American Dietetic Association.
New graduates without internship
generally received lower starting
salaries. Experienced dietitians in
hospitals were paid between $6,500
and $10,000 a year. Staff dietitians
employed by college and school food
services received annual salaries
ranging from $6,000 to $8,000.
The entrance salary in the Federal
Government for those who had com­
pleted internship was $6,451 a year
in early 1967. Beginning dietitians
with a master’s degree could start
at $7,696 per year. Most experienced
dietitians employed by the Federal
Government earned between $7,500
and $13,000 per year; a few earned
over $14,000. Dietitians employed by
State and local governments in mid1966 received yearly salaries ranging
from about $6,700 to $8,600, accord­
ing to a survey made by the U.S.
Department of Health, Education,
and Welfare.
Most dietitians are employed on a
weekly work schedule of 40 hours;
however, dietitians in hospitals may
sometimes work on weekends, and
those in commercial food service
have somewhat irregular hours. Some
hospitals provide laundry service and
meals in addition to salary. Paid vaca­
tions, holidays, and health and retire­
ment benefits are usually received.

Where To Go for More Information

Information on approved dietetic
internship programs, scholarships,
and employment opportunities, and
a list of colleges providing training
for a professional career in dietetics,
may be obtained from:
The American Dietetic Association,
620 North Michigan Ave., Chicago,
111. 60611.

The U.S. Civil Service Commis­
sion, Washington, D.C. 20415, has
information on the requirements for
dietetic interns and dietitians in Fed­
eral Government hospitals.

(D.O.T. 187.118)
Nature of Work

Hospital administrators hold the
top-level executive job in a hospital.
They have responsibility for directing
all the administrative activities of the
hospital. General guidance for their
work comes from a governing board
with whom they work closely in the
development of plans and policies.
The day-to-day work of adminis­
trators involves direction of the many
and varied activities of the hospital.
They work closely with the medical
and nursing staffs and make available
to them the necessary personnel,
equipment, and auxiliary services.
Administrators are responsible for hir­
ing and training personnel; preparing
and administering the budget; estab­
lishing accounting procedures; plan­
ning current and future space needs;
insuring the proper maintenance of
buildings and equipment; purchasing
supplies and equipment; and provid­
ing for laundry, mail, telephone, in­
formation, and other services for the
patients and staff.
In small hospitals, typically located
in rural or suburban areas, the admin­
istrator generally assumes all man­
agement functions. In large hospitals,
he is assisted by specialists who have

Hospital administrator plans additional facilities.

been trained in hospital adminis­
Under the direction of the govern­
ing board, administrators may carry
out large projects concerned with ex­
panding or developing the hospital’s
services. For example, they may or­
ganize fund-raising campaigns or plan
new building or research programs.
Administrators meet regularly with
their staff to discuss progress, make
plans, and solve problems concerning
the functioning of the hospital. In
cooperation with the medical staff
and department heads, they also may
develop and maintain teaching pro­
grams for nurses, interns, and other
hospital staff members. They may

address community gatherings, or­
ganize community health campaigns,
represent their hospitals at meetings,
or participate in study groups.
Where Employed

About 15,000 hospital administra­
tors were employed in hospitals and
related institutions in 1967. About
two-thirds of them worked in non­
profit or private hospitals, and the
remainder generally worked in Fed­
eral, State, and local government
hospitals. Of those employed by the
Federal Government, most were in
Veterans Administration, Armed

Forces, and Public Health Service
hospitals. It is estimated that onefifth of the total number of hospital
administrators and their assistants are
women. Many are members of
religious orders.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

The background needed to qualify
for this work depends, to a large ex­
tent, on the qualifications established
by individual employers. Most em­
ployers prefer persons with at least
a master’s degree in hospital admin­
istration. Others look for people who
have formal training in law or busi­
ness administration and also extensive
experience in the health field. A few
require that their administrators be
physicians or registered professional
nurses. Specialized hospitals (such as
orthopedic or mental hospitals) fre­
quently prefer physicians for admin­
istrators whose medical specialty is
the same as that of the hospital. Hos­
pitals run by religious groups may
seek administrators of the same faith.
In 1967, master’s degree programs
in hospital administration were of­
fered in 24 colleges and universities.
These programs usually consist of a
year of academic study followed by
a year of administrative residency in
a selected hospital; some require 2
years of academic study. For entrance
into these programs, applicants must
have a bachelor’s degree including
some courses in the natural sciences,
psychology, sociology, statistics, ac­
counting, and economics. The cur­
riculum may include such courses as
hospital organization and manage­
ment, accounting and budget control,
personnel administration, p u b l i c
health administration, and the eco­
nomics of health care. The residency
involves an orientation to all of the
hospital’s activities under the super­
vision of the administrator or his
assistant. The American College of
Hospital Administrators provides fi­
nancial loans and scholarships to a
limited number of students for grad­
uate work in hospital administration.


The U.S. Public Health Service also
gives a few awards for graduate work
in this field.
New graduates with a master’s
degree in hospital administration
usually enter the field as assistant
administrators or department heads.
As they gain experience, they may
qualify for the hospital administrator
job. A Ph. D. in hospital administra­
tion, which is offered in three univer­
sities, is helpful for those interested
in teaching and research.
Some persons without a master’s
degree in hospital administration gain
experience that may qualify them for
advancement to the administrator’s
job by working in one of the special­
ized administrative areas such as per­
sonnel, records, budget and finance,
or data processing. With this experi­
ence and some graduate work, they
may be promoted to department
head, assistant administrator, and
eventually to administrator.
Personal qualifications needed for
success in this field include good
health and vitality as well as interest
in helping the sick. Skills in working
with people, organizing and directing
large-scale activities, and public
speaking are important assets.
Employment Outlook

New graduates with the master’s
degree in hospital administration are
expected to have excellent employ­
ment opportunities. Applicants with­
out graduate training will find it
difficult to enter this field except by
gaining experience at the lower level
The position of hospital admin­
istrator, especially in a large hospital,
represents a career goal, and these
positions are likely to continue to be
filled by promotion from within or by
transfers from smaller hospitals. Althrough graduates of hospital admin­
istration programs are usually pre­
ferred for such advancement, some
positions as administrator are likely
to continue to be filled by physicians
and nurses.

The number of positions in hos­
pital administration is expected to
grow rapidly throughout the 1970’s.
As more and larger hospitals are built
to take care of the increasing popula­
tion, and as health services are ex­
panded, more positions are likely to
be created for hospital adminis­
trators, assistants, and department
heads to handle the increase in man­
agement functions. These positions
will provide additional employment
and promotional opportunities, es­
pecially for graduates of schools of
hospital administration. Such grad­
uates also will find increasing em­
ployment opportunities outside of
hospitals in hospitalization and health
insurance programs, nursing homes
and other long-term care institutions,
rehabilitation facilities, and public
health centers.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Salaries of hospital administrators
depend on factors such as the type of
hospital, the size of its administrative
staff and budget, and the policy of
the governing board. New hospital
administration graduates employed
in private hospitals received about
$7,500 a year in early 1967; experi­
enced administrators generally earned
up to $18,000 or more, according to
the limited data available. New grad­
uates employed in Veterans Admin­
istration hospitals started at $7,696 a
year in early 1967, although a few
experienced VA hospital adminis­
trators, most of whom are physicians,
were paid up to $25,000 a year.
Commissioned officers in the
Armed Forces and in the U.S. Public
Health Service working in the field
of hospital administration hold ranks
ranging from second lieutenant to
colonel. Commanding officers of large
Armed Forces hospitals are physi­
cians, and they may hold higher
Hospital administrators often work
long hours. Since hospitals operate on
a round-the-clock basis, the adminis­
trator may be called upon to settle
emergency problems at any time of



the day or night. Fringe benefits
usually include paid vacations and
holidays, sick leave, and pension and
insurance coverage.
Where To Go for More Information

Additional information about hos­
pital administration and a list of col­
leges and universities offering such
training may be obtained from:
American College of Hospital Ad­
840 North Lake Shore Dr., Chicago,
111. 60611.
Association of University Programs
in Hospital Administration,
1642 East 56th St., Chicago, 111.

Information on awards available
from the U.S. Public Health Service
for graduate training in hospital ad­
ministration may be obtained from
that agency’s Division of Health
Manpower Educational Services,
Bureau of Health Manpower, 800
North Quincy St., Arlington, Va.

(D.O.T. 079.378)
Nature of Work

Licensed practical nurses assist in
caring for medical and surgical
patients, convalescents, handicapped
people, and others who are physically
or mentally ill. Under the direction
of physicians and professional nurses,
they provide nursing care which re­
quires technical knowledge but not
the professional training of a reg­
istered nurse. (See statement on
Registered Professional Nurses.) In
California and Texas, licensed prac­
tical nurses are known as licensed
vocational nurses.
In hospitals, licensed practical
nurses work with other medical per­
sonnel as members of the nursing
team. They provide much of the bed­
side for FRASER
Digitized care needed by patients—for ex­

ample, taking and recording tempera­
tures and blood pressures, changing
dressings, administering certain pre­
scribed medicines, and bathing bed
patients and helping them in other
ways with personal hygiene tasks.
They may assist physicians and reg­
istered professional nurses in examin­
ing patients and in carrying out com­
plex nursing procedures. They may

assist in the delivery, care, and feed­
ing of infants. They may also help
registered nurses in recovery rooms by
watching for and reporting on any
adverse changes in patients recover­
ing from the effects of anesthesia. The
duties of some licensed practical
nurses include helping in the supervi­
sion of hospital attendants. (See state­
ment on Hospital Attendants.)



Licensed practical nurses em­
ployed in private homes care mainly
for patients whose day-to-day care
seldom involves highly technical pro­
cedures or complicated equipment.
In addition to providing the nursing
care ordered by their patients’ physi­
cians, they may prepare patients’
meals, keep their rooms tidy, and
perform many other tasks essential to
patients’ comfort and morale. Teach­
ing family members how to perform
simple nursing tasks is another duty
performed by many practical nurses
working in private homes, as well as
by those who are employed in public
health agencies.
In doctors’ offices and in clinics,
licensed practical nurses help physi­
cians by draping and positioning
patients for examinations and treat­
ments in much the same way as in
hospitals. In addition, they may per­
form clerical tasks such as making ap­
pointments and recording addresses,
ages, and other information about
Where Employed

About 300,000 licensed practical
nurses were employed in 1966. The
great majority were women.
About one-half of all licensed
practical nurses were employed in
hospitals. Most of the others worked
in nursing homes, clinics, doctor’s
offices, sanitariums, and other long­
term care facilities. Public health
agencies and welfare and religious
organizations also employed many
licensed practical nurses. Some
worked in the homes of their patients.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

All States and the District of
Columbia have laws which regulate
the training and licensing of practical
nurses. Usually, licenses are issued
only to those candidates who have
completed a course of instruction in
practical nursing which has been

approved by the State board of nurs­
ing, and who have also passed a
licensing examination.
Young people seeking to enroll in
State-approved training programs
must usually be at least 17 (or 18)
years old and have completed at least
2 years of high school or its equiva­
lent. Physical examinations are re­
quired and aptitude tests given. In
some States, candidates may be ac­
cepted who have completed only the
eighth or ninth grade, and, in still
others, high school graduation is
required. Many schools that do not
require completion of high school
nevertheless give preference to grad­
In 1966, about 1,080 Stateapproved training programs provided
instruction in practical nursing.
More than one-half were offered by
public schools as a part of vocational
and adult education programs.
Other programs were available at
junior colleges, or were sponsored by
local hospitals, health agencies, and
private educational institutions and
were usually 1 year in length. In
some schools, tuition was free, and in
others the charge generally ranged
between $150 and $300.
The training offered includes both
classroom study and clinical practice.
Classroom instruction covers nursing
concepts and principles and related
subjects such as anatomy, physiology,
medical-surgical nursing, nutrition,
first aid, and community health. This
work is supplemented by laboratory
practice and by supervised work in
hospitals where students apply their
skills to actual nursing situations.
Among the personal qualities
essential for practical nurses are a
liking for people and a genuine desire
to help them. Other attributes
include mental alertness, patience,
understanding, emotional stability,
and dependability. Good health is
extremely important.
Opportunities for advancement to
more responsible or specialized posi­
tions are limited, unless workers take
additional training. Thus, through
in-service training, some practical

nurses may prepare themselves for
work in specialized fields such as
rehabilitation. Practical nurses can­
not advance to positions as registered
nurses, however, unless they under­
take the years of additional schooling
which are required.
Employment Outlook

Licensed practical nurses are ex­
pected to be in strong demand dur­
ing the years ahead. In spite of a rapid
increase in employment in this occu­
pation during recent years, the supply
of qualified workers is still insufficient
to fill all jobs. Employment is ex­
pected to continue to rise very rapidly
through the 1970’s, and a large num­
ber of new jobs will have to be filled
each year as health facilities continue
to expand. In addition, many workers
will be needed annually to replace
practical nurses who retire or stop
working for other reasons. Many
positions will be available for those
wishing to work part time.
The need for more workers in this
occupation has been due in large part
to the greater utilization of licensed
practical nurses for certain kinds of
patient care which do not require the
skills of a registered professional
nurse. This use of practical nurses as
members of hospital nursing teams is
expected to continue to create many
job opportunities.. Other factors
which will contribute to increased
employment are a greater need for
health services because of growth in
the population and the increasing
ability of persons to pay for health
care, and the continuing expansion
of both public and private health in­
surance plans.
Earnings and Working Conditions

The salaries of licensed practical
nurses employed in hospitals sur­
veyed in mid-1966 ranged from an
^average of $61.50 a week in the
Southern States to $81.50 in the West,
according to a Bureau of Labor Sta­



tistics (BLS) survey. Nationwide, the National Association for Practical
Nurse Education and Service, Inc.
average was $72.50.
In many hospitals, practical nurses 53510017. Ave., New York, N.Y.
receive periodic pay increases after
they have completed specified periods National Federation of Licensed Prac­
tical Nurses, Inc.,
of satisfactory service. Some hospitals
also provide free laundering of uni­ 25010019. 57th St., New York, N.Y.
forms; less frequently, meals and uni­
Information about employment
forms are furnished without charge.
opportunities in United States Vet­
In a few institutions, free lodging may
be provided. The scheduled work­ erans Administration hospitals may
week is generally 40 hours but be­ be obtained from:
cause nursing care must be provided
Department of Medicine and Sur­
around the clock, it often includes
some work at night and on weekends Veterans Administration,
and holidays. Provisions for paid holi­ Washington, D.C. 20420.
days and vacations, and for health in­
surance and pension plans are com­
mon in many hospitals.
Licensed practical nurses employed
full time in nongovernmental nursing
homes and related facilities averaged
weekly earnings of $64 in early 1965
according to another BLS survey. In
private homes, licensed practical
nurses are usually on duty for 8, 10,
or 12 hours a day and go home at
night. A few, on 24-hour duty, live at
the homes where they are employed.
The earnings of those who are on
duty only during the daytime hours
are estimated at $1.50 to $2.50 an
Salaries of licensed practical nurses
employed by public health agencies
averaged $4,137 a year in 1966. The
starting salaries for inexperienced li­
censed practical nurses employed by
the Federal Government was $4,269
in early 1967.


(D.O.T. 078.381)
Nature of Work

Medical laboratory assistants per­
form routine laboratory work under
the supervision of medical technolo­
gists and pathologists or other phy­
sicians. Using microscopes, centri­
fuges, spectrophotometers, and simi­
lar instruments, they perform labora­
tory tests to analyze body fluids for

Where To Go for More Information

Information about a p p r o v e d
schools of practical nursing is avail­
able from State practical nursing as­
sociations and from the State board of
nursing at each State capital. A list
of State-approved training programs
and information about the occupa­
tion of practical nurse may also be
obtained from:

ANA-NLN Nursing Careers Program,
American Nurses’ Association,
10 Columbus Circle, New York, N.Y.

Laboratory assistant prepares to examine blood smear.

various biological components and to
aid medical technologists in determin­
ing the presence of cancer, tubercu­
losis, diabetes, meningitis, and other
diseases. Assistants also prepare tissue
samples, take blood samples, and pre­
pare slides for microscopic study. In
addition to performing routine labo­
ratory tests, assistants may store and
label plasma; clean and sterilize labo­
ratory equipment, glassware, and in­
struments; prepare solutions follow­
ing standard laboratory formulas and
procedures; keep records of tests; and
identify specimens.
Medical laboratory assistants em­
ployed in large laboratories may con­
centrate in one of the several areas
of laboratory work: Bacteriology,
serology, and parasitology; hema­
tology; blood bank; clinical chemis­
try; urinalysis; or basal metabolism
and electrocardiography. Laboratory
assistants working in bacteriology, se­
rology, and parasitology prepare and
stain slides for study, apply sensitivity
discs to culture plates and record re­
sults; and prepare specimens for mi­
croscopic studies. Those working in
hematology collect and perform blood
counts and perform tests to deter­
mine bleeding time, coagulation time,
sedimentation rate, and prothrombin
time. In the field of clinical chem­
istry, assistants perform chemical
analysis on samples of body fluids to
assist in the diagnosis and treatment
of diseases. Assistants working in the
blood bank carry out slide and testtube procedures to identify blood
groups and keep blood-bank records.
They assist in such laboratory tech­
niques as centrifuging urine samples,
preparing the samples for microscopic
study, and examining stained and un­
stained sediment. In basal metabo­
lism and electrocardiography work,
they prepare patients for tests as well
as operate and maintain testing
equipment. In small laboratories,
medical laboratory assistants general­
ly work in many areas. This occupa­
tion should not be confused with the
medical technologist which requires
4 years of post-secondary training.
(See statement on Medical Technolo­

Where Employed

An estimated 50,000 medical labo­
ratory assistants were employed in
1966; about 80 percent were women.
Hospital laboratories employed the
largest number—nearly three-fourths
of the total. Assistants were also em­
ployed in public and private clinical
laboratories, physicians’ offices, pub­
lic health agencies, and industrial
and pharmaceutical laboratories.
The Federal Government em­
ployed more than 2,900 medical lab­
oratory assistants in 1966. Most of
these assistants worked in veterans’
hospitals, and the remainder were
employed by the Armed Forces and
the Public Health Service.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

Most medical laboratory assistants
employed in 1966 received their
training on the job. In recent years,
however, an increasing number have
received their training in academic
programs conducted by hospitals or
by schools in cooperation with hos­
pitals. In the future, academic train­
ing probably will be required by most
Academic training programs for
medical laboratory assistants are of­
fered in special schools operated by
hospitals, in vocational schools, and
in junior colleges. Hospitals offer the
greatest number of training pro­
grams, some of which were estab­
lished recently under the Manpower
Development and Training Act and
the Vocational Education Act. For
entry into these programs, gradua­
tion from high school with courses in
science and mathematics is required
generally. The programs last a year
and include classroom instruction
and practical training in the labora­
tory. These programs often begin
with a general orientation to the clin­
ical laboratory and are followed by
courser, in bacteriology, serology,
parasitology, hematology, clinical
chemistry, blood banking, urinalysis,

basal metabolism, and electrocardi­
Medical laboratory assistant pro­
grams in junior colleges usually last
about 2 years. Students spend the first
9 months in a liberal arts curriculum.
During the next year they take
courses in clinical laboratory pro­
cedures, including practical labora­
tory experience.
Young people interested in a ca­
reer as a medical laboratory assistant
should select a training program with
considerable care. Information should
be obtained about the length of time
the training program has been in op­
eration, instructional facilities, fac­
ulty qualifications, and the kinds of
jobs obtained by graduates.
Assistants who continue their edu­
cation and obtain a bachelor’s degree
in biology or chemistry, or a degree
or certificate in medical technology
can advance to medical technologist.
Personal characteristics considered
desirable include good vision, manual
dexterity, and the ability to work un­
der pressure and to work well with
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
medical laboratory assistants are ex­
pected to be excellent through the
1970’s. Factors underlying an antici­
pated rapid growth in the occupation
include the country’s expanding pop­
ulation; increasing use of laboratory
tests in routine physical checkups as
well as in the diagnosis and treatment
of disease; rising standards of living
and health consciousness; expanding
medical services resulting from new
medical techniques and drugs; ex­
panding medical research activities;
and extension of prepayment pro­
grams for medical care, including
Advances in technology are ex­
pected to stimulate the demand for
workers in this occupation. Many new
technological developments permit
greater numbers and more varieties
of tests to be performed. On the other
hand, the development of new auto­



mated equipment that reduces the
need for personnel to do simple repeti­
tive tasks may tend to partially offset
the growth in demand for the serv­
ices of medical laboratory assistants.
In addition to assistants who will
be needed to fill openings resulting
from the rapid growth of the occupa­
tion, large numbers will also be
needed as replacements. Each year
many openings will arise because a
large number of women will leave the
field for marriage and family respon­
sibilities. Opportunities also should be
good for qualified older workers and
handicapped persons.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Average annual salaries for medical
laboratory assistants ranged from
$3,600 to $4,600 in 1966, according
to limited data available. In general,
laboratory assistants employed on the
West Coast and in large cities re­
ceived higher salaries. The Federal
Government paid medical laboratory
assistants starting salaries of $4,269 a
year in early 1967.
Laboratory assistants generally
work a 40-hour week. In hospitals,
they can expect some night or week­
end duty. Hospitals generally provide
vacation and sick leave benefits; some
have retirement plans.
The laboratories in which assistants
work are in general well lighted and
clean. Although unpleasant odors and
specimens of many kinds of diseased
tissue often are present, few hazards
exist in laboratories if proper methods
of sterilization and handling of speci­
mens, materials, and equipment are
Where To Go for More Information

Information about employment op­
portunities and educational require­
ments for medical laboratory assist­
ants may be obtained from local
hospitals and from:
Board of Certified Laboratory Assist­
445 North Lake Shore Dr., Chicago,
111. 60611.


(D.O.T. 100.388)
Nature of Work

Medical record librarians plan,
prepare, maintain, and analyze rec­
ords and reports on patients’ illnesses
and treatments. They assist medical
staff members in research projects;
develop auxiliary records (such as
indexes of physicians, diseases treated,
and operations performed) ; compile
statistics, especially those pertaining
to services given patients; make sum­
maries or “abstracts” of medical
records; develop systems for docu­
menting, storing and retrieving med­
ical information; and direct the activ­
ities of the medical record depart­
The size and type of institution
employing medical record librarians

will affect the duties and amount of
responsibility assigned to these work­
ers. In large hospitals, chief medical
record librarians supervise other
medical record librarians, medical
record technicians, and clerical work­
ers. They usually represent their
department at hospital staff meetings
and may be called to testify in court
actions involving medical records. In
small hospitals, they may be the only
employee in the medical record de­
partment and may perform clerical
as well as professional duties.
Medical record librarians prepare
records containing medical and surgi­
cal information on each patient,
including case histories of illnesses,
physical examination findings, doc­
tors’ orders and progress notes,
nurses’ notes, and reports on X-rays
and laboratory findings. These rec­
ords are used for research, insurance
claims, legal actions, evaluation of



treatment and medications pre­
scribed, and for instruction in the
training of medical, nursing, and
related personnel. The medical infor­
mation found in hospital records is
also useful in planning community
health centers and programs and in
hospital and health care administra­
Medical record librarians should
not be confused with the medical
librarians who work chiefly with
books, periodicals, and other publi­
cations. (See statement on Librar­
Where Employed

About 12,000 medical record li­
brarians were employed in 1966. Of
these, about 3,800 were Registered
Record Librarians, according to the
American Association of Medical
Record Librarians. In addition,
about 25,000 other medical record
personnel were working in this field.
Most of the librarians were employed
in hospitals; the remainder worked in
clinics, medical research centers, the
medical departments of insurance
companies and industrial firms, and
in local and State health departments.
Although most medical record librar­
ians are women, the number of men
in the occupation is growing.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

In 1966, 28 schools approved by the
American Medical Association of­
fered training in medical record li­
brary science or medical record
administration. These schools are lo­
cated in colleges and universities and
in hospitals. The specialized academic
training program, about 1 year in
length, has about the same curriculum
wherever offered, but prerequisites
range from 2 to 4 years of collegelevel work, the latter now is preferred
more and more frequently. A certifi­
cate is granted upon completion of
the 1-year specialized training, except
when it has been taken for credit as

part of a 4-year undergraduate pro­
gram leading to a bachelor’s degree in
medical record science.
The specialized curriculum includes
both theoretical instruction and prac­
tical experience. The required courses
include anatomy, physiology, funda­
mentals of medical science, medical
terminology, medical record science,
ethics, management, hospital organi­
zation and administration, and data
processing. Practical experience in­
volves hospital admitting and dis­
charging procedures; standard index­
ing and coding practices; compilation
of statistical reports; analysis of med­
ical data from clinical records; and
knowledge of medical record systems
for the X-ray, pathology, outpatient,
and other hospital departments.
Graduates of approved schools in
medical record science are eligible for
the national registration examination,
given by the American Association of
Medical Record Librarians. Upon
passing this examination, they receive
professional recognition as Registered
Record Librarians.
Medical record librarians must be
accurate, interested in detail, and
willing to persist in obtaining data.
Because the information is of a confi­
dential nature, they must be especially
discreet in processing and releasing it.
They should be able to maintain ac­
curacy despite pressure, since the
work is exacting and yet subject to
frequent interruption. Those in ad­
ministrative and supervisory positions
must be able to work effectively with
other hospital personnel.
Medical record librarians may ad­
vance to supervisory or administrative
positions. They may serve as assistant
chief or director of a single depart­
ment or become the coordinator of
medical record departments of several
hospitals. Others may advance to
faculty positions in collegiate or uni­
versity programs for medical record

to be excellent through the 1970’s.
In addition to the demand created
by growth, many openings will occur
because of the need to make replace­
ments, which will probably be high
as young women leave the field for
marriage and family responsibilities.
High school graduates will have many
opportunities to become medical rec­
ord technicians to assist librarians.
The increasing number of hospitals
and the volume and complexity of
hospital records will contribute to a
growing demand for medical record
librarians. Also, computers will be
utilized increasingly to store and re­
trieve medical information; this
should permit a greater use of med­
ical records and, in turn, tend to
increase the demand for medical rec­
ord librarians. The importance of
medical records will continue to grow
rapidly, owing partly to the increased
demand for clinical data necessary for
research on diseases, the use of new
drugs, and other methods of treat­
ment. Special interest in the health
care of the aged may necessitate re­
cording data on the conditions of
persons in nursing homes and home
care programs. More consultants and
group supervisors also will be needed
to help standardize records in areas
where medical record librarians are
not available.
Earnings and Working Conditions

The salaries of medical record
librarians are influenced by the loca­
tion, size, and type of employing
agency, as well as by the duties and
responsibility of the position held.
Average weekly salaries ranged from
$100 to $129.50, according to a survey
of hospital employees in 21 metro­
politan areas in mid-1966.
The average salary for chief med­
ical record librarians (registered) in
1967 was $7,000 a year, according to
the American Association of Medical
Record Librarians. Those with the
bachelor’s degree in medical record
Employment Outlook
science from an approved school
Employment opportunities for earned, on the average, about $300
medical record librarians are expected to $500 more a year than graduates



of schools that did not offer such
Newly graduated medical record
librarians employed by the Federal
Government started at $5,331 a year
in early 1967. Annual salaries of ex­
perienced medical record librarians in
the Federal Government generally
ranged between $6,500 and $8,000.
Medical record librarians usually
work a regular 40-hour week and
receive paid holidays and vacations.
Where To Go for More Information

Information a b o u t approved
schools and employment opportu­
nities may be obtained from:
The American Association of Medical
Record Librarians,
211 East Chicago Ave., Chicago, 111.

(D.O.T. 078.281)
Nature of Work

Laboratory tests play an important
part in the detection, diagnosis, and
treatment of disease. Medical tech­
nologists perform these tests under
the direction of a pathologist (a
physician who specializes in diagnos­
ing the causes and nature of disease)
or a scientist specializing in a clinical
The tests performed by medical
technologists may include tests for
blood count, blood cholesterol level,
and skin tests. Other body fluid and
tissue samples may be examined
microscopically; cultured to deter­
mine the presence of bacteria, fungus,
or other organisms; and analyzed for
chemical content or reaction. Tech­
nologists type and cross-match blood
samples; determine blood coagulation
time and sedimentation rates; meas­
ure basal metabolism; and analyze
water, food products, or other mate­
rials for bacteria. Medical technolo­
gists prepare slides from tissue

Medical technologist dilutes serum sample.

specimens for study of cellular
Technologists who work in small
laboratories often perform many types
of tests. Those employed in large lab­
oratories usually specialize in making
several kinds of related tests in areas
such as bacteriology, parasitology,
biochemistry, microbiology, blood
banking, hematology (the study of
blood cells), histology (tissue prep­
aration and examination), virology
(the study of viruses), cytology (anal­
ysis of body cells), and nuclear med­

ical technology (the use of radioactive
isotopes to help detect diseases).
Most medical technologists con­
duct tests connected with the exam­
ination and treatment of patients.
Some do research on new drugs or on
the improvement of laboratory tech­
niques; others teach or perform ad­
ministrative duties.
The occupation of the medical
technologist should not be confused
with that of the medical technician
or laboratory assistant. This statement
does not include these workers, who



usually assist the medical technologist
by performing simple, routine tests
and related work that can be learned
in a relatively short time. (See state­
ment on Medical Laboratory As­
Where Employed

About 40,000 medical technologists
were employed in 1966—approxi­
mately 9 out of 10 were women. In
recent years, however, the number
of men in the field has been increas­
ing. The great majority of all medical
technologists work in hospitals; most
of the others are employed by labora­
tories, public health agencies, research
institutions, and pharmaceutical
The Federal Government is the
largest single employer of medical
technologists. In 1966, about 1,400
were employed in the hospitals and
laboratories of the Veterans Admin­
istration, U.S. Public Health Service,
and the Army, Navy, and Air Force.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

The usual minimum educational
requirement for beginning medical
technologists is the completion of a
specialized training program in medi­
cal technology. In 1966, such train­
ing was given in nearly 800 hospitals,
of which over 600 were affiliated with
colleges and universities. For en­
trance to programs accredited by the
American Medical Association, the
prospective technologist must com­
plete 3 years of undergraduate work,
including courses in chemistry, bio­
logical science, and mathematics. A
few schools require a bachelor’s
degree for entry into the program.
The training usually requires 12
months of study and includes exten­
sive laboratory work. A bachelor’s
degree is often awarded upon com­
pletion of the college affiliated pro­
gram. Sixteen universities also offer
advanced degrees in medical tech­
nology' for those who plan to special­

ize in teaching, administration, or re­
Graduates of AMA-accredited
schools may take an examination to
qualify for certification by the Reg­
istry of Medical Technologists of the
American Society of Clinical Path­
ologists (ASCP). Technologists reg­
istered by the ASCP are preferred by
many employers, especially in large
hospitals and research laboratories.
In the States of Alabama, California,
Florida, and Hawaii, and in New
York City, medical technologists also
must be licensed.
Promotion may be to supervisory
positions in certain areas of labora­
tory work or, after several years’ ex­
perience, to the position of chief
medical technologist in a large hos­
pital. Graduate education, in one of
the biological sciences or chemistry,
may be required for advancement in
research laboratories.
Personal characteristics important
for medical laboratory work include
accuracy, patience, dependability,
and the ability to work under pres­
sure. Manual dexterity and good eye­
sight (with or without glasses) are
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
medical technologists are expected to
remain excellent through the 1970’s.
New graduates with a bachelor’s
degree in medical technology will be
sought for entry positions in hospitals.
A particularly strong demand is antic­
ipated for technologists with grad­
uate training in biochemistry,
bacteriology, immunology, and
Employment opportunities for
medical technologists are expected to
expand as physicians increasingly
depend upon laboratory tests in rou­
tine physical checkups as well as in
the diagnosis and treatment of dis­
ease. Also, the construction of addi­
tional hosptial and medical facilities
will increase the demand for these
workers. Other factors affecting
growth in this field are the increasing

complexity of laboratory work and
expanding medical research. Newly
developed automated equipment is
not expected to limit the growth of
medical technologists, as these ma­
chines require well-trained persons to
operate them.
Replacement needs will continue
to be high because many workers in
this field are young women who may
leave their jobs for marriage and fam­
ily responsibilities. Many opportuni­
ties for part-time employment will
continue to be available also.
Earnings and Working Conditions

The average (median) annual
salary for registered medical tech­
nologists was $6,144 in 1966, accord­
ing to a survey conducted by the
National Committee for Careers in
Medical Technology; those with
graduate degrees had an average an­
nual salary of $7,828. Salaries varied
by employer and location of employ­
Average weekly salaries of women
medical technologists employed by
private and non-Federal Government
hospitals in metropolitan areas in
mid-1966 ranged from $97.50 in the
South to $130 in the West. Men
usually received slightly higher
Newly graduated medical tech­
nologists employed by the Federal
Government in early 1967 received a
salary of $5,331 a year. Most experi­
enced technologists in Federal Gov­
ernment agencies earned annual
salaries of between $6,500 and
The average workweek of medical
technologists is 40 hours, and they
generally are covered by vacation and
sick leave benefits; some are covered
by retirement plans.
The laboratories in which medical
technologists work are usually welllighted and clean, although unpleas­
ant odors and specimens of many
kinds of diseased tissue are often pres­
ent. Few hazards exist in the labora­
tories using proper methods of sterili­
zation and handling of specimens,



materials, and equipment. If proper
care is exercised, there is no danger of
medical technologists being cut by
laboratory instruments and glassware
or burned by chemicals.
Where To Go for More Information

Information about employment
opportunities, as well as costs and en­
trance requirements of AMA-approved schools of medical technology,
may be obtained from:
American Society of Medical Tech­
Suite 1600, Hermann Professional
Houston, Tex. 77025.

Registry of Medical Technologists
of the American Society of Clinical
P.O. Box 2544, Muncie, Ind. 47302.

Information about employment
opportunities in Veterans Adminis­
tration hospitals may be obtained
from the individual hospitals or the
Department of Medicine and Sur­
gery, Veterans Administration, Wash­
ington, D.C. 20421.

(D.O.T. 078.368)
Nature of Work

Medical X-rays play a major role
in the diagnostic and therapeutic field
of medicine. Medical X-ray tech­
nicians—also called radiologic tech­
nologists—operate X-ray equipment
under the direction of physicians who
are usually radiologists (specialists in
the use of X-rays).
Most technicians perform diag­
nostic work, using X-ray equipment
to take pictures of internal parts of
the body which the doctor wishes to
examine. They may prepare a pre­
scribed X-ray “opaque,” such as
barium salts, which the patient swal­
lows in order to shade various organs
to provide proper visibility in the Xray picture. To prepare patients for

Technician determines proper voltage, current, and desired exposure time.

X-ray, technicians position them be­
tween the X-ray tube and the film
and cover body areas not to be ex­
posed to the rays with a protective
lead plate. When necessary, they set
up or adjust devices to prevent the
patient from moving. After determin­
ing the proper voltage, current, and
desired exposure time, the technician
operates the controls to obtain the pic­
tures for interpretation by the physi­
cian. The technician may use mobile
X-ray equipment at a patient’s bed­
side and in surgery.
Some technicians perform thera­
peutic work. They regulate special
radiation producing equipment used
for treatment of diseases (for ex­
ample, certain types of cancer). After
placing the patient in the proper posi­
tion, these technicians operate the
equipment from an adjoining room.
They may also assist the radiologist
in measuring and handling radium
and other radioactive materials.

Other technicians work in the rela­
tively new field of nuclear medicine
in which radioactive isotopes are used
for diagnosing and treating diseases.
Their duties in assisting the radi­
ologist may include preparing and
administering the prescribed radio­
isotope and operating special equip­
ment for tracing and measuring
Medical X-ray technicians keep
equipment in good working order by
cleaning and making minor repairs.
Other duties include processing film
and keeping records of services per­
formed for patients.
Where Employed

About one-third of the estimated
72,000 X-ray technicians employed in
1966 worked in hospitals. Most of the
remainder worked in medical labora­
tories, physicians’ and dentists’ offices

or clinics, Federal and State health
agencies, and public school systems.
Most technicians work in or near
large cities where medical facilities
and services are concentrated. How­
ever, some are employed in hospitals
and clinics in small towns or rural
areas. A few work as members of small
mobile X-ray teams, engaged mainly
in tuberculosis detection.
About two-thirds of all X-ray tech­
nicians are women, although the
number of men in the field has in­
creased in recent years.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

Training programs in X-ray tech­
nology are conducted by hospitals or
by medical schools affiliated with hos­
pitals. A program in X-ray tech­
nology usually takes 24 months to
complete. A few schools offer 3- or 4year programs and 11 schools award
a bachelor’s degree in X-ray tech­
nology. Also, some junior colleges co­
ordinate academic training with work
experience in hospitals in 3-year Xray technician programs and offer an
Associate of Arts degree. In 1966,
more than 1,000 schools of X-ray
technology were approved by the
American Medical Association
(AMA). In addition to training pro­
grams in approved schools, training
also may be obtained in the military
service. Some courses in X-ray tech­
nology are offered by vocational or
technical schools.
All of the approved schools require
that applicants be high school grad­
uates, and a few require 1 or 2 years
of college or graduation from a nurs­
ing school. High school courses in
mathematics, physics, chemistry, biol­
ogy, and typing are desirable. Prefer­
ence is generally given to applicants
between the ages of 18 and 30.
The program in X-ray technology
usually includes courses in anatomy,
physiology, nursing procedures, phys­
ics, radiation protection, darkroom
chemistry, principles of radiographic
exposure, X-ray therapy, radiograph­
ic positioning, medical ethics, depart­


ment administration, and the opera­
tion and maintenance of equipment.
Registration with the American
Registry of Radiologic Technologists
is an asset in obtaining highly skilled
and specialized positions. Registration
requirements include graduation
from an approved school of medical
X-ray technology and the satisfactory
completion of an examination. After
registration, the title “Registered
Technologist, R.T. (ARRT)” may
be used. To become certified in radi­
ation therapy or nuclear medicine,
technicians must have completed an
additional year of combined class­
room study and work experience.
Some technicians employed in large
X-ray departments may be advanced
to the job of chief X-ray technician
as openings occur, and may also
qualify as instructors in X-ray tech­
Good health and stamina are
important qualifications for this field.
Because of the possible exposure to
radiation, people having a tendency
toward anemia should avoid working
with X-ray equipment, since they are
relatively more susceptible to the
adverse effects of X-rays.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
medical X-ray technicians are ex­
pected to be excellent through the
1970’s. Despite an expected increase
in the number of persons graduating
from medical X-ray technology
training programs, the demand for
technologists is expected to be greater
than the number of graduates avail­
able for employment.
The increasing use of X-ray equip­
ment in the diagnosis and treatment
of disease, and the continuing expan­
sion of this use are the leading factors
in the very rapid growth of employ­
ment opportunities. In addition, more
workers will be needed to help admin­
ister radiotherapy, as new knowledge
of the medical benefits of radioactive
material becomes more widespread.
Routine X-raying of large groups of

people will be extended as part of
disease prevention and control pro­
grams. For example, many employers
now demand that chest X-rays be
taken of all employees, and most
insurance companies include a chest
X-ray as part of the physical exam­
ination required for an insurance
In addition to the medical X-ray
technologists needed for new jobs,
replacement demands will probably
be high because of the large number
of women who leave their jobs each
year for marriage or family responsi­
bilities. For those who have left the
field and want to return to work part
time, opportunities should also be
excellent through the 1970’s.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Average salaries of medical X-ray
technicians ranged from $85 a week
in the South to $106 in the West, ac­
cording to a survey of all hospitals
in mid-1966. The weekly salaries of
chief X-ray technicians averaged
about $124. At all levels, men gen­
erally received higher average salaries
than women.
New graduates of AMA-approved
schools of X-ray technology or X-ray
technicians with 1 year of general and
1 year of specialized experience were
employed by the Federal Government
at an annual salary of $4,776 in early
1967. Most medical X-ray technicians
working for the Federal Government
earned between $5,300 and $6,500 a
Full-time technicians generally
work 8 hours a day, 40 hours a week,
but may be “on call” for some night
or emergency duty. Most are covered
by the same vacation and sick leave
provisions as other workers in the
same organization.
Care must be taken to protect med­
ical X-ray technicians from the poten­
tial hazards of radiation exposure.
Precautionary measures include the
use of safety devices such as individual
instruments that measure radiation,
lead aprons, rubber gloves, and other


Where To Go for More Information

The American Society of Radiologic
537 South Main St., Fond du Lac,
Wis. 54935.
The American Registry of Radiologic
2600 Wayzata Blvd., Minneapolis,
Minn. 55405.

(D.O.T. 079.128)

About one-third of the total num­
ber of occupational therapists work
with emotionally handicapped pa­
tients, and the rest with persons hav­
ing physical disabilities. These pa­
tients are of all ages, with varying
diagnoses. The chief occupational
therapist in a hospital may teach
medical and nursing students the
principles of occupational therapy.
Many occupational therapists have
administrative duties such as direct­
ing occupational therapy programs,
coordinating patient activities, or act­
ing as consultants to local and State

health departments and mental
health authorities. Some occupational
therapists are faculty members at col­
leges and universities offering pro­
grams in occupational therapy.
Where Employed

About 6,500 occupational thera­
pists were employed in 1966. Al­
though most occupational therapists
are women, an increasing number of
men have been entering the field in
recent years.

Nature of Work

Occupational therapists, guided by
physicians, plan and direct educa­
tional, vocational, and recreational
activities designed to help mentally
and physically disabled patients be­
come self-sufficient. They work as
members of a medical team which,
in addition to physicians, may include
physical therapists, vocational coun­
selors, nurses, social workers, and
other specialists.
The rehabilitation goals of the
treatment prescribed for a patient
may include regaining physical, men­
tal, or emotional stability; combating
boredom during a long-term illness;
developing maximum self-sufficiency
ip the routine of daily living (such as
eating, dressing, writing, and using a
telephone); and, in the latter stage of
treatment, performing jobs in a prac­
tical work situation for eventual re­
turn to employment.
As part of the treatment program,
occupational therapists teach man­
ual and creative skills such as weav­
ing, clay modeling, and leather-work­
ing, as well as business and industrial
skills such as typing, operating some
business machines, and using power
tools. Therapists may design and
make special equipment or splints to
aid some disabled patients in perform­
ing their activities. Other duties may
include supervising student therapists,
occupational therapy assistants, vol­
unteer workers, and auxiliary nursing

Occupational therapist uses gardening activities to help emotionally disturbed patients.

More than three-fifths of all oc­
cupational therapists work in hospi­
tals. Most of the remainder are em­
ployed in rehabilitation centers,
homes for the aged, nursing
homes, schools, out-patient clinics,
and research centers. Some work in
special workshops, sanitariums,
camps for handicapped children, and
in State health departments. Others
are employed in home-visiting pro­
grams for patients unable to attend
clinics or workshops. Still others are
members of the Armed Forces.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

The usual minimum requirement
for entry into the profession is a degree
or certificate in occupational therapy.
In 1966, 31 colleges and universities
in the United States offered programs
in occupational therapy which were
accredited by the American Medical
Association and the American Occu­
pational Therapy Association. Nearly
all of these schools offer 4-year pro­
grams to high school graduates. Sev­
eral offer 2-year programs to students
who have completed 2 years of col­
lege. Abou,t half of the schools also
offer shorter programs leading to a
certificate in occupational therapy for
students with a bachelor’s degree in
another field.
The academic work in a 4-year
program emphasizes the physical, bio­
logical, and behavioral sciences and
the application of occupational ther­
apy skills. In addition to the academic
work, the training includes 6 to 9
months of supervised clinical experi­
ence in hospitals or health agencies.
Some programs give part of the clin­
ical experience during the summer or
during part of the senior year. The
Armed Forces offer programs where­
by graduates of approved schools of
occupational therapy, who meet the
requirements to become commis­
sioned officers, may receive the clin­
ical part of their training while in the


Upon graduation and the comple­
tion of the clinical practice period,
therapists are eligible to take the ex­
amination given by the American
Occupational Therapy Association.
Those who pass this examination may
use the initials O.T.R. (Occupa­
tional Therapist Registered).
Five universities offer a program
for occupational therapists leading to
a master’s degree in occupational
therapy. A graduate degree is often
required for teaching, research, or
administrative work. The master’s
degree is also offered at three univer­
sities as the first professional degree
for persons holding a baccalaureate
degree in related fields.
Newly graduated occupational
therapists generally begin as staff
therapists. After several years on the
job they may qualify as senior thera­
pists. Experienced therapists may be­
come directors of occupational ther­
apy programs in large hospitals or
clinics, or may become teachers. Some
high-level positions such as program
coordinators and consultants also are
available in large institutions and
Personal qualifications needed in
this profession include emotional sta­
bility, a sincere interest in helping
people, and a sympathetic but objec­
tive approach to illness and disability.
Manual dexterity, ingenuity, and
imagination are needed also.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for oc­
cupational therapists are expected to
be excellent through the 1970’s. De­
spite anticipated increases in the
number of graduates of occupational
therapy programs, the demand for
therapists is expected to exceed the
supply as public interest in the re­
habilitation of disabled persons and
the success of established occupa­
tional therapy programs increase.
Many occupational therapists will be
needed to staff the growing number
of community health centers estab­
lished under the Mental Retardation

Facilities and Community Mental
Health Centers Construction Act of
1963, as amended. There will con­
tinue to be numerous opportunities
for work with psychiatric patients,
children, and aged persons, as well as
with persons suffering from cerebral
palsy, tuberculosis, and heart disease.
In addition to openings that will re­
sult from growth, many openings will
arise because of the need to replace
the high proportion of young women
who leave the field for marriage and
family responsibilities.
Although hospitals and other em­
ployers prefer to hire registered occu­
pational therapists, some opportuni­
ties will continue to be available for
therapists who are not registered but
have some of the required training
and skills. Opportunities for experi­
enced women who wish to return to
work part time after rearing their
children should be excellent.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Average annual salaries of staff
occupational therapists ranged from
$5,500 to $10,000 in 1966, according
to the limited data available. Direc­
tors of services, coordinators, consult­
ants, and others in top administrative
positions earned annual salaries up
to $14,000 in 1966.
In the Federal Government, the
beginning annual salary for inexperi­
enced occupational therapists was
$5,867 in early 1967. More than onethird of all occupational therapists in
the Federal Government earned
$7,696 or more a year.
Most occupational therapists work
an 8-hour day, 40-hour week, with
some evening work required in a few
organizations. Vacation leave usually
ranges from 2 to 4 weeks a year, and
many positions offer health and re­
tirement benefits.
Where To Go for More Information

American Occupational Therapy As­
251 Park Avenue South, New York,
N.Y. 10010.



(D.O.T. 079.108)
Nature of Work

Optometrists help people improve
and protect their vision. They exam­
ine eyes, make tests to determine
defects in vision, and, when needed,
prescribe eyeglasses, contact lenses,
corrective eye exercises, or other
treatment that does not require drugs
or surgery. Most optometrists supply
their patients with the eyeglasses pre­
scribed, and sometimes do minor
repair work such as straightening
eyeglass frames. Some optometrists
specialize in work such as fitting par­
tially sighted persons with telescopic
spectacles, studying the relationship
of vision to highway safety, and
analyzing lighting and other condi­
tions that affect the efficiency of
workers in industry or business. A few
are engaged primarily in teaching,
research, or a combination of the two.
Optometrists should not be con­
fused with opthalmologists, some­
times referred to as oculists, or dis­
pensing opticians. Opthalmologists or
oculists are physicians who specialize
in the medical and surgical care of
the eyes and may prescribe drugs or
other treatment, as well as lenses.
Dispensing opticians fit and adjust
eyeglasses according to prescriptions
written by opthalmologists or op­
tometrists; they do not examine eyes
or prescribe treatment. (See state­
ment on Dispensing Opticians.)

Optometrist uses perimeter to examine patient’s eyes.

Optometrists are located chiefly in
large cities and industrial areas,
where many people are engaged in
office work or other occupations that
tend to create or emphasize vision
problems. About 40 percent of the
total are found in five States—Cali­
fornia, Illinois, New York, Pennsyl­
vania, and Ohio. Many small towns
and rural areas, especially in the
South, have no optometrists.

Where Employed

Approximately 17,000 optometrists
were employed in the United States
in 1967. More than nine-tenths of all
optometrists were self-employed. Of
the remainder, most worked for estab­
lished practitioners, health clinics,
hospitals, optical instrument manu­
facturers, or government agencies.
Some taught in colleges of optometry
or served as optometrists in the Armed

262-057 0 — 68 •8

Training, Other Qualifications, and

A license is required to practice
optometry in all States and the Dis­
trict of Columbia. Applicants for li­
censes must be graduates of an ac­
credited school of optometry and pass
a State board examination. In some
States, only graduates of certain
schools of optometry are admitted to

these examinations. A student plan­
ning to become an optometrist
should, therefore, choose a school ap­
proved by the Board of Optometry in
the State where he expects to prac­
tice. There were 10 schools of op­
tometry in the country in 1967. Ap­
plicants with the necessary qualifi­
cations have an excellent chance for
admission to these schools. Needy
students may obtain loans and schol­
arships up to $2,500 a year to pursue
full-time study leading to a degree in
optometry from Federal funds pro­
vided by the Health Professions Edu­
cational Assistance Act of 1963, as
At least 6 years of college are
needed to become an optometrist—
2 years of preoptometry education in
an approved college, followed by 4
years of training in an optometry
school. Preoptometry courses include
mathematics, physics, biology, and



chemistry, as well as English and tion to the size, occupations, age, and
other liberal arts courses. Students in income level of the population in the
schools of optometry have classroom area.
and laboratory work and obtain pro­
Among the factors underlying the
fessional experience in the out-pa­ expected increase in demand for eye
tient clinics run by the schools. All care services are a growing popula­
schools award the degree of Doctor tion with a larger proportion of older
of Optometry (O.D.). Optometrists people and white collar workers, the
who wish to specialize often take ilf. groups most likely to need glasses; the
graduate training. A master’s or Ph. wider recognition of the importance
D. degree in physiological optics, or of good vision for efficiency at work
in a related field, is usually required and in school; and the greater ac­
for teaching and research work.
ceptance of the use of eyeglasses and
A prospective optometrist should contact lenses to counteract eye strain
have a liking for mathematical and and visual defects. Although ex­
scientific work, the ability to use deli­ panded demand will be met in part
cate precision instruments, mechani­ by medical doctors who are eye spe­
cal aptitude, and good vision. In ad­ cialists, optometrists will continue to
dition, to become a successful prac­ supply a substantial proportion of all
titioner, he must be able to deal with eye care services.
people tactfully.
\ C ’' ' '
■' ' ’£
Many beginning optometrists
either set up a new practice or pur- Earnings and Working Co
chase an established one. Some start
New optometry graduates who go
as salaried optometrists to obtain experience and the necessary funds to into practice for themselves generally
have a low income during the first
establish their own practice.
few years. They usually earn less than
new optometrists who take salaried
positions. After a few years of experi­
Employment Outlook
ence, the situation is likely to be re­
Employment opportunities for new versed, since the income of independ­
optometry graduates are expected to ent practitioners generally exceeds
remain favorable through the 1970’s. the earnings of salaried optometrists.
The demand for optometric services
In early 1967, new optometry grad­
is expected to increase, but the total uates in salaried positions generally
number of new graduates will prob­ started at about $6,500 a year, ac­
ably be little more than the number cording to the American Optometric
needed to replace optometrists who Association. The average net income
retire, die, or stop practicing for of experienced optometrists was
other reasons.
Incomes varied great­
Opportunities to set up a new prac­ about $15,200.on location, specializa­
ly, depending
tice will be best generally in small tion, and other factors.
towns and in residential areas of
cities, where the new optometrist can hours peroptometrists workof40 to 49
become known easily and where com- they practice inregardless town, me­
a small
petition is not as keen as in large dium-size city, or large city. Since the
business centers. Communities, es­
pecially in the South, that have no workoftennot strenuous,practice after
continue to
optometric services available also will the normal retirement age.
offer opportunities for new graduates.
A good office location is of major im­
portance for a successful practice. Where To Go for More Information
The optometrist should consider the
number of optometrists and medical
Additional information on optom­
eye specialists in the vicinity in rela- etry as a career is available from:

American Optometric Association,
7000 Chippewa St., St. Louis, Mo.

Information on required preoptom­
etry courses may be obtained by
writing to the optometry school in
which the prospective student wishes
to enroll. The Board of Optometry
in the capital of the State in which
the student plans to practice will pro­
vide a list of optometry schools ap­
proved by that State, as well as licens­
ing requirements.





(D.O.T. 071.108)
Nature of Work

Osteopathic physicians diagnose,
prescribe remedies, and treat diseases
of the human body, paying particular
attention to impairments in the musculo-skeletal system. They emphasize
manual manipulative therapy, but in
most States, they also use surgery,
drugs, and all other accepted methods
of medical care. Most osteopathic
physicians are “family doctors” who
engage in general practice. These
physicians usually see patients in their
offices, make house calls, and treat
patients in osteopathic and some city
and county hospitals. A few doctors
of osteopathy are engaged primarily
in research, teaching, or writing and
editing scientific books and journals.
In recent years, there has been an in­
crease in specialization. The special­
ties include: Internal medicine, neu­
rology and psychiatry, ophthalmology
and otorhinolaryngology, pediatrics,
anesthesiology, physical medicine and
rehabilitation, dermatology, obstetrics
and gynecology, pathology, proctol­
ogy, radiology, and surgery.
Where Employed

Nearly all of the 12,000 osteopathic
physicians professionally active in the
United States in early 1967 were in
private practice. Less than 5 percent



held full-time salaried positions, main­
ly in osteopathic hospitals and col­
leges. A few were employed by private
industry or government agencies.
Osteopathic physicians are located
chiefly in those States which have
osteopathic hospital facilities. In 1967,
about half of all osteopathic physi­
cians were in five States: Michigan,
Pennsylvania, Missouri, Ohio, and
Texas. Twenty-three States and the
District of Columbia each had fewer
than 50 osteopathic physicians. More
than half of all general practitioners
are located in towns and cities having
less than 50,000 people; specialists,
however, practice mainly in large
Training and Other Qualifications

A license to practice as an osteo­
pathic physician is required in all
States. In early 1967, licensed osteo­
pathic physicians were qualified to
engage in all types of medical and sur­
gical practice in 41 States and the
District of Columbia. The remaining
States limit in varying degrees the use
of drugs or the type of surgery that
can be performed by osteopathic
To obtain a license, a candidate
must be a graduate of an approved
school of osteopathy and pass a State
board exam ination. In 22 States and
the District of Columbia, the candi­
date must pass an examination in the
basic sciences before he is eligible to
take the professional examination; 28
States and the District of Columbia
also require a period of internship
after graduation from osteopathic
school. All States except California
and Florida grant licenses without
further examination to properly qual­
ified osteopathic physicians already
licensed by another State.
Although 3 years of preosteopathic
college work is the minimum require­
ment for entry to schools of oste­
opathy, 4 years is often preferred.
Osteopathic colleges require success­
ful completion of 4 years of profes­
sional study for the degree of Doctor

of Osteopathy (D.O.). Preosteo­
pathic education must include courses
in chemistry, physics, biology, and
English. During the first 2 years of
professional training, emphasis is
placed on basic sciences such as anat­
omy, physiology, pathology, and on
the principles of osteopathy; the last
2 years are devoted largely to work
with patients in hospitals and clinics.
After graduation, almost all doctors
of osteopathy serve a 12-month in­
ternship at 1 of the 88 osteopathic
hospitals which the American Osteo­
pathic Association has approved for
intern training. Those who wish to
become specialists must have at least
3 years of additional training followed
by 2 years of supervised practice in
the specialty.
The osteopathic physician’s train­
ing is very costly because of the length
of time it takes to earn the degree of
Doctor of Osteopathy. However, the
Health Professions Educational As­
sistance Act of 1963 as amended pro­
vides Federal funds for loans and
scholarships of up to $2,500 a year to
help needy students pursue full-time
study leading to the degree.
Every year, more young people
apply for admission to the five ap­
proved schools of osteopathy than can
be accepted. In selecting students,
these colleges consider grades received
in preprofessional education, scores
on medical aptitude tests, and the
amount of preosteopathic college
work completed. In 1966, nearly ninetenths of the students entering osteo­
pathic colleges had bachelor’s degrees.
The applicant’s desire to serve as an
osteopathic physician, rather than as
a doctor trained in other schools of
medicine, is a very important qualifi­
cation. The colleges also give
considerable weight to a favorable
recommendation by an osteopathic
physician familiar with the appli­
cant’s background.
Newly qualified doctors of oste­
opathy usually establish their own
practice. A few work as assistants to
experienced physicians or become as­
sociated with osteopathic hospitals.
In view of the variation in State laws

regulating the practice of osteopathy,
the osteopathic physician should
study carefully the professional and
legal requirements of the State in
which he plans to practice. The avail­
ability of osteopathic hospitals and
clinical facilities should also be taken
into account when choosing a
Employment Outlook

Opportunities for osteopathic phy­
sicians are expected to be excellent
through the 1970’s. Greatest demand
for their services will probably con­
tinue to be in States where osteopathy
is a widely accepted method of treat­
ment, such as Pennsylvania and a
number of Midwestern States. Gen­
erally, prospects for beginning a suc­
cessful practice are likely to be best in
rural areas, small towns, and city
suburbs, where the young doctor of
osteopathy may encounter less compe­
tition and therefore establish his pro­
fessional reputation more easily than
in the centers of large cities.
The demand for the services of
osteopathic physicians is expected to
grow through the 1970’s because of
such factors as the anticipated popu­
lation growth, the extension of pre­
payment programs for hospitaliza­
tion and medical care including
M edicare and M edicaid, and the
trend toward higher standards of
health care. Furthermore, there is a
likelihood of greater public accept­
ance of osteopathy, liberalization of
certain State restrictions on the use of
drugs and surgery by osteopathic
physicians, and the establishment of
additional osteopathic hospitals.
Despite the expected growth in de­
mand, the employment of osteopathic
physicians is expected to increase only
moderately because the number of
new osteopathic physicians being
trained is restricted by the limited
capacity of osteopathic colleges. Ap­
proximately half of all graduates ex­
pected each year through the 1970’s
probably will be needed to replace
osteopathic physicians who retire, die,

or leave the profession for other rea­
sons ; hence the number of new gradu­
ates will be barely sufficient to main­
tain the present ratio of osteopathic
physicians to population. Although
some expansion in osteopathic college
facilities is anticipated because of re­
cent Federal legislation, which pro­
vides Federal funds to assist in the
construction of new teaching facilities
for osteopathic physicians, no signif­
icant increase in graduates is ex­
pected through the 1970’s.
Women osteopathic physicians will
find good opportunities not only in
private practice but also on faculties
of osteopathic colleges and on the
staffs of hospitals and clinics. Approx­
imately 7 percent of all osteopathic
physicians are women. Women stu­
dents, however, represented only
about 2 percent of the total enroll­
ment in osteopathic colleges in 1966,
although men and women are equally
eligible for admission.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In osteopathy, as in many of the
other health professions, incomes
usually rise markedly after the first
few years of practice. Earnings of
individual practitioners are deter­
mined mainly by such factors as
ability, experience, the income level
of the community served, and geo­
graphic location. The average income
above business expenses of general
practitioners, in early 1967, ranged
from $16,000 to $22,000, according
to the limited data available. Special­
ists usually had higher incomes than
general practitioners.
Many osteopathic physicians work
more than 50 and 60 hours a week.
Those in general practice work longer
and more irregular hours than spe­
Where To Go for More Information

Persons wishing to practice in a
given State should find out about the
requirements for licensure directly
from the board of examiners of that


State. A list of State boards, as well new drugs, edit or write articles for
as general information on osteopathy pharmaceutical journals, or do
as a career, may be obtained from:
administrative work.
American Osteopathic Association,
212 East Ohio St., Chicago, 111.

(D.O.T. 074.181)
Nature of Work

Pharmacists dispense drugs and
medicines and provide information
on their use to help protect people’s
health. They fill prescriptions ordered
by physicians and other medical prac­
titioners, and sell many medicines
which can be obtained without pre­
scriptions. Pharmacists must under­
stand the composition and effects of
drugs and be able to test them for
purity and strength. Compounding—
the actual mixing of ingredients to
form powders, tablets, capsules, oint­
ments, and solutions—is only a small
part of present-day pharmacists’
work, since many drugs are now pro­
duced by manufacturers in the form
used by the patient.
Many pharmacists in drugstores or
community pharmacies have sales and
managerial as well as professional
duties. Besides dispensing drugs, these
pharmacists may buy and sell other
kinds of merchandise and hire and
supervise salesclerks. Some pharma­
cists, however, operate prescription
pharmacies which sell only drugs,
medical supplies, and health acces­
sories. Pharmacists in hospitals fill
prescriptions and advise the medical
staff on the selection and effects of
drugs; they may also make sterile
solutions, buy medical supplies, teach
in schools of nursing, and perform
administrative duties. Some pharma­
cists, employed as medical sales rep­
resentatives or “detail men” by drug
manufacturers and wholesalers, sell
medicines to pharmacies and inform
doctors, dentists, and nurses about
new drugs. Others teach in colleges,
perform research, supervise the man­
ufacture of pharmaceuticals, develop

Where Employed

Of more than 120,000 licensed
pharmacists working in 1966, about
104,000 were in retail pharmacies. Of
these retail pharmacists, approxi­
mately half owned their pharmacies
alone or as members of a partnership,
and the other half were salaried em­
ployees. Most of the remaining
pharmacists were employed by phar­
maceutical manufacturers and whole­
salers, or worked for hospitals. Others
were civilian employees of the Federal
Government, working chiefly in hos­
pitals and clinics of the Veterans
Administration and the U.S. Public
Health Service. Some served as phar­
macists in the Armed Forces, taught
in colleges of pharmacy, or worked
for State and local government agen­
Nearly every town has at least one
drugstore with one pharmacist or
more in attendance. Most pharma­
cists, however, are employed in or
near cities and in those States which
have the greatest populations.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

A license to practice pharmacy is
required in all States and the District
of Columbia. To obtain a license, one
must be a graduate of an accredited
pharmacy college, pass a State Board
examination and, in most States, also
have 1 year of practical experience
or internship under the supervision
of a registered pharmacist. In 1967,
28 States required that part or all of
this experience be acquired after
graduation. All States except Cali­
fornia, Florida, and Hawaii grant a
license without an examination to
properly qualified pharmacists al­
ready licensed by another State.
In 1967, there were 74 accredited
colleges of pharmacy. Some of these
were not filled to capacity and qual-



ified applicants could usually expect
to be accepted. Needy students may
obtain loans or scholarships up to
$2,500 a year to pursue full-time
study leading to a degree in pharmacy
from Federal funds provided by the
Health Professions Educational As­
sistance Act of 1963, as amended.
To graduate from a college of
pharmacy, one must have at least 5
years of study beyond high school;
two schools require 6 years. A few
colleges admit students directly from
high school and offer all the education
necessary for graduation. Most pro­
vide 3 or 4 years of professional in­
struction and require all entrants to
have completed their prepharmacy
education in an accredited junior col­
lege, college, or university. A pre­
pharmacy curriculum usually empha­
sizes mathematics and basic sciences,
such as chemistry and biology, but
also includes courses in the human­
ities and social science.
The bachelor’s degree in pharmacy
is the minimum educational qualifica­
tion for most positions in the profes­
sion. However, the master’s or
doctor’s degree in pharmacy or a re­
lated field—such as pharmaceutical
chemistry, pharmacology (study of
the effects of drugs on the body),
pharmacognosy (study of the drugs
derived from plant or animal
sources), or pharmacy administra­
tion—is usually required for research
work or college teaching. Graduate
study is desirable also for pharmacists
planning to work in hospitals. Those
interested in becoming hospital phar­
macists can sometimes secure 1- or
2-year internships which combine
graduate study and practical experi­
ence in a hospital pharmacy.
Prospective pharmacy students
should have a good high school back­
ground in mathematics and science.
Orderliness and a liking for detail are
desirable qualities. In addition, for
those planning to become community
pharmacists, the ability to deal with
people and manage a business is of
special importance.
Pharmacists often begin as em­
ployees in community pharmacies.

Pharmacist compounds prescription.

After obtaining some experience and
the necessary funds, they may become
owners of pharmacies. A pharmacist
who gains experience in a chain drug­
store may advance to managerial
positions and, later, to a higher exec­
utive position within the company.
Hospital pharmacists with the neces­
sary training and experience may be
advanced to chief pharmacist, or to
other administrative positions.
Employment Outlook

Most new pharmacy graduates will
probably find employment readily
through the 1970’s. From 3,500 to
4,000 openings will arise each year
as pharmacists retire, die, or transfer
out of the profession. These openings,
together with the anticipated gradual

increase in new positions for phar­
macists, are expected to provide
enough employment opportunities to
absorb each year’s graduates.
Some employment growth for phar­
macists will result from the establish­
ment of new pharmacies, particularly
in residential areas or suburban shop­
ping centers; the country’s expanding
population—especially the growing
number of older people and children;
and the rising standard of medical
care. Many pharmacies may hire
additional pharmacists because of a
trend towards shorter working hours.
Continued expansion in the manu­
facture of pharmaceutical products
and in research are expected to pro­
vide more opportunities for pharma­
cists, not only in production and
research, but also in distribution and

sales positions. Employment in hos­
pitals will probably rise with the con­
struction of additional facilities and
the more extensive use of pharmacists
for hospital work. Pharmacists with
graduate education will be needed
for college teaching and laboratory
Women, who represent about 8
percent of all pharmacists, will con­
tinue to find their best opportunities
in hospital pharmacies, prescription
pharmacies, and in laboratory work,
although some are employed in all
branches of the profession. Women
students are accepted by all colleges
of pharmacy, and in 1967 they con­
stituted about 14 percent of under­
graduate enrollments.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Beginning pharmacists employed
in drug manufacturing firms could
expect to receive salaries ranging
from $6,600 to $7,800 a year in 1967,
according to the limited information
available. The entrance salary for
newly graduated pharmacists in the
Federal Civil Service was $6,451 in
early 1967; however, pharmacists
with a year of experience could start
at $7,696.
The annual salaries of experienced
pharmacists working for retail phar­
macies were generally between $8,000
and $11,500. Pharmacists who owned
and operated drugstores generally
made more than this; however, their
earnings, and also to a lesser extent
those of salaried pharmacists, are
greatly affected by the length of their
workweek, the size and geographic
location of the store, and many other
Retail pharmacists generally work
more than the standard 40-hour
workweek. Drugstores are often open
in the evenings and on weekends, and
all States require a registered phar­
macist to be in attendance during
store hours. Despite the general trend
toward shorter hours, 48 hours is still
the basic workweek for many salaried
retail pharmacists, and some work 50
hours or more a week. Self-employed


pharmacists often work more hours
than those in salaried positions. Those
who teach or work for industry, gov­
ernment agencies, or hospitals have
shorter workweeks. Salaried pharma­
cists usually receive paid vacations,
health insurance, and other fringe
Where To Go for More Information

General information on pharmacy
as a career may be obtained from:
American Pharmaceutical Association,
2215 Constitution Ave. NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20037.

Information about chain drug
stores may be obtained from:
National Association of Chain Drug
1625 Eye Street NW., Washington,
D.C. 20006.

Information about retail pharma­
cies may be obtained from:
National Association of Retail Drug­
1 East Wacker Dr., Chicago, 111.

A list of accredited colleges may be
obtained from:

diseases or injuries to overcome their
disabilities. Following physicians’ in­
structions, they treat patients through
physical exercise, the use of mechani­
cal apparatus, massage, and applica­
tions of heat or cold, light, water, or
electricity. Most of their patients are
accident victims, crippled children,
and disabled older persons.
To obtain information needed to
develop the proper programs for
treatment, physical therapists per­
form muscle and nerve tests. They
also keep records of their patients’
progress during treatments and attend
conferences with physicians and other
medical personnel to discuss this
progress. In many instances, they help
disabled persons to accept their physi­
cal handicaps and learn how to ad­
just to them. Therapists teach pa­
tients how to perform exercises and to
use and care for braces, crutches, and
artificial limbs. They may also show
members of the patients’ families how
to continue treatment at home.
Physical therapists are members
of a rehabilitation team which is di­
rected by a physician and may include
a nurse, clinical social worker, occu-

American Council on Pharmaceutical
77 West Washington St., Chicago,
111. 60602.

Current requirements for licensure
in a particular State may be obtained
from the Board of Pharmacy of that
State or from:
National Association of Boards of
77 West Washington St., Chicago, 111.

Information on college entrance
requirements, curriculums, and schol­
arships is available from the dean of
any college of pharmacy.

(D.O.T. 079.378)
Nature of Work

Physical therapists help persons
with muscle, nerve, joint, and bone

Physical therapist instructs patient in use of
arm exerciser.



pational therapist, psychologist, voca­
tional counselor, and other specialists.
Although qualified physical therapists
may treat many types of patients,
some specialize in caring for children,
or for patients with amputations,
arthritis, or paralysis. They may also
instruct physical therapy students, as
well as students of related professions
and other health workers.
Where Employed

Approximately 12,500 licensed
physical therapists were employed in
1966. Nearly three-fourths of all
therapists were women.
About four-fifths of all physical
therapists work in general hospitals;
in hospitals that specialize in the care
of pediatric, orthopedic, psychiatric,
or chronically ill patients; and in
nursing homes.
Most of the remainder are em­
ployed by rehabilitation or treatment
centers, schools or societies for crip­
pled children, and public health agen­
cies. Most of these organizations pro­
vide treatment for patients with
chronic diseases, and some have home
visiting programs.
Some therapists work in physicians’
offices or clinics, teach in schools of
physical therapy, or work for research
organizations. Others serve as con­
sultants in government and voluntary
Training, Other Qualifications, and

A license is required to practice
physical therapy in 48 States and the
District of Columbia. To obtain a
license, an applicant must have a
degree or certificate from a school of
physical therapy and pass a State
board examination. In the remaining
two States (Texas and Missouri),
employers generally require a degree
from an approved school of physical
therapy. In 1966, 43 schools of physi­
cal therapy (including the Army
Medical Service School) were ap­
proved by the American Medical

Association and the American Physi­
cal Therapy Association. The major­
ity of approved schools are part of
large universities; the others are oper­
ated by hospitals, which usually have
university affiliations.
Most of the approved schools of
physical therapy offer 4-year bach­
elor’s degree programs. Some schools
provide 1- to 2-year undergraduate
programs to students who have com­
pleted some college courses through
which students may earn either a de­
gree or a certificate in physical ther­
apy. Other schools accept those
who already have a bachelor’s degree
and give a 12- to 16-month course
leading to a certificate in physical
therapy. Many schools offer both de­
gree and certificate programs.
Among the courses included in a
physical therapy program are
anatomy, physiology, pathology,
clinical medicine, psychology, electro­
therapy, hydrotherapy, massage, and
exercise. In addition to classroom in­
struction, students are assigned to a
hospital or treatment center for super­
vised clinical experience in the care of
Several universities offer the mas­
ter’s degree in physical therapy. A
graduate degree, combined with
clinical experience, increases the op­
portunities for advancement to posi­
tions of responsibility in teaching,
research, and administration, as well
as in the treatment area of physical
Because an important function of
a therapist’s job is to help patients
and their families understand the
treatments and prepare them emo­
tionally for the changes that occur,
therapists must have patience, tact,
resourcefulness, and emotional sta­
bility. Their work also requires good
verbal expression and the ability to
plan their work to insure optimum
use of time. In addition, physical
therapists should have manual dex­
terity and physical stamina. For those
who wish to determine whether they
have the personal qualities needed for
this occupation, summer or part-time
work as a volunteer in the physical

therapy department of a hospital or
clinic may prove helpful.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
physical therapists are expected to re­
main excellent through the 1970’s.
The demand for qualified workers is
likely to continue to exceed the
The demand for physical therapists
is expected to increase very rapidly
through the 1970’s as the result of in­
creased public recognition of the im­
portance of rehabilitation. Many new
positions for physical therapists are
expected to be created as programs to
aid crippled children and vocational
rehabilitation activities are expanded
to serve the increasing number of dis­
abled people who require physical
therapy. An expected rapid growth in
nursing homes will also result in the
need for many more physical thera­
pists to work as staff members. Also,
more physicians are expected to rec­
ommend physical therapy for patients
as techniques and equipment for
treatment are improved. In addition,
many openings will continue to arise
each year to replace the large number
of women who leave the profession
for marriage and family responsi­
Part-time positions will continue to
be available in many communities.
These positions are particularly at­
tractive to married women who wish
to return to work on a part-time basis.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Annual salaries of inexperienced
physical therapists averaged $6,500 in
1966, and those of experienced
therapists ranged from $7,500 to
$15,000, according to the American
Physical Therapy Association. Co­
ordinators, directors, and adminis­
trators had average salaries of $15,000
or more.
Average weekly salaries for physi­
cal therapists employed in hospitals
ranged from $120.50 in the Northeast



to $134.50 in the West in mid-1966,
according to a survey conducted by
the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Sal­
aries were generally higher for men in
comparable jobs.
In early 1967, newly graduated
therapists employed by the Federal
Government received annual starting
salaries of $5,867; those graduating
with high academic standing, how­
ever, were offered $6,451. Physical
therapists entering the Armed Forces
are commissioned second lieutenants
or ensigns, and those entering the
U.S. Public Health Service are given
the grade of junior assistant.
Most physical therapists work 40
hours a week. Almost all receive 2
weeks or more of vacation and the
majority receive sick leave and other
fringe benefits.
Where To Go for More Information

American Physical Therapy Associa­
1740 Broadway, New York, N.Y.

(D.O.T. 070.101 and .108)
Nature of Work

Physicians diagnose diseases and
treat people who are ill or in poor
health. In addition, they are con­
cerned with preventive medicine and
with the rehabilitation of people who
are injured or ill.
Physicians generally examine and
treat patients in their own offices and
in hospitals, but they also visit pa­
tients at home when necessary. Some
physicians combine the practice of
medicine with research or teaching in
medical schools. Others hold full­
time research or teaching positions or
perform administrative work in hos­
pitals, professional associations, and
other organizations. A few are pri­
marily engaged in writing and editing
medical books and magazines.

More than one-third of the physi­
cians engaged in private practice are
general practitioners; the other twothirds are specialists in 1 of the 35
fields recognized by the medical pro­
fession. In recent years, there has
been a marked trend toward special­
ization. Among the largest specialties
are internal medicine, surgery, obstet­
rics and gynecology, psychiatry, pedi­
atrics, radiology, ophthalmology, and
Where Employed

More than 280,000 physicians—
of whom 7 percent were women—
were professionally active in the
United States in 1967. The great ma­
jority—about 180,000—were engaged
in private practice. About 45,000 were
interns or residents in hospitals. About
30,000 held full-time staff positions
in hospitals, nearly three-fifths of
whom were in government hospitals.
The remainder were employed in
private industry, State and local
health departments, medical schools,
research foundations, and profes­
sional organizations.
In 1967, more than 40 percent of
all physicians were in the five most
populous States: New York, Cali­
fornia, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and
Ohio. In general, the Northeastern
States have the highest ratio of physi­
cians to population and the Southern
States, the lowest. General practition­
ers are much more widely distributed
geographically than specialists, who
tend to be concentrated in large cities.
Training and Other Qualifications

A license to practice medicine is
required in all States and the Dis­
trict of Columbia. To qualify for a
license, a candidate must graduate
from an approved medical school,
pass a licensing examination, and—
in 32 States and the District of
Columbia—serve a 1-year hospital
internship. As of 1966, 18 States per­
mitted a physician to be licensed im­
mediately after graduation from

medical school, but even in these
States an internship is always neces­
sary for full acceptance by the profes­
sion. Twenty-three States and the
District of Columbia require candi­
dates to pass an examination in the
basic sciences to become eligible for
the medical licensing examination.
Licensing examinations are given
by State boards. The National Board
of Medical Examiners also gives an
examination which is accepted by 45
States and the District of Columbia
as a substitute for State examina­
tions. Athough physicians licensed in
one State can usually obtain a li­
cense to practice in another without
further examination, some States
limit this reciprocity.
In 1966, there were 88 approved
schools in the United States in which
students could begin the study of
medicine. (By the end of the 1960
decade, several additional schools will
be in operation.) Eighty-four award­
ed the degree of Doctor of Medicine
(M.D.) to those completing the 4year course; 3 offered 2-year pro­
grams in the basic sciences to students
who could then transfer to regular
medical schools for the last 2 years of
study. The remaining school (set up
as a 2-year institution) had not yet
graduated its first class. Because the
number of people applying to medical
schools exceeds the beginning enroll­
ment capacity, preference is given to
the most highly qualified applicants.
Most medical schools require ap­
plicants to have completed at least 3
years of college education for admis­
sion to their regular programs, and
some require 4 years. A few medical
schools allow selected students with
exceptional qualifications to begin
their professional study after comple­
tion of 2 years of college. The great
majority of students entering medical
schools have a bachelor’s degree.
Premedical study must include un­
dergraduate courses in English, phys­
ics, biology, and inorganic and organ­
ic chemistry in an accredited college.
Students should acquire a broad gen­
eral education by taking courses in the
humanities, mathematics, and the


social sciences. Other factors consid­
ered by medical schools in selecting
students include the individual’s col­
lege record; the standing of the col­
lege where his premedical work was
taken; and his scores on the Medical
College Admission Test, which is
taken by almost all applicants. Con­
sideration also is given to the appli­
cant’s character, personality, and
leadership qualities, as shown by per­
sonal interviews, letters of recom­
mendation, and extracurricular ac­
tivities in college. In addition, many
State-supported medical schools give
preference to residents of their partic­
ular States and, sometimes, those of
nearby States.
The first 2 years of medical training
are spent in laboratories and class­
rooms, learning basic medical sci­
ences, such as anatomy, biochemistry,
physiology, pharmacology, micro­
biology, and pathology. During the
last 2 years, students spend most of
their time in hospitals and clinics
under the supervision of experienced
physicians. They learn to take case
histories, perform examinations, and
recognize diseases.
New physicians increasingly are
taking training beyond the 1-year hos­
pital internship. Those who plan to
be general practitioners often spend
an additional year or two as interns or
residents in a hospital. To become
recognized as specialists, physicians
must pass specialty board examina­
tions. To qualify for these examina­
tions, they must spend from 2 to 4
years—depending on the specialty—
in advanced hospital training as resi­
dents, followed by 2 years or more of
practice in the specialty. Some doc­
tors interested in teaching and re­
search take graduate work leading to
the master’s or Ph. D. degree in a
field such as biochemistry or micro­
Many graduates of foreign medi­
cal schools (in September 1965, about
10,000 foreign citizens as well as ap­
proximately 1,300 U.S. citizens) serve
as interns and residents in this coun­
try. To be appointed to approved
internships or residencies in U.S. hos­

pitals, however, these graduates (citi­
zens of foreign countries as well as
U.S. citizens) must pass the Ameri­
can Medical Qualification Examina­
tion given by the Educational Coun­
cil for Foreign Medical Graduates.
Medical training is very costly be­
cause of the long time required to
earn the medical degree. However,
the Health Professions Educational
Assistance Act of 1963, as amended,
provides Federal funds for loans and
scholarships of up to $2,500 a year to
help needy students pursue full-time
study leading to the degree of doctor
of medicine.
Among the personal qualifications
needed for success in this profession
are a strong desire to become a physi­
cian, above-average intelligence, and
an interest in science. In addition,
prospective physicians should possess
good judgment, be able to make deci­
sions in emergencies, and be emotion­
ally stable.

The majority of newly qualified
physicians open their own offices.
Those who have completed their in­
ternships and who enter on active
military duty serve as captains in the
Army or Air Force or as lieutenants
in the Navy. Graduates of accredited
medical schools are eligible for Fed­
eral Civil Service medical positions
and for commissions as senior assist­
ant surgeons in the U.S. public Health
Employment Outlook

Excellent opportunities are antici­
pated for physicians through the
1970’s. Because the number of new
physicians being trained is restricted
by the present limited capacity of
medical schools, the employment of
physicians is expected to grow only
moderately, despite a steady increase
in the demand for their services.



However, some expansion in medical
school facilities is expected because
of recent Federal legislation which
provides Federal funds to assist in the
construction of new training facilities
for physicians. Nonetheless, any
increase in the supply of physicians
resulting from the implementation of
this legislation may not be significant
until the late 1970’s.
The expected increase in demand
for physicians’ services will result
from factors such as the anticipated
population growth; the rising health
consciousness of the public; and the
trend toward higher standards of
medical care. The demand for physi­
cians will also increase because of the
extension of prepayment programs for
hospitalization and medical care,
including Medicare and Medicaid;
continued Federal Government pro­
vision of medical care for members of
the Armed Forces, their families, and
veterans; and the continuing growth
in the fields of public health, reha­
bilitation, industrial medicine, and
mental health. In addition, more
physicians will be needed for medical
research and to teach in medical
In addition to those needed to fill
new openings, many newly trained
doctors will be required to replace
those who retire or die. The number
needed to fill vacancies caused by
losses to the profession is estimated at
about 6,000 each year through the
To some extent, the rise in the
demand for physicians’ services will
be offset by developments that are
enabling physicians to care for more
patients. For example, increasing
numbers>'Y*‘medical rtechnicians are
of it £* If* ’■•r
• •
assisting rphysicians; new drugs and
new medical techniques are shorten­
ing illnesses; and growing numbers of
physicians are able to use their time
more effectively by engaging in group
practice. In addition, fewer house
calls are being made by physicians
because of the growing tendency to
treat patients in hospitals and physi­
cians’ offices. However, these devel­


opments are not expected to offset new patients and tend to work fewer
the overall need for more physicians. hours. Many, however, continue in
practice well beyond 70 years of age.
Earnings and Working Conditions

New graduates serving as jntgr&fl
in 1966 had an average annual salary
of $3,578 in hospitals affiliated with
medical schools and $4,071 in other
hospitals. Residents during 1966
earned average annual salaries of
$3,818 in hospitals affiliated with
medical schools and $4,059 in nonaffiliated hospitals. Many hospitals
also provided full or partial room,
board, and other maintenance allow­
ances to their interns and residents.
Graduates employed by the Fed­
eral Government early in 1967 could
expect to receive an annual starting
salary of about $11,000 if they had
completed their internship, and about
$13,000 if they had completed 1 year
of residency or demonstrated superior
achievement during their internship.
Newly qualified physicians who es­
tablish their own practice must make
a sizable financial investment to
open and equip a modem office. It is
estimated that during the first year
or two of independent practice, phy­
sicians probably earn little more than
the minimum needed to pay the ex­
penses for maintaining their offices.
As a rule, however, their earnings
rise rapidly as their practice develops.
The net income of physicians in
private practice was generally be­
tween $20,000 and $27,000 in 1966,
according to the limited information
available. Earnings of physicians de­
pend on factors such as the region of
the country in which they practice;
the patients’ income level; and the
physician’s skill, personality, and pro­
fessional reputation as well as his
length of experience. Physicians en­
gaged in private practice usually earn
more than those in salaried positions,
and specialists usually earn consider­
ably more than general practitioners.
Many physicians have long working
days and irregular hours. Most spe­
cialists work fewer hours each week
than general practitioners. As doc­
tors grow older, they may not accept

Where To Go for More Information

Persons wishing to practice in a
given State should find out about the
requirements for licensure directly
from the board of medical examiners
of that State. Lists of approved medi­
cal schools, as well as general infor­
mation on premedical education and
medicine as a career, may be ob­
tained from:
Council on Medical Education,
American Medical Association,
535 North Dearborn St., Chicago,
111. 60610.
Association of American Medical
2530 Ridge Ave., Evanston, 111.


,:ir -if.'r

b .




i -'jny

(D.O.T. 079.108)





. r . 1; : : * 1 V

'!!'• > . i

Nature■ of Work


: r <


■r~tJ f >

Podiatrists (sometimes called chiropodists) diagnose and treat diseases
and deformities of the feet. They
perform foot surgery, use drugs and
physical therapy, prescribe proper
shoes, and fit corrective devices. To
help in diagnoses, they take X-rays
of the feet and perform blood and
other tests. Among the conditions
podiatrists treat are corns, bunions,
calluses, ingrown toenails, skin and
nail diseases, deformed toes, and arch
disabilities. They refer patients to
medical doctors whenever they ob­
serve symptoms in the feet and legs
that may be evidence of diseases—
such as arthritis or heart or kidney
trouble—which also affect other parts
of the body.
As a rule, podiatrists provide most
types of foot care. Some, however,
confine their practice to such special­
ties as orthopedics (bone, muscle,
and joint disorders), podopediatrics
(children’s diseases), or foot surgery.



A few act as consultants to shoe man­ some instances, also physics or mathe­
ufacturers, and a small number do matics.
The first 2 years of podiatry train­
research or teach in colleges of
ing are devoted chiefly to classroom
instruction and laboratory work in
such basic sciences as anatomy,
bacteriology, chemistry, pathology,
Where Employed
and physiology, though in the second
Approximately 8,000 podiatrists year students obtain some limited ex­
were actively engaged in the profes­ perience in the school clinics. During
sion in early 1967; less than 4 per­ the final 2 years, students spend most
cent were women. Nearly all podi­ of their time obtaining clinical ex­
atrists were in private practice. The perience. The degree of Doctor of
few who held full-time salaried po­ Podiatry (D.P.) or Doctor of Podiatsitions worked mainly in hospitals or ric Medicine (D.P.M.) is awarded
podiatry colleges, or for other podia­ upon graduation. Additional educa­
trists ; others who earned salaries tion and experience are generally
were employed by the Veterans Ad­ necessary in order to qualify for work
ministration or were commissioned in a specialized area of podiatry.
officers in the Armed Forces.
Needy students may obtain loans and
Podiatrists practice mainly in large scholarships up to $2,500 a year to
cities. In early 1967, nearly half pursue full-time study leading to a
were in four of the most heavily popu­ degree in podiatry from Federal funds
lated States—New York, Pennsyl­ provided by the Health Professions
vania, Illinois, and California. In
many small towns and rural areas,
especially in the South and the North­
west, there were no podiatrists.

Educational Assistance Act of 1963,
as amended.
Among the personal qualifications
considered desirable for a career in
this profession are scientific aptitude,
manual dexterity, and a good business
sense. The ability to get along well
with people is also important.
Most newly licensed podiatrists
open their own practices. Some pur­
chase established practices. Others
begin by taking salaried positions in
hospitals, or with podiatrists already
in practice, to gain experience and to
save the money needed to establish
their own practices.
Employment Outlook

The employment outlook for podi­
atrists is expected to be good through
the 1970’s. Not only is the demand
for their services expected to increase,

Training, Other Qualifications, and

All States and the District of
Columbia require a license for the
practice of podiatry. To qualify for a
license, an applicant must be a grad­
uate of an accredited 4-year program
in a college of podiatry, and must pass
a State board examination. In addi­
tion, three States—Michigan, New
Jersey, and Rhode Island—require
applicants to serve a 1-year internship
in a hospital or clinic after graduation
from a podiatry college; the State of
Oklahoma requires 1 year of practice
under the direct supervision of an ex­
perienced podiatrist. More than half
the States grant licenses without fur­
ther examination to podiatrists al­
ready licensed by another State.
The five podiatry colleges in the
United States will admit only students
who have already completed at least
2 years of college. This education
must include courses in English,
chemistry, biology or zoology, and, in

Podiatrist explains condition of child’s foot.

but the number of new graduates of
podiatry schools will probably be only
slightly more than the number needed
to fill openings left by podiatrists who
retire, die, or stop practicing for other
Opportunities for new graduates
to establish their own practices should
be especially favorable in those parts
of the country where the services of
podiatrists are widely used. Op­
portunities should be good also for
those who wish to enter salaried posi­
tions in schools, factories, and organi­
zations providing health services.
The demand for podiatrists’ serv­
ices is expected to grow with the
demand for other health services. An
important factor underlying this
anticipated growth is an expanding
population with a greater proportion
of older people—the age group need­
ing most foot care. Furthermore, the
trend toward providing preventive
foot care for children is increasing.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In podiatry, as in many of the
other professions, incomes usually rise
markedly after the first years of prac­
tice. Earnings of individual podia­
trists are determined mainly by such
factors as ability, experience, the in­
come level of the community served,
and location. In 1966, the average net
income of podiatrists was about $12,500, according to the limited in­
formation available. Income was gen­
erally higher in large cities.
Podiatrists generally work 40 hours
a week. They may set their hours to
suit their practice.
Where To Go for More Information

Applicants for licenses to practice
podiatry in a particular State may ob­
tain information on the requirements
for licensure from the State board of
examiners in the State capital. In­
formation on entrance requirements,
curriculums, and scholarships is
available from the colleges of podi­
atry. Additional information on podi­


atry as a career, as well as a list of they perform routine laboratory and
colleges, may be obtained from:
office work.
Public health nurses care for
American Podiatry Association,
3301 16th St. NW., Washington,
patients in clinics or visit them in
D.C. 20010.
their homes. Their duties include
teaching patients and families, and
giving periodic nursing care as pre­
scribed by a physician. They demon­
strate diet plans to groups of
patients, and arrange for immuniza­
(D.O.T. 075.118 through .378)
tions. These nurses work with com­
munity leaders, teachers, parents, and
physicians in community health edu­
Nature of Work
cation programs. Some public health
Nursing care plays a major role in nurses work in schools. students the
the treatment of persons who are ill. principleseducators teachnursing, both
and skills
Registered professional nurses ad­ in the classroom andofat the bedside.
minister medications and treatments They may also conduct refresher and
prescribed by physicians; observe, in-service courses for registered
evaluate, and record symptoms, reac­ nurses.
tions, and progress of patients; assist
Occupational health or industrial
in education and rehabilitation of
nurses provide nursing care to em­
patients and improve their physical
and emotional environment; instruct ployees in industry and government,
auxiliary personnel or students; and and along with physicians are respon­
perform other duties concerned with sible for promoting employee health.
the care of the sick and injured, pre­ They may work alone (with a doctor
vention of illness, and promotion of on call), or they may be part of a
health service staff in a large organi­
good health.
Hospital nurses are the largest zation. As prescribed by a doctor, they
group of registered nurses. Most of treat minor injuries and illnesses oc­
these are staff nurses, who perform curring at the place of employment,
skilled bedside nursing such as caring provide for the needed nursing care,
for a patient after an operation, assist­ arrange for further medical care if
ing with blood transfusions and intra­ necessary, and offer health counseling.
venous feedings, and giving medica­ They may also assist with health ex­
tions. They also supervise auxiliary aminations and inoculations to help
nursing workers. Some hospital nurses prevent or control diseases.
Nurses also engage in other activ­
work primarily in the operating room.
ities such as research and serving on
Others limit their work to certain
types of patients such as children, the the staffs of nursing organizations.
elderly, or the mentally ill. Still others (Licensed practical nurses who also
are engaged primarily in administra­ perform nursing service are discussed
elsewhere in the Handbook.)
tive work.
Private duty nurses give individual
nursing care to patients who need
Where Employed
constant attention. In hospitals, one
private duty nurse may sometimes
More than 620,000 registered pro­
take care of a few patients who re­ fessional nurses were employed in the
quire special nursing care but not United States in early 1966. About
two-thirds worked in public and pri­
full-time attention.
Office nurses assist physicians and vate hospitals and related institutions.
dental surgeons, and occasionally Approximately 65,000 were private
dentists, in the care of patients in duty nurses who cared for patients in
private practice or clinics. Sometimes, hospitals and private homes, and


nearly 50,000 were office nurses. Pub­
lic health nurses in government agen­
cies, visiting nurse associations, and
clinics numbered nearly 40,000; nurse
educators in nursing schools ac­
counted for about 23,000; and occu­
pational health nurses in industry
18,000. Most of the others were staff
members of professional nurse and
other organizations, State boards of
nursing, or were employed by research
An estimated one-fourth of all
nurses employed in 1966 worked on a
part-time basis. About 1 percent of all
employed professional nurses are men.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

A license is required to practice pro­
fessional nursing in all States and in
the District of Columbia. To obtain a
license, a nurse must have graduated
from a school approved by a State
board of nursing and pass a State
board examination. A nurse may be
licensed in more than one State, either
by examination or endorsement of a
license issued by another State.
Graduation from high school is re­
quired for admission to all schools of
professional nursing. Many schools
accept only graduates in the upper
third or half of their class. Demon­
strated competence in science and
mathematics may also be required.
Three types of educational pro­
grams—diploma, baccalaureate de­
gree and associate degree—offer the
basic education required for careers in
professional nursing. Diploma pro­
grams are conducted by hospital and
independent schools and usually re­
quire 3 years of training; bachelor’s
degree programs usually require 4
years of study in a college or univer­
sity, although a few require 5 years;
associate degree programs in junior
and community colleges require ap­
proximately 2 years of nursing educa­
tion. In late 1966, more than 1,200
programs of these three types were
offered in the United States. Diploma
programs accounted for about twothirds, the remainder being divided

evenly between associate and bacca­
laureate degree programs.
All programs include classroom in­
struction and supervised nursing prac­
tice. Students take courses in
anatomy, physiology, microbiology,
nutrition, psychology, and basic nurs­
ing care. Under close supervision, they
are given practical experience in the
care of patients who have different
types of illnesses, in hospitals and
health facilities. Students in colleges
offering bachelor’s degree programs
and in some of the other schools are
assigned to public health agencies
and learn how to care for patients in
clinics and in the patients’ homes.
General education is combined with
nursing education in baccalaureate
and associate degree programs and in
some diploma programs.
Young people considering a nursing
career should have an interest in peo­
ple and a desire to care for the sick
and injured. Other desired personal

qualifications include dependability,
good judgment, patience, and good
physical and mental health.
Hospital nursing usually begins
with staff positions from which ex­
perienced nurses may be advanced to
progressively more responsible super­
visory positions, such as head nurse,
supervisor, assistant director, and di­
rector of nursing service. A master’s
degree, however, is often required for
supervisory and administrative posi­
tions, as well as for positions in nurs­
ing education, clinical specialization,
and research. In public health agen­
cies, advancement opportunities are
usually limited for nurses without de­
grees in public health nursing.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for reg­
istered professional nurses are ex­
pected to be very favorable through

the 1970’s. For nurses who have had
graduate education, the outlook is ex­
cellent for obtaining positions as ad­
ministrators, teachers, clinical special­
ists, public health nurses, and for work
in research.
Among the principal factors un­
derlying the anticipated rise in the
demand for nurses is the country’s
rising population. Other factors in­
clude improved economic status of
the population; extension of prepay­
ment programs for hospitalization
and medical care, including Medi­
care and Medicaid; expansion of
medical services as a result of new
medical techniques and drugs; and in­
creased interest in preventive medi­
cine and rehabilitation of the handi­
capped. In addition to the number of
nurses needed for new positions, sev­
eral thousand nurses will be required
to replace those who leave the field
each year because of marriage and
family responsibilities.
The anticipated rise in demand for
registered nurses is expected to be ac­
companied by a rapid increase in the
number of nurses graduating during
the late 1960’s and early 1970’s. This
growth is expected to result from in­
creasing numbers of high school grad­
uates who will enter nursing schools,
and from the construction of addi­
tional nursing school facilities, in part
from funds provided by the Health
Facilities Act of 1963 and the Nurse
Training Act of 1964. Moreover, un­
der the Nurse Training Act, a needy
student may obtain a loan, a portion
of which does not have to be repaid
if the student obtains full-time em­
ployment in nursing after graduation.
The Nurse Training Act also provides
funds to cover tuition, fees, and a
stipend and allowances for trainees
seeking advanced training for posi­
tions as administrators, supervisors,
nursing specialists, and nurse educa­
tors. In addition to the anticipated in­
crease in the number of new gradu­
ates entering nursing each year, an
increase is also expected in the num­
ber of inactive nurses who will return
to work.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Average weekly salaries for regis­
tered professional nurses employed by
hospitals ranged from $100.50 for
general duty nurses to $154.00 for
directors of nursing in mid-1966, ac­
cording to a survey conducted by the
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).
Salaries were generally highest in the
West and lowest in the South. Sala­
ries for industrial nurses averaged
$ 113 a week in early 1966, according
to another survey conducted by the
Fees for private duty nurses gener­
ally were between $14 and $37 for a
basic 8-hour day in early 1967, ac­
cording to the American Nurses’ As­
sociation (ANA).
Average (median) annual salaries
for public health nurses employed by
local government agencies were
$5,811 in 1966, as indicated by a Na­
tional League for Nursing study.
Nurse educators and administrators
earned average (median) salaries of
$6,600 a year in schools of profession­
al nursing when surveyed by the ANA
in late 1965.
In early 1967, the Veterans Ad­
ministration offered inexperienced
nurses, who had either a diploma or
an associate degree, an annual salary
of $5,867; and baccalaureate gradu­
ates were offered $6,730. In other
Federal Government agencies, the en­
trance rate for nurses was $5,331 for
graduates of associate programs who
had 1 year of experience or additional
nursing education. The beginning sal­
ary, in early 1967, for nurse officers
(second lieutenants and ensigns) in
military services was $5,244 including
allowances. Those with bachelor’s de­
grees who were commissioned in the
U.S. Public Health Service received
salary and allowances totaling $5,960
a year.
The majority of hospital nurses re­
ceive extra pay for work on evening or
night shifts. Nearly all are provided at
least 2 weeks of paid vacation after
1 year of service. Most hospital nurses
receive from 5 to 13 paid holidays a

year and also some type of health and
retirement benefits.
Where To Go for More Information

Information on approved schools of
nursing, nursing careers, loans, schol­
arships, salaries, working conditions,
and employment opportunities may
be obtained from:
ANA-NLN Nursing Careers Pro­
American Nurses’ Association,
10 Columbus Circle, New York, N.Y.

Information about employment op­
portunities in the Veterans Adminis­
tration is available from:
Department of Medicine and Surgery,
Veterans Administration, Washing­
ton, D.C. 20420.

(D.O.T. 079.118)
Nature of Work

Most people assume that the food
they eat, the liquids they drink, the
public swimming pools they use, and
the air they breathe are clean and
safe. The job of the sanitarian is to
insure this. They find and remove
health hazards in order to make the
physical environment safe for every­
one. In carrying out their responsi­
bilities, they perform a broad range
of job duties, from inspecting sani­
tary conditions in restaurants to pro­
moting health laws and administering
environmental health programs.
Sanitarians entering the profession
usually begin in public health or agri­
culture departments. They inspect
hotels, restaurants, dairy plants, can­
neries, water supplies, medical care
facilities, recreational areas, and
other places to prevent conditions
harmful to the public health and well­
being, at times taking samples of
food, air, and water, to test for safety.
When necessary, they recommend
corrective action in the places visited
in accordance with health laws and



regulations. As they progress to more
responsible investigational work, they
frequently are required to give advice
on more complex individual and in­
dustrial sanitation problems.
Sanitarians with supervisory duties
analyze reports of inspections and in­
vestigations made by other environ­
mental health specialists, evaluate
their performance, and advise them
on difficult or unusual sanitation
problems. They conduct investiga­
tions and promote health laws, and
may be required to give evidence in
court against violators of health reg­
ulations. Also, they engage in health
education activities, sometimes teach­
ing classes in hygiene, and speaking
before student assemblies, civic
groups, and other organizations on
the prevention of communicable dis­
eases. Those in top supervisory posi­
tions are involved with the planning
and administration of environmental
health programs and their coordina­
tion with programs of other agencies.
Other duties may include advising
government officials on environ­
mental health matters and drafting
new health laws and regulations.
Public health sanitarians work
closely with other health specialists
in the community (such as the health
officer, sanitary engineer, and public
health nurse) to investigate and pre­
vent outbreaks of disease, plan for
civil defense and emergency disaster
aid, make public health surveys, and
conduct health education programs.
In large local and State health or
agriculture departments, and in the
Federal Government, sanitarians may
specialize in a particular area of work,
such as milk and other dairy products,
food sanitation, refuse and other
waste control, air pollution, occupa­
tional health, housing, and insect and
rodent control. In rural areas and
small cities, they may be responsible
for a wide range of environmental
health activities.
Increasing numbers of sanitarians
are being employed outside govern­
ment agencies. Many work in industry
as food or milk sanitarians, where
they prevent or minimize contamina­

tion hazards, and see that clean,
healthful, and safe working condi­
tions exist in plants manufacturing
and processing food. For example, in
a food processing plant, the sanitarian
is concerned with the proper disposal
of refuse; the cleaning of plant equip­
ment ; the control of micro-organisms;
and the proper maintenance of build­
ings, equipment, and employee

consultants; others worked for trade
associations, in hospitals, or for other
organizations. Probably less than 1
percent of all sanitarians are women.
Sanitarians are employed by gov­
ernment health departments in every
State, and by private industry in most
States. About half of them work in 10
States: California, Florida, Illinois,
Indiana, New York, Ohio, Pennsyl­
vania, Texas, Virginia, and Wis­

Where Employed

An estimated 13,000 of the approx­
imately 16,000 sanitarians employed
in 1966 worked for Federal, State,
and local governments. Most of the
remainder worked f°r manufacturers
and processors of food products; a
small number were teachers in col­
leges and universities; a few were

Training, Other Qualifications, and

A 4-year college education with a
major in physical, biological, or sani­
tary science is generally required for
a beginning job as a sanitarian; a
graduate degree in some aspect of
public health is usually necessary for

Sanitarian tests pool water for bacteria.

higher level positions. Some health
departments may hire beginning sani­
tarians with only 2 years of college
work, and, in some, high school grad­
uates may be able to start as sanitary
inspectors and work their way up to
sanitarian. However, rising hiring
standards in public health depart­
ments are restricting entrance oppor­
tunities for those without degrees.
Science courses recommended by
the American Public Health Associa­
tion for the first 2 years of college
are mathematics, biology, chemistry,
physics, and elementary bacteriology.
In the second 2 years, the recom­
mended program includes advanced
general bacteriology, medical ento­
mology, and a series of public health
courses. Liberal arts courses are also
considered useful.
Beginning sanitarians usually start
at the trainee level, where they re­
main up to a year, working under the
supervision of experienced sani­
tarians. They receive on-the-job
training in environmental health
activities and learn to evaluate facts
and recommend corrective action.
After a few years of experience, they
may move to minor supervisory posi­
tions with more responsibilities
Greater supervisory responsibilities
may come with more experience;
sometimes specialization begins at this
level, especially in large local health
offices. With more experience, further
advancement is possible to top super­
visory and administrative positions.
To keep up with new developments
and to supplement their academic
training, many sanitarians take spe­
cialized short-term training courses in
such subjects as occupational health,
water supply and pollution control,
air pollution, radiological health, milk
and food protection, metropolitan
planning, and hospital sanitation.
In 1967, there were 31 States which
had laws providing for registration
of sanitarians; most of these States re­
quired registration to practice. Al­
though requirements for registration
vary considerably among the States,


the minimum educational require­
ment for registration is usually a
bachelor’s degree, with emphasis on
the biological, physical, and sanitary
sciences. In some States, applicants
must pass a written as well as an oral
Among the personal qualities use­
ful to sanitarians is the ability to get
along well with people. For example,
it is often necessary to be tactful in
securing correction of unsanitary con­
ditions. Sanitarians also should be
undisturbed by the collection of speci­
mens for laboratory testing and con­
tact with unpleasant physical sur­
roundings, such as slum area housing
or sewage disposal units.

all levels of government. The possible
relation of respiratory ailments to air
pollution has also served to focus at­
tention on this problem.
The expanding population is yet
another factor that will intensify the
demand for more trained sanitarians.
The migration of people from rural
to urban areas, along with the growth
of industries, will place a greater
strain on the food-service, housing,
water, recreational, and waste-dis­
posal facilities of urban communities.
Some increase in demand for sani­
tarians is expected in private industry,
primarily in the food industry.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Employment Outlook

In early 1967, the average (me­
dian) annual salary of sanitarians
having college degrees was $7,500
and about $5,900 for those without a
college degree, according to the Na­
tional Association of Sanitarians.
Annual salaries of sanitarians en­
gaged in teaching averaged nearly
$10,500, compared with $10,000 for
those employed in industry. Those
employed by the Federal Government
averaged about $8,700 a year.
Sanitarians spend considerable
time away from their desks. Trans­
portation or gasoline allowances are
frequently given and some health de­
partments provide an automobile.

Employment opportunities for
sanitarians are expected to be very
favorable through the 1970’s. Young
people without a college degree with
a major in one of the physical or bio­
logical sciences or in sanitary science
will find that obtaining work in
the sanitation fields is increasingly
Employment of sanitarians is ex­
pected to increase rapidly through
the 1970’s, as State and local health
agencies expand their activities in the
field of environmental health. Radio­
logical health, occupational health,
food protection, water pollution, and
air pollution are expected to require
the services of more trained person­
nel as health dangers grow under the Where To Go for More Information
stimulus of an expanding, highly
Information about careers as sani­
technological civilization.
tarians is available from the following
Air pollution is one example of an
existing environmental hazard of pub­ associations: Health Association,
lic concern that is expected to in­ American Public New York, N.Y.
1790 Broadway,
crease the demand for sanitarians. It
has attracted attention throughout
the United States, especially in large International Association of Milk,
Food, and Environmental Sani­
cities where smog has become a prob­
lem. The discomfort and danger of Blue Ridge Rd., P.O. Box 437,
Shelbyville, Ind. 46176.
air pollution from the exhausts of
automobiles and from the fumes of National Association of Sanitarians,
industrial plants and other sources
1550 Lincoln St., Denver, Colo.
have been recognized in legislation at



(D.O.T. 079.108)
Nature of Work

The inability to speak or hear clear­
ly is a severe hardship to persons of
all ages. Children who have difficulty
speaking or hearing are usually unable
to play freely with others or to par­
ticipate fully in normal classroom ac­
tivities. Adults suffering from speech
or hearing impairments often face
problems of job adjustment. Speech
pathologists and audiologists help
people suffering from such disorders
by diagnosing their problems and by
providing treatment. In addition, they
may conduct research in the speech
and hearing field. Some conduct
training programs in speech path­
ology and audiology at colleges and
Speech pathologists are concerned
primarily with speech disorders and
audiologists with hearing problems.
Speech and hearing are so interrelat­
ed that, to be competent in either of
these occupations one must have a
familiarity with both. The speech
pathologist works with children and
adults who have such problems as
stuttering, defective articulation,
brain injury, foreign dialect, cleftpalate, mental retardation, or emo­
tional problems which are reflected in
speech and voice disorders. The audi­
ologist also works with children and
adults, but he concerns himself pri­
marily with the assessment and treat­
ment of hearing problems such as
those caused by certain otological or
neurological disturbances.
The duties performed by speech
pathologists and audiologists vary
with their education, experience, and
employment setting. In a clinical ca­
pacity, they identify and evaluate
speech and hearing disorders using
various diagnostic procedures. This
is followed by an organized program
of therapy, with the cooperation of
other specialists, such as physicians,

262-057 O— 68------ -9
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

psychologists, social workers, physical
therapists, counselors, and teachers.
Some perform research work, which
may consist of investigating com­
municative disorders and their causes
and improving methods for clinical
Speech pathologists and audiolo­
gists working in colleges or universi­
ties provide instruction in the prin­
ciples and bases of communication
and clinical techniques. Many also
participate in educational programs
for physicians, nurses, teachers, and
other professional personnel. In ad­
dition, they may work in university
clinics and conduct research, usually
at university centers.
Where Employed

Approximately 17,000 persons were
employed as speech pathologists and
audiologists in 1966. Women repre­
sented a large proportion of this em­
ployment. The majority of speech
pathologists and audiologists work in
public school systems and clinical
service centers. Colleges and univer­
sities employ the next largest number

of these specialists in classrooms and
clifiics. The remainder are distributed
among hospitals, research centers,
State and Federal Government agen­
cies, industry, and private practice.
Speech pathologists and audiologists
are employed in all States; however,
they are concentrated in States with
large populations. ,
Training and Other Qualifications

Most States require a master’s de­
gree in speech pathology or audi­
ology or its equivalency for a begin­
ning job as a speech pathologist or
audiologist. In other States, the
bachelor’s degree is required for entry
Undergraduate training in speech
and audiology should include course
work in anatomy, biology, physiology,
physics, semantics, phonetics, and re­
lated areas. Some specialized course
work in speech and hearing, as well
as in child psychology and mental
hygiene, also is helpful./This training
is usually available at colleges and
universities offering a broad liberal
arts program.



Graduate education in speech and
audiology is offered at 180 colleges
and universities. Professional prepa­
ration at the graduate level involves
extensive training in the fundamental
areas of speech and hearing, includ­
ing anatomy and physiology, acous­
tics, and psychological aspects of
communication; the nature of speech
and hearing disorders; and the as­
sessment, evaluation, and analysis of
speech production, language abilities,
and auditory processes; as well as
familiarity with various research
methods used in studying speech and
hearing. Persons who wish to work
in public schools should complete not
only the education and other require­
ments necessary for a teacher’s cer­
tificate in the State in which they
wish to work, but also may have to
fulfill special requirements, pre­
scribed by some States, for people
who are going to work with handi­
capped children.
Many scholarships, fellowships, assistantships, and traineeships are
available in colleges and universities;
however, most of these are at the
graduate level. The U.S. Vocational
Rehabilitation Administration, the
Children’s Bureau, the U.S. Office of
Education, and the National In­
stitutes of Health allocate funds for
teaching and training grants to col­
leges and universities offering gradu­
ate study in the field of speech and
hearing. The Veterans Administra­
tion provides funds for a predoctoral
program, during which the students
receive monthly payments.
Speech pathologists and audiolo­
gists should have an interest and lik­
ing for people, and the ability to ap­
proach problems with objectivity. To
work effectively with persons having
speech and hearing disorders, one
must be sensitive, patient, and have
personal warmth and emotional

through the 1970’s. Individuals who
have completed graduate study in
speech pathology and audiology will
have the best employment oppor­
tunities. Some opportunities will be
available for individuals having only
the bachelor’s degree and some pro­
fessional experience, but increasing
emphasis is being placed on the
master’s degree as the minimum edu­
cational standard for the profession.
Many speech pathologists and au­
diologists will be needed annually
through the 1970’s to staff new and
expanding programs in schools, clin­
ics, colleges and universities, and hos­
pitals and to replace those who die,
retire, or leave the profession for
other reasons. In recent years the
number of persons completing grad­
uate study has fallen short of the de­
mand, and this pattern is expected
to continue over the 1970’s. Thus,
qualified persons will continue to
have many opportunities to enter
these fields.
Several factors are expected to in­
crease demand for the services of
speech pathologists and audiologists
during the 1970’s: Population
growth, which will result in an in­
crease in the absolute number of per­
sons having speech and hearing prob­
lems; a lengthening life span, which
will increase the number of persons
having speech and hearing problems
that are common to later life; a rapid
expansion in expenditures for med­
ical research; the growing public in­
terest and awareness of the serious
problems connected with speech and
hearing disorders, as illustrated by
expanded Federal programs such as
Medicare, Medicaid, and the 1966
Title VI Amendment to the Ele­
mentary and Secondary Education
Act of 1965, which provides for the
education of handicapped children.

Median earnings of speech path­
ologists and audiologists in colleges
Employment opportunities for well- and universities ranged from $6,900
qualified speech pathologists and in private institutions to $9,000 in
audiologists are expected to be good State universities for a 9- to 10-month

Where To Go for More Information

Information on certification re­
quirements for persons wishing to
work in public schools can be ob­
tained from the State department of
education at the State capital.
General career information and a
list of colleges and universities that
have received grants to provide train­
eeships at the graduate level may be
obtained from:
American Speech and Hearing As­
9030 Old Georgetown Rd., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20014.

(D.O.T. 073.081 through .281)
Nature of Work

Earnings and Working Conditions
Employment Outlook

contract period in 1966, according to
limited data available. Median sal­
aries may be as much as $3,000 higher
for an 11- to 12-month contract.
Many experienced speech patholo­
gists and audiologists in educational
institutions supplement their regular
salaries by incomes from consulting,
special research projects, and writing
books and articles.
In early 1967, the annual starting
salary for speech pathologists and au­
diologists employed by the Federal
Government was $7,696. Applicants
for positions with the Federal Gov­
ernment must have completed all re­
quirements for the master’s degree.
Most speech pathologists and audi­
ologists work 40 hours a week; how­
ever, personnel engaged in research
may work longer hours. Almost all
employment situations provide fringe
benefits such as paid vacations, sick
leave, and retirement programs.

Veterinarians (doctors of veteri­
nary medicine) diagnose, treat, and
control numerous diseases and in­
juries among many species of animals.
Their work is important for the Na­
tion’s food production and for public
health. Veterinarians perform sur­



gery on sick and injured animals, and
prescribe and administer drugs, medi­
cines, serums, and vaccines. Their
work helps to prevent the outbreak
and spread of diseases among animals.
Because many animal diseases can be
transmitted to human beings, this
aspect of their work is vital to the
public health.
Veterinarians treat animals in
veterinary hospitals and clinics, or on
the farm and ranch. In addition,
veterinarians give advice on the care
and breeding of animals.
The majority of veterinarians are
general practitioners. Of those who
are specialists, the greatest number
treat small animals or pets. Some
specialize in the health care of cattle,
poultry, or horses. Many veterinarians
inspect meat, poultry, and other foods
as a part of the Federal and State
public health programs. Others are
on the faculties of veterinary colleges.
Some veterinarians do research
related to animal diseases, foods, and
drugs; other veterinarians, as part of
a medical research team, seek knowl­
edge about the prevention and treat­
ment of human disease.

In 1967, more than one-third of
all veterinarians in the United States
were in six States—California, New
York, Illiniois, Texas, Iowa, and
Ohio. Veterinarians in rural areas
chiefly treat farm animals; those in
small towns usually engage in gen­
eral practice; those in cities and
suburban areas frequently limit their
practice to pets.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

A license is required to practice
veterinary medicine in all States and
the District of Columbia. To obtain
a license, an applicant must have the
degree of Doctor of Veterinary
Medicine (D.V.M.), awarded upon
graduation from a veterinary school
approved by the American Veteri­
nary Medical Association; pass

a State Board examination; and, in
a few States, have some practical ex­
perience under the supervision of a
licensed veterinarian. A limited num­
ber of States issue licenses without
further examination to veterinarians
already licensed by another State.
For positions in research or teach­
ing, the master’s or Ph. D. degree in
a field such as pathology, physiology,
or bacteriology is usually required, in
addition to the D.V.M. degree.
The minimum requirements for the
D.V.M. degree are 2 years of preveterinary college work followed by 4
years of professional study in a college
of veterinary medicine. However,
most candidates complete 3 or 4 years
of a preveterinary curriculum which
emphasizes the physical and biologi­
cal sciences. The veterinary college
training includes considerable prac­
tical experience in diagnosing and

Where Employed

About 24,000 veterinarians were
working in 1967; only 2 percent were
women. More than two-thirds of all
veterinarians were in private practice.
The Federal Government employed
about 2,600 veterinarians, chiefly in
the U.S. Department of Agriculture;
some worked for the U.S. Public
Health Service. About 1,000 veteri­
narians were commissioned officers in
the Veterinary Corps of the Army
and the Air Force. In addition, many
worked for State and local govern­
ment agencies and a few worked for
international health agencies. Some
were also employed by colleges of
veterinary medicine, agricultural col­
leges, medical schools, research and
development laboratories, large live­
stock farms, animal food companies,
and pharmaceutical companies man­
ufacturing drugs
 for animals.

Zoo veterinarian treats ailing alligator.

treating animal diseases and perform­
ing surgery on sick animals, as well as
laboratory work in anatomy, bio­
chemistry, and other scientific and
medical subjects.
There were 18 colleges of veteri­
nary medicine in the United States in
1967. Some of the qualifications con­
sidered important by these colleges
in selecting students are a good
scholastic record, amount and char­
acter of preveterinary training, good
health, and an understanding and af­
fection for animals. Since veterinary
colleges are largely State supported,
residents of the State in which the
college is located are usually given
preference. In the South and West,
regional educational plans permit co­
operating States without veterinary
schools to send a few students to des­
ignated regional schools. In other
areas, colleges accept a certain num­
ber of students from other States,
usually giving priority to applicants
from nearby States which do not have
veterinary schools. Although women
students are accepted by all colleges
of veterinary medicine, the number
of women admitted to the schools is
relatively small; only about 6 percent
of the undergraduates in. 1967 were
Needy students may obtain loans
up to $2,500 a year to pursue full-time
study leading to the degree of Doctor
of Veterinary Medicine under pro­
visions of the Veterinary Medical
Education Act of 1966. The U.S.
Department of Agriculture offers stu­
dents who have completed their
junior year in schools of veterinary
medicine opportunities to serve as
trainees during the summer months.
Some veterinarians begin as as­
sistants to, or partners of, established
practitioners. Many start their own
practice with a modest financial in­
vestment in such essentials as drugs,
instruments, and an automobile. A
more substantial financial investment
is required to open an animal hospital
or purchase an established practice.
Newly qualified veterinarians who
enter the Army are commissioned as
captains; those entering the Air Force


do so as first lieutenants. New grad­
uates who pass Federal civil service
examinations can qualify for Federal
positions as meat and poultry in­
spectors, disease-control workers,
epidemiologists, and research as­
Employment Outlook

expenses the first year and may often
add to their earnings by working part
time for government agencies. As
they gain experience, their incomes
usually increase substantially.
The average annual salary of vet­
erinarians employed by State govern­
ments was $11,500 in 1967, and the
average annual salary of veterinarians
employed by universities was $13,500,
according to the American Veteri­
nary Medical Association. The in­
come of veterinarians in private
practice is generally higher than that
of other veterinarians, according to
the limited data available.
Newly graduated veterinarians
with no experience had an annual
starting salary of $8,218 in the Fed­
eral Government in early 1967. Sum­
mer trainees in the U.S. Department
of Agriculture were paid $124 for
each week they worked (representing
a rate of $6,451 a year).
Veterinarians are sometimes ex­
posed to danger of physical injury,
disease, and infection. Those in
private practice are likely to have long
and irregular working hours. Veteri­
narians in rural areas may have to
spend much time traveling to and
from distant farms and may have to
work outdoors in all kinds of weather.
Veterinarians can continue working
well beyond the normal retirement
age because of the many opportu­
nities for part-time employment or

Veterinarians are expected to have
very good employment opportunities
through the 1970’s. Although an in­
crease in the demand for veterinary
services is anticipated in the years
ahead, the number of veterinarians
will be restricted by the limited capac­
ity of schools of veterinary medicine.
However, some expansion in veteri­
nary school facilities is expected be­
cause of the passage of the Veterinary
Medical Education Act of 1966 which
provides funds to assist in the con­
struction of new training facilities for
veterinarians. Nevertheless, most of
the veterinarians who will receive
degrees will be needed to replace
those who retire or die. As a result,
the demand for veterinarians will
probably exceed the supply during
the 1965-75 decade.
Among the factors underlying the
increasing need for veterinary serv­
ices are the following: An increase in
the number of livestock and poultry
required to feed an expanding
population; a growing pet population
resulting from a trend toward sub­
urban living; and an increase in veter­
inary research. Emphasis on scientific
methods of raising and breeding live­ Where To Go for More Information
stock and poultry, and the growth in
Additional information
domestic and international public erinary medicine as a career,on well
health and disease-control programs
will probably also add to the op­ as a list of schools from: training,
may be obtained
portunities for veterinarians.
Women will continue to have good American Veterinary Medical Asso­
opportunities, especially in small ani­ 600 South Michigan Ave., Chicago,
111. 60605.
mal practice, teaching, and research.
Information on opportunities for
veterinarians in the U.S. Department
Earnings and Working Conditions
of Agriculture is available from:
Agricultural Research Service,
Veterinarians beginning their own U.S. Department of Agriculture,
practice can generally cover their
Washington, D.C. 20250.

Mathematics is both a profession
and a tool essential for many kinds of
work. The expression of ideas in
mathematical language provides a
framework within which these ideas
can be understood. Mathematics has
always been fundamental to science,
engineering, and human affairs. The
impact of mathematical methods on
these fields has been greatly increased
by the widespread use of high-speed
electronic computers. For example,
the applications of mathematics have
opened up broad new horizons, not
only in the natural sciences and en­
gineering, but also in the social sci­
ences, medicine, and management
and administration. As a result, em­
ployment opportunities for persons
trained in mathematics have ex­
panded remarkably in the past 15
This chapter includes descriptions
of the occupation of mathematician
and the two closely related occupa­
tions of statistician and actuary.
Entrance into any of these fields re­
quires college training in mathemat­
ics. For many types of work, graduate
education is necessary.
In addition to the professions cov­
ered in this chapter, workers in many
other jobs use mathematics exten­
sively in performing their work.
These workers include engineers,
chemists, physicists, astronomers, geo­
physicists, biological scientists, and
programers, each of whose work is

Mathematician manipulates matrix device to solve problem.

one of the most dynamic and rapidly
growing professions. Mathematicians
today are engaged in a wide variety
of challenging activities, ranging
from the creation of new mathemati­
cal theories to the translation of sci­
entific and managerial problems into
mathematical terms.
Mathematical work may be divided
into two broad classes: pure or the­
(D.O.T. 020.088)
oretical mathematics; and applied
mathematics, which includes mathe­
matical computation. Theoretical
Nature of Work
mathematicians develop mathemati­
Mathematics is one of the oldest cal principles and discover relation­
and most basic sciences. Yet, it is also ships among mathematical forms.
discussed elsewhere in the Hand­
book. Secondary school teachers of
mathematics are not covered in this
chapter but are included in the sepa­
rate statement on Secondary School




They seek to increase basic mathemat­
ical knowledge without necessarily
considering its use. Yet, this pure and
abstract mathematical knowledge has
been instrumental in many scientific
and engineering achievements. For
example, a seemingly impractical
non-Euclidean geometry invented by
Bernhard Riemann in 1854 became
an integral part of the theory of rela­
tivity developed by Albert Einstein
more than a half-century later.
Mathematicians engaged in ap­
plied work develop theories, tech­
niques, and approaches to solve
practical problems in the physical,
biological, and social sciences. They
analyze the various parts of a prob­
lem and describe the existing rela­
tionships in mathematical terms.
Their work ranges from the analysis
of vibrations and stability of rockets
in outer space to studies of the ef­
fects of new drugs on disease. Applied
and pure mathematics are not always
sharply separated in practice; many
important developments in theoreti­
cal mathematics have arisen directly
from practical problems. For exam­
ple, in recent years, John von Neu­
mann developed the theory of games
of strategy to improve the methods
of analyzing conflicts between com­
peting interests, such as those occur­
ring in war and economics.
An important part of the work in
applied mathematics involves using
mathematical knowledge and modem
computing equipment to obtain
numerical answers to specific prob­
lems. Some work in this area, such as
development and programing of ad­
vanced techniques for solving com­
plex scientific and engineering prob­
lems, requires a very high level of
mathematical knowledge, skill, and
ingenuity. However, much of this
work, such as that performed by
many programers for digital com­
puters, may not require the advanced
training and inventiveness of the
mathematician. (See statements on
Programers and Systems Analysts.
For other occupations related to the
mathematics profession, see state­
ments on Statisticians and Actuaries
in this chapter.)

The largest number of mathe­
maticians are involved in research
and development activities. Nearly as
many are primarily teachers, many of
whom do part-time research. Most of
the remainder are concerned chiefly
with operations research, production
and inspection (quality control) of
manufactured products, or manage­
ment and administration—par­
ticularly of research and development
Where Employed

Approximately 57,000 mathe­
maticians were employed in the
United States in early 1967; about 10
percent were women. About one-half
of all mathematicians were em­
ployed by private industry. Over half
of this group worked in manufactur­
ing—primarily in the electrical
equipment, aerospace, machinery,
and ordnance industries. Other
mathematicians were employed as
Colleges and universities employed
more than two-fifths of all mathe­
maticians, some of whom have few or
no teaching duties. Others were em­
ployed by the Federal Government,
chiefly by the Department of De­
fense. A few worked for State and
local governments and nonprofit
Mathematicians were employed in
all States. However, they were con­
centrated in those States with large
industrial areas and sizable college
and university enrollments. Over half
of the total were found in seven
States: California, New York,
Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Illinois,
New Jersey, and Maryland.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

The minimum educational require­
ment for most beginning positions in
mathematics is the bachelor’s degree
with a major in mathematics, or with
a major in an applied field—such as
physics or engineering—and a minor

in mathematics. For many entrance
positions, particularly in research or
teaching, graduate training in mathe­
matics is required. Advanced study is
also valuable for advancement to
more responsible positions in all types
of work.
The bachelor’s degree in mathe­
matics is offered by more than a
thousand colleges and universities
throughout the country. The under­
graduate mathematics curriculum
typically includes courses in analyti­
cal geometry, calculus, differential
equations, probability and statistics,
mathematical analysis, and modem
Advanced mathematics degrees are
conferred by more than 250 colleges
and universities. In graduate school,
the student builds upon the basic
knowledge acquired in the under­
graduate curriculum. He usually con­
centrates on a specific field of
mathematics, such as algebra, mathe­
matical analysis, statistics, applied
mathematics, or topology, by con­
ducting intensive research and taking
advanced courses in that field.
The bachelor’s degree is adequate
preparation for many positions in
private industry and the Federal
Government, particularly those con­
nected with computer work. Some
new graduates with the bachelor’s
degree assist senior mathematicians
by performing computations and
solving less advanced mathematical
problems in applied research. Others
work as graduate teaching or re­
search assistants in colleges and uni­
versities, while working toward ad­
vanced degrees.
Advanced degrees are required for
an ever-increasing number of jobs in
industry and Government—in re­
search and in many areas of applied
mathematics. The Ph. D. degree is
necessary for full faculty status at
most colleges and universities, as well
as for advanced research positions.
For work in applied mathematics,
training in the field to which the
mathematics will be applied is very
important. Fields in which applied
mathematics is used extensively in­
clude physics, engineering, and opera­


tions research; other fields include
business and industrial management,
economics, statistics, chemistry, bi­
ology, and the behavioral sciences.
Training in numerical analysis and
programing is especially desirable for
mathematicians working with com­
Employment Outlook

Very rapid growth in employment
of mathematicians is anticipated for
the remainder of the 1960’s and
through the 1970’s. As in the early
and mid-1960’s, there will be a par­
ticular demand for mathematicians
with Ph. D. degrees for research,
teaching, and applied mathematics
A major factor that should con­
tinue to make mathematics one of the
most rapidly growing fields is the
growth in scientific research and de­
velopment, in which a large number
of mathematicians are engaged. Ex­
penditures for research and develop­
ment have risen steadily in recent
years and are expected to continue to
rise through the 1970’s, although at a
somewhat slower rate than in the
Mathematicians in research and
development use high-speed elec­
tronic computers to solve a wide
variety of complex problems in en­
gineering, natural and social science
research, military science, operations
research, and business management.
There will be a growing need for
mathematicians with a high degree
of mathematical competence and a
broad knowledge of these particular
fields of application. The demand for
people to do mathematical computa­
tion work will also expand.
The employment of mathemati­
cians as college and university teach­
ers should rise very substantially
through the 1970’s, when enrollments
are expected to grow rapidly. Not
only is the number of students major­
ing in mathematics expected to in­
crease sharply, but the number of
students majoring in other fields tak­
ing mathematics courses will also rise.

Colleges and universities will con­
tinue to provide most of the employ­
ment opportunities for specialists in
theoretical mathematics.
Between 1965 and 1975, a three­
fold increase is expected in the num­
ber of mathematics graduates at each
degree level. The number of new
graduates seeking professional mathe­
matics employment will rise sharply,
and competition for entry positions
will increase considerably during the
remainder of the 1960’s and through­
out the 1970’s. Nevertheless, grad­
uates with advanced degrees and
those with bachelor’s degrees who
have good academic records should
find excellent employment opportu­
The education and training neces­
sary for a degree in mathematics is
also an excellent foundation for a
number of other occupations, particu­
larly in fields that rely heavily on the
application of mathematical theories
and methods. Thus, increasing num­
bers of mathematics graduates are
likely to be hired for jobs in teach­
ing, statistics, actuarial work, com­
puter programing, systems analysis,
economics, engineering, physics, geo­
physics, and biological sciences. Em­
ployment opportunities in such re­
lated fields will probably be best for
students who combine their major in
mathematics with a minor in one of
these other disciplines.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Annual starting salaries in private
industry for mathematicians with
bachelor’s degrees were about $7,300
in 1966, according to the limited in­
formation available. New graduates
with the master’s degree received
starting salaries averaging about
$1,700 a year higher. Yearly salaries
for new graduates with Ph. D. de­
grees, most of whom have some ex­
perience, ranged from about $10,300
to $17,000 in 1966.
In the Federal Government in early
1967, mathematicians with the bach­
elor’s degree and no experience could
start at either $6,387 or $7,729 a year,

depending on their college records.
Beginning mathematicians who had
completed all requirements for the
master’s degree could start at $7,729
or $9,001; those with the Ph. D. de­
gree could begin at either $10,481 or
$11,360 a year.
In colleges and universities, starting
salaries for mathematicians with the
Ph. D. degree who were employed as
teachers in 1966, ranged from about
$6,000 to $12,000 for 9 months of
teaching. Mathematicians in educa­
tional institutions often supplement
their regular salaries with income
from special research projects, con­
sulting work, and writing.
The average (median) annual sal­
ary for mathematicians in the Na­
tional Science Foundation’s National
Register of Scientific and Technical
Personnel was $12,000 in 1966. Only
10 percent earned less than $7,500 a
year, and about 10 percent earned
$20,000 or more.
Where To Go for More Information

General information on the field of
mathematics—including career op­
portunities, professional training, col­
leges and universities with degreecredit programs, and earnings—may
be obtained from:
American Mathematical Society,
P.O. Box 6248, Providence, R.I.

Mathematical Association of Amer­
SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, N.Y.
Association for Computing Machinnery,
211 East 43d St., New York, N.Y.
Society for Industrial and Applied
33 South 17th St., Philadelphia,
Pa. 19103. .

Specific information on careers in ap­
plied mathematics and electronic
computer work may be obtained from
the last two organizations.
Federal Government career infor­
mation may be obtained from any re-



gional office of the U.S. Civil Service terms. Statisticians collect, analyze,
Commission or from:
and interpret these data. They use
statistical methods to help corrobo­
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil
rate the findings of natural and social
Service Examiners for Washington,
scientists. Their studies provide gov­
1900 E St. NW., Washington, D.C.
ernment and business officials with
the statistical information needed to
Other sources of information on re­ make decisions and establish policy.
lated occupations, such as Statisti­ The work of the statistician is
cians, Actuaries, Programers, and of two general types—applied and
Systems Analysts, may be found else­ mathematical. Applied statisticians
where in the Handbook.
develop and analyze data, based on
their knowledge of a particular field,
, such as economics, demography, be­
havioral science, education, physical
science, or engineering. They may
(D.O.T. 020.088 and .188)
forecast population growth or eco­
nomic conditions, predict and evalu­
ate the results of new programs,
Nature of Work
develop quality control tests for man­
More than ever before, the charac­ ufactured products, or help decision­
teristics of the world and its inhabit­ makers select from alternative choices.
ants are being described in numerical
Mathematical statisticians u se

mathematical theory to design and
improve statistical methods for ob­
taining and interpreting numerical
information. They develop statistical
tools in areas such as probability, ex­
perimental design, and regression
analysis. Unlike applied statisticians,
mathematical statisticians usually do
not specialize in a subject-matter
field. However, the latter frequently
work with applied statisticians in
making statisticial studies.
Many statisticians are engaged pri­
marily in planning surveys, design­
ing experiments, or analyzing data.
Those who plan surveys select the
data sources, determine the type and
size of the sample groups, and develop
the survey questionnaire or reporting
form. They prepare the instructions
for those who will collect or report
the information and for the workers
who will code and tabulate the re­
turns. Statisticians who design experi­
ments prepare mathematical models
that will test a particular theory.
Those in analytical work interpret
collected data and summarize their
findings in tables, charts, and writ­
ten reports. Another large group of
statisticians perform chiefly adminis­
trative functions in connection with
statistical programs. Others are teach­
ers who often combine research with
teaching. The remainder are involved
in other activities, such as quality con­
trol, operations research, production
and sales forecasting, and market
Because statistics have such wide
use, it is sometimes difficult to dis­
tinguish professional statisticians from
those subject-matter specialists mak­
ing a limited use of statistics. For
example, an applied statistician work­
ing with data on economic conditions
may have the title of economist, or a
mathematical statistician applying
probability theory to the development
of new statistical methods may be
classified as a mathematician.
Where Employed

Statisticians apply mathematical theories in solving problems.

Approximately 22,000 professional
statisticians were employed in early



1967; about one-third were women.
Nearly one-half of all statisticians
were employed by private industry,
being divided almost equally between
the manufacturing and nonmanufac­
turing industry groups. The largest
numbers worked for insurance and
financial organizations, and inde­
pendent consulting firms.
Federal Government agencies em­
ployed approximately 2,400 statisti­
cians in 1967, more than three-fourths
of whom worked for the Departments
of Commerce; Defense; Agriculture;
and Health, Education, and Welfare.
Colleges and universities employed
some applied statisticians and a large
number of mathematical statisticians.
Other statisticians were employed by
State and local governments, and
nonprofit organizations.
Although statisticians were em­
ployed in all States, about one-half
of them worked in New York, the
District of Columbia, California,
Maryland, Pennsylvania, or Illinois.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

A bachelor’s degree with a major
in statistics or mathematics is the
minimum educational requirement
for many beginning positions in ap­
plied and mathematical statistics. For
some beginning positions in applied
statistics, however, a bachelor’s de­
gree, with a major in economics or
some other subject-matter field and
a minor in statistics, is preferable. A
master’s degree in statistics or mathe­
matics is required for many entrance
positions in mathematical statistics
and teaching, and is almost indis­
pensable for promotion to more re­
sponsible positions in mathematical
statistics. The Ph. D. degree is es­
sential for full faculty status at most
colleges and universities, as well as
being an asset for advancement to top
administrative and consulting posi­
tions. Advancement in analytical and
survey work usually requires ad­
vanced academic training in the sub­
ject-matter field as well as in statistics.

Relatively few colleges and univer­
sities offer training leading to a bache­
lor’s degree with a major in statistics.
Most schools, however, offer either a
degree in mathematics or a sufficient
number of courses in statistics to
qualify graduates for beginning posi­
tions. Courses essential for statisticians
include college algebra, plane trig­
onometry, analytical geometry, dif­
ferential and integral calculus, linear
algebra, and at least one course in
statistical methods. Other important
courses cover sampling, correlation
analysis, experimental design, proba­
bility theory, and computer uses and
techniques. For many quality control
positions, training in engineering and
in the application of statistical meth­
ods to manufacturing processes are
desirable. For many market research,
business analysis, and forecasting
positions, courses in economics, busi­
ness administration, or a related field
are helpful.
Graduate degrees in statistics were
conferred by approximately 40 col­
leges and universities in 1966, and
many other schools offered one or two
graduate level statistical courses. In
many schools where statistics is still
part of the mathematics department,
the graciuate student interested in
mathematical statistics earns his ad­
vanced degree in mathematics. En­
trance into a graduate program in sta­
tistics usually requires a bachelor’s
degree with a good background in
mathematics. The student interested
in applied work should attend a
school where he can pursue research
projects in his subject-matter field, as
well as take advanced courses in sta-.
Inexperienced statisticians with
only the bachelor’s degree often spend
much of their time in statistical cleri­
cal work, or its supervision, on their
first jobs. With experience, they usu­
ally advance to positions of greater
technical and supervisory responsibil­
ity. Those with exceptional ability
and interest may be promoted to top
management positions.
Among the personal qualifications
needed by statisticians are an interest

and facility in mathematics, and the
ability to translate practical problems
into statistical terms.
Employment Outlook

The employment outlook for statis­
ticians is expected to be good through
the remainder of the 1960’s and the
1970’s. The growing emphasis on
modern statistical methods in con­
ducting research and the increasing
use of electronic computers should
strengthen the demand for statisti­
cians in industry, government, and
colleges and universities.
The largest expansion in employ­
ment is expected in private industry.
Persons who have broad training in
mathematics and statistics, as well as
a knowledge of engineering or the
physical sciences, will be needed for
quality control work in manufactur­
ing, and for work with scientists and
engineers in research and develop­
ment activities. Business firms are ex­
pected to rely more and more on
statisticians, especially those with a
background in economics or business
administration, to forecast sales, ana­
lyze business conditions, modernize
accounting procedures, and help
solve other management problems.
The employment of statisticians in
Federal Government agencies will
probably increase moderately. Addi­
tional personnel will be needed not
only in research and development
work, but also for expanded programs
in such fields as social security, health,
and education. Some statisticians will
also be needed to fill positions in con­
tinuing programs which involve the
collection and analysis of many kinds
of social and economic data.
The employment of statisticians as
college and university teachers is ex­
pected to rise through the 1970’s, pri­
marily as a result of the overall
growth in enrollments. Many colleges
will offer additional courses in statis­
tics, as the application of statistical
methods becomes more widespread.
In addition to the number needed
to fill new positions, several hundred
statisticians will be required each year

to replace members of the profession
who retire, die, or transfer to other
Along with the anticipated rise in
the demand for statisticians, an in­
crease is expected in the number of
statistics graduates. However, in 1965
the number of these graduates was
barely enough to meet replacement
needs. Thus, employment opportuni­
ties for new college graduates with de­
grees in statistics at all degree levels
are expected to be very good through
the 1970’s.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Starting salaries for new college
graduates employed as applied statis­
ticians in private industry generally
averaged between $5,500 and $7,200
a year in 1966, according to the lim­
ited information available. Starting
salaries for mathematical statisticians
with the bachelor’s degree were usu­
ally somewhat higher. Salaries for
beginning statisticians with the mas­
ter’s degree averaged about $1,500
a year more than for those with only
the bachelor’s degree.
In the Federal Government serv­
ice in early 1967, applied statisticians
with the bachelor’s degree and no ex­
perience could start at either $5,331
or $6,451 a year, depending on
their scholastic records. Beginning
statisticians who had completed all
requirements for the master’s degree
could start at $6,451 or $7,696. Those
with the Ph. D. degree could begin
at $9,221 or $10,927. Federal Gov­
ernment entrance salaries for mathe­
matical statisticians were somewhat
higher than for analytical and survey
Statisticians employed by colleges
and universities generally earn some­
what less than those employed by
private industry and the Federal
Government. Some indication of the
salary levels of statisticians employed
as teachers may be obtained from the
earnings data for college and univer­
sity teachers as a group. (See state­
ment on College and University
Teachers.) In addition to their regu­


lar salaries, statisticians in educa­
tional institutions sometimes earn
extra income from outside research
projects, consulting work, and
Where To Go for More Information

American Statistical Association,
810 18th Street, NW., Washington,
D .C .20006.
Association for Computing Ma­
211 East 43d St., New York, N.Y.
Institute of Mathematical Statis­
Department of Statistics,
California State College at Hayward,
Hayward, Calif. 94542.
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil
Service Examiners for Washing­
ton, D.C.,
1900 E St. NW., Washington, D.C.
Society for Industrial and Applied
33 South 17th St., Philadelphia, Pa.

(D.O.T. 020.188)
Nature of Work

Actuaries are responsible for de­
signing insurance and pension plans
and for maintaining these programs
on a sound financial basis. They are
concerned with rates of mortality
(death), morbidity (sickness), injury,
disability, unemployment, retirement,
and property loss from accident, theft,
fire, and other potential hazards. Ac­
tuaries use statistical data and other
pertinent information to construct
tables on the probability of insured
loss. They develop and analyze esti­
mates of the insurer’s future earn­
ings and investment income, ex­
penses, and policyholder claims.
Taking all these factors into consider­
ation, actuaries determine the pre­
mium rates and policy contract
provisions for each type of insurance
offered. Most actuaries specialize in

either life insurance or property and
liability (casualty) insurance.
To perform their duties effectively,
actuaries must keep abreast of gen­
eral economic and social trends and
legislative, health, and other develop­
ments that may affect insurance prac­
tices. Because of their broad knowl­
edge of the insurance field, actuaries
frequently work on problems arising
in investment, underwriting, group
insurance, and pension sales and serv­
ice departments. Actuaries in execu­
tive positions may help determine
general company policy. In that role,
they may also testify before public
agencies on proposed legislation af­
fecting the insurance business, or to
justify intended changes in premi­
um rates or contract provisions.
Actuaries employed by the Federal
Government usually deal with a par­
ticular Government insurance or pen­
sion program, such as social security
(old-age, survivors, disability, and
health insurance) or life insurance for
veterans and members of the Armed
Forces. Actuaries in State government
positions are involved in the super­
vision and regulation of insurance
companies, the operation of State re­
tirement or pension systems, and
problems connected with unemploy­
ment insurance or workmen’s com­
pensation. Consulting actuaries per­
form services for private companies,
unions, and government agencies,
such as setting up pension and welfare
plans and making periodic actuarial
evaluations of these plans.
Where Employed

Approximately 3,000 professional
actuaries were employed in the
United States in early 1967; less than
3 percent were women. Actuaries
were concentrated in those States that
are major centers of the insurance in­
dustry. About three-fifths of all
actuaries were employed in four
States—New York, Connecticut, Il­
linois, and Massachusetts.
Private insurance companies em­
ployed about two-thirds of all ac­
tuaries. The great majority of this



group worked for life insurance com­
panies; the remainder worked for
property and liability (casualty) com­
panies. The size of an insurance
company’s actuarial staff depends
primarily upon the volume of its in­
surance work. Large companies may
employ as many as 50 to 100 actuaries.
Small companies may have only a few
actuaries on their staffs or rely in­
stead on rating bureaus or consulting
Rating bureaus (associations which
supply actuarial data to member com­
panies) and consulting firms em­
ployed nearly one-third of all ac­
tuaries. Most of the remainder were
employed by private organizations to
administer independent pension and
welfare plans. Others worked for
Federal or State Government agen­
cies. A few taught in colleges and uni­
Training, Other Qualifications, and

A bachelor’s degree with a thor­
ough foundation in calculus, proba­
bility, and statistics is required for
entry into actuarial work. The new
graduate with a major in such fields
as mathematics, statistics, economics,
or business administration can usually
qualify for beginning actuarial posi­
tions. The prospective actuary should
take courses in algebra, analytical ge­
ometry, differential and integral cal­
culus, mathematical statistics, and
probability. Other desirable courses
include insurance law, economics, in­
vestments, accounting, and other
aspects of business administration.
Although only about 10 colleges and
universities offer training specifically
designed for actuarial careers, sev­
eral hundred institutions offer the
necessary courses.
It usually takes from 5 to 10 years
after entering a beginning actuarial
position to complete the entire series
of examinations required for full pro­
fessional status. These examinations
cover general mathematics, special­
ized actuarial mathematics, and all
phases of the insurance business.

Actuary refers to tables of sickness and death rates.

Those considering an actuarial career
should take the beginning examina­
tions covering general mathematics
while still in college. Success in pass­
ing these first examinations helps the
beginner to evaluate his potential as
an actuary. Those who pass these ex­
aminations usually have better op­
portunities for employment and a
higher starting salary. The advanced
examinations, usually taken by those
in junior actuarial positions, require
extensive home study and experience
in insurance work.
The 10 actuarial examinations for
the life insurance field are given by
the Society of Actuaries, and the eight
for property and liability (casualty)
insurance by the Casualty Actuarial
Society. Since the first two parts of the
examination series of either Society
are the same, the student may defer
the selection of his insurance specialty
until he has acquired more familiarity
with the field. “Associate” member­
ship is awarded after completion of
half of the full examination series in
either speciality; the designation of
“Fellow” is conferred after the suc­
cessful completion of the entire series
of examinations.

Employers frequently give pref­
erence to applicants who have passed
one or more of the actuarial ex­
aminations, or to those with actuarial
experience gained in the special sum­
mer training programs for college
students offered by some insurance
companies. A beginning actuary is
usually rotated among different jobs
to learn various actuarial operations
and to become familiar with different
phases of insurance work. At first, his
work may be rather routine, such as
preparing calculations or tabulations
for actuarial tables or reports. As he
gains experience, he may supervise
actuarial clerks and prepare cor­
respondence and reports.
Advancement to more responsible
work as assistant, associate, and chief
actuary depends largely upon the in­
dividual’s on-the-job performance
and the number of actuarial ex­
aminations he has successfully com­
pleted. Many actuaries, because of
their broad knowledge of insurance
and related fields, qualify for admin­
istrative positions in other company
activities, particularly in underwrit­
ing, accounting, or data-processing
departments. A significant number of



actuaries advance to top executive tional actuaries will be needed by
government regulatory agencies.
Demand will continue to be strong for
actuaries capable of working with
high-speed electronic computers. A
Employment Outlook
few actuaries will also be needed each
Employment opportunities for year to replace those who retire, die,
actuaries are expected to be excellent or transfer to other occupations.
for the remainder of this decade and
through the 1970’s. New graduates
who have the necessary mathemati­ Earnings and Working Conditions
cal education and who have passed
some actuarial examinations will be
Starting salaries of new college
graduates entering actuarial work as
in particular demand as trainees.
Actuarial employment is expected trainees in insurance companies were
to grow, primarily because of the ris­ generally about $6,500 a year in 1966,
ing numbers of insurance policies of according to a survey conducted by
all kinds which result, in part, from the Life Office Management Associa­
the existence of an affluent and more tion. Annual starting salaries for
insurance-conscious population and those who had passed the first few
business community. Actuaries will actuarial examinations were as much
be needed to solve the growing num­ as $2,500 more than inexperienced
ber of problems arising from con­ new graduates. Those with experi­
tinuously changing and increasingly ence gained in the insurance com­
complex insurance and pension panies’ summer intern (training)
coverage. The expanding number of programs usually received higher en­
group health and life insurance plans trance salaries.
and pension and other benefit plans
In the Federal Government service
will require actuarial services. Addi­ in early 1967, new graduates with the

bachelor’s degree entering actuarial
work could start at either $6,387 or
$7,729 a year, depending on their col­
lege records.
Beginning actuaries can look for­
ward to a marked increase in earn­
ings as they gain professional experi­
ence and successfully complete either
Society’s series of examinations. In
some insurance companies, merit pay
increases are given to those who pass
one or a group of the examinations.
Most Fellows of either of the Society
of Actuaries or the Casualty Actu­
arial Society earn over $12,000 a
year. Many actuaries earn more than
$20,000 a year, and those in execu­
tive positions in large companies
earn over $25,000.
Where To Go for More Information

Casualty Actuarial Society,
200 East 42d St., New York, N.Y.
Society of Actuaries,
208 South LaSalle St., Chicago, 111.


The natural sciences are concerned
with the physical world and the living
things within it. These sciences may
be divided into three broad groups—
biological, earth, and physical
sciences—all of which are discussed
in this chapter. Mathematics, often
considered part of the natural
sciences, is discussed in a separate
chapter elsewhere in the Handbook.
The physical sciences are the larg­
est field of employment among the
natural sciences; over 195,000 phys­
ical scientists were employed in early
Chemistry is by far the largest of
the physical science specialties, with
about 122,000 chemists employed in
early 1967. Smaller numbers were in
physics (44,000), astronomy (1,100),
and other physical sciences (28,500),
which includes metallurgy.
A large number of natural scien­
tists—nearly 155,000 in early 1967—
worked in the biological sciences.
Most of these scientists specialized in
1 of 3 broad fields—biology, medi­
cine, or agriculture. The largest
number, more than 68,000, worked
in biology. More than 47,000 were
employed as agricultural scientists,
and nearly 40,000 worked on prob­
lems related to medicine.
The earth sciences are relatively
small fields of scientific employment.
In early 1967, the number of earth
scientists totaled about 26,500. Of
these, the largest number (15,000)
worked in geology. Smaller numbers
were employed in geophysics (5,000),

meteorology (3,500), and oceanog­
raphy (3,000).
A bachelor’s degree is the usual
minimum educational requirement
for work in the natural sciences.
Graduate training is needed for many
positions, especially in teaching and
research, and is helpful for advance­
ment in all types of work. In some
fields, advanced degrees are needed
for most positions.
Employment in the natural sciences
has grown rapidly in recent years and
the outlook is for continued rapid
growth through the 1970’s. In gen­
eral, the most important factor under­
lying the expected increase in
employment is the likely growth of
expenditures for research and devel­
opment. Such expenditures have in­
creased rapidly in recent years and
are expected to continue to increase,
although somewhat more slowly than
in the past. Other factors contributing
to the expected employment growth
in the natural sciences are the expan­
sion of industry, the increasing com­
plexity of industrial products and
processes, and the sharp increase in
science enrollments expected in col­
leges and universities.
The following chapter presents de­
scriptions of some of the major occu­
pations within the natural sciences.
In addition to these occupations,
workers in many other fields may
require a strong background in the
natural sciences. Included are engi­
neering, mathematics, and medical
occupations, which are described
elsewhere in the Handbook.
Biological Sciences

The biological sciences are often
called life sciences, since they encom­
pass all living organisms and the
things that determine the nature of
life. They are concerned with men
and microbes, plants and animals,
and health and disease.
Some scientists in this field per­
form research to expand our under­

standings of living things. Others,
who teach, pass this knowledge on to
students. Many scientists pursue both
activities. Still others apply these con­
cepts and principles to the solution of
practical problems, such as the devel­
opment of new drugs or varieties of
This chapter discusses biological
scientists as a group since they receive
comparable basic training and have
similar employment and earning pros­
pects. Brief statements are provided
about the nature of the work of a
number of biological scientists—in­
cluding botanists, microbiologists,
zoologists, biophysicists, pathologists,
and pharmacologists. More detailed
statements for other professional
workers in the biological sciences—
biochemists, soil scientists, soil con­
servationists, foresters, and range
managers—are discussed elsewhere in
the Handbook.

(D.O.T. 040.081, 041.081, 070.081, and
Nature of Work

Biological scientists study living or­
ganisms, their structure, evolutionary
development, behavior, and life proc­
esses. They also study the relation be­
tween these organisms and their en­
vironment. The number and variety
of plants and animals are so vast and
the life processes so varied and com­
plex that biologists must of necessity
become specialists. Some biologists
learn as much as possible about a par­
ticular kind of animal, plant, or
micro-organism. Others, interested in
how an animal or human body func­
tions, study such things as the nervous
system, how food is digested, or how
organisms are affected by disease.
Some are interested in the evolution
of living organisms, the mechanisms
of heredity, or the ways environ­
mental factors, such as light or heat,
affect life processes. In general, bio­
logical scientists specialize in a sub127

discipline of the three broad areas of
the life sciences—biological, medical,
or agricultural science.
About two-fifths of all biological
scientists are engaged in research and
development. Many conduct basic re­
search, aimed at adding to our knowl­
edge of living organisms with only
secondary regard to its application.
Nevertheless, the development of in­
secticides, disease-resistant crops, and
antibiotics have all stemmed from
basic research in the biological sci­


ences, since much of the basic medical
knowledge of the treatment of dis­
ease has its origin in pure biological
Biological research may take many
forms. A botanist exploring the vol­
canic Alaskan valleys to see what
plants live in this strange environ­
ment and a zoologist searching the
jungles of the Amazon valley for pre­
viously unknown kinds of animals
are both doing research, as is an en­
tomologist in a laboratory testing vari­

Biological scientist notes findings during microscopic examination.

ous chemical insecticides for effective­
ness and possible hazards to human
and animal life.
Regardless of the type of research in
which they are engaged, biological
scientists must be familiar with fun­
damental biological research tech­
niques and with the use, not only of
light and electron microscopes, but of
other complex physical and electronic
laboratory equipment. Advanced
techniques and principles drawn from
chemistry and physics are used widely.
A knowledge of mathematical and
statistical procedures, as well as of
the operation of electronic computers,
is often needed in experiments involv­
ing a large number of variable
Teaching is the major function of
more than a fourth of all biological
scientists. Many teachers of biological
sciences combine independent re­
search with their regular teaching
duties, and in some large educational
institutions spend the major portion
of their time on research.
Another fourth of the biological
scientists are engaged in management
and administrative work, primarily
the planning, supervision, and ad­
ministration of programs of research
or testing of foods, drugs, and other
products. Others provide liaison be­
tween the Federal Government and
the agricultural experiment stations
at State universities, assisting in the
planning, development, and evalua­
tion of research programs at these
The remaining biologists are en­
gaged in a variety of other types of
work, such as consulting, writing,
testing, and inspection. A few are em­
ployed in technical sales or field serv­
ice work for industrial firms; such
work may include, for example, teach­
ing company salesmen and prospec­
tive purchasers the value and proper
use of new chemicals. Some are en­
gaged in research in natural history
museums, zoos, and botanical gar­
Biological scientists may be classi­
fied into three broad groups char­
acterized by the general type of



organism with which they work:
Botanists, who study plants; zoolo­
gists, who are concerned with ani­
mals; and microbiologists, who work
with micro-organisms.
Biological scientists may also be
classified according to their special­
ties—some of which are wholly within
1 of the 3 major groupings, and
others which can be found in all 3
groups. For example, some biological
scientists are classified according to
the specific type of organism studied,
as are mycologists, who are botanists
concerned with the study of fungi.
Others are classified according to the
type of approach used, as are geneti­
cists, who may be botanists, zoologists,
or microbiologists studying the mech­
anisms of the heredity of a particular
plant, animal, or micro-organism.
Scientists whose work cuts across
more than one of these major group­
ings, often the case with college
teachers, may simply call themselves
biologists. A description of the work
of some biological scientists follows.
Botanists study all aspects of plant
life. Plant taxonomists identify and
classify plants. Plant ecologists study
the effects of environmental elements
on plant life and distribution. Other
botanists include plant morphologists,
concerned with the structure of plants

Biophysicist prepares frog for experiment on effects of "weightlessness.”

Plant physiologist examines research plants

 growth chamber.
in special

and plant cells; plant physiologists,
interested in the life processes of
plants; and plant pathologists, en­
gaged in determining the cause and
control of plant diseases.
Microbiologists investigate the
growth, structure, and general char­
acteristics of bacteria, viruses, molds,

and other organisms of microscopic or
submicroscopic size. Although the
terms bacteriology and microbiology
are sometimes used interchangeably,
microbiology, the broader term, is
preferable when referring to the study
of all microscopic organisms. Micro­
biologists isolate and make cultures of

these organisms in order to examine
them with a variety of highly special­
ized equipment. Some microbiologists
pursue medical problems, such as the
relationship between bacteria and
infectious disease, or the effect of
antibiotics on bacteria. Others spe­
cialize in soil bacteriology (the study
of soil micro-organisms and their re­
lation to soil fertility), virology (the
study of viruses), immunology (the
study of the mechanisms that fight in­
fection), or serology (the study of
animal and plant fluids, including
blood serums). Still others specialize
in the study of the fermentations in­
volved in manufacturing such prod­
ucts as beer and wine, or in the search
for new or better antibiotics. Many
specialize in the production and test­
ing of biological products or in the
testing of food products and water
Zoologists study animal life—its
origin, classification, behavior, life
processes, diseases, and parasites—
and the ways in which animals influ­
ence and are influenced by their en­
vironment. Zoologists who specialize
in the study of certain classes of ani­
mals usually use titles which indicate
the kind of animal studied, such as
ornithologists (birds), herpetologists
(reptiles and amphibians), ichthy­
ologists (fishes), and mammalogists
Agronomists are concerned with
field-crop problems. They develop
new methods of growing crops for
improved quality, higher yield, and
more efficient production. They seek
new, hardier varieties of crops and
better methods of controlling disease,
pests, and weeds. Agronomists may
specialize in the problems of a geo­
graphical region, a particular crop,
or a technical area such as crop
breeding or production methods.
Anatomists study the form and
structure of animal bodies. Those
who specialize in the structure of cells
are known as cytologists, while those
who specialize in the structure of tis­
sues and organs are known as his­
tologists. Anatomists may examine
structures visible to the naked eye or
Digitized of FRASER
for microscopic size, or those of sub­


microscopic size, visible only through
the use of the electron microscope.
Many anatomists specialize in human
Biophysicists, who are trained in
both physics and biology, investigate
the physical principles of living cells
and organisms, and their responses
to physical forces, such as heat, light,
radiation, sound, and electricity.
They may use the electron micro­
scope to make tissues visible down to
their smallest units, or they may use
nuclear reactors to study the effect of
radiation on cells and tissues.
Embryologists study the develop­
ment of an organism from fertiliza­
tion of the egg until it becomes a
mature organism. They investigate
the physiological, biochemical, and
genetic mechanisms that control and
direct the processes of development,
how and why this control is accom­
plished, and the causes of abnormali­
ties in development.
Entomologists are concerned with
insects and their relation to plant
and animal life. They identify and
classify the enormous number of dif­
ferent kinds of insects. Some ento­
mologists seek methods of controlling
harmful insects that carry disease and
spoil food supplies. Others develop
ways to encourage the growth and
spread of beneficial insects, such as
Geneticists explore the origin,
transmission, and development of
hereditary characteristics. Geneticists
engaged primarily in improving plant
and animal breeds of economic im­
portance—such as cereal and tobacco
crops or dairy cattle and poultry—
may be classified as plant or animal
breeders, agronomists, or animal
science specialists. Theoretical genet­
icists search for the mechanisms that
determine inherited traits in plants,
animals, or humans.
Horticulturists work with orchard
and garden plants such as fruits, nuts,
vegetables, flowers and ornamental
plants, and other nursery stocks. They
develop new or improved plant vari­
eties and better methods of growing,
harvesting, storing, and transporting
horticultural crops. Horticulturists

usually specialize in either a specific
plant or a particular technical prob­
lem, such as plant breeding.
Husbandry specialists (animal)
conduct research on the breeding,
feeding, management, and diseases of
domestic farm animals to improve
the health and yield of these animals.
Nutritionists examine the processes
through which food is utilized; the
kinds and quantities of food ele­
ments—such as minerals, fats, sugars,
vitamins, and proteins—that are es­
sential to build and repair body tis­
sues and maintain health; and how
these food elements are transformed
into body substances and energy.
Nutritionists also analyze food to de­
termine its composition in terms of
essential ingredients or nutrients.
Pathologists study the nature,
cause, and development of disease,
degeneration, and abnormal func­
tioning in humans, in animals, or
in plants. Many specialize in the
study of the effects of diseases, para­
sites, and insect pests on cells, tissues,
and organs. Others investigate genetic
variations and other abnormal effects
caused by drugs. The term “patholo­
gist” is normally reserved for special­
ists in human pathology (medical
pathology). Specialists in animal
pathology are usually veterinarians.
(See statement on Veterinarians.)
Those who study plant diseases may
be called plant pathologists or phyto­
pathologists; their work is discussed
under the section on botanists.
Pharmacologists conduct tests to
determine the effects of drugs, gases,
poisons, dusts, and other substances
on the functioning of tissues and or­
gans, and correlate their findings with
medical data. They may develop new
or improved chemical compounds for
use in drugs and medicines.
Physiologists study the structure
and functions of cells, tissues, and or­
gans and the effects of environmental
factors on life processes. They may
specialize in cellular activities; or in
one of the organ systems, such as the
digestive, nervous, circulatory, or re­
productive systems. The knowledge
gained in such research often pro­
vides the basis for the work of many


other specialists, such as biochemists, nia, New York, Illinois, Maryland,
pathologists, pharmacologists, or and Pennsylvania. ’
Where Employed

About 155,000 persons were em­
ployed in early 1967 in the biological
sciences and the closely related fields
of medical and agricultural sciences;
an estimated 10 percent were women.
About half of the total were employed
by colleges and universities. Medical
schools and their associated hospitals
employed particularly large numbers
of biological scientists in the medical
field. State agricultural colleges and
agricultural experiment stations op­
erated by universities in cooperation
with Federal and State Governments
employed sizable numbers of agrono­
mists, horticulturists, animal hus­
bandry specialists, entomologists, and
other agriculture-related specialists.
The Federal Government in early
1967 employed about 29,000 biologi­
cal scientists. The Department of Ag­
riculture employed about two-thirds
of these. The Interior Department
employed nearly all the fish and wild­
life biologists in the Federal Govern­
ment. Other large numbers of biologi­
cal scientists were employed by the
Department of the Army and the Na­
tional Institutes of Health. State and
local governments, together, em­
ployed about 19,000 biologists—most­
ly fish and wildlife specialists, micro­
biologists, and entomologists—for
work in conservation, detection and
control of diseases, and plant
More than 33,000 biological scien­
tists worked for private industry in
early 1967. Among the major indus­
trial employers were manufacturers
of pharmaceuticals, industrial chem­
icals, and food products. Some bio­
logical scientists worked for nonprofit
organizations—mainly hospitals, clin­
ics, and privately financed research
organizations or foundations. A few
were self-employed.
Although biological scientists were
employed in all States, about a third
 five States—Califor­
were located in
262-057 0 — 68---------- 10

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Training, Other Qualifications, and

Young people seeking professional
careers in the biological sciences
should plan to obtain an advanced
degree—preferably a Ph.D.—in their
field of interest. The bachelor’s
degree with a major in one of the bio­
logical sciences in adequate prepara­
tion for many beginning jobs, but
promotional opportunities for those
without graduate training may be
limited to intermediate level positions.
The Ph. D. degree is generally re­
quired for higher level college teach­
ing positions and for independent re­
search. It is also necessary for an in­
creasing number of other positions
involving the administration of re­
search programs.
Biologists with master’s degrees can
qualify for most entry positions in
applied research and for some types
of positions in college teaching and
basic research.
New graduates with bachelor’s de­
grees can qualify for positions involv­
ing testing, production and operation
work, technical sales and service, and
duties connected with the enforce­
ment of government regulations. They
may also obtain positions as advanced
technicians, particularly in the area
of medical biology. Those who gradu­
ate near the top of their class can
qualify for some research positions,
but these positions are mostly of a
routine nature or are performed un­
der close supervision. Some graduates
with bachelor’s degrees take courses
in education and choose a career as a
high school teacher of biology rather
than one as a biological scientist. (See
statement on Secondary School
Training leading to a bachelor’s
degree with a major in biology or in
one of the biological or agricultural
specialities is offered by nearly all
colleges and universities. Courses dif­
fer greatly from one college to an­
other, and it is important that a

student find out which college pro­
gram best fits his interests and needs.
In general, liberal arts colleges and
universities emphasize training in the
basic biological sciences and in the
medical aspects of biological science.
State universities and land-grant col­
leges offer special advantages to those
interested in agricultural sciences, be­
cause their agricultural experiment
stations provide many opportunities
for practical training and research
Prospective biological scientists
should obtain the broadest under­
graduate training possible in all
branches of biology and in related
sciences, particularly organic and in­
organic chemistry, physics, and math­
ematics. Courses in statistics, calculus,
and biometrics are becoming increas­
ingly essential. Important also are
training and practice in laboratory
techniques, in the use of laboratory
equipment, and in fieldwork.
Advanced degrees in the biological
sciences are also conferred by a large
number of colleges and universities.
Requirements for advanced degrees
usually include fieldwork and labora­
tory research, as well as classroom
studies and preparation of a thesis.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for bi­
ological scientists with graduate
degrees are expected to be very good
throughout the remainder of the
1960’s and the 1970’s. Demand will
be strong for biological scientists with
doctorates to do research on problems
important to medicine and health.
Employment opportunities are also
likely to be favorable for persons with
bachelor’s degrees who graduate near
the top of their class. New graduates
holding the bachelor’s degree will also
find many opportunities to work as
research assistants or in technician
jobs while continuing their graduate
Employment in the biological
sciences is expected to grow very
rapidly during the remainder of the
1960’s and throughout the 1970’s. Al-

though most employment opportuni­
ties will result from growth, nearly
5,400 biological scientists will be
needed each year to replace those who
transfer to other fields, retire, or die.
One of the major factors which
will tend to increase employment of
biological scientists is the anticipated
continued growth in research and de­
velopment, particularly in medical
research programs sponsored by the
Federal Government and voluntary
health agencies, including those pro­
moting studies of heart disease, can­
cer, and birth defects. Research in
such relatively new areas as space
biology, radiation biology, environ­
mental biology, biological oceanog­
raphy, and hereditary and mental
regulation will also probably increase.
Industry also is expected to increase
its spending for research and develop­
ment in the biological sciences.
Furthermore, the stringent health
standards of the Federal regulatory
agencies are likely to result in a
heightened demand for additional
biological scientists in industry to per­
form research and testing before new
drugs, chemicals, and processing
methods are made available to the
Another factor which should in­
crease employment of biological
scientists is the substantially larger
college and university enrollments ex­
pected during the late 1960’s and
throughout the 1970’s. Although the
resulting rise in demand for teachers
will be to a large extent for Ph. D.’s,
there will be many openings for quali­
fied people holding master’s degrees.
Earnings and Working Conditions


begin at $9,221 or $10,927. Pharma­
cologists had somewhat higher start­
ing salaries than other biological
Biological scientists with the Ph. D.
degree employed as college and uni­
versity teachers typically received
starting salaries between $6,500 and
$8,000 a year in 1966, according to
the limited information available.
(For further information, see state­
ment on College and University
Teachers.) Biologists in educational
institutions sometimes supplement
their regular salaries with income
from writing, consulting, and special
research projects.
The average (median) annual
salary for biological scientists was
$12,000 in 1966, according to the Na­
tional Science Foundation’s National
Register of Scientific and Technical
Personnel; only 10 percent earned less
than $7,400 a year, and about 10 per­
cent earned $21,000 or more. In gen­
eral, biological scientists in private in­
dustry tend to have higher salaries
than those in either colleges and uni­
versities or Government employment.
According to the Register, agricul­
tural scientists generally earn some­
what lower salaries than other biologi­
cal scientists except in educational
W here To G o for More Inform ation

American Institute of Biological
3900 Wisconsin Ave. NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20016.
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil
Service Examiners for Washing­
ton, D.C.
1900 E St. NW., Washington, D.C.

In the Federal Government in
early 1967, biological scientists with
the bachelor’s degree could begin at
$5,331 or $6,451 a year, depending
Earth Sciences
on their college records. Beginning
biological scientists with the
bachelor’s degree and some graduate
study could start at $6,451, $7,696, or
The earth sciences are concerned
$9,221, depending upon academic with the history, composition, and
records and previous experience. characteristics of the earth’s land,
Those with the Ph. D. degree could water, interior, atmosphere, and its

environment in space. A large group
of the scientists in this field explore
for new sources of mineral fuels and
ores. Some scientists perform basic
research to increase scientific knowl­
edge. Others are involved mainly with
applied research, using the knowledge
gained from basic research to solve
practical problems. Meteorologists,
for example, apply scientific knowl­
edge of the atmosphere to forecast
weather conditions for specific lo­
calities and times. Some earth sci­
entists teach in colleges and univer­
sities. They may also administer
scientific programs and operations.
Many earth scientists specialize in
one particular branch of their broad
occupational field. Geophysicists, for
example, may be specialists in hy­
drology, seismology, or physical
oceanography. This chapter discusses
the specialties and the employment
outlook for the four major earth
science occupations—geologist, geo­
physicist, meteorologist, and ocean­

(D.O.T. 024.081)
Nature of Work

Geologists study the structure,
composition, and history of the
earth’s crust. Many geologists spend
a large amount of their time in field
work. They study rock cores and cut­
tings from deep holes drilled into the
earth and examine rocks, minerals,
and fossils found at or near the sur­
face of the earth. Geologists also
spend considerable time in labora­
tories, where they study geological
specimens, analyze geological mate­
rials under controlled temperature
and pressure, and do other research
on geological processes. To present
the results of their field and labora­
tory investigations, geologists prepare
reports, articles, and maps of surface
and subsurface geological phenom­
ena. In their work, geologists use a
variety of complex instruments, such

tion. State agencies also employed
geologists, some of whom worked on
surveys conducted in cooperation
with the U.S. Geological Survey. Al­
though a few positions were in for­
eign countries, the majority of Fed­
eral jobs were in the United States.
Colleges and universities employed
several thousand geologists. A few
worked for nonprofit research insti­
tutions and museums.


as the X-ray diffractometer, which
determines the structure of minerals,
and the petrographic microscope,
which permits close study of how
rocks have been formed and modified
by earth processes.
Some geologists administer re­
search and exploration programs.
Others teach in colleges and univer­
sities, where they may also work on
research projects.
Geologists usually specialize in one
branch of the science. Economic geol­
ogists find and supervise the develop­
ment of mineral and fuel resources.
Petroleum geologists specialize in the
discovery and recovery of oil and nat­
ural gas. Engineering geologists apply
geological knowledge to engineering
problems in the construction of roads,
airfields, tunnels, dams, harbors, and
other large structures. Stratigraphers
study the distribution and relative
arrangement of sedimentary rock
layers by analyzing their fossil and
mineral content. Sedimentologists de­
termine the processes and products
involved in the formation of sedimen­
tary rocks, and paleontologists iden­
tify, classify, and determine the
significance of fossils found within
the sediments. Petrologists classify
and determine the origins of rock
masses. Mineralogists examine, ana­
lyze, and classify minerals and
precious stones according to their
composition and structure. Geomor­
phologists study the form of the
earth’s surface and the forces, such
as erosion and glaciation, which
change it.
Increasing numbers of geologists
specialize in new fields that require a
detailed knowledge of both geology
and one or more other sciences.
Among these specialists are geo­
chemists, who study the chemical
composition of and the changes in
minerals and rocks, and astrogeologists, who use knowledge of the
earth’s geology in studies of surface
conditions on the moon and the
planets. Geological oceanographers
study the sedimentary and other rocks
on the ocean floor and continental
shelf. (See statement on Ocean­
ographers elsewhere in this chapter.)

Training, Other Qualifications, and

Geologists use plane table and alidade in
geologic mapping.

Where Employed

About 15,000 geologists were em­
ployed in the United States in early
1967; only about 3 percent were
women. The majority of all geologists
worked for private industry. Petro­
leum and natural gas producers em­
ployed most of this group of scien­
tists, chiefly in the States of Texas,
California, Louisiana, Colorado, and
Oklahoma. Some employees of
American petroleum companies
worked in foreign countries. Geolo­
gists also were employed by companies
engaged in mining. Other geologists
provided consulting services on a fee
or contract basis to organizations in
such fields as construction and public
Approximately 2,000 geologists
were employed by the Federal Gov­
ernment, mostly by the U.S. Geologi­
cal Survey. Other Federal agencies
employing geologists included the
Army Corps of Engineers, the Naval
Oceanographic Office, the Soil Con­
servation Service, the Bureau of
Mines, and the Bureau of Reclama­

Young people seeking professional
careers in geology should plan to earn
an advanced degree. The master’s de­
gree is required for beginning re­
search and teaching positions and for
many positions in exploration. For
advancement in college teaching as
well as for high-level research and
administrative posts, the Ph. D. de­
gree is usually required. The bach­
elor’s degree is considered adequate
training for only a few entry jobs, pri­
marily in exploration work.
About 360 colleges and universi­
ties offer the bachelor’s degree in
geology. In the typical undergraduate
curriculum, students devote about a
fourth of their time to geology courses,
such as historical geology, structural
geology, mineralogy, petrology, and
invertebrate paleontology. About an­
other third of the work is in mathe­
matics, the related natural sciences—
such as physics, geophysics, chemistry,
and biology—and in engineering; the
remainder is in general academic
More than 160 colleges and uni­
versities award advanced degrees in
geology. The student seeking a grad­
uate degree in geology takes advanced
courses in geology, with emphasis on
the student’s area of specialization.
The student planning a career in
exploration geology should like out­
door activities and have the physical
stamina for geological fieldwork,
which frequently involves camping
out. However, this is not a require­
ment, since an increasing amount of
the work, formerly done in the field,

is now accomplished by aerial pho­ have had additional training in edu­ or $7,696 and those with the Ph. D.
tography. In addition, a growing cational methods, should have very degree, at $9,221 or $10,927.
number of specialties are laboratory- good opportunities in this area.
In general, salaries of geologists are
Replacement needs are expected usually somewhat higher in industry
to be the chief source of openings than in Government and educational
over the next few years. More than institutions. However, teachers often
Employment Outlook
500 new geologists will be required supplement their regular salaries with
each year to replace those who are income from research, consulting, or
Employment opportunities for ge­ promoted to managerial positions or writing activities. Extra allowances
ologists with advanced degrees are who transfer to other fields, retire, or are generally paid geologists for work
expected to be favorable through the die. ~
outside the United States.
remainder of the 1960’s and through­ As world population expands and
The work of geologists is often ac­
out the 1970’s. However, those with nations become more industrialized, tive and sometimes strenuous. Be­
the bachelor’s degree, including those
cause much of their work is outdoors,
who rank high in their class, will the demand for will rise, andminerals, geologists may be exposed to all kinds
and fresh water
probably face competition for entry ing numbers of geologists will be of weather. Many geologists travel
positions, depending largely on the required to locate these resources. Ge­ a great deal and may do fieldwork
hiring practices of petroleum compa­ ologists will be needed to devise tech­ away from home for long periods.
nies. A number of new graduates with niques for exploring deeper within Their hours of work are often un­
the bachelor’s degree may find it nec­
land and certain because their field activities
essary to enter semiprofessional posi­ the earth’ssea, and both on with engi­ are affected by weather and travel.
under the
to work
tions, such as technician or surveyor. neers to develop more efficient meth­
Some may take training to qualify as
science teachers in secondary schools, ods of recovering natural resources. Where To Go for More Information
Space-age activities
or have to seek other work outside geologists to analyzewill require some
data on the sur­ American Geological Institute,
the field of geology.
face conditions of the moon and the
1444 N St. NW., Washington, D.C.
Private industry is expected to in­ planets.
crease its employment of geologists
Although fieldwork positions us­
somewhat during the next few years. ually are considered unsuitable or un­
Domestic petroleum exploration ac­ attractive to them, most well-qualified
tivities, which declined in recent women with advanced degrees in ge­
years, are expected to expand in the ology will be able to find teaching,
(D.O.T. 024.081)
late 1960’s and early 1970’s. The na­ laboratory, or office positions in this
ture of exploration activities is such profession.
Nature of Work
that the need for geologists may vary
widely from one year to the next, and
Geophysics is an overall term cover­
the shortrun demand for geologists Earnings and Working Conditions
ing a number of sciences concerned
occasionally exceeds the number of
persons available for these activities.
Annual starting salaries for new ge­ with the composition and physical as­
Geologists also will be needed to help ology graduates with bachelor’s de­ pects of the earth—its size and shape,
solve problems related to construction, grees averaged between $7,000 and interior, surface, atmosphere, the land
water supply, and improved methods $7,300 in private industry in 1966, and bodies of water on its surface and
for locating mineral resources.
according to the limited information underground, and the environment
Federal agency demand for geol­ available. New graduates with mas­ of the earth in space. Geophysicists
ogists is expected to grow moderately, ter’s degrees usually started at be­ study the earth’s physical characteris­
primarily in the U.S. Geological Sur­ tween $1,000 and $1,500 more a year tics, such as its electric, magnetic, and
vey. Employment of geologists by col­ than those with the bachelor’s de­ gravitational fields; the earth’s in­
leges and universities will probably gree. Starting salaries for those with terior heat flow and vibrations; and
rise slightly; the need will be mainly doctor’s degrees ranged from $10,000 solar radiation. To conduct their in­
vestigations, geophysicists apply the
for those with Ph. D. degrees who to $12,000 a year.
principles and techniques of physics,
are capable of performing high-level
In the Federal Government, new geology, meteorology, oceanography,
The demand for earth science graduates with bachelor’s degrees geodesy, mathematics, chemistry, and
teachers in secondary schools is ex­ could begin at either $5,683 or $6,877 engineering. They use many instru­
pected to increase very rapidly in the a year in early 1967, depending on ments, including highly complex
next decade. Geology graduates with their college records. Those with precision ones such as the seismo­

only the bachelor’s degree, but who master’s degrees could start at $6,877 graph, which measures and records



the transmission time and magnitude
of vibrations through the earth; the
magnetometer, which measures varia­
tions in the earth’s magnetic field;
and the gravimeter, which measures
minute variations in gravitational
Most exploration geophysicists
search for oil and mineral deposits.
Others conduct research, usually to
develop new or improved techniques
and instruments for prospecting.
Hydrologists study the occurrence,
circulation, distribution, and physical
properties of surface and under­
ground waters in the land areas of the
earth. Some hydrologists are con­
cerned with water supplies, irrigation,
flood control, and soil erosion. Seis­
mologists study the structure of the
earth’s interior and the vibrations of
the earth caused by earthquakes or
manmade explosions. They may ex­
plore for oil and minerals, provide in­
formation for use in designing
bridges, dams, and buildings in earth­
quake regions, or study the problems
involved in detecting underground
nuclear explosions. Geodesists meas­
ure the size and shape of the earth, de­
termine the positions and elevations
of points on or near the earth’s sur­
face, and measure the intensity and
direction of the force of gravity. They
also help track satellites orbiting in
outer space. Geomagneticians are
concerned with the variations in the
earth’s magnetic field and with many
aspects of space science. Tectonophysicists study the structure of
mountains and ocean basins, the
properties of materials forming the
earth’s crust, and the physical forces
that cause movements and changes
in it.
Oceanographers and meteorolo­
gists, sometimes classified as geophysi­
cal scientists, are discussed separately
in this chapter, as is the closely relat­
ed occupation of geologist.

Geophysicist "patches” 32-inch globe to locate earthquake epicenter.

early 1967. Private industry employed
a majority of all geophysicists, chiefly
in the petroleum and natural gas in­
dustry. Other geophysicists were em­
ployed by mining companies, explo­
ration and consulting firms, and
research institutions. A few were in
business for themselves as consultants
and provide services on a fee or con­
tract basis to companies and individu­
als engaged in prospecting or other
activities utilizing geophysical tech­
Geophysicists in private industry
were employed mainly in the south­
western and western sections of the
United States, where most of the
country’s large oil* and natural gas
fields and mineral deposits are lo­
cated. Some geophysicists, employed
by American firms, are assigned to
work in foreign countries for varying
periods of time.
Where Employed
Federal Government agencies also
About 5,000 geophysicists were employed significant numbers of geo­
employed in the United States in physicists—mainly the U.S. Coast

and Geodetic Survey and the Insti­
tute for Earth Sciences of the Envi­
ronmental Science Services Adminis­
tration; the U.S. Geological Survey;
the Army Map Service; and the Na­
val Oceanographic Office. Colleges
and universities, State governments,
and nonprofit research institutions
employed small numbers of geo­
Training, Other Qualifications, and

A bachelor’s degree with a major
in geophysics or in one of the geo­
physical specialities qualifies young
persons for many beginning jobs in
geophysics. A bachelor’s degree in a
related science or in engineering, with
courses in geophysics, physics, geol­
ogy, mathematics, chemistry, and
engineering, is also adequate prepara­
tion for many beginning jobs, espe­
cially in geophysical exploration.

For geophysical specialties other
than exploration, and for the more
responsible positions in exploration
work, graduate education in geo­
physics or in a related physical science
is usually required. A doctor’s degree
with a major in geophysics, or in a
related science with advanced courses
in geophysics, is generally required
for teaching careers. The Ph. D. de­
gree is also frequently required for
positions involving fundamental re­
search and for advancement in most
types of geophysical work.
The bachelor’s degree in geo­
physics was offered by only about 20
colleges and universities in 1966.
These undergraduate programs pro­
vide training chiefly in exploration
geophysics. Other curriculums that
offer the required training for begin­
ning jobs as geophysicists include
geophysical technology, geophysical
engineering, engineering geology,
petroleum geology, and geodesy.
The master’s and Ph. D. degrees
in geophysics are granted by only a
few colleges and universities. For ad­
mission to a graduate program, a
bachelor’s degree with a good back­
ground in geology, mathematics,
physics, or engineering, or a combina­
tion of these subjects is the usual re­
quirement. In general, the graduate
student should attend a school in
which he can take advanced courses
and carry out research projects in the
aspect of geophysical science in which
he has a special interest.
Beginning geophysicists with only
the bachelor’s degree are usually
given on-the-job training in the ap­
plication of geophysical principles to
their employers’ projects. If a new
employee has not taken the courses
in geophysics needed for his job, he
is taught geophysical methods and
techniques on the job.
Federal Government agencies also
have training programs in which a
few geophysicists are sent each year
to universities for graduate training.
Some Federal Government agencies
provide a few summer jobs for prom­
ising undergraduates and make per­
manent positions available to them
after graduation.


The prospective geophysicist should
be energetic and in excellent health,
since geophysicists often have to work
outdoors under somewhat rugged
conditions. A willingness to travel is
also important, since geophysicists
may be required to move from place
to place in the course of their
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for the
few new graduates with degrees in
geophysics are expected to be favor­
able through the 1970’s. Opportuni­
ties will be best for those with the
master’s or doctor’s degree. There
should also be good opportuni­
ties in geophysical work for wellqualified people with degrees in other
sciences if they have had some formal
training in geophysics.
The demand for geophysicists is
expected to grow relatively slowly
during the remainder of the 1960’s
and throughout the 1970’s. Federal
Government agencies will most likely
need additional geophysicists for new
or expanded geophysical programs.
The petroleum and mining industries
also will need additional geophysicists
for exploration work. However, ex­
ploration for oil and mineral deposits
is not expected to rise significantly in
the next few years. In colleges and
universities, employment of teachers
of the geophysical sciences will proba­
bly show an increase because of the
anticipated rise in the number of stu­
dents majoring in the geophysical sci­
ences. Some geophysicists will also be
needed each year to replace those who
leave the profession, retire, or die.
Although the number of job open­
ings for geophysicists is not expected
to be large in any one year, the num­
ber of new graduates with degrees in
the science is also expected to be small
compared with graduates in other
academic fields. As in past years, the
number of geophysics graduates who
are seeking work as geophysicists will
probably be insufficient to meet em­
ployers’ needs, and well-trained per­
sons with degrees in related sciences

and in engineering will probably con­
tinue to be hired for geophysical
Over the long run, further growth
in the profession is expected. There
will be increasing use of petroleum
and mineral products by a growing
population. As natural resources in
the more easily accessible locations
become depleted, additional explora­
tion geophysicists will be needed by
petroleum and mining companies to
find the more concealed sites of fuels
and minerals. In addition, the grow­
ing importance of basic research in
the geophysical sciences, as well as
the continuing need to develop new
geophysical techniques and instru­
ments, will create a demand for per­
sonnel with advanced training in
hydrology, seismology, geodesy, and
other geophysical specialties. In Fed­
eral Government agencies, additional
geophysicists will probably be needed
to study the problems of the Nation’s
water supplies and mineral resources;
work on flood control; do research in
radioactivity and cosmic and solar
radiation; and explore the outer at­
mosphere and space, using such
vehicles as sounding rockets and arti­
ficial satellites.
Opportunities for women have
been and will continue to be limited,
mainly because of the strenuous na­
ture of much of the work. However,
a small number of well-qualified
women will be able to find positions
in offices and laboratories or as
teachers in colleges and universities.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In private industry in 1966, new
graduates with bachelor’s degrees typ­
ically received starting salaries be­
tween $7,000 and $8,000 a year,
according to the limited information
available. New graduates with mas­
ter’s degrees received between $1,000
and $1,500 more than those with the
bachelor’s degree. Those with doctor’s
degrees received salaries of between
$10,000 and $12,000, depending upon
individual qualifications. In industry,
geophysical scientists working outside


the United States usually receive
bonuses and allowances.
In the Federal Government in early
1967, graduates with bachelor’s de­
grees and no experience could enter
most types of geophysical work at
either $6,387 or $7,729 a year, de­
pending upon their college records.
Those who had completed all require­
ments for the master’s degree could
start at $7,729 or $9,001; those with
the Ph. D. degree could start at
$10,481 or $11,306. In the Federal
Government as in industry, geophys­
icists stationed outside the United
States are paid an additional amount.
In educational institutions, starting
salaries are generally lower than in
private industry or in the Federal
Government. University teachers,
however, may supplement their in­
come by doing consulting work, writ­
ing for scientific publications, or by
conducting research.
The work of geophysicists is often
active and sometimes strenuous. Ex­
ploration geophysicists are subject to
reassignment in various locations as
exploration activities shift. Their
working hours may be irregular and
are frequently determined by the re­
quirements of field activities.

ture, transportation, communications,
health, defense, and business.
Meteorologists usually specialize in
one branch of the science. Weather
forecasters, known professionally as
synoptic meteorologists, are the larg­
est group of specialists. They inter­
pret current weather information
(such as air pressure, temperature,
humidity, wind velocity) reported by
observers in many parts of the world
and by weather satellites to make
short- and long-range forecasts for
specific regions. Climatologists an­
alyze past records on wind, rainfall,
sunshine, temperature, and other
weather data for a specific area to
determine the general pattern of
weather which makes up the area’s
climate. Dynamic meteorologists in­
vestigate the physical laws governing

atmospheric motions. Physical mete­
orologists study the physical nature of
the atmosphere, including its chemi­
cal composition and electrical, acous­
tical, and optical properties, the effect
of the atmosphere on the transmis­
sion of light, sound, and radio waves,
and the factors affecting the forma­
tion of clouds, precipitation, and
other weather phenomena. Meteoro­
logical instrumentation specialists de­
velop the devices that measure, re­
cord, and evaluate data on atmos­
pheric processes. Specialists in applied
meteorology, sometimes called indus­
trial meteorologists, study the rela­
tionship between weather and specific
human activities, biological processes,
and agricultural and industrial opera­
tions. For example, they make
weather forecasts for individual com-

Where To Go for More Information

American Geophysical Union,
1145 19th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.
Society of Exploration Geophysicists,
Shell Building, Tulsa, Okla. 74119.

(D.O.T. 025.088)
Nature of Work

Meteorology is the study of atmos­
pheric phenomena—not just of the
earth, but of all celestial bodies. Mete­
orologists attempt to describe and un­
derstand the atmosphere’s ingredi­
ents, motions, processes, and influ­
ences. Their knowledge helps solve
many for FRASERproblems in agricul­

Meteorologists prepare 5-day forecast of w eather conditions.

panies, attempt to induce rain or snow
in a given area, and work on such
problems as smoke control and air
pollution abatement.
Research is the major activity of a
growing number of meteorologists.
These workers investigate subjects
such as atmospheric electricity (for
example, lightning), cloud and pre­
cipitation mechanisms, hurricane dy­
namics, and the best and quickest
means of using the vast amount of
weather data collected from weather
satellites. They may also conduct re­
search on severe weather phenomena
(such as tornadoes), ways to modify
weather, weather conditions affecting
the behavior of forest fires, and other
problems. In both weather forecasting
and research, meteorologists use high­
speed electronic computing machines
to process large amounts of data.
A number of meteorologists teach
or do research—frequently combining
the two activities—in universities or
colleges. In colleges without separate
departments of meteorology, they
may teach geography, mathematics,
physics, chemistry, or geology, as well
as meteorology.
Where Employed

About 3,500 civilian meteorologists
were employed in the United States
in early 1967; only about 2 percent
were women. The Environmental
Science Services Administration
(ESSA), which includes the Weather
Bureau, employed by far the largest
number of civilian meteorologists—
nearly 2,000—at 300 stations in all
parts of the United States, the polar
regions, Puerto Rico, Wake Island,
and other Pacific area sites. A few
worked for other Federal Govern­
ment agencies. The Armed Forces
employed about 300 civilian profes­
sional meteorologists, chiefly in re­
search and development work.
More than 600 meteorologists
worked for private industry. Com­
mercial airlines employed about half
of these to forecast weather along
flight routes and to brief pilots on at­
mospheric conditions. Others worked


for private weather consulting firms,
which provided special weather in­
formation for a fee, and for com­
panies that designed and manufac­
tured meteorological instruments. A
few worked for large firms in aero­
space, insurance, utilities, and other
Colleges and universities employed
more than 500 meteorologists in
teaching and research activities. Still
others worked for State and local
governments and for nonprofit or­
In addition to these civilian me­
teorologists, nearly 3,500 members of
the Armed Forces were engaged in
meteorological work in early 1967.
Of these, approximately 3,000 were
on active duty in the Air Force.
Armed Forces meteorological per­
sonnel usually prepare the weather
forecasts needed to plan military op­
erations; some also do research.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

A bachelor’s degree with a major
in meteorology is the usual minimum
educational requirement for begin­
ning meteorologists in weather fore­
casting. However, a bachelor’s degree
in a related science or in engineering
is acceptable for many positions, pro­
vided the applicant has credit for
courses in meteorology. For example,
the Federal Government’s minimum
requirement for beginning positions
is a bachelor’s degree with at least
20 semester hours of study in meteor­
ology and with additional training in
physics and mathematics.
For research and teaching po­
sitions and for many top-level
positions in other meteorological ac­
tivities, an advanced degree is es­
sential, preferably in meteorology,
although persons with graduate de­
grees in other sciences may also
qualify if they have taken advanced
meteorology, physics, mathematics,
and chemistry.
About 35 colleges and universities
in 1966 offered degree-credit pro­
grams in meteorology or a closely re­

lated field. Many other institutions
offered courses in meteorology.
Meteorology training is also given
by the Armed Forces. For example,
each year the U.S. Air Force selects
about 200 new college graduates who
have received Air Force commissions
and sends them to civilian universities
for special 9- to 12-month programs
in meteorology. Graduates of these
programs are then assigned to me­
teorological work for the Air Force.
The Armed Forces also send a
number of military meteorologists to
universities or to military training
centers for advanced training. Exservicemen with military training
and experience as meteorologists are
frequently highly qualified for civil­
ian meteorologist positions, not only
with the Armed Forces but for po­
sitions with other employers as well.
The ESSA has an in-service train­
ing program under which some of its
meteorologists are attending college
for advanced or specialized training.
Some college students preparing for
careers in meteorology may obtain
summer jobs with this agency. Pro­
motions for regular full-time em­
ployees are made according to U.S.
Civil Service Commission regula­
tions. (See chapter on O ccupations
in Government.)
Airline meteorologists have some­
what limited opportunities for ad­
vancement. However, after con­
siderable work experience, they may
advance to flight dispatcher, or to
various supervisory or administrative
positions. A few well-trained meteor­
ologists with a background in science,
engineering, and business adminis­
tration may establish their own
weather consulting services.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for me­
teorologists are expected to be good
through the 1970’s. Meteorologists
with advanced degrees will be in
special demand to conduct research,
teach in colleges and universities, and
engage in management and consult­
ing work. The advent of missiles, su­



personic aircraft, manned spacecraft,
and weather satellites has greatly
expanded the boundaries of meteor­
ology and opened new fields of
activity. Opportunities to study wea­
ther on a global scale will be par­
ticularly good for meteorologists who
can process, analyze, and interpret
information obtained by spacecraft
and weather satellites. Growth will
also stem from the demand for me­
teorologists to develop and improve
instruments, such as radar a'nd radio
probes, high altitude balloons, re­
search rockets, satellites, and elec­
tronic computers used for collecting
and processing weather data. In ad­
dition, there will be a continuing de­
mand for meteorologists to work in
existing programs, such as weather
measurements and forecasts, severe
storm research, storm and flood fore­
casts, turbulence research, and air
pollution research. Replacement of
meteorologists who retire or leave the
profession will also provide some op­
As more jet planes are placed in
service and the number of aircraft
flights increase, more meteorologists
will be needed to assist in determin­
ing the safest and smoothest flight
routes. Employment opportunities for
meteorologists with other private
companies and weather consulting
services are also expected to increase
somewhat, as the value of weather
information receives further recog­
nition. This recognition also may
create opportunities in research po­
sitions with private research organi­
zations and colleges and universities.
The number of teaching positions for
meteorologists should also rise, pri­
marily because of increases in total
college enrollments and increases in
departments awarding degrees in
meteorology. Opportunities for civil­
ian meteorologists in the Armed
Forces are not expected to increase
significantly through the 1970’s, al­
though there will probably be a grow­
ing need for military meteorologists
to replace those reaching retirement


Since meteorology is a relatively
small profession, job openings will not
be numerous in any year. On the
other hand, qualified applicants for
jobs as meteorologists probably will
continue to be small. Furthermore,
only a few graduates with majors in
other fields and with some training
in meteorology enter the profession
because of opportunities in other sci­
entific fields. In addition, most mili­
tary meteorological personnel who
leave the Armed Forces do not take
positions as civilian meteorologists.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In early 1967, meteorologists with
the bachelor’s degree and no experi­
ence could start in Federal Govern­
ment service at $6,387 or $7,729 a
year depending on their college rec­
ords. Meteorologists who had com­
pleted all requirements for the mas­
ter’s degree could start at $7,729 or
$9,001; those with the Ph.D. degree
could begin at $10,481 or $11,306.
Workers stationed outside the United
States were paid an additional
amount. Employee benefits for Fed­
eral Government meteorologists are
the same as for other civil service
workers. (See chapter on Occupa­
tions in Government.)
Airline meteorologists received a
starting salary of approxim ately
$8,000 a year in early 1967, according
to the Air Transport Association.
Meteorologists generally receive the
same benefits as other airline em­
ployees. (See chapter on Occupations
in Civil Aviation.)
According to the National Science
Foundation’s National Register of
Scientific and Technical Personnel,
the average (median) annual salary
of meteorologists in 1966 was $11,700.
Only 10 percent of the meteorologists
earned less than $8,200 and about 10
percent earned more than $18,000.
Jobs in weather stations, which are
operated on a 24-hour, 7-day week
basis, often involve nightwork and
rotating shifts. Most stations are at
airports or at places in or near cities;
some are in isolated and remote areas.

Where To Go for More Information

General information on the field of
meteorology—including career op­
portunities, earnings, professional
training—may be obtained from:
American Meteorological Society,
45 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. 02108.
American Geophysical Union,
1145 19th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.

Information on employment oppor­
tunities with the U.S. Weather Bu­
reau and on its student-assistance
program may be obtained from:
Environmental Science Services Ad­
Washington Science Center, Rock­
ville, Md. 20852.

Information on the Air Force me­
teorological training programs may
be obtained from the nearest USAF
recruiting office or from:
Commander, USAF Recruiting Serv­
Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45899.

(D.O.T. 024.081 and 041.081)
Nature of Work

The ocean, which covers more
than two-thirds of the earth’s sur­
face, provides valuable foods and
minerals, influences the weather,
serves as a “highway” for transpor­
tation, and offers many varieties of
recreation. Oceanographers study the
ocean—its characteristics, move­
ments, physical properties, and plant
and animal life. The results of their
studies not only extend basic scientific
knowledge, but contribute to the de­
velopment of practical methods for
use in such operations as forecasting
weather, improving fisheries, mining
ocean resources, and defending the
Oceanographers plan extensive
tests and observational programs and
conduct detailed surveys and experi­
ments to obtain information about
the ocean. They may collect and
study data on the ocean’s tides, cur-



Oceanographers examine contents of plankton

Most oceanographers are specialists
in one of the branches of the profes­
sion. Biological oceanographers (ma­
rine biologists) study the ocean’s
plant and animal life, and the en­
vironmental conditions affecting
them. Physical oceanographers (phys­
icists and geophysicists) study the
physical properties of the ocean, such
as its density, temperature, and ability
to transmit light and sound; the
movements of the sea; and the re­
lationship between the sea and the
atmosphere. Geological oceanog­
raphers (marine geologists) study the
topographic features, rocks, and sedi­
ments of the ocean floor. Chemical
oceanographers investigate the chem­
ical composition of ocean water and
sediments, and chemical reactions
that take place in the sea. Marine
meteorologists study the interaction
of the atmosphere and the ocean, and
the processes by which weather over
the ocean is generated. Oceano­
graphic engineers and electronic spe­
cialists design and build the systems,
devices, and instruments used in
oceanographic research and oper­
About 3 out of every 4 oceanog­
raphers are engaged primarily in per­
form ing or adm inistering research
and development activities. A num­
ber of oceanographers teach in col­
leges and universities; a few are
engaged in technical writing, consult­
ing, and in the administration of
activities other than research.
Most oceanographers spend at least
part of their time aboard oceano­
graphic ships at sea. Such voyages
may last from a few days to several
months. A few oceanographers in sur­
vey positions spend nearly all their
time aboard ship. On the other hand,
some oceanographers never go to sea,
but analyze data collected by other
scientists or pursue mathematical or
theoretical studies ashore.

rents, and waves; its temperature,
density, and acoustical properties; its
sediments; its subbottom; its shape;
its interaction with the atmosphere;
and marine plants and animals. They
analyze the samples, specimens, and
data collected, often using electronic
computers. To present the results of
their studies, they prepare maps and
charts, tabulations, reports, and man­
uals, and write papers for scientific
In developing and carrying out
tests and observational programs,
oceanographers use the principles and
techniques of the natural sciences,
mathematics, and engineering. They
use a variety of special instruments
and devices that measure the earth’s
magnetic and gravity fields, the
speed of sound traveling through
water, the oceans’ depths, the flow of
heat from the earth’s interior, and
the temperature and chemical com­
position of the water. Specially de­
veloped cameras with strong lights
enable oceanographers to photo­
graph marine organisms and the
ocean floor; new research vehicles
transport marine scientists to the floor
Where Employed
of the sea. When their work requires
Oceanography is one of the small­
new oceanographic instruments or
analytical techniques, they usually est of science fields; the total number

develop them.
of oceanographers and closely related

scientists in the United States was
estimated to be approximately 3,000
in early 1967. About three-fourths of
these were employed by colleges and
universities, research laboratories,
and the Federal Government. Those
Federal agencies employing substan­
tial numbers of oceanographers were
the Naval Oceanographic Office, De­
partment of the Navy; the Bureau of
Commercial Fisheries, Department
of the Interior; and the Institute for
Oceanography, and the U.S. Coast
and Geodetic Survey of the Environ­
mental Science Services Administra­
tion, Department of Commerce.
There also were a few positions in
oceanography in other Government
A growing number of oceanog­
raphers worked in private industry
for consulting or other firms that
design and develop instruments and
vehicles for oceanographic research.
A few worked for fishery laboratories
of State and local governments.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

The minimum educational re­
quirement for beginning professional
positions in oceanography is the
bachelor’s degree with a major in
oceanography, biology, a geo-science,
one of the other basic sciences, math­
ematics, or engineering. For profes­
sional positions in research and teach­
ing and for advancement to highlevel positions in most types of work,
graduate training in oceanography or
one of the basic sciences is usually
Undergraduate training in ocean­
ography and marine science was of­
fered by only a few colleges and uni­
versities in 1966, and only about five
institutions offered the bachelor’s
degree with a major in oceanography.
However, since oceanography is an
interdisciplinary field, training in the
related basic sciences, when coupled
with a strong interest in oceanog­
raphy, is adequate preparation for


most beginning positions in the field,
or for entry into graduate school.
Important undergraduate courses
for the prospective oceanographer
are in the fields of mathematics,
physics, chemistry, geophysics, geol­
ogy, meteorology, and biology. In
general, the student should specialize
in the particular science field which
is closest to his area of interest in
oceanography. For example, students
interested in chemical oceanography
should obtain a degree in chemistry.
In 1966, about 15 colleges and uni­
versities offered advanced degrees in
oceanography, and about 30 other
institutions offered advanced courses
in the marine sciences or oceano­
graphic engineering. The academic
work of the graduate student in
oceanography consists primarily of
extensive training in a basic science
combined with further training in
oceanography. The graduate student
usually spends part of his time aboard
ship—doing oceanographic research
for his dissertation, and at the same
time acquiring familiarity with the
sea and the techniques used to obtain
oceanographic information.
The beginning oceanographer with
the bachelor’s degree usually starts as
a research or laboratory assistant, or
in a position involving routine data
collection, analysis, or computation.
Most new oceanographers receive
on-the-job training related to the spe­
cific work at hand. The nature and
extent of the training given vary with
the background and needs of the in­
dividual. Thus, the new graduate
who has a degree in a basic science
rather than in oceanography usually
can be provided enough understand­
ing of oceanographic principles to
enable him to perform adequately in
this field.
Beginning oceanographers with ad­
vanced degrees usually can qualify
for research and teaching positions.
Experienced oceanographers may be
selected for administrative positions,
in which they may supervise a re­
search laboratory or direct specific
survey or research projects.

Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities in
oceanography are expected to be good
through the 1970’s. Those with ad­
vanced degrees will have the best op­
portunities for employment. Welltrained persons with bachelor’s
degrees in related sciences will find
opportunities mainly as research as­
sistants in routine analytical positions.
The outlook is for rapid growth of
this small profession, both during the
late 1960’s and through the 1970’s.
Growing recognition of the impor­
tance of the oceans to the Nation’s
welfare and security has heightened
interest in oceanography and has
opened new fields for specialists. In
the years ahead, oceanographers will
be needed for research in such areas
as underwater acoustics, surface and
subsurface ocean currents, and ocean
floor topography, all of which are
important in improving the Nation’s
defense against submarines and sur­
face vessels. There also will be a de­
mand for oceanographers to supply
weather and iceberg forecasts; to
study air-sea interaction in order to
improve long-range weather fore­
casts; to solve sea mining problems;
and to predict, control, and prevent
pollution and damage caused by
waves and tides. Other oceanogra­
phers will be needed to improve meth­
ods of deriving foods from the oceans,
to manage fisheries, and to develop
economical ways to harness the ocean
for energy and to increase the supply
of fresh water.
The demand for oceanographers
qualified to teach in colleges and uni­
versities also is expected to expand.
As interest in ooeanography grows
and more courses in oceanography
are offered, more teachers in the sci­
ence will be needed.
Replacement of oceanographers
who transfer to other fields, retire, or
die will also provide some opportuni­
Since oceanography is a relatively
small profession, job openings will
not be numerous in any one year. On
the other hand, the number of new

graduates with degrees in this sci­
ence is extremely small and is ex­
pected to remain so. Thus, new ocean­
ography graduates should continue to
have excellent opportunities.
Recent improvements in the
facilities and living quarters aboard
oceanographic ships will expand the
opportunities for women in ocean­
Earnings and Working Conditions

In the Federal Government service
in early 1967, oceanographers with
the bachelor’s degree and no experi­
ence could begin at $6,387 or $7,729
a year, depending on their college
records. Beginning oceanographers
who had completed all requirements
for the master’s degree could start at
$7,729 or $9,001; those with the
Ph. D. degree could begin at $10,481
or $11,306. Scientists in biological
and geological specialties had some­
what lower starting salaries.
Beginning oceanographers in edu­
cational institutions receive the same
salary as other beginning faculty
members. (See statement on College
and University Teachers.) In addi­
tion to their regular salaries, many
experienced oceanographers in edu­
cational institutions earn extra in­
com e from consulting, lecturing, and
writing activities.
Oceanographers engaged in re­
search requiring sea voyages are fre­
quently away from home for weeks
or months at a time, sometimes living
and working in cramped quarters.
Young people who like the sea, how­
ever, may find these voyages very
Where To Go for More Information

General information about ocean­
ography—including career opportu­
nities, professional training, colleges
and universities with applicable de­
gree-credit programs, earnings, and
the economic significance of ocean­

ographic activities—may be obtained basic research designed to increase to measure, identify, and evaluate
man’s knowledge of the properties of changes in matter. Chemists maintain
matter and energy. Others conduct accurate records of their work and
American Society for Oceanography,
906 C. & I. Bldg., Houston, Tex.
applied research, using the knowl­ prepare clear and concise reports
edge gained from basic research to showing the results of the tests or ex­
develop new products and processes. periments. They often present their
American Society of Limnology and
For example, chemists in applied re­ findings in scientific publications or
Institute of Ecology,
search use their knowledge of the in­ in lectures before scientific groups.
University of California, Davis,
Most chemists specialize in one of
teractions of various chemicals to
Calif. 95616.
develop new fuels for rockets and five major branches of chemistry, or
Interagency Committee on Oceanog­
missiles. Physical scientists also teach in a subdivision of one of these
in colleges and universities and branches. Organic chemists, the larg­
Bldg. 159E, Washington Navy Yard,
supervise research and development est group, deal primarily with carbon
Washington, D.C. 20390.
compounds, most of which are sub­
International Oceanographic Foun­
This chapter includes descriptions stances originally derived from ani­
of three major physical science oc­ mal and vegetable matter. Inorganic
1 Rickenbacker Causeway, Virginia
Key, Miami, Fla. 33149.
cupations—chemist, physicist, and chemists are chiefly concerned with
astronomer—and of biochemists, one substances that do not contain carbon,
National Oceanographic Association,
of the major groups of chemists. En­ such as the metals and most minerals.
1900 L St. NW., Washington, D.C.
gineers and earth scientists also re­ Physical chemists study the quanti­
Federal Government career infor­ quire a background in the physical tative relationships between chemi­
mation may be obtained from any re­ sciences; these occupations are de­ cal and physical properties of both
gional office of the U.S. Civil Service scribed in separate chapters else­ organic and inorganic substances—
for example, how these substances are
where in the Handbook.
Commission or from:
affected by electricity, pressure, heat,
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil Serv­
and radiation. Analytical chemists
ice Examiners for Washington,
determine the chemical composition
1900 E St. NW., Washington, D.C.
of substances and perform tests to
(D.O.T. 022.081, .168, .181, and .281)
determine quality, purity, and other
characteristics. Biochemists are con­
Some information on oceano­
cerned with the chemistry of living
graphic specialties may be obtained
Nature of Work
things. (See separate statement on
from professional societies listed else­
where in the Handbook. (See state­ The clothes we wear, the food we Biochemists elsewhere in this chap­
ments on Geologists, Geophysicists, eat, the houses in which we live—in ter.)
Some chemists specialize in the
Biological Scientists, Meteorologists, fact, most of the things which help
product or process of a particular in­
and Chemists.)
to make our lives more comfortable,
The booklet Oceanography Infor­ healthy, and productive—have re­ dustry, such as agriculture, food,
mation Sources lists the names and sulted, in part, from the chemist’s petroleum, plastics, or rubber. Such
work may require a
addresses of many professional, re­ continuing search for new knowledge. more than one branch knowledge of
search, and industrial organizations Although the day-to-day activities of The specialist in plastics,of chemistry.
for example,
interested in oceanography. Copies, chemists generally receive little notice,
may need a knowledge of physical
priced at $1.50 each, may be pur­ some of their discoveries have led to
and analytical well as organic
chased from:
the creation of whole new industries, chemistry. All aschemists, ofhowever,
Printing and Publishing Office,
such as the plastics, frozen foods, and must know the fundamentals of
National Academy of Sciences,
manmade fibers industries.
chemistry—the composition ,> and
2101 Constitution Ave. NW., Wash­
Chemists investigate the properties properties of substances and how they
ington, D.C. 20418.
and composition of matter, and the can be changed.
the laws that govern the combination
Nearly one-half of all chemists are
of elements in a seemingly endless engaged in research and development.
variety of forms. They search for new Many research chemists work on ap­
Physical Sciences
knowledge concerning the nature of plied research projects aimed at creat­
substances and for ways of putting ing new products or improving or
this knowledge to practical use. In finding new uses for existing ones.
The physical sciences deal with the conducting studies, they apply scien­ Chemists in applied research have
basic laws of the physical world. tific principles and techniques, using helped to develop a vast range of new
Many physical scientists conduct a variety of specialized instruments products, including antibiotics, plas



tics, synthetic rubbers, detergents, in­
secticides and manmade fibers. Many
other chemists work on basic research
projects designed to extend scientific
knowledge rather than to solve im­
mediate practical problems. Knowl­
edge resulting from basic research fre­
quently has immediate application to
practical problems. For example,
basic research on polymerization—
how and why small molecules unite to
form giant molecules—resulted in the
development of synthetic rubber,
nylon, and plastics.
More than one-fifth of all chemists
are employed in management and
administration—especially of research
and development activities. A smaller
proportion of chemists devote most
of their time to teaching, often com­
bining research with teaching. An­
alysis and testing is another major
activity of chemists because various
kinds of tests must be made at prac­
tically every stage in the manufacture
of a product, from initial develop­
ment to final production. Others are
employed as marketing experts or
sales representatives of chemical com­
panies and other manufacturers in
positions where the employee must be
familiar with the technical aspects of
products. Some chemists work as pri­
vate consultants to private industry
firms and government agencies.
Where Employed

Chemistry is by far the largest field
of employment in the physical sci­
ences. There were approximately
122,000 chemists employed in the
United States in early 1967; more
than 5 percent were women.
Nearly two-thirds of all chemists
were employed by private industry in
early 1967. The major industrial em­
ployer of chemists, the chemicals
manufacturing industry, employed
more than two-fifths of the chemists
in private industry. Relatively large
numbers of other chemists were found
in the industries manufacturing food,
petroleum, paper, electrical equip­
ment, and primary metals products.

Chemist identifies absorption bands with infrared spectrometer.

Significant numbers of chemists also
were employed by distributors of
chemical, pharmaceutical, food, and
petroleum products; and by inde­
pendent laboratories and research in­
stitutes providing consulting services.
About one-fifth of all chemists were
employed by colleges and universities.
A smaller number of research chem­
ists worked for foundations and other
nonprofit organizations. A number of
chemists were employed by Federal
Government agencies, chiefly by
the U.S. Departments of Defense;

Health, Education, and Welfare;
Agriculture; and Interior. Small num­
bers worked for State and local gov­
ernments, primarily in agencies con­
cerned with health or agriculture.
Chemists were employed in all
States, in small as well as large cities.
However, they were usually concen­
trated in large industrial areas. In
1966, nearly one-fifth of all chemists
were located in four metropolitan
areas—New York, Chicago, Philadel­
phia, and Newark. About half of the
total worked in the six States of New



York, New Jersey, California, Penn­ as research or teaching assistants
while working toward advanced de­
sylvania, Ohio, and Illinois.
grees. They may also qualify as sec­
ondary school teachers.
Training, Other Qualifications, and
Chemists with the master’s degree
often qualify for applied research po­
sitions in government or private in­
A bachelor’s degree with a major dustry. They can also qualify for some
in chemistry is usually the minimum teaching positions in colleges and uni­
educational requirement for starting versities and in 2-year colleges.
a career as a chemist. Graduate train­ The Ph. D. degree is generally re­
ing is essential for many positions,
particularly in research and college quired for positions in basic positions
and for higher level faculty
teaching, and is helpful for advance­ in a college or university. It is also
ment in all types of work.
important for advancement to topTraining leading to the bachelor’s level positions in administration and
degree in chemistry is offered by more in other activities.
than 900 colleges and universities
throughout the country. In addition
to the required chemistry courses in
Employment Outlook
inorganic, organic, and physical
chemistry, and quantitative and qual­
The employment outlook for chem­
itative analysis, the undergraduate ists is expected to be very good
chemistry major also takes courses in through the remainder of the 1960’s
mathematics (especially analytical and the 1970’s. As in recent years,
geometry and calculus) and physics. there will be a particular need for
Advanced degrees in chemistry are chemists with advanced degrees for
awarded by nearly 300 colleges and research and teaching positions. For
universities, many of which offer fi­ women chemists qualified to do re­
nancial assistance to students inter­ search and teaching, employment
ested in graduate study. In graduate opportunities are also expected to be
school, the student usually specializes increasingly good.
by taking several courses in a particu­ One of the major factors behind
lar field of chemistry. Requirements the expected increase in employment
for the master’s or doctor’s degree opportunities is the anticipated con­
vary by institution but usually include tinued growth in expenditures for
lectures, laboratory work and thesis research and development. Such ex­
penditures not only create jobs for
New graduates with the bachelor’s chemists engaged in research and de­
degree usually qualify for beginning velopment—the activity of nearly half
positions in analysis and testing, qual­ of all chemists—but the production
ity control, technical service and sales, of new products resulting from the
or as assistants to senior chemists in research also creates new positions for
research and development work. chemists in other types of work.
Most chemists with only the bache­ Another important factor involved in
lor’s degree start their careers in in­ increasing the opportunities for chem­
dustry or government. In industry, ists is the growing demand for prod­
employers often have special training ucts of industries that are major
programs for new chemistry gradu­ employers of chemists, especially for
ates whom they employ. These pro­ such products as plastics, manmade
grams are designed to supplement fibers, drugs, fertilizers, and high
college training with specific industry energy and nuclear fuels for missiles
techniques and to aid in determining and rockets.
the type of work for which the new
The demand for chemists to fill
employee is best suited. Some chem­ college and university teaching posi­
ists with the bachelor’s degree obtain tions will also rise substantially, be­

positions in
cause of the large increases in college colleges and universities
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

enrollments expected during the late
1960’s and throughout the 1970’s.
The greatest demand will be for those
with Ph. D, degrees, but there will
be many positions for chemists with
the master’s degree, especially in
2-year colleges. (See statement on
College and University Teachers.)
In addition to those needed to fill
new positions, many chemists also will
be needed each year to replace those
who retire, die, or transfer to other
occupations. These losses to the pro­
fession will average approximately
4,200 annually.
Along with the expected growth in
demand for chemists, a steady in­
crease is expected in the number of
chemistry graduates. If their numbers
continue to represent the same pro­
portion of all college graduates as in
recent years, the numbers seeking em­
ployment in the profession will rise
rapidly throughout the 1970’s. Never­
theless, the demand for chemists is
expected to be greater than the num­
ber of new graduates who will be
available for employment. Thus, al­
though there may be some competi­
tion for the better paying entry
positions, new chemistry graduates
should continue to have very favor­
able employment opportunities in the
profession. New graduates will also
find openings in high school teaching,
provided they have completed the
professional education courses and
other requirements for a State teach­
ing certificate. However, they are
usually regarded as teachers rather
than as chemists. (See statement on
Secondary School Teachers else­
where in the Handbook.)
Earnings and Working Conditions

Inexperienced chemistry graduates
with a bachelor’s degree had an aver­
age (median) starting salary of about
$7,500 a year in private industry in
1966, according to a survey conducted
by the American Chemical Society.
Inexperienced graduates with the
master’s degree averaged about $8,900 a year and those with the Ph. D.
degree, about $12,500.


In academic institutions, the aver­
age (median) annual starting salary
for the few entrants with the bache­
lor’s degree and no experience was
about $5,600, according to the Amer­
ican Chemical Society. The average
salary for inexperienced graduates
with the master’s degree was about
$7,200, and for those with the Ph. D.
degree, $10,000. Many experienced
chemists in educational institutions
supplement their regular salaries with
income from consulting, lecturing,
and writing books.
In Federal Government positions
in early 1967, the annual starting sal­
ary for inexperienced chemists with
the bachelor’s degree was either
$6,387 or $7,729, depending on the
individual’s college record. Beginning
chemists with 1 year of graduate
study could start at $7,729 and those
with 2 years of graduate study at
$9,001. Chemists with the Ph. D. de­
gree could start at $10,481 or $11,306.
The average (median) annual
salary for all chemists was $12,000 in
1966, according to the National Sci­
ence Foundation’s National Register
of Scientific and Technical Person­
nel. Only 10 percent of all chemists
earned less than $7,800 a year, and
about 10 percent earned $19,000 or
Chemists spend most of their time
working in modem, well-equipped,
well-lighted laboratories, offices, or
classrooms. Chemists work with
chemicals that can be dangerous if
handled carelessly. However, when
safety regulations are followed, health
hazards are negligible.


(D.O.T. 041.081)
Nature of Work

The biochemist plays an important
role in modern science’s research for
the basis of life and the factors that
sustain life. His professional interests
range from what determines heredity
to how living things react to space
Biochemists study the chemical
composition of living organisms.
They identify and analyze the chemi­
cal processes related to biological
functions, such as muscular contrac­
tion, reproduction, and metabolism.
Biochemists investigate the effects on
organisms of such chemical sub­
stances as foods, hormones, and drugs.

They study the chemical changes in
living tissue caused by genetic and
environmental factors.
Biochemists work with a wide va­
riety of substances, ranging from very
small molecules to giant macromole­
cules. They study such chemical com­
pounds as minerals, sugars, amino
acids, proteins, polysaccharides, nu­
cleic acids, fats, and steriods. Bio­
chemists deal with problems in ge­
netics, enzymology, hormone action,
bioenergetics, and the phenomena of
biochemical control. Studies in all of
these areas with all of these kinds of
compounds can be directed toward
many fields.
Foremost among the areas of ap­
plication of biochemistry are the
fields of medicine, nutrition, and ag­
riculture. In the medical field, bio­
chemists may investigate the causes
and cures of disease or develop diag-

Where To Go for More Information

American Chemical Society,
1155 16th St. NW., Washington,
D .C .20036.
Manufacturing Chemists’ Association,
1825 Connecticut Ave. NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20009.

For additional sources of informa­
tion, see also statements on Biochem­
ists, Chemical Engineers, and Indus-'
trial Chemical Industry.

Biochemist constructs molecular model.

nostic procedures. In the nutritional
field, they may identify the nutrients
necessary for the maintenance of
good health and the effects of specific
deficiencies on various kinds of per­
formance, including the ability to
learn. In agriculture, biochemists in­
vestigate soils, fertilizers, and plants,
undertaking studies to discover more
efficient methods of crop cultivation,
storage, and utilization, and the de­
sign and use of pest-control agents.
Biochemists apply the principles
and procedures of chemical and phys­
ical analysis to their research prob­
lems. They use a variety of scientific
instruments and devices, including
electron microscopes and radioactive
isotope counters, and devise new in­
struments and analytical techniques
as needed. Biochemists usually report
the results of their research in scien­
tific journals and sometimes lecture
before scientific groups.
The greatest number of biochem­
ists—2 out of every 3—are engaged
in research. The emphasis is on basic
research designed to increase scien­
tific knowledge. The small group of
biochemists working in applied re­
search use the discoveries of basic re­
search to solve practical problems or
develop a useful product. For ex­
ample, through basic research, bio­
chemists discover how a living or­
ganism forms a hormone. This
knowledge is put to use by synthesiz­
ing the hormone in the laboratory
and then producing it on a mass scale
to enrich hormone-deficient orga­
nisms. The distinction between basic
and applied research, however, is
often one of degree, and it is there­
fore not unusual for biochemists to
be proficient in both types of work.
Some biochemists teach in colleges
and universities, often combining re­
search with teaching. Others are
engaged in production or testing ac­
tivities; still others work as con­


in early 1967; about 15 percent were
women. Biochemists were employed
in both large and small cities, and in
all States.
About half of all biochemists were
employed by colleges and universities
in early 1967. Many of these scientists
worked in university-operated labo­
ratories and hospitals where they
spent their time in teaching and re­
search. Another 1,500 biochemists
worked for nonprofit organizations,
such as research institutes and hos­
Private industry employed several
thousand biochemists. The largest
group of these worked in manufac­
turing industries—primarily the
chemicals and food industries. With­
in the chemicals industry, many bio­
chemists were employed by manufac­
turers of drugs, insecticides, and cos­
metics. A number of biochemists
worked for private consulting firms.
More than 1,500 biochemists
worked for Federal, State, and local
government agencies. Most of these
scientists were employed by the Fed­
eral Government, chiefly by the Na­
tional Institutes of Health and the
Food and Drug Administration of the
U.S. Department of Health, Educa­
tion, and Welfare; the Agricultural
Research Service and regional re­
search laboratories of the U.S. De­
partment of Agriculture; and the
Veterans Administration.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

The minimum educational re­
quirement for beginning positions in
biochemistry is the bachelor’s degree
with a major in biochemistry or
chemistry, or with a major in biology
and a minor in chemistry. For most
entrance positions in research and
teaching, graduate training in bio­
chemistry is required. Graduate work
is also needed for advancement to
most high-level positions in all types
of work.
Where Employed
Although relatively few schools
Approximately 10,500 biochemists award the bachelor’s degree in bio­
were employed in the United States chemistry, training in chemistry is

offered in more than 900 colleges and
universities throughout the country.
Important undergraduate courses for
the prospective biochemist are physi­
cal, analytical, organic, and inorganic
chemistry; general biology; mathe­
matics; and physics.
Graduate degrees in biochemistry
are offered by over 50 colleges and
universities. For entrance into a grad­
uate program in biochemistry, schools
usually require the student to have a
bachelor’s degree in biochemistry,
chemistry, or biology. However, stu­
dents with the bachelor’s degree in
another basic science are usually ad­
mitted if they have had several un­
dergraduate courses in chemistry.
In graduate school, the student
builds upon the basic knowledge ob­
tained in the undergraduate curricu­
lum. He takes advanced courses and
may conduct research in many areas
of biochemistry. In the course of
completing work for the doctoral
degree, he frequently becomes a spe­
cialist in a particular field of bio­
chemistry by doing intensive research
and writing a thesis.
Some graduate schools with exten­
sive research facilities or a staff
highly accomplished in a special field
have gained a reputation for training
students in that particular field of
biochemistry. For example, the col­
leges affiliated with a medical school
or hospital often have the facilities
and equipment available for studying
the biochemistry of disease. A student
who desires to specialize in a particu­
lar field of biochemistry should,
therefore, investigate the specialties
of the various schools and choose his
college carefully.
New graduates with the bachelor’s
degree usually begin work in industry
or government as research assistants
in positions involving testing and
analysis. In the drug manufacturing
industry, for example, research assist­
ants may analyze the ingredients of a
product to verify and maintain its
purity or quality. Some graduate stu­
dents become research or teaching
assistants in colleges and universities.
Beginning biochemists with ad­
vanced degrees usually qualify for



teaching and research positions. With
experience, some biochemists with
the Ph. D. degree advance to highlevel administrative positions and
supervise research programs. Other
highly qualified biochemists, who
prefer to devote their time to re­
search, often become leaders in a par­
ticular field of biochemistry.
Employment Outlook

The employment outlook is likely
to be very good for biochemists for
the remainder of the 1960’s and
throughout the 1970’s. Biochemists
with the Ph. D. degree will be in spe­
cial demand. Their services will be
required to conduct independent re­
search and to teach in colleges and
Employment opportunities will
stem mainly from the very rapid
growth expected in this field. Several
hundred positions, however, will have
to be filled each year to replace work­
ers who transfer to other fields of
work, retire, or die. The major factor
underlying the anticipated growth is
the continued increase in expendi­
tures for research and development
in the life sciences. Such expendi­
tures, which have risen rapidly in re­
cent years, are expected to continue
to rise, although at a slower rate.
The greatest growth in employ­
ment of biochemists is expected in
hospitals, medical clinics, and other
places where medical research is con­
ducted. Growth in this area will re­
sult chiefly from the expansion of
research on such health problems as
cancer, heart disease, muscular dys­
trophy, and mental illness. Biochem­
istry also is becoming important in
other fields, such as oceanography
and environmental health (pollu­
tion) .
Private industry and the Federal
Government are also expected to ab­
sorb a growing number of workers in
the field of biochemistry. Stimulating
this employment growth will be the
more stringent standards that have
been established by the Congress and
262-057 0 -



Federal regulatory agencies for re­
search on, and testing of, new drugs,
chemicals, and processing methods
before their use in medicine and
Growing college enrollments, espe­
cially of students majoring in chem­
istry and related fields, will
strengthen the demand for biochem­
ists qualified to teach in colleges and
Although biochemistry is a rela­
tively small profession and job open­
ings will not be numerous in any one
year, the number of graduates with
degrees in this science is also fairly
small and is expected to remain so.
Thus, for biochemistry graduates—
women as well as men—the employ­
ment outlook should continue to be

Starting salaries paid to biochem­
ists employed by colleges and univer­
sities are comparable to those for
other professional faculty members.
Biochemists in educational institu­
tions often supplement their income
by engaging in outside research or
consulting work.
In private industry in 1966, the
average annual starting salary of bio­
chemists with the bachelor’s degree
was about $7,500, according to the
limited information available. Start­
ing salaries for biochemists with the
master’s degree averaged about
$1,400 more a year than for those
with the bachelor’s degree. Annual
starting salaries of biochemists with
the Ph.D. degree ranged from $7,000
to $12,500, depending on their spe­
cialty and research experience in
graduate school.
In the Federal Government in
early 1967, beginning biochemists
with the bachelor’s degree could start
at $6,387 or $7,729 a year, depending
on their college records. Biochemists
with the master’s degree could start
at $7,729 or $9,001, and those with
the Ph.D. degree at $10,481 or

Where To Go for More Information

American Society of Biological Chem­
9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Md.

(D.O.T. 023.081 and .088)
Nature of Work

The flight ‘of astronauts through
space, the probing of the oceans’
depths, or even the safety of the fam­
ily car depend in numerous ways on
research performed by physicists. By
determining basic laws governing
such factors as density, pressure,
gravity, acceleration, and friction,
and by their interrelationships, prob­
lems under various conditions can be
anticipated and overcome.
Physicists observe and analyze the
various forms of energy, the structure
of matter, and the relationship be­
tween matter and energy. From their
research, physicists develop theories
and discover fundamental laws that
describe the behavior of the forces at
work within the universe. Their stud­
ies have continued to broaden man’s
understanding of the physical world
and have enabled him to make in­
creasing use of natural resources.
Physicists have made valuable con­
tributions to scientific progress in re­
cent years in such areas as nuclear
energy, electronics, communications,
and aerospace.
About 1 Out of every 2 physicists is
engaged in research and develop­
ment. Many conduct basic research,
designed to increase scientific knowl­
edge with only secondary regard to
its practical applications. Some of
these, called theoretical physicists, at­
tempt to describe the interactions
between matter and energy in mathe­
matical terms. Others, called experi­
mental physicists, make careful sys­
tematic observations and perform
experiments to identify and measure
these interactions. For example, they
try to identify and measure the life-



mechanics, thermal phenomena, high
energy physics, optics, acoustics,
electromagnetism, electronics, atomic
and molecular physics, nuclear phys­
ics, physics of fluids, solid-state
physics, or classical theoretical phys­
ics. They may concentrate in a sub­
division of one of these branches. For
example, within solid-state physics
they may specialize in ceramics,
crystallography, or semiconductors,
among others. In addition, emerging
knowledge continually opens new
areas of research. For example, the
development of lasers and masers had
led to new experimentation in optics,
and other fields. However, since all
physics specialties rest on the same
fundamental principles, the physicist’s
work often overlaps a number of
Physicists often apply the theories
and methodology of their science to
problems originating in other sciences,
including astronomy, biology, chem­
istry, and geology. Growing numbers
of scientists have become specialists in
fields that combine the knowledge of
physics and a related science. Thus,
a number of specialties have devel­
oped on the borderline between
physics and other fields—astrophysics,
biophysics, chemical physics, and
geophysics. (Information on these oc­
cupations is contained elsewhere in
Research physicist constructs 3-dimensional model.
the Handbook.) Furthermore, the
practical applications of physicists’
time of tiny particles of matter which ample, the work of physicists special­ work have increasingly merged with
may exist within the nucleus of the izing in solid-state physics led to the engineering.
atom. Experimental physicists use ap­ development of transistors and microparatus such as particle accelerators, circuits, now used in place of vacuum
X-ray spectrometers, microwave de­ tubes in many types of electronic
Where Employed
vices, lasers, and phase and electron equipment ranging from hearing aids
Approximately 44,000 physicists
microscopes. When their research re­ to guidance systems for missiles.
Many physicists teach in colleges were employed in the United States
quires new kinds of instruments, they
may design them. The difference be­ and universities, often combining re­ in early 1967. About 18,000 were em­
tween theoretical and experimental search with teaching. Some are en­ ployed by private industry. More than
physicists is often merely one of em­ gaged in management and adminis­ one-fifth of this group were em­
phasis. Some members of the pro­ tration, especially of research and ployed in the electrical equipment in­
fession are skilled in both types of development programs. Others work industry. Other industries using rela­
in activities related to the production tively large numbers of physicists
A large number of physicists who of industrial products such as inspec­ included the ordnance, chemicals,
are engineering-oriented engage in tion and quality control. Some uni­ aerospace, and instruments industries
applied research. They use the knowl­ versity physicists do part-time con­ and independent commercial labora­
tories and research institutes. Sig­
edge gained from basic research to sulting work.
Most physicists specialize in one or nificant numbers also were employed
solve practical problems or to create
new or improved products. For ex­ more branches of the science— by the machinery and engineering


and architectural services industries.
In early 1967, colleges and univer­
sities employed more than 18,000
teaching and research physicists, a
large number of whom combined
both activities. Federal Government
agencies employed large numbers of
physicists—approximately 6,000 in
early 1967—mainly in the Depart­
ment of Defense, the National Bu­
reau of Standards, and the National
Aeronautics and Space Administra­
tion. Another 1,500 physicists were
employed by nonprofit organizations.
Physicists were employed in all
States. However, their employment
was greatest in those areas having in­
dustrial concentrations and large col­
leges and universities. More than onefourth of the physicists were employed
in four metropolitan areas—Boston,
Washington, D.C., Los AngelesLong Beach, and New York. Nearly
one-half of the total were employed
in the five States of California, New
York, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania,
and New Jersey.
Relatively few physicists are
women—only about 3 percent, ac­
cording to the National Science
Foundation’s National Register of
Scientific and Technical Personnel.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

A bachelor’s degree with a major
in physics is generally the minimum
entrance requirement for young peo­
ple seeking careers as physicists.
Graduate training is required for
many entry positions and is helpful
for advancement in all areas of work.
A doctor’s degree usually is re­
quired for full faculty status at col­
leges and universities. It is usually
needed for employment in positions
involving responsibility for research
and development with any type of
Physicists with master’s degrees
qualify for many research jobs in
private industry, educational institu­
tions, and government. Some also ob­
tain positions as instructors in colleges

and universities. Usually, graduate

stem primarily from the very rapid
growth expected in this field. A small
number of positions also will result
from the need to replace physicists
who transfer to other fields of work,
retire, or die.
As in recent years, there probably
will be a particular demand for phys­
icists with advanced degrees to teach
in colleges and universities. Among
the factors contributing to the de­
mand for physics teachers is the grow­
ing need for physics training in other
sciences and engineering programs.
Competition for well-qualified phys­
icists has been, and probably will con­
tinue, creating difficulties in the re­
cruitment of sufficient numbers of
well-qualified university teachers.
Physics teachers, who may be less
highly trained, also will be needed in
secondary education, as schools be­
come increasingly more aware of the
value of general knowledge of the
physical world.
Physicists also will be required in
substantial numbers to perform highly
complex and demanding research and
development work. Expenditures for
research and development, which
have increased rapidly in recent years,
will probably continue to rise, al­
though somewhat more slowly than in
the past. Research organizations,
whether those of government, univer­
sities, or industry, have considerable
difficulty in satisfying their require­
ments for physicists with advanced
degrees. Their future need for such
physicists will probably continue at a
very favorable level.

students working toward a doctor’s
degree are assigned to teach ele­
mentary college courses, conduct
laboratory sessions, or assist senior
faculty members on research projects.
Physicists with bachelor’s degrees
qualify for a variety of jobs in applied
research and development work in
private industry or the Federal Gov­
ernment. Some become research as­
sistants in colleges and universities
while working toward advanced de­
grees. Many persons with a bachelor’s
degree in the science do not work as
physicists but go into nontechnical
work, other sciences, or engineering.
Training leading to the bachelor’s
degree in physics was offered by more
than 700 colleges and universities in
1966. In addition, many engineering
schools offered a physics major as part
of the general curriculum. The under­
graduate program in physics provides
a broad background in the science,
which serves as a base for later spe­
cialization either in graduate school
or on the job. A few of the physics
courses typically offered in an under­
graduate program are mechanics,
electricity and magnetism, optics,
thermodynamics, and atomic and
molecular physics. In addition,
courses in chemistry and mathe­
matics are required.
In 1966, the Ph. D. degree in
physics was offered by approximately
150 colleges and universities. An ad­
ditional 120 institutions offered grad­
uate work in physics up to the mas­
ter’s degree level only. In graduate
school, the student, with faculty
guidance, usually works in a specific
field. In 1965, the two fields of study
engaging the most graduate students Earnings and Working Conditions
were solid-state physics, and nuclear
Starting salaries for physicists with
and high energy physics. The gradu­
ate student spends a large portion of bachelor’s degrees were usually be­
his time in research, especially the tween $7,500 and $8,000 a year in pri­
vate industry in 1966, according to
candidate for the Ph. D. degree.
the limited information available.
Physicists with master’s degrees re­
ceived starting salaries about $1,000
Employment Outlook
to $2,000 higher than those with
Employment opportunities for bachelor’s degrees. Depending on
physicists will continue to be excellent specialty and experience, graduates
through the remainder of the 1960’s with Ph. D. degrees generally received
and in the 1970’s. Opportunities will entrance salaries around $12,000 to

$14,000 annually, although some
were paid considerably less.
In the Federal Government in
early 1967, physicists with the bach­
elor’s degree and no experience could
start at either $6,387 or $7,729 a
year, depending on their college rec­
ords. Beginning physicists who had
completed all the requirements for
the master’s degree could start at
$7,729 or $9,001. Physicists with the
Ph. D. degree could begin at $10,481
or $11,306.
Starting salaries for physicists with
the Ph. D. degree on college and uni­
versity faculties ranged from $7,000
to $9,500 for the 1965-66 academic
year. (For further information, see
statement on College and University
Teachers.) Many faculty physicists
supplement their regular incomes and
satisfy their professional interests
through consulting work and special
research projects.
The average (median) annual
salary for physicists was $12,500 in
1966, according to the National Sci­
ence Foundation’s Register of Scien­
tific and Technical Personnel. Only
10 percent earned less than $7,800 a
year, and about 10 percent earned
$20,000 or more.
Where To Go for More Information

American Institute of Physics,
335 East 45th St., New York, N.Y.

(D.O.T. 021.088)
Nature of Work

Astronomy often is considered the
most theoretical of all sciences, al­
though it has many practical appli­
cations. Astronomers study all the
celestial bodies in the universe. They
collect and analyze data on the sun,
moon, planets, and stars and attempt
to determine sizes, shapes, surface
temperatures, chemical composition,
Digitized and motions of these bodies and of


the gases and dust between them.
They compute the positions of the
planets; calculate the orbits of comets,
asteroids, and artificial satellites; and
make statistical studies of stars and
galaxies. Astronomers also study the
size and shape of the earth and the
properties of its upper atmosphere.
Astronomical observations are valu­
able to navigation and the accurate
measurement of time.
In making detailed observations of
the heavens, astronomers use complex
photographic techniques, light-meas­
uring instruments, and other optical
devices. The telescope is the major
instrument used for observation. De­
vices for making specialized observa­
tions are usually attached to the
telescope. Although most observations
are made by means of telescopes per­
manently mounted in observatories,
astronomers are gathering informa­
tion increasingly by means of rockets
and earth satellites containing various
measuring devices. In processing and
analyzing the vast amounts of data
derived from their observations, as­
tronomers often use electronic
Astronomers usually specialize in
one of the many branches of the sci­

ence. In astrophysics, they apply
physical laws to stellar atmospheres
and interiors. Some astronomers work
in the field of celestial mechanics, one
of the oldest fields of astronomy but
one that has recently acquired new
importance because it deals, in part,
with the motions of objects in the
solar system, and hence has a particu­
lar application in the calculation of
the orbits of spacecraft and artificial
earth satellites and the paths of bal­
listic missiles. Radio astronomy is the
study, by means of radio telescopes
of extraordinary sensitivity, of the
source and nature of celestial radio
waves. Among the other specialties
are astrometry (measurement of an­
gular positions and movements of
celestial bodies); photoelectric and
photographic photometry (measure­
ment of the intensity of light); spec­
troscopy of astronomical sources
(wave length analyses of radiation
from celestial bodies); and statistical
astronomy (statistical study of large
numbers of celestial objects, such as
stars, to determine their average
Most astronomers are engaged in
teaching, research, or a combination
of the two functions. In colleges and
universities not having separate de­
partments of astronomy or having
only small enrollments in the subject,
astronomers may teach courses in
mathematics or physics as well as as­
tronomy. Other members of the pro­
fession are engaged in a variety of
activities, including the development
and design of astronomical instru­
ments, administration, and consulting
in areas to which astronomy is
Where Employed

Astronomy is one of the smallest of
the science fields; in early 1967, the
total number of astronomers in the
United States was estimated to be
about 1,100. Approximately two-fifths
of all astronomers were employed by
colleges and universities. Many of
these worked in university-operated
observatories, where they usually de­


voted most of their time to research,
working alone or in cooperation with
other astronomers. A number of other
astronomers worked for observatories
financed by nonprofit organizations.
The Federal Government employed
several hundred astronomers in 1967.
The major Government agencies
employing astronomers were the Na­
tional Aeronautics and Space Admin­
istration, the U.S. Naval Observatory,
and the U.S. Naval Research
A growing number of astronomers
were employed in private industry,
mostly by firms in the aircraft, mis­
sile, and spacecraft field. A few as­
tronomers worked for museums
and planetariums.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

Young people seeking professional
careers in astronomy should obtain an
advanced degree—preferably the Ph.
D. The doctorate usually is required
for high-level positions in teaching
and research and is important for
other types of work in this field. Al­
though the bachelor’s degree is ade­
quate preparation for some entry
jobs, astronomers without graduate
work usually find that opportunities
for promotion are limited.
Undergraduate curriculums lead­
ing to the bachelor’s degree in astron­
omy are offered by relatively few
schools. In 1966, only about 45 col­
leges and universities offered such a
degree. The undergraduate work
of the prospective astronomer is
weighted heavily with courses in
physics and mathematics. Courses in
chemistry, statistics, and electronics
are useful also. A few of the courses
often taken by astronomy undergrad­
uates are optics, spectroscopy, atomic
physics, calculus, differential equa­
tions, solar and stellar systems, intro­
ductory astrophysics, and astronomi­
cal techniques and instruments.
The prospective astronomer is not
necessarily handicapped if the college
he has selected for his undergraduate
study does not offer a major in astron­

omy. Well-qualified students with
bachelor’s degrees in physics or
mathematics with a physics minor
usually are able to enter and pursue
graduate programs in astronomy
without difficulty.
Programs leading to the doctorate
in astronomy are available at about
35 institutions located in various sec­
tions of the country. The academic
work of the graduate student consists
primarily of advanced courses in as­
tronomy, physics, and mathematics.
A few of the astronomy courses typ­
ically offered in graduate schools are
celestial mechanics, galactic struc­
ture, radio astronomy, stellar atmos­
pheres and interiors, theoretical as­
trophysics, and binary and variable
stars. Some schools require that grad­
uate students spend several months in
residence at an observatory. In most
institutions, the program of work
leading to the doctorate is flexible and
allows the student to take the courses
which will be of most value to him
in his astronomical specialty or par­
ticular area of interest.
New graduates with bachelor’s or
master’s degrees in astronomy usually
begin as assistants in observatories,
planetariums, large departments of
astronomy in colleges and universi­
ties, Government agencies, or indus­
try. Some persons, with only the bach­
elor’s degree, work as research assist­
ants while studying toward advanced
degrees; others, particularly those in
Government employment, receive onthe-job training in the application of
astronomical principles. New grad­
uates with the doctorate can usually
qualify for college teaching positions
and for research positions in educa­
tional institutions, Government, and
Employment Outlook

search and technical assistants. As
in the past, however, the higher level
professional positions in astronomy
will be filled mainly by persons with
the doctorate.
The outlook is for very rapid
growth of this small profession, dur­
ing the late 1960’s and throughout the
1970’s. However, because astronomy
is a small profession, the number of
job openings in any one year will not
be large. On the other hand, because
relatively few college students are ex­
pected to receive advanced degrees
in astronomy each year, the young
men and women who do obtain these
degrees should have excellent em­
ployment opportunities.
Among the factors underlying the
expected increase in demand for as­
tronomers is the progress of the space
age—the age of rockets, missiles, man­
made earth satellites, and space ex­
ploration. Astronomers will be needed
to analyze the data collected by
rockets and spacecraft. They also will
be needed to plan and give direction
to the astronomical observations that
can only be carried out by means of
equipment placed in space vehicles.
Increased research activities in as­
tronomy by educational institutions,
Government, and industry are ex­
pected to add to the demand for
astronomers. In recent years, the
growth of Federal Government-spon­
sored research, in the form of grants
to educational institutions and ob­
servatories (for astronomical research
and for new buildings, observatories,
and equipment), has opened many
new positions for astronomers.
The most favorable opportunities
for women astronomers will be in re­
search positions in Government agen­
cies and in the larger observatories.
Educational institutions also are ex­
pected to offer some employment op­
portunities for women astronomers.

Employment opportunities for as­
tronomers with the Ph. D. degree are Earnings and Working Conditions
expected to be excellent through the
In early 1967, beginning astron­
1970’s. Well-qualified persons with
only bachelor’s or master’s degrees omers with the Ph. D. degree were
in astronomy also will have good em­ eligible to enter Federal Government
ployment prospects, primarily as re­ service at a salary of $10,481 or

$11,306 a year, depending on their
college record. Astronomers with the
bachelor’s degree could start at $6,387
or $7,729 a year; those with a bach­
elor’s degree and some graduate
study could begin at $7,729 or $9,001.
Average starting salaries for an
academic year for instructors of
astronomy in colleges and universi­
ties ranged from about $7,000 to
$9,500 in 1967, according to the lim­
ited data available. As the astronomer
advances to higher level teaching
positions, his earnings increase sig­
nificantly. Some full professors earn
over $20,000 a year. Astronomers in


educational institutions often earn
extra income by writing books and
articles, lecturing, or consulting.
Some astronomers spend much
time in nightwork, making visual
photographic or photoelectric obser­
vations. Others make observations
only 4 or 5 nights each month, or even
only a few nights a year, and devote
the remainder of the time to studying
and analyzing photographic plates,
photoelectric tracings, and other ma­
terial during usual daytime working
hours. Observational work at a tele­
scope involves exposure to the outside
air through the open dome of the

observatory, sometimes on cold winter
nights. In general, however, the phys­
ical requirements of astronomical
work can be met by a reasonably
healthy person.
Where To Go for More Information

The American Astronomical Society,
211 FitzRandolph Rd., Princeton,
N.J. 08540.
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil Serv­
ice Examiners for Washington,
1900 E St. N W , Washington, D.C.


The performing arts include music,
acting, singing, and the dance. In
these fields, the number of first-rate
artists seeking employment is gen­
erally much larger than the number
of full-time employment positions
available. As a result, many perform­
ers supplement their incomes by
teaching, and others work much of
the time in different types of occupa­
The difficulty of earning a living
as a performer is one of the facts
young people should bear in mind in
considering an artistic career. They
should consider, therefore, the possi­
ble advantages of making their art a
hobby rather than a profession.
Aspiring young artists must usually
spend many years in intensive train­
ing and practice before they are ready
for public performances. A person
needs not only great natural talent
but also determination, a willingness
to work long and hard, and an over­
whelming interest in his chosen field.
The statements which follow this
introduction give detailed informa­
tion on the musician, singer, actor,
and dancer as performing artists and
in related work.

(D.O.T. 150.028 and .048)
Nature of Work

Making a character come to life
before an audience is a job which has
great glamour and fascination. It is
also hard and demanding work that

requires special talent and involves
many difficulties and uncertainties.
Only a few of the approximately
15,000 actors and actresses in the
United States in 1966, have achieved
recognition as stars—on the stage, in
motion pictures, or on television or
radio. A somewhat larger number are
well-known, experienced performers,
who are frequently cast in supporting
roles. The great majority, however,
are struggling for a toehold in the
profession, and are glad to pick up
small parts whenever and wherever
they can.
New actors generally start in “bit”
parts, where they have only a few
lines to speak. If successful, they may
progress to larger supporting roles,
of which there are several in most
stage and screen productions. The
actors who have minor parts in stage
productions may also serve as under­
studies for the principals. If a leading
player misses a performance, the un­
derstudy has a chance to demon­
strate, and attract attention to, his
acting ability.
Actors who prepare for roles either
on the stage or in the movies spend
many hours in rehearsal. They also
must memorize their lines and know
their cues. Radio actors typically read
their parts. They have to be especially
skilled in expressing character and
emotion through the voice, since this
is their sole means of creating an im­
personation for their audience.
Besides the actors with speaking
parts, “extras,” who have no lines to
deliver, are used in almost every
motion picture and many television
shows. In spectacular productions, a
large number of extras take part in
crowd scenes.
Some actors find jobs as dramatic
coaches or become directors of stage,
television, radio, or motion picture
productions. A few teach in schools
of acting or in the drama depart­
ments of colleges and universities.

television, are probably the largest
fields of employment for actors, al­
though some are employed by “live”
television and radio.
In the winter, most employment
opportunities on the stage are in New
York. In the summer months, stock
companies in suburban and resort
areas throughout the Nation provide
many opportunities for employment.
In addition, many cities now have
community or “little” theaters, which
provide opportunities for local talent
as well as for professional actors and
actresses from New York and other
centers. Plays that go “on the road,”
moving from city to city, are normally
produced in New York with casts
selected there.
Although employment opportuni­
ties in motion pictures and film tele­
vision are centered in Hollywood, a
few studios are in Long Island, N.Y.,
Miami, Fla., and other parts of the
country. In addition, many films are
shot on location, providing employ­
ment for “extras” who live in the
area. In live television and radio,
most opportunities for actors are at
the headquarters of the main net­
works—in New York, Los Angeles,
and, to a lesser extent, Chicago. A
few local television and radio stations
occasionally employ actors.
Training and Other Qualifications

Since an actor learns mostly
through practice, young people
aspiring to acting careers should get
as much acting experience as possible
by taking part in high school and col­
lege plays, or working with little
theaters and other acting groups in
their home towns.
Formal training in acting may also
be helpful. Such training can be ob­
tained at special schools of the dra­
matic arts, located chiefly in New
York. The dramatic arts are also
taught in about 500 colleges and uni­
versities. A college degree is becoming
increasingly necessary for an acting
Where Employed
career. Because college drama curStage plays and motion pictures, riculums usually include courses in
including films made especially for liberal arts, speech, pantomime, play


production, and the history of the
drama, as well as practical courses in
acting, the actor develops an appre­
ciation of the great plays, old and
new, and a greater understanding of
the roles he may be called on to play.
Graduate degrees in the fine arts or
in drama are necessary for college
teaching positions.
Outstanding talent for acting and
great interest and determination are
essential for success in the theater.
Ability to memorize, a good speaking
voice, good health, and the physical
stamina to work long hours are nec­
essary. Ability to sing and dance is
also an asset for those who seek an
acting career.
In all media, whether the stage,
motion pictures, radio, or television,
the best way to start is to make use
of local opportunities and to build
on the basis of such experience. Many
actors who are successful in local dra­
matic productions eventually try to
appear on the New York stage. In­
experienced actors usually find it
extremely difficult to obtain employ­
ment in New York or Hollywood.
The motion picture field is an espe­


cially difficult one to enter, and em­
ployment is often a result of previous
experience on the Broadway stage.
To become a movie extra, one must
usually be listed by Central Casting,
a no-fee agency which works with the
Screen Extras Guild and supplies all
extras to the major movie studios in
Hollywood. Applicants are accepted
only when the number of people of a
particular type on the list—for ex­
ample, athletic young men, old ladies,
or small children—is below the fore­
seeable need. In recent years, only
a very small proportion of the total
number of applicants have succeeded
in being listed. Extras have very little,
if any, opportunity to advance to
speaking roles in the movies.
The length of an actor’s working
life depends largely on his skill and
versatility. Great actors and actresses
can go on almost indefinitely. On the
other hand, for many members of the
profession, employment opportunities
become increasingly limited during
and past middle age. This is especially
true of those who become typed in
romantic, youthful roles.

Employment Outlook

The overcrowding which has ex­
isted in the acting field for many years
is expected to persist. In the legiti­
mate theater and also in motion pic­
tures and radio and television, job
applicants outnumber by many times
the jobs available. Moreover, many
actors are employed in their profes­
sion for only a small part of the year.
Because of the development of
motion pictures, radio, and TV, em­
ployment opportunities for actors in
the theater have been reduced greatly.
The recent growth of summer stock
companies has somewhat increased
the employment of actors in the sum­
mer months.
Although a motion picture produc­
tion may use a very large number of
actors, they are employed only while
the picture is being filmed; and the
films are widely distributed and may
be used for years. Radio uses few ac­
tors. The number of filmed TV dra­
mas and commercials using actors is
increasing, but not enough to offset
the decline in the other media. More­


over, television stations often broad­
cast “taped” dramas rather than live
productions, and, like motion picture
films, these tapes may be widely dis­
tributed and used for a long time.
Taped TV plays give employment to
actors for only one performance,
whereas live dramas may give em­
ployment for several performances.
One possibility for future growth
in the legitimate theater lies in the
establishment of year-round profes­
sional acting companies in more cities.
The number of communities with
such acting groups is growing. Fur­
ther increases are likely also in the
employment of actors on television.
In the acting field as a whole, how­
ever, employment opportunities are
expected to change little through the
1970’s. The number of new entrants
to the profession is expected to out­
number employment opportunities
that become available. Even highly
talented young people are likely to
face stiff competition and economic
difficulties in the profession.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Actors and actresses employed in
the legitimate theater belong to the
Actors’ Equity Association. If em­
ployed in motion pictures, including
television films, they belong to the
Screen Actors Guild, Inc., or to the
Screen Extras Guild, Inc. If em­
ployed in television or radio, they
belong to the American Federation
of Television and Radio Artists.
These unions and the show producers
sign basic collective bargaining agree­
ments which set minimum salaries,
hours of work, and other conditions
of employment. In addition, each
actor enters into a separate contract
which may provide for higher salaries
than those specified in the basic
The minimum weekly salary for
actors in Broadway Productions was
$130 in mid-1967. Those appearing
in small “off-Broadway” theaters had
considerably lower earnings. For
shows On the road, the minimum rate

was $167.50 a week. For rehearsal
time, it was $130 a week in Broadway
shows and much lower in small “offBroadway” theaters. All minimum
salaries are adjusted upward accord­
ing to increases in the cost of living
as reflected in the Bureau of Labor
Statistics Consumer Price Index.
Motion picture actors and actresses
had a minimum daily rate of about
$100 in early 1967. For extras, the
minimum rate was about $30 a day.
Actors on network television received
a minimum program fee of $165 for
a single half-hour program and 10
hours of rehearsal time; actors on
radio received $49.60 for a half-hour
performance, including 1 rehearsal
hour. To encourage more stable em­
ployment on radio and TV, minimum
guarantees for those actors with con­
tracts for a series of programs are
sometimes discounted below the
single program guaranteed fee.
In all fields, many well-known
actors and actresses have salary rates
above the minimums. The salaries of
the few top stars are many times the
figures cited. On the other hand, be­
cause of the frequent periods of un­
employment characteristic of this
profession, annual earnings may be
low for many of the lesser known
Eight performances amount to a
week’s work on the legitimate stage,
and any additional performances are
paid for as overtime. The basic work­
week after the opening of a show is
36 hours, including limited time for
rehearsals. Prior to the opening, how­
ever, the workweek is usually longer
to allow enough time for rehearsals.
Evening work is, of course, a regular
part of a stage actor’s life. Rehearsals
may be held late at night and over
weekends and holidays. Traveling
over the weekend is often necessary
when plays are on the road.
Most actors are covered by a pen­
sion fund and a growing number have
hospitalization insurance to which
their employers contribute; but very
few have paid vacations or sick leave.
Most stage actors get little if any

unemployment compensation, since
they seldom have enough employ­
ment in any State to meet the eligi­
bility requirements. Consequently,
when a show closes, they often have
to take any casual work obtainable
while waiting for another role.

(D.O.T. 151.028 and .048)
Nature of Work

Dancing is an ancient and world­
wide art, having many different
forms. Professional dancers may per­
form in classical ballet or modern
dance, in dance adaptations for mu­
sical shows, in folk dances, or in tap
and other popular kinds of dancing.
In the classical ballet, movements
are based on certain conventional or
styled “positions,” and women dance
“en pointe” (on the tips of their
toes). In the modern dance, move­
ments are much more varied but are
nonetheless carefully planned and
executed to follow a pattern.
In dance productions, the perform­
ers most often work together as a
chorus. However, a group of selected
dancers may do special numbers, and
a very few top artists do solo work.
M any dancers com bine teaching

with their stage work or teach full
time in schools of the dance or in
colleges and universities. The few
dancers who have become choreog­
raphers create new ballets or dance
routines. Others are dance directors
who train dancers in new produc­
This statement does not include in­
structors of ballroom and other social
Where Employed

In 1967, there were approximately
24,000 dancers and dancing teachers
in the United States. It is estimated
that more than half of this number


were teachers employed at schools
of the dance and in schools and col­
leges. Most of the other dancers were
performers on the stage, screen, and
television. A few teachers trained in
dance therapy were employed by hos­
pitals to work in the treatment of
mental disorders. About 80 percent
of all dancers are women, but in
some types of dance, particularly
ballet and modern, women per­
formers constitute about one-half.
Although dancing teachers are lo­
cated chiefly in large cities, many
smaller cities and towns have schools
of the dance. New York City is the
hub for the majority of performing
dancers; others are situated in Los
Angeles, San Francisco, and Chicago.


Training and Other Qualifications

The traditional way of preparing
for a dancing career is to begin
serious training by age 12 or earlier.
Girls wishing to become ballet danc­
ers should begin taking lessons at the
age of 7. In either case, 2 or 3 years
of prior preparation is needed before
the young girl should start dancing
“en pointe.” Professional training
typically takes from 10 to 12 lessons a
week for 11 or 12 months in the year
and many additional hours of prac­
tice. The length of the training period
depends on the student’s ability and
physical development, but most danc­
ers have their professional audition
by age 17 or 18.

The selection of a professional
dancing school is important for two
reasons. First, the school must use ex­
pert judgment in setting the pace of
training, since too early and too severe
exercise can permanently damage the
legs and feet. Second, the school’s
connections with producers may help
the students in obtaining employ­
Because of the strenuous training
program in the professional schools,
the general education received by stu­
dents in these schools may not exceed
the legal minimum. However, a danc­
er’s education should include such
subjects as music, literature, and his­
tory to aid him in his interpretation
of dramatic episodes and music.
Nearly 150 colleges and universities
confer bachelor’s degrees on students
who have either majored in physical
education and concentrated on the
dance, majored in a dance program
designed to prepare students to teach
dance, or majored in a dance pro­
gram designed to prepare students as
professional dance artists. Some of
these schools also give graduate de­
grees. Labanotation, which is the
method of writing dance routines, is
one of the advanced courses taught,
and is especially im portant to chore­
A college education is an advan­
tage in obtaining employment as a
teacher of professional dancing or
choreography. However, dancers who
postpone their first audition for open­
ings in classical ballet until gradua­
tion may compete at a disadvantage
with younger dancers. On the other
hand, they can compete successfully
for openings in modern dance per­
formances which do not require a
proficiency in toe dancing.
A teaching position in professional
schools usually requires experience as
a performer; in colleges and con­
servatories, graduate degrees are
generally required, but often experi­
ence as a performer may be substi­
tuted. Maturity and a broad educa­
tional background are also important
for teaching positions.


Excellent health and unusual phys­
ical vitality are necessary for a danc­
ing career. Height and body build
should not vary much from the aver­
age. Good feet and normal arches are
required. These physical qualifica­
tions must be accompanied by a nat­
ural aptitude for dancing.
For women dancers, employment
in ballet companies is very difficult
to obtain after the age of 30, except
for outstanding stars. Women past 25
are rarely hired for Broadway shows
unless they have already had experi­
ence in such productions. Men who
are ballet dancers, and men and
women who perform in modem
dance productions, can usually con­
tinue somewhat longer. After the em­
ployable age as performers has
passed, some dancers teach in col­
leges, or conservatories, or establish
their own schools. The few who be­
come choreographers or dance di­
rectors can continue working as long
as people in most other occupations.
Employment Outlook

Opportunities in this field will be
limited both by the small number of
full-time jobs available, and the large
supply of experienced applicants seek­
ing full-time work. The supply of
trained dancers has exceeded the de­
m and for m any years. The irregular
employment experienced in this pro­
fession for many years may persist
despite a few recent union-manage­
ment contracts aimed at guaranteeing
some dancers full or near-full em­
ployment each year. Among the fac­
tors affecting demand are the decline
in the total number of stage produc­
tions because of competition from
motion pictures and television. Few
stage shows run more than 26 weeks
and many “fold” after the first week.
On the other hand, the number of
shows being produced is increasing,
and there is a growing trend toward
using professional dancers at indus­
trial exhibitions, such as auto shows.
Also, some new professional dance
companies are being developed
around FRASER
the country, and television
Digitized for

will offer some additional employ­
ment opportunities. Civic and com­
munity dance groups are increasing
in number, and opportunities for
dancers will expand as these develop
into professional groups. Nevertheless,
employment opportunities for dance
performers will remain limited, and
most of the openings for dancers in
the years ahead will stem from the
need to replace those who leave the
The employment o u t l o o k for
dancers who have the personal and
educational qualifications for teach­
ing will be much better than for those
trained only as performers. The grow­
ing interest in the dance as one of the
fine arts is contributing to the demand
for teachers of dancing. The increase
in college enrollments will be another
factor which will tend to enlarge
teaching opportunities. (See state­
ment on College and University
Men dancers face less competition
for employment than do women danc­
ers, since fewer men than women
seek dancing as a career.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Dancers who perform profession­
ally are members of one of the unions
affiliated with the Associated Actors
and Artists of A m erica (A FL —CIO).
The American Guild of Musical
Artists, Inc., is the union to which
dancers belong who perform in opera
ballets, classical ballet, and the mod­
ern dance. Dancers who perform on
television belong to the American
Federation of Television and Radio
Artists, and those who appear in
musical comedies join Actors’ Equity
Association. Dancers may also belong
to other unions, depending upon the
field in which they perform. (See
statement on Singers and Singing
Teachers.) Minimum salary rates,
hours of work, and other conditions
of employment are specified in basic
agreements signed by the unions and
the producers. In addition, the sep­
arate contract signed by each dancer
with the producer of the show has to

be at least as favorable as the basic
agreement regarding salary, hours of
work, and working conditions.
The minimum salary for dancers
in ballet and other stage productions
was $145 a week, as of mid-1967.
The minimum rate for rehearsal time
was $115 a week, except in small
ballet companies which provide $100.
for a rehearsal week. When a show
goes on tour, salaries are increased,
since dancers pay their own hotel
bills. The employer pays the cost of
first-class transportation. If a dancer
signs a contract for a brief appear­
ance in a performance on television
or a few days’ work in a movie the
minimum rate is higher, relative to
time worked. However, this differ­
ence is offset by the brevity of the
engagement and the long period
likely to be spent waiting for the next
one. A few performers, of course,
have much higher salaries. For prin­
cipals, choreographers, and stars,
salaries in stage productions ranged
from $200 to over $2,000 a week in
Some dancers qualified to teach
in schools of the ballet are able to
combine this work with engagements
as performers. A much greater num­
ber of dancer? have to supplement
their incomes by other types of work.
Salaries of teachers in the technical
schools of the ballet vary with the
location and prestige of the school.
Dancers employed as teachers in col­
leges and universities are paid on the
same basis as other faculty members.
(See statement on College and Uni­
versity Teachers.)
The normal workweek is 30 hours
spent in rehearsals and matinee and
evening performances. Extra com­
pensation is paid for hours worked
outside the normal workweek. Most
stage performances are, of course, in
the evening, and rehearsals may re­
quire very long hours, often on week­
ends and holidays. When shows are
on the road, traveling over the week­
end is often required.
Dancers are entitled to some paid
sick leave and various health and
welfare benefits provided by their

unions, to which the employers dance band, or “jazz combo”—have own concerts and appearing as
behind them many years of study and soloists with symphony orchestras.
intensive practice. As a rule, musi­ Both classical and popular musicians
cians specialize in either popular or often make recordings, either indi­
classical music; only a few play both vidually or as members of a group.
Where To Go for More Information
types professionally.
A very high proportion of all
Information on colleges and uni­ Musicians who specialize in popular musicians teach in the Nation’s
versities and conservatories of music music usually play the trumpet, schools and colleges and are seldom,
which give a major in the dance or trombone, clarinet, saxophone, or if ever, paid for performing. These
some courses in the dance, and de­ one of the “rhythm” instruments— teachers may be members of the
tails on the types of courses and other the piano, string bass, drums, or faculty of music schools or conserva­
pertinent information may be ob­ guitar. Dance bands play in night­ tories or of colleges which offer in­
tained from the Dance Directory, clubs, restaurants, and at special par­ struction in instrumental music. Some
1966 edition, compiled by the Ameri­ ties. The best known bands, jazz are music teachers in elementary or
can Association for Health, Physical groups, and solo performers some­ secondary schools where they direct
Education and Recreation, a division times give concerts and perform on vocal and instrumental music pro­
of the National Educational Associa­ television.
grams, teach general classroom music
tion, 1201 16th St. NW., Washington,
Musicians specializing in classical appreciation, and give group instruc­
D.G. 20036.
music play in opera and theater tion on an instrument. Private lessons
Information on wages and work­ orchestras, symphony orchestras, and are given by many teachers employed
ing conditions may be obtained for other kinds of performances re­ by school systems, and by performing
quiring orchestral accompaniments. musicians, either in their own studios
American Guild of Musical Artists,
The instruments played by most of or in pupils’ homes.
1841 Broadway, New York, N.Y.
these musicians are the strings, brass,
A few musicians work in the field
and wood winds. Some form small of music therapy in hospitals, and in
groups—usually a string quartet or a music libraries.
trio—to give concerts of chamber
Where Employed
Many pianists accompany vocal or
(D.O.T. 152.048 and .028; 090.168;
instrumental soloists or choral groups
091.168; and 092.228)
or provide background music in res­ An estimated 162,000 musicians
were employed in 1967. Most pro­
taurants or other places. Most orga­ fessional musicians who perform work
nists play in churches, often directing in large cities,
Nature of Work
in New
the choir. A very few exceptionally York, Chicago, principally Angeles,
and Los
Professional musicians—whether brilliant and well known musicians where Nation’s entertainment ac­
they play in a symphony orchestra, become concert artists, giving their tivities theare concentrated. Music
teachers in elementary and secondary
schools, as well as in colleges and uni­
versities, are employed all over the
country. Moreover, just about every
town and city has at least one private
music teacher. Dance bands and civic
orchestras are also located in many
communities, although in the smaller
towns, their members are usually only
part-time musicians with other regu­
lar jobs.
In addition to the people primarily
employed as musicians or music
teachers, thousands of qualified in­
strumentalists have other full-time
jobs and only occasionally work as
musicians. Most of these part-time
musicians belong to dance bands,
which are hired to play at private
parties or for special occasions.


Others, with a background in classical
music, play occasionally in an orches­
tra, become conductors or composers,
or do some part-time teaching.
Training and Other Qualifications

Most people who become profes­
sional musicians begin studying an
instrument at an early age. To achieve
a career as a performer or as a music
teacher, young people need inten­
sive training—either through private
study with an accomplished musician,
in a college or university which has a
strong music program, or in a con­
servatory of music. They need to ac­
quire not only great technical skill
but also a thorough knowledge of
music, and they must learn how to
interpret music. Before a young per­
son can qualify for advanced study
in a music conservatory or in a college
or university school of music, it is
frequently necessary to have an audi­
tion. Many of the teachers in these
schools are accomplished artists who
will train only promising young
Many conservatories of music and
college and university schools of
music offer 4-year programs leading
to a bachelor’s degree in music edu­
cation. Students who complete these
programs can qualify for the State
certificate required for elementary
and secondary school positions. Con­
servatories and collegiate music
schools also frequently award the de­
gree of bachelor of music to students
who major in instrumental or vocal
music. The 4-year program leading
to either of these degrees provides not
only training as a performer but also
a broad background in musical his­
tory and theory, together with some
liberal arts courses. Advanced degrees
are usually required for college teach­
ing positions, but exceptions may be
made for especially well-qualified
Musicians who play jazz and other
popular music must have an under­
standing of and feeling for that style
of music, but skill and training in

classical styles may expand their em­
ployment opportunities. As a rule,
when young, they take lessons with
private teachers and then seize all
opportunities, beginning while they
are still in high school, to play in ama­
teur or professional performances.
Some groups of young people form
their own small dance bands. As they
gain experience and become known,
the players may have opportunities
to audition for other local bands, and,
still later, for the better known bands
and orchestras.
Employment Outlook

As a field of employment, music
performance has been overcrowded
for many years, and it is expected to
remain so through the 1970’s. Oppor­
tunities for concerts and recitals are
not numerous enough to provide ade­
quate employment for all the pianists,
violinists, and other instrumentalists
qualified as concert artists. Competi­
tion is usually keen for positions which
afford some stability of employment—
for example, jobs with major or­
chestras and teaching positions in
conservatories and colleges and uni­
versities. Because of the ease with
which a musician can enter private
music teaching, the number of music
teachers has been and will probably
continue to be more than sufficient
to give instruction to all the young
people seeking lessons. Although
many opportunities for single and
short-term engagements playing pop­
ular music in night clubs, theaters,
and other places can be expected, the
supply of qualified musicians seeking
such jobs is likely to remain greater
than the demand. On the other hand,
a shortage of highly qualified church
organists may persist in many com­
munities during the next few years;
first-class, experienced accompanists
and well trained, outstanding players
of stringed instruments are likely to
remain relatively scarce; and public
school systems will probably continue
to need more fully qualified music
teachers and supervisors.

Employment opportunities for per­
formers are expected to increase
slightly over the long run. Although
the number of civic orchestras in
smaller communities has been grow­
ing steadily, many of these orchestras
provide only part-time employment
for musicians who work chiefly as
teachers or in other occupations.
Moreover, the openings created by
the establishment of these orchestras
have been more than offset by the
decline in opportunities in the theater,
radio, motion pictures, and other
places, which has resulted, in part,
from the greatly increased use of re­
corded music.
The employment outlook in music
education for people who are quali­
fied as teachers as well as musicians
is considerably better than for just
performers. A great increase in the
numbers of young people of high
school and college age will take place
through the 1970’s. Moreover, the
number of schools with music pro­
grams is growing steadily, and interest
in music as an avocation is also rising,
as evidenced by the increasing sales
of musical instruments. Thus, over
the long run, an increase can be ex­
pected in the employment of elemen­
tary and secondary school music
teachers and also in the teaching staffs
of college and university music
schools and conservatories of music.
Earnings and Working Conditions

The amount received for a per­
formance by either classical or popu­
lar musicians depends to a large
extent on their professional reputa­
tions. Musicians who were members
of 1 of the 26 major symphony or­
chestras in the United States in 1967
had an average annual salary of
$6,900, according to the American
Symphony Orchestras League, Inc.
The average season was 37 weeks in
1967 although the New York and
Boston symphonies had 52- and 50week seasons, respectively. Instrumen­
talists who were members of small
ensembles reportedly received as
much as $200 a concert. Those who

played in dance bands were paid from
$60 to $300 a week in 1967, according
to the limited information available.
The salaries of public school music
teachers are determined by the salary
schedule adopted for all teachers.
(See statements on Elementary and
Secondary School Teachers.) How­
ever, they frequently supplement their
earnings by giving private music les­
sons and taking church positions.
Earnings from private teaching are
very uncertain and vary according to
the musician’s reputation, the number
of teachers in the locality, the num­
ber of students desiring lessons,
and the economic status of the
Musicians who are performers cus­
tomarily work at night and on week­
ends. They must also spend consider­
able time in regular daily practice and
in rehearsing new scores.
Performers may have relatively
long periods of unemployment be­
tween jobs and, thus, the overall level
of their earnings is generally lower
than that of many other occupations.
Moreover, they do not usually work
steadily for one employer. Consesequently, some performers cannot
qualify for unemployment compensa­
tion, and few have either sick leave
or vacations with pay.
Most musicians who play profes­
sionally belong to the American Fed­
eration of Musicians (AFL-CIO).
Concert soloists also belong to the
American Guild of Musical Artists,
Inc. (AFL-CIO).


Since most singers of both classical
and popular music have only parttime or irregular employment as
singers, they often have full-time jobs
of other types and sing only in the
evenings or on weekends. Some give
American Guild of Organists,
private voice lessons. A sizable num­
630 Fifth Ave., New York, N.Y.
ber of singers are employed in ele­
A list of accredited schools of music mentary and secondary schools, where
they are qualified to teach general
is available from:
music courses and lead choruses.
National Association of Schools of
Others give voice training or direct
choral groups in churches, music con­
1501 New Hampshire Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.
servatories, or in colleges and universi­
Further information about music ties with schools or departments of
teaching in elementary and secondary music.
schools is available from:

Information about employment op­
portunities for church musicians, as
well as the requirements for certifica­
tion of organists and choir masters,
may be secured from:

Music Educators National Confer­
The National Education Association
of the United States,
1201 16th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.


(D.O.T. 152.048 and .028; 090.168;
091.168; and 092.228)
Nature of Work

Professional singing is an art which
usually requires not only a fine voice,
but also a highly developed technique
and, generally, a broad knowledge of
music. A small number of singing
stars make recordings or go on concert
tours in the United States and abroad.
Somewhat larger numbers of singers
obtain leading or supporting roles in
operas and popular music shows, or
secure engagements as soloists in ora­
torios and other types of perform­
Where To Go for More Informotion
ances. The majority of all professional
singers of classical music are soloists
Information about wages, hours of in churches or synagogues. Some
work, and working conditions for singers also become members of opera
professional musicians is available and musical comedy choruses or other
professional choral groups. Popular
music singers perform in musical
American Federation of Musicians
shows of all kinds—in the movies, on
the stage, on radio and television, and
641 Lexington Ave., New York, N.Y.
in nightclubs and other entertainment
places. The best known popular
American Guild of Musical Artists,
music singers make and sell many
1841 Broadway, New York, N.Y.

Where Employed

In 1967, almost 59,000 people were
employed as professional singers or
singing teachers. Opportunities for
singing engagements are mainly in
New York City, Los Angeles, and
Chicago—the Nation’s chief enter­
tainment centers. Nashville, Tenn.,
also is a major place of employment
for singers in both “live” perform­
ances and recordings, and for those
who specialize in folk and country
music. Persons trained as singers who
teach music in elementary and sec­
ondary schools, colleges, universities,
and conservatories of music are em­
ployed throughout the country.
Many singers are employed part-time
chiefly as church singers and choir
Training and Other Qualifications

Young people who want to per­
form professionally as singers should
acquire a broad background in music,
including its theory and history. The
ability to dance is also helpful, since
singers are sometimes required to
dance as well as to sing. In addition,
boys and girls interested in a singing
career should start piano lessons at an
early age. As a rule, voice training
should not begin until after the in­
dividual has matured physically, al­
though young boys who sing in church
choirs receive some training before



their voices change. Moreover, be­
cause of the work and expense in­
volved in voice training—which often
continues for years after the singer’s
professional career has started—it is
important that a prospective singer
show great determination and audi­
tion before a competent voice teacher
to decide whether professional train­
ing is warranted.
Young people can prepare for
careers as singers of classical music by
enrolling in a music conservatory, a
school or department of music con­
nected with a college or university, or
by taking private voice lessons. These
schools provide not only voice train­
ing, but other training necessary
for understanding and interpreting
music, including music-related train­
ing in foreign languages and some­
times dramatic training. After com­
pleting a 4-year course of study, a
graduate may be awarded either the
degree of bachelor of music, bachelor
of science or arts (in music), or bach­
elor of fine arts.
Young singers who plan to teach
music in public elementary or sec­
ondary schools need at least a bach­
elor’s degree with a major in music
education and must meet the State
certification requirements for teach­
ers. Such training is available in over
500 colleges and universities through­
out the country. College teachers are
usually required to have a master’s
degree and sometimes a doctor’s de­
gree, but exceptions may be made for
especially well-qualified artists.
Although voice training is an asset
for singers of popular music, many
with untrained voices have had suc­
cessful careers. The typical popular
song does not demand that the voice
be developed to cover as wide a range
on the musical scale as does classical
music, and the lack of voice projec­
tion may be overcome by using a
Young singers of popular songs may
become known by participating in
amateur and paid performances in
their communities. These engage­
ments may lead to employment with
local dance bands and possibly later
Digitized for better known ones.

Popular music singers reach a wider audience through recordings.

In addition to musical ability, it
often takes perseverance, an out­
standing personality, an attractive ap­
pearance, good contacts, and luck to
achieve a singing career. Further­
more, a singing career is sometimes
relatively short, since it depends on a
good voice and public acceptance of
the artist, both of which may be af­
fected by age.


and television advertising. The out­
look for singers who can meet State
certification requirements for posi­
tions as music teachers, or who can
qualify for college teaching, will be
considerably better than for per­
formers. As school enrollments in­
crease, the demand for music teach­
ers in the Nation’s elementary and
secondary schools is expected to grow,
and some increased employment of
music teachers can be expected in col­
leges and universities. In addition,
Employment Outlook
music teachers will be needed to re­
The employment situation for sing­ place those who will transfer to other
ers will probably remain highly com­ fields of work, retire, or die.
petitive through the 1970’s. Competi­
tion among popular singers will con­
tinue to be especially keen. A great Earnings and Working Conditions
number of short-term jobs are likely
to occur in the entertainment field—
Some singers employed by dance
the opera and concert stage, movies, bands and the motion picture indus­
theater, nightclubs, radio and tele­ try earn as much as $200 a week, and
vision, dance bands, and other a few well-known concert soloists,
places—but not enough to provide opera stars, and top recording artists
steady employment for all qualified of popular music may command
singers. The demand for church sing­ more than $1,000 for a performance.
ers is expected to expand because of However, the majority of professional
the continued growth in number of singers experience difficulty in ob­
religious congregations, but most of taining regular employment and
these openings will probably be filled have to supplement their singing in­
either by part-time singers who have comes by doing other types of work.
steady employment in other fields or
The salaries of public school music
by volunteers.
teachers are determined by the salary
Little growth in overall employ­ schedule adopted for all teachers in
ment opportunities for singers is their school system. Private music
likely over the long run. The use of teachers charge fees which vary
recorded music has practically re­ greatly, depending on the teacher’s
placed the “live” singer on radio; reputation, the economic status of the
also, the number of television perfor­ families in the community, and other
mances given by singers is limited, al­ factors.
Singers generally work at night and
though it may increase in future
years. However, there is a growing de­ on weekends. School teachers have
mand for singers to record popular regular working hours, and private
music and commercials for both radio voice teachers can usually give lessons

at their own convenience. Work in
the entertainment field is seasonal,
and few performers have steady jobs.
Singers who perform professionally
on the concert stage or in opera
belong to the American Guild of
Musical Artists, Inc.; those who sing
on radio or television or who make
phonograph recordings are members
of the American Federation of Tele­
vision and Radio Artists; singers in
the variety and night club field belong
to the American Guild of Variety
Artists; those who sing in musical
comedy and operettas belong to the
Actors’ Equity Association; and those
who sing in the movies belong to the
Screen Actors Guild, Inc. All of these
unions are branches of the Associated
Actors and Artists of America (AFLCIO).
Where To Go for More Information

Information about accredited
schools and departments of music
may be obtained from:
National Association of Schools of
1501 New Hampshire Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

Further information about music
teaching in elementary and second­
ary schools is available from:
Music Educators National Confer­
The National Education Association
of the United States,
1201 16th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.

Information concerning salary and
working conditions is available from:
American Guild of Musical Artists,
1841 Broadway, New York, N.Y.



(D.O.T. 141.031 and .081, 970.281 and
.381, and 979.381)

and mechanical men, who cut and
paste together the basic parts of the
advertisement or other artwork, using
a ruling pen and other drafting tools.
Some workers, called general boardmen, spend nearly all their time at
the drawing board performing many
of these specializations. Often sup­
porting the general boardmen or
other specialists are apprentices who
engage primarily in mechanical, rou­
tine, and noncreative functions such
as separating colors, ruling pen work,
washing paintbrushes, cutting mats,
running errands, and so forth.
In a small office, the art director
may perform the layout and boardwork himself, with the aid of appren­

tices. In a large office he may be re­
sponsible mainly for developing ideas
with the layout man; setting stand­
ards; dealing with clients; and pur­
chasing needed photographs, illustra­
tions, lettering, and other art work
from freelancers or art services.
Much of the advertising artists’
work is in creating the concept and
artwork for a wide variety of promo­
tional items or “collateral material”
(including direct mail advertising,
booklets, folders, brochures, catalogs,
counter displays, etc.) used to supple­
ment newspaper and magazine ads
or television commercials. They also
may prepare slides, film strips, and
other visual aids.

Nature of Work

The artwork appearing in news­
paper and magazine advertisements,
on billboard posters, brochures, cata­
logs, and television commercials often
is created by a team of commercial
artists. The art director supervises a
group of artists of varying levels of
skill and diverse specializations. He
may develop the art aspects of an ad­
vertising plan which he turns over to
a layout man for further refinement.
The layout artist works up the con­
struction or arrangement of the ele­
ments of the advertisement, planning
the selection and layout of illustra­
tions, photographs, and typography
and determining color and other ele­
ments of design. Then he prepares a
“rough visual” or sketch. After con­
sulting with the director, he may
make changes in the visual and com­
plete a more comprehensive layout
for the customer’s consideration.
Working with the layout man in
turning out the finished product are
a variety of specialists such as Tender­
ers, who make rough pastel or wash
drawings; letterers, who execute ap­
propriate lettering either freehand or
with mechanical aids; illustrators,
who make sketches and drawings in
more finished form; and paste-up
2 6 2 -0 5 7 0 — 68-



Commercial artists also create the
formats of magazines and other pub­
lications, designing or laying out the
editorial pages and features and pro­
ducing or purchasing the necessary
illustrations or artwork. Some com­
mercial artists specialize in fashion
illustrations, greeting cards, book il­
lustrations, or in technical drawings
for industry.
Where Employed

An estimated 50,000 commercial
artists were employed in early 1967;
about one-fourth were women. Most
commercial artists are employed in
big cities, such as New York, Chi­
cago, Philadelphia, Los Angeles, and
Detroit, where the largest users of
commercial art are to be found. Some,
however, are employed in nearly
every city.
Most commercial artists are em­
ployed as staff artists on a regular
salaried basis by advertising agencies,
commercial art studios, advertising
departments of large companies,
printing and publishing firms, textile
companies, television and motion
picture studios, department stores,
sign shops, mail-order houses, greet­
ing card companies, and a variety of
other business organizations. Many
work as freelance artists, selling their
artwork to any available customers—
chiefly to the same kinds of organiza­
tions that employ salaried artists.
Some salaried commercial artists also
do freelance work in their spare time.
A number of commercial artists work
for Federal Government agencies,
principally in the Defense Depart­
ment. A few teach in art schools on
a regular or part-time basis.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

Artistic ability and good taste are
the most important qualifications for
success in the field of commercial art,
but it is essential that these qualities
be developed by specialized training
in the techniques of commercial and


applied art. In addition, extensive
education in the fine arts—painting,
sculpture, or architecture—and in
academic studies provides a good
foundation for obtaining employment
in commercial art and is essential for
promotion to higher level jobs.
The most widely accepted training
for commercial art is the instruction
given in art schools or institutes that
specialize in commercial and applied
art. To enter art school, a high school
education usually, but not always, is
required. Some schools admit only
those applicants who demonstrate
talent by submitting acceptable work
samples. The course of study, which
may include some academic work,
generally takes 2 or 3 years, and a
certificate is awarded on graduation.
A growing number of art schools, par­
ticularly those in or connected with
universities, require 4 or more years
of study and confer a bachelor’s de­
gree—commonly the bachelor of fine
arts (B.F.A.). In these schools, com­
mercial art instruction is supple­
mented by liberal arts courses such
as English and history. Limited train­
ing in commercial art also may be
obtained through public vocational
high schools, private home-study
schools, and practical experience on
the job, but supplemental training
usually is needed for advancement.
The first year in art school may be
devoted primarily to the study Of
fundamentals—perspective, design,
color harmony, composition—and to
the use of pencil, crayon, pen and ink,
and other art media. Subsequent
study, generally more specialized, in­
cludes drawing from life, advertising
design, graphic design, lettering, ty­
pography, illustrations, and other
courses in the student’s particular
field of interest.
Accomplished draftsmanship, imag­
ination, and artistic judgment con­
cerning the harmony of color and
line are basic requirements for a suc­
cessful career in commercial art. The
various specialties, however, differ in
some of the specific abilities required.
For example, letterers and retouchers
must be able to do precise and de­

tailed work requiring excellent co­
ordination, whereas illustrators and
designers need imagination, a distinc­
tive art style, and, in most cases, the
ability to draw well. Some experience
with photography is useful to those
interested in art direction or design.
For commercial artists engaged in
freelance work, the ability to sell both
ideas and finished work to clients is
very important. Also, a business sense
and responsibility in meeting dead­
lines are assets. Art directors need a
strong educational background not
only in art and business practices, but
also in the liberal arts. Advertising art
directors require a special kind of cre­
ativity—the ability to conceive ideas
that will stimulate the sale of the
clients’ products or services.
Beginning commercial artists usu­
ally need some on-the-job training
before they can qualify for other than
strictly routine work. Advancement is
based largely on the individual’s ar­
tistic talent, creative ability, and edu­
cation. After considerable experience,
many commercial artists leave sal­
aried employment for freelance work.
Most commercial artists assemble
their best artwork into a folder, or
“portfolio,” to use in displaying their
work. A good portfolio is essential in
obtaining initial employment and
freelance assignments as well as in
changing jobs.
Employment Outlook

Employment and advancement op­
portunities for talented and welltrained commercial artists in most
kinds of work are expected to be good
through the 1970’s. Young people
with only average ability and little
specialized training, however, will en­
counter competition for beginning
jobs and will have limited opportun­
ity for advancement.
The demand for commercial artists
will continue to vary with the kind
of specialization: For example, op­
portunities for illustrators, except
those who are well established and
have a unique style, are expected to
continue to decline, largely because of


increasing use of photography in ad­
vertising and editorial features. De­
mand for paste-up and mechanical
artists is expected to increase but jobs
for designers, art directors, and layout
men are few, much sought after, and
open only to experienced, highly tal­
ented, and creative artists.
Among the factors underlying an
expected slow increase in employment
of commercial artists through the
1970’s is the upward trend in business
expenditures for all kinds of visual
advertising. Demand for television
graphics, packaging design, poster
and window displays, and greeting
cards will create some increase in the
employment of commercial artists. In
addition, the growing field of indus­
trial design is expected to require the
services of more artists who are quali­
fied to perform three dimensional
work with engineering concepts. (See
statement on Industrial Designers.)
Women with exceptional artistic
talent will continue to find employ­
ment in all aspects of commercial art
work, but particularly in the textile
industry and as fashion illustrators in
department stores.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In early 1967, beginning commer­
cial artists with no training beyond
vocational high school typically
earned $60 a week; graduates of 2year professional schools generally re­
ceived $70 a week, and graduates of
4-year post-high school programs typ­
ically received $75 to $85 a week, ac­
cording to the limited data available.
Talented artists with strong educa­
tional backgrounds and a good port­
folio, however, sometimes started at
higher salaries. After a few years of
experience, qualified artists may ex­
pect to earn $100 to $150 a week or
more. Art directors, designers, execu­
tives, well-known freelance illustra­
tors, and others in top positions gen­
erally have much higher earnings,
many beyond $15,000 a year.
The earnings of freelance artists
have an especially wide range, since

they are affected by such factors as
the amount of artwork sold, the price
that the individual artist receives for
his work, and the nature of the work
he performs. In 1967, a freelancer
received from $25 for a single black
and white fashion sketch to $750 for
a figure in full color with a back­
ground; from $1,000 to $2,000 for a
color cover for a national magazine;
or from $75 to $250 for a book jacket.
Sometimes freelance artists are paid
for their services by the hour; paste­
up and mechanical artists may be
paid $4 to $8 an hour or more.
Salaried commercial artists gen­
erally work 35 to 40 hours a week,
but sometimes they must work addi­
tional hours and under a considerable
amount of pressure in order to meet
deadlines. Freelance artists usually
have irregular working hours.

(D.O.T. 142.081)
Nature of Work

Industrial designers combine tech­
nical knowledge of materials, ma­
chines, and methods of production
with artistic talent to improve the ap­
pearance and functional design of
machine-made products. Since the
public has a wide choice of styles in
products such as radios, television sets,
automobiles, refrigerators, and furni­
ture, a primary objective of the indus­
trial designer is to design his employ­
er’s product to compete favorably
with similar goods.
As a first step, the industrial de­
signer spends time doing historical re­
search on the product or related prod­
ucts. He studies competition in the
market and the ways in which the
product may be used. Then, he
sketches a variety of possible designs,
which are examined from many
points of view. For example, the de­
signer consults engineers, production
supervisors, and the sales and market
research staff for their opinions on the

practicability of producing a newly
designed product, or changing the
design of an old product, and the sales
potential of the proposed designs.
After the most suitable design is se­
lected by company officials, a model
may be made by the designer. The
first model of a new design is often
made of clay so that it can be altered
easily to reflect modifications. The
'final or working model is usually
made of the material to be used in
the finished product. If the model is
approved in this form, it is put into
Industrial designers also may be
called upon to do related types of
work. For example, they may design
containers and packages, prepare
small exhibits for display purposes, or
design the entire layout for indus­
trial fairs. Some also design the in­
terior layout of special purpose com­
mercial buildings, such as gasoline
stations and supermarkets.
Industrial designers employed by a
manufacturing company usually find
their work limited to the one or few
products made by their employer;
many senior designers, however, are
now given a free hand to engage in
long-range planning for new or di­
versified products.. Designers who
work as consultants to more than one
industrial firm, either as freelance
designers or as members of consult­
ing firms, may plan and design a great
variety of nroduc.ts.


Where Employed

Most of the estimated 10,000 in­
dustrial designers in early 1967 were
employed by large manufacturing
companies and by design consulting
firms. Of the remainder, the greatest
number did freelance work or com­
bined salaried employment with it.
Some also worked for architects, and
a few were on the staffs of firms of
interior designers.
Industrial designers employed by
consulting firms are located mainly
in large cities. For example, the New
York and Chicago areas have the
largest number of design consulting
organizations. Those employed by in­
dustrial firms are found most often
in the manufacturing plants of their
Training, Other Qualifications, and

The completion of a course of
study in industrial design—in an art
school, an art department of a uni­
versity, or a technical college—is the
usual requirement for entering this
field of work. People from other areas,
however, notably engineering and
architecture, m ay qualify as in­
dustrial designers if they have ap­
propriate experience and artistic
Formal education in industrial de­
sign at the college or university level
usually takes at least 4 years to com­
plete, and a few schools require 5
years of study. These schools award
the bachelor’s degree in industrial
design or fine arts; about half of
these schools also award the master’s
degree for advanced study in the
field. Some schools, usually private
art schools or those associated with
large art museums, offer a 3-year
course of study in industrial design
which leads to a diploma. In the past
few years, however, some art and
museum schools have moved toward
accreditation or affiliation with a uni­
versity. If accredited or affiliated,
they usually offer a 4-year program
and the bachelor’s degree.

Entrance to the course of study in
industrial design is limited, with rare
exceptions, to qualified high school
graduates; in addition, some schools
may require students to present
sketches and other examples of their
artistic ability. Some schools also re­
quire students to complete their
freshman or sophomore years before
they select an industrial design major.
Industrial design curriculums dif­
fer considerably among schools. Some
schools stress the engineering and
technical aspects of the field, and
others give students a strong cultural
background in art. Nevertheless, most
industrial design curriculums include
at least one course in two-dimen­
sional design (color theory, spatial
organization, etc.) and one in gen­
eral three-dimensional design (ab­
stract sculpture and art structures),
including a substantial amount of
studio practice in the actual design of
three-dimensional products. In the
studio course, students learn to make
working drawings and models with
clay, wood, plaster, and other easily
worked materials. In schools that
have the necessary machinery, stu­
dents gain experience in making
models of their designs while learning
to use metalworking and woodwork­
ing machinery. Some schools require
the completion of courses in basic
engineering and in the composition of
materials. All schools which offer 4or 5-year courses leading to a bach­
elor’s degree also include academic
subjects, such as English, history, psy­
chology, economics, and science, in
their curriculums.
Creative ability, skill in drawing,
and the ability to anticipate con­
sumer needs are the most important
personal qualifications needed by
young people aspiring to work in this
field. A mechanical interest is also
desirable for some types of work.
Applicants for jobs will find it helpful
to have previously assembled a “port­
folio” which demonstrates their skill
in designing and their creative talent.
Since industrial designers are fre­
quently required to work coopera­
tively with engineers and other staff

members, ability to work and com­
municate well with others is im­
portant. Young people who plan to
practice industrial designing on a
consulting basis should have a knowl­
edge of business practices, and possess
sales ability.
New graduates of industrial de­
sign courses frequently start as as­
sistants to other designers. They are
usually given relatively simple as­
signments which do not involve mak­
ing structural changes in the product.
As they gain experience, designers
may be assigned to supervisory posi­
tions with major responsibility for
the design of a product or a group of
products. Those who have an estab­
lished reputation in the field, as well
as the necessary funds, may open their
own consulting firms.
Employment Outlook

Employment in this relatively small
occupation is expected to expand
moderately through the 1970’s. Em­
ployers will be actively seeking appli­
cants with a college degree and out­
standing talent. Some employment
opportunities will also arise each year
from the need to replace designers
who retire or leave the field for other
reasons. Although these vacated posi­
tions are likely to be filled by promot­
ing designers’ assistants, such pro­
motions result in openings at the
entry level.
A number of factors will affect em­
ployment of industrial designers.
Rapid obsolescence of household and
commercial equipment and the rising
population will increase the demand
for newly designed products. As in
the past, manufacturers will strive
to hold or increase their share of these
markets through the creation of
new products, improvements in the
design of existing ones, and change in
package designs and other modern­
izations in the appearance and use of
their products. Small companies prob­
ably will make increasing use of serv­
ices offered by industrial design
consulting firms in order to compete
more effectively with larger firms. All


of these factors, in addition to rising
per capita income, will contribute to
long-term growth in the employment
of industrial designers. However, as
in the past, new entrants trained
specifically in industrial designing are
likely to encounter keen competition
for beginning jobs from persons with
engineering, architectural, and re­
lated educational backgrounds who
have artistic and creative talent as
well. Also, since personnel needs in
this profession are very closely related
to general business conditions, any
downturn in the economy would tend
to affect adversely the employment

National Association of Schools of
50 Astor PL, New York, N.Y. 10003.

(D.O.T. 142.051)

Nature of Work

The creative work of interior de­
signers and decorators enhances the
attractiveness of our homes and other
buildings. Designers and decorators
plan the functional arrangement of
interior space and coordinate the se­
lection (including colors) of furni­
ture, draperies and other fabrics,
floor coverings, and interior acces­
Starting salaries of inexperienced
industrial designers employed by
manufacturing firms ranged from
$125 to $150 a week in 1966, accord­
ing to the limited information avail­
able. Beginning salaries of those em­
ployed by consulting firms were
usually lower. Salaries of experienced
industrial designers vary greatly, de­
pending on individual ability, size
and type of firm in which employed,
and other factors. According to scat­
tered reports, those with several
years of experience earned salaries
ranging from $8,000 to $14,000 an­
nually. Some large manufacturing
firms paid $25,000 or more to ex­
perienced and talented designers.
Earnings of industrial designers
who own their consulting firms, alone
or as members of a partnership, may
fluctuate markedly from year to year.
In recent years, earnings of most
consultants ranged beween $12,000
and $20,000, a few outstanding in­
dustrial designers earned as much as

sories. They may work on the interiors
of residential or commercial struc­
tures, as well as ships and aircraft.
Some design stage sets used for mo­
tion pictures and television. Interior
designers are more concerned than
decorators with space planning and
other interior design; they often work
for clients on large design projects
such as the interior of an entire office
building. Generally, their plans in­
clude the complete layout of the
rooms within the space allowed by
the exterior walls and other frame­
work. Sometimes they redesign the
interiors of old structures. When their
plans have been completed, the
architect checks them against his
blueprints to assure compliance with
building requirements and to solve
structural problems. Some interior

Where To Go for More Information

Industrial Designers Society of
60 West 55th St., New York, N.Y.

Interior designer discusses fabric selection with client.

designers also design the furniture and
accessories to be use in interiors and
then arrange for their manufacture.
Many professionals in this field
have their own establishments, either
alone or as a member of a firm with
other designers and decorators; they
may sell some or all of the merchan­
dise with which they work. Some
work independently, or with one as­
sistant; others have large staffs, some­
times including salespeople.
Many of the larger department and
furniture stores have separate depart­
ments of interior decorating or in­
terior design, or both, to advise
customers on decorating and design
plans. The main function of these de­
partments is to help sell the store’s
merchandise, although materials
from outside sources may be used
when they are essential to the plans
developed for the customer. Depart­
ment store decorators and designers
frequently advise the stores’ buyers
and executives concerning style and
color trends in interior furnishings.
Interior designers and decorators
usually work directly with clients to
determine preferences and needs in
furnishings. They may do “boardwork,” particularly on large assign­
ments, which includes work on floor
plans and elevations and creation of
sketches, or other perspective draw­
ings in such media as watercolor,
pastels, or tempera, so clients can vis­
ualize their plans. They also provide
cost estimates. After the client ap­
proves both the plans and cost esti­
mates, arrangements are made for
the purchase of the furnishings; for
the supervision of the work of paint­
ers, floor finishers, cabinetmakers,
carpetlayers, and other craftsmen;
and for the installation and arrange­
ment of furnishings.
Where Employed

More than 15,000 people were en­
gaged full time in interior design
and decoration in early 1967. About
half of them were women. Men,
 predominate in interior de­


sign. Many in design and decorating
work on a part-time basis.
The majority of all workers in this
field are located in large cities. In re­
cent years, large department and fur­
niture stores have become increasingly
important sources of employment for
professional interior designers and
decorators. Some designers and deco­
rators have permanent jobs with
hotel and restaurant chains. Others
are employed by architects, antique
dealers, office furniture stores, indus­
trial designers, furniture and textile
manufacturers, or other manufac­
turers in the interior furnishing field,
or by periodicals that feature articles
on homefumishings. Some large in­
dustrial corporations employ interior
designers on a permanent basis.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

Formal training in interior design
and decoration is becoming increas­
ingly important for entrance into this
field of work, although many present
members of the profession achieved
success without such training. Most
department stores, well-established
design and decorating firms and other
major employers will accept only pro­
fessionally trained people for begin­
ning jobs. Usually, the minimum
educational requirement is comple­
tion of either a 2- or 3-year course at
a recognized art school or institute
specializing in interior decorating and
design, or a 4-year college course
leading to a bachelor’s degree with a
major in interior design and decora­
tion. The course of study in interior
design and decoration usually in­
cludes the principles of design, history
of art, freehand and mechanical
drawing, painting, the study of the
essentials of architecture as they relate
to interiors, design of furniture and
exhibitions, and study of various ma­
terials, such as woods, metals, plastics,
and fabrics. A knowledge of furnish­
ings, art pieces, and antiques is
important. In addition, courses in
salesmanship, business arithmetic,

and other business subjects are of
great value.
Membership in either the Ameri­
can Institute of Interior Designers
(AID) or the National Society of
Interior Designers (NSID), both pro­
fessional societies, is a recognized
mark of achievement in this profes­
sion. Such membership usually re­
quires the completion of 4 years or
more of post-high school education,
the major emphasis having been on
training in design, and several years
of practical experience in the field,
including responsibility for super­
vision of all aspects of decorating
New graduates with training in in­
terior design and decorating usually
serve a training period, either with
decorating firms, in department
stores, or in the firm of an established
designer. They may act as a reception­
ist, as a shopper with the task of
matching materials or finding accesso­
ries, or as a stockroom assistant, assist­
ant decorator, or junior designer. In
most instances, from 1 to 3 years of
on-the-job training is required before
a trainee is considered eligible for ad­
vancement to the job of decorator.
Beginners who do not obtain trainee
jobs often work as salespeople for
fabric, lamp, or other interior furnish­
ings concerns, to gain experience both
in dealing with customers and to be­
come familiar with the merchandise.
This experience often makes it easier
to obtain trainee jobs with a decorat­
ing firm or department; it may also
lead to a career in merchandising.
After considerable experience, dec­
orators and designers with ability
may advance to head of decorating
or design departments, interior fur­
nishings coordinator, or to other
supervisory positions in department
stores, or in large decorating or de­
sign firms; if they have the necessary
funds, they may open their own
establishments. Talented workers usu­
ally advance rapidly.
Artistic talent, imagination, good
business judgment, and the ability to
deal with people are important assets
for success in this field.

Employment Outlook

Talented art school or college
graduates who majored in interior
design and decoration will find
good opportunities for employment
through the 1970’s. Applicants who
can design and plan the functional
arrangement of interior space will be
in strong demand. Young people
without formal training will find it
increasingly difficult to enter the field.
A slow but steady increase in em­
ployment of interior designers and
decorators is anticipated through the
1970’s. Population growth, larger ex­
penditures for home and office fur­
nishings, the increasing availability of
well-designed furnishings at moderate
prices, a growing recognition among
middle-income families of the value
of decorators’ services, and increasing
use of design services for commercial
establishments should contribute to a
greater demand for these workers. In
addition to newly created jobs, some
openings will arise each year from the
need to replace designers and deco­
rators who die, retire, or leave the
field for other reasons.
Department and furniture stores
are expected to employ an increasing
number of trained decorators and de­
signers. These stores are also expected
to share in the growing volume of
design and decorating work for com­

mercial establishments and public
buildings, formerly handled almost
entirely by independent decorators.
This development will result in in­
creased opportunities in salaried em­
ployment. Interior design firms are
also expected to continue to expand.
However, employment of interior
decorators and designers is sensitive
to changes in general economic con­
ditions because people often defer
these kinds of expenditures when the
economy slows down.
Earnings and Working Conditions

selves have an especially wide range
of earnings; their profits are related
to factors such as the volume of busi­
ness, their prestige as a decorator,
economic level of their clients, their
own business competence, and the
percentage of wholesale prices they
receive from sale of furnishings.
Decorators and designers in the em­
ployment of others also have variable
earnings. Some are paid straight sal­
aries ; some receive salaries plus com­
missions which usually range from 5
to 10 percent of the value of their
sales; others receive commissions
only, which may be as much as onethird of the value of their sales.
Hours of work for decorators are
sometimes long and irregular. They
usually adjust their workday to suit
the needs of their clients, meeting
with them during the evenings or on
weekends, when necessary. Designers’
schedules follow a more regular
workday pattern.

Beginning salaries ranged generally
from $70 to $90 a week in early 1967
for art school or college graduates
with formal training in interior de­
sign and decoration; some graduates
of 4-year design schools received
salaries of $100 or more a week, ac­
cording to limited data available.
Many interior decorators with only
average skill in this field earn only
moderate incomes—from $5,000 to Where To Go for More Information
$7,500 a year, even after some years
of experience. Talented decorators
Information about employment
who are well known in their localities and scholarship opportunities may be
may earn up to $12,000 or more. obtained from:
Designers and decorators whose abili­ National Society of Interior Design­
ties are nationally recognized may
ers, Inc.
earn well beyond $25,000 yearly.
Suite 700, 157 West 57th St., New
Decorators in business for them­
York, N.Y. 10019.


The social sciences are concerned
with all aspects of human society
from the origins of man to the latest
election returns. Social scientists,
however, generally specialize in one
major field of human relationships.
Anthropologists study primitive
tribes, reconstruct civilizations of the
past, and analyze the cultures and
languages of all peoples past and
present. Economists study how man
allocates resources of land, labor, and
capital. Geographers study the dis­
tribution throughout the world of
people, types of land and water
masses, and natural resources. His­
torians describe and interpret the
people and events of the past and
present. Political scientists study the
theories, objectives, and organiza­
tions of all types of government. So­
ciologists analyze the behavior and
relationships of groups—such as the
family, the community, and minor­
ities—to the individual or to society.
Besides these basic social science
fields, there are a number of closely
related fields, some of which are cov­
ered in separate statements elsewhere
in this Handbook. (See statements
on Statisticians, Psychologists, and
Social Workers.)
About 50,000 people were em­
ployed professionally in the basic
social sciences in 1966. About 1 of
every 10 was a woman. Overlapping
among the basic social science fields
and the sometimes hazy distinction
between these and such related fields
as business administration, foreign

service work, and high school teach­
ing, make it difficult to determine the
exact size of each profession. Econ­
omists, however, are the largest so­
cial science group, and anthropolo­
gists the smallest.
The majority of social scientists are
employed by colleges and universities.
The Federal Government is the sec­
ond largest employer. Except for
economists, private industry employs
comparatively few persons in social
science professions; however, there
is a trend in some industries toward
hiring increasing numbers of college
graduates who have majored in the
social sciences as trainees for admin­
istrative and executive positions. Re­
search councils and other nonprofit
organizations provide an important
source of employment for economists,
political scientists, and sociologists.
Employment in the social sciences
has been increasing and is expected
to grow rapidly through the 1970’s,
mainly because of the anticipated rise
in college teaching positions. The rea­
sons for this expected increase are
discussed in the statement on College
and University Teachers. A moderate
rise in employment in government
also is expected. Employment in gov­
ernment agencies is often greatly af­
fected by changes in public policy.
For example, more social scientists
will be needed to handle research and
administrative functions resulting
from the new programs established
by Congress to relieve unemployment
and remove poverty. The Vocational
Education Act of 1963, the Eco­
nomic Opportunity Act of 1964, and
the Appalachian Regional Develop­
ment Act of 1965 are recent pro­
grams that will increase the demand
for social science personnel. A mod­
erate rise in employment in private
industry and nonprofit organizations
also is expected. In addition, hun­
dreds of social scientists will be
needed each year to replace those
who leave the field because of retire­
ment, death, or other reasons.
Social scientists with doctor’s de­
grees will find excellent employment
opportunities through the 1970’s, in
both teaching and nonteaching posi­

tions. For those with less training, the
employment situation will differ con­
siderably among the several social
science fields. These differences are
discussed in the occupational state­
ments that follow.

(D.O.T. 055.088)
Nature of Work

Anthropologists study primitive
and civilized man—his origins, phys­
ical characteristics, customs, lan­
guages, traditions, material posses­
sions, and social and religious beliefs
and practices. Most anthropologists
specialize in cultural anthropology—
usually archeology or ethnology.
Archeologists excavate the places
where earlier civilizations are buried
in order to reconstruct the history and
customs of the people who once lived
there, by studying the remains of
homes, tools, clothing, ornaments,
and other evidences of human life and
activity. For example, archeologists
are digging in the Pacific Coast area
between northern Mexico and Ec­
uador to find evidences of trade and
migration in the pre-Christian Era.
Some archeologists are excavating
ancient Mayan cities in Mexico and
restoring temples. Others are working
in the Missouri river valley to salvage
remnants of Indian villages and sites
of early military forts and trading
posts. Ethnologists may spend long
periods living among primitive tribes
or in other communities, to learn
about their ways of life. The ethnol­
ogist takes detailed and comprehen­
sive notes describing the social cus­
toms, beliefs, and material possessions
of the people, usually learning their
language in the process. He also may
make comparative studies of the cul­
tures and societies of various groups.
Some cultural anthropologists special­
ize in linguistics, the scientific study
of the sounds and structures of lan­
guages and of the historical relation­
ships among languages.



A few hundred people specialize as
physical anthropologists. These an­
thropologists apply intensive training
in human anatomy and biology to the
study of human evolution, and to the
scientific measurement of the physical
differences among the races and
groups of mankind. Because of their
knowledge of body structure, physical
anthropologists are occasionally em­
ployed as consultants on such projects
as the design of more comfortable
space suits and cockpits for astronauts.
Most anthropologists teach in col­
leges and universities and often com­
bine research with their teaching.
Some anthropologists specialize in
museum work, which generally com­
bines management and administra­
tive duties with fieldwork and re­
search on anthropological collections.
A few are engaged primarily in con­
sulting, nontechnical writing, or other
Philippine Hanunoo tribesman shows anthropologist how folklore is inscribed in bamboo.

Where Employed

About 2,700 people were employed
as anthropologists in 1967. About a
fifth of them were women. The great
majority were employed in colleges
and universities. The Federal Gov­
ernment employed a considerable
number, chiefly in museums, national
parks, and in technical aid programs.
The Government agencies which
employed the largest number of
anthropologists were the Smithso­
nian Institution and the National
Park Service. Many other Govern­
ment agencies, including the Depart­
ments of Defense and of Health, Edu­
cation, and Welfare, employed some
members of the profession, mainly as
consultants. State and local govern­
ment agencies also employed some
anthropologists, usually for museum
work or health research. A few were
employed in private industry and
nonprofit organizations.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

Young people who are interested
in careers in anthropology should ob-

tain Ph. D. degrees. College graduates with bachelor’s degrees can ob­
tain temporary positions and assistantships in the graduate departments
where they are working for advanced
degrees. A master’s degree, plus field
experience, is sufficient for many be­
ginning professional positions, but
promotion to top positions is gener­
ally reserved for individuals holding
the Ph. D. degree. In many colleges,
and most universities, only anthro­
pologists holding the Ph. D. degree
can obtain permanent teaching ap­
Some training in physical anthro­
pology, archeology, and ethnology is
necessary for all anthropologists.
Courses in linguistics also are valu­
able and are required for certain areas
of work. A knowledge of mathemat­
ics is increasingly important since sta­
tistical methods and high speed com­
puter technology are becoming more
widely used for research in this field.
Undergraduate students may begin
their field training in archeology by
arranging, through their university
department, to accompany expedi­
tions as laborers. They may advance

to supervisory positions in charge of
the digging or collection of material
and may finally take charge of a por­
tion of the work of the expedition.
Ethnologists and linguists usually do
their fieldwork alone, without direct
supervision. Most anthropologists
base their doctoral dissertations on
data collected through field research;
they are, therefore, experienced fieldworkers by the tim e they obtain the
Ph. D. degree.
The choice of a graduate school is
very important. Students interested in
museum work should select a school
that can provide experience in an
associated museum having anthropo­
logical collections. Similarly, those in­
terested in archeology should choose
a university which offers opportuni­
ties for summer experience in archeo­
logical fieldwork or should plan to
attend an archeological field school
elsewhere during their summer vaca­
Employment Outlook

The number of anthropologists is
expected to increase very rapidly

throughout the 1970’s. The largest
increase in employment will be in the
college teaching field. Some addi­
tional positions will be found in mu­
seums, archeological research pro­
grams, mental and public health
programs, and in community survey
work. Opportunities in other fields
are likely to be limited largely to the
replacement of personnel who retire,
die, or leave their positions for other
Anthropologists holding the doc­
torate are expected to have excellent
employment opportunities through­
out the 1970’s. Employment oppor­
tunities also should be favorable for
those who have fulfilled all require­
ments for the Ph. D. degree except
the dissertation. Graduates with only
the master’s degree, however, are
likely to face persistent competition
for professional positions in anthro­
pology and may enter related fields
of work. A few who meet certification
requirements may secure high school
teaching positions. Others may find
jobs in public administration and in
nonprofit organizations and civic
groups, which prefer personnel with
social science training as a general

Average (median) salaries of
anthropologists employed by colleges
and universities were $12,500 for the
calendar year in 1966; assistant pro­
fessors, $9,300; associate professors,
$13,200; and professors, $16,000 ac­
cording to the National Science Foun­
dation’s National Register of Scien­
tific and Technical Personnel.
In the Federal Government, the
starting salary for anthropologists
completing all the requirements for
the Ph. D. degree was $9,221 in early
In general, anthropologists holding
the Ph. D. degree earn substantially
higher salaries than those with the
master’s degree. Many anthropolo­
gists supplement their regular salaries
with earnings from other sources.
Summer teaching and research grants


are the principal sources of income.
Anthropologists employed in colleges
and universities are the most likely
to have additional earnings.
Where To Go for More Information

Additional information concerning
employment opportunities and schools
offering graduate training in anthro­
pology may be obtained from the fol­
lowing sources:
A n th ro p o lo g y A s A C a reer,

nian Institution,
Washington, D.C. 20560.


The American Anthropological As­
3700 Massachusetts Ave. NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20016.

(D.O.T. 050.088)
Nature of Work

Economists study man’s activities
devoted to satisfying human wants.
They are concerned with the prob­
lems which arise in utilizing limited
resources of land, raw materials, man­
power, and manufactured products
so as to meet, as well as possible,
people’s many unsatisfied wants. In
this connection, they may analyze the
relation between the supply of and
demand for goods and services, and
the ways in which goods are ex­
changed, produced, distributed, and
consumed. Some economists are con­
cerned with such practical problems
as the control of inflation, the pre­
vention of depression, and the devel­
opment of farm, wage, tax, and tariff
policies. Others develop theories to
explain the causes of employment and
unemployment or the ways in which
international trade influences world
economic conditions. Still others are
engaged in the collection and inter­
pretation of data on a wide variety of
economic problems.
Economists are employed as teach­
ers in colleges and universities, and

as researchers in government agen­
cies, private industry, and nonprofit
research organizations. As teachers,
they guide students in learning the
principles and methods of economics,
and frequently engage in writing,
lecturing, or consulting activities.
They also do research in economic
theory and formulate many of the
new ideas that directly or indirectly
influence government and industry
Most economists in the Federal
Government are in the fields of agri­
culture, business, or labor economics,
or in international trade and develop­
ment. They may plan and carry out
studies involving the collection of
basic data in these fields, use these
and other data to analyze the need for
changes in government policy, assess
the economic condition of the Nation,
write reports on their findings, and
present these reports before policy­
making bodies.
Economists employed by business
firms provide management with in­
formation to be used in making de­
cisions on such matters as the markets
for and prices of company products,
recommendations regarding govern­
ment policies affecting business Or
international trade, the advisability
of adding new lines of merchandise,
opening new branch operations, or
otherwise expanding the company’s
Where Employed

Economics is the largest of the basic
social science fields. About 20,000
people were employed as economists
in 1967. Roughly one-third were em­
ployed by colleges and universities
and another third worked for govern­
ment agencies—chiefly Federal. Most
of the remainder were employed by
private industry or worked for private
research agencies and community or­
ganizations. A few were self-em­
ployed, acting as consultants.
Economists are found in all large
cities and in university towns. The
largest group is in the Washington,
D.C., area, where most of those in the



Federal Government are located. A
substantial number of economists are
employed in foreign countries, mainly
by the U.S. Department of State, in­
cluding the Agency for International
Most economists in private industry
are employed in the home office of
large corporations, particularly in
New York City and Chicago.
Training and Other Qualifications

All economists must have a thor­
ough grounding in economic theory,
economic history, and methods of
economic analysis. An increasing
number of universities also emphasize
the value of mathematical methods
of economic analysis. Since many be­
ginning jobs for economists in gov­
ernment and business involve the
collection and compilation of data,
a thorough knowledge of basic statis­
tical procedures is usually required.
A bachelor’s degree with a major
in economics is sufficient for many
beginning research jobs in govern­
ment and private industry, although
persons employed in such entry jobs
are not always regarded as profes­
sional economists. In the Federal
Government, candidates for entrance
positions must have a minimum of 21
semester hours of economics and 3
hours of statistics, accounting, or
Graduate training is very important
for young people planning to become
economists. Students interested in re­
search should select schools that em­
phasize training in research methods
and statistics and provide good re­
search facilities. Those who wish to
work in agricultural economics will
find good opportunities to gain ex­
perience in part-time research work
at State universities having agricul­
tural experiment stations.
The master’s degree is generally
required for appointment as a college
instructor, although in large schools
graduate assistantships often are
awarded to superior students work­
ing toward their master’s degree. In
many large colleges and universities,

completion of all the requirements
for the Ph. D. degree, except the dis­
sertation, is necessary for appoint­
ment as instructor. In government or
private industry, economists holding
the master’s degree can usually qual­
ify for more responsible research
positions than are open to those hav­
ing only the bachelor’s degree.
The Ph. D. degree is required for a
professorship in a high-ranking col­
lege Or university and is an asset in
competing for other responsible po­
sitions in government, business, or
private research organizations.
Economists interested in overseas
assignments will find training in other
social sciences, as well as advanced
training in economics, very helpful.
For some positions with the U.S. De­
partment of State, considerable ex­
perience is also required.

Employment Outlook

Employment of economists will in­
crease very rapidly through the
1970’s. Colleges and universities will
need hundreds of new instructors an­
nually to handle rapidly increasing
enrollments and to replace econo­
mists who retire, die, or transfer to
other fields of work. Private industry
is expected to employ many more
economists, as businessmen become
more accustomed to relying on scien­
tific methods of analyzing business
trends, forecasting sales, and plan­
ning purchasing and production op­
erations. Employment of economists
at the Federal, State, and local levels
also will increase rapidly in order to
meet the need for more extensive data
collection and analysis, and to pro­
vide the staff for programs aimed at
reducing unemployment and poverty.

Economists analyze statistical data.

Economists with the doctorate are related fields is given in the following graphic boundaries on subnational,
national, and international scales and
expected to have excellent oppor­ publications:
the relationship of geographic con­
tunities for employment. The demand
C areers in the F oreign S ervice, U.S.
ditions to political situations. Urban
for these economists is expected to be
Department of State, Publication
7924, Washington, D.C. 20520.
geography, a growing field for ge­
considerably greater than the supply
ographers, is concerned with the study
through the 1970’s. As a result, em­
ployment opportunities for econo­ O verseas A ssign m en ts, Agency for Inter­ of cities, and with community plan­
mists with a master’s degree will be
national Development, Washington, ning. (See statement on Urban Plan­
favorable, especially for those with
ners.) Specialists in physical geog­
D.C. 20523. Free.
raphy study the earth’s physical
good training in statistics and mathe­
characteristics. Regional geography
matics. Opportunities for persons
pertains to all the physical, economic,
holding a bachelor’s degree will con­
political, and cultural characteristics
tinue to be good in government agen­
(D.O.T. 059.088)
of a particular region or area, which
cies. Young people having bachelors’
degrees in economics will also find
may range in size from a river basin
or an island, to a State, a country, or
employment as management trainees
Nature of Work
in industry and business firms.
even a continent. Geographers in the
Geographers study the physical field of cartography design and data
struct maps, as well as compile
characteristics of the earth, such as its for them.
terrain, minerals, soils, water, vege­
Many professional workers in the
According to the National Science tation, and climate. They relate these field have job titles which describe
Foundation’s National Register of characteristics to the patterns of hu­ their specialization, such as cartog­
Scientific and Technical Personnel, man settlements on the earth— rapher, map cataloger, or regional
the average (median) salary of where people live, why they are lo­ analyst, rather than the title geogra­
economists employed by colleges and cated there, and how they earn a pher. Others have titles relating to
universities was $11,750 in 1966. living.
The majority of geographers are as subject matter of their study, such
Economists employed by business and
photo-intelligence specialist or
by nonprofit organizations averaged engaged in college and university climatological analyst. Still others
$15,300 and $16,200, respectively. teaching and may combine teaching have titles such as community plan­
Salaries of economists engaged in the and research. Their research may in­ ner, market or business analyst, or
management or administration of re­ clude the study and analysis of the intelligence specialist. Most of those
search programs averaged $17,500 distribution of land forms, climate, who teach in colleges and universi­
soils, vegetation, and mineral and ties are called geographers.
In the Federal Government, the water resources, sometimes utilizing
entrance salary for beginning econo­ surveying and meteorological instru­
mists with a bachelor’s degree was ments. They also analyze the distribu­
Where Employed
$5,331; however, those with superior tion and structure of political organi­
academic records could begin at zations, transportation systems, and
An estimated 3,500 geographers
$6,451 in early 1967. Those with 2 marketing systems. Many geographers were employed in the United States
full years of graduate training or ex­ spend considerable time in field in 1967; about 10 percent were
perience can qualify for positions at study, and in analyzing maps, aerial women.
an annual salary of $7,696. The ma­ photographs, and observational data
Approximately two-thirds of all
jority of experienced economists in collected in the field. There is an in­ geographers are employed by colleges
the Federal Government earned from creasing use of photographs and and universities. Those teaching in
$9,200 to $17,000 a year; some having other data from remote sensors in institutions which do not have sepa­
greater administrative responsibilities satellites. Other geographers con­ rate departments of geography usually
struct maps, graphs, and diagrams.
are associated with departments of
earned considerably more.
Most geographers specialize in one geology, economics, or other physical
main branch of geography or more. or social sciences.
Those working in economic geogra­
The Federal Government employs
Where To Go for More Information
phy deal with the geographic dis­ a large number of geographers.
American Economic Association,
tribution of economic activities—in­ Among the major agencies employ­
Northwestern University, 629 Noyes
cluding manufacturing, mining, ing these workers are the Army Map
St., Evanston, 111. 60201.
farming, trade, and communications. Service; the Central Intelligence
Additional information on employ­ Political geography is the study of the Agency; the Defense Intelligence

ment opportunities in economics and way political processes affect geo­ Agency; the Office of Geography of



the Department of the Interior; and
the Environmental Sciences Services
Administration. State and local gov­
ernments also employ a number of
geographers, mostly on city and State
planning and development commis­
Most of the relatively small but
growing number of geographers em­
ployed by private industry work for
marketing research organizations,
map companies, textbook publishers,
travel agencies, manufacturing firms,
or chain stores. A few geographers
work for scientific foundations and
other nonprofit organizations and re­
search institutes.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

The minimum educational require­
ment for beginning positions in geog­
raphy usually is a bachelor’s degree
with a major in the field. For most
positions in research and teaching,
and for advancement in many other
types of work, graduate training is
Training leading to the bachelor’s
degree in geography was offered by
about 200 colleges and universities in
1967. Undergraduate study usually
provides a general introduction to
geographic knowledge and research
methods and often includes some field
studies. Typical courses offered are
physiography, weather and climate,
economic geography, political geog­
raphy, urban geography, and regional
courses, such as geography of North
America, Western Europe, th e
U.S.S.R., and Asia. Courses in car­
tography and in the interpretation of
maps and aerial photographs are of­
fered also.
Advanced degrees in geography
are offered by a relatively small num­
ber of schools. In 1967, master’s de­
grees were awarded by about 90 in­
stitutions and Ph. D. degrees by
about 40. For admittance to a grad­
uate program in geography, a
bachelor’s degree with a major in ge­
ography is the usual requirement.
However, most universities admit

Geographer transfers regional information to map.

students with bachelor’s degrees in
such fields as economics, geology, or
history, if they have a good back­
ground in geography. Requirements
for advanced degrees include field
and laboratory work, as well as class­
room studies and thesis preparation.
N ew graduates w ith only the bach­
elor’s degree in geography usually find
positions connected with making, in­
terpreting, or analyzing maps, or in
research, either working for the gov­
ernment or private industry. Others
enter beginning positions in the plan­
ning field. Some obtain employment
as research or teaching assistants in
educational institutions while study­
ing for advanced degrees. New gradu­
ates with the master’s degree can
qualify for some teaching and re­
search positions in colleges and for
many research positions in govern­
ment and private industry. The
Ph. D. degree is usually required for
high-level posts in college teaching
and research and may be necessary
for advancement to top-level posi­
tions in other activities.

Employment Outlook

The employment outlook for geog­
raphers is likely to be favorable
through the 1970’s. The demand will
be especially strong for geographers
having graduate degrees to fill re­
search and teaching positions in col­
leges and universities and research
jobs in industry and government.
Geographers with advanced training
in such fields as economics or business
administration will also be in strong
Colleges and universities are ex­
pected to offer the greatest number
of employment opportunities as col­
lege enrollments increase sharply in
the early 1970’s. Rising interest in
foreign countries, and growing aware­
ness of the value of geography train­
ing in several other fields of work such
as the foreign service, should also
result in increased enrollments in
geography and in a need for addi­
tional teachers at the college level.
A growing demand for geography

teachers in secondary schools is also
Employment of geographers in gov­
ernment is also likely to increase. The
Federal Government will need addi­
tional personnel in positions related
to regional development; urban plan­
ning; resource management; plan­
ning, construction, and interpretation
of maps; and in intelligence work.
State and local government employ­
ment of geographers will expand also,
particularly in such areas as conserva­
tion, highway planning, and city,
community, and regional planning
and development.
The number of geographers em­
ployed in private industry is also ex­
pected to rise. Market research and
location analysis should continue to
grow rapidly. Opportunities should
also increase in private area planning
and development work.
Since geography is a relatively
small field, job openings are not ex­
pected to be numerous in any one
year. However, unless the number of
persons receiving degrees in the field
should grow far beyond current ex­
pectations, qualified geographers, par­
ticularly those with advanced degrees,
should find employment readily
through the 1970’s.
Employment prospects for women
geographers will be best in teaching,
especially in junior colleges, women’s
colleges and in the larger co­
educational institutions. Government
agencies should also offer good op­
portunities for women in mapping
and planning work.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In the Federal Government in early
1967, geographers having the bache­
lor’s degree and no experience could
start at $5,331 or $6,451 a year, de­
pending on their college record. Inex­
perienced geographers with 1 or 2
years of graduate teaching could start
at $6,451 or $7,696; and those having
the Ph. D. degree, at $9,221.
In colleges and universities, salaries
of geographers depend on their
teaching rank. (For further informa­


tion, see statement on College and
University Teachers.) Geographers
in educational institutions usually
have an opportunity to earn income
from other sources, such as consulting
work, special research projects, and
publication of books and articles.
Working conditions of most geog­
raphers are similar to those of other
teachers and office workers. Geo­
graphic research frequently requires
extensive travel, in foreign countries
as well as in the United States.

specialize in identifying, preserving,
and making available documentary
materials of historical value. Others
edit historical materials, prepare ex­
hibits, write pamphlets and hand­
books, and give talks for museums,
special libraries, and historical soci­
eties. A few serve as consultants to
editors, publishers, and producers of
materials for radio, television, and
motion pictures. Historians employed
in government mainly do research
and administrative work in connec­
tion with research projects; they also
prepare studies, articles, and books.

Where To Go for More Information

Association of American Geographers,
1146 16th St. NW., Washington, D.C.

(D.O.T. 052.088)
Nature of Work

Historians study the records of the
past and write books and articles de­
scribing and analyzing past events,
institutions, ideas, and people. They
may use their knowledge of the past
to explain current events. They may
specialize in the history of a specific
country or region, or in a particular
period of time—ancient, medieval, or
modern—or in economic, cultural,
military, or other phases of history.
More historians specialize in either
United States or modem European
history than in any other field : how­
ever, a growing number are now
specializing in African and Latin
American history. Some are experts
in such fields as the history of the
labor movement, art, architecture, or
other fields of historical interest. The
number of specialties is constantly
growing. The history of business and
the relation between technological
changes and other aspects of histori­
cal development are among the new­
est fields.
Most historians are college teachers
who also do some research, writing,
and lecturing. Some, called archivists,

Where Employed

About 10,000 persons were esti­
mated to be employed as historians in
1967. Approximately 85 percent of all
historians were employed in colleges
and universities. About 10 percent
were employed in Federal Govern­
ment agencies, principally the Na­
tional Archives and the Departments
of Defense, Interior, and State. Small
but growing numbers were employed
by other government organizations
(State, local, and international), non­
profit foundations, research councils,
special libraries, State historical
societies, museums, and by large
Since history is taught in all insti­
tutions of higher education, historians
are found in all college communities.
About half the historians in the Fed­
eral Government, including threefourths of those working as archivists,
are employed in Washington, D.C.
Historians in other types of employ­
ment usually work in localities which
have museums or libraries with
collections adequate for historical
Training and Other Qualifications

Graduate education is usually nec­
essary for qualification as a historian.
A master’s degree in history is the
minimum requirement for appoint­
ment to the position of college in­
structor, but in many colleges and


universities, a Ph. D. degree is neces­
sary for appointment. The latter is
essential for attaining high-level col­
lege teaching, research, and admin­
istrative positions in the field of
history. Most historians in the Fed­
eral Government and in nonprofit
organizations have a Ph. D. degree or
the equivalent in training and
Although a bachelor’s degree
with a major in history is sufficient
training for some beginning jobs in
Federal, State, and local govern­
ments, persons in such jobs may not
be regarded as professional historians.
These beginning jobs are likely to be
concerned with the collection of and
preservation of historical data, so that
a knowledge of archival work is
helpful. An undergraduate major in
history is considered helpful for
jobs in international relations and

as professional historians. On the
other hand, history majors who meet
certification requirements will find
openings in high school teaching.
Some will also be able to qualify as
trainees in administrative and man­
agement positions in government
agencies, nonprofit foundations, civic
organizations and, more rarely, in pri­
vate industry.

The average (median) salary of
historians employed by colleges and

universities was $12,600 in 1966; as­
sistant professors averaged $10,500;
associate professors, $13,000; and pro­
fessors, $16,000. Salaries tended to be
lower for those persons employed in
junior colleges and teacher’s colleges.
In the Federal Government, the
starting salary for persons with a
bachelor’s degree was $5,331 in early
1967. Those with a superior academic
record or with a year of graduate
training were eligible for positions at
an annual salary of $6,451. Most of
the experienced historians in the Fed­
eral Government earned from $7,500
to $15,000 a year in early 1967.

Employment Outlook

Employment in this relatively small
occupation is expected to continue to
increase rapidly through the 1970’s.
Hundreds of new history teachers will
probably be needed annually to teach
new classes made necessary by ex­
panding college enrollments, and to
replace those faculty members who
retire, die, or leave for other types of
work. The number of positions for
historians in archival work is also
expected to rise, although more slowly
than the number in college teaching.
Only a slight rise is foreseen in the
number of historians in other types
of work.
Historians with doctorates are ex­
pected to have very good employment
opportunities through the 1970’s. His­
torians who have completed all re­
quirements for the Ph. D. except the
dissertation are also expected to have
favorable opportunities. However,
those with no work beyond the mas­
ter’s degree will probably encounter
considerable competition for profes­
sional positions. College graduates
with only the bachelor’s degree will
find it difficult to obtain employment

Archivist searches historical documents.

Some historians, particularly those
in college teaching, supplement their
income by summer teaching or writ­
ing books or articles. A few earn ad­
ditional income from lectures.


and constitutional. Others may an­
alyze the operations of government
agencies or specialize in foreign af­
fairs research, either for government
or nongovernment organizations. Still
others are engaged in administrative
or managerial duties. Some work in
Where To Go for More Information budget analysis, personnel, and urban
planning or as legislative aids to con­
Additional information on employ­ gressmen, and as staff members of
ment opportunities for historians may congressional committees.
be obtained from:
American Historical Association,
400 A St. SE., Washington, D.C.

(D.O.T. 051.088)
Nature of Work

Political science is the study of gov­
ernment—what it is, what it does, and
how and why. Political scientists are
[interested in government at every
llevel—local, county, State, regional,
national, and international. Many
political scientists specialize in public
administration, in American Govern­
ment, or in international relations.
Smaller numbers specialize in such
fields as public law, history of political
ideas, political parties, public opinion,
and area studies.
Political scientists are most fre­
quently employed as college and uni­
versity teachers, sometimes teaching
other social sciences as well. They may
combine research, consultation, or
administrative duties with their teach­
ing. Some teach in foreign universities
where they prepare students for
careers in public administration and
assist in the development of training
programs for government personnel.
Many political scientists are engaged
mainly in research. They may make
surveys of public opinion on political
questions for private research orga­
nizations. They may study proposed
legislation for State or municipal
legislative reference bureaus or con­
gressional committees to determine
Digitizedwhether the legislation is well drafted

Where Employed

Approximately 9,000 people were
employed as political scientists in
1966, largely in colleges and univer­
sities or in government agencies.
Fewer than 10 percent worked for
other types of employers such as
municipal and other research bu­
reaus, civic and taxpayers associa­
tions, and large business firms.
Political scientists are employed in
nearly every college in the United
States, since courses in political sci­
ence or government are widely taught.
Most other political scientists are lo­
cated in Washington, D.C., and in
other large cities, or in State capitals.
Some are employed in overseas jobs,
mainly by the U.S. Department of
State, particularly for positions with
the Agency for International De­
velopment, and the U.S. Informa­
tion Agency.
Training and Other Qualifications

Graduate training generally is re­
quired for employment as a political
scientist. College graduates holding a
master’s degree in public administra­
tion can qualify for various adminis­
trative and research positions in gov­
ernment and in nonprofit research
and civic organizations. More than
80 colleges and universities offer
graduate degrees in public adminis­
tration. The college programs cover
a wide range of subjects—for ex­
ample, international administration,
city planning, municipal administra­
tion, criminal investigation, and so­

cial security administration. A ma­
jority of the schools provide field
training, and many offer internships
which enable the student to obtain
experience in government work.
Many universities award graduate
degrees in international relations, for­
eign service, and area studies, as well
as political science in general. A mas­
ter’s degree in any of these fields is
very helpful in obtaining a position in
a Federal Government agency con­
cerned with foreign affairs. However,
for some Government jobs, such as
those with the Agency for Interna­
tional Development, only persons
who have had substantial experience
(preferably in public administration)
are hired.
Completion of all requirements for
the Ph. D. degree, except the doctoral
dissertation, is the usual prerequisite
for appointment as a college instruc­
tor. The Ph. D. degree is generally
required for advancement to the posi­
tion of professor.
Some young people holding only a
bachelor’s degree in political science
may qualify as trainees in public rela­
tions or research work, or in jobs such
as budget analyst, personnel assistant,
or investigators in government or
industry. Many students holding the
bachelor’s degree in political science
go on to study law; others obtain
graduate training in public adminis­
tration, international relations, or
other specialized branches of political
Employment Outlook

Employment of political scientists
will probably increase rapidly
throughout the 1970’s. The greatest
increase will be in colleges and uni­
versities. The number of political
scientists in administrative jobs in
government agencies will probably
rise also because of a growing recog­
nition of the value of specialized
training in developing and planning
new programs. Government agencies
concerned with foreign affairs will
continue to employ many political


scientists. A slow growth is anticipated
in employment of political scientists
in private industry. In addition to
those required to staff new positions,
many political scientists will be needed
to fill positions vacated because of
retirements, deaths, or transfers to
other fields of work.
The number of political scientists
having a doctoral degree is expected
to rise less rapidly than demand. As
a result, new Ph. D. graduates will
find very good opportunities in col­
lege teaching and good chances for
employment in other fields as well.
Those who have completed all the re­
quirements for the doctorate except
the dissertation are also likely to find
favorable opportunities in college
teaching. Employment opportunities
for those having the master’s degree
will be more limited, but openings
will be available to them in Federal,
State, and municipal government
agencies; research bureaus; political
organizations; and civic and welfare
agencies. For new graduates with only
the bachelor’s degree, opportunities
for employment in the political sci­
ence field will probably continue to
be very limited. However, those plan­
ning to continue their studies in law,
foreign affairs, journalism, and other
related fields will find their political
science background very helpful.
Some who meet State certification re­
quirements will be able to enter high
school teaching.

The average (median) salary for
political scientists, employed by col­
leges and universities was $12,600 a
year in 1966; assistant professors
averaged $10,500; associate pro­
fessors, $13,000; and professors,
$16,000. Salaries tended to be lower
for those persons employed in junior
colleges and teachers colleges. Gen­
erally, those persons holding the
doctorate had the higher salaries.
In the Federal Government, the
starting salary for political scientists
having a bachelor’s degree was

2 6 2 -0 5 7 0 — 68--------- 13
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

$5,331 a year in early 1967. Those
having a superior academic record or
a year of graduate training were
eligible for positions at an annual
salary of $6,451. Most of the experi­
enced political scientists in the Fed­
eral Government earned consider­
ably more.
Some political scientists, particu­
larly those in college teaching, sup­
plement their income by doing
summer teaching or consulting work.
Where To Go for More Information

Additional information on employ­
ment opportunities in political sci­
ence and public administration may
be obtained from the following
American Political Science Associa­
1527 New Hampshire Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.
American Society for Public Ad­
1329 18th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 054.088)
Nature of Work

Sociologists study the many groups
which man forms—families, tribes,
communities, and States, and a great
variety of social, religious, political,
business, and other organizations
which have arisen out of living to­
gether. They study the behavior and
interaction of these groups, trace their
origin and growth, and analyze the
influence of group activities on indi­
vidual members. Some sociologists are
primarily concerned with the charac­
teristics of social groups and institu­
tions; others are more interested in
the ways in which individuals are af­
fected by groups to which they belong.
Many work in the field of social or­
ganization, social psychology, or rural
sociology. Others specialize in inter­

group relations, family problems,
social effects of urban living, popula­
tion studies, or analyses of public
opinion. Some concentrate on re­
search methodology or the conduct of
surveys. Growing numbers are con­
cerned with the application of socio­
logical knowledge and methods in the
areas of penology and correction, edu­
cation, public relations in industry,
and regional and community plan­
ning. A few specialize in medical
sociology—studying the social factors
which affect the fields of mental and
public health.
Most sociologists are college teach­
ers, but, as a rule, these teachers also
conduct research. Sociological re­
search often involves the collection of
data, preparation of case studies, test­
ing, and the conduct of statistical sur­
veys and laboratory experiments.
Sociologists may study individuals,
families, or communities in an at­
tempt to discover the causes of social
problems—such as crime, juvenile
delinquency, or poverty; the normal
pattern of family relations; or the dif­
ferent patterns of living in communi­
ties of varying types and sizes. They
may collect and analyze data from
official government sources to illus­
trate population trends, including
changes in age, sex, race, and other
population characteristics; and also
the extent of population movement
among rural, suburban, and urban
areas and among different geographic
areas. Sociologists may conduct sur­
veys, either those which add to basic
sociological knowledge or those which
may be applied in such fields as public
opinion research, marketing, and ad­
vertising research. Others are special­
ists in the use of mass communication
facilities, including radio, television,
newspapers, magazines, and circulars.
Sociologists are sometimes admin­
istrators—supervising research proj­
ects or the operation of social
agencies, including family and mar­
riage clinics. Other sociologists act as
consultants, advising on such diverse
problems as the management of hos­
pitals for the mentally ill, the rehabili­
tation of juvenile delinquents, or the

Employment Outlook
development of effective advertising for attaining a professorship in most
programs to promote public interest colleges or universities, and is com­
Employment opportunities for so­
monly required for directors of major
in particular products.
research projects, important admin­ ciologists are expected to increase
substantially through the 1970’s. Be­
istrative positions, or consultants.
Where Employed
Sociologists with master’s degrees cause of expanding enrollments, the
may qualify for many administrative majority of new positions will be in
It is estimated that between 4,500 and research positions, provided they college teaching. However, some
and 5,500 persons were employed as are trained in research methods and openings will result from the grow­
sociologists in 1967. Numerous other statistics. They may perform work ing trend to include sociology courses
persons were employed in positions re­ requiring responsibility for specific in the curriculums of other profes­
quiring some training in this field, portions of a survey or for the prep­ sions, such as medicine, law, and edu­
including many in social, recreation, aration of analyses and reports under cation. An estimated 300 teachers
and public health work.
general supervision. As they gain ex­ may be needed each year, on the
Approximately seven-tenths of all perience, they may advance to super­ average, to fill new positions and to
sociologists are employed in colleges visory positions in both public and
college faculty
and universities. Almost one-tenth are private agencies. Sociologists with the replacethe profession. members who
in Federal, State, local, or interna­ master’s degree may qualify for some rise in the number of A substantial
tional government agencies; the re­ college instructorships. Most colleges, nonteaching fields is anticipated in
mainder work in private industry, in however, appoint as instructors only
cope with social and welfare prob­
welfare or other nonprofit organiza­ people with training beyond the mas­
tions, or are self-employed.
ter’s level—frequently the comple­ lems and to implement educational
Since sociology is taught in most tion of all requirements for the Ph. D. and social legislation designed to de­
institutions of higher learning, sociol­ degree except the doctoral disserta­ velop human resources.
ogists may be found in nearly all col­ tion. Outstanding graduate students
Sociologists well trained in re­
lege communities. They are most can often get teaching or research search methods and advanced sta­
heavily concentrated, however, in assistantships which will provide tistics will have the widest choice of
large colleges and universities which both financial aid and valuable ex­ jobs. Employment opportunities are
offer graduate training in sociology perience.
also expected to be very good for
and opportunities for employment in
Young people with only a bache­ research workers in rural sociology,
research. Medical sociologists are lor’s degree in sociology are not usu­
most often employed on the teaching ally recognized by the profession as community development, population
analysis, public
or research staffs of medical colleges sociologists, although they may be able various branchesopinion research, and
of medical sociology.
and their graduate departments of to secure other jobs in this or related
Employment opportunities will also
public health and preventive medi­ fields. They may get jobs as interview­
cine. They also find employment on ers or as research assistants working increase in other applied fields, such
hospital staffs and in State and mu­ under close supervision. Many are as the study of juvenile delinquency
nicipal health departments. Rural so­ employed as caseworkers, counselors, and education. Some openings are
ciologists most frequently work at recreation workers, or administrative anticipated in a relatively new area,
State universities where they are likely assistants in public and private wel­ the sociology of law.
to have opportunities for research at fare agencies. Sociology majors with
The number of sociologists holding
the State agricultural experiment sta­ sufficient training in statistics may ob­ the doctor’s degree is expected to rise
tions attached to these universities. tain positions as beginning statisti­ less rapidly than the number of po­
Some specialists in rural sociology and cians. Those who meet State certifica­ sitions through the 1970’s. As a re­
community development are em­ tion requirements may enter high sult, employment opportunities for
ployed in foreign countries by U.S. school teaching.
both Ph. D.’s, and those who have
The choice of a graduate school is completed all requirements for the
Government agencies and private
very important for people planning to
become sociologists. Students inter­ doctorate except the dissertation, will
ested in research should select schools probably be very good during with
period. Inexperienced graduates
Training, Other Qualifications, and which emphasize training in research only the master’s degree—with the
methods and statistics, and provide
opportunities to gain practical experi­ exception of those specifically trained
A master’s degree with a major ence in research work. Professors and in research methods—will prob­
in sociology is usually the minimum chairmen of sociology departments ably continue to face considerable
required for employment as a soci­ frequently aid in the placement of competition for positions as profes­
sional sociologists.
ologist. The Ph. D. degree is essential graduates.


Sociologists in teaching—where
most are employed—averaged $11,300 annually in 1966. In comparison,
those working for nonprofit organi­
zations or in industry averaged $14,000 and $15,000, respectively; in the
Federal Government, those with ex­
perience averaged $14,700.

In the Federal Government, the be­
ginning salary in early 1967 for so­
ciology majors with a bachelor’s
degree was $5,331. Those with a su­
perior academic record or a year of
graduate training were eligible for
positions at an annual salary of $6,451. Starting salaries were higher for
candidates with additional graduate

In general, sociologists with the
Ph. D. degree earn substantially high­
er salaries than those with the master’s
degree. Many sociologists supplement
their regular salaries with earnings
from other sources. Summer teaching
and consulting work are the principal
sources of income. Sociologists em­
ployed by colleges and universities are
the most likely to have additional


the high school and college popula­
tion and continued increases in high
school and college attendance rates
are expected to produce a rise in high
school enrollments and an impressive
rate of increase in college enrollments.
On the other hand, enrollments at
the elementary school level are not
expected to increase further as a re­
sult of recent declines in the birth
rate; however, these enrollments will
remain high. Total enrollments in all
schools and colleges combined, ac­
cording to U.S. Office of Education
estimates, may increase to about 63
million by 1975.
To staff the new classrooms that
must be provided for the rising num­
bers of students, and to allow for a
continuing improvement in the stu­
dent-teacher ratio below the college
level, the Nation’s full-time teaching
staff in 1975 will need to be about a
fifth or about 435,000 larger than in
1966. In addition, a much greater
number of teachers—perhaps as many
as 1.7 million—will be required to
replace those who leave the profes­
sion. Many new teachers will be
needed in elementary and secondary
schools if the ratios between pupils
and teachers are to be reduced sig­
nificantly beyond current expecta­
tions. Moreover, additional teachers
will be required to replace those who
do not meet the minimum standards
for certification.
The outlook for teachers at each
educational level—in elementary and
secondary schools, and also in col­
leges and universities—is discussed in
the following statements.

Teaching is the largest of the pro­
fessions. About 2.3 million men and
women were full-time teachers in the
Nation’s elementary schools, second­
ary schools, and colleges and univer­
sities in the 1966-67 school year. In
addition, thousands of others taught
part time. Among these were many
scientists, physicians, accountants,
members of other professions, and
graduate students. Similarly, large
numbers of craftsmen taught part
time in vocational schools. Many
other people instructed students in
adult education and recreation
No other profession offers so many
employment opportunities for women.
Almost 1y2 million women are teach­
ers, more than twice the number em­
ployed in nursing, the second largest
field of professional employment for
women. Women teachers far outnum­
ber men in kindergarten and elemen­
tary schools and hold slightly less
than half the teaching positions in
secondary (junior and senior high)
schools, but only about one-fourth of
all college and university teaching
The number of teachers needed by
(D.O.T. 092.228)
the Nation’s schools depends chiefly
on the number of students enrolled.
At the beginning of the 1966-67
Nature of Work
school year, 56 million people—more
Elementary school teaching is the
than one-fourth of the country’s total
population—were enrolled in the Na­ largest field of professional employ­
tion’s schools and colleges. Through ment for women and is also a growing
the mid-1970’s, continued growth of field for men. In the 1966-67 school

year, about 1.2 million kindergarten
and elementary teachers were em­
ployed. In addition, an estimated
60,000 principals and supervisors
were employed in public and private
elementary schools.
Kindergarten teachers conduct a
program of education for young chil­
dren. Most frequently, they divide the
schoolday between two groups, teach­
ing two different classes a day. Some,
however, may work with one group
all day. They expose children to ex­
periences in play, music, artwork,
stories, and poetry; and introduce
them to science, numbers, language,
and social studies. In a variety of
ways, kindergarten teachers help to
develop children’s curiosity and zeal
for learning as well as to stimulate
their ability to think. After school
hours, kindergarten teachers may
plan the next day’s work, study and
prepare the children’s school records,
confer with parents or professional
personnel concerning individual chil­
dren, participate in teachers’ in-serv­
ice activities, and locate and become
familiar with teaching resources.
Programed instruction, including
teaching machines and “talking
typewriters,” and the increasing use
of teacher aids are new developments
that are freeing many teachers from
routine duties and allowing them to
give more individual attention to
their students.
Elementary school teachers usually
work with one group of pupils during
the entire schoolday, teaching several
subjects and supervising various ac­
tivities, such as lunch and play peri­
ods. In some school systems, however,
teachers in the upper elementary
grades may teach several groups of
children in one or two subjects. Many
school systems also employ special
teachers to give instruction and to
assist classroom teachers in certain
subjects, such as art, music, physical
education, industrial arts, foreign
languages, and homemaking. Teach­
ers in schools which have only a few
students, largely in rural areas, may
be required to teach all subjects in
several grades.


Where Employed

Elementary school teachers are
employed in all cities, towns, villages,
and in rural areas. As a result of re­
organization of school districts, many
teachers are employed in consolidated
schools in small towns. Only about
10,000 teach in one-room schools.
Kindergarten teachers are employed
primarily in the large urban areas.

Total Teaching Staff W ill Expand By One-Fourth To
O v e r 2.7 M illion During The 1 9 6 5 -7 5 Period


Training, Other Qualifications, and

All States require every teacher in
the public schools to have a certifi­
cate. Several States have this same
requirement for teachers in parochial
and other private elementary schools.
In 1966, 46 States and the District
of Columbia issued regular teaching
certificates only to persons with at
least 4 years of approved college prep­
aration. Most States also require that
teachers have a number of profes­
sional education courses. Eighteen
States require at least 5 years of prep­
aration for certification. Ten States
specify the number of years within
which the higher degree is to be at­
tained. Some school systems have
higher educational requirements than
those for State certification.

In nearly all States, certificates are
issued by State departments of educa­
tion on the basis of transcripts of
credits and recommendations from
approved colleges and universities.
Certificates may be issued to teachers
from other States if the prescribed
programs have been completed at
accredited colleges or if the teachers
meet the academic and personal re­
quirements of the State to which they
are applying. Under certain condi­
tions, usually related to a shortage of
qualified teachers, most States will

College Enrollments W ill Show The Fastest G row th Rate
Betw een 1965 And 1 9 7 5 , Rising To O v e r 8 Million


issue emergency or temporary certifi­
cates to partially prepared teachers.
However, these teachers must have
their certificates renewed every year
until all requirements for regular
certificates have been met.
All States have certain additional
requirements for public school teach­
ing. For example, they may require
a health certificate, evidence of citi­
zenship, or an oath of allegiance. The
prospective teacher should find out
about the specific requirements of the
area in which he plans to work by
writing to the State department of
education or to the superintendent
of the local school system.
Most institutions of higher educa­
tion offer teacher preparation. In a
4-year teacher-preparation curricu­
lum, prospective elementary school
teachers spend about one-fourth of
the time in professional courses—
learning about children, the place of
the school in the community, and ma­
terials and methods of instruction—
including student teaching in an ac­
tual school situation; the remainder of
their time is devoted to studying liber­
al arts subjects. Some study of the
process of learning and human be­
havior is usually included.
After gaining experience, teachers
will find opportunities for advance­
ment through annual salary increases

in the same school system; by trans­
ferring to a system with a higher
salary schedule which recognizes ex­
perience gained in another school sys­
tem ; by appointment to a supervisory,
administrative, or specialized position
in the school system; or by transfer­
ring to higher levels of teaching for
which their training and experience
may qualify them.
Among the most important per­
sonal qualifications for elementary
school teaching are an enjoyment and
understanding of children. Teachers
must be patient and self-disciplined,
and have high standards of personal
conduct. A broad knowledge and ap­
preciation of the arts, sciences, his­
tory, and literature also are valuable.
Civic, social, and recreational activi­
ties of teachers may be influenced, and
sometimes are restricted, by the cus­
toms and attitudes of their com­


Employment Outlook

Young people preparing to teach in
elementary schools will find a large
number of teaching positions avail­
able—an estimated 925,000 between
1967 and 1975. About 825,000 will
be needed to replace those who re­
tire, die, or leave the profession for
other reasons. An estimated 100,000
will be required to improve the pupilteacher ratio. In addition, about 56,500 teachers will be needed to replace
persons not meeting certification re­
The leveling of enrollments in ele­
mentary schools that is expected over
the next few years may be accom­
panied by an increase in the number
of college graduates qualified to
teach. If present teacher training
trends continue, the supply of newly
trained teachers available for ele­
mentary teaching will increase sig­
nificantly by the mid-1970’s. Since

the relative number of teachers is ex­
pected to be greater than that of
previous decades, young people seek­
ing their first teaching assignment are
likely to find the schools placing
greater emphasis on quality of ap­
plicants’ training and academic ac­
complishment. Nevertheless, even if
supply expands as the trends suggest,
the demand may exceed the supply in
certain geographic areas, where
teaching salaries are low and better
paying opportunities are available in
other fields in the community. The
Elementary and Secondary Educa­
tion Act of 1965, and the Higher Edu­
cation Act of 1965, as amended, place
special emphasis on aid to pre­
schoolers, children in low-income
areas, the mentally retarded, and
other groups requiring special atten­
tion. Thus, additional kindergarten
and elementary teachers may be
needed, adding considerable pressure
to the demand for teachers. For ex-



ample, the National Teacher Corps
(federally recruited teachers and
teacher-interns for low-income areas)
is expected to enroll many teachers
in the next few years, as are the ris­
ing number of kindergarten programs.

ing number of teachers are being rep­
resented by unions that bargain col­
lectively for them on wages, hours,
and other conditions of employment.

National Commission on Teacher
Education and Professional Stand­
National Education Association,
1201 16 th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.

Where To Go for More Information

Earnings and Working Conditions

The average salary for classroom
teachers in public elementary schools,
according to National Education As­
sociation (NEA) estimates, was $6,609 in 1966-67. In the three highest
paying States (California, New York,
and Hawaii) teachers’ salaries aver­
aged $7,600 or more; in the seven
States with lowest salaries (Alabama,
Arkansas, Kentucky, Mississippi,
North Dakota, South Dakota, and
South Carolina), they were less than
$5,300. An increasing number of
States (31 in the 1966-67 academic
year) are establishing minimum
salary levels.
Although the time spent in the
classroom (fewer than 6 hours) is
usually less than the average workday
in most other occupations, the ele­
mentary school teacher must spend
additional time each day giving indi­
vidual help, planning work, prepar­
ing instructional materials, develop­
ing tests, checking papers, making
out reports, and keeping records.
Conferences with parents, meetings
with school supervisors, and other
professional activities also frequently
occur after classroom hours.
Since most schools are in session
fewer than 12 months a year, teach­
ers often work at other jobs or take
courses for professional growth dur­
ing the summer. Some school systems,
however, are extending the teachers’
working year to 12 months, includ­
ing a 1-month vacation in the sum­
Employment in teaching is steady
and usually is not affected by changes
in business conditions. Tenure provi­
sions protect teachers from arbitrary
dismissal. Pension and sick leave
plans are common, and a growing
number of school systems grant other
types of leave with pay. An increas­

Information on schools and cer­
(D.O.T. 091.118 through .228)
tification requirements is available
from the State department of educa­
tion at each State capital.
Nature of Work
Information on the National
Teacher Corps, internships, graduate
Secondary school teachers—those
fellowships, and other information on employed in junior and senior high
teaching may be obtained from:
schools—usually specialize in a par­
ticular subject. They teach several
U.S. Department of Health, Educa­
tion, and Welfare,
classes every day, either in their main
Office of Education, Washington,
subject, in related subjects, or both.
D.C. 20202.
The most frequent combinations are
Other sources of general informa­ English and history or other social
science subjects; mathematics and
tion are:
general science; and chemistry and
American Federation of Teachers,
biology or general science. Teachers
716 North Rush St., Chicago, 111.
in some fields, such as home econom60611.

ics, agriculture, commercial subjects,
driver education, music, art, and in­
dustrial arts, less frequently conduct
classes in other subjects. The choice
of teaching method usually is left to
the teacher. Depending on the sub­
ject and students’ needs and apti­
tudes, it may vary from formal lec­
turing to free discussions.
Besides giving classroom instruc­
tion, secondary school teachers de­
velop and plan teaching materials,
develop and correct tests, keep rec­
ords, make out reports, consult with
parents, supervise study halls, and
perform other duties. The growing
use of teaching machines, programed
instruction, and teacher aides relieves
the teacher of many routine tasks.
Many supervise student activities,
such as clubs and social affairs—
sometimes after regular school hours.
Maintaining good relations with par­
ents, the community, and fellow
teachers is an important aspect of
their jobs.
About 850,000 teachers were em­
ployed in the Nation’s public and
private secondary schools in 1966-67.
Slightly more than half the classroom
teachers in public secondary schools
were men. Men far outnumber
women in supervisory and adminis­
trative positions in both public and
private schools.
Where Employed

The number of grades in secondary
schools depends on how the local
school system is organized. Many sec­
ondary school teachers are employed
in 6-year combined junior-senior high
schools (grade 7-12) ; many teachers
are in separate junior high schools of
either two or three grades (7-8 or
7-9) ; and the remainder teach in
4-year high schools (grades 9-12)
and in senior high schools (grades
10- 12) .
Training, Other Qualifications, and

In every State, a certificate is re­
quired for public secondary school


teaching. To qualify for this certifi­
cate, the prospective teacher must
have at least the equivalent of
one-half year of education courses,
including practice teaching, plus pro­
fessional courses in one or more sub­
jects commonly taught in secondary
Ten States require a fifth year of
study or qualification for a master’s
degree within a specified period fol­
lowing the teacher’s beginning em­
ployment. Many school systems,
especially in large cities, have require­
ments beyond those needed for State
certification. Some systems require ad­
ditional educational preparation, suc­
cessful teaching experience, or special
personal qualifications.
College students preparing for sec­
ondary school teaching usually devote
about one-third of the 4-year course
to their major, which may be in a
single subject or a group of related
subjects. About one-sixth of the time
is spent in education courses—learn­
ing about children, the place of the
school in the community, and mate­
rials and methods of instruction—in­
cluding student teaching in an
actual school situation. The remain­
ing time is devoted to general or lib­
eral arts courses. Accepted teacherpreparation curriculums are offered
by universities with schools of edu­
cation, by colleges with strong edu­
cation departments and adequate
practice-teaching facilities, and by
teachers’ colleges.
Although certification requirements
vary among the States, die person
who is well prepared for secondary
school teaching in one State usually
has little trouble meeting require­
ments in another State. A well-quali­
fied teacher can ordinarily obtain
temporary certification in a State
while preparing to meet its additional
Qualified secondary school teachers
may advance to department heads,
supervisors, assistant principals, prin­
cipals, superintendents, or other ad­
ministrative officers as openings occur.
At least 1 year of professional educa­
tion beyond the bachelor’s degree and
several years of successful classroom

teaching are required for most super­
visory and administrative positions.
Often, a doctorate is required for ap­
pointment as superintendent. A few
experienced teachers are assigned as
part- or full-time guidance counselors,
to teach in the pupils’ homes or to
instruct handicapped or other special
groups. Usually, additional prepara­
tion and sometimes special certificates
are required for these assignments.
Probably the most important per­
sonal qualifications for secondary
school teaching are an appreciation
and understanding of adolescent chil­
dren. Patience and self-discipline are
desirable traits, as are high standards
of personal conduct. In addition to
an enthusiasm for the subjects they
teach, a broad knowledge and appre­
ciation of the arts, sciences, history,
and literature also are desirable.
Civic, social, and recreational ac­
tivities of teachers may be influ­
enced, and sometimes restricted, by
the customs and attitudes of their
Employment Outlook

About 900,000 new secondary
school teachers will be needed
between 1967 and 1975 to take care
of enrollment increases, to reflect
some improvement in the pupilteacher ratio, and to replace teachers
who retire, marry, or leave the field
for other reasons. An additional
34,000 will be needed to replace per­
sons who do not meet certifica­
tion requirements. Although some
job openings for secondary school
teachers will be created by rising en­
rollments, most of the job openings—
over 70 percent of the total require­
ments—will come from the need to
replace teachers who for various rea­
sons may leave the field.
A slowing down in the rate of en­
rollment growth in secondary schools
may be accompanied by a simultane­
ous increase in the number of college
graduates trained for teaching. If the
total number of degrees awarded in­
creases as projected by the U.S. Of­
fice of Education, and if the propor­



tion of graduates prepared to teach
in secondary schools continues to be
about the same as in the past through
the mid-1970’s, the total number of
new graduates available for secondary
school teaching positions will increase
significantly. In addition to newly
trained teachers, many reentries in
the profession also will be available
to fill teacher vacancies. Thus, it is
likely that new graduates may face
increasing competition for entry posi­
tions in secondary teaching. Young
people planning to teach, therefore,
are likely to find school boards placing
much greater emphasis on the nature
of applicants’ professional training
and academic performance. Even
with an improvement in the supply
situation, however, opportunities will
be very favorable in some geographic
areas and in some subject fields, such
as physical and biological sciences
and mathematics, for which the de­
mand in private industry and govern­
ment is also great. Further specialized
training may qualify many teachers
who are trained for secondary school
teaching for positions in vocational
and technical schools, and junior col­
leges, where demand for teachers is
expected to be especially great in the
years to come. Also, considerable ad­
ditional demand for teachers may be
generated by Federal legislation that
provides for supplem entary educa­
tional centers and services and a
Teacher Corps. These extensive addi­
tions to present teaching services will
be available to both public and private
school children.
Earnings and W orking Conditions

The average annual salary for all
classroom teachers in public second­
ary schools was about $7,095 in 196667 according to estimates by the Na­
tional Education Association. In Cali­
fornia and New York, average sal­
aries exceeded $8,000; the average
was less than $5,700 in three States,
Arkansas, Mississippi, and South Da­
kota. At the beginning of the 1966-67

academic year, 31 States had mini­
mum teacher salary laws.
Junior high school teachers fre­
quently receive lower salaries than
high school teachers in the same
school system. Teachers of vocational
education, physical education, and
other special subjects often receive
higher salaries than do other teachers
in the same school. Under salary
schedules in effect in most school
systems, teachers in all subject fields
get regular salary increases as they
gain experience and additional edu­
Teachers’ salaries are usually lower
in towns and small cities than in
larger cities or suburbs, but higher
educational and experience require­
ments are likely to prevail in large
city school systems. On the average,
salaries of principals in the largest
cities, where administrative respon­
sibilities are great, are much higher
than in towns and small cities. Sal­
aries of superintendents are $30,000
or more in many large school systems.
Teachers often add to their in­
comes by teaching in summer school,^
working as camp and recreational
counselors, or doing other work.
Some teachers supplement their in­
comes during the regular school year.
They may teach in adult or evening
classes, work part-time in business or
industry, or write for publication.
Some form of retirement is pro­
vided for most teachers. Nearly all
school systems have some provision
for sick leave, and an increasing num­
ber grant other types of leave with
According to a recent survey, the
average workweek of secondary
school teachers is about 46 hours a
week, of which 23^2 hours are spent
in classroom instruction and the re­
mainder in out-of-class instruction
and other duties. An increasing num­
ber of teachers is being represented
by unions that bargain collectively
for them on wages, hours, and other
conditions of employment.

W here To G o for More Inform ation

Information on schools and cer­
tification requirements is available
from the State department of educa­
tion at the State capital.
Information on the National
Teacher Corps, internships, graduate
fellowships, and other information on
teaching may be obtained from:
U.S. Department of Health, Educa­
tion, and Welfare,
Office of Education, Washington,
D.G. 20202.

Other sources of information are:

American Federation of Teachers,
716 North Rush St., Chicago, 111.
National Commission on Teacher
E d u c a t i o n and Professional
National Education Association,
1201 16th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 090.168 and .228)
Nature of W ork

About 400,000 college teachers
were employed in the Nation’s 2,300
colleges and universities in the
1966— academic year. About 265,67
000 were teaching full time. Another
130,000 were teaching part time in
medicine, law, business administra­
tion, and other professional fields.
Other faculty members were em­
ployed in administration, full-time
research, or other educational activ­
ities. Men predominated in most
college teaching fields and held at
least 95 percent of the positions in
engineering, the physical sciences,
agriculture, and law. Only about onefourth of all college and university
teachers were women; however, the
majority of teachers in nursing, home
economics, and library science were
College and university teachers in­
struct students in specific subjects.
More than half teach courses in the

social sciences, fine arts, English and
journalism, the physical sciences,
biological sciences, education and
related fields, or engineering. In
many 4-year institutions, the usual
teaching load is from 12 to 15 hours
a week. Associate professors and full
professors—who also serve as ad­
visors to graduate students and who
are actively engaged in research—
may spend only 6 or 8 hours a week
in actual classroom work. In the uni­
versities, graduate students often
teach freshmen classes under the di­
rection of a regular faculty member.
Many introductory courses also use
educational television which relies
upon well-qualified teachers who
specialize in a particular subject. Be­
sides teaching classes, college teachers
prepare tests and other materials for
classroom use, check and grade stu­
dents’ work, advise students, and
keep up to date with developments in
their specialties. The increasing use
of computers relieves college teach­
ers to some extent of many routine
tasks, such as scoring and grading
objective tests. Therefore, they are
able to devote more time preparing
for lectures, providing individual as­
sistance, and performing research ac­
tivities. M any carry on research
projects, write for publication, or aid
in college administration. Some pro­
fessors act as consultants to business,
industrial, scientific, or government
W here Em ployed

About three-fourths of all full-time
college teachers were employed by
public and nonpublic colleges and
universities in the 1963-64 school
year. An estimated 7 percent were
employed by professional schools and
9 percent by less than 4-year
Some States have many more col­
leges and universities than others,
partly reflecting differences in popu­
lation size. About half of all college
and university teachers are employed
in eight States, each with college en­
rollments exceeding 200,000: New


York, California, Pennsylvania, Illi­ institutions grant tenure (full status
nois, Massachusetts, Texas, Ohio, and as a member of the staff on a continu­
ing basis) or give advancement to
instructors with less than 3 years of
service. Advancement to assistant and
Training, O ther Q u alifications, and
associate professorship is restricted
A d van cem ent
generally to candidates who have ex­
training or teaching
To qualify for most beginning posi­ tensive graduatedoctor’s degree and
experience. A
tions, applicants must have at least many years of teaching experience—
the master’s degree, and for many, from 10 to 20 years—are usually re­
they must have completed all require­
ments for the doctorate except the quired to become a full professor. A
of Education survey
dissertation. The doctor’s degree is cates Officeabout one-quarter ofindi­
often required for promotion or ap­ teaching faculty are professors, an­
pointment to positions above the rank other quarter associate professors, 30
of instructor. It is particularly im­ percent are assistant professors, and
portant for teaching positions in the
biological sciences, physical sciences, about 18 percent are instructors. Out­
achievement, generally
psychology, social sciences, philoso­ standing research or publications,
phy, and religion; it is least likely to hastens advancement. Because de­
be a requirement in business and com­ mand is particularly strong, teachers
merce, engineering, fine arts, health of some subjects, such as engineering,
and physical education, and home law, mathematics, medicine, and nat­
economics. A number of States that ural sciences, are sometimes appointed
maintain public junior colleges re­ at higher ranks and at higher begin­
quire State certification for teaching ning salaries than other teachers who
in these 2-year schools. To obtain have comparable experience and edu­
such a certificate, a teacher must have cation.
received the master’s degree and have
taken certain courses in education.
To enter college teaching, speciali­
Em ploym ent Outlook
zation in some subject field is neces­
sary. In addition, undergraduate
College teaching opportunities are
courses in the humanities, social sci­ likely to be excellent for those who
ences, natural sciences, and the mas­ have doctoral degrees, and for those
tery of at least one foreign language who have completed all requirements
are important. Intensive instruction for the doctorate, except the disserta­
in the selected field of specialization tion. There also will be many em­
is given in graduate school. During ployment opportunities for new en­
their graduate work, outstanding stu­ trants who have the master’s degree,
dents may be employed as part-time particularly in junior colleges.
teaching or research assistants; such
A great increase in college enroll­
work affords valuable experience. ment is in prospect. The number of
Some colleges offer other means, such young people in the 18- to 21-year
as informal seminars or meetings, by age group is expected to rise by nearly
which the graduate students can de­ 3.4 million between 1966 and 1975.
velop teaching competence. A good At the same time, larger proportions
many beginning college teachers—es­ of young people of college age will
pecially those in education depart­ attend college—owing to rising fam­
ments and junior colleges—have had ily income, new Federal legislation to
some experience in high school or help needy college students, greater
demand for college-trained person­
other types of teaching.
Most 4-year colleges and universi­ nel, and the increasing number and
ties recognize four academic ranks: proportion of the population who
Instructor, assistant professor, associ­ finish high school. The anticipated in­
ate professor, and full professor. Few crease in the number of community


colleges and schools offering evening
classes will permit more young people
and adults to attend college. If the
proportion of young people attending
college continues to increase and fa­
cilities are available, college enroll­
ments will increase from about 6
million at present to almost 9 million
by 1975, according to U.S. Office of
Education projections.
Taking all these factors into ac­
count, the U.S. Office of Education
estimates that the full-time college
teaching staff will increase from its
present size of 265,000 to 360,000 by
1975, an increase of 36 percent. In
addition to the teachers needed to
take care of the enrollment growth,
an annual average of about 19,000
teachers may be needed by 1975 to
replace those who retire, die, or leave
the profession for other reasons.
The supply of new college teachers,
which consists largely of students re­
ceiving graduate degrees, is also ex­
pected to grow. The U.S. Office of
Education estimates that the number
of doctorates conferred through 1975
will average about 27,000 a year, and
the number of master’s degrees about
180.000 annually. It is difficult, how­
ever, to say how many of these will
enter teaching. According to the Na­
tional Education Association in
1963-64 and 1964-65, fewer than
half of the new teachers were grad­
uate students the preceding year. In
1966-67, when the demand called for
37.000 new teachers, about 152,000
persons received graduate degrees;
nevertheless, shortages of qualified
teaching personnel were reported in
several fields, particularly in the phys­
ical sciences, engineering, mathe­
matics, and in some social science
fields. Many of these new degree re­
cipients were already employed when
they received their degrees, and bet­
ter paying opportunities may have
attracted others to industry, govern­
ment, and nonprofit organizations
where demand for these graduates is
very high.
The supply and quality of college
teachers may be improved in the
years ahead by recent Federal legis­

lation that makes fellowships avail­
able to qualified graduate students,
and junior members of the faculty
who are interested in teaching in col­
leges and universities. Nevertheless,
the number of well-qualified persons
available for teaching positions will
continue to be insufficient to meet the
demand in many subject fields
through the 1970’s.
Earnings and Working Conditions

According to the American Associ­
ation of University Professors
(AAUP) average salaries of full-time
instructional staff in colleges and uni­
versities were $10,387 in 1966-67.
The AAUP reported 1966-67 average
salaries (9-10 months’ basis) for
full-time instructional personnel as
R ank

A verage salary
(19 66-6 7 )

P rofessor........................................$14, 402
Associate professor
Assistant professor . . . .
Instructor .................................. 7, 122

The National Education Associa­
tion reported that median annual
salaries for 9-10 months’ work in
1965-66 were $8,360 in public junior
colleges and were $6,407 in nonpub­
lic iunior colleges.
Faculty members who teach year
round usually receive higher salaries
than those employed for the academic
year only. Teachers in professional
schools (medicine, dentistry, etc.)
and graduate schools generally re­
ceive higher salaries than teachers in
other colleges.
Some faculty members supplement
their regular salaries with earnings
from a variety of sources. The chief
source is additional teaching (often
in summer sessions). Consulting work
may be a major source of extra in­
come, particularly for teachers of
engineering and physical sciences;
research grants are now common,
especially in many large, well-known
universities; fees for lecturing and
royalties on publications are other
possible sources of income. Opportu­
nities for additional income usually
increase as the faculty member gains

recognition. For the majority of col­
lege teachers, additional income is
Retirement plans differ consider­
ably among institutions, but an in­
creasing number are participating in
the Government social security pro­
gram, often as an accompaniment to
plans of their own. The greatest num­
ber of institutions have set 65 years
as the normal retirement age, al­
though most of these extend the age
limit if desired.
Many colleges and universities pro­
vide benefits such as: Sabbatical
leaves of absence—typically, 1 year’s
leave with half salary or a half-year’s
leave at full salary after 6 or 7 years
of employment; other types of leave
for advanced study; life, sickness, and
accident insurance; reduced tuition
charges or cash-tuition grants for
children of faculty members; housing
allowances; travel funds for attend­
ing professional meetings; and other
Where To Go for More Information

Information on college teaching as
a career is available from:
U.S. Department of Health, Educa­
tion, and Welfare,
Office of Education, Washington,
D.C. 20202.
Am erican Association of U niversity

1785 Massachusetts Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.
American Council on Education,
1785 Massachusetts Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.
American Federation of Teachers,
716 No. Rush Street, Chicago, 111.
National Education Association,
1201 16th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.

Professional societies in the various
subject fields will generally provide
information on teaching require­
ments and employment opportunities
in their particular fields. Names and
addresses of societies are given in the
statements on specific professions
elsewhere in the Handbook.


Technician occupations are grow­
ing rapidly and, in recent years, the
employment of technicians has been
increasing faster than that of the en­
gineers and scientists they assist.
This growth stems from the needs of
an expanding and increasingly tech­
nical economy and the growing recogn i t i o n of the importance of
technicians—factors which h a v e
greatly intensified the demand for
technical workers. This chapter is
concerned with the technicians who
work with engineers and scientists,
and with draftsmen, also usually con­
sidered technicians. Information on
surveyors, often classified as tech­
nicians, and on technical occupations
in the health field—including dental
laboratory technicians, medical X-ray
technicians, and dental hygienists—
is presented elsewhere in the Hand­

(D.O.T. .002 through .029.)
Nature of Work

The term “technician,” as used
here, refers to technical workers
whose jobs require both knowledge
and use of scientific and mathemati­
cal theory; specialized education or
training in some aspect of technology

or science; and who, as a rule, work
directly with scientists and engineers.
There is no generally accepted defini­
tion of the term “technician”. For ex­
ample, it is used by employers to refer
to workers in a great variety of jobs,
requiring a wide range of education
and training. The term is applied to
employees doing relatively routine
work, to persons performing work re­
quiring skills within a limited sphere,
and to persons doing highly technical
work, among them assistants to engi­
neers and scientists.
The workers’ job titles may be de­
scriptive of their technical level (for
example, junior engineer, biological
aid, or engineering technician) or
their work activity (for example,
quality-control technician, produc­
tion analyst, tool designer, materials
tester, or time-study analyst). Some
employers use the word “technician,”
preceded by adjectives, such as me­
chanical, electrical, electronics, or
chemical, which describes areas of
technology in which their personnel
are employed.
The jobs of engineering and science
technicians are more limited than
those of the professional engineer or
scientist, and have a greater practical
orientation. Many technician jobs re­
quire the ability to analyze and solve
engineering and science problems and
to prepare formal reports on experi­
ments, tests, or other projects. Some
of these jobs require considerable
aptitude in mathematics; others, the
ability to visualize objects and to make
sketches and drawings. Design jobs
often require creative ability. Many
technician jobs require some familiar­
ity with one or more of the skilled
trades, although not the ability to per­
form as a craftsman. Others demand
extensive knowledge of industrial ma­
chinery, tools, equipment, and proc­
esses. Some jobs held by these tech­
nicians are supervisory and require
both technical knowledge and the
ability to supervise people.
In carrying out their assignments,
engineering and science technicians
frequently use complex electronic and
mechanical instruments, experimental

laboratory apparatus, and drafting in­
struments. Almost all of the techni­
cians whose jobs are described in this
statement must be able tq use engi­
neering handbooks and computing
devices, such as the slide rule or cal­
culating machine.
Technicans engage in virtually
every aspect of engineering and scien­
tific work. In research, development,
and design work, one of the largest
areas of employment, they conduct
experiments or tests; set up, calibrate,
and operate instruments; and make
calculations. They also assist scientists
and engineers in developing experi­
mental equipment and models by
making drawings and sketches and,
under the engineer’s direction, fre­
quently do some design work.
Technicians also work in jobs re­
lated to production, usually following
a course laid out by the engineer or
scientist, but often without close su­
pervision. They may aid in the var­
ious phases of production operations,
such as working out specifications for
materials and methods of manufac­
ture, devising tests to insure quality
control of products, or making timeand-motion studies (timing and ana­
lyzing the worker’s movements) de­
signed to improve the efficiency of a
particular operation. They may also
perform liaison work between engi­
neering and production or other de­
Technicians often do work that
might otherwise have to be done by
engineers. They may serve as techni­
cal sales or field representatives of
manufacturers; advise on installation
and maintenance problems; or write
specifications and technical manuals.
(See statement on Technical Writ­
The following sections describe a
number of technological fields in
which engineering and science tech­
nicians are trained and employed.
Aeronautical Technology. Tech­
nicians specializing in this area of
technology work with engineers and
scientists in many phases of the design
and production of aircraft, heli­
copters, rockets, guided missiles, and



spacecraft. Many aid engineers in
preparing layouts of structures, con­
trol systems, or equipment installa­
tions by collecting information, mak­
ing calculations, and performing
many other tasks. They work on
projects involving stress analysis,
aerodynamics, structural design,
flight test evaluation, or weight con­
trol. For example, under the direction
of an engineer, a technician might
estimate weight factors, centers of
gravity, and other items affecting
load capacity of an airplane or mis­
sile. Other technicians working on
engineering projects prepare or check
drawings for technical accuracy,
practicability, and economy.
Technicians sometimes help to
estimate the cost of the materials and
labor needed to manufacture aircraft
and missiles. They may also be respon­
sible for liaison between the engineers
who do the planning and develop­
ment work, and the craftsmen who
convert the engineers’ ideas into
finished products. For example, as an
aircraft or missile is built, the liaison
technician checks it for conformance
to specifications, keeps the engineer
informed as to progress, and investi­
gates any production engineering
problems that arise. He sometimes
recommends minor changes in the
design, the materials, or the method
of fabrication.
Other aeronautical technicians are
employed as manufacturers’ field
service representatives, serving as the
link between their company and the
military, commercial airlines, and
other customers. Technicians often
prepare instruction manuals, bul­
letins, catalogs, and other technical
materials. (See statements on Aero­
space Engineers and Airplane Me­
chanics, and chapter on Occupations
in Aircraft, Missile, and Spacecraft
Air-Conditioning, Heating, and
Refrigeration Technology. Air-con­
ditioning technology involves the
control of air including its heating,
cooling, humidity, cleanliness, and
movement. Technicians in this field
often become specialists in one area
of work, such as refrigeration, and

Engineering technician examines ionosphere probe.

sometimes in a particular type of
activity, such as research and de­
velopment, or design of layouts for
heating, cooling, or refrigeration sys­
In the manufacture of air-condi­
tioning, heating, and refrigeration
equipment, technicians work in re­
search and engineering departments,
usually as aids to engineers and
scientists. They may be assigned to
such jobs as devising methods for
testing equipment or analyzing pro­
duction methods. Technically trained
personnel also assist in designing the
air-conditioning, heating, or refrig­
eration systems for a particular office,
store, or other location and prepare
instructions for their installation. In
designing the layout for an air-con­
ditioning or heating system, they
must determine the cooling or heat­
ing requirements, decide what kind
of equipment is most suitable, and
estimate costs. Technicians employed
as salesmen by equipment manu­

facturers must be able to supply con­
tractors who design and install sys­
tems with information on such tech­
nical subjects as installation, main­
tenance, operating costs, and ex­
pected performance of equipment.
(See also statement on Refrigeration
and Air-Conditioning Mechanics.)
Chemical Technology. Techni­
cians specializing in this area work
mainly with chemists and chemical
engineers in the development, pro­
duction, sale, and utilization of
chemical and related products and
equipment. The field of chemistry is
so broad that chemical technicians
often become specialists in the prob­
lems of a particular industry, such as
food processing, or in a particular
activity, such as quality control.
Most chemical technicians work in
research and development, testing, or
other laboratory work. They conduct
experiments and tabulate and
analyze the results. In testing work,
technicians make chemical tests of




routine test.


materials to determine whether the
materials meet specifications or
whether particular substances are
present and, if so, in what quantities.
They may, for example, analyze steel
for carbon, phosphorous, and sulfur
content, or water for the amount of
silica, iron, and calcium present.
They also perform experiments to
determine the characteristics of sub­
stances such as the specific gravity and
ash content of oil. Technicians em­
ployed in research or testing labora­
tories often assemble and use such
apparatus and instruments as dilatometers (which measure the dilation
or expansion of a substance), analyti­
cal balances, and centrifuges.
Outside the laboratory, chemical
technicians are sometimes employed
to supervise various operations in the
production of chemical products and
as technical salesman of chemicals
and chemical equipment. (See also
statements on Chemists and Chemical
Engineers, and chapter on Occupa­
tions in the Industrial Chemical In­
dustry. )
Civil Engineering Technology.
Technicians trained in this area as­
sist civil engineers in performing
many of the tasks necessary in the

planning and construction of high­

ways, railroads, bridges, viaducts,
dams, and other structures. During
the planning stage, technicians may
help to estimate costs, to prepare
specifications for materials, or par­
ticipate in surveying, drafting, detail­
ing, or designing work. Once the ac­
tual construction work has begun,
they may assist the contractor or su­
perintendent in scheduling construc­
tion activities or inspecting the work
to assure conformance to blueprints
and specifications. (See also state­
ments on Civil Engineers, Draftsmen,
and Surveyors.)
Electronics Technology. This field
includes radio, radar, sonar, teleme­
tering, television, telephony, and other
forms of communication; industrial
and medical measuring, recording,
indicating, and controlling devices;
navigational equipment; missile and
spacecraft guidance and control in­
struments ; electronic computers; and
many other types of equipment using
vacuum tubes, transistors, semicon­
ductors, and printed circuits. Because
the field is so broad, technicians gen­
erally become specialists in one area—
for example, induction or dielectric
heating, servomechanisms, automa­
tion controls, or ultrasonics.
Technicians working with engi­
neers and scientists in the field of elec­
tronics do complx technical work that
is more difficult than routine operat­
ing and repair work. (For additional
information on broadcast technicians
see chapter on Occupations in Radio
and Television Broadcasting.)
Industrial Technology. Techni­
cians trained in this area are some­
times called industrial technicians or
production technicians. They assist
industrial engineers on problems in­
volving the efficient use of personnel
materials, and machines in the pro­
duction of goods or services. Their
work includes preparing layouts of
machinery and equipment, planning
the flow of work, and making statis­
tical studies and analyses of produc­
tion costs. The industrial technician
may also conduct time-and-motion
In the course of their duties, many
industrial technicians acquire experi­

ence which enables them to qualify
for other jobs. For example, those ex­
pert in machinery and production
methods may move into the field of
industrial safety. Others who special­
ize in job analyses may become in­
volved in the setting of job standards
and in the interviewing, testing, hir­
ing, and training of personnel. Still
others may move into production su­
pervision. (See statements on Person­
nel Workers and Industrial Engi­
neers. )
Mechanical Technology. Mechani­
cal technology is a broad term usually
used to cover a large number of spe­
cialized fields, including automotive
technology, diesel technology, tool
design, machine design, and pro­
duction technology.
Technicians in the above areas of
‘m echanical technology often assist
engineers in design and development
work by making freehand sketches
and rough layouts of proposed ma­
chinery and other equipment and
parts. They help to determine wheth­
er a proposed design change in a
product is practical and how much
the product will cost to produce. They
may also be required to solve design
problems such as those involving
tolerances, stress, strain, friction, and
The planning and testing of ex­
perimental machines and equipment
for performance, durability, and ef­
ficiency provide a large area of
work for technicians. In the testing
procedure, they record data, make
computations, plot graphs, analyze
results, and write reports. They some­
times make recommendations for de­
sign changes to improve performance.
Their jobs often require skill in the
use of instruments, test equipment
and gages, such as dynamometers, as
well as the ability to prepare and in­
terpret drawings.
Some mechanical technicians are
employed in manufacturing depart­
ments to help develop plans for test­
ing and inspecting machines and
equipment, or to work with engineers
in eliminating production problems.
Some obtain jobs as technical sales­
men. (See statements on Mechanical


Engineers, Automobile Mechanics,
Manufacturers’ Salesmen, and Diesel
One of the better known specialties
which may be grouped under me­
chanical engineering technology is
that of tool designer. The tool de­
signer designs tools and devices for the
mass production of manufactured
articles. He originates and prepares
sketches of the designs for cutting
tools, jigs, dies, special fixtures, and
other attachments used in machine
operations. He may also make de­
tailed drawings of these tools and fix­
tures or supervise others in making
them. Besides developing new tools,
designers frequently redesign tools to
improve their efficiency.
Machine drafting, with some de­
signing, is another major area of work
often grouped under mechanical
technology. The work of technicians
who are draftsmen is described else­
where in this chapter.
Other Areas of Technology. Many
fields of work besides those described
above offer opportunities for engi­
neering and science technicians.
Those in the field of metallurgical
technology, for example, work with
metallurgists and metallurgical engi­
neers in processing metals, minerals,
and ceramics, and converting these
substances into finished products.
Their jobs may include testing metals
and alloys to determine their physical
properties or developing new ways of
treating and using metals and alloys.
Technicians in the field of mathe­
matics assist mathematicians, engi­
neers, and scientists by doing compu­
tations involving the use of algebra,
logarithms, trigonometric functions,
and higher mathematics. Those work­
ing in the field of biology assist bio­
logical scientists in conducting tests
and experiments to gain knowledge
about living organisms and in apply­
ing this knowledge to the solution of
practical problems, such as the devel­
opment of new drugs and vaccines or
new varieties of plants. In agricultural
technology, technicians work with
agricultural scientists in improving
farm products, the quality of foods,

and soil conditions. Still other fields

of work for technicians include car­
tography (mapmaking), electrical
technology (power), gas turbine tech­
nology, optical technology, and petro­
leum technology.
As industry becomes increasingly
mechanized, new technical occupa­
tions continue to emerge. For ex­
ample, instrumentation technology
has evolved from the introduction of
automatic controls and precision­
measuring devices in manufacturing
operations. In industrial plants and
laboratories, instruments are used to
record data, to control and regulate
the operation of machinery, and to
measure time, weight, temperature,
speeds of moving parts, mixtures,
volume, flow, strain, and pressure.
Technicians in this field work with
the engineers and scientists who de­
velop and design these highly com­
plex devices, as well as with those
who use them for research and de­
velopment work. (See also statement
on Instrument Makers.)
Another new area of work for tech­
nicians, which has resulted from rec­
ognition of the need for a more sci­
entific approach toward the reduc­
tion of industrial hazards, is safety
technology. In the rapidly growing
atomic energy field, in particular,
technicians work with scientists and
engineers on problems of radiation
safety, inspection, and decontamina­
tion. (See chapter on Occupations in
the Atomic Energy Field.)
Where Employed

An estimated 675,000 engineering
and science technicians, not including
draftsmen and surveyors, were em­
ployed in early 1967—about 11 per­
cent were women. Nearly 500,000 of
these technicians (almost threefourths of the total) were employed
by private industry. The manufactur­
ing industries employing the largest
numbers of engineering and science
technicians were electrical equipment,
machinery, chemicals, and aerospace.
In the nonmanufacturing sector, large
numbers of technicians were em­
ployed in the communications indus­

try and by engineering and architec­
tural firms:
In early 1967, the Federal Govern­
ment employed approximately 75,000
engineering and science technicians;
chiefly as engineering aids and tech­
nicians, electronic technicians, equip­
ment specialists, cartographic aids,
meteorological technicians, and phys­
ical science technicians. Of these
engineering and science technicians,
the largest number worked for the
Department of Defense. Most of the
others were employed by the Depart­
ments of Agriculture, Commerce, and
the Interior.
State Government agencies em­
ployed over 50,000 engineering and
science technicians in early 1967 and
local governments almost 20,000. The
remainder were employed by colleges
and universities, mostly in universityoperated research institutes, and by
nonprofit organizations.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

Young men and women who wish
to prepare for careers as engineering
or science technicians can obtain the
necessary training from a great vari­
ety of educational institutions or can
qualify for their work right on the job.
Most employers, however, seek
workers who have had some form of
specialized training for more respon­
sible technician jobs. Specialized
formal training programs are offered
in post-secondary schools—technical
institutes, junior and community col­
leges, area vocational technical
schools, and extension divisions of
colleges and universities—as well as
in technical and technical-vocational
high schools. Other ways in which
persons can become qualified for tech­
nician jobs are by completing an onthe-job training program, through
work experience and formal courses
taken on a part-time basis in post­
secondary or correspondence schools,
or through training and experience
obtained while serving in the Armed
Forces. In addition, many engineering
and science students who have not

completed all the requirements for a
bachelor’s degree, as well as some
other persons with college education
in mathematics and science, are able
to qualify for technician jobs after
they obtain some additional technical
training and experience. In general,
post-secondary school technical train­
ing is required for a growing number
of engineering and science technician
Engineering and science techni­
cians usually begin work as trainees
or in the more routine positions under
the direct supervision of an experi­
enced technician, scientist, or engi­
neer. As they gain experience, they
are given more responsibility, often
carrying out a particular assignment
under only general supervision. Tech­
nicians may move into supervisory
positions. Those with exceptional
ability sometimes obtain additional
formal training and are promoted to
professional engineering positions.
For admittance to most schools
offering post-secondary technician
training, a high school diploma is usu­
ally required. Some schools, however,
admit students without a high school
diploma if they are able to pass spe­
cial examinations and otherwise dem­
onstrate their ability to perform work
above the high school level. All en­
gineering and science occupations re­
quire basic training in mathematics
and science, thus students should ob­
tain a sound background in these sub­
jects while in high school. Many
post-secondary schools have arrange­
ments for helping students make up
deficiencies in these subjects.
Programs offered by schools spe­
cializing in post-high school techni­
cal training require 1, 2, or 3 years
of full-time study. The majority are
2-year programs, leading to either an
associate of arts or science degree.
Evening as well as day sessions are
generally available. The courses of­
fered in science, mathematics, and
engineering are usually at the college
level. They include instruction in lab­
oratory techniques and the use of in­
struments, and emphasize the practi­
cal problems met on the job. Students
are also instructed in the use of ma­


chinery and tools, but more to give
them a familiarity with such equip­
ment than to develop skills.
Because of the variety of educa­
tional institutions offering training
and the differences in the kind and
level of training, persons seeking a
technical education should use more
than ordinary care in selecting a
school. Information should be secured
about the fields of technology in which
training is offered, accreditation, the
length of time the school has been in
operation, instructional facilities, fac­
ulty qualifications, acceptability of
credits toward the bachelor’s degree,
and the type of work obtained by the
school’s graduates.
Briefly discussed here are some of
the types of post-secondary educa­
tional institutions and other sources
where young people can obtain train­
ing as technicians.
Technical Institutes. Technical in­
stitutes offer training designed to
qualify the graduate for a specific
job or cluster of jobs immediately
upon graduation, and with a mini­
mum of on-the-job training. In gen­
eral, the student receives intensive
technical training but less theoretical
and general education than is pro­
vided in curriculums leading to a
bachelor’s degree in engineering and
liberal arts colleges. A few technical
institutes and community colleges of­
fer cooperative programs in which a
student spends part of his time in
school and part in paid employment
related to the occupation for which
he is preparing himself.
Some technical institutes are
operated as regular or extension divi­
sions of colleges and universities.
Others are separate institutions
operated by States or municipalities,
privately endowed institutions, and
proprietary schools.
Junior Colleges and Community
Colleges. Many junior and com­
munity colleges offer the necessary
training to prepare students for tech­
nician occupations. Some of these
schools offer curriculums that are
equivalent to those given in the fresh­
man and sophomore years of 4-year
colleges. Graduates can transfer to

the junior year in a 4-year college
or qualify for technician jobs. Most
large community colleges offer 2-year
technical programs, and many em­
ployers express a preference for grad­
uates with this more specialized
training. Generally, these students
can transfer to the sophomore year
in a 4-year college. Junior college
courses in technical fields are often
planned around the employment
needs of the industries in their
Area Vocational-Technical Schools.
Area vocational-technical schools are
post-secondary public institutions that
are established in central locations to
serve students from several surround­
ing areas. In general, the admission
requirements of vocational-technical
schools are as rigid as those of other
schools offering post-secondary tech­
nician training. Area school cur­
riculums are usually designed to train
the types of technicians most needed
in the area.
Other Training. Some large cor­
porations conduct training programs
to meet their need for technically
trained personnel. This type of train­
ing is primarily technical and rarely
includes any general studies.
Training for some occupations in
the technician category—tool de­
signer and electronic technician, for
example—may be obtained through
a formal apprenticeship.
Correspondence schools provide
technician training for those who
wish to learn more about their jobs.
Technician training is offered by all
branches of the Armed Forces. Many
of the technicians trained by the
military utilize their training in civil­
ian employment, especially in the field
of electronics, after they leave the
Armed Forces.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for en­
gineering and science technicians are
expected to be very good through the
1970’s. In general, the demand will
be strongest for graduates of post­
secondary school training programs


to fill the more responsible engineer­
ing and science technician jobs.
Among the factors underlying the
increase in demand for technicians
are the anticipated expansion of in­
dustry and the increasing complexity
of modem technology. As products
and the methods by which they are
manufactured become more complex,
increasing numbers of technicians
will probably be required to assist
engineers in such activities as pro­
duction planning, maintaining liaison
between production and engineering
departments, and technical sales
work. Furthermore, as the employ­
ment of scientists and engineers con­
tinues to grow, increasing numbers of
technicians will be needed to assist
them. The trend toward automation
of industrial processes and the growth
of new areas of work, such as that
related to space exploration or atomic
energy, will probably also add to the
demand for technical personnel. In
addition to the technicians needed to
fill new positions, an average of about
35,000 will be needed each year
through the 1970’s to replace those
who retire, die, or transfer to other
Another factor supporting the ex­
pected increase in demand for en­
gineering and science technicians is
the growth anticipated in research
and development expenditures. Such
expenditures have increased rapidly
in recent years and are expected to
continue to rise through the 1970’s
although somewhat more slowly than
in the past. Expenditures for the de­
fense and space programs also affect
the demand for technical personnel
because a large number are engaged
in activities related to the defense and
space programs. The above outlook
for technicians is based on the as­
sumption that defense and space ac­
tivities in the late 1970’s will not be
significantly different from the levels
of the early and mid-1960’s, prior to
the Vietnam buildup.
Well-qualified women technicians
should continue to find favorable em­
ployment opportunities, chiefly in de­
signing jobs, in chemical and other
laboratory work, and in computation

68---------- 14
2 6 -0 5 7 0 —

and other work requiring the appli­
cation of mathematics. Over the
longrun, it is likely that more women
will be trained and will find employ­
ment in these and other technician

In general, a technician’s earnings
depend upon his education and tech­
nical specialty, as well as his ability
and work experience. Other impor­
tant factors which influence his earn­
ings are the type of firm for which
he works, his specific duties, and the
geographic location of his job.
Annual starting salaries for gradu­
ates of post-secondary technical
schools averaged about $6,000 in pri­
vate industry in 1966. Young persons
entering engineering and science
technician jobs with less formal train­
ing generally earned somewhat less.
In Federal Government agencies
in early 1967, beginning engineering
and science technicians were offered
$4,269, $4,776 or $5,331, depending
upon the type of job vacancy and the
applicant’s education and other qual­
ifications. Some Federal Government
agencies hire high school graduates
and train them for technician jobs.
Beginning salaries for these jobs are
$3,925 a year.
Most technicians can look forward
to an increase in earnings as they
move to higher positions. In 1966,
annual salaries of workers in respon­
sible technician positions in private
industry averaged almost $9,000, and
approximately one-fourth of the
workers had annual salaries above
$9,600 according to a Bureau of
Labor Statistics survey.

Engineers’ Council for Professional
345 East 47th St., New York, N.Y.
National Council of Technical
1507 M St. NW., Washington, D.C.

Information on training opportuni­
ties may also be obtained from the
Engineers’ Council for Professional
Development, a nationally recognized
accrediting agency for engineering
technology programs; the National
Council of Technical Schools; and
the U.S. Department of Health, Edu­
cation, and Welfare, Office of Educa­
tion, Division of Higher Education
and/or Division of Vocational and
Technical Education, Washington,
D.C. 20202.
State departments of education at
each State capital also have informa­
tion about approved technical insti­
tutes, junior colleges, and other edu­
cational institutions within the State
offering post-high school training for
specific technical occupations. Other
sources include:
American Association of Junior Colleges,
1315 16th St. NW., Washington, D.C.
National Home Study Council,
1601 18th St. NW., Washington, D.C.

(D.O.T. 001. through 019.)
Nature of Work

In making a space capsule or an
electric iron, a nuclear submarine or
a television set, a bridge or a type­
Where To Go for More Information
writer, detailed plans are needed that
give the exact dimensions and speci­
General information on careers for fications for the entire object and
engineering and science technicians each of its parts. The workers who
may be obtained from:
draw these plans are draftsmen.
American Society for Engineering
Draftsmen translate the ideas,
rough sketches, specifications, and
Technical Institute Council, Dupont
calculations of engineers, architects,
Circle Building,
and designers into working plans
1346 Connecticut Ave. NW., Wash­
which are used in making a product.
ington, D.C. 20036.



10—are employed in private industry.
The manufacturing industries that
employ large numbers of draftsmen
are the machinery, electrical equip­
ment, fabricated metal products, and
transportation equipment industries.
Nonmanufacturing industries em­
ploying large numbers of draftsmen
are engineering and architectural
consulting firms, construction com­
panies, and public utilities.
About 29,000 draftsmen worked
for Federal, State, and local govern­
ments in early 1967. Of those em­
ployed by the Federal Government,
the large majority work for the De­
partments of the Army, Navy, and
Air Force. Draftsmen employed by
State and local governments work
chiefly for highway and public works
departments. A few thousand drafts­
men are employed by colleges
and universities and by nonprofit
Training, Other Qualifications, and

Draftsman prepares detailed drawing.

Draftsmen may calculate the strength,
reliability, and cost of materials. In
their drawings and specifications, they
describe exactly what materials and
processes workers are to use on a par­
ticular job. To prepare their draw­
ings, draftsmen use such instruments
as compasses, dividers, protractors,
and triangles, as well as machines that
combine the functions of several de­
vices. They may also use engineering
handbooks and tables to assist in solv­
ing technical problems.
Draftsmen are often classified ac­
cording to the type of work they do or
their level of responsibility. Senior
draftsmen use the preliminary infor­
mation provided by engineers and
architects to prepare design “layouts”
(drawings made to scale of the ob­
ject to be built). Detailers make draw­
ings of each part shown on the lay­
Digitizedout,FRASER dimensions, material, and
for giving

any other information necessary to
make the detailed drawing clear and
complete. Checkers carefully examine
drawings for errors in computing or
in recording dimensions and specifica­
tions. Under the supervision of drafts­
men, tracers make minor corrections
and prepare drawings for reproduc­
tion by tracing them on transparent
cloth, paper, or plastic film.
Draftsmen may also specialize in a
particular field of work, such as me­
chanical, electrical, electronic, aero­
nautical, structural, and architectural
Where Employed

An estimated 270,000 draftsmen
were employed in early 1967; almost
4 percent were women. The large
majority of draftsmen about 9 out of

Young persons interested in be­
coming draftsmen can acquire the
necessary training from a number of
sources, including technical institutes,
junior and community colleges, ex­
tension divisions of universities, voca­
tional and technical high schools, and
correspondence schools. Other per­
sons may qualify for draftsmen jobs
through on-the-job training programs
combined with part-time schooling
or through 3- or 4-year apprentice­
ship programs.
The prospective draftsman’s train­
ing, whether obtained in high school
or post-high school drafting pro­
grams, should include courses in
mathematics and physical sciences, as
well as in mechanical drawing and
drafting. The study of shop practices
and the learning of some shop skills
are also helpful, since many higher
level drafting jobs require knowledge
of manufacturing or construction
methods. Many technical schools
offer courses in structural design,
strength of materials, and physical


Young people with only high
school drafting training usually start
out as tracers. Those with some for­
mal post-high school technical train­
ing can often qualify as junior drafts­
men. As draftsmen gain skill and
experience, they may advance to
higher level positions as checkers, detailers, senior draftsmen, or super­
visors of other draftsmen. Some may
become independent designers. Fur­
thermore, some draftsmen who take
courses in engineering and mathe­
matics are able to transfer to engi­
neering positions.
Qualifications for success as a
draftsman include the ability to vis­
ualize objects in three dimensions
and to do freehand drawing. Al­
though artistic ability is not generally
required, it may be very helpful in
some specialized fields.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for
draftsmen are expected to be favor­
able through the 1970’s. Prospects
will be best for those with post-high
school drafting training. Well-quali­
fied high school graduates who have
had only high school drafting, how­


ever, will also be in demand for some
types of jobs.
Employment of draftsmen is ex­
pected to rise rapidly as a result of
the increasingly complex design prob­
lems of modern products and proccesses. In addition, as growth of en­
gineering and scientific occupations
continues, more draftsmen will be
needed as supporting personnel. On
the other hand, photoreproduction
of drawings and expanding use of
electronic drafting equipment are
eliminating some routine tasks done
by draftsmen and will probably
bring about a reduction in the need
for some less skilled draftsmen.
In addition to draftsmen needed
to fill new positions, many will be re­
quired each year to replace those who
retire, die, or move into other fields
of work. The number needed to fill
such vacancies, estimated to be about
10,000 in 1966, will probably rise
slowly through the 1970’s.

experience, draftsmen may move up
to higher level positions with a sub­
stantial increase in earnings. For ex­
ample, the earnings of senior drafts­
men averaged about $580 a month
in early 1966.
In the Federal Civil Service in
early 1967, the entrance salary for
high school graduates without work
experience who were employed in
trainee-draftsman positions was about
$325 a month. For those with posthigh school education or with some
experience in drafting, entrance sala­
ries were higher. The majority of ex­
perienced draftsmen working for the
Federal Government earned between
$490 and $580 in early 1967.
Where To Go for More Information

American Institute for Design and
770 South Adams Road, Suite 110,
Birmingham, Mich. 48011.
American Federation of Technical
900 F St. NW., Washington, D.C.

In private industry, persons in be­
See also section on Where To Go
ginning drafting positions earned an
average of about $370 a month in for More Information in the state­
early 1966, according to a Bureau of ment on Engineering and Science
Labor Statistics survey. As they gain Technicians.


(D.O.T. 132.268)
Nature of Work

Newspaper reporters gather infor­
mation on current events and write
stories on many subjects for publica­
tion in daily or weekly newspapers.
In covering these events, they may
interview people, review public rec­
ords, attend news happenings, and
do research. As a rule, reporters take
brief notes while collecting the facts,
and write their stories upon return
to the office. Sometimes, to meet
deadlines, they telephone their stories
to “dicta tionists” or give the informa­
tion by phone to other staff members
known as “rewrite men,” who write
the stories for them.
Large dailies frequently assign
some reporters to “beats,” such as
police stations or the courts, to cover
news originating in these places,
whereas other local news is handled
by general assignment reporters. Spe­
cialized reporters, who are wellversed in a subject matter field as well
as in writing, are increasingly inter­
preting and analyzing the news in
fields such as medicine, politics, sci­
ence, education, business, labor, and
religion. Reporters on small newspa­
pers get broad experience; they not
only cover all aspects of local news,
but may also take photographs, write
headlines, lay out inside pages, and
even write editorials. On the smallest
weeklies, they may also solicit adver198

tisements, sell subscriptions, and per­ porters, an increasing number of
form general office work.
newspapers will consider only appli­
cants with a college education; grad­
uate work is also becoming increas­
Where Employed
ingly important. Some editors prefer
An estimated 35,000 newspaper re­ those with a degree ininjournalism;
others consider a degree liberal arts
porters were employed in the United as equally desirable.
States in 1967. The majority worked
Professional training leading
for daily newspapers; most of the bachelor’s degree in journalism to a
others worked for weekly papers. In be obtained in more than 175 col­
addition, some reporters were em­ leges; about 100 of these have sepa­
ployed by press services and newspa­ rate departments or schools of jour­
per syndicates.
nalism. The typical
Reporters work in cities and towns journalism curriculum undergraduate
of all sizes throughout the country. ing the junior and senior offered dur­
years of col­
Of the more than 1,800 daily and lege, and is divided about equally
8,900 weekly newspapers, the great
cultural and professional
majority are in medium-size towns. between Students preparing to be­
Large numbers of reporters, however, come newspaper
take pro­
are in cities, since big city dailies em­ fessional subjects reporters reporting,
such as
ploy many reporters, whereas a small­
feature writing,
town paper generally employs only a copyreading, editing, journalism. Al­
and the history of
though a number of schools award
the master’s degree in journalism, at
present only a few offer programs
Training, Other Qualifications, and
leading to the doctor’s degree in this
Although talented writers with lit­ Young people who wish to prepare
tle or no academic training beyond for newspaper work through a liberal
high school sometimes become re­ arts curriculum should take English


courses that include writing, as well
as such subjects as sociology, political
science, economics, history, and psy­
chology. Reading and conversational
ability in a foreign language and some
familiarity with mathematics also are
desirable qualifications. Those who
look forward to becoming technical
writers, or to reporting in a special
field such as science, should concen­
trate on course work in their subject
matter areas to the maximum extent
possible. (See statement on Technical
Writers.) Those without college
training usually qualify by gaining
experience on rural, small-town, or
suburban papers.
Personal characteristics of impor­
tance are a “nose for news,” curiosity,
persistence, initiative, resourcefulness,
an accurate memory, and the phys­
ical stamina necessary for an active
and often fast-paced life. Skill in typ­
ing is useful since reporters often type
their own news stories. On small
papers, a knowledge of news photog­
raphy is also valuable.
Many beginners start on weekly or
small daily newspapers. Some out­
standing college graduates are hired
directly for reporting positions by
papers that prefer to train them on
the job. Others, also usually college
graduates, start on large city papers
as copy boys, acting as messengers or
office boys. They may be promoted
to reporting jobs as they gain experi­
ence and as openings arise. Oppor­
tunities are increasing for college
students to learn the rudiments of
reporting through summer intern­
ships with newspapers. These in­
ternships—well over 1,000 in 1966—
usually lead to regular employment
upon graduation.
In competing for regular positions,
it is helpful to have had experience
as a “stringer”—one who covers the
news in a particular area of the com­
munity for a newspaper and is paid
on the basis of the stories printed. Ex­
perience on a high school or college
newspaper may also be helpful in
obtaining employment.
Beginning reporters are first as­
signedFRASER work as summarizing
Digitized for to such

speeches, covering civic and club
meetings, writing obituaries, inter­
viewing visitors to the community,
and covering police court proceedings
and minor news events. As they gain
experience, they may advance to cov­
ering more important developments,
to an assigned “beat,” or to specializ­
ing in a particular field of knowledge.
Reporters with extensive experience
may become rewrite men or copy edi­
tors. Newspapermen also progress to
reporting jobs with larger papers or
with press services and newspaper
syndicates. Some experienced report­
ers advance to positions such as col­
umnist, correspondent, or editor; to
top executive positions; or become
publishers; but these positions repre­
sent the top of the field and competi­
tion for them is keen. Other report­
ers transfer to related fields such as
magazines, radio and television news,
advertising, or public relations.
Employment Outlook

Well-qualified beginners with ex­
ceptional writing talent will find good
employment opportunities through
the 1970’s. In early 1967 editors of
large newspapers were actively seek­
ing young reporters with exceptional
talent. Other beginners, however,
were facing keen competition for
jobs, especially on large city dailies,
and will probably continue to do so.
In addition to seeking young report­
ers with exceptional talent, editors
were also looking for reporters
who were qualified to handle news
about highly specialized or technical
Weekly or daily newspapers lo­
cated in small towns and suburban
areas will continue to offer the most
opportunities for beginners entering
newspaper reporting. Openings arise
on these papers as young people gain
experience and transfer to reporting
jobs on larger newspapers or to other
types of work. Moreover, the number
of newspapers in suburban areas is
increasing, and many of the existing
ones are expanding their staffs to sat­
isfy the need for more detailed com­

munity news. Preference in employ­
ment on small papers is likely to be
given to beginning reporters who are
able to help with photography and
other specialized aspects of newspaper
work and who are acquainted with
the community.
Large city dailies will provide some
openings for the inexperienced with
good educational backgrounds and a
flair for writing to enter as reporter
trainees; some opportunities may con­
tinue to be available for young people
to enter as copy boys and advance to
reporting jobs.
In addition to jobs in newspaper
reporting, new college graduates with
journalism training may enter related
fields, such as advertising, public re­
lations, trade and technical publish­
ing, radio, and television. The broad
field of mass communication, which
has grown rapidly in recent years, will
continue to expand in the future. Fac­
tors pointing toward this continuing
expansion include rising levels of edu­
cation and income; increasing expen­
ditures for newspaper, radio, and
television advertising; and a growing
number of trade and technical jour­
nals and various types of company
publications. As newspapers share in
this growth, employment of reporters
is expected to increase moderately.
The greatest number of job openings,
more than a thousand each year, will
continue to arise from the need to
replace reporters who are promoted
to editorial or other positions, trans­
fer to other fields of work, retire, or
leave the profession for other reasons.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Many daily newspapers have nego­
tiated, with the American Newspaper
Guild, contracts which set minimum
wages based on experience and pro­
vide for annual salary increases. In
late 1966, the minimum starting sal­
aries on most daily newspapers with
Guild contracts ranged between $80
and $120 a week for reporters with
no previous experience. On a few
small dailies, the Guild minimum
starting salaries were less than $70 a



week; on a few large dailies, Guild
minimum rates for beginning report­
ers exceeded $130 a week. Young
people working as copy boys earn less
than new reporters; minimum Guild
rates for copy boys with some experi­
ence ranged from about $50 to
slightly more than $90 a week.
On most dailies, minimum Guild
rates for reporters with some experi­
ence (usually for those with 4 to 6
years) ranged from about $140 to
$180 a week in late 1966. Contract
minimums for experienced reporters
on a few small dailies were less than
$130 a week; on a few large dailies
they were about $200 a week. Papers
under Guild contracts often pay sal­
aries higher than the minimum rates
called for in their contracts. Particu­
larly successful, experienced reporters
on city dailies may earn over $300 a
Newspaper reporters on big city
papers frequently work 7 to l/% hours
a day, 5 days a week; most other re­
porters generally work an 8-hour day,
40-hour week. Many of those em­
ployed by morning papers start work
in the afternoon and finish about
midnight. City papers pay overtime
rates for work performed after the
regularly scheduled workday, or for
more than 40 hours of work a week;
they often provide various employee
benefits such as paid vacations, group
insurance, and pension plans.
Where To Go for More Information

Information about opportunities
with daily newspapers may be ob­
tained from:
American Newspaper Publishers As­
750 Third Ave., New York, N.Y.,

Information on opportunities in
the newspaper field as well as a list of
scholarships, fellowships, assistantships, and loans available at colleges
and universities, may be obtained
The Newspaper Fund, Inc.,
Box 300, Princeton, N.J. 08540.

Sigma Delta Chi,
35 East Wacker Dr., Chicago, 111.

Information on union wage rates is
available from:
American Newspaper Guild, Re­
search Department,
1126 16th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.

General information on journalism
opportunities may be obtained from:
American Council on Education for
Ernie Pyle Hall,
Bloomington, Ind. 47405.

Names and locations of daily news­
papers and a list of departments and
schools of journalism are published
in the Editor and Publisher Interna­
tional Yearbook, available in most
large newspaper offices and public

(D.O.T. 139.288)
Nature of Work

The many technical and scientific
developments of recent years have
created a growing dem and for writers
skilled in interpreting these develop­
ments. The technical writer organizes,
writes, and edits material about sci­
ence and technology so that it is in a
form most useful to those who need
to use it—be it a technician or re­
pairman, a scientist or engineer, an
executive, or a housewife. When
writing for the nonspecialist he must
present his material in a simple, clear,
and factual manner; for the specialist
he must include technological detail,
using a highly specialized vocabulary.
Regardless of what kind of writing
he does, the technical writer serves to
establish easy communication be­
tween scientists, engineers, and other
technical specialists, and the users of
their information.
The technical writer’s product
takes many forms, such as a publicity
release on a company’s scientific or
technical achievement or a manu­

facturer’s contract proposal to the
Federal Government. It may be a
manual that explains how to operate,
assemble, disassemble, maintain, or
overhaul components of a missile sys­
tem or a home appliance. Technical
writers also write for scientific and
engineering periodicals, and for popu­
lar magazines.
Technical writers as defined in
this statement include only those
people primarily employed to inter­
pret, write about, or edit technical
or scientific subject m atter. It ex­
cludes those primarily employed as
scientists, engineers, or other techni­
cal specialists who also do a consider­
able amount of writing.
Before starting a writing assign­
ment, a technical writer must usually
research his subject. This process
involves studying reports, reading
technical journals, and consulting
with the engineers, scientists, and
other technical personnel who have
worked on the project. Then, he pre­
pares a rough draft that may be re­
vised several times before it is in final
form. Technical writers usually ar­
range for the preparation of tables,
charts, illustrations, and other art­
work, and in so doing may work with
technical illustrators, draftsmen, or
Where Employed

About 30,000 technical writers and
editors were employed in early 1967.
Most technical writers are employed
in the electronics and aerospace indus­
tries. Many work for research and de­
velopment firms or for the Federal
Government—mainly in the Depart­
ments of Defense and Agriculture, the
Atomic Energy Commission, and the
National Aeronautics and Space Ad­
ministration. Some work in the more
than 300 job shops that specialize in
technical writing. Others are in busi­
ness for themselves as freelance
technical writers.
Technical writers are employed
primarily in the Northeastern States,
Texas, and California. They are con­
centrated in the Washington, D.C.,



Los Angeles, Houston, Fort WorthDallas, Chicago, New York, Boston,
and Philadelphia metropolitan areas.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

The bachelor’s degree is the desir­
able minimum entrance requirement
for work in this field, although tal­
ented and experienced writers having
less academic training can qualify.
Employers do not agree on the most
appropriate kind of college training
needed by technical writers, but
graduates usually must have a com­
bination of courses in writing and
scientific and technical subjects.
Some employers prefer applicants
with degrees in engineering or science
who have had courses in writing.
Others seek graduates with majors in
English or journalism who have
taken some courses in scientific and
technical subjects. Regardless of the
college training they prefer, all em­
ployers place great emphasis on writ­
ing skills.
Few schools offer formal under­
graduate programs leading to a
bachelor’s degree in technical writing
or technical journalism. However,
about 170 colleges and universities
provide professional education lead­
ing to a bachelor’s degree in jour­
nalism; and most of these offer at
least one course in technical writing
or technical journalism as part of the
regular curriculum. Liberal arts col­
leges and some engineering schools
offer English and other courses that
sharpen writing skills. Many colleges
and universities conduct short-term
summer workshops and seminars for
technical writers.
Young people who plan to become
technical writers should, while still
in high school, supplement the re­
quired science and mathematics
courses with as many elective courses
in grammar and composition as pos­
sible. They also can gain helpful ex­
perience by working as editors or
writers for their school papers.
In addition to the ability to write
well, for FRASERwriters must have the
Digitized technical

Technical writer confers with engineer on product specifications.

ability to think logically. They should
have a great interest in scientific and
technological developments and be
able to work and communicate well
with others.
Beginners often assist experienced
technical writers by doing library re­
search, by editing, and by preparing
drafts of portions of reports. Experi­
enced writers in organizations with
large technical writing staffs may
become technical editors or progress
to supervisory and administrative
positions. After gaining experience
and contacts, a few may open their
own job shops.

It also is possible to advance by
becoming a specialist in a particular
scientific or technical subject. These
writers sometimes prepare syndicated
newspaper columns or articles for
popular magazines.
Employment Outlook

Well-qualified and experienced
technical writers are expected to find
excellent employment opportunities
through the 1970’s. Beginners who
have good writing ability and appro­
priate education also should find



many opportunities; those with mini­
mum qualifications will find stiff com­
petition for jobs. The greatest de­
mand probably will be for technical
writers with backgrounds in elec­
tronics and communications, partic­
ularly in research and development,
to work in the aerospace and related
The employment of technical
writers is expected to increase mod­
erately throughout the late 1960’s
and during the 1970’s because of the
need to put the increasing volume of
scientific and technical information
into language that can be understood
by management for decisionmaking
and by technicians for operating and
maintaining complicated industrial
equipment. Also, since many products
will continue to be assembled from
components manufactured by differ­
ent companies, technical writers will
be in demand to describe, in simple
terms, the interrelationships of these
components. The growth in this oc­
cupation will be accelerated also by
the need for improved and simplified
operating and maintenance instruc­
tions for new consumer products.
The demand for technical writers
will continue to be related to research
and developm ent expenditures. These

expenditures are expected to remain
at high levels in the aerospace in­
dustry and to increase somewhat in
medical and other fields.
Technical writers with training in
journalism also will find opportunities
in other fields that employ writers,
such as advertising, public relations,
trade publishing, radio, and tele­
Earnings and Working Conditions

In 1967, inexperienced technical
writers with bachelor’s degrees were
hired in private industry at starting
salaries ranging from $5,000 to $7,000
a year; those with moderate experi­
ence earned from $7,000 to $10,000 a
year; highly experienced writers
earned from $11,000 to $15,000, and
those in supervisory and management
positions up to $20,000. Differences
in the earnings of experienced writers
depended not only on their ability
and prior experience, but also on fac­
tors such as the type, size, and location
of their employing firms. Earnings of
freelance technical writers vary
greatly and are related to the writer’s
reputation in the field.

In the Federal Government in
early 1967, inexperienced technical
writers with a bachelor’s degree and
credit for about five science courses
could start at either $5,331 or $6,451
a year, depending on their college
records. Those with 2 years’ experi­
ence could begin at $7,696. With 3
years’ experience, they could start at
$9,221 or $10,927 a year, depending
on the caliber of the experience.
Technical writers usually work the
standard 40-hour week. They may
work under considerable pressure,
frequently working overtime when a
deadline has to be met on a publica­
tion or report.
Where To Go for More Information

Additional information on this oc­
cupation, including a list of schools
offering accepted courses,of study and
specific training programs in ac­
credited colleges and universities, may
be obtained from:
Executive Secretary,
Society of Technical Writers and
Publishers, Inc.,
Suite 421, 1010 Vermont Ave., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20005.


The architect makes preliminary
drawings of the structure and meets
with the client to develop a final de­
sign. This design includes floor plans
as well as details of the interior and
exterior of the building. The final
design is then translated into working
drawings, which show the exact di­
mensions of every part of the struc­
ture and the location of the plumbing,
heating, electrical, air-conditioning,
and other equipment. Consulting en­
gineers usually prepare detailed draw­
ings of the structural, plumbing,
heating, and electrical work. Engi­
neers’ drawings are coordinated with
the architect’s working drawings, and

specifications are prepared listing the
construction materials to be used, the
equipment, and, in some cases, the
. The architect then assists his client
in selecting a building contractor and
in drawing up the contract between
client and contractor, and he acts as
the client’s advisor and representative
in dealings with the contractor. As
construction proceeds, the architect
makes periodic visits to the construc­
tion site to make certain that the de­
sign is being followed and that the
materials specified in the contract
are used. The architect’s work is not
completed until the project is fin-


(D.O.T. 001.081)
Nature of Work

Architects plan and design build­
ings and other structures. Their goal
is to design structures which are safe,
useful, and pleasing in appearance.
Architects also work with other pro­
fessionals, such as engineers, urban
planners, and landscape architects
in the designing of cities and towns
and in the planning and improvement
of an overall physical environment.
When an architect receives a com­
mission for a building, he meets with
the client to discuss the purpose, re­
quirements, and cost limitations of
the structure as well as the client’s
preferences as to style and plan. Sub­
sequently, the architect must make
hundreds of decisions taking into
account not only the requirements of
the building, but also local and State
building codes, zoning laws, fire regu­
lations, and other ordinances. For ex­
ample, in planning a school, the
architect must decide, among other
things, the amount of corridor and
staircase space required to enable stu­
dents to move easily from one class
to another; the type and arrangement
of storage space; and the location,
size, and interior arrangements of the
classrooms, laboratories, lunchroom,
gymnasium, and administrative of­

Architects examine scale model of new project.


ished, all required tests are made, and
guarantees are received from the con­
Most self-employed architects plan
and design a wide variety of struc­
tures, ranging from homes to
churches, hospitals, office buildings,
and airports. Architects also plan and
design multibuilding complexes for
urban renewal projects, college cam­
puses, industrial parks, and new
towns. Some architects, however, spe­
cialize in one particular type of
structure or project. When working
on large-scale projects or for large
architectural firms, architects fre­
quently specialize in one phase of the
work, such as design, drafting, speci­
fication writing, or construction con­
tract administration (insuring that a
structure is built in accordance with
plans and specifications).
Where Employed

An estimated 32,000 registered
(licensed) architects were employed
in the United States in early 1967. In
addition, many other architectural
school graduates who are unlicensed
were working in positions requiring a
knowledge of architecture. Less than
3 percent of all architects are women.
Approximately two-fifths of all
architects are self-employed, either
practicing individually or as part­
ners. Most of the others work for
architectural firms. Some architects
work for engineers, builders, real
estate firms, and for other businesses
with large construction programs.
Others are employed by government
agencies, often in fields such as city
and community planning and urban
redevelopment. A few are full-time
teachers in schools of architecture.
Architects are employed in all
parts of the country. However, they
are concentrated in those States with
large metropolitan areas. Nearly half
of the total are employed in six
States—California, New York, Illi­

nois, Texas, Pennsylvania, and Ohio.

Training, Other Qualifications, and

A license for the practice of archi­
tecture is required by law in all
States and the District of Columbia,
mainly to insure that architectural
work which may affect the safety of
life, health, or property is done by
qualified architects. Requirements for
admission to the licensing examina­
tion are set by the individual States.
These generally include graduation
from an accredited professional
school followed by 3 years of prac­
tical experience in an architect’s
office. As a substitute for formal
training, most States accept longer
periods of practical experience (usu­
ally 10 to 12 years) for admission to
the licensing examination.
In 1966, professional training in
architecture was offered by 78 col­
leges and universities in the United
States, 61 of which were accredited
by the National Architectural Ac­
crediting Board. The great majority
of these schools offered a 5-year cur­
riculum leading to the bachelor of
architecture degree. Many architec­
tural schools also offered graduate
education leading to the master’s
degree, and a few schools offer the
Ph. D. degree. Although graduate
training is not essential for the prac­
tice of architecture, it is often desir­
able for research and teaching posi­
Most schools of architecture admit
qualified high school graduates who
meet the entrance requirements of
the college or university with which
the school of architecture is asso­
ciated. Some schools require 1 or 2
years of college education before
admitting the student to a 3- or 4year architectural training program.
In general, architectural schools pre­
fer that students’ preparation include
mathematics, science, social studies,
language, and art. A typical curricu­
lum includes not only architectural
courses but also other subjects—usu­
ally English, mathematics, physics,
chemistry, sociology, economics, and
a foreign language.

Among the personal qualifications
needed by persons planning a career
in architecture are a capacity to mas­
ter technical problems, a gift for ar­
tistic creation, and a flair for business
and for human relations. Students
are frequently encouraged to work
for architects or for building con­
tractors during summer vacations to
gain some knowledge of practical
New graduates usually begin as
junior draftsmen in architectural
firms where they make drawings and
models of building projects or draft
details in the working drawings. As
they gain experience, they are given
more complex work. After several
years, they may progress to chief or
senior draftsman, with responsibility
for all the major details of a set of
working drawings and for the super­
vision of other draftsmen. Other
architects may work as designers, con­
struction contract administrators, or
specification writers. An employee
who is particularly valued by his firm
may be designated an associate and
may receive, in addition to his salary,
a share of the profits. Usually, how­
ever, the architect’s goal is to estab­
lish his own practice.
Employment Outlook

The outlook is for continued rapid
growth of the profession through the
1970’s. Employment opportunities
are expected to be good both for ex­
perienced architects and for new
architecture graduates.
A major factor contributing to this
favorable outlook is the expected
growth in the volume of nonresidential construction—the major area of
work for architects. Moreover, the in­
creasing size and complexity of mod­
ern nonresidential buildings, as well
as homeowners’ growing awareness
of the value of architects’ services,
are likely to bring about a greater
demand for architectural services.
Urban redevelopment and city and
community planning projects, other
growing areas of employment for
architects, are also expected to in­



crease considerably in the years
ahead. (See statement on Urban
Planners.) In addition, expanding
college enrollments will create a need
for additional architects to teach
architectural courses.
Besides those needed to fill new
positions due to growth, additional
numbers of architects will be required
each year to replace those who trans­
fer to other fields of work, retire, or
die. The number needed to fill such
vacancies, estimated to be about 700
in 1966, will probably rise slowly in
the future.
Along with the anticipated rise in
demand for architects, an increase is
expected in the number of architec­
tural graduates. If graduations in this
field follow the trend expected in all
college graduations, the number of
architectural degrees awarded each
year during the late 1960’s and the
1970’s should be considerably greater
than the 2,300 degrees awarded in
1965. However, many architectural
graduates utilize their training in
fields such as sales and administration
in the building industry and do not
enter the profession. Thus, those who
choose to enter the field should have
good employment opportunities
through the 1970’s.
The outlook for women architects,
although less favorable than for men,
is nonetheless expected to be good.
However, few women establish them­
selves in private practice.

paid salaried employees of architec­
tural firms. The range in their in­
comes is very wide, however. Some
architects with many years of experi­
ence and good reputations earn well
over $25,000 a year. Young architects
starting their own practices may go
through a period when their expenses
are greater than their income.
Most architects work in welllighted, well-equipped offices and
spend long hours at the drawing
board. However, their routine is often
varied by interviewing clients or con­
tractors or discussing the design, con­
struction procedures, or building
materials of a project with other
architects or engineers. Architects in­
volved in construction contract ad­
ministration frequently work out of
doors during inspections at construc­
tion sites.
Where To Go for More Information

The American Institute of Architects,
1735 New York Ave. N W , Washing­
ton, D.C. 20006.
Society of American Registered Archi­
1821 Jefferson Place NW., Washing­
ton, D .C .20036.

(D .O .T . 166.268)
Nature of Work

Earnings and Working Conditions

Starting salaries for architectural
school graduates were generally be­
tween $100 and $150 a week in 1966,
according to available information.
Draftsmen with 3 years or more ex­
perience earned between $135 and
$180 a week; job captains, specifica­
tion writers, and other senior em­
ployees usually earned from $150 to
$250 a week. Senior employees often
receive yearly bonuses in addition to
their salaries.
After architects have become well
established in private practice, they
much more than highgenerally earn

College placement officers provide
job placement services to students and
graduates. They furnish information
on full-time, part-time, and summer
job openings; help students evaluate
their special abilities and employment
opportunities; and arrange for job
College placement officers inter­
view students and analyze their edu­
cation and work records in order to
match qualifications to job require­
ments. They also may administer or
arrange for vocational and psycho­
logical tests.

College placement officer and student discuss
employment offers.

College placement officers arrange
for employer representatives to visit
the campus to discuss their firms’
personnel needs and to interview
qualified applicants. Placement offi­
cers may provide information about
students to employer representatives
and assist them in appraising the
qualifications of students. They also
may make new contacts with employ­
ers to develop additional employment
opportunities. In addition, they may
suggest improvements in employer
recruitment literature and inform the
college faculty of any change in job
requirements that might warrant ad­
justment in curriculum.
Many college placement officers
assemble and maintain a library of
career guidance information from
public and private sources and com­
pany recruitment literature for the
use of students and alumni. Such
material includes information on the
nature of various occupations, to­
gether with data on current oppor­
tunities, educational requirements,
earnings, advancement, and the long­
term outlook.
Placement officers may specialize
in such areas as law, teaching, parttime and summer work, or other spe­
cific group placements. However, the

extent of specialization usually de­ In 1967, more than 100 colleges prospects will be best for new or re­
pends upon the size and type of the and universities offered programs cent college graduates seeking begin­
college, as well as the size of the place­ leading to a graduate degree in col­ ning positions, particularly at their
ment staff.
lege student personnel work. These own alma maters. Among the factors
programs included such placement expected to contribute to the favor­
oriented subjects as vocational devel­ able outlook for college placement
Where Employed
opment theory, techniques of inter­ officers are the increasing number of
viewing, career counseling, occupa­ college graduates, and the expansion
Placement services are offered in
nearly all colleges and universities. tional and educational information, in the number of college students
Large colleges may employ several group dynamics, and college student from lower income families who will
seek part-time jobs during their col­
placement officers working under a personnel administration.
Many people enter college place­ lege years to help finance their educa­
director of placement activities; in
ment after working in other areas. A tion. Demand for college placement
many institutions, however, a com­
bination of placement functions is broad background of business or officers will be increased also as a
performed by one officer and his industrial experience, teaching ex­ result of the trend among colleges
clerical staff. In some colleges, espe­ perience, previous placement train­ and universities toward more em­
cially the smaller ones, the functions ing, experience in public or private phasis on the student personnel serv­
of placement officers may be per­ employment agencies, or knowledge ice aspect of higher education. This
formed on a part-time basis by mem­ of personnel and guidance tech­ emphasis has already resulted in in­
bers of the faculty or administrative niques are all useful backgrounds for creased placement activity for grad­
staff. Universities frequently have college placement work. In some uate students and alumni, and for
placement offices for each major instances, an alumnus who has dis­ undergraduates seeking summer and
branch or campus. In some universi­ played a strong interest in his school, part-time employment. The increas­
ties, there is a central office which and exhibits ability in working effec­ ing number of junior colleges and
coordinates the work of all placement tively with people, will be employed technical schools—the fastest grow­
officers; in others, each office works as as an assistant in the placement office ing segment of higher education—
a separate unit.
and may advance to more responsible also will increase the demand for
placement personnel.
An estimated 2,500 placement of­ positions as he gains experience.
The recent trend toward increased
ficers were employed in 4-year col­ A person who would like to enter
leges and universities in 1967, most the college placement field should budget allocations for placement ac­
of them on a full-time basis. Of this have an interest in people, as well as tivities is expected to continue, thus
total number, about one-third were the ability to gain the confidence of leading to a growing demand for col­
wom en. In addition, an increasing students, faculty, and employers. The lege placement officers in most
number of placement officers were ability to develop a keen insight into parts of the country. In addition, re­
being employed full time or part time the employment problems of both gional college placement associations,
in 2-year colleges.
employers and students and to main­ through their coordinating organiza­
College placement officers are lo­ tain honest and confidential com­ tion, the College Placement Council,
cated in all parts of the country, munications also is important in col­ are expanding their programs to im­
prove operations in existing place­
although they are concentrated in the lege placement work.
metropolitan areas where many col­ Advancement for college place­ ment offices of member colleges and
leges and universities are situated.
ment officers usually is through pro­ to establish placement services where
motion to placement director, direc­ none presently exist.
Some openings
tor of student personnel services, or year as placementalso will occur each
Training, Other Qualifications, and
to some other higher level adminis­ other positions, retire, or transferthe
trative position. However, the extent field for other reasons.
A bachelor’s degree generally is of such opportunity usually depends
considered the minimum require­ upon the type of college or university
ment for entry into the field. Impor­ and the size of the staff.
Earnings and Working Conditions
tant undergraduate courses for the
prospective placement officer include
In 1966, annual earnings of place­
psychology, sociology, education,
ment office directors ranged from less
Employment Outlook
counseling, and personnel adminis­
than $4,000 to a high of over $20,000,
The number of job opportunities with the average (median) salary
tration or related business subjects.
At present, however, no specific edu­ in the college placement field is ex­ about $9,700, according to a National
pected to rise very rapidly through Education Association survey of 953
specialty exists for college
placement officers.
the 1970’s. In general, employment public and private colleges and uni­


versities. In general, the larger insti­
tutions paid the highest salaries.
Earnings of placement officers and
assistants averaged about two-thirds
of the amount paid placement direc­
College placement officers usually
work a standard 35- to 40-hour week;
however, irregular hours and over­
time usually are necessary during the
“recruiting season.” Most placement
personnel are employed on a 12month basis. They are paid for holi­
days and vacations, and receive the
same benefits as other professional
personnel employed by colleges and
Where To Go for More Information

The College Placement Council, Inc.,
35 East Elizabeth Ave., Bethlehem,
Pa. 18018.

(D.O.T. 096.128)
Nature of Work

Improving products, services, and
practices that affect the comfort and
well-being of the family is the pri­
mary aim of home economists. These
professional workers must have a
broad knowledge of the field or be­
come specialists in a particular area
such as food, clothing and textiles,
housing, home equipment, child care,
household management, or family
Teachers make up the largest
single group of home economists.
Secondary school teachers give
courses in food, nutrition, clothing,
textiles, child care, family relations,
home furnishings and equipment,
household economics, and home
management. The nature of much of
the work done by home economics
teachers is similar to that described
in the statement on Secondary School
Teachers, elsewhere in this Hand­
book. In addition, they may sponsor
chapters of Future Homemakers of

Home economist gives food demonstration.

America, and conduct many related
activities. Teachers in adult educa­
tion programs help homemakers to
increase their understanding of fam­
ily relations, and to improve their
homemaking methods and skills. Col­
lege teachers may combine teaching
and research, and often specialize in
one particular area of home eco­
Private business firms and trade
associations employ home economists
to promote the development, use, and
care of specific home products. They
may do research and test products;
prepare advertisements and booklets
with instructional materials; plan,
prepare, and present programs for
radio and television; serve as con­
sultants ; give lectures and demonstra­
tions before the public; and conduct
classes for workers, salesmen, and
appliance servicemen. They may also
study consumer needs and help
manufacturers translate these needs
into useful products.
Home economists who work for
food manufacturers do an important
part of their work in test kitchens—
improving present products or help­
ing to create new products; they may
also publicize the nutritional value of
specific foods. Those employed by

utility companies often give advice on
household problems, in addition to
describing the operation and benefits
of products and services. Home econ­
omists employed by manufacturers
of kitchen and laundry equipment
may work with engineers on product
development. Those engaged in com­
munications work for magazines,
newspapers, radio and television sta­
tions, advertising and public rela­
tions agencies, trade associations, and
other organizations. They usually
prepare articles and advertisements
to tell homemakers about home prod­
ucts and services. Their work may
include product testing and analysis,
work in research laboratories or test
kitchens, and the study of consumer
buying habits. Still other home econ­
omists work for dress-pattern com­
panies, department stores, interior
design studios, and other business
firms that design, manufacture, and
sell products for the home. A small
number of home economists are em­
ployed in financial institutions, giving
customers advice on spending, saving,
and budgeting.
Some home economists are en­
gaged in research work for the Fed­
eral Government, State agricultural
experiment stations, colleges, universi­
ties, and private organizations. The
U.S. Department of Agriculture
employs the largest group of these
workers, some of whom study the
buying and spending habits of farm
families and then develop budget
guides. A few in other Federal agen­
cies are engaged in research on space
travel, working on such problems as
food needs in outer space.
Cooperative Extension Service
home economists conduct adult edu­
cation programs for women and 4-H
Club programs for girls in such areas
as home management, consumer edu­
cation, family relations, and nutri­
Home economists employed on
social-welfare programs by State,
county, city, and private welfare
agencies may act as advisers and con­
sultants on household budgets and
improved homemaking. They may

help handicapped homemakers and
their families adjust to physical lim­
itations by changing the arrange­
ments in the home and revising
methods of work. Other home econo­
mists in welfare agencies supervise or
train workers who provide temporary
or part-time help to households dis­
rupted by illness.
Where Employed

About 92,000 persons were em­
ployed in home economics occupa­
tions in 1966. This figure includes an
estimated 30,000 dietitians and ap­
proximately 5,000 extension workers
who are discussed in separate state­
ments on Dietitians and Agricultural
Extension Workers in the Handbook.
More than 50,000 home economists
were teachers. Approximately 33,000
were primarily secondary school
teachers. About 14,000 were adult
education instructors; however, a
good many of these teachers taught
both secondary school and adult
education classes. In addition, there
were about 2,500 college and uni­
versity teachers. The remainder
taught in elementary schools, kinder­
gartens, nursery schools, recreation
centers, and other institutions. More
than 5,000 home economists were in
private business firms and associa­
tions. Several hundred were primarily
research workers, and a smaller group
were advisers, consultants, and train­
ing supervisors in social welfare pro­
grams. A few were self-employed.
Although home economics is gen­
erally considered a woman’s field, a
growing number of men are employed
in home economics positions. Most
men specialize in foods and institu­
tion management, though some are in
the family relations and child devel­
opment field, applied arts, and other


a bachelor’s degree in home econom­
ics, which qualifies graduates for most
entry positions in the field. A mas­
ter’s or doctor’s degree is required for
college teaching, for certain research
and supervisory positions, for work
as an extension specialist or super­
visor, and for some jobs in the nutri­
tion field.
The undergraduate curriculum in
home economics gives students a
strong background in science and
liberal arts and also includes courses
in each of the areas of home eco­
nomics. Students majoring in home
economics may specialize in various
subject-matter areas. Advanced
courses in chemistry and nutrition are
important for those wishing to spe­
cialize in-foods and nutrition; science
and statistics for research work; and
journalism for advertising, public
relations work, and all other work in
the communications field. To teach
home economics in a high school, a
student must complete the profes­
sional education courses and other
requirements for a teacher’s certifi­
cate in the State in which one wishes
to teach.
Scholarships especially designated
for undergraduates in the field are
available, as well as scholarships, fel­
lowships, and assistantships for grad­
uate study. Although colleges and
universities offer most of these finan­
cial grants, government agencies,
research foundations, businesses, and
the American Home Economics
Association provide additional funds.
Home economists must be able to
work with people of various living
standards and backgrounds and
should have a capacity for leadership,
with ability to inspire cooperation.
Good grooming, poise, and an interest
in people are also essential, particu­
larly when dealing with the public.
Employment Outlook

Home economists are expected to
have very good employment oppor­
Approximately 450 colleges and tunities through the 1970’s. The

universities offer training leading to greatest demand will stem from the
Training, Other Qualifications, and

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

need to fill teaching positions in sec­
ondary schools and in colleges and
universities. Increased national focus
on the needs of low-income families
may also increase demand to work
in welfare and extension service posi­
tions. In addition, the need for more
home economists in research is
expected to increase with the con­
tinued interest in improving home
products and services. Many business
establishments are also becoming in­
creasingly aware of the contributions
that can be made by professionally
trained home economists and prob­
ably will hire more of them to pro­
mote home products and to act as
consultants to customers.
Many home economists will be
needed to replace those who die,
retire, or leave the field because of
family responsibilities or other rea­
sons through the 1970’s. Opportuni­
ties for those who leave the profes­
sion but who later wish to return will
be good, especially as part-time
teachers in adult education programs.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Home economics teachers in public
schools generally receive the same
salaries as other teachers, as most
school districts have a single-salary
schedule, based on education and
experience. In school districts of
100.000 pupils or more, the average
(median) salary of beginning teach­
ers who have a bachelor’s degree was
$5,362 for the school year 1966-67,
according to a National Education
Association survey; in districts of
50.000 to 99,999 enrollment, starting
salaries averaged $5,268 and in dis­
tricts of 25,000 to 49,999 enrollment,
The average (median) salary of
home economics instructors teaching
in colleges and universities was about
$6,800 a year in 1965-66. In the
cooperative extension service, sal­
aries of county extension home econ­
omists averaged about $7,900 per year
and those of State specialists, $10,350
in late 1966.



The Federal Government paid in­
experienced workers who have a
bachelor’s degree in home economics
$5,331 or $6,451 in early 1967, de­
pending on their scholastic records.
For those having additional educa­
tion and experience, salaries ranged
from $7,696 to $15,106 a year,
depending upon the type of position
and level of responsibility.
Many home economists work a
regular 40-hour week or less. Those
in teaching and extension positions,
however, frequently work longer
hours as they are expected to be avail­
able for evening lectures, demonstra­
tions, and other work falling outside
the regularly scheduled hours. Most
home economists receive fringe bene­
fits such as paid vacation, sick leave,
retirement pay, and insurance bene­
Where To Go for More Information

A list of schools granting degrees
in home economics is available from
the Home Economic Unit, Bureau of
Adult and Vocational Education,
Office of Education, U.S. Department
of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Washington, D.C. 20202.
Additional information a b o u t
home economists and graduate schol­
arships may be obtained from:
American Home Economics Associ­
1600 20th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20009.

(D.O.T. 019.081)
Nature of Work

Everyone enjoys walking through
an attractively designed park or tak­
ing a drive along a scenic road.
Landscape architects plan, design,
and supervise the arrangement of
such outdoor areas for people to use
and enjoy. The attractiveness of
parks, highways, housing projects,
campuses, and country clubs reflects
the skill of these architects in design­

Landscape architect discusses site plan with contractor.

ing landscapes that are useful and
pleasing. Their knowledge of site
planning allows landscape architects
to serve many types of clients, from a
real estate firm embarking on a new
suburban development to a city pre­
paring to build an airport.
Landscape architects may plan the
entire arrangement of a site and su­
pervise the grading, construction, and
planting required to carry out the
plan. Whether they perform all or
only part of these services on a par­
ticular project, however, depends on
the client’s wishes and the available
To plan a site, landscape architects
first study the nature and purpose of
the client’s project, and the various
types of structures needed. Next, they
study the site itself, observing and
mapping such features as the slope of

the land and the position of existing
buildings and trees. They also con­
sider the parts of the site that will be
sunny or shaded at different times of
the day, the structure of the soil,
existing utilities, and many other fac­
tors. Then, after consultation with
the architect and engineer working
on the project, they draw up prelimi­
nary plans for the development of the
site. After the client approves the
preliminary plans, working drawings
are made which show all existing and
proposed features, such as buildings,
roads, walks, terraces, grading, and
drainage structures in planted areas.
Landscape architects outline in detail
the methods of constructing such fea­
tures as walks and terraces and draw
up lists of materials to be used. Land­
scape contractors are then invited to
submit bids for the work.



Firms of landscape architects usu­
ally handle a wide variety of assign­
ments. Some, however, specialize in
such projects as parks and play­
grounds, campuses, hotels and resorts,
shopping centers, roads, or public
Where Employed

An estimated 5,000 landscape
architects were employed in early
1967. The majority were self-em­
ployed or worked for other landscape
architects in private firms. About a
third of all landscape architects were
employed by government agencies
concerned with public housing, city
planning, urban renewal, highways,
and parks and recreational areas.
Some were on the staffs of architec­
tural or engineering firms; others
were employed by landscape contrac­
tors and nurseries, and a few taught
in colleges and universities.
Landscape architects are found in
every State and in many small towns
as well as big cities. The largest num­
bers are in the most highly populated
States. New York and California,
with large populations and high per
capita incomes, have more landscape
architects than other States.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

A bachelor’s degree in landscape
architecture is usually the minimum
requirement for entering the profes­
sion. Such training is offered in at
least 25 colleges and universities, of
which 21 have been accredited by the
American Society of Landscape
Architects. The curriculum for the
bachelor’s degree requires 4 to 5 years
of study, depending on the institu­
tion. Fifteen universities also offer
master’s degrees in landscape archi­
Entrance requirements for the
landscape architecture course are
usually the same as those for admis­
sion to the liberal arts college of the
same university. Some schools also

require completion of a high school
course in mechanical or geometrical
drawing, and most schools advise
high school students to take courses
in art and more mathematics than
the minimum required for college
Courses in design, including archi­
tecture and drawing as well as land­
scape design, constitute over half of
the typical curriculum in landscape
architecture. Other major fields of
study are civil engineering and horti­
culture. In addition, courses in Eng­
lish, science, the social sciences, and
mathematics are usually required. A
bachelor’s degree in landscape archi­
tecture provides a good background
for graduate work in city planning.
Young people who plan to become
landscape architects should be in­
terested in both art and nature, for
the profession demands a talent for
design and an understanding of plant
life, as well as technical ability. Suc­
cessful practice as an independent
landscape architect also requires a
good business sense and the ability to
deal with people.
Working for landscape architects
or landscape contractors during sum­
mer vacations will help the student to
discover the phases of landscape
architecture that interest him most
and may better qualify him for em­
ployment upon graduation.
New graduates usually begin as
junior draftsmen, tracing drawings
and doing other simple drafting work.
As their skill increases, they progress
to more responsible work. After 2 or
3 years, they can usually advance to
senior draftsmen, qualified to carry a
design through all stages, from pre­
liminary sketches to finished working
drawings. Experienced draftsmen
often handle other aspects of land­
scape architects’ work also, such as
preparing specifications and detailing
methods of construction. Employees
who demonstrate ability for all phases
of work may become associates of the
firm; landscape architects who pro­
gress this far often open their own
A license is required for the inde­
pendent practice of landscape archi­

tecture in 10 States—California, New
York, Michigan, Nebraska, Georgia,
Oregon, Louisiana, Florida, Pennsyl­
vania, and Ohio. Candidates for the
licensing examination are usually re­
quired to have 6 to 8 years’ experi­
ence, or a degree from an accredited
school of landscape architecture plus
2 to 4 years’ experience.
Employment Outlook

Employment ' opportunities for
graduates with professional training
in landscape architecture are ex­
pected to be favorable throughout
the 1970’s. The profession will prob­
ably continue to expand in the years
ahead as a result of the continued
growth of metropolitan areas with
their needs for parks and recreational
areas, the growing population’s re­
quirements for outdoor recreational
facilities, the continued increase in
public construction (including public
housing), and the rising interest in
city and regional planning. The ex­
pected increase in homeownership,
coupled with rising per capita in­
comes and living standards, will
also spur the demand for landscape
Women represent between 5 and
10 percent of all landscape architects.
Well-trained and competent women
landscape architects can look forward
to interesting and worthwhile careers
in the profession, particularly as
specialists in garden and planting
Earnings and Working Conditions

In early 1967, starting salaries in
private offices for new graduates in
landscape architecture ranged from
about $80 to $140 a week, with the
average about $115. The relatively
higher salaries generally were paid to
graduates who had gained experience
in summer jobs in landscape archi­
tecture firms. Experienced persons
employed by private firms typically
earned from about $8,000 to $11,000
a year, although it was not unusual


for especially well-qualified people to
receive annual salaries of $14,000 or
Landscape architects in independ­
ent practice often earn more than
salaried employees with considerable
experience, but their earnings vary
widely and may fluctuate from year
to year. In recent years, earnings for
this segment of the profession have
ranged from about $7,500 to $15,000
a year, with some people of excep­
tional ability and established reputa­
tion earning $25,000 a year or more.
In the Federal Civil Service in
early 1967, newly graduated land­
scape architects were paid annual
entrance salaries of either $6,387 or
$7,729 depending on their qualifica­
tions. The salary schedule also pro­
vides for periodic increases above this
amount. A large majority of expe­
rienced landscape architects in the
Federal Government earn $9,221 a
year or more; a few earn $15,000 or
Salaried employees in both the
government and in landscape archi­
tectural firms usually work regular
hours. Self-employed persons often
work long hours, especially during the
planting season. Salaried employees
in private firms may also work over­
time during seasonal rush periods.
Where To Go for More Information

Additional information on the pro­
fession and a list of colleges and uni­
versities offering accredited courses of
study in landscape architecture may
be obtained from:
American Society of Landscape
Architects, Inc.,
2000 K St. NW., Washington, D.C.

(D.O.T. 110.108 and .118 and 119.168)
Nature of Work

Most people, at some time in their
lives,for FRASER advice and help. For
need legal
2 6 2 -0 5 7 O — 68---------15

this they turn to lawyers, who advise
them of their legal rights and obli­
gations and, when necessary, repre­
sent them in courts of law. In
addition, lawyers (also called attor­
neys) negotiate settlements out of
court and represent clients before
quasi-judicial and administrative
agencies of the government. They
may act as trustees, guardians, or
executors. Government attorneys
play a large part in developing and
administering Federal and State laws
and programs; they prepare drafts
of proposed legislation, establish law
enforcement procedures, and argue
A majority of lawyers are engaged
in general practice, handling all
kinds of legal work for clients. How­
ever, a significant number practice in
a particular branch of the law, such
as, corporation, criminal, labor,
patent, real estate, tax, or interna­
tional law. Some attorneys devote
themselves entirely to trying cases in


the courts. Others never appear in
court but spend all their time draw­
ing up wills, trusts, contracts, mort­
gages, and other legal documents;
conducting out-of-court negotiations;
and doing the investigative and other
legal work necessary to prepare for
trials. Still others are primarily en­
gaged in teaching, research, writing,
or administrative activities.
Many people who have legal
training are not employed as lawyers
but are in other occupations where
they can use their knowledge of law.
They may, for example, be insurance
adjusters, tax collectors, probation
officers, credit investigators, or claims
examiners. A legal background is also
a valuable asset to people seeking or
holding public office.
Where Employed

An estimated 265,000 lawyers were
employed in early 1967, the great


majority working full time. Of the
total number, approximately 3 out
of 4 were in private practice. More
than half of the private practitioners
were in practice by themselves, about
45 percent were in partnerships or
worked for other lawyers or law firms.
Government agencies employ the
greatest number of salaried attorneys.
The Federal Government employed
approximately 16,000 attorneys,
chiefly in the Department of Justice,
the Department of Defense, and
the Veterans Administration. About
7,500 attorneys were employed by
State governments, and 7,600 held
positions with city or county govern­
ments. Other salaried lawyers are
employed by private companies, in­
cluding large manufacturing firms,
banks, insurance companies, real
estate firms, and public utilities. Most
of the remainder teach in law schools.
Some lawyers in salaried legal posi­
tions also have an independent prac­
tice ; others do legal work on a
part-time basis working primarily in
another occupation. Although law­
yers practice in all parts of the coun­
try, most of them are in cities and in
the States which have the greatest
Training, Other Qualifications, and

Before a person can practice law
in the court of any State he must be
admitted to the bar of that State. In
all States, applicants for bar admis­
sion must pass a written examina­
tion ; however, a few States waive this
requirement for graduates of their
own in-State law schools. Other usual
requirements are U.S. citizenship and
good moral character. If a lawyer
has been admitted to the bar in one
State, he can usually be admitted to
practice in another State without tak­
ing an examination, provided he
meets the State’s standards of good
moral character and has a specified
amount of legal experience. Special
rules of each court or agency control
the right to practice before Federal
courts and agencies.


To qualify for the bar examina­
tions in the majority of States, an ap­
plicant must have completed a mini­
mum of 3 years of college work and,
in addition, must be a graduate of a
law school approved by the American
Bar Association or the proper State
authorities. Some States will accept
study in a law office instead of, or in
combination with, study in a law
school—although this method of
training is now rare. A few States will
accept study of the law wholly in a
law office; only two States will accept
study of the law by correspondence.
A number of States require registra­
tion and approval by the State Board
of Examiners before students enter
law school or during the early years
of legal study. In a few States, candi­
dates must complete a period of clerk­
ship in a law office before they are
admitted to the bar.
As a rule, 7 years of full-time study
after high school are necessary to com­
plete the required college and law
school work. The most usual prepara­
tion for becoming a lawyer is 4 years
of college study followed by 3 years in
law school. However, many law
schools admit students after 3 years
of college work. A few schools, par­
ticularly if they have a 4-year, full­
time curriculum, may accept students
after 2 years of college work. On the
other hand, an increasing number of
law schools are requiring applicants
to have a college degree. Law schools
seldom specify the college subjects
which must be included in students’
prelegal education. However, English,
history, economics, and other social
sciences, logic, and public speaking
are all important for prospective
lawyers. In general, their college
background should be broad enough
to give them an understanding of
society and its institutions. Students
interested in a particular aspect of the
law may find it helpful to take related
courses; for example, engineering and
science courses would be useful to the
prospective patent attorney, and ac­
counting would be useful to the future
tax lawyer.

Of the 166 law schools in existence
in 1967, 136 were approved by the
American Bar Association and the
others—chiefly night schools—were
approved by State authorities only. A
substantial number of full-time law
schools have night divisions designed
to meet the needs of part-time stu­
dents; some law schools have only
night classes. Four years of part-time
study are usually required to complete
the night-school curriculum. In 1966,
about one-quarter of all law students
in ABA-approved schools were en­
rolled in evening classes.
The first 2 years of law school are
generally devoted to fundamental
courses such as contracts, criminal
law, and property. In the third year,
students may elect courses in special­
ized fields such as tax, labor, or corpo­
ration law. Practical experience is
often obtained by participating in
legal aid activities sponsored by the
school, in the school’s practice court
where the students conduct trials un­
der the supervision of experienced
lawyers, and by writing on legal issues
for the school’s law journal. Upon
graduation, the degree of bachelor of
laws (LL.B.) is awarded by most
schools, although many schools confer
the juris doctor (J.D.) as the first
professional degree. Advanced study
is often desirable for those planning
to specialize in one branch of the law
or to engage in research and lawschool teaching.
Most beginning lawyers start in
salaried positions, although some go
into independent practice immedi­
ately after passing the bar examina­
tion. Young salaried attorneys usually
act as assistants (law clerks) to ex­
perienced lawyers or judges. Initially,
their work is limited to research such
as checking points of law; they rarely
see a client or argue a case in court.
After several years of progressively
responsible salaried employment, dur­
ing which time they can obtain ex­
perience and funds and become better
known, many lawyers go into practice
for themselves. Some lawyers, after
years of practice, become judges.

Employment Outlook

Graduates from widely recognized
law schools and those who rank high
in their classes will have very good
employment prospects through the
1970’s. They are expected to have
good opportunities for obtaining
salaried positions with well-known
law firms, on the legal staff's of cor­
porations and government agencies,
and as law clerks to judges. Grad­
uates of the less well-known schools
and those who graduate with lower
scholastic ratings may experience
some difficulty in finding salaried
positions as lawyers. However, numer­
ous opportunities will be available
for law school graduates to enter a
variety of other types of salaried posi­
tions requiring a knowledge of law.
Law graduates will also be in demand
as commissioned officers in the Armed
Forces for legal assignments. Young
attorneys who open their own law
offices after being admitted to the
bar will, as in most other independent
professions, generally face a period of
low earnings while they build up their
Prospects for establishing a new
practice will probably continue to be
best in small towns and expanding
suburban areas. In such communities,
competition with other lawyers is
likely to be less than in big cities; also,
office rent and other business costs
may be somewhat lower, and young
lawyers may find it easier to become
known to potential clients. On the
other hand, opportunities for salaried
employment will be limited largely
to big cities where the chief employers
of legal talent—government agencies,
law firms and big corporations—are
concentrated. For able and well-quali­
fied lawyers, good opportunities to
advance will be available in both
salaried employment and private
Although the majority of employ­
ment opportunities for new lawyers
will arise from the need to replace
those who retire, die, or otherwise
leave the field, the total number of
lawyers is expected to grow mod­

erately over the long run. However,
continuing a recent trend, the num­
ber of lawyers in independent practice
may remain stable or decline some­
what. Most of the growth will result
from the continuing expansion of
business activity and population. In
addition, the increased use of legal
services by low- and middle-income
groups will add to the long-term
growth in demand for lawyers. For
example, expansion of legal services
for low-income groups has come about
through the Community Action Pro­
grams authorized under the Economic
Opportunity Act of 1964. The grow­
ing complexity of business and gov­
ernment activities is expected to
create a steadily expanding demand
for lawyers who have extensive ex­
perience in corporation, patent,
administrative, labor, and interna­
tional law.
Earnings and Working Conditions

The average salary of lawyers em­
ployed in beginning positions with
manufacturing and other business
firms was nearly $7,700 a year in
early 1966; those with some experi­
ence earned average salaries of
$9,100. Average (median) starting
salaries of lawyers employed by cities
and counties were about $7,600 in
early 1966, according to the lim ited
data available. In the Federal Gov­
ernment, the annual starting salary
for attorneys who had passed the bar
was either $6,451 or $7,696 in early
1967, depending upon personal quali­
Beginning lawyers working for
small law offices or engaged in legal
aid work usually receive the lowest
starting salaries. New lawyers start­
ing their own practices may earn lit­
tle more than expenses during the
first few years and may find it neces­
sary to work part time in another
Lawyers’ earnings generally rise
with increased experience. Those em­
ployed on a salaried basis receive in­
creases as they demonstrate their
ability to assume greater responsibil­

ities. In early 1966, the average an­
nual salary of attorneys in private in­
dustry who were in charge of legal
staff's was about $27,000. Incomes of
lawyers in private practice usually
grow as their practices develop. Pri­
vate practitioners who are partners
in law firms generally have greater
average incomes than those who
practice alone.
Lawyers often work long hours and
under considerable pressure when a
case is being tried. In addition, they
must keep abreast of the latest laws
and court decisions. However, since
lawyers in private practice are able
to determine their own hours and
workload, many stay in practice un­
til well past the usual retirement age.
Where To Go for More Information

The specific requirements for ad­
mission to the bar in a particular
State may be obtained from the clerk
of the Supreme Court or the secretary
of the Board of Bar Examiners at the
State capital. Information on law
schools and on law as a career is avail­
able from:
The American Bar Association,
1155 East 60th St., Chicago, 111.
Association of American Law Schools,
1521 New Hampshire Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 100.118 through .388)
Nature of Work

Recording and making information
widely available is the job of librar­
ians. Librarians select and organize
collections of books, pamphlets,
manuscripts, periodicals, clippings,
and reports, and assist readers in their
use. In many libraries, they may also
make available phonograph records,
maps, slides, pictures, tapes, films,
paintings, braille, and talking books.
In addition to classifying and cata­

loging books and other loan items,
they publicize library services, study
the reading interests of people served
by the library, and provide a research
and a reference service to various
groups of people. Librarians may also
review and abstract published mate­
rials, and prepare bibliographies.
In a small library, a librarian per­
forms a great variety of tasks. In a
large library, each librarian may per­
form only a single function such as
cataloging, publicizing library serv­
ices, or providing reference service, or
he may specialize in a subject area
such as science, business, the arts, or
Librarians may be classified by the
type of library in which they are em­
ployed : Public library, school library,
college or university library, or special
library. In each of these types, there
are two principal kinds of library
work—reader services and technical
services. Those who perform reader
services—for example, reference li­
brarians and children’s librarians—
work directly with the public. Li­
brarians who perform technical serv­
ices, including those who process
books, such as catalogers or acquisi­
tion librarians often deal less directly
with the public.
Public librarians serve all kinds of
readers—children, students, teachers,
research workers, and others. In­
creasingly, librarians are providing
special materials and services to cul­
turally and educationally deprived
people. The professional staff of a
large public library system may in­
clude the chief librarian, an assistant
chief, and several division heads, who
plan and coordinate the work of the
entire library system. Such a system
may also include librarians who su­
pervise branch libraries, and other
librarians who are specialists in cer­
tain areas. The duties of some of these
specialists are briefly described as fol­
lows: Acquisition librarians purchase
books and other library materials rec­
ommended by staff members, keep a
well-balanced library in quantity and
quality, make sure that the library
receives what it orders, and maintain


close contact with book jobbers and
publishers. Catalogers classify books
under various subjects and otherwise
describe them so they may be located
through catalogs on cards, or in other
forms. Reference librarians aid read­
ers in their search for information—
answering specific questions or sug­
gesting sources of information. This
work requires a thorough understand­
ing of bibliographic material and a
general knowledge of library mate­
rials in various subject fields. Chil­
dren’s librarians plan and direct spe­
cial programs for young people. Their
duties include helping children find
books they will enjoy, instructing
them in the use and content of the
library, giving talks on books, and
maintaining contact with schools and
community organizations. Often they
conduct regular story hours at the
library and sometimes on radio or
television. Adult services librarians
may select materials for and advise
mature readers. They are often asked
to suggest reading materials, and to
cooperate in, or plan and conduct,
educational programs on such topics
as community development, public
affairs, creative arts, problems of the
aging, or home and family life. Young
adult services librarians may select
books and other materials for young
people of junior high school and
high school age and guide them in
the use of these materials. They may
arrange book or film discussion
groups, concerts of recorded popular
and classical music, and other pro­
grams related to the interests of young
adults. They may also help to co­
ordinate the services of the school
libraries and the local public library.
Bookmobile librarians take library
materials to people who live in areas
where other public library services are
nonexistent or inadequate.
School librarians instruct students
in the use of the library and visit
classrooms to familiarize students
with library materials relating to the
subjects being taught. They also work
with teachers and school supervisors
who plan the curriculum. They pre­
pare lists of printed and audiovisual

materials on certain subjects; meet
with faculty members to select mate­
rials for school programs; and select,
order, and organize library materials.
Many school librarians are employed
by school district central offices as
supervisors to plan and coordinate
library services for the entire school
system, as catalogers, and as librarians
to administer professional libraries
for teachers. Very large high schools
may employ several professional li­
brarians, each responsible for a spe­
cial aspect of the library program or
for special subject materials.
College and university librarians
work with students, faculty members,
and research workers, in general ref­
erence work or in a particular field of
interest, such as law, medicine, eco­
nomics, or music. In addition, they
may teach one or more classes in the
use of the library. Some specialize in
acquisition and cataloging. A few
librarians, who are employed in uni­
versity research projects operate docu­
mentation centers. Computers and
other modem devices are being in­
creasingly used to record and retrieve
specialized information.
Special librarians work in libraries
maintained by commercial and in­
dustrial firms, such as pharmaceutical
companies, banks, and advertising
agencies; professional and trade as­
sociations; government agencies; and
other types of organizations such as
hospitals and museums. These librar­
ians plan, acquire, organize, catalog,
and retrieve information from collec­
tions designed to provide intensive
coverage of information resources
about subjects of special interest to
the organization. The special librar­
ian utilizes his extensive knowledge of
the subject matter, as well as of li­
brary science, in building up library
resources, advising and assisting li­
brary users, abstracting, and routing
available materials. Literature search­
ing and the preparation of summaries,
translations, bibliographies, and spe­
cial reports are among the major
duties of special librarians.
Science information specialists, like
special librarians, work in technical


libraries maintained by commercial
and industrial firms. However, they
must possess a more extensive tech­
nical and scientific background than
special librarians. They not only per­
form many of the duties of special li­
brarians, but they also develop coding
and programing techniques for using
electronic and electromechanical in­
formation storage devices and abstract
complicated information into short,
readable form, and interpret and
analyze data for a highly specialized
Where Employed

In 1966, about 81,000 people were
employed as full-time professional li­
brarians. Of this group, school librar­
ians accounted for about two-fifths;
public librarians represented more
than one-fourth; librarians in colleges
and universities and those employed
in special libraries (including librar­
ies in government agencies), each
accounted for about one-sixth. A large
number of partly trained and parttime people were also working as li­
brarians. A small number of librar­
ians were employed as teachers and
administrators in schools of library
About 80 percent of all librarians
are women. Men are more frequently
employed than women in executive
and administrative positions in large
library systems and in special librar­
ies concerned with science and
Most librarians work in cities and
towns. Those attached to bookmobile
units serve widely scattered popula­
tion groups mostly in suburban or
rural areas. Rural, suburban, and
town public libraries are being or­
ganized increasingly into county and
multicounty systems, with centralized
reference and technical services.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

To qualify as a professional libra­
rian, one must ordinarily have com­

used in storing and recalling techni­
cal information.
Many students attend library
schools under cooperative work-study
programs, combining their academic
program with practical work experi­
ence in a library. To aid the student
in arranging his work-study sched­
ule, many schools offer all courses
every semester. Scholarships for
training in library science are avail­
able under certain State and Federal
programs and from library schools, as
well as from a number of the large
libraries and library associations.
Numerous loans, assistantships, and
financial aids are also available.
School librarians must be certified
in most States as having met the re­
quirements for both librarians and
teachers. Sometimes local, county,
or State authorities establish other
requirements, based on different
combinations of education and ex­
perience. In the Federal Government,
beginning positions require comple­
tion of a 4-year college course and all
work required for a master’s degree
in library science or the equivalent
in experience. Candidates who have
a year of work experience in library
science are eligible for appointment
to a higher grade.
In addition to an appropriate edu­
cational background, a person inter­
ested in becoming a librarian should
have above-average intelligence, an
interest in people, an attraction to
books, intellectual curosity, an abil­
ity to express himself clearly, a desire
to search for and use recorded mate­
rials, and an ability to work harmoni­
ously with others.
Experienced librarians may ad­
vance to administrative positions or
to specialized work. Promotion to
these higher positions may be limited,
however, to those who have com­
pleted graduate training in a library
school, or to those who have had spe­
cialized training and experience.

pleted a course of study in a graduate
library school. This usually means at
least 5 years of college—4 to meet
requirements for a bachelor’s degree
and a fifth year or more of specialized
study in library science, after which
the master’s degree is conferred. A
growing proportion of the persons in
administrative and other high-level
library positions have such training.
A Ph. D. degree is an advantage to
those who plan a teaching career in
library schools or who aspire to a top
administrative post, particularly in a
college or university library or in a
large school library system. For those
who are interested in the special li­
braries field, a doctorate in a scien­
tific subject field would also be highly
In 1967, there were 36 library
schools in the United States which
were accredited by the American Li­
brary Association. Many other col­
leges offer courses within their 4-year
undergraduate programs as well as
at the graduate level which prepare
students for some types of library
Entrance requirements to graduate
schools of library science commonly
include (1) graduation from an ac­
credited 4-year college or university,
(2) a good undergraduate record,
and (3) a reading knowledge of at
least one foreign language. Some
schools also require introductory un­
dergraduate courses in library sci­
ence. Most library schools empha­
size the importance of a liberal arts
undergraduate program with a major
selected from one of the following:
Social sciences, physical and bio­
logical sciences, the arts, or compara­
tive literature. Some schools require
entrance examinations.
Special librarians and science in­
formation specialists must have ex­
tensive knowledge of the subject with
which their work will deal, as well as
training in library science. In li­
braries devoted to scientific infor­
mation, librarians must know well
Employment Outlook
one foreign language or more. They
The employment o u t l o o k for
must also be well informed about new
equipment, methods, and techniques trained librarians is expected to be

very favorable through the mid1970’s. A nationwide shortage of
trained librarians existed in early
1967 and is expected to continue
despite the anticipated rise in the
number of library school graduates.
Thus, it appears that qualified li­
brarians will have excellent employ­
ment opportunities in most parts of
the country and in all types of libararies. The best opportunities in the
order named, will probably be in
school libraries (especially at the ele­
mentary school level), special librar­
ies, children’s libraries, and college
and university libraries (especially in
research, subject specialties, and
some languages).
Persons who have only a bachelor’s
degree with a major in library science,
as well as some college graduates who
have had little or no library training
probably will continue to find em­
ployment opportunities in libraries.
Many part-time positions will also be
available for persons trained in li­
brary work. Retired librarians should
be able to find employment in short­
term positions as consultants, as sub­
stitutes for librarians during vacation
periods, or in other types of library
work. Jobs for library assistants will
also be available for college students
or other persons interested in gaining
library experience.
The demand for fully qualified
professional librarians to meet the re­
quirements of a growing and increas­
ingly well-educated population will
be intensified by the vast and
continuing expansion in the volume
and variety of materials which must
be processed for reader use. Also, be­
cause of the ever-increasing demands
upon high-level executives in business
and industry, management will rely
more heavily on the services of spe­
cial librarians and science informa­
tion specialists to keep abreast of new
developments. The increase of Fed­
eral aid through the Library Services
and Construction Act of 1964, the
Elementary and Secondary Educa­
tion Act of 1965, and the Higher Edu­
cation Act of 1965, as amended, may
further increase the demand for li­


brarians. Improved standards for
school and college libraries and the
expanding student population will
also necessitate the employment of a
growing number of fully trained li­
brarians. Furthermore, as new meth­
ods of storing and retrieving informa­
tion by means of computer equipment
are developed, demand for science
information specialists will be very
great. Especially well-qualified librar­
ians will probably continue to find
some opportunities for employment
in the Armed Forces and U.S. Infor­
mation Agency overseas. Several
thousand librarians will also be
needed each year to fill positions va­
cated by young women who leave
their jobs to care for their families,
and to replace librarians who transfer
to other types of work, retire, or leave
the field for other reasons. Opportu­
nities for women wishing to reenter
the field are favorable; especially for
those who take the necessary courses
in library science.
Earnings and Working Conditions

The average annual starting sal­
ary of new library school graduates
was about $6,700 in 1966. Specialists
with extensive experience earned up
to $15,000 or more. The degree of
responsibility and technical skill re­
quired, as well as geographical loca­
tion, size, and type of library are im­
portant factors which determine li­
brarians’ salaries.
Public libraries serving large cities
and urban-centered county library
systems paid new library school grad­
uates between $6,000 and $6,300 in
1965. Department heads in these li­
braries earned between $9,000 and
$ 11,000 a year; some chief librarians
earned $12,000 and over. The heads
of the libraries in large cities had an­
nual salaries of $16,000 or more.
In the Federal Government, the
annual entrance salary for librarians
with at least 1 year of graduate study
leading to a degree in library science,
was $6,450 in early 1967; for those
who also had a year of experience, it

was $7,700. Many in supervisory and
administrative positions earned an­
nual salaries up to $17,550.
In 1967, the median starting sal­
aries of special librarians with a mas­
ter’s degree in library science gener­
ally were $6,950. Experienced special
librarians and information special­
ists who had a Ph. D. degree in a
subject matter field generally earned
between $10,000 and $15,000 a year.
The higher paying positions are
found in school, college, and special
libraries rather than in public li­
braries. Librarians who have an ad­
vanced degree in any field and teach­
ing or administrative experience will
find best salaries in academic or spe­
cial libraries.
The typical workweek for librar­
ians is 5 days, amounting to from 35
to 40 hours. The work schedule of
public and college librarians may in­
clude some Saturday, Sunday, and
evening work. School librarians gen­
erally have the same workday sched­
ule as classroom teachers. A 40-hour
week during normal business hours is
common for government and other
special librarians.
The usual paid vacation after a
year’s service is 3 to 4 weeks. Vaca­
tions may be longer in school libraries,
and somewhat shorter in those oper­
ated by business and industry. Many
librarians are covered by sick leave;
life, health, and accident insurance;
and pension plans.
Where To Go for More Information

Additional information, particu­
larly on accredited schools, certifica­
tion requirements, and scholarships
or loans may be obtained from:
American Library Association,
50 East Huron St., Chicago, 111.

Information on requirements and
placement of special librarians may
be obtained from:
Special Libraries Association,
31 East 10th St., New York, N.Y.

Information on Federal assistance
for library training under the Higher



Education Act of 1965 may be ob­
tained from:
Library Services Branch, Office of
U.S. Department of Health, Educa­
tion, and Welfare,
Washington, D.C. 20202.

Individual State library agencies
can furnish information on scholar­
ships available through their offices,
on requirements for certification, as
well as general information about
career prospects in their regions.
State boards of education can furnish
information on certification require­
ments and job opportunities for
school librarians.

(D.O.T. 143.062, .282 and .382)
Mature of Work

Photography is an artistic and tech­
nical occupation involving much more
than taking clear pictures of people
or scenery. Some photographers pro­
duce pictures which are so beautifully
composed, otherwise artistic, and
striking that they are recognized as
works of fine art. Skillful portrait
photographers take pictures which
are not only natural looking and at­
tractive but express the personality of
the individual. Photographing sports
and other news events also requires
special photographic skills, as do other
areas of photographic work.
The work of photographers varies
greatly, depending upon the particu­
lar area of specialization; however,
all photographers use equipment and
materials that are basically the same.
Photographers use a variety of
cameras; still, motion picture, selfdeveloping, and others. The cameras
may be equipped with telephoto,
wide-angle, or other special lenses,
and have different types of light fil­
ters to enable the photographer to get
the particular effects desired in each
picture. Photographers also utilize
many kinds of film and must know
which to use for each type of picture,

Photographers take pictures with many kinds of cameras.

lighting condition, and camera. The
photographer must be able to select
the proper filter to be used with dif­
ferent film. When taking pictures in­
doors or after dark, they use lighting
equipment—flash bulbs for some pic­
tures, flood and other special lights
and reflectors for others. In addition,
photographers must be able to carry
through the chemical and other proc­
essing by which pictures are devel­
oped, enlarged, and printed. In small
shops and photographic departments,
the photographer often has to do all
this technical work; as a rule, large
studios employ photographic techni­
cians to do the needed technical work.
The techniques involved in taking
motion pictures differ greatly from
those used in still photography and,
therefore, most photographers re­
strict themselves to one field or the

Photographers also should have
some knowledge of art and design;
use of makeup and props; and pro­
portion and composition. In addition,
photographers must be able to ar­
range their subjects properly against
the background or setting.
Many professional photographers
specialize in particular areas, such as
portrait photography, commercial
photography, or industrial photog­
raphy. Portrait photographers work
in their own studios, although they
also go to people’s homes and other
places to take pictures. Commercial
photographers generally take pictures
for use in advertising real estate, fur­
niture, food, apparel, and other items,
but they may also do other kinds of
photographic work. The work of the
industrial photographer is similar to
that of the commercial photographer.
Generally, he works for a single firm

or company, mainly taking pictures
that are used in company publica­
tions and for advertising company
products or services. They may take
motion pictures of workers on the job
and of equipment and machinery
operating at high speed to simplify
work methods or to improve the pro­
duction process. Other photographic
specialties include press photography
(photo journalism that combines a
“nose for news” with photographic
ability) ; aerial photography; in­
strumentation photography; illustra­
tive photography; educational pho­
tography (preparing slides, film
strips, and movies for use in the class­
room, for example) ; and science and
engineering photography (the devel­
opment of photographic techniques
for use in space photography and re­
lated fields). Some photographers
write for trade and technical publica­
tions, act as representatives of photo­
graphic equipment manufacturers,
manage photo-finishing establish­
ments, sell photographic equipment
and supplies, produce documentary
films, or do freelance work.
Where Employed

About 54,000 photographers were
employed in early 1967. Approxi­
mately half of them worked in por­
trait or commercial studios—many
in business for themselves, the rest as
salaried employees. In addition, siz­
able numbers were employed in in­
dustry; some worked for Federal,
State, and local government agen­
cies; and others operated camera
stores or worked on the staffs of news­
papers and magazines. Still others
worked as freelance photographers,
taking pictures of many kinds and
selling them to advertisers, maga­
zines, and other customers.
Photographers work in all parts
of the country, in small towns as well
as large cities. They are concentrated,
however, mainly in States which are
heavily populated—California, New
York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Illi­
 which also have great


numbers of businesses and industrial
Considerable formal post-high
school training, plus some photo­
graphic experience, is usually needed
to enter industrial, news, or scientific
Training, Other Qualifications, and
photography. Photographic work in
scientific and engineering research
generally requires a background in
After graduating from high school, science or engineering as well as skill
young people may prepare for work in photography.
as p r o f e s s i o n a l photographers
The prospective photographer
through 2 or 3 years of on-the-job should have manual dexterity and
training in a portrait or commercial some artistic ability. In addition, a
studio. A trainee generally starts by pleasant personality, the ability to put
working in the darkroom, where he people at ease, and a good business
learns how to develop and print film sense are needed by photographers
and to do other related work such as who expect to go into business for
making enlargements. Later, he may themselves. Imagination and origi­
set up lights and cameras or other­ nality are particularly important as­
wise assist an experienced photogra­ sets for successful careers in commer­
pher in taking pictures. Photographic cial photography or freelance work.
training can also be obtained in many For press photography, a knowledge
colleges and universities, trade of news values and the ability to act
schools, and technical institutes, or by quickly are important.
taking correspondence school courses.
Beginning photographers often
There are colleges, universities, or work in established studios until they
other institutions in almost every accumulate the capital and experi­
State that offer instructions in some ence needed to start their own busi­
area of photography. Several colleges nesses, although some open their own
and universities offer 4-year curri- portrait or commercial studios im­
culums leading to a bachelor’s degree mediately after completing their
with a major in photography. These training.
curriculums include liberal arts
courses as well as courses in profes­
sional photography. The master’s
Em ploym ent Outlook
degree with a major in various spe­
Employment opportunities are ex­
cialized areas, such as, color photog­
raphy, is offered by some colleges and pected to be favorable for the rest of
universities. A few institutions have the 1960’s and through the 1970’s for
2-year curriculums leading to a cer­ talented and well-trained photogra­
tificate or an associate degree in phers, particularly those having good
photography. Training in design at technical backgrounds. People who
art schools or institutes is also useful, have less ability and training are
although these schools usually do not likely to encounter keen competition
provide the technical training for and limited chances of advancement.
camera work. (See statement on Com­ Competition for employment in
mercial Artists.) Some photogra­ the portrait and commercial fields of
phers are trained in 3-year appren­ photography is keen; nevertheless,
ticeship programs. Also, many young opportunities exist for those who are
people become photographers while competent and well trained. These
in the Armed Forces.
entered easily, since a
The kind and amount of training fields may be can go into business for
obtained greatly influence the kind himself without a large financial in­
of photographic work for which a vestment. Moreover, the available
young person can qualify. Amateur
photographic experience may be help­ supply of portrait and commercial
ful to the young person considering photographers is continually enlarged
by people who are employed in other
entry jobs in this field.

formation from various private commercial photographers may be re­
sources. Many photographers who quired to travel frequently.
have established reputations earned
much more. For newspaper photog­
raphers without previous experience Where To Go for More Information
and employed on most daily newspa­
Information about photography as
pers having contracts with the Amer­
ican Newspaper Guild, minimum a career, as well as a list of schools of
starting salaries ranged from about photography, is available from:
$80 to $115 a week for those work­ Professional Photographers of Amer­
ica, Inc.,
ing on a few small dailies, the Guild
1090 Executive Way, Oak Leaf Com­
minimum starting salaries were less
than $75 a week; on a few large dai­ Des Plaines, 111. 60018.
lies, Guild minimum rates for begin­
ning photographers approached $130
a week or more. Photographers who
have a science or engineering back­
ground usually received beginning
(D.O.T. 020.188)
salaries of between $7,000 to $8,500 a
Minimum rates for newspaper
Nature of Work
photographers with some experience
An electronic computer, even
(usually for those with 4 to 6 years)
though sometimes called a “me­
ranged from about $140 to $180 a
week in early 1967. Contract mini­ chanical brain ” can only follow stepmum for experienced newspaper by-step instructions that tell it exactly
photographers on a few small dailies what to do. The programer prepares
was less than $135 a week; on a few these instructions.
A computer not only makes mathe­
large dailies, they ranged from about
matical calculations at fantastic
$190 to $200 a week. Many newspa­
per photographers earn $250 a week speeds, but stores many thousands of
facts in its “memory” and later uses
or more.
Depending on the level of experi­ them to carry out its work. Because
ence, the entrance salary for photog­ computers are able to work with
raphers in the Federal Civil Service masses of figures and facts at tremen­
ranged from $4,776 to $7,696 a year dous speed and with a high degree of
in early 1967. In addition, the salary accuracy, they are used for a great
schedule provides for periodic in­ deal of “data processing” which
creases above this amount. Most ex­ would otherwise require the time of
perienced photographers in the Fed­ many employees. They handle such
eral Government earned between varied assignments as keeping inven$5,331 and $10,045 a year; a few ' tories, controlling production ma­
earn over $15,000 annually. Self-em­ chinery in factories, making longployed photographers generally earn range weather forecasts, doing legal
more than salaried workers, but their research, and analyzing air traffic pat­
earnings are affected greatly by busi­ terns. Some are tasks that could never
ness conditions and many other be attempted on the same scale with­
out a computer because of the exces­
Photographers with salaried jobs sive amount of time required. Still
usually work the standard 5-day, 40- others, such as controlling the flight
hour week and receive benefits such of a missile by instantaneously cor­
as paid holidays, vacations, and sick recting deviations from the planned
leave. Photographers in business for course, are tasks that would be impos­
themselves frequently work longer sible to accomplish without the speed
hours, especially during their busy of a computer.
seasons. Working conditions are gen­
Every “problem” processed in a
erally pleasant. Freelance, press, and computer must first be carefully


occupations but who take pictures
in their spare time.
Opportunities are expected to be
favorable for photographers working
in industrial photography, scientific
and engineering photography, illus­
trative photography, photo-journal­
ism, and other highly specialized
areas that require a thorough knowl­
edge of photography as well as some
training in a technical or scientific
field. In coming years, the employ­
ment of industrial photographers is
expected to rise at a more rapid pace
than that of either portrait or com­
mercial photographers.
Slow increase in employment of
photographers is expected over the
1970’s as the economy grows and be­
comes more complex. Major factors
contributing to this growth are the in­
creasing use of photographers in re­
search and development in industry
and government and the more wide­
spread production of audio-visual
aids, such as slides, film strips, and
motion pictures for use by business,
industry, civil organizations, and gov­
ernment. Because of advances in
photographic technology, such as
more sophisticated cameras and im­
proved color and high-speed photog­
raphy, more and more business
concerns and other organizations are
utilizing photographic work. This, in
turn, is adding to the demand for
well-qualified photographers. Popula­
tion expansion and the growth of the
suburbs will also create some oppor­
tunities for photographers to open
portrait studios in new shopping cen­
It is estimated that approximately
1,500 workers will be needed each
year to fill new positions and to re­
place photographers who retire, die,
or stop working for other reasons.
Still other workers will be needed to
replace photographers who transfer
to other types of employment.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Beginning photographers generally
earned from $85 to $105 a week in
early 1967, according to limited in­



Computer programer checks results of test run with console operator.

analyzed so that exact and logical
steps for its solution can be worked
out. In some cases, the preliminary
work is done by an experienced pro­
gramer; in others, it may be done by
a specialist known as a systems analyst.
(See the statement on electronic data
processing systems analysts elsewhere
in the Handbook.)
Once this preliminary work has
been completed, the “program,” or
detailed instructions for processing the
data can be prepared by the pro­
gramer. Exactly how he goes about
this depends not only on the type of
equipment to be used, but on the
nature of the problem. The mathe­
matical calculations involved in bill­
ing a firm’s customers, for example,
are very different from those required

in most kinds of scientific and tech­
nical work. The programing tech­
niques are also different. Still other
techniques are required in writing
programing “aids” which reduce the
amount of detail associated with pro­
graming. Because of these differences,
many programers specialize in certain
kinds of work.
In business offices, where com­
puters are frequently used to bill
customers, make up payrolls, and keep
track of inventories, the programer
often starts his work by determining
just which facts must be used to pre­
pare documents such as customers’
bills or employees’ paychecks, and by
ascertaining the exact form in which
these facts are entered on company
records. He then makes a flow chart,

or diagram, showing the order in
which the computer must perform
each operation, and for each opera­
tion he prepares detailed instructions.
These instructions, when they are re­
layed to the computer’s control unit,
tell the machine exactly what use is to
be made of each piece of information,
in order to produce each employee’s
paycheck or other business document.
The programer is also responsible for
preparing an instruction sheet for the
console operator to follow when the
program is run on the computer. (The
work of the console operator is de­
scribed in the chapter on Clerical
and Related Occupations.)
The final step in programing is
“debugging”—that is, checking on
whether the instructions have been
correctly written and will produce the
desired information. A program is
usually debugged in two steps. First,
the programer takes a sample of the
data to be processed and reviews step
by step just what will happen as the
computer follows the series of instruc­
tions which make up the program.
Then, after he has revised the instruc­
tions to take care of any difficulties
that have appeared, he completes the
test by having a trial run made in the
computer. The console operator some­
times helps with this part of the de­
bugging process.
A comparatively simple program
can be made ready for a computer
within a very few days. A program
which deals with a complex problem
or is designed to produce many dif­
ferent kinds of information may re­
quire a year or more of preparation—
sometimes by a large number of pro­
gramers. On involved problems, sev­
eral programers at different levels of
responsibility often work as a team,
under the supervision of a senior
Where Employed

It is estimated that more than
100,000 programers were employed
in mid-1966. In addition, some pro­
fessional workers such as engineers,
scientists, mathematicians, econo­


mists, and accountants spend a por­
tion of their time doing programing.
Programers are employed chiefly
by large business organizations and
government agencies. A great many
work for insurance companies and
banks, public utilities, wholesale and
retail establishments, and manufac­
turing firms of almost every kind. A
considerable number are government
employees doing work related either
to scientific and technical problems,
or to the processing of the vast
amount of paperwork which must be
handled in many government offices.
In addition, a growing number of
programers are employed by com­
puter manufacturers and independ­
ent s e r v i c e organizations which
furnish computer and programing
services to business firms and other
organizations on a fee basis.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

The special abilities most sought
after by employers when they hire
programers are similar for all types
of positions, but requirements with
respect to education and experience
may be very different, depending
mainly on the nature of the problems
with which the programer will be
dealing. Some programers are college
graduates with degrees in engineer­
ing, for example, whereas others have
had years of experience in such work
as accounting or inventory control.
In selecting programers, employers
look for people with an aptitude for
logical thinking and the exacting
kind of analysis which is part of the
job. The work also calls for patience,
persistence, and the ability to work
with extreme accuracy. Ingenuity and
imagination are particularly import­
ant in some jobs where programers
have to work out new ways of arriv­
ing at solutions to problems.
In organizations which use their
computers for scientific and engineer­
ing work, most programers are col­
lege graduates, usually with degrees

in engineering, the physical sciences,

or mathematics. Graduate degrees
may be required for some positions;
for almost all positions, an applicant
who has no college training is at
a severe disadvantage.
Employers who use computers to
process business records generally
place somewhat less emphasis on
technical college training. Many re­
gard previous experience in related
work—in machine tabulation, for
example, or in payroll work or ac­
counting—equally important and fill
many of their programer positions by
promoting qualified employees with
such experience. When employers
find it necessary to hire outsiders,
however, they usually give preference
to applicants with education beyond
high school. College courses in the
general field of electronic data proc­
essing, or in accounting, business ad­
ministration, engineering, or mathe­
matics p r o v i d e especially good
Entrance requirements for jobs in
the Federal Government are much
the same as those in private industry.
For practically all entry programer
positions in the Government, persons
hired must have a college degree,
preferably with training in mathema­
tics, or else the equivalent of such
preparation in previous work experi­
Young people interested in pro­
gram ing jobs can acquire some of
the necessary skills at a steadily in­
creasing number of technical schools,
colleges, and universities. The in­
struction available ranges from in­
troductory home study and extension
courses to advanced work in com­
puter technology at the graduate
level. Courses in computer program­
ing are also open to high school stu­
dents in many parts of the country.
High school and post-high school in­
struction do not entirely eliminate the
need for on-the-job training, however.
Since technological changes are con­
tinually taking place in this field and
each type of computer has its own
special programing requirements,
some additional training is often nec­
essary even in the case of experienced


programers who change from one
job to another.
Most beginners in this occupation
start by attending training classes for
a few weeks and then, as they work on
minor programing assignments, con­
tinue with further specialized train­
ing. A year or more of experience is
usually necessary before a programer
can handle all aspects of his job with­
out c l o s e supervision. Once he
becomes skilled, his prospects for fur­
ther advancement are good. Experi­
enced and capable programers are in
strong demand. In organizations em­
ploying several programers, promo­
tion may be to a senior programing
job with supervisory responsibilities.
Advancement may also be to a posi­
tion as systems analyst. An increasing
number of programers eventually
move up to management positions
with their firms.
Employment Outlook

Many thousands of new jobs for
programers will become available
each year during the remainder of the
1960’s and through the 1970’s. Em­
ployment is expected to increase very
rapidly, as an expanding and increas­
ingly complex economy causes com­
puters to become increasingly useful
to business and government, and as
the num ber of com puter installations
also rises rapidly. The increase in em­
ployment is expected to be particu­
larly sharp in firms which use com­
puters to process business records or
to control manufacturing processes.
The rise in employment could well
be accompanied by changes in the
nature of the work done by pro­
gramers. Largely because of advances
in programing techniques and equip­
ment—innovations such as “auto­
matic programing,” the use of pro­
grams and parts of programs stored
in libraries for future use, and other
changes—much is being done to
eliminate the routine work associated
with writing a program. As a conse­
quence, professionally trained per­
sonnel qualified to handle both the



programing and the systems analysis,
in the areas of their specialties, are
likely to be increasingly in demand
for work on scientific and engineer­
ing problems. For other positions,
many of them in large business offices
where the analysis is done by account­
ants and other subject matter experts,
there is some evidence that 2 years of
intensive training at the post-high
school level may provide a suffi­
cient background for beginning
Most of the openings for pro­
gramers in the years just ahead will
be new jobs that arise as the number
of computer installations continues
to increase and computers are put to
new uses. Some openings will also oc­
cur as programers advance to more
responsible positions, or as they leave
their jobs to enter other types of em­
ployment. Because this occupation in­
cludes many comparatively young
workers, few positions are likely to be­
come vacant because of retirement
or death.

perienced programers responsible for
complex programing or supervisory
and administrative work ranged to
$17,550 or more a year.
The standard workweek for pro­
gramers is usually the same—about 40
hours—as the workweek for other
professional and office workers. Un­
like many computer console and
auxiliary equipment operators who
work on a 2- or 3-shift basis, pro­
gramers usually work only during the
day. Occasionally evening or week­
end work may be necessary—for ex­
ample, when it proves particularly
difficult to “debug” a program.
Work places are usually modern
offices, well-lighted and air condi­
tioned. Employers recognize the desir­
ability of providing the best possible
work surroundings, because program­
ers working under such conditions
can concentrate more readily on the
very exacting kind of analysis which
is an essential part of their job.
Where To Go for More Information

Additional information about the
occupation of programer may be ob­
In 1966, salaries ranged from an tained from:
average of about $7,300 a year for be­ Data Processing Management Asso­
ginners to between $9,600 and $11,ciation, 524 Busse Highway, Park
000 for experienced programers, ac­
Ridge, 111. 60068.
cording to a private survey which
A list of reading materials on ca­
covered more than 2,000 business reer opportunities in programing may
firms in all parts of the country. Pro­ be obtained from:
gramers with supervisory duties aver­ Association for Computing Machin­
aged up to $12,000 a year. The sur­
ery, 211 East 43d St., New York,
vey indicated substantial differences
N.Y. 10017.
in the salaries of the lowest and high­
est paid individuals in the same kinds
of positions, however, with some
earning up to three times as much as
(D.O.T. 045.088 and .108)
others in the same group. These dif­
ferences were probably due partly to
the kind of data processed and the
Nature of Work
kind of computer used, and partly to
the industry involved and its location.
The problems of severe emotional
Federal Government salaries for
stress and abnormal behavior, the
programers are comparable with those
in private industry. The great major­ causes of low morale, or the effective
ity earn between $6,451 and $14,217 performance of an astronaut in a
a year. The minimum entrance salary space capsule, are among the con­
for beginners was $5,331 a year in cerns of psychologists seeking to un­
early 1967, and the top salaries of ex­ derstand people and to explain their

Earnings and Working Conditions

actions. Psychologists study the be­
havior of individuals and groups and
often help individuals achieve satis­
factory personal adjustments. Their
work includes varied activities such
as teaching in colleges and univer­
sities; counseling individuals; plan­
ning and conducting training pro­
grams for workers; performing basic
and applied research; advising on
psychological methods and theories;
and administering psychology pro­
grams in hospitals, clinics, research
laboratories, and other places.
Psychologists obtain information
about the capacities, traits, and be­
havior of people in several ways. They
may interview individuals, develop
and administer tests and rating scales,
study personal histories, and conduct
controlled experiments. In addition,
psychologists often conduct surveys,
either by personal interviews or by
circulating questionnaires.
Psychologists usually specialize in
one of the many interrelated branches
of the profession. Clinical psycholo­
gists are the largest group of special­
ists. Generally, they work in mental
hospitals or clinics and are concerned
mainly with problems of mentally or
emotionally disturbed people. They
interview patients, give diagnostic
tests, and provide individual and
group psychotherapy. Other special­
ties in psychology include experi­
mental psychology (the study of basic
learning and motivation); develop­
mental psychology (the study of
special age groups such as young
children, teenagers, and the aged);
personality and social psychology (the
study of the social forces that affect in­
dividuals and groups); comparative
psychology (sometimes called ani­
mal psychology); physiological psy­
chology (the relationship of behavior
to physiological processes); counsel­
ing psychology (helping p e o p l e
achieve satisfactory personal, social,
educational, or occupational adjust­
ments) ; educational psychology (the
study of educational processes); in­
dustrial psychology (developing tech­
niques for selecting and training
workers and improving worker moti-


vation and morale); and engineering
psychology (the study of manmachine and other complex system
Where Employed

Psychologists teach and work in
college classrooms, hospitals, research
laboratories, or business offices. Most
psychologists are employed in large
cities and in university towns, but
some are on the staffs of institutions
located in rural areas. Altogether,
an estimated 25,000 psychologists
were employed in 1966. About onefifth of all psychologists were women.
Colleges and universities employ
the largest number of psychologists—
nearly two-fifths of the total. Govern­
ment agencies—Federal, State, and
local—employ the second largest
group. Within the Federal Govern­
ment, the agencies which have the
most psychologists are the Veterans
Administration, the Department of
Defense, and the Public Health Serv­
ice of the Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare.
Many psychologists also work for
elementary and secondary schools,
for private industry, and for non­
profit foundations and clinics. Some
are in independent practice, and
others serve as commissioned officers
in the Armed Forces and the Public
Health Service. In addition to posi­
tions with the title “psychologist,”
many personnel and administrative
jobs are filled by persons trained in
Training, Other Qualifications, and

Generally, the master’s degree with
a major in psychology is the mini­
mum educational requirement for
professional employment in the field.
Psychologists with this degree can
qualify for positions where they ad­
minister and interpret psychological
tests, collect and analyze statistical
data, and research experiments, and
perform routine administrative duties.

Experimental psychologists study animals
for insight into human behavior.

clude 1 year of internship or super­
vised experience.
The American Board of Examiners
in Professional Psychology offers di­
plomas in the specialties of clinical,
counseling, and industrial psychology
to those with outstanding educational
records and experience who can pass
the required examinations.
Some universities require an under­
graduate major in psychology for ad­
mission to graduate work in that field.
Others prefer students with a broader
educational preparation, including
not only some basic psychology
courses but also courses in the bio­
logical, physical and social sciences,
statistics, and mathematics.
Many graduate students receive fi­
nancial help from universities and
other sources in the form of fellow­
ships, scholarships, or part-time em­
ployment. Several Federal agencies
provide funds to graduate students,
generally through the educational in­
stitution giving the training. The Vet­
erans Administration offers a large
number of predoctoral traineeships,
during which time the students re­
ceive payments and gain supervised
experience in VA hospitals and
clinics. The Public Health Service
supports doctoral study in psychol­
ogy by providing funds for predoc­
toral and postdoctoral traineeships
and research fellowships. The Na­
tional Science Foundation, the U.S.
Office of Education, the Vocational
Rehabilitation Administration, and
the National Institute of Mental
Health also provide funds (fellow­
ships, grants, and loans) for ad­
vanced training in psychology.
Psychologists desiring to enter inde­
pendent practice must meet certifi­
cation or licensing requirements in
an increasing number of States. In
1966, 30 States had such require­

In addition, they may teach in col­
leges, help counsel students or handi­
capped persons, or—if they have had
previous teaching experience—act as
school psychologists or counselors.
(See statements on School Counselors
and Rehabilitation Counselors.) Be­
cause of the current shortage of
psychologists, applicants who have
only a bachelor’s degree with a major
in psychology may be employed for
certain jobs in work related to psychlogy, or in other fields where train­
ing in psychology is helpful, as in ad­
The Ph. D. degree is needed for
many entrance positions and is be­
coming increasingly important for
advancement. Psychologists with doc­
torates are eligible for the more re­
sponsible research, clinical, and coun­
seling positions, as well as for the
higher level positions in colleges and
universities, and in Federal and State
At least 1 year of full-time grad­
uate study is needed to earn the mas­
ter’s degree, and most students take
Employment Outlook
longer. For the Ph. D., degree a total
Employment opportunities fo r
of 4 to 6 years of graduate work is
usually required. In clinical or coun­ psychologists who have doctor’s de­
seling psychology, the requirements grees are expected to be excellent
for the Ph. D. degree generally in­ through the 1970’s. Psychologists

holding master’s degrees will be in
considerable demand but their oppor­
tunities for full professional employ­
ment will be less favorable than for
those with the Ph. D. degree. In early
1967, the supply of well qualified
psychologists was inadequate to meet
the demand and this situation is ex­
pected to persist for the remainder of
the 1960’s and over the next decade.
Continued rapid expansion of the
profession is expected through the
1970’s. A large increase is anticipated
in the number of psychologists em­
ployed by State and local agencies.
Currently understaffed mental hos­
pitals and mental hygiene clinics, and
community mental health centers will
need many clinical, counseling, so­
cial, and physiological psychologists.
Prisons, training schools, and other
State institutions are expected to use
psychologists more extensively in the
Increasing awareness of the need
for testing and counseling children,
combined with growing school enroll­
ments, is expected to increase the need
for psychologists in both elementary
and secondary schools. In colleges and
universities, more psychologists will
be needed for student personnel work,
as well as for teaching and research.
Increased public concern for the de­
velopment of human resources as evi­
denced by the Mental Retardation
Facilities and Community Mental
Health Centers Construction Act of
1963, as amended, and “Headstart”
and other antipoverty programs will
further increase the demand for psy­
chologists. The trend toward greater
use of psychological techniques by
private industry is likely to continue,
thereby creating new openings for ex­
perimental, industrial, personnel, and
human engineering specialists.
Many openings for psychologists
with Ph. D. degrees who are
specialists in clinical, counseling,
experimental, human engineering,
physiological, social, and personnel
psychology are expected in the Vet­
erans Administration, the Depart­
ment of Defense, and in State and
local areas.


Many vacancies also will occur each
year owing to retirements and deaths.
The transfer of psychologists to do
work of a purely administrative
nature may also create some job
vacancies. Most opportunities, how­
ever, will result from the rapid ex­
pansion that is anticipated for the

ities and financial assistance for grad­
uate students in psychology may be
secured from:
American Psychological Association,
1200 17th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.

Information on traineeships and
fellowships may be secured from col­
leges and universities with graduate
psychology departments.

Earnings and Working Conditions

In 1966, beginning salaries for
psychologists with master’s degrees
were generally between $7,000 and
$9,000 a year, according to the
American Psychological Association.
Those with the doctorate earned be:ween $9,000 and $11,000 a year. In
the Federal Government, psycholo­
gists with limited experience but who
had completed all requirements for
the doctoral degree could start at
$9,221 in early 1967.
Most psychologists can look for­
ward to a growth in earnings as they
gain experience. The National Sci­
ence Foundation’s 1966 National
Register of Scientific and Technical
Personnel indicates that the average
(median) salary of psychologists who
have 5 to 9 years of experience was
$10,100 a year and that of psycholo­
gists who have 20-24 years of experi­
ence about $13,500. In comparison,
average salaries for psychologists who
have only 1 year or less of experience
were about $8,500 in 1966.
Self-employed psychologists gen­
erally have higher incomes than sal­
aried employees. For example, the
median annual salary of self-em­
ployed psychologists was $20,000—
more than 30 percent higher than the
salary of those employed in industry
and nearly 50 percent greater than
the salary of those in the Federal


(D.O.T. 079.128, 187.118, 195.288)
Nature of Work

Once leisure was viewed as the com­
panion of idleness, silently stealing
the time needed to produce the neces­
sities of life. In recent years, however,
new machines and technology have
raised the standard of living of most
people and provided leisure hours un­
heard of a short time ago. How peo­
ple spend their nonworking hours is
now a major concern. Recreation
workers help people to enjoy and use
their leisure time constructively by
organizing individual and group
activities and by administering physi­
cal, social, and cultural programs for
all age groups at camps, playgrounds,
community centers, and hospitals.
They also operate recreational facil­
ities and study the recreation needs of
individuals and communities.
Recreation workers employed by
local government and voluntary agen­
cies direct activities at neighborhood
playgrounds and indoor recreation
centers. They provide instruction in
the arts and crafts and in sports such
as tennis and basketball. They may
supervise recreational activities at
correctional institutions and work
closely with social workers in organiz­
ing programs of recreation for the
young and the aged at community
centers and social welfare agencies.
Where To Go for More Information
Many other personnel work in in­
General information on career op­ dustrial, hospital, or school recreation.
portunities, certification or licensing Recreation workers in industry plan
requirements, and educational facil­ the recreation programs of company



employees and organize bowling
leagues, softball teams, and similar
activities. Sometimes they plan fund
drives and company social functions.
Hospital recreation workers plan rec­
reation programs for the ill and the
handicapped in hospitals, convales­
cent homes, and other institutions.
Working under medical direction,
they organize and direct sports,
dramatics, and arts and crafts for per­
sons suffering from mental problems
and physical disabilities. School rec­
reation workers organize the leisure­
time activities of school-age children
during schooldays, weekends, and
vacation periods.
Some part-time recreation workers
and volunteers assist full-time work­
ers throughout the year, but mostly
during the summer months. Part-time
workers are largely college students
and teachers. They work primarily as
recreation leaders and camp coun­
selors, organizing and leading games
and other activities at camps and
W here Em ployed

About 45,000 recreation workers
were employed full time in early 1967.
The majority worked for local gov­
ernments and voluntary agencies.
Most of the remainder were employed
by religious organizations, or by the
Federal Government in national
parks, the Armed Forces, the Vet­
erans Administration, and correc­
tional institutions. Some recreational
workers were employed by industry
and a few were teachers in colleges
and universities. In addition to the
full-time personnel, more than 100,000 recreation workers were em­
ployed for part-time and summer
work in parks, camps, and other out­
door settings.
Recreation workers are employed in
all parts of the country; however, onehalf of these workers are employed in
California, Massachusetts, New Jer­
sey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania,
and Texas. More than one-third of
all for FRASER
Digitized recreation workers are women.

Training, Other Qualifications, and

Most employers prefer persons who
have a bachelor’s degree and a major
in recreation, social science, or physi­
cal education for work in the recrea­
tion field. However, fewer than
one-half of the recreation workers cur­
rently employed have this educa­
tional background. Persons interested
in becoming recreation workers
should take a broad range of courses
in college, including philosophy, the

humanities, natural sciences, and the
arts. Specialized courses stressing the
history, philosophy, and scope of rec­
reation; the techniques of commu­
nity organization; health and safety
procedures; and outdoor recreation
are particularly helpful. Advanced
courses in recreation or public ad­
ministration leading to the master’s
degree are desirable for persons inter­
ested in higher level administrative
positions; students interested in the
field of industrial recreation may find
it desirable to take some courses in

business administration. It is im­
portant for those interested in work­
ing as hospital recreation specialists
to take course in psychology, health
education, and sociology. Training
leading to a bachelor’s degree with a
major in recreation was available in
over 100 schools in 1967. Approxi­
mately one-half of these schools
offered a master’s degree and a doc­
torate in recreation.
Good health, emotional maturity,
and a warm personality are essential
qualities for recreation workers. To
increase their leadership skills and
their understanding of people, inter­
ested students should try to obtain
related work experience in high
school and college. They may do vol­
unteer, part-time, and summer work
in recreation departments, camps,
youth-serving organizations, institu­
tions, and community centers.
The majority of college graduates
entering the recreation field begin as
either recreation leaders or special­
ists, although each year a small num­
ber of college graduates enter trainee
programs that lead directly to rec­
reation administration. Such pro­
grams, offered by a few large cities
and organizations, generally last 1
Recreation leaders work directly
with groups and individuals, organiz­
ing or teaching such diversified activi­
ties as athletics, dancing, storytelling
groups, and social recreation in in­
door and outdoor centers. They may
also supervise the work of nonpro­
fessional workers and assist in the ad­
ministration of recreation programs.
Recreation specialists are responsible
for the organization and develop­
ment of one activity, such as swim­
ming and archery, or of several closely
related activities. Like recreation
leaders, they sometimes oversee the
work of nonprofessional workers.
After a few years’ experience, re­
creation leaders and specialists may
become recreation directors; those
having graduate training, however,
may start at this level. Directors are
responsible for the operation of the
facilities, staff supervision, and the


development and execution of pro­
grams at a particular recreation cen­
ter, -as well as the preparation of
budgets and the analysis of recrea­
tion programs.
Opportunities for advancement to
administrative positions are often lim­
ited for persons who have no grad­
uate training. However, it is some­
times possible for persons to advance
through a combination of education
and experience. Administrative jobs
require varying years of experience in
full-time recreation work, depending
upon the size of the community or
organization and the program. For
example, the m i n i m u m recom­
mended experience to become a com­
munity recreation supervisor ranges
from 1 to 5 years.
Employment Outlook

Employment of recreation workers
is expected to increase very rapidly
through the 1970’s. Thousands of rec­
reation workers will be needed an­
nually for growth and to replace per­
sonnel who leave the field because of
retirements, deaths, or transfers to
other occupations. In recent years,
the number of college graduates hav­
ing a major in recreation has fallen
far short of the demand, and this pat­
tern is expected to continue. Thus,
many new recreation workers will
continue to be hired from the fields of
social science, physical education,
and health education. Persons having
less than full professional training also
will find employment opportunities.
As a result of the great demand for
recreation workers, part-time and
volunteer. personnel will be needed,
particularly in social welfare agencies
and at the local government level.
Other factors that will contribute
to growth include increased leisure
time and rising levels of per capita
income. As income levels rise, expend­
itures for sports and recreation
equipment will increase as more per­
sons participate in a variety of com­
petitive and noncompetitive sports.
Larger expenditures will be made for
travel to parks and resorts for camp­

ing, hiking, fishing, and other recrea­
tional pursuits. Improvements in the
national highway system will make
many State parks and national forests
more accessible to vacationing fam­
ilies. Population growth also will
create a demand for more recreation
workers to expand existing recreation
programs and to aid larger numbers
of mentally and physically handi­
capped persons. Longer life and ear­
lier retirements will increase the num­
ber of clubs and organizations for
retired persons, and thus increase the
need for recreation workers.
Other reasons for the anticipated
longrun expansion in the number of
recreation workers include a growing
interest and participation in recrea­
tion activities by the general popula­
tion ; the continued trend toward
urban living; the rise in- industrial
recreation activities as more com­
panies promote recreation programs
for their employees; increased atten­
tion to physical fitness by government,
educators, and others; and the initia­
tion of programs to insure the preser­
vation of outdoor recreation areas.
A number of recent Federal laws also
will contribute to the rising demand
for recreation workers. Among these
laws are the Elementary and Second­
ary Education Act of 1965, which in­
cludes provisions for grants to local
educational agencies for improving
and expanding recreation opportu­
nities for the educationally deprived,
and the Older Americans Act of 1965,
which provides grants to States for
programs, including recreation, for
older persons.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Beginning r e c r e a t i o n leaders
earned between $6,500 and $7,000
annually in 1967, according to the
National Recreation and Park Asso­
ciation. In the same year, the salaries
of recreation supervisors ranged from
$7,500 to $10,000, depending upon
the size of the community in which
they were employed and upon their
qualifications. Salaries of recreation
executives ranged from $7,500 in


some small communities to over
$20,000 in many large cities. There
were some regional variations in
salary levels—higher salaries generally
were paid in the West than in other
areas of the country.
In early 1967, the annual starting
salary for inexperienced recreation
workers in the Federal Government
was from $5,331 to $6,451, depending
on their academic records or
specialized training. A few recreation
workers in top Federal positions
earned between $10,927 and $15,106
The average workweek for recrea­
tion workers is 40 hours, although
some work upwards of 50 hours. A
person entering the recreation field
should expect some nightwork and
irregular hours, for many recreation
personnel work while other persons
are enjoying their leisure time. Most
public and private recreation agencies
provide from 2 to 4 weeks’ vacation
and other fringe benefits, such as sick
leave and hospital insurance.
Where To Go for More Information

Information about recreation as a
career and about employment op­
portunities in the field may be ob­
tained from:
National Recreation and Park Asso­
1700 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20006.

Information about employment
opportunities in Veterans Adminis­
tration hospitals may be obtained
directly from the hospitals or the De­
partment of Medicine and Surgery,
Veterans Administration, Washing­
ton, D.C. 20421.

(D.O.T. 195.108, .118,
.168, .208, and .228)
Nature of Work

Development of a more complex
urban society has greatly increased
2 2 -0 5 7 O —

Medical social worker visits with child.

the need for organized social services.
Social workers provide the link be­
tween these services and individuals
and families who cannot provide for
themselves or solve their own prob­
The problems with which social
workers are concerned include pov­
erty; broken homes; physical, mental,
and emotional handicaps; antisocial
behavior; racial tensions; and unsat­
isfactory community conditions such
as inadequate housing and medical
care, and lack of educational, recrea­
tional, and cultural opportunities. A
variety of public and voluntary agen­
cies have social work programs de­
signed to meet specific needs in spe­
cific ways; for example, income
maintenance programs; family and
child welfare services; social services
for the crippled, disabled, ill, and ag­
ing; and programs for the prevention
of juvenile delinquency. Many social
work agencies emphasize service to
individuals or families; some place
primary emphasis on working with
larger groups; and still others are con­
cerned mainly with the community’s
social welfare. These approaches are
reflected in the three basic methods
of social work practice: Casework,
group work, and community orga­
Caseworkers identify the social
problems of individuals and families

through interviews. They aid them in
understanding their problems and in
securing necessary services, includ­
ing financial assistance, foster care,
and homemaker service. Group work­
ers help people through group activi­
ties to learn to understand themselves
and others better, and to work with
others to achieve a common goal.
They plan and conduct activities for
children, adolescents, and older per­
sons in a variety of settings, includ­
ing settlement h o u s e s , hospitals,
homes for the aged, and correctional
institutions. Community organiza­
tion workers help plan and develop
health, housing, welfare, and recrea­
tion services for a neighborhood or
larger area. They often coordinate
existing social services and organize
fund raising for community social
welfare activities.
The majority of social workers pro­
vide social services directly to individ­
uals, families, or groups. However, a
substantial number perform execu­
tive, administrative, or supervisory
duties. Still others are college teach­
ers, research workers, or consultants.
The wide range of services provided
by social workers is suggested by the
descriptions of the principal areas of
social work which follow:
Family service workers. Family
service workers are employed by State
and local governments and by volun­
tary agencies. Their duties include
determining their clients’ needs and
providing counseling and social serv­
ices that strengthen family life and
help clients to improve their social
functioning. They also advise their
clients how to make constructive use
of financial assistance and other
needed social services.
Child welfare workers in govern­
ment and voluntary agencies are em­
ployed to improve the physical and
emotional well-being of deprived and
troubled children and youth. They
advise parents on child care and child
rearing, counsel children and youth
with social adjustment difficulties, ar­
range homemaker services during a
mother’s illness, institute legal action
for the protection of neglected or mis-

treated children, provide services to
unmarried parents, and counsel cou­
ples who wish to adopt children.
Workers in child welfare may place
children in suitable adoptive or fos­
ter homes or in specialized institu­
School social workers aid children
whose unsatisfactory behavior or pro­
gress in school is related to their social
problems. These workers consult and
work with parents, teachers, coun­
selors, and other school personnel in
identifying and seeking solution to
the problems that hinder satisfactory
Medical social workers employed
by hospitals, clinics, health agencies,
rehabilitation centers, and public
welfare agencies aid patients and
their families with social problems ac­
companying illness, recovery, and re­
habilitation. They usually function
as part of a medical team composed
of physicians, therapists, and nurses.
Psychiatric social workers provide
services for patients in mental health
centers, hospitals, or clinics. As mem­
bers of teams composed of psychia­
trists, psychologists, and other pro­
fessional personnel, they develop and
report information on the patient’s
family and social background for use
in diagnosis and treatment. They help
patients respond to treatment and
guide them in their social adjustment
to their homes, jobs, and communi­
ties. They carry particular responsi­
bility for working with the families of
the patients to facilitate their under­
standing of the nature of the illness.
In some organizations, medical and
psychiatric social workers are grouped
as “clinical social workers.” Psychia­
tric social workers also participate in
community mental health programs
concerned with the prevention of
mental illness and with the readjust­
ment of mental patients to normal
home and community living. Some
conduct research.
Social workers in rehabilitation
services assist emotionally or physi­
cally disabled persons in adjusting to
the demands of everyday living. As
part of a rehabilitation team, which
Digitized usually includes physical or occupa­


tional therapists, these social work­
ers serve as a link with the community
while patients are in the hospital;
later, they help them adjust to home
and community life. (Rehabilitation
counselors, a related occupational
group, are discussed in a separate
Probation and parole officers and
other correctional workers assist per­
sons on probation and parole and ju­
venile offenders in readjusting to so­
ciety. They investigate the social his­
tory and background of the person
under the jurisdiction of the court
and make reports to the courts to help
the judge in his judicial decisions.
They also counsel persons on proba­
tion or parole, may help them secure
necessary education or employment,
and direct them to other services in
the community. They also seek to re­
solve problems in marital and parentchild relationships.
Where Employed

More than 150,000 social workers
were employed in early 1967. Of this
total, approximately 60 percent were
employed in State, county, and city
government agencies and about 3
percent were in Federal Government
organizations. Most of the remainder
were in voluntary or private agencies.
A small number of experienced social
workers from the United States were
serving in other parts of the world as
consultants, teachers, or technicians
engaged in setting up agencies,
schools, or assistance programs. They
were employed by the Federal Gov­
ernment, the United Nations or one
of its affiliated groups, national pro­
fessional associations, or voluntary
Training, Other Qualifications, and

A bachelor’s degree, preferably in
social welfare, generally is the mini­
mum educational requirement for be­
ginning jobs in social work. In most
fields of practice, certain specialized

areas require a master’s degree in so­
cial work. For teaching positions, a
master’s degree in social work is re­
quired, and a doctorate is preferred.
In research work, training in social
science research methods is required,
in addition to a graduate degree and
experience in social work. In most
States, beginners must pass a written
examination in social work for em­
ployment in a government agency.
A master’s degree in social work is
awarded on successful completion of
2 years of specialized study and su­
pervised field work in an accredited
school of social work. Only graduates
of such schools are eligible for mem­
bership in the National Association
of Social Workers (NASW).
People with 2 years of paid em­
ployment in social work under the
supervision of a certified social
worker and 2 years of membership in
the National Association of Social
Workers are eligible for certification
as members of the Academy of Certi­
fied Social Workers (ACSW).
In 1966, there were 63 graduate
schools of social work accredited by
the Council on Social Work Educa­
tion. For admission to these schools,
a student must have a bachelor’s de­
gree representing a broad knowledge
of the liberal arts, preferably includ­
ing courses in economics, history, po­
litical science, psychology, sociology,
and social anthropology. Courses in
biology, statistics, writing, and public
speaking are also helpful.
Many scholarships and fellowships
are available for graduate education.
More than three-fourths of the full­
time students in graduate schools re­
ceive some scholarship aid granted
either by the schools or by employ­
ing agencies. Some social welfare
agencies, both voluntary and public,
offer plans whereby workers are
granted “educational leave” to obtain
graduate education. The agency may
pay the expenses or a salary, or both.
Personal qualities essential for so­
cial workers include emotional ma­
turity, objectivity, sensitivity, a basic
concern for people and their social
problems, and ability to form and sus­
tain good working relationships and


to encourage social adjustment in oth­
ers. Students should try to obtain as
much related experience as possible
during high school and college to de­
termine whether they have the inter­
est and capacity for professional social
work. They may do volunteer, parttime, or summer work in such places
as camps, settlement houses, commu­
nity centers, or social welfare agen­
cies. Some social welfare agencies,
both voluntary and public, hire col­
lege students and, in some cases, high
school students for nonclerical jobs in
which the students assist social work­
ers in case and group work.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for so­
cial workers are expected to be excel­
lent for the remainder of this decade
and through the 1970’s. Despite the
anticipated increase in the number of
graduates of master’s degree pro­
grams in social work, the demand for
these highly trained social workers is
expected to continue to exceed the
supply. The outlook for persons with
a bachelor’s degree in social welfare
or in related fields will continue to be
very good. Well qualified and experi­
enced women who wish to work part
time should have excellent employ­
ment prospects.
Many factors will contribute to the
need for more social workers to main­
tain existing programs and to staff
new ones. The occupational structure
of the economy is expected to con­
tinue to change and create severe
problems for many unskilled workers
and others whose jobs have been re­
placed by machines. In addition,
family life will continue to be affected
by social change. Population growth,
especially the increasing numbers of
the very young and the very old, the
age groups most in need of social
work services, is expected to contrib­
ute to the demand for social workers.
Many openings also will arise because
of the need to replace workers who re­
tire, die, or otherwise leave the


Earnings and Working Conditions

In early 1967, the average (me­
dian) starting salary paid social case
workers by various State agencies was
approximately $5,100, according to a
survey of selected occupations by the
Public Personnel Association. In some
States, however, annual salaries were
considerably above this level. Case
work supervisors had average annual
salaries ranging from about $6,700
for those with little experience to
$8,600 for those with considerable
experience. The average starting sal­
ary of psychiatric social workers was
about $6,600 and beginning salaries
of probation and parole officers aver­
aged about $6,000.
Salaries of social workers in a crosssection of cities and urban counties
were, on the average, above those
paid by State agencies. For example,
according to the survey cited above,
the average (median) starting salary
of social case workers in selected ur­
ban areas was about $5,800. Salaries
of case work supervisors averaged
$7,600 for those with little experience
to about $9,500 for those with consid­
erable experience. Beginning psy­
chiatric social workers had average
salaries of about $7,500 and starting
salaries of probation and parole of­
ficers averaged about $6,600.
In the Federal Government in early
1967, graduates of accredited schools
of social work received starting sal­
aries of $6,451 to $7,696 a year de­
pending on their experience. Those
with a bachelor’s degree and 3 years’
experience in social work in a welfare
activity began at $7,068 a year.
In general, graduates of schools of
social work received the highest av­
erage salaries. Salaries were usually
lower for persons employed in directservice positions, such as casework or
group work, than for persons working
in supervisory or executive positions,
although salaries paid to persons in
direct-service positions in some States
and localities exceeded those paid to
supervisors in other locations.
The predominant scheduled work­
week for social workers in 1967 was
generally 40 hours; however, as many

as one-third regularly worked 37^4
hours or less a week. In some social
work agencies, the nature of the work
requires evening and/or weekend
work, for which social workers usually
receive compensatory time off. Vir­
tually all social work agencies provide
fringe benefits such as paid vacations
and sick leave and retirement plans.
Where To Go for More Information

Information on admission require­
ments and scholarships in accredited
graduate schools of social work and
colleges offering preprofessional
courses in social work, as well as on
social work as a career, may be ob­
tained from the National Commission
for Social Work Careers, jointly
sponsored by the Council on Social
Work Education and The National
Association of Social Workers. Write
National Commission for Social Work
2 Park Ave., New York, N.Y. 10016.

(D.O.T. 018.168 through .687)
Nature of Work

Surveyors play an important part
in the construction of highways, air­
fields, bridges, dams, and other struc­
tures, by providing information on
measurements and physical charac­
teristics of construction sites. They
also locate land boundaries, assist in
setting land valuations, and collect
information for maps, charts, and
The primary task of the surveyor is
to determine the precise measure­
ments and locations of elevations,
points, lines, and contours on or near
the earth’s surface, and the distances
between points. The surveyor is di­
rectly responsible for the survey and
its accuracy. He plans the fieldwork,
selects survey reference points, and
determines the precise location of nat-



work on photogrammetric surveys ap­
ply mathematical techniques to
photographs taken from airplanes or
ground stations to make topographic
maps, and to measure the natural and
manmade features of an area. Sur­
veyors also specialize in other types
of surveys such as gravity, magnetic,
hydrographic, mine, oil-well direc­
tional, pipeline, construction, or
Where Employed

Surveyor compares his mapping with aerial photographs.

ural and manmade features of the
survey region. He records informa­
tion disclosed by the survey; makes
mathematical calculations based on
such information; verifies the ac­
curacy of survey data; and prepares
sketches, maps, and reports.
In making his detailed measure­
ments, the surveyor is assisted by
workers in a field party which he
directs. A typical field party is made
up of from three to six members in
addition to the surveyor (sometimes
called the party chief). Included in
the typical field party are instrumentmen, who set up, adjust, and operate
surveying instruments, including the
theodolite, transit, level, altimeter,
and electronic measuring devices at
the points designated by the surveyor;
chainmen, who measure distances be­
tween points, using a metal tape or
surveyor’s chain; and rodmen, who
use a level rod, stadia board, or range

It is estimated that over 45,000
surveyors were employed in early
1967; less than 5 percent were
women. They were located in all
parts of the country—in small towns
as well as in large cities.
About one-half of all surveyors
work for Federal, State, and local
government agencies. Among the
Federal Government agencies utiliz­
ing these workers are the U.S. Geo­
logical Survey and the Bureau of
Land Management of the Depart­
ment of the Interior, U.S. Coast and
Geodetic Survey (within the Environ­
mental Science Services Administra­
tion) and Bureau of Public Roads of
the Department of Commerce, Corps
of Engineers of the Department of
the Army, and Forest Service of the
Department of Agriculture. Survey­
ors in State and local government
agencies are employed mainly by
highway departments and by
urban planning and redevelopment
A large number of surveyors work
for construction companies and for
engineering and architectural con­
sulting firms. A sizable number either
work for or head surveying firms
which conduct surveys on a fee or
contract basis. Other significant num­
bers work for the crude petroleum
and natural gas industries and for

pole to assist in measuring elevations,
distances, and directions between se­
lected points.
Surveyors often specialize in one
particular type of survey. Those doing
highway surveys are concerned with
establishing the points, grades, and
lines needed for highway locations.
Those carrying out land surveys lo­
cate boundaries of a particular tract
of land, prepare maps, record plats
of the land, and prepare legal de­
scriptions of it for deeds, leases, and
other documents. Surveyors engaged
in geodetic surveys measure immense
areas of land, sea, or space, taking
into account the earth’s curvature
and its geophysical characteristics.
Surveyors doing topographic surveys
determine the elevations, depressions, Training, Other Qualifications, and
and contours of an area, and indicate
the location of distinguishing surface
features such as farms, buildings, for­ The most common method of pre­
ests, roads, and rivers. Those who paring for work as a surveyor is

ing, most States will reduce the length survey related computations, analyze
of experience needed for licensing. data, and prepare reports in offices.
In 1966, approximately 16,000 land
surveyors were registered. In addi­
tion, almost 15,000 engineers were Earnings and Working Conditions
registered to do land surveying, pri­
marily as part of their civil engineer­ In the Federal Government serv­
ing duties; however, these workers ice, in early 1967, surveyors employed
are considered engineers rather than as field party chiefs received starting
salaries of $5,867 or $6,451 a year,
depending on experience. The ma­
In addition to the necessary train­
ing and experience, qualifications for jority of party chiefs earned between
success as a surveyor include sound $6,500 and $9,000 per year. New col­
health and a strong liking for outdoor lege graduates with bachelor’s degrees
work. Because most surveyors must qualifying for Federal Government
supervise and direct the work of positions as geodesists began at
others, leadership qualities are im­ $6,387 or $7,729 a year, depending
on their college records. Graduates
portant also.
with bachelor’s degrees qualifying for
positions in topography and photo­
grammetry started at $5,331 or $6,451
Employment Outlook
a year. In private industry, according
Employment opportunities for sur­ to the limited data available, begin­
veyors are expected to be good ning salaries for surveyors were gen­
through the 1970’s. It is anticipated erally comparable to those offered by
that employment in the field will con­ the Federal Government but varied
tinue to grow rapidly. In addition to somewhat between different areas of
new positions created by growth, the country.
about 2,000 openings should result
Surveyors usually work an 8-hour
each year from the need to replace day and 5-day week. However, they
those who transfer to other occupa­ sometimes work longer hours during
tions, retire, or die. Prospects will be the summer months, when weather
best for people with postsecondary conditions are most suitable for sur­
school training in surveying.
veying activities.
The work of surveyors is active
Among the factors expected to con­
tribute to the favorable employment and sometimes strenuous. They may
outlook is the rapid growth of urban stand for long periods, and may walk
areas and the enactment of new or long distances or climb mountains
revised city zoning laws which will with heavy packs of instruments and
require additional surveyors to locate equipment. Because most of their
boundary lines, and to lay out streets, work is done out of doors, surveyors
shopping centers, schools, and recre­ may be exposed to all types of
ation areas. Construction and im­ weather conditions. Some duties, such
provement of the Nation’s roads and as planning surveys, making photohighways will require many new sur­ grammetric measurements, preparing
veyors. Furthermore, surveyors with reports and computations, and draw­
college degrees in geodesy will be ing maps, are usually performed in
needed to help track missiles and an office.
spacecraft, and to assist in other space
Employment opportunities for Where To Go for More Information
women surveyors will continue to be
General information on
limited, primarily because much of surveying may be obtained careers in
the surveyor’s work is strenuous. A American Congress on Surveying
few openings will be available for
and Mapping, Woodward Build­
women with college degrees to make
ing, Washington, D.C. 20005.


through a combination of post-sec­
ondary school courses in surveying
and extensive on-the-job training in
survey techniques and in the use of
survey instruments. Courses in sur­
veying are offered in extension divi­
sions of many post-secondary schools
and by correspondence schools.
Some junior colleges, technical insti­
tutes, and vocational schools offer
1, 2, and 3-year programs in survey­
ing. The entrance requirement for
most surveying programs is high
school graduation, preferably includ­
ing courses in algebra, geometry,
trigonometry, calculus, drafting, and
mechanical drawing.
For a professional career in the
more specialized and technical sur­
veying areas such as geodesy, topog­
raphy, or photogrammetry, it is usu­
ally necessary to obtain a bachelor’s
degree in engineering or the physical
High school graduates having no
formal training in surveying may also
enter the field, usually starting as rodmen. After several years of on-thejob experience and some formal
courses in surveying, young persons
may advance successively through the
positions of chainman and instrumentman to that of party chief or
With some post-secondary school
courses in surveying, beginners may
start as instrumentmen. In many
instances, promotion to higher level
positions is made on the basis of a
written examination, as well as on
About 40 States require licensing
or registration of land surveyors re­
sponsible for locating and describing
land boundaries. In some of these
States, applicants for licenses are ex­
pected to know other types of sur­
veying in addition to land surveying.
Requirements for licensing vary
among the States, but in general in­
clude a combination of 4 to 8 years’
experience in surveying and success­
ful completion of an examination. If
an applicant has taken postsecond­
ary school courses related to survey­

Information on the specialty of dividual parts of a problem be viewed problem in a logical manner so that
photogrammetry may be obtained within the context of the overall prob­ a system for processing the problem
lem. Although a system can be de­ and obtaining the desired results can
veloped to process data manually, be developed. They obtain all of the
American Society of Photogram­
mechanically, or with electronic com­ data needed and define exactly the
metry, 105 North Virginia Ave.,
Falls Church, Va. 22044.
puters, most systems analysts are con­ way it is to be processed. They pre­
cerned with developing methods of pare charts, tables, and diagrams to
using computers. (This statement dis­ describe the processing system and
cusses only the work of systems an­ the steps necessary to make it operate.
alysts who devise systems which use
(D.O.T. 033.187, 012.168, 020.081 and electronic computers to process data Systems analysts may use various
techniques, such as cost accounting,
and solve problems.)
sampling, and mathematical meth­
Systems analysts employed by a ods, as tools of analysis. After analyz­
large business firm may be engaged, ing the problem and devising a system
Nature of Work
for example, in developing methods for processing, systems analysts may
Systems analysts are concerned of processing accounting, inventory, recommend the type of equipment to
with the planning, scheduling, and sales, and other business information be used and prepare instructions for
coordination of activities which are with electronic computers. With the programers. They may also interpret
required to develop systems for proc­ assistance of managers or subject final results and translate them into
essing data and obtaining solutions matter specialists, they determine the terms which are understandable to
to complex business, scientific, or en­ exact nature of the data-processing management, subject matter special­
gineering problems. The methods of problem. The systems analysts then ists, or customers.
systems analysis require that the in­ define, analyze, and structure the
The number and types of dataprocessing problems are so vast and
solution processes so varied and com­
plex that many systems analysts tend
to concentrate on particular subject
matter areas. For example, in busi­
ness offices, analysts may specialize in
accounting or inventory control. Sys­
tems analysts who work on scientific
or engineering problems may special­
ize in problems, such as the determi­
nation of the flight path of space ve­
hicles. Other analysts may develop
systems for planning and forecasting
purposes, such as systems used in sales
or marketing research.
Systems analysts also improve op­
erating systems and develop entirely
new data-processing methods and ap­
plications. When working with sys­
tems already in use they are con­
cerned with improving and adapting
the system to handle additional or
different types of data. Analysts en­
gaged in research are concerned with
finding or devising new techniques
and methods of systems analysis.
Often this work is described as “ad­
vanced” systems design and analysts
engaged in this type of activity usu­
ally have mathematical, scientific, or
engineering backgrounds.
Some systems analysts have man­
 Systems analysts and computer programers often work together.
agerial and administrative duties.


They are responsible for overall sys­
tems design and feasibility, and for
assigning analysts to various phases of
a project. They may also plan, orga­
nize, and control systems analysis
throughout the organization in which
they are employed and prepare re­
ports of their work.
Where Employed

More than 60,000 persons were
estimated to be employed as systems
analysts in mid-1966. They work
mainly for insurance companies,
manufacturing concerns, banks,
wholesale and retail businesses, and
the Federal Government. A growing
number of systems analysts are em­
ployed by universities and independ­
ent service organizations which fur­
nish computer services on a fee basis
to business firms and other organiza­
tions. Systems analysts work mainly
in large cities.

in computer programing. A young
person can learn to use electronic
data-processing equipment on the job
or can take special courses offered by
colleges, computer manufacturers, or
their employers. In the Federal Gov­
ernment, for example, systems ana­
lysts usually begin their careers as
programers. After gaining some ex­
perience, they may be promoted to
systems analyst trainee where they
may qualify as a systems analyst.
In large electronic data-processing
departments, a person who begins as
a junior systems analyst may be pro­
moted to a position of greater respon­
sibility as he gains experience. Re­
sponsible positions in this field in­
clude those of senior or lead systems
analyst. Systems analysts with proved
leadership ability can also advance to
manager of systems analysis, elec­
tronic data-processing department
manager, or other managerial posi­

and economically; solve complex
business, scientific, and engineering
problems; and monitor and control
industrial processes. These develop­
ments and others such as the exten­
sion of computer technology to small
businesses, the use of systems analysis
in market research and in determin­
ing the locations of plants and stores,
and the growth of computer centers
to serve individual clients on a fee
basis portend a very rapid rise in fu­
ture employment levels of systems
In addition to the many employ­
ment opportunities resulting from
growth in the field, some openings
will occur as systems analysts advance
to more responsible positions or leave
their jobs to enter other types of em­
ployment. Because many of the
workers are young, relatively few
positions will occur because of retire­
ment or death.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Employment Outlook
Training, Qualifications, and

There is no universally acceptable
way of preparing for work in systems
analysis. Some employers prefer that
candidates have a college degree as
well as experience in mathematics,
science, engineering, accounting, or
business. Their educational prepara­
tion and experience often determine
the kinds of job opportunities avail­
able to them. For example, employers
are likely to seek a systems analyst
who has a background in business
administration to work in finance or
similar systems areas; those with an
engineering background are likely to
be sought for engineering or scientifi­
cally oriented systems. Other em­
ployers stress a graduate degree. Yet,
workers may qualify for work solely
on professional experience obtained
in scientific, technical, or managerial
occupations, or practical experience
in such data-processing jobs as com­
puter operator or programer.
Most employers prefer to hire peo­
ple who have had some experience

Employment opportunities for sys­
tems analysts are expected to be ex­
cellent for the remainder of the 1960’s
and throughout the 1970’s. Systems
analysts ranked among the fastest
growing professional occupations in
recent years. Employers have been ex­
periencing difficulty in recruiting
qualified systems analysts because of
competing demands from other fields
for people with similar backgrounds,
especially in science and mathe­
A growing demand for systems
analysts results from the rapid ex­
pansion taking place in the number
of electronic data-processing systems
used by businesses, government agen­
cies, and other organizations. In ad­
dition, more opportunities for systems
analysts will arise as computers and
peripheral equipment become more
sophisticated, and are made capable
of solving more complex problems in
a wider variety of fields. Greater em­
phasis will be placed on developing
computer systems which will re­
trieve information more efficiently

In 1966, beginning salaries of sys­
tems analysts averaged between
$7,000 and $8,000 per year and al­
most $15,000 for experienced ana­
lysts, according to a private survey
which covered more than 2,000 busi­
ness, government, and educational
data-processing installations in all
parts of the country. In some cases,
experienced systems analysts earned
$25,000 or more a year.
The great majority of systems ana­
lysts employed by the Federal Gov­
ernment in early 1967 earned from
$7,696 to approximately $12,900 a
year. Top salaries for experienced
systems analysts ranged up to about
$16,905 per year, although top man­
agerial positions pay even higher
The workweek for systems analysts
is usually the same-—about 40
hours—as for other professional and
office workers. Unlike many com­
puter-oriented workers, such as con­
sole operators who work on two or
three shifts, systems analysts usually
work only during the day. Occasion­
ally, evening or weekend work may

Where Employed
be necessary to complete emergency ulation growth and social and
economic change; they also estimate
or rush projects.
About 6,500 people were employed
the community’s long-range needs
for land, housing, community facil­ as professional urban planners in
ities, transportation, recreation, busi­ early 1967, according to an estimate
Where To Go for More Information
made by the American Institute of
ness, and industry.
Additional information about the
Before they can produce plans for Planners. The majority of urban
occupation of system analyst may be long-range community development, planners are employed by govern­
obtained from the following sources: however, urban planners must make ment agencies, mainly city, county,
detailed studies, including the prep­ and metropolitan regional planning
American Federation of Information
aration of maps and charts, which organizations; some are employed by
Processing Societies, 211 East 43d
St., New York, N.Y. 10017.
show the current use of land for various State governments and by the
residential, business, and community Federal Government. About oneData Processing Management Asso­
purposes; the arrangement of streets, fourth of the planners do consulting
ciation, 505 Busse Highway, Park
Ridge, 111. 60068.
highways, and water and sewer lines; work, either independently in addi­
tion to their full-time job, or as an
A list of reading materials on and the location of such community employee or partner in a private con­
libraries, and
career opportunities in the data facilities as schools,studies also pro­ sulting firm providing services for
playgrounds. These
processing field may be obtained vide information on the types of in­ private developers or for government
dustry in the community, population agencies. Urban planners also work
Association for Computing Machin­
densities and characteristics, social for large land developers or private
ery, 211 East 43d St., New York,
N.Y. 10017.
features, income levels, employment research organizations, and a few
and economic trends, and other re­ teach in colleges or universities.
lated information.
After they have analyzed and eval­
uated the facts, urban planners may Training, Other Qualifications, and
(D.O.T. 199.168)
then design the layout of recom­
mended facilities and land use and
Employers consider a master’s de­
supervise the preparation of illustra­ gree in planning the most desirable
Nature of Work
tive materials. They also prepare educational background for profes­
plans to
City dwellers today face a growing programs show how carriedproposed sional work in this field. In Federal
can best be
out and agencies, and in a growing number
number of typically urban problems
such as deteriorating business and what the costis is likely to be. Much of other government agencies, 2 years
spent conferring
residential areas, traffic congestion, of their timepublic agencies whowith of graduate work in city planning, or
officials of
inadequate parks and recreation fa­ specialized planning, with private the equivalent, is required for most
cilities, shortages of suitable space for land developers, and with civic entrance level positions. However,
industrial development, and air pol­ leaders. They also may prepare ma­ young people with bachelor’s de­
lution. Suburbanites, in addition to terials for community relations pro­ grees in city planning, architecture,
sharing some of these problems, also grams, speak at civic meetings, and landscape architecture, engineering,
face greater traveling distances be­ appear before legislative councils and public social science fieldsand some
tween home and work. Professional committees to explain and defend other for entrance level may also
urban planners try to remedy these their recommendations or proposals. qualify 1967, more than 40 col­
In early
problems by developing comprehen­ In small planning organizations leges and universities awarded
sive plans and programs for the over­ with only one or two professional master’s degree in planning. For the
all growth and improvement of urban workers, the planners must be able trance into the programs, most
to handle several kinds of work. In schools require that students have
A community’s policies and goals large organizations, which may have undergraduate degrees in fields such
for development are determined by several dozen planners, each may as architecture, landscape architec­
its elected governing body. The specialize in an area such as physical ture, engineering, economics, statis­
urban planner analyzes alternatives design, survey and research, or com­ tics, sociology, public administration,
and proposes methods for achieving munity relations work. Some special­ or city and regional planning. Nearly
an efficient and attractive community ize in new town planning or the re­ all schools require students to spend
within the framework of these goals. habilitation of city slum areas and the considerable time in workshop, lab­
Urban planners visualize future con­ reconstruction of rundown business oratory, or studio courses, learning to
ditions in light of the trends in pop­ districts.
analyze and solve practical problems



in urban planning. Most schools re­
quire candidates for the master’s de­
gree to take 2 years of graduate work
and to prepare a thesis or take a final
comprehensive examination. A few
schools have recently adopted a
3-year master’s degree program.
Nearly half of the schools require
some practical experience or intern­
ship. This latter requirement is
usually fulfilled by regular paid em­
ployment during summer months in
a planning office approved by the
school’s faculty. A few schools which
stress physical design grant a master’s
degree on completion of 1 year of
graduate work to students who hold
a bachelor’s degree in architecture
or engineering.
Planners must have the ability to
think in terms of spatial relationships
and to visualize the effects of their
plans and designs. They also must
be able to get along well with people
and appreciate a wide variety of at­
titudes and viewpoints. On occasion,
they face the discouragement of see­
ing carefully designed plans fall
through because of conflicting inter­
ests or apathy. In addition, they
must be able to write and speak per­
suasively. It is also important that
they continue their professional stud­
ies in order to broaden their knowl­
edge and keep abreast of new
Beginners in urban planning offices
are likely to spend some time draft­
ing, operating a calculating machine,
or making field surveys and compil­
ing statistics required to make pro­
jections for future plans. As they
become more experienced, workers
may be assigned to outline proposed
studies, write reports, design the
physical layout of a large develop­
ment, make statistical analyses and
projections, or perform other duties
which require a high degree of inde­
pendent judgment. When they be­
come senior planners and planning
directors, urban planners are likely
to spend much time in meeting with
officials in other organizations, ad­
dressing civic groups, and supervising
other professionals. Advancement
often occurs through a move to a

Urban planners discuss land use proposal.

larger city, where the problems are
more complex and the responsibili­
ties for planning are greater.
Candidates for the position of
urban planner in Federal, State, and
local government agencies frequently
must pass civil service examinations
to become eligible for appointment.
These examinations are often adver­
tised nationally and usually do not
impose residence restrictions.

pected to continue to be very good
through the 1970’s. Shortages of
qualified planners have been reported
in recent years, even though the
number of graduates has been rising.
In 1966, the American Society of
Planning Officials estimated that
there were about 1,500 vacancies in
planning agencies because of the
shortage of well-qualified planners.
Although most of these vacancies
stemmed from the need to fill new
planning positions, some also resulted
because planners transferred to other
Employment Outlook
fields of work, retired, or left the
Employment opportunities for field for other reasons.
The demand for city planners is
graduates with professional training
in city and regional planning are ex­ expected to continue to rise over the

long run. More communities will
probably turn to professional plan­
ners for help in determining the most
effective way to meet the rising re­
quirements for physical facilities that
result from urbanization and growth
in population. As urban communities
continue to spill into neighboring
areas or merge with other urban
areas, open spaces for recreation dis­
appear, smog and traffic problems
multiply, and the need for more and
better planned facilities becomes
more acute.
Federal programs of financial as­
sistance to communities for urban
planning, for slum clearance and
urban renewal, for beautification and
open space land improvement, and
for improvement of other local facili­
ties will continue to stimulate the
demand for planners.