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The baking industry is one of the largest food­
processing employers in the United States. Oc­
cupations in baking establishments provide
steady, year-round employment to several hun­
dred thousand workers throughout the country.
The industry employs workers to make bakery
products, wrap and pack these products, and to
deliver them to stores, homes, and restaurants. It
also employs mechanics to maintain and repair the
large amounts of machinery and other industrial
equipment used in modern bakeries. Additional
mechanics are employed to service the fleets of
trucks used for deliveries. The industry employs
many managers and sales specialists to direct
operations, especially in large bakeries; and cleri­
cal workers to perform the regular office duties.
Nature and Location of the Industry

In early 1965, the baking industry employed al­
most 290,000 workers in more than 6,000 establish­
ments. Most of these workers were employed in
establishments that produced perishable baked
goods such as bread, rolls, pies, cakes, and dough­
nuts. The remaining workers were employed in
establishments that produced “dry” baked goods
such as cookies, crackers, pretzels, and ice cream
cones. Baking establishments include large whole­
sale bakeries that sell to retail stores, restaurants,
hotels, and other large customers; home service
bakeries that deliver their products directly to
the customers’ homes; bakeries owned and oper­
ated by grocery chain organizations; and the cen­
tral baking establishments of companies oper­
ating several retail bake shops. Practically all dry
baked goods, over 70 percent of all commercially
produced bread and rolls, and over half of the
commercially produced cakes, pies, and doughnuts
are produced in wholesale bakeries.
In addition to the baking establishments de­
scribed above, over 14,000 single-shop retail
bakeries employed about 90,000 men and women
including shop owners. Although some retail

bakeshops employed as many as 20 individuals or
more, the average shop employed about six or
seven. Many of the actual baking operations in
these retail establishments are done by hand
rather than machine, and therefore, retail baker­
ies offer many opportunities to the skilled baking
craftsman which are not available in the large
industrial-type establishments.
Most establishments producing perishable
baked goods are relatively small because they
serve only their local area. However, an increas­
ing number serve markets up to 200 miles away,
and a few distribute baked goods over even wider
areas. In contrast, bakeries that produce dry
baked goods generally are large establishments
that distribute their products regionally or na­
tionally. The average number of employees in
bakeries producing dry baked goods is about 130,
in contrast to about 40 in bakeries producing per­
ishable products.
Almost every community in the United States
has at least one bakery. However, nearly twothirds of all industrial bakeries and the same
proportion of the industry’s employees are in the
following nine States: New York, Pennsylvania,
California, Illinois, Ohio, Massachusetts, New
Jersey, Michigan, and Texas.
Occupations in the Baking Industry

Nearly 60 percent of the employees in the bak­
ing industry perform the actual baking opera­
tions, receive and store the raw materials, main­
tain and repair machinery and other baking equip­
ment, wrap or pack products for delivery, or keep
the bakery in a sanitary condition. About every
fifth employee is engaged in delivering the indus­
try’s products. Many of these employees work as
driver-salemen, selling to retail stores or directly
to customers in the homes. Many drivers with no
sales duties are employed to deliver bakery prod605

ucts to distribution centers, hotels, restaurants,
and stores. The remainder of the work force is em­
ployed in administrative, professional, technical,
and clerical jobs.
About 1 of every 5 industrial bakery workers
is a woman. Most women workers are employed as
secretaries, typists, bookkeepers, and in other of­
fice jobs. Some are employed in production jobs,
such as those of slicing machine operator, wrap­
ping machine operator, or pie and cake packer;
very few women are bakers.
Production Occupations. The principal baking
processes consist of blending, sifting, mixing,
proofing, baking, and wrapping and packing.
These processes are similar for all bakery
products. However, in the production of crackers
and other dry baked foods, the processes are gen­
erally more machanized. Since bread is the pri­
mary product of the baking industry, the follow­
ing descriptions of occupations in the baking pro­
cesses relate principally to the production of
bread. With some variations, depending on the
product and the amount of mechanization in the
bakery, these are the occupations in any industrial

Dough mixer operator releases batch of dough into trough.


In general, production workers load and unload
machines, watch the operation of the machines,
and inspect the output. Mixers (D.O.T. 520.885)
weigh ingredients and combine them in blending
machines. By means of instruments, they care­
fully control timing and temperature in order to
produce a uniform well-blended dough. The
dough is sent to a “proofing” room where the
warm temperature produces a fermenting process
which causes the dough to rise. When the dough
has risen, it is poured into another blending
machine and additional flour, liquids, sugar,
salt, and shortening are added and mixed.
The dough then goes through another fermenting
process before it is shaped into loaves or rolls.
Dividermen (D.O.T. 526.782) operate machines
which divide the dough according to the weight of
the loaf to be produced. The pieces of dough are
rolled into balls which are dusted with flour in a
rounding machine. Dough molders or molding
machine operators (D.O.T. 520.885) operate
machines which press all the air bubbles from the
dough and form it into loaves or rolls. When
fancy shaped bread or rolls are made, bench
hands (D.O.T. 520.884) knead and form the
dough by hand into various shapes, and place the
pieces of dough in the pans. The pans containing
the machine- and hand-shaped dough go to the
final proofing room where the dough rises for
about an hour before it is removed and placed in
the over. Ovenmen (D.O.T. 526.885) adjust
temperature and timing devices on the ovens.
In small bakeries, all-round bakers (D.O.T.
526.781) assisted by helpers usually carry through
all the steps needed to turn out finished baked
products. Large bakeries employ all-round bakers
as working foremen in charge of one or more
operations. These workers supervise the men and
machines in their department and coordinate
their activity with that in other departments in
order to meet production schedules.
A considerable number of helpers (D.O.T.
526.886) are employed in baking operations. They
may assist all-round bakers and specialized bak­
ery workers. They have job. titles such as dough
mixer helper, bench hand helper, and ovenman
helper. Helpers also perform such jobs as greas­
ing pans, removing bread from pans, pushing
troughs and racks, and washing pans.


After baked foods leave the oven and are cooled,
several types of workers prepare them for delivery
to customers. Slicing-and-wrapping machine
operators (D.O.T. 521.885) feed loaves of bread
onto conveyors leading into the machines and
watch the slicing and wrapping operations. They
adjust the machines and keep them supplied with
waxed paper and labels. The wrapped loaves
leave the machines and travel along a conveyor
belt to the shipping platform.
Many bakery employees work in icing depart­
ments where they give the finishing touches to
cakes, pastries, and other sweet goods. Icing mix­
ers (D.O.T. 520.885) prepare cake icings and
fillings, following special formulas of the bakery.
They weigh and measure ingredients and mix
them by machine. They also prepare cooked fill­
ings for pies, tarts, and other filled pastries.
In small plants, icing mixers may also spread
icing on cakes and cookies. Hand icers (D.O.T.
524.884) are skilled craftsmen who decorate special
products such as wedding cakes, birthday cakes,
and fancy pastries. When the product is uniform,
or requires no special decoration, the frosting may
be applied by machine icers (D.O.T. 524.885).
Bakeries employ many workers in their storage,
warehousing, and shipping departments. Receiv­
ing and stock clerks check and keep records of
incoming supplies and ingredients used in mak­
ing baked foods and deliver them to various de­
partments. Packers and checkers make up orders
of bakery products for delivery by driversalesmen.
Maintenance Occupations. Baking firms employ
skilled maintenance workers such as machinists,
electricians, and stationary engineers and their
helpers to keep machinery and equipment in good
operating condition. Large plants, which are usu­
ally highly machanized, employ many of these
workers. In addition, since many baking firms
have fleets of trucks, a large number of truck
mechanics and other personnel are employed to
keep the vehicles in good operating condition.
Sales and Driving Occupations. The selling and
delivery of finished baked foods to grocers, restau­
rants, hotels, homes, and other customers provide
jobs for many thousands of the industry’s work­
ers. Some of these workers sell baked foods, some
drive trucks, and many perform a combination of
77 8 -3 1 6 O— 65— — 40


Baker examines raised bread dough to see if it is ready for oven.

these jobs. Driver-salesmen, called routemen
(D.O.T. 292.358), work for either wholesale
bakeries or home-service bakeries. They deliver
bread and other baked foods to grocery stores or
to homes along their assigned routes and collect
payment for delivered products. A major part of
their job is to try to increase customers’ orders and
to gain new customers on their routes. Wholesale
driver-salesmen arrange their baked products on
shelves or display racks in grocery stores. At some
busy stores, they may restock the shelves several
times a day. Home-service driver-salesmen make
deliveries directly to customers’ homes with a
basket of baked foods from which housewives can
make their selection. Driver-salesmen return to
the bakery at the end of each day to make a re­
port of the day’s transactions. They turn in money
collected from their customers and return unsold
baked foods. They make a list of the kinds of
baked foods that they think grocers or housewives
on their routes will buy the next day. These esti­
mates, assembled from driver-salesmen on all
routes, serve as guides for production managers
in making up production schedules for the next
A large bakery may employ several route
supervisors, each in charge of 6 to 10 driver-

salesmen. In a smaller bakery, one route super­
visor may be in charge of all the salesmen. When
one of the salesmen is absent, the supervisor may
take over the route until the salesmen returns or
is replaced. Route supervisors also train new
Chain grocery store bakeries and multioutlet
retail bakeries generally employ truckdrivers
rather than driver-salesmen. These employees
drive large vans, delivering baked foods to each
of their company’s stores. Truckdrivers for chainstore bakeries deliver wrapped bread and other
bakery products to loading platforms of the
stores. Stock clerks then arrange the display of
baked goods in the stores. In bakeries which oper­
ate their own retail bakery outlets, the truckdrivers wheel the unwrapped baked foods in en­
closed metal racks from the van to each store.
Sales clerks then arrange the display of these
freshly baked foods.
Administrative, Clerical, and Professional and
Technical Occupations. Administrators in large
baking firms and proprietors of small firms coor­
dinate all baking activities from the purchase of
raw materials to the production and delivery of
baked products. In large baking firms, activities
are divided into separate departments or functions
and supervised by plant managers, comptrollers,
sales managers, and other executives. Other ad­
ministrative employees may specialize in such
fields as accounting, purchasing, advertising, and
personnel and industrial relations. Business offices
of bakeries employ many types of clerical work­
ers, including bookkeepers, cashiers, clerks, busi­
ness machine operators, stenographers, typists,
and switchboard operators. A large proportion of
these office workers are women. Some large bak­
ing companies have laboratories and test kitchens
where chemists, home economists, and their assist­
ants test ingredients and prepare formulas and
recipes for bread and other baked items. (Detailed
discussions of the duties, training, and employ­
ment outlook for maintenance, sales, driving, ad­
ministrative, clerical, and technical personnel ap­
pear elsewhere in the Handbook.')
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Training requirements for occupations in the
baking industry range from a few days of on-the-


job training to several years of training and ex­
perience. For example, some bakery workers, such
as slicing machine operators, can be trained on the
job in a few days. Skilled workers, such as all­
round bakers and baking specialists, require at
least 3 or 4 years of training. Professional per­
sonnel and some administrative workers must
have a college degree, or equivalent experience in
their particular specialty.
Most inexperienced production workers in the
baking industry are hired as helpers (utility
workers). They may be assigned such tasks as
washing and greasing pans, carrying ingredients
to mixing machines, pushing troughs of dough to
the proofing room, and otherwise assisting bakers
in the shop. By working alongside skilled bakers,
helpers are able to acquire baking skills.
Some bakeries train their bakers through form­
al apprenticeship programs. Apprentices gener­
ally are selected from among the helpers in the
plant. Employers usually require that apprentice
applicants be between 18 and 26 years of age, have
a high school or vocational school education, and
show an interest in baking. Apprenticeship pro­
grams last 3 or 4 years. They include on-the-job
training in all baking operations and classroom
instruction in related subjects.
Some workers acquire baking skills by taking
courses in vocational school or by learning the
trade in the Armed Forces. Such training may
not qualify a young man as a skilled baker, but it
may help him to become an apprentice and per­
haps shorten his apprenticeship period.
Bakers may be promoted to such jobs as work­
ing foreman, or department foreman. Some bakers
who have developed special skill in fancy cake­
making or piemaking may find jobs in hotel or
restaurant bakeries. All-round bakers with some
business ability sometimes open their own bakeshops.
Good health is important for a young man or
woman planning to enter one of the baking jobs.
For anyone handling food, most States require a
health certificate indicating that the worker is
free from communicable diseases. Good health is
necessary also because of irregular working hours
and the extremes in temperatures found in bak­
Some bakeries have apprentice training pro­
grams for maintenance workers such as machin­



ists, electricians, and auto mechanics. Other plants
hire inexperienced workers as mechanics’ helpers,
who gain experience and know-how while working
with skilled mechanics. Some bakeries hire only
skilled maintenance men.
For jobs as driver-salesmen or truckdrivers,
baking firms generally hire inexperienced young
men with a high school education. These workers
often begin as stock clerks, packers, or checkers,
and may be promoted to one of the driving jobs as
vacancies occur. Some young men take summer
and part-time jobs as driver-helpers to gain ex­
perience. Applicants for these jobs must be able
to get a commercial driving permit (chauffeur’s
license). Large baking companies often give tests
to their applicants to determine whether they are
safe drivers. A pleasant appearance and the
ability to get along well with people are preferred
qualifications for the new worker who wants to
sell as well as drive. New driver-salesmen may be
given classroom instruction in sales, display, and
delivery procedures. Most training, however, is
given on the job by route supervisors. Driversalesmen may be promoted to route supervisor and
sales manager.
Administrative jobs are usually filled by up­
grading personnel already employed in the firm.
Some owners and production managers of bak­
eries have come from the ranks of baking crafts­
men, and some began their careers in sales occupa­
tions. In recent years, large baking firms have
required their new administrative workers to have
a college degree in one of the administrative fields,
such as marketing, accounting, labor relations,
personnel, or advertising. Several colleges offer
courses in baking science and management; one
college offers a 4-year course in this field.
Young women who have completed a com­
mercial course in high school, junior college, or
a business school usually are preferred for the
secretarial, stenographic, and other office jobs.
Employment Outlook

Several thousand job openings are expected to
occur in the baking industry each year during the
1965-75 decade because of the need to replace
workers who retire, die, or transfer to other fields
of work. However, employment in the baking

industry is expected to decline slightly in the
1965-75 decade. Increasing efficiency in produc­
tion methods is expected to more than offset the
growing demand for bakery products resulting
from an increasing population and rising income
Although total employment in the baking in­
dustry is expected to decline somewhat, employ­
ment in some occupations is expected to increase.
For example, more driver-salesmen will be needed
as suburban developments increase and sales
territories expand. Additional maintenance work­
ers will be needed to keep machinery and other
equipment in operating order as bakeries become
more mechanized. Some increase may occur in the
number of clerical workers as a result of addi­
tional recordkeeping requirements. The antici­
pated increases in these occupations will be par­
tially offset by the continuing decline in the num­
ber of production workers resulting from the
installation of mechanized processing and mate­
rials handling equipment, and improvements in
the methods of processing baked goods. The
method of fermenting a yeast broth rather than
a dough mixture, for example, has cut processing
time from several hours to a matter of minutes.
In addition, the freezing of baked goods for stor­
age until ready for sale permits bakeries to pre­
pare a week’s requirement at one time rather than
small batches daily.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Earnings of production workers in the perish­
able bakery products industry averaged $103.73 a
week, or $2.53 an hour, in mid-1965. The rates were
somewhat lower in biscuit and cracker bakeries
where earnings of production workers averaged
$96.80 a week, or $2.39 an hour. Wage rates tend
to be higher in the Far West and the Northeast
than in the South or Southwest. Because of these
geographic variations, the lowest and the highest
hourly wage rates vary widely. For example, ac­
cording to 13 union-management contracts cover­
ing employees in 45 wholesale bakeries producing
bread and related products, hourly wage rates in
1964 for dough and icing mixers ranged from
$1.85 to $3.72, and those for cleaners and porters



from $1.72 to $2.64. The ranges for minimum
hourly rates in major occupations in these bak­
eries were as follows:

b read , cak es, p ies, etc., in 11 selected c itie s, w ere
as f o llo w s :

Baking foremen, foreladies (and all­
round bakers)______________________
Mixers (dough or icing)_______________
Molders and dividers and molding and
dividing machine operators__________
leers and decorators__________________
Utilitymen (general helpers)___________
Maintenance mechanics_______________
Wrapping machine operators__________
Porters and cleaners__________________

Atlanta, Ga
_ __________ ___
Birmingham, Ala _
Cleveland, Ohio__ __ . ____ ___
Dallas, Tex
___ __
Detroit, Mich, (bread)__ ____ ___
Houston, Tex__ . . .
Little Rock, Ark_
New York, N.Y. (cake and
pastry)-------------------------- ___
Oklahoma City, Okla
____ ___
Pittsburgh, Pa. (bread).
Oakland, Calif, (transport and
chain store)
. __

$1. 94-$3. 98
1. 85- 3. 72
2. 21- 3. 72


3. 72
3. 63
2. 64
3. 73
3. 11
2. 85
2. 64

Some plant employees work night shifts and
weekends because baking is done around the clock
in many plants. Workers receive from 7 to 23
cents an hour extra pay for nightwork. However,
the night shift is being eliminated in some bak­
eries because the increasing use of freezing proc­
esses makes it possible to prepare baked goods in
advance, and store them until needed. Most plant
workers are on a 40-hour workweek, although
some work 35 or 371/2 hours and others 44 or 48
hours regularly. For those who work a 35- or
371^-hour week, time and a half is paid for work
beyond their regular schedule. For all others, time
and a half is paid for all work over 40 hours.
Driver-salesmen are usually paid a guaranteed
minimum salary plus a percentage of their dollar
sales. According to limited information available
in late 1964 on baking firms in 13 Eastern States,
driver-salesmen for both wholesale and homeservice bakeries had minimum weekly salaries of
from $78 to $105. By selling more baked products
to their customers and by increasing the number
of customers on their routes, driver-salesmen can
increase their earnings considerably. Companies
generally pay for uniforms and their mainten­
Truckdrivers for baking plants are paid by the
hour. Hourly rates and hours worked vary from
city to city. In mid-1964, the minimum wage rates
and maximum hours per week before overtime
rates prevail, provided by union-management
contracts for truckdrivers for bakeries producing

M inim u m , wage

H ours per

2. 33
3. 23
2. 4 9 /
3. 10
2. 5 4 /


3. 0 7 /
2. 4 6 /
2. 49


3. 85-4. 10


Comparable data for truckdrivers employed by
biscuit and cracker bakeries in 11 selected cities
w e r e as f o l l o w s :
M in im u m wage

Baltimore, Md
Boston, Mass
Columbus, Ohio
Indianapolis, Ind
Kansas City, Mo
Memphis, Tenn
Milwaukee, Wis
Omaha, Nebr
Peoria, 111
South Bend, Ind
Topeka, Kans




$2. 5 3 /
2.5 6
2. 71
2 .5 3
2. 44-2. 95
2.3 3
3 .0 3
2. 57
2 .5 0
2 .3 6

H ours per


Home-service driver-salesmen and truckdrivers
work mostly out of doors. Wholesale driver- sales­
men spend much of their time arranging bakery
goods on grocers’ display shelves. Many jobs in
baking plants involve some strenuous physical
work, despite the considerable mechanization of
baking processes. Work near ovens may be un­
pleasantly hot.
Paid vacations for employees are almost uni­
versal in industrial baking firms. Vacation peri­
ods range from 1 to 4 weeks, according to length
of service. The number of paid holidays ranges
from 5 to 11 days, depending on locality. Most
baking firms have adopted some type of insurance
or pension arrangement for their employees, such
as life insurance, health insurance programs, or
retirement pensions plans. A large number of
employees are covered by joint union-industry



health and welfare plans and pension systems
which are paid for entirely by employer con­
Most plant workers and drivers belong to a
labor union. Bakers, baking specialists, and other
plant workers have been organized by the Ameri­
can Bakery and Confectionery Workers’ Inter­
national Union or the Bakery and Confectionery
Workers’ International Union of America
(Ind.). Driver-salesmen and transport drivers are
generally members of the International Brother­
hood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen
and Helpers of America (Ind.). Some mainten­
ance men are members of craft unions such as the
International Association of Machinists and
Aerospace Workers and the International Union
of Operating Engineers.

Where To G o for More Information

Information on local job openings in the bak­
ing industry may be obtained directly from bak­
eries in the community.
High school students—or adults interested in
evening courses—may obtain information on
courses relating to baking by writing to the Direc­
tor of Vocational Education or to the Superin­
tendent of Schools in their local community, or
to the State Director of Vocational Education in
the Department of Education in the State capital.
General information on job opportunities in the
baking industry and on requirements for entering
accredited schools which offer courses or degrees
in baking science and technology may be obtained
by writing to :
American Bakers Association,
20 North Wacker Dr., Chicago, 111. 60606.

Banks have been described as “department
stores of finance” because they make a great
variety of financial services available to busi­
nessmen and to individuals. They offer regular
and special checking accounts and savings account
services; installment and mortgage loans; short­
term loans for business and personal needs; and
investment and trust services. They accept pay­
ment of utility bills; sell money orders and
travelers’ checks; issue letters of credit and certi­
fied checks; and rent safe-deposit boxes. Banks
continue to introduce new services; as for ex­
amples, the revolving check credit plans and
credit cards for individuals, facilities for han­
dling charge accounts for retail stores, and
“drive-up” windows for customers’ convenience.
The complicated financial transactions of our
present day business world could not be carried
on without the services provided by banks.
Banks and Their Workers

To provide these and many other services, bank­
ing organizations employed about 775,000 people
in early 1965; more than half were women. Ap­
proximately 700,000 of these bank employees
worked in commercial banks, where a wide vari­
ety of services are offered; the banking occupa­
tions discussed in this statement are generally
those which are found in banks of this type.
Other bank employees, many of whom are in the
same occupations, work in mutual savings banks,
which offer a more limited range of services—
mainly savings deposit accounts, safe-deposit
rentals, trust management, and mortgage loans;
still others are in the 12 Federal Reserve Banks
(or “bankers’ banks”) ; and in foreign exchange
firms, clearing house associations, check cashing
agencies, and other organizations doing work
closely related to banking.
Commercial banks process about 15 billion
checks a year and handle an enormous amount of
other paperwork. The clerical employees who do

this work account for two-thirds of all bank em­
ployees. Among these clerical workers are thou­
sands in jobs which are unique to banks; they are
either tellers or bank clerks who process the
thousands of deposit slips, checks, and other docu­
ments which banks handle daily. Also employed
are a great many secretaries, typists, file clerks,
and others whose duties are much the same in
banks as in other types of businesses.
Bank officers are the second largest occupational
group. Approximately 1 out of 6 bank workers is
an officer—a president, vice president, treasurer,
comptroller, or other official. Other, much smaller,
occupational groups are accountants, lawyers,
statisticians, economists, and other professional
workers, as well as guards, elevator operators,
cleaners, and other service workers who protect
and maintain bank properties.
This chapter gives information about three
large groups of workers in occupations unique to
banking—bank clerks, tellers, and bank officers.
Some of the other occupations mentioned which
are common to banks as well as other institutions
are described elsewhere in the Handbook.
Where Employed

In early 1965, there were about 28,000 commer­
cial banks and branch banks, and more-than 800
mutual savings banks and branches. Bank em­
ployment is concentrated, to a considerable
extent, in a relatively limited number of very
large banks and their branches. In early 1964, the
324 largest commercial banks in the country each
with total deposits of $100 million or more, em­
ployed more than one-half of all commercial bank
employees, whereas nearly 10,000 small commer­
cial banks (with total deposits of $10 million or
less) employed only one-sixth of all commercial
bank workers.
Bank employees work mainly in heavily popu­
lated areas. The greatest number of bank workers


are in the States of New York, California, Penn­
sylvania, and Illinois. New York City, the finan­
cial capital of the Nation, has far more bank em­
ployees than any other city.

Bank workers include thousands of professional
and managerial employees who must usually be
college trained. Practically all clerical workers
must have completed at least 4 years of high
school; and other workers, such as building serv­
ice workers and guards, are in jobs which can be
filled by persons with a high school education or
less. Most newly hired employees undergo some
form of training so that they may become fa­
miliar with bank policies and procedures. Large
banks have been leaders in developing training
programs, often supplementing them with instruc­
tion manuals and textbooks. (Additional inform­
ation about the educational requirements which
apply to bank clerks, tellers, and bank officers,
and the training given them, is provided in the
statements that follow.)
In many cities throughout the country, bank
employees may prepare themselves for better jobs
by enrolling in courses offered by the American
Institute of Banking. The Institute’s educational
program includes basic courses in English, com­
mercial law, economics, accounting, and the
principles of bank operations, as well as “stand­
ard” and advanced courses in specialized fields.
Tens of thousands of bank employees take advan­
tage of these educational opportunities and to
encourage them to do so, many banks pay all or a
part of the tuition of those who successfully com­
plete the courses in which they enroll.
Employment Outlook

Employment in banks is expected to rise very
rapidly during the 1965-75 decade. New jobs re­
sulting from employment growth, as well as jobs
that must be filled as employees retire or stop
working for other reasons, may account for 65,000
openings each year. Still other openings will occur
as employees leave their positions to enter other
types of employment.
Most of these openings will be in clerical oc­
cupations. In addition, an increasing number of
trainee jobs, which may eventually lead to officer

positions, will probably become available for
college graduates. Some openings for professional
and specialized personnel, such as lawyers, ac­
countants, and electronic computer personnel
should also occur.
Population growth and the accompanying rise
in production, sales, and national income are ex­
pected to produce a steady growth in the number
of business and financial transactions which banks
will handle. As a result, total employment may
rise to more than a million workers by 1975. The
number of branch banks has been increasing for
many years and will probably continue to do so as
banks seek to make their services more accessible
both in cities and in new and expanding suburban
business centers. The rapid rise in the number of
checking accounts and checks handled, an im­
portant factor in the growth of bank employment,
is expected to continue. More jobs will also be
created as banks continue to expand other serv­
ices. The anticipated services are many, including
among others, special savings plans for travel
and education, estate planning and administra­
tion, “in-plant” banking facilities for employed
workers, and the management of employee pen­
sion funds. The estimated 700 banks which had
electronic computer installations in 1964, provided
conventional banking services to other banks and
financial institutions without computers and, to
business corporations, such services as account
reconciliation, payroll preparation, and customer
The number of additional workers needed to
handle the anticipated increase in banking activi­
ties may be slowed somewhat by the continued
conversion of many major banking activities to
electronic data-processing. Even so, the very
rapid growth in employment which has character­
ized the banking industry since the end of World
W ar I I is expected to continue. Electronic dataprocessing is likely to bring about important
changes in the pattern of occupations in banking,
however, substantially reducing the number of
workers needed in some occupations and at the
same time creating other jobs which are new to
banks. The effect of these developments will vary
from one occupation to another, as indicated in
the statements on specific banking occupations
which follow.
Bank employees can anticipate steadier employ­
ment than workers in many other fields, because



they are less likely to be affected by layoffs during
periods when the general level of business activi­
ty is low. Even when a bank is sold or merged
with another bank, it usually continues to do busi­
ness, and there is little likelihood that workers
will lose their jobs. When bank officials find it
necessary to curtail employment, they usually do
so by not replacing employees who retire or leave
their jobs for other reasons. Although this re­
duces the number of openings for new employees,
it avoids the necessity of laying off experienced

35 hours is fairly common. Tellers and some other
types of employees may work in the evening at
least once a week when banks remain open for
business; and overtime work may be necessary for
some bookkeeping department employees during
peak periods, often at the end of each month.
Workers who do some kinds of check processing
may be employed on evening and night shifts, as
may operators of electronic computer equipment.
Bank work is generally done in modern, clean,
well-lighted, and often air-conditioned offices.
Few jobs require strenuous physical exertion.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Where To G o for More Information

Earnings of bank clerks, tellers, and officers, are
discussed in the statements which follow. In addi­
tion to their salaries, bank workers receive fringe
benefits which are generally somewhat more
liberal then those provided by other types of busi­
nesses. Paid holidays range up to 12 or more a
year, and vacations with pay—generally 2 weeks
for those who have completed a year of service—
may be extended to 3 or more weeks after 10 or 15
years’ service. Group plans providing life insur­
ance, hospitalization and surgical benefits, and
retirement income are also available to many bank
employees. Other fringe benefits, often available,
include free checking accounts and reduced in­
terest rates on personal loans.
Scheduled hours in banks are generally 40 or
less a week; in a few localities, a work week of

Local banks and State bankers’ associations can
furnish information about jobs in local banking
institutions. General information on banking oc­
cupations, training opportunities offered by the
banking industry, and the nature of the industry
is available from:
American Bankers Association, Personnel
Administration and Management Development
90 Park Ave., New York, NY. 10016.

For additional information on earnings and
working conditions in banks, see:
I n d u s tr y

W a g e S u r v e y : B a n k in g , 1 9 6 U


BLS Bulletin 1466),
Superintendent of Documents,
Washington, D.C. 20402, 30 cents each.

Bank Clerks
Nature of Work

Bank clerks handle the paperwork associated
with depositors’ checking and savings accounts,
loans to individuals and business firms, and other
bank business. Because of the nature of banking,
some of their work differs from the work in other
kinds of business offices. (Secretaries, office ma­
chine operators, receptionists, and other clerical
workers whose jobs are much the same in banks
as in other businesses are discussed in the chapter
on Clerical and Related Occupations.)
In a small bank, one clerk may perform several
different kinds of work—for example, sorting
checks, totaling debit and credit slips, and pre­
paring monthly statements for mailing to deposi­
tors. In a large bank, however, each clerk is usu­

ally assigned one kind of work and often also
has a special job title; the work of some of these
clerks is described below.
Bank clerks known as sorters (D.O.T. 213.885)
separate bank documents—checks, deposit slips,
and other bank items—into different groups and
tabulate each “batch” so they may be charged to
the proper account; often they use canceling and
adding machines in their work. Many banks also
employ 'proof machine operators (D.O.T. 217.388)
who use equipment that, in one operation, sorts
items and adds and records the amount of money
The bookkeeping workers who keep records of
depositors’ accounts and of bank transactions such
as loans to business firms or the purchase, and sale



Bank clerk operates proof machine.

of securities are the largest single group of bank
clerks. Bookkeeping machine operators (D.O.T.
215.388) in this group use either conventional
bookkeeping machines or electronic posting ma­
chines especially designed for bank work; in most
other respects, their work is similar to that of book­
keeping machine operators in other types of estab­
lishments. In banks, these workers are sometimes
known as account clerks, posting machine opera­
tors, or recording clerks. Bookkeepers (D.O.T.
210.388) are also employed in banks, usually to
keep special types of financial records. Banks em­
ploy very few general bookkeepers (D.O.T. 210.388) who maintain complete sets of books. The job
titles of many bank bookkeepers are related to
the kinds of records on which they work—among
them, Christmas club bookkeeper, discount book­
keeper, interest-accrual bookkeeper, trust book­
keeper, and commodity loan clerk. Thousands of
bookkeeping and accounting clerks (D.O.T. 219.488) are also employed in bookkeeping depart­
ments to do routine typing, calculating, and post­
ing related to bank transactions. Included in this
group are reconcilement clerks, who process
statements from other banks in order to expedite
the auditing of accounts; and trust investment
clerks who post the daily investment transactions
of bank customers.
Other clerical employees whose duties and job
titles are unique to banking include country col­
lection clerks (D.O.T. 219.388) who sort the
thousands of pieces of mail which come in daily

to a city bank and determine which items must be
held at the main office and which should be routed
to branch banks or out-of-city banks for collec­
tion. Also employed are transit clerks (D.O.T.
217.388) who sort bank items such as checks and
drafts on other banks, list and total the amounts
involved, and prepare the documents so that
they can be mailed for collection; exchange clerks
(D.O.T. 219.388) who service foreign deposit
accounts and determine charges for cashing or
handling checks drawn against such accounts;
interest clerks (D.O.T. 219.388) who maintain
records relating to interest-bearing items which
are due to or from the bank; and mortgage clerks
(D.O.T. 209.388) who type legal papers affecting
title to real estate upon which money has been
loaned, and maintain records relating to taxes and
insurance on such properties.
New clerical occupations which have been cre­
ated by the introduction of electronic data-processing, and which are unique to banks, include
those of the electronic reader-sorter operator who
operates electronic check sorting equipment, the
check inscriber or encoder, who operates machines
that print information on checks and other docu­
ments in magnetic ink to prepare them for ma­
chine reading, and the control clerk who keeps
track of the huge volume of documents flowing in
and out of the computer division. Workers in
these occupations are employed only in the rela­
tively limited number of banks that use this kind
of equipment.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

High school graduation is adequate preparation
for most beginning clerical jobs in banks. For the
majority of jobs, courses in bookkeeping, typing,
and business arithmetic are desirable. Courses in
office machine operation are also helpful. Appli­
cants may be given intelligence tests and clerical
aptitude tests—the latter to determine their ability
to work rapidly and accurately.
Beginners may be hired as file clerks, book­
keeping clerks, transit clerks, clerk-typists, or for
other related work. Some are trained by the bank
to operate proof, bookkeeping, and other office ma­
chines. A few start as pages or inside messengers.
An employee in a routine clerical job may
eventually be promoted to a minor supervisory
position, or to a job as teller or credit analyst,



and eventually to a senior supervisory position.
Opportunities for advancement to bank officer
positions also exist for outstanding clerical em­
ployees, although they are more likely to attain
such positions if they have had college training.
Additional education obtained while employed—
particularly the courses offered by the American
Institute of Banking—may be helpful in prepar­
ing workers for advancement. (See introduction
to this chapter for further information on the
Institute’s educational program.)
Employment Outlook

Employment of bank clerks is expected to in­
crease rapidly during the 1965-75 decade, creating
many openings. In addition to the new jobs
created by growth, an even greater number of
openings will probably result from turnover—
which is relatively high in banks as in other
industries which employ many women in clerical
positions. Jobs for clerks will arise as established
banks expand their services and as new banks
and branch banks are opened. In those banks
which install modern electronic equipment, how­
ever, decreases may be expected in the employ­
ment of workers such as check sorters and book­
keeping machine operators. Many employees
affected by the changeover will probably be re­
trained and reassigned, either to new jobs created
by the change in equipment and processing meth­
ods, or to other duties related to the many new
functions and services which banks will introduce.

Overall, the growth in the volume of work created
by new bank facilities and services is expected to
be so great that the total number of clerical work­
ers will continue to rise for some years to come,,
though much less rapidly than in the recent
past. The sharpest increases in employment are
expected in occupations related to electronic data

In 1964, average weekly earnings for women
proof-machine operators employed in banks in
27 metropolitan areas, ranged from $56.50 in
Louisville to $77 in the San Francisco-Oakland
area. The lowest and highest average weekly
earnings for women Class A bookkeeping machine
operators—generally experienced employees who
worked on relatively difficult assignments—were
$61 in Providence and $89.50 in Chicago. For
women Class B bookkeeping machine operators,
doing more routine work, average weekly earnings
ranged from $55.50 in Providence to $71 in the
San Francisco-Oakland area.
For women in beginning clerical positions,
minimum entrance salaries generally ranged from
$50 to $60 a week in most of the localities
See introductory section of this chapter for
information on Where Employed, Earnings and
Working Conditions, and Where To Go for More
Information, and for additional information on
Training and Employment Outlook.

(2d ed. D.O.T. 1-06.02 through .04)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 211.368)

Nature of Work

Every bank, no matter how small, has at least
one teller to receive and pay out money and
record these transactions. In a very small bank,
one teller—often known as an all-around teller—
may handle transactions of all kinds, but in large
banks different kinds of transactions are usually
taken care of by different tellers. A Christmas
Club teller accepts and records deposits made to
Christmas Club savings accounts, for example,
and a note teller handles certain transactions for

clients making loans on securities. Other tellers
who have special job titles include commercial (or
'paying and receiving), savings, foreign exchange,
payroll, discount, and securities tellers.
More than 165,000 tellers of all kinds were
employed in early 1965. A considerable number
worked only part-time, and about 7 out of 10
were women.
Commercial tellers, with whom most people deal
when they transact business at banks, are mainly
occupied with cashing customers’ checks and
handling deposits and withdrawals from checking



Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Teller cashes depositor's check.

and savings accounts during the hours the bank
is open to the public. Before he cashes a check,
the teller must verify the identity of the person
to whom he makes payment, and be certain that
funds in the account against which the check is
drawn (or the payee’s account) are sufficient to
cover the payment. When he accepts a deposit,
he checks to see whether the amount of money
has been correctly itemized on the deposit slip
and enters the total in a passbook or on a deposit
receipt. Tellers may use machines to make change
and total deposits. A teller handling savings
accounts may use a “window” posting machine
which prints a receipt, or records in the customer’s
passbook, and simultaneously posts the transac­
tion in the bank’s ledger.
After public banking hours, the teller counts
the cash on hand, lists the currency-received
tickets on a settlement sheet, and balances his
day’s accounts. He may also perform other inci­
dental tasks such as sorting checks and deposit
slips, filing new account cards, and removing
closed account cards from files. A paying and
receiving teller may supervise one or more clerks
assigned to assist him.

In hiring tellers, employers prefer high school
graduates experienced in related clerical positions.
They regard personal characteristics such as neat­
ness, tact, and courtesy particularly important
because customers, who deal with tellers far more
frequently than with other bank employees, often
judge a bank’s services principally on their im­
pressions of the tellers. Since tellers handle large
sums of money, they must be able to meet the
standards established by bonding companies. In
filling new positions, most banks give preference
to their employees who have demonstrated the
necessary qualifications.
Newly hired tellers usually learn their duties
by first observing experienced workers for a few
days and then, under close supervision, doing the
work themselves. Training periods may last from
1 or 2 days to 3 weeks or longer. A new teller’s
first assignment is usually to a combination job
as a savings and commercial teller; or, in those
banks which are large enough to have a savings
teller’s “cage,” the beginner may start as a savings
After gaining experience, a competent teller
in a large bank may advance to the position of
note teller, or he may advance to the position
of head teller, in which he supervises the bank’s
staff of tellers. Eventually, experienced tellers
may qualify for promotion to bank officer posi­
tions, particularly if they have had college train­
ing or have taken specialized courses offered by
the banking industry. (See introduction to this
chapter for information about the educational
program of the American Institute of Banking.)
Employment Outlook

The number of bank tellers is expected to rise
very rapidly during the rest of the 1960’s and
early 1970’s, as banks continue to expand their
services for the growing urban population. An
increasing proportion, however, will be part-time
tellers employed during peak hours to accom­
modate those customers who transact business
during the noon hour and in the evenings. More
than 15,000 openings are expected each year as a
result of the increase in employment and the need
to replace tellers who retire or stop working for
other reasons. Turnover is relatively high among
the thousands of women who work as tellers.



Although increased use of mechanical and elec­
tronic equipment can be expected to eliminate
some of the routine work now done by many
tellers, and to speed other work they now perform,
it is unlikely to affect greatly the total number

part-time tellers, many of whom are employed in
branch banks, earn $2 or $3 an hour for a work­
week of 20 or 25 hours.
See introductory section of this chapter for
information on Where Employed, Earnings and
Working Conditions, and Where To Go for More
Information, and for additional information on
Average weekly earnings, 1964

In 1964, earnings of tellers, employed in banks
less than 5 years in 27 metropolitan areas, ranged
from a low of between $45 and $50 a week to a high
almost three times as great. The lowest and high­
est average weekly earnings for men and women
employed in specific teller positions for less than
5 years are given in the accompanying tabulation.
The average salaries of tellers with 5 or more years
of service were from $6 to $24 a week more than
the averages listed above for tellers with less
According to the limited information available,

A ll-r o u n d tellers:
W o m e n ___
M e n __________


Low est
$ 5 5.50
6 6 .0 0

(W a s h in g to n a n d

$ 7 5 .5 0
9 0 .0 0

( C in c in n a ti)
(C h ic a g o )

P r o v id e n c e )
C o m m e r c ia l tellers:
W o m e n ___ __
M e n ___ _ ___
S a v in g s tellers:
W o m e n ___ _ _
M e n ___________

89. 50

(N e w Y ork )

6 5 .0 0

(B o s to n a n d
D a lla s )
( D a lla s ) __________

8 9 .0 0

(N e w Y ork )

5 9 .5 0

( B a l t i m o r e ) ... . .

79. 50

6 2 .5 0

( N e w a r k -J e r s e y
C it y )

8 7 .0 0

(S a n F r a n c is c o O a k la n d )
(S a n F r a n c is c o -

6 6 .0 0

O a k la n d )

N o t e tellers:
W o m e n _______

6 3 .5 0

( P h i l a d e l p h i a ) ...

8 9 .0 0

(N e w Y ork
and San F ranc isc o -O a k la n d )

M e n ___________

7 4 .0 0

( M i a m i) _________

9 8 .5 0

( M ilw a u k e e )

Bank Officers
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-85.10; 0-97.01 through .05, 14 : 0-98.01 through .06, .08, .11 through .13)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 186.118, .138, .168, and .288; 161.118; 189.118 and .168)

Nature of Work

Practically every bank has a president who
exercises general direction over all operations; one
or more vice presidents who either act as general
managers or have charge of bank departments
such as trust, credit, and investment; and a
comptroller or cashier who (unlike cashiers in
stores and other businesses) is an executive officer
generally responsible for all bank property. Large
banks may also have treasurers and other senior
officers, as well as assistant officers, to supervise the
various sections within different departments.
A bank officer makes decisions within a frame­
work of policy set by the board of directors. His
job requires a broad knowledge of business activi­
ties, which he must relate to the operations of the
particular department for which he is responsible.
For example, the loan officer must exercise his best
judgment in considering applications for loans,
bearing in mind general business conditions and
the nature of the collateral offered. He must
evaluate carefully the reports of credit analysts
on the individual or business firm applying for a
loan, and balance the favorable and unfavorable

elements in reaching a decision. Similarly, the
trust officer must have a thorough understanding
of the provisions of each trust which he is ad­
ministering and the knowledge necessary to man­
age properly the fund or estate involved; he must
invest wisely in order to manage trust funds which
were established for purposes such as supporting
families, sending young people to college, or pay­
ing pensions to retired workers. Besides super­
vising financial services, bank officers are fre­
quently called upon to advise individuals and
businessmen and to participate in many different
kinds of community projects.
Banking institutions employed about 125,000
officers in early 1965. Women represented about
one-tenth of the total; many are employed as
officers in the trust, personnel, and public relations
departments of banks.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Bank officer positions may be filled by pro­
moting either experienced clerical bank employees
or management trainees. Outstanding individuals
may be selected for promotion even though their



Although experience, ability, and leadership
qualities receive great emphasis when bank em­
ployees are considered for promotion to officer
positions, advancement may also be accelerated
by special study. Courses in every phase of bank­
ing are offered by the American Institute of
Banking, a long-established, industry-sponsored
school. (See introduction to this chapter for more
information on the Institute’s program.) Other
training programs are sponsored jointly by uni­
versities and local bankers’ associations.
Employment Outlook

Bank officers most exercise good judgment in considering loan

academic background is limited, but college grad­
uation is the usual requirement for young people
who enter as trainees. A business administration
curriculum with a major in finance or a liberal
arts curriculum including accounting, economics,
commercial law, political science, and statistics are
considered excellent preparation for trainee posi­
tions. Valuable experience may be gained in the
summer employment programs recently initiated
by some large city banks for college students.
Most large city banks have well-organized
officer-training programs. Usually these range
from 6 months to 2 years in length. Trainees may
start as credit or investment analysts, or be rotated
among various jobs in several bank departments
so that they get the “feel” of banking and so that
bank officers may be better able to determine the
position for which each employee is best suited.
Many banks which are too small to operate formal
officer-trainee programs nevertheless provide some
form of training program which enables trainees
to gain an understanding of bank operations.
Advancement to officer positions may come
slowly in small banks where the number of such
positions is limited. In large city banks with spe­
cial training programs, initial promotions may
come more quickly. For a senior officer position,
however, many years of experience are usually
necessary before an employee can acquire the
necessary knowledge of the bank’s operations and
customers and of the community.

The number of bank officers is expected to in­
crease very rapidly through the mid-1970’s. Many
new positions will be created by the expected ex­
pansion of banking activities. Others will develop
because the increasing use of electronic com­
puters enables banks to analyze and plan banking
operations more extensively and to provide new
kinds of services. In addition, because bank offi­
cers are somewhat older, on the average, than
most employee groups, a large number of addi­
tional officers will be needed each year to replace
those who retire, or leave their jobs for other
reasons. The American Bankers Association
estimates that a total of 6,000 officer positions
will become available each year, through growth
and replacement needs.
Most of the officer positions which become avail­
able will be filled by promoting people who have
already acquired experience in banking opera­
tions. Competition for such promotions is likely
to remain keen, particularly in large banks. Col­
lege graduates who meet the standards for execu­
tive trainees should find good opportunities for
entry positions, however.

According to a private survey conducted in
1963-64, large banks, insurance companies, and
other financial institutions paid salaries generally
ranging from $400 to $525 or more a month to
new executive trainees who were graduates with
majors in business administration or in the liberal
arts. Accounting majors were usually hired to
begin at somewhat higher salaries—between $425
and $550 a month.

The salaries of senior bank officers may be
several times as great as these starting salaries.
For officers, as well as for other employees,
salaries are likely to be lower in small towns than
in big city banks.


See introductory section of this chapter for in­
formation on Where Employed, Earnings and
Working Conditions, and Where To Go for More
Information, and for additional information on

The rapid development of air transportation in
the past two decades has greatly increased the
mobility of the population and has created many
thousands of job opportunities in civil aviation
activities. By late 1964, about 315,000 persons
were employed in this field in a variety of in­
teresting and responsible occupations.
Nature and Location of Civil Aviation Activities

Civil aviation services are provided by many
different types of organizations for a variety of
•purposes. The scheduled airlines (those which
operate regularly scheduled flights over pre­
scribed routes) provide transportation for pas­
sengers, cargo, and mail. Other airlines, called
supplemental airlines, provide charter and nonscheduled service for passengers and cargo. A
wide range of other civil aviation activities are
conducted in the field of general aviation, includ­
ing the use of company-owned aircraft to trans­
port employees or cargo (business flying); spray­
ing insecticides, fertilizers, or seed on land, crops,
or forest (crop dusting) ; charter service in small
aircraft (air-taxi operations); and inspection of
pipelines and powerlines for breaks. In addition
to these flying activities, general aviation includes
maintenance and repair activities conducted by
repair stations licensed by the Government to
work on general aviation aircraft (certificated
repair stations).
Civil aviation activities also include the reg­
ulatory functions of the Federal Aviation Agency
(FAA), and the Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB)
—both Federal Government agencies. The FAA
develops air safety regulations, inspects and tests
airplanes and airline facilities, provides ground
electronic guidance equipment, and gives tests for
licenses to personnel such as pilots, copilots, flight
engineers, dispatchers, and airplane mechanics.
The CAB establishes policy concerning matters
such as airline rates and routes and investigates

The 49 scheduled airlines were the largest em­
ployers of air transportation workers in late 1964,
with about 180,000 workers. Of these, about 80
percent (150,000) were employed to fly and serv­
ice aircraft and passengers on domestic routes—
between cities in the United States. About 25,000
other workers handled the operations of the
scheduled airlines which flew international routes.
The remaining workers were employed by airlines
that handled only cargo. More than half of all
scheduled airline employees worked for the four
largest domestic airlines.
In addition to scheduled airline employees,
several thousand workers—all in ground occupa­
tions—were employed in the United States by
foreign airlines that operate between overseas
points and the United States.
An additional 2,300 workers were employed by
14 supplemental airlines. These workers were in
many of the same occupations as scheduled airline
An estimated 85,000 workers—nearly all pilots,
copilots, and airplane mechanics—were employed
in general aviation operations to fly and service
the almost equal number of aircraft used in late
1964. Nearly 40 percent of these workers (31,000)
were employed in certificated repair stations. An­
other 25 percent (20,000) were engaged in business
flying. About 13,000 worked for firms that gave
flight instruction; approximately 4,600 were in
crop dusting activities; and nearly 14,000 were
employed by for-hire operators of small passenger
and cargo aircraft. The remaining 3,500 workers
were in other general aviation activities, such as
test flying or inspecting pipelines for breaks.
The FAA employed about 45,000 people and the
CAB about 830, in late 1964. The largest group
of FAA employees worked mainly in occupations
relating to the direction of air traffic, and the
installation and maintenance of mechanical and
electronic equipment used to control traffic. CAB
workers were employed mainly in administrative

and clerical jobs concerned with the economic
regulation of the airlines, supervision of inter­
national air transportation matters, promotion of
air safety, and investigation of accidents.
Civil aviation workers are employed in every
State, but an estimated half work in five States:
New York, California, Florida, Illinois, and
Texas. Some of the reasons for the employment
concentration in these States are their large pop­
ulations and geographic areas, their large num­
bers of airports and aircraft registrations, and
the existence of major airline aircraft overhaul


T h o u s a n d s of wo rk e rs with sc h e d u le d airlines, 1964*


Pilots and

Stewards, stewardesses,

Flight p e r s o n n e l

Civil Aviation Occupations

In addition to employing the largest number
of air transportation workers, the scheduled air­
lines employ workers in the widest variety of
occupations. Of the 180,000 employed by the
scheduled airlines in late 1964, about 4 out of 5
worked in ground occupations.
Mechanics and other aircraft maintenance per­
sonnel was the largest occupational category, with
20 percent of scheduled airline employment. (See
chart 32.) About 16 percent of all scheduled air­
line workers were traffic agents and clerks, and
almost 3 percent worked at airline ground stations
as communications personnel and dispatchers. The
remaining workers in ground occupational cate­
gories (about 44 percent) were employed as cargo
and freight handlers, custodial and other aircraftservicing personnel, and office, administrative, and
professional personnel.
Pilots and copilots was the largest flight occu­
pation, with over 8 percent of airline workers;
stewardesses and stewards comprised another 8
percent; and flight engineers accounted for the
More than 50 percent of general aviation
workers were pilots or copilots, and about 40 per­
cent were airplane mechanics. The great majority
of the mechanics were employed in certificated
repair stations. The remaining general aviation
workers were employed in clerical or administra­
tive jobs.
In the Federal Government, the largest group
of civil aviation workers were in air traffic servic­
ing work. About 17,200 workers were employed
in this category. Most of these workers—about
12,500—were air traffic controllers. Another group

of about 4,000 workers were flight service station
A detailed description of the duties, training,
qualifications, employment outlook, earnings,
and working conditions for each of the following
air transportation jobs appear in the later sec­
tions of this chapter: (1) pilots and copilots, (2)
flight engineers, (3) stewardesses, (4) airplane
mechanics, (5) airline dispatchers, (6) air traffic
controllers, (7) ground radio operators and tele­
typists, and (8) traffic agents and clerks.
Employment Outlook

The total number of workers in civil aviation
occupations is expected to increase rapidly during
the 1965-75 decade, but the rates of growth among
the major civil aviation divisions will differ.
General aviation employment is expected to
show a rapid rise, mainly because the anticipated
greater demand for general aviation services will
lead to an increase in the number of aircraft.
About 120,000 general aviation aircraft will be
flying by 1975—an increase of about 35,000 over
the number in 1964. Most of the employment in­
crease will occur in business flying, which will
require about 15,000 new employees, mainly well



qualified pilots. Nearly as many new job openings
will occur in air-taxi operations, largely because of
the demand for air transportation in cities not
serviced by the scheduled airlines. These jobs will
be about equally divided between qualified pilots
and co-pilots, and airplane mechanics. Another
10,000 job openings—practically all for airplane
mechanics—will occur in certificated repair sta­
tions because of the need. for additional main­
tenance and repair services by a larger general
aviation fleet. A few thousand additional em­
ployees—mainly pilots—will be needed by crop
dusters, and operators who give flight instruction
and engage in patrol and survey flying.
Little or no change is expected in Federal Gov­
ernment employment of civil aviation workers.
Openings that occur will be primarily those re­
sulting from retirements, deaths, and transfers to
other fields of work. While employment declines
may occur in some occupations, increasing employ­
ment opportunities are expected for those who
maintain and repair the increasing array of visual
and electronic aids to air traffic.
Airline employment growth will result from
anticipated increases in passenger and cargo
traffic. It is estimated that, by 1975, the scheduled
airlines will fly about twice the number of revenue
passenger miles flown in 1964. An even larger
increase is expected in air cargo traffic which, how­
ever, represents a relatively small percent of total
traffic. Among the factors which will contribute
to increased air travel are a larger population,
increased consumer purchasing power, the trend
toward longer vacations, the greater use of air
travel by businessmen, faster flights on jet aircraft
which will save considerable time in long-distance
travel, and more economy-class passenger services.
As in the past, airline occupations will grow at
different rates. Occupations such as stewardess
and cargo and baggage handler, which provide
services for passengers and cargo directly, will
grow very rapidly. However, employment in these
occupations is not expected to increase as fast as
the increases in traffic for several reasons. For
example, more widespread installation of me­
chanical equipment, such as conveyors, will permit
airlines to move greatly increased amounts of
baggage and cargo without comparable growth in
employment of baggage and cargo handlers.
Economy flights, which offer fewer in-flight serv778—
316 O— 65— —41

ices than first-class flights, will permit airlines to
fly greatly increased numbers of passengers with­
out a corresponding rise in employment of flight
Some airline occupational groups, particularly
those involving the operation and maintenance of
aircraft, are expected to show little or no employ­
ment growth over the decade. The continuing
replacement of piston-engine aircraft by faster,
higher capacity jet planes and the anticipated in­
troduction of supersonic planes in the early 1970’s
will enable the airlines to handle substantially
more traffic without a corresponding increase in
equipment or workers. However, even in these
occupations, continuing replacement needs because
of retirements and deaths will result in thousands
of job opportunities for new workers annually in
the next decade.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Earnings among various civil aviation occupa­
tions vary greatly because of such factors as skill
requirements, length of experience, and amount
of responsibility for safe and efficient operations.
Within particular occupations, earnings vary
according to the type of civil aviation activity.
The statements cn individual occupations which
follow contain detailed discussions of earnings.
As a rule, airline employees and their immediate
families are entitled to a limited amount of free
or reduced-fare transportation on their companies’
flights, depending on the employees’ length of
service. In addition, they may fly at greatly re­
duced rates with other airlines. Flight personnel
may be away from their home bases about a third
or more of the time. When they are away from
home, the airlines either provide living accommo­
dations or pay expenses.
Airlines operate flights at all hours of the day
and night. Personnel in some occupations, there­
fore, often have irregular work schedules. Maxi­
mum hours of work per month for workers in
flight occupations have been established by the
FA A as a safety precaution against fatigue. In
addition, union-management agreements often
stipulate payment for a minimum number of
hours each month, to guarantee a substantial
proportion of normal earnings.
Ground personnel who work as dispatchers,
mechanics, traffic agents, communications oper­



ators, and in administrative jobs, usually work
a 5-day, 40-hour week. Their working hours,
however, often include nights, weekends, or holi­
days. Air traffic controllers work a 5-day, 40hour week; they are periodically assigned to
night, weekend, and holiday work. Ground per­
sonnel generally receive extra pay for overtime
work, or compensatory time off.
In domestic operations, airline employees usu­
ally receive 2 or 3 weeks’ vacation with pay,
depending upon length of service. Most flight
personnel in international operations get a month’s
vacation. Employees also receive paid sick leave
and retirement, insurance, and long-term dis­
ability hospitalization benefits. FAA and CAB
employees are entitled to the same benefits as other
Federal personnel, including from 13 to 26 days
of vacation leave and 13 days of sick leave a year,
as well as retirement, life insurance, and health
Many of the workers in air transportation are
union members. These unions are identified in the
statements covering the individual occupations.
Where To G o for More Information

Information about job openings in a particular
airline and the qualifications required may be
obtained by writing to the personnel manager of
the company. Addresses of individual companies

are available from the Air Transport Association
of America, 1000 Connecticut Ave. NW., Wash­
ington, D.C., 20036.
Inquiries regarding jobs with the Federal Avia­
tion Agency should be addressed to the Personnel
Officer, Federal Aviation Agency, at any of the
following addresses:
Eastern Region______ Federal Building, John F.
Kennedy International Air­
port, Jamaica, Long Island,
N.Y. 11430
Southwest Region. ___ P.O. Box 1689, Fort Worth,
Tex. 76101.
Southern Region_____P.O. Box 20636, Atlanta, Ga.
Central Region______ 4825 Troost Ave., Kansas
City, Mo. 64110.
Western Region_____ 5641 West Manchester Ave.,
Box 90007, Airport Station,
Los Angeles, Calif. 90009.
Alaskan Region______ 632 Sixth Ave., Anchorage,
Alaska 99501.
Pacific Region_______ P.O. Box 4009, Honolulu,
Hawaii 96812.

Information concerning FAA-approved schools
offering training for work as an airplane mechanic,
pilot, or in other technical fields related to aviation
may be obtained from the Information Retrieval
Branch, Federal Aviation Agency Library, HQ630, Federal Aviation Agency, Washington, D.C.

Pilots and Copilots
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-41.10 and .12)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 196.168; .228, .268, and .283)

Nature of Work

The men who have the responsibility for flying
a multimillion dollar plane and transporting as
many as 125 passengers safely are the pilot and
copilot. The pilot (called “captain” by the air­
lines) operates the controls and performs other
tasks necessary for getting a plane into the air,
keeping it on course, and landing it safely. He
supervises a crew which usually includes—in
addition to the copilot—a flight engineer and
flight attendants. The copilot is second in com­
mand. He is present on airline flights to assist
the captain in air-to-ground communications,

monitoring flight and engine instruments, and
in operating the controls of the plane.
Both captain and copilot must do a great deal
of planning before their plane may take off.
Before each flight, they confer with the company
meteorologist about weather conditions and, in
cooperation with the airline dispatcher, they
prepare a flight plan along a route and at alti­
tudes which offer the best weather and wind
conditions so that a safe, fast, and smooth flight
will be possible. This flight plan must be approved
by Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) air traffic
control personnel. The copilot plots the course
to be flown and computes the flying time between



Flight crew operates jet airliner controls.

various points. Just prior to takeoff, both men
check the operation of each engine and the func­
tioning of the plane’s many instruments, controls,
and electronic and mechanical systems.
During the flight, the captain or copilot reports,
by radio, to ground control stations, regarding
their altitude, air speed, weather conditions and
other flight details. The captain also supervises
the navigation for the flight and keeps close watch
on the many instruments which indicate the

plane’s fuel load and the condition of the engines,
controls, electronic equipment, and landing gear.
The copilot assists in these duties.
Before landing, the captain or the copilot per­
form such duties as rechecking the operation of
the landing gear and requesting landing clearance
from air traffic control personnel. If visibility is
limited when a landing approach is being made,
the captain may have to rely primarily on instru­
ments, such as the altimeter, air speed indicator,

artificial horizon, and gyro compass. Both men
must complete a flight report and file trip records
in the airline office when the flight is ended.
Some pilots, employed by airlines as “check
pilots”, make at least two flights a year with each
captain to observe his proficiency and adherence
to FA A flight regulations and company policies.
Airlines employ some pilots to fly planes leased
to private corporations. Airlines also employ
pilots as instructors to train both new and experi­
enced pilots in the use of new equipment.
Although pilots employed in general aviation
usually fly planes smaller than those used by the
scheduled airlines, their preflight and flight duties
are similar to those of airline pilots. These pilots
seldom have the assistance of flight crews. In
addition to flying, they may perform minor main­
tenance and repair work on their planes. In some
cases, such as in business flying, they may mingle
with and act as host to their passengers. Pilots
who are self-employed, such as air-taxi operators,
in addition to flying and doing some maintenance
work, have duties similar to those of other small
Where Employed

The scheduled airlines employed nearly 15,000
pilots and copilots in late 1964. In addition, ap­
proximately 700 pilots were employed by the
certificated supplemental airlines (airlines that
provide charter and nonscheduled service).
An estimated 47,000 pilots and copilots (includ­
ing some who work part-time) were employed in
general aviation in late 1964. Several thousand
worked in business flying and in for-hire opera­
tions. About 4,500 pilots were employed as crop
dusters. The Federal Government employed ap­
proximately 900 pilots (over half in the FAA) to
perform a variety of services, such as examining
applicants for pilots’ licenses, inspecting naviga­
tion facilities along Federal airways, testing
planes that are newly designed or have major
modifications, enforcing game laws, fighting forest
fires, and patrolling national boundaries. In addi­
tion, several thousand pilots were employed by
companies to inspect pipelines and installations
for oil companies, and to provide other aerial
services such as private flight instruction, and
flights for sightseeing, sky writing, and aerial


photography. A small number worked for air­
craft manufacturers as test pilots.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

To do any type of commercial flying, pilots or
copilots must be licensed by the FAA. Airline
captains must have an “airline transport pilot’s”
license. Copilots, and most pilots employed in
general aviation, must have a “commercial air­
plane pilot’s” license. In addition, pilots who are
subject to FAA instrument flight regulations or
who anticipate flying on instruments when the
weather is bad, must have an “instrument rating.”
Pilots and copilots must also have a rating for the
class of plane they can fly (single-engine, multiengine, or seaplane) and for the specific type of
plane they can fly, such as DC-6 or Boeing 707.
To qualify for a license as a commercial pilot,
applicants must be at least 18 years old and have
at least 200 hours of flight experience. To obtain
an instrument rating, applicants must have at
least 40 hours of instrument time, 20 hours of
which must be in actual flight. Applicants for an
airline transport pilots’ license must be at least
23 years old and have a total of 1,200 hours of
flight time during the previous 8 years, including
night flying and instrument flying time.
Before a person may receive any license or
rating, he must pass a physical examination and
a written test given by the FAA covering such
subjects as principles of safe flight operations,
Civil Air Regulations, navigation principles,
radio operation, and meterology. He must also
submit proof that he has completed the minimum
flight-time requirements and, in a practical test,
demonstrate flying skill and technical competence.
His certification as a professional pilot remains
in effect as long as he can pass an annual physical
examination and the periodic tests of his flying
skills, required by Government regulation. An
airline transport pilot’s license expires when the
pilot reaches his 60th birthday.
A young man may obtain the knowledge, skills,
and flight experience necessary to become a pilot
through military service or from a private flying
school. Graduation from flying schools approved
by the FAA satisfies the flight experience require­
ments for licensing. Applicants who have appro­
priate military flight training and experience are
required to pass only the Civil Air Regulations



examination if they apply for a license within a
year after leaving the service. Those trained in
the armed services have the added opportunity to
gain experience and accumulate flying time on
large aircraft similar to those used by the airlines.
As a rule, applicants for a copilot job with the
airlines must be between 20 and 35 years old,
although preference is given to applicants who
are between ages 21 and 28. They must be 5 feet
7 inches to 6 feet 4 inches tall, and weigh between
140 and 210 pounds. All applicants must be high
school graduates; some airlines require 2 years of
college and prefer to hire college graduates.
Physical requirements for pilots, especially in
scheduled airline employment, are very high. They
must have normal (20/20) vision without the aid
of glasses, good hearing, outstanding physical
stamina, and no physical handicaps that would
prevent quick reactions. Since flying large air­
craft places great responsibilities upon a pilot, the
airlines use psychological tests to determine an
applicant’s alertness, emotional stability and
maturity, and his ability to assume responsibility,
command respect, and make quick decisions and
accurate judgments under pressure.
Men hired by the scheduled airlines (and by
some of the larger supplemental airlines) usually
start as copilots, although they may begin as flight
engineers. An applicant for a copilot’s job with
a scheduled airline often must have more than the
FA A minimum qualifications for commercial pilot
licensing. For example, although the FAA re­
quires only 200 flying hours to qualify for such a
license, the airlines generally require from 500 to
1,000 flying hours. Airlines also require a “re­
stricted” radio-telephone operator permit, issued
by the Federal Communications Commission,
which allows the holder to operate the plane’s
Pilots employed in business flying are required
to have a commercial pilot’s license. In addition,
some employers require their pilots to have instru­
ment ratings, and some require pilot applicants
to have air transport pilot ratings. Because of the
close relationship between pilots and their pas­
sengers, employers look for job applicants with
pleasant personalities.
All newly hired airline copilots go through
company orientation courses. In addition, some
airlines give beginning copilots or flight engi­

neers from 3 to 10 weeks of training on company
planes before assigning them to a scheduled flight.
Trainees also receive classroom instruction in
subjects such as flight theory, radio operation,
meteorology, Civil Air Kegulations, and airline
The beginning copilot is generally permitted
only limited responsibility, such as operating the
flight controls in good weather over a route that
is easy to navigate. As he gains experience and
skill, his responsibilities are gradually increased
and he is promoted to copilot on larger, more
modern aircraft. When he has proved his skill,
accumulated sufficient experience and seniority,
and passed the test for an airline transport pilot’s
license, a copilot may advance to captain as open­
ings arise. A minimum of 2 or 3 years’ service is
required for promotion but, in actual practice,
advancement often takes at least 5 to 10 years or
longer. The new captain works first on his air­
line’s older equipment and, as openings arise, he
is advanced to larger, more modern aircraft.
A few opportunities exist for captains with
administrative ability to advance to chief pilot,
flight operations manager, and other supervisory
and executive jobs. Most airline captains, how­
ever, spend their entire careers flying. As they
increase their seniority, they obtain a better selec­
tion of flight routes, types of aircraft, and sched­
ules which offer higher earnings. Some pilots may
go into business for themselves if they have ade­
quate financial resources and business ability.
They may operate their own flying schools or airtaxi and other aerial services. Pilots may also
shift to administrative and inspection jobs in air­
craft manufacturing and Government aviation
agencies, or become dispatchers for an airline
when they are no longer able to fly.
Employment Outlook

Little change in the employment of airline
pilots is expected in the next 10 years. Over the
1965-75 decade, however, several thousand job
openings for qualified applicants will result from
the need to replace pilots who transfer to other
fields of work, retire, or die. The number of pilots
will be affected by the larger, faster, and more effi­
cient jet planes being used which enable a pilot to
fly many more passenger and cargo miles than he
can in piston aircraft. Thus, although the number



of passenger and cargo miles is expected to con­
tinue to grow in the next decade, employment of
pilots will remain about the same. The increasing
use of jet aircraft in the immediate future and the
expected introduction of supersonic transport
planes in the early 1970’s, will result in little or
no change in employment of airline pilots in the
longer run.
Employment of pilots outside of the scheduled
airlines is expected to continue to grow rapidly,
particularly in business flying, crop dusting, airtaxi operations, and patrol and survey flying.
Growth in these areas will stem from expansion
in the use of aircraft to perform these general
aviation activities.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Captains and copilots are among the highest
paid wage earners in the Nation. Those employed
by the scheduled airlines averaged about $18,800
a year in domestic air transportation and nearly
$22,000 in international operations, in late 1964.
Most of the senior captains on large aircraft
earned well over $25,000 a year; those assigned to
jet aircraft may earn more than $35,000. Pilots
employed by the scheduled airlines generally earn
more than those employed elsewhere, although
pilots who work for supplemental airlines may
earn almost as much. Some experienced copilots
were earning as much as $20,000 a year in domestic
flying and more than $22,000 in international
flying in late 1964.
The earnings of captains and copilots depend
on factors such as the type, size, and speed of the
planes they fly, the number of hours and miles
flown, and their length of service. They receive
additional pay for night and international flights.
Captains and airline copilots with at least 3 years

of service are guaranteed minimum monthly earn­
ings which represent a substantial proportion of
their earnings.
Under the Federal Aviation Act, airline pilots
cannot fly more than 85 hours a month; some
union-management contracts, however, provide
for 75-hour a month maximums. Though pilots
and copilots, in practice, fly approximately 60
hours a month, their total duty hours, including
before- and after-flight activities and layovers
before return flights, usually exceed 100 hours
each month.
Some pilots prefer the shorter distance flying
usually associated with the local airlines and com­
mercial flying activities such as air-taxi opera­
tions, because they are likely to spend less time
away from their home bases and fly mostly dur­
ing the daytime. These pilots, however, have the
added strain of making more takeoffs and land­
ings daily.
Although flying does not involve much physical
effort, the pilot is often subject to stress because
of his great responsibility. He must be constantly
alert and prepared to make decisions quickly. Poor
weather conditions can also make his work more
Most airline pilots are members of the Inter­
national Airline Pilots Association. Some are
members of the Allied Pilots Association.
Where To G o for More Information
International Air Line Pilots Association,
55th St. and Cicero Ave., Chicago, 111. 60600.

See the introductory section for additional
sources of information and for general informa­
tion on supplementary benefits and working

Flight Engineers
(2d ed. D.O.T. 5-80.100)
(3d ed D.O.T. 621.281)

Nature of Work and Where Employed

The flight engineer monitors the operation of
the different mechanical and electrical devices
aboard the airplane. Before takeoffs, he may
inspect the tires and other outside parts of the
plane and make sure that the plane’s fuel tanks

have been properly filled. In the plane, he assists
the pilot and copilot in making preflight checks
of instruments and equipment. Once the plane is
in the air, the flight engineer watches and oper­
ates many instruments and devices to check the
performance of the engines and the air-condi­



tioning, pressurizing, and electrical systems. In
addition, he keeps records of engine performance
and fuel consumption. He reports any mechani­
cal difficulties to the pilot and, if possible, makes
emergency repairs. Upon landing, he makes
certain that mechanical troubles that may have
developed are repaired by a mechanic. Flight
engineers employed by the smaller airlines may
have to make minor repairs themselves at those
few airports where mechanics are not stationed.
Flight engineers are employed on all commer­
cial planes that have a maximum takeoff weight of
more than 80,000 pounds, which includes almost
all three- and four- engine planes and some twoengine jet planes. In late 1964, about 4,500
workers were employed to perform flight engi­
neers’ duties. Most of them worked for the major
scheduled airlines and were stationed in or near
large cities where long-distance flights originate
and terminate.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

All flight engineers must be licensed by the
Federal Aviation Agency (FAA). A man can
qualify for a flight engineer’s certificate if he
has had 2 years of training or 3 years of work
experience in the maintenance, repair, and over­
haul of aircraft and engines, including a mini­
mum of 6 months’ training or a year of experi­
ence on four-engine piston and jet planes. He
may also qualify with at least 200 hours of flight
time as a captain of a four-engine piston or jet
plane, or with 100 hours of experience as a flight
engineer in the Armed Forces. The third, and
most common, method of qualifying is to complete
a course of ground and flight instruction approved
by the FAA.
In addition to such experience or training, an
applicant for a license must pass a written test
on flight theory, engine and aircraft performance,
fuel requirements, weather as it affects engine
operation, and maintenance procedures. In a
practical flight test on a four-engine plane, he
must demonstrate his skill in performing preflight
duties and normal and emergency in-flight duties
and procedures. He must also pass a rigid physical
examination every year. Most scheduled airlines
now require applicants for flight engineer posi­
tions to have a commercial pilot’s license. This

qualification is not generally required by the nonscheduled airlines.
Young men can acquire the knowledge and
skills necessary to qualify as airline flight engi­
neers through military training as airplane
pilots, mechanics, or flight engineers. They may
also attend a civilian ground school and then
gain experience as an airplane mechanic.
For jobs as flight engineers, airlines generally
prefer men 21 to 35 years of age, from 5 feet 7
inches to 6 feet 4 inches tall, and in excellent
physical condition. They require a high school
education but prefer men with 2 or more years of
college. Airlines prefer to hire young men who
already have a flight engineer certificate and a
commercial pilot’s license, although they do select
applicants who have only a commercial pilot’s
license and give them additional training.
A flight engineer can become a chief flight
engineer for his airline. Advancement possibilities
for a flight engineer usually depend on his qualifi­
cations and the seniority provisions established by
airline union-management agreements. The flight
engineer with pilot qualifications may advance on
the basis of his seniority to copilot, and then
follow the regular line of advancement open to
other copilots. Flight engineers without pilot
qualifications can advance from less desirable to
more desirable routes and schedules as they gain
Employment Outlook

Employment of flight engineers is expected to
increase slightly during the 1965-75 decade as
some piston-engine planes, not now requiring flight
engineers, are replaced by heavier, jet-powered
aircraft. (This projection assumes that the sched­
uled airline flight crew on airplanes weighing more
than 80,000 pounds will be made up of three men.
In most cases the third crew member will be a
qualified pilot serving as a flight engineer until his
promotion to copilot.) However, increasing use
will be made of faster, more efficient jet planes
which allow a flight engineer to fly more pas­
senger and cargo miles in the course of a working
month than he could in a piston-engine plane.
The expected introduction of supersonic transport
planes by the early 1970's may also restrict employ­
ment growth.



Earnings and Working Conditions

The earnings of flight engineers in late 1964
ranged from $550 to $600 a month for new em­
ployees to $1,730 for experienced flight engineers
on jet aircraft on international flights. Many
flight engineers earned between $1,000 and $1,500
a month. Average monthly earnings for all flight
engineers in domestic operations was nearly
$1,200; those employed on international flights
averaged nearly $1,350. The earnings of flight
engineers depend upon factors such as size, speed,
and type of the plane; hours and miles flown;
length of service; and the type of flight (such as
night or international). Engineers are guaran­
teed minimum monthly earnings, which repre­
sent a substantial proportion of their earnings.
Their flight time is restricted, under the Federal
Aviation Act, to 85 hours a month. Flight engi­

neers in international operations are limited
flying to 100 hours a month, 300 hours every 90
days, or 350 hours every 90 days, depending on
the size of the flight crew.
Many flight engineers belong to the Flight En­
gineers’ International Association. Some are rep­
resented by the Air Line Pilots Association and
some by the International Association of Ma­
chinists and Aerospace Workers.
Where To G o for More Information
Flight Engineers’ International Association,
100 Indiana Ave. NW., Washington, D.C. 20001.

See the introductory section for additional
sources of information and for general informa­
tion on supplementary benefits and working

(2d ed. D.O.T. 2-25.37)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 352.878)

Nature of Work and Where Employed

Stewardesses or stewards (sometimes called
flight attendants) are aboard almost all passen­
ger planes operated by the commercial airlines.
Their job is to make the passengers’ flight safe,
comfortable, and enjoyable. Like other flight
personnel, they are responsible to the captain.
Before each flight, the stewardess attends the
briefing of the flight crew. She sees that the
passenger cabin is in order, that supplies and
emergency passenger gear are aboard, and that
necessary food and beverages are in the galley.
As the passengers come aboard, she greets them,
checks their tickets, and assists them with their
coats and small luggage. On some flights, she
may sell tickets.
During the flight, the stewardess makes cer­
tain that seat belts are fastened and gives safety
instructions when required. She answers, ques­
tions about the flight and weather, distributes
reading matter and pillows, helps care for small
children and babies, and keeps the cabin neat. On
some flights, she heats and serves meals that have
been previously cooked. On other flights she may
prepare, sell, and serve cocktails. After the flight,
she completes flight reports. On international
flights, she also gives customs information,

instructs passengers on the use of emergency
equipment, and repeats instructions in an appro­
priate foreign language to accommodate foreign
About 13,000 stewardesses and 1,000 stewards
worked for the scheduled airlines in late 1964.
About 80 percent were employed by the domestic
airlines, and the rest worked for international
lines. Nearly all stewards were employed on
overseas flights. Airliners generally carry one
to six flight attendants, depending on the size of
the plane and what proportion of the flight is
economy or first-class. Most flight attendants are
stationed in major cities at the airlines’ main
bases. A few who serve on international flights
are based in foreign countries.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Because stewardesses are in constant associa­
tion with passengers, the airlines place great
stress on hiring young women who are attractive,
poised, tactful, and resourceful. As a rule, appli­
cants must be 20 to 27 years old, 5 feet 2 inches
to 5 feet 9 inches tall, with weight in proportion
to height (but not to exceed 140 pounds), and
in excellent health. They must also have a pleas­
ant speaking voice and good vision. Most major



airlines require that stewardesses be unmarried
and require them to resign when they marry or
shortly afterwards. Stewardesses who can no
longer qualify for flying, such as those who
marry, may obtain jobs in other departments,
such as sales or public relations.
Applicants for stewardess’ jobs must have at
least a high school education. Those with 2 years
of college, nurses’ training, or business experi­
ence in dealing with the public are preferred.
Stewardesses who work for international airlines
generally must be able to speak an appropriate
foreign language fluently.
Most large airlines give newly hired stew­
ardesses about 5 weeks’ training in their own
schools. Girls may receive free transportation
to the training centers and also may receive an
allowance while in attendance. Training includes
classes in flight regulations and duties, company
operations and schedules, emergency procedures

and first aid, and personal grooming. Addi­
tional courses in passport and customs regula­
tions are given trainees for the international
routes. Toward the end of their training, stu­
dents go on practice flights and perform their
duties under actual flight conditions.
A few airlines which do not operate their
own schools may employ graduates who have
paid for their own training at private steward­
esses’ schools. Girls interested in becoming stew­
ardesses should check with the airline of their
choice before entering a private school to be
sure they have the necessary qualifications for
the airline and that the school’s training is
Immediately upon completing their training,
stewardesses report for work at one of their air­
line’s main bases. They serve on probation for
about 6 months, and an experienced stewardess
usually works with them on their first flights.
Before they are assigned to a regular flight, they
may work as reserve flight attendants, during
which time they serve on extra flights or replace
stewardesses who are sick or on vacation.
Stewardesses may advance to jobs as first
stewardess or purser, supervising stewardess,
stewardess instructor, or recruiting representa­
tive. Advancement opportunities often come
quickly because stewardesses work only about
2 or 3 years, on the average, and then resign to
get married.
Employment Outlook

Serving meals is one of the many flight duties of a stewardess.

Young women will have several thousand op­
portunities to get jobs as stewardesses each
year in the immediate future and in the longer
run. Most of these openings will occur as girls
marry or leave the occupation for other reasons.
(About 40 percent of the employed stewardesses
leave their jobs each year.) In addition, total
employment of stewardesses will grow rapidly
as a result of the anticipated large increase in
passenger traffic.
Young women interested in becoming steward­
esses should realize that thousands of girls apply
for this type of work each year, because of the
glamour attached to the occupation. Despite the
large number of applicants, the airlines find it
difficult to obtain enough young women who can



meet their high standards of attractiveness, per­
sonality, and intelligence.
Earnings and Working Conditions

An examination of union-management con­
tracts covering several large domestic and inter­
national airlines indicates that in 1965 beginning
stewardesses earned approximately $410 to $445
a month for 85 hours of flying time. Steward­
esses with 2 years’ experience earned approxi­
mately $475 to $490 a month. Those assigned to
piston flights usually earned approximately $30
a month less.
Stewardesses employed on domestic flights
averaged $425 a month in late 1964; those work­
ing on international flights averaged about $525.
Since commercial airlines operate around the
clock, 365 days a year, stewardesses usually work
irregular hours. They may work at night, on
holidays, and on weekends. They are usually
limited to 85 hours of flight time a month. In
addition, they devote up to 35 hours a month
to ground duties. As a result of irregular hours

and limitations on the amount of flying time,
some stewardesses may have 15 or more days off
each month. Of course, some time off may occur
between flights while away from home.
Airlines generally use the seniority bidding
system for assigning home bases, flight schedules,
and routes. Stewardesses with the longest serv­
ice, therefore, get the more desirable flights.
The stewardess’ occupation is exciting and
glamorous, with opportunities to meet interesting
passengers and to see new places. However, the
work can be strenuous and trying. A stewardess
may be on her feet during a large part of the
flight. She must remain pleasant and efficient
during the entire flight, regardless of how tired
she may be.
Most flight attendants are members of either
the Air Line Stewards and Stewardesses Associa­
tion of the Transport Workers Union of America,
or the Stewards and Stewardesses Division of the
International Air Line Pilots Association.
See introductory section for general informa­
tion on supplementary benefits and working

Airplane Mechanics
(2d ed. D.O.T. 5-80.100, .120 and .130)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 621.281)

Nature of Work

Airplane mechanics have the important job
of keeping airplanes operating safely and effi­
ciently. Mechanics employed by the airlines
work either at the larger airline terminals mak­
ing emergency repairs on aircraft (line-mainte­
nance work) or at an airline main overhaul base
where they make major repairs or perform the
periodic inspections that are necessary on all
aircraft. These mechanics may specialize in work
on a particular part of the airplane such as pro­
pellers, landing gear, hydraulic equipment, air­
borne electronic communications and control
equipment, instruments, or on sheet metal sections.
They frequently take apart a complex airplane
component, replace damaged or worn parts, put
the component together, and test it to make sure
that it is operating perfectly.
A line-maintenance mechanic may be instructed
by the flight engineer or lead mechanic as to the

kinds of repairs to make, or he may examine the
aircraft thoroughly to discover the cause of mal­
function. He then makes the necessary repairs
or adjustments, or he may install a new part; for
instance, he may replace an entire engine when it
cannot be repaired quickly. Line-maintenance
mechanics must be all-round mechanics able to
make repairs on all parts of the plane. They
may also have to do maintenance work such as
changing spark plugs or adding fluid to a hy­
draulic system.
Airplane mechanics employed in general avi­
ation usually do maintenance and repair work
comparable with the work performed by linemaintenance mechanics. However, the planes
which these mechanics service are smaller and
less complex than those flown by the airlines.
One mechanic frequently does the entire serv­
icing job with little supervision, and he works on
many different types of planes and engines.
Mechanics who work for employers such as cer-


Line mechanics check landing gear on a jet aircraft.

tificated supplemental airlines, air-taxi operators,
and independent repair shops may also do over­
haul work. Independent repair shops usually
specialize in engine, instrument, or airframe over­
haul. (The airframe consists of the plane’s
fuselage, wings, landing gear, flight controls, and
other parts which are not part of the engine,
propeller, or instruments.)
Airplane mechanics use many different kinds of
tools in their work. These may range from sim­
ple handtools, such as screwdrivers, wrenches
and pliers, to large and expensive machines and
equipment designed to diagnose troubles and
help the mechanic correct them. Examples of
such equipment are propeller grinding machines,
electrical circuit testers, and magnetic and black
light inspection equipment designed to detect
flaws and cracks in metal parts.
Where Employed

Nearly 35,000 mechanics were employed by the
scheduled airlines in late 1964. An estimated
28,000 mechanics and supervisory mechanics were
employed by independent repair shops. A few
thousand mechanics also were employed by cer­
tificated supplemental airlines, crop-dusting and
air-taxi firms, and businesses that use their own
planes to transport their key employees, or cargo.

Many other airplane mechanics work in aircraft
manufacturing plants. (These workers, whose
duties are somewhat different from those of air­
line mechanics, are discussed in the chapter on
Occupations in the Aircraft, Missile, and Space­
craft Field.)
About 15,000 civilian airplane mechanics were
employed by the Air Force in late 1964. Another
11,500 worked for the Navy. The FAA employs
several hundred skilled men with maintenance
experience to inspect aircraft manufacturing
plants; examine airline and other commercial
flying organizations’ aircraft maintenance meth­
ods, training programs, and spare parts stock;
and test applicants for FAA mechanic licenses.
This agency also employs approximately 475 air­
plane mechanics to maintain its own planes. Most
of these men are employed at the FAA Aero­
nautical Center in Oklahoma City. Some mechan­
ics are employed by other Government agencies,
principally the National Aeronautics and Space
Most airline mechanics are employed in the
larger cities on the main airline routes. Each
airline usually has one main overhaul base where
more than half of its mechanics are employed.
Large concentrations of mechanics are employed
in cities such as New York, Chicago, Los Angeles,
San Francisco, and Miami, all of which are
important domestic and international air traffic
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Mechanics responsible for any repair or main­
tenance operation must be licensed by the FAA
as either an “airframe mechanic” (to work on
the plane’s fuselage, covering surface, landing
gear, and control surfaces such as rudder or
ailerons) ; “power-plant mechanic” (to work on
the plane’s engines), “airframe and powerplant
mechanic” (to work on all parts of the plane),
or as a “repairman” who is authorized to make
only specified repairs. Mechanics who maintain
and repair electronic communications equipment
are required to have at least a Federal Communi­
cations Commission Second Class Radio Tele­
phone Operator License.
At least 18 months’ experience working with
airframes or engines is required to obtain an air­
frame or powerplant license and at least 30

months’ experience working with both engines
and airframes is required for the combined air­
frame and powerplant license. However, this
experience is not required of graduates of
mechanics’ schools approved by the FAA. In
addition to meeting these requirements, appli­
cants must pass a written test and give a practi­
cal demonstration of their ability to do the work.
Repairmen licenses are issued to mechanics who
are able to perform those maintenance and repair
operations for which their employers have
received FAA authorization.
Mechanics may prepare for the trade and their
licenses by working as trainees or apprentices,
or as helpers to experienced mechanics. The larger
airlines train apprentices or trainees in a care­
fully planned 3- or 4-year program of instruction
and work experience. Men who have learned air­
craft maintenance in the Armed Forces are usu­
ally given credit for this training towards the
requirements of apprenticeship or other on-thejob training programs.
For trainee or apprentice jobs, the airlines
prefer men between the ages of 20 and 30 who are
in good physical condition. Applicants should
have a high school or trade school education,
including courses in mathematics, physics, chem­
istry, and machine shop. Experience in auto­
motive repairs or other mechanical work is also
Other mechanics prepare for their trade by
graduating from an FAA approved mechanics
school. Most of these schools have an 18- to 24month program. Several colleges and univer­
sities also offer 2-year programs that prepare the
student for the FAA mechanic examinations and
for jobs as engineering aids and research and
development technicians in aircraft manufac­
Mechanics are generally required to have their
own handtools which they must pay for them­
selves. They usually acquire their tools gradually.
Several advancement possibilities are avail­
able to skilled mechanics employed by the sched­
uled airlines. The line of advancement is usually
mechanic, lead mechanic (or crew chief), inspec­
tor, lead inspector, shop foreman, and, in a few
cases, supervisory and executive positions. In
most shops, mechanics in the higher grade posi­
tions are required to have both airframe and


powerplant ratings. In many cases, the mechanic
must pass a company examination before he is
To qualify for jobs as FAA inspectors,
mechanics must have broad experience in main­
tenance and overhaul work, including supervision
over the maintenance of aircraft. Applicants for
this job must also have both airframe and powerplant ratings or a combined rating.
Employment Outlook

The number of airplane mechanics employed by
the scheduled airlines is not expected to change
much during the 1965-75 decade. However, a few
hundred job openings will result annually from
the need to replace mechanics who transfer to other
fields of work, retire, or die. The number of air­
plane mechanics depends primarily on the size
of the airline fleet. During recent years, a large
number of piston-engine planes have been re­
placed by faster, higher capacity jet planes.
Because this trend is expected to continue, the
size of the scheduled airline fleet will remain
about the same in the decade ahead.
The rapid growth anticipated in the amount
of general aviation flying will lead to an increase
in the number of planes. Therefore, an increase
is expected in the number of mechanics employed
in firms providing general aviation services and
the independent repair shops that repair many
of these aircraft.
Employment opportunities for airplane me­
chanics in the Federal Government will depend
largely on the size of the Government military
aircraft program.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Mechanics employed by the scheduled domes­
tic and international airlines earned, on the aver­
age, $650 a month in late 1964. Other airplane
mechanics generally had lower average earnings.
Airline mechanics work in hangars or in other
indoor areas, whenever possible. However, when
repairs must be made quickly, which is sometimes
the case in line-maintenance work, mechanics may
work outdoors.
Mechanics employed by most major airlines
are covered by union agreements. Most of these



employees are members of the International
Association of Machinists and Aerospace
Workers. Many others belong to the Transport
Workers Union of America.

See introductory section for sources of addi­
tional information and for general information
on supplementary benefits and working condi­

Airline Dispatchers
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-61.61)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 912.168)

Nature of Work and Where Employed

Dispatchers (sometimes called flight superin­
tendents) are employed by the airlines to coordi­
nate flight schedules and operations within an
assigned area and to make sure that all Federal
Aviation Agency (FAA) and company flight and
safety regulations are observed. After examining
weather conditions, the dispatcher makes a pre­
liminary decision as to whether a flight may be
safely undertaken. He frequently must arrange
to notify the passengers and crew if there is any
change from the scheduled departure time. The
dispatcher confers with the captain about the
quantity of fuel needed, the best route and alti­
tude at which the plane will fly, the total flying
time, and the alternate fields that may be used
if landing at the scheduled airport is hazardous.
The dispatcher and the captain must agree on
all details of the flight before the plane leaves
the airport. In some instances, the dispatcher is
also responsible for keeping records and checking
such matters as the availability of aircraft and
equipment; the weight and balance of loaded
cargo; the amount of time flown by each plane;
and the number of hours flown by each crew
member based at his station.
After the flight has begun, the dispatcher plots
the plane’s progress as reported at regular inter­
vals by the captain by radio, and keeps the cap­
tain informed of changing weather and other
conditions that affect his flight.
The assistant dispatcher helps the dispatcher
plot the progress of flights, secure weather infor­
mation, and handle communications with aircraft.
In late 1964, only about 950 dispatchers and
assistants were employed in scheduled domestic
and international operations, primarily at large
airports in the United States. An even smaller
number worked for large certificated supple­
mental airlines and for private firms which offer
dispatching services to small airlines.

Airline dispatcher assists pilot in preflight planning.

Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Dispatchers are required to have an FAA
dispatcher certificate. An applicant for such a
certificate may qualify if he has spent at least
a year engaged in dispatching work under the
supervision of a certificated dispatcher. He
may also qualify by completing an FAAapproved dispatcher’s course at a school or an
airline training center. If an applicant has none
of this schooling or experience, he may also qual­
ify if he has spent 2 of the previous 3 years in
air traffic control work, or in such airline jobs as
dispatch clerk, assistant dispatcher, or radio
operator, or in similar work in military service.
An applicant for an FAA dispatcher certifi­
cate must pass a written examination on subjects
such as Civil Air Eegulations, weather analysis,



air-navigation facilities, radio procedures, and
airport and airway traffic procedures. In an oral
test, he also has to demonstrate his ability to
interpret weather information, his knowledge of
landing and cruising speeds and other aircraft
operational characteristics, and his familiarity
with airline routes and navigational facilities.
A licensed dispatcher is checked periodically by
his employer to make sure that he is maintaining
the skills required by Federal regulations. All
qualified dispatchers are given additional instruc­
tion by their airlines at special training centers
so that they may become familiar with new flight
procedures and with characteristics of new air­
craft. Each year he is also required to “fly the
line” as an observer over the portion of the sys­
tem which he services, in order to maintain his
first-hand familiarity with airline routes and
flight operations.
For assistant dispatcher jobs, which may not
require certification, airlines prefer men who
have at least 2 years of college or an equivalent
amount of time working in some phase of air
transportation, such a communications. Prefer­
ence is given to college graduates who have had
courses in mathematics, physics, and related
subjects. Some experience in flying, meteorology,
or business administration is also helpful.
Most airlines fill assistant dispatcher positions
by promotion or transfer from within the com­
pany. Men are preferred who have had long
experience in ground flight operations work. As
a result, most openings are filled by men who
have been dispatch clerks, meteorologists, or radio
operators; a few jobs are filled by men who have
been pilots.

1965-75 decade. Most new workers in this occupa­
tion will be hired as assistant dispatchers or dis­
patch clerks. Job openings for dispatchers will be
filled mainly by promoting or transferring ex­
perienced persons already employed by the air­
The need for some additional dispatchers will
result from the increase in air traffic, the addi­
tion and extension of routes, and the extra diffi­
culties in dispatching jet aircraft. However, these
factors will be largely offset by improved radio
and telephone communication facilities, which
allow dispatchers at major terminals to dispatch
aircraft at other airports and over large geo­
graphic areas. Foreign-flag airlines, which fly
between overseas points and cities in the United
States, will also provide a few job opportunities
for dispatchers.

Employment Outlook

See introductory section for additional sources
of information and for general information on
supplementary benefits and working conditions.

The number of workers in this very small occu­
pation is not expected to change much during the

Earnings and Working Conditions

Beginning dispatchers earned between $600 and
$700 a month in late 1964. Dispatchers with 10
years’ service earned between $900 and $1,200 a
month. Assistant dispatchers earned $475 and
over a month to start and up to $680 a month after
3 years. Assistant dispatchers with FAA certifi­
cates may earn $25 a month extra. Most dis­
patchers are members of the Air Line Dispatchers
Where To G o for More Information
Air Line Dispatchers Association,
243 West Maple Ave., Vienna, Va. 22180.

A ir Traffic Controllers
(3d ed. D.O.T. 193.168)

Nature of Work

Air traffic controllers are the guardians of the
airways. These employees of the Federal Avia­
tion Agency (FAA) give instructions, advice,
and information to pilots by radio in order to
avoid collisions and minimize delays as planes

fly between airports or in the vicinity of airports.
When directing aircraft, traffic controllers must
consider many factors including weather, geo­
graphy, the amount of traffic, and the size, speed,
and other operating characteristics of aircraft.
The men who control traffic in the areas around


airports are known as airport traffic controllers
(D.O.T. 193.168) ; those who guide planes be­
tween airports are called air-route traffic con­
Airport traffic controllers are stationed at
airport control towers to give all pilots within
the vicinity of the airport weather information,
and take off and landing instructions, such as
which approach and airfield runway to use and
when to change altitude. They must simul­
taneously control several aircraft which appear
as tiny bars on a radar scope. They talk on the
radio first to one and then another of the pilots
of these planes, remembering their numbers and
their positions in the air, and give each of them
different instructions. These workers also keep
records of all messages received from aircraft,
and operate runway lights and other airfield
electronic equipment. They may also send and
receive information to and from air-route traffic
control centers about flights made over the
Air-route traffic controllers are stationed at
air traffic control centers to coordinate the move­
ments of planes which are being flown “on instru­
ments.” They use the written flight plans which
are filed by pilots and dispatchers before planes
leave the airport. To make sure that planes
remain on course, they check the progress of
flights, using radar and other electronic equip­
ment and information received from the aircraft,
other control centers and towers, and from FAA
or airline communication stations.
Where Employed

About 12,500 air traffic controllers were
employed by the FAA in late 1964. Of these,
nearly half were airport traffic controllers,
employed at airport control towers located at
key airfields. A few of these jobs are located
at towers and centers outside the United States.
About 6,400 air-route traffic controllers worked in
the 29 control centers scattered throughout the
United States.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Applicants for positions as air-route or airport
traffic controller must be at least 21 years of age
and able to speak clearly and precisely. They


C o u r te sy o f th e F e d e r a l A v ia tio n A g e n c y

A ir traffic controllers use radar and radio to guide aircraft.

enter the field through the competitive Federal
Civil Service system after passing a rigid physical
examination, which they must pass every year.
Applicants must have had from 21/2 to 3 years’
experience in one or a combination of several
fields, such as military air traffic control experi­
ence, piloting, flight communication, radar opera­
tions, or dispatching.
Successful applicants for airport traffic con­
troller jobs are given 8 weeks of formal training
at the FAA aeronautical center in Oklahoma
City, to learn the fundamentals of the airway
system, Civil Air Regulations, and radar and air­
craft performance characteristics. Newly hired
air-route traffic controllers are given a slightly
longer period of basic instruction at the center
where they will be working. After completing
this training, both groups of controllers qualify
for a basic air traffic control certificate. At an
FAA control tower or center, they receive addi­
tional classroom instruction and on-the-job train­
ing to become familiar with specific traffic prob­
lems. After about 6 months, they generally
qualify as assistant controllers and receive addi­
tional training. This training is designed to
simulate emergency situations to determine the
assistant controller’s emotional stability under
pressure, stress, and strain. Only after he has
demonstrated his ability to apply procedures, and
to use available equipment under pressure and
stress may he work as a controller. This usually


takes about a year from the time he becomes an
assistant controller.
Controllers can advance to the job of chief
controller. After this promotion, they may ad­
vance to more responsible management jobs in air
traffic control and to a few top administrative jobs
in the FAA.
Employment Outlook

Total employment of air traffic controllers is
expected to remain about the same over the 196575 decade. The number of airport traffic con­
trollers will grow moderately during this period
while the number of air-route traffic controllers
will decline slightly.
Additional airport traffic controllers will be
needed because of the anticipated growth in the
number of airport towers that will be built to
reduce the burden on existing facilities and to
handle increasing airline traffic. More airport
controllers will also be needed to provide services
to the growing number of pilots outside of the
airlines, such as those employed by companies to
fly executives.
A small number of additional air-route traffic
controllers will be needed during the next few
years to handle increases in air traffic. However,
with the expected introduction of an automatic
air traffic control system and a further decline
in the number of control centers, employment of
air-route traffic controllers is expected to decline
in the longer run.
A few hundred openings will occur each year
for both kinds of controller jobs because of the
need to replace those workers who leave for other
work, retire, or die.
Competition for jobs as air traffic controllers
will continue to be great. For example, FAA
estimates that there were approximately 3,500
qualified applicants for air-traffic controller jobs
in 1964. By contrast, in that same year, only

about 500 men began their careers as air traffic
Earnings and Working Conditions

The monthly salary for air traffic controllers
during their first 6 to 12 months of training
averaged about $460 in late 1964. After this
training period, they receive $550 monthly during
their first year as an assistant air traffic controller.
Air-route traffic controllers can earn up to $1,000
a month depending on the type of work they do.
Airport traffic controllers can earn from about
$650 to over $1,000 per month depending on the
amount of traffic handled at their facility and
how long they have been on the job. In addition,
all traffic controllers are eligible for periodic wage
increases. In areas that handle extremely large
volumes of air traffic, a chief controller may earn
$1,370 and over a month. These employees receive
the same annual, sick leave, and other benefits as
other Federal workers.
FAA controllers work a basic 40-hour week;
however, they may work overtime, for which they
receive equivalent time off or additional pay.
Because control towers and centers must be oper­
ated 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, controllers are
periodically assigned to night shifts on a rotating
basis. However, an additional 10 percent is paid
for work between 6 p.m. and 6 a.m.
Because of the congestion in air traffic, a con­
troller works under great stress. He is responsi­
ble for directing as many as 10 to 20 or more
aircraft at the same time. He must simultane­
ously check flights already under his control,
know the flight schedules of planes approaching
his area, and coordinate these patterns with other
controllers as each flight passes from his control
area to another.
See introductory section for sources of addi­
tional information and for general information
on supplementary benefits and working conditions.

Ground Radio Operators and Teletypists
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-61.33 and 1-37.33)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 193.282 and 203.588)

Nature of Work

Ground radio operators and teletypists trans­
mit highly important messages concerning
weather conditions and other flight information

between ground station personnel and flight per­
sonnel. Radio operators use a radio-telephone to
send and receive spoken messages; some opera­
tors may use a radio-telegraph to transmit writ­



ten messages. Radio operators occasionally may
make minor repairs on their equipment. Tele­
typists transmit only written messages between
ground personnel. They operate a teletype
machine which has a keyboard similar to that of
a typewriter.
Flight service station specialists employed by
the Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) do work
similar to that of airline ground radio operators
and teletypists. They use radio-telephones, radio­
telegraph, and teletype machines in their work.
In addition to providing pilots with weather and
navigational information before and during
flights, these workers relay messages from air
traffic control facilities to other ground station
personnel, and to pilots.
Where Employed

More than 8,000 ground radio operators and
teletypists were employed in air transportation in
late 1964. Flight service station specialists
employed by the FAA made up about half of
these employees. The scheduled airlines em­
ployed about 3,700 radio operators and tele­
typists. An additional 350 were employed by
a cooperative organization which offers the air­
lines, private pilots, and corporation aircraft its
services over a centralized communications sys­
tem. A few hundred were employed by the
Army and Navy in civilian communications
FAA flight service station specialists work at
stations scattered along the major airline routes;
some stations are located in remote places. Ground
radio operators and teletypists employed by the
airlines work mostly at airports in or near large
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Applicants for airline radio operator jobs
usually must have at least a third-class Federal
Communications Commission radio-telephone or
radio-telegraph operator’s permit. However, a
second-class operator’s permit is preferred. They
must also be high school graduates and have a
good speaking voice, the ability to type at least
40 words a minute, and a basic knowledge of the
language used in weather reports. Teletypists
must be able to type at least 40 words a minute
316 O— 65------42

and have had training or experience in operating
teletype equipment. Applicants for jobs as radio
operators and teletypists must also have a knowl­
edge of standard codes and symbols used in com­
To qualify for entry positions as FAA flight
service station specialists, applicants must be
at least 21 years old and have from 2l/£ to 3
years’ experience in some phase of air communi­
cations, traffic control, or flying. Permanent
appointments are made on the basis of Federal
civil service examinations.
The airlines usually employ women as tele­
typists, and an increasing number are being
hired as radio operators. Both airline radio
operators and teletypists and FAA flight service
station specialists serve probationary periods,
during which time they receive on-the-job train­
ing. Skill gained in communications is helpful
experience for transferring into such higher pay­
ing jobs as airline dispatcher or meteorologist.
Employment Outlook

Openings for entry positions as radio opera­
tors or teletypists will number about a hundred
each year during the 1965-75 decade. These
openings will occur as workers transfer to other
fields of work, retire, or die.
Overall employment of these workers may de­
cline somewhat because of the use of more auto­
matic communications equipment which allows
communications for longer distances.
The number of flight service station specialists
employed by the FAA is expected to remain
about the same in the years ahead. Need for
additional workers to perform more services for
pilots will be offset by improvements in equip­
ment and an increase in two-way radios that
permit communications between pilots and air
traffic controllers. The number of radio opera­
tors and teletypists employed by airlines probably
will decrease due to communications systems
becoming more automatic and centralized.
Earnings and Working Conditions

The beginning salary for airline radio opera­
tors who held the minimum third-class permit
generally was between $385 and $445 a month




in late 1964. Workers who held a second-class
license generally received $10 to $25 more a
month. The beginning salary for teletypists
ranged from $335 to $400 a month. Beginning
FAA flight service station specialists receive be­
tween $415 and $460 a month, depending on
education and experience; experienced communi­
cators earn from $600 to $785 a month.

Radio operators and teletypists in a number of
airlines are unionized. The major union in these
occupational fields is the Communications
Workers of America.
See introductory section for sources of addi­
tional information and for general information
on supplementary benefits and working condi­

Traffic Agents and Clerks
(2d ed. D.O.T. 1-44.12, .27, and .32)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 912.368,919.368)

Nature of Work

Selling flight tickets, reserving seats and cargo
space, and taking charge of the ground handling
of planes are some of the duties of traffic agents
and clerks. This group of workers includes ticket
or reservation agents and clerks, operations or
station agents, and traffic representatives.
Reservation sales agents and clerks give custo­
mers flight schedule and fare information over
the telephone. Reservation control agents record
reservations as they are made and report the
reservations by teletype machine to a central
computer or to clerks in other cities so that the
same space will not be sold twice. They also
receive teletype messages informing them of the
sale of space. On some of the larger airlines,
data processing systems receive, record, and
transmit flight space information to personnel
at airports and reservations offices throughout
the entire airline system at great speeds. Ticket
agents sell tickets and fill out ticket forms in­
cluding such information as the flight number
and the passenger’s* name and destination. They
also check and weigh baggage, answer inquiries
about flight schedules and fares, and keep records
of tickets sold. Traffic representatives contact
potential customers in order to promote greater
use of the airlines services.
Operations or station agents are responsible
for the ground handling of airplanes at their
stations. They supervise the loading and unload­
ing of the aircraft and sometimes do this work
themselves. They see that the weight carried by
the planes is distributed properly, compute gas
loads and the weight carried by the plane, pre­
pare a list of the cargo, and keep records of the
number of passengers carried. They may also




equipment to



make arrival and departure announcements and
prepare the weather forms that pilots use when
they plan their routes.
Where Employed

About 28,500 men and women were employed
as traffic agents and clerks by the scheduled air­
lines in late 1964. A few thousand others were



also employed by the supplemental airlines, and
by foreign-flag airlines that operate between the
United States and overseas points.
Traffic staffs are employed principally in down­
town offices and at airports in or near large cities
where most airline passenger and cargo business
originates. Some are employed in smaller com­
munities where airlines have scheduled stops.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Traffic agents and clerks must deal directly with
the public, either in person or by telephone. For
this reason, airlines have strict hiring standards
with respect to appearance, personality, and edu­
cation. A good speaking voice is essential because
these employees frequently use the telephone or
public address systems. High school graduation
generally is required, and college training is con­
sidered desirable. Experience with freight, pas­
senger, or express traffic in other branches of
transportation is also desirable.
College courses in transportation, such as
“traffic management” and “air transportation,” as
well as experience in other areas of air transpor­
tation, are helpful for a higher grade job, such
as traffic representative. Both men and women
are employed as reservation and ticket agents;
however, most operations agents are men.
Traffic agents may advance to positions as
traffic representative and supervisor. A few may
eventually move up to jobs as city and district
traffic and station manager. Some are able to
transfer to better paying jobs with travel
agencies or to the traffic departments of big
Employment Outlook

There will be many thousands of opportuni­
ties for new workers to get jobs as traffic agents
and clerks during the 1965-75 decade, mainly

because of high turnover as young women leave
their jobs to marry or rear children. Total em­
ployment in these jobs is expected to grow
Only a slight increase in traffic personnel will
be required to handle the large increase in pas­
senger and cargo traffic expected to occur in the
next 10 to 15 years because of the increased use
of electronic equipment to process information.
Most of the major airlines are installing new
machines to record and process reservations, keep
records, and perform a variety of other routine
tasks. The job of reservation clerk, in particu­
lar, will be affected by this mechanization. The
employment of ticket agents, however, whose
main job involves personal contacts, will not be
affected very much, although their paper work
will be reduced considerably. The small group
of traffic representatives probably will increase
substantially as the airlines compete for new
Earnings and Working Conditions

Wage data collected from union-management
contracts covering reservations and ticket agents
employed by several airlines indicate that their
beginning salaries ranged from $355 to $380 a
month in early 1965. Those workers with 5 to 8
years or more of experience earned between $430
and $475 a month. Station and operations agents
started at about $380 a month and progressed
to about $475 a month after several years.
Many reservation and transportation agents
belong to labor unions. Most of the organized
agents belong to the Transport Workers Union
of America or the Brotherhood of Kailway and
Steamship Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express
and Station Employes.
See introductory section for sources of addi­
tional information and for general information
on supplementary benefits and working condi­

Nearly every American home, business, and
community, however small, is vitally dependent
upon electricity. This most versatile of all forms
of energy is so basic to our lives that we take it
for granted. Without electricity, there would be
no modern communication systems, no highly
mechanized industries, and fewer of the appliances
that have become an indispensable part of every­
day life. Many types of workers are needed to
produce electricity, develop additional markets
for it, and distribute it to the consumer. These
workers include power plant operators, linemen,
electricians, engineers, research scientists, sales­
men, technicians, meter readers, and office workers.
Electric utilities offer interesting jobs and steady
employment for men and women in several thou­
sand communities throughout the country.
Nature and Location of the Industry

The electric power industry includes about 3,600
electric utility systems, which vary greatly in size
and type of ownership. Utilities range from large
interconnected systems serving broad regional
areas, to small power companies serving individ­
ual communities. Many utilities are investor
owned (private), or owned by cooperatives;
others are owned by cities, States, counties, and
public utility districts, as well as by the Federal
Government. Utility systems include power
plants, which make (generate) electric power;
substations, which increase or decrease the voltage
of this power; and vast networks of transmission
and distribution lines.
The delivery of electricity to the user at the
instant he needs it is the distinctive feature of
the operation of electric power systems. Elec­
tricity cannot be efficiently stored but must be
used at the same moment it is produced. Because
a customer can begin or increase his use of electric
power at any time, by merely flicking a switch, a
utility system must have sufficient capacity to

meet peak consumer needs at any time during the
day or night.
Some utilities generate, transmit, and distribute
only electricity; others distribute both electricity
and gas. This chapter is concerned with employ­
ment opportunities only in those jobs relating to
the production and distribution of electric power
in both types of companies.
In early 1965, private, cooperative, and govern­
ment utility systems combined employed over
430,000 workers. Privately owned utilities and
cooperatives employed about 370,000 workers in
connection with electric services. Federal, State,
and municipal government utilities employed the
remainder—over 60,000 workers. A few large
manufacturing industries, which produce electric
power for their own use, also employed some
electric power workers.
Three principal groups of consumers—indus­
trial, residential, and commercial—purchased
more than 90 percent of all electricity sold in
1965. Industrial customers such as chemical, steel,
aluminum, and automobile plants purchased al­
most half of all the electric power sold. Resi­
dential customers purchased nearly 30 percent,
and commercial customers such as stores, hotels,
and office buildings purchased almost 20 percent.
Electric utility service now reaches almost every
locality and, therefore, electric utility jobs are
found throughout the country. Hydroelectric
power projects have created some electric utility
jobs even in relatively isolated areas. Most utility
jobs, however, are in heavily populated urban
areas, especially where there are many industrial
users or where a large utility has its headquarters.
Producing and distributing large quantities of
electric energy involves many processes and activi­
ties. Chart 33 shows how electric energy is gen­
erated and how it travels from the generating
station to the users. The first step in providing
electric energy takes place in a generating station
or plant, where huge generators convert mechani-



of power to the customers. Another 20 percent
are in maintenance and repair work and in jobs
such as guard, watchman, arid janitor. Approxi­
mately 30 percent are employed in administra­
tive and clerical jobs, 10 percent in customer serv­
icing jobs, and 10 percent in scientific, engineering,
and other technical occupations.
In addition to the powerplant, transmission,
and customer service occupations (discussed in
detail later in this chapter), the electric power
industry employs large numbers of workers in
maintenance, engineering, scientific, administra­
tive, sales, and clerical occupations. The latter
occupations are discussed briefly below. Detailed
discussions of these and other occupations in the
electric power industry and in many other in­
dustries are given in the Handbook sections cover­
ing the individual occupations.
Maintenance and Other Occupations. A consider­
able number of workers are engaged in main­
taining and repairing the equipment used by
the electric utilities. The duties of these skilled
craftsmen are similar to those of maintenance
workers in other industries. Among the more
important skilled workers are electricians, instru­
ment repairmen, maintenance mechanics, machin­
ists, pipefitters, and boilermakers. Other workers
are employed as guards, watchmen, and janitors.
Engineering and Scientific Occupations. Many
interesting job opportunities are available for
engineers and technical workers in electric utili­
ties. Engineers plan generating plant additions,
interconnections of complex power systems, and
installations of new transmission and distribution
equipment. They supervise construction, develop
improved operating methods, and test the effi­
ciency of the many types of electrical equipment.
In planning modern power systems, engineers deal
with problems such as the selection of plant sites,
type of fuel, and type of plant. Engineers also
help industrial and commercial customers make
the best use of electric power for equipment and
lighting. They stimulate greater use of electricity
by demonstrating the advantages of electrical
equipment and suggesting places where electricity
can be more effectively used.
Administrative and Clerical Occupations. Be­
cause of the enormous amount of recordkeeping

Maintenance mechanics check armature windings of electric

necessary to run the business operations, electric
utilities employ a greater proportion of admini­
strative and clerical personnel than many other
industries. Nearly a third of the industry’s work
force is employed in clerical and administrative
jobs. Many of these workers are women. Large
numbers of stenographers, typists, bookkeepers,
office machine operators, file clerks, accounting
and auditing clerks, and cashiers are employed.
These workers keep records of the services rend­
ered by the company, make up bills for customers,
and prepare a variety of statements and statistical
reports. An increasing amount of this work in
the larger offices is now being performed by elec­
tronic data-processing equipment. This generally
results in more clerical work being done with the
same or fewer employees. The use of this new
equipment is also creating some new jobs such
as programer and console operator. Administra­
tive employees include specialized workers such
as accountants, personnel officers, purchasing
agents, lawyers, and salesmen.
Employment Outlook

Several thousand job opportunities for new
workers are expected to occur each year during






cal energy into electricity. Electricity is pro­
duced primarily in steam-powered generating
plants which use coal, gas, or oil for fuel. A few
new steam generating stations use nuclear energy
as fuel. A considerable amount of electricity is
also produced in hydroelectric generating stations
which use water power to operate turbines. Some
generators, primarily for use in standby service or
to provide electricity for special purposes, are
powered by internal combustion engines.
After electricity is generated, it passes through
a “switchyard” where the voltage is increased in
order that the electricity may travel long distances
without excessive loss of power. After leaving the
generating plant, electricity passes onto trans­
mission lines. These lines carry electricity from
the generating plant to substations where the volt­

age is decreased and passed on to the distribution
networks serving individual customers. Trans­
mission lines tie together the generating stations
of a single system and also the power facilities of
several systems. In this way, power can be inter­
changed among several utility systems to meet
varying demands.
Electric Utility Occupations

Workers are needed in many different occu­
pations to produce electric power and make it
available at the instant the user requires it. About
10 percent of the employees in this industry
work in occupations directly related to the gen­
eration of electricity. About 20 percent are in
jobs related to the transmission and distribution



the 1965-75 decade, primarily because of the
need to replace workers who retire, die, or leave
the industry for other work. However, many
of these employment opportunities will be in new
types of jobs because of the changing methods of
production and distribution of electricity. Total
employment in the electric power industry is
expected to remain relatively stable although the
production of electric power is expected to grow
Industrial customers are expected to use more
electricity because of the widening application of
electric power to industrial processes. Use of
electricity by residential customers is expected to
rise because of the rapid growth in population
and the number of households. In addition, resi­
dential customers are expected to increase their
use of electricity for heating and air-condition­
ing, and for an increasing number and variety of
appliances. The construction of new stores and
office buildings and the modernization of existing
structures will expand the use of electricity by
commercial customers.
However, the growing use of automatic con­
trols in this already highly mechanized industry
makes possible large increases in the production
of electric power with little or no increase in
total employment. For example, since operators
in generating stations are needed chiefly to check
gages and control instruments, improvements in
generating equipment have made possible great
increases in the industry’s capacity and produc­
tion with only small increases in the number of
operators. Continuing development of larger
and more highly mechanized equipment with
many automatic controls will result in a decline
in the number of these operators. The employ­
ment of substation operators will continue to
decline because of the installation of completely
automatic equipment in all but the largest sub­
stations. Employment decreases in these occupa­
tions may be offset by the expected growth in the
number of maintenance and repair craftsmen
needed to keep the industry’s increasing amount
of complex machinery in working condition.
The employment of workers in maintenance
and repair of transmission and distribution lines
is expected to remain relatively stable. Fewer
men per crew will be needed to work on electric
power lines because of the increasing use of

mechanized equipment for setting poles and for
stringing and maintaining lines. However, this
reduction in jobs per crew may be offset by the
larger number of crews needed to service the
expanding distribution systems required by the
growing number of electric power customers.
Because of the increasing use of electronic dataprocessing equipment for billing and recordkeep­
ing, only a small increase in office employment is
expected. However, the relatively high turnover
in office jobs will provide many additional open­
ings for new workers each year. Some increase
in employment is also expected in administrative
jobs; scientific, engineering, and other technical
jobs; and in such areas as sales and market de­
Earnings and Working Conditions

Earnings in the electric utility industry are
generally higher than in other public utility in­
dustries and in many manufacturing industries.
In early 1965, earnings of nonsupervisory em­
ployees of electric power utilities averaged $3.16
an hour or $130.19 a week.
Many nonsupervisory electric utility workers in
production, transmission, and distribution de­
partments are union members, The bargaining
representative for most of these workers is either
the International Brotherhood of Electrical
Workers or the Utility Workers Union of
America. Some utility workers are represented
by independent unions.
Because supplying electricity is a 24-hour, 7day-a-week activity, some employees must work
schedules which include evenings, nights, and
weekends. Most union contracts with electric
utilities provide a higher rate of pay for even­
ing and night work than the basic day rate. In
1965, workers on the second shift received from
7 to 17 cents an hour more than the basic day rate,
and those on the third shift, from 9 to 24 cents
an hour more.
Overtime work is often required, especially
during emergencies such as floods, hurricanes, or
storms. During an “emergency callout,” which is
a short-notice request to report to work during
nonscheduled hours, the worker is generally
guaranteed a minimum of 3 or 4 hours’ pay at
11/2 times his basic hourly rate, and travel time
to and from the job is counted as worktime.



In addition to these provisions which affect
the workers’ pay, other benefits are provided by
electric utilities. Annual vacations are granted to
workers according to length of service. Usually,
contracts or employee benefit programs provide
for a 1-week vacation for 6 months to 1 year of
service, 2 weeks for 1 to 10 years, 3 weeks for 10 to
20 years, and a number of contracts and pro­
grams provide for 4 weeks for 20 years or more.
The number of paid holidays ranges from 5 to 12
days a year, depending on locality. Nearly all
companies have benefit plans for their employees.
A typical program provides life, hospitalization,
and surgical insurance and paid sick leave. Re­
tirement pension plans supplement Federal social
security payments, and are generally paid for in
full on in part by the employer.
The number of injuries per million man-hours
worked is much lower in this industry than in
most manufacturing industries. Workers in some
occupations in this industry are more subject to
accidents than others. Accidents occur most fre­

quently among the line and cable splicing crews.
Because of the dangers of electrocution and other
hazards, electric utilities and unions have made
intensive efforts to enforce safe working practices.
Utility companies have set up safety rules for
employees to follow. Strict adherence to these
safety standards is required. As a result, the
industry’s accident rate has been declining in
recent years.
Where To G o for More Information

More information about jobs in the electric
power industry may be obtained from local elec­
tric utility companies, industry trade associations,
or from the local offices of unions which have elec­
tric utility workers among their membership. Ad­
ditional information may be obtained from :
International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers,
1200 15th St. NW„ Washington, D.C. 20005.
Utility Workers Union of America,
1725 K St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20006.

Powerplant Occupations
Nature of Work

Operators are key workers in a powerplant.
They watch, check, control, and keep records of
the operation of various kinds of equipment.
They must see that the equipment functions effi­
ciently and instantly detect any trouble that
arises. There are four basic classes of operators
—boiler, turbine, auxiliary equipment, and switch­
board operators. In many new steam plants, the
duties of these operators are combined, and opera­
tors and their assistants are known as steam op­
erators, powerplant operators, or central control
room operators. Of increasing importance in this
highly mechanized industry are the maintenance
men and repairmen, including electrical, instru­
ment, and mechanical repairmen. Other powerplant workers include helpers and cleaners, and
custodial staff, including janitors and watch­
men. Coal handlers are employed in steam gen­
erating plants that use coal for fuel. Hydroelec­
tric plants employ gate tenders who open and
close the headgates that control the flow of water
to the turbines. Supervision of powerplant op­

erations is handled by a chief engineer and by
his assistants, the watch engineers.
Boiler operators (D.O.T. 950.782) regulate
the fuel, air, and water supply in the boilers
and maintain proper steam pressure needed to
turn the turbines, on the basis of information
shown by gages, meters, and other instruments
mounted on panel boards. One man may operate
one or more boilers. Boiler operators, of course,
are employed only where steam, produced in
boilers, is used to generate electricity. None are
needed in hydroelectric plants, since these plants
use waterpower to generate electricity.
Turbine operators (D.O.T. 952.138) control
the operation of steam- or water-powered turbines
which drive the generators. (In small plants,
they may also operate auxiliary equipment or a
switchboard.) Modern steam turbines and gen­
erators operate at extremely high speeds, pres­
sures, and temperatures; therefore, close attention
must be given the pressure gages, thermometers,
and other instruments which show the operations
of the turbogenerator unit. Turbine operators


Control room operators regulate functioning of a modern power

record the information shown by these instru­
ments, and check the oil pressure at bearings, the
speed of the turbines, and the circulation and
amount of cooling water in the condensers which
change the steam back into water. They are also
responsible for starting and shutting down the
turbines and generators, as directed by the switch­
board operator in the control room. Other work­
ers, such as helpers and junior operators, assist
the turbine operators.

Auxiliary equipment operators (D.O.T. 952.782) check and record the reading of instruments
that indicate the operating condition of pumps,
fans, blowers, condensers, evaporators, water con­
ditioners, compressors, and coal pulverizers.
Since auxiliary equipment may go out of order
occasionally, the operators must be able to detect
trouble quickly, make accurate judgments, and
sometimes make repairs. Some small plants do
not employ auxiliary equipment operators; these
duties are performed by turbine operators.
Switchboard, operators (D.O.T. 952.782) con­
trol the flow of electric power in the generating
station from generators to outgoing powerlines.
They usually work in a control room which is
equipped with switchboards and instrument pan­
els. Switches control the movement of electricity
through the generating station circuits and onto
the transmission lines.
Instruments mounted on panelboards show the
power demands on the station at any instant, the
powerload on each line leaving the station, the
amount of current being produced by each gen­
erator, and the voltage. The operators use
switches to distribute the power demands among
the generators in the station, to combine the
current from two or more generators, and to
regulate the flow of the electricity onto various
powerlines to meet the demands of the users
served by each line. When power requirements
on the station change, they order generators
started or stopped and, at the proper time, con­
nect them to the power circuits in the station
or disconnect them. In doing this work, they fol­
low telephone orders from the load dispatcher
who directs the flow of current throughout the
Switchboard operators and their assistants also
check their instruments frequently to see that
electricity is moving through and out of the
pow’erplant properly and that correct voltage is
being maintained. Among their other duties, they
keep records of all switching operations and of
load conditions on generators, lines, and trans­
formers. They obtain this information by mak­
ing regular meter readings.
In most powerplants constructed within the last
5 or 6 years, the operation of boilers, turbines,
auxiliary equipment, and the switching required
for efficient balancing of generator output, has

been centralized in a single control room. Here,
central control room operators, or power plant
operators, by monitoring instrument panels and
manipulating switches, regulate all the power
generating equipment, which in older plants re­
quires specialists such as boiler and turbine opera­
tors. Control room operators have several as­
sistants whose duties include patrolling the plant
and checking the equipment. The central control
room operators report to the plant superintendent
or watch engineers when equipment is not operat­
ing properly.
Watch engineers (D.O.T. 950.131) are the
principal supervisory workers in a powerplant
They supervise the employees responsible for the
operation and maintenance of boilers, turbines,
generators, auxiliary equipment, switchboards,
transformers, and other machinery and equip­
ment. Watch engineers are supervised by a chiefengineer or a plant superintendent who is in
charge of the entire plant.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

New powerplant workers generally begin at the
bottom of the ladder—usually on cleanup jobs.
Such work gives beginners an opportunity to
become familiar with the equipment and the
operations of a powerplant. They advance to
the more responsible job of helper, as job open­
ings occur. Formal apprenticeships in these jobs
are rare. Applicants are generally required to
have a high school education or its equivalent.
Advancement on the job depends primarily on
ability to master the skills required.
It takes from 1 to 3 years to become an auxiliary
equipment operator and from 4 to 8 years to be­
come a boiler operator, turbine operator, or switch­
board operator. A person learning to be an aux­
iliary equipment operator progresses from helper
to junior operator to operator. A boiler operator
generally spends from 2 to 6 months as a laborer
before being promoted to the job of helper. De­
pending on openings and the worker’s aptitude,
the helper may advance to junior boiler operator
and eventually to boiler operator, or transfer to
the maintenance department and work his way up
to boiler repairman. In most large cities, boiler
operators, who operate high-pressure boilers, are
required to be licensed.


Turbine operators are selected from among
auxiliary equipment operators in many plants.
The line of advancement in other plants is from
laborer to turbine helper. The helper then may
advance either to junior turbine operator and
eventually to turbine operator, or he may transfer
to turbine repairman, depending on job openings
and his aptitude. Turbine operators in most large
cities are required to be licensed.
Where a system has a number of generating
plants of different size, operators first get experi­
ence in the smaller stations and then are pro­
moted to jobs in the larger stations as vacancies
occur. New workers in the switchboard opera­
tions section begin as helpers, advance to junior
operators, and then to switchboard operators.
They also may advance from jobs in small sta­
tions to those in larger stations where operating
conditions are much more complex. Some utility
companies promote substation operators to switch­
board operating jobs. The duties of both classes
of operators have much in common. Switchboard
operators can advance to work in the load dis­
patcher’s office.
Watch engineers are selected from among
experienced powerplant operators. At least 5
to 10 years of experience as a first-class operator
are usually required to qualify for a watch
engineer’s job.
Employment Outlook

Several hundred job openings for new workers
will occur each year during the 1965-75 decade,
because of the need to replace operators who re­
tire, die, or leave the industry for other work.
However, the total number of jobs for powerplant operators is not expected to increase, and
may even decrease somewhat, although the ca­
pacity and production of electric utility systems
is expected to double during the decade ahead.
The use of increasingly larger and more efficient
equipment is expected to make possible great in­
creases in capacity and production with little or
no increase in the number of powerplant opera­
tors. For example, one operator can control a large
modern turbogenerator as readily as he can con­
trol a much smaller one. Also, the growing use
of more automatic equipment reduces the num­
ber of operators needed, and makes it possible to



direct all operating processes from a central con­
trol room.
Powerplant workers employed in atomicpowered electric plants must have special training
to work with fissionable, radioactive fuel, in ad­
dition to the knowledge and skills required for
operation of conventional steam generated electric
power. Generally, about the same number of
employees is required to run an atomic-powered
plant as is required to operate steam-generating
plants using more common fuels.
Earnings and Working Conditions

The earnings of powerplant workers depend
on the type of job they have, the part of the
country in which they work, and many other
factors. The following tabulation shows esti­
mated average hourly earnings for selected
powerplant occupations in privately operated
utilities with 100 or more employees in mid-1964:

Average hourly

Auxiliary equipment operator_____________
Boiler operator__________________________
Control room operator___________________
Switchboard operator:
Switchboard operator, Class A _______
Switchboard operator, Class B _______
Turbine operator________________________
Watch engineer__________________________

$2. 95
3. 29
3. 81


A powerplant is typically well lighted and
ventilated, clean, and orderly, but there is some
noise from the whirring turbines.
Switchboard operators in the control room
often sit at the panel boards, but boiler and
turbine operators are almost constantly on their
feet. The work of powerplant operators is gen­
erally not physically strenuous, particularly in
the newer powerplants. Since generating stations
operate 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, powerplant employees sometimes must work nights and

Transmission and Distribution Occupations
Nature of Work

A fifth of the workers employed by electric
light and power systems are in transmission and
distribution jobs. These workers are primarily
employed in maintaining the flow of electric
power to the users. The principal workers in
transmission and distribution jobs are those who
control the flow of electricity—load dispatchers
and substation operators—and the men who con­
struct and maintain powerlines—linemen, cable
splicers, troublemen, groundmen, and helpers.
Linemen make up the largest single occupation
in the industry.
Load dispatchers (D.O.T. 950.168) (some­
times called system operators or power dis­
patchers) are the key operating workers of the
transmission and distribution departments. They
control the flow of electricity throughout the
area served by the utility. The load dispatcher’s
room is the nerve center of the entire utility
system. From this location, the dispatcher con­
trols the plant equipment used to generate elec­
tricity and directs its flow throughout the
system. He telephones his instructions to the
switchboard operators at the generating plants
and the substations. He tells the operators when

Load dispatchers control flow of electricity through distribution

additional boilers and generators are to be started
up or shut down in line with the total power
needs of the system.
The load dispatcher must anticipate demands
for electric power so the system will be prepared
to meet them. Power demands on utility systems
may change from hour to hour. A sudden after­
noon rainstorm can cause a million lights to be
switched on in a matter of minutes, but
boilers often must be heated for 2 hours before
they are ready to produce sufficient steam for
generating. Therefore, the load dispatcher must
keep in touch with weather reports from hour to
hour. He must also be able to direct the handling
of any emergency situation, such as a trans­
former or transmission line failure, and to route
current around the affected area. Load dis­
patchers may also be in charge of the intercon­
nections with other systems, and they direct the
transfer of current between systems as the need
The load dispatcher’s source of information for
the entire transmission system centers in the pilot
board. This pilot board, which dominates the
load dispatcher’s room, is a complete map of the
utility’s transmission system. It enables the dis­
patcher to determine, at a glance, the conditions
that exist at any point in the system. Red and
green lights may show the positions of switches
which control generating equipment and trans­
mission circuits as well as high voltage connec­
tions with substations and large industrial cus­
tomers. The board may also have several
recording instruments which make a graphic
record of operations for future analysis ’and
Substation operators (D.O.T. 952.782) are
generally in charge of a substation and are
responsible for its operation. Under orders from
the load dispatcher, they direct the flow of cur­
rent out of the station by means of a switchboard.
Ammeters, voltmeters, and other types of instru­
ments on the switchboard register the amount of
electric power flowing through each line. The
flow of electricity from the incoming to the out­
going lines is controlled by circuit breakers.
The substation operators connect or break the
flow of current by manipulating levers on the
switchboard which control the circuit breakers.


In some substations, where alternating current
is changed to direct current to meet the needs of
special users, the operator controls converters
which perform the change.
In addition to switching duties, the substation
operators check the operating condition of all
equipment to make sure that it is in good work­
ing order. They supervise the activities of the
other substation employees on the same shift,
assign them tasks, and direct their work. In
smaller substations, the substation operator may
be the only employee.
Linemen (D.O.T. 821.381) construct and
maintain the network of powerlines which carry
electricity from generating plants to consumers.
Their work consists of installations, equipment
replacements, repairs, and routine maintenance
work. Although in many companies the installa­
tion of new lines and equipment is important,
in other companies this work is performed by
outside contractors. When wires, cables, or poles
break, it means an emergency call for a line crew.
Linemen splice or replace broken wires and
cables and replace broken insulators or other
damaged equipment.
In some power companies, linemen specialize
in particular types of work. Those in one crew
may work only on new construction and others
may do only repair work. In some instances,
linemen specialize on high voltage lines using
special “hot line” tools to avoid interruptions
in the flow of current.
Troublemen (D.O.T. 829.281) are experienced
linemen who are assigned to special crews that
handle emergency calls for service. They move
from one special job to another, as ordered by
a central service office which receives reports of
line trouble. Often troublemen receive their or­
ders by direct radio communication with the
central service office.
These workers must have a thorough knowl­
edge of the company’s transmission and distri­
bution network. They first locate and report
the source of trouble and then attempt to restore
service by making the necessary repairs. Depend­
ing on the nature and extent of the trouble, a
troubleman may restore service in the case of
minor failure, or he may simply disconnect and


splicers pull the cable through the conduit in
which the cable is carried and then join the cables
at connecting points in the transmission and
distribution systems. At each connection in the
cable, they wrap insulation around the wiring.
They splice the conductors leading away from
each junction of the main cable, insulate the
splices, and connect the insulated splices to the
cable sheathing by means of a lead joint. Most of
the physical work in placing new cables or
replacing old cables is done by helpers.
Cable splicers spend most of their time in
repairing and maintaining the cables and chang­
ing the layout of the cable systems. They must
know the arrangement of the wiring systems,
where the circuits are connected, and where they
lead to and come from. They must make sure
that the conductors do not become mixed up
between the substation and the customer’s
premises. The splicers connect the ends of the
conductors to numbered terminals, making cer­
tain that they have the same identifying number
at the remote panel box in an underground vault
as they have in the control office. Cable splicers
must also make sure that the insulation on the
cables is in good condition.

Line crew cleans insulators on power transmission tower.

Training/ Other Qualifications/ and Advancement

remove damaged equipment. He must be familiar
with all the circuits and switching points so that
he can safely disconnect live circuits in case of
line breakdowns.
Groundmen (D.O.T. 821.887) dig poleholes
and assist the linemen and apprentices to erect
the wooden poles which carry the distribution
lines. The linemen bolt crossarms to the poles
or towers, and bolt or clamp insulators in place
on the crossarms. With the assistance of the
groundmen, they raise the wires and cables and
install them on the poles or towers by attaching
them to the insulators. In addition, with assist­
ance from groundmen, linemen attach a wide
variety of equipment to the poles and towers,
such as lightning arrestors, transformers, and
Cable splicers (D.O.T. 829.381) install and
repair underground lines, performing about the
same service as the linemen do on the overhead
lines. When cables are installed, the cable

Load dispatches are selected from among
the experienced switchboard operators and opera­
tors of the larger substations. Usually, 7 to 10
years of experience as a senior switchboard or
substation operator is required for promotion to
load dispatcher. To qualify for this job, an appli­
cant must demonstrate his knowledge of the
entire utility system.
Substation operators generally begin as assist­
ant or junior operators. It usually takes 3 to 7
years of on-the-job training to advance to the
job of operator in a large substation.
Skilled linemen (journeymen) usually qualify
for such jobs after about 4 years of on-the-job
training. In some companies, this training con­
sists of a formal apprenticeship program. Under
formal apprenticeship, there is a written agree­
ment, usually worked out with a labor union,
which covers the content of the training and the
length of time the apprentice works in each stage

of the training. The apprenticeship program
combines on-the-job training with classroom
instruction. Such instruction includes courses in
blueprint reading, elementary electrical theory,
electrical codes, and methods of transmitting
electrical currents.
The apprentice usually begins his training by
helping the groundman to set poles in place
and by passing tools and equipment up to the
lineman. After a training period of approxi­
mately 6 months, the apprentice begins to do sim­
ple linework on lines with low voltage. While on
this work, he is under the immediate supervision
of a journeyman lineman or the line foreman.
After about a year, he is assigned more difficult
work, but is still under close supervision. Dur­
ing the last 6 months of his apprenticeship, the
trainee does about the same kind of work as the
journeyman lineman, but with more supervision.
When he begins to work independently, he is first
assigned simple, routine tasks. After he acquires
several years of experience and demonstrates a
thorough knowledge of the company’s trans­
mission and distribution systems, he may advance
from lineman to troubleman.
The training of linemen who learn their skills
on the job is generally similar to the apprentice­
ship program; it usually takes about the same
length of time, but does not involve classroom
instruction. The worker begins as a groundman
and progresses through increasingly difficult
stages of linework before becoming a skilled
Candidates for linework should be strong and
in good physical condition, since climbing poles
and lifting lines and equipment is strenuous work.
They must also have steady nerves and good
balance to work at the tops of the poles and to
avoid the hazards of live wires and falls.
Most cable splicers get their training on the
job, usually taking about 4 years to become fully
qualified. Workers begin as helpers and are then
promoted to assistant or junior splicers. In these
jobs, they are gradually assigned more difficult
tasks as their knowledge of the work increases.


occupations during the 1965-75 decade. Most of
these opportunities will occur because of the
need to replace experienced workers who retire,
die, or transfer to other fields of work.
A slow increase in the employment of trans­
mission and distribution workers is expected,
although employment trends will differ among the
various occupations in this category. In spite of
the need to construct and maintain a rapidly
growing number of transmission and distribu­
tion lines, the number of linemen and troublemen
is expected to increase only slightly because of
the use of more mechanized equipment. Some in­
crease in the number of cable splicers is expected
because of the growing use of underground lines
in suburban areas. The need for substation op­
erators will be substantially reduced since the
introduction of improved and more automatic
equipment makes it possible to operate most sub­
stations by remote control.
Earnings and Working Conditions

The earnings of transmission and distribution
workers depend on the type of job they have and
the part of the country in which they work. The
following tabulation shows the average hourly
earnings for major transmission and distribution

Employment Outlook

Several thousand job opportunities are expected
to be available in transmission and distribution

Linemen work on lines from "bucket truck."



occupations in privately operated utilities with
100 or more employees in mid-1964:

Load dispatchers and substation operators
generally work indoors in pleasant surroundings.
Average hourly
Linemen, troublemen, and groundmen work out­
Groundman________________________ j.____
$2. 42
doors and, in emergencies, in all kinds of weather.
Cable splicers do most of their work in manholes
Load dispatcher______________________________
Substation operator__________________________
3.44 beneath city streets—often in cramped quarters.
3.54 Safety standards developed over the years by
utility companies, with the cooperation of labor
No recent earnings data are available for cable
unions, have greatly reduced the accident hazards
splicers; however, their earnings are about the
of these jobs.
same as those for linemen.

Customer Service Occupations
Nature of Work

Workers in customer service jobs include those
who install, test, and repair meters and those who
read the meters. Also in this group are company
agents in rural areas and appliance servicemen
working in company-operated shops which repair
electrical equipment owned by customers.
Metermen (D.O.T. 710.281) (or meter repair­
men) are the most skilled workers in this group.
They install, test, maintain, and repair meters
on customers’ premises, particularly those of
Urge industrial and commercial establishments.
Some metermen can handle all types of meters,
including the more complicated ones used in
industrial plants and other places where large
quantities of electric power are used. Others
specialize in repairing the simpler kinds, like
those in homes. Often, some of the large systems
have meter specialists, such as meter installers
(D.O.T. 821.381) and meter testers (D.O.T. 710.281). Meter installers put in and take out meters.
Meter testers specialize in testing the small meters
on homeowners’ property and some of the more
complicated ones used by commercial and in­
dustrial customers.
Meter readers (D.O.T. 239.588) go to customers’
premises—homes, stores, and factories—to read
the figures on the meters which register the
amount of electric current used. They record the
amount of current used in a specific period so
that each customer can be charged for the amount
he used. Meter readers also watch for, and report,
any tampering with meters.
District representatives usually serve as com­
pany agents in outlying districts, in localities
where the utility company does not have an office
and where the small number of customers does

not justify the use of more specialized workers.
Their work includes reading meters, collecting
overdue bills, connecting and disconnecting
meters, and making minor repairs on them. They
receive complaints about service and reports of
line trouble and send them to a central office for
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Metermen begin their jobs as helpers in the
meter testing and meter repair departments.
Young men entering this field should have a
basic knowledge of electricity. About 4 years
of on-the-job training is required to become a
fully qualified meterman. Some companies have
formal apprenticeship programs for this occupa­
tion in which the trainee progresses according to
a specific plan.
Utility companies usually employ inexperienced
men to work as meter readers. They generally
accompany the experienced meter reader on his
rounds until they have learned the job well
enough to go on the rounds alone. This job can
be learned in a few days.
The duties of district representatives are
learned on the job. An important qualification
for men in these jobs is the ability to deal tact­
fully with the public in handling service com­
plaints and collecting overdue bills.
Employment Outlook

A slight increase in employment is expected in
customer service occupations during the 1965-75
decade. Because many new customers—homes,
offices, factories, hotels, and stores—will be served



by utility systems, a larger number of meters will
be needed. However, this will require only a
slight increase in the number of meter readers
because of the trend toward reading meters less
frequently. Furthermore since new meters are
better constructed and require less maintenance,
there will be only a slight growth in the number
of metermen needed. The need to replace metermen and meter readers who retire, die, or transfer
to other fields of work will provide a small num­
ber of job openings for new workers each year.
Earnings and Working Conditions

The earnings of customer service workers vary
according to the type of job they have and the
part of the country in which they work. The
following tabulation shows the average hourly
earnings for major customer service jobs in pri­
vately operated utilities with 100 or more
employees in mid-1964:
Average hourly

District representative___________________
Meterman A_____________________________
Meterman B___________
Appliance serviceman____________________
Meter reader____________________________

Meterman tests house meter.



The job of the meter reader is not physically
hard, but involves considerable walking and some
stair climbing. Metermen and appliance service­
men work indoors under typical repair shop con­
ditions except when repairing or installing meters
or appliances on customers’ premises.

The science of electronics has contributed
greatly to the spectacular achievements of the
scientific age in which we live. Electronic in­
struments guide unmanned missiles for our Na­
tion’s defense and control the flights of our
astronauts as they rocket into outer space.
Other electronic instruments make it possible for
man to see, hear, and communicate over vast dis­
tances. Electronic devices direct, control, and
test production processes in industries such as
steel, petroleum, and chemicals. Electronic data
processing equipment enables business and Gov­
ernment to handle tons of paperwork with great
accuracy and speed. Hospitals use electronic in­
struments to perform laboratory tests and to
check body functions. Television and radio sets
inform and entertain, while other electronic de­
vices help protect homes against fire and other
hazards. Indications are that electronics will
play an even greater role in the future.
In 1964, an estimated 820,000 workers were
engaged in manufacturing electronic products.
In the 1965-75 decade, a rapid increase in employ­
ment is anticipated. Job opportunities are ex­
pected to be particularly favorable in plants
producing industrial-commercial electronic equip­
ment, output of which is expected to grow much
more rapidly than other electronic products.
Nature and Location of Electronics Manufacturing

Before World War II, the principal electronic
products were radios, broadcasting equipment,
other receiving and transmitting equipment, and
electron tubes. With the rapid development of
new electronic products during and after that
war, the broader term “electronics manufactur­
ing” or “electronics industry” came into general
The heart of every electronic product is an
electronic circuit or system that includes electron
tubes, semiconductors, and other electronic de­
vices which discharge, control, or direct the flow

of small, active particles of negative electricity
(electrons) through the circuit. Because of their
unique functions, electronic devices are finding
many applications.
Electronic products may be grouped into four
major categories: (1) Military and space equip­
ment, (2) industrial and commercial products,
(3) consumer products, and (4) components. In
1964, military and space products accounted for
57 percent of the estimated $16.1 billion in total
electronic shipments. Industrial and commercial
equipment accounted for 21 percent of ship­
ments; consumer products, 18 percent; and com­
ponents produced as replacement parts, 4 per­
cent. (Components produced as original equip­
ment for end products are included in the ship­
ments value of the end products.)
Military and space products include electronic
guidance and telemetering systems for missiles
and spacecraft; radar and other detection de­
vices; automatic communications and computing
systems; gyroscopes and other navigational
equipment; and fire controls (such as air-to-air
target seeking and detonating equipment). Some
important commercial and industrial products are
computers; commercial radio and television
broadcasting equipment; commercial and private
aircraft communications and navigational ap­
paratus; and industrial testing, measuring, and
production control equipment. Principal con­
sumer products include television sets, radios,
phonographs, tape recorders, and hearing aids.
Electronic components fall into three broad clas­
sifications : Tubes, semiconductors, and “other
components.” Tubes include receiving tubes,
power tubes, television picture tubes, and special
purpose tubes. Principal semiconductor devices
are transistors, diodes, rectifiers, and microelec­
tronic devices, which include combinations of
miniaturized semiconductors. “Other compo­
nents” include such items as capacitors, resistors,
transformers, relays, connectors, and electronic

T 78-316 0 —65------- 13



in such activities as research, development, and
the negotiation and administration of contracts.
How Electronic Products A re M ade

Under simulated airborne conditions, technicians practice
operation and maintenance of T V equipment.

Of the estimated 820,000 workers employed in
electronics manufacturing establishments in 1964,
about three-fifths—515,000—were in plants pro­
ducing end products. About 250,000 of these
workers produced military and space equipment;
165.000, industrial and commercial products; and
100.000, consumer items. The remaining 305,000
workers were in plants making electronic com­
Electronics manufacturing plants are located
in nearly every State, but about three-fourths of
electronics manufacturing workers in 1964 were
in seven States: California, New York, Illinois,
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and
Indiana. Metropolitan areas with large numbers
of electronics manufacturing workers included
Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, Philadelphia,
Newark, Boston, Baltimore, and Indianapolis.
In addition to the employees in electronics
manufacturing plants, about 75,000 electronics
workers were employed in the Federal Govern­
ment, universities, and nonprofit research centers,

Many plants manufacturing electronic prod­
ucts specialize in one type of end product, such
as television sets, radios, and electronic com­
puters; or one type of component, such as tele­
vision picture tubes, power tubes, and semi­
conductors. In plants which produce several
types of end products or components, each type
is generally made in a separate department.
Subassemblies, such as tuners and record
changers, are often made in plants specializing in
these products. Research and development activi­
ties are performed in establishments specializing
in such work, or in separate departments of
manufacturing plants.
A large proportion of workers in plants manu­
facturing end products are engaged in assembly
operations. Inspecting and testing of subassem­
blies and end products are also important activi­
ties. Some end-product plants have fabricating
and processing departments in which workers do
machining, sheet-metal work, and cleaning and
coating of metals, such as painting and plating;
and plastic molding.
In assembling radios, television sets, and other
end products produced in large quantities, major
subassemblies, such as circuit boards or panels,
transformers, turners, tubes, and speakers are
attached mainly by hand onto a chassis. A mov­
ing conveyor is often used to transport the chassis
from one work station to another. Assembled
units are placed into metal, plastic, or wooden
cabinets. Where complex electronic products are
made in small lots, as in the case of scientific and
research devices and of electronic equipment used
in space exploration, one or two workers may as­
semble a complete unit by hand.
Semiautomatic and automatic machinery are
being used more and more to perform processing
and assembly operations in end-equipment plants,
particularly where products are mass-produced.
For example, in the manufacture of circuit
boards, many plants use automatic punch presses
to make holes in thin sheets of plastic (one or
both sides of which is coated with a thin layer of
copper) so that components can be attached.



Machines are used to etch electrical circuits,
which replace wires, on the circuit boards.
Machines also position components into the
proper holes in the circuit boards. Mechanical
devices bend the wires or metal “ears” on the bot­
tom of the components, locking them into place on
the board. Wire leads on the components are
soldered to the etched circuits in one continuous
operation (called “dip” or “wave” soldering).
Parts used in end products are usually brought
to the assembly line by hand truck since most
electronic parts are not bulky. They may be
loose in boxes, fed from hoppers (receptacles
for parts), or held in special containers or jigs.
During assembly operations, components and
subassemblies are inspected and tested to locate
faulty parts or connections or other defects.
In components manufacturing plants, most
assembly work is done by machine. Some types
of components are usually assembled by hand,
such as experimental parts, special purpose tubes,
and extremely tiny semiconductors used in mili­
tary and space equipment. Electronic components
are inspected and tested many times, beginning
with visual inspection of raw materials as they
enter the plant and continuing through all stages
of manufacture.
Electronics Manufacturing Occupations

A wide variety of occupations, requiring a
broad range of training and skills, is found in
plants manufacturing electronic products. In
early 1965, about half the workers in electronics
manufacturing were in plant jobs (production,
maintenance, transportation, and service); the rest
were in white-collar jobs (engineering, scientific,
finance, administrative, clerical, and sales).
The proportions of plant and white-collar
workers differed from one establishment to an­
other, depending mainly on the products being
manufactured. For example, the proportion of
plant workers was generally higher in establish­
ments producing consumer products than in estab­
lishments manufacturing military and space pro­
ducts. The data in the following tabulation, ob­
tained from selected electronics manufacturing
plants in early 1965, illustrate the differences in
occupational patterns in these plants by major
type of product manufactured.

Selected electronics establish­
ments m anufacturing—
Industrialcom Conmercial sum er
prodprod- Compoucts

M ilitaryspace
Occupational group or occupation
A ll o c c u p a tio n s ______________________
W h ite -c o lla r w o r k e r s ______________________

(percent of workers )
1 0 0 .0
67 .8

E n g in e e r s a n d o th e r te c h n ic a l w o r k e r s ...
E n g in e e r s a n d s c ie n t is t s ________________
T e c h n ic ia n s ( in c lu d in g d r a fts m e n )____
A d m in is t r a t iv e a n d e x e c u tiv e w o r k e r s ...
C ler ica l a n d s te n o g r a p h ic _________ ______

3 5 .0
13 .6

1 0 0 .0
4 3 .0
5 .8
6 .4

P la n t w o r k e r s_______________
S k ille d _____________________________________
A s s e m b le r s _________ ______ . . .
A n a ly z e r s a n d tr o u b le s h o o te r s_______
P r o c e ssin g w o r k e r s _____ ________________

3 2 .2
10 .5
2 .3
2 .9
2 .2

5 7 .0
1 .5
3 .7
3 .8

6 0 .4
3 .4
4 .1

61 .4
9 .0
2 .3
1 .0
1 .5

2 .2
21 .7
11. 2
1 .4
2 .6
1 .3

2 .2
4 4 .5
21 .6
7 .0
6 .1
3 .5
2 .9

1 .9
4 9 .8
3 3 .8
7 .6
1 .8

3 .1
5 2 .3
3 6 .8
6 .3
3 .2

1 .4
2 .1
1 .4

1 .3
1 .2

2 .0
1 .3
2 .4

2 .7

M a c h in is ts a n d r e p a ir m e n _____________
T o o l a n d d ie m a k e r s _________________
O th er s k ille d w o rk ers (in c lu d in g sh e e tm e t a l w o r k e r s, w e ld e r s, ca r p e n te r s,
e le c tr ic ia n s , a n d p lu m b e r s a n d
p ip e fitte r s )__________________ . . .
S e m is k ille d a n d u n s k ille d ___
. . .
In s p e c to r s a n d te s te r s ________ _________
F a b r ic a tin g w o r k e r s _________________ _
P r o c e ssin g w o r k e r s __________________ .
S h ip p in g a n d r e c e iv in g w o r k e r s......... ..
M a te r ia ls h a n d le r s (in c lu d in g tr u c k d r iv e r s )_____________________________
C u s to d ia l a n d ja n ito r ia l w o r k e r s ..
O th e r ____ _____________________ _________


1 0 0 .0
3 9 .6
7 .4
5 .0

1 0 0 .0
3 8 .6
1 0 .2
7 .4
6 .5

2 .0

B e c a u s e o f r o u n d in g , s u m s o f in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y n o t e q u a l to ta ls .

More than two-fifths of the workers employed
in electronics manufacturing plants were women.
In some plants, particularly those producing
electron tubes and semiconductors, women ac-

Two foremen check electronic assembly.

counted for half or more of total employment.
Most women are employed as semiskilled plant
workers, chiefly as assemblers, inspectors, and
testers, and also as office workers. However, op­
portunities for women exist in nearly all types
of jobs in electronics.
Professional and Technical Occupations. A large
proportion of electronics manufacturing workers
are in engineering, scientific, and other technical
jobs. Engineers and scientists alone represent
about 1 out of 7 electronics workers. Generally,
they account for a much larger proportion of em­
ployment in plants making military and space
equipment than in those producing other types
of electronic products.
The largest group of engineers are electrical or
electronics engineers. They are generally em­
ployed in research and development, although
many work in production operations as design
engineers or as test methods and quality control
engineers. Electronics engineers also work as
field engineers, sales engineers, or engineering
liaison men.
Substantial numbers of mechanical engineers
and industrial engineers are also employed in
electronics manufacturing plants. Mechanical
engineers work as design engineers in product
development and in tool and equipment design.
They work also as plant engineers—chiefly con­
cerned with the maintenance, layout, and opera­
tion of plant equipment. Most industrial engi­
neers work as production engineers or as effi­
ciency, methods, or time-study engineers. Other
engineers employed in electronics manufactur­
ing include chemical, metallurgical, and ceramic
Physicists make up the largest group of scien­
tists in electronics manufacturing. Most of them
do research and development work in connection
with such products as microwave tubes and micro­
miniaturized components and circuits. Micro­
miniaturization refers to the development of
extremely tiny, light-weight electronic devices
which consume very small amounts of power.
Many scientists in electronics manufacturing are
chemists and metallurgists, employed mainly in
research work and in materials testing. Mathe­
maticians and statisticians work with engineers
and scientists on complex mathematical and


statistical problems, especially in the design of
military and space equipment and computers.
Statisticians are also employed in the fields of
quality control, production scheduling, and sales
planning. Industrial designers work on the de­
sign of electronic products and the equipment
used to manufacture them.
Technicians—such as electronics technicians,
draftsmen, engineering aids, laboratory tech­
nicians, and mathematical assistants—represented
a large group of electronics manufacturing work­
ers, roughly 1 out of 11. They mainly assist en­
gineers and scientists.
Many electronics technicians are engaged in
research and development work, helping engi­
neers in the design and construction of experi­
mental models. They are also employed by man­
ufacturers to work on electronic equipment in
customers’ establishments. Other electronics
technicians work in highly technical inspecting,
testing, and assembly jobs in the engineering
laboratories of firms manufacturing electronic
Draftsmen are usually employed in engineering
departments to prepare drawings from sketches
or specifications furnished by engineers. Manu­
facturers of military and space equipment gen­
erally employ a higher proportion of draftsmen
than manufacturers of other types of electronic
Engineering aids are another important group
of technicians. They assist engineers by making
calculations, sketches, and drawings, and by con­
ducting performance tests on components and
systems. Laboratory technicians help physicists,
chemists, and engineers by performing such duties
as setting up apparatus and assisting in labora­
tory analyses and experiments. Some laboratory
technicians may themselves conduct analyses and
experiments, usually of a standardized, routine
nature. Mathematical assistants help to solve
mathematical problems, following procedures
outlined by mathematicians. They also operate
test equipment used in the development of elec­
tronic computers.
Technical writers work closely with engineers,
particularly in plants making military-space and
industrial-commercial products and in establish­
ments doing research and development work.
They prepare training and technical manuals


describing the operation and maintenance of elec­
tronic equipment. They also prepare catalogs,
product literature, and project reports and pro­
posals. Specifications writers compile lists of
required measurements and materials. Technical
illustrators draw pictures of electronic equipment,
for technical publications and sales literature.
Administrative, Clerical, and Related Occupa­
tions. A large number of workers in electronics
manufacturing plants are in administrative or
other office jobs. Administrative workers include
purchasing agents, sales executives, personnel
workers, and advertising personnel. Clerks, sec­
retaries, stenographers, typists, and business ma­
chine operators, many of whom are women, are
among the thousands of other office workers
employed by electronics manufacturing firms. A
small but growing proportion of these office
workers operate electronic computers and aux­
iliary equipment. Most of these computers are
used to process office records, including payroll,
production, costs, sales, and inventory data.
Plant Occupations. About half of electronics
manufacturing employees work in assembly, in­
specting and testing, machining, fabricating,
processing, maintenance, and other plant opera­
tions. The proportion of workers in each of these
operations differs among electronics plants de­
pending largely on whether end products or com­
ponents are produced, and the types manufac­
tured. For example, the proportion of assemblers
is higher in plants making components and
consumer end products than in plants producing
military space equipment, and industrial-com­
mercial products. The proportion of machining
and fabricating workers is higher among manu­
facturers of military-space equipment and in­
dustrial-commercial products than among manu­
facturers of other types of products.
Assembly occupations (D.O.T. 729.884; 720.884;
726.781 and .884). Assemblers make up the larg­
est group of electronics plant workers. Both
end-product and component manufacturing firms
employ assemblers with many different skills.
However, most assemblers a r e semi-skilled
Most end products are assembled mainly by
hand, with small handtools, soldering irons, and
light welding devices. Assemblers use diagrams,

models, and color-coded parts and wires to help
them in their work. Some assembly work is
done by following instructions presented on
color slides and tape recordings. Color slides
flash a picture of an assembly sequence on a
viewing screen while the assembler listens to
recorded directions.
Precision assemblers install components and
subassemblies into end products in which moving
parts and mechanisms must operate within clear­
ances measured in thousandths of an inch. Some
of these assembly workers do repair work, experi­
mental and developmental work, and model as­
sembly work. Most precision assemblers are
employed in the manufacture of military-space
and industrial-commercial electronic equipment.
Machines are used in some assembly work on
end products. For example, in putting together
subassemblies such as circuit boards, automatic
machines are often used to position components
on the boards and to solder connections. Here
the assemblers work as machine operators or
Most components are assembled by machines,
since their assembly involves many separate but
simple and repetitive operations. Even some
types of miniaturized semiconductors and other
components, made with parts small enough to
pass through the eye of a needle, are now as­
sembled on highly complex machines. Some of
these machines are automatically controlled.
Hand assembly is needed for some components,
such as receiving tubes, special purpose tubes, and
some types of transistors, diodes, capacitors, and
resistors. Hand assemblers may only perform a
single operation on these components as they
move down the assembly line, but some may com­
pletely assemble a particular type of component.
Tiny components are often hand-assembled under
magnifying glasses or powerful microscopes.
Hand assemblers may sometimes use machines
to assist them in performing assembly operations
on components. For example, precision welding
equipment may be used to weld connections in
microminiature components and circuit assem­
blies. Some circuit assemblies are so small that
as many as 100 components may be precision
welded in a cubic inch of space. Machines may
also be used to position and hold component parts
during assembly operations.


Skilled worker uses illuminated magnifying viewer to repair
electronic component.

Hand assemblers are also employed in elec­
tronics research laboratories and in the research
and development departments of electronics man­
ufacturers. These workers—frequently called
electronics technicians—generally do difficult as­
sembly work on small quantities of complex, often
experimental, equipment. They may also work
on the development of new ways to assemble large
quantities of components or subassemblies by
machine. Some electronics technicians install subassemblies into complex systems such as those in
guided missiles. These hand assemblers usually
must know enough electronics theory to under­
stand the operation of the items being assembled.
Most assemblers are women. They are em­
ployed mainly as machine operators or tenders
and as hand assemblers of items made in large
quantities. Men are chiefly employed in experi­
mental assembly work, in model assembly, and
in assembly jobs requiring relatively heavy work.
Men are also employed in assembly departments
as “trouble shooters.” These workers analyze end
products and subassemblies which have failed


routine performance tests, to pinpoint the exact
cause of faulty operation.
Machining occupations. Metal machining work­
ers are employed in most electronics manufactur­
ing plants, particularly those making militaryspace and industrial-commercial products. Ma­
chine tool operators and machinists operate
powerdriven machine tools to produce metal parts
of electronic products. Toolmakers construct and
repair jigs and fixtures used in the fabrication and
assembly of parts. Diemakers specialize in mak­
ing metal forms (dies) used in punch and power
presses to shape metal parts.
Fabricating occupations. Fabricating workers
are employed in many electronics manufacturing
plants, but the largest proportion is in estab­
lishments producing industrial-commercial prod­
ucts. Among the fabricating workers are sheetmetal workers who make frames, chassis, and
cabinets. Glass blowers and glass lathe operators
(D.O.T. 674.782) are employed chiefly in elec­
tronic tube experimentation and development
work; in the manufacture of special purpose
tubes, which are made in small numbers; and in
rebuilding television picture tubes. Other fabri­
cating workers include punch press operators,
blanking machine operators and shear operators.
Some fabricating jobs involve the molding, fir­
ing, and glazing of ceramics used as insulating
materials in many components. Workers may also
operate machines that mold plastic components.
In electron tube manufacturing, special fabricat­
ing workers are employed. For example, grid
lathe operators (D.O.T. 925.884) make grids (de­
vices in electronic tubes which control the flow
of electrons) by winding fine wire around two
heavy parallel wires. Other fabricating workers
include spot welders, coil winders (D.O.T. 724.781
and .884) and crystal grinders and finishers
(D.O.T. 726.884 and .085).
Processing occupations. A relatively small but
important group of electronics manufacturing
workers are engaged in processing activities,
chiefly in plants producing electronic components.
Electroplaters and tinners (D.O.T. 501.885)
coat many parts with metal. Anodizers (D.O.T.
501.782) treat parts in electrolytic and chemical
baths to prevent corrosion. Silk screen oper­
ators (D.O.T. 726.887) print patterns on circuit
boards and on parts of electronic components.


Etching equipment operators (D.O.T. 590.885) do
chemical etching of copper on circuit boards.
Processing workers also impregnate or coat
coils and other electronic components with waxes,
oils, or other materials. Some operate machines
which encase microminiature components in plas­
tic resin to join and insulate them in circuits,
seal out moisture, and reduce chances of connec­
tion failure caused by heat and vibration.
Another group of processing workers oper­
ate furnaces, ovens, and kilns, used chiefly to
harden ceramics, bake on coatings, and eliminate
contamination by gases and foreign materials.
Operators of infrared ovens and hydrogen fur­
nace fires (D.O.T. 590.885) rid tubes of foreign
deposits. In tube manufacturing, exhaust oper­
ators (D.O.T. 725.884) and sealers (D.O.T. 692.885) operate gas flame machines which seal the
mount (the part of an electronic tube consisting
of a Bakelite base and stem) in the tube, clear the
tube of impurities, exhaust the gas, and seal the
Testing and inspection. Testing and inspection
in electronics manufacturing begin when raw
materials enter the plants, and continue through­
out fabricating operations. Finished components
and end products undergo thorough testing and
inspection, frequently including operation for a
period of time, before shipment.
In end-product manufacturing plants, testers
use voltmeters, oscilloscopes, and other test meters
to make certain that components, subassemblies,
and end products conform to specifications. Many
of these workers have job titles that indicate
the type of work they do, such as analyzer, final
tester, tuner tester, and operational tester.
Some testing jobs require technically trained
workers who have had several years of experience
in electronic testing. These jobs are commonly
found in research and development work, where
electronics technicians test, adjust, and aline
circuits and systems as part of their overall
responsibility. These jobs are also found in
complex production work, such as the manufac­
ture of missiles arid spacecraft.
In component manufacturing plants, compo­
nents are checked manually by testers using
various types of test meters, or routed mechan­
ically through automatic test equipment. Some
automatic equipment can check 20 or more com-


“ Hot-line" tester checks solid-state circuit in high fidelity tuner.

ponent characteristics and produce a punched
tape of test results. Although many of these
workers are simply called component testers,
others have job titles which reflect the type of
components they test, such as transformer tester,
coil tester, and magnetic component tester. Work­
ers who feed or monitor automatic test equipment
are often called test-set operators or testingmachine operators.
The work of inspectors in end-product plants
varies from checking incoming materials to in­
specting subassemblies and final products for
flaws in circuit assembly, etching, plating, paint­
ing, and labeling. Electronic assembly inspectors
(D.O.T. 722.281) examine assembled electronic
units to make certain that they conform to blue­
prints and specifications, and check wire routing,
electrical connections, and quality of units.

Mechanical and precision inspectors check me­
chanical assemblies and precision parts. Inspec­
tors in end-product plants may use tools such as
measuring scales, micrometers, calipers, and mag­
nifying glasses in their work.
Inspectors in component manufacturing plants
check incoming raw materials and subassemblies
before, during, and after fabricating and proc­
essing operations. They may inspect wire leads
on diodes for straightness or length, wire winding
on coils for eveness or breakage, and completed
tubes for loose wires, scratched paint, corrosion,
and defective etches and identifying labels. Some
inspectors make repairs on defective components.
Tools used by inspectors in components plants
may include magnifying glasses, micrometers,
calipers, tweezers, and, in some circumstances,
microscopes. These inspectors may have job
titles that indicate the work they do, such as
incoming materials inspector, plating inspector,
power tube inspector, coil inspector, machine
parts inspector, and precision inspector.
Maintenance occupations. Many maintenance
workers with different types of training are em­
ployed in electronics manufacturing plants to
take care of machinery and equipment. Skilled
electricians are responsible for the proper opera­
tion of electrical equipment. Machine and equip­
ment repairmen perform mechanical repairs. Hy­
draulic mechanics specialize in maintaining hy­
draulic equipment. Maintenance machinists and
welders build and repair equipment, jigs, and
fixtures. Air-conditioning and refrigeration me­
chanics are employed in electronics plants which
are air-conditioned and have special refrigerated
and dust-free rooms. Painters, plumbers, pipe­
fitters, carpenters, sheet-metal workers, and other
building maintenance craftsmen are also em­
ployed in electronics plants.
Other plant occupations. P a r t s changer
(D.O.T. 729.381) is another important occupation
in electronic manufacturing p l a n t s . These
workers repair assembled electronic products
which have been tagged for replacement of defec­
tive parts. Women are frequently employed as
parts changers.
Many workers are employed in materials move­
ment and handling. These workers include oper­
ators of plant trucks and tractors; forklift opera­
tors who stack crates and load and unload trucks


and boxcars; and truckdrivers who handle trans­
portation outside the plant. Other occupations
include boiler operator and stationary engineer.
(Detailed discussions of professional, technical,
mechanical, and other occupations found not only
in electronics manufacturing plants but also in
other industries are given elsewhere in the Hand­
book, in sections covering the individual occupa­
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Electronics manufacturing plants employ many
engineers, scientists, and technicians, because of
the technical nature of plant production opera­
tions and the great emphasis on research and
development work. Beginning engineering jobs
are usually filled by recent graduates of engi­
neering colleges (some with advanced degrees).
A small number of workers without college
degrees are upgraded to professional engineering
classifications from such occupations as engineer­
ing assistant and electronics technician. Workers
who become engineers in this way usually have
taken advanced electronics courses in night school
or under other training programs. To keep up
with new developments in their fields and to help
them qualify for promotion, professional and
technical personnel obtain additional training,
read technical publications, and attend lectures
and technical demonstrations.
Almost all mathematicians, physicists, and
other scientists employed in electronics manufac­
turing plants have college degrees and many have
advanced degrees. Job prospects are usually
better for scientists with at least a master’s degree
than for those with only a bachelor’s degree.
Technicians generally need some specialized
training to qualify for their jobs. Most electronics
technicians have attended either a public, private,
or Armed Forces technical school. Some have ob­
tained their training through apprenticeships,
usually of 3 or 4 years’ duration. Applicants with
a high school education, including courses in
mathematics and science, are preferred for these
apprenticeships. Some workers become electronics
technicians by being upgraded from such jobs as
tester and experimental assembler, after they
have developed required skills on the job and



acquired the necessary knowledge in basic elec­
tronics theory, mathematics, drafting, and read­
ing of schematic diagrams. This knowledge is
usually obtained by taking courses in companyoperated classes, night school, junior college, tech­
nical school, or by correspondence.
Electronics technicians need color vision, man­
ual dexterity, and good eye-hand coordination. As
in the case of other technical workers, they must
be able to understand technical publications.
Some technicians who do final testing that re­
quires the operation of radio transmitting equip­
ment must hold licenses from the Federal Com­
munications Commission as first- or second-class
commercial radiotelephone operators.
Laboratory technicians, engineering and sci­
entific aids, and mathematical assistants fre­
quently have had 1 or more years of college
training in a scientific or engineering field, but
have not completed course requirements for a
degree. In other cases, these workers have been
upgraded from jobs as lower grade assistants in
engineering laboratories or as high-grade testers
in production departments. In hiring lower grade
assistants, electronics firms give preference to
high school graduates who have completed high
school courses in mathematics, physics, and
Draftsmen usually enter their trade by taking
a course in drafting at a trade or technical school;
a few have completed a 3- or 4-year apprentice­
ship. Some qualify for their jobs under an
informal arrangement with their employers which
provides for both on-the-job training and parttime schooling. Because many draftsmen must
understand the basic principles of electronic cir­
cuits to do their work, they should study basic
electronic theory and circuits and the reading of
electronic schematic diagrams.
Technical writers must have a flair for writ­
ing and are usually required to have some tech­
nical training. Electronics firms prefer to hire
those who have had some technical institute or
college training in science or engineering. Some
have college engineering degrees. Many have
college degrees in English and journalism and
have received their technical training on the job
and by attending company-operated evening
classes. Technical illustrators have usually
attended special schools of art or design.

Many tool and die makers, machinists, elec­
tricians, pipefitters, carpenters, and other crafts­
men in electronics manufacturing learn their
trades by completing a 4- or 5-year apprentice­
ship. Some enter these trades through upgrading
from helpers’ jobs. Some take courses at voca­
tional schools.
Formal training in electronics is usually not
necessary for workers entering plant jobs, but
completion of high school is frequently required.
Job applicants may have to pass aptitude tests
and demonstrate skill for particular types of
work. On-the-job training, usually for a short
period, is generally provided for workers who
have had no previous experience. Assemblers,
testers, and inspectors need good vision, good
color perception, manual dexterity, and patience.
Requirements for filling administrative and
other office jobs are similar to those in other indus­
tries. Certain beginning administrative jobs in
electronics manufacturing are generally open only
to college graduates with degrees in business
administration, accounting, or engineering. More
and more employers are requiring college train­
ing for administrative jobs in advertising, per­
sonnel, accounting, and sales. For clerical jobs,
employers usually prefer applicants who are high
school graduates with special training in stenog­
raphy, typing, bookkeeping, and office machine
Employment Outlook

Electronics manufacturing will provide tens of
thousands of job opportunities annually during
the 1965-75 decade. A rapid rate of growth in
electronics employment is expected, assuming re­
latively full employment in the Nation’s economy
and the high levels of economic activity needed
to achieve this goal. In addition to the many
thousands of job opportunities resulting from
employment growth, large numbers of job open­
ings will result from the need to replace workers
who transfer to other fields of work, retire, or die.
Retirements and deaths alone will provide an
estimated 28,000 job openings annually—about
10,000 for men and 18,000 for women.
A rapid increase in the production of electronic
equipment is anticipated in the decade ahead,
but the rate of increase will vary by major prod­
uct category. The most rapid growth in output

is expected for industrial-commercial products.
Businessmen are expected to spend increasing
amounts for electronic equipment to automate and
mechanize data processing and production proc­
esses, especially for such items as computers and
numerical controls for machine tools. Demand is
also expected to grow for navigational, test, educa­
tional, and radio communications equipment. For
example, the use of two-way radio communications
equipment by police and fire departments, public
utilities, taxicab and trucking companies, pipeline
firms, and other organizations is expected to
spread rapidly. Production of electronic equip­
ment for the medical and atomic energy fields will
also expand greatly. In addition, many new fields
are being explored for applications of electronic
controls, including automated highways and rail­
ways, water desalinization and purification, and
information retrieval systems.
The demand for consumer items is expected to
increase with rising population, family forma­
tions, and personal spendable income. The out­
put of color television sets will expand steadily
and a substantial rise is expected in the produc­
tion of radios and phonographs, and black and
white television sets (particularly portable
models). Other electronic consumer products,
such as tape recorders, alarm systems, video-tape
recorders, and ultrasonic dishwashers may be­
come common household equipment in the decade
If no war or substantial disarmament occurs
and if the Nation continues to maintain a de­
fense capability sufficient to deter potential aggres­
sors, the output of military and space electronics
equipment during the decade ahead is expected to
approximate the 1964 high levels. Output may be
higher if expenditures are significantly increased
for programs to explore outer space and the
ocean depths. Although the military-space equip­
ment sector is expected to remain the largest in
total electronics manufacturing, its proportionate
share of total output is expected to decline slowly
over the next decade, because of the anticipated
rapid growth in other electronic products sectors.
Expenditures for electronics research and de­
velopment are expected to continue at high levels.
Such expenditures will contribute to employment
growth in electronics manufacturing. Research
and development activities usually result in new


and improved electronic products and new uses
and markets for them.
The increase in electronics employment prob­
ably will not be as great as the expansion in out­
put, because technological improvements in pro­
duction methods are expected to increase output
per worker. For example, increasing mechaniza­
tion of operations formerly done by hand tends to
reduce labor requirements, particularly in plants
where products are mass-produced, such as tele­
vision and radio sets, and components. However,
mechanized and automated manufacturing proc­
esses are difficult to adapt to the fabrication of
many types of highly complex electronic products
made in small quantities and subject to frequent
design changes.
Although the demand for workers in electronics
manufacturing is expected to grow during the
decade ahead, rates of employment growth will
vary among the various occupational groups and
individual occupations. For example, the demand
for skilled maintenance personnel, particularly
instrument repairmen, is expected to rise at a
rapid rate, because of the need to maintain and
repair the increasing amounts of complex ma­
chinery. Employment of semiskilled workers is
anticipated to rise slowly because of the growing
mechanization and automation of assembly line
operations. The overall demand for engineers,
scientists, and technicians is expected to increase
because of continued high expenditures for re­
search and development, and the continuing
trend toward the production of complex equip­
ment. Among professional and technical workers,
the greatest demand will be for engineers with
advanced degrees, particularly those who have
a background in certain specialized fields, includ­
ing quantum mechanics, solid-state circuitry,
product design, and industrial engineering. A
new and growing area of specialization for engi­
neers is in underwater research. Engineers with
experience in oceanography, or even scuba div­
ing, were in demand in early 1965. Electronics
manufacturers are also looking for engineers who
have selling ability. The demand for such work­
ers will continue because the increasing com­
plexity of industrial and commercial equipment
will require salesmen with highly technical back­
grounds. The demand for mathematicians and
physicists will be particularly great because of



expanding research in computer and laser tech­
Earnings and Working Conditions

Average hourly and weekly earnings of pro­
duction workers in electronics manufacturing in­
dustries vary considerably by type of product
produced. As shown in the following tabulation,
production workers in industries making mili­
tary-space and industrial-commercial products
had higher average earnings in 1964 than those in
industries producing other major types of elec­
tronic products.
T ype of product
A ll m a n u fa c tu r in g in d u s tr ie s _____________________
M a jo r e le c tr o n ic s m a n u fa c tu r in g in d u str ie s :
M ilita r y -s p a c e a n d in d u str ia l-c o m m e r c ia l e le c tr o n ­
ic s e n d p r o d u c t s - ________________ _______ - .............—
E le c tr o n t u b e s ______________________________________ .
R a d io a n d te le v is io n r e c e iv in g s e ts , a n d p h o n o ­
g r a p h s ______________________________________________
S e m ic o n d u c to r s a n d o th e r c o m p o n e n ts , e x c e p t
t u b e s . ________

Average Average
earnings earnings
$2 .5 3


2 .7 3
2.4 1

9 9 .05

2 .2 3

87.8 6

2 .0 7

8 1 .97

Earnings of individual production workers may
differ from the averages shown above since such
earnings depend not only on the type of plant
in which they work but also on factors such as
skill level and experience, length of service,
geographic location, and amount of overtime.
Electronics workers generally receive premium
pay for overtime work and for work on Sundays
and holidays. Virtually all plants provide extra
pay for evening and night shift work.
Many workers in electronics manufacturing
plants receive 2 or 3 weeks7vacation with pay, de­
pending on their length of service, and from 6
to 8 paid holidays a year. Almost all electronics
workers are covered by health and life insurance

plans; many are covered by pension plans and
other fringe benefits.
Working conditions in electronics manufactur­
ing compare favorably with those in other in­
dustries. Plants are usually well lighted, clean
and quiet. Many plants are relatively new and
are located in suburban and semirural areas.
Most plant departments are air conditioned where
sterile conditions or air temperature control is
necessary for the manufacture of certain types
of electronic equipment. The work in most elec­
tronics occupations is not strenuous. Many as­
sembly line operations are repetitious. Music dur­
ing working hours, cafeterias, recreational facil­
ities, and social programs are provided for em­
ployees by some electronics manufacturing firms.
The frequency of injuries in electronics manu­
facturing is far below the average in manufac­
turing as a whole, and injuries are usually less
Many workers in electronics manufacturing are
covered by labor-management agreements. The
principal unions involved are the International
Union of Electrical, Radio and Machine Work­
ers ; International Brotherhood of Electrical
Workers; International Association of Machinists
and Aerospace Workers; and the United Elec­
trical, Radio and Machine Workers of America
Where To G o for More Information

Further information concerning careers in
electronics manufacturing can be obtained from
the public relations department of individual
electronics manufacturing companies and from :
Electronic Industries Association,
2001 Eye St. NW., Washington, D.C.


The metal castings produced by foundry work­
ers are essential parts of thousands of products
ranging from automobile engines to cooking
utensils. In early 1965, an estimated 400,000
workers were employed in the Nation’s foundries
and in foundry departments of other manufactur­
ing establishments. Foundry production workers
had higher average hourly earnings than produc­
tion workers in manufacturing as a whole.
Casting is a method of forming metal into a
wide range of intricate shapes. To cast metal,
a mold is prepared with a cavity in it that has
been shaped by a pattern, or model, of the object
to be cast. Metal is then melted and poured into
the mold cavity, where it cools and solidifies.
Castings may range in length from a fraction
of an inch to many feet. They may weigh any­
where from less than an ounce to many tons. The
considerable strength and rigidity of cast objects
makes the casting process suitable for producing
thousands of items for household and industrial
uses. Among these products are machine bases,
ship propellers, bearings, industrial valves, water
faucets, water mains, engine blocks, dies, gears,
motor frames, railroad car wheels, and aircraft
and missile components.
Nature and Location of Foundry Work

An estimated 300,000 of the foundry industry’s
workers are employed in ferrous foundries—
those that make castings of iron and steel. About
60 percent of these workers are employed in
ferrous foundries that produce gray and ductile
iron castings; the remainder are employed in mal­
leable iron and steel foundries. About 100,000
workers are employed in nonferrous foundries.
Most of this group work in foundries that make
brass, bronze, aluminum, magnesium, and zinc
castings. Foundries usually specialize in cast­
ing a particular metal, since somewhat different
methods and equipment are used in melting and
in casting the different metals. However, many

nonferrous foundries and some ferrous foundries
cast several metals. With additional training,
foundry workers can transfer from foundries
casting one type of metal to foundries casting a
different one.
In general, foundries are either small- or
medium-size plants. More than 90 percent em­
ploy fewer than 250 workers each. However,
large foundries with 500 or more workers employ
more than one-third of all foundry workers.
More than two-thirds of the foundry workers
are employed in independent shops that sell their
castings to other firms. Most of the remaining
workers are employed in the foundry departments
of plants that use castings in their final products,
such as machinery and motor vehicles. A few
foundry workers are employed in foundry pattern
shops in various metalworking plants, and in
shops that make patterns on order.
There are five principal methods of casting,
each named for the type of mold used. The most
common of these is green-sand molding. In this
method, sand composed chiefly of silica and clay
is packed in a boxlike container, called a flask,
around a pattern. After the pattern is with­
drawn, molten metal is poured into the mold
cavity to form the desired metal shape. Sand
molds can be used only once, but the sand is usu­
ally reconditioned and reused.
A second method, called permanent molding,
employs a metal instead of a sand mold. Metal
molds, which can be used many times, are used
chiefly for casting nonferrous products.
Precision investment casting, a third method
(often known as the “lost wax” process), uses
ceramic molds. In this method, a wax or plastic
pattern is coated with refractory clay. After the
coating hardens, the pattern is melted and
drained, leaving a mold cavity into which molten
metal is poured. Castings produced from these
molds are precise and require little machining.
Shell molding, a fourth process, is becoming in­
creasingly important. In this method, a heated


metal pattern is covered with sand coated with
resin. The sand forms a thin shell mold that,
after curing, is stripped from the pattern. Cast­
ings produced from these molds are precise and
have a smooth surface. The process is used even
more widely to make cores, which form a cavity
in the castings.
Die casting, a fifth process, is done entirely by
machines operated by die-casting machine opera­
tors. In this method, molten metal is forced under
high pressure into steel dies from which the cast­
ings are later automatically ejected, or removed
by hand, when the metal solidifies.
Small foundries generally produce small
amounts of different kinds of castings for nearby
metal fabricating plants. These foundries or­
dinarily have little mechanized equipment. They
employ hand and machine molders and core­
makers (the key foundry occupations), and a
substantial number of unskilled laborers. Many
of these foundries produce large castings, and
require the skills of floor molders.
Large foundries are often highly mechanized
and produce great quantities of identical cast­
ings. These shops employ relatively few unskilled
laborers because cranes, conveyors, and other
types of materials-handling equipment are used
in place of hand labor to move materials, molds,
and castings. However, proportionately more
skilled maintenance workers, such as millwrights
and electricians, are employed in these foundries
to service and repair the large amount of ma­
chinery and equipment. Also, these shops employ
proportionately fewer skilled molders and core­
There are foundry jobs in every State and in
most large- and medium-size cities in the country.
Because foundries usually are located near plants
where their castings are used, foundry jobs tend
to be concentrated in States where there is con­
siderable metalworking activity; for example, in
Michigan, Ohio, Illinois, Pennsylvania, Indiana,
and Wisconsin.

industries. To explain more clearly the duties
of these workers, a brief description of the jobs
involved in the most common casting process—
sand casting—follows:
After the casting is designed, the 'pattern­
maker makes a wood or metal pattern in the
shape of the casting desired. Next, a hand
molder (D.O.T. 518.381) makes sand molds by
packing and ramming sand, specially prepared by
a sand mixer (D.O.T. 579.782), around the pattern.
A molder's helper (D.O.T. 519.887) may assist in
these operations. If large numbers of identical
castings are to be made, molding machines may
be used to make the molds at a faster speed than
is possible by hand. The operator of this equip­
ment is called a machine molder.
A coremaker shapes sand, specially prepared
by a sand mixer, into cores (bodies of sand de­
signed usually to create hollow spaces in cast­
ings). Most cores are baked in an oven by a
core-oven tender (D.O.T. 518.885). Core parts
or sections are put together by a core assembler
(D.O.T. 518.887). After the cores are assem­
bled, they are placed in the molds by coresetters
(D.O.T. 518.884). Now, the molds are ready
for the molten metal to be poured.

Foundry Occupations

More than four-fifths of the approximately
400,000 workers in foundries and foundry de­
partments in early 1965 were employed in plant
occupations. More than half of the plant workers
were employed in occupations not found in other

Pourers fill molds on conveyor line with molten aluminum.

A melter, or cupola tender (D.O.T. 512.782,
.411, .441, and .572), operates the furnace that
melts the metal. The metal is usually poured into
molds by a pourer (D.O.T. 514.884), although
in some small foundries molders may perform
this task. When the castings have cooled, they are
shaken from the molds by a shakeout man (D.O.T.
519.887) and sent to the cleaning and finishing
The dirty and rough surfaces of the castings
are cleaned and smoothed by blasting or tumbling,
and chipping and grinding. A shotblaster (D.O.T.
503.887) operates a machine that cleans the
castings by blasting them with air mixed with
metal shot or grit. The castings may be smoothed
by tumbling. In this process, the castings to­
gether with an abrasive material, and sometimes
water, are placed in a barrel which is rotated.
As the barrel turns, the castings tumble against
each other, thereby removing sand, burrs, and
scale. The man who controls the barrel is called
a tumbler operator (D.O.T. 599.885). Sand­
blasters and tumbler operators may also operate
a machine which both tumbles and blasts the
castings. A chipper (D.O.T. 809.884) and a
grinder (D.O.T. 809.884) use pneumatic chisels,
powered abrasive wheels, powersaws, and handtools, such as hammers, chisels, and files, to re­
move excess metal and to finish the castings.
Castings are frequently heat treated in fur­
naces to improve the physical properties of the
metal; a heat treater, or annealer (D.O.T. 504.782), operates these furnaces. Before the cast­
ings are packed for shipment, a casting inspector
(D.O.T. 514.687) checks them to make sure they
are structurally sound and meet blueprint specifi­
The estimated number of workers in the prin­
cipal occupations unique to foundries and foundry
departments are shown in chart 34. Detailed
discussions of three of these occupations—
patternmakers, coremakers, and molders—follow
this chapter.
Many foundry workers are employed in occu­
pations that are common to other industries. For
example, foundry maintenance mechanics, ma­
chinists, carpenters, and millwrights maintain
and repair plant and equipment. Crane and der­
rick operators and truckdrivers move castings
and casting materials from place to place. Ma-



T h o u s a n d s of w o r k e r s , 1 9 6 4 '

1 E sti m ate d.

chine tool operators finish castings in the many
foundries that do machine finishing work.
Foundries also employ thousands of workers in
relatively unskilled jobs, such as guard, janitor,
laborer, and helper.
Nearly a fifth of all foundry workers are em­
ployed in professional, technical, administrative,
clerical, and sales occupations. Of these person­
nel, the largest number are clerical workers, such
as secretaries, stenographers, typists, and account­
ing clerks.
Foundries also employ substantial numbers of
professional and technical workers, such as en­
gineers, and metallurgists. Some of these em­
ployees do research; others make designs and
layouts of machinery and equipment; control the
quality of castings; or supervise plant operations
and maintenance. In recent years, increasing
numbers of these workers have been hired to sell
castings and to assist customers in designing
cast parts. Foundry technicians are employed
in a variety of functions concerning the control
of quality in casting production. For example,
they may test molding and coremaking sand,
make chemical analyses of metal, and operate
machines that test the strength and hardness of



castings. In this work they may use X-ray or
magnetic apparatus to inspect the internal struc­
ture of castings.
Administrative workers employed in foundries
include office managers, personnel workers, pur­
chasing agents, plant managers, and other super­
visory workers.
(Detailed discussions of professional, technical,
mechanical, office, and other occupations found
in the foundry industry as well as in many other
industries are given in the sections of the Hand­
book covering individual occupations.)
The foundry work force is predominately male,
since much of the work connected with the pro­
duction of castings is strenuous. Women are
employed primarily in office jobs, although some
are employed in production occupations such as
coremaker. Women also assemble wax and
plastic patterns in investment casting foundries.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Most foundry plant workers start in unskilled
jobs, such as laborer or helper. Specialized jobs
in the plant are frequently filled by promotion.
A worker may begin as a laborer and, after re­
ceiving informal on-the-job training from a
foreman or experienced wmrker, he may gradually
learn how to perform the more skilled jobs. This
is the usual practice in training workers for such
direct casting process jobs as melter, chipper, and
Some skilled foundry workers—particularly
hand molders, hand coremakers, and pattern­
makers—learn their jobs through formal appren­
ticeship. In this type of training, the young
worker is given supervised on-the-job training
for a period of 4 or 5 years, usually supplemented
by classroom instruction. A worker who has
completed an apprenticeship program is usually
preferred by foundry management because he
has a greater working knowledge of all foundry
operations and is, therefore, better qualified to
fill supervisory jobs.
An increasing number of skilled foundry
workers learn their jobs through a combination
of trade school and on-the-job training. Begin­
ning workers may attend trade schools that offer
training in foundry work before entering a formal
apprenticeship program; in some cases, trade

school courses may be credited toward completion
of formal apprenticeships.
Employment Outlook

The foundry industry will hire thousands of
workers annually during the 1965-75 decade,
mainly to replace experienced workers who trans­
fer to other fields of work, retire, or die. Be­
cause the industry employs a large number of
workers, retirements and deaths alone will pro­
vide about 9,000 job openings annually. Addi­
tional openings will result from the expected
moderate growth in employment in foundries and
foundry departments during the decade ahead,
assuming relatively full employment and the
high levels of economic activity needed to achieve
this goal. Because foundry production employ­
ment fluctuates widely with general business
conditions, employment will increase less rapidly
than projected if relatively full employment and
high levels of economic activity are not achieved.
A substantial increase in foundry production
is expected during the decade ahead. Growing
population and rising levels of personal dispos­
able income will result in greater demand for
castings and products that include cast parts.
These products include, for example, automobiles,
plumbing fixtures, air conditioners, household ap­
pliances, and gas and water lines. New ma­
chinery, much of which will'be made with cast
components, will also be needed to produce the
increasing quantity of goods needed to satisfy
the requirements of an expanding population.
In addition, the need for additional transporta­
tion equipment to transport the output of a
growing economy will stimulate the demand for
castings used in trucks, buses, railroad cars, ships,
and aircraft.
Foundry employment is expected to rise at a
much slower rate than production. Continued
improvements in casting methods, particularly
in machine molding and coremaking, and the
increasing use of machinery for materials han­
dling, will result in greater output per foundry
Employment is expected to rise faster in some
occupations than in others; in a few occupations,
employment may actually decline. For example,
scientists, engineers, and other technical person­
nel are expected to increase more rapidly than



other workers as a result of expanding research
activity in such fields as quality control and
casting methods. Technicians also will be needed
in greater numbers as the foundry industry in­
troduces improved quality control procedures and
new production techniques. More maintenance
workers and operators of materials moving ma­
chines will be needed because of the increasing
use of materials-handling equipment and more
complex processing equipment. In contrast, the
number of hand molders, hand coremakers, and
other hand processing workers will show little
change, because of the increasing substitution of
machine molding and coremaking for hand proc­
esses. The number of laborers and other un­
skilled workers employed in the industry will
continue to decline.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Wages in foundries are somewhat above the
average for all manufacturing. In mid-1965, earn­
ings of production workers in iron and steel foun­
dries averaged $127.16 a week, or $2.89 an hour.
In nonferrous foundries, the average was $113.13 a
week, or $2.70 an hour. By comparison, production
workers in all manufacturing industries had aver­
age earnings of $108.21 a week, or $2.62 an hour.
Collective bargaining contracts negotiated be­
tween foundry employers and unions generally
included provisions for fringe benefits, such as
holiday pay, vacation pay, and retirement pen­
sions. Other important benefits often included
in such contracts were life, hospital, surgical,
sickness, and accident insurance.
Working conditions in foundries have im­
proved in recent years. Many foundries have re­
duced the heat, fumes, and smoke that are part
of foundry operations through the installation
of modern ventilating systems and improved
plant layout. Although the rate of disabling work
injuries in foundries is higher than the average
for all manufacturing industries, employers and

unions attempt to eliminate injuries by promot­
ing safety training and the use of protective
equipment, such as face shields, metal toe shoes,
metal helmets, and safety glasses.
Various labor unions have foundry workers in
their membership. Among these unions are the
International Molders’ and Allied Workers’
Union of North America; the United Steel­
workers of America; the International Union,
United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural
Implement Workers of America; and the Inter­
national Union of Electrical, Radio and Machine
Workers. Many patternmakers are members of
the Pattern Makers’ League of North America.
Where To G o for More Information

For further information about work and/or
training opportunities in foundry occupations,
inquiries should be directed to local foundries;
the local office of the State employment service;
the nearest office of the State apprenticeship
agency or the Bureau of Apprenticeship and
Training, U.S. Department of Labor; and the
following organizations:
Foundry Educational Foundation,
1138 Terminal Tower, Cleveland, Ohio


International Molders’ and Allied Workers’ Union of
North America,
1225 East McMillan St., Cincinnati, Ohio 45206.
National Foundry Association,
9838 Roosevelt Road, P.O. Box 76, Westchester, 111.
Non-Ferrous Founders’ Society, Inc.,
509 Terminal Tower, Cleveland, Ohio


Gray and Ductile Iron Founders’ Society, Inc.,
National City-East 6th Bldg., Cleveland, Ohio
American Foundrymen’s Society,
Golf and Wolf Rds., Des Plaines, 111. 60016.
Malleable Founders’ Society,
781 Union Commerce Bldg., Cleveland, Ohio


Steel Founders’ Society of America,
606 Terminal Tower, Cleveland, Ohio 44113.

Nature of Work

F oundry 'patternmakers are highly skilled
craftsmen who build patterns used in making
molds in which foundry castings are formed.

Most of the workers in the occupation are metal
patternmakers (D.O.T. 600.280) ; a somewhat
smaller number are wood patternmakers (D.O.T.
661.281). In the last decade or so, increasing



use has been made of plaster and plastics in
patternmaking. Although these materials are
used mainly by wood patternmakers, they are
also used by metal patternmakers. In addition,
a small number of patternmakers work exclu­
sively with plaster and plastics.
Patternmakers work from blueprints prepared
by the engineering department. They make a
precise pattern for the product, allowing for
shrinkage of molten metal used in the casting
process and for other factors.
The metal patternmaker prepares patterns
from metal stock or, more commonly, from rough
castings made from an original wood pattern.
To shape and finish the patterns, he uses a vari­
ety of metalworking machines, including the
engine lathe, drill press, shaper, milling machine,
power hacksaw, and grinder, as well as small
The wood patternmaker selects the appropriate
woodstock, lays out the pattern, marks the design
for each section on the proper piece of wood, and
saws each piece roughly to size. He then shapes
the rough pieces into final form, using various
woodworking machines, such as circular saws,
lathes, planers, bandsaws, and sanders, as well
as many small handtools. Finally, he assembles
the pattern segments by hand, using glue, screws,
and nails.
A high degree of accuracy is required to make
patterns, since any imperfection in the pattern
will be reproduced in the castings made from it.
Throughout his work, the patternmaker care­
fully checks each dimension of the pattern, using
a variety of measuring instruments such as
shrink rules, calipers, micrometers, and gages.
Patternmakers also may make core boxes (in
much the same manner as patterns are con­
structed) and repair patterns and core boxes.
More than half of the patternmakers work in
specially equipped foundry pattern shops in
plants making such products as machinery,
transportation equipment, and fabricated metal
products. Other patternmakers work in plants
that make patterns on order, or in pattern shops
in independent foundries.
Training and Other Qualifications

Apprenticeship is the principal means of quali­
fying as a journeyman patternmaker. Because
316 0 — 65-------44

Metal patternmaker operates boring mill.

of the high degree of skill and the wide range of
knowledge needed for patternmaking, it is diffi­
cult to learn the trade informally on the job.
In some instances, skilled machinists have been
able to transfer to metal patternmaking with
additional on-the-job training or experience.
Good trade school courses in patternmaking pro­
vide useful preparation for the prospective ap­
prentice. Such courses may be credited toward
completion of the apprenticeship period. How­
ever, these courses do not substitute for appren­
ticeship or other on-the-job training.
The usual apprenticeship period for pattern­
making is 5 years. At least 144 hours of class­
room instruction in related technical subjects
is normally provided annually. There are sepa­
rated apprenticeship programs for wood and metal
The patternmaker apprentice begins by help­
ing journeymen in routine duties. Then he makes
simple patterns under close supervision, gradu­
ally learning to use the various types of ma­
chines and handtools. As his training progresses,



the work becomes increasingly complex and the
supervision more general.
Patternmaking, although not strenuous, re­
quires considerable standing and moving about. A
high degree of manual dexterity is especially
important because of the precise nature of many
hand operations. The ability to visualize objects
in three dimensions is also important. Employers
generally require patternmaker apprentices to
have had at least a high school education.

individual patterns needed to produce a given
number of castings.
Because patternmakers learn either basic
metalworking or woodworking skills, they can
find jobs in related fields when patternmaking
employment is not available. Wood pattern­
makers can qualify for skilled woodworking jobs,
such as cabinetmaker, and metal patternmakers
can transfer their skills to machining occupations
such as machinist or layout man.

Employment Outlook

Earnings and Working Conditions

There will be a few thousand job openings for
foundry patternmakers, mainly metal pattern­
makers, during the 1965-75 decade. Most job
openings will result from the need to replace
experienced patternmakers who transfer to other
fields of work, retire, or die. Ketirements and
deaths alone will create about 400 job openings
Employment of foundry patternmakers—who
numbered about 19,000 in early 1965—is expected
to increase slowly during the decade ahead, de­
spite the anticipated substantial increase in
foundry production. The need for patternmakers
will not increase as fast as production, because
of the greater use of metal patterns in the pro­
duction of large numbers of identical castings.
Metal patterns can be used many times to make
identical molds, thereby reducing the number of

Skilled patternmakers generally have higher
average straight-time earnings than other skilled
foundry workers. However, the earnings of both
wood and metal patternmakers depend on the
skill requirements of the job, the type of metal
poured, and the geographic location of the
foundries in which they are employed. Generally,
metal patternmakers have higher average hourly
earnings than wood patternmakers. In January
1965, average straight-time hourly earnings of
wood patternmakers ranged from $3.25 in gray
iron and malleable foundries to $4 in steel found­
ries, according to a national survey of wages and
fringe benefits for 26 foundry occupations in
54 labor areas, made by the National Foundry
See “Where To Go for More Information” in
the introductory section of this chapter.

Nature of Work

The molder prepares a mold, made of specially
prepared sand, which contains a hollow space
in the shape of the item to be made. The mold
is made by packing and ramming prepared sand
around a pattern—a model of the object to be
duplicated—in a molding box called a flask. A
flask is usually made in two parts which can be
separated to allow removal of the pattern by the
molder without damaging the mold cavity.
Molten metal is poured into the cavity which,
when solidified, forms the casting. A molder
uses pneumatic-powered rammers and handtools,
such as trowels, shovels, and mallets, to handle,
compact, and smooth the sand in molds made by

Most of the more than 50,000 workers in this
occupation in early 1965 were machine molders;
the rest were hand—bench and floor—molders.
Machine molders (D.O.T. 518.782) operate ma­
chines which simplify and speed the making of
large quantities of identical sand molds. Machine
molders assemble the flask (molding box) and pat­
tern on the machine table, fill the flask with pre­
pared sand, and operate the machine by the
properly timed use of its control levers and pedals.
Many machine molders are skilled workers who
set up and adjust their own machines. Some ma­
chine molders are semskilled workers whose duties
are limited to operating machines which are set up
for them by more experienced molders or main­
tenance men.



Hand molders use trowels to finish floor mold.

Bench and floor molders use mainly hand
methods to make the sand molds. Molds for small
castings are usually made on the workbench by
bench molders (D.O.T. 518.381); those for large
and bulky castings are made on the foundry floor
by -floor molders (D.O.T. 518.381). Skill require­
ments in this occupation vary considerably. An
all-round hand molder (journeyman) makes
many different kinds of molds. A less skilled
molder does more repetitive work, specializing
in a few simple types of molds.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Completion of a 4-year apprentice training
program, or the equivalent in experience, is
needed to become a journeyman molder and thus
qualify both for all-round hand molding and for
the specialized skilled or supervisory jobs. Men
with this training are also preferred for some
kinds of machine molding.
The molder apprentice works under the close
supervision of journeymen who instruct him in
the skills of the craft. About half of the appren­
tice training is devoted directly to molding. The
apprentice begins with a simple job, such as
shoveling sand; and gradually takes on more
difficult and responsible work, such as ramming
molds, withdrawing patterns, and setting cores.
He also learns to operate the various types of
molding machines. As his training progresses,
he makes complete molds, beginning with simple
shapes and progressing to those of increasing

complexity. This training includes both floorwork and benchwork. In addition, the apprentice
may work in other foundry departments to de­
velop all-round knowledge of foundry methods
and practice. The apprentice usually receives at
least 144 hours of classroom instruction each year
in such subjects as shop arithmetic, metallurgy,
and shop drawing.
Molders’ helpers and less-skilled hand molders
frequently learn molding skills informally on the
job, and then seek jobs as journeymen. However,
this way of learning the trade is often lengthier
and less reliable than apprenticeship.
Hand molders who do highly repetitive work
usually learn their jobs during a brief training
period. “Learners” (either men without previous
foundry experience or upgraded foundry helpers)
work with a molder engaged in making a par­
ticular kind of mold. After 2 to 6 months of this
training, the learner is usually competent to make
the same mold, or one that is roughly similar,
without close supervision.
The more difficult and responsible types of
machine molding jobs also require formal or
equivalent training. However, most machine
molding jobs can be learned in 60 to 90 days of
on-the-job training.
An eighth grade education usually is the
minimum requirement for apprenticeship. Many
employers, however, require additional education
up to and including high school graduation for
apprenticeship in skilled hand molding or ma­
chine molding jobs.
Physical standards for molding jobs are fairly
high. The molder stands at his work, moves
about a great deal, and must do frequent lifting.
The hand molder needs a high degree of manual
dexterity and good vision. Since the work is
fairly strenuous, very few women are employed
as molders.
Employment Outlook

The need to replace molders who transfer to
other fields of work, retire, or die will provide
most of the job openings for new workers in
this trade during the 1965-75 decade. Retirements
and deaths alone will provide more than 1,000
openings annually. Several hundred of these
openings will be for molding apprentices. There
will also be openings each year for workers in



entry jobs in machine molding and in the less
skilled types of hand molding.
Employment of molders is expected to increase
slowly during the decade ahead, despite the
anticipated substantial increase in foundry pro­
duction. The demand for molders will not in­
crease as fast as foundry production, since the
trend is toward more machine molding and less
hand molding, and the increasing use of perma­
nent molds and shell molds.

of bench molders and squeezer-machine molders
was $2.67; heavy machine molders, $2.72; and
floor molders, $2.82, according to a national sur­
vey of wages and fringe benefits for 26 foundry
occupations in 54 labor areas, made by the
National Foundry Association. As shown in the
following tabulation of average (mean) straighttime hourly earnings for molding occupations,
the highest earnings were received by floor molders
and bench molders in steel foundries:

Earnings and Working Conditions

T y p e of F oundry

The earnings of molders depend on several
factors, including the type of molding work
performed—hand or machine; the specific type
of hand or machine work performed; the skill
requirements of the job; the type of metal poured;
and the geographic location of the foundry in
which they are employed. In January 1965, the
average (median) straight-time hourly earnings

T ype of M older

Heavy machine
Squeezer machine

Oray Iron
M alleable

$2. 72
2. 62




N onferrous



See “Where To Go for More Information” in
the introductory section of this chapter.

Nature of Work

Coremakers prepare the “cores” which are
placed in molds to form the hollows or holes
usually required in metal castings. The poured
metal solidifies around the core so that when
the core is removed, the desired cavity or con­
tour remains. A core may be made either by
hand or machine. In both instances, prepared
sand is packed into a core box, a block of wood
or metal into which a hollow space of the size
and shape of the desired core has been cut. After
the core has been removed from the core box, it
is hardened either by baking or by other drying
methods. When hand methods are used to make a
core, the coremaker uses mallets and other handtools to pack and ram sand into the core box.
In hand coremaking, small cores are made on
the workbench by bench coremakers (D.O.T.
518.381) and bulky cores are made on the foundry
floor by floor coremakers (D.O.T. 518.381).
There is a wide range of skill requirements in
this occupation. All-round hand coremakers
(journeymen) prepare large and intricate cores.
The less skilled coremakers make smaller and
simpler cores. Their work is highly repetitive
because they frequently produce large quantities

of identical cores. Many skilled coremakers are
employed as supervisors.
Machine coremakers (D.O.T. 518.885) operate
machines which make sand cores by forcing sand
into specially shaped hollow forms. Some ma­
chine coremakers are required to set up and adjust
their own machines and do finishing operations on
the cores. Other coremakers are primarily ma­
chine tenders. They are closely supervised and
their machines are adjusted for them.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Completion of a 4-year apprentice training
program or the equivalent in experience is needed
to become a skilled hand coremaker. Coremaking
apprenticeships are also sometimes required for
the more difficult and responsible machine core­
making jobs. Only a brief period of on-the-job
training is needed for less skilled hand coremak­
ing and for most machine coremaking jobs.
Training in coremaking and molding are often
combined in a single apprenticeship.
The coremaking apprentice works with jour­
neymen coremakers, first helping them in routine
duties and then undertaking more advanced
work, such as making simple cores, or operating



Some types of hand coremaking require a high
degree of manual dexterity. Women are fre­
quently employed to do light coremaking.
Employment Outlook

Most job openings for coremakers during the
1965-75 decade will result from the need to re­
place experienced coremakers who transfer to
other fields of work, retire, or die. Retirements
and deaths alone will create about 500 job open­
ings annually.
The employment of coremakers—who num­
bered about 25,000 in early 1965—is expected to
increase slowly during the decade ahead, despite
the anticipated substantial increase in foundry
production. The demand for coremakers will not
increase as fast as production, because of the
growing use of machine-made, rather than hand­
made, cores.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Coremaker operates machine that forces sand into hollow forms.

core ovens. As his skill increases, the apprentice
makes more complex cores. He acquires experi­
ence in benchwork and floorwork and in the oper­
ation of coremaking machines used in the plant.
On-the-job training is generally supplemented by
classroom instruction covering such subjects as

arithmetic, shop drawing, and the properties of
metals. Hand coremakers with all-round train­
ing have opportunities for promotion to super­
visory jobs.
An eighth grade education is usually a mini­
mum requirement for coremaking apprentice
training; some employers require apprentices to
be high school graduates.
Persons without previous foundry experience
may be hired directly for the less skilled core­
making jobs, or foundry laborers or helpers
may be upgraded to do this work. Physical
requirements for light coremaking are not exact­
ing because the work is not very strenuous.

The earnings of both hand and machine core­
makers depend not only on the skill requirements
of the job, but also on the type of metal poured
and the geographic location of the foundry in
which they are employed. In January 1965, the
average (median) straight-time hourly earnings
of bench coremakers was $2.67; floor coremakers,
$2.87; and machine coremakers, $2.82, according
to a national survey of wages and fringe benefits
for 26 foundry occupations in 54 labor areas,
made by the National Foundry Association. As
shown in the following tabulation of average
(mean) straight-time hourly earnings for core­
making occupations, the highest averages were
recorded for floor and bench coremakers in steel
foundries and floor coremakers in nonferrous
T yp e of Foundry
Gray Iron
M alleable


Floor coremaker
Bench coremaker
Machine coremaker


$2. 82
2. 57
2. 52


$2. 87
2. 87
2. 85

N onferrous

$2. 87
2. 57
2. 40

See “Where To Go for More Information” in
the introductory section of this chapter.

Throughout the United States, travelers find
hotels and motels ready to provide them with a
“home-away-from-home.” Almost 600,000 people
worked in these hotels, motels, and related busi­
nesses in 1965. Nearly 4 out of 5 were employed
in the Nation’s more than 25,000 hotels and
motor hotels, chiefly in urban areas. Of the
remainder, most worked in the substantially
larger number of motels and tourist courts located
on the outskirts of large cities, along major high­
ways, and, to some extent, in resort areas. A few
were employed in related businesses such as sum­
mer camps and dude ranches. Slightly less than
half of the employees in hotels and related busi­
nesses were women.
Some hotel occupations can be entered with
little or no specialized training. In many kinds
of hotel work, however, the demand for specially
trained people is increasing. Hotels are complex
organizations and need personnel with specialized
training and experience in the business, to direct
and coordinate operations which may involve
thousands of guests annually and millions of
dollars o f property and equipment.
This chapter deals with employment oppor­
tunities in hotels, motels, and related businesses.
Following the introductory sections are separate
statements on several hotel occupations.
The Hotel Business and Its Workers

Hotels are of three main types—commercial,
residential, and resort. The vast majority are
commercial hotels which cater chiefly to trans­
ients—that is, travelers seeking a room for a brief
stay. A relatively small number are residential
hotels, which chiefly accommodate people for long
periods, ranging from a few months to many
years. Others are resort hotels, which provide
lodging for vacationers. Motor hotels, motels,
and other establishments cater especially to vaca­
tioners and other travelers seeking accomodations

for a short time. Commercial and residential
hotels generally operate the year round. Although
many resort hotels, motor hotels, and motels are
open for only part of the year—for example, dur­
ing the winter season in Florida, or the summer
months in northern parts of the country—an in­
creasing number are remaining open the year
Hotels range in size from those with less than
25 rooms and only a few employees, to some with
1,000 or more rooms and many hundreds of
workers. In the past few years, an increasing
number of motor hotels, some with a hundred or
more rooms, have been built, and these may
have large staffs. Most motels, however, are rel­
atively small, including a sizable number which
are run by the owners with few, if any, paid em­
Most hotels have restaurants, ranging from
simple coffee shops to vast dining rooms, wine
cellars, and elaborate kitchens. Large city hotels
and motor hotels also may have banquet rooms,
exhibit halls, and spacious ballrooms—to accom­
modate conventions, business meetings, and social
gatherings. Many hotels, especially in resort
areas, have recreational facilities such as swim­
ming pools, golf courses, and tennis courts. For
the convenience of guests, hotels may provide in­
formation about interesting places to visit, sell
tickets to theaters and sporting events, and even
call in babysitters. Their facilities often include
newsstands, gift shops, barber and beauty shops,
laundry and valet services, and railroad and air­
line ticket reservation offices. Motels and tourist
courts usually offer fewer services than hotels.
The number with restaurants, swimming pools,
and other conveniences for guests is steadily in­
creasing, however.
Because of the many services they offer, hotels
need workers in a wide variety of occupations.
One of the largest groups of hotel employees is
in the housekeeping department. Many thousands



of maids, porters, housemen, linen room attend­
ants, and laundry room workers are employed in
“back of the house” jobs—to make beds, clean
rooms and halls, move furniture, hang draperies,
provide guests with fresh linens and towels, op­
erate laundry equipment, and mark and inspect
laundered items. Women are usually employed
for the lighter housekeeping tasks, whereas men
have jobs requiring more strenuous physical
effort, such as washing walls and arranging furni­
ture. Large hotels and motor hotels usually em­
ploy executive housekeepers to supervise these
workers, and some hotels may also have a special
manager in charge of laundry operations.
In most hotels, a uniformed staff performs
services in the lobby. This staff includes the
bellmen who carry baggage for guests and escort
them to their rooms. Doormen are also a part
of the uniformed staff, as are elevator operators.
The front office staff work as room clerks, key
clerks, mail clerks, and information clerks. Their
chief duties are to greet guests, assign rooms,
and furnish information. Perhaps half of the
hotel clerical workers are front office employees.
The remainder, mainly women, are employed in a
variety of office occupations such as bookkeeper,
cashier, telephone operator, and secretary. These
occupations are discussed elsewhere in the Hand­
Managers and their assistants are a relatively
small group with the highly important task of
supervising hotel operations and making them
profitable. A general manager is in charge of
hotel operations. Some general managers have
assistants who are in charge of the front office
or help with other phases of hotel management.
Some assistants may be responsible for specific
operations; for example, food-service managers
who operate the dining rooms and other eating
facilities, or sales managers responsible for at­
tracting more business to the hotel.
In addition, hotels employ numerous other
types of workers who also are found in other
industries. Among these are accountants per­
sonnel workers, musicians and entertainers, rec­
reation workers, waiters, chefs, and bartenders.
Maintenance workers, such as carpenters, electri­
cians, stationary engineers, plumbers, and
painters, also work for hotels. Still other types
of workers employed in hotels include detectives,

barbers, beauty salon operators, valets, seam­
stresses, and gardeners. Most of these occupations
are discussed elsewhere in the Handbook.
Employment Outlook

A rapid increase in employment is likely in
this industry through 1975. In addition, about
30,000 workers will be required each year to
replace those who retire or die. Many additional
openings will result from the need to replace
workers who transfer to positions in other in­
Most of the anticipated employment growth in
the industry will stem from the need to staff
new hotels, motor hotels, and motels being built
in urban areas. Limited expansion also will prob­
ably take place in older hotels that try to meet
the challenge of increasing competition for busi­
ness by modernizing their facilities and expand­
ing their services. Hotels that are unable to
modernize their facilities are likely to experience
low occupancy rates and may be forced to reduce
overhead costs by eliminating services and the
workers who provide them. Thousands of tem­
porary jobs will continue to be available each
year in resort hotels, motels, and other establish­
ments which are open only part of the year or
have more business in some seasons than others.
Over the long run, the demand for lodging
is expected to increase as the country’s popula­
tion grows and travel for business and pleasure
increases. Jet air travel, which permits business­
men and others who travel frequently to make a
trip to a distant city, complete their business,
and return home the same day, may somewhat
hamper this increase. Employment is likely to
rise most, rapidly in motels, motor hotels, and
other businesses catering especially to motorists.
This trend has been evident for some time and will
continue, as the Federal highway building pro­
gram further stimulates both automobile travel
and the building of motels and motor hotels. In
motels, most of the additional employees (not
counting new owners) will be housekeeping and
food-service workers.
Most of the job openings in hotels will con­
tinue to be for workers who need little specialized
training, such as maids, porters, housemen,
kitchen helpers, and some dining room employees.

These jobs account for a large proportion of all
hotel workers, and have high turnover rates.
When general employment conditions are good,
people in such jobs find it relatively easy to shift
to other kinds of work. Also many of the workers
are women, who often leave their jobs to take
care of their families. In a few of these occupa­
tions technological changes may limit the number
of openings. For example, the increased use of
automatic dishwashers, vegetable cutters and
peelers, and other mechanical kitchen equipment
is likely to reduce the need for kitchen helpers.
A number of young people will also be needed
every year in front office jobs, to replace clerks
who are promoted to managerial posts as well
as to fill new jobs in the increasing number of
hotels and motels. In addition, there will be
openings for clerical workers, although the in­
creasing use of office machines may adversely
affect clerical employment in hotels. Oppor­
tunities are expected to be favorable for young
people who acquire the training and experience
necessary to qualify for jobs as cooks and food
managers. (Food service workers and office
workers are discussed elsewhere in the Hand­
Earnings and Working Conditions

The location, size, and type of hotel affect
earnings of hotel workers. Other significant fac­
tors include the tipping practice for the occupa­
tion and the degree of unionization. Hotel work­
ers are not covered by the Fair Labor Standards
Act, a Federal statute which sets minimum wages
and regulates hours of work. However, more than
half the States have their own wage and hour
laws that cover hotel workers among others.
Salaries of hotel employees in managerial posi­
tions have an especially wide range, mainly be­
cause of great differences in duties and responsi­
bilities. Hotel manager trainees are usually given
periodic increases for the first year or two. Ex­
perienced managers may earn several times as
much as beginners; a few, in top jobs, earn
$50,000 or more a year. In addition to salary,
hotels customarily furnish managers and their
families with lodging in the hotel, meals, parking
facilities, laundry, and other services.


Since earnings of bellmen are greatly affected
by tips, it is difficult to obtain meaningful data
on their income. In large luxury and resort
hotels, bellmen may earn $100 or more a week
(including tips).
Data on the earnings of nonsupervisory workers
in several hotel occupations are available from a
1963 survey by the Bureau of Labor Statistics
in 23 large cities. Hourly rates were generally
highest for room clerks and lowest for bellmen,
waiters, and waitresses, who usually receive tips
which add to their salaries. In practically all
occupations, earnings were lowest in southern
cities and highest in cities in the West.
M en

Average H ourly Wages, J u n e 1963
Low est

B e llm e n ___________

$1.16 (S a n F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d )

$0.30 (A tla n ta )

R o o m c le r k s -----------

$2.38 (S a n F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d )
$1.82 ( N e w Y o r k C it y a n d S a n
F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d )
$1.81 (S a n F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d )
$1.76 (S a n F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d )
$2.27 (S a n F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d )
$1.57 (S a n F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d )

$1.21 (M e m p h is )

E le v a t o r o p e r a to r
(p a ssen g er )
H o u s e m e n _________
D is h w a s h e r s ........... ..
P a n t r y m e n ...............
W a ite r s ------------------

$0.48 (M e m p h is )
$0.54 (M e m p h is )
$0.45 (M e m p h is )
$0.90 ( K a n s a s C it y )
$0.31 (A tla n ta )

W omen
R o o m c le r k s ----------E le v a to r o p e r a to r s
(p a ssen g er )
C h a m b e r m a id s ___
D is h w a s h e r s ..............
P a n t r y w o m e n ------W a itr e s se s ................ ..

$2.07 ( N e w Y o r k C i t y ) ..............
$1.83 (S a n F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d a n d N e w Y o r k C it y )
$1.70 (S a n F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d )
$1.81 (S a n F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d )
$2.22 (S a n F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d )
$1.50 (S a n F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d )

$1.10 (M e m p h is )
$0.32 (M e m p h is )
$0.51 ( N e w O r lea n s a n d
M e m p h is )
$0.51 ( N e w O rlean s)
$0.56 (M e m p h is )
$0.22 (A tla n ta )

Housemen and most nonsupervisory employees
generally work a 40-hour week, except in the
South where the scheduled week is usually 48
hours. For most front office clerks the scheduled
workweek ranges from 40 hours—particularly
common in the Northeast—to 48 hours in practi­
cally all southern cities. In a few cities, the work­
week is less than 40 hours.
Since hotels are open round the clock, workers
may be employed on any one of three shifts.
Staffs are usually smaller on night than on day
shifts, and additional compensation may be paid
for work during late hours. Managers and house­
keepers who live in the hotel usually have regular
work schedules, although managers may be called
on at any time.



Waiters and waitresses, cooks, pantry workers,
dishwashers, and other kitchen workers commonly
receive free meals; in a few hotels, maids, elevator
operators, and room clerks also receive free meals.
More than three-fourths of nonsupervisory em­
ployees are covered by paid vacation provisions,
the duration of the vacation usually being deter­
mined by length of service. Paid holidays—usu­
ally 4 to 6 a year—are provided for nearly half
of the nonsupervisory hotel employees.
The Hotel & Restaurant Employees and
Bartenders International Union is the major
union in the hotel business. Uniformed personnel,
such as bellmen and elevator operators, may be
members of the Building Service Employees’ In ­
ternational Union. The degree of unionization,
however, differs sharply from area to area. In
Boston, Chicago, Detroit, New York, St. Louis,
and San Francisco-Oakland, 90 percent or more
of nonsupervisory employees, except front desk
and office, are in establishments with union con­
tract agreements. In New Orleans, Atlanta, and
Memphis the percentage is 20 or below.

Where To G o for More Information

Information on careers in hotel work may be
obtained from :
American Hotel and Motel Association,
221 West 57th St., New York, N.Y. 10019.

Additional information on training oppor­
tunities, and a directory of schools and colleges
offering courses in the hotel field may be ob­
tained by writing to :
Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional
Statler Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 14850.

Information on housekeeping in hotels, includ­
ing a list of schools offering courses in house­
keeping, may be obtained from :
National Executive Housekeepers Association, Inc.,
Business and Professional Building,
Gallipolis, Ohio 45631.

Information on courses relating to hotel work
may be obtained from the local Director of Voca­
tional Education, the Superintendent of Schools
in the local community, or the State Director of
Vocational Education in the Department of Edu­
cation in the State capital.

Bellmen and Bell Captains
(2d ed. D.O.T. 2 - 22. 11 ; 2 - 22.01)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 324.138 and .878)

Nature of Work

Bellmen, also called bellboys or bellhops, carry
the baggage of incoming hotel guests while escort­
ing them to their rooms. The bellman checks
the lights and the supply of towels and soap, and
sees that everything is in order in the room. He
may suggest the use of various hotel services, in­
cluding the dining room and the valet service.
Bellmen also perform errands for guests and
deliver packages. I t is roughly estimated that in
1965, about 20,000 such workers were employed
in the Nation’s lodging places. In large hotels,
special baggage porters are usually employed to
carry baggage for guests who are checking out.
In smaller hotels, bellmen carry baggage for out­
going as well as incoming guests and may also
relieve the elevator operator or switchboard op­
Bell captains are employed in large and many
medium-size hotels to supervise the bellmen.
They assign work to these employees, keep their

time records, and instruct new bellmen in their
duties. They may also help guests arrange for
transportation by giving them information on
train and plane schedules and sending a bag­
gage porter or a bellman to pick up the trans­
portation tickets. In addition, they handle com­
plaints from guests regarding the work of their
department, and take care of requests for un­
usual services. At times, bell captains may also
perform the duties of bellmen.
Superintendents of service—found in only a
few hotels with large service departments—
supervise elevator operators and starters, door­
men, and washroom attendants, as well as bell­
men and bell captains.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

No specific educational requirements exist for
bellman jobs. Graduation from high school, how­
ever, enhances a bellman’s opportunities for



Since bellmen are in frequent contact with the
public it is important that they be neat, tactful,
and courteous. A knowledge of the attractions
and geography of the local community is an asset.
They must also be able to stand all day and to
carry heavy baggage.
Employment Outlook

Bell captain inspects bellmen before they begin their d ay’s

transfer to front office clerical jobs, and for pro­
motion. (See statement on Front Office Clerks in
this chapter.)

In many hotels, bellman jobs are filled by
promoting men employed as elevator operators.
In the service department of the hotel, the line of
promotion is from bellman to bell captain to
superintendent of service. Some of the factors
which may affect a bellman’s chances for advance­
ment are a favorable work record showing few
complaints by guests, good work habits, and
leadership qualities. Since there is only one bell
captain’s position in each hotel, it may be a num­
ber of years before an opening occurs. Oppor­
tunities for advancement to the position of super­
intendent of service are even more limited.

Nearly a thousand openings for bellmen are
expected each year through the mid-1970’s to
take care of growth and deaths and retirements.
Many additional openings will also be created as
bellmen transfer to other occupations. Since a
promotion-from-within policy is followed by
many hotels in advancing men elevator opera­
tors to bellman jobs, chances for outsiders to
enter year-round jobs as bellmen will be best in
hotels which employ women as elevator operators,
and in the increasing number of hotels with
automatic elevators. Many opportunities for
temporary jobs will also arise in resort hotels
which are open only part of the year and hire
college students and other young men. Many
beginners will also be needed in small hotels, to
replace experienced bellmen who shift to jobs in
luxury hotels where earnings from tips may be
higher. Competition among employed bellmen
for the relatively few bell captain jobs that will
become available in the future is expected to re­
main keen.
Only small growth in employment of bellmen
is likely through the mid-1970’s. Some additional
jobs will be created as new hotels and motor hotels
are built and additions are made to existing
hotels. The fast growing motel business will also
provide some new jobs; however, because of the
type of construction and the emphasis on in­
formality, relatively few motels employ bellmen.
See introductory section to this chapter for
information on Earnings and Working Condi­
tions, Where To Go for More Information, and
for additional information on Employment Out­



Front Office Clerks
(2d ed. D.O.T. 1-.07)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 242.368)

Nature of Work

Hotels employ front office clerks to greet guests,
rent rooms, handle mail, and do other work re­
lated to assigning rooms. It is estimated that about
40,000 such workers were employed in the Nation’s
lodging places in 1965. By working “upfront”
in hotel lobbies, they deal directly with the public
and help build a hotel’s reputation for courteous
and efficient service. In small hotels and in motels,
a front office clerk (who may be the owner) may
not only rent rooms, issue keys, sort mail, and
give information, but also do some bookkeeping
and act as cashier. On the other hand, large hotels
usually employ several front office clerks, who
may be assigned to the following different kinds
of jobs.
Room or desk clerks rent the available rooms.
Customarily, they are the first of the front office
clerical staff to great guests. In assigning rooms,
they must be aware of advance registrations,
consider any preferences guests may express, and
at the same time try to obtain maximum revenues
for the hotel. Boom clerks give information
about hotel rates and the types of services avail­
able, and see that guests fill out registration forms
properly. After registration is completed, room
clerks signal bellmen to carry guests’ luggage.
Reservation clerks acknowledge room reserva­
tions by mail or telephone, type out registration
forms, and notify the room clerk when guests are
due to arrive. To keep room assignment records
current, rack clerks insert or remove forms indi­
cating when rooms become occupied or vacant
or when they are closed for repairs. They also
keep housekeepers, telephone operators, and other
personnel informed about changes in room oc­
cupancy. Other special clerks, such as key, mail,
and information clerks are employed in some
hotels. In the largest hotels floor supervisors or
floor clerks are assigned to each floor to handle
the distribution of mail and packages and per­
form other incidental duties.
In all but the very largest hotels, front office
clerks may be responsible for a combination of
these various duties. They may have other duties

Front office clerks register guests and

give hotel service

as well, particularly when they work on late even­
ing shifts. For example, the night room clerk
may perform bookkeeping functions or assist
cashiers with their clerical work.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

High school graduates who have some clerical
aptitude and the personal characteristics neces­
sary for dealing with the public may be hired
for beginning jobs such as mail, information, or
key clerk. Neatness, a courteous and friendly
manner, and ease in dealing with people are im­
portant personal traits for front office clerical
workers. Typing and bookkeeping courses given
in high school may be helpful, particularly for
night-shift work where additional clerical duties
are often performed, or for jobs in smaller hotels,



where the front office clerks often have a variety
of duties. Although education beyond high school
is generally not required for front office work,
hotel employers are increasingly attaching greater
importance to college training in selecting per­
sonnel, who may later be advanced to managerial
positions. Front office clerks may improve their
opportunities for promotion by taking home study
courses, such as those sponsored by the Educa­
tional Institute of the American Hotel and Motel
Inexperienced workers learn about the front
office routine mainly through on-the-job experiehce. They usually have a brief initial training
period during which their duties are described
and they are given information about the hotel,
such as the location of rooms and the types of
services offered. After new employees begin work­
ing they receive help when necessary from the as­
sistant manager or some experienced front office
Front office workers usually start as key clerks
or mail clerks, or in other fairly routine jobs.
Occasionally, employees in other types of hotel
work—for example, bellmen or elevator opera­
tors—may be transferred to such front office jobs.
Most hotels have a promotion-from-within policy
for front office workers. A typical line of promo­
tion might be from key or rack clerk to room
clerk, to assistant front office manager, and later

to front office manager. (See statement on Hotel
Managers and Assistants later in this chapter.)
Employment Outlook

Employment in this occupation will probably
increase moderately each year through the mid1970’s. Many openings will result from the need
to replace workers who are promoted to higher
level jobs or transfer to other occupations. Some
new jobs will become available in cities where new
hotels will be built or existing ones expanded. In
addition, new front office jobs will be created in
the hundreds of motels expected to open in the next
decade. Women are being hired in a few front office
jobs, such as those of mail and information clerk
and reservation clerk, but their chances for ad­
vancement to room clerk jobs and to managerial
posts will probably remain limited. Women will
find somewhat better opportunities in resort than
in commercial hotels.
A front office clerk has relatively stable em­
ployment. Employment in this occupation does
not tend to expand or contract as sharply with
changes in general economic conditions as em­
ployment in many other hotel occupations.
See the introductory section to this chapter for
information on Earnings and Working Condi­
tions, Where To Go for More Information, and
for additional information on Employment Out­

Housekeepers and Assistants
(2d ed. D.O.T. 2-25.21, .22)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 321.138)

Nature of Work

Hotel housekeepers are responsible for keeping
the hotel clean and attractive. They account for
furnishings and supplies; hire, train, and super­
vise the maids, linen room and laundry workers,
housemen, seamstresses, and repairmen; keep em­
ployee records; and perform other duties which
vary with the size and type of the hotel. Those
employed in middle-size and small hotels not
only supervise the cleaning staffs but may do some
of the maids’ work. In large hotels and smaller
luxury-type hotels, the duties of executive or
head housekeepers are primarily administrative.
Besides supervising a staff which may number

in the hundreds, they may prepare the budget for
the housekeeping department; make regular re­
ports to the manager on the condition of rooms,
needed repairs, and suggested improvements;
purchase or assist in purchasing supplies; and
have responsibility for interior decorating work.
Some executive housekeepers employed by large
hotel chains may have special assignments such
as reorganizing housekeeping procedures in an
established hotel or setting up the housekeeping
department in a new or newly acquired hotel.
In many hotels, executive housekeepers are as­
sisted by floor housekeepers who directly super­
vise the work on one or more floors. Large hotels



tive Housekeepers Association. In addition, the
Educational Institute of the American Hotel and
Motel Association also offers housekeeping or­
iented courses, for class or individual home study.
The most helpful courses are those emphasizing
housekeeping procedures, personnel management,
budget preparation, interior decorating, and the
purchase, use, and care of different types of
equipment and fabrics.
Employment Outlook

Executive housekeeper instructs new employees
in bedmaking procedures.

also may employ assistant executive housekeepers.
An estimated 15,000 hotel housekeepers were em­
ployed in 1965, most of whom were women.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Specialized training in hotel administration,
including courses in housekeeping, was available
at several colleges in 1964. Some universities
offer short summer courses or conduct evening
classes in cooperation with the National Execu­

Several hundred openings for hotel house­
keepers and their assistants are expected annually
through the mid-1970’s. Most openings will re­
sult from the need to replace workers who retire
or leave the occupation for other reasons. How­
ever, some new positions for housekeepers also
will become available in newly built hotels and
the growing number of large luxury motels. In
established hotels, most openings for housekeepers
and their assistants will be filled from within by
promotion of assistant housekeepers and maids.
However, since only one top job as executive
housekeeper exists in each hotel, it is sometimes
many years before an opening of this kind oc­
curs in a given hotel. Experienced hotel house­
keepers will also find employment opportunities
in hospitals, clubs, college dormitories, and a
variety of welfare institutions.
See introduction to this chapter for information
on Earnings and Working Conditions, Where To
Go for More Information, and for additional in­
formation on Employment Outlook.

Managers and Assistants
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-71.13 and .15; 0-97.63)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 163.118 and 187.118 and .168)

Nature of Work

Hotel managers have overall responsibility for
operating their hotels profitably and at the same
time providing maximum comfort for guests. Of
the more than 110,000 hotel and motel managers
in 1965, about 40,000 were salaried and nearly
70,000 were owner-managers. Within the frame­
work of policy set by owners, salaried managers
direct and coordinate the activities of the front
office, kitchen and dining rooms, and the various

hotel departments such as housekeeping, account­
ing, personnel, purchasing, publicity, and mainte­
nance. They make decisions on room rates, estab­
lish credit policy, introduce improvements in
operations, and have final responsibility for deal­
ing with many other kinds of problems that arise
in operating their hotels. Like other managers
of business enterprises, they may also spend con­
siderable time conferring with business and
social groups and participating in community af­



Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Hotel manager helps guest with a special problem.

In small hotels, the manager also may perform
much of the front office clerical work. In the
smallest hotels and in many motels, the owners—
sometimes a husband-and-wife team—do all the
work necessary to run the business.
The general manager of a large hotel may have
several assistants wdio manage one or more de­
partments and assume general administrative re­
sponsibility when the manager is absent. Because
preparing and serving food is so important in the
operation of most large hotels, a special manager
is usually in charge of this department. Managers
of large hotels also usually employ a special as­
sistant, known as a sales manager, whose job is
to promote maximum use of hotel facilities. Much
of the sales manager’s time is spent traveling
about the country explaining to various groups
the facilities his hotel can offer for meetings,
banquets, and conventions.
Since large hotel chains often centralize certain
activities, such as purchasing supplies and equip­
ment and planning employee training programs,
managers of these hotels may have a more limited
number of duties than managers of independently
owned hotels. In hotel chains, managers may
be assigned on a temporary basis to help or­
ganize work in a newly acquired hotel, or they
may be transferred to established hotels in dif­
ferent States or in foreign countries.

In accordance with the promotion-from-within
policy followed by most hotels, individuals who
have proven their ability, usually in front office
jobs, may be promoted to assistant manager posi­
tions and eventually to general manager.
Although successful hotel experience is gener­
ally the first consideration in selecting managers,
employers increasingly emphasize a college educa­
tion. Many believe the best educational prepara­
tion is that provided by the few colleges in the
country which offer a specialized 4-year cur­
riculum in hotel and restaurant administration.
Specialized courses in hotel work, available in a
few junior colleges, and study courses given by
the Educational Institute of the American Hotel
and Motel Association are also helpful.
In colleges offering a specialized 4-year cur­
riculum in hotel management, the courses include
hotel administration, hotel accounting, economics,
food service management and catering, and hotel
maintenance engineering. Students are encour­
aged to spend three summer vacations working in
hotel or restaurant jobs—for example, as busboys or bellmen, room clerks, or sometimes as
assistant managers. The experience gained in
these jobs and the contacts with employers may
enable young people to obtain better hotel posi­
tions after graduation. In addition, students are
encouraged to study foreign languages and other
subjects of cultural value such as history, phi­
losophy, and literature.
College graduates who have majored in hotel
administration usually begin their hotel careers
as front office clerks; after acquiring the necessary
experience, they may advance to top managerial
positions. An increasing number of employers
are requiring some experience in food operations.
Chances for advancement may be somewhat better
in hotel chains than in independent hotels, since
persons may be selected to fill vacancies which
arise in any hotel in the chain as well as on the
central management staff.
Some large hotel organizations have established
special programs for management trainees who
are college graduates or for less highly trained
personnel promoted from within. Such programs
consist mainly of on-the-job training assignments
in which the trainee is rotated among jobs in


the various hotel departments. In addition, some
large hotels provide financial assistance to out­
standing employees for college study.
Employment Outlook

Well-qualified young people will find favorable
opportunities through the mid-1970’s to obtain
entry positions that offer the possibility of pro­
motion to managerial work. Young men with
college degrees in hotel administration will have
an advantage in seeking such entry positions and
later advancement, particularly if they can handle

food management or can qualify as sales man­
agers. Many openings for management personnel
will probably result from the need to fill vacancies
resulting from turnover.
The number of hotel managers is expected to
increase moderately over the long run. New posi­
tions will arise as additional hotels are built, and
as the number of luxury motels expand.
See the introductory section of this chapter
for information on Earnings and Working Condi­
tions, Where To Go for More Information, and
for additional information on Employment Out­

The industrial chemical industry has grown,
in just a few decades, into one of the great manu­
facturing industries of our Nation. An important
reason for this growth has been the industry’s
huge expenditures for research and development
activities which have provided many new and
improved products for its customers—mainly
other manufacturing industries. A wide variety
of industrial chemical products contribute to our
everyday needs and comforts, e.g., synthetic fibers
are used in clothing and rugs and plastics in dinnerware and furniture. Also, they are essential
for the manufacture of missile and space equip­
ment, rocket propulsion fuels, and for other na­
tional defense and space materials.
In 1964, more than 455,000 wage and salary
workers were employed in the industrial chemical
industry in a wide range of occupations. Job re­
quirements varied from graduate college degrees
for some scientists and engineers to a few days
of on-the-job training for some plant workers.
Nature of the Industry

The industrial chemical industry is made up of
plants which manufacture basic and intermediate
organic and inorganic chemicals. These chemi­
cals are used mainly by other companies in the
chemical industry, and by other manufacturing
industries as raw materials or as processing
agents to make their own products. Industrial
chemicals are unlike other chemical products, such
as drugs, paints, and fertilizers, which are sold di­
rectly to the consumer without further processing.
Industrial chemical plants make organic chemi­
cals from raw materials obtained from the
remains of prehistoric life such as coal, petro­
leum, and natural gas, or from living materials
such as agricultural and forest products. Some
products of organic chemicals such as synthetic
fibers (nylon, rayon, and orlon), synthetic rub­
ber, and plastics are well known. Among those

less well known to the public are coal tar crudes,
benzene, acetone, and formaldehyde. The princi­
pal users of organic chemicals include the textile,
plastics products, rubber, and food-processing
Inorganic chemicals come from nonliving
matter, such as salt, sulfur, mineral ores, and
limestone. They are basic materials for making,
or helping to make, other chemicals as well as
finished products, such as steel, glass, paper, and
gasoline. In at least one respect, the manufacture
of chemicals differs from the manufacture of
most other products—the ingredients which are
used to make chemicals undergo reactions which
produce compounds vastly different in nature and
appearance from those of the original raw mate­
rials. For example, by rearranging and combin­
ing the molecules of coal, air, and water, the
chemists can produce nylon, a product having no
similarity to its raw materials.
A modem chemical plant is made up of huge
towers, tanks, and buildings linked together by
a network of pipes. These structures contain the
various types of equipment needed to process raw
materials into chemical products. Raw materials
go through several processing operations such as
drying, heating, cooling, mixing, evaporating,
and filtering. Between each operation, the mate­
rials, which may be liquid, solid, or gas, are
transported by pipes or conveyors. Throughout
these operations, automatic control devices reg­
ulate the flow of materials, the combination of
chemicals, and the temperature, pressure, and
time needed for each operation. These control
devices make it possible for tons of material to
be processed in one continuous operation with
very little manual handling of materials.
Approximately 2,650 plants in the United
States make industrial chemicals. Almost twothirds of the plants have fewer than 50 employees
each. However, more than one-half of the in-



Occupations in The Industry

Workers with many different levels of skills
and education are employed in the plants, offices,
and laboratories of industrial chemical firms.
More than 3 out of every 5 employees are engaged
in processing operations, maintenance duties, or
other plant-related activities. A large number of
scientists, engineers, and other technical person­
nel are also employed because of the highly tech­
nical nature of chemical products and the methods
used to produce them. Administrative and pro­
fessional employees, such as purchasing agents,
salesmen, accountants, lawyers, and personnel of­
ficers, make up another sizable segment of the
industry’s work force. In addition, large numbers
of clerical workers, such as bookkeepers, stenog­
raphers, typists, and office machine operators, are
About 1 out of every 8 workers in the industrial
chemical industry is a woman. Most women in
this industry work in clerical jobs, although some
work in chemical laboratories as research chem­
ists or as laboratory technicians and assistants.
In a few industrial chemical plants, women are
employed as chemical operators or as packers.

Production workers inspect sages to insure proper operation of

dustrial chemical workers are employed in very
large plants of 500 or more employees each.
Chemical plants are usually located on the out­
skirts of industrial centers. Sometimes plants
are built near the sources of raw material; for
example, plants which produce chemicals made
from petroleum and natural gas are located near
the oilfields and refineries of Texas, California,
and Louisiana.
Although industrial chemical workers are em­
ployed in.most States, more than 60 percent of
the employees and more than half the plants are
in the following 10 States; New York, New
Jersey, Texas, Tennessee, Pennsylvania, Virginia,
West Virginia, Michigan, Delaware, and Ohio.
7T8-316 O— 65------45

Plant Occupations. Plant workers, who rep­
resent more than 3 out of every 5 employees in
the industrial chemical industry, can generally
be divided into three major occupational groups:
Processing workers, who operate the chemical­
processing equipment; maintenance workers, who
maintain, install, and repair machinery, pipes,
and equipment; and other plant workers, such as
stock clerks, material handlers, and truckdrivers.
Process equipment operators and their help­
ers are the largest occupational group in the
industrial chemical industry. Many of these oper­
ators are highly skilled workers. Chemical oper­
ators (D.O.T. 558.885 and 559.782) control the
various pieces of equipment which convert raw
materials into chemical products. Operators are
responsible for carrying out instructions given to
them by the supervisor in charge. Operators set
dials on devices that measure the exact amount of
materials to be processed and control temperature,
pressure, and flow of materials. They keep a record
of operations and report any sign of breakdown of
equipment. They may use instruments which
measure and test chemicals or they may send



of the plant; some load and unload materials on
trucks, trains, or ships; and other workers keep
inventory records of stock and tools. The indus­
try also employs custodial workers, such as
guards, watchmen, and janitors, whose jobs are
similar to those in other industries.

Technicians calibrate chemical analysis instruments.

samples of chemicals to laboratory technicians in
the testing laboratory. They may be assisted by
chemical operators of less skill, as well as by
helpers. Sometimes, chemical operators are clas­
sified according to the type of equipment they
operate, such as filterer, grinder, or mixer.
The industry employs many skilled mainte­
nance workers to prevent interruptions of its
highly automated production processes. Main­
tenance skills are also very important because of
the extremes of temperature, pressure, and cor­
rosion to which pipes, vats, and other plant
equipment are subjected. Included among main­
tenance workers are pipefitters, who lay out, in­
stall, and repair pipes and pipefitting; mainte­
nance machinists, who make and repair metal
parts for machines and equipment; electricians,
who maintain and repair wiring, motors, switches,
and other electrical equipment; and instrument
repairmen, who install and repair electrical and
electronic instruments and control devices. In
some chemical plants, the duties of several main­
tenance jobs may be combined into a single job
and performed by one maintenance man.
Plant workers who do not operate or maintain
equipment perform a variety of other tasks in
industrial chemical plants. Some drive trucks
and tractors to make deliveries to various parts

Scientific and Technical Occupations. The in­
dustrial chemical industry is one of the Nation s
largest employers of scientific and technical per­
sonnel. About 1 out of every 6 employees in this
industry is in some activity requiring scientific,
engineering, or technical training. About 40 per­
cent of these employees work in laboratories,
developing new chemical products and new
methods of production as well as performing
basic research. About one-third are involved in
the production of chemicals and in other plant
operations. The remaining scientific and tech­
nical personnel are in analysis and testing work,
and in administrative or sales positions requir­
ing technical background.
Chemists and chemical engineers make up the
largest proportion of scientific and technical per­
sonnel in the industrial chemical industry. Many
chemists work in research and development
laboratories. A large number work in production
departments, analyzing and testing chemicals
in order to control their quality during process­
ing. Some chemists are supervisors of plant
workers; others are technical salesmen, technical
writers, or administrators whose positions re­
quire technical knowledge.
Chemical engineers apply their knowledge of
both chemistry and engineering to the design, con­
struction, operation, and improvement of chemical
equipment and plants. They convert processes
developed in a laboratory into large-scale pro­
duction methods, using the most economical manu­
facturing techniques. Some chemical engineers
are employed in production departments and
others are in selling, customer service, and writing
jobs which require technical knowledge and skill.
Other types of engineers are also employed in
industrial chemical firms. Mechanical engineers
design and lay out power and heating equipment,
such as steam turbines. They also build nuclear
reactors which are used in research laboratories
for the study of chemical reactions. They often
supervise the installation, operation, and main­
tenance of chemical processing equipment. Elec-


Young engineers learn plant designs and operating procedures
from exact scale models.

trical engineers design and develop electrical
and electronic machinery and equipment, such as
control devices and instruments, as well as facil­
ities for generating and distributing electric
In addition to the large number of such pro­
fessional personnel, the industry employs many
technical assistants such as laboratory techni­
cians, chemical technicians, draftsmen, and engi­
neering aids. Laboratory technicians assist chem­
ists and engineers in research and development
work and in production control. They may per­
form simple routine tests or experiments, or do
highly technical testing and analyses of chemical
materials, depending on their training and experi­
ence. Much of the work of laboratory techni­
cians consists of conducting tests and recording
the results—often in the form of simple reports,
charts, or graphs—for interpretation by chemists
and chemical engineers.
Administrative, Clerical, and Related Occupa­
tions. About 1 out of every 5 employees in the
industrial chemical industry is an administrative,
clerical, or other white-collar worker. Many
high-level administrative and management posi­
tions are filled by men with training in chemistry
or chemical engineering. At the top of the ad­

ministrative group are the executives who make
policy decisions concerning matters of finance,
types of products to manufacture, and location
of plants. To make such decisions, executives
require the help of a large body of specialized
personnel in the company. Some of these workers
are accountants, purchasing agents, sales rep­
resentatives, lawyers, and personnel employed
in such activities as industrial relations, public
relations, transportation, advertising, and market
research. Other workers are required to assist
these specialized administrative workers. For
example, clerical employees keep records on per­
sonnel, payroll, raw materials, sales, shipments,
and plant maintenance.
(Detailed discussions of professional, techni­
cal, mechanical, and other occupations found not
only in the industrial chemical industry but in
other industries as well are given elsewhere in
this Handbook in the sections covering the in­
dividual occupations. See index for page num­
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

The industrial chemical industry generally
hires inexperienced workers for processing and
maintenance jobs and trains them on the job.
Companies in the industry prefer to hire young
workers who are high school graduates.
In many plants, a new worker is sent to a labor
pool from which he is assigned to such jobs as
filling barrels and moving materials. After sev­
eral months, he may be transferred to one of the
processing departments when a vacancy occurs.
As he gains experience and know-how, he moves
to more skilled jobs in his department. Thus, he
may advance from laborer to chemical operator
helper, to assistant chemical operator, and then
to skilled chemical operator. Skilled processing
workers are rarely recruited from other plants.
Most maintenance jobs are filled by men who
are trained on the job in the plant. Experienced
men are sometimes hired when no qualified train­
ees are available. Many industrial chemical com­
panies have training programs to meet the needs
of their maintenance shops. These programs may
last from a few months to several years; they
include mainly on-the-job training and some
classroom instruction related to the trainees’ par­
ticular work. Instrument repair trainees often

learn how to assemble and repair instruments in
the factories which manufacture them. Many
companies encourage skilled maintenance work­
ers as well as trainees to take courses related to
their jobs in local vocational schools and techni­
cal institutes, or to enroll in correspondence
courses. Upon the successful completion of these
courses, some companies reimburse the workers
for part or all of the tuition.
A bachelor’s degree in engineering, chemistry,
or one of the other sciences is the minimum educa­
tional requirement for entry into scientific and
engineering jobs in the industrial chemical in­
dustry. For jobs in research laboratories, appli­
cants with advanced degrees are generally pre­
ferred. Some companies have formal training
programs for young college graduates with engi­
neering or scientific backgrounds. These men
work for brief periods in the various divi­
sions of the plant to gain a broad knowledge of
chemical manufacturing operations before be­
ing assigned to a particular department. Other
firms immediately assign junior chemists or engi­
neers to a specific activity such as research,
process development, production, or sales.
Technicians in the industrial chemical indus­
try qualify for their jobs in many different ways.
Companies prefer to hire men and women who
have obtained a formal education in technical
institutes or junior colleges. However, most
workers become technicians through on-the-job
training and experience. Generally, industrial
chemical firms select young men from their labor
pool and give them training while they work
at one of the technician jobs. Sometimes, tech­
nicians may be sent to a technical institute for
training, usually at company expense. Students
who have not completed all requirements for a
college degree, especially those who have received
some education in mathematics, science, or engi­
neering, are often employed in technician jobs.
Laboratory technicians begin their work in
routine jobs as assistants and advance to jobs
of greater responsibility after they have acquired
additional experience and have shown their abil­
ity to work without close supervision. Inexperi­
enced draftsmen usually begin as copyists or
tracers. With additional experience and training,
they may advance to more skilled and responsible
jobs as draftsmen.


Laboratory technician tests chemicals used to make textile fibers.

Administrative positions frequently are filled
by men and women who have college degrees in
business administration, marketing, accounting,
economics, statistics, industrial relations, or other
specialized fields. Some companies have ad­
vanced training programs in which they give
their new employees additional training in their
chosen specialties.
Clerks, bookkeepers, stenographers, and typists
in industrial chemical firms generally have had
commercial courses in high school or business
school. Although the qualifications for and the
duties of administrative, sales, clerical, and
related occupations in this industry are similar
to those in other industries, a knowledge of chem­
istry is often helpful. This is especially true of
those sales jobs in which it is necessary to give
technical assistance to customers.
Employment Outlook

The growing industrial chemical industry is
expected to provide many thousands of job oppor­
tunities for new workers each year through the
mid-1970’s. Some of these openings will result
from the expected rapid expansion of industrial



chemical output. Large numbers of job open­
ings for new workers will be created by retire­
ments, deaths, or transfers to jobs in other fields
of work. Retirements and deaths alone probably
will provide, on the average, more than 10,000
openings for new workers each year during the
decade ahead.
The industrial chemical industry’s emphasis on
research and development is expected to continue
to stimulate the growth of this dynamic industry,
which has far outstripped most other major indus­
tries in the development of new products. Some of
these products, such as plastics and synthetic fibers,
have not only created completely new markets, but
also have competed successfully in markets previ­
ously dominated by wood, natural textile fibers,
and metals. They are expected to continue to make
inroads into these markets. A plentiful supply
of the raw materials used in chemical manufac­
turing is also favorable to the industry’s future
The continued growth of the Nation’s space
program will stimulate expansion in the industrial
chemical industry during the years ahead. Large
quantities of industrial chemicals are used for the
liquid and solid propellants needed to power rocket
engines and for other aspects of spacecraft, such as
structural materials, lubricants and fluids, aux­
iliary power systems, and systems to support life
in the space environment. The atomic energy
field is another area of economic activity whose
continued growth, in civilian as well as military
applications, will favorably affect the demand for
industrial chemicals. These chemicals are used
in various aspects of atomic energy work, such as
the processing and purification of uranium ores
and the development and operation of nuclear
Although industrial chemical production has
grown rapidly in the past 15 years, employment
has increased at a much slower rate. Since 1950,
the number of industrial chemical workers has
grown by about 50 percent in contrast with out­
put, which has increased more than 300 percent.
(See chart 35.) The major reason for this differ­
ence is the industry’s emphasis on improved
methods of making chemicals. The widespread
use of automatic processing and control equip­
ment has enabled the industry to increase its
production considerably with a relatively small





Index (1950=100)

addition of labor. Increases in output per worker
are expected to continue in the years ahead, as
new plants with the latest equipment are con­
structed and more modern devices are installed in
the older plants.
Some occupational groups in the industry are
expected to grow faster than others. For example,
the number of professional and administrative
jobs is expected to increase more rapidly than the
number of plant (processing and maintenance)
workers, continuing recent trends in this indus­
try. Continued emphasis on research and develop­
ment and greater complexity of products and
processes are expected to increase the need for
chemists, engineers, technicians, and other tech­
nical personnel.
Most of the demand for additional plant work­
ers will be for skilled maintenance workers, such
as instrument repairmen, pipefitters, electricians,
and maintenance machinists, because of the
increasing use of instrumentation and automatic
equipment in processing operations. Process
equipment operators will continue to be the
largest occupational group in the industry,

although employment of these workers is not
expected to increase as much as employment of
maintenance workers.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Production workers in the industrial chemical
industry are among the higher paid factory
workers. Average earnings are relatively high
because of the large proportion of workers in
skilled occupations. In mid-1965, production
workers in plants producing basic inorganic and
organic chemicals had average earnings of $135.66
a week or $3.23 an hour and those in plants pro­
ducing plastics materials and synthetic rubber,
resins, and fibers had average earnings of $129.81
a week or $2.85 an hour. In comparison, average
earnings in mid-1965 for production workers in
manufacturing industries as a whole were $108.21
a week or $2.62 an hour.
Entry salaries for inexperienced chemists and
chemical engineers in the chemical industry are
among the highest in American industry, accord­
ing to a 1964 survey conducted by the American
Chemical Society. In this industry, the average
median starting salary was $575 a month for
chemists with a bachelor’s degree and $620 a month
for chemical engineers with a bachelor’s degree.
Chemists and chemical engineers with graduate
degrees received higher starting salaries. Earn­
ings data for other engineers and scientists in this
industry are not available.
Paid vacations are universal in this industry
and are generally based on length of service.
Workers generally receive a 1-week vacation after
1 year of employment, 2 weeks after 3 years, and
3 weeks after 10 years.
A majority of the workers are covered by
insurance plans. These plans include life, sick­
ness, accident, hospitalization, and surgical insur­
ance. Practically all plants have pension plans.
Many chemical workers are employed in plants
that operate around the clock—three shifts a
day, 7 days a week. Owing to the widespread
industry practice of rotating shifts, processing
workers can expect to work the second or third


shift at one time or another. Nearly all workers
receive extra pay for shift work, about 10 cents
more an hour for the second shift, and about 15
cents more an hour for the third or night shift.
Very few maintenance workers are employed on
these shifts. Work in the industry has little
seasonal variation and regular workers have yearround jobs.
With the exception of work performed by
laborers and material handlers, most industrial
chemical jobs require little physical effort. Much
of the plant work involves tending, inspecting,
repairing, or maintaining machinery and equip­
ment, since most of the process operations are
controlled automatically or semiautomatically.
Some workers climb stairs and ladders to con­
siderable heights in the course of their duties.
Other jobs are performed out of doors in all
kinds of weather.
In some plants, workers may be exposed to
dust, disagreeable odors, or high temperatures.
Chemical companies, however, have reduced the
discomforts arising from these conditions by
installing ventilating or air-conditioning systems.
Safety measures, such as protective clothing and
eye glasses, warning signs, showers and eye baths
near dangerous work stations, and first-aid sta­
tions, have also reduced hazards. These meas­
ures have helped to make the injury-frequency
rate (number of disabling injuries for each mil­
lion man-hours worked) in the industrial chemical
industry less than half that of all manufactur­
ing industries.
Most production workers in the industrial
chemical industry are members of labor unions.
The leading unions are the International Chemi­
cal Workers Union; Oil, Chemical and Atomic
Workers International Union; and District 50,
United Mine Workers of America (Ind.).
Where To G o for More Information
American Chemical Society,
1155 16th St. NW„ Washington, D.C.


Manufacturing Chemists’ Association, Inc.,
1825 Connecticut Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.


Insurance is a multibillion dollar business
which employs more people than such great in­
dustries as automobile or aircraft manufacturing,
banking, or hotels. It offers many employment
opportunities both for young men and women who
are just out of high school or college and for
experienced workers.
There are almost 1,600 life insurance com­
panies and approximately 3,500 property and
liability (sometimes called property and casualty)
insurance companies. They conduct their busi­
nesses in main offices, commonly called “home”
offices, and in thousands of local sales offices or
agencies in cities and towns throughout the
country. Local offices may be branches operated
by the insurance companies whose policies they
sell, or they may be operated by independent
agents and brokers.
Nature of the Business

Insurance policies are classified into two broad
categories: life insurance, and property and li­
ability insurance. Practically all companies
specialize in one of these types. However, com­
panies in both fields may sell health insurance.
Life insurance companies sell policies which
provide not only basic life insurance protection,
but also several other kinds of protection. Under
some policies, for example, policyholders receive
an income when they reach retirement age or if
they become disabled and stop working; insurance
under other policies may help to meet the costs
of educating children when they reach college
age, or may give extra financial protection while
the children are young. Life insurance companies
may also sell accident and health insurance, which
assists policyholders in meeting medical expenses
and sometimes provides them with other kinds
of benefits when they are injured or ill.
Policies sold by property and liability insurance
companies provide financial protection against

loss or damage to the policyholders’ property and
protects the insured when they are responsible for
injuries to other people or damage to other
people’s property. This insurance field includes
protection against hazards such as fire, theft, and
windstorm, as well as workmen’s compensation
and other liability insurance.
Many policies sold by life insurance and by
property and liability insurance companies are
written to cover groups of people—anywhere
from a few individuals to many thousands. Group
policies are usually issued to employers for the
benefit of their employees. They most often pro­
vide retirement income, life insurance, or health
insurance and they have gained great popularity
in recent years. Group policies providing life in­
surance, for example, protected more than 50 mil­
lion workers in 1963, and the number of policies
in force was almost three times the number 10
years earlier.
Insurance Workers

The insurance business provided jobs for almost
1.2 million people in 1965. The great majority
were clerical and sales workers. (See chart 36.)
Clerical occupations afforded jobs for more than
4 out of 5 women employed in the business; sales
work occupied more than half of the men.
Salesmen are a key group of employees in in­
surance companies. About one-third of all in­
surance employees are sales workers—chiefly
agents, brokers, and others who sell policies di­
rectly to individuals and business firms. Agents
and brokers are usually responsible for finding
their own customers or “prospects,” and for see­
ing that each policy they sell provides the special
kind of protection required by the policyholder.
(A statement on Insurance Agents and Brokers
is included in the chapter on Sales Occupations.)
The various types of insurance policies offered
by companies in both the life and property-liabil­
ity fields must be carefully planned so that they




a b o u t on e-h alf are in cle rical o c c u p a tio n s
a n d on e-third are sales workers






M anagerial

All Other

are financially sound and conform to legal re­
quirements. Also, after a policy is sold, the in­
surance company must keep records of premiums
paid and services rendered and must deal with
claims made by the policyholder and benefits
paid to him. Most of this planning, recordkeep­
ing, and other behind-the-scenes work is done in
home offices and requires the services of company
officials and others in managerial positions, pro­
fessional and technical employees, and clerical
About 1 out of 10 insurance workers is in a
managerial position. Managers who are in charge
of local offices, through which most insurance
policies are sold, often spent part of their time
in sales work. Others, who work in home offices,
are company officials or administrators in charge
of policy issuance, accounting, investments, loans,
and other important office work. The large-scale
investment activities of many insurance companies
make financial administration a particularly im­
portant area of employment.

Working closely with the managerial person­
nel in insurance companies are specialists who
study insurance risks and coverage problems,
analyze investment possibilities, prepare financial
reports, and do other professional work. Pro­
fessional workers, employed mainly at home
offices, represent about 1 out of 25 insurance
workers. Included among them is the actuary,
whose job is unique to the insurance field. Ac­
tuaries make statistical studies relating to
various kinds of risks and, on the basis of these
studies, determine how large the premium on
each type of policy should be. The work of most
other professional employees in insurance com­
panies is fundamentally the same as in other in­
dustries. Accountants, for example, deal with in­
surance company records and financial problems
relating to premiums, investments, payments to
policyholders, and other aspects of the business.
Engineers work on problems connected with
policies covering industrial work accidents, dam­
age to industrial plants and machinery, and other
technical matters. Lawyers interpret the regula­
tions which apply to insurance company opera­
tions, handle the settlement of some kinds of in­
surance claims, and do other legal work. In ­
vestment analysts evaluate real estate mortgages
and new issues of bonds and other securities,
analyze current investments held by their com­
panies, and make recommendations on when to
hold, buy, or sell. As more electronic computers
are installed to handle office records, increasing
numbers of programers are being employed to
help process data on this equipment.
Keeping track of millions of policies involves
a vast amount of paperwork and occupies the
time of hundreds of thousands of clerical work­
ers. Almost half of all insurance company em­
ployees are in jobs classified as clerical—a much
larger proportion than in most other industries.
The majority are secretaries, stenographers, and
typists, or operators of bookkeeping and other
kinds of office machines, or general office clerks.
They do much the same kind of work in insurance
companies as in other types of business enter­
prises. Other clerks, employed mostly in home
offices, have specialized jobs found only in the
insurance business. Among them are typists
known as 'policywriters (D.O.T. 203.588) who
copy onto policy forms, from approved insurance



In addition to the four major groups of em­
ployment discussed above, insurance companies
employ thousands of mechanics and repairmen,
janitors, and others who do maintenance and
custodial work similar to that required in other
large business organizations. These employees
account for about 1 out of 40 workers in the in­
surance business.
Additional information about many of these
occupations is contained in this Handbook in the
chapter on Clerical and Related Occupations and
the statements on Actuaries, Accountants, Engi­
neers, Lawyers, Programers, and Maintenance
Where Employed

C ourtesy of the P re sid e n t’s C o m m ittee on E q u a l E m p lo y m en t O p p o rtu n itie s

Insurance companies employ clerical workers in many kinds of
office jobs.

applications, the name and address of the policy­
holder, amount of the policy, premium rate, and
other information. Policy change clerks (D.O.T.
219.388) enter changes in beneficiaries and cover­
age on policies, in accordance with the instruc­
tions given by agents. Insurance checkers (D.O.T.
219.488) check the information entered on policies
by other clerical workers, to be certain that the
work is accurate.
Other workers who are classified as clerical
occupy positions of considerable responsibility
which require extensive knowledge of one or
more phases of the insurance business. This
group includes claim adjusters (D.O.T. 241.168)
who decide whether insurance claims are covered
by the customer’s insurance policy, see that any
payment due the policyholder is made on each
claim, and, when necessary, investigate the cir­
cumstances which gave rise to the claim. Claim
adjusters for life insurance companies hold home
office positions; those in the property and liability
business are generally field personnel.

Relatively large numbers of insurance workers
are employed in Connecticut, Massachusetts, New
Jersey, and New York, where the home offices of
some of the largest insurance companies are lo­
cated. Many insurance workers also are em­
ployed in agencies, brokerage firms, and other
sales offices in cities and towns in every section of
the country. Almost all sales personnel work
out of local offices, whereas the majority of pro­
fessional and clerical workers are employed in
company home offices.
More than half of all insurance workers are
employed by life insurance companies and
agencies; included in this group are some large
companies with thousands of employees. Com­
panies which deal mainly in property and liability
insurance, although more numerous than the life

insurance companies, generally have fewer em­
ployees. Many local agencies and sales offices are
also small, regardless of the type of insurance they
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Insurance offers job opportunities for people
with very different educational backgrounds and
talents. Some positions require a great deal of
managerial and administrative experience and
know-how; others require college training in
fields such as mathematics, accounting, and en­
gineering; but still others involve only routine
duties which can be learned on the job.
Graduation from high school or business school
is regarded as adequate preparation for most

beginning clerical positions. Courses in subjects
such as typing, business arithmetic, and the opera­
tion of office machines may be valuable. These
special skills are often required for jobs in in­
surance company offices, and this kind of training
provides a background of information which
helps employees advance to more responsible posi­
tions. For a position as a claim adjuster, some
legal training in a college or university may
also be helpful.
Engineering, accounting, and other professional
positions in insurance companies usually require
the same kinds of college training as they do in
other business firms. College-trained people are
also preferred for managerial positions, many of
which are filled by promotion from within. In
professional and managerial work requiring con­
tact with the public, as well as in sales work and
claim adjusting, it is important that the employee
have a pleasant disposition and outgoing per­
sonality and be able to inspire confidence in his
ability to protect the customer’s interests.
Insurance companies and associations of com­
panies and agents offer several kinds of training
programs to help employees prepare for better
jobs. The Insurance Institute of America, for
example, furnishes study guides relating to the
fundamentals of property and casualty insurance,
and awards certificates to those who pass the In ­
stitute’s examinations. Some national, State, and
local insurance associations offer home study
training or evening courses in various aspects of
the insurance business. Other courses, especially
designed to help clerical employees gain a better
understanding of life insurance and life insurance
company operations, deal with the organization
and operation of both home and field offices. They
are given under the auspices of the Life Office
Management Association which also provides pro­
grams for the development of supervisory and
managerial personnel.
Employment Outlook

Over the 1965-75 decade, employment in the
insurance industry is expected to rise moderately.
New jobs to be filled, plus openings that occur as
employees retire or stop working for other
reasons, are expected to total more than 65,000
a year. Turnover is particularly high in this in­


dustry because of the many young women in
clerical jobs who work for only a few years and
then leave to care for their families. Still other
openings will have to be filled as insurance work­
ers leave their jobs for employment in other in­
The expected increase in employment will result
mainly from a rapidly increasing volume of in­
surance business. With population growth, there
will be more individuals to purchase life insurance
as well as insurance which provides retirement in­
come and funds for their children’s education.
Others who do not presently have insurance may
become policyholders; for example, advances in
medical science, are making life insurance avail­
able to persons who were formerly rejected as
poor insurance risks. The need for property and
liability insurance will also increase as a rising
standard of living enables more individuals and
families to own one or more automobiles, buy
homes, and make other major purchases which
are usually insured. In the business world also,
more insurance of this kind will be required as
new plants are built, new equipment is installed,
and more goods are shipped throughout the
country and the world. Furthermore, as the
coverage of State workmen’s compensation laws
is broadened, more employers may need work­
men’s compensation insurance.
Insurance employment will probably rise at a
somewhat slower rate than the volume of busi­
ness handled by insurance companies. I t is be­
coming more common for companies to issue
“multiple-line” policies which cover a variety of
insurance risks formerly covered in separate
policies, thus reducing somewhat the workload of
sales personnel in local offices and clerical em­
ployees in home offices. Also likely to bring about
changes in insurance company employment is the
probability that more companies will install elec­
tronic computers and other equipment to process
some of the routine paperwork now done by clerks.
The total number of insurance company clerical
workers is likely to continue to rise, but the pro­
portion of routine jobs will probably decline,
while that of jobs requiring special training—in­
cluding machine operator positions for the new
mechanical equipment—will increase.
Insurance workers have better prospects of
regular employment than workers in many other



industries. Most businessmen regard property
and liability insurance as a necessity both during
economic recession and in boom periods, and pri­
vate individuals also attempt to retain as much
basic financial protection as possible, even when
their incomes decline.
Earnings and Working Conditions

According to a 1963-64 survey of nonsupervisory employees of insurance companies, banks,
and related businesses, there was a wide range in
salaries among the individuals in the companies
surveyed. Some clerical workers in beginning,
routine jobs earned less than $40 a week, while
some experienced employees in more responsible
positions earned up to four times that amount.
Women employed in beginning jobs as junior file
clerks averaged $56 a week and office girls $58.50.
Switchboard operators, a fairly large group of
women employees, averaged $75.50 a week, and
secretaries—the largest and generally the highest
paid of any women’s group covered in the survey
—$92. The average for women accounting clerks
ranged from $67 to $86, depending on experience
and skill. The earnings of men in office occupa­
tions averaged somewhat higher than those of
women doing similar work.
To some extent, these differences in salary
levels may be due to differences in the specific job
duties of the employees involved and in the firms
for which they worked. Salary levels in different
parts of the country also vary; earnings are gen­
erally lowest in southern cities and highest in the
western metropolitan areas. (See chapter on
Clerical and Related Occupations for additional
information about the earnings of workers in
other office occupations found in insurance com­
Starting salaries for professional workers are
generally comparable with those for similar posi­
tions in other industries and businesses. I t is not

uncommon for specialists with several years of ex­
perience in the insurance business to receive an­
nual salaries of well over $10,000. The earnings
of agents and brokers, unlike those of salaried
professional workers, depend on commissions
from the policies they sell. (See the statement on
Insurance Agents and Brokers.)
Except for agents and brokers, who must some­
times extend their working hours to meet the con­
venience of prospective clients, insurance com­
pany employees usually work between 35 and 40
hours a week. The number of paid holidays is
somewhat greater than in many other industries.
Two-week paid vacations are generally granted
employees after 1 year of service; in most com­
panies, vacations are extended to 3 weeks after
15 years and, in some, to 4 weeks after 20 years.
Practically all insurance company workers share
in group plans providing hospitalization, life,
sickness and accident, and surgical insurance, and
retirement pensions.
Where To G o for More Information

General information on employment oppor­
tunities may be obtained from the personnel de­
partments of major insurance companies or from
insurance agencies in local communities. Other
information on careers in the insurance field is
available from :
Institute of Life Insurance,
277 Park Ave., New York, N.Y. 10017.
Insurance Information Institute,
110 William St., New York, N.Y. 10038.

For additional information on the salaries of
clerical workers in finance industries, including
insurance, see:
W ages and
A rea s,

R e la te d

U n ite d

B e n e fits , P a r t I I :

S ta te s


R e g io n a l

(BLS Bulletin 1385-82, June 1965).
ent of Documents, Washington,
Price 70 cents.

M e tr o p o lita n
S u m m a rie s ,

D.C. 20402.

There is hardly a product in daily use that has
not been made from steel, or processed by ma­
chinery made of steel. The Nation’s high and ris­
ing standard of living, its industrial might, and
its military strength depend largely on its ability
to produce great quantities of high quality steel.
In 1964, United States steelmakers produced
about 127 million tons of steel—more than onefourth of the world’s output of this vital metal.
The iron and steel industry is one of the Na­
tion’s largest employers. About 625,000 wage
and salary workers were on the payrolls of the
industry’s more than 700 plants in 1964. Em­
ployees work in a broad range of jobs requiring
a wide variety of skills—from unskilled to tech­
nical and professional jobs. Many of these jobs
are found only in iron and steel making or finish­
The iron and steel industry, as discussed in this
chapter, consists of blast furnaces, steelworks,
and rolling and finishing mills, including mills
engaged in rolling and finishing steel products
from purchased sheets, strips, bars, rods, and
other materials. The production of iron and steel
consists of a closely related series of production
processes. First, iron ore is converted to molten
iron in blast furnaces. The molten iron is poured
into “hot metal cars” and either transported di­
rectly to the steelmaking furnace, or cast into
“pigs” (iron in rough bar form) for use by
foundries or by steel mills that do not produce
their own iron. (See chart 37.) Molten iron or
pig iron is then converted into steel in various
types of steelmaking furnaces, including open
hearth, basic oxygen, and electric furnaces, and
Bessemer converters. The steel is then rolled
into basic products, such as plates, sheets, strips,
rods, bars, rails, and structural shapes. Many
plants carry the manufacturing processes beyond
the primary rolling stage to produce finished
products such as tinplate, pipe, and wire prod­

ucts. (This chapter does not describe the mining
of coal, iron ore, limestone, and other raw mate­
rials used to make steel, or the casting, stamping,
forging, machining, or fabrication of steel. These
activities are not considered to be in the iron and
steel industry. Employment opportunities in
foundry, forging, and machining occupation are
discussed elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Because iron and steel are produced in huge
quantities, the industry uses gigantic processing
equipment. A modern blast furnace may be as
high as a 23-story building (about 230 feet tall).
A single blast furnace may produce more than
3,000 tons of molten iron in a 24-hour period.
The several different types of furnaces used to
convert iron into steel are also immense. For
example, open-hearth furnaces, used to make most
steel, may be 70 feet long and 20 feet wide or
even larger. Limestone and scrap metal are loaded
into open-hearth furnaces by enormous electically
operated “charging” machines. After the initial
charge is heated, molten iron is poured into open
hearths from huge crane-operated ladles. Six to
eight hours later, molten steel is “tapped,” or
emptied from the furnace into other giant ladles,
which are moved by a crane to a pouring platform
where the steel is “teemed,” or poured, into ingot
molds. These ingots are later rolled into finished
and semifinished products.
The rolling equipment which forms steel into
various shapes is hundreds of feet long. A hot
sheet mill, for example, is more than 2,000 feet
long. Some of the steel cylinders, or “rolls,” used
in this equipment may weigh 40 or 50 tons.
Steel companies differ in the number of opera­
tions they perform. Many of them, known as
integrated companies, produce their own coke
from coal, reduce ore to pig iron, make steel, and
form the steel into products by rolling and other
finishing methods. Such companies account for
the bulk of total steel production and employ



most of the industry’s workers. Another group
of companies make various types of steel from
steel scrap and pig iron purchased from other
companies. A third group rolls and finishes pur­
chased raw steel. A fourth type makes only pig
iron to be sold to small steel plants and foundries.
Most of the basic products made by steel mills
are shipped to the plants of other industries,
where they are made into thousands of different
products. Some steel mill products, however, such
as rails, pipes, and nails, are produced in their
final form at the mills. The leading steel con­
suming industries are automobile, construction
and building materials, machinery and machine
tools, containers, and household appliances.
Steel sheets are made into such things as auto­
mobile bodies, household appliances, and metal
furniture. Steel bars are used to make parts for
automobiles and machinery, and to reinforce con­
crete in building and highway construction.
Steel plates become parts of ships, bridges, heavy
machinery, railroad cars, and storage tanks. Strip
steel is used in the manufacture of such items as
pots and pans, automobile body parts, razor
blades, and toys. Tin coated steel, known as “tin­
plate,” is used primarily to make “tin” cans.
Individual plants in this industry typically
employ a large number of workers. About twothirds of all the industry’s employees work in
plants which have more than 2,500 wage and sal­
ary workers. A few plants have more than 20,000
employees. However, many plants employ fewer
than 100 workers, particularly those plants
which make highly specialized steel products.
Iron and steel producing plants are located
mainly in the northern and eastern parts of the
United States. There are large plants in Chicago,
111.; Gary and Hammond, Ind.; Cleveland and
Youngstown, Ohio; Buffalo, N.Y.; and Pitts­
burgh, Johnstown, Bethlehem, and Morrisville,
Pa. The Nation’s largest steel plant is located at
Sparrows Point, near Baltimore, Md. Much of
the steelmaking in the South is in the vicinity of
Birmingham, Ala. Important steelmaking facili­
ties are also located in the Far West.
About 7 out of 10 of the industry’s workers are
employed in five States—Pennsylvania, Ohio,
Indiana, Illinois, and New York. Nearly 3 out
of 10 are in Pennsylvania.

Occupations in the Industry

Workers in the iron and steel industry hold
more than 1,000 different types of jobs. Some
workers are directly engaged in making iron and
steel and converting it into semifinished and
finished products. Others take care of the vast
amount of machinery and equipment used in
the industry, operate cranes and other equipment
which move raw materials and steel products
about the plants, or perform other kinds of work.
In addition, many workers are needed to do the
clerical, sales, professional, technical, admin­
istrative, and supervisory work connected with
the operation of steelmaking plants.
More than four-fifths of all employees in the
iron and steel industry in 1964 were production
and maintenance workers. These workers were
directly concerned with the production and finish­
ing of iron and steel, the maintenance of plant
equipment, and movement of materials within
and among plant departments. The remaining
employees were employed in clerical, sales, pro­
fessional, technical, administrative, research, man­
agerial, and supervisory occupations.
Men comprise 96 percent of all employees in
the iron and steel industry, and an even higher
proportion of the industry’s production workers
since much of the production work is strenuous.
However, the physical labor involved in steel­
making has been reduced through mechanization.
About two-thirds of all the women employed in
the industry work in clerical and other office
jobs, including research and other technical work.
Women employed in production departments are
in jobs such as assorter and inspector.
Processing Occupations. The majority of the
workers in the iron and steel industry are em­
ployed in the many processing operations involved
in converting iron ore into steel and then into semi­
finished and finished steel products. To provide a
better understanding of the types of jobs in this
industry, brief descriptions of the major steel­
making and finishing operations and of the more
important occupations connected with them are
given below.
Blast furnaces. The blast furnace is used to
extract molten iron from iron ore. Alternate
layers of iron ore, coke, and limestone are fed
into the top of the furnace. Hot air, blown in

















from the bottom of the furnace, rises through
the mass of material and causes combustion. The
gases formed by the burning of the coke com­
bine with and remove the oxygen from the ore.
Molten iron trickles down through the charge
and collects in a pool at the bottom of the fur­
nace. At the same time, the intense heat melts
the limestone which combines with silica and
other impurities in the iron ore and coke and
forms molten “slag,” a useful byproduct. This,
too, trickles down through the charge and floats
on top of the heavier molten iron. The slag and
molten iron ore are separately tapped or “cast”
from the blast furnace.
A blast furnace operates continuously, 24 hours
a day, 7 days a week, unless it has to be shut
down for repairs or for other reasons. Molten
iron is removed every 4 or 5 hours; slag is re­
moved more frequently. The charging of iron ore,
coke, and limestone into the furnace is a con­
tinuous operation.
The raw materials used in blast furnaces are
stored in a stock house below furnace level. Here
stockhouse men or stockhouse larrymen (D.O.T.
919.883) load traveling stock or larry cars with
raw materials from storage bins. They weigh all
raw materials in accordance with a prearranged
schedule, which depends upon the kind of hot
metal desired. The loaded stock cars are emptied
into waiting “skip cars,” which carry the mate­
rials up tracks to the top of the blast furnace
where they are automatically dumped. Other
stockhouse men or skipmen (D.O.T. 921.883), sta­
tioned on the ground below, control the skip cars
through electric and pneumatic controls. Stove
tenders (D.O.T. 512.782) and their assistants op­
erate huge, bricklined stoves which heat air for
the blast furnace. They regulate valves to con­
trol the heating cycle of the stoves and regulate
the flow of heated air to the furnace.
The men who are responsible for the quantity
and quality of iron produced are called bloioers
(D.O.T. 519.132). They direct the operation of
one or more blast furnaces, including loading
and tapping the furnace, and regulating the
air blast and furnace heat. Blowers carefully
check the metal produced, periodically sending
samples of the molten iron and slag to the lab­
oratory where quality tests are made and the
results reported to the blower. Keepers (D.O.T.

502.884), under the direction of the blower, are
responsible for tapping the furnace. They direct
their helpers and cindermen or sluggers (D.O.T.
519.887) in lining (with sand) the troughs and
runners through which the molten iron and slag
are run off into waiting cars. In plants where
both iron and steel are made, most of the molten
iron is carried in “hot metal cars” or in giant
ladles to the steelmaking furnaces. If the iron is
to be shipped or stored, it is carried to a casting
machine where it is cast into pigs (bars).
Steel furnaces. The second major step in steel­
making is to convert the iron into steel. This is
done in several types of furnaces: Open hearth;
basic oxygen; electric; and Bessemer converter.
Open-hearth steel, which accounts for more
than three-fourths of all steel produced in the
United States, is produced by adding molten pig
iron to previously charged and heated steel scrap
and limestone and melting the mixture in fur­
naces. It is possible to make from about 125 to
more than 500 tons of steel per load or “heat” in
most furnaces. Some furnaces, however, have
capacities in excess of 600 tons. The open-hearth
process is so named because the saucer-shaped
hearth, or floor of the furnace, is exposed to the
sweep of the flames which melt the steel. In recent
years, most of the open-hearth steelmaking facil­
ities have utilized oxygen in the refining operation
to speed up the process.
A melter (D.O.T. 512.132) is in charge of one
or more open-hearth furnaces and is respon­
sible for the quality and quantity of the steel
produced. Each heat of steel is made to specifi­
cations, which depend upon the end use for the
steel. The melter makes the steel to the desired
specifications by varying the proportions of lime­
stone, iron ore, scrap steel, and molten pig iron
in the furnace, and by adding small amounts of
other materials, such as carbon, manganese,
silicon, copper, or aluminum. He supervises three
grades of helpers—first (D.O.T. 512.782), second
(D.O.T. 502.884), and third (D.O.T. 519.887).
These helpers prepare the furnaces for the heat,
regulate furnace temperatures, take samples of
molten steel for laboratory tests, direct the adding
of various alloying materials, and tap the molten
steel from the furnace into a ladle. One first
helper is responsible for each open-hearth furnace.

The charging machine operator (D.O.T. 512.883) runs an electrically controlled machine
with a long steel arm which picks up, one by one,
long steel boxes full of limestone, scrap, and other
materials. The machine pushes each box through
the open furnace doors, turns it upside down to
discharge its contents, and then withdraws it.
The hot metal craneman (D.O.T. 921.883) oper­
ates a large overhead crane, that picks up ladles
of molten iron and pours the contents into the
open-hearth furnaces.
When the heat of steel is ready to be tapped,
the furnace crew knocks out a plug at the back
of the furnace with a “jet tapper” (small explo­
sive charge which is fired into the plug) which
allows the molten metal to flow into a ladle. The
slag, which floats to the top of the ladle, overflows
into a smaller ladle, called a slag pot.
The molten steel is then poured from the ladle
into ingot molds (hollow cast iron forms). A
ladle craneman (D.O.T. 921.883) operates an
overhead crane which picks up the ladle and
moves it over a long row of ingot molds resting
on flat-bottom cars. The steel pourer (D.O.T.
514.884) operates a stopper on the bottom of
the ladle to let the steel flow into the molds.
As soon as the steel in the molds has solidified
sufficiently, an ingot stripper (D.O.T. 921.883),

Melter’s helper inserts jet tapper into open hearth furnace tap


operating an overhead crane, removes the molds
from the still hot blocks of steel, called ingots,
leaving the stripped ingots standing to cool on the
“ingot buggies” (four-wheel carts running on
About an eighth of all steel produced in 1964
was made in basic-oxygen furnaces, and the
proportion is expected to increase rapidly in the
1965-75 decade. Basic oxygen furnaces can make
steel faster than any other type of furnace cur­
rently in use. Some basic oxygen furnaces can
produce more than 6,000 tons of steel in a 24hour period. In this steelmaking process, oxygen
is “blown” into the furnace through vertical
pipes, or “lances,” after it has been loaded with
steel scrap, pig iron, and molten iron. Limestone
and other slag forming materials are added to
remove impurities from the steel. The use of
oxygen speeds the steelmaking process because it
is blown directly into the molten metal forcing a
faster chemical reaction and a higher bath tem­
Electric furnaces accounted for about a tenth
of all steel produced in 1964. In electric furnaces,
steelmaking can be controlled very closely. Con­
sequently, such furnaces are used to produce high
quality and high alloy steel, such as tool and
stainless steels.
Steel made by the Bessemer process accounts
for less than 1 percent of the total amount of
steel produced in this country each year, having
declined steadily over the past half century.
Rolling and finishing. The three principal
methods of shaping metal in steel plants are roll­
ing, casting, and forging. About three-fourths of
all steel products are shaped by the rolling
process. In this method, heated steel ingots are
squeezed longer and flatter between two cylinders
or “rolls.” Before ingots of steel are rolled, they
are heated to the temperature specified by the
plant’s metallurgist. The heating is done in large
furnaces, called “soaking pits,” located in the
plant floor. A heater (D.O.T. 613.782) controls
the soaking pit operation. He directs helpers in
heating the ingots to the specified temperature
and, with the help of control equipment, deter­
mines when they are ready for rolling. A soaking
pit craneman (D.O.T. 921.883) operates an over­
head crane, by means of electrical controls, to
lift the stripped ingots from an ingot car and


place them into the soaking pit. When the ingots
are sufficiently “soaked” with heat, the heater
opens the furnace doors and the craneman
removes the ingots and places them on ingot bug­
gies, which carry them to the rolling mills. Here,
the ingots are rolled into semifinished shapes—
blooms, slabs, or billets. Blooms are generally
more than 6 inches wide and 6 inches thick. Slabs
are much wider than blooms. Billets are the
smallest of these three shapes.
The rolling of blooms illustrates the semi­
finishing process. In the blooming mill, as in
other rolling mills, the ingot moves along on a
roller conveyor to a machine which resembles a
giant clothes wringer. A “two-high” blooming
mill has two heavy grooved rolls which revolve in
opposite directions. The rolls grip the approach­
ing ingot and pull it between them, squeezing it
thinner and longer. When the ingot has made
a “pass” through the rolls, the rolls are revolved
in the opposite direction, and the ingot is fed
back through them. Throughout the rolling oper­
ation the ingot is periodically turned 90 degrees
by mechanical devices called “manipulators,” and
passed between the rolls again, so that all sides
are rolled. Guides, located on each side of the
roll table, properly position the ingot for entry
into the rolls. This operation is repeated until
the ingot is reduced to a bloom of the desired size.
The bloom is then ready to be cut to specified
A blooming mill roller (D.O.T. 613.782), the
man in charge of the mill, works in a glassenclosed control booth, or “pulpit,” located above
and directly over the roller line. His duties, which
appear to consist ^principally of moving levers
and pushing buttons, look relatively simple.
However, the quality of the product and the
speed with which the ingot is rolled depend upon
his skill. The roller regulates the opening be­
tween the rolls after each pass. Long experi­
ence and a knowledge of steel characteristics are
required for a worker to become a roller. A
manipulator operator (D.O.T. 613.782) sits in
the pulpit beside the roller and coordinates his
controls with those of the roller.
Upon leaving the rolling mill, the red-hot
bloom moves along a roller conveyor to a place
where a shearman (D.O.T. 615.782) controls a
T78-316 0 — 65...... 4 6

heavy, hydraulically operated shear which cuts
the steel into desired lengths.
In a blooming mill with automatic (electronic)
process controls, a rolling mill attendant is given
a card which has been punched with a series of
holes. The holes represent coded information and
directions as to how the ingot is to be rolled.
The attendant inserts the card into a card
“reader,” then presses a button that starts the
rolling sequence. The information in punchedcard form governs the setting of the roll opening,
the speed of the rolls, the number of passes to
be made, and the number of times the ingot must
be turned. When the automatic process is used,
the roller’s function is shifted from operating
the rolling controls to directing and coordinating
the entire rolling process. This consists of heat­
ing, rolling, and shearing.
One of the latest developments in steel shaping
is the continuous casting process. In this process
molten steel is poured into a water-cooled mold lo­
cated at the top of a tower. As the mold is filled,
the steel solidifies along the bottom and lower
sides. The mold bottom is then withdrawn and
the slab starts its descent through the tower. As

While his helper knocks off scale, speed operator (one type of
roller) controls continuous butt weld pipe mill.

the slab ribbon emerges from the mold, additional
molten steel is continuously added at the top.
Continuing downward, the slab passes through a
spray chamber where it is further cooled by a
water spray to solidify the still liquid core. Pinch
rolls control the slab’s descent and support its
weight. Finally the slab is cut into lengths while
hanging vertically from the rolls.
After the steel is rolled into semifinished
shapes—blooms, slabs, or billets—most of it is
put through “finishing” operations. For example,
steel slabs may be reduced and shaped into plates
and sheets. Even after additional rolling, some
steels must be worked further. Some rods, for
instance, are reduced to wire by drawing. Wire
can be further processed into wire rope, nails,
fencing, or other end products. Much sheet steel
is further reduced by cold-rolling, and then it
may be run through galvanizing or tinplating
lines. Bars, skelp (a thick, narrow sheet), and
plate can be formed into pipe of widely varying
Equipment operator, inspector, and assorter,
are among the major occupations in finishing
operations; women are frequently employed in
these jobs.
An important occupation in wire making is
the wire drawer (D.O.T. 614.782). This worker
pulls the pointed end of a steel rod through a
die (a block of hard steel or sintered carbide with
a tapered hole in it) . The rod end is then attached
to a reel which, while revolving, pulls the rest
of the rod through the die. As the rod passes
through the die it is made thinner and longer
and becomes wire, which is automatically coiled
around the revolving reel. If extensive reduction
of the rod is required, it is passed through a
series of dies, each die reducing the diameter of
the wire slightly.
Pipe, both welded and seamless, is also an
important steel mill product. In making welded
pipe, the flat steel is fed into a machine which
rolls it into tube shape; then the edges of the
pipe are fused by continuous welding.
Seamless pipe and tubing are formed from
a solid billet of steel, called a tube round. In
the seamless operation, the piercer-machine oper­
ator (D.O.T. 613.885) passes a preheated tube
round between two barrel-shaped rolls. The
revolving rolls spin the tube round and force one


end against a piercing plug or “mandrel.” The
combined rolling action and the pressure of the
rolls tend to make the steel draw apart providing
space for the mandrel to enter. The mandrel
smooths the inside walls and makes the diameter
of the hole uniform.
Tinplate is another important steel product.
To make tinplate, thin sheets of steel are fed
continuously through an electrolytic bath where
a coat of tin is deposited on the steel.
Maintenance, Transportation, and Plant Service
Occupations. Large numbers of workers are
required in steel plants to support processing
activities. Some maintain and repair machinery
and equipment, and others operate the equipment
which provides power, steam, and water. Other
groups of workers move material and supplies
and perform a variety of service operations.
In the machine shops, machinists and machine
tool operators make and repair metal parts for
machinery or equipment. Diemakers use machine
tools to form dies, such as those used in wire
drawing units. Roll turners (D.O.T. 613.780)
use lathes, grinders, and other machine tools to
finish steel rolls to desired shapes and sizes for
use in the rolling mills.
Millwrights in this industry maintain mechani­
cal equipment. They overhaul machinery, and
repair and replace defective parts. Electricians
install electric wiring and fixtures and “hook up”
electrically operated equipment. Electrical repair­
men (motor inspectors) keep wiring, motors,
switches, and electrical equipment in good oper­
ating condition and make repairs when electrical
equipment breaks down.
Electronic repairmen install, repair, and ad­
just the increasing number of electric devices and
systems used in steel manufacturing plants.
Typically, this equipment includes communica­
tion systems, such as public address systems;
closed-circuit television installations; electronic
computing and data recording systems; and
measuring, processing, and control devices, such
as X-ray measuring or inspection equipment.
Bricklayers repair and rebuild the brickwork in
furnaces, soaking pits, and coke ovens, as well as
mill buildings and offices. Pipefitters lay out, in­
stall, and repair piping that is used to carry the
large amount of water, gas, steam, oil, air, oxygen,


and acetylene used in the steelmaking process.
Boilermakers test, repair, and rebuild heating
units, storage tanks, stationary boilers, and con­
densers. Locomotive engineers and other train
crew members operate diesel or electric trains used
to transport materials and products in the vast
yards of iron and steel plants. Welders operate
welding equipment to join metal parts in repairing
and rebuilding plant machinery and in fabricating
steel products. Skilled workers run the various
boilers, turbines, and switchboards in the powerplants which provide the large amounts of electric
power needed in steelmaking.
Other types of maintenance and service work­
ers found in steel plants include carpenters, oil­
ers, painters, instrument repairmen, scale repair­
men, loaders, riggers, greasers, janitors, and
guards. Many laborers are employed to load and
unload materials and do a variety of cleanup
Administrative, Clerical, and Technical Occupa­
tions. Professional, technical, administrative,
clerical, and sales workers accounted for nearly
one-fifth of the industry’s total employment in
1964. Of these, the majority were clerical
workers, such as secretaries, stenographers,
typists, accounting clerks, and general office
Engineers, scientists, and technicians made up
a substantial proportion of the industry’s “whitecollar” employment. Several thousand of these
workers were engaged in research and develop­
ment to improve existing iron and steel products
and processes, and to develop new products and
processes. For example, these workers are now
developing and improving alloy steels that are
highly resistant to heat, extremely strong, and
relatively light in weight.
The technical specialists in iron and steel
plants also include mechanical engineers whose
principal work is the design, construction, and
operation of mill machinery and material han­
dling equipment. Many mechanical engineers
work in operating units where their jobs include,
for example, determination of roll size and con­
tour, rolling pressures, and operating speeds.
Others are responsible for plant and equipment
maintenance. Metallurgists and metallurgical
engineers work in laboratories and in production

departments where they have the important task
of testing and controlling the quality of the steel
during its manufacture. They also develop and
improve the industry’s products and processes
through research. Civil engineers are engaged in
the layout, construction, and maintenance of steel
plants and the equipment used for heat, light,
and transportation. Electrical engineers design,
lay out, and supervise the operation of electrical
generating and distribution facilities that pro­
vide the power essential in modern steel mill
operation. These engineers are concerned also
with the operation of electrical machinery and
electrical and electronic control equipment.
Chemists work in the laboratories, making
chemical analyses of steel and raw materials
used in steel manufacture. Laboratory technicians
do routine testing and assist chemists and engi­
neers. Draftsmen prepare working plans and
detailed drawings required in plant construction
and maintenance.
Among the employees in administrative, mana­
gerial, and supervisory occupations were office
managers, personnel workers, purchasing agents,
plant managers, and industrial engineers. Work­
ing with these personnel were several thousand
professional workers, other than scientists and
engineers. By far the largest group of these pro­
fessional workers were accountants, but there
were also many nurses, lawyers, economists,
statisticians, mathematicians, librarians, and so­
cial workers. In addition, the industry employed
several thousand workers in sales positions.
(Detailed discussions of professional, technical,
mechanical, and other occupations found in the
iron and steel industry as well as in many other
industries are given elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

New workers in processing operations are usu­
ally hired at the unskilled level, as laborers.
Openings in higher rated jobs are usually filled
by promoting workers from lower grade jobs.
Factors considered when selecting workers for
promotion are: Ability to do the job, physical
fitness, and length of service with the company.
Training for processing occupations is done
almost entirely on the job. Workers move to
operations requiring progressively greater skill
as they acquire experience and “know-how.” A

craneman, for example, is first taught how to
operate relatively simple cranes, and then he
advances through several steps to cranes much
more difficult to run, such as the hot-metal crane.
In selecting workers for processing jobs, steel
companies generally give preference to high
school graduates. To help them advance in their
work, many workers take part-time courses in
subjects such as chemistry, physics, and metallurgy. In some cases, this training is provided
by the steel companies and may be given within
the plant. Other workers take evening courses
in high schools, trade schools, or universities in
their communities or enroll in correspondence
Workers in the various operating units usually
advance along fairly well-defined lines of promo­
tion within their department. Examples of pos­
sible lines of advancement in the various oper­
ating units follow.
To become a blast furnace blower, a worker
generally starts as a laborer, advancing to cinderman or slagger, keeper’s helper, keeper, blower’s
helper, and, finally, to blower. In the open-hearth
departments, a man may begin by doing general
cleanup work around the furnace and then gen­
erally advance to third helper, second helper, first
helper, and, eventually, to melter. A possible line
of job advancement for a roller in a finishing
mill might be pitman, roll hand, manipulator,
rougher, and finish roller. Workers can be trained
for skilled jobs, such as blower, melter, and roller
(which are among the highest rated steelmaking
jobs), in a minimum of 4 or 5 years, but usually
wait a much longer time before openings occur.
Most companies conduct some type of appren­
ticeship program to meet the needs of their main­
tenance shops. There are apprentice training
programs for more than 20 different crafts in the
steel industry. The apprenticeship programs for
maintenance workers usually are of 3 or 4 years
duration and consist mainly of shop training in
various aspects of the particular jobs. In addi­
tion, classroom instruction in related technical
subjects is usually given, either in the plant or in
local vocational schools.
Steelmaking companies have different quali­
fications for apprentice applicants. Generally,
employers require applicants to be high school


or vocational school graduates. In most cases,
the minimum age is 18 years; sometimes an upper
age limit is specified. Some companies give apti­
tude and other types of tests to applicants to
determine their suitability for the trades. Ap­
prentices are generally chosen from among
qualified young workers already employed in the
plant. The following occupations are among
those most often included in apprentice training
programs in iron and steel plants: Blacksmith,
boilermaker, bricklayer, coremaker, carpenter,
electrician, instrument repairman, lead burner,
machinist, molder, painter, patternmaker, pipe­
fitter, rigger, roll turner, sheet metal worker, tool
and die maker, and welder.
Applicants for jobs as helpers to skilled main­
tenance workers are usually given aptitude tests.
Helpers receive on-the-job training and may
be promoted to jobs requiring greater skill as
openings occur. However, vacancies in these
higher grades may not occur for several years,
depending on the rate of turnover.
The minimum requirement for engineering
and scientific jobs is usually a bachelor’s degree
with an appropriate major. Practically all the
larger companies have formal training programs
for college-trained technical workers in which the
trainees work for brief periods in various oper­
ating and maintenance divisions to get a broad
picture of steelmaking operations before they are
assigned to a particular department. In other
companies, the newly hired scientist or engineer
is assigned directly to a specific research, oper­
ating, maintenance, administrative, or sales unit.
Engineering graduates are frequently hired for
sales work and many of the executives in the
industry have engineering backgrounds. Engi­
neering graduates as well as graduates of business
administration and liberal arts colleges are
employed for jobs in sales, accounting, and labormanagement relations, as well as in managerial
Completion of a business course in high school,
junior college, or business school is usually pre­
ferred for entry into most of the office occupa­
tions. Office jobs requiring special knowledge of
the steel industry are generally filled by pro­
moting personnel already employed in the



Employment Outlook

The iron and steel industry will hire many
thousands of workers during the 1965-75 decade
to replace experienced workers who transfer to
other fields of work, retire, or die. Retirements
and deaths alone in this large industry should
provide about 14,000 job openings annually—13,000 for men and 1,000 for women. However, be­
cause of the expected increase in output per worker
total employment in the industry is expected to
decline below the 1965 level of 660,000 by 1975,
even assuming relatively full employment na­
tionally and the high levels of economic activity
needed to achieve this goal. The extent of the
anticipated employment decline cannot be de­
termined at this time, because it is far too early to
evaluate the labor-saving effects of many of the
technological developments being introduced in
the iron and steel industry.
Despite the decline in total employment an­
ticipated over the long run, employment in some
occupations, or occupational groups, is expected
to increase. Among white-collar workers, for
example, employment of engineers, chemists,
physicists, mathematicians, laboratory aids, and
other technical personnel will increase, because
of the industry's expanding research and develop­
ment programs. Job opportunities for electronic
technicians, electronic computer programers, and
other personnel trained in the preparation of data
for use in these machines also are expected to in­
crease. Among skilled plant personnel, mainte­
nance workers (particularly instrument repair­
men) are expected to be needed in greater numbers,
because of the increasingly complex machinery,
instruments, and other equipment used. In con­
trast, the number of less skilled processing jobs is
expected to decline.
A substantial increase in the production of
iron and steel is expected during the decade
ahead. The growing population and rising levels
of personal disposable income will result in
greater demand for products that require large
amounts of steel, such as automobiles, houses,
household appliances, and highways. New ma­
chinery will also be needed to produce the grow­
ing quantity of goods needed to feed, clothe, and
otherwise satisfy the requirements of an expanding population.

Continued increases in the efficiency of office
and production operations in the iron and steel
industry are expected in the decade ahead. The
efficiency of office operations, for example, will
be improved by the growing use of electronic
data-processing and communications equipment.
The time needed to produce steel will be reduced
by the increasing use of high pressure in blast
furnaces; basic oxygen furnaces; oxygen in
open-hearth and electric furnaces; and continu­
ous casting equipment. The trend toward more
automatic production operations and the greater
use of instruments to control the quality of steel
will also result in increased operating efficiency.
The use of automatic production techniques is
growing in rolling mills, in tin coating processes,
and in heating and controlling furnaces; and
these techniques are being improved and extended
to other operations.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Earnings of production workers in iron and
steelmaking establishments are among the highest
in manufacturing. In mid-1965, their earnings
averaged $144.75 a week, or $3.43 an hour. This
compares with average earnings of $107.01 weekly,
or $2.61 an hour, for all production workers in
manufacturing establishments.
Basic (standard) hourly wage (including an
18.5-cent-per-hour accumulated cost-of-living al­
lowance) rates for nine selected processing occu­
pations in the United States Steel Corp., the
largest single steel company, are shown in the
following tabulation:
B la st furnaces

__ ___ __
Stockhouse man _ _ ___ __
Cinderman________ ____________



A p p ro x im a te
basic hourly
ra tes 2

$3. 26
2. 97
2. 68


Charging-machine operator, open
hearth _ _____ ___________ ____
Ingot stripper, open h e a r th ______
Helper, third, open h e a r th _____


3. 41
3. 12
2. 68


4. 14
3. 19
2. 60

Rolling and finishing m ills

Roller, blooming mill
Manipulator, blooming mill___ ____
Assorters, tin plate___________ _ .

1 A n a r r a n g e m e n t o f jo b s in to a series o f c a te g o r ie s r a te d a c c o r d in g to s k ill,
e x p e r ie n c e , tr a in in g , a n d o th e r fa c to r s, t o s e t w a g e ra tes.
2 T h e s e r a te s a re fro m t h e w a g e a g r e e m e n t b e tw e e n th e c o m p a n y a n d t h e
U n it e d S te e lw o r k e r s o f A m e r ic a , in e ffe c t in S e p te m b e r 1965.

Basic hourly wage rates for skilled processing
jobs ranged from about $3.04 to $4.58; for semiskilled jobs, from approximately $2.60 to $2.97;
and for unskilled jobs, from $2.39 to about $2.53.
(The individual worker’s rate depends on his particular job classification.) These rates were repre­
sentative of those for processing jobs throughout
the industry and were guaranteed minimum for
those workers who were paid on the incentive
(piece rate) basis. Since about two-thirds of the
industry’s production workers were paid on an
incentive basis, a majority of such workers gener­
ally earned more than the basic hourly wage
In addition to the above rates, steelworkers
receive premium pay for overtime work and for
work on Sundays and holidays.
Agreements between most steel companies and
the United Steelworkers of America include pro­
visions for various fringe benefits, such as vaca­
tion pay, retirement pensions, and unemployment
benefits. Most workers receive vacation pay rang­
ing from 1 to 4 weeks depending on length of
service. In addition, the top 50 percent of the
workers, ranked on the basis of seniority, re­
ceive 13-week vacations (including regular vaca­
tion time) every 5 years. Professional and execu­
tive personnel in a few companies receive similar
benefits. Workers may retire after 30 years of
service, regardless of age. Retiring workers are
eligible for a company-paid pension, in addition to
other retirement benefits for which they may be
eligible. Employees having 2 years or more of
service are eligible to receive supplemental unem­
ployment benefits for up to 52 weeks. Other impor­


tant provisions include a $100 monthly disability
pension provided by the companies, and accident
and sickness, hospitalization, surgical, and life
insurance benefits financed by the companies.
Working conditions depend upon the particu­
lar plant department in which the worker is
employed. Maintenance shops generally are clean
and cool. Rolling mills, however, are generally
hot and noisy. Some plants are developing
methods to reduce job discomfort. For example,
the use of remote controls enables employees to
work outside the immediate vicinity of process­
ing operations. In other instances, the cabs in
which the men work, wdiile operating mechanical
equipment, are often air conditioned. Some of
the workers near blast and steel furnaces are
exposed to considerable heat. Because certain
processes are operated continuously, some workers
are on night shifts or work on weekends.
The iron and steel industry is a leader in the
development of safety programs for workers,
emphasizing the use of protective clothing and
devices on machines to prevent accidents. In
1964, steel plants had an average injury fre­
quency rate (injuries per million hours of work)
that was about a third of the rate for all manu­
Most plant workers in the iron and steel in­
dustry are members of the United Steelworkers
of America.

Where To G o for More Information
American Iron and Steel Institute,
150 East 42d St., New York, N.Y. 10017.

Few products have had as great an impact on
iveryday life as the automobiles, trucks, buses,
and other vehicles manufactured by the motor
vehicle and motor vehicle equipment industry
(automobile industry). Four out of five families
owned automobiles in 1964, and over 85 million
passenger cars, trucks, and buses traveled the
Nation’s streets and highways. In addition, the
widespread use of motor vehicles has made signifi­
cant contributions to the Nation’s economy by help­
ing to create new industries and develop existing
ones. Many businesses, including automotive re­
pair shops, gasoline service stations, and truck and
bus transportation facilities have been created as a
result of the motor vehicle. Moreover, the auto­
mobile industry is a major consumer of many
basic commodities such as steel, rubber, and plate
To manufacture the more than 9 million motor
vehicles (mainly automobiles) produced in 1964,
the automobile industry employed more than threequarters of a million employees. Like other large
industries, the automobile industry offers employ­
ment to men and women with widely different
backgrounds of education and skill. Require­
ments for jobs vary from the college degrees
necessary for engineers and other professional
and technical personnel, to the few hours of
on-the-job training necessary for some other oc­
cupations, such as assembler, materials handler,
and custodial employee. The largest number of
employees work in factory (plant) occupations.
Plant occupations range from the skilled tool
and die maker, millwright, and electrician, to
those requiring little skill, such as machine tender,
assembler, materials handler, and custodial
worker. A great number of automotive employ­
ees also work in office and administrative jobs
as clerks, business machine operators, stenog­
raphers, purchasing agents, and personnel assist­

Nature and Location of the Industry

This industry’s ability to produce millions of
complex motor vehicles is due mainly to mass
production of standardized parts and assembly­
line manufacturing methods. Thousands of iden­
tical parts are produced by employees whose
jobs are divided into a limited number of opera­
tions on high-speed machinery. These massproduced parts are then put together by other
employees to form the completed vehicle. As a
result, new cars can be driven off assembly lines
at the rate of more than one a minute.
The automobile industry in 1964 consisted of
approximately 2,300 plants that manufactured
parts and assembled these parts into cars, trucks,
buses, and special-purpose vehicles such as ambu­
lances, fire engines, and taxicabs. The plants
ranged in size from huge assembly plants employ­
ing many thousands of workers, to parts plants
employing a small number of workers. About 80
percent of the industry’s workers are employed in
establishments with 1,000 or more employees.

Assembly line workers guide a front end into position.

Hundreds of companies supply the parts for
new vehicles and also produce the replacement
parts necessary to keep the millions of vehicles
already on the road in operation. These firms
often specialize in producing individual parts—
for instance, brakes, axles, and transmissions.
About 60 percent of the automobile industry’s
workers are employed in these manufacturing
plants. There are only a small number of com­
panies producing the complete vehicles.
About 90 percent of the automobile industry’s
workers are employed in 10 States. Michigan
alone accounts for about 45 percent of the indus­
try's employment; Ohio, Indiana, and New York
account for another 25 percent. The six other
States with large concentrations of motor vehicle
manufacturing employment are Wisconsin, Cali­
fornia, Missouri, Illinois, Pennsylvania, and New
In Michigan, the Detroit metropolitan area is
the center of the industry. About 1 out of every
4 of the Nation’s automobile workers is employed
within its industrial area, which includes Dear­
born and Pontiac. Several other cities, especially
Flint, Lansing, and Saginaw, employ large num­
bers of automobile workers.
The Great Lakes region has many other impor­
tant centers; Cleveland, Lorain, Toledo, and Cin­
cinnati, Ohio; Indianapolis and Fort Wayne,
In d .; Chicago, 111.; Buffalo, N.Y.; and Mil­
waukee and Kenosha, Wis.
Much of the automobile manufacturing on the
East Coast is centered in the New York-North­
eastern New Jersey-Philadelphia industrial area
in such localities as Newark, Paterson, Linden,
and New Brunswick, N.J.; and New York, N.Y.
The Los Angeles industrial area is the leading
automobile manufacturing center in the Pacific
Coast region. The East Bay area is another
automobile manufacturing center in California.


and testing often precede the actual production
of each year’s model. Stylists constantly strive
to improve the appearance of the automobile.
They work closely with engineers and other
technical personnel concerned with improving
mechanical operation, design, and safety. The
stylists’ creative designs are transferred to blue­
prints, from which skilled modelmakers make
clay, wood, and plastic models of the new auto­
mobile. From these models, refinements in styl­
ing and design of the new car are developed.
In order to mass-produce the car, master dies
based on the finally accepted model are made.
Companies that produce parts work closely
with the automobile manufacturers on questions
of designing, engineering, and testing. Problems
of production methods, costs, and scheduling also
are wrnrked out long before the actual manufac­
turing process begins.
Production of Motor Vehicle Parts. After the
design of the new model automobile is developed,
automobile parts plants begin production of the
various components of the car. Because parts
are made by many different firms, rigid quality
control is maintained so that the parts fit prop­
erly on the final assembly line and the safety of
the automobile is ensured.
Motor vehicle parts are made of many different
materials. Although most parts are made from
steel, other metals such as aluminum, copper, and

How Motor Vehicles A re Made

Automobiles and other motor vehicles are pro­
duced in three steps: Preliminary designing and
engineering; production of motor vehicle parts
and subassemblies; and final assembly of parts
into completed vehicles.
Preliminary Designing and Engineering. Ap­
proximately 2 to 4 years of designing, planning,

Automobile stylist sketches body designs.


zinc also are used. Other parts are made from
plastic, rubber, fabric, or glass.
Metal parts for motor vehicles are shaped in
several ways depending upon the purpose for
which the part is to be used, the size of the part,
and the type of metal used. The principal methods
of shaping metal are casting, forging, stamping
or pressing, and machining. Most metal parts
are produced by foundry workers, forge shop
workers, operators of stamping or pressing ma­
chines, and machining workers.
Castings are made in foundries where molten
metal is poured into molds and allowed to cool
and harden into the desired shape. Bulky parts,
such as engine blocks, generally are made by the
casting process.
In the forging process, glowing hot metal is
shaped by huge hammers and presses. This
method of shaping metal produces parts capable
of withstanding great stress. Forgings are,
therefore, used to make such parts as axles and
wheel spindles.
Large sections of the motor vehicle are formed
from sheet steel which is shaped by huge elec­
tronically controlled presses. Smaller parts are
also stamped or pressed out of sheet steel or
aluminum. Cast or forged parts often undergo
further processing, usually machining, before they
are ready for assembly.
Machining is the metalworking process gener­
ally best adapted for the production of parts to
precise sizes. It is a process of cutting or chipping
away excess metal from a part or a piece of metal
by the use of power-driven machine tools. Among
the more common types of machine tools are
lathes, boring machines, drill presses, grinding
machines, milling machines, and gear cutters.
The automobile industry has taken the lead in
trying to develop continuous automatic produc­
tion for many machining operations. This ap­
proach to production depends on a variety of
instruments to direct and control manufacturing
processes. In applying automation to machining
processes, automobile manufacturers have linked
automatic machine tools to perform various op­
erations. Less labor is required because the parts
or pieces being machined are not handled manu­
For example, in an automated engine plant,
a rough engine block goes through hundreds of

different cutting, drilling, and grinding opera­
tions with the use of little or no manual labor.
The engine block is moved into and out of load
stations mechanically, machined automatically
by a battery of machine tools, and transferred
by conveyors to the next machining operation.
Much of the inspection is done automatically.
The machine tools, the conveyors, and the inspec­
tion equipment often are controlled by electronic,
hydraulic, or air control mechanisms. Workers
tend the automated lines of machine tools by
watching the control panels for interruptions of
the machines’ normal functioning.
The production of parts does not entirely con­
sist of metalworking operations: Body parts are
made rustproof and attractive by painting and
baking them in ovens lined with infrared lights;
and upholstery for the car interior is cut, sewn,
and installed.
Throughout the production of parts, numerous
inspections are made so that the quality of the
assembled vehicles will meet established stand­
Assembling the Final Product. The last stage
of motor vehicle manufacturing takes place on
the final assembly line. Final assembly is the
process of putting together in sequence the in­
dividual parts and the subassemblies, with the
completed vehicle rolling off the end of the line.
Overhead wires and pipes feed electric power and
air to nut tighteners, welding equipment, and
other tools used by workers on the assembly line.
A conveyor carries the motor vehicle forward while
men at work stations attach the necessary parts
and subassemblies in proper sequence.
Generally, large and heavy subassemblies,
such as the engine and the body, are lowered
by hoists into position on the chassis as it comes
down the line. The finishing accessories, such
as bumpers, hubcaps, and floor mats, are added
near the end of the line. Finally, gasoline is
pumped into the fuel tank, and the new motor
vehicle is driven off the line. The headlights and
wheels are then alined and the finished car is
inspected before it leaves the factory.
As the chassis move down the assembly line,
“banks” of material located in aisles along the
line are continually fed to the assemblers in ac­
cordance with a careful system of scheduling

arranged by the production control department.
Behind the movement of the parts and subas­
semblies to the assembly line is the work of the
materials control men who, months before, co­
ordinated the movement of material from outside
suppliers with a planned production schedule.
The sequence of the models to be built may
be transmitted to the various stations along
the line by either teletype or telautograph. The
information on color and on the special equip­
ment desired in each car is obtained from car
orders placed by automobile dealers. By this
scheduling program, cars of different colors and
types follow each other down the assembly line—
for example, a light blue sedan may be followed
by a beige station wagon.
Automobile Manufacturing Occupations

The automobile industry’s 875,000 employees
in 1965 worked in hundreds of occupations. Semi­
skilled plant workers such as assemblers, inspec­
tors, and materials handlers made up about onehalf of all employees. An additional quarter were

Operator places wheel weights to achieve correct wheel balance.


employed as foremen, mechanics and repairmen,
machinists, tool and die makers, and in other
skilled occupations. Clerical employees made up
about a tenth of the total. The remaining workers
were employed in professional, technical, sales,
and managerial occupations, and as unskilled
workers and guards.
About 90 percent of all the automobile indus­
try’s employees are men. Of the women employed
in the industry, about half are in production jobs
in which the work is not physically strenuous,
such as assemblers, inspectors, machine operators,
and sewers and stitchers; the rest are in clerical
and other office jobs, including research and
technical work.
The duties and training requirements of some
of the important occupations are described briefly
below. (Detailed discussions of professional,
technical, mechanical, and other occupations
found in the automobile industry, as well as in
many other industries, are given elsewhere in
this Handbook, in the sections covering individual
Professional and Technical Occupations. The
modern automobile is a product of the research,
design, and development work of thousands of
engineers, chemists, metallurgists, physicists, and
other scientists and engineers, as well as mathe­
maticians, draftsmen, and other professional and
technical personnel employed by the automobile
companies. About 18,000 scientists and engineers
were employed in the automobile industry in
early 1963. Engineers make up the largest group
of professional and technical workers in the auto­
mobile industry. Automobile companies hire
engineers specializing in mechanical, electrical,
industrial, and other fields. For example, the
mechanical engineer seeks ways of improving the
engine, transmission, or other parts of the auto­
mobile through research and development and
better design. The electrical engineer works on
the design of electrical parts, such as ignition
systems, voltage regulators, and generators. The
industrial engineer concentrates on the layout of
plant equipment, improved processes, and produc­
tion scheduling. The industry also employs civil,
chemical, and ceramic engineers, and metal­


About 40 percent of the scientists and engi­
neers are principally engaged in research and
development. Others may supervise technical
production jobs; for example, the metallurgist
may supervise the melting operations in the pre­
cision casting and forging departments, and the
chemist may head the testing and analytical
The industry also employs many thousands of
technicians, such as draftsmen, engineering aids,
and laboratory assistants, to assist professional
engineers and scientists.
Administrative, Clerical, and Related Occupa­
tions. Many types of employees are necessary in
the automobile industry to perform a great vari­
ety of administrative functions. These include
executives who determine how many vehicles to
produce, what styles to make, what prices to
charge, which parts the company should produce
and which parts it should buy, and where it is
best to locate plants. Other administrative per­
sonnel are those, such as personnel manager and
purchasing agent, who direct individual depart­
ments or special phases of operations. Among
those assisting the administrators are accountants,
lawyers, market analysts, economists, statisticians,
and industrial relations experts. This large in­
dustry also has many supervisory personnel in
charge of specific groups of office or plant
A large staff of clerical workers also is em­
ployed, including secretaries, stenographers,
bookkeepers, clerks and typists, key punch oper­
ators, and business machine operators. A large
proportion of these are women.
Plant Occupations. The largest proportion of
employees in the automobile industry—about
three-fourths—are in factory jobs and are directly
concerned with production operations. Most plant
employees make automobile parts, assemble them
into the complete vehicles, and put the finishing
touches on them. Other plant employees service
and maintain .the vast amount of machinery and
equipment needed for automobile manufacturing.
After the stylists, engineers, and draftsmen
have planned and designed the new model car,
the production process gets underway. First, the
parts must be made. Parts are principally metal
and are shaped by a variety of metalforming

processes which require workers in a number of
metalworking occupations. For example, doors,
fenders, and hoods are stamped out by huge
presses, cylinder blocks are cast in foundries, axles
are forged in forge shops, and pistons are ground
by machine tools.
Machining occupations. Automobile parts are
manufactured to precise dimensions by machin­
ing workers. One of the largest metalworking
occupations in the automobile industry is that of
machine tool operator. These workers operate
power-driven machines which hold both the piece
of metal to be cut and an instrument, or “tool,”
that cuts, shapes, drills, or grinds the metal. The
job titles of these employees depend on the type
of machine tool they operate, for example, engine
lathe operator, drill press operator, and milling
machine operator.
Among the most highly skilled machining work­
ers are the tool and die makers. Toolmakers make
the jigs, fixtures, and other accessories that hold the
metal being machined. Diemakers construct the
dies that are used in stamping, pressing, forging,
and other metalforming operations. Tool and die
makers read blueprints, set up and operate ma­
chine tools, use precision-measuring instruments,

Machine tool operator controls machine boring cylinders in
engine blocks.

and make shop computations. They work to
closer tolerances (more exact dimensions) and do
more precision handwork than most other ma­
chining workers.
Foundry occupations. Castings for automobile
parts are produced by pouring metal into molds
where it cools and hardens in the shape of the
molds. Patternmakers make a wood or metal
pattern in the shape of the final casting desired.
Coremakers shape the bodies of sand, or “cores,”
which are placed inside molds in order to form
hollow spaces needed in castings. Machine
molders make the sand mold into which the metal
is poured.
Many other workers in the foundries are in less
skilled occupations. Melters operate electric fur­
naces and cupolas used to melt metal for castings.
The actual pouring is done by metal pourers.
After the casting cools, the shakeout men remove
it from the mold. Other workers clean the cast­
ings and remove the excess metal.
Forging occupations. Some automobile parts
which must withstand great stress are shaped by
forging hammers and presses in the forge shop.
Hammermen operate drop hammers which pound
metal into various shapes between closed dies.
The hammermen are assisted by heaters who heat
the metal stock in a furnace to prepare it for
forging and then pass the stock to the hammer­
men. Other forge shop workers are engaged in
cleaning, finishing, heat treating, or inspecting
Other metalworking occupations. The auto­
mobile industry employs large numbers of work­
ers in other metalworking occupations. These in­
clude punch press operators who run powerdriven presses that vary in size from small
presses used for forming brackets, clips, or other
small parts to massive presses which form, trim,
and pierce holes in automobile doors, body panels,
and frames.
Automobile plants employ many thousands of
welders to join metal parts. Some manual electricarc welders and gas welders work in production
jobs in parts and body manufacturing plants, and
others work in maintenance jobs repairing and
rebuilding machinery and equipment. Machine
(resistance) welders are employed on assembly
lines to weld the separate parts of the bodies and


IusSpection occupations (D.O.T. 806.281; 283;
381; 382; 387; 684 and 687). Automobiles can be
mass-produced because parts and subassemblies
for the same make of automobile are interchange­
able. These parts are made to exact measurements
and are subject to close quality control and inspec­
tion. (The industry employs statisticians and
engineers in quality control departments who use
statistical techniques designed to control the qual­
ity of the product.)
Inspectors check incoming raw materials,
examine parts during the manufacturing stages,
and make quality and conformity checks during
the subassembly and assembly operations. Micro­
meters, specially designed gages, and other meas­
uring and testing instruments are used by inspec­
tors and testers in performing their duties.
Finishing occupations. Many finishing opera­
tions must be performed before a car is completed.
For example, the metal surfaces must be readied
for finishing, the exteriors painted, the interiors
covered, the seats upholstered, and finally, the
finished product must undergo a thorough inspec­
tion. Among those employed in the finishing de­
partments are metal finishers, platers, sprayers,
polishers, sanders, trim cutters, sewing machine
operators, and trimmers. Metal finishers (D.O.T.
705.884) file and polish rough surface areas of
metal parts in preparation for painting. Platers
(D.O.T. 500.885) put a thin coat of chrome on
automobile bumpers and “hardware” for orna­
mentation and protection against corrosion.
Sprayers (D-.O.T. 741.887) operate spray guns to
apply paint or other finishes to the metal parts.
Polishers (D.O.T. 705.884) rub the finished sur­
faces by hand or polish them with a portable
motor-driven buffing wheel.
Cutters, sewing machine operators, and trim­
mers combine their skills to provide comfortable
and attractive interiors. With hand shears or
an electric knife, the cutter (D.O.T. 781.884) cuts
fabric or leather to the specific shape according to
a pattern. The sewing machine operator (D.O.T.
787.782), using a power-driven machine, sews
together the upholstery sections after they have
been cut to size. Trimmers (D.O.T. 780.884)
arrange and fasten springs and padding or foam
rubber for the seats and backs, and tack the cov­
ering material in place.



Polisher readies automobile hood for paint.

Assembling occupations (D.O.T. 806.887). The
workers who do motor vehicle assembling make
up the largest occupational group in the automo­
bile industry. Assemblers may put together small
parts to form subassemblies or they may put
together the parts and subassemblies to form the
motor vehicle (line assemblies). Those employed
on subassemblies work in parts plants or in auto­
mobile manufacturing plants. Those who put
together the completed car work in automobile
assembly plants.
Most assembly jobs are repetitive and require
little skill; however, they do require coordina­
tion and may be strenuous. Assembly-line work
is divided into many simple operations. Each
employee is assigned a job to be done while the
automobile is passing his work station. For
example, one employee may start nuts on bolts and
the next worker may tighten the nuts.
Materials handling, custodial, and plant pro­
tection occupations. The production of motor
vehicles by the assembly-line process requires an
elaborate system of materials movement to sup­
ply the assembly lines and to remove finished

products. A considerable number of workers are
employed to move materials in automobile and
automobile parts plants. Drivers operate power
trucks which deliver parts or subassemblies to
the assembly line or move materials between
plants. Materials handlers load and unload parts
from trucks or into and out of containers. Over­
head crane operators use machines to move raw
steel stock, heavy dies, and other materials that
cannot be lifted by hand.
Many employees are needed to keep the produc­
tion employees supplied with tools, parts, and
materials, and to keep records of materials.
Factory clerks, such as checkers, stock chasers,
and stock clerks, coordinate the delivery of parts
to the proper location on the assembly line. They
check, receive, and distribute materials and keep
records of incoming and outgoing shipments.
The automobile industry also employs many
workers in plant protection and custodial work.
These employees include plant patrolmen, gatemen, janitors, and porters.
Maintenance occupations. A large staff is
required to keep machines and equipment in
good operating condition and to make changes
in the layout of automobile plants. Because
breakdowns in the assembly lines and in the

Operator hoists engine into position for testing.

highly mechanized machining lines are particu­
larly costly, the automobile industry employs
many skilled maintenance employees to service
this complicated production system. The main­
tenance and repair of complex electrical, elec­
tronic, and hydraulic equipment require welltrained electricians, electronic technicians, and
machinery repairmen. Millwrights move, install,
and maintain heavy machinery and mechanical
equipment. Plumbers and pipefitters lay out,
install, and repair piping, valves, pumps, and
compressors. Other maintenance employees in
automobile plants include carpenters, stationary
engineers, and sheet metal workers.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

The training requirements for jobs in the
automobile industry range from a few hours of
on-the-job training to years of preparation.
Many plant workers can learn their jobs in a day
or two. On the other hand, engineering and sci­
entific jobs, as well as craft jobs, are filled by
people who have spent many years in training for
their occupations.
The automobile industry’s emphasis upon new
designs and mechanical improvements has made
it an important employer of persons with engi­
neering and scientific backgrounds. The mini­
mum requirement for professional engineering
jobs is a bachelor of science or a bachelor of
engineering degree from a recognized college.
Advanced degrees are often required for scien­
tists, particularly for those engaged in research
and development work. Many of the companies
give their newly hired engineers and scientists
specialized training courses. It is from this
group of professional workers that some com­
panies have selected many of their top executives.
The requirements for other technical employees
vary according to their specialties. For example,
engineering aids, laboratory assistants, and
draftsmen are often technical institute or junior
college graduates. Some automobile companies
train their own semiprofessional technical employ­
ees at company-run schools or subsidize students
at local junior colleges or technical institutes.
These employees may also take advanced training
and acquire engineering degrees.
Administrative positions are usually filled by
men and women who have college degrees in


business administration, marketing, accounting,
industrial relations, or other specialized fields.
Some companies have advanced training pro­
grams for employees in these specialties. Most of
the top administrative jobs are filled by promotion
from within the organization.
Most automobile firms hire people who have
had commercial courses in high schools or busi­
ness schools for office jobs such as clerk, book­
keeper, keypunch operator, stenographer, and
typist. These people usually have not been
trained specifically for jobs in this industry.
Applicants for most plant jobs must be physi­
cally able, dependable, and have aptitude for
mechanical work. For semiskilled jobs, the
industry looks for applicants who are high school
graduates and who can do routine work at a
steady and fast pace. Many assembling jobs can
be learned in a few hours or days. Some of
the less skilled machine operating jobs can be
learned in a few weeks. Other plant production
jobs require about a month of on-the-job experi­
Extensive periods of training are required for
craft jobs in the automobile industry. Tool and
die makers, patternmakers, electricians, mill­
wrights, and machinery repairmen are some of
the highly skilled workers who generally require
at least 4 years of training before they can
perform their specialized jobs. Although many
of the workers in craft jobs have acquired the
skills of their trade by working for many years
with experienced workers, most training authori­
ties agree that apprenticeship is the best way to
learn a skilled trade. Automobile firms, in cooper­
ation with labor unions, conduct apprenticeship
programs for many of the skilled trades. The
industry’s apprenticeship programs enable several
thousand young men each year to prepare them­
selves for skilled jobs.
Applicants for apprenticeship training are
generally required to be between the ages of
18 and 26 (one-third of the apprentices can be
workers between the ages of 26 and 41 who are
already employed in automobile companies) and
graduates of a high school, trade, or vocational
school. Training authorities stress that young
people interested in apprenticeship training
should prepare themselves by taking courses in
mathematics and other sciences. Apprentice


applicants are given physical examinations,
mechanical aptitude tests, and other qualifying
Apprenticeship training includes both on-thejob and classroom instruction related to the
occupation. Mathematics, blueprint reading, shop
theory, and specialized subjects are studied in
the classroom, while the operation and use of
tools of a particular trade are learned in the shop.
Most automobile companies select their fore­
men from among workers already employed.
Frequently, persons who have completed appren­
tice training in a company are selected for
supervisory jobs after they have acquired further
experience. Applicants for foreman jobs, if
selected, go through a training period when
promoted to the foreman level.
Employment Outlook

The automobile industry is expected to provide
thousands of job openings during the 1965-75
decade as a result of the need to replace experi­
enced workers who transfer to other industries,
retire, or die. Retirements and deaths alone should
provide about 15,000 job openings annually. On
the other hand, because of laborsaving techno­
logical advances, employment in the industry is
expected to decline slightly below the 1965 level
of 875,000 despite anticipated large increases in
the production of motor vehicles and parts.
Production of motor vehicles and parts and,
therefore, employment have fluctuated sharply
since the end of World War II, reflecting the
industry’s sensitivity to factors such as changes in
general business conditions, consumer preference,
availability of credit, and defense production
needs. In the future, assuming the realization of
relatively full employment nationally, the produc­
tion of motor vehicles and equipment is expected
to increase greatly. Factors contributing to the
growth in demand for motor vehicles include
expected large increases in population and in the
number of households, growth of multicar owner­
ship, higher levels of personal spendable income,
and a continuing shift of families from the cities
to the suburbs. Also, as the stock of motor vehicles
in use continues to grow, the demand for vehicles
will be stimulated by the increasing numbers of
new vehicles needed each year to replace those
that are scrapped.

In addition to production of motor vehicles and
parts, another major factor determining employ­
ment in this industry is the number of man-hours
required to build a motor vehicle or to produce a
part. Man-hour requirements have declined sig­
nificantly in recent years and have exerted a
downward pressure on employment. For example,
employment in the industry in 1964 was about the
same as in 1954, despite a substantial increase in
the number of motor vehicles produced. In the
decade ahead, the industry’s continued emphasis
upon mechanized production methods, such as
automatic assembly operations, especially subassembly, is expected to continue to increase out­
put per worker. New and modernized plants are
also expected to lead to further efficiencies in pro­
duction that will reduce labor requirements. How­
ever, increased production efficiency will be partly
offset by the greater number of man-hours re­
quired to produce an increasing variety of models
and a growing number of motor vehicles with
equipment such as improved safety devices, airconditioners, power brakes, and exhaust control
Taking into account all of these factors, and
assuming the realization of relatively full employ­
ment nationally and the high rates of economic
growth necessary to achieve this goal, employment
in the motor vehicle and equipment manufactur­
ing industry by 1975 is expected to be somewhat
below the 1965 level. If these high levels of
economic activity are not realized, the employ­
ment decline in this industry will be greater than
The occupational distribution of employment in
the automobile industry has been changing as a
result of the industry’s emphasis upon research
and development activity and its increasing use
of automatic manufacturing operations. For ex­
ample, white-collar employment as a proportion
of total employment in this industry has been
increasing in the postwar period.
Continuing recent occupational trends, the num­
ber of engineers, scientists, and other professional
and technical personnel is expected to increase as
a proportion of total employment, because of the
anticipated expansion in research and develop­
ment activities. Moreover, this emphasis upon
research and development will create more job
opportunities for engineers and scientists with

advanced degrees. The growing complexity of
the automobile industry will lead to a greater
need for more accountants, particularly those
specializing in tax accounting. The industry is
expected to expand its use of electronic data-processing equipment in the future, and programers
will be employed in greater numbers. Employ­
ment of clerical and administrative workers is
expected to remain at about the present level.
Although the introduction of data-processing
equipment may reduce the number employed in
some clerical occupations, a slight increase in the
number of stenographers and typists is antici­
The employment of skilled workers, as a group,
is expected to remain relatively stable. However,
some skilled occupations, including millwright,
pipefitter, electrician, and machinery repairman,
are expected to increase; others, including car­
penter and upholsterer are expected to decline.
The number of semiskilled workers, such as as­
semblers and machine operators, is expected to
continue to decline.
Earnings and Working Conditions

The earnings of production workers in this
industry are among the highest in manufacturing.
In mid-1965, production workers in the automobile
industry earned, on the average, $143.49 for 43.3
hours a week, or $3.31 an hour. This compares
with average earnings of $107.03 for a 41.0 hour
week, or $2.61 an hour, for production workers
in all manufacturing industries.
As a result of collective bargaining contracts
negotiated between employers and unions, most
employees in the industry receive benefits such as
life insurance, accidental death and dismember­
ment benefits, and weekly accident and sickness
benefits for temporary disability. Many employ­
ers pay the entire costs of these benefits. Hospi­
talization, surgical, and medical benefits, which
are provided as a result of collective bargaining,
are usually financed solely by employers. Most
employees also receive paid sick leave; paid vaca­
tions (or payments in lieu of vacations) ranging
from 2 to 4 weeks depending on length of service;
and an average of 9 paid holidays a year.
Supplemental unemployment benefits plans
(paid for solely by the employers) cover the ma­


jority of workers. These plans provide cash pay­
ments for employees with at least 1 year of service
ranging up to $56 a week for hourly rated em­
ployees and up to $66 a week for some salaried
employees. In most States these benefits are in
addition to those received from State unemploy­
ment compensation plans. These plans also
provide supplementary pay benefits (short work­
week benefits) to help stabilize the income of
hourly rated employees when they are required to
work less than a normal week. In addition, pro­
visions are included for hospitalization, surgical,
and medical benefits during layoff; separation
payments for those laid off 12 or more continuous
months; and relocation allowances for some laidoff employees.
A great majority of the automobile workers are
covered by pension programs, almost all of which
are paid for entirely by the employer. Retirement
benefits vary with length of service. In a typical
case, a retiring employee, age 65, with 30 years’
service, receives a monthly company pension of
$127.50 in addition to his Federal social security
benefits. Many pension programs also include
provisions for voluntary retirement as early as
age 55.
The great bulk of the production and mainte­
nance workers in the automobile assembly plants
and a majority employed in the parts plants
belong to the International Union, United Auto­
mobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement
Workers of America. In some automobile parts
plants, the International Union, Allied Indus­
trial Workers of America is the bargaining agent
for employees. Other unions with membership
in the automobile industry include the Interna­
tional Association of Machinists and Aerospace
Workers; the Pattern Makers’ League of North
America; the International Molders’ and Allied
Workers’ Union of North America; the Metal
Polishers, Buffers, Platers and Helpers Inter­
national Union; the International Union, United
Plant Guard Workers of America (In d .); the
Mechanics Educational Society of America; the
International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers;
and the International Die Sinkers’ Conference
In general, the work surroundings in auto­
mobile plants are more favorable than those in
most other types of metalworking facilities. Most


automobile workers are employed in plants which
are relatively clean and free from dust, smoke,
and fumes. Some work surroundings, however,
particularly in the foundry and forge depart­
ments, may be hot and the worker may be exposed
to noise, dust, and fumes. Working conditions in
foundries and forge departments have been
greatly improved by the introduction of larger,
more efficient ventilation systems.

7 7 8 -3 1 6 O— 65-


Automobile plants are, on the whole, com­
paratively safe places to work, although safety
conditions vary somewhat among the individual
departments or facilities. The rate of disabling
injuries in automobile plants has been less than
half that of all manufacturing industries in most
of the recent years. Some automobile plants have
fully equipped hospital facilities with doctors
and nurses in attendance.

The petroleum industry provides about 75 per­
cent of all the energy fuels consumed in this
country. Products refined from crude oil supply
the fuels and lubricants used for nearly all our
cars, trucks, buses and trains; military and
civilian aircraft; and ships that sail on and
below the ocean. Oil and gas provide much of the
heat for our homes, factories, and commercial
establishments, as well as the fuel for over onequarter of the electric power generated in this
country. In addition, basic petroleum compounds
are essential in the manufacture of hundreds of
products in everyday use, such as synthetic rub­
ber, plastics, asphalt, and fertilizer.
In 1964, about 440,000 workers, with a wide
range of educational backgrounds and skills,
were employed in the various activities that make
up the crude oil and natural gas production and
processing sectors of this industry. They worked
in oil and natural gas exploration and drilling
operations, in natural gas processing plants, and
in oil refineries located throughout the country.
Nature and Location of the Industry

Petroleum is one of the fossil fuels, said to
have been formed through thousands of years
from the decay of once living matter. It is ex­
tracted mainly in the form of crude oil and
natural gas.
Thousands of companies are in the petroleum
business, most of them specializing in a single
activity, such as exploring for gas or oil, drilling
wells, operating wells, transporting petroleum
products, processing gas, and refining crude oil.
Others operate gasoline service stations, or supply
natural gas for heating and cooking. Much of the
petroleum business, however, is done by a small
number of large firms that are involved in many
of the industry’s activities—from exploring for
oil and gas to selling finished petroleum products.

These firms provide a large share of the industry’s
This chapter deals with the jobs and activities
involved in getting oil and gas to the surface
of the earth (production) and converting it to
usable products (processing and refining). I t ex­
cludes the transporting and marketing of petro­
leum products.
Petroleum Production. Because the processes in­
volved in finding and extracting crude oil and
natural gas are the same, the jobs and activities
involved are identical up to the point where the
gas or oil well starts producing. In this chapter,
references to “petroleum production” also cover
the discovery and extraction of natural gas.
In 1964, nearly 290,000 wage and salary work­
ers were employed in the United States in petro­
leum production, including the production and
processing of natural gas. Although drilling for
oil and gas goes on in 35 States, nearly 90 percent
of the workers are employed in 10 States. Texas is
the leading State in the number of oilfield jobs,
followed by Louisiana, Oklahoma, California,
Kansas, Illinois, New Mexico, Wyoming, Missis­
sippi, and Colorado. Many additional American
workers are employed overseas by United States
oil companies, particularly in the Middle East,
Africa, South America, and Canada.
The jobs and processes in petroleum production
involve finding crude oil and extracting it from
the earth. Petroleum production includes three
broad fields of work: Exploration, drilling and
oilfield servicing, and well operation and main­
tenance. Firms that specialize in performing one
or more of these activities under contract to oil
companies, employ about 45 percent of all the
workers in petroleum production. Major oil com­
panies engage in all of these production activities.
Since oil is difficult to find—only rarely are
there any signs on the earth’s surface of its pres­


ence underground—an important part of petro­
leum production activities involves using scientific
methods to search for oil. After scientific tests
are made which indicate the possible presence of
oil beneath the surface of the earth, a site is se­
lected and the drilling process begins.
Before a well can be drilled, a towerlike steel
drilling rig is installed to support the tools and
pipes that must be lowered into the well. Most
rigs used today are portable ones brought to the
drilling site, but some rigs are built at the site.
In 1964, over 45,000 wells were drilled in the
United States, with a depth per well averaging
over 4,000 feet. Although a few large firms do
some of their own drilling, about 90 percent of
this work is performed by more than 2,800 special­
ized drilling contractors.
A number of other services are performed in
connection with oilfield drilling. These include
building access roads, hauling supplies, cement­
ing wells, cleaning and treating wells, and other
special operations. Much of this work is handled
by contractors.

A t an offshore oil well, rotary drilling crew lowers a section of
drill pipe.


When oil is reached, the job of the drilling
crew is finished and that of the well-operating
crew begins. About half of all petroleum produc­
tion workers operate or maintain nearly 700,000
oil and gas producing wells in the United States.
These wells are operated by thousands of com­
panies which range in size from large firms with
wells all over the world to small firms with only
a single well. After oil or gas is brought out of
the ground, it is transported to refineries or
processing plants by pipelines, ships, and trucks.
Petroleum Refining. Crude oil as it comes from
the ground has few uses. To make useful end
products, such as gasoline, fuel oil, kerosene, and
lubricants, oil must be heated under pressure or
vacuum, or treated with chemicals. This process­
ing, called refining, is done in plants known as
About 280 refineries were in operation through­
out the country in 1964, employing more than
150,000 wage and salary workers. Refineries
range in size from small plants with fewer than
50 employees each to plants with several thousand
employees each. Although refineries are located
in 40 States, nearly 80 percent of refinery work­
ers are employed in only 8 States: Texas, Cali­
fornia, Pennsylvania, New York, Louisiana,
Indiana, Illinois, and New Jersey. Refineries are
usually located near deepwater ports where tankers
can dock, or near oilfields.
Natural Gas Processing. Natural gas as it comes
from the ground is difficult to transmit through
pipelines for long distances because of the various
liquid compounds dissolved in it. As a result,
natural gas processing plants, which remove these
liquids, are usually located at or near gas fields.
However, a few companies have found it desir­
able to locate large processing plants adjacent to
main transmission lines, at a point several hun­
dred miles from the producing area. Recently
constructed plants are highly automated and
usually have relatively few employees.
In 1964, over 600 natural gas processing plants
employed about 15,000 workers. More than 75
percent of the plants had fewer than 50 em­
ployees. Although natural gas processing plants
are located in 20 States, over 85 percent were lo­
cated in 6 States: Texas, Oklahoma, California,
Louisiana, West Virginia, and New Mexico.



Employment Outlook

Even though employment in petroleum and
natural gas production and processing is expected
to continue the gradual decline which began dur­
ing the 1950’s, there will still be many job op­
portunities in this industry in the 1965-75 decade.
Opportunities will result from the need to re­
place workers who retire, die, or transfer to other
fields. Deaths and retirements alone will account
for more than 10,000 job openings in this industry
each year during the decade. However, not all
workers will be replaced because of the industry’s
increasing use of automatic equipment.
Employment in the industry is expected to
decline despite the fact that the demand for
petroleum and natural gas products will con­
tinue to increase. Lower employment will result
from the continued application of technological
improvements which will lead to further increases
in output per worker. The employment decline
is expected to be more pronounced in the highly
automated oil refineries. Employment will show
little or no change in petroleum production ac­
tivities, which now account for about two-thirds
of the industry’s total production and refinery
employment. To summarize, the overall employ­
ment outlook for the industry is for decreases in
petroleum refining and petroleum exploration; an
increase in petroleum drilling; and little or no
change in overall petroleum and natural gas pro­
duction and in natural gas processing.

Most of the factors responsible for past growth
in the demand for the industry’s products will
continue to influence future growth. For example,
gasoline consumption is expected to rise steadily
with the expected expansion in numbers of auto­
mobiles, trucks, buses, and airplanes. The demand
for jet fuels will increase as the use of jet planes
expands. The demand for fuels for home heating
units and for industrial uses such as steam genera­
tion is expected to rise. The growing use of fac­
tory, construction, farm, and other industrial
machinery will require many oil products, such
as diesel oil and lubricants. Demand for asphalt
will be higher as highway construction expands.
Oil and natural gas will continue to be important
sources of raw materials in the manufacture of
chemical products. (See pages 726 and 729 for
additional discussions of the employment outlook
in petroleum production and processing.)
Where To G o for More Information

Further information concerning jobs, processes,
and working conditions in the petroleum industry
can be obtained from the public relations depart­
ment of individual petroleum companies and
from :
American Petroleum Institute,
1101 17th St. NW„ Washington, D.C. 20036.
American Gas Association,
605 Third Ave., New York, N.Y. 10016.
Natural Gas Processors Association,
429 Kennedy Building, Tulsa, Okla. 74103.

Occupations in Petroleum and Natural G as Production
Nature of Work

Workers in the petroleum production branch
of the oil industry explore for crude oil and
natural gas, drill wells, and operate and maintain
them. These activities require workers with a
wide range of education and skills. (In this sec­
tion, references to oil include natural gas.)
Exploration. Exploring for oil is the first step in
petroleum production. Small crews of specialized
workers travel to remote areas to search for
geological formations likely to contain oil. Ex­
ploration parties, led by a petroleum geologist
(D.O.T. 024.081), study the surface and sub­
surface composition of the earth. Geologists seek

clues to the possibility of oil traps by examining
types of rock and rock formations on and under
the earth’s surface. Besides making detailed,
foot-by-foot surveys, petroleum geologists depend
on aerial photgraphs for a broad picture of the
surface features of the area being explored; they
may also obtain rock samples from the bottom of
the sea in their search for clues to oil-bearing
formations. Geologists often determine the age
of rocks by measuring their radioactivity. Sub­
surface evidence is collected by making test drills
and bringing up samples of the rocks, clays, and
sands that form the layers of the earth. From
these examinations, geologists can draw a crosssection map of the underground formations be-


ing surveyed in order to pinpoint areas where
oil may be located.
Many geologists work in district offices of
oil companies or exploration firms where they
study geological maps. They also analyze core
samples collected by exploration parties to find
any clue to the presence of oil.
Exploration parties may include, in addition
to the geologist, paleontologists (D.O.T. 024.081),
who study fossil remains in the earth in order
to locate oil-bearing sands; and chemists (D.O.T.
022.081) and. mineralogists (D.O.T. 024.081), who
study physical and chemical properties of min­
erals and rock samples. Planetable operators
(D.O.T. 018.188), draftsmen (D.O.T. 010.281),
and rod/men (D.O.T. 018.587) assist in surveying
and mapping operations.
Another way of searching for oil is through
the science of geophysics—the study of the inner
characteristics of the earth’s structure. About 90
percent of geophysical exploration is done by
seismic prospecting. The seismograph is a sensi­
tive instrument which records natural and man­
made earthquakes. Manmade earthquakes in
petroleum exploration are commonly made by ex­
ploding small charges of dynamite in the ground.
The time it takes for sound waves to reach an

Geologist uses a jeweler's loupe to study test hole core samples.


underground rock layer and to return indicates
the depth of the layer. The seismograph records
such information by wavy lines on a chart. By
setting off explosions at a number of points, un­
derground formations can be mapped with con­
siderable accuracy, thus providing a clue to the
whereabouts of traps which may contain oil.
A seismograph crew generally includes 10 to 20
persons, led by a party chief who is usually a
geophysicist (D.O.T. 024.081). Other members
of the seismograph crew may include computers
(D.O.T. 010.168), who prepare maps from the
information recorded by the seismograph; ob­
servers (D.O.T. 010.168), who operate and main­
tain seismic equipment; prospecting drillers
(D.O.T. 930.782) and their helpers (D.O.T. 930.886), who operate portable drilling rigs to
make holes into which explosive charges are
placed; and shooters (D.O.T. 931.381), who are
in charge of placing and detonating explosive
Once the oil company has decided where to
drill, it must obtain permission to use the land.
The landman or leaseman (D.O.T. 191.118) makes
necessary business arrangements with owners of
land in which his company is interested.
Another important job in oil exploration is
that of the scout (D.O.T. 010.168). He keeps his
company informed of all exploring, leasing, drill­
ing, and production activity in his area.
Drilling. Despite all the petroleum exploration
methods that have been developed, there is no
device that will actually find petroleum. Only
by drilling can the presence of oil be proved.
Overall planning and supervision of drilling are
usually the responsibilities of the petroleum engi­
neer (D.O.T. 010.081). He helps to prepare drill­
ing sites and to select the methods of drilling.
He directs workers in installing the drilling rig
and machinery. He advises drilling personnel on
technical matters and may stay on the site until
drilling operations are completed.
There are two methods of drilling a well—
rotary drilling and cable-tool drilling. No matter
which method is used, all wells are started in
the same way. Rig builders (D.O.T. 869.884)
and a crew of helpers (D.O.T. 869.887) install a
drilling rig, the main purpose of which is to sup­

port the machinery and equipment which raise
and lower the drilling tools.
The rotary method is used for drilling deep
wells through rock and clay formations such
as those found in Texas, California, and Okla­
homa. This method was used for over 80 percent
of the wells drilled in the United States in 1964,
but accounts for only about 50 percent of the drill­
ing rigs in use.
In rotary drilling, a revolving steel drill bit,
with cutting teeth at its lower end, bores a hole
in the ground by chipping and cutting rock. The
bit is attached to a string of jointed pipe (drill
stem), which is rotated by a steam, diesel, or
gasoline engine or an electric motor. As the bit
cuts through the earth, the drill stem is length­
ened by the addition of more pipe which is
screwed on at the upper end. A stream of mud
is continuously pumped through the hollow pipe.
This mixture of clay and water cools the drill bit,
plasters the walls of the hole to prevent cave-ins,
and floats the cuttings to the surface.
A typical rotary drilling crew consist of a
rotary driller and four or five helpers. From 15
to 20 workers, divided into three crews, generally
are required to operate a rig 24 hours a day,
7 days a week. A rotary driller (D.O.T. 930.782)
is in charge of the work of the crew during
his tour of duty. His major duties include oper­
ating the drilling machinery which controls
drilling speed and pressure. He also selects the
proper drill bit and keeps a record of operations.
He must be ready to meet any emergency, such
as breakdown of equipment or problems caused
by unusual geological formations. A derrickman
(D.O.T. 930.782), second in charge of the crew,
works on a small platform high on the rig. When
a drill bit becomes dull and has to be replaced, he
catches the upper ends of the pipe sections and
pulls them over to a rack beside his platform. He
often has several miles of drill pipe racked up be­
fore the worn bit is brought to the surface.
Other members of a typical rotary drilling
crew include rotary -floormen (D.O.T. 930.884),
who guide the lower end of the pipe to and from
the well opening and connect and disconnect pipe
joints and the worn drill bit. Helpers, called
roughnecks (D.O.T. 930.884), assist floormen in
handling these heavy pipes. A fireman (D.O.T.
951.885) (if steam is used) or engineman (D.O.T.


Derrickman works high above rig floor whenever pipe is hoisted
from or lowered into well bore.

950.782) (if diesel or electric power is used) op­
erates the engines which provide power for drilling
and hoisting.
An important oilfield worker is the tool pusher
(D.O.T. 930.130), who acts as foreman of one or
more drilling rigs. He also is in charge of supply­
ing rig builders and drilling crews with needed
materials and equipment. Roustabouts (D.O.T.
869.884), or general oilfield laborers, are not con­
sidered part of drilling crews but are used to do
odd jobs, such as cleaning derrick floors and pipes
or constructing and maintaining roads in oilfields.
In cable-tool drilling, a hole is broken through
rocks by continuously raising and dropping a
heavy, sharpened bit attached to the end of a
cable. Cable-tool drilling is used mainly to drill
shallow wells in soft rock formation. Most of
it is done in Kentucky, Ohio, West Virginia,
Pennsylvania, and certain areas of Texas and
A cable-tool drilling crew usually consists of
a driller and a tool dresser. The cable-tool driller
(D.O.T. 930.280) is in charge of all operations
during his tour of duty and maintains a detailed
record of drilling activity. He controls the force
with which the drilling bit strikes the rocks at
the bottom of the well. He also supervises and


helps in setting up the machinery and derrick.
The cable-tool dresser (D.O.T. 639.781), whose
job is related to that of a blacksmith, assists the
driller and maintains the equipment.
Well Operation and Maintenance. Production is
ready to begin when oil is struck. Drill pipe and
bit are pulled from the well and casing and tubing
are lowered. The upper end of the tubing is fast­
ened to a system of valves and controls, called a
“Christmas tree.” Gas pressure in the well
forces crude oil to the surface, through the
Christmas tree, and into storage tanks. If nat­
ural pressure is not great enough to force the
oil to the top, pumping or other methods are used
to produce an artificial flow.
Petroleum engineers generally have charge of
overall planning and supervision of the opera­
tion and maintenance of wells. One of their
principal duties is to prevent waste by deciding
which production method to use and how fast
the oil should flow. Some companies hire assist­
ants to the petroleum engineer. These engineering
aids perform routine duties such as making ele­
mentary calculations, running tests, and keeping
The job of pumper is numerically the largest
occupation in the oilfield. Pumpers (D.O.T.
914.782) and their helpers (D.O.T. 914.887) op­
erate and maintain motors, pumps, and other
equipment used to force an artificial flow of oil
from wells. Their chief duty is to regulate the
flow of oil according to a schedule set up by
the petroleum engineer. Generally, a pumper
operates a group of wells. Switchers work in
fields where oil flows under natural pressure and
does not require pumping. They open and close
valves to regulate the flow of oil from wells to
tanks or into pipelines. Gagers (D.O.T. 914.381)
keep track of the amount of oil flowing into tanks
or pipelines. They measure and record the con­
tents of storage tanks and take samples of the
oil to check its quality. Treaters (D.O.T. 541.782)
make tests of crude oil for water and sediment.
They remove these impurities from oil by opening
a drain at the base of the tank or by using special
chemical or electrical equipment. In many fields,
pumping, switching, gaging, and treating opera­
tions are performed by automatic controls. One
operator who monitors these instruments can con­


trol the flow of oil from several wells into differ­
ent pipelines.
Many workers are employed in maintenance op­
erations in oilfields. Welders, carpenters, elec­
tricians, and machinists repair and install pumps,
gages, pipes, and other oilfield equipment. Roust­
abouts perform various field and well-mainte­
nance jobs which require little skill, but often
involve heavy, hazardous work.
Other Oilfield Services. Companies which offer
oilfield services (other than exploration and
drilling) on a contract basis provide another
important source of employment. Employees in
these companies perform many services, includ­
ing cementing and cleaning wells, and building
foundations at well locations. Among these
employees are skilled workers such as cementers
(D.O.T. 930.281), who mix and pump cement
into the space between steel casings and side walls
of the well to prevent cave-ins; acidizers (D.O.T.
930.782), who force acid into the bottom of the
well to increase the flow of oil; perforator opera­
tors (D.O.T. 931.782), who pierce holes in drill
pipes or casings by using subsurface “guns” to
make passages through which oil can flow;
sample-taker operators (D.O.T. 931.781), who ob­
tain samples of soil and rock formations from
wells to help geologists determine the presence of
oil; and well puller (D.O.T. 930.883), who remove
pipes and casings from wells for cleaning and re­
pairing equipment or for salvaging.
Offshore Operations. Most exploration, drilling,
and producing activities are done on land, but
an increasing amount of this work is done off­
shore, particularly in the Gulf of Mexico off the
coasts of Louisiana and Texas. Some wells have
been drilled as far as 100 miles from shore in
water more than 200 feet deep. These offshore
operations require the same types of drilling
crews as are employed on land operations. In
addition, offshore operations require employment
of radio men, able-bodied seamen, cooks, mess
boys, and pilots for work on drilling platforms,
crew boats, barges, and helicopters.
(Detailed discussions of professional, tech­
nical, mechanical, and other occupations found
not only in the petroleum and natural gas pro­
duction industry, but in other industries as well,

are given elsewhere in the Handbook, in the sec­
tions covering the individual occupations. See
index for page numbers.)
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Exploration. Most workers in nonprofessional
jobs with an exploration crew begin as helpers
and work into one of the specialized jobs after
gaining experience. Their period of training on
the job may vary from several months to several
years. New workers are usually hired in the field
by the party chief or by local company repre­
sentatives. For many nonprofessional jobs, com­
panies hire young men with a high school or
vocational school education and with training or
aptitude in mathematics, drafting, and mechanics.
College students majoring in physical or earth
sciences or in engineering are often hired for parttime or summer work with an exploration crew.
This may be a means of working into a full-time
job after graduation.
For entry into professional occupations such
as geologist, geophysicist, chemist, or engineer,
college training with at least a bachelor’s degree
is required. Professional workers usually start
at junior levels and, after several years of experi­
ence in field surveys, are eligible for promotion to
the job of party chief. After field survey experi­
ence, they may take a position of responsibility
in an area or division office and then perhaps in
the central office. Scientists and engineers with
research ability, preferably those with advanced
graduate degrees, may move to research or con­
sulting work.
Drilling. Members of drilling crews usually
begin work in the industry as roughnecks. As
they acquire experience and know-how, they
may advance to more skilled jobs. In rotary
drilling, for example, a worker may be hired as
a roughneck, advance to the job of doorman,
and eventually to derrickman. After several
years, he may become a driller. He may then
be promoted to the job of tool-pusher in charge
of one or more drilling crews. Some drilling com­
panies hire high school and college students for
jobs during the summer months.
Drilling requires men capable of performing
heavy physical labor. Drilling crew members


usually are between the ages of 20 and 40. Some
companies, however, report that their best drillers
are over fifty and even in their sixties, for the job
of driller requires good judgment combined with
practical experience.
Well Operation and Maintenance. Companies
generally hire persons who live near operating
wells for well operation and maintenance jobs.
They prefer men with mechanical ability and a
knowledge of oilfield processes. Because this type
of work is less strenuous and offers the advantage
of a fixed locale, members of drilling crews or ex­
ploration parties who prefer not to travel often
transfer to well operation and maintenance jobs.
New workers may start as roustabouts and
advance to jobs as switchers, gagers, or pumper
helpers, and later to pumpers. Training is usually
acquired on the job; at least 2 years of experience
are needed to become a good all-round pumper.
The preferred educational qualification for a
petroleum engineer is a college degree with spe­
cialization in courses dealing with the petroleum
industry. However, college graduates with
degrees in chemical, mining, or mechanical engi­
neering, or in geology or other related sciences,
are sometimes hired for petroleum engineering
jobs. Petroleum engineering aids frequently are
former roustabouts or pumpers who are given
several months of specialized on-the-job and
classroom training.
Employment Outlook

Employment in petroleum and natural gas pro­
duction during the 1965-75 decade is expected to
show little or no change, in contrast to the slow
decline of employment in this activity which
began during the late 1950’s. As in the past, pro­
duction will continue to increase.
Little change is expected in total employment
in oil and gas production because of the divergent
employment trends among three principal pro­
duction activities—exploration, drilling, and oil
and gas field production. The use of data-processing equipment and improved seismic techniques is
expected to reduce the number of crews needed in
petroleum exploration. This decline is expected
to be more than offset by increased demand for
drilling crews and supporting personnel, resulting


from new discoveries and renewed drilling efforts
on land, combined with intensified offshore ac­
tivity. The employment level in oil and gas field
production is expected to stay about the same, and
may even decline somewhat, despite increased
demand for these products, because of the in­
creasing use of automatic equipment to control
production activities.
About 6,000 new workers in crude petroleum
production operations will be hired each year
during the next decade. These job openings will
result primarily from the need to replace workers
who retire, die, or transfer to other fields of work.
Although some untrained workers will be hired
for less skilled jobs, the greatest demand will be
for workers with electrical and mechanical train­
ing and/or experience. These skills are becoming
more necessary to maintain and repair the increas­
ingly complex equipment used in oil and gas field
Most of the job opportunities created by turn­
over in petroleum production will be concentrated
in the seven States which together account for
over 85 percent of oilfield jobs—Texas, Louisiana,
California, Oklahoma, Wyoming, Kansas, and
New Mexico. Offshore activities have accounted
for only a small portion of total production
employment. However, offshore drilling activities
are expected to increase greatly in the next 10
years, particularly off the coasts of Texas, Louis­
iana, California, Alaska, Washington, and Oregon.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Earnings of oilfield workers are among the
highest in American industry. In mid-1965, earn­
ings of nonsupervisory employees averaged $115.51
a week, or $2.77 an hour for a 41.7 hour workweek.
The average starting salary in 1965 for geol­


ogists with a bachelor’s degree and no experience
was about $550 a month. Graduates with a mas­
ter’s degree started at about $650 a month, and
those with a doctor’s degree usually earned more.
Graduates with job-related experience and spe­
cial skills were paid above-average entrance
salaries. Salaries for overseas assignments ranged
from 20 to 40 percent more than those for com­
parable assignments in the United States.
The work schedule for most oilfield workers
is 40 hours a week. Drilling operations are car­
ried on 24 hours a day, with a complete crew for
each 8-hour shift. Generally, workers in these
crews receive 8 cents an hour more for work on
the second shift and 16 cents an hour more for
the third shift. Most establishments provide 8
paid holidays annually. Paid vacations are
granted according to length of service—generally,
2 weeks after 1 year of service, 3 weeks after 10
years, and 4 weeks after 20 years.
The majority of oilfield employees do most
of their work outdoors and are exposed to all
kinds of weather. Although some fields may be
near cities, they are more often far from sizable
communities and are sometimes located in swamps
or deserts. Drilling employees may expect to
move from place to place since their work in a
particular field may be completed in less than a
year. Exploration personnel move even more
frequently. They may be away from home for
weeks or months at a time, living in a trailer or
tent. Workers in well operation and maintenance
often remain in the same location for long
In offshore operations, earnings are usually
higher than those in land operations. Except
for drilling activity that is close to shore, work­
er’s living quarters are on platforms held fast
to the ocean bottom or on ships anchored nearby.

Petroleum Refining Occupations
Nature of Work

Petroleum refining changes crude oil into gaso­
line, kerosene, fuel oil, lubricants, and other pro­
ducts for use in homes and industry. The modern
refinery is a complicated structure made up of
tanks and towers connected by a maze of pipes.
From the time crude oil enters the refinery to the
shipment of finished products, the flow of produc­

tion is continuous. The refining process is highly
automatic and is controlled by instruments which
measure and regulate the flow, temperature, and
pressure of liquids and gases going through the
pipes and tanks. Manual handling of materials
is virtually eliminated in the modern refinery.
Briefly, the first step in petroleum refining con­
sists of heating crude oil as it flows through a

series of pipes in a furnace. The vapors from the
heated oil pass into a tower where the various
“fractions,” or parts, of crude oil are condensed.
The heaviest parts (for example, asphalt) are
drawn off along the bottom of the tower where
temperatures are highest; lighter parts (kerosene)
are drawn off along the middle of the tower; and
the lightest (gasoline and gases) are taken off
at the top where temperatures are lowest. Further
processing, by more complicated methods, com­
bines or modifies compounds obtained through
About a fourth of the plant workers in re­
fineries are employed in processing work. A key
worker in converting crude oil into usable prod­
ucts is the stillman (D.O.T. 542.280), or chief
operator. He is responsible for the efficient op­
eration of one or more distillation units. The stillman watches instrument readings for any changes
in temperature, pressure, and oil flow. In the
more modern refineries, the stillman can watch in­
struments on graphic panels which show the entire
operation of all distillation units in the refinery.
He regulates the instruments so that oil products
will meet specifications. From time to time, the
stillman patrols all units for which he is responsi­
ble to check their operating condition and to take
samples for testing. He may have one or more
assistants (D.O.T. 542.782), depending on the
number and size of the units he directs.
Other plant workers whose jobs are related to
the processing of crude oil include pumpmen
(D.O.T. 549.782) and their helpers (D.O.T. 549.884), who maintain and operate power-driven
pumps which circulate petroleum products,
chemicals, and water through units during proc­
essing; and treaters (D.O.T. 549.782), who op­
erate equipment to remove impurities from gaso­
line, oil, and other petroleum products.
In most refineries more than 40 percent of the
plant workers repair, rebuild, and clean the highly
complicated refinery equipment. In other plants,
maintenance work is contracted to companies out­
side the petroleum industry. A large number of
maintenance workers are needed because high
heat and pressure and corrosion quickly wear out
equipment. Included among these are skilled
boilermakers, carpenters, electricians, instrument
repairmen, lead burners, machinists, masons,
painters, pipefitters, pipe coverers, riggers, sheet-


Head operator sets instrument controls that direct operation of
refinery processing unit.

metal workers, and welders. Many helpers and
trainees are also in these trades. Some skilled
workers have a primary skill in one craft as well
as the ability to handle the duties of closely re­
lated crafts. For example, a pipefitter may also
be able to do boilermaking and welding repair
work on a piece of equipment. Maintenance work­
ers who have such combined jobs are sometimes
called refinery mechanics.
Plant workers who do not operate or main­
tain equipment do a variety of other tasks in
refineries. Some workers are employed in the
packaging and shipping department; some load
and unload materials on trucks, trains, or ships;
some drive trucks and tractors to deliver materials
to various parts of the plant; and others keep
inventory records of stock and tools. The indus­
try also employs custodial workers such as guards,
watchmen, and janitors.
About one-fifth (more than 30,000) of the
workers in petroleum refining are scientists, engi­
neers, and technicians, compared with less than
one-tenth in petroleum production. Among these
professional and technical refinery workers are
chemists, chemical engineers, mechanical engi­
neers, petroleum engineers, laboratory technicians,


and draftsmen. Chemists and laboratory tech­
nicians control the quality of petroleum products
by making tests and analyses to determine chemi­
cal and physical properties. Some chemists are
engaged in research and development activities to
discover new products and to improve those
already produced. Laboratory technicians also
assist chemists in research projects or do routine
testing and sample taking. Some engineers design
chemical processing equipment and plant layout
and others supervise refining processes. Drafts­
men prepare detailed plans and drawings needed
in refinery construction and maintenance.
Many administrative, clerical, and other whitecollar personnel are employed by refining com­
panies. A large number of top administrative
and management positions are filled by tech­
nically trained men, many of whom are chemists
or engineers. Sales engineers are also technically
trained. Other specialized workers in the field of
administration include accountants, purchasing
agents, and lawyers. Many typists, stenographers,
secretaries, bookkeepers, and business machine
operators are employed to assist these specialized
workers. (Detailed discussions of professional,
technical, mechanical, and other occupations
found not only in the petroleum refining industry
but in other industries as well are given in the
section of this Handbook covering the individual
occupations. See index for page numbers.)
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Petroleum refineries typically require new plant
workers to have a high school or vocational school
education. In large refineries, aptitude and psy­
chological testing and interviewing are used in
selecting employees. Usually, a new worker begins
in a labor pool where he does such jobs as moving
materials, packing cartons, or filling barrels.
When a vacancy occurs either in a processing
department or in a maintenance shop, he may be
transferred to one or the other, depending on his
particular aptitudes and seniority.
A worker newly assigned to a processing de­
partment learns to operate processing equipment
under the supervision of experienced workers. As
he gains experience and know-how, he moves to
the more skilled jobs in his department. For ex­
ample, one line of advancement for a process­


ing worker may be from helper to assistant stillman to Stillman. Skilled processing workers are
rarely recruited from other plants.
An inexperienced worker who is assigned to
a maintenance shop receives training on the job
under the supervision of the foreman. In some
refineries, he may also receive classroom instruc­
tion related to his particular work. Over a
period of 3 or 4 years, he may advance from
helper to skilled craftsman in one of the main­
tenance jobs. Some large refineries have pro­
grams under which workers are given training
in several related maintenance crafts. For exam­
ple, a qualified instrument repairman may be
given additional training as electrician or
For scientists and engineers a bachelors degree
in science or engineering usually is the minimum
educational requirement. For research jobs,
scientists and engineers with advanced degrees
are preferred. Laboratory assistants begin their
work in routine jobs and advance to positions of
greater responsibility as they acquire additional
experience and demonstrate ability to work with­
out close supervision. Inexperienced draftsmen
begin as copyists or tracers. With additional
experience and training, they may advance to
more skilled and responsible drafting positions.
Administrative positions generally are filled by
men and women who have college degrees in
business administration, marketing, accounting,
industrial relations, or other specialized fields.
For positions as clerks, bookkeepers, stenogra­
phers, and typists, most refineries employ per­
sons who have had commercial courses in high
school or business school.
Employment Outlook

Only a small number of job openings are ex­
pected for new workers in petroleum refineries
during the 1965-75 decade. These will result from
the need to replace workers who retire, die, or
transfer to other industries. Not all job vacancies
created by turnover may be filled, since it is
expected that in the decade ahead total employ­
ment in petroleum refining will continue a decline
which began during the early 1950’s.
This decline is expected despite the continued
expansion of refinery output and anticipated in­
creases in consumption of petroleum products in



the years ahead. (See p. 722 for a discussion of
some of the factors which will influence future
demand for oil products.) A lower employment
level is expected because of improved methods of
refining crude oil and the trend toward fewer
but larger and more highly automated refineries.
Most of the job opportunities created by turn­
over in petroleum refining will be for professional,
administrative, and technical workers, partic­
ularly chemists, chemical engineers, and techni­
cians, who are needed for the industry’s research
and development activities. Among plant work­
ers, most job opportunities will be in maintenance
occupations, such as those of instrument repair­
man, pipefitter, machinist, and maintenance elec­
trician, because of the increasing use of automated
equipment and complex control instruments.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Refinery workers are among the highest paid
employees in American industry. In mid-1965,
production workers in petroleum refining averaged
$143.52 a week, or $3.45 an hour for a 41.6 hour
workweek, compared with an average for all
manufacturing industries of $108.21 a week, or
$2.62 an hour for a 41.1 hour workweek. The
higher average earnings of production workers in
refineries reflect the relatively large proportion of
workers in skilled occupations.
Entry salaries for chemists and chemical engi­
neers in the petroleum refining industry were the
highest in American industry, according to a
survey conducted by the American Chemical
Society in 1964. The survey showed that in this
industry the average starting salary for chemists
with a bachelor’s degree and no experience was

$585 a month and for chemical engineers, $625
a month.
Many petroleum refinery workers receive a 2week vacation with pay after 1 year of service;
3 weeks, after 5 years; and 4 weeks, after 10
years. A large number of refineries have adopted
some type of insurance, pension, and medical and
surgical plans for their employees. Employee
stock-purchase and savings plans, to which the
employer makes contributions, are in effect in
many firms.
Because petroleum refining is a continuous
round-the-clock operation, operators may be as­
signed to one of three shifts, or they may be
rotated on various shifts and be subject to Sun­
day and holiday work. Employees usually receive
8 to 16 cents an hour additional pay when they
work on the second or third shift. Most mainte­
nance workers are on duty during the day shift;
only a few work at night to handle emergencies.
Work in the industry has little seasonal vari­
ation and regular workers have year-round jobs.
Most refinery jobs require only moderate
physical effort. A few workers, however, have to
open and close heavy valves and climb stairs and
ladders to considerable heights in the course of
their duties. Others may work in hot places or
may be exposed to unpleasant odors. Refineries
are relatively safe places in which to work. The
injury-frequency rate is about half that of manu­
facturing as a whole.
A majority of refinery plant workers are union
members. A large number of refineries have been
organized by the Oil, Chemical and Atomic
Workers International Union. Some refinery
workers are members of other AFL-CIO unions
or of various local unions not affiliated with the

Natural G as Processing Occupations
Nature of Work

A natural gas processing plant performs
several functions. Raw natural gas is processed
to extract natural gas liquids, and impurities, such
as sand and water. The natural gas liquid com­
pounds—propane, butane, and natural gasoline—
have important uses e.g., as raw materials for the
chemical industry and oil refineries, and as a fuel
in rural areas. In addition, natural gas may be

compressed, for delivery to pipeline transporta­
tion companies or for use by oil well operators to
force oil out of the ground.
More than 50 percent of the workers in the
larger natural gas processing plants are employed
in operating or maintaining processing equip­
ment. Operators, numerically the largest plant
occupation, have duties very similar to those of
the oil refinery workers. The dehydration-plant


operator (D.O.T. 541.782) tends an automatically
controlled treating unit which removes water and
other impurities from natural gas. The gasolineplant operator, or gasoline-plant engineer (D.O.T.
950.782), operates equipment which extracts nat­
ural gasoline from natural gas. The compressorstation operator, or compressor-station engineer
(D.O.T. 914.132) operates a compressor which
raises the pressure of the gas for transmission in
the pipelines. The gas-compressor operator,
(D.O.T. 950.782), assists either of the last two em­
ployees named above. The gas plant operator or
stillman, gas plant (D.O.T. 540.280), operates the
unit which removes sulfur from the gas.
As in oil refineries, many workers in the larger
natural gas processing plants are employed in
maintenance activities. However, the equipment
in such plants is subject to less corrosion and
wear than that in oil refineries, and it is generally
more automated. As a result, the instrument re­
pairman and the electrician are two key workers
needed to maintain the instruments that control
the automatic equipment. The welder and his
helper also do much maintenance work in the
processing plant. Other workers, whose jobs in­
clude maintenance functions, are engine repair­
man and laborer.
Clerical, administrative, professional, and tech­
nical workers are a smaller proportion of em­
ployment in the larger gas processing plants than
in oil refineries.
In the numerous smaller natural gas process­
ing plants, many workers have multiple skills—
usually combining the skills of operator and
maintenance man. In addition, there are many
very small plants that are so highly automated
that they are virtually unattended. Either they
are checked by maintenance workers at periodic
intervals, or they are continuously monitored by
instruments which automatically report malfunc­
tions and shut down the plant if an emergency
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Information on occupational training, qualifica­
tions, and advancement in natural gas processing
plants is similar to that for occupations in
petroleum refining, discussed on page 729.


Employment Outlook

Employment in natural gas processing plants
is expected to show little or no change in the
1965-75 period, even though the demand for
natural gas and natural gas liquids is expected
to increase faster than for other petroleum pro­
ducts. Continued application of technological
improvements in processing methods, which will
lead to greater output per worker, is expected to
about offset the effect of growing demand.
Only a few thousand job openings are expected
in these plants each year during the next 10
years. These will result from the need to replace
workers who retire, die, or transfer to other in­
dustries. The greatest demand will be for work­
ers who can repair, rebuild, and maintain the
highly automated plant equipment. Increasing
numbers of technical trained employees, includ­
ing engineers, are being used on these jobs.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Production workers in natural gas processing
plants, in early 1964, received wages that com­
pared very favorably with the average hourly
wage of $2.53 for production workers in manu­
facturing industries. At a fairly typical mediumsize natural gas processing plant, starting hourly
rates were as follows: Unskilled worker (laborer),
$2.36; operator helper, $2.70; operator, $2.89;
vehicle operator, $2.88; welder helper, $2.70;
welder, $3; instrument man, $3.30; and electrician,
$3.32. Generally, production workers in these
plants received the same benefits, vacations, and
shift differentials as workers in petroleum re­
fining. (See p. 730.)
Most workers in natural gas processing plants
and oil refineries have similar working conditions.
Only a moderate amount of physical effort is in­
volved. Some workers are required to open and
close valves, to climb stairs and ladders to con­
siderable heights, and to work 1 of 3 shifts. The
plants are relatively safe places in which to work.
The injury-frequency rate, in 1964, was about
two-thirds that of manufacturing as a whole.
Some workers in particular natural gas process­
ing plants have unusual working conditions.
They are responsible for maintaining several
small, unattended automated plants in widely
separated, isolated locations. They make periodic

trips, of 1 or more days’ duration, to check these
automated plants. They travel over rough, un­
paved terrain and are exposed to all kinds of
weather. These maintenance jobs may be very
satisfying to those who like working outdoors and


Workers in many of the larger gas processing
plants are union members. Many are members of
the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers Interna­
tional Union. Some have been organized by other
unions affiliated with the AFL-CIO, and others
are members of local, unaffiliated unions.

In 1965, the pulp, paper, and allied products
industry (the paper industry) employed about
640,000 workers to produce thousands of paper
products such as newsprint, business forms, facial
tissue, building board, paper bags, writing paper,
and paperboard containers and boxes. Consump­
tion of paper and paperboard in 1964 amounted
to more than 475 pounds for each person in the
nation. The industry employs workers in occupa­
tions ranging from unskilled to highly specialized
technical and professional jobs, many of which
are found only in the paper industry.
About 130,000 women were employed in this
industry in 1965. Most of them worked in plant
jobs, mainly as machine operators and inspectors
in paper finishing and converting plants; others
were in office jobs. Few women were employed in
the actual making of pulp or paper.
Nature and Location of the Industry

The paper industry is highly mechanized. Pulp
and paper and many finished paper products are
manufactured by machines—some as long as a
football field—in a senes of nearly automatic
operations, with very little handling of material
by workers. Manufacturing plants in the paper
industry are engaged in one or more of three
different operations: The production of pulp
(the basic ingredient of all paper) from wood,
reused fibers, or other raw materials; the manu­
facture of paper or paperboard (thick paper)
from pulp; or the conversion of rolls of paper
or paperboard into finished products. Some large
plants produce pulp, paper, and paperboard.
A few very large plants also produce finished
paper products.
About 45 percent of the employees in the in­
dustry in 1965 worked in mills that made pulp,
paper, or paperboard. The others were about
equally divided between plants that made paper­

board boxes and other types of containers, and
plants that produced a variety of other paper
products. More than 90 percent of the pulp,
paper, and paperboard employees and over 70
percent of the converting plant employees worked
in factories employing over 100 workers each.
Workers in this industry are located through­
out the country, although more than half are
employed in eight States: New York, Pennsyl­
vania, Wisconsin, Ohio, Illinois, Massachusetts,
New Jersey, and California. Other States with
large numbers of paperworkers are Michigan,
Minnesota, Georgia, Washington, Maine, Louisi­
ana, Florida, and North Carolina.
Occupations in the Industry

Workers in the paper industry are employed
in a wide variety of occupations, requiring a
broad range of training and skills. Many workers
operate and control specialized papermaking,
finishing, and converting machines. Some work­
ers install and repair equipment such as paper­
making machinery, converting equipment,
motors, pumps, pipes, and measuring instru­
ments. Truck and tractor drivers make deliveries
to and from plants, and other workers load and
unload trucks, trains, and ships. Guards, watch­
men, and janitors do custodial work. Other work­
ers keep inventory records of stock and tools.
The industry employs many workers in clerical,
sales, and administrative occupations. For ex­
ample, it employs purchasing agents, personnel
managers, salesmen, office clerks, stenographers,
bookkeepers, and business machine operators.
Also, because of the complex processes and equip­
ment used, the industry employs many people in
professional and technical occupations such as
chemical and mechanical engineers, chemists,
laboratory technicians, pulp and paper testers,
and inspectors. (Detailed discussions of pro­



fessional, technical, and mechanical occupations
found not only in the paper industry but in other
industries, are given elsewhere in the Handbook
in the sections covering individual occupations.
See index for page numbers.)
Production Jobs. Almost four-fifths of all em­
ployees in the industry worked in production jobs.
The simplified description of papermaking occu­
pations and processes which follows, applies to a
plant which combines the production of pulp,
paper, and finished products into one continuous
operation. (See chart 38.) I t takes between 12
and 15 hours, on on the average, for pulp wood or
other raw materials to be converted into rolls of
paper or paperboard.
After the pulpwood logs are received at the
pulp mill, the bark is removed. One machine used
for this operation is a large revolving cylinder
known as a “drum barker.” Logs are mechanically
fed into this machine by a semiskilled worker
called a barker operator. The machine cleans the
bark from the logs by tumbling them against each
other and against the rough inner surface of the
drum. Next, the pulp fibers in the logs are sepa­
rated from other substances not used in papermak­
ing. This is done by a chemical or mechanical
process, or a combination of both, depending on the
type of wood used and the grade of paper desired.
In the mechanical process, the pulpwood is held
against a fast-revolving grindstone which separ­
ates the fibers. In the more commonly used
chemical process, pulpwood is carried on conveyor

belts to a chipper machine operated by a chipperman (D.O.T. 668.885). The machine cuts the
pulpwood into chips about the size of a quarter.
These wood chips are then “cooked” with chemicals
under high temperature and pressure in a
“digester,” a kettlelike vat several stories high.
The digester is operated by a skilled worker called
a digester operator (D.O.T. 532.782) (also known
as a “cook”) . He determines the amount of
chemicals to be used and the cooking tempera­
ture and pressure, directs the loading of the
digester with wood chips and chemicals, and de­
termines, by checking an instrument panel, that
proper conditions are being maintained. When the
pulp fibers are removed from the digester, they are
washed to remove chemicals, partially cooked
chips, and other impurities. These fibers, called
pulp, resemble wet, brown cotton. As a first step
in turning pulp into paper, pulp is mixed thor­
oughly with water and further refined in a ma­
chine operated by a skilled worker called a beater
engineer (D.O.T. 530.782). The kind and amount
of chemicals and dyes that he uses and the length
of time he “beats” the solution determines the
color and strength of the paper.
The pulp solution, now more than 99 percent
water, is turned into paper or paperboard by
machines that are among the largest in American
industry. The machines are of two types. One
is the Fourdrinier machine which is, by far, the
most commonly used. The other is the cylinder
machine used to make certain types of paper such




P R O C E S S .......


Screen tender operates controls while helper loosens lodged
solids from screen openings.

as building and container board. It differs from
the Fourdrinier machines in the paperforming
section. In the Fourdrinier, the pulp solution
pours onto a continuously moving and vibrating
belt of fine wire screen. As the water drains, mil­
lions of pulp fibers adhere to one another, form­
ing a thin wet sheet of paper. After passing
through presses that squeeze out more water,
the newly formed paper passes through the dryer
section of the papermaking machine to evaporate
the remaining water. Papermaking machines are
operated by a paper machine operator (D.O.T.
539.782) (also called a “machine tender”). The
quality of the paper produced largely depends on
the skill of this worker. His principal responsi­
bility is to control the “wet-end” of the paper­
making machine, where paper of a specified thick­
ness, width, and physical strength is formed. He
checks control-panel instruments to make certain
that the flow of pulp and the speed of the machine
are coordinated. The paper machine operator
determines whether the paper meets the required
specifications by interpreting laboratory tests
or, in some instances, by visually checking and
feeling the paper. He also supervises the less
skilled workers of the machine crew and, with
their help, keeps the paper moving smoothly
through the machine. The paper machine operT78-316 O— 6 5 — — 48

ator and his crew may also replace worn felts
and wire screens. The backtender (D.O.T. 532.885), who is supervised by the paper machine
operator, controls the “dry-end” of the paper­
making machine, where the paper is dried and
prepared either for shipping or converting into
finished products. He controls the pressure and
temperature of the rolls that dry and finish the
paper and give it the correct thickness, inspects
the paper for imperfections, and makes sure that
it is being tightly and uniformly wound onto rolls.
The backtender also adjusts the machinery that
cuts the rolls into smaller rolls and, with the help
of assistants, may weigh and wrap the rolls for
Paper mills that produce a fine grade of paper
for books, magazines, or stationary usually main­
tain finishing departments. Most of the work­
ers in these departments are either semiskilled or
unskilled. One such semiskilled worker, called
the supercalender operator (D.O.T. 534.782),
aided by several helpers and by mechanical han­
dling equipment, places hugh rolls of paper onto
a machine which gives the paper a smooth and
glossy finish. He also inspects the finished paper
to make sure that specifications have been met.
Another semiskilled worker in the finishing
department, the paper sorter and counter (D.O.T.
649.687), inspects sheets of paper for tears, dirt
spots, and wrinkles, and counts them.

Machine tender and helper regulate and control flow of pulp
onto papermaking machine.



(paperboard with alternate ridges and grooves)
which is used in the manufacture of shipping con­
tainers. Another of the few skilled workers in a
converting plant is the printer-slotter operator
(D.O.T. 651.782) who sets, adjusts, and operates
a machine which cuts and creases corrugated or
paperboard sheets, and prints designs or letter­
ing on them. He also positions the printing plates
and cutting devices and turns keys to control the
distribution of printing ink, pressure of rollers,
and speed of the machine. Another skilled job
is that of the die maker (D.O.T. 739.381) who
makes cutting dies used on machines that pro­
duce folding cartons (the familiar collapsible
cartons used by clothing stores to pack pur­
Converting plants employ thousands of workers
to print text, designs, and lettering on paperproducts such as cartons, bags, wallpaper, and
envelopes. Among these are skilled compositors
who set type, and pressmen who prepare and op­
erate printing presses.

Women are frequently employed as carton inspectors.

In converting plants, machines operated by
semiskilled or skilled workers convert paper and
paperboard into paper products such as envel­
opes, napkins, corrugated shipping containers,
and folding or setup boxes. Occupations in con­
verting plants differ widely, depending largely
on the product being manufactured. An example
of a semiskilled worker in an envelope-making
plant is the envelope machine operator (D.O.T.
641.885) who feels and tends an automatic ma­
chine that makes envelopes from either rolls of
paper or prepared envelope blanks. He loads
the rolls or blanks into the machine and supplies
the machine with glue. An example of a skilled
worker in a converting plant is the corrugator
operator (D.O.T. 643.782) who regulates the
speed of the machine that glues together three
pieces of paperboard into corrugated paperboard

Maintenance Jobs. The paper industry employs
many skilled maintenance workers to care for its
complex machinery and electrical equipment.
Millwrights maintain, install, and repair ma­
chinery and equipment and examine paper
machine rolls, bearings, and pumps to insure that
they are in good working condition. They also
take apart and reassemble machines and equip­
ment when they are moved about the plant.
Instrument repairmen install and service electri­
cal, electronic, and mechanical instruments that
measure and control the flow of pulp, paper,
water, steam, and chemical additives. The job of
instrument repairman is becoming increasingly
important with the greater use of automatic
control equipment in pulp and paper manufac­
Other important maintenance employees are
electricians, who repair wiring, motors, and
switches; maintenance machinists, who make
replacement parts for mechanical equipment; and
pipefitters, who lay out, install, and repair pipes.
Stationary engineers are employed to operate
and maintain powerplants, steam engines, boilers,
air compressors, motors, and turbines.
Professional and Technical Occupations. The
complexity of pulp and paper manufacturing


requires the employment of thousands of workers
with engineering, chemical, or other technical
training and education. More than 12,000 scien­
tists and engineers and 6,000 technicians were
employed by the paper industry in early 1965.
Many chemists are employed to control the
quality of the product by supervising the testing
of pulp and paper. In research laboratories,
chemists study the influence of various chemicals
on pulp and paper properties. In addition, some
chemists and engineers are employed as salesmen,
supervisors of plant workers, or as administra­
tors in positions requiring technical knowledge.
Chemical and mechanical engineers design, con­
struct, operate, control, and improve pulp and
papermaking equipment. They transform new
pulp and papermaking techniques, developed in
the laboratory, into practical production methods.
Some chemical engineers are employed in plant
jobs to supervise the application of pulp and
paper technology to the production process.
Electrical engineers are employed to supervise
the design, development, and operation of elec­
trical and electronic instruments and power­
generating and distributing equipment.
Packaging engineers (D.O.T. 019.187) design
and supervise the production of paper and paperboard containers and packages. A few box manu­
facturers also employ artists who work out the
lettering, designs, and colors for containers.
Professionally trained foresters manage large
areas of timberland and assist in the wood-buying
operations of pulp and paper companies.
Frequent tests are performed during the manu­
facturing of pulp or paper to determine whether
the size, weight, strength, color, and other prop­
erties of the material meet specified standards.
Some of this testing is done by machine operators,
but in many mills, testing technicians are em­
ployed. These employees, who have job titles
such as laboratory technician, 'paper tester, pulp
tester, paper inspector, and chemical analyst, work
in plant laboratories. They use chemicals and
laboratory testing equipment when performing
tests. They also assist professional engineers and
chemists in research and development activities.
Depending on their training and experience, tech­
nicians perform simple, routine tests, or do highly
skilled technical or analytical work. Technicians
working in laboratories conduct tests and record

the results on charts or graphs for interpretation
by engineers and chemists.

Laboratory technician runs quality control checks on paper

Administrative, Clerical, and Related Occupa­
tions. The paper industry employs many admin­
istrative, clerical, and other office personnel. At
the top of the administrative group are the execu­
tives who make and administer company policy.
Many of these are technically trained men. To do
their work effectively, executives require infor­
mation that must come from a large group of
personnel. Some are accountants, purchasing
agents, sales representatives, lawyers, and per­
sonnel employed in such activities as industrial
relations, public relations, transportation, adver­
tising, and market research. Clerical employees
who keep records of personnel, payroll, inven­
tories, sales, shipments, and plant maintenance
are also employed in this industry.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

The training for new workers in the pulp,
paper, and allied products industry ranges from

a few days to years of preparation. Many operat­
ing jobs can be learned in a few days of on-the-job
training. On the other hand, maintenance jobs,
some machine operating jobs, and, particularly,
engineering and scientific jobs require years of
specialized training.
Paper and pulp companies generally hire inex­
perienced workers for processing and mainte­
nance jobs and train them on the job. Many com­
panies prefer to hire high school graduates
between the ages of 18 and 25. Production work­
ers usually start as laborers or helpers and ad­
vance along fairly well-defined paths to more
skilled jobs. Maintenance jobs generally are
filled by men trained in the plant. When no
qualified workers are available, however, jobs are
filled by hiring experienced men from outside
the plant.
Most companies in this industry do not have
formal apprenticeship programs to meet the needs
of their own maintenance shops. In recent years,
however, some of the large plants that make pulp,
paper, and paperboard have started formal ap­
prenticeship programs which require 3 to 4 or more
years of training. Under these programs, young
men are trained for skilled maintenance jobs
such as machinist, electrician, millwright, and
pipefitter. Generally, an applicant is given a
physical examination, mechanical aptitude tests,
and similar qualifying tests. Apprentice training
includes both on-the-job training and classroom
instruction related to the occupation. For
example, the machinist apprentice receives class­
room instruction in mathematics, blueprint read­
ing, shop theory, and specialized subjects. During
shop training, the apprentice learns the use and
care of the tools of his trade.
A bachelor’s degree from a recognized college
is usually the minimum educational requirement
for scientists, engineers, foresters, and other spe­
cialists employed by the industry. For research
work, persons with advanced degrees are pre­
ferred. Many engineers and chemists (called
process engineers and paper chemists) have spe­
cialized training in paper technology. A listing
of the schools offering such training is available
from the American Paper Institute, 122 East
42d St., New York, N.Y. 10017. Many companies
hire students specializing in papermaking for
summer work and upon graduation frequently


hire them on a permanent basis. Some associa­
tions, colleges, universities, and individual com­
panies offer scholarships in pulp and papermak­
ing technology.
Some companies have formal training pro­
grams for college graduates with engineering or
scientific backgrounds. These employees may
work for brief periods in various plant operating
divisions to gain a broad knowledge of pulp and
paper manufacturing before being assigned to a
particular department. Other firms immediately
assign junior chemists or engineers to a specific
research operation or maintenance unit.
Generally, no specialized education is required
for laboratory assistants, testing technicians, or
other kinds of technicians. Some employers, how­
ever, prefer to hire those who have had training
in a technical institute or junior college. Train­
ing, usually, is on the job. Laboratory assistants,
for example, begin in routine jobs and advance
to positions of greater responsibility after they
have acquired experience and demonstrated their
ability to work without close supervision.
Administrative positions are frequently filled
by men and women who have college degrees in
business administration, marketing, accounting,
industrial relations, or other specialized business
fields. A knowledge of paper technology is help­
ful for administrative, sales, and related occupa­
tions. This is especially true of sales jobs where
customers often require technical assistance. Most
pulp and paper companies employ clerks, book­
keepers, stenographers, and typists who have
had commercial courses in high school or in busi­
ness school.
Factors affecting advancement of plant work­
ers include the length of time that a worker
has held a plant job, how well he performs his
job, and his physical condition. Promotion is
generally limited to jobs within a “work area,”
which may be a department, section, or an opera­
tion on one type of machine. To become a paper
machine tender, for example, the worker may
start as a laborer, wrapping and sealing the
finished rolls of paper as they come off the paper­
making machine. As he gains experience and
skill, he moves to more difficult assignments,
finally becoming a machine tender in charge of
the operation of a machine. These promotions
may take many years, depending on the avail­



ability of jobs. Experience gained within a work
area is generally not transferable; unskilled or
semiskilled workers who transfer to jobs outside
their seniority area or to other plants usually
must start again in entry jobs.
Many plant foremen and supervisors are former
production workers. In some plants, qualified
workers may be promoted directly to foreman or
other supervisory positions. In others, workers
are given training before they are eligible for
promotion to higher level jobs. This training is
often continued after the worker is promoted—
through conferences, special plant training ses­
sions, and sometimes by taking courses at univer­
sities or trade schools.
Employment Outlook

Young people will find many thousands of job
openings annually over the 1965-75 decade in the
pulp, paper, and allied products industry. Al­
though employment is expected to increase by
several thousand workers each year, most job op­
portunities will result from the need to replace
experienced workers who retire, transfer to other
fields of work, or die. Deaths and retirements
alone are expected to provide about 15,000 job
openings annually.
Employment in this industry is expected to con­
tinue to grow fastest in the South and West. Em­
ployment prospects, however, will remain good in
the Northeast and North Central areas, which have
large numbers of paperworkers, because of the
need to replace experienced workers.
The production of paper is expected to increase
as a result of the increased demand resulting from
population growth, business expansion, and new
uses of paper. For example, rising population will
create a greater demand for textbooks, writing
papers, periodicals, and newspapers. Business
expansion will increase the need for paper prod­
ucts such as business forms and packaging. The
greater use of paper products such as disposable
garments, stretchable grocery bags, carpet back­
ing, and refuse bags is also expected to stimulate
paper production. Employement will increase at
a slower rate than production, however, because
of the increasing use of more efficient, labor-saving
machinery and automatic control equipment.
Occupational groups in the industry are ex­
pected to increase at different rates. The numbers

of engineers, scientists, technicians, and skilled
workers, such as electricians, machinery repair­
men, instrument repairmen, pipefitters, and mill­
wrights, are expected to increase faster than
other occupational groups in the industry. Sci­
entific and technical personnel will be needed as
research and development activities increase and
more skilled maintenance and repair men will be
required to service the growing inventory of
complex machinery. The employment of admin­
istrative and clerical workers is also expected to
increase at a faster pace than total employment.
On the other hand, employment of semiskilled
workers and helpers, laborers, and other unskilled
plant workers is expected to remain about the
same or decline slightly as more automatic
machinery is introduced.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Production workers in the paper and allied
products industry had average earnings of $2.66
an hour, or $114.38 for a 43.0 hour workweek, in
mid-1965. In the same year, earnings of produc­
tion workers in all manufacturing industries aver­
aged $2.61 an hour, or $107.01 for a 41.0 hour
Highly skilled paper machine operators and
many of the skilled maintenance workers have the
highest paying plant jobs. In 1964, some skilled
paper machine tenders earned more than $4.50
an hour, and many maintenance workers received
more than $3.50.
The following data, collected from more than
a score of union-management agreements in the
paper industry, illustrate the approximate range
of hourly wage rates for selected production and
maintenance occupations for the country as a
whole in 1964. Local wage rates within these
ranges depend on factors such as type and size of
mill and kind of machines used.
P u lp p la n ts

Woodyard and wood preparation occupa­
tions :
Crane operator_____________________
Barker, drum______________________
Pulpmaking occupations:
Digester operator (cook)____________
Pulp tester________________________

H ou rly rate ranges

$2. 10-$3. 42
2. 12- 2. 62
1. 72- 2. 95
2. 042. 932. 101. 911. 97-





A work schedule of 40 hours a week is in effect
in most mills. A few plants in the industry have
H ou rly rate ranges
a standard workweek of 36 hours or less.
$2. 47-$4. 12
Paid vacations are almost always provided and
2. 1 0 -2 . 92
generally are based on length of service. In prac­
2. 18- 2. 40
tically all mills, workers receive 1 week of vaca­
tion after 1 year of employment, 2 weeks after 3
2. 64— 5. 70
2. 42- 5. 37
to 5 years, and 3 weeks after 10 or more years.
2. 29- 4. 27
Many companies give 4 weeks’ vacation to em­
2. 12- 3. 65
ployees who have been with them 20 years. Nearly
2. 26- 3. 12
all workers receive paid holidays; the number of
days range from 4 to 11 a year, with most mills
2. 26- 2. 81
granting 7 or 8 paid holidays.
76- 2.89
2. 09- 2. 52
Insurance or pension plans, financed at least
86- 3.04
partially by employers, are in effect in the major­
ity of plants. These plans generally include life,
Converting plan ts
sickness, accident, hospitalization, and surgical
Converting occupations:
insurance benefits for the employee and, in some
Envelope machine operator_________
1. 33- 2. 55
cases, his dependents. Employee stock-purchase
Corrugator operator------------------------1. 90- 3. 07
and savings plans to which the company makes
Printer-slotter operator_____________
1. 85- 3. 07
Die maker_________________________
2. 42- 3. 70
contributions are in effect in some firms.
1. 86- 3. 72
Most pulp and papermaking jobs do not require
Pressmen (printing)________________
1. 87- 5. 26
strenuous physical effort. Some employees, how­
M iscellaneous occupations
ever, work in hot, humid, and noisy areas. They
may also be exposed to disagreeable odors from
Maintenance occupations:
Maintenance mechanic (also millwright,
the chemicals used in the papermaking process,
welder, pipesetter, sheet-metal work­
but the pulp and paper companies have made
er, machinist, blacksmith, and
intensive efforts in recent years to improve work­
boilerm aker)__ __ _ ___________
2 .0 6 - 3. 78
ing conditions.
1. 86- 3. 62
The rate of disabling injuries in this industry
2. 01- 3. 78
in recent years has been about the same as the
2. 11- 3. 86
average for all manufacturing. Protective cloth­
1. 83- 3. 25
ing, warning signs in danger areas, locking devices
Trucker, power
1. 60- 2. 87
on potentially dangerous equipment, guards and
rails around moving machinery, and instruction
Most of the workers in pulp and paper proin safe practices have been important in reducing
ducing operations work in plants that operate
the accident rate. Some of the more hazardous
jobs are in converting plants where many cutting
around the clock—three shifts a day, 7 days a
week. Owing to the widespread industry prac­
tools and moving equipment are used.
tice of rotating shifts, production workers can
A majority of the production workers in this
expect to work on the evening or night shifts
industry are members of trade unions. A large
number belong to either the International
from time to time. Maintenance workers, for the
most part, are employed on the regular day shift.
Brotherhood of Pulp, Sulphite and Paper Mill
Many plants pay between 5 and 11 cents an hour
Workers or the United Papermakers and Papermore for work on the evening shift and between
workers. Many printing workers in the industry
belong to the International Printing Pressmen
9 and 15 cents an hour extra for the night shift.
and Assistants’ Union of North America. Some
Most workers in the industry have year-round
maintenance workers and other craftsmen belong
employment because paper production is not sub­
ject to seasonal variations.
to various craft unions.
P aper and paperboard pla n ts

Stock preparation occupations:
Head stock preparer (beater
Hydrapulper operator---------------------Machine room occupations:
Paper machine tender----------------------Backtender________________________
Third hand________________________
Fourth hand_______________________
Paper tester-----------------------------------Finishing occupations:
Supercalendar operator_____________
Re winder operator____________________
Rewinder helper____________________



Where To G o for More Information
American Forest Products Industries,
1816 N St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.
American Paper Institute,
122 East 42d St., New York, N.Y.


Fibre Box Association,
224 South Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. 60601.

Folding Paper Box Association of America,
222 West Adams St., Chicago, 111. 60606.
International Brotherhood of Pulp, Sulphite and
Paper Mill Workers,
1145 19th St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.
United Papermakers and Paperworkers,
Papermakers Building, Albany, N.Y. 12201.

The glamour and excitement associated with
radio and television make careers in broadcasting
attractive to many young people. The electronic
technology involved in transmitting programs and
the business aspects of operating a broadcasting
station or network are also attractions. In early
1965, there were more than 80,000 full-time and
about 18,000 part-time staff employees in com­
mercial broadcasting; altogether, over 55 percent
were employed in radio. Staff employees work
for a broadcasting station or network on a
regularly scheduled and continuous basis. In
addition to staff employees, many thousands of
freelance performers, such as actors, musicians,
dancers, comedians, and top-level announcers,
work on specific assignments from stations, net­
works, and other program producers. (Several
thousand other employees worked for independent
program producers in activities closely related to
broadcasting, such as the preparation of filmed
and taped programs and commercials for broad­
Broadcasting stations offer a variety of interest­
ing jobs in all parts of the country. Opportunities
for entry jobs are best at stations in small com­
munities Generally, the most specialized and best
paying jobs are in large cities, especially those
with national network stations. Nevertheless, the
talented individual will have many opportunities
to advance to good paying jobs in stations located
in smaller communities.
Nature and Location of the Industry

In the early 1965, more than 5,000 commercial
radio stations were in operation in the United
States. About 4,000 of these were AM stations
(broadcasting on frequencies between 540 and
1,600 kilocycles), and close to 300 were FM-only
stations (broadcasting on frequencies between 88
and 108 megacycles). About 850 stations have
licenses for both AM and FM operations.

More than 580 commercial television stations
were in operation in early 1965. Most of these
were VHF stations which broadcast on channels
2 through 13; about 90 were U H F stations which
broadcast on channels 14 through 83. U H F sta­
tions generally employ fewer workers than VHF
Most commercial broadcasting stations are small
independent businesses. In early 1965, over half
of all radio stations had fewer than 10 full-time
employees each, and fewer than 10 percent of all
radio stations had more than 25 full-time em­
ployees per station. FM-only stations usually
employed about three full-time and about five
part-time workers each. Most television stations
had fewer than 50 full-time workers, although
several of the largest employed more than 200
workers each.
Commercial radio stations are served by 4 na­
tionwide networks, and more than 80 regional
networks. Stations can affiliate with networks by
agreeing to broadcast their programs on a regular
basis. National radio networks have affiliated
stations in almost every large metropolitan area,
although only a minority of all radio stations are
affiliated with national networks. Regional radio
networks have fewer affiliated stations and their
activities usually consist of arranging for the sale
of advertising time, and interconnecting member
stations for special events such as baseball and
football games. Regional networks have few full­
time employees because their programing is con­
ducted by staff employees of the affiliated stations.
The four national radio networks together em­
ployed over 1,000 workers in early 1965.
Most television stations depend on one or more
of the three national television networks for pro­
grams that would be too expensive for individual
stations to originate—for example, sports events
such as world series baseball games or interna­
tional Olympic contests; broadcasts of operas,
plays, and musicals; and newscasts of national



and international significance. These networks, in
turn, can offer national coverage to advertisers.
Since some small cities have only one or two tele­
vision stations, these stations often arrange to
carry the programs of two or three networks in
order to offer their viewers a wider variety of
programs. Many network television programs are
broadcast simultaneously over more than 150 sta­
tions throughout the Nation. In early 1965, the
three television networks employed 10,000 work­
ers, or 1 of every 5 staff employees in television.
Almost every community of over 10,000 popula­
tion has at least 1 broadcasting station (usually
radio) and a few of the largest cities have more
than 20. However, one-third of all radio stations
are located in communities of less than 10,000 and
most of these are in one-station communities. Gen­
erally, television stations are located in communi­
ties of more than 25,000 population. Seventy
percent of all television stations are in communi­
ties of 100,000 or more. In contrast, over 60 per­
cent of all radio stations are in communities of
less than 100,000 population.
Practically all large broadcasting stations are
located in metropolitan areas, but small stations
are found in big cities as well as small communi­
ties. About one-fourth of all broadcasting jobs
are in New York and California because New
York City and Los Angeles are the two major
centers for network programs. Other large and
heavily populated States, such as Illinois, Texas,
Pennsylvania, and Ohio, also have many broad­
casting workers because of the large number of
individual stations.
In addition to commercial broadcasting stations,
in early 1965, there were about 300 noncommercial
radio stations (mainly FM), and over 100 non­
commercial television stations, both VHF and
UHF. These stations are operated by nonprofit
organizations, principally educational agencies
such as State commissions; local boards of educa­
tion; colleges and universities; and special com­
munity educational television organizations. Rela­
tively few full-time staff members were employed
in noncommercial radio stations (about 1,400)
and in noncommercial television stations (about
2,600), because instructors and students often help
to operate many of these stations.

Broadcasting Occupations

Employees of broadcasting stations generally
specialize in 1 of 4 major areas of work, although
there may be considerable “doubling in brass” in
small stations. Those concerned with programing
prepare and produce programs; engineering
workers operate and maintain the equipment that
converts sounds and pictures into electronic im­
pulses that can be picked up on home receivers;
sales workers sell time to advertisers and develop
publicity and promotional material for the station.
The remaining employees handle general business
matters, such as accounting, payroll, public rela­
tions, personnel administration, and the clerical
work related to all the station’s activities.
More than 40 percent of all full-time staff em­
ployees are in programing work. Personnel in
the engineering department make up over 20
percent of staff employment. Workers in the sales,
publicity, and promotion departments account for
about 15 percent, and the remaining workers—
about 25 percent—are engaged in business man­
agement. These proportions vary widely among
individual stations, depending on station size and
type of programing.
Job duties vary greatly between small and
large stations. In small radio stations, a large
proportion of broadcast time consists of recorded
music and weather and news announcements. As
a result, small stations employ only a few work­
ers, each of whom performs a variety of tasks.
The station manager, who frequently is also the
owner, may act as business and sales manager,
or perhaps as program director, announcer, and
script writer. Announcers in small stations
usually do their own writing, often operate the
studio control board, and may even act as sales­
men. The engineering staff may consist of only
one full-time broadcast technician assisted by
workers from the other departments on a parttime basis. Small low-powered stations, which
do not use a directional antenna, may employ a
chief engineer on a part-time contract basis,
sharing his services with similar stations in the
community. In large radio and television stations,
jobs are more specialized and are usually con­
fined to 1 of the 4 departments. The kinds of
jobs found in each of these departments are
described below.



Television cameraman films scene for broadcast.

Programing Department. The programing de­
partment plans, prepares, and produces radio
and television programs. Staff employees plan
the station’s programing, produce the daily and
weekly shows, assign personnel to cover special
events, and provide general program services
such as music, sound effects, and lighting. In
addition to these staff employees, freelance actors,
comedians, singers, dancers, some well-known
announcers, and other entertainers are hired for
specific broadcasts or series of broadcasts or for
special assignments. These performers work on
a contract basis for the station, network, adver­
tising agency, sponsor, or an independent com­
pany specializing in producing programs. Many
radio and television entertainers also perform in
stage plays, motion pictures, nightclubs, or other
entertainment media.
The size of a station’s programing department
depends not only on the size of the station, but
also on the extent to which its broadcasts are
live, recorded, or received from a network. In
small stations, the program functions are han­
dled by a few people who make commercial an­
nouncements, read news and sports summaries,
select and play recordings, and introduce network
programs. A large television station, on the
other hand, may have a program staff consisting

of more than 75 people in a wide variety of spe­
cialized jobs.
Responsibility for the overall program sched­
ule of a large station rests with a program direc­
tor. He arranges for a combination of programs
that he believes will be most effective in meeting
the needs of advertisers who buy the station’s
services and will at the same time be most attrac­
tive and interesting to members of the com­
munity served by the station. He determines and
administers the station’s programing policy.
Daily schedule of programs are prepared by
a traffic manager, who also keeps a record of
broadcasting time available for advertising. A
continuity director is responsible for the writing
and editing of all scripts. He may be assisted by
a continuity writer, who prepares Announcers'
Books. These books contain the script and com­
mercials for each program along with their
sequence and length.
Individual programs or series of programs are
planned and supervised by a director. In large
stations, he may work under the supervision of a
producer, who assumes responsibility for selection
of scripts, financial control, and other overall
problems of production. Sometimes these func­
tions are combined in the job of producer-director.
The director’s major functions include, selecting
appropriate artists and studio personnel, sched­
uling and conducting rehearsals, coordinating
the efforts of all the people involved in the show
to produce effective entertainment, and directing
the on-the-air show. He may be assisted by an
associate director, who takes over such tasks as
working out detailed schedules and plans, arrang­
ing for distribution of scripts and changes in
scripts to the cast, and assisting in directing the
on-the-air show. Some stations employ program
assistants to aid in carrying out the orders of the
director and his assistants. The assistants help
assemble and coordinate the various parts of the
show. They arrange for obtaining props, make­
up service, art work, and film slides. They assist in
timing the on-the-air show, preparing cue cards
from the scripts and using them to cue the per­
formers. Education and public affairs directors
act as a link between the station and schools,
churches, and civic and charitable institutions.
They supervise and edit most noncommercial


Announcers are the largest and best known
group of program workers. In radio and tele­
vision stations of all sizes, the announcer intro­
duces programs, guests, and musical selections,
and delivers most of the live commercial mes­
sages. (Further information on broadcast an­
nouncers is given later in this chapter.)
Music is an important part of radio and tele­
vision programing. Both small and large stations
use recordings and transcriptions to provide
musical programs and background music for
other shows. Large stations, which have extensive
music libraries, sometimes employ a music
librarian, who maintains the music files and
answers requests for any particular selection or
type of music. In addition to recorded music,
a few of the largest stations have specialized per­
sonnel who plan and. arrange for musical services.
The musical director selects, arranges, and directs
suitable music for programs on general instruc­
tions from the program director. He selects
musicians for live broadcasts and directs them
during rehearsals and broadcasts. Musicians are
generally hired for particular assignments on
a freelance basis, although a few stations employ
staff musicians full-time.
News gathering and reporting is an increas­
ingly important aspect of radio and television
programing. In addition to daily coverage of the
news, sports, weather, and, in rural areas, farm
reports, the news department also presents special
programs covering such events as conventions,
elections, and disasters. The news director plans
and supervises the overall news and special events
coverage of a station. A newscaster broadcasts
daily news programs, and reports special news
events on the scene. A newswriter selects and
writes news copy to be read on the air by the
newscasters. In small stations the jobs of news­
caster and newswriter are frequently combined.
Stations that originate live television shows
must have staff members capable of handling
staging jobs since staging a television show is
similar in many ways to producing a profes­
sional stage play. The studio supervisor plans
and supervises the setting up of scenery and
props and other studio and stage equipment for
broadcasts. The floor or stage manager plans and
directs the actors’ positions and movements on
the set in accordance with the director’s instruc­

tions by relaying stage directions, station breaks,
and cues. The jobs of studio supervisor and floor
manager are often combined. Floorm^en set up
props, hold cue cards, and do the unskilled
chores around the studio. (This job is frequently
held by a beginner in the programing department.)
Makeup artists prepare personnel for broadcasts
by applying proper makeup, and maintain the
supplies and facilities necessary for this work.
Scenic designers plan and design settings and
backgrounds for programs. They select furniture,
draperies, pictures, and other properties to help
convey the visual impressions desired by the di­
rector. Sound effects technicians operate special
equipment to simulate sounds, such as gunfire,
thunder, or falling water, during rehearsals and
In 1964, almost half of all television pro­
graming was on film, over one-quarter was live,
and the remainder was recorded on magnetic
video tape. Video tape recording is done by
broadcast technicians on electronic equipment
that permits instantaneous playback of a tele­
vision performance. I t can be used either to
record a live show being broadcast or to prere­
cord a program for future broadcast. For filmed
programs, the role of the station’s programing
staff is limited to editing the film and timing
and scheduling the show. Many stations employ
specialized staff members to take care of filmed
program material. The film editor edits all film
and prepares it for on-the-air presentation. This
includes screening all films received as well as
cutting and splicing feature films to insert com­
mercials. He also edits all locally produced film.
The film librarian catalogs and maintains the
station’s files of motion picture film, which in­
clude not only complete programs, but many
short sequences that can be fitted into programs
to create effects which are difficult to produce in
the studio, such as outdoor action.
Engineering Department. The engineering de­
partment of a broadcasting station is respon­
sible for converting the sounds and pictures
making up programs into electromagnetic im­
pulses that can be received on home radio and
television sets. The main tasks of the engineering
staff are placing microphones, adjusting levels of
sound, keeping transmitters operating properly,



sign and develop new electronic apparatus to
meet special problems.

Editor prepares film for television presentation.

moving and adjusting television cameras to pro­
duce clear, well-composed pictures, and lighting
television scenes and performers. The staff also
installs, maintains, and repairs the many types
of electrical and electronic equipment required
for these operations.
The basic job in the engineering department
is that of the broadcast technician who is quali­
fied to perform a variety of jobs in the radio or
television station. For example, these technicians
control the operation of the transmitter to keep
the output level and frequency of the outgoing
broadcast within legal requirements. They also
set up, operate, and maintain equipment in the
studio and in locations from which remote broad­
casts are to be made. (Further information on
broadcast technicians is given later in this
All stations employ a chief engineer, who has
responsibility for all engineering matters, includ­
ing supervision of other technicians. In small
stations, he may also work a regular shift at the
control board. The large stations have engineers
who specialize in such fields as sound recording,
maintenance, and lighting. A few development
engineers are employed by the networks to de­

Sales Department. Broadcasting stations earn
their income by selling services to advertisers.
These services consist of the time on the air that
is allotted to the advertisers’ commercials. Ad­
vertisers may buy time as part of a regular daily
or weekly show with which they wish to identify
their product, or they may simply buy a time
segment or “spot” without special reference to
the program being broadcast.
Time salesman, the largest group of workers
in this department, sell time on the air to spon­
sors, advertising agencies, and other buyers.
They must have a thorough knowledge of the
station’s operations and the characteristics of
the area it serves that are of most interest to
advertisers, such as population, number of radio
and television sets in use, income levels, and
consumption patterns. Time salesmen in large
stations often maintain close relationships with

Technician removes video tape from machine.


particular sponsors and advertising agencies, sell­
ing time and acting as general consultants and
advisers to these clients in matters pertaining
to advertising through the station. In very small
stations, the time salesman may also handle other
functions. Many stations sell a substantial part
of their time, particularly to national advertisers,
through independent sales agencies known as
station representatives, which act as intermedi­
aries for time buyers and stations or groups of
Large stations generally have several workers
who do only sales work. The sales manager
supervises his staff of time salesmen, directing
their efforts and setting general sales policy.
He may also handle a few of the largest accounts
personally. Some large stations employ statis­
tical clerks and research personnel to assist the
sales staff by analyzing and reporting market
data relating to the community served, the signifi­
cance of the ratings of the station’s programs
reported by the rating services, and other sta­
tistical information.
Business Management. Like other businesses,
broadcasting stations have a considerable amount
of administrative work. In a very small station,
the owner and his secretary may handle all the
recordkeeping, accounting, purchasing, hiring,
and other routine office work. Where the size of
the station warrants the employment of full-time
specialists, the business staff may include account­
ants, publicity specialists, personnel workers, and
other professional workers. They are assisted by
office workers such as stenographers, typists, book­
keepers, clerks, and messengers. Building main­
tenance men are employed to keep the facilities
in good condition.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

A high school diploma is the minimum educa­
tional requirement for entry jobs in broadcast­
ing, although for many jobs some college train­
ing is increasingly preferred. A liberal arts
education is a good qualification for the beginner
because broadcasting needs broadly educated peo­
ple with knowledge and interests in many areas.
Work in television programing for networks and
large independent stations generally requires a

college degree in drama or broadcasting, and some
experience in the broadcasting field.
Training in specialized areas such as writing,
public speaking, dramatics, designing, makeup, or
electronics may be required of beginners in these
areas even though work experience usually is not
necessary. Some young people without special­
ized training or experience get their start in
broadcasting in such jobs as clerk, typist, floorman, or assistant to an experienced worker. As
these new workers gain knowledge and experience,
they have the chance to advance to more responsi­
ble jobs. Young people are sometimes hired on
the basis of their potentialities rather than for
any specific training or experience, but the more
skills, education, and varied background these
beginners have, the better will be their chances
for advancement. A few young people get started
in broadcasting with temporary jobs in the
summer when regular workers go on vacations
and broadcast schedules of day-light-hours sta­
tions are increased.
Technical training in electronics is required
for entry jobs in engineering departments. In
addition, anyone who operates or adjusts a broad­
cast transmitter must have a Federal Communi­
cations Commission Badiotelephone First Class
Operator License. To obtain this license, an
applicant must pass a series of technical exami­
nations given by the Federal Communications
Commission. Small radio stations with only a
few employees sometimes prefer to have as many
personnel as possible legally qualified to operate
their transmitters. Because of this, nontechnicians,
especially announcers, will have a better chance
of getting a job in radio if they have a first class
license. A course in electronics at a recognized
technical institute is probably the best way to
prepare for the FCC test.
Specific training or experience is usually not
required for entry jobs as announcers in small
stations, but applicants must have a good voice,
a broad cultural background, and other character­
istics that make them dramatic or attractive
personalities. Qualifications for administrative
and sales jobs in broadcasting are similar to those
required by other employers; a business course of
study in high school or college is good preparation
for such jobs.



Most beginners start out in small stations.
Although these stations cannot pay high salaries,
they offer new workers opportunities to learn
many different phases of broadcasting work be­
cause they generally use their personnel in “com­
bination” jobs. For example, in addition to his
regular duties, an announcer may perform some
of the duties of a broadcast technician.
Women make up about a fourth of broadcast­
ing staff employment. They .are seldom employed
as technicians, announcers, or salesmen, but fre­
quently work as production assistants, producers,
newswriters, continuity writers, casting direc­
tors, costume or set designers, supervisors of
religious and children’s programs, as well as
in the many office occupations often filled by
women. A job as secretary is frequently a good
entry job for women interested in the program­
ing and administrative areas of broadcasting.
People in the engineering department tend to
remain in this area of work, where thorough
training in electronics is essential. Program
employees usually remain in programing work,
although sometimes transfers from and to the
sales and business services departments are made.
Transfers are easier between sales and admin­
istrative departments because of their close work­
ing relationship; in fact, in the small stations,
they are often merged into one department. Al­
though transfers of experienced workers between
departments are limited to the extent noted,
these distinctions are less important in the be­
ginning jobs and also in the top-level jobs. At
the higher levels, a station executive may be
drawn from top-level personnel of any depart­
ment. Many top-level administrative jobs are
filled by people with sales experience.

Although many new stations are expected to be
established during the 1965-75 decade, most will
be small and require few employees.
In existing radio stations, employment may
decline slightly as many stations introduce equip­
ment that allows for control of transmitters from
the studio, and thus eliminates the need for a
technical crew at the transmitter site. Automatic
programing, another relatively recent technical
advance, will also reduce employment require­
ments because it permits radio stations to provide
unattended programing service. In existing tele­
vision stations, employment probably will remain
about the same. The trend away from live net­
work television programing to the filmed and
video taped presentations prepared by inde­
pendent producers is expected to reduce network
employment and increase employment by the
independent producers. The effect of increased
color television broadcasting will be limited to a
small expansion in the number of technical
The number of educational television stations is
expected to increase rapidly in the next few years
because recent Federal legislation provides finan­
cial aid for construction of this type of noncom­
mercial station. The growth of educational tele­
vision stations should provide an increasing num­
ber of job opportunities, especially in program­
ing, engineering, and station management.
Competition will be very keen for entry jobs in
broadcasting in the years ahead, especially in the
large cities, because of the attraction this field has
for young people and the relatively few beginning
jobs that will be available.

Employment Outlook

Earnings and Working Conditions

Several thousand job opportunities are expected
to be available annually in the broadcasting in­
dustry during the 1965-75 decade. Approximately
1,000 of these openings are expected to result
from the growth of the industry. In addition, a
few thousand openings may occur each year
because of retirements, deaths, and transfers of
experienced workers to other lines of work. Retire­
ments and deaths alone are expected to provide
about 2,000 openings annually.

In late 1964, earnings of broadcasting workers
ranged from about $50 a week for beginning
clerical workers in small stations to more than
$15,000 a year for established and highly skilled
announcers, engineers, directors, and time sales­
men in large stations. The following table of
weekly earnings, based on a survey of commercial
stations by a private organization, presents na­
tional averages for common broadcasting occupa­



v er a g e



r o ss

o m m e r c ia l

O c c u p a tio n



T e le ­
v is io n

R a d io



S a le s m a n a g e r ,.
C h ie f e n g in e e r _____
P r o g r a m d ir e c to r .—
S a le s m a n ___________
N e w s d ir e c to r ______
S ta ff a n n o u n c e r ____
P r o d u c e r -d ir e c to r ...


e e k l y

r o a d c a s t in g


a r n in g s



fo r

c c u p a t io n s

O c c u p a tio n

A r t d ir e c to r ________
F i lm d e p a r tm e n t
h ea d .
S ta ff p h o to g r a p h e r C a m e r a m a n ________
T ra ffic m a n a g e r ____
C o n t in u ity w r it e r ..
F lo o r m a n . .



elec ted

a t e

T e le ­
v is io n

R a d io



Employees in large cities earn much more than
those in the same kinds of jobs in small towns.
Wages are higher in large stations than in small
stations and higher in television than in radio.
Working conditions in broadcasting stations
are usually pleasant. The work is done in clean,
attractive surroundings. It is performed indoors
except where remote pickups are involved. Jobs
in programing are particularly attractive to young
people interested in the performing arts, both
because of the glamour attached to this field of
work and the opportunities it affords for high
earnings and artistic expression.
Most broadcasting employees have a sched­
uled 40-hour workweek. Sales and business serv­
ices workers generally work in the daytime hours
common to most office jobs. However, program
and engineering employees must work shifts
which may include evenings, nights, weekends,
and holidays. In order to meet a broadcast dead­
line, program and technical employees in the net­
works may have to work continuously for many
hours and under great pressure. Some employ­
ees, particularly in the small stations, regularly
work 42- to 48-hour weeks.
Many unions operate in the broadcasting field.
They are most active in the network centers
and large stations in metropolitan areas. The
National Association of Broadcast Employees and
Technicians and the International Brotherhood of

Electrical Workers both organize all kinds of
broadcasting workers, although most of their
members are technicians. The International Alli­
ance of Theatrical Stage Employees and Moving
Picture Machine Operators organizes various
crafts, such as stagehands, sound and lighting
technicians, wardrobe attendants, makeup men,
and cameramen. Many announcers and enter­
tainers are members of the American Federation
of Television and Radio Artists. The Directors
Guild of America, Inc. (Ind.) organizes pro­
gram directors, associate directors, and stage
managers. The Screen Actors Guild Inc., repre­
sents the majority of talent personnel who appear
on films made for television.

Lighting technician directs and controls set illumination (or
television shows.

Radio and Television Announcers
(2d ed. D.O.' L\ 0-69.21)
(3d ed. D.O.'i \ 159.148)

Nature of Work

Radio and television staff announcers present
news and live commercial messages, introduce
programs, describe sporting events, act as masters

of ceremonies, conduct interviews, and identify
stations. In small stations, they may perform
additional duties such as operating the con­
trol board, selling time, and writing scripts and

news copy. In large stations, their duties are
confined to the programing department.
Many announcers act as disc jockeys, intro­
ducing selections of recorded music and com­
menting on the music and other matters of inter­
est to the audience. Disc jockeys “ad-lib” much
of the commentary, working without a detailed
More than 13,000 staff announcers were em­
ployed on regularly scheduled, full-time basis
in radio and television broadcasting stations in
early 1965. About 85 percent of them were em­
ployed in radio. The average radio station em­
ployed 3 or 4 announcers, larger stations employed
8 or 10. Most television stations employed three
staff announcers, although larger stations some­
times employed five or six. In addition to staff
announcers, an estimated 10,000 to 15,000 freelance
announcers sell their services for individual as­
signments to networks and stations, or to adver­
tising agencies and other independent producers,
for both programs (news, sports, disc jockey, etc.)
and commercials. Some announcers become wellknown and highly paid personalities.


schools offer training in announcing, and some
universities offer courses of study in the broad­
casting field. A college liberal arts education also
provides an excellent background for an an­
nouncer. A college education plus 3 years of work
experience in smaller stations, is the minimum
requirement for employment in network broad­
Most announcers get their first broadcasting
jobs in small stations. Because announcers in
small stations sometimes operate transmitters,
prospective announcers often obtain a Federal
Communications Commission Radiotelephone
First Class Operator License which enables them
legally to operate a transmitter and, therefore,
makes them much more useful to these stations.
(For information on how to obtain such a license,
see p. 747.)
Announcers usually work in several different
stations in the course of their careers. After
acquiring experience in a station in a small com­
munity, an ambitious and talented announcer
may move to a better paying job in a larger
community. He may also advance by working into
a regular program as a disc jockey, sportscaster,

Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

To succeed as an announcer, one must have a
pleasant and well-controlled voice, a good sense
of timing, and excellent pronunciation. In addi­
tion, a thorough knowledge of correct English
usage, and a knowledge of dramatics, sports,
music, and current events, improve chances for
success. In television, rather high standards of
personal appearance must also be met. When on
the air, an announcer must be able to react quickly
and imaginatively in unusual situations. He must
also be a convincing salesman when presenting
commercials. In addition to all the above qualifi­
cations, the most successful announcers have a
combination of personality and showmanship that
makes them attractive to audiences. Therefore,
anyone considering a career as an announcer
should judge his chances of success realistically.
Most announcers are men, but there are a few
opportunities for women, especially in programs
and commercials aimed at women.
High school courses in English, public speaking,
dramatics, and foreign languages, plus sports and
music hobbies, are valuable background for pro­
spective announcers. A number of vocational

Radio network news correspondent broadcasts.



or other specialist. Competition for announcing
jobs in the national networks is intense, and an
announcer usually must be a college graduate
with at least 5 years of successful announcing
experience before he will be given an audition.
Employment Outlook

The employment of announcers is expected to
increase moderately in the 1965-75 decade, as new
radio and television stations are opened. The
gains in employment resulting from these open­
ings during the next 10 years, will be slightly
reduced by the increased use of automatic pro­
graming. Some job openings in this relatively
small occupation will also result from transfers
to other fields of work and from retirements and
deaths. The growth of the industry and replace­
ment needs will create, on the average, about 500
openings for announcers each year in the years
I t will be easier to get an entry job in radio than
in television because of the greater number of
radio stations, especially small stations, which
hire beginners. However, the great attraction this
field has for young people and its relatively small
size will result in keen competition for entry jobs.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In late 1964, the average earnings of staff an­
nouncers were $106 a week in radio and approxi­
mately $164 in television. Earnings of individual
announcers depended primarily on the size and
location of the communities in which they worked.
As a rule, wages increase with the size of the

community. In communities of comparable size,
wages are somewhat lower in small stations than
in large ones. Earnings of radio announcers
ranged from about $75 per week in small com­
munities to approximately $240 in large metro­
politan areas. Earnings of television announcers
ranged from about $110 a week in small com­
munities to about $240 in large metropolitan areas.
The earnings of many better paid announcers
include fees received from advertisers in addition
to the salaries received from stations. Such fees
are larger and more common in television than in
radio. In small radio stations, announcers are
generally paid a fixed weekly or monthly salary.
Announcers who work in regular shows, such as
disc jockeys, or announcers who become identified
with popular network radio or television pro­
grams, earn considerably more than other staff
announcers. In medium and large communities,
some of these personalities earn more than $15,000
a year. Top announcers in the largest metropolitan
areas sometimes earn more than $50,000 a year.
Most announcers in large stations work a 40hour week and receive overtime for work beyond
40 hours. In small stations, many announcers
work 2 to 6 hours of overtime each week.
Evening, night, and weekend work occurs
frequently since some stations are on the air 24
hours a day, 7 days a week. Announcers’ working
hours consist of both time on the air and time
spent in preparing for broadcasts. Working con­
ditions are usually pleasant because of the variety
of work and the many personal contacts which are
part of the job. Announcers also receive some
satisfaction from becoming well known in the
area their station serves.

Broadcast Technicians
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-66.00 through .09)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 194.281, .282, and .782; 957.282;
and 963.188 through .887)

Nature of Work

Broadcast technicians set up, operate, and
maintain the electronic equipment used to re­
cord or transmit radio and television programs.
They work with equipment such as microphones,
sound recorders, lighting equipment, sound
effects devices, television cameras, magnetic
video tape recorders, and motion picture pro7 7 8 -3 1 6 0 — 65-------49

jection equipment. In the control room, broad­
cast technicians operate equipment that regu­
lates the quality of sounds and pictures being
recorded or broadcast. They also operate con­
trols that switch broadcasts from one camera
or studio to another, from film to live program­
ing, or from network to local programs. From
the control room, they give technical directions


Engineers and program director monitor video viewers in control

to personnel in the studio by means of hand
signals and, in television, by use of telephone
headsets. When working on disc jockey pro­
grams, they sometimes operate phonograph
record turntables. Other control room duties
may include operating movie projectors, making

recordings of live shows, and keeping an opera­
tion log of all broadcasts.
As a rule, broadcast technicians in small sta­
tions perform a wide variety of duties. In large
stations and in networks, technicians are more
specialized, although specific job assignments
may change from day to day. Broadcast tech­
nicians who specialize may be given titles such
as transmitter technician (monitors and logs out­
going signals and is responsible for proper oper­
ation of the transmitter), maintenance techni­
cian (sets up, maintains, and repairs electronic
broadcasting equipment), audio control tech­
nician (operates controls that regulate sound
pickup, transmission, and switching), video
control technician (operates controls that regu­
late the quality, brightness, and contrast of tele­
vision pictures), lighting technician (directs
lighting of television programs), -field technician


(sets up and operates broadcasting equipment for
programs originating outside the studio), record­
ing technician (operates and maintains sound
recording equipment), and video tape recording
technician (operates and maintains magnetic
video tape recording equipment). Sometimes
the term “engineer” is substituted for technician
in the above titles.
Installing and maintaining complex electronic
equipment is the most technically difficult work
of broadcast technicians. Most technicians do at
least occasional maintenance, but large stations
usually have one or two experienced men whose
chief duties are to repair and maintain electronic
equipment under supervision of the chief engi­
neer. In small radio stations, the chief engineer
frequently does all maintenance and repair work
When events taking place outside the studios
are to be broadcast, technicians go to the site
of the pickup and set up, test, and operate the
necessary equipment. They also make emergency
repairs. After the broadcast, they dismantle
the equipment and return to the station.
In early 1965, over 7,000 nonsupervisory broad­
cast technicians were employed in radio sta­
tions and more than 6,000 in television stations.
Most radio stations are small enterprises em­
ploying fewer than 4 technicians, although a
few large radio stations may employ more than
15. Nearly all television stations employ at least
5 broadcast techinicians with the average large
station having about 25. A few of the largest
television stations may employ more than 75.
The majority of broadcast technicians work in
communities of more than 250,000 population.
The highest paying and most specialized jobs
are concentrated in New York, Los Angeles,
Washington, D.C., and Chicago, the originating
centers for most of the network programs.
In addition to the nonsupervisory technicians,
an estimated 5,000 supervisory personnel with
job titles such as chief engineer, assistant chief
engineer, director of engineering, technical di­
rector, and supervisory technician work in engi­
neering departments. Supervisory personnel are
responsible for the operation, maintenance, and
repair of all electronic equipment in the studio,
at the transmitter, and on remote broadcasting
sites. They may also do maintenance and repair



work, design and build new equipment, purchase
equipment for the station, and help lay out plans
for building new studios, transmitters, relay
equipment, and towers.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

A young man interested in becoming a broad­
cast technician should plan on getting a Radio­
telephone First Class Operator License from the
Federal Communications Commission. Federal
law requires that anyone who operates or adjusts
broadcast transmitters in television and radio
stations must hold such a license. Some stations
require all their broadcast technicians, including
those who do not operate transmitters, to have
this license. Applicants for the license must pass
a series of written examinations covering the
construction and operation of transmission and
receiving equipment, the characteristics of elec­
tromagnetic waves, and Federal Government and
international regulations and practices governing
broadcasting. Information about these examina­
tions, and guides to study for them, may be
obtained from the Federal Communications Com­
mission, Washington, D.C. 20554.
High school courses in algebra and trigonom­
etry, and in physics and other sciences, provide
valuable background for young men anticipating
careers in this occupation. Building and operating
an amateur radio station is also good training.
A good way to acquire the knowledge necessary
for becoming a broadcast technician is to take
an electronics course in a technical school. Many
schools give courses especially designed to prepare
the student for the FCC first class license test.
Training at the technical school or college level
is a distinct advantage for those who hope to
advance to supervisory positions or to the more
specialized jobs in large stations and in the net­
Young men with FCC first-class licenses who
get entry jobs are instructed and advised by the
chief engineer or other experienced technicians
concerning the work procedures of the station.
In small stations, they may start by operating
the transmitter and handling other technical
duties after a brief instruction period. As they
acquire more experience and skill, they are as­
signed to more responsible jobs. Men who dem­

onstrate above-average ability may move into
the top-level technical positions, such as super­
visory technician and chief engineer. A college
degree in engineering is becoming increasingly
important for advancement to supervisory posi­
Employment Outlook

The number of broadcast technicians is ex­
pected to increase only slightly in the 1965-75
decade. Retirements, deaths, and transfers to
other jobs will result in some additional job
Some new job opportunities for technicians will
be provided by the new radio and television sta­
tions expected to go on the air during this period.
In addition, color television broadcasting, which
probably will become more common in the years
ahead, may slightly increase the need for tech­
nicians. Color television pickup and transmit­
ting equipment is much more complicated than
black and white equipment, and requires more
maintenance and technical know-how. However,
other technical advances, such as automatic
switching and programing, automatic operation
logging, and remote control of transmitters will
limit the increase in job opportunities in the new
stations and replacement needs in existing sta­
Earnings and Working Conditions

In late 1964, weekly earnings of broadcast
technicians averaged about $105 in radio and
about $133 in television. However, earnings varied
greatly depending on such factors as size and
location of the community a station serves, the
size of the station, and the experience of the
individual. As a rule, technicians’ wages are
highest in large cities. Beginning wages for
technicians in small radio stations, where most of
them start, ranged from $60 to $80 per week.
Experienced technicians in radio earned from
about $80 a week in small towns to more than $185
in larger communities. Earnings of experienced
broadcast technicians in television ranged from
$110 a week in small towns to more than $215 in
large cities. Many broadcast technicians in the
networks and largest cities earned more than $225

a week. Supervisory technicans below the rank of
chief engineer in the networks and large city sta­
tions often earned in excess of $250 a week. Chief
engineers earned still higher salaries.
Most technicians in large stations work a 40hour week with overtime pay for work beyond 40
hours. Many broadcast technicians in the larger
cities work a 37-hour week. In small stations,
many technicians work 2 to 8 hours of overtime
each week. Evening, night, and weekend work
occurs frequently since some stations are on the


air as many as 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
Network technicians may occasionally have to
work continuously for many hours and under
great pressure in order to meet broadcast dead­
Broadcast technicians generally work indoors in
pleasant surroundings. The work is interesting
and there is often considerable variety of duties.
When remote pickups are made, however, techni­
cians may work out of doors at some distance
from the studios, under less favorable conditions.

The railroads, with their network of more than
200,000 miles of rail line reaching into all parts
of the country, are one of the Nation’s largest
employers. About three-quarters of a million
railroad workers were employed in mid-1965, oper­
ating trains, looking after the needs of the travel­
ing public, maintaining and repairing facilities
and equipment, and carrying on the hundreds of
other activities required in this industry. These
activities offer a great variety of interesting careers
requiring different kinds of skills and levels of
education. In most railroad occupations, a worker
starts at the bottom and works his way up by learn­
ing his job, proving his ability, and acquiring the
seniority which will enable him to advance.
Nature and Location of the Industry

The railroad industry is made up of “line-haul”
railroad companies which transport freight and
passengers between cities and towns, and switching
and terminal companies which operate facilities at
stations, freight yards, and other terminal points.
About 600 of these railroad companies were oper­
ating in 1964. In addition, the Pullman Co. per­
formed special services for passengers traveling on
these railroads.
The class I line-haul railroads, which include
all of the large, well-known companies, handle
more than 95 percent of the railroad industry’s
business and employ about 93 percent of all rail­
road workers. With more than 28,000 locomotive
units, about 23,000 passenger train cars, and about
1.8 million freight cars, they transported almost 2.5
billion tons of freight and over 313 million pas­
sengers in 1964. Employment and earnings data
for jobs on class I line-haul railroads are used in
this chapter to illustrate employment and earnings
throughout the entire railroad industry.
Of the various transportation services provided
by the railroads, freight movement of commodi­
ties, such as coal, ore, grain, lumber, and manu­

factured products, accounts for the great bulk
of railroad revenue and employment. Passenger
service is also important, although it has declined
substantially during the past 20 years. Other rail­
road services include mail and express.
Railroad workers are employed in every State
and in both large and small communities, but
the greatest numbers work at terminal points
w'here the railroads maintain their central offices,
freight yards, and maintenance and repair
shops. The metropolitan area of Chicago, where
the great eastern and western railroad systems
meet, is the hub of the Nation’s railroad net­
work and has more railroad workers than any
other area. Other places where particularly large
numbers of railroad workers are employed are
areas around New York City, Los Angeles, Pitts­
burgh, Philadelphia, Cleveland, and St. Louis.
“Railroad towns,” where locomotive and car
shops are located, such as Altoona, Pa., and Rose­
ville, Calif., also have relatively large concen­
trations of railroad workers.
Railroad Occupations

The work force of the railroad industry can
be divided into five main groups—employees
who (1) operate trains, (2) perform communica­
tions, station, and office work, (3) build and main­
tain locomotives, cars, and other rolling stock, (4)
build and maintain tracks, structures, and other
railroad property, and (5) handle luggage, pre­
pare and serve food, and provide other personal
services to passengers. In 1964, 94 percent of the
wmrkers in railroad jobs were men. Most women
employed by the railroads do office work.
Chart 39 shows the number of employees in some
of the principal railroad occupations. Other
occupations in which large numbers of workers
are employed but which are not shown on the
chart, range from unskilled laundry and clean­
ing jobs to professional positions such as acount755

ant, engineer, and statistician. (Information
about some of these jobs is given elsewhere in
the Handbook.')
The workers directly engaged in running the
trains are known as “operating employees.” They
represent more than one-fourth of all railroad
workers. Class I line-haul railroads had nearly
180,000 operating employees in 1964. In this
group are locomotive engineers, firemen, conduc­
tors, brakemen, and, on some passenger trains, bag­
gagemen. These men work together as train
crews, either operating trains out on the “run” or
operating trains at the terminals and railroad
yards where freight is loaded and unloaded, freight
cars are received and switched, and trains are bro­
ken up and made up. Other operating employ­
ees who work in the yards include switchtenders,
who assist conductors (or foremen) and brakemen
(or switchmen) by throwing the track switches,
and hostlers, who fuel locomotives, check their
operating condition, and deliver them to the engine
A large group of railroad workers, about onefourth of all those employed in the industry,
consists of communications, station, and office
employees who regulate the movement of trains
and take care of the business affairs of the rail­
roads. In 1964, class I line-haul railroads em­
ployed about 169,500 persons in such jobs. Com­
munications are handled by dispatchers who
coordinate the movement of trains and issue train
orders, and by telegraphers, telephoners, and
towermen who either pass train orders and other
instructions to the train crews or carry them out
by setting signals and track switches. At all
stations, station agents are in charge of the rail­
road’s business affairs. Railroad clerks work in
stations and company offices where they may do
secretarial and other kinds of office work, assist
station agents, deal with customers, sell tickets,
tend baggage rooms, keep records, and perform
related tasks. Also included in this group of
railroad workers are claims investigators, account­
ants, lawyers, motor vehicle operators, patrolmen,
and watchmen.
More than a fifth of all railroad workers are
employed in railroad yards, carshops, and engine
houses where they maintain and repair loco­
motives, cars, and other railroad rolling stock.


Thousands of workers, 1964





1 ------------1
------------- 1-------------r



— |
----------------------- 1

Locomotive engineers
Locomotive firemen
Clerical workers
Telegraphers, telephoners,
and towermen
Station agents
Electrical workers
Helpers (all skilled trades) ,
Gang foremen and leaders
Sheet-metal workers
Apprentices (all skilled
Trackmen and gang foremen
Bridge and building workers
Signal department workers
Portable equipment opera­
tors and helpers
Source: Wage statistics of class 1 Railroads in the U.S.,
Interstate Com m erce Com m ission.

Class I line-haul roads employed about 155,000
workers in this group in 1964. Carmen perform
a variety of repair and maintenance tasks nec­
essary to keep railroad freight and passenger cars
in good operating condition. Electrical workers,
machinists, boilermakers, blacksmiths, and sheet
metal workers are also employed in car shops.
A considerably smaller group of railroad work­
ers, about one-sixth of the total, maintain and
construct tracks, bridges, stations, signals, and
other railroad property. The class I line-haul rail­
roads employed about 99,000 in work of this kind
in 1964. Trackmen and other maintenance-ofw^ay workers maintain, construct, and repair tracks
and roadbeds. Bridge and building mechanics
construct and maintain bridges, tunnels, and many
other kinds of structures along the right of way.
Signal workers are responsible for installing the
railroad’s vast network of train and crossing
signals and for keeping it in working order.


Another small group of railroad workers pro­
vide personal services to passengers at stations
and aboard trains. With 15,000 employees in
1964, or 2 percent of all employed in the railroad
industry, it is by far the smallest of the five major
railroad occupational groups. It includes Pull­
man conductors who are in charge of sleeping
and parlor car service on most trains, as well
as porters and attendants who perform many
kinds of personal service for passengers. This
group also includes cooks and waiters who pre­
pare and serve food and redcaps who work in and
around railroad stations where they handle lug­
gage and otherwise assist passengers in boarding
and leaving trains. (Additional information
about cooks and waiters is given elsewhere in the
Training/ Other Qualifications/ and Advancement

For most jobs, particularly those on the trains,
in the yards, and around the stations, training
is received on the job. The new employee learns
by working and receiving instruction from
experienced men. For some office and mainte­
nance jobs, training may be obtained in high
schools and vocational schools. Home study
courses on railroading are also available. In addi­
tion, universities and technical schools offer
courses in railway engineering, transportation,
traffic management, and other subjects valuable
to professional and technical workers.
New employees in some occupations—princi­
pally those connected with train or engine service
—start as “extra board'' men, that is, their names
are placed on an “extra list” for individual occu­
pations. From these lists, they are called to fill
vacancies that arisef due to vacations, days off,
or illness of men on regular jobs. They also may
be called for extra work because of an increase
in railroad traffic. As regular job assignments
become available and as the extra board work­
ers gain experience and seniority, they are
assigned to regular positions. The time spent on
extra board work varies with the type of job
and the number of available openings. In some
cases workers may not receive regular assign­
ments for a number of years.
Apprenticeship programs are limited chiefly
to trainees in the railroad shop crafts. Many

of these programs are jointly planned and oper­
ated by the companies and the railroad workers’
unions. Of the several thousand men who were
taking this kind of training in 1964, the majority
were “regular” apprentices, usually high school
graduates with no previous work experience, who
were working and receiving instruction in their
chosen trades for a 4-year period. Others were
“helper” apprentices, men with some previous
experience as railroad workers, who were receiv­
ing the same kind of training, usually for a 3year period.
Applicants with a high school education or its
equivalent are preferred by railroad companies
for most kinds of nonprofessional positions.
Good physical condition is required for most
jobs, and almost all large railroads require
applicants to pass physical examinations before
they are hired; in some jobs, physical examina­
tions are required periodically. Excellent hear­
ing and eyesight are essential for train and engine
service jobs, and color blindness is an absolute
bar to employment in work involving the
interpretation of railroad signals.
Promotions of qualified workers to jobs covered
by union-management agreements are made on the
basis of seniority. Most job vacancies are listed
on a bulletin board, and all workers interested may
“bid" for them. The job goes to the qualified
applicant whose length of service places him
highest on the seniority list. Often, before work­
ers can qualify for promotion, they must pass writ­
ten and performance tests. For occupations in
train and engine service, there are well-established
avenues of promotion. Engineers are always
chosen from the ranks of the firemen, and conduc­
tors from the list of brakemen.
A railroad worker’s seniority usually entitles
him to promotion only for job openings which
occur within a limited area or “seniority district”
of the railroad system for which he wrnrks. In
some cases, seniority rights may apply only to
one shop, locality, or office. Among train and
engine personnel, seniority rights may be limited
either to road (freight and/or passenger) service,
or yard service. In such cases, workers may bid
only for positions in the particular type of serv­
ice in which they have been employed.
The worker’s seniority also determines how
much choice he may have with respect to his

working conditions. A beginning telegrapher, for
instance, may have to work several years on a
night shift in an out-of-the-way location before
he accumulates enough seniority to get an assign­
ment without these disadvantages.
(Later sections of this chapter contain more
complete information about the training and
other qualifications for selected occupations in
the railroad industry.)
Employment Outlook

The longrun decline in railroad employment
is expected to continue, but at a gradually decreas­
ing rate in the immediate years ahead. If the an­
ticipated growth of freight traffic is realized,
however, a slow upward movement in employment
should occur during the early 1970’s.
Technological innovation and changing pat­
terns of transportation and production have re­
sulted in a substantial decline in railroad employ­
ment in recent years. Between 1955 and 1964,
employment in class I line-haul railroads dropped
37 percent, from nearly 1.1 million to 665,000.
Such developments as the use of larger, more
powerful diesel locomotives and the extensive
use of machines for roadway upkeep have had
a considerable employment impact. The railroad
work force also declined as competition from
other modes of transportation—notably automo­
biles, trucks, buses, airplanes, and pipelines—
brought a steep drop in railroad passenger travel
and relatively little growth in freight traffic.
Most of the factors which have led to reduced
employment in the past will continue to influ­
ence railroad employment during the decade ahead.
In addition, mergers of connecting or parallel rail­
roads could further reduce railroad employment
by eliminating facilities, such as those at termi­
nals, and by combining accounting and other func­
tions. Some mergers have occurred in recent years
and, on the basis of present developments, other
mergers are likely.
Despite prospects for declining employment in
the immediate future, job opportunities will be
available for thousands of new railroad workers.
The railroads have one of the largest work forces
in American industry, with a high proportion of
older workers. Many jobs will become vacant be­
cause of retirements, deaths, promotions to other


railroad jobs, and transfers to other fields of work.
Retirements and deaths alone may result in tens
of thousands of job openings each year during
the next 10 years.
Job openings due to replacement needs will
number in the thousands. However, opportunities
for new workers in some nonoperating occupations
—such as those of clerk, roadway maintenance
worker, and signalman—may be restricted as a
result of recent labor-management agreements
providing for job protection of many nonoper­
ating (other than train and engine service)
employee groups. Under these contracts, a limita­
tion has been established on reductions in the
number of workers in any one year; provisions
were made for moving unneeded workers in a
given craft or occupational group in one district
to another district where their skills can be use­
fully employed; and assurances were given that
regular seasonal employees would, in future
years, be offered employment at least equivalent
to what they performed in 1964. Another restric­
tion on openings for new workers is the general
practice of recalling furloughed workers before
considering job applicants to fill vacancies. This
restriction is most constraining for jobs in special­
ized railroad work, such as that of telegrapher
and towerman. Job opportunities will be affected
much more in some geographic areas than in
others by these restrictions.
Job openings for work as locomotive firemen
(helpers) have also been extremely limited since
May 7, 1964, the effective date of a compulsory
arbitration award designed to eventually elimi­
nate 90 percent of fireman (helper) positions in
road freight and yard locomotive service. Fire­
man (helper) positions on locomotives in passen­
ger service were not affected by this award, nor
were any positions of firemen (helpers) for any
class of locomotive service operating where State
law requires employment of firemen on locomo­
tives. The award is temporary, expiring in April
1966 and since no general agreement had been
reached between the parties in the dispute by mid1965, the outlook for job opportunities in this
occupation is uncertain.
Future job opportunities for applicants prob­
ably will be most numerous in construction and
maintenance work along the right-of-way, in
operating jobs as brakemen, and in office work.



However, because of the seasonality of railroad
work, and the seniority system under which new
workers are furloughed first and recalled last,
many new workers will have less than full-time
employment during the first few years on the job.
The number and type of job openings for appli­
cants hired by an individual railroad also will be
influenced by the rapidity of the railroad’s
adoption of new equipment and new methods of
operation, and its geographical location in rela­
tion to changing marketing conditions. There
will be a need for professional engineers and
skilled personnel capable of maintaining and
improving the new mechanical and electrical
equipment gradually being introduced. Oppor­
tunities should increase for industrial engineers
and methods analysts as railroads seek better
means of utilizing equipment and personnel. The
increasing use of electronic data-processing equip­
ment to handle a wide range of railroad account­
ing and statistical activities will generate a grow­
ing demand for programers and other trained
specialists. As the railroads continue to explore
new ways to meet competition, opportunities will
arise for specialists in industrial development
and marketing.
Railroad freight traffic is expected to rise sub­
stantially over the next 10 years, reversing the
trend of recent years. Toward the end of the
1960’s, the need for new workers, due to increasing
freight traffic, is expected to about offset the
declines in railroad employment that will result
from increasing efficiency in operations and the
declining passenger traffic. The anticipated rise
in demand for railroad freight service is based on
the assumption of a high rate of growth in the
economy through the mid-1970’s. Even higher
levels of railroad freight traffic may also result if
improved freight handling methods and equip­
ment are more widely adopted. For example, the
shipment of highway trailers and large containers
on railroad flat cars, and the use of larger, special
purpose freight cars may increase freight traffic
significantly by improving rail carriers’ ability to
compete more effectively with other modes of
New interest has also been shown in the use of
rapid rail transit for intercity and intraurban
passenger movement. Studies of the best methods
for moving passengers within and between urban

areas are progressing, and may result in a signifi­
cant resurgence of rail passenger transportation.
In that event, railroad employment opportunities
would increase substantially.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Average earnings of railroad workers are higher
than those of workers in most manufacturing
industries. Employees of class I line-haul rail­
roads, exclusive of executive and administrative
personnel, averaged $2.80 an hour and $122 a
week in 1964, whereas production workers in all
manufacturing industries averaged $2.53 an hour
and $102.99 a week.
The earnings of individual railroad workers
vary greatly because of the great variety of their
occupations and skill requirements. Geographic
differences in wage levels are considerably less
than in most other industries, since the wage
scales specified in many labor-management con­
tracts in the railroad industry are identical
throughout the country. (Earnings in some of
the principal occupations are discussed in later
sections of this chapter.)
The great majority of railroad workers are
members of trade unions and many of the con­
ditions under which they work are regulated
by collective bargaining agreements. Contracts
between the unions and the railroad companies
contain clauses dealing with wage rates, hours
of work, vacation pay, seniority, and other mat­
ters. (The principal unions representing each
occupational group are listed in the sections of
this chapter which deal with individual occupa­
The work schedules of railroad employees and
the conditions under which they are paid for
overtime work depend upon the type of opera­
tion in which they are employed. The great ma­
jority of railroad employees work at terminals—
in yards, stations, and railroad offices. In 1964,
the “basic” workweek for most workers in this
group was a 5-day week of 40 hours. Premium
pay, amounting to time and one-half the regular
wage rate, was usually paid for any time worked
over 8 hours a day.
In freight and passenger road service, the basic
workday for train and engine crews is established
on an entirely different basis. Generally, when



a member of the train or engine crew has covered
a specified number of miles, or worked a certain
number of hours—whichever occurs first—he
receives a day’s pay at his regular wage rate. He
receives extra pay for any additional miles cov­
ered or hours worked on that day.
The basic hours of employees directly con­
cerned with looking after the needs of passengers
aboard trains—dining car cooks and waiters,
Pullman porters, and train attendants—are set
on a monthly basis. In July 1965, some workers
in these jobs received time and one-half pay for
hours worked over 184 a month and those employed
on regular assignments were guaranteed at least
174 hours of work a month. Others received over­
time after 240 hours and were guaranteed 205
hours a month, if working on regular jobs.
Because freight shippers and the traveling
public must be served 24 hours a day, the mem­
bers of train and engine crews, as well as hostlers,
telegraphers and telephoners, and station agents,
are often required to work nights, weekends, and
on holidays. Irregular work schedules are par­
ticularly common for extra board workers, since
they have no regular assignments and may be
called to work any time of the day or night.
Some railroad workers, like bridge and build­
ing mechanics and certain track and road main­
tenance workers, are required to -work away from
home for days at a time.
Practically all railroad employees receive
1 week’s paid vacation after 1 year on the pay­
roll, 2 weeks after 3 years, 3 weeks after 15 years,
and 4 weeks after 20 years. On most roads, non­
operating employees receive pay for 8 holidays a
year and operating employees in yard service re­
ceive pay for 7 holidays a year.
Under the federally administered Railroad
Retirement Act, all employees with more than
10 years of service in the railroad industry
receive pensions upon retirement. They receive

full pensions when they reach age 65 and reduced
pensions at age 62. Those who have worked for
the railroads for at least 30 years may retire on a
reduced pension at age 60. Employees with 10
years or more of service who become disabled and
are unable to work, and dependent wives and hus­
bands of railroad workers who have died also
receive pensions. In March 1965, the average pen­
sion paid to railroad workers who retired because
of age or disability was about $138 a month; the
average pension paid to survivors of railroad
workers, about $56 a month.
Another Federal law, the Railroad Unemploy­
ment Insurance Act, provides benefits for rail­
road workers who become unemployed. In 1965,
these benefits ranged from $22.50 to $51 a week
depending on earnings. In March 1965, the aver­
age daily unemployment benefit paid was $10.09
(equal to $50.45 for 5 benefit days per week). Un­
employment benefits are paid for a period up to
26 weeks, but workers with 10 or more years of
service can receive benefits for a longer period.
Under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance
Act, railroad workers also receive compensation
for workdays lost because of sickness or injury.
In March 1965, the average daily sickness bene­
fit paid was $10.12.
Other insurance programs are operated under
agreements with trade unions and provide group
life insurance to employees and comprehensive
hospital and medical insurance to these employees
and their dependents.
Where To G o for More Information

Additional information about occupations in
the railroad industry can be obtained from rail­
road offices in your locality. General informa­
tion about the railroad industry can be obtained
from :
Association of American Railroads,
Transportation Building, Washington, D.C.


Locomotive Engineers
(2d ed. D.O.T. 5-41.010)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 910.383)

Nature of Work

The engineer is responsible for running the
locomotive safely and efficiently. He operates the
throttle, air brakes, and other controls, and he

supervises the work of the fireman (helper) who
may work in the cab with him. Engineers work
in railroad yards, or on the road in passenger or
freight service.



The yard engineer operates the locomotive or
switch-engine, which is used to move freight and
passenger cars when trains are being made up
before a run and broken up after a run, or when
cars are being switched for loading or unloading.
The engineer in passenger or freight service
operates the locomotive which moves trains over
the road, in accordance with the train orders for
each run or any instructions received en route
through the conductor, the wayside signal system,
or by train radio.
Before and after each run, the engineer checks
on the condition of the locomotive and either sees
that minor adjustments are made on the spot or
reports to the engine foreman mechanical defects
needing attention. While operating his locomo­
tive, he must observe track signals and comply with
speed restrictions at all hours and in all weather
conditions. To do this he must be thoroughly
familiar with the characteristics of the road over
which he is operating. He must constantly be
alert, especially for obstructions on the track or
other emergencies.
In 1964, about 34,300 engineers were employed
by class I line-haul railroads, and a few thousand
more were employed by short-line railways and
switching and terminal companies.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Vacancies in engineer positions are filled by
firemen (helpers) who have qualified for promo­
tion. Selection is on a seniority basis. In order to
qualify, a fireman (helper) must pass comprehen­
sive examinations which deal with the train’s
mechanical and electrical equipment, and with
fuel economy, safety, timetables, train orders, and
other operating rules and regulations. He must
also be able to operate any kind of locomotive in
service on his road.
A newly promoted engineer starts out as an
extra board man without any regular assignment.
I t may be several years before he receives such
an assignment. During this period, he works on
temporary assignments whenever an engineer is
needed. An experienced engineer may advance
to a supervisory position, such as foreman of
engines for his road.

Engineer checks conditions by radio with freight train crew.

Engineers are required to take physical exami­
nations at regular intervals. I t is particularly
important that they have good eyesight and
hearing. If they fail at any time to meet all of
the physical standards, they may be restricted
to working as engineers only in certain types
of service, or they may be transferred to other
kinds of work where physical standards are less
Employment Outlook

The number of job openings available as loco­
motive engineers during the next decade will be
limited. Virtually all openings during the re­
mainder of the 1960’s and early 1970’s will arise
from the need to fill positions left vacant by engi­
neers who retire or die. (Most workers are in
the older age groups.) These positions will be
filled by firemen (helpers) who are promoted, or
by firemen whose jobs as engineers were termi­
nated during recent years because of cutbacks in
railroad services.
The number of engineers employed by the
railroads has been declining for some years
because of the decrease in railroad business and



increasing multiple-unit operation of diesel loco­
motives. Introduction of technological innova­
tions, such as the use of remotely and automati­
cally controlled devices for freight car classifi­
cation and signal control, and other changes in
equipment and operating methods, were also
important factors in lower employment levels.
The total number of engineers employed by
class I line-haul railroads dropped from about
44,000 in 1955 to about 34,300 in 1964, and some
further decrease is expected during the remainder
of the 1960’s, after which employment may stabi­
lize or increase slightly.
Earnings and Working Conditions

The earnings of engineers depend on the class
of locomotive operated and the kind of service
in which the engineer is employed. Engineers in
yard service for class I line-haul railroads (in­
cluding extra board men) earned, on the aver­
age, about $800 a month in 1964. In road freight
service, engineers averaged $944 a month. The
earnings of passenger service engineers averaged
about $982 a month in 1964.
In 1964, the standard workweek at straighttime rates for yard engineers varied from 5 days
on some railroads and railroad divisions to 7 days
on others. All yard engineers worked basic 8-hour
days with time and one-half paid for work over
8 hours. The basic unit of work for road freight
and passenger engineers is 100 miles. Under

certain circumstances they may be paid on an
hourly basis or on a miles-hour basis.
On many roads, the amount a road engineer
may earn in a single month is governed by
mileage limitations agreed upon by the unions
and the railroad companies. Whenever an en­
gineer on one of these roads reaches the maximum
number of miles he is permitted to operate a
locomotive during a month, his assignment for
the rest of the month is taken over by another
engineer—usually an extra board man.
The engineer in road service, even on regular
assignments, is often scheduled to work nights,
weekends, and holidays at straight-time rates.
Like other workers in road service, he must often
“lay over” away from home for a period of time
at the end of a run before he makes the return
trip back to his home terminal.
The assignments of engineers on the extra
board may be very irregular, because these men
may be called to work at any time of the day or
night, and the amount of traffic varies from one
season to another on many roads. Extra board
engineers are also likely to have less work, with
the result that their earnings may be lower than
those of men with regular assignments.
On all major railroads, wages and the condi­
tions under which engineers work are agreed
upon by employers and unions. The great major­
ity of engineers are represented by the Brother­
hood of Locomotive Engineers (Ind.). Some are
represented by the Brotherhood of Locomotive
Firemen and Enginemen.

Locomotive Firemen (Helpers)
(2d ed. D.O.T. 5-^2.100)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 910.383)

Nature of Work

The locomotive fireman (helper) works with
the engineer either in the railroad yards or in road
service. At the beginning of his run, the fireman
(helper) checks to make sure that the locomotive
is supplied with the fuel, sand, and water needed
for the run, that the engine is in proper working
order, and that the flagging equipment, classi­
fication markers, and tools needed by the engine
crew are on hand and ready to use. During the

run, he makes mechanical and electrical adjust­
ments as needed. On passenger trains, he is also
responsible for operating the equipment which
supplies heat to the train.
From his position at the left side of the cab, the
fireman (helper) assists the engineer by act­
ing as lookout for obstructions on tracks and at
road crossings, and by checking wayside signals
which indicate the speed at which the train is to
proceed. In addition, he inspects the train as



it rounds curves, because this view of the train
enables him to spot smoke, sparks, fire, and other
signs of defective equipment.
The fireman (helper) must be prepared to take
over the controls of the locomotive, should the
engineer become ill or otherwise incapacitated.
An important part of his job, therefore, is learn­
ing to operate the locomotive by observing the
engineer. Often he may be called upon to relieve
the engineer at the controls for brief periods, or
to take the controls for a “practice run.”
Class I line-haul railroads employed about
30,000 firemen in 1964.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

For the relatively few firemen (helper) posi­
tions being filled at present, most railroads prefer
that applicants be at least 21 years of age and
not over 35. Most applicants hired are over 20
years of age. A high school education or its
equivalent is desired. Good health is important,
and firemen must be able to pass periodic physical
examinations. Standards as to eyesight and hear­
ing are particularly high.
A beginning fireman first makes a series of
trial trips in the railroad yard or on the road.
On these trips, he works under the direction of
an experienced engineer or fireman who instructs
him about his future duties and about railroad
rules and regulations. This training period lasts
a few days on some roads and as long as 3 weeks
on others. After the newly hired fireman has
satisfactorily demonstrated his ability on the trial
trips, and after he has passed examinations on
railroad rules and regulations, his name is placed
on the fireman’s extra board and he becomes sub­
ject to call for temporary work assignments. He
may remain on extra board work up to several
years before he obtains his first regular assign­
ment. On some roads, beginning assignments
are in yard service and the fireman works his
way up first to road freight service and then to
road passenger service. On other railroads, fire­
men usually remain either in yard service or in
road service throughout their railroad careers.
Firemen with sufficient experience and sen­
iority—usually at least 3 or 4 years—can become
eligible for promotion to the position of engineer
by passing qualifying examinations covering the

mechanical and electrical equipment on trains, air
brake systems, fuel economy, timetables, train
orders, and other operating rules and regulations.
As engineers are needed, qualified firemen with
the longest seniority are placed on the engineers’
extra board.
Employment Outlook

Job openings for work as locomotive firemen
(helpers) have been extremely limited since May
1964; the effective date of a compulsory arbitra­
tion award designed to eventually eliminate all
but a relatively few fireman (helper) positions
in road freight and yard locomotive service.
Firemen (helper) positions on locomotives in
passenger service were not affected by this award,
nor were any positions of firemen (helpers) for
any class of locomotive service operating where
State law requires the employment of firemen on
locomotives. Even in these States, however, quali­
fied firemen may be brought in from other States
to fill job vacancies.
The national arbitration award is temporary,
expiring in April 1966, and since no general
agreement had been reached between the parties
in the dispute by late 1965, the outlook for job
opportunities in this occupation cannot be an­
ticipated with any degree of certainty.
Earnings and Working Conditions

The earnings of firemen depend on the class
of locomotive on which they work and the type
of service for which the locomotive is operated.
Firemen in yard service for class I line-haul rail­
roads (including extra board men) averaged $622
a month in 1964. Freight service firemen averaged
$734 monthly on freight trains. Road passenger
firemen averaged $839 monthly.
In 1964, firemen in yard service worked a basic
8-hour day and 40-hour week, and 1 times the
basic hourly rate was paid for work beyond these
hours. Firemen in road service received extra pay
under certain conditions; for example, when they
traveled more than 100 miles during a run. On
many roads, the amount that firemen in road
service could earn in a single month was governed
by mileage limitations agreed upon by the unions
and the railroad companies. Whenever a fireman
on one of these roads reached the maximum num­



ber of miles he was permitted to cover in a month,
his assignment for the rest of the month was taken
over by another fireman—usually a man on the
extra board.
Firemen must often work at night and on week­
ends and holidays because train schedules require
24-hour-a-day service. Road service often requires
that they be away from their home stations for
varying periods of time. Irregular working hours
are particularly common among men on the extra
board and in road freight service. Extra board

men tend to have less work and therefore lower
incomes than firemen with regular assignments.
On many roads, the amount of work varies from
one season of the year to another.
Workers in this occupation on all major roads
are covered by union contracts. The great major­
ity of firemen are represented by the Brother­
hood of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen.
Some are members of the Brotherhood of Loco­
motive Engineers (Ind.).

(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-92.00 through .29)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 198.168)

Nature of Work

Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Conductors are responsible for seeing that rail­
road trains are moved according to train orders
or other instructions. Freight and passenger train
conductors are the “captains” of their trains.
They are responsible for the safety of their
passengers and cargoes, and they supervise the
work of the train crews.
Before a freight or passenger train leaves the
terminal, the conductor receives the train orders
from the dispatcher and confers with other crew
members to make sure they understand the orders.
During the run, he sees that the cars in the train
are inspected periodically and arranges either
for the repair of mechanical breakdowns while
the train is on its run, or for defective cars to
be set out on the nearest siding. At stops, he
signals to the engineer the proper time for depar­
ture. As the superior officer on the train, the con­
ductor takes charge in any emergency that may
occur while the train is on its run, and all persons
employed on it are subject to his instructions.
On freight trains, the conductor keeps a record
of the contents and destination of each car, and
sees that freight cars are picked up and set
out along the route. On passenger trains, the
conductor collects tickets and cash fares.
Yard conductors, often called “yard foremen,”
direct the work of the switching crews who make
up and break up trains. In mechanized yards,
yard conductors operate consoles that electrically
control the alinement of track switches.

Openings for conductors are filled on a sen­
iority basis by promotion of qualified brakemen.
To qualify for promotion, a man usually must
have several years’ experience as a brakeman,
and pass examinations covering signals, air brakes,
timetables, operating rules, and related subjects.
On some roads, those who have qualified for pro­
motion are first given temporary assignments as
conductors while they are still working as brakemen. On other roads, brakemen promoted to con­
ductor positions are put on the extra board where
they are given temporary assignments as men are
needed. In either case, as regular conductor as­
signments become available, they are assigned to
the men with the greatest seniority.
On most roads, conductors in yard service and
in road service have separate seniority lists, and
they usually remain in one of these two types
of service throughout their careers. A few roads,
however, start conductors on yard assignments
and then move them to freight service and finally
to passenger service.
The conductor is the member of the train crew
who has the most direct contact with the public
and it is important that he be able to act effec­
tively as the railroad’s representative. Conduc­
tors who show special ability of this kind may
advance to managerial positions such as



tronic car classification systems and communica­
tions equipment, the number of conductors may
continue to decline in the remainder of the 1960’s.
However, employment in this occupation is ex­
pected to stabilize or increase slightly in the early
1970’s as a result of the anticipated growth in
railroad freight traffic.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Conductor and brakeman report on freight train trip.

Employment Outlook

There will be a moderate number of opportuni­
ties for brakemen to be promoted to jobs as
conductors during the 1965-75 decade. Conduc­
tors comprise one of the oldest age groups in the
Nation’s work force, and job openings will develop
to replace those who retire, die, or leave railroad­
ing for some other reason.
The number of conductors on class I line-haul
railroads declined from about 45,200 in 1955 to
37,400 in 1964, owing to the decline of passenger
traffic, the trend toward longer freight trains,
and the mechanization of yard operations. As
more and more yard work is speeded up by the
use of the new devices such as electric and elec­

The type of service in which they are employed
and the number of cars in their trains determine
the basic earnings of conductors. In 1964, yard
conductors employed by class I line-haul railroads
earned an average of $713 a month. In road
freight service, conductors averaged $860 monthly.
The average for passenger conductors was $840
and for assistant passenger conductors and ticket
collectors $758 a month.
In 1964, conductors in yard service worked a
basic 8-hour day and 5-day week. For work be­
yond these hours, they were paid one and onehalf times their basic wage rates. The pay
received by passenger and freight conductors is
based on a combination of miles traveled and
hours worked. Under this practice these conduc­
tors may receive more for a trip than their basic
day’s pay.
Like all other road crew members, conductors
in freight or passenger service are often sched­
uled to work nights, weekends, and on holidays.
Conductors on extra board work often have very
irregular hours. They may also work less time
than conductors with regular assignments and,
therefore, earn less.
Conductors on every major railroad are cov­
ered by union contracts. Freight and passenger
conductors are represented principally by the
Order of Railway Conductors and Brakemen
(Ind.) or the Brotherhood of Railroad Train­
men. Yard conductors (or yard foremen) are
organized by the Brotherhood of Railroad Train­
men and the Switchmen’s Union of North



(2d ed. D.O.T. 5-38.010 and .020)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 910.364 and .884)

Nature of Work

Brakemen work with the conductors as mem­
bers of the train crews on freight and passenger
trains and in the railroad yards. One brakeman
(or “flagman”) is generally stationed in the rear
of each freight and passenger train; his duties
include seeing that the proper flags, warning
lights, and other signals are displayed at the
rear of the train in order to protect it while it is
in motion and at stops. Most freight and pas­
senger trains carry at least one other brakeman
stationed in the front end of the train whose
duties include setting out signals to protect the
front of the train at unexpected stops.
Before a train leaves the station, the brakemen
in road service check the air brake equipment on
the cars and see that tools and other equipment
are in their proper places. During a run, they
make frequent visual inspections of their train
from positions at both the head and rear end of
their train, looking for smoke, sparks or other
indications of sticking brakes, overheated car
bearings, or other equipment malfunctions. At
stops during the run, they make “walking inspec­
tions” of the cars in the train and, when necessary,
couple and uncouple cars and air hose. They are
responsible for regulating the air-conditioning,
lighting, and heating equipment in passenger
cars. Brakemen in passenger service (also
known as “trainmen”) sometimes have the added
duty of assisting the conductor by collecting
tickets and generally looking after the needs of
the passengers. Yard brakemen (frequently
called “switchmen” or “helpers”) assist in making
up and breaking up trains by throwing switches,
coupling and uncoupling freight and passenger
cars, and applying or releasing handbrakes on
cars to control car movement.
Yard brakemen may advance to positions as
yard conductors; usually they stay in yard serv­
ice throughout their railroad careers. On some
roads, brakemen in road service may move from
freight service to passenger work, usually consid­
ered more desirable because it is less strenuous

than freight service and sometimes involves
shorter working hours.
When they have acquired sufficient seniority,
brakemen in road service may advance to posi­
tions as conductors. Less frequently, they take
positions as baggagemen. Conductor positions are
nearly always filled by promoting brakemen who
have qualified by passing written and oral ex­
aminations covering such subjects as signals,
timetables, brake systems, and operating rules.
Promotions are made according to seniority rules,
and it may take up to 10 years or more for a
brakeman to get his first assignment as a con­
Employment Outlook

Several thousand opportunities for new work­
ers to obtain jobs as brakemen will develop each
year through the mid-1970’s. Job openings will
develop almost entirely as a result of retirements
and deaths of conductors and brakemen and be­
cause of promotions and transfers to other work.
The number of brakemen employed by class I
line-haul railroads declined from about 101,000
in 1955 to 78,000 in 1964. During the 1960’s,
work in railroad yards is expected to become
increasingly mechanized, with the use of auto­
matic car retarders, automatic switching, and
other devices. These developments are expected
to result in a further decline in the employment
of brakemen in the remainder of the 1960’s. How­
ever, the total number of brakemen is expected to
stabilize or increase slightly in the early 1970’s as
a result of the anticipated growth in railroad
freight traffic.
Earnings and Working Conditions

The number of cars in the train and the type
of service in which he is employed determine
the earnings of a freight brakeman. The average
monthly earnings of yard brakemen employed
by class I line-haul railroads were $590 in 1964,
Brakemen on freight trains averaged $726 a



supervisory positions such as stationmaster or
Employment Outlook

A limited number of opportunities for assign­
ment to station agent jobs will arise each year
through the mid-1970’s, principally because of the
need to replace agents who retire or die. For some
years the number of station agents employed by
class I line-haul railroads has been declining; be­
tween 1955 and 1964, employment dropped from
about 19,600 to 13,300 principally because some
local passenger and freight services were consoli­
dated or discontinued. It is expected that the
railroads will consolidate or discontinue some
additional passenger and freight services over the
next decade, with the result that the total number
of station agents employed will decline further.

Earnings and Working Conditions

The earnings of station agents vary. In 1964,
the earnings of agents who also served as tele­
graphers and telephoners on class I line-haul
roads averaged $2.74 an hour; other agents at
small stations who did not act as telegraphers
averaged $2.92 an hour. Agents at major stations
earned a straight-time average of $3.44 an hour.
Agents are paid either by the hour or by the
month; those in nonsupervisory positions had a
basic 40-hour workweek, and time and one-half
was paid for overtime work. Most agents who
handled the business of the Railway Express
Agency received, in addition to their regular
pay, a commission on the business transacted.
Station agents, with the exception of some
supervisory agents, are members of the Trans­
portation-Communication Employees Union.

(2d ed. D.O.T. 1-01.31; 1-11.02 through .15; 1-18.74, .93, .97; 1-26.03; 1-31.01, .10; 1-34.02, .04; 1-36.01)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 219.388 and .488; 222.368 through .687; 229.367; 231.682; 249.368 ; 910.368 through .688; 913.168; and

Nature of Work

Railroad clerks handle the huge volume of
paper work necessary to keep an account of each
piece of rolling stock, and transact business with
freight shippers and the traveling public. They
work in railroad stations, freight houses, yards,
terminals, and company offices. Clerks make up
the largest single group of railroad employees—
class I line-haul railroads employed about 102,600
of these workers In 1964, and short-line railways,
thousands more.
The majority of railroad clerks—61,800 on class
I line-haul railroads in 1964—do clerical work
connected with business transactions such as col­
lecting bills, investigating complaints, adjusting
claims, tracing shipments, compiling statistics,
selling tickets, and keeping books. In small offices
and stations, one man may perform duties related
to several of these jobs, but in large offices with
many employees, each clerk usually handles a
specialized job.
A second group, totaling 17,800 in 1964, con­
sists of secretaries, stenographers, typists, and
operators of calculating, bookkeeping, and other

kinds of office machines. They perform duties
similar to those of workers in the same kinds
of jobs in other industries. (Information about
the nature of the duties of employees in these
clerical jobs may be found elsewhere in the
About 9,800 other railroad clerks were in
higher grade “senior” jobs involving more respon­
sible or technical work. Some of the clerks in
this group prepare the statistics on employment,
traffic, and other matters relating to railroad
operations, required periodically by the Federal
Government. Others, called “cashiers,” deal with
customers on such matters as uncollected freight
bills. Still others do accounting work related to
their companies’ use of terminals and other facili­
ties owned jointly by several roads.
A fourth group are the supervisory and chief
clerks, who numbered about 12,100. They not
only supervise the work of other railroad clerks
and assume responsibility for the clerical activi­
ties of entire departments, but they may be called
on to deal with highly complex problems related
to the business end of railroad operations.



Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Beginning railroad clerk positions are often
filled by hiring newcomers or by promoting
workers such as office boys or messengers. A high
school education usually is required, and clerical
aptitude tests are sometimes given. Railroads
prefer workers who have had training or some
experience in working with figures. In some
clerical positions—yard clerk for instance—be­
ginning workers on some roads are assigned to
extra board work, where they work on tempo­
rary assignments until such time as regular as­
signments become available.
In many offices, a railroad clerk may advance
to assistant chief clerk, or to a higher administra­
tive position. Some clerks may move from routine
jobs to work requiring special knowledge of sub­
jects such as accounting or statistics, and this work
may lead eventually to positions as auditors or
statisticians. Railroad clerks may also be pro­
moted to jobs as traffic agents, buyers, store­
keepers, or ticket and station agents.
Employment Outlook

Several thousand job opportunities for new
workers will become available each year through
the mid-1970’s. Because this is a large occupa­
tional group, retirements, deaths, and transfers to
other fields of work will create many openings for
new clerical workers.
Employment in this occupational group has
been declining. In 1955, class I line-haul rail­
roads employed about 146,000 railroad clerks;
by 1964, their number was 102,600. A continued
decrease in the employment of these workers is
expected during the remainder of the 1960's as
electronic business machines do more of the work
formerly done by railroad clerks in processing
freight bills and recording information about
freight car movements and freight yard opera­
tions. However, employment of clerical workers
is expected to level off or increase slightly in the
early 1970’s as a result of the anticipated expansion
of railroad freight traffic.

Railroad clerk checks car number in freight yard.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Employees of class I line-haul railroads who
had clerical jobs involving work such as billing
operations, filing, and inventory control, received
average straight-time pay of $2.69 an hour in
1964. Secretaries, stenographers, typists, and
office machine operators averaged $2.66 an hour;
senior clerks and specialists averaged $3.01 an
hour; and supervisory and chief clerks, $3.19 an
hour. Railroad clerks in nonsupervisory positions
work a basic 8-hour day and 40-hour week, with
time and one-half paid for overtime.
The Brotherhood of Railway and Steamship
Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and Station
Employees represents the railroad clerks on all
major roads.



Shop Trades
Nature of Work

The skilled workers employed by the railroads
to build, maintain, and repair rolling stock and
other equipment may be classified in six main
“shop crafts” : Cairmen (D.O.T. 622.381), ma­
chinists, electrical workers, sheet-metal ivorkers,
boilermakers, and blacksmiths. They work in
railway shops, enginehouses, yards, and terminals.
In 1964, about 98,800 journeymen mechanics in
these six crafts were employed by class I line-haul
railways. Working with them were 5,600 gang
foremen and leaders, 12,750 helpers, and 3,775
apprentices. Several thousand more workers in
the same occupations were employed by short-line
Carmen, who numbered about 53,600 on class
I line-haul railroads in 1964, are by far the
largest group of shop craftsmen. They do many
different kinds of work, since they build, main­
tain, and repair railroad freight and passenger
cars, and also work on locomotives and on small
vehicles such as the motor-driven cars used in
transporting workers along the tracks. Most car­
men are skilled in carpentry and can use power
equipment as well as handtools. A few are
skilled only in specialities such as upholstering,
car painting, and patternmaking. Some carmen
work as car inspectors in the railroad yards and
stations, examining cars for defects that might
lead to accidents or delays.
Machinists are the second largest group of
skilled shop workers. About 21,100 were em­
ployed in 1964, doing such work as assembling
and dismantling equipment, and replacing and
repairing parts. Electrical workers, who num­
bered about 13,900 in 1964, install and maintain
wiring and electrical equipment in locomotives,
passenger cars, and cabooses, as well as in build­
ings owned by the railroads. (Another group of
electrical workers—nearly 2,350 in 1964—em­
ployed mainly away from the shop, lay power and
communications lines for equipment used by the
railroads.) Sheet-metal workers, numbering
about 6,600, install and maintain light sheet-metal
parts and do pipefitting on cars, locomotives, and
other equipment. Boilermakers, of whom there

were about 1,900, maintain and repair stationary
boilers, tanks, and other parts made of sheet iron
or heavy sheet steel. Other craftsmen employed
in the shops include blacksmiths, molders, sta­
tionary firemen, oilers, and stationary engineers
(steam). (More information about the nature of
the work of most of the above shop trades may
be found elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Apprenticeship is the usual way of entering
the shop trades. Apprentices are trained in all
branches of their respective trades, according to
standards which in many cases are included in
agreements negotiated by the shopmen’s trade
unions and the railroad companies. Upon com­
pletion of their training, they are certified as
qualified journeymen. Beginners, with no pre­
vious experience in their chosen trades, take this
training as regular apprentices, generally for a
4-year period. Men with at least 2 years of pre­
vious work experience in the trade train as helper
apprentices for a 3-year period.

Shop worker checks for flaws in locomotive axles.

To become a regular apprentice, the applicant
must be at least 16 and not over 21 years of
age. The railroads prefer that helpers entering
the 3-year apprentice training be no older than
30 or 35. On some roads, applicants for regular
apprentice training are required to pass mathe­
matical and mechanical aptitude tests.
Workers in the shop trades may advance to
supervisory positions as foremen in shops, enginehouses, and powerplants.
Employment Outlook

There will be several hundred opportunities
for new workers to obtain jobs either as helpers
or as apprentices in the shop crafts each year
during the next decade. In 1964, apprenticeship
programs operated by class I line-haul railroads
were training about 3,775 new workers, 3,600 of
them as regular apprentices.
Openings in the skilled shop crafts will result
primarily from the need to replace experienced
craftsmen who retire, die, or transfer to other
fields of work. The number of journeymen
mechanics employed in these crafts declined from
about 147,000 in 1955 to 98,800 in 1964, and some
further decline appears likely through the mid1970’s despite the fact that more rolling stock will
be needed to handle the anticipated increase in
freight traffic. Among the factors which are mak­
ing it possible for the railroads to handle a given
amount of work in the shops with a smaller work
force than formerly are the use of assembly line
techniques in repair work, greater specialization
of labor, and the use of better designed and con­
structed rolling stock. Fewer equipment mainte­
nance employees are needed, also, because of the
practice on some railroads of sending diesel loco­
motives requiring major overhaul back to the
manufacturer for rebuilding or in exchange for
more highly powered new, or rebuilt units.
Employment trends for individual shop crafts
have not been affected equally by changes in
equipment and operating methods, nor are they
likely to be in the future. Two extremes in shop
craft employment trends are represented by elec­
trical workers and boilermakers. During the
1955-64 period, when the total number of skilled
craftsmen in the six principal shop trades de­


creased by one-third, the number of electrical
workers declined about 25 percent. Some increase
in employment of electrical workers may occur
during the next 10 years because of the almost
universal use of diesel-electric power and the in­
stallation of more complex electrical and elec­
tronic equipment in locomotives, railroad cars,
and communication systems. On the other hand,
the decline that has already taken place in the
number of boilermakers employed in the shops—
from about 4,300 in 1955 to 1,875 in 1964—is ex­
pected to continue, because the skills of these
workers are required much less in the repair of
diesel locomotives than in the repair of steam
locomotives. In the case of carmen and ma­
chinists, who together account for about threefourths of all journeymen mechanics employed in
the shop crafts, the decline since 1955 in the num­
ber employed has been roughly one-third; some
further decline, although less pronounced, is ex­
pected through the mid-1970’s.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Straight-time average hourly earnings of jour­
neymen employed by class I line-haul railroads
in the shop trades in 1964 were: Carmen $2.78;
machinists $2.77; electrical workers $2.78; sheetmetal workers $2.77; boilermakers $2.85; and
blacksmiths $2.83. Straight-time earnings of
helpers in all shop crafts averaged $2.50 an hour;
regular apprentices, who spend part of their time
in classroom instruction and the rest on the job,
averaged $2.32 an hour; and helper-apprentices,
who also worked on the same basis, averaged $2.52
an hour; gang foremen and gang leaders averaged
$3.29 an hour. Most shop workers have a basic
40-hour workweek of five 8-hour days, and are
paid time and one-half for overtime work.
Major repairs on locomotives and cars are gen­
erally made indoors in the enginehouse or car
repair shop. Minor adjustments, inspection, and
emergency repairs may be performed out-ofdoors.
Most shop workers are members of unions.
Among the unions in this field are: Brotherhood
of Railway Carmen of America; International
Association of Machinists and Aerospace Work­
ers ; International Brotherhood of Electrical



Workers; Sheet Metal Workers’ International As­
sociation; International Brotherhood of Boiler­
makers, Iron Shipbuilders, Blacksmiths, Forgers
and Helpers; and the International Brotherhood

of Firemen and Oilers. In collective bargaining,
these unions usually negotiate their labor con­
tracts through the Railroad Employees’ Depart­
ment of the AFL-CIO.

Signal Department Workers
(2d ed. D.O.T. 5-79.170 and 7-79.170)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 822.281 and .884)

Nature of Work

Workers in railroad signal departments con­
struct, install, maintain, and repair the signal­
ing systems which control the movement of trains
and assure the safety of railroad travel.
One group of skilled workers, known as signal
maintainers, is responsible for keeping wires,
lights, switches, and other controlling devices in
good operating condition. The work requires a
thorough practical knowledge of electricity and
considerable mechanical skill. Work on the newer
signaling systems also requires a knowledge of
A second skilled group, known as signalmen,
generally has the same skills and knowledge
required of maintainers, but is primarily con­
cerned with constructing and installing new
signals and signal systems. Signalmen work as
members of crews which also include semiskilled
workers. The crews travel from one part of the
road to another, wherever construction work is
underway. In constructing a signal system, crews
often build forms for concrete, mix and pour
cement, weld metal, and do many other types of
work in addition to electrical work.
In 1964, class I line-haul railroads employed
about 9,500 men in this kind of work; included
were about 7,200 signalmen and signal maintain­
ers, about 1,300 semiskilled assistants, and 900
helpers. Several hundred workers in these groups
were also employed by the short-line railways and
by switching and terminal companies:

New employees start as helpers doing work
under the direction of experienced men, or as as­
sistants, if they have had previous experience in
signal work. Helpers, after about 1 year of train­
ing on the job, usually advance to the job of
assistant. Openings for signalmen and signal
maintainers are filled, as they occur, by promoting
qualified assistants according to seniority rules.
It generally takes at least 4 years for an assistant
to work up to a position as signalman or signal
Both signalmen and signal maintainers may
be promoted to more responsible positions such
as those of inspectors or testmen, gang foremen,
leading signalmen, or leading signal maintainers.
A few may advance to positions as assistant super­
visors or signal engineers.

Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Railroads prefer that applicants for entry jobs
in the signal department be between 18 and 35
years of age and have a high school education
or its equivalent. Knowledge of electricity and
mechanical skill are assets to young men seeking
these jobs.

Signal maintainer checks board which controls speed of cars.



Employment Outlook

There will be some opportunities for new
workers to obtain entry jobs as helpers or assist­
ants during the 1965-75 decade. Most of these
opportunities will result from the need to replace
workers who retire, die, or transfer to other fields
of work. Job openings for new workers will be
limited because men furloughed in recent years
will be recalled before new men are hired.
Employment of helpers and assistants declined
from about 4,641 in 1955 to 1,300 in 1964, and
the number of skilled signalmen and signal maintainers declined from about 8,800 to 7,200. These
occupations are expected to continue to decline
during the remainder of the 1960’s, after which
they are expected to stabilize or increase slightly.
While the installation of new equipment has ini­
tially increased signal work opportunities, the
overall effect has been declining maintenance and
repair requirements.
Earnings and Working Conditions

The average straight-time hourly earnings of
signalmen and signal maintainers employed by
class I line-haul railroads in 1964 were $2.87.
Assistant signalmen and signal maintainers aver­
aged $2.63 and helpers $2.51 an hour. Signal

workers have a basic 8-hour day and 5-day
week, and are paid time and one-half for work
beyond 8 hours a day.
Signal maintainers tend to have fairly steady
work, because the amount of work required for
maintaining railroad signal systems does not
change greatly with variations in traffic or with
the seasons. Signalmen and other crew members,
particularly on some northern roads, may have
less work during periods of especially bad
weather. Workers in both of these occupations
do most of their work out of doors, and main­
tainers must be prepared to make repairs regard­
less of the time of day or the weather conditions.
Both maintainers and signalmen, when working
on signaling devices, must often climb poles and
work near high-tension electric wires and un­
guarded railroad tracks.
Signalmen and other crew members who work
on construction and installation, frequently work
away from their homes; on these occasions,
many railroads provide camp cars for living
quarters while the men pay for their own food.
Maintainers are generally able to live at home,
since they maintain signals only over a limited
stretch of track.
Most signal workers are members of the
Brotherhood of Railroad Signalmen.

Track Workers
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-98.71, 7-23.121, 9-32.01, and 9-49.30)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 182.168 ; 859.883 ; 869.887 ; 910.782; and 919.887)

Nature of Work

Trackmen and portable equipment operators
construct, maintain, and repair railroad tracks
and roadways. Many of them work in section
crews which patrol and maintain a limited sec­
tion of the railroad’s right-of-way. Some roads
combine the section crews with highly mechan­
ized crews to cover longer stretches of the rightof-way. Still other track workers are employed
in “extra” crews. These men perform seasonal
maintenance and repair work, such as replacing
Either a member of the section crew, or track
workers operating track motorcars, make regu­
lar inspections of the right-of-way, looking for
cracked rails, weak ties, washed-out ballast, and
other track and roadway defects. Trackmen and

portable equipment operators working in the
crews then make the necessary repairs. Roadway
maintenance machines, such as multiple tie
tampers, power wrenches, and ballast cleaners,
have been gradually displacing the use of such
handtools as picks, shovels, and spike hammers.
More and more railroads are using roadway
machines, which require skilled operators, to do
heavy maintenance-of-way work once done by
trackmen using hand or pneumatically powered
In 1964, an average of 63,600 track workers
were employed by class I line-haul railroads.
They included 43,000 trackmen working in crews,
8,600 portable equipment operators and helpers,
and 8,700 gang foremen. Additional thousands
of these workers were employed by the short-line



Employment Outlook

railroads. The size of this maintenance-of-way
work force varies considerably during the year
because many construction and repair jobs are
done in the summer months when the weather is

Several thousand new workers will be hired
each year in track maintenance occupations dur­
ing the 1965-75 decade. Most of these new work­
ers will be hired for the seasonal rush during the
summer months, particularly in northern sections
of the country. Comparatively few openings that
occur will offer steady year-round employment.
For some years, the use of mechanized equip­
ment and new kinds of materials in roadway con­
struction has been substantially reducing the
number of men employed by the railroads in
maintenance-of-way work. At the same time,
however, the use of mechanized equipment has
been creating a limited number of maintenanceof-way jobs involving the operation of roadway
machines. Between 1955 and 1964, as the num­
ber of trackmen and foremen in section and other
kinds of crews dropped from about 144,000 to
52,000, the number of portable equipment work­
ers rose from 7,500 to about 8,600. These trends
are expected to continue in the years ahead. How­
ever, employment of track workers may stabilize
or increase slightly in the early 1970’s as a result
of the anticipated increase in railroad freight

Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Earnings and Working Conditions

Track workers operate ballast cleaning machine.

Most track workers are trained on the job,
and it takes up to 2 years to acquire the skills
necessary to become an all-round trackman.
Machine operating jobs in track maintenance
work are assigned to qualified trackmen on the
basis of seniority.
Most roads prefer workers between the ages
of 21 and 45 for their track work forces. Men
seeking work as trackmen must be able to read
and write and do heavy work. Applicants are
often required to take physical examinations.
A high school education is desirable for workers
who are seeking to advance to positions as port­
able equipment operators and gang foremen.
Trackmen and portable equipment operators
with the necessary seniority and qualifications
may advance to positions as gang foreman or
assistant foreman. A qualified foreman may ad­
vance to a supervisory maintenance-of-way posi­
tion such as track supervisor.

Track workers are among the lowest paid
groups in the railroad industry. Men employed
in section and other kinds of crews on class I
line-haul railroads had straight-time average
earnings of $2.31 an hour in 1964. Portable
equipment operators and helpers averaged $2.62
and crew foremen averaged $2.63 an hour in
1964. A basic 5-day, 40-hour week was in force
for most classes of track workers. Time worked
in excess of 8 hours a day was paid for at time
and one-half rates.
Since most section men inspect and maintain
only a few miles of track, they are usually able
to live at home. However, the section crew is
rapidly giving way to the mechanized “floating”
crew. Trackmen and portable equipment oper­
ators who work in “floating” crews usually travel
from place to place and generally live in camp
cars or trailers provided by the railroads. They
pay for their own food.
Most maintenance-of-way workers are mem­
bers of the Brotherhood of Maintenance of Way



Bridge and Building Workers
Nature of Work

These workers construct, maintain, and repair
tunnels, bridges, stations, railway shops, and a
variety of other structures owned by the rail­
roads. In 1964, class I line-haul railroads em­
ployed in this kind of work about 9,900 skilled
craftsmen, 2,800 helpers, and 2,400 foremen.
Among the skilled craftsmen were about 6,000
carpenters working as all-round mechanics in a
variety of construction trades in addition to car­
pentry; about 2,700 masons, bricklayers, plas­
terers, and plumbers; and about 750 painters and
470 ironworkers. The short-line railways em­
ployed several hundred more workers in the same
occupations. (Information about the nature of
the work done by these craftsmen can be found
elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

New employees usually receive their training
as helpers. As openings occur in skilled mechan­
ics’ jobs, they are filled by helpers who have quali­
fied for promotion and have the necessary
Skilled workers with the necessary experience
may advance to positions as foremen, inspectors,
or bridge and building supervisors.
Employment Outlook

A small number of job openings in the bridge
and building work force will arise each year
during the next 10 years. Retirements, deaths,
and transfers to other fields of work will provide
some job opportunities for new workers. Most of

the jobs available will be as beginners or helpers,
where turnover rates are relatively high.
Employment by class I line-haul railroads of
skilled craftsmen, helpers, and foremen on bridge
and building work decreased from about 27,300
in 1955 to 15,100 in 1964. This trend is expected
to continue because the increased use of powder
tools and other laborsaving equipment, and of
new materials which require less maintenance
and repair, will cut down further on the number
of men needed for construction and maintenance
work. However, increased railroad freight ac­
tivity projected for the early 1970’s may cause em­
ployment of these workers to stabilize or even
increase slightly.
Earnings and Working Conditions

The average straight-time hourly earnings of
carpenters employed by class I line-haul rail­
roads in bridge and building work in 1964 were
$2.62. Masons, bricklayers, plasterers, and plumb­
ers averaged $2.76, ironworkers $2.82, painters
$2.65, helpers $2.46, and foremen $2.91 an hour
in 1964. Bridge and building workers work a
5-day, basic 40-hour week and are paid time and
one-half for work beyond 8 hours a day, and may
receive double time for work over 16 continuous
Bridge and building men usually are away from
home during their workweek. On these occasions,
they usually live in camp cars supplied by the
railroads. While living in camp cars, they pay for
their own food.
The Brotherhood of Maintenance of Way Em­
ployees represents the bridge and building work­
ers on most roads.

Millions of people eat in restaurants, cafeterias,
snack bars, and other eating places daily. There
are about 335,000 establishments whose main busi­
ness is to serve food and beverages; and in 1965,
they employed about 1.9 million persons. Many
other food-service workers were employed in
establishments that serve meals in connection with
some other activity—for example, drug and de­
partment stores, hotels, hospitals, schools operat­
ing lunchrooms for students and staff, and fac­
tories operating cafeterias for employees. (See
statements on the two largest restaurant occupa­
tions—Waiters and Waitresses and Cooks and
Nature and Location

Establishments catering to the custom of “eat­
ing out” range from small diners to luxurious and
expensive restaurants. The kind of food offered
and the way it is served depend upon the size, lo­
cation, and financing of the restaurant, as well as
the type of customer it seeks to attract. For ex­
ample, cafeterias, which are usually located down­
town or in an office building or factory, emphasize
rapid service and inexpensive meals. In contrast,
some restaurants cater to customers who have the
time to eat in a leisurely manner and, thus, they
serve elaborate meals which may include unusual
dishes or “specialties of the house.”
Most restaurants are small businesses with fewer
than 10 paid employees; many of these are op­
erated by their owners with no paid help or with
only 1 or 2 part-time workers. A small propor­
tion of all restaurants are run by proprietors or
business firms owning more than one restaurant.
Although restaurant employment is concen­
trated in the States with the largest populations,
and particularly in large cities, even very small
communities usually have coffee shops, lunch­
eonettes, and roadside diners.

groups, each with several hundred thousands of
workers, are waiters and waitresses and cooks and
chefs. In addition to these two groups, there are
counter attendants who serve food to customers
in cafeterias; bartenders who mix and serve
alcoholic drinks to customers; busboys and busgirls who clear tables, carry soiled dishes back to
the kitchen, and sometimes set tables; kitchen
workers who wash dishes and prepare vegetables;
pantrymen and pantrywomen who prepare salads
and certain other dishes for serving; and janitors
and porters who dispose of trash and garbage,
sweep and mop floors, and do other cleaning jobs.
Some of these workers operate mechanical equip­
ment, such as powerdriven dishwashers, floor
polishers, vegetable slicers and peelers, and
garbage disposal equipment. These specialized
service jobs, however, are likely to be found only
in the largest restaurants. In many small eating
places, waiters and waitresses clear and set up
tables, sometimes prepare certain kinds of dishes,
and help in the kitchen when they are not busy
with customers.

Restaurant Workers

More than three-fourths of all restaurant em­
ployees prepare and serve food, or do other kinds
of related service work. The two largest service


Another large group of restaurant workers—
about one-sixth of the total—are managers and
proprietors. Many are owners and operators of
small restaurants and, in addition to acting as
managers, may do cooking and other work. Some
are salaried employees managing restaurants for
All other restaurant workers combined account
for about one-tenth of total industry employ­
ment. They are employed principally in large
restaurants. Most are clerical employees—cashiers
who receive payments and make change for
customers; food checkers who total the cost of the
meals selected by cafeteria customers; and book­
keepers, stenographers, typists, and other office
workers. Some large restaurants also employ
mechanics and other maintenance workers, ac­
countants, personnel workers, and musicians or
other entertainers.
Employment Outlook

More than 150,000 openings are expected an­
nually in the restaurant industry through the
mid-1970’s. Although many new jobs will be
created by the growth of the restaurant business,
most openings will result from turnover. Most
job openings will be for waitresses and kitchen
helpers—both because of high turnover and be­
cause these workers make up a very large propor­
tion of all restaurant employees. Employment op­
portunities also are expected to be favorable for
skilled cooks and salaried restaurant managers.
There will be a number of openings in clerical
jobs such as cashier, bookkeeper, stenographer,
and typist, and a few in specialized positions such
as food manager and dietitian.
The volume of restaurant business is expected
to increase substantially over the next decade
and the number of restaurant workers will rise
very rapidly. A growing population, increasing
leisure time, and higher income levels, will raise
the demand for restaurant services. More people
will “eat out” as large numbers of housewives take
outside employment and more people travel. Res­
taurants, hotel and motel dining rooms, school and
factory lunchrooms, drugstore fountains, and even
vending machines which dispense prepared foods
will share in the increased business.
Manpower changes taking place within the
restaurant industry will tend to reduce the num­

ber of employees needed to prepare and serve
food. Restaurants—particularly those serving
hundreds of meals daily—have achieved sub­
stantial reductions in manpower requirements
during recent years, as managers have centralized
the purchase of food supplies, introduced selfservice, made use of precut meats and modern
mechanical equipment, and otherwise increased
the efficiency of their operations. Although
further improvements of this kind can be ex­
pected, the number of restaurant employees is
likely to increase very rapidly as the volume of
business continues to expand to meet the popula­
tion’s need for restaurant services.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Information about wages of nonsupervisory
employees in restaurants with 10 workers or more
is available from a study of 24 metropolitan areas
made by the Bureau of Eabor Statistics in June
1963. Wage levels were generally lowest in
southern cities and highest on the West Coast, as
the following tabulation shows. (For earnings
of waiters and waitresses, and cooks and chefs,
see statements on these occupations.) In res­
taurants and communities smaller than those in­
cluded in the BLS survey, wage levels may be
somewhat lower than the averages shown below.
M en
B a r te n d e r s (p u b lic
b a r s ).
B u s b o y s ________ __
C a feteria c o u n te r
a tte n d a n ts .
P o r te r s ____ ______
D is h w a s h e r s ______
K itc h e n h e l p e r s .. .
P a n t r y m e n ________

Average hourly wages, 1963
$3.01 (S a n
la n d ).
1.72 (S a n
la n d ).
2.08 (S a n
la n d ).
2.00 (S a n
la n d ) .
1.79 (S a n
la n d ).
1.94 (S a n
la n d ).
2.45 (S a n
la n d ).

F r a n c is c o -O a k -

Low est
$1.39 (M ia m i)

F r a n c is c o -O a k -

.54 (M e m p h is )

F r a n c is c o -O a k -

.84 ( N e w O rleans)

F r a n c is c o -O a k -

.68 (M e m p h is )

F r a n c is c o -O a k -

.56 (M e m p h is )

F r a n c is c o -O a k -

.61 ( M e m p h is )

F r a n c is c o -O a k -

.96 (K a n s a s C ity )

W omen
B u s g ir ls ___________

1.73 (S a n F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d ).

.51 (M e m p h is )

C a feteria c o u n te r
a tte n d a n ts .
P o r te r s ____________
K itc h e n h e lp e r s .

1.94 (S a n F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d ) .
1.48 ( C h ic a g o )____ __________

.76 (A tla n ta )

D is h w a s h e r s ______
C h e c k e r -c a sh ie r s .. ,
F o o d c h e c k e r s_____
P a n t r y w o m e n ____

2.25 (S a n
la n d ).
1.81 (S a n
la n d ).
2.27 (S a n
la n d ).
2.07 (S a n
la n d ).
2.03 (S a n
la n d ).

F r a n c is c o -O a k -

.71 (A tla n ta )
.50 ( M e m p h is )

F r a n c is c o -O a k -

.50 (M e m p h is )

F r a n c is c o -O a k -

1.06 (M e m p h is )

F r a n c is c o -O a k -

.93 (M ia m i)

F r a n c is c o -O a k -

.68 (M e m p h is )



Within each of the metropolitan areas surveyed,
the wages of individual workers in the same oc­
cupation differed considerably, depending on the
size and type of restaurant in which they were
employed. In the San Francisco-Oakland area,
for example, a few men employed as dishwashers
were paid less than $1.30 an hour, others received
more than $2.10 an hour. In addition to wages,
restaurant employees usually received at least one
free meal each day and were often provided uni­
forms. Waiters, waitresses, and bartenders also
receive tips.
Most of the restaurant workers included in the
1963 survey had work schedules of 40 hours or
more a week; many, especially in southern and
north-central cities, had a scheduled 48-hour work­
week. In one area—San Francisco-Oakland—the
workweek of most employees was 37% hours.
Restaurant employees often work on split shifts;
they are on duty for several hours during one meal,
take some time off, and then return to work during
the next period of heavy activity. Scheduled
hours may include work in the late evening and
on holidays and weekends. A majority of restau­
rant workers in the 24 areas surveyed received 1
week of paid vacation after 1 year of service and
in most areas, 2 weeks or more after 2 years. Pro­
vision for paid holidays and various types of
health and insurance benefits were also common in
many areas.
Many restaurants are air conditioned, have con­
venient work areas, and are furnished with the
latest equipment and laborsaving devices. In
other restaurants—particularly small ones—work­
ing conditions may be less desirable. In all res­
taurants, workers spend long periods on their
feet, and may be required to lift heavy trays and
other objects, or work near hot ovens or steam
tables. Work hazards include the possibility of

burns and injury from knives, broken glass or
china, or mechanical equipment.
The principal union in the restaurant industry
is the Hotel and Restaurant Employees and
Bartenders International Union (AFE-CIO).
The proportion of workers covered by union con­
tract agreements, however, varies greatly from
city to city. For example, in the San FranciscoOakland area, more than 90 percent of the nonoffice employees were in establishments with union
contract agreements in 1963; in Atlanta, Balti­
more, Denver, Indianapolis, Memphis, and New
Orleans the proportion was less than 10 percent.
Where To G o for More Information

Additional information about careers in the
food service industry may be obtained by writing
to :
Educational Director, National Restaurant
1530 North Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, 111. 60610.

Information on food service occupations is also
available in :
F o o d S e r v ic e I n d u s tr y : T r a in in g P r o g r a m s a n d F a c ili­
t i e s (U.S. Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare, Bulletin 298, 1961). Superintendent of
Documents, Washington, D.C. 20402. Price 65

A list of public and private schools and colleges
offering courses which train restaurant employees
may be obtained by writing to :
Council on Hotel, Restaurant and Institutional
S ta tle r H a ll, C ornell U n iv ersity , Ith a ca , N.Y.


Additional information about wages in res­
taurants is available in :
I n d u s tr y W a g e S u r v e y : E a tin g a n d D r in k in g P la c e s ,
1 9 6 3 (BLS Bulletin 1400, 1964).
tendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. 20402.
Price 40 cents.


As our population and economy grow, and as
technology improves, the need for communication
increases. More than 300 million telephone calls
are made daily in the United States, both locally
and for long distances to different parts of the
country and overseas. More than 700,000 em­
ployees were required to provide this service in
early 1965.
The telephone industry offers men and women
many employment opportunities for steady, yearround work in many different jobs. Some of the
jobs, such as telephone operator and file clerk,
can be learned in a few weeks; other jobs, such
as installer and repairman, take several years to
More than half of all telephone workers are
women. They are employed primarily as tele­
phone operators or clerical workers. Men are
usually employed in installing, repairing, and
maintaining telephone equipment.
Nature and Location of the Industry

Providing telephone service for the many mil­
lions of residential, commercial, and industrial
customers is the main work of the Nation’s tele­
phone companies. More than 86 million tele­
phones were in use in the United States in 1965,
about 75 percent of them by residential customers.
Telephone jobs are found in almost every com­
munity in the United States. Most telephone
workers, however, are employed in large cities
with concentrations of industrial and business
establishments. Nearly three-fifths of them work
in the 10 States with the largest number of tele­
phones: New York, California, Pennsylvania,
Illinois, Ohio, Texas, Michigan, New Jersey,
Massachusetts, and Indiana.
The nerve center of the local telephone system
is the central office containing the switching
equipment through which any telephone may be
connected with any other telephone. Every tele­
phone call made, whether by dialing or signaling

the operator, travels from the caller through
wires and cables to the cable vault in the central
office. Thousands of pairs of wires fan out from
the cable vault to a distributing frame where each
set of wires is attached to switching equipment.
To join the caller’s telephone to the telephone he
is calling, connections are made automatically,
mainly by electro-mechanical switching equip­
ment. Manual connections may also be made by
the operator in the few remaining manually op­
erated switchboards, or in unusual situations.
Long-distance calls are dialed by the customer
or an operator and connected through switching
equipment with the telephone called. By early
1965, about two-thirds of all telephone users could
dial long-distance calls directly. Information
needed to bill the customer may be recorded auto­
matically or, especially in smaller exchanges, may
be written on a ticket by the operator.
Some customers make and receive so many calls
that they cannot be handled on a single tele­
phone line. For these calls, a system somewhat
similar to a miniature central office may be in­
stalled on the subscriber’s premises. This system
is the private branch exchange (PB X ), usually
found in such places as apartment and office
buildings, hotels, department stores, and other
business firms.
Other communication services provided by tele­
phone companies include conference equipment in­
stalled at a PBX to permit conversations among
several telephone users simultaneously; mobile
radiotelephones in automobiles, boats, airplanes,
and trains; and telephones equipped to answer
calls automatically and to give and take mes­
sages by recordings.
Telephone companies also build and maintain
the vast network of cables and radio-relay sys­
tems for communication services, including those
joining the thousands of broadcasting stations all
over the Nation. These services are leased to net­
works and their affiliated stations. Telephone



companies also operate teletype and private-wire
services which they lease to business and govern­
ment offices.
The domestic telephone network is made up of
two ownership groups—the Bell System and the
independent telephone companies. Bell, through
its associated companies, serves about 4 of every
5 of the Nation’s telephones while the independ­
ents serve the remainder. In early 1965, there
were slightly less than 2,700 independent com­
Telephone Occupations

Making a telephone call requires workers in
many occupations and a vast amount of com­
munications equipment. Chart 40 shows the per­
centage distribution of telephone employment by
occupational group.
Nearly 3 of every 10 workers in the industry are
telephone craftsmen and about the same propor­
tion are telephone operators. Telephone crafts­
men install, repair, and maintain telephones,
cables, switching equipment, and message account­
ing systems. These workers can be grouped by
the type of work they perform: (1) Line conCHART 40
Pe rc en t of total w o r k e r s , 1 9 6 4




Telephone crafts;


Clerical workers

Administrative an
Scientific and

Maintenance and
building service


Based on data from the Federal Com m unications Com m ission.



struction men place, splice, and maintain tele­
phone wires and cables; (2) installers and re­
pairmen place, maintain and repair telephones
and private branch exchanges (PBX) in homes
and in offices and other places of business; and (3)
central office craftsmen test, maintain, and repair
equipment in central offices. The duties of the
operators include making telephone connections;
assisting customers on specialized types of calls,
for example, reverse-charge calls; and giving
telephone information. Telephone craftsmen are
discussed in detail later in this chapter. A detailed
discussion of telephone operators and operators
of private branch exchanges (PBX operators)
is presented in a separate statement elsewhere
in the Handbook.
When central office equipment is purchased by
a telephone company, it is usually installed by
employees of the equipment manufacturers. A
few central office equipment installers work for
telephone companies or private firms specializing
in installation work. Although most of these
skilled workers are not employed in telephone
operating companies, they are discussed in this
chapter because their work is so closely connected
with the Nation’s telephone system.
Many other occupations in the telephone in­
dustry, such as clerical, administrative, scientific,
and custodial jobs, are found in other industries
as well. They are described in detail elsewhere in
the Handbook, in the sections covering individual
More than a fifth (22 percent) of all telephone
industry employees are clerical workers, such as
stenographers, typists, bookkeepers, office machine
operators, cashiers, receptionists, file clerks,
accounting and auditing clerks, and payroll
clerks. Among their other duties, these clerical
workers, most of whom are women, keep records
of services, make up and send bills to customers,
and prepare statistical and other reports. A
small but growing amount of this recordkeeping
and statistical work is being done by electronic
data-processing equipment.
About 13 percent of telephone company employ­
ees are business office and sales representatives,
who handle orders for new telephone services,
and administrative and professional workers,
such as accountants, attorneys, personnel special-

ists, purchasing agents, public relations employ­
ees, training specialists, and statisticians.
A small but increasing proportion (4 percent)
of the industry’s employees are scientific and tech­
nical personnel; for example, engineers and their
assistants and draftsmen. Most of these workers
plan and design the construction of new buildings
and the expansion of existing ones, and solve en­
gineering problems that arise in the day-to-day
operations of the telephone system. Some engi­
neers are employed in sales development work.
Many top supervisory and administrative jobs are
held by men with engineering backgrounds.
Basic research in communications systems and the
development of new and improved telephone
equipment are not done by employees of tele­
phone operating companies, but mainly by those
employed in affiliated laboratories specializing in
such work.
The rest of the telephone industry’s workers
(about 3 percent) maintain buildings, offices, and
warehouses; operate and service motor vehicles;
and do many other maintenance and service jobs
in offices and plants. Skilled maintenance crafts­
men include stationary engineers, carpenters,
painters, electricians, and plumbers. Other work­
ers employed by the telephone industry are jani­
tors, porters, watchmen, elevator operators, and
Employment Outlook

Tens of thousands of new workers will be hired
by telephone operating companies each year dur­
ing the 1965-75 decade, mainly to replace the
large numbers of women telephone operators and
clerical workers who leave the industry to marry,
raise a family, or for other reasons. Some of these
new workers, however, will be hired for craft jobs,
to replace skilled workers who die, retire, or shift
to other work. Telephone craftsmen are expected
to retire in somewhat larger numbers than usual
during the later 1960’s, as those hired in the
1920’s, when employment in the industry expanded
greatly, reach retirement age. Job turnover will
also create openings for administrative, sales, pro­
fessional, technical, and scientific personnel.
Despite an anticipated growth in the amount
and types of telephone service, total employment
in the telephone industry is expected to remain


relatively unchanged. This is because technologi­
cal improvements are permitting more calls to be
made without any assistance from an operator.
However, operators will continue to be needed to
handle the more complex calls. Clerical workers
and many of the skilled craftsmen are also being
affected by technological changes expected to re­
duce the total number of workers required for
efficient telephone service. Occupational groups
in which employment is expected to grow as the
volume of business increases are sales, administra­
tive, professional, technical, and scientific per­
Telephones in use are expected to continue to
increase in number during the next 10 years at
about the same annual rate of growth that pre­
vailed during the past 10 years. P art of the ex­
pansion will result from expected increases in the
number of households, and the number of business
and industrial establishments. The 11 million
households in the United States without tele­
phones will be another factor in the demand for
telephone service, especially as family incomes
Other factors are also expected to increase the
demand for telephone services. For example, the
popularity of extension telephones in private
homes, and of telephones of different styles and
colors, is increasing. A very recent development
is the touch-tone instrument on which a set of
buttons replaces the dial. This instrument enables
the user to make a call in half the time required
for a dial call. Also, there is growing use of
specialized equipment on telephone instruments,
such as volume controls that compensate for im­
paired hearing, and loudspeakers that permit
“hands free” conversation. For industrial and
commercial users, high speed transmission of
large quantities of computer-processed and other
data via telephone, teletypewriter, telephotograph,
or facsimile are types of special services which
are becoming more important. With high speed
data transmission, for example, it is possible to
publish the same newspaper almost simultaneously
in two widely separated cities. To meet the in­
creasing demand for overseas communications,
transoceanic service will continue to expand as
more undersea cables are laid and communications
satellites come into commercial use.



Earnings and Working Conditions

Since wage rates in the telephone industry are
geared to those for comparable work in the local­
ity, earnings of telephone workers depend not
only on the type of job and the worker's previous
training and experience, but also on location and
character of the community. Because of differ­
ences in rates among regions and communities,
considerable variation exists in the rates paid for
any given telephone occupation. In general, tele­
phone wage rates are highest in the Pacific and
Middle Atlantic States, and lowest in the South­
For the Nation as a whole, average basic hourly
wage rates in December 1964 for all telephone
employees, except officials and managerial assist­
ants, were $2.96. Rates for these workers ranged
from an average of $1.74 an hour for telephone
operator trainees and $2.11 for experienced tele­
phone operators, to $5.17 for professional and
semiprofessional workers. Clerical workers in nonsupervisory positions averaged $2.28 an hour,
while rates for the various telephone craft groups
ranged from $2.67 to $4.62 an hour.
A telephone employee usually starts at the
minimum wage for his particular job. Pay in­
creases are given periodically until the top of the
grade is reached, usually in about 5 or 6 years.
Telephone craftsmen at the top of the grade may
receive further merit increases, based on job per­
formance and length of service.
More than two-thirds of the workers in the in­
dustry, mainly telephone operators and craftsmen,
are members of labor unions. The Communica­
tions Workers of America represents the largest
number of workers in the industry, but many other
employees are members of the International
Brotherhood of Electrical Workers or an inde­
pendent union, such as 1 of the 16 unions which
form the Alliance of Independent Telephone
Wage rates, wage increases, and the amount of
time required to advance from one step to the
next are governed for most telephone workers by
union-management contracts. The contracts also
call for extra pay for work beyond the normal
tour of 6 to 8 hours a day or 5 days a week, and
for all Sunday and holiday work. Most contracts
provide that the rate of pay for nightwork shall
be 5 or 10 percent above the basic day rate.
7 78-316 O -6 5 — — 51

Travel time to and from the job is counted as
worktime for craftsmen under some contracts.
Overtime work is sometimes required in the tele­
phone industry, especially during emergencies,
such as floods, hurricanes, or bad storms. During
an “emergency call-out,” which is a short-notice
request to report to work during nonscheduled
hours, workers are guaranteed a minimum period
of pay at the basic hourly rate.
In addition to these provisions which affect
the pay envelope directly, other benefits are pro­
vided. Periods of annual vacations with pay are
granted to workers according to their length of
service. Usually, contracts provide for a 1-week
vacation for 6 months to 1 year of service, 2 weeks
for 1 to 10 years, 3 weeks for 10 to 25 years, and
4 weeks after 25 years. The number of paid
holidays ranges from 6 to 11 days a year depend­
ing on locality. Nearly all contracts contain sick
leave provisions. A typical program provides
that payments for sick leave up to 7 days be
paid to employees with at least 2 years of serv­
ice, after a waiting period of 1 to 3 days depend­
ing on length of service. Provisions for paid
sick leave beyond 7 days are covered in benefit
plans adopted by most companies. The majority
of telephone workers are covered by group insur­
ance plans which usually provide sickness, acci­
dent, and death benefits, and retirement and
disability pensions.
The telephone industry has achieved one of
the best safety records in American industry;
in 1964, for example, the number of disabling
injuries was less than one-sixth of the average
for all U.S. industries.
Where To G o for More Information

Additional information about jobs in the tele­
phone industry many be obtained from the local
telephone company or from local unions with
telephone workers among their membership. If
no local union is listed in the telephone directory,
information may be obtained from the following:
Alliance of Independent Telephone Unions,
Room 302, 1422 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa.
Communications Workers of America,
1925 K St. NW.. Washington, D.C. 20006.
International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers,
1200 15th St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20005.



Telephone Craftsmen
Nearly a third of the employees of the telephone
industry are craftsmen engaged in construction,
installation, and maintenance activities necessary
to assemble the vast amount of mechanical, elec­
trical, and electronic equipment vital to the far-

reaching network of our modern communications
system. About 1 in every 8 of these workers are
foremen who have advanced to supervisory posi­
tions from a craft job.

Central Office Craftsmen
Nature of Work

Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Central office craftsmen test, maintain, and re­
pair mechanical, electrical, and electronic switch­
ing equipment and other central office equipment.
They keep this equipment in operating condition
and locate potential trouble before service is af­
fected. Telephone companies employed about
65,000 central office craftsmen in early 1965, in­
cluding, for example, approximately 15,000 testboardmen and 48,000 central office repairmen,
helpers, and framemen.
Frameman (D.O.T. 822.884) is usually the be­
ginning job from which a worker may advance to
a more skilled central office craft job. Framemen
do most of their work at distributing frames or
panels where customers’ lines come into the
central office. Framemen string these wires to
the proper terminals on the frames and then
solder the connections. Connections are made
according to worksheets prepared by others or
according to oral directions of testboardmen.
Central office repairmen (D.O.T. 822.281), often
called switchmen, maintain and repair switching
equipment and automatic message accounting sys­
tems in central offices. They check switches and
relays, using special tools and gages and their
knowledge of electricity. They also locate and
repair trouble spots on customers' lines in central
office equipment as reported by testboardmen.
Testboardmen (D.O.T. 822.281) make periodic
checks of customers’ lines to prevent breakdowns
or interference in telephone service. They work
at special switchboards made up of electrical test­
ing instruments and test for, locate, and analyze
trouble spots reported on customers’ lines. If re­
pairs are needed and the breakdown is outside the
central office, they direct the repair activities of
line and cable crews or installer-repairmen or of
central office repairmen (if the trouble is inside).

The telephone companies usually hire inexperi­
enced men to train for skilled jobs in central
offices. Applicants for these jobs must have at
least a high school or vocational school education.
A knowledge of the basic principles of electricity
and electronics is generally desired. Telephone
training and experience in the armed services or
technical training beyond the high school level
may be helpful in obtaining jobs as telephone
company craftsmen; men with such training may
be brought in above the entry level. Preemploy­
ment aptitude tests are usually given to prospec­
tive employees.
Most telephone companies have regular pro­
grams for training new employees in central
office craft jobs. A new worker may be given
classroom instruction as well as on-the-job train­
ing. He is usually assigned to the starting job
of frameman and works with experienced framemen under the direction of a supervisor or fore­
man. As the frameman gains skill and experi­
ence, he may advance to central office repairman
or testboardman receiving such additional class­
room instruction or other training as may be
required for the new job. Instruction includes
courses such as the principles of electricity and
electronics, as well as special courses in the main­
tenance of the particular type of central office
equipment used by the company.
Central office craftsmen receive training
throughout their careers with the telephone
company. As new types of equipment and tools
are introduced and new maintenance methods are
developed, these men may be sent to school for
short periods of instruction. Usually it takes at
least 6 years for workers to reach the top pay
rate for central office repairmen or testboardmen.



The total number of central office craftsmen is
expected to remain about the same during the
next 10 years, despite the anticipated expan­
sion of the number of telephones in use and the
increasingly complex nature of central office
equipment. Recent technological developments,
such as electronic switching and various auto­
matic testing devices, will reduce the amount of
maintenance and repair work to be done in
central offices.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Central office repairmen at test frames check functioning of
switching equipment.

Many workers move into central office craft
jobs from other types of telephone work. For
example, some men start as telephone installers
or linemen and many, with additional training,
transfer to jobs as central office craftsmen. Pro­
motional opportunities for central office crafts­
men include, in addition to the jobs of central
office foremen, jobs such as those of engineering
assistants and administrative staff workers.
Employment Outlook

Young men will find many opportunities for
steady employment as central office craftsmen
during the 1965-75 decade. These opportunities
will result from the need to replace workers who
retire, die, transfer to other telephone jobs, or
leave the telephone industry. Retirements and
deaths alone may result in about 3,000 job open­
ings each year during the next decade. Many
more than the usual number of central office
craftsmen are expected to retire in the later 1960’s,
when those hired during the 1920’s—a period of
increased employment—will reach retirement age.
Most job openings created by turnover will be
filled by workers who transfer from other tele­
phone craft jobs.

Central office craftsmen are among the highest
paid skilled workers in the telephone industry.
In December 1964, average basic hourly rates
of pay in large telephone companies in the
United States were $3.32 for testboardmen and
$3.19 for central office repairmen; average basic
hourly rates ranged from $3.28 to $3.69 for test­
boardmen and from $3.06 to $3.34 for central office
repairmen, depending on locality and length of
Earnings increase considerably with length of
service in central office jobs. According to a 1965
union-management contract in one of the higher
pay scale cities, craft employees start at $73.50
for a 40-hour week. Framemen can work up to
a maximum of $134.50 after 5 years. If a
vacancy occurs and the worker is qualified, a
frameman can move into the job of central
office repairman or testboardman with a higher
pay schedule. Central office repairmen and test­
boardmen can earn a maximum of $154.50 a week
after 6 years of periodic increases. Craftsmen
who qualify for engineering assistant jobs can
earn a maximum of $210 a week after 6 years.
Since the telephone industry gives continuous
service to its customers, central offices operate 24
hours a day, 7 days a week. Some central office
craftsmen, therefore, have work schedules which
include evenings, nights, and weekends, for which
they receive extra pay. Central office craftsmen
are covered by the same provisions governing
overtime pay, vacations, holidays, and other bene­
fits that apply to telephone workers generally.
(See discussion earlier in this chapter) Employ­
ees in central offices work in clean and well-lighted



Central Office Equipment Installers
Nature of Work

Central office equipment installers set up com­
plex switching and dialing equipment in central
offices of local telephone companies. They as­
semble, wire, adjust, and test this equipment
making sure that it conforms to the manufac­
turer’s standards for efficient and dependable
service. These jobs may involve installing a new
central office, adding equipment in an expanding
local office, or modifying or replacing outmoded
About 18,000 installers were employed in early
1965. Unlike the other craftsmen discussed in
this chapter, most installers work for manufac­
turers of central office equipment rather than for
the telephone companies. A few installers work
directly for telephone operating companies, in­
cluding about 1,500 in the New England area,
and some are employees of private contractors
who specialize in large-scale telephone installation
Central office equipment installers are generally
assigned to specific areas which may include
several States; they must travel to central offices
of local telephone companies within these areas.
On a small job, such as installing a switchboard
in a central office in a small community, an
installer may be teamed with only one or two
other installers. On a large job, such as installing
a long-distance toll center in a big city, he may
work with hundreds of other installers.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Young men who wish to become installers must
have a high school or vocational school education.
Men with some college education, especially those
with engineering training, are often hired for
these jobs. Preemployment tests are generally
given to determine the applicant’s mechanical
aptitudes, and a physical examination is required.
Applicants must be willing to travel.
New employees receive on-the-job training and
classroom instruction. They attend classes for
the first few weeks to learn basic installation
methods and then start on-the-job training under
experienced installers. After several years of
experience, they may qualify as skilled installers.

Central office installer uses wire-wrapping tool to wire a panel.

Training on the job, however, continues even after
they become skilled workers. Additional courses
are given from time to time not only to improve
their skills but also to teach them new techniques
of installing telephone equipment. Installers may
advance to engineering assistant jobs, especially
those workers who have had some technical
training beyond the high school level.
Employment Outlook

During the 1965-75 decade, several hundred
job openings a year are expected to become avail­
able for young men to replace central office equip­
ment installers who transfer to other work, retire,
or die. The total number of installers, however,
will remain at about present levels for several
reasons. Installation of automatic dialing equip­
ment for long-distance calls will continue at about
the current rate; eventually such equipment will
be installed in all parts of the country. Some
new central offices will have to be constructed
during the years ahead and existing ones modified
or enlarged to meet the growing needs of a popu­
lation that is expanding and shifting to the
suburbs. The amount of such work may be some­
what less than in recent years, however, because
many new central offices have been built recently



and will not need replacement for some time.
On the other hand, increasingly complex central
office and toll equipment, including advanced
types of PBX systems, as well as data and com­
puter networks will require manpower with more
and higher skills in electronic work.
Installers, perhaps more than other craftsmen
connected with the telephone industry, are sub­
ject to possible employment fluctuations in the
short run because of changes in business con­
ditions. When the business outlook is depressed,
there is less likelihood that new central offices
will be built or existing ones enlarged or mod­
ernized. When business is prospering, installa­
tions, additions, and modifications of central
offices may occur at an above-average pace.
Earnings and Working Conditions

As of September 1964, the average hourly rate of
pay for installers was $3.15. According to a
major union contract in effect for this occupation
in late 1964, inexperienced installers start at
$1.81 to $1.90 an hour, depending on locality.
The contract provides for periodic increases and
employees may reach rates of $3.37 to $3.49 an
hour after 6 years of experience. Employees may

also receive merit increases above these rates,
based on job performance plus length of service,
bringing the top rates up to $3.60 to $3.78 an
hour. Time and a half is paid for work in ex­
cess of 8 hours a day or 40 hours a week, and
double time is paid for work on Sundays and
holidays. Travel and expense allowances are also
given. Installers receive 7 to 11 paid holidays
a year, depending on locality. Vacations are pro­
vided according to length of service. Workers
with 1 year of service receive 1 week’s vacation;
2 to 10 years of service, 2 weeks; 10 to 25 years of
service, 3 weeks; and 25 years and over, 4 weeks.
The majority of central office equipment in­
stallers, including most of those servicing the
Bell System, are represented by the Communica­
tions Workers of America. Some installers em­
ployed by manufacturers supplying the non-Bell
or independent segment of the telephone industry,
and some employed by large installation contrac­
tors, are represented by the International
Brotherhood of Electrical Workers. Installers
employed directly by telephone operating com­
panies in the New England area are members of
the International Brotherhood of Telephone
Workers, which is affiliated with the Alliance of
Independent Telephone Unions.

Linemen and Cable Splicers
Nature of Work

The vast network of wires and cables that con­
nects telephone central offices to the millions of
telephones and switchboards in customers’ homes
and buildings is constructed and kept in good op­
erating order by linemen and cable splicers and
their helpers. Telephone companies employed
over 35,000 such workers in early 1965—14,000
linemen, It,000 cable splicers, and 4,000 helpers,
laborers, and other workers.
In constructing new telephone lines, linemen
(I).O.T. 822.381) place wires and cables leading
from the central office to customers’ premises.
They dig holes with power-driven equipment
and set in telephone poles which support cables.
Linemen climb the poles to attach the cables,
usually leaving the ends free for cable splicers
to connect later. In cities where telephone lines
are below the streets, linemen place cables in
underground conduits. Construction linemen

usually work in crews of two to five men. A fore­
man directs the work of several of these crews.
Much of the lineman’s work is in repairing
and maintaining existing lines. When wires or
cables break or when a pole is knocked down,
linemen are sent immediately to make emergency
repairs. The line crew foreman keeps in close
contact with the testboardman who directs him
to trouble locations on the lines. Some linemen
are assigned sections of lines in rural areas which
they inspect periodically. During the course of
their work, they make minor repairs and line
After linemen place cables on poles or in
underground conduits, cable splicers (D.O.T.
829.381) generally complete the line connections.
Splicers work on aerial platforms, in manholes,
or in basements of large commercial buildings.
They connect individual wires within the cable
by matching colors of wires so as to keep each



Lineman inspects cables from aerial lift.

circuit continuous. Cable splicers also rearrange
pairs of wires within a cable when lines have to be
changed. At each splice, they either wrap insula­
tion around the wires and seal the joint with a
lead sleeve or cover the splice with some other
type of closure. Sometimes they fill the sheath­
ing with gas under pressure to keep out moisture.
Cable splicers also maintain and repair cables.
The preventive maintenance work that they do
is extremely important because a single defect
in a cable may result in a serious interruption
in service. Many trouble spots are located
through electric and gas pressure tests.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Telephone companies hire inexperienced men
to train for jobs as linemen or cable splicers.
Applicants for these jobs must have a high
school or vocational school education and must
pass a physical examination. Knowledge of the
basic principles of electricity, and especially elec­
tronics, is helpful. Preemployment tests are often

given to help determine the applicant’s aptitudes.
Some line and cable work is strenuous, requiring
workers to climb poles and lift lines and equip­
ment. Applicants for these positions must be
physically qualified for such work. Manual dex­
terity and the ability to distinguish color are also
important qualifications. Men who have received
telephone training and experience in the armed
services frequently are given preference for job
openings and may be brought in above the entry
For these jobs, telephone companies have train­
ing programs which include classroom instruc­
tion as well as on-the-job training. Classrooms
are equipped with actual telephone apparatus,
such as poles, cable supporting clamps, and other
fixtures to simulate working conditions as closely
as possible. Trainees learn to climb poles and
are taught safe working practices to avoid power
wires and falls.
After a short period of classroom training, some
trainees are assigned to a line crew to work on the
job with experienced men under the supervision
of a line foreman. I t usually takes about 6 years
for linemen to reach the top pay for the job.
Other trainees acquire the skills of the trade by
working with experienced cable splicers to whom
they are assigned.
Line construction craftsmen continue to receive
training throughout their careers to qualify for
more difficult assignments and to keep up with
technological changes in the industry. Those
with the necessary qualifications find many addi­
tional advancement opportunities in the tele­
phone industry. For example, a lineman may
be transferred to the job of telephone installer
and later to that of telephone repairman or other
higher rated jobs.
Employment Outlook

Employment of linemen and cable splicers is
expected to continue to decline, despite anticipa­
tion of a continuing high level of activity in line
and cable installation, maintenance, and repair.
However, hundreds of job openings for these
craftsmen as a group are expected to become
available during the 1965-75 decade because of
the need to replace workers who transfer to other
jobs, retire, or die.



Employment trends will differ among in­
dividual occupations. Little or no growth is ex­
pected in the number of cable splicers because
of technological developments that increase work­
er efficiency, such as devices that permit splicing
of cables without the need to remove insulation;
instruments for identifying types of wires in
cables; and use of gas-filled cables whose failure
can be pinpointed by detecting devices located in
the central office. These developments, further­
more, are expected to reduce drastically the need
for cable splicers’ helpers, continuing the rapid
decline in employment in this occupation in re­
cent years. The number of linemen is expected to
continue to decrease because the introduction of
mechanical improvements, such as trucks with
derricks and pole-lifting equipment, earth-boring
tools, lightweight ladders, and “sky buckets,” has
eliminated much of the physical work of line
crews, and is causing a substantial reduction in
the regular size of a line crew.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Cable splicers have higher earnings than line­
men. In December 1964, in the United States as
a whole, cable splicer’s basic rates averaged $3.34
an hour, and linemen’s rates averaged $2.67.
Average hourly rates ranged from $3.05 to $3.58
for cable splicers and from $2.13 to $3.14 for line­
men, with variations in earnings depending on

Pay rates within the jobs also depend to a
considerable extent upon length of service. For
example, according to a 1965 union-management
agreement, new workers in line construction jobs
in one of the higher pay scale cities begin at
$72.50 for a 40-hour week. Linemen can reach
the maximum of $147.50 after 6 years of service.
The maximum basic weekly rate for cable splicers
is $154.50 based upon a combined total of at
least 6 years’ work as a helper and as a splicer.
Linemen and cable splicers are covered by the
same contract provisions governing overtime pay,
vacations, holidays, length of service and other
benefits that apply to telephone workers general­
ly. (See discussion earlier in this chapter.)
Linemen and cable splicers work outdoors.
They must do a considerable amount of climbing.
They also work in manholes, often in stooped and
cramped positions. Safety standards, developed
over the years by telephone companies Avith the
cooperation of labor unions, have greatly reduced
the hazards of these occupations. When severe
weather conditions damage telephone lines, line­
men and cable splicers may be called upon to
work long and irregular hours to repair damaged
equipment and to restore service. Because of the
nature of their work, some linemen and cable
splicers, by the time they reach their midfifties,
transfer to other jobs, such as those of installers
and repairmen or central office craftsmen.

Telephone and PBX Installers and Repairmen
Nature of Work

Telephone and private branch exchange
(PBX) installers and repairmen (sometimes
called servicemen) install and service telephone
and PBX systems on the customers' property and
make necessary repairs on the equipment when
trouble develops. These workers travel to
customers' homes and offices in trucks equipped
with telephone tools and supplies. When tele­
phone customers move or request new types of
service, installers relocate telephones or make
changes on customers’ existing equipment. For
example, they may install a PBX system in an
office or change a two-party line to a single­
party line in a residence. Installers may also
fill a customer's request to add an extension

in another room or to replace an old telephone
with a newer model.
Telephone and PBX installers and repairmen
are the largest group of telephone craftsmen;
about 76,000 were employed in early 1965. More
than two-thirds of these men mainly install tele­
phones or private branch exchanges and about
16,000 of them repair and maintain this equip­
ment. The jobs of installing and repairing tele­
phones and PBX systems are discussed below as
separate jobs, but many telephone companies com­
bine two or more of these jobs.
Telephone installers (D.O.T. 822.381) install
and remove telephones in homes and places of
business. They connect newly installed telephones
to outside service wires which are on nearby



Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Installer mounts connecting block for telephone.

buildings or poles. Installers often must climb
poles to make these connections. Telephone
installers are sometimes called station installers.
P B X installers (D.O.T. 822.381) perform the
same duties as telephone installers but they
specialize in more complex switchboard instal­
lations. They connect wires from terminals to
switchboards and make tests to check their instal­
lations. Some PBX installers also set up equip­
ment for radio and television broadcasts, mobile
radiotelephones, and teletypewriters.
Telephone repairmen (D.O.T. 822.281), with
the assistance of testboardmen in the central
office, locate trouble on customers’ telephones
and make repairs to restore service. Sometimes
the jobs of telephone repairmen and telephone
installers are combined and the workers are called
telephone installer-repairmen.
P B X repairmen (D.O.T. 822.281), with the
assistance of testboardmen, locate trouble on cus­
tomers’ PBX systems and make necessary repairs.
They also maintain associated equipment, such as
batteries, relays, and power plants. Some PBX
repairmen maintain and repair equipment for
radio and television broadcasts, mobile radio­
telephones, and teletypewriters. Sometimes the
jobs of PBX installers and PBX repairmen are
combined into the job of P B X installer-repairmen.

Telephone companies hire inexperienced men
and train them for telephone and PB X installa­
tion and repair jobs. Since much of the work
requires personal contact with customers, appli­
cants who have a pleasing appearance and the
ability to deal effectively with people are pre­
ferred. Applicants for these skilled jobs must
have a high school or vocational school educa­
tion. To help determine applicants’ aptitudes,
preemployment tests are usually given.
New workers are given classroom instruction
in addition to on-the-job training. Classrooms
are equipped with telephone poles, lines and
cables, and terminal boxes, as well as models of
typical residential construction to simulate actual
working conditions. Trainees practice installing
telephones and making connections to service
wires just as they would in the field. After a
few weeks of such training, new workers accom­
pany skilled installers and continue to learn the
job of installing by watching and helping these
experienced men.
Telephone and PBX installers and repairmen
continue to receive training throughout their
careers with the telephone company to qualify
for more difficult and responsible work. Since
technological changes in the telephone industry
are occurring constantly, telephone companies
send their craftsmen to training schools for fur­
ther instruction. Well qualified workers will
have many additional advancement opportuni­
ties in this industry. For example, after a tele­
phone installer has worked a few years, he may
be transferred to the higher paying job of PBX
installer. Similarly, a telephone repairman may
be promoted to PBX repairman, one of the high­
est paying craft jobs. Another new worker may
start as a lineman and then transfer to the job
of installing or repairing telephones, later mov­
ing to either PBX installer or PB X repairman.
Employment Outlook

Young men will find many opportunities for
steady employment as telephone and PB X in­
stallers and repairmen during the 1965-75 decade.
Primarily, these opportunities will result from the
need to replace workers who tranfer to other tele­
phone jobs, leave the industry, retire, or die. Re­



tirements and deaths alone may result in about
2,000 job openings each year during the next 10
years. More than the usual number of telephono
craftsmen are expected to retire during the later
1960’s as those who were hired in the 1920’s, when
the industry’s employment expanded greatly,
reach retirement age. Some job openings created
by turnover may be filled by workers transferring
from other telephone craft jobs, such as linemen
and cable splicers, but many will be open to new
The total number of telephone and PBX in­
stallers and repairmen is expected to increase
slightly during the next 10 years. Some additional
jobs may become available because of a gradual
changeover to electronic switching equipment in
central offices that has recently begun. Also, some
expansion is anticipated in the volume of service
handled by these craftsmen, because of the ex­
panding number of telephones to be serviced and
repaired; the growing popularity of extension
phones; the increased use of specialized types of
phone equipment; and the development of im­
proved but more complex equipment. The em­
ployment increase will be slight because recent
technological changes have resulted in increases
in the efficiency of individual installers or re­
pairmen. Examples of such changes include im­
proved designs for telephone instruments, wires,
and cables; the development of removeable com­
ponents which can be returned to factory or serv­
ice shop for repair; and the combining of in­
stallation and repair work into a single job.

Earnings and Working Conditions

In December 1964, the average basic hourly rate
for PBX repairmen was $8.42 an hour, and the
rate for telephone and PBX installers was $8.27.
Average hourly rates ranged from $8.21 to $8.52
for PBX repairmen and from $2.99 to $8.45 for
telephone and PBX installers, with variations in
earnings depending on locality and length of
The effect of length of service on wage rates is
illustrated by a 1965 union-management agree­
ment in one of the higher pay scale cities. Under
this agreement, telephone installers and repair­
men have a starting rate of $73.50 for a 40-hour
week with periodic pay increases until a maximum
of $151.50 a week is reached after about 6 years.
PBX installers and repairmen also have a start­
ing rate of $73.50 and progress to $154.50. In ­
stallers and repairmen are covered by the same
provisions governing overtime pay, vacations,
holidays, and other benefits that apply to tele­
phone workers generally. (See discussion earlier
in this chapter.)
Telephone and PBX installers and repairmen
work indoors and outdoors in all kinds of weather.
Outdoor work includes climbing poles to place and
repair telephone wires leading from poles to
customers’ premises. Installers and repairmen
may be called upon to work extra hours when
breakdowns in customers’ lines or equipment

Occupations in Agriculture
As a way of life, farming offers advantages
that are attractive to many families. Some people
like the greater independence and freedom associ­
ated with various phases of farm work and also
the variety of jobs associated with farming.
They like living on farms or in small communities
and are willing to accept lower incomes than they
would consider satisfactory in an urban environ­
ment. With modern transportation and communi­
cation, many of the differences that once existed
between rural and urban living are vanishing.
Many farmers consider the country a better place
to rear children. Some remain on farms because
they are either unsuited or unadapted to other
kinds of work.
Despite increasing specialization and mechani­
zation in agriculture, the farmer still functions in
many different capacities and makes many inde­
pendent decisions. The typical farmer is man­
ager, supervisor, and laborer; in some respects,
he acts also as bookkeeper and financier. He also
has to know insects, bacteria, fungi, and viruses,
as well as a wide variety of crops and animals.
He buys many items from various types of deal­
ers. He is a producer with many competitors, and
sells his products in many kinds of markets.
(Migrant farm workers, whose earnings and liv­
ing conditions differ greatly from those of the
farm operator and the year-round farm worker,
are not discussed in this chapter.)


Significance of Agriculture in the Economy

The Nation’s agricultural economy, its methods
of farming, and the resources required to finance
a farm business have changed greatly during the
past century—and especially during the past 25
The national economy is no longer predomi­
nantly agricultural. Only about 7 percent of the
total population now* live on farms, compared
with 65 percent in 1860. Less than 6 percent of
total civilian labor force is employed on farms.
Whereas one farm worker was able to produce
enough food and fiber for himself and only 4
other people a hundred years ago, today he can
produce enough for himself and 31 others.
Although the number of farm workers has
declined, there has been a sharp increase in the
number who wmrk in jobs closely related to
agriculture. These include the workers in feed
mills, fertilizer plants, farm machinery industries,
farm supply stores, food processing plants, and
many other businesses that process, distribute, or
transport farm products and farm supplies. The
total number of trained persons needed to carry
on this whole complex of activities on and off
the farm—often called “Agri-Business”—is con­
stantly rising.

The typical farm of today is much larger and
more highly mechanized than the farm of 25
years ago, and consequently requires much more
capital and many farming skills to own and
operate. The standard of living of American
farmers today is higher than ever before. Oppor­
tunities for the small farmer and for the tenant
farmer, however, have become very limited.
Investment Per Worker on Farms

Since before World War II, American agri­
culture has experienced a spectacular increase
in the value of productive assets relative to the
number of workers. This increase has resulted
chiefly from the higher cost of land and equip­
ment and the substitution of machinery for labor.
Capital investment in land, farm buildings,
livestock, machinery, equipment, and other items
amounted to about $27,000 per farm worker in
1964, compared with less than $3,500 in 1940; the
investment in farm machinery and equipment
alone has increased ten-fold. Technological pro­
gress has brought to the farmer many new laborsaving devices and production-expanding aids;
it has also increased the skills required for many
farm jobs and has raised the amount of capital
needed to operate a farm profitably.
Size of Farm Operations

Farms in the United States are classified by
the Bureau of the Census according to the value
of their annual sales. They vary greatly in size
of operation. In 1959, about 65 percent of all
farms were classified as commercial (those pro­
viding the farmer with his major source of
income), but fewer than 40 percent of all farms
reported sales of $5,000 or more. These data indi­
cate that many farms are too small to provide
more than part of the income needed to support
a satisfactory standard of living. However, the

trend is toward fewer and larger farms, and for
farm operators, this means that more managerial
skills, more capital, and more mechanical equip­
ment are needed.
Farm Employment Outlook

The employment situation for farm workers
is becoming less favorable because mechanization
is rapidly displacing labor and because the num­
ber of people available for such employment is
greater than the number of available farm jobs.
As the size of farms increases and a further
mechanization takes place, the number of desir­
able openings for new workers will be fewer
than the number of workers who retire, die, or
leave the farm for other reasons. Probably the
number of farm operators and other farm work­
ers will continue to decline. By 1975, the number
of persons employed on the farm may be a
fifth less than the 4.8 million employed in 1964.
Between 1964 and 1970, an estimated 155,000
operators of medium-size to large farms (those
selling at least $5,000 worth of farm products
annually) are expected to leave the occupation
because of retirement or death. Consequently,
only a small proportion of farm youths will have
the opportunity to become operators of such
farms. Other young men who have not grown up
on farms and acquired a farmer’s skills will have
even less chance of becoming farm operators.
Agriculture cannot expect the same kind of
general increase in per capita consumption of its
products as can many other segments of the
economy. Expansion of domestic markets will
depend mainly on population growth. Although
exports of farm products are expected to continue
at relatively high levels, farming will neverthe­
less continue to be highly competitive because of
the rapid advances in technology, faster com­
munication and transportation, and better m793


formed producers and consumers. For the next
decade or so, no great need for increased farm
output is anticipated and, as a result, prices of
many important farm products may not be attrac­
tive to farm operators. Despite concerted efforts
to improve the farmers’ economic position in re­
cent years, real incomes of farmers have tended to
decline relative to those of industrial workers.
Agriculture will nevertheless remain one of
the large areas of employment in the economy.
Moreover, if farmers’ needs for machinery, equip­
ment, and supplies and consumers’ requirements
for processed and packaged farm products are
to be met, job openings in fields closely related
to agriculture will expand. In 1964, when 4.8
million persons (operators, unpaid family work­
ers, and hired workers) worked on farms, about
an equal number were engaged in closely related
activities. Some were producing farm supplies
such as fertilizer, processed feed, and machinery.
Others were engaged in transporting, storing,
processing, packaging, or otherwise fabricating or
handling farm products along the route from the
farmer to the consumer. Still others were serv­
icing farmers. Increased employment in these
areas will provide opportunities for some workers
who are unable to obtain farm jobs because of
declining employment, or who prefer employment
closely associated with farming.
Opportunities for Hired Workers on Farms

Most of the workers on farms are either selfemployed operators or members of farm families.
The number of hired workers (including family
members who are paid wages) fluctuates season­
ally from 800,000 in January to 2.1 million at
the peak of the harvest in September. Roughly
700,000 hired workers were employed on farms
for at least 150 working days in 1963. Others,
including many students and housewives, work
chiefly during the harvest season.
Although farm wage rates in 1964 were more
than four times as high as in 1940, they were
still low in relation to earnings of factory work­
ers. Ordinary farm work is excluded from the
coverage of the Fair Labor Standards Act.
Average farm wage rates for full-time workers
in the United States, as of October 1, 1964, were:


month with house____________________
month with board and room--------------week with board and room___________
week without board or room---------------



Employment opportunities for hired farm
workers vary from season to season and from one
part of the country to another. Specific informa­
tion concerning the kinds of jobs available and
current wage rates may be obtained from the
local offices of the State employment services.
Training Opportunities A vailable for Farming

The best initial training for farming is to
grow up on a farm. The necessary experience
may also be gained by working as a closely
supervised tenant or hired worker on a success­
ful farm.
Several types of vocational training are avail­
able under the federally assisted program of voca­
tional education, which, among other things, pro­
vides for the teaching of agriculture in high
schools. The training may be given in :
1. All-day programs supervised by teachers who are
agricultural college graduates.
2. Young farmer programs consisting of short courses
during the day, with intensive training in farm planning,
farm layout, farm structures, construction, welding and
related shop and repair work, plant breeding, pest con­
trol, growing broilers and breeding cattle, swine, sheep,
and other aspects of farming.
3. Adult farmer programs in evening classes (or day
classes in off-seasons) giving intensive training in con­
servation, crop and livestock production, and special
problems such as control of pests, and planning adjust­
ments in land use and treatment.

The most significant general sources of infor­
mation and guidance available to farmers are the
services provided by the land-grant colleges and
universities and the U.S. Department of Agri­
culture. These include the facilities of State
and Federal experiment stations, the Extension
Services, and resident teaching. The county
agricultural agent is often the best contact for
the young person seeking advice and assistance
in farming. The Farmers Home Administra­
tion system of supervised credit is one example
of credit facilities combined with a form of
extension teaching. Organized groups such as
the Future Farmers of America and the 4-H
(dubs also furnish valuable training to young
farm people.

Although the overall number of openings in
farming is decreasing, a considerable number of
desirable and rewarding openings nevertheless
occur from time to time. Thus, each year, many
young people must decide whether to go into
farming. For some, the decision to enter farm­
ing may be made simply because an opening exists
on the family farm or on one nearby. If the
decision is to be sound, however, it should be based
on a careful appraisal of the particular require­
ments in specific types of farm operations, and
the prospects for success in them. Each person
must make this appraisal in the light of his apti­
tudes, interests, preferences, experience, knowl­
edge, and skills in directing labor and handling
livestock and machinery. His choice must take
into account also his family labor supply and
his financial resources, as the labor and capital re­
quirements for an operation of adequate size vary
widely from one type of farm to another.
A realistic decision to go into farming can be
made only in terms of a particular type (or types)
of farming in a particular area or community.
This section evaluates some of the more common
farm types, from an occupational standpoint.
The accompanying table gives illustrative data
on size of farm, labor and capital requirements,
and net farm incomes received by operators of
typical or representative farms in various parts
of the country. On most of the farms, the major
part of the work is done by the farm operator
with help from his family. Whereas, some of
the smaller farms hire help only during peak
labor season, large ones often use hired labor
the year-round.
The figures in the table on capital invested do
not mean that the operator must have that
amount of money to get started. They do mean
that, on these farms, the operator controls or
uses resources valued at that amount. Many
farmers supplement their own capital with bor­
rowed funds; others rent part or all of the land

they use, thus allowing more of their own funds
for the purchase of livestock, machinery, and
equipment. Still others have partners who pro­
vide most of the working capital. For example,
many farmers raise broilers in partnership with
a feed dealer.
It may be well to mention here the question
of specialization versus diversification in farm
operations. No brief general statement can be
made that would apply in all parts of the coun­
try, but the general trend is in the direction of
more specialized farming. Farms that produced
many products a generation ago may now pro­
duce only two or three; efficient production of
most farm products requires substantial invest­
ment in specialized equipment, and, if the farm
operator is to receive the full benefit from his
investment, he must produce on a large scale.
Two other factors contributing to specialization
are the greater emphasis on quality of farm
products and the increased knowledge and skill
required for effective production of each. Rela­
tively few farmers, however, find it to their
advantage to produce only one product. The
main reasons for this are the spreading of
price and production risks and the more effective
use of labor, particularly family labor, and other
resources that might be virtually wasted or in­
effectively used in a one-product system.
Dairy Farms

Dairy farms are found in most parts of the
country. Despite modern methods of processing
and transporting milk, dairy production is still
concentrated near the large population centers.
A large part of the total national production of
dairy products is concentrated in the North­
eastern and the Great Lakes States. However,
many areas in the Far West and the South are
also becoming large producers of dairy products.


iz e




, L

abo r


se d

, C

a p it a l


n v e st e d



a n d


o c a t io n

e t




I ncom e
A verage



o m m e r c ia l


a r m s




y pe

, S

iz e


a n d

C a p ita l in v e s te d in —
T y p e o f farm a n d lo c a tio n

T o ta l
la b o r
u se d
(h o u r s)

S iz e o f fa rm in 1964 a s m e a s­
u red b y —

T o ta l
c a p ita l

Land and
b u ild in g s

M a c h in e r y
a n d e q u ip ­
m en t

L iv e s to c k

N et
in c o m e

C rop s

D a ir y farm s:
33.0 m ilk c o w s . . .

4 ,6 0 0

$23, 630


$ 9 ,3 0 0

$3. 030

$ 4 3,900


33.3 m ilk c o w s _____ . .
22.1 m ilk c o w s ___. . . _ _
24.8 m ilk c o w s . _ ___________

4 .6 5 0
3 ,8 2 0
4 .3 2 0
4, 210
5, 030

3 9 ,370
3 7 ,150
3 5 ,11C

6 ,4 1 0
4 ,2 6 0
7 ,4 0 0
2, 260

6 ,3 1 0
7, 520
7, 080
7 ,3 7 0

5 ,3 0 0
4 ,0 0 0
4 ,0 1 0
3 ,9 2 0

6 8 ,7 6 0
4 5 ,8 3 0
3 7 ,4 2 0
55, 550
44, 740

3 ,2 8 8
4 ,1 0 7
2 ,3 3 2

2 ,3 1 0

23, 030

8 ,6 1 0



3 1 ,6 4 0

3 ,6 0 2

2,6 0 0
1,5 7 0

3 8 .0 9 0

2, 540
9, 700
4 ,1 0 0



1 8 ,060
47, 790



4, 580
3, 700
3 ,9 1 0
3 ,1 8 0

49, 250
4 0 ,8 7 0
8 2 ,7 7 0
117, 080

8 ,0 9 0
6 .4 1 0
8 ,1 4 0

8 ,4 7 0
7 ,3 9 0
2 ,4 0 0

5, 050
4 ,0 1 0
1,7 9 0

7 0 ,8 6 0
58, 680

4, 086
9 ,5 9 0

4 ,9 3 0

2 7 ,000

2,1 5 0

1,0 5 0


30, 710

2,9 0 3

2 ,9 2 0

11, 780
210, 000

3, 260
3 7 ,0 1 0

8 ,1 4 0

1,8 9 0

15, 730
257, 040

2,3 9 2

2,9 4 0
3, 740
5, 690

47, 980
7 4 ,820

6, 530
16, 930

2 ,2 2 0


57, 290
86, 020

4 ,6 0 4
6 ,6 4 0

12, 530
9 ,7 6 0
3 ,6 4 0

919. 250

2 6 ,100
7 2 ,950
3 ,3 1 0

1 ,8 2 0


i 3 0 4 ,5 9 0
2 302, 230
3 1, 039, 600
2 3 ,1 9 0

3 2 ,0 4 8
4,9 1 7

5, 990
6 ,8 0 0

35, 280
3 8 ,5 0 0

4 ,4 1 0
4 ,6 8 0



4 0 ,7 0 0
4 4 ,1 2 0

6 ,2 9 0

62 a cres o f c r o p la n d .
25 a cres o f c r o p la n d
42 acres o f c r o p la n d .

4 ,7 5 0
3, 520
4 ,9 1 0

9 2 ,160
16, 920
33, 250

5 ,4 0 0
3 ,0 0 0
5 ,8 6 0

7 ,5 7 0
2 ,7 6 0
4 ,7 9 0

2 ,0 4 0
1,5 9 0

23, 570
4 5 ,4 9 0

5 ,6 8 0

597 acres o f c r o p la n d __________
397 acres o f c r o p la n d . . . .

2,5 8 0
3 ,5 4 0
2 ,6 7 0

4 0 ,3 9 0
3 9 ,8 0 0
4 6 ,1 5 0

8, 360
7 ,9 5 0

4 ,1 9 0
9, 260
3 ,8 9 0

1 ,7 4 0
2 ,5 3 0
1,3 9 0

5 7 ,310
59, 950
5 9 ,380

9 ,3 0 2

2,8 9 0

E a s te r n W isc o n sin :

5,100 la y e r s _________ . _ .
B r o ile r farm s:
D e lm a r v a :
B ro iler s
B r o ile r -c r o p ______ _ _ __ _
G e orgia ____
__ _ . . . . . . .
C o rn B e lt farm s:
I lo g fa tte n in g — b eef r a isin g

C o t t o n farm s:
S o u th e r n P ie d m o n t .
M is s is s ip p i D e lta :




. . .

104 a cres o f c r o p la n d .

640 acres o f c r o p la n d
T exas:
B la c k P r a ir ie . .





240 acres o f c r o p la n d _______


H ig h P la in s (ir r ig a te d ).
__________ __
S a n J o a q u in V a lle y , C a lif, (ir r ig a te d ):
C o tto n -g e n e r a l crop ( m e d iu m -s iz e )____
C o tto n -g e n e r a l crop (large)
P e a n u t-c o tto n farm s, S o u th e r n C o a sta l P la in s .
T o b a c c o farm s:
N o r t h C a ro lin a C o a s ta l P la in :
T obacco.
. . . .
T o b a c c o -c o tto n . . . . . . . . .
K e n t u c k y B lu egr ass:
T o b a c c o -liv e s to c k , in n e r a r e a . _______
T o b a c c o -d a ir y , in te r m e d ia te a r e a ____
T o b a c c o -d a ir y , o u te r a r e a ____
S p r in g w h e a t farm s:
N o r th e r n P la in s:
W h e a t-s m a ll g r a in -liv e s to c k ____ .
W h e a t-c o r n -liv e s to c k _______ _
W h e a t-fa llo w .
W in te r w h e a t farm s:
S o u th e r n P la in s:
W h e a t ____________
W h ea t-g ra in s o r g h u m .
. . .
P a c ific N o r th w e st:
W h e a t-p e a .
W h e a t-fa llo w ____ ___________ _ . . .
C a ttle ran ch es:
N o r th e r n P la in s __________

335 a cres o f c r o p la n d . ________
71 a cres o f c r o p la n d ___________

3 ,0 0 0

87, 780
104, 060


7 ,7 4 0
9 ,2 4 0

2 ,5 4 0
1,7 4 0



3 ,5 4 0


1,066 a cres o f c r o p la n d . .

3, 700


23, 270

2,4 6 0
4 ,8 1 0

1,3 7 0
1.3 7 0

201, 900


5 ,1 3 0

5 2 ,480

7, 750

24, 240

39, 740

4 1 ,8 5 0

3 ,7 6 0


6. 510
5, 270

3, 240
4 ,5 0 0
1,8 3 0

8 7 ,7 1 0
9 2 ,6 0 0

6 ,8 9 3
9,6 4 3
4 ,7 2 7

7 ,1 0 0
7 ,7 9 0
5 ,3 9 0

68, 580

1,2 5 0
1,7 7 0

100, 200

5,6 8 0

. ._

104.6 c o w s . . .


N o r th e r n P la in s __________
U ta h -N e v a d a . . .
S o u t h w e s t ______ . . .
. _______ ________ __

1 I n c lu d e s $23,440 c o s t o f ir rig a tio n s y s te m .
2 I n c lu d e s $19,630 c o s t o f ir r ig a tio n s y s te m .
3 I n c lu d e s $47,400 c o st o f ir r ig a tio n s y s t e m .


616 acres o f c r o p l a n d ___
693 acres o f c r o p la n d .

I n te r m o u n ta in R e g io n ...
S o u t h w e s t ...
S h e e p ran ch es:

5, 985

1,392 s h e e p . .
. . . . . .
2,217 s h e e p _____________________
1,219 s h e e p ____ ________________

31, 790

6 .7 7 0

23, 600

6 ,6 9 0
4 ,9 0 0

4 5 ,2 3 0

155, 210

N ote : P r e p a r e d in t h e F a r m P r o d u c tio n E c o n o m ic s R e se a r c h D iv is io n ,
E c o n o m ic R e se a r c h S e r v ic e , U .S . D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r ic u ltu r e .



While many of these are “drylot” operations, on
dairy farms in the Lake States and to a lesser
extent in the Northeast, crops are important. This
causes peak labor loads, especially at harvesttime. However, there is plenty of work through­
out the year on dairy farms, so that effective use
can be made of labor and a regular force can
be kept fully occupied most of the time.
Although most people do not like to be “tied
down” 7 days a week, this presents no great
hardship for the man who likes livestock and
enjoys working with animals. Dairying is also
a good choice for the man who likes to work with
mechanical equipment. As many dairy farmers
still produce much of their feed, the work varies
enough to keep it from becoming monotonous.
The dairyman’s sales, and therefore his income,
are fairly evenly distributed throughout the year.
Moreover, the prices he receives are usually less
subject to the marked year-to-year fluctuations
which affect some other types of farming. The
accompanying table shows the average net farm
income in the 1962-64 period on dairy farms in
the Central Northeast and Midwest.
Compared with farmers in most other areas,
dairy farmers in the more concentrated milksheds
of the Northeast (such as the dairy farms in the
Central Northeast shown in the table) frequently
milk larger herds, buy a larger proportion of
their feed, and are more likely to buy rather than
raise their herd replacements. Exceptions are the
specialized dairy farms on the Pacific Coast and
in a few other isolated areas. Perhaps the most
highly specialized producing area is the drylot
dairy area near Los Angeles. In this area, dairy
farms are quite small in acreage but large in milk
production and number of cows milked. No crops
are produced; these dairy operators buy their
entire feed requirements from outside the area.
Most of the cows are bought at freshening time
and are replaced when their lactation period is
completed. These highly specialized operations
are virtual “milk factories.”
Net farm income represents the return to the
farm operator for his own and his family’s labor,
and for the capital invested in the farm business—
provided he owns his land and is free from debt.
If he rents part or all of his farm, not all
of net farm income is available for family living;
part of it must be used for rent. Similarly, the

farmer who is in debt must use part of this net
farm income for interest and principal payments.
Lenders usually consider a 2 to 1 ratio of assets
to liabilities a safe one. For example, a $20,000
mortgage would be reasonable for the eastern
Wisconsin grade “A” dairy farm, shown in the
accompanying table, with land and buildings
worth about $40,000. If $20,000 were borrowed at
5 percent and payments were set up on a standard
20-year amortization plan, the annual payments
would be $1,500. Consequently, the farmer with
this repayment schedule has $1,500 less for family
living than one who is free from debt. This same
general qualification applies to the incomes shown
for other types of farms.
Livestock Farms and Ranches

A general livestock farm is a good choice for
the farmer whose interests and skills are in work
associated with livestock and mechanical equip­
ment. General livestock farms—such as the hogfattening and beef raising farms and hog-beef
fattening farms of the Corn Belt—require con­
siderably less daily “chore work” than dairy
farms. (See table.) Many farmers consider this
an advantage. Although livestock producers
often work shorter hours than dairymen, they
cannot always make as effective use of the regular
labor force during slack seasons. This may not
present great problems when a substantial part
of the labor force is made up of young people of
school age, because the busiest times come mainly
when these workers are out of school.
The livestock farmer’s income is not as well
distributed throughout the year as the dairy­
man’s, and it is less likely to be uniform from
year to year. To some extent, this complicates
financial management problems and increases the
risks of operation. Moreover, on farms of rather
limited acreages—often found in the Eastern
States—the level of income from general livestock
is usually lower than from a dairy herd on
similar acreage.
Most hog producers have their own breeding
stock and raise the pigs they fatten for market.
With cattle and sheep, however, the situation
differs. Most of the cattle and sheep fattened and
marketed by the livestock farmer are bred and
raised originally by someone else—usually the

livestock rancher of the West. The accompanying
table includes data for six types of Western live­
stock operations: Northern Plains sheep and
cattle ranches, Intermountain cattle ranches,
sheep ranches in Utah and Nevada, and sheep
and cattle ranches in the Southwest. In these
areas of low rainfall, the main source of feed
is range grass, and several acres are required
to support one animal. Except where irrigation
water is available, few feed crops are harvested.
Some ranchers, particularly those in the Inter­
mountain region and the Northern Plains, own
only a relatively small part of the land on which
they graze their livestock. The bulk of it is
public land on which they buy grazing rights.
Large acreages are required to provide enough
pasture for their stock, so the ranchers spend
much time in the saddle, truck, or jeep, managing
their herds.
Poultry Farms

Most farmers in the United States keep some
poultry, but in 1959 fewer than 4.3 percent of
them were classified as poultry farmers. Many
poultry farms concentrate on egg production;
most of the larger and more specialized of these
are in the Northeastern States and in California.
Others produce broilers; many highly concen­
trated centers of broiler production are east of the
Mississippi River and a few are on the West
Coast. There are also specialized turkey pro­
ducers, and a concentration of specialized pro­
ducers of ducks in Suffolk County, Long
Island, N.Y.
Although a fe\y poultrymen produce some
crops, these are usually produced for sale. Spe­
cial poultry feeds and laying mash are usually
purchased. Crops are not grown by most special­
ized poultry producers, particularly those who
produce broilers or large laying flocks. Opera­
tors of typical commercial poultry farms in New
Jersey, for example, buy all their feed. The
typical broiler producer in Maine, the Delmarva
(Delaware, Maryland, Virginia) peninsula, and
Georgia, devotes practically all of his capital and
labor to the production of broilers.
Poultry farming requires some specialized skill
in handling birds, chiefly on the part of the oper­
ator. Little is required in the way of physical


strength, as the tasks are generally not arduous.
This is particularly true now that bulk handling
of feed and mechanical feeding are widespread.
For these reasons, poultry farms can make good
use of available family help.
Data on average capital investment and net
farm income over the 1962-64 period for repre­
sentative egg producers in New Jersey and broiler
operators in Maine, Delmarva, and Georgia are
given in the table. These averages do not reveal
the sharp year-to-year fluctuations in income that
these producers experience. Because they have a
high proportion of cash costs and a rather thin
margin of profit, relatively small changes in feed,
broiler, and egg prices can produce sizable fluc­
tuations in net farm income.
The incomes of most broiler producers, how­
ever, are somewhat steadier, perhaps because of
the high proportion of broiler growers who pro­
duce “under contract.” Contract production is
much more widespread in broiler production than
in any other major type of farming. Under these
arrangements, the financing agency (usually a
feed dealer) furnishes the feed, chicks, and tech­
nical supervision—virtually everything except
the buildings, equipment, and direct production
labor. The grower gets a stipulated amount per
bird marketed, and often a bonus for superior
efficiency. Many turkey producers operate under
similar contracts, but these arrangements are
not nearly so universal for production of turkeys
as for broilers.
Corn and Wheat Farms

For the man who likes working with crops
and farm machinery, cash grain or corn or wheat
farming has much to offer. Many farmers are
reluctant to be tied down the year round with
livestock and related farm chores and prefer
instead to work long hours with laborsaving
equipment during the busy seasons, and then
have more freedom when the rush times are over.
The investment required and the recent income
experience on some representative cash grain
farms are shown in the table. Farms of this
type include cash grain farms in the Corn Belt,
spring wheat farms in the Northern Plains,
winter wheat farms in the Southern Plains,
and wheat-pea and wheat-fallow farms in the



Pacific Northwest. Some of these farmers—par­
ticularly in the Northern Plains—raise some beef
cattle for sale as feeders and keep a few milk
cows. However, this livestock production is usu­
ally of secondary importance. Many of these
farmers do not raise any livestock.
One of the main risks faced by the commercial
wheat grower is the uncertainty of favorable
weather. There is also some price risk because
of the large surplus of wheat; however, Federal
Government’s price-support program has sta­
bilized prices to some extent.
Cotton, Tobacco, and Peanut Farms

In terms of numbers of farmers, the produc­
tion of cotton, tobacco, and peanuts makes up a
substantial part of the agriculture in the South­
eastern and South Central States. These products
are grown on farms that range from very small
operating units to comparatively large ones.
Competition among these growers has been keen,
and many have been forced to diversify and
enlarge their farms—adjustments which require
expenditures of capital. Industrial expansion in
the South and competition from cotton growers
in the irrigated areas of the West and Southwest
have forced many cotton farmers in the South­
east out of cotton growing. Some of them have
stopped farming, and some have diversified their
operations. Competition will continue in the
growing of cotton, tobacco, and peanuts.
Crop Specialty Farms

Many farmers throughout the country have
special background, skills, resources, and other
advantages, chiefly because of location and home
training. They may specialize in production of

7 78 -3 1 6 0<— 65-


a single crop—such as grapes, oranges, potatoes,
sugarcane, or melons—or a combination of related
specialty crops.
Operators of these enterprises usually employ
considerable seasonal labor and require relatively
expensive specialized equipment. They also need
specific skills, many of which can be obtained
only through experience. Enterprises of this
kind should be undertaken only by persons with
considerable experience and some of the special
skills and techniques required. An alert individ­
ual with reasonable aptitude can usually learn
these skills by working a few years as a laborer
for a good operator or as a tenant for a landlord
who can give direction and assistance.
Annual returns from these specialty farms
usually vary greatly from year to year. Since
production is often subject to considerable varia­
tion because of the vagaries of nature and the
changes in prices, operators of these farms must
keep abreast of production and marketing con­
ditions. In general, these operators are well
rewarded for their ability to manage, produce,
and market.
Other Specialties

Other highly specialized operations, such as
fur farms, apiaries, and hop farms are very
sensitive to price and market conditions. Special
land, skills, know-how, and equipment are
required, and risks are high. But even with the
high risk, from the standpoint of capital in­
vested and income, the venture is often rewarding
to individuals who have the requisite ability and
resources. The operator of such a farm must
be enterprising and alert, must keep abreast of
production and markets, and must have the
ambition and desire to accomplish his objective.

As agriculture becomes more technical and
more commercial, the number of people directly
engaged in farming decreases but the number
in occupations related to agriculture increases
rapidly. Power machinery, for example, saves
many man-hours of labor on the farm, but many
highly trained nonfarm workers are required to
develop, distribute, and service these machines.

A large number of the vocations that are
emerging around agriculture are professional or
technical and require college training or its
Others can sometimes be learned on the job.
For many of these occupations related to agri­
culture, a farm background is helpful, but not
essential. The following sections discuss in detail
some of these occupations.

Agriculture Extension Service Workers
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-12.20)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 096.128)

Nature of Work

Agricultural extension workers are engaged in
educational work in agriculture and home eco­
nomics. They are employed jointly by State
land-grant colleges and the U.S. Department of
Agriculture. Extension workers must be pro­
ficient in both subject matter and teaching
County agricultural agents are concerned pri­
marily with increasing the efficiency of agricul­
tural production and marketing, including the
development of new market outlets. County home
demonstration agents work closely with women in
home management and nutrition.
Agricultural extension workers help people to
analyze and solve their farming and homemak­
ing problems. Much of this educational work is
with groups, through meetings, tours, and dem­
onstrations. Individual assistance is given to
farmers and homemakers on problems that can­
not be solved satisfactorily by group methods.
Both the county agent and the home agent, along
with the 4-H Club agent in counties that have
one, work with rural youth in organized groups
on projects related to agriculture, homemaking,
and community improvement. Extension workers

rely heavily on the use of the mass communication
media, such as newspapers, radio, and television.
The work of the county extension staff is sup­
ported by State extension specialists in such
subject-matter fields as agronomy, livestock,
marketing, agricultural economics, home eco­
nomics, horticulture, and entomology. Each of
these specialists keeps abreast of the latest re­
search findings in his particular field and works
with agents in applying them to local needs and
Where Employed

Extension agents are located in nearly every
agricultural county in the United States. Coun­
ties with many farmers producing a variety of
crops may have as many as 10 agents or more,
each specializing in a particular field such as
dairying, poultry production, crop production, or
Training and Other Qualifications

A county agent must have a bachelor’s degree
in agriculture or home economics. In most States,
the Extension Service maintains an in-service
training program to keep agents informed of the



newest findings in agricultural research and of
new programs and policies that affect agriculture
and new teaching techniques. To be successful,
extension workers must like to work with people.
In most instances, specialists on the State staff
are expected to have the master’s degree and
special training in their particular lines of work.
Employment Outlook

Employment of Extension Service workers
has grown to a total of 15,000 in 1965. The de­
mand for additional workers is expected to con­
tinue. As agricultural technology becomes more
complicated, and as farm people become more
aware of the need for organized activity, more
help is being sought from trained Extension
Service personnel. A growing number of Exten­
sion Service workers will be needed, particularly
in depressed rural areas. The work of the Ex­
tension Service will also be extended to new
segments of the population, as rural nonfarm
families and suburban residents recognize the
value of assistance from extension workers.
Counterparts of the Agricultural Extension
Service are being established in many countries of
the world and Extension Service personnel are

often recruited to help initiate and organize these
Earnings and Working Conditions

The salaries of extension agents vary from
State to State and county to county. In 1965, the
average annual starting salary of assistant agri­
cultural agents was about $6,000 and of home
agents approximately $5,500. Starting salaries for
assistant agricultural agents ranged from $5,000
to $7,000.
Ordinarily, the competent assistant agent is
promoted rapidly to a more responsible job, either
in the county where he works or in another county
in the State. In 1965, salaries for experienced
agricultural agents ranged from $9,000 to $15,500.
Salaries of experienced home demonstration
agents ranged from $7,000 to $11,500 annually.
Where To G o for More Information

Additional information may be obtained from
County Extension Offices, State Directors of Ex­
tension located at each State College of Agricul­
ture, or the Federal Extension Service, U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.,
20250. (Also see statement on Home Economists.)

Soil Scientists
(2d ed. D.O.T. 0-35.03)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 040.081)

Nature of Work

Soil scientists study the physical, chemical, and
biological characteristics and behavior of soils.
They investigate soils both in the field and the
laboratory and classify them according to a
national system of soil classification. From their
research, soil scientists can classify soils in terms
of response to management practices and capa­
bility for producing crops, grasses, and trees,
as well as their utility as engineering materials.
Soil scientists prepare maps, usually based on
aerial photographs, on which they plot the indi­
vidual kinds of soil and other landscape features
significant to soil use and management in rela­
tion to land lines, field boundaries, roads, and
other conspicuous features.
Soil scientists also conduct research to deter­
mine the physical and chemical properties of

soils and their water relationships, in order to
understand their behavior and origin. They pre­
dict the yields of cultivated crops, grasses, and
trees, under alternative combinations of manage­
ment practices.
The field of soil science offers opportunities for
those who wish to specialize in soil classification
and mapping, soil geography, soil chemistry, soil
physics, soil microbiology, and soil management.
Training and experience in soil science will also
prepare persons for positions as farm managers,
land appraisers, and many other professional
Where Employed

Most soil scientists are employed by agencies
of the Federal Government, State experiment
stations, and colleges of agriculture. However,



many are employed in a wide range of other
public and private institutions, including ferti­
lizer companies, private research laboratories,
insurance companies, banks and other lending
agencies, real estate firms, land appraisal boards,
State highway departments, State and city park
departments, State conservation departments,
and farm management agencies. A few are inde­
pendent consultants or work for consulting firms.
An increasing number are employed in foreign
countries as research leaders, consultants, and
agricultural managers.

The demand is increasing for soil scientists to
help complete the scientific classification and
evaluation of the soil resources in the United
States. One of the major program objectives of
the Soil Conservation Service of the U.S. Depart­
ment of Agriculture is to complete the soil sur­
vey of all rural lands in the United States. This
program includes research, soil classification and
correlation, interpretation of results for use by
agriculturists and engineers, and training of
others in use of the results. Also, demand is
increasing for both basic and applied research
to increase the efficiency of soil use.

Training and Advancement

Training in a college or university of recog­
nized standing is important in obtaining em­
ployment as a soil scientist. The B.S. degree is
a minimum requirement for entrance into this
occupation. Those with graduate training—
especially those with the doctor’s degree—can
be expected to advance rapidly into responsible
positions with good pay. This is particularly true
in soil research, including the more responsible
positions in soil classification, and in teaching.
Soil scientists who are qualified for work with
both field arid laboratory data have a special
Many colleges and universities offer fellow­
ships and assistantships for graduate training or
employ graduate students for part-time teaching
or research.
Employment Outlook

Opportunities for well-trained soil scientists
are expected to be favorable through the mid1970’s. A number of positions were vacant in
early 1965 because of the shortage of qualified


The incomes of soil scientists depend upon
their education, professional experience, and in­
dividual abilities. The entrance salary in the
Federal service for soil scientists wuth a B.S.
degree was $5,000 a year in early 1965, with
advancement to $6,050 after 1 year of satisfactory
performance. Further advancement depends upon
the individual’s ability to do high-quality work
and to accept responsibility. Earnings of wellqualified Federal soil scientists with several years’
experience ranged from about $9,000 to $14,000
per year.
Where To G o for More Information

Additional information may be obtained from
the U.S. Civil Service Commission, Washington,
D.C. 20415; Office of Personnel, U.S. Department
of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. 20250; or any
office of the Department’s Soil Conservation
Also see statements on Chemists and Biologists.

Soil Conservationists
(2d ed. D.O.r '. 0-35.03)
(3d ed. D.O.' \ 040.081)

Nature of Work

Soil conservationists supply farmers, ranchers,
and others with technical assistance in planning,
applying, and maintaining measures and struc­
tural improvements for soil and water conserva­
tion on individual holdings, groups of holdings,

or on watersheds. Farmers and other land man­
agers use this technical assistance in making
adjustments in land use; protecting land against
soil deterioration; rebuilding eroded and de­
pleted soils; stabilizing runoff and sedimentproducing areas; improving cover on crop, for­



est, pasture, range, and wildlife lands; conserv­
ing water for farm and ranch use and reducing
damage from flood water and sediment; and in
draining or irrigating farms or ranches.
The types of technical services provided by
soil conservationists are: Maps presenting in­
ventories of soil, water, vegetation, and other
details essential in conservation planning and
application; information on the proper land
uses and the treatment suitable for the planned
use of each field or part of the farm or ranch,
groups of farms or ranches, or entire water­
sheds; and estimates of the relative cost of, and
expected returns from, various alternatives of
land use and treatment.
After the landowner or operator decides upon
a conservation program that provides for the
land to be used within its capability and treated
according to the planned use, the conservationist
records the relevant facts as part of a plan which,
together with the maps and other supplemental
information, constitute an overall plan of action
for conservation farming or ranching. The soil
conservationist then gives the land manager tech­
nical guidance in applying and maintaining the
conservation practices.
Where Employed

Most soil conservationists are employed by the
Federal Government, mainly by the U.S. Depart­
ment of Agriculture’s Soil Conservation Service
and the Bureau of Indian Affairs in the Depart­
ment of the Interior. Some are employed by
colleges and State and local governments; others
work for banks and public utilities.

ranch conservation and land use planning. A
college degree is not required for subprofessional
soil conservationists whose primary work is to
help farmers or ranchers in applying conserva­
tion practices after plans for conservation have
been completed.
Professional soil conservationists with unusual
aptitude in the various phases of the work have
good chances of advancement to higher salaried
technical and administrative jobs.
Employment Outlook

Employment opportunities for well-trained
soil conservationists were good in 1965. Oppor­
tunities in the profession will expand because
government agencies, public utility companies,
banks, and other organizations are becoming in­
creasingly interested in conservation and are
adding conservationists to their staffs. Other new
openings will occur in college teaching, particu­
larly at the undergraduate level. In addition,
some openings will arise because of the normal
turnover in personnel.

In early 1965, the entrance salary for soil
conservationists with a B.S. degree employed by
the Federal Government was $5,000 a year, with
advancement to $6,050 after 1 year of satisfactory
service. Further advancement depends upon the
individual’s ability to accept greater responsi­
bility. Earnings of well-qualified Federal soil
conservationists with several years’ experience
range from $9,000 to $14,000 a year.
Where To G o for More Information

Training and Advancement

A bachelor’s degree is the minimum require­
ment for professional soil conservationists. Grad­
uates with degrees in forestry, biology, agronomy,
engineering, range management, and general
agriculture are eligible to become soil conserva­
tionists after special field training in farm and

Additional information on employment as a
soil conservationist may be obtained from the
U.S. Civil Service Commission, Washington, D.C.
20415; Employment Division, Office of Personnel,
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington,
D.C. 20250; or any office of the Department's Soil
Conservation Service.



Other Professional Workers
Nature of Work

There are many other professional opportuni­
ties in agriculture for people trained in various
technical fields. The following are general work
descriptions of technically trained persons em­
ployed in occupations related to agriculture:
Biochemists deal with the chemical compounds
and processes occurring in living plants and
Entomologists study insects, both beneficial
and harmful in farming. They are especially
concerned with developing measures to control
insects that injure growing crops and animals,
harm human beings, and damage agricultural
commodities in storage, processing, and distribu­
Embryologists study the formation and devel­
opment of the embryos of plants and animals.
Bacteriologists conduct microbiological and
fermentation research to produce vitamins, anti­
biotics, amino acids, sugars, and polymers, by
the action of micro-organisms.
Plant and animal pathologists conduct research
on causes and control of plant and animal dis­
eases, including those caused by fungi, bacteria,
viruses, and physiological conditions.
Geneticists try to develop strains, varieties,
breeds, and hybrids of plants and animals that
are better suited to the production of food and
fiber than those now available.
Plant and animal husbandry specialists are
concerned with methods of caring for and managing plants and animals for the production of
food and fiber.
Human nutritionists study the process by which
the human body utilizes food substances.
Agricultural engineers develop new and im­
proved farm machines and equipment, study the
physical aspects of soil and water problems in
farming, devise new techniques for harvesting
and processing farm products, and design more
efficient farm buildings.
Agricultural economists deal primarily with
problems related to the production, financing,
and marketing of farm products. They are fact­
finders, evaluators, analysts, and interpreters who
help farmers with economic affairs.

Rural sociologists study the structure and func­
tions of the social institutions (customs, practices,
and laws) that are a part of or affect rural
Many of the above specialties are discussed
in greater detail elsewhere in the Handbook.
Where Employed

Persons trained in these specialties work in
various capacities that relate to agriculture.
Some are engaged in research for government
agencies, colleges, agricultural experiment sta­
tions, and private businesses that deal with
farmers. Others have technical and administra­
tive responsibilities in public agencies that deal
with farmers or whose programs affect farmers.
Some are employed by cooperatives, and by
private business, commercial, and financial com­
panies that buy from, sell to, or serve farmers.
Others serve in vocational agriculture teaching,
in agricultural communications work, in farm­
ers’ organizations, or in trade associations whose
members deal with farmers.
The number of research activities related to
agriculture has increased rapidly within the past
several decades. The largest agencies in this field
are the State experiment stations connected with
the land-grant colleges and the various research
branches of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Other research organizations include some en­
gaged in independent research, and others con­
nected with companies that finance farming oper­
ations, market farm products, or produce chem­
icals, equipment, and other supplies or services
for farmers. The U.S. Department of Agri­
culture employs workers in research positions in
various parts of the country: In Washington,
D.C., and the nearby Agricultural Research Cen­
ter at Beltsville, Md.; at land-grant colleges;
and at numerous other places. Other govern­
ment departments also have many agricultural
research jobs.
Various independent research organizations,
foundations, and private business groups in many
parts of the country have recently initiated
research relating to agriculture. They tend to be
located either in industrial centers or in areas


of high agricultural activity, and include pro­
ducers of feed, seed, fertilizer, farm equipment;
and insecticides, herbicides, and other chemical
dusts and sprays.
Public and private lending institutions, which
make loans to farmers, employ men with broad
training in agriculture and business. These work­
ers are ordinarily required to have had practical
farm experience, as well as academic training in
agriculture, economics, and other subjects.
Making financially sound loans involves careful
analysis of the farm business and proper evalu­
ation of farm real estate and other farm prop­
erty. Trained personnel in lending institutions,
therefore, are the key to sound credit practices
in financing farmers. They are employed by the
cooperative Farm Credit Administration in its
banks and in associations operating under its
supervision throughout the country; by the
Farmers Home Administration in its Washing­
ton and county offices; by rural banks; and by
insurance companies that have substantial invest­
ments in farm mortgages.
The Federal and State governments also em­
ploy various specialists in activities relating to
agriculture. These specialists have technical and
managerial responsibilities in activities such as
programs relating to the production, marketing,
inspection, and grading of farm products, pre­
vention of the spread of plant pests, animal para­
sites, and diseases; and management and control
of wildlife.
Large numbers of professionally trained per­
sons are employed by cooperatives and business
firms that deal with farmers. Employment in
these organizations may be expected to expand,
as farmers rely increasingly on them to provide
farm supplies, machinery, equipment, and serv­
ices, and to market farm products. The size of
the organization and the types of services it
offers determine the number of its employees
and the nature of their jobs. Large farm supply
cooperatives and businesses, for example, may
have separate divisions for feed, seed, fertilizer,
petroleum, chemicals, farm machinery, and pub­
lic relations and credit, each supervised by a
department head. In smaller businesses and
cooperatives, such as local grain-marketing ele­

vators, the business is run almost entirely by the
general manager with only two or three helpers.
Another expanding area of specialization is
that of agricultural communications. Crop re­
porters and market news reporters are employed
by the U.S. Department of Agriculture in field
offices throughout the United States. Crop re­
porters gather information on crop production
during all stages of the growing season. Market
news reporters collect information on movement
of agricultural produce from the farm to the
market. Radio and TV farm directors are em­
ployed by many radio and TV stations to report
prices, sales, grades, and other agricultural infor­
mation to farm people. Agricultural reporters
and editors compile farm news and data for
farm journals, bulletins, and broadcasts. Closely
related to agricultural communications is em­
ployment in farmers’ organizations or in-trade
associations whose members deal with farmers.
The nationwide, federally aided program of
vocational education continues to offer employ­
ment for persons technically trained in agricul­
ture and related subjects. Instruction under this
program is given in public high schools and in
classes organized for persons over 14 years of age
“who have entered upon or who are preparing
to enter upon the work of the farm or the farm
home.” Vocational agriculture teachers also su­
pervise farm programs and give instruction in
farm mechanics in school shops. They also serve
as advisers to the local chapters of the Future
Farmers of America. In addition to work with
“in-school” . students, the teachers provide orga­
nized instruction to assist young farmers in be­
coming satisfactorily established in farming and
in becoming community leaders. They also pro­
vide organized instruction for adult farmers, with
individual consultation on their farms to keep
them abreast of modern farm technology.
The qualifications of workers in all of these
fields ordinarily include a college education with
special training in a particular line of work. In
most of these fields, the demand for workers
exceeds the supply. In recent years, the demand
has been increased by the recruitment of profes­
sional personnel to staff agricultural missions
and give technical aid to agricultural institutions
and farmers in other countries.


Where To G o for More Information

Opportunities in Research. Additional infor­
mation on research opportunities at land-grant
colleges may be obtained from the dean of agri­
culture at the State land-grant college. Informa­
tion on employment in the TT.S. Department of
Agriculture is available from the USDA recruit­
ment representatives at land-grant colleges and
from the Office of Personnel, U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Washington, D.C., 20250.
The following publications will be valuable:
P ro files-C a reers


th e

U .S .

D ep a rtm en t

of A g ric u l­

U.S. Department of Agriculture, September
1964. Superintendent of Documents, GPO, Wash­
ington, D.C. 20402. Price $2.
tu re,

C h oose a C h a llen g in g

and R ew a rd in g

C a r e e r in th e

Publication 833, U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Washington, D.C. 20250.
T h e r e i s a N e w C h a l l e n g e i n A g r i c u l t u r e , American
Association of Land-Grant Colleges and State Uni­
versities, Washington, D.C., 1962. Copies can be
obtained from your State Agricultural College.
U .S .

D ep a rtm en t


A g ric u ltu re,

Opportunities in Agricultural Finance. In ­
quiries on employment opportunities in agricul­
tural finance may be directed to the following:
Farm Credit Administration, Washington, D.C.
Farm Credit District—Springfield, M ass.; Baltimore,
Md.; Columbia, S.C.; Louisville, K y .; New Orleans,
L a.; St. Louis, M o.; St. Paul, M inn.; Omaha.
Nebr.; Wichita, K ans.; Houston, T ex .; Berkeley,
C alif.; Spokane, Wash.
Farmers Home Administration, U.S. Department of
Agriculture. Washington, D.C. 20250.
Agricultural Director, American Bankers Association,
12 East 36th St., New York, N.Y. 10016.

Opportunities with Cooperatives. Farmer co­
operatives are located in every State. Information
relating to job opportunities in farmer coopera­
tives may be obtained from local or regional
cooperatives. If no jobs are available with these
cooperatives, they may be able to make referrals
to others which have openings. Other sources of
information are the county agent and the Agri­
cultural Economics Departments of State Agri­
cultural Colleges. General information may be
obtained from the American Institute of Coopera­
tion or the National Council of Farmer Coopera­
tives, both located at 1200 17th St. NW., Washing­
ton, D.C., 20036, and the Cooperative League of
the U.S.A., 59 East Van Buren St., Chicago, 111.,
Opportunities for Agricultural' Economists.
For additional information about opportunities
in agricultural economics, check with the Depart­
ment of Agricultural Economics at State landgrant college. For information on Federal em­
ployment opportunities, applicants may get in
touch with USDA recruitment representatives at
the State land-grant college or write directly to
the Office of Personnel, U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Washington, D.C., 20250.
Opportunities as Vocational Agriculture Teach­
ers. As salaries, travel, and programs of voca­
tional agriculture teachers vary slightly among
States, prospective teachers should consult the
Head Teacher Trainer in Agriculture Education
at the land-grant college or the State Supervisor
of Agricultural Education at the State Depart­
ment of Public Instruction in their respective

Farm Service Jobs
In almost every type of agriculture, farmers
require specialized services which can be readily
learned and performed by other workers. A per­
son can enter many of these services, either as an
independent operator or as an employee. Some
services require an extensive outlay of capital,
and others require very little. Some are highly
seasonal; others are performed year round.
These services can sometimes be combined well
with operation of a small farm.
Services that provide year-round employment
include: Cow testing, artificial breeding, live­

stock trucking, whitewashing, well drilling, fenc­
ing, and tilling.
In cow testing and artificial breeding, an asso­
ciation of farmers employs one or more workers
on a monthly basis to conduct the operations.
Supervisors who do cow testing are employed
by dairy herd improvement associations. They
must have a high school education, and a farm
background is almost essential. In 1965, annual
salaries were from about $3,500 to $8,000. Arti­
ficial breeding associations employ inseminators
who must have at least a high school education.


In 1965, these workers were paid from about
$4,500 to $14,000 a year. Agricultural college
training is desirable but not essential for employ­
ment in these occupations. Brief periods of
approximately a month of specialized training
are available through the associations.
Other services for farmers are more seasonal.
These include: Fruit spraying (2-3 months) air­
plane dusting (4-6 months), grain combining (2
months), hay and straw baling (2-8 months),
tractor plowing and cultivating (4-6 months),
and sheep shearing (2-3 months).
These and many other services are often done
by farmers who engage in custom work as a
sideline to keep their equipment busy. In areas
where the growing season is long, however, the
period when these services can be carried on is

long enough to permit individuals to specialize
in them.
Somewhat more remote from farm operation
but still closely tied in with agriculture are such
activities as repairing and servicing farm machin­
ery; feed grinding and mixing; maintaining stor­
ages and warehouses of agricultural products;
operation of nurseries and greenhouses; and pack­
ing, grading, and processing of farm products.
Although these activities are sometimes per­
formed on the farm, the current trend is to con­
duct them as specialized lines of business away
from the farm. An agricultural background is
helpful to people who enter these lines of work.
The agricultural aspects, however, can be learned
more readily than the required specialized skills.

Occupations in Government
Government service, one of the Nation’s largest
fields of employment, provided jobs for more than
9.5 million civilian workers in 1964—almost 1
out of every 6 persons employed in the United
States. About three-fourths of these workers
were employed by State or local governments
(county, city, town, village, or other local gov­
ernment division); the rest worked for the Fed­
eral Government, either in the United States or
abroad. Opportunities for jobs in government
service will be very favorable during the 1965-75
decade. Rapid growth is expected in State and
local government employment, continuing the
trend in the post-World War I I period. Only
a small increase is expected in Federal employ­
ment. Large numbers of job opportunities will
arise in Federal, State, and local governments
from the need to replace workers who retire, or
die, or leave government service. Altogether
several hundred thousand individuals will be
hired each year for jobs in a wide variety of
occupations, ranging from messenger to nuclear
physicist. Government service will continue to
be an important source of job opportunities for
women. In 1964, 40 percent of all government
workers were women, most of whom were in
clerical or teaching jobs.
Government employees are a significant part
of the nonagricultural work force in every State,
ranging from 1 in 10 in Connecticut to mcjre than
4 in 10 in Alaska. Their jobs are found not only
in capital cities, county seats, and metropolitan
areas, but also in small towns and villages, and
even in remote and isolated spots such as light­
house installations and forest ranger stations.
Government Activities and Occupations

In 1964, about a third of all government
workers were engaged in providing educational
services (chart 41) ; the majority were in schools

and colleges supported by State and local gov­
ernments. In addition to teachers, employees in
this field included administrative and clerical
workers, maintenance workers, librarians, dieti­
tians, nurses, and counselors. The great majority
of workers in educational services were employed
in elementary and secondary schools.
The second largest group of government
workers were engaged in national defense ac­
tivities of the Federal Government. This group,
numbering more th an ' a million employees, in­
cluded civilians working in the Department of
Defense and a few other defense-related agencies
such as the Atomic Energy Commission. Among
this group were administrative and clerical em­
ployees, doctors, nurses, teachers, engineers, scien­
tists, technicians, and craftsmen and other manual
workers. Employees in this group worked in
offices, research laboratories, navy yards, arsenals,
and missile launching sites, and in hospitals and
schools run by the military services.
Other large concentrations of employees were
in health services and hospitals, the postal service,
and highway work. Workers were also employed
by government agencies in activities such as
housing and community development, police and
fire protection, social security and public welfare
services, transportation and public utilities, con­
servation of natural resources, tax enforcement
and other financial functions, as well as in general
administrative, judicial, and legislative activities.
Most employees in the health and hospital fields,
in highway work, and in police and fire protec­
tion activities worked for State and local govern­
ment agencies. On the other hand, jobs in na­
tional defense and in the postal service are
Federal, as are over half the jobs concerned with
natural resources, such as those in the National
Park and Forestry Services.
The wide variety of government functions re­
quires employees in many different occupations.



Because of the special character of many govern­
ment activities, the occupational distribution of
employment is very different from that in pri­
vate industry, as shown in the distributions of
employment in 1964, which follows:

Occupation group

Total. White-collar workers__
Professional and technical
Managers, officials, and proprie­
ClericalSales_____ - _ - _
Blue-collar workers.
Craftsmen, foremen
Nonfarm laborers
Service workers
Farm workers _ __ —

Percent of—
em ployem ploym e n t1








Thousands of employees, October 1964 \J




National defense

Hospitals (including
health services)

Postal service


All other 2/

ian employees including those

! United States and 38,000 employees

Guard paid directly from the f

Source: Bureau of the Census.

1 Data exclude overseas Federal employment.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.
Note: Because of rounding, sums of individual items
may not equal totals.

Although the many different governmental
activities require a diversified work force with
many different levels of education, training, and
skill, the majority of government employees are
white-collar workers. In 1964, over 60 percent of
government employment (nearly 6 million) was
in professional and technical, managerial, clerical,
and some sales occupations—the so-called “whitecollar” jobs. Among the largest occupational
groups were teachers; postal clerks; and office
workers such as stenographers, typists, and clerks.

Some important occupations and occupational
groups among the approximately 3.5 million serv­
ice, craft, and other manual workers, were aircraft
and automotive mechanics and repairmen; police­
men; firemen; truckdrivers; skilled maintenance
workers (for example, carpenters, painters,
plumbers, and electricians); custodial workers;
and laborers.
The following chapters discuss, first, opportuni­
ties for civilian employment in the major divisions
of government and then opportunities in the
various branches of the Armed Forces. A separate
chapter gives detailed information on post office

Federal Government
The Federal Government, the largest employer
in the United States, had over 2.5 million civilian
workers in 1964, including 160,000 who worked
in overseas posts. Federal employees were en­
gaged in occupations representing nearly every
kind of job in private employment, as well as some
unique to the Federal Government such as postal
clerk, border patrolman, immigration inspector,
foreign service officer, and Internal Revenue
agent. Practically all Federal employees worked
for the departments and agencies that make up
the executive branch of the government. The
others were employed in the legislative and judi­
cial branches.
The executive branch includes the Office of the
President, the 10 departments with cabinet repre­
sentation, and a number of independent agencies,
commissions, and boards. This branch is respon­
sible for such activities as administering Federal
laws; handling international relations; conserv­
ing resources; treating and rehabilitating disabled
veterans; delivering the mail; maintaining the
flow of supplies to the Armed Forces; and ad­
ministering other programs to promote the health
and welfare of the American people.
The Department of Defense, which includes the
Departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force,
was the largest agency, with more than a million
civilian workers in 1964; the Post Office Depart­
ment employed nearly 600,000. The Veterans
Administration and the Department of Agricul­
ture were the only other Federal agencies with
more than 100,000 workers. The remaining em­
ployees of the executive branch were distributed
among 70 or more departments, agencies, com­
missions, offices, and boards, where employment
ranged from a few paid employees of small com­
missions, to large departments with 50,000 or more
(Treasury; Health, Education, and Welfare: and
the Interior).

Of the nearly 31,000 employees in the legislative
and judicial branches, the majority were in the
legislative branch, which includes the Congress,
the Government Printing Office, the General Ac­
counting Office, the Library of Congress, the
Office of the Architect of the Capitol, and the U.S.
Botanic Gardens. The remaining workers were
employed by the judicial branch, which includes
the Supreme Court and the other United States
About two-thirds of all Federal employees were
full-time white-collar workers. The great major­
ity of white-collar workers (about 85 percent)
were in nonprofessional occupations. More than
a third of these nonprofessional workers were in
clerical jobs; for example, as secretaries, stenog­
raphers, typists, clerks, office machine operators,
or receptionists. Postal clerks, carriers, and post­
masters made up another third. The remainder
were employed in a variety of occupations such as
fiscal clerk, inspector, investigator, hospital
worker, and nonprofessional scientific or technical
The remaining 15 percent of the white-collar
workers were in professional occupations. Major
fields of professional employment in the Federal
Government included engineering; medical serv­
ices; accounting; physical, biological, and social
sciences; education; law; and mathematics.
Nearly a third of all Federal professional em­
ployees were engineers, over half of whom worked
for the Department of Defense. Large numbers of
engineers also were employed by the National
Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA),
the Department of the Interior, and the Depart­
ments of Commerce and Agriculture.
The second largest group of Federal profes­
sional employees were engaged in medical and
related services. The largest numbers of profes­
sionals in these fields were nurses and doctors, the



majority of whom were employed by the Veterans
Administration and by the Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare. Other occupations in
medical services in which large numbers of pro­
fessional workers were employed included den­
tists, public health administrators, dietitians,
medical technologists, and pharmacists. Another
large group of professional employees were ac­
countants (including Internal Revenue agents),
employed principally in the Treasury Department,
Department of Defense, General Accounting Of­
fice, and Department of Agriculture.
Over a fourth of the physical scientists in the
Federal Government were chemists; large num­
bers of whom were employed by the Department
of Health, Education, and Welfare, and the De­
partment of Agriculture. Other physical scientists
employed by the Federal Government included
physicists, cartographers, meteorologists, and
geologists. Many physical scientists worked in
the research program of NASA.
The majority of biological scientists were em­
ployed by the Department of Agriculture in areas
such as botally, plant pathology, soil conservation,
forestry, and entomology. The Department of the
Interior also employed a substantial number of
biological scientists.
Among social scientists, the single largest group
were economists, who were employed throughout
the Federal Government. Other large groups of
social scientists included specialists in foreign
affairs and international trade, employed prin­
cipally in the State Department; and psychol­
ogists and social workers, most of whom worked
in the Veterans Administration. A large number
of lawyers were employed by the Department
of Justice; substantial numbers of lawyers also
worked for the Department of Defense; the
Treasury Department ; and the National Labor
Relations Board.
Although relatively few mathematicians, mathe­
matical statisticians, and general statisticians were
employed by the Federal Government in 1964,
this number has been increasing. Over half of
the mathematicians were employed by the Depart­
ment of Defense. Substantial numbers were also
in the Department of Commerce.
In addition to the many white-collar occupa­
tions in the Federal Government, many different
blue collar jobs—service, craft, and manual labor

—provided employment to over half a million
workers in 1964. The majority of these workers
were in establishments such as naval shipyards;
arsenals; air bases; quartermaster depots; con­
struction projects; and harbor, flood-control, irri­
gation, or reclamation projects. Approximately
three-fourths of these workers were employed by
the Department of Defense. Most of the remain­
ing employees were engaged in activities of the
Veterans Administration, Post Office, General
Services Administration, Department of the In ­
terior, Tennessee Valley Authority, and Depart­
ment of Agriculture.
Among individual service, craft, and manual
labor occupations, the largest single group oper­
ated or maintained mobile industrial equipment
such as fork-lift trucks, rigging equipment,
tractor-trailers and other trucking equipment, or
repaired automotive and engineering equipment.
The second largest group were employed in
manual labor occupations. Once the largest group
of Federal blue-collar workers, employment in
this group decreased by nearly 30 percent in
recent years. Other occupations with large num­
bers of blue-collar employees included fixed in­
dustrial equipment operators and mechanics,
general machining workers, mess hall attendants,
aircraft mechanics, painters, steamfitters, and
carpenters. A small but rapidly growing field of
work is that of electronic equipment instrument
making, repairing, and installing.
(Detailed descriptions of the work duties of
most white-collar, service, craft, and manual labor
jobs mentioned above are provided in other sec­
tions of the Handbook.)
Federal employees are stationed in all parts
of the United States and its territories and in
many foreign countries. Most Government de­
partments and agencies have their headquarters
offices in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan
area; nearly 270,000 Federal workers were em­
ployed in that area in 1964. California, with
nearly 250,000 Federal employees, had almost as
many. Other States with more than 100,000 Fed­
eral workers included New York, Pennsylvania,
Texas, and Illinois.
The Merit System

Approximately 9 out of 10 jobs in the Federal
Government in the United States in 1964 were

covered by the Civil Service Act. This act was
passed by the Congress to ensure that Federal
employees are hired on the basis of individual
merit and fitness. It provides for competitive
examinations and the selection of new employees
from among those who make the highest scores.
The U.S. Civil Service Commission, which ad­
ministers the Civil Service Act, is responsible for
examining and rating applicants and supplying
Federal departments and agencies with names of
persons who are eligible for the jobs to be filled.
Some Federal jobs are excepted from Civil
Service requirements either by law or by action
of the Civil Service Commission. However, a
large percentage of the excepted positions are
under separate merit systems of other agencies,
such as the Foreign Service of the Department of
State, the Department of Medicine and Surgery
of the Veterans Administration, the Federal
Bureau of Investigation of the Department of
Justice, the Atomic Energy Commission, and the
Tennessee Valley Authority. These agencies
established their own standards for the selection
of new employees.
Civil service competitive examinations may be
taken by all persons who are citizens of the
United States, or who owe permanent allegiance
to the United States (in the case of residents of
American Somoa). To be eligible for appoint­
ment, an applicant must meet minimum age,
training, and experience requirements for the
particular position, and be physically able to
perform the duties of the position. Examinations
vary according to the types of positions for which
they are held; Some examinations include writ­
ten tests; others do not. In nonwritten examina­
tions, applicants are rated on the basis of the
experience and training described in their appli­
cations and any corroborating evidence required
by the Commission. The Civil Service Commis­
sion periodically conducts examinations to fill
vacancies in the wide variety of occupations
needed to operate the Federal Government. (See
page. 815 for sources of information concerning
The Commission notifies applicants whether
they have achieved eligible or ineligible ratings,
and enters the names of eligible applicants on a
list in the order of their scores. When a Federal
agency requests names of eligible applicants for


a job vacancy, the Commission sends the agency
the names at the top of the appropriate list. The
appointing officer in the requesting agency can
select any one of the top three available eligibles.
Names of those not selected by this agency are
restored to the list for consideration in connec­
tion with other job openings.
Appointments to civil service jobs are made
without regard to an applicant’s race, color, re­
ligion, national origin, politics, or sex.
A Federal employee who is laid off is entitled
to unemployment compensation similar to that
provided for employees in private industry. He
is covered by the unemployment insurance sys­
tem in the State or area in which he worked.
Employment Trends and Outlook

Federal employment remained relatively stable
during the past decade, despite a population in­
crease of about 30 million, huge expenditures
for missile and space research and development,
and growing Federal health, welfare, postal, and
other services. (See chart 42.) Factors which
contributed to this stability included efforts to­
ward greater efficiency and economy in agency
operations; and significant advances in automatic
data processing. By 1964, Federal employment
was about 2.5 million—only slightly higher than a
decade earlier.
Millions of employees











I9 6 0


i/ D a ta include Alaska and Hawaii beginning with 1959, and
are therefore not strictly comparable with previous years.
Note: Data relate to civilian employment only and exclude
Central Intelligence Agency and National Security Agency



The manpower requirements of the Federal
Government are a direct reflection of the demand
for services by an increasing population, of the
country’s domestic and international programs,
and of changes in technology and methods of
operation. Population expansion has increased
the need for a wide range of government services
which required, for example, greater numbers
of air traffic controllers, social security claims
examiners, accounting and budget workers, mail
carriers, and business and industry specialists.
Laws providing new or expanded services to the
public, resulted in increased employment of food
and drug inspectors, highway engineers, and edu­
cation personnel. Employment in legal and kin­
dred occupations also increased, mainly because
there are more laws and regulations to interpret,
administer, and enforce; and more claims to exam­
ine for payment of retirement, disability, and
death benefits.
Federal employment gains in science, engineer­
ing, and other fields reflect the demands of vigor­
ous national research and development efforts in
a variety of programs, such as space exploration,
military weapons, nuclear energy, medicine and
health, air defense, and airport traffic control.
For example, the number of professional engi­
neers rose by an estimated 70 percent between
1954 and 1964. Scientists (particularly physical
science administrators), biological scientists, and
mathematicians, also experienced rapid employ­
ment gains. Medical personnel increased because
of greater Federal expenditures for medical re­
search and public health services and growing
medical assistance to aging war veterans. The
number of air traffic controllers showed spectacu­
lar growth, reflecting Federal efforts to main­
tain air safety standards as public and private
air traffic increased tremendously.
Technological advances have also affected the
composition of the Federal work force. Increasing
use of electronic data-processing equipment for
administrative management, program operations,
and scientific and engineering purposes in Federal
agencies has inhibited the growth of clerical per­
sonnel, but created new occupations, such as sys­
tems analyst, computer programer, and computer
operator. The introduction of quick-copy equip­
ment in many government offices is reducing the
need for personnel whose skill is limited to typing.

By contrast, there is an increasing need for stenog­
Opportunities for employment in the Federal
Government will continue to be very favorable
during the 1965-75 decade. As in the past, several
hundred thousand job opportunities will become
available each year because of the need to replace
employees who are promoted, leave the Federal
service, retire, or die.
Only a small increase in the total number of
Federal employees is expected in the 1965-75
decade. A number of factors will tend to limit
employment growth, among them, the closing of
obsolete government facilities. In addition, the
increasing use of electronic data-processing, quickcopy, and materials handling equipment, and the
introduction of data-transmission and communica­
tions systems, will contribute to laborsavings in
Federal operations.
Anticipated changes in the relative importance
of Federal programs are likely to affect the num­
ber and type of employees needed to carry out
major Federal functions. For example, the de­
fense manpower ceilings established by Congress
may result in some decrease in manpower require­
ments for defense activities. In the postal service,
manpower needs are likely to continue to rise and
manpower requirements for other major Federal
functions may also increase somewhat due to
recently enacted programs relating to education,
economic opportunities, area redevelopment, and
medical and scientific research and development.
Most of the increase in Federal employment
will be in professional, technical, and managerial
occupations. Little growth is expected in clerical
jobs, and the trend toward fewer blue-collar jobs
is expected to continue.
Earnings, Advancement, and Working Conditions

Federal civilian employees are paid under sev­
eral pay systems. In June 1965, the distribution
was approximately as follows: 46 percent of all
full-time employees were under the Classification
Act; 22 percent, under the Postal Pay Act; 26
percent, under the wage board pay system; and
the rest were under other pay systems.
Pay rates of employees under the Classification
Act are set by the Congress and are nationwide.
This act provides a pay scale—called the General
Schedule—for employees in professional, ad­


ministrative, technical, and clerical jobs, and for
employees such as guards and messengers. Gen­
eral Schedule jobs are classified and arranged in
18 pay grades according to difficulty of the duties,
and the responsibilities, knowledge, experience, or
skill required. The distribution of Federal whitecollar employees by grades, the entrance and maxi­
mum salaries, and the amount of periodic increases
for each grade, are listed in the accompanying

is t r ib u t io n


n d e r

th e


r a d e




e v e l




u ll


im e




l a s s if ic a t io n
a n d


ala ry



a le

e d e r a l


, E

u n e


m plo y ees

30, 1965,

f f e c t iv e


c t


b y


S a la r ie s 2

E m p lo y e e s
G e n e r a l sc h e d u le
N um ber

2 ...........................................3 _______________________
4 _______________________
6 _______________________
7 _______________________
8 _______________________
9 _______________________
10_____ ________________
11 ______________________
12_________ _______ _____
15 ______________________
18 ____________________

P ercen t

0 .2
2 .9
5 .0
8 .6
8 .2
5 .8
2 .8

P e r io d ic
in cr ea ses

$3, 507
3 ,8 1 4
6 ,2 6 9
6 ,8 6 9
7,4 7 9
8,1 8 4
8, 961


M a x i­
m um


3 2,503
2 ,760

E n tr a n c e

6 ,0 4 5
6, 720
7,4 3 0
8,1 3 2
9 ,7 6 5
2 2 ,365
2 5 ,325

1 L e s s th a n 0.05 p e r c e n t.
2 T h is s a la r y sc a le w a s m a d e e ffe c tiv e b y th e F e d e r a l E m p lo y e e s S a la r y
A c t o f 1965 w h ic h w a s s ig n e d in to la w b y th e P r e s id e n t o n O ct. 30, 1965.
T h e s e r a te s , h o w e v e r , are n o t r e flecte d in th e in d iv id u a l o c c u p a tio n a l s ta te ­
m e n ts in t h e Handbook, b e c a u se t h e y b eca m e e ffe c tiv e to o la te to m e e t th e
p r in tin g d e a d lin e for t h e in d iv id u a l s ta te m e n ts .

Although new appointments must usually be
made at the minimum rate of the salary range
for the appropriate grade, employees may be hired
at higher rates when the Government’s ability to
recruit and retain well-qualified personnel is
handicapped by substantially higher salaries in
private enterprise. For example, in 1961, em­
ployees were being recruited at above-minimum
rates for engineering and certain physical science
Promotions depend upon the ability and work
performance of the individual, and generally,
upon openings in jobs at higher grades. Em­
ployees frequently get promotions by qualifying
for jobs at higher grades. Promotions may also
be obtained when jobs are reclassified to a higher
grade to reflect more difficult work assignments
and increased responsibilities.
More than 545,000 full-time craft, service, and
manual workers employed by the Federal Govern­
ment in the United States in 1964 were paid under
the wage board system. The pay rates for these
workers are fixed by wage boards on the basis of
“prevailing” rates paid for similar work by
private employers in the areas where they work,
rather than by legislation. The average (median)
annual pay of employees under this system was
$6,074 in 1964. The following tabulation of ArmyAir Force Wage Board pay rates for selected
occupations in specific labor market areas, in
November 1964, illustrates hourly wage rates for
workers paid under the wage board system.

S o u r c e : U .S . C iv il S e r v ic e C o m m is sio n .


Employees in all grades except GS-18 receive
within-grade increases after they have completed
the required service periods, if their work is de­
termined to be of an acceptable level of compe­
tence. Additional within-grade increases may be
given in recognition of high-quality service.
Most young people appointed to professional
positions enter at grade GS-5, with some appoint­
ments at GS-7 of especially well-qualified individ­
uals. An eligible individual who holds a master’s
degree, or the equivalent in education or experi­
ence, usually enters at grade GS-7, and those who
are especially well qualified may enter at grade
GS-9. In addition, the Federal Government also
appoints very well-qualified, experienced people
at the GS-11 level and above. These appointments
are for such positions as psychologist, statistician,
economist, writer and editor, budget analyst, ac­
countant, and physicist.

Atlanta, Ga
Boston, Mass .
Charleston, S.C
Chicago, 111 _
Denver, Colo
Fort Worth-Dallas, Tex____
Hampton Roads, Va
Houston-Galveston, Tex___
Los Angeles, Calif _
New Orleans, La_
New York, N.Y.-Newark,
N .J_____________________
Pensacola, Fla
__ _ ____
Philadelphia, Pa _ _
Portsmouth, N.H
Puget Sound, Wash. _
San Diego, Calif. _ _
San Francisco, Calif
St. Louis, Mo.
Washington, D.C






E lectrician

$3. 02
3. 07
3. 35
3. 01
2. 94
3. 05
3. 12
3. 27
3. 14


M achinist



S ource: A r m y -A ir F o r ce W a g e B o a r d , U .S . D e p a r tm e n t o f D e fe n se .
R a te s are for th e s e c o n d s t e p o f a 3 -step p a y ra n g e, e ffe c tiv e N o v . 1, 1964.



More than 75,000 full-time Federal Government
employees in the United States in 1964 were paid
under acts or orders other than those already
discussed. Among the employees paid under the
miscellaneous pay acts or orders were those work­
ing for the Tennessee Valley Authority, the For­
eign Service of the Department of State, and
physicians, dentists, and nurses in the Department
of Medicine and Surgery of the Veterans Ad­
The standard workweek for Federal Govern­
ment employees is 40 hours, and the pay sched­
ules are based on this workweek. If an employee
is required to work more than 40 hours a week,
he is either paid overtime rates for the additional
time worked or given compensatory time off at
a later date. Most employees usually work 8
hours a day, 5 days a week, Monday through
Friday. However, the head of an agency may
decide on a different schedule for his agency.
Annual earnings, for most full-time Federal
workers, are not affected by seasonal factors.
Federal employees receive paid vacations and
sick leave. They earn 13 days of annual (vaca­
tion) leave during each of their first 3 years of
service, then 20 days each year until they have
completed 15 years; after 15 years, they earn 26
days of leave each year. In addition, they earn
13 days of paid sick leave a year. Eight paid
holidays are observed annually. Employees who
are members of military reserve organizations
are also granted up to 15 days of paid military
leave a year for training purposes. Court leave
with pay may be granted to employees to attend
court as Government witnesses or for jury duty.
Other benefits available to most Federal em­
ployees include: A contributory retirement sys­
tem providing annuities based on salary, length
of service, and either age or disability, along with
survivorship annuities; optional participation in
low-cost group life and health insurance pro­
grams supported in part by the Government;
compensation to employees injured in perform­
ance of duty; and employee training programs to
develop maximum proficiency in the performance
of official duties. These training programs may
take place in Government facilities or in outside
educational facilities at Government expense.
77S-316 O— 65—-— 53

Where To G o for More Information

Information on Federal employment oppor­
tunities is available from a number of sources.
For college students, the college placement office
is often a good source of such information. High
school students in many localities may obtain
information from their high school vocational
guidance counselors. Additional information
about Federal job opportunities and Civil Serv­
ice competitive examinations may be obtained
from the central and regional offices of the Civil
Service Commission, State employment service
offices, and many post offices. The offices of the
U.S. Civil Service Commission are listed below
along with the States included in each region.
Central Office—U.S. Civil Service Commission, Wash­
ington, D.C. 20415. (Includes Washington, D.C.,
Metropolitan A rea; Montgomery and Prince Georges
County, Md.; Alexandria and Falls Church cities,
and Arlington and Fairfax Counties, V a.; and over­
seas areas except the Pacific.)
Atlanta Region—Atlanta Merchandise Mart, 240 Peachtree
St. NE., Atlanta, Ga. 30303. (Alabama, Florida,
Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina,
Tennessee, Puerto Rico, and Virgin Islands.)
Boston Region—Post Office and Courthouse Building,
Boston, Mass. 02109. (Connecticut, Maine, Massa­
chusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Ver­
mont. )
Chicago Region—Main Post Office Building, 433 West
Van Buren St., Chicago, 111. 60607. (Illinois, In­
diana, Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin.)
Dallas Region—1114 Commerce St., Dallas, Tex. 75202.
(Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas.)
Denver Region—Building 41, Denver Federal Center,
Denver, Colo. 80225. (Arizona, Colorado, New
Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming.)
New York Region—News Building, 220 East 42d St.,
New York, N.Y. 10017. (New Jersey and New York.)
Philadelphia Region—Customhouse, Second and Chest­
nut Sts., Philadelphia, Pa. 19106. (Delaware, Mary­
land, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia.)
St. Louis Region—1256 Federal Building, 1520 Market
St., St. Louis, Mo. 63103. (Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota,
Missouri, Nebraska. North Dakota, and South
San Francisco Region—Box 36010, 450 Golden Gate Ave.,
San Francisco, Calif. 94102. (California, Hawaii,
Nevada, and the Pacific Overseas Area.)

Seattle Region—Federal Office Building, First Ave. and
Madison St., Seattle, Wash. 98104. (Alaska, Idaho,
Montana, Oregon, and Washington.)

Information on career and competitive exami­
nation opportunities in Federal agencies which
have separate career systems such as the Foreign
Service, the Federal Bureau of Investigation,


and the Atomic Energy Commission may be
obtained by writing to their respective personnel
offices in Washington, D.C.
General information on administrative careers
in government may be obtained from : The Amer­
ican Society for Public Administration, 1329 18th
St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

The mailman, with the familiar leather pouch
over his shoulder, and the clerk behind the stamp
window in the Post Office are the two employees
of the Federal Government most familiar to the
general public. Although we all receive or send
mail almost every day, few people realize how
many workers are employed by the Post Office
Department and exactly what they do.
Nearly 600,000 postal service workers were
employed in about 38,000 separate installations
throughout the United States in early 1965. These
workers, employed in the- second largest agency
in the Federal Government, collected and distributed more than 72 billion letters, post cards, news­
papers, magazines, parcels, and other items of
mail. They also provided special mail services
such as registration (giving evidence of mailing
and delivery), insurance^and c.o.d. (the collection
of the price of an article and the cost of postage
from a customer upon delivery). Nonmail serv­
ices performed by postal workers include filling
out and selling money orders and accepting
deposits in postal savings accounts.
Postal employment is concentrated in the larger
centers of population. The metropolitan area of
New York City, in its various post offices and
other installations, has about 50,000 postal service
workers, or about 8 percent of all postal service
workers. Other large centers of postal employ­
ment include the Chicago, Los Angeles, Boston,
and Philadelphia metropolitan areas. Postal jobs
are also found in very small communities and in
rural areas. Young people in these places may
find postal employment particularly attractive in
view of the limited opportunities which may
exist for other employment. Approximately 10
percent of all postal employees are women, most
of whom are employed in the smaller post offices.
Young men may try postal work before mak­
ing a career choice, by getting a temporary job
during vacation periods. From mid-December
until Christmas Day, temporary workers are

employed in many post offices to handle extra
mail. In the summer months also, when regular
employees usually take their vacations, some post
offices hire temporary workers.
Occupations in the Postal Service

Unseen by the general public, the giant work­
rooms behind the lobbies of the big city post
offices are busy centers of activity. At all hours
of the day and night, an endless flow of mail
moves from unloading platforms through the
workrooms and out to loading platforms. In the
workrooms, the mail goes through a series of
separations in which it is sorted according to
type of mail and destination. The people who
do this sorting are called distribution clerks.
(Another group of employees also distributes
mail, but they do not work in the post office. These
are the postal transportation clerks who work on
a train or bus, sorting mail while moving.) Be­
hind counters in the lobby of the post office build­
ing are the window clerks who sell stamps and
money orders, register and insure mail, and ac­
cept parcel post. In all, there were about 240,000
postal clerks throughout the country in early
The city carriers are the second largest group
of postal workers (about 170,000 in early 1965).
These workers collect the mail which flows into
the city post office and deliver the mail after it
has been sorted by the distribution clerks. Rural
carriers collect and deliver mail in the country
and provide some of the services available in post
offices. Both city and rural carriers cover assigned
routes on regular schedules. Some city carriers
may work exclusively delivering parcel post or
collecting mail. (A detailed description of the
duties, training, qualifications, employment out­
look, earnings, and working conditions for clerks
and carriers appears in later sections of this
chapter.) A relatively small number of postal
employees deliver only special delivery mail.



C o u rtesy of th e U .S . P o st Office D ep artm en t

The “Star” route carrier transports mail under
contract with the Post Office Department and is
not an employee of the Department. There were
approximately 12,000 “Star” route contracts in
early 1965. The length of the routes varied con­
siderably. Most of these carriers use trucks to
carry the mail, but in certain remote areas where
there are no roads some use horses or boats.
In all post offices, bulk mail in large, heavy
sacks must be loaded, unloaded, and moved about.
In the smaller post offices, this work is performed
by the clerks. In the larger post offices, mail
handlers are employed to do most of this work.
In addition to handling sacked mail, the mail
handlers make rough separations of the mail into
parcel post, paper mail, and letter mail, and
bring the mail to distribution clerks for process­
ing. They also pick up the processed mail and
put it into sacks. In early 1965, there were approx­
imately 30,000 mail handlers.
About 29,500 postal supervisors and 11,000
postmasters directed the work of approximately

440,000 clerks, carriers, and mail handlers in the
larger post offices. (About 23,000 additional post­
masters were employed in the small post offices.)
Approximately 19,400 maintenance service
employees were concerned with the operation,
maintenance, and protection of post office build­
ings and equipment. About 12,000 of these em­
ployees were janitors, building guards, elevator
operators, and laborers. The remainder were
mechanics or craftsmen such as electricians,
carpenters, and painters.
The Post Office Department employed more
than 5,000 motor vehicle operators who drove
trucks transportating bulk mail. About 3,500 other
employees were concerned with the maintenance
of the trucks driven by the motor vehicle opera­
tors as well as the rest of the post office vehicle
fleet, including more than 40,000 trucks and mailsters (light three-wheel motor vehicles) driven by
carriers. This group included garagemen who did
routine servicing of vehicles, automotive me­
chanics, body and fender repairmen, and parts
About 1,000 postal inspectors are employed in
the oldest investigative agency in the Federal
Government—the Post Office Inspection Service.
The main function of these employees is to inspect
post offices to see that they are efficiently operated,
that funds are being properly spent, and that
postal laws and regulations are observed. Other
principal duties include the prevention and detec­
tion of crimes, such as theft, forgery, and fraud
involving use of the mail.
Another small, but very important, group of
employees is made up of the several hundred
workers who service semiautomatic and automatic
mail processing equipment. As the mechaniza­
tion of the Post Office Department continues,
many more of these employees will be needed.
The Post Office Department also employs a
small number of engineers, accountants, and
lawyers, and clerical and office workers, such as
typists, stenographers, file clerks, and personnel
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

To qualify for a job in the Post Office Depart­
ment, an applicant must be a citizen, pass a civil
service examination, and meet the minimum age


requirements. Generally the minimum age limit
for post office employment is 18. For high school
graduates the minimum age limit is 16, except
for jobs which may be considered hazardous, or
may require operation of a motor vehicle. Usually
the applicant must also live in the area served by
the particular post office in which he would work
if selected for appointment.
In recent years, most applicants who have been
appointed to post office jobs were high school
graduates. However, formal education or special
training, while highly recommended, is not
required for most post office entry jobs.
As in the case of other civil service examina­
tions, an honorably discharged war veteran has
5 extra points added to his passing grade and a
disabled veteran receives 10 extra points. Vet­
erans with compensable disabilities are placed at
the top of the list. Certain jobs (guards, elevator
operators, laborers, janitors, etc.) are reserved
for veterans.
The names of applicants who pass an examina­
tion are placed on a register in the order of their
scores. The appointing officer selects one of the
top three available applicants to fill a job vacancy.
Those not selected are put back on the list for
consideration for the next job opening. Appoint­
ments to jobs are made without regard to an
applicant’s race, color, sex, marital status, national
origin, or religion. Postal employees, like all
other Federal workers, are subject to an inves­
tigation of their moral character and loyalty.
Before an applicant may be appointed, he must
pass a physical examination. Specific physical
requirements differ according to the nature of the
work in the various jobs.
In general, most of the work in the post office
requires considerable physical stamina. An even
more important quality is a good memory. Clerks,
for example, must be able to memorize the streets
and numbers which make up a district so that they
can sort mail rapidly. Carriers have to keep
records of changes of address. Both clerks and
carriers must also remember many postal regu­
Window clerks and carriers are expected to be
pleasant and tactful in dealing with the public.
Distribution clerks in the large post offices have
no contact with the public. However, since they
have tight deadlines and work in large groups at

close quarters, they should be able to get along
well with their coworkers.
All new postal employees must serve a proba­
tionary period of 1 year. An employee’s conduct
and performance are observed, and, if warranted,
he may be dismissed at any time during the
The amount of training given to a new employee
varies considerably, depending on the size of the
post office. On-the-job training is generally pro­
vided by the supervisor or an experienced em­
ployee. The new employee performs the simpler
tasks of his job from the very first day. To become
proficient in all of his work, however, takes much
longer. The new clerk or carrier must spend many
hours of practice sorting mail to get the necessary
speed and accuracy. In addition, he must spend
much of his own time memorizing postal regula­
tions, schemes, and routes. (A scheme is a group
of places consisting of States, cities, zones, or
streets and numbers arranged for the convenient
delivery of mail.)
Career postal employees are classified as
regulars or substitutes. The great majority begin
as substitutes. The positions of clerk, city car­
rier, special delivery messenger, mail handler,
and positions in the vehicle service are initially
filled by substitute appointment from the civil
service register. Substitutes replace absent regu­
lar employees and also supplement the regular
work force. There may not be more than one
career substitute for every five regular employees.
As vacancies occur in the regular work force,
they are filled by converting substitutes to regu­
lars in order of seniority. The length of time
served as a substitute depends on the size of the
installation, economic conditions in the area, and
other factors.
Some jobs, even at the same salary level, may
be considered more desirable than others because
of the type of work performed, the hours of
work, or for other reasons. When a vacancy
occurs, it is posted and employees in the occupa­
tional group may submit “bids” (written requests
for assignment to the vacancy). The preferred
assignment is given to the qualified bidder with
the longest service. A few nonsupervisory jobs
at a higher salary level may also be bid on.
For assignment to most higher level positions,
however, merit, not seniority, is the controlling

factor. Qualifications for promotion may include
experience, training or education, aptitude as
measured by a written examination or perform­
ance test, work record, and personal character­
istics. (The last mentioned is particularly im­
portant in supervisory positions.) If the lead­
ing candidates for the job are about equally
qualified, length of service determines which one
is selected.
Opportunities for advancement in the postal
service are fairly limited. Most employees start
as postal clerks and carriers and continue in those
categories. However, they can receive preferred
assignments or routes as their seniority increases.
Opportunities for promotion to supervisory posi­
tions depend largely on the size of the post office.
Promotion opportunities are better in large post
offices, where each department has a supervisor,
than in small post offices.
One higher level position which offers an inter­
esting career and excellent opportunities for fur­
ther advancement is that of postal inspector. The
openings are few, however, and the requirements
are very exacting.
Employment Outlook

The Post Office Department will hire many
thousands of young workers each year during the
1965-75 decade. Based on the experience of recent
years, there should be many thousands of job op­
portunities in the postal service each year as a
result of the need to replace employees who retire,
die, or transfer to other employment. Deaths and
retirements alone should provide about 15,000 job
opportunities annually.
A modest increase in total post office employ­
ment will result in some additional job opportuni­
ties during the years ahead. Most of this employ­
ment increase will occur in carrier jobs. As in
the past, the volume of mail is expected to con­
tinue to grow rapidly, largely as a result of
expanding population and increasing personal
income and business activity. Employment, how­
ever, will grow at a much slower rate than in
the past because of continuing modernization and
mechanization of postal facilities and equipment
which should greatly increase the volume of mail
an individual employee can handle.


In advanced stages of development and in
actual use in a few post offices are a variety of
electromechanical and electronic devices and con­
trols which receive, process, and dispatch mail
at a considerable saving in postal clerk man­
power. Light-weight vehicles (mailsters) are
also in use on a number of residential routes and
additional ones are being purchased. The carrier
provided with such a vehicle delivers parcel post
as well as letter mail and paper mail. For every
10 routes so mechanized, one less parcel post
carrier is required. Nevertheless, because of the
large increase expected in mail volume in the next
decade, employment should still continue to grow.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Almost all postal employees are paid under the
Postal Field Service Compensation Act, under
which three separate pay schedules are provided.
One schedule determines the salaries of rural
carriers and is based primarily on route length.
Another schedule covers fourth-class postmasters,
whose compensation is based on the annual
receipts of their post offices. Salaries of all other
postal field service employees are determined
under the third schedule, the Postal Field Serv­
ice Schedule (PFS). The grade level of a posi­
tion under this schedule depends upon the
duties and responsibilities and the knowledge,
experience, or skill required.
In all three pay schedules, employees receive
periodic “step” increases, up to a specified maxi­
mum, if their job performance is satisfactory. A
distribution of employees by PFS level, together
with the entrance and maximum salary, as well
as the amount of the periodic increases for each
grade, is shown in the accompanying table.
The average (median) annual salary of the
almost 538,000 PFS employees in late 1965 was
$6,378. Most of the city carriers and postal clerks
are in PFS level 4.
Most regular postal employees work an 8-hour
day, 5 days per week. If a regular employee
works more than 8 hours in a day or 40 hours in a
week, he is paid at 1y2 times the regular rate for
the extra hours worked.
A substitute employee receives overtime pay if
he works more than 40 hours in a week.



Postal employees, both substitutes and regulars,
receive the same vacation, sick leave, and other
benefits available to Federal employees generally.
They earn 13 days’ annual (vacation) leave dur­
ing each of their first 3 years of service, then 20
days each year until they have completed 15
years of service; and after that, 26 days of leave
a year. In addition, they earn 13 days of paid
sick leave a year.
E m p lo y e e s 1

S c h e d u le d s a la r ie s 2

P o s ta l fie ld se r v ic e
le v e l
N um b er



0 .9
3 .6
8 .1
7 0 .3
6 .4
2 .2
3 .3
2 .0
1 .5

P e r io d ic
in cr ea se

5,5 3 6
5, 941
6,8 8 8
7, 449
8,1 1 0
8,9 6 1
9,9 1 4
14, 751
2 2 ,217


M a x i­
m um


4 ,60 5
3 4,38 2
10, 888

E n tr a n c e

T otal e m p lo y e es
1 ______________________
2 _______________________
3 _______________________
4 _______________________
5 _______________________
6 _______________________

8 _______________________
9 _______________________
14 _________________
18 ______________________
2 0 ______________________

$5, 571
6,0 1 9
6,5 5 1
7,0 6 2
7 ,5 8 2
8, 108
8, 481
8 ,9 4 0
9,6 8 1
15, 857
17, 498
* 9 ,368
2 1 ,4 5 0
23, 766
2 4 ,9 3 5
2 5 ,3 2 5

» A s o f J u ly 18, 1965.
E ffe c tiv e O c t. 9 ,1 9 6 5 .
a D o e s n o t in c lu d e p o stm a s te r s o f fo u r th -c la s s offices a n d r u r a l carriers.
4 L e s s t h a n 0.05 p e r c e n t.

N ote : B e c a u s e of r o u n d in g , s u m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y n o t e q u a l 100.
Source: U.S. P o s t Office D e p a r tm e n t.

Other benefits include: Retirement and sur­
vivorship annuities, optional participation in
low-cost group life insurance and health insur­
ance programs supported in part by the Federal
Government, and compensation to employees
injured in performance of duty.
Postal workers are covered by the Civil Service
system and enjoy a maximum of job security.
The physical surroundings usually are pleasant.
Most postal employees have frequent contact with
the public or other employees, a work situation
which most people enjoy. Prospective employees
have the opportunity to choose between outdoor
work (carrier) and indoor work (postal clerk).
Some of the work requires considerable physi­
cal exertion such as walking, reaching, lifting,
and carrying heavy sacks of mail. Some of the
work is also of a routine nature.
Most postal employees are members of unions.
There are more than a dozen unions which repre­
sent postal employees.
Where To G o for More Information

Information on post office employment oppor­
tunities and civil service competitive examinations
for postal jobs may be obtained from the local
post office, the regional offices of the Civil Serv­
ice Commission, or State employment service

Mail Carriers
(2d ed. D.O.T. 1-28.01)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 233.388)

Nature of Work

The carrier—or mailman, as he is known to
most people—is responsible for delivering and
collecting mail in a specific area. Most of his
time is spent outdoors where he has frequent
contact with the people on his route. Some city
carriers (usually new men) may be assigned only
to collect mail from street letter boxes and from
office building mail chutes. Most of the work of
this group of carriers is done in the evening.
The great majority of carriers, however, work
during the day, delivering as well as collecting
The carrier begins his work very early in the
morning. He spends a couple of hours at the post

office, where he arranges the mail in the order
in which it will be delivered. To do this sorting,
he uses a “case,” which is an upright box with
compartments labeled with names of streets, house
numbers, or buildings. (Rural carriers sort—or
“case”—the mail by name of patrons and rural
box number rather than by street and number.)
He readdresses mail to be forwarded and marks
the mail of persons who have moved without leav­
ing forwarding addresses to show how it should
be handled. He also prepares and places in his
route case reminders for special mail, such as
insured mail which requires a signature by the
person receiving the mail. He signs receipts for
postage due and c.o.d. mail.



C o u rtesy of th e U .S . P o st Office D ep a rtm e n t

M ail carriers sort letters before making deliveries.

When the mail has been arranged, it is
assembled into bundles numbered in the order of
delivery. The residential foot carrier’s mail is
generally too heavy to be carried by him all at
one time. (Thirty-five pounds is the maximum
to be carried.) He therefore, makes up larger
bundles of mail, called “relays” which are trans­
ported by other carriers in trucks and placed in
storage (relay) boxes at intervals along the route.
The carrier starts out on his route with the
mail in a large leather bag which is carried over
his shoulder or in a mail cart. The bag or cart
will contain mail to be delivered on the first sec­
tion of his route. When he reaches the first relay
box, his bag is empty, or nearly so, and he refills
it with the bundles in the relay box containing
the mail for the next section of his route.
In some cities, a carrier on an outlying residen­
tial route may use a light, three-wheeled motor
vehicle called a “mailster” to deliver mail. Such
a carrier does not make up relays, but rather

loads the vehicle with the mail for his entire
route. He also takes the parcel post mail for his
route and delivers it together with the letter and
paper mail.
On his route, the carrier goes from door to
door, placing ordinary mail in boxes or through
door slots. Mail is delivered throughout office
buildings served by elevators; in apartment
houses, the mail usually is deposited in the boxes
near the front entrance. The carrier collects
charges on postage-due and c.o.d. mail and obtains
receipts for registered and certain insured mail.
When a required signature cannot be obtained
for mail such as an insured parcel, the carrier
leaves a notice that tells where the parcel is being
held. The carrier brings back to the post office
letters left in the mail box for mailing. He also
collects mail from street letter boxes.
When the carrier returns to the post office
after completing his route, he “faces” the mail
he has brought back for cancellation (i.e.,
arranges letters so that the stamps are all in the
same direction). He also turns in the money and
receipts which he collected.
The residential city carrier covers his route
once during the day. The carrier in the down­
town business district, covering a more highly
concentrated area, makes a number of trips over
his route during the course of the day.
Where letter and paper mail is delivered by
foot carriers, parcel post is delivered separately
by other carriers who drive trucks. Parcel post
is sorted by postal clerks and put into sacks.
Each sack has a parcel post carrier’s route number
and another number indicating the order of deliv­
ery within the route. The parcel post carrier
loads his truck, arranging the sacks in the order
of delivery, and proceeds along his route which
covers about the same area as 8 to 10 foot carrier
routes combined. He also collects mail of all
types from street letter boxes.
A substitute carrier may have a combination
of duties. For example, he may deliver mail on
foot during part of the day and then drive a
truck in the evening, making collections from
street letter boxes.
The rural carrier delivers mail by motor
vehicle along routes primarily outside city limits.
He places the mail in mail boxes set up on posts
by the roadside and collects the letters left in the



boxes for mailing. In addition, he sells stamps
and money orders and accepts parcel post, letters,
and packages to be registered or insured.
All carriers must be able to answer questions
about postal regulations and service and provide
change of address cards and other postal forms
when requested.
Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

To be considered for a carrier position, an
applicant must be a citizen, meet the minimum
age requirements, and pass a civil service exami­
nation. To be eligible for employment, most
post offices require carrier applicants to be at least
18 years of age and pass a road test.
The same written civil service examination is
given to applicants interested in either city carrier
or postal clerk jobs. The written test consists of
three parts. The longest part is a test of general
intelligence, including questions on simple arith­
metic, spelling, vocabulary, and reading com­
prehension. Another part tests the applicant’s
reading accuracy by requiring him to compare
addresses arranged in pairs and to indicate
whether they are the same or different. The third
part tests the applicant’s ability to follow instruc­
tions carefully in making changes on a mailing
scheme and in routing mail. Sample questions
are sent to applicants with their notices of admis­
sion to the written tests.
Persons being considered for appointment as
carriers are given a road test in which they must
demonstrate their ability to handle, under vari­
ous driving conditions, vehicles of the type and
size they may be required to operate as carriers.
At the time of appointment, they must have a
valid driver’s license.
Applicants must pass a rigorous physical exam­
ination to determine whether they are able to
stand the physical exertion required to perform
the jobs. They must be able to stand for long
periods of time, walk considerable distances, and
handle heavy sacks of mail. Carriers must weigli
at least 125 pounds. The minimum weight
requirements may be waived for veterans, and for
those who can pass a strength test consisting of
lifting a sack weighing 80 pounds to their

In addition to good health and physical stam­
ina, a carrier should have a good memory. He
relies on his memory in arranging the mail on
his route in the proper order for delivery. He
must also memorize many postal rules and regu­
lations. Other desirable qualities for a carrier
are a pleasant manner and a neat appearance.
City carriers begin as substitutes, becoming
regulars in order of seniority as vacancies occur.
New carriers are taught the procedures for casing
mail. Substitute city carriers may be assigned to
postal clerk duties and may sometimes be required
to pass examinations on schemes of city “primary
distribution” (first sorting by destination).
About once a year, the carrier is checked on howwell he performs his job.
Promotional opportunities for carriers are
limited. Some carriers in city delivery service
may advance to special nonsupervisory jobs such
as carrier-technician, or to jobs as carrier foreman
and route examiner. Such employees, however,
constitute only a small percentage of the number
of city carriers. Most carriers, therefore, can only
look forward to preferred routes as their seniority
Employment Outlook

There will be many thousands of opportunities
each year during the remainder of the 1960’s and
in the longer run for young men to become
carriers. Based on the experience of recent years,
many thousands will be hired each year as
replacements for carriers w-ho leave the service
as a result of transfer to other work, retirement,
or death. Deaths and retirements alone should
provide about 5,000 job opportunities annually.
The total number of carrier jobs is also expected
to increase substantially.
As in the past, the number of city carriers will
increase as population continues to grow and to
spread out into suburban areas. Such innova­
tions as “mailsters” probably will slowr down
the rate of employment growth.
Rural carrier employment is expected to remain
relatively unchanged in future years, as it has for
many years in the past. Rural routes near large
cities are converted to city routes as the suburbs
continue to spread. On the other hand, new
rural routes are established to provide service in


areas where fourth-class post offices are discon­
tinued. In recent years, vacancies have averaged
about 1,700 annually.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Almost all city carriers begin as substitutes and
receive $2.57 an hour. If their work is satisfac­
tory, they receive an increase of 8 or 9 cents an
hour each year for the first 6 years, and an increase
of 8 or 9 cents an hour every 3 years thereafter, up
to a maximum of $3.50 an hour. Regular city car­
riers are paid on an annual basis, beginning at
$5,181 and increasing each year by $171 for the
first 6 years, and by $171 every 3 years there­
after, up to a maximum of $7,062 after 21 years
of service.
When a substitute city carrier receives a regu­
lar appointment, he gets credit for his service as
a substitute. For example, a substitute with 2
years of career service who is appointed to a regu­
lar position would be paid at the annual rate of
$5,523. All city carriers receive an allowance
for the postal uniforms they are required to wear.
Rural carriers are paid a salary based on a com­
bination of fixed annual compensation and the
number of miles in their routes. In addition, they
receive a maintenance allowance of 12 cents a
mile for the use of their automobiles. A carrier
with a 61-mile route (the average route length in
1965) would receive $5,656 a year in his first
year and $6,682 in his seventh year. The allow­
ance for the use of his automobile would give him
an additional $2,225.28.

A substitute rural carrier receives a base pay
for the days he works, and, in addition, receives
the same mileage compensation and automobile
maintenance allowance as the regular carrier
whose route he is covering.
The regular city carrier usually works an 8-hour
day, 5 days per week. If he works more than
8 hours a day or 40 hours a week, he is paid at iy 2
times his regular rate for the extra hours worked.
A substitute city carrier receives overtime pay if he
works more than 40 hours a week. , Both regular
and substitute city carriers receive 10 percent ad­
ditional pay for work between the hours of 6 p.m.
and 6 a.m. Rural carriers work a 6-day week.
Most carriers begin work very early in the
morning. In some cities, carriers with routes in
the business district report to the post office at
6 a.m. The working conditions of carriers vary
considerably depending upon the time of year
and the part of the country in which they work.
They work outdoors in the pleasant spring and
fall weather, as well as under the hot summer
sun and in the snow and ice of winter.
The carrier must cover his route within certain
time limits. Otherwise, he is on his own while
out delivering the mail and has the opportunity
of meeting different people along his route.
Most carriers have to do a great deal of walk­
ing with a mail bag slung o v er the sh o u ld er. Even
the carriers who drive vehicles have to do con­
siderable walking and lift heavy sacks of parcel
post while loading their vehicles. They may also
carry heavy packages in making deliveries to
business establishments or homes.

Postal Clerks
(2d ed. D.O.T. 1-27.20)
(3d ed. D.O.T. 232.368)

Nature of Work

The great majority of post office clerks work
behind the scenes and are never seen by the
public. They are the distribution clerks in the
large city post offices who sort incoming and out­
going mail and prepare it for dispatching. Other
clerks deal directly with the public at windows
in the lobbies of post office buildings, selling
stamps and money orders and providing other

services. (In smaller post offices, the same clerk
does both types of work.) Every postal clerk,
whether a distribution clerk or a window clerk,
must be able to sort mail. New substitute clerks
may be assigned to carrier duties.
The mail that has been collected by the carriers
is brought into the post office workroom and
dumped on long tables. Here the first rough
separation of the mail into parcel post, paper



mail, and letter mail takes place, usually per­
formed by new distribution clerks (and some­
times by mail handlers). Parcel post and paper
mail are put into separate containers. The let­
ter mail which remains on the table is “faced”
(stamps down and facing the same direction)
and fed into canceling machines which print
over the stamps the date and time (a.m. or p.m.),
and the city and State in which the post office is
located. (Many of the larger post offices have
installed new canceling machines which make it
unnecessary to face the letters because the ma­
chines can “find” and cancel the stamp, wherever
it is.) Parcel post and paper mail are canceled by
hand. After the stamps have been canceled, the
mail is taken to different sections where other
clerks begin a series of sortings according to
Clerks who work on letter mail throw the
letters into a case (an upright box with labeled
compartments). For a “primary distribution”
(first sorting by destination), the case usually
has one or two compartments for local mail, a
number of compartments for groups of distant
States, a compartment for each of the nearby
States, one for each of the largest cities in the
country, etc.
The primary distribution is followed by one
or more “secondary” distributions in which the
mail from each compartment in the primary
case is sorted in greater detail. For example,
clerks will gather the local mail from the
appropriate compartment in each primary case
and combine it with the local mail which has
come in from outside the city to be sorted in a
secondary case. The clerks who sort this mail
have to be familiar with every street in the city
and know the streets and street numbers that are
included in each postal zone, branch, or station.
Mail is sometimes further separated by sections
within postal zones so that when it arrives at
a neighborhood post office it is almost ready for
immediate delivery by carriers.
Parcel post is sorted in the same way as letter
mail, by separating it into ever finer groupings.
However, to sort parcels, clerks use chutes, con­
veyors, slides, tables, and bags or other con­
tainers instead of letter cases.
Some distribution clerks separate mail while
traveling in trains or busses. Other clerks, known

C o u rtesy of th e U .S . P o st Office D ep a rtm e n t

Postal clerk feeds letters into canceling machine.

as transfer clerks, arrange for mail to be moved
to and from trains promptly and at the lowest
possible cost.
Distribution clerk (machines) is a relatively
new post office occupation. Clerks in this occupa­
tion are employed in some of the large post offices
and operate electronic machines that distribute
mail automatically. For example, a clerk using an
electronic sorting machine merely pushes buttons
to direct letters automatically to the proper com­
partments. These clerks must know distribution
schemes, as do the clerks who sort mail by hand.
Distribution clerks have to work quickly
because mail must be delivered as speedily as
possible. Accuracy is also most important because
placing a letter in the wrong compartment of a
case will result in delayed delivery.
The clerks who work at public windows in the
lobby of the post office building, in addition to
selling stamps, provide a variety of other serv­
ices. In accepting material for mailing, window
clerks weigh letters and parcels and determine
the amount of postage required. They check

packages and envelopes to see if their sizes,
shapes, and condition are acceptable. They reg­
ister and insure mail and sell the postage or
collect the charges required for the service.
Window clerks also sell and cash money orders,
distribute general delivery mail and parcels and
other undeliverable mail being held at the post
office, accept deposits in postal savings accounts,
and rent post office boxes. They also answer ques­
tions on rates, mailing restrictions, and other
postal matters. Occasionally, a window clerk will
help someone file a claim for mail that has been
damaged. In the larger post offices, a window
clerk will perform only one or two of these
services. Thus, in these offices there are such
clerks as registry, stamp, and money order clerks.


They practice on their own time to achieve speed
and accuracy. All postal clerks are required peri­
odically to pass scheme examinations on the work
for which they are responsible.
Promotional opportunities for postal clerks are
limited. In the larger post offices, there are some
special postal clerk jobs at a higher level, as well
as some scheme examiner jobs, mail dispatch
expediter jobs, and foreman jobs. Compared
with the large number of postal clerk jobs, these
“higher level” jobs are relatively few. Most
postal clerks, therefore, do not advance to a higher
level. However, as their seniority increases, they
may receive preferred assignments such as the
day shift, or a window clerk job.
Employment Outlook

Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Some of the requirements for entry as a postal
clerk are the same as for any post office job and
are discussed earlier in this chapter. The written
civil service examination and the physical require­
ments are the same as for carrier applicants and
are discussed on page 823. A special type of
examination, including a machine aptitude test,
is given to applicants for the position of distri­
bution clerk (machines).
Good health and a good memory are essential
for those who want to be postal clerks. The work
requires much stretching and lifting, walking and
standing, and throwing of packages of mail as
well as handling of heavy sacks of mail. Clerks
have to memorize distribution schemes and many
postal rules and regulations. They also need good
eye-hand coordination and the ability to read
The distribution clerk works closely with other
clerks, frequently under the tension and strain
of meeting mailing deadlines and should, there­
fore, be even-tempered. The window clerk is in
constant contact with the public and consider­
able tact may be required in his replies to questions
and complaints.
Most postal clerks begin as substitutes and
become regulars in order of seniority as vacancies
occur. New clerks receive brief instructions in
their duties. They are given a primary scheme
to learn and, when they have mastered this, they
are given one or two secondary schemes to learn.

There will be many thousands of job openings
for postal clerks through the mid-1970’s. Most of
these openings will result from the need to replace
clerks who leave the service because of transfers
to other work, retirements, or death. Deaths and
retirements alone should provide about 6,000 job
opportunities annually. Some additional job op­
portunities will result from an expected slight
increase in total postal clerk employment.
With the anticipated increase in population,
business activity, and personal income, mail vol­
ume will grow substantially. Post offices will be
needed in the new communities. The increased
volume of mail and the new post offices estab­
lished will require more postal clerks.
However, because of technological develop­
ments already introduced and others on the hori­
zon, employment is expected to grow at a much
slower rate than the volume of mail. As a result
of these developments, the amount of mail a clerk
can handle will increase and postal clerk employ­
ment will rise at a slower rate than it has in the
Earnings and Working Conditions

Most postal clerks are at the same grade level
as city carriers and the earnings information for
clerks is, therefore, the same as that presented on
page 824. Clerks working on the night shift
receive 10 percent additional pay. Postal clerks
who separate mail while traveling in trains or



buses receive higher salaries than clerks in large
post offices, and the clerks in large post offices
receive higher salaries than those in the small
(third-class) post offices.
The working conditions of post office clerks
differ according to the specific work assignment
and the amount and kind of laborsaving machin­
ery in the particular post office. Generally, distri­
bution clerks work in close contact with each
other and often there is a spirit of friendliness
and cooperation within a group. Much of the
work is routine, however, and may become bor­
ing unless the clerk accepts the challenge of im­
proving his speed and accuracy. The work is also
physically demanding. The clerk has to do con­
siderable walking, throwing, and reaching. He
is on his feet much of the time and may have to
handle heavy sacks of mail.
The work of the window clerk requires con­
siderably less physical exertion. It is usually more
varied and the window clerk also has the con­
stant contact with the public to keep him inter­
ested. Furthermore, very few window clerks
work at night.. For these reasons, the job of the

window clerk is generally regarded as a preferred

C o u rtesy of th e U .S . P o st Office D e p a rtm e n t

Typical mail sorting scene at large post office.

State and Local Governments
State and local governments provide a very
large and growing source of job opportunities in
many different occupational fields. In 1964, over
7 million (full- and part-time) workers were em­
ployed in State and local government agencies, an
increase of 57 percent over 1954. Three-fourths
(5.6 million) of these workers were with units
of local governments, such as counties, municipali­
ties, towns, school districts, or special districts.
The remainder were employed ih State govern­
ment agencies.
More than 3 million employees, or half of all
State and local government workers, were em­
ployed in public schools, colleges, or other educa­
tional services in October 1964. The less densely
populated States had the highest proportions of
employees in educational services.
In addition to nearly 2 million classroom
teachers (the largest single occupation in the field
of education), school systems also employ ad­
ministrative personnel, librarians, guidance coun­
selors, nurses, dietitians, clerks, and maintenance

workers. Eighty percent of employment in the
field of education is in elementary and secondary
schools, which are largely administered by local
governments. State employment in education is
concentrated chiefly in institutions of higher
The next two largest fields of State and local
government employment in 1964 were in health
and hospital, and highway work. The 789,000
persons employed in health and hospital work
included physicians, nurses, medical laboratory
technicians, and hospital attendants. More than
560,000 workers were employed in highway activi­
ties, such as construction and maintenance of
roads, highways, city streets, toll turnpikes,
bridges, and tunnels. Among these employees were
civil engineers, surveyors, operators of construc­
tion machinery and equipment, truckdrivers,
concrete finishers, carpenters, and construction
In 1964, more than 460,000 workers were em­
ployed in general and financial control activities—

most of them at the local level. General and fi­
nancial control functions include the activities of
chief executives and their staffs and legislative
bodies; the administration of justice; tax enforce­
ment and other financial work; and general ad­
ministrative work. These functions require the
services of individuals such as lawyers, judges,
and other court officials, city managers, property
assessors, budget analysts, stenographers, and
Protective services, such as those provided by
police and fire departments, was another large
field of State and local government employment.
There were 378,000 people employed in police
work in 1964, principally by local governments.
Employment in police work includes administra­
tive, clerical, and custodial personnel, as well as
uniformed and plainclothes policemen. All of
the 230,000 firemen were employed by local gov­
ernments, and about a third of these were parttime employees.
Other State and local government employees
were engaged in a wide variety of fields—local
utilities (such as water, electricity, transporta­
tion, and gas supply systems); natural resources;
public welfare; parks and recreation; sanitation;
correction; local libraries; sewage disposal; and
housing and urban renewal. These activities re­
quire workers in many different occupations such
as economist, electrical engineer, electrician,
pipefitter, clerk, forester, and busdriver.
Clerical, administrative, maintenance, and
custodial workers constitute a significant pro­
portion of all employees in many areas of gov­
ernment activity. Among the more important
groups of workers engaged in these occupations
are clerk-typists, stenographers, secretaries,
office managers, fiscal and budget administra­
tors, bookkeepers, accountants, carpenters, paint­
ers, plumbers, guards, and janitors. (Detailed
discussions of professional, technical, mechanical,
and other occupations in State and local govern­
ments are given elsewhere in the Handbook, in
the sections covering the individual occupations.)
State and local government employment oppor­
tunities are distributed among the States, roughly
in proportion to their population. For example,
California, New York, Illinois, Texas, Ohio, and
Pennsylvania, which have more than 40 percent
of the Nation’s population, also employ more


than 40 percent of the State and local govern­
ment work force.
Employment Trends and Outlook

The long-range employment trend in State and
local governments has been steadily upward.
(See chart 43.) Most of this growth has occurred
because of the need to provide services for in­
creasing numbers of younger and older persons,
the population movement from rural to urban
areas, the increasing concentration of population
in suburban areas, the expansion in school systems,
and the growth of cities. City development has
required more street and highway facilities; police
and fire protection; and public health, sanitation,
welfare, and other services. An expanding econ­
omy and increasing personal income have gener­
ated demands for improved education, housing,
and hospital and other services.
Three-fifths of the total increase in State and
local government employment in the 1954-64
decade was due to increased employment of
teachers and other educational personnel. Employ­
ment in this field increased by 76 percent—from
nearly 2 million to over 3!/2 million employees,
principally at the local level. Less rapid, but still
substantial, employment gains at the State and
local level resulted from expansion in health and
hospital services, highway programs, and protec­
tive (police and fire) services.
Rapid growth in State and local government
employment is expected to continue during the
1965-75 decade, because the high birth rate and
extensive migration into the cities and out to the
suburbs are expected to persist. Demand for
services will also be stimulated by expected
changes in the age composition of the population.
Huge increases are expected among the young and
the elderly—groups which have the largest needs
for State and local services.
Increased demand for additional services will
be supplemented by efforts to obtain improve­
ments in existing services—for example, for lesscrowded schools; more school counseling person­
nel; better training facilities for all; improved
public transportation systems; more urban re­
newal; increased police protection; better meas­
ures to guard against air and water pollution, soil
contamination, and unsafe drugs; and expanded
hospital facilities for the mentally retarded, emo­
tionally disturbed, and physically handicapped.



E M P L O Y M E N T ...........
Millions of employees

Earnings and Working Conditions

Earnings of State and local government workers
depend primarily on the employee’s occupation.
Information on salary rates for a specific occupa­
tion can be obtained from the appropriate agencies
in each State or locality.
The average earnings of State and local gov­
ernment employees also vary from one govern­
ment function to another. Average monthly
earnings in October 1964 for full-time employees
engaged in various functions were as follows:


earnings of
fu ll-tim e
em p lo yee s 1

All functions___________________________
Local schools_____________________________
Instructional personnel______________
Other____ v
Institutions of higher education_____________
Instructional personnel________________
Other education___________________________

New or recently expanded Federal-State pro­
grams in education, vocational training, medicine,
and other fields will greatly increase the require­
ments of local and State governments for pro­
fessional, administrative, and technical personnel,
such as engineers, scientists, social workers, coun­
selors, teachers, doctors, and librarians.
In addition to job opportunities resulting from
the expected overall growth in State and local
government employment, large numbers of em­
ployees will be needed to replace workers who are
promoted, transfer to other fields of work, retire,
or die. Retirements and deaths alone will probably
result in the need for more than 100,000 new
workers annually during the next decade.
Most positions in State and local governments
will be filled by permanent residents of the State
and locality where they seek employment. Often,
however, it is necessary for State and local gov­
ernments to recruit outside their areas if short­
ages of particular skills exist in their areas.

Functions other than education_________________
Public welfare_____________________________
Police protection__________________________
Local fire protection_______________________
Sanitation other than sewerage_____________
Local parks and recreation_________________
Natural resources_________________________
Housing and urban renewal________________
Water transport and terminals______________
Local libraries_________________________
Employment security administration-----Financial administration....... ..........................
General control___________________________
Local utilities_____________________________
Water supply_________________________
Electric power________________________
Gas supply___________________________
State liquor stores_________________________
Other and unallocable_____________________



1 Because a considerable number of educational employees are paid on a
9- or 10-month school term basis, average earnings for this group for a single
month, such as October, cannot be used directly to estimate comparative
annual earnings of educational personnel in relation to those of other employ­
ees. The lower average earnings for hospitals reflect cash compensation
only and do not include the value of meals, lodgings, or other payments-inkind.
S o u r c e : State Distribution of Public Employment in 1964, U.S. Bureau
of the Census.


Average monthly earnings of full-time State
and local government workers in the United
States in October 1964 ranged from $314 in
Mississippi to $714 in Alaska.
A majority of State and local government
positions are filled through some type of formal
civil service test, and personnel are hired and
promoted on the basis of merit. In some areas,
broad groups of employees, such as teachers,
firemen, and policemen have separate civil serv­
ice coverage which applies only to their specific
More than half of all State and local govern­
ment employees are covered by State-adminis­
tered retirement systems; most of the remainder
are covered either by locally administered sys­
tems or by the Federal old-age and survivors
and disability insurance program. Nearly all
teachers and full-time local policemen and fire­
men are covered by some kind of retirement pro­
visions. In addition, approximately two-thirds
of the public school teachers and about a third


of the policemen and firemen are also under the
Federal old-age and survivors and disability in­
surance program.
Most State and local government employees
work a 40-hour week; overtime pay or compensa­
tory time benefits are often granted for hours of
work in excess of the standard workweek.
Where To G o for More Information

People interested in working for State or local
government agencies should seek information
about job openings, salary rates, and how to apply
for employment at the appropriate agencies in the
State, county, or city. Local school boards, city
clerks, school and college counselors or placement
offices, and local offices of State employment
services will also have, or can tell applicants
where to get, information.
General information on administrative careers
in government may be obtained from :
American Society for Public Administration,
1329 18th St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

When planning their future careers, young
men must take into account their military service
obligation. By knowing the choices available
for fulfillment of this obligation, they can better
fit their service period into their occupational
plans. In many instances, the service activities
provide valuable vocational training which is
helpful in obtaining civilian jobs later on. The
Armed Forces also offer many opportunities to
qualified young men and young women for life­
time service careers in many occupations.
For the young man who is a conscientious
objector to combatant and noncombatant military
service, there are several areas in which he can
employ his service time. State and local Selective
Service Boards have a list of acceptable areas of
work, and of groups sponsoring such projects.
Among the sponsoring groups are the Friends
Service Committee, the Church of the Brethren,
and the Mennonites.
At the present time, the Armed Forces are
maintained through voluntary enlistment, sup­
plemented by a Selective Service System which
drafts young men between the ages of 1 8 ^ and
26. A young man may enlist in any one of a
variety of programs involving different combina­
tions of active service and reserve duty; or he
may wait to be drafted for a 2-year period of
active duty, followed by 4 years in the reserves.
These enlistment choices and the draft are
subject to change at any time by Congressional
action. The alternative choices described here
in a general way serve only to illustrate a few
possibilities. Detailed up-to-date information
can be obtained from local Armed Forces Recruit­
ing Stations or from such publications as Your
Life Plans and the Armed Forces, and the High
School News Service Report. These publications
are available at high schools, colleges, and State
employment service offices.
The Reserve Forces Act of 1955 provided addi­
tional choices for fulfilling military obligations.

One of these important new choices allows a
young man to fulfill his military obligation by
enlisting in the reserves for 8 years, 6 months
of which is spent in active duty training. This
enables him to complete his active military serv­
ice in a 6-month period just after high school,
before he enters college or starts to work.
If a young man wants to go directly to college,
he can remain in a deferred status by qualifying
for student deferment or, upon entering college,
by enrolling in ROTC or certain other officer
training programs. A young man who wants
to enter an industry training program directly
from high school may qualify for apprentice
deferment and complete apprentice training
before entering military service.
About half of all enlisted jobs in the Armed
Forces require training in a skilled trade or a
technical specialty. It is possible for a young
man, during his military service, to receive train­
ing in electronics, aircraft maintenance, metal­
working, or other skilled work. (See chart 44.)
Such work can often be utilized later in civilian
employment. To receive this kind of training,
it is usually necessary to enlist for more than 2
In addition to specific on-the-job training, the
Armed Forces provide military personnel with
a wide choice of voluntary off-duty academic and
technical training programs. Military personnel
may enroll in (1) the U.S. Armed Forces Insti­
tute, (2) the Resident Center Program, (3) the
Group Study Program, or (4) the Military
Extension Correspondence Course Program.
USAFI offers approximately 200 correspondence
courses ranging from elementary school through
2 years of college level. In addition, approxi­
mately 6,000 courses are offered by colleges and
universities under contract with USAFI. In the
Resident Center Program, civilian institutions
offer courses leading to high school diplomas and
college degrees which may be taken either on the



JU N E 3 0 , 1964 ] / . . . .

Electrical/Mechanical equipment repairmen - automotive,
aircraft mechanics, etc.

Administrative specialists and clerks - data processing,
accountants, supply clerks, etc.

Service and supply handlers - Food service, motor
transport, etc.

Infantry, guncrew, and allied specialists - infantry,
artillery, combat engineers, armor, combat aircrews, etc.

Electronic equipment repairmen - radio, radar, sonar,
missile, fire control systems, etc.

Communications and intelligence specialists ■radio, radar
and sonar operators, air traffic controllers, and military

Craftsmen - printing, metal working, construction, etc.

Medical and dental technical specialists - pharmacists.
X-ray technicians, dental technicians, etc.

Other technical and allied specialists - photographers,
draftsmen, musicians, meterologists, etc.

military installation or on a nearby campus. The
Group Study Program is offered on military in­
stallations where local civilian classes are not
available. The Military Extension Correspond­
ence Course Program provides technical courses
in military specialties which are designed to ad­
vance career capabilities. In 1964, more than
1,500,000 enrollments were recorded in these four
General information on the occupations in the
Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast
Guard may be obtained from their respective
recruiting stations. Career fields in the Army,
Air Force, and Navy are listed in this chapter
together with further sources of information. In
September 1964, Armed Forces military personnel
were distributed among the various services as
follows: Air Force, 854,000; Army, 973,000;
Navy, 670,000; Marine Corps, 190,000; and Coast
Guard, 32,000.
Arm y

The Army has divided its occupations into
approximately 55 occupational career fields

classified into 10 occupational areas, which are
explained in the U.S. Army Handbook, Army
Occupations And You, Advertising and Publicity
Division, U.S. Army Recruiting Command, Fort
Monroe, Va., revised edition, 1962. Briefs on the
career fields describe job organization, duties and
responsibilities, work environment, qualifications,
training given, advancement, and related civilian
jobs. Each brief contains a job progression chart
showing normal lines of advancement and indi­
cating areas of work in the particular career field.
The handbook contains additional sections on
requirements for enlistment, pay scale and allow­
ances, educational opportunities in the Army,
opportunities for commissioned and warrant
officers, opportunities for women in the Army,
aptitude areas, and an index to related civilian
jobs. The handbook is available in high schools,
State Employment Service offices, and Army
recruiting stations. Information on jobs in each
career field is given in greater detail in the Man­
ual of Enlisted Military Occupational Special­
ties, AR 611-201. Although intended for military
use, this book is useful to civilians as well, because
of its thorough examination of each job specialty.
The manual is available at all Army recruiting
stations, posts, and installations.
A ir Force

The Air Force has published a manual for
vocational guidance counselors and Air Force
personnel officers called the Occupational Hand­
book of the United States A ir Force (Headquar­
ters, U.S. Air Force, The Pentagon, Washington,
D.C. 20330, 1964). This handbook contains
descriptions of each of the 45 airmen career fields.
Each brief includes a statement of the scope of the
particular career field and an organizational chart
which shows the relationship between the various
jobs and indicates the paths of advancement.
For the various jobs in a career field, the brief
gives a description of duties and responsibilities,
qualifications and preparation, training given,
and related civilian jobs. The handbook also has
special sections on pay rates, opportunities for
a commission, women in the Air Force, and
reserve components. In addition, there is a valu­
able school subject index to airmen career fields.
This publication is available in high schools, col­


leges, public libraries, State Employment Service
offices, and Air Force recruiting stations.

The many different kinds of occupations found
in the Navy are described in the UJS. Navy
Occupational Handbook (Bureau of Naval Per­
sonnel, Washington, D.C. 20350, 1963). This
handbook contains 65 vocational information
statements on Navy occupations, classified into 9
major groups. Each brief explains the purpose of

the job, duties and responsibilities, work assign­
ments, qualifications and preparation, training
given, lines of advancement, and related naval or
civilian jobs. Promotions, pay rates, retirement
provisions, and other aspects of careers in the
Navy are explained in the introduction. Included
in the handbook are sections on women in the
Navy, commissioned officers, the Naval Reserve,
and the Submarine Service. This publication is
available in all high schools, colleges, public
libraries, State Employment Service offices, and
the Navy recruiting stations.

Technical Appendix
This appendix is designed for readers who wish more
information on the procedures followed in developing the
conclusions on employment outlook than is presented in
the preceding reports on individual occupations and in­
dustries. Also included in this appendix is a brief ex­
planation of how the D.O.T. numbers (from the D i c ­
t i o n a r y o f O c c u p a t i o n a l T i t l e s prepared by the Bureau
of Employment Security of the U.S. Department of
Labor) given in the occupational reports fit into the
D i c t i o n a r y ’s occupational classification system.

Employment Outlook Conclusions
The sections on employment outlook in the occupa­
tional reports present conclusions based not only on
information compiled from many sources but also on
extensive economic and statistical analyses. Although
the sources used and the methods of analysis differed
among occupations and industries, because of differences
in the factors influencing supply and demand, the same
general pattern of research was followed in all of the
outlook studies.
The starting point in most studies was an analysis of
past and prospective population trends, including the
changes expected in population of school and college age,
in numbers of older people, in employment of women,
and in the concentration of population in urban and
suburban areas. In fields such as teaching, the health
professions, and many personal services, population
factors have a direct and obvious influence on employ­
ment opportunities. They are also of great importance
in many industries—for example, residential construction,
baking, telephone communications, apparel, and retail
Many factors besides the size and composition of the
population may affect the volume of business and em­
ployment in a given industry. Consumer purchasing
patterns change with shifts in preference from one type
of product to another, and with the development of new
products which cut into the market for old ones. A
general rise in income levels can create new markets for
more expensive items. Technological developments not
only bring changes in the raw materials and equipment
needed in production, but they also influence the size of
the required work force and the kinds of occupations
and skills needed. Government policies, such as the size
of the defense and space programs, and expenditures for
research and development, also bring about changes in
the types of occupations required.

In studying the outlook in each industry, the factors
having the greatest influence were analyzed and projec­
tions were made of demand for the industry’s products or
services. These projections were then translated into
estimates of the numbers and kinds of workers required
to produce the indicated amounts of products or services
—in view of the relative numbers currently employed in
different occupations, productivity trends, possible fur­
ther reductions in the workweek, and other factors. Past
trends in employment were also given much weight in
arriving at the conclusions as to probable future trends.
To assist in carrying through this analysis and ensure
that the assumptions made in the different studies were
consistent, overall projections of the economy to 1975
were developed. This general analytical framework in­
cluded projections to 1970 and 1975 of the population,
labor force, gross national product, average hours of
work, employment in major industries, and related eco­
nomic measures. In all studies of separate occupations
and industries, the employment projections were tied in
with those derived from the projections of the entire
economy, and assumed a relatively full-employment
The basic data on population and labor force trends,
used for the overall employment projections and for the
studies of individual occupations and industries, are
from the decennial Censuses of Population, and from
the monthly labor force surveys conducted by the Bu­
reau of the Census for the Bureau of Labor Statistics.2
Data were also drawn from the Censuses of Manufac­
tures and Business conducted by the Census Bureau.
It should be noted that Census of Population data were
used for most of the charts on occupations in this
H a n d b o o k since decennial censuses provide the only
long-term trend data available on employment in most
occupations. The 1960 Census of Population data were
also used in charts designed to show the comparative
size of occupations.3 However, in the text and in a
1 Some of the economic projections derived in these studies
by the Bureau of Labor S tatistics have been published in the
Monthly Labor R eview ; March 1965, pp. 279—
284, “Manpower
Needs by Industry to 1975” and April 1965, pp. 378—
“Manpower Needs to 1975, Part II, Detailed Projections of
Occupational Requirements in the N ext Decade”.
3 Special Labor Force Report No. 49, “Labor Force Projection
for 1970-80” ; available on request as long as the supply lasts
from the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor S tatistics.
W ashington, D.C. 20210.
3 U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, U.S.
Summary-Detailed Characteristics, table 201, U.S. Census of
Population 1960. PC (1) ID, Superintendent of Documents,
W ashington, D.C. 20402, price $2.50.



other occupations or because of retirement or death)
than are needed to staff new positions created by growth
of the field. Rarely do occupations grow fast enough so
that the reverse is true. Even occupations which are
declining in size may offer employment opportunities to
many young people.
In estimating the number of openings likely to arise
in an occupation, use has been made of Bureau of Labor
Statistics studies of occupational mobility among se­
lected groups of workers, and of tables of working
life, also developed by the Bureau.® The tables, which
are similar to the actuarial tables of life expectancy
used by insurance companies, provide a basis for assess­
ing future rates of replacements resulting from deaths
and retirements, in turn affected by differences in sex
and average age of the workers in various occupations.
In many occupations, for example, where men comprise
the great majority of workers, the rate of replacement
for death and for retirement is generally between 1 and
4 percent. The rate is usually somewhat higher in
women’s occupations, however, because so many women
leave paid employment to get married and assume fam­
ily responsibilities; the replacement rate among school
teachers is at least 8 percent a year.
The types of information mentioned so far in this
section all relate to the demand for workers. In order
to appraise the prospective employment opportunities in
an occupation, it is also important to have information
on the probable future supply of personnel. The statis­
tics on high school and college enrollments and gradua­
tions compiled by the U.S. Office of Education are the
chief source of information on the potential supply of
personnel in the professions and other occupations re­
quiring extensive formal education. Data on numbers
of apprentices from the U.S. Department of Labor’s
Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training provide some
information on new entrants into skilled trades.
Many of the statistical sources and analytical ap­
proaches referred to above have been developed only
within comparatively recent years. The reader should
bear in mind that economic forecasting is still in an
early stage of development and that it is, at best, dif­
ficult and uncertain. It is necessary to keep in mind
also the basic assumptions underlying the forecasts
(enumerated on page 21). The Bureau believes that,
within this general framework of assumption, the basic
trends affecting employment can be discerned with suf­
ficient accuracy to meet the needs of young people
preparing for careers.

limited number of charts, employment for individual
occupations was estimated for 1964 or early 1965. These
more recent estimates were made possible by utilizing
information from a variety of sources such as licensing
agencies, trade unions, professional associations, and
special surveys.
Equally essential to the studies of employment trends
in major industries were the statistics on employment
in nonagricultural establishments, compiled by the Bu­
reau of Labor Statistics. These estimates provide
monthly data on employment, hours of work, earnings,
and labor turnover, based on reports from a sample of
industrial, commercial, and governmental establishments
which together employ about 25 million workers. They
are available for a great number of different industries,
for the past quarter-century or more.4
Another Bureau program which contributed to the
analysis of future employment trends was its series of
studies of productivity and technological developments.
Anticipated productivity trends and technological
changes were allowed for in converting the projections
of demand for the products of a given industry into
estimates of the number of workers who will be needed
in that industry. Information on employment of scien­
tists and engineers in research and other activities,
obtained from surveys conducted by the Bureau in
cooperation with the National Science Foundation, has
also been extensively utilized.®
Still another Bureau project which had a major role
in the development of estimates of future employment
requirements in different occupations is the Occupa­
tional Industry Matrix. The matrix consists of a set of
tables for 125 industry sectors which represent the en­
tire economy of the United States. For each industry
sector, the tables show a percentage distribution of
employment among about 150 of the most important
occupations and also among the major occupational
groups. The matrix was valuable in appraising the
effects of changing employment levels in different indus­
tries on employment in specified occupations. It was
also useful in estimating the numbers of workers cur­
rently employed in each occupation. This was an im­
portant function, since for many occupations the 1960
Census of Population was the most recent source of
basic data on employment, and for many others only
fragmentary data were available, which had to be
integrated by means of the matrix in order to derive
overall estimates of employment.
Conclusions based on the analysis of information from
these many sources generally indicate increases in em­
ployment and, hence, openings for new workers. Ex­
pected gains in employment, however, are by no means
an adequate indication of the total numbers of job
openings which will need to be filled. In most occupa­
tions, more workers are needed yearly to fill positions
left vacant by those who leave the occupation (to enter

The reports in this H a n d b o o k have been grouped in the
manner which seemed most appropriate in view of the
needs of the users and the realities of the industrial world.

4 See Employmen t and Earnings, described on page 857.
5 Bureau of Labor S tatistics, Employm ent of Scientific and
Technical Personnel in In dustry , i9 60 (B ulletin 1418, June
1964) ; for sale by Superintendent of Documents, W ashington,
D.C. 20402, 50 cents a copy.

See Monthly Labor Review, July 1963, pp. 820—
823, Tables
of Working Life for Men, 1960. Data on women are published
in Tables of Working Life for Women, 1950, (BLS Bulletin
1204, 1957) ; for sale by Superintendent of Documents, W ashing­
ton, D.C. 20402, 30 cents a copy.

D .O .T. Classification Numbers

The arrangement followed does not conform to any one
established system of classifying occupations. Provision
has been made, nevertheless, to meet the needs of those
persons who wish to relate the occupations discussed to
an established classification system. The occupations
covered in the O c c u p a t i o n a l O u t l o o k H a n d b o o k are or­
ganized according to the occupational classification system
developed by the Bureau of Employment Security of the
U.S. Department of Labor and published in the D i c t i o n a r y
o f O c c u p a tio n a l T itle s .
The D i c t i o n a r y provides a code
number (the so-called D.O.T. number) for each occupation
included in it. In this H a n d b o o k the code numbers of both
the second and the third editions, have been shown, if
possible with each occupational heading. In the body of


the text only numbers from the third edition have been
shown. The third edition of the D i c t i o n a r y will be released
before the end of 1965 or in early 1966 at which time a
table converting the code numbers of the second edition to
the code numbers of the third edition will be made avail­
able by the Bureau of Employment Security.
The revised third edition of the D i c t i o n a r y will be pub­
lished in two volumes. Volume I will contain job defini­
tions arranged alphabetically, as at present; Volume II will
provide two arrangements of titles, one primarilly for place­
ment and one primarily for counseling. All jobs will be
classified by a new code structure using six-digit numbers;
the system can be used as a filing system for occupational

Index to Occupations and Industries

Accelerator operators, atomic en ergy._____________
Account clerks, s e e : Bank clerks___________________
Account executives, advertising___________________
Account executives, s e e : Securities salesmen________
S e e a l s o : Insurance business________________
Accounting-bookkeeping machine servicemen_____
Accounting clerks, s e e : Bookkeeping workers_____
Acidizers, petroleum and natural gas production.__
Acquisition librarians__________________________
Actors and actresses_____________________________


S ee a ls o :

Insurance business_______________________
Adding machine operators________________________
Adding machine servicemen______________________
Addressing machine operators____________________
Administrators, hospital________________________
Adult services librarians________________________
Advertising artists and layout m en ______________
Advertising copywriters________________________ _
Advertising managers_____________________________
Advertising production managers________________
Advertising workers____________________________
Aeronautical engineers, s e e : Aerospace engineers__
Aeronautical technicians__________________________
Aerospace engineers_______
a l s o : Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
Aerospace products manufacturing, s e e : Aircraft,
missile and spacecraft manufacturing___________
Agents, air traffic, civil aviation_________________
Agents, s e e :
Insurance agents and brokers_________________
Real estate salesmen and brokers____________
Agricultural agents, county_____________________
Agricultural economists____ _____________________
Agricultural engineers__________________________
S e e a l s o : Agriculture_________________________
Agricultural extension workers____________________
S e e a l s o : Home economists___________________
Agricultural finance workers______________________
Agricultural research workers_____________________
Agricultural technicians_________________________
Agriculture, occupations in_______________________
Agriculture, occupations related to________________
Agriculture teachers, vocational__________________
Air-conditioning and refrigeration mechanics--------



Air-conditioning, heating, and refrigeration tech­
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manufacturing,
occupations in_______________________________
Air Force______________________________________
Airframe mechanics, civil aviation_______________
Airline dispatchers, civil aviation________________
Airplane mechanics, civil aviation_______________
S e e a ls o : Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manu­
facturing ___________________________
Airplane pilots, civil aviation___________________
Airport traffic controllers, civil aviation......... ..........
Air-route traffic controllers, civil aviation________
Air traffic controllers, civil aviation______________
Air transportation occupations, s e e : Civil aviation..
Alteration tailors, see: Bushelmen, apparel______
Analysts, chemical, pulp, paper, and allied products.
Analysts, investment, s e e : Insurance business____
Analytical chemists____________________________
Analytical statisticians_________________________
Anatom ists_________
Animal husbandry specialists, s e e : Agriculture___
Annealers, foundry_____________________________
Announcers, radio and television________________
Anodizers, electronics manufacturing...... ............ —
Apparel industry, occupations in the_____________
Appliance servicemen________________
S e e a l s o : Electric power____________________
Appraisers, real estate__________________________
Arc cutters, s e e : Welders_______________________
Arc welders____________________________________
Archeologists, s e e : Anthropologists______________
Architects, landscape___________________________
Archivists, s e e : Historians______________________
Armament assemblers, aircraft, missiles, and space­
Armed Forces----------------Army_________________________________________
Art directors, s e e : Commercial artists____________
Art related occupations_________________________
Artists, s e e :
Advertising workers________________________
Commercial artists_________________________
Printing (graphic a rts)_____________________
Artists, lithographic, printing (graphic arts)--------Asbestos and insulating workers-------------------------837






S e e a ls o :

Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manufac­
Apparel industry______________________
Electronics manufacturing______________
Motor vehicle and equipment manufac­
Assemblers, bench_____________________________
Assemblers, floor__________________
Assembly inspectors, aircraft, missiles, and space­
Assembly mechanics, aircraft, missiles, and space­
craft__ ____________
Assorters, iron and steel________________________
Astronautical engineers, see: Aerospace engineers. .
Astrophysicists, s e e : Astronomers.......................
Atomic energy field, occupations in the__________
Attendants, gasoline service station______________
Attendants, hospital_____________
Audio-control technicians, radio and television___
Audiologists........ ..........
Auditors, s e e : Accountants..............
Automatic bowling machine mechanics......................
Automatic rolling mill attendants, iron and s te e l...
Automatic screw machine operators, s e e : Machine
tool operators________________________________
Automatic transmission specialists, s e e : Automobile
mechanics___ _____
Automobile air-conditioning specialists, s e e : Auto­
mobile mechanics_____ _______________________
Automobile body repairmen_____________________
Automobile-glass mechanics, s e e : Automobile me­
Automobile manufacturing occupations, s e e : Motor
vehicle and equipment manufacturing...............
Automobile mechanics..........................
Automobile painters.........................................
Automobile parts countermen_________
Automobile-radiator mechanics, s e e : Automobile
mechanics._____ ___
Automobile salesmen_____________________
Automobile service advisors_____________________
Automobile trimmers and installation men_______
Automobile upholsterers________________________
Automotive technicians, s e e : Mechanical engineer­
ing technicians_______________________________
Auxiliary equipment operators, electric power__
Auxiliary nursing workers, s e e : Hospital attend­
Aviation occupations, s e e : Civil aviation_________



Bakers, all-round_______________________________
Baking and molding machine operators, baking__
Baking industry, occupations in the______________
Ballet dancers_________________________________
Bank clerks____________________________________
Banking occupations____________________________
Bai kmen, printing (graphic arts)_______________
Bank officers___________________________________
Bank tellers____________________________________
Barker operators, pulp, paper, and allied products.
Bartenders, restaurant----------Beater engineers, pulp, paper, and allied products._
Beauticians----------Beauty operators_________________
Bellhops, hotel_________________________________
Bellmen and bell captains, hotel_________________
Bench assemblers, foundry----------------Bench coremakers, foundry_____________________
Bench hands, baking___________________________
Bench molders, foundry_________________________
Benchmen, optical goods________________________
Bill clerks, s e e : Cashiers________________________
Billing machine operators_______________________
Bindery workers, printing (graphic arts)-------------Biochemists____________________________________
S e e a l s o : Agriculture_______________________
Biological oceanographers_______________________
Biological sciences_____________________________
Biological technicians___________________________


S e e a ls o :

Forge shop occupations_________________
Railroad shop trades----------------------------Blanking machine operators, electronics manu­
Blasters, sand, forge shop----------------------------------Blasters, shot, forge sh op.-------------Blockers, printing (graphic arts)-------------------------Blowers, iron and steel--------------------------------------Boardmen, general, s e e : Commercial artists-------Body repairmen, automobile------------------------------Boiler operators, electric power_________________


S e e a ls o :

Iron and steel industry_________________
Railroad shop trades___________________
Boiler making occupations_______________________
Bookbinders and related workers________________


S e e a ls o :

Babysitters, s e e : Private household workers_____
Back tenders, pulp, paper, and allied products___
Bacteriologists, s e e :


Bank clerks___________________________
Bookkeeping and accounting clerks---------------------


S e e a ls o :


Bank clerks___________________________




Bookkeeping machine operators, s e e :
Bank clerks_______________________________
Bookkeeping workers_______________________
Bookkeeping machine servicemen-----------------------Bookkeeping workers___________________________
Bookmobile librarians._________________
Boring machine operators, s e e : Machine tool oper­
Bowling machine mechanics----------Box office cashiers_________________________
Brake mechanics, s e e : Automobile mechanics------Brakemen, railroad--------------Bricklayers____________________________________


S e e a ls o :

Iron and steel industry-------------------------Railroad bridge and building workers___
Bridge and building workers, railroad-----------------Broadcast technicians, radio and television----------Broadcasting occupations, radio and television___
Brokers, insurance_____________________________
Brokers, real estate_____________________________
Building helpers_______________________________
Building laborers_______________________________
Building trades________________________________
Bulldozer operators, s e e : Operating engineers_____
Bundlers, s e e : Assemblers, apparel_______________
Bus boys and girls, restaurant___________________
Busdrivers, intercity________________
Busdrivers, local transit________________________
Bus mechanics_____________
Bushelmen, apparel____________________________
Business administration and related professions...
Business machine operators_____________________
Business machine servicemen____________________
Butlers, s e e : Private household workers__________


Cable splicers, s e e :
Electric power industry____________________
Telephone industry________________________
Cable-tool dressers, petroleum and natural gas
p roduction...____ ____________________
Cable-tool drillers, petroleum and natural gas
Calculating machine operators__________________
Calculating machine servicemen_________________
Cameramen, printing (graphic arts), s e e :
Cameramen, television, s e e : Broadcast technicians.
Captains, civil aviation, s e e : Pilots and copilots__
Card-to-tape converter operators, s e e : Electronics
computer operating personnel_________________
Caretakers, s e e : Private household workers______
Carmen, railroad shop__________________________


778-316 0 — 65------54





S e e a ls o :

Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manu­
Foundry industry______________________
Railroad bridge and building workers___
Carpet layers, s e e : Floor covering installers______
Cartographers, s e e : Geographers________________
Caseworkers, social_____________________________
Cash accounting clerks, s e e : Cashiers____________
Cashiers__ _____________________________________
Cashiers, banking, s e e : Bank officers_____________
Cashiers, restaurant____________________________
Cash register servicemen________________________
Casting inspectors, foundry_____________________
Casualty insurance agents______________________
Catalogers, s e e : Librarians______________________
Catholic priests________________________________
Cementers, petroleum and natural gas production.
Cement finishers_______________________________
Cement masons________________________________
Central office clerks, telephone__________________
Central office craftsmen, telephone_______________
Central office equipment installers, telephone_____
Central office operators, telephone_______________
Central office repairmen, telephone______________
Central office supervisors, sec: Telephone operators.
Ceramic engineers______________________________
Certified public accountants_____________________
Chainmen, s e e : Surveyors_______________________
Chaplains, s e e : Clergy__________________________
Charging machine operators, iron and steel_______
Check encoders, s e e : Bank clerks________________
Check inscribers, s e e : Bank clerks_______________
Checker-cashiers, restaurants____________________
Checkers, apparel industry______________________
Checkers, s e e : Draftsmen_______________________
Checkers, insurance policy______________________
Checkers, motor vehicle and equipment manufac­
Check-out clerks, s e e : Cashiers__________________
Chefs, s e e : Cooks and chefs_____________________
Chemical analysts, pulp, paper, and allied products.
Chemical engineers_____________________________


S e e a ls o :


Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manufac­
Atomic energy field____________________
Electronics manufacturing______________
Industrial chemical industry____________
Pulp, paper, and allied products industry.
Chemical oceanographers_______________________
Chemical operators, industrial chemical__________
Chemical process operators, atomic energy_______
Chemical technicians________________________ —


S e e a ls o :


Atomic energy field____________________
Electronics manufacturing______________
Foundry industry______________________




Chemists— Continued
S e e a l s o — Continued
Industrial chemical in d u stry ..__________
Iron and steel industry____ ____________
Natural gas processing_________________
Petroleum and natural gas production___
Petroleum refining_____________________
Pulp, paper, and allied products industry.
Chief engineers, radio and television_____________
Chief mechanics, aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft. _
Chief operators, telephone______________________
Child psychologists-------------------------------------------Child welfare workers, s e e : Social workers________
Children’s librarians_______
Chippermen, pulp, paper, and allied products____
Chippers, s e e :
Forge shop________________________________
Foundry industry_________
Chiropodists, s e e : P od iatrists..........................
Choreographers, s e e : Dancers______________
Christmas club bookkeepers, s e e : Bank clerks_____
Christmas club tellers, s e e : Bank tellers.......... ..........
Cindermen, iron and steel________________________
City carriers, post office________________________
City planners__________________________________
Civil aviation occupations_______________________
Civil engineering technicians____________________
Civil engineers_________________________________


S e e a ls o :

Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manufac­
Atomi c energy field...... ................
Iron and steel industry____ _____
Civil service workers, FederalGovernment________
Civil service workers, State and local government.
Claim adjusters, insurance______________________
Cleaners, s e e : Thread trimmers, apparel industry..
Clergy, the------------------------------------------Clerical and related occupations___ _____
Clerks, banking________________________________
Clerks, civil aviation___________________________
Clerks, insurance_______________________________
Clerks, post office______________________________
Clerks, railroad________________________________
Clerks, reservation, civil aviation________________
Clerks, shipping and receiving___________________
Climatologists, s e e : Meteorologists______________
Clinical psychologists__________
Clothing industry occupations, s e e : Apparel indus­
t r y . . . . . _____________________________________
Coil winders, electronics manufacturing__________
Collar pointers, apparel_________________________
College and university teachers__________________
College librarians.______________________________
College placement officers_______________________
College professors______________________________
Combination welders_____________________________
Commercial artists_______________________________



Commercial photographers______________________
Commercial tellers, banking_____________________
Commodity loan clerks, s e e : Bankclerks__________
Companions, s e e : Private household workers______
Composing room occupations, printing (graphic
arts)------------------------------------------------------------Composition roofers____________________________
Compositors, hand, printing (graphic arts)_______
Compressor-station engineers, natural gas process­
Compressor-station operators, natural gas process­
ing------------------------Comptometer operators, s e e : Calculating machine
Comptrollers, banking, s e e : Bank officers_________
Computer operators, s e e : Electronic computer op­
erating personnel_____________
Computers, petroleum and natural gas production.
Concrete finishers______________________________
Conductors, railroad________________
Conservation occupations_______________________
Conservationists, range, s e e : Range managers____
Conservationists, soil___________________________
Console operators, s e e : Electronic computer oper­
ating personnel_______________________________
Construction electricians_______________________
Construction laborers and hod carriers___________
Construction machinery operators, s e e : Operating
Construction trades, s e e : Building trades_________
Continuity directors, radio and television------------Continuity writers, radio and television__________
Contractors, building trades------------------------------Control clerks, s e e : Bank clerks_________________
Control room operators, electric power___________
Controllers, air route___________________________
Controllers, airport traffic______________________
Controllers, s e e : Accountants-----------------------------Converter operators, s e e : Electronic computer oper­
ating personnel______________________________
Cooks and chefs________________________________
Cooks, s e e : Digester operators, pulp, paper, and
allied products industry______________________
Cooks, s e e : Private household workers---------------Cooks’ helpers, s e e : Private household workers----Copilots, civil aviation_________________________
Copy boys, s e e : Newspaper reporters____________
Copying machine servicemen-----------------------------Copywriters, advertising________________________
Core assemblers, foundry_______________________
Coremakers, foundry___________________________
S e e a l s o : Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
Coremaking machine operators, foundry-------------Core-oven tenders, foundry_____________________
Coresetters, foundry___________________________
Corn and wheat farmers________________________
Corrugating operators, pulp, paper, and allied




Cost clerks, see: Accountants________________
Cotton growers________________________________
Counseling psychologists, s e e : P sych ologists_____
Counselors, s e e :
Rehabilitation counselors___________________
School counselors__________________________
Vocational counselors______________________
Counter attendants, restaurant__________________
Counters, pulp, paper and allied products_______
Country collection clerks, s e e : Bank clerks________
County agricultural agents______________________
County home demonstration agents_____________
Court reporters________________________________
Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers________
Cranemen, forge shop__________________________
Cranemen, iron and steel_______________________
Crane operators, s e e :
Foundry industry__________________________
Motor vehicle and equipment manufacturing..
Operating engineers________________________
Credit analysts, s e e : Bank officers_______________
Credit cashiers, s e e : Cashiers____________________
Crew chiefs, aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft_____
Crop dusters, civil aviation_____________________
Crop reporters_________________________________
Crop specialty farmers_________________________
Crystal finishers, electronics manufacturing______
Crystal grinders, electronics manufacturing______
Cultural anthropologists________________________
Cupola tenders, foundry________________________
Customer service occupations, electric power____
Customers’ brokers, s e e : Securities salesmen_____
Cutters, apparel_______________________________
Cutters, fur, apparel____________________________
Cutters, motor vehicle and equipment manufactur­
ing--------------------------------------------------------------Cutting room occupations, apparel_______________
Cytologists, s e e : Anatomists____________________
Dairy farmers__________________________________
Data-processing machine servicemen_____________
Data typists, s e e : Typists______________________
S e e a l s o : Electronic computer operators_____
Day workers, s e e : Private household workers_____
Decontamination men, atomic energy____________
Decorators, interior designers and_______________
Dehydration-plant operators, natural gas process­
ing--------------------------------------------------------------Deliverymen, s e e : Routemen____________________
Dental hygienists______________________________
Dental laboratory technicians___________________
Derrick operators, s e e : Foundry industry________
Derrickmen, petroleum and natural gas production.
Derrickmen, s e e : Stonemasons__________________
Design draftsmen______________________________
Designers, apparel______________________________



Designers, industrial____________________________
S e e a l s o listing under Industrial designers.
Designers, interior______________________________
Designers, scenic, radio and television____________
S e e a l s o : Interior designers and decorators.
Designers, tool and machine, s e e : Mechanical
technicians. -------------------------------------------------Designing room occupations, apparel_____________
Desk clerks, hotel______________________________
Detailers, s e e : Draftsmen_______________________
Detectives, police______________________________
Developmental psychologists____________________
Development engineers, radio and television______
Dictating-machine servicemen___________________
Die makers, pulp, paper, and allied products_____
Die makers, tool and___________________________
S e e a l s o listing under Tool and die makers.
Diesel mechanics_______________________________
Diesel technicians, s e e : Mechanical technicians___
Die sinkers, forge shop_________________________
Digester operators, pulp, paper, and allied products.
Directors, art, s e e : Commercial artists___________
Directors, college placement, s e e : College place­
ment officers_________________________________
Directors, education, radio and television________
Directors, program, radio and television__________
Directors, public affairs, radio and television_____
Disbursement clerks, s e e : Cashiers_______________
Di§c jockeys, radio and television________________
Discount bookkeepers, s e e : Bank clerks__________
Discount tellers, banking_______________________
Dishwashers, restaurant________________________
Dispatchers, s e e :
Civil aviation______________________________
Dispatchers, load, electric light and power_______
Dispensing opticians and optical laboratory (shop)
Distribution clerks, post offi ce___________________
Distributors, work, apparel_____________________
District representatives, electric power___________
Dividermen, baking____________________________
Doctors, medical_______________________________
Domestic workers, s e e : Private household workers.
Dough molders, baking_________________________



S e e a ls o :

Atomic energy field____________________
Electronics manufacturing______________
Iron and steel industry_________________
Petroleum and natural gas production___
Petroleum refining_____________________
Drama teachers, s e e : Actors and actresses________
Dressmakers, apparel__________________________
Drill press operators, s e e : Machine tool operators..
Drillers, petroleum and natural gas production----Drivers, intercity buses________________________
Drivers, local transit buses_____________________




Drivers, local trucks___________________________
Drivers, over-the-road trucks___________________
Drivers, taxi___________________________________
Driver-salesmen, s e e : Routemen_________________
S e e a l s o : Baking industry___________________
Driving occupations____________________________
Duplicating and copying machine servicemen_____
Duplicating machine operators__________________
Dynamic meteorologists________________________
Earth-boring machine operators, s e e : Operating
Earth sciences_________________________________
Economic geographers__________________________
Economic geologists____________________________
Economists, agricultural-,______________________
Editors, film, television_________________________
Editors, newspaper____________________________
Education directors, radio and television_________
Electrical appliance servicemen__________________
Electrical assemblers, aircraft, missiles, and space­
Electrical engineers_____________________________



S e e a ls o :

Atomic energy field____________________
Electronics manufacturing______________
Industrial chemical industry____________
Iron and steel industry_________________
Motor vehicle and equipment manufac­
Pulp, paper, and allied products industry .
Electrical repairmen, iron and steel______________
Electrical workers, s e e : Railroad bridge and building
Electric-arc w eld ers-__________________________
S e e a l s o : Motor vehicle and equipment manufac­
Electricians, construction____
Electricians, maintenance_______________________
S e e a l s o : listing under Maintenance electricians.
Electric power linemen_________________________
Electric power industry, occupations in th e _______
Electromechanical machinery servicemen, s e e : Post­
age and mailing equipment servicemen________
Electronic computer operating personnel_________
Electronic computer programers_________________
Electronic data-processing equipment servicemen,
s e e : Business machine servicemen_____________
Electronic reader-sorter operators, s e e : Bank clerks.
Electronics checkout men, aircraft, missiles, and
Electronics engineers, s e e :
Atomic energy field________________________
Electronics manufacturing__________________
Electronics manufacturing occupations___________
Electronics repairmen, iron and s t e e l . ___________



Electronics technicians__________________________


S e e a ls o :

Atomic energy field____________________
Electronics manufacturing______________
S e e a l s o : Electronics manufacturing__________
Electrotypers and stereotypers, printing (graphic
Elementary school teachers_____________________
Elevator constructors___________________________
Elevator mechanics_____________________________
Elevator operators, hotel________________________
Embossing machine operators, clerical___________
S e e a l s o : Agriculture________________________
Employment counselors, s e e : Vocational counselors.
Engineering aids _______
S e e a l s o : Electronics manufacturing__________
Engineering and science technicians______________
Engineering geologists__________________________
Engineering psychologists, s e e : Psychologists_____
Engineering technicians_________________________
Engineers, aeronautical, s e e : Engineers, aerospace. _
Engineers, aerospace____ _______________________
S e e a l s o : Aircraft, missile and spacecraft manu­
Engineers, agricultural_________
S e e a l s o : Agriculture_______________________
Engineers, astronautical, s e e : Engineers, aerospace.
Engineers, ceramic_____________________________
Engineers, chemical____________________________
S e e a l s o listing under Chemical engineers.
Engineers, civil_________________________________
S e e a l s o listing under Civil engineers.
Engineers, compressor-station, natural gas process­
ing---------------------------------------------------------------Engineers, development, radio and television_____
Engineers, electrical____________________________
S e e a l s o listing under Electrical engineers.
Engineers, electronics, s e e listing under Electronics
Engineers, flight, civil aviation ._________________
Engineers, foundry_____________________________
Engineers, gasoline-plant, natural gas processing._
Engineers, industrial___________________________
S e e a l s o listing under Industrial engineers.
Engineers, locomotive__________________________
S e e a l s o : Iron and steel industry_____________
Engineers, mechanical.__________________________
S e e a l s o listing under Mechanical engineers.
Engineers, metallurgical________________________
S e e a l s o listing under Metallurgical engineers.
Engineers, mining______________________________
Engineers, oceanographic, s e e : Oceanographers___
Engineers, operating,building trades ___________
Engineers, packaging, pulp, paper, and allied
Engineers, petroleum___________________________
S e e a l s o listing under Petroleum engineers.






Engineers, reactor, atomic energy.........................
Engineers, stationary________________
S e e a l s o listing under Stationary engineers.
Engineers, watch, electric power_________________
Engine lathe operators_______________ __________
Engine mechanics, aircraft, missiles, and space­
Enginemen, petroleum and natural gas produc­
S e e a l s o : Agriculture_______________________
Envelope-machine operators, pulp, paper, and
allied products_______________________________
Equipment manufacturing, s e e : Motor vehicle and
equipment manufacturing____________________
Estimators, building trades____________
Etchers, printing (graphic arts)_________________
Etching equipment operators, electronics manu­
Ethnologists, s e e : Anthropologists......................
Exchange clerks, s e e : Bank clerks............ ...................
Exhaust operators, electronics manufacturing_____
Experimental machinists, s e e : Instrument makers
Exploration geophysicists_________
Extension agents, agricultural_____________________
Extras, s e e : Actors and actresses________________
Fabrication inspectors, aircraft, missiles, and space­
Family service workers, s e e : Social workers______
Farm cooperative workers______________________
Farm housekeepers, s e e : Private household work­
Farm operators__________________________________
Farm service jobs______________________________
Farm workers, hired____________________________
Fashion illustrators, s e e : Commercial artists_____
FBI agents____________________________________
Federal Government occupations________________
Film editors, television_________________________
Film librarians, television_______________________
Final assemblers, aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft-.
Finance workers, agricultural___________________
Finishers, crystal, electronics manufacturing______
Finishers, fur, apparel__________________________
Finishers, motor vehicle and equipment manufac­
turing------ -------Finishers, optical goods_________________________
Finishers, printing (graphic arts)________________
Firefighters, protective service____________________
Firemen, petroleum and natural gas production___
Firemen, protective service, s e e : Firefighters_____
Firemen (helpers), railroad______________________
Firemen, stationary (boiler)_____________________
Firers, hydrogen furnace, electronics manufacturing.
Fitup men, boilermaking occupations______________
Flagmen, railroad___________
Flight attendants, civil aviation............................




Flight checkout occupations, s e e : Aircraft, missile,
and spacecraft manufacturing_________________
Flight engineers, civil aviation__________________
Flight superintendents, s e e : Airline dispatchers,
civil aviation________________________________
Floor assemblers_______________________________
Floor boys and girls, s e e : Work distributors, ap­
parel industry________________________________
Floor clerks and supervisors, hotel_______________
Floor coremakers, foundry______________________
Floor covering installers------------------------------------Floor covering mechanics_______________________
Floor housekeepers, hotel_____ _________________
Floor layers, s e e : Floor covering installers________
Floor managers, radio and television_____________
Floor molders, foundry_________________________
Floormen, rotary, petroleum and natural gas pro­
Floormen, television_____________________
Food checkers, restaurant_______________________
Food chemists_________________________________
Food managers, s e e : H otels_____________________
Forest land managers, s e e : Foresters_____________
S e e a l s o : Pulp, paper, and allied products____
Forestry aid s..............— -----------------------------------Forestry technicians, s e e : Forestry aids__________
Forge shop occupations_________________________
S e e a l s o : Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
Forge shop welders, s e e : Blacksmiths____________
Forging press operators, forge shop______________
Forklift truck operators, s e e : Power truck operators
Foundry industry______________________________
S e e a l s o : Motor vehicle and equipment ma iu facturing________________________________
Framemen, telephone central office craftsmen___
Free-lance artists, s e e : Commercial artists________
Front-end mechanics, see: Automobile m echanics..
Front office clerks, hotel________
Fur cutters, apparel____________________________
Fur machine operators, apparel______________ —
Fur nailers, apparel____________________________
Fur shop occupations, apparel___________________

Gagers, petroleum and natural gas production____
Garage mechanics, s e e : Automobile mechanics____
Gas appliance servicemen_______________________
Gas fitters, s e e : Plumbers and pipefitters_________
Gasoline-plant engineers, natural gas processing__
Gasoline-plant operators, natural gas processing__
Gasoline service station attendants_____ _________
Gasoline service station managers. ______________
Gas welders____________________________________
S e e a l s o : Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing. -------General boardmen, s e e : Commercial artists______
542 General bookkeepers___________________________
S e e a l s o : Bank clerks_______________________
General maids, s e e : Private household workers___




General practitioners, see: Physicians.......................
S e e a l s o : Agriculture_________________________
Geochemists, see; Geologists______________________
Geodesists, s e e : Geophysicists___________________
Geodetic surveyors_____________________________
Geological oceanographers________________________
S e e a l s o : Petroleum and natural gas produc­
Geomagneticians, see: Geophysicists______________
Geomorphologists, see: Geologists_________________
G eophysicists___________________________________
S e e a l s o : Petroleum and natural gas produc­
Glass blowers, electronics manufacturing__________
Glass lathe operators, electronics manufacturing__
Governesses, see; Private household workers_____
Government occupations, Federal_______________
S e e a l s o : Post office_______________________
Government occupations, State and local__________
Government, occupations in the_________________
Grain farmers, see: Corn and wheat farmers_____
Gravure pressmen, printing (graphic arts)________
Grid lathe operators, electronics manufacturing___
Grinders, s e e :
Forge shop__________________________________
Foundry industry__________________________
Grinding machine operators, see: Machine tool op­
Grocery checkers, see: Cashiers___________________
Groundmen, electric power_______________________
Ground radio operators and teletypists, civil avia­
Guidance counselors____________________________

117 Heat treaters, see:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manufactur­
ing--------------------------------------------------------Forge shop________________________________
Foundry industry__________________________
Helpers, baking________________________________
201 Helpers, building trad es._______________________
159 Helpers, iron and steel__________________________
Helpers, petroleum and natural gas production___
Helpers, see: Telephone central office craftsmen. _
722 High school teachers____________________________
152 High speed printer operators, see: Electronic com­
puter operating personnel_____________________
152 Highway surveyors_____________________________
Hod carriers_________
S e e a ls o :
Home demonstration agents, county, see: Occupa­
tions related to agriculture____________________
S e e a l s o : Home economists_________________
827 Home economists______________________________
S e e a ls o :
Agricultural extension workers__________
Home housekeepers, see: Private household workers.
Home office underwriters, insurance______________
445 Horticulturists_________________________________
Hospital administrators_________________________
Hospital attendants____________________________
Hospital nurses________________________________
289 Hospital recreation specialists, see: Recreation
Hostlers, railroad_______________________________
Hot-cell technicians, atomic energy______________
Hot metal cranemen, iron and steel______________
Hotel managers________________________________
Hotel occupations______________________________
H airdr essers___________________________________
Household workers, see: Private household workers.
Hammer drivers, forge shop_______________ - ____
Hammer operators, forge shop___ ________________
444 Housekeepers, see: Private household workers____
Housekeepers and assistants, hotel_______________
Hammer runners, forge shop____________________
Housemen, hotel_______________________________
Hammermen, see: Motor vehicle and equipment
714 Housemen, see: Private household workers_______
Hammersmiths, forge shop_______________________
443 Human nutritionists, see: Agriculture____________
Husbandry specialists (animal)__________________
Hand bookkeepers_____________________________
Hydrogen funlace firers, electronics manufacturing.
Hand compositors, printing (graphic arts)________
Hand cutters, apparel__________________________
Hydrologists, see: Geophysicists_________________
Hand icers, baking-____________________________
Hygienists, dental______________________________
Hand molders, foundry_________________________
Hand sewers, apparel___________________________
Icers, baking___________________________________
Hand spreaders, apparel________________________
Icing mixers, baking____________________________
Handymen, see: Private household workers______
Illustrators, see: Commercial artists_____________
Health physicists, atomic energy__________________
598 Illustrators, technical, see listing under Technical
Health physics technicians, atomic energy________
Industrial chemical industry, occupations in th e__
Health service occupations______________________
Industrial designers_____________________________
Heaters, see:
S e e a ls o :
Forge shop________________________________
Atomic energy field____________________
Iron and steel industry_______________________
Electronics m anufacturing_____________
Motor vehicle and equipment manufacturing.






Industrial engineers____________________________


S e e a ls o :

Electronics manufacturing______________
Motor vehicle and equipment manufac­
Industrial machinery repairmen_________________
Industrial meteorologists______________ _______ __
Industrial nurses_______________________________
Industrial photographers_______________________
Industrial psychologists_________________________
Industrial recreation specialists, s e e : Recreation
Industrial salesmen______________
Industrial technicians___________________________
Industrial traffic managers______________________
Infants’ nurses, s e e : Pri\ate household workers___
Information and mail clerks, hotel_______________
Information operators, telephone......... ......................
Infrared oven operators, electronics manufacturing
Ingot strippers, iron and steel___________________
Inorganic chemists___________
Inspectors (manufacturing)_____________________


S e e a ls o :

Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manu­
facturing------------,____ ______ ________
Apparel industry______________________
Electronics manufacturing______________
Forge shop-----------------------------------------Foundry industry______________________
Iron and steel industry_________________
Motor vehicle and equipment manufac­
Pulp, paper, and allied products industry.
Installation men, s e e : Automobile trimmers (auto­
mobile upholsterers)__________________________
Installers and repairmen, telephone and P B X ____
Installers, floor covering________________________
Installers, meter, electric power_________________
Installers, telephone central office equipment_____
Instrument maintenance men, s e e : Instrument re­
Instrument makers (mechanical)________________
Instrument mechanics, s e e : Instrument repairmen,
Instrument men, s e e : Instrument repairmen______
Instrument repairmen__________________________


S e e a ls o :

Industrial chemical industry_______
Pulp, paper, and allied products industry,
Instrument technicians, s e e : Instrument repairmen,
Instrumentation technicians____________________
Instrumentmen, s e e : Surveyors__________________
Insulating workers_____________________________
Insurance agents and brokers___________________
Insurance business, occupations in the___________
Insurance checkers_____________________________
Insurance clerks________________________________
Intercity busdrivers____________________________
Intercity truckdrivers__________________________
Interest-accrual bookkeepers, s e e : Bank clerks____
Interest clerks, s e e : Bank clerks.................



Interior designers and decorators________________
Intertype operators, printing (graphic arts)______
Interviewers, marketing research________________
Investigators, FB I_____________________________
Investment analysts, s e e : Insurance business______
Iron and steel industry, occupations in the_______
Iron workers, building trades___________________
S e e a l s o : Railroad bridge and building workers.


Janitors, restaurant____________________________
Jewelers and jewelry repairmen_________________
Jig and fixture builders, aircraft, missiles, and
Journalists, see: Newspaper reporters____________
Junior high school teachers, s e e : Secondary school


Keepers, iron and steel___ _______
Key clerks, hotel________________________________
Keypunch operators____________________________



S e e a ls o :

Electronic computer operating personnel,
Kindergarten teachers__________________________
Kitchen workers, restaurant_____________________


Laboratory (shop) mechanics, optical____________
Laboratory technicians_________________________


S e e a ls o :

Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manufac­
Atomic energy field____________________
Electronics manufacturing______________
Industrial chemical industry____________
Iron and steel industry_________________
Petroleum refining_____________________
Pulp, paper, and allied products industry,
Laboratory technicians, dental__________________
Laboratory technicians, medical, s e e : Medical tech­
Laboratory technicians, optical___________________
Laborers and hod carriers, building trades_________
Ladle cranemen, iron and steel____________________
Land managers, forest, s e e : Foresters____________
Land surveyors___________________________
Landmen, petroleum and natural gas production,,
Landscape architects_____________________________
Larrymen, iron and steel_________________________
Lathe operators, s e e : Machine tool operators_____
Laundresses, s e e : Private household workers______
Layout artists, s e e : Commercial artists_____ ______
Layout men, advertising________________________
S e e a l s o : Commercial artists________________
Layout men (machine tools)______________________
S e e a l s o : Boilermaking occupations___________
Leasemen, petroleum and natural gas production.,
Legal secretaries_________________________________
Letterers, s e e : Commercial artists_________________
Letterpress pressmen, printing (graphic arts)_____




Librarians, medical record______________________
Librarians, tape, s e e : Electronic computer oper­
ating personnel________________________________
Librarians, television film_________________________
Licensed practical nurses_______________________
Licensed vocational nurses______________________
Life insurance agents_____________________________
Lighting directors, television____________________
Lighting technicians, television__________________
Line-haul truckdrivers___________________________
Line maintenance mechanics, civilaviation_______
Linemen and cable splicers, telephone_____________
Linemen, s e e :
Electric power industry____________________
Telephone industry________________________
Linotype operators, printing (graphic arts)_______
Lithographic artists, printing (graphic arts)______
Lithographic occupations, printing (graphic arts)..
Lithographic pressmen, printing (graphic arts)___
Livestock farmers______________________________
Load dispatchers, electric power_________________
Loan officers, banking__________________________
Local government occupations__________________
Local transit busdrivers________________________
Local truckdrivers______________________________
Locomotive engineers, railroad__________________
S e e a l s o : Iron and steel industry____________
Locomotive firemen (helpers), railroad___________
Long distance operators, telephone____________
Long-haul truckdrivers_________________________
Machine coremakers, foundry__ ________________
Machine designers, s e e : Mechanical engineering
Machine icers, baking__________________________
Machine molders, s e e :
Foundry industry__________________________
Motor vehicle and equipment manufacturing.
Machine movers, s e e : Riggers and machine movers.
Machine (resistance) welders, motor vehicle and
equipment manufacturing____________________
Machine spreaders, apparel_____________________
Machine tenders, s e e : Paper machine operators,
pulp, paper, and allied products_______________
Machine tool operators_________________________


S e e a ls o :

Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manu­
Electronics manufacturing______________
Foundry industry______________________
Iron and steel industry_________________
Motor vehicle and equipment manufac­
Machined parts inspectors, aircraft, missiles, and
Machinery repairmen, industrial________________
Machining o c c u p a t io n s ............... .......... , ________
S e e a l s o : Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing. _____ . . . ____. . . . . . . . . . _____ _



Machinists, all-round___________________________


S e e a ls o :

Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manu­
Atomic energy field____________________
Electronics manufacturing______________
Foundry industry______________________
Instrument makers (mechanical)________
Iron and steel industry_________________
Petroleum refining_____________________
Pulp, paper, and allied products industry..
Railroad shop trades___________________
Maids, hotel___________________________________
Maids, s e e : Private household workers___________
Mail and information clerks, hotel_______________
Mail carriers, post office________________________
Mail clerks, post office__________________________
Mail handlers, post office_______________________
Mail preparing and mail handling machine oper­
ators, office machine operators________________
Mailing equipment servicemen__________________
Mailmen, post office____ ________________________
Maintenance electricians________________________


S e e a ls o :

Electronics manufacturing______________
Iron and steel industry_________________
Pulp, paper, and allied products industry. .
Railroad shop trades___________________
Maintenance mechanics, s e e : Industrial machinery
Maintenance technicians, radio and television_____
Makeup artists, television.______________________
Makeup men, printing (graphic arts)_____________
Managerial occupations, s e e : Professional, man­
agerial, and related occupations_______________
Managers, advertising__________________________
Managers and assistants, hotel__________________
Managers, food, hotel___________________________
Managers, forest land, s e e : Foresters______________
Managers, gasoline service station_______________
Managers, industrial traffic_____________________
Managers, land, s e e : Foresters___________________
Managers, range_______________________________
Managers, restaurant____ _______________________
Managers, sales, s e e :
H o te ls ____________________________________
Radio and television broadcasting___________
Manipulator operators, iron and steel____________
Manual workers________________________________
M anufacturers’ salesmen_______________________
Marble setters, tile setters, and terrazzo workers___
Markers, a p p a r e l._____________________________
Marketing research w orkers____________________
Market news reporters_________________________
Masons, brick____ _____________________________


S e e a ls o :

Iron and steel industry_________________
Railroad bridge and building workers. . . . .
Masons, cement and concrete_____ . . . . . . . . . . ____
Masons, ston e......................................






Materials handlers, motor vehicle and equipment
manufacturing____________________________ —
Mathematical assistants, electronics manufacturing.
Mathematical statisticians............................

Metallurgical engineers_________________________

S e e a ls o :

Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manufac­
Electronics manufacturing........................
Mathematics and related field s.._____ __________
Mathematics technicians_______________________
Mechanical engineering technicians______________
Mechanical engineers___________________________


S e e a ls o :

Atomic energy field____________________
Electronics manufacturing______________
Industrial chemical industry........................
Iron and steel industry_________________
Motor vehicle and equipment manufactur­
Pulp, paper, and allied products industry.
Mechanics and repairmen___________
Mechanics, s e e :
Air-conditioning mechanics_________________
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manufactur­
Airplane mechanics________________________
Automatic bowling machine mechanics______
Automobile mechanics_____________________
Bus mechanics__________
Diesel mechanics___________________________
Dispensing opticians and optical laboratory
(shop) mechanics________________________
Electronics manufacturing__________________
Floor covering installers___ _____
Foundry industry_____________
Refrigeration mechanics____________________
Truck mechanics___________________________
Vending machine mechanics________________
S e e a l s o fisting under Servicemen and under
Media directors, advertising____________________
Medical record librarians..............
Medical secretaries_____________________________
Medical social workers_________________________
Medical technologists___________________________
Medical X-ray technicians_________
Medical X-ray technologists____________________
Melters, s e e :
Foundry industry___________
Iron and steel industry_____________________
Motor vehicle and equipment manufacturing. _
Messengers, b a n k _____________________________
Metal cranemen, iron and steel__________________
Metal finishers, motor vehicle and equipment man­




S e e a ls o :

Atomic energy field____________________
Electronics manufacturing______________
Iron and steel industry_________________
Metallurgical technicians_______________________
Metallurgists, s e e :
Atomic energy field__________________________
Electronics manufacturing____________________
Foundry industry__________________________
Iron and steel industry_____________________
Motor vehicle and equipment manufacturing.
Metal patternmakers, foundry__________________
Meter installers, electric power__________________
Meter readers, electric power___________________
Meter testers, electric power____ _______________
Metermen, electric power_______________________
Milkmen, s e e : Routemen_______________________
Milling machine operators, s e e : Machine tool oper­
M illwrights._____ _____________________________


S e e a ls o :

Foundry industry______________________
Iron and steel industry_________________
Motor vehicle and equipment manufactur­
Pulp, paper, and allied products industry.
Mineralogists, s e e :
Petroleum and natural gas production______
Mining engineers_______________________________
Ministers, Protestant___________________________
Missile assembly mechanics, aircraft missiles, and
Missile manufacturing occupations_____ _________
Missionaries, s e e : C ler g y _______________________
Mixers, baking_________________________________
Modelmakers, s e e : Instrument makers (mechanical).
Molders, foundry_______________________________
S e e a l s o : Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
Molders’ helpers, foundry industry______________
Molding machine operators, baking industry_____
Molding machine operators, foundry-------------------Monitors, radiation, atomic energy--------------------Monotype caster operators, printing (graphic arts) _
Monotype keyboard operators, printing (graphic
Mortgage clerks, s e e : Bank clerks________________
Mothers’ helpers, s e e : Private household workers.
Motor vehicle body repairmen__________________
Motor vehicle and equipment manufacturing occu­
Motor vehicle operators, post office______________
Music directors, radio and television_____________
Music librarians, radio and television____________
Musicians and music teachers___________________




Nailers, far, apparel____________________________
Natural gas processing occupations_______________
Natural scien ces_______________________________
N avy__________________________________________
Newscasters, broadcasting---------------------------------Newspaper reporters--------------S e e a l s o : Technical writers.....................
Note tellers, banking------------Nuclear physicists------------------------------


S e e a ls o :

Atomic energy field._____ _____________
Electronics manufacturing....................
Nuclear reactor operators, atomic energy_________
Nurse aids, s e e : Hospital attendants_____________
Nurse educators, s e e : Registered professional nurses.
Nurse maids, s e e : Private household workers...........
Nurses, industrial-------------Nurses, licensed practical_______________________
Nurses, licensed vocational...............
Nurses, registered professional------- -------------------Nursing assistants, s e e : Hospital attendants--------N utritionists---------------


S e e a ls o :

Dietitians----------Home economists______________________
Observers, petroleum and natural gas production._
Occupational health nurses______________________
Occupational therapists_________________________
Oceanographic engineers, s e e : Oceanographers____
Odd-job men, s e e : Private household workers____
Office machine operators________________________
Office machine servicemen______________________
Office nurses___________________________________
Offset pressmen, printing (graphic arts)__________
Operating engineers, construction machinery_____
Operations agents, civil aviation_________________
Operatives, s e e : Semiskilled workers, industrial___
Operators, compressor-station, natural gas process­
Operators, resistance welding____________________
S e e a l s o : Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing____ _____
Operators, telephone_________ . P_______________
Optical laboratory (shop) mechanics_____________
Optical laboratory technicians___________________
Opticians, dispensing___________________________
Orderlies, s e e : Hospital attendants_______________
Organic chemists_______________________________
Ornamental-iron workers, building trades________
Osteopathic physicians__________________________
Outside production inspectors, aircraft, missiles,
and spacecraft_______________________________
Ovenmen, baking industry______________________
Over-the-road truckdrivers______________________
Oxygen cutters_________________________________



Packaging engineers, pulp, paper, and allied
Painters and paperhangers______________________
Painters, automobile____________________________
Painters, production____________________________
S e e a l s o listing under Production Painters.
Paleontologists, s e e :
Geologists___ ________
Petroleum and natural gas production_______
Pantrymen and pantrywomen, restaurants_______
Paper, and allied products______________________
Paper engineers, pulp, paper, and allied products. _
Paper inspectors, pulp, paper and allied products._
Paper machine operators, pulp, paper, and allied
Paper sorters and counters, pulp, paper, and allied
Paper testers, pulp, paper, and allied products____
Parcel post carriers, post office___________________
Parole officers, see: Social workers....... ...............
Parts changers, electronics manufacturing________
Parts countermen, automobile_____ ______
Paste-up men, s e e : Commercial artists___________
Pastors, s e e : Clergy___ ______
S e e a l s o : Agriculture_______________________
Pathologists, speech_______
Patrolmen, s e e : Policemen..............
Pattern graders, a p p a rel..._____ ________________
Patternmakers, apparel_________________________
Patternmakers, foundry industry________________
S e e a l s o : Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing_____ ______
Paying and receiving tellers, banking. ___________
Payroll tellers, banking__________
PBX installers and repairmen, telephone_________
PBX operators, s e e : Telephone operators________
Peanut growers___________
Perforator operators, petroleum and natural gas
production ___________________________________
Performing arts, the____________________________
Personal maids, s e e : Private household workers__
Personnel workers______________________________
Petrographers, s e e : Geologists___________________
Petroleum engineers, s e e :
Mining engineers___________________________
Petroleum and natural gas production_______
Petroleum refining._________
Petroleum geologists____________________________
S e e a l s o : Petroleum and natural gas produc­
Petrologists, s e e : Geologists_______
Petroleum and natural gas production and process­
ing, occupations i n __________________________
Petroleum refining______________________________
Photoengravers, printing (graphic a rts)__________
Photogrammetric surveyors_____________________





Pho tographers_________________________________
S e e a l s o listing under Cameramen, printing
(graphic arts).
Photographers, television_______________________
Photo-journalists, s e e : Photographers____________
Phototypesetting machine operators, printing
(graphic arts)_______________________________
Physical anthropologists________________________
Physical chemists______________________________
Physical geographers___________________________
Physical meteorologists___________
Physical oceanographers________________________
Physical sciences______________________________
Physical therapists_____________________________



S e e a ls o :

Atomic energy field____________________
Electronics manufacturing______________
Physicists, health, atomic energy________________
Physicists, radiological, atomic energy___________
Phytopathologists, plant pathologists____________
Picklers, forge shop____________________________
Piercer machine operators, iron and steel_________
Pilots and copilots, civil aviation________________
Pinchasers, s e e :
Automatic bowling machine
Pinsetting machine mechanics, s e e : Automatic bowl­
ing machine mechanics_______________________


S e e a ls o :

Industrial chemical industry____________
Iron and steel industry________________
Motor vehicle and equipment manufac­
turing---------------------------------------------Petroleum refining_____________________
Pulp, paper, and allied products industry,
Placement directors, s e e : College placement offi­
Placement officers, s e e : College placement officers.
Plainclothesmen, s e e : Policemen_________________
Plane-table operators, petroleum and natural gas
Planners, urban________________________________
Plant and animal husbandry specialists, s e e : Agri­
Plant pathologists______________________________
S e e a l s o : Railroad bridge and building workers.
Platemakers, printing (graphic arts)_____________
Platers, electroplaters__________________________


S e e a ls o :

Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manufac­
turing--------------------------------------------Motor vehicle and equipment manufac­
turing--------------------------------------------Plumbers and pipefitters_______________________
S e e a l s o : Railroad bridge and building workers.
Podiatrists.......... ..................................



Policemen and policewomen____________________
Policy change clerks, insurance__________________
Policy writers, insurance________________________
Polishers, motor vehicle and equipment manufac­
turing----------------------------------------------------------Political geographers___________________________
Political scientists______________________________
Portable equipment operators, s e e : Track workers,
Porters, baggage, hotel_________________________
Porters, restaurant_____________________________
Portrait photographers_________________________
Postage and mailing equipment servicemen______
Postal clerks___________________________________
Postal inspectors_______________________________
Posting machine operators, s e e : Bank clerks_____
Post office occupations .
Poultry farmers________________________________
Pourers, s e e :
Foundry industry__________________________
Iron and steel industry_____________________
Motor vehicle and equipment manufacturing-_
Power brake operators, aircraft, missiles, and space­
craft------------------------------------------------------------Power hammer operators, aircraft, missiles, and
Power linemen, electric power___________________
Powerplant installers, aircraft, missiles, and space­
Powerplant mechanics, civil aviation_____________
Powerplant occupations, electric power___________
Power shear operators, aircraft, missiles, and space­
craft ________________________________________
Power truck operators__________________________
Practical nurses________________________________
Pressers, apparel_______________________________
Press feeders, printing (graphic a r t s ) ____________
Pressing occupations, a p p a r e l.._________________
Pressmen, printing (graphic arts)________________
Press photographers____________________________
Press operators, forge shop______________________
Priests, Roman Catholic________________________
Printer-slotter operators, pulp, paper, and allied
Printers, printing (graphic arts)_________________
Printing (graphic arts) occupations_______________
Printing pressmen and assistants, printing (graphic
arts)------------------------------------------------------------Private duty nurses____________________________
Private household workers______________________
Probation and parole officers, s e e : Social workers. _
Producer-directors, program, radio and television..
Production managers, advertising________________
Production painters____________________________








S e e a ls o :


Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manufac­
turing---------------------------------------------Motor vehicle and equipment manufac­
turing---------------------------------------------Railroad bridge and building workers___




Production planners, aircraft, missiles, and space­
Production technicians, s e e : Industrial engineering
Professional, managerial, and related occupations.
Professional occupations, s e e : Professional, man­
agerial, and related occupations_______________
Professors, college______________________________
Professors, university__________________________
Profile cutting torch operators, aircraft, missiles,
and spacecraft________________ .______________
Program assistants, radio and television__________
Program directors, radio and television__________
Program producer-directors, radio and television...
Programers, electronic computer_________________
See a l s o : Insurance business__________________
Proof machine operators, s e e : Bank clerks________
Proofers, printing (graphic arts)__________________
Proofreaders, printing (graphic arts)_______________
Property and liability insurance agents and brokers..
Prospecting drillers, petroleum and natural gas
Prospecting geophysicists_________________________
Protective service occupations__________________
Protestant clergymen___________________________
Psychiatric aids, s e e : Hospital attendants________
Psychiatric social workers________________________
S e e a l s o : Counseling_______________________
Public affairs directors, s e e : Radio and television..
Public health nurses_____________________________
Public librarians_________________________________
Public health sanitarians, s e e : Sanitarians_________
Public relations workers________________________
Public stenographers_____________________________
Pulp, paper, and allied products industry, occupa­
tions in the___________________________________
Pulp testers, pulp, paper, and allied products_____
Pumpers, petroleum and natural gas production__
Pumpmen, petroleum refining___________________
Punch press operators, s e e :
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manufacturing.
Electronics manufacturing__________________
Motor vehicle and equipment manufacturing..
Purchasing agents______________________________
Rack clerks, hotel_______________________________
Radar technicians, s e e : Electronics technicians___
Radiation monitors, atomic energy______________
Radio and television announcers__________________
Radio and television broadcasting occupations____
Radiographers, atomic energy_____________________
Radioisotope-production operators, atomic energy..
Radiological physicists, atomic energy___________
Radio operators, ground, civil aviation___________
Radio service technicians_________________________
Railroad bridge and building workers______________
Railroad clerks__________________________________
Railroad conductors_____________________________



Railroad occupations___________________________
Range conservationists, s e e : Range managers____
Range managers_______________________________
Range scientists, s e e : Range managers___________
Reactor engineers, atomic energy________________
Reactor technicians, atomic energy______________
Real estate salesmen and brokers________________
Receiving clerks, s e e : Shipping and receiving clerks.
Receiving inspectors, aircraft, missiles, and space­
Receiving tellers, banking______________________
Reconcilement clerks, s e e : Bank clerks___________
Recording clerks, s e e : Bank clerks_______________
Recording technicians, radio and telev isio n .______
Recreation therapists, s e e : Recreation workers___
Recreation workers____ ________________________
Reference librarians____________________________
Refrigeration mechanics________________________
Regional geographers___________________________
Regional planners______________________________
Registered professional nurses___________________
Registered representatives, see: Securities salesmen.
Registered technologists, see: Medical technologists.
Rehabilitation counselors_______________________
Rehabilitation workers, see: Social workers_______
Reinforcing-iron workers, building trades_________
Renderers, see: Commercial artists_______________
Repairmen, see:
Automobile body repairmen________________
Central office repairmen, telephone__________
Industrial machinery repairmen_____________
Instrument repairmen______________________
Jewelry repairmen_________________________
Telephone and PBX repairmen______________
Watch repairmen__________________________
S e e a l s o listings under Mechanics and
under Servicemen.
Reporters, newspaper___________________________
Reporting stenographers________________________
Research directors, advertising__________________
Research workers, agricultural___________________
Research workers, marketing____________________
Reservation agents and clerks, civil aviation_____
Reservation clerks, hotel________________________
Resilient floor layers, s e e : Floor covering installers.
Resistance-welding operators____________________
S e e a l s o : Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
Restaurant industry_________________________
Retail salesmen and saleswomen_________
Rewrite men, s e e : Newspaper reporters__ ________
Rig builders, petroleum and natural gas production
Riggers and machine movers, building trades_____
Riveters, aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft________
Rocket assembly mechanics, aircraft, missiles, and
Rodmen, petroleum and natural gas production___





Rodmen, s e e : Reinforcing-iron workers__________
Rodmen, s e e : Surveyors________________________
Rollers, iron and steel---------------------------------------Rolling mill attendants, iron and steel___________
Roll turners, iron and steel______________________
Roman Catholic priests_________________________
Roofers-----------------------------------------------------------Room and desk clerks, hotel____________________
Rotary drillers, petroleum and natural gas produc­
Rotary floormen, petroleum and natural gas produc­
Roughnecks, petroleum and natural gas produc­
Roustabouts, petroleum and natural gas produc­
S e e a l s o : Baking industry__________________
Routers, printing (graphic a r t s ) .._______________
Route salesmen, s e e : Routemen_________________
Rural carriers, post office_______________________
Rural sociologists______________________________
S e e a l s o : A rgiculture...-------- --------------------Safety technicians, s e e : Engineering and science
Sailors, s e e : N avy______________________________
Sales clerk, retail store_________________________
Sales engineer, s e e : Manufacturers’ salesmen_____
Sales managers, s e e :
Radio and television broadcasting__________
Salesmen and saleswomen, s e e :
Automobile parts countermen_______________
Automobile salesmen_______________________
Automobile service advisors________________
Insurance agents and brokers_______________
Manufacturers’ salesmen___________________
Radio and television_______________________
Real estate salesmen and brokers____________
Salesmen and saleswomen in retail stores____
Salesmen in wholesale trade________________
Securities salesmen_________________________
Sales occupations______________________________
Sample stitchers, apparel_______________________
Sample-taker operators, petroleum and natural
gas production_______________________________
Sandblasters, forge shop________________________
Sandblasters, foundry__________________________
Sand mixers, foundry___________________________
Savings tellers, banking________________________
Scenic designers, television______________________
S e e a ls o : Interior designers and decorators__
School counselors______________________________
School librarians_______________________________
School recreation workers_______________________
School social workers___________________________
Science aids___________________________________
Science information specialists, s e e : Librarians___
Science technicians____________________



Scientists, biological____________________________
Scientists, earth________________________________
Scientists, natural______________________________
Scientists, physical_____________________________
Scientists, soil__________________________________
Scouts, petroleum and natural gas production____
Sealers, electronics manufacturing_______________
Secondary school teachers______________________
Securities salesmen_____________________________
Securities tellers, banking_______________________
Sedimentologists, s e e : Geologists_______________ _
Seismologists, s e e : Geophysicists________________
Semiskilled workers, industrial__________________
Service advisors, s e e : Automobile service advisors,
Service assistants, telephone____________________
Service salesmen, s e e : Automobile service advisors,
Service writers, see: Automobile service advisors._
Servicemen, s e e :
Appliance servicemen______________________
Business machine servicemen_______________
Television and radio service technicians_____
Service occupations____________________________
Service station attendants, s e e : Gasoline service sta­
tion attendants______________________________
Service station managers, s e e : Gasoline service sta­
tion managers_______________________________
Service station mechanic-attendants_____________
Setup men (machine tools)______________________
Sewers, hand; apparel__________________________
Sewing machine operators, s e e :
Apparel industry__________________________
Motor vehicle and equipment manufacturing..
Sewing room occupations, apparel_______________
Shakeout men, s e e :
Foundry industry__________________________
Motor vehicle and equipment manufacturing..
Shapers, apparel_______________________________
Shearmen, iron and steel________________________
Shear operators, electronics manufacturing_______
Sheet-metal workers____________________________


a ls o :

Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manu­
Electronics manufacturing______________
Railroad shop trades___________________
Shipping and receiving clerks___________________
Shooters, petroleum and natural gas production__
Shop trades, railroad___________________________
Shotblasters, forge shop________________________
Shotblasters, foundry___________________________
Signal department workers, railroad_____________
Signal maintainers, ra ilro a d .___________________
Signalmen, railroad____________________________
Silk screen operators, electronics manufacturing__
Singers and singing teachers____________________
Skilled and other manual occ ipations___________
Skilled workers________________________________
Skipmen, iron and steel_________________________
Slaggers, iron and steel____________ ____________





Slate roofers, building trades____________________
Slicing machine operators, baking_______________
Soaking pit cranemen, iron and s t e e l____________
Social caseworkers_____________________________
Social psychologists____________________________
Social sciences________________________________
Social secretaries_______________________________
Social workers_________________________________
Sociologists, rural, s e e : Agriculture_______________
Soil conservationists____________________________
Soil scientists---------------------------------------------------Soldiers, s e e : Army_____________________________
Sorters, s e e : Bank clerks________________________
Sorting machine operators______________________
Sound effects technicians, radio and television____
Spacecraft manufacturing occupations___________
Special delivery carriers, post office--------------------Specialty farm operators-----------------------------------Specifications writers, s e e : Electronics manufactur­
Speech pathologists^___________________________
Sprayers, motor vehicle and equipment manufac­
Spreaders, apparel industry_____________________
Stage managers, radio and television_____________
Star route carriers, post office----------------------------State and local government occupations__________
Station agents, civil aviation------------------------------Station agents, railroad_________________________
Station installers, telephone_____________________
Stationary engineers____________________________
S e e a l s o : Pulp, paper, and allied products
Stationary firemen (boiler)______________________


S e e a ls o :

Electronics manufacturing______________
Steamfitters, s e e : Plumbers and pipefitters_______
Steel industry occupations______________________
Steel pourers, iron and steel_____________________
Stenographers and secretaries___________________
Stereotypers, printing (graphic arts)_____________
Stewardesses, civil aviation_____________________
Stillmen, petroleum refining_____________________
Stillmen, gas plant, natural gas processing_______
Stock chasers, motor vehicle and equipment manu­
Stock clerks, baking____________________________
Stock clerks, motor vehicle and equipment manu­
Stock house larrymen, iron and steel_____________
Stock house men, iron and steel_________________
Stonehands, printing (graphic arts)---------------------Stonem asons__________________________________
Stove tenders, iron and steel____________________
Stratigraphers, s e e : Geologists__________________


Stripper-cranemen, iron and steel________________
Strippers, printing (graphic arts)_________
Structural-, ornamental-, and reinforcing-iron
workers, riggers, and machine workers_________
Studio supervisors, radio and television.__________
Substation operators, electric power______________
Supercalendar operators, pulp, paper, and allied
Surfacers, optical goods_________________________
Survey statisticians_____________________________
Switchboard operators, electric power______________
Switchboard operators, telephone__________________
Switchers, petroleum and natural gas production ._
Switchmen, railroad____________________________
Switchmen, telephone___________________________
Synoptic meteorologists_______________


Tabulating machine operators_____________________
Tailoring occupations, apparel___________________
Tailors, apparel________________________________
Tape librarians, s e e : Electronic computer operating
Tape perforating machine operators, printing
(graphic arts)_________________________________
Tape perforator typists, s e e : Typists_____________
Tape-to-eard converter operators, s e e : Electronic
computer operating personnel___________________
Taxi drivers___________________________________
Teachers, college and university___________________
Teachers, dancing________________________________
Teachers, drama______________________________ ____ 175
Teachers, high school____________________________
Teachers, junior high school, s e e : Secondary school
Teachers, kindergarten and elementary school-----211
Teachers, music__________________________________
Teachers, secondary school. _____________________
Teachers, singing________________________________
Technical stenographers__________________________
Technical illustrators, s e e :
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manufactur­
Electronics manufacturing__________________
Technical writers_______________________________
S e e a ls o :

Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manu­
facturing__________________ _•-----------575
Electronics manufacturing________________
Newspaper reporters_____________________
Technician occupations___________________________
Technicians, broadcasting, radio and television___
Technicians, dental laboratory__________________
Technicians, engineering and science_______________
S e e a ls o :

Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manu­




Technicians, engineering and science—Continued
S e e a l s o —Continued
Atomic energy field____________________
Dispensing opticians and optical labora­
tory mechanics______________________
Electronics manufacturing______________
Foundry industry______________________
Industrial chemical industry____________
Iron and steel industry_________________
Petroleum refining_____________________
Pulp, paper, and allied products industry.,.
Technicians, forestry, s e e : Forestry aids__________
Technicians, medical X-ray_____________________
Technicians, optical laboratory__________________
Technicians, sound effects, radio and television._
Technicians, television and radio service________
Technologists, medical_________________________
Tectonophysicists, s e e : Geophysicists____________
Telegraphers, telephoners, and towermen, railroad.
Telephone and PBX installers and repairmen___
Telephone central office craftsmen_______________
Telephone central office equipment installers_____
Telephone craftsmen___________________________
Telephone industry occupations_________________
Telephone installers and repairmen______________
Telephone linemen and cable splicers____________
Telephone operators____________________________
Telephone repairmen___________________________
Telephone servicemen__________________________
Telephoners, railroad___________________________
Teletypists, civil aviation_______________________
Television announcers__________________________
Television broadcasting o ccu p ation s..------- --------Television and radio service technicians__________
Tellers, banking________________________________
Terrazzo workers, building trades_______________
Testboardmen, telephone_______________________
Testers, paper, s e e : Inspectors, pulp, paper, and
allied products_______________________________
Therapeutic d ietitian s_________________________
Therapists, occupational. . . _____________________
Therapists, physical____________________________
Therapists, recreation, s e e : Recreation workers___
Thread trimmers and cleaners, apparel___________
Ticket agents, civil aviation____________________
Ticket sellers, see: Cashiers_____________________
Tile roofers, building trades_____________________
Tile setters, building trades_____________________
Time salesmen, radio and television_____________
Tinners, electronics manufacturing______________
Tobacco growers_______________________________
Tool and die makers___________________________



S e e a ls o :

Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manu­
Electronics manufacturing______________
Iron and steel industry_________________
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
Pulp, paper, and allied products industry.




Tool designers, s e e : Mechanical technicians_____
Toolmakers, electronics manufacturing___________
Tool pushers, petroleum and natural gas production _
Towermen, railroad____________________________
Tracers, s e e : Draftsmen________________________
Trackmen, railroad_____________________________
Track workers, railroad_________________________
Traffic agents and clerks, civil aviation__________
Traffic controllers, airport______________________
Traffic controllers, air-route_____________________
Traffic managers, industrial_____________________
Traffic managers, radio and television____________
Traffic representatives, civil aviation_____________
Train directors, railroad________________________
Train dispatchers______________________________
Trainmen, s e e : Brake men, railroad______________
Transcribing machine operators, s e e : Typists_____
Transfer clerks, post office______________________
Transit clerks, s e e : Bank clerks_________________
Transmission and distribution occupations, electric
Transmitter technicians, radio and television_____
Treaters, s e e :
Petroleum and natural gas production________
Petroleum refining_________________________
Trimmers, apparel_____________________________
Trimmers, automobile (automobile upholsterers). _
Trimmers, motor vehicle and equipment manu­
Trimmers, forge shop___________________________
Troublemen, electric power_____________________
Truckdrivers, local_____________________________
Truckdrivers, motor vehicle operators, post office..
Truckdrivers, over-the-road_____________________
Truck mechanics_______________________________
Trust bookkeepers, s e e : Bank clerks_____________
Trust investment clerks, s e e : Bank clerks________
Trust officers, banking__________________________
Tube benders, aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft___
Tumbler operators, foundry_____________________
Tune-up mechanics, s e e : Automobile mechanics__
Turbine operators, electric power________________
Typesetters, hand, printing (graphic arts)________
Typesetting machine operators, printing (graphic
Typewriter servicemen_________________________
S e e a l s o : Insurance clerks____________ ______
Typographic surveyors_________________________


Understudies, s e e : Actors and actresses__________
Underwriters, insurance________________________
United States Government occupations__________
University librarians___________________________
University professors___________________________
University teachers_____________________________
Unskilled workers, industrial____________________
Upsetter operators, forge sh op __________________
Urban geographers_____________________________
Urban planners________________________________





Valets, s e e : Private household workers____________
Vending machine mechanics_____________________
Vending machine routemen, s e e : Routemen________
Video-tape recording technicians, television________
Vocational agriculture teachers, s e e : A griculture...
Vocational counselors___________________________
Vocational nurses______________________________
Waiters and waitresses_________________________
Waste disposal men, atomic energy________________
Waste-treatment operators, atomic energy________
Watch engineers, electric power_________________
Watchmakers---------------------------------------------------Watch repairmen________________________________
Weather forecasters, s e e : Meteorologists_________
Welders and oxygen cutters------------------------------


S e e a ls o :

Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manu­
Electronics manufacturing______________
Iron and steel industry_________________
Natural gas processing_________________
Petroleum refining_____________________
Welders, electric-arc____________________________
S e e a l s o : Motor vehicle and equipment manu­



Welders, gas___________________________________
S e e a l s o : Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
Welding operators, resistance____________________
S e e a l s o : Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
Well pullers, petroleum and natural gas production.
Wheat farmers_________________________________
Wholesale salesmen_____________________________
Window clerks, post office_______________________
Wire chiefs, railroad____________________________
Wire drawers, iron and steel_____________________
Wood patternmakers, foundry___________________
Work distributors, apparel______________________
Wrapping machine operators, baking____________
Writers, editorial, s e e : Newspaper reporters______
Writers, technical______________________________
S e e a l s o listing under Technical writers.
Writing occupations____________________________


X-ray technicians, medical______________________


Yard foremen, railroad__________________________




BLS Occupational Outlook Service (or Counselors
To help the professional community concerned with youth keep up to date on occu­
pational developments that have significant implications for young people, and to assist
counselors in making occupational information available to their clients, the Bureau of
Labor Statistics supplements the Occupational Outlook Handbook with the following
O C C U P A T IO N A L O U T L O O K Q U A R T E R L Y : Handbook users will want to consult the

Occupational Outlook Quarterly to make sure they have up-to-date, authoritative
occupational information between editions of the Handbook. Published four
times during each school year, the Quarterly presents the latest occupational
outlook studies by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and interprets the guidance
implications of Government and other authoritative research in the economic,
educational, demographic, and technological fields. Annual subscriptions for
the Occupational Outlook Quarterly are $1.25 domestic, $1.75 foreign; single
copies are 35 cents each. Order from Superintendent of Documents, Wash­
ington, D.C., 20402.
O C C U P A T IO N A L O U T L O O K REPO RT SERIES: The reports in the Handbook are repro­

duced in this series of reprints, each of which covers a single occupation, an
industry, or a group of related occupations. The reprints enable counselors to
make occupational information available to more students interested in specific
careers. Teachers can use these reports as motivational aids in relating school
subjects to earning a living. Librarians who keep a file of occupational informa­
tion will find these reprints helpful in extending their resources to greater num­
bers of young people. Single reprints or a full set of 115 reprints can be ordered.
A list of reprints, with prices, is available from the Occupational Outlook
Service, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington,
D.C., 20212.
FREE O C C U P A T IO N A L O U T L O O K P U B LIC A T IO N S : These include briefs, wall charts,

and reprints of articles from the Quarterly. Occupational outlook briefs describe
the employment outlook in each of the broad occupational groups. Wall charts
emphasize graphically the salient facts about various occupations and indus­
tries. Reprints from the Quarterly deal with the employment outlook in new
occupational areas, the impact of technological changes, and other subjects of
interest to young people and counselors and teachers. Free publications are
announced in the Quarterly, and many of these are distributed automatically to
schools, organizations, and individuals on the occupational outlook mailing list.
Write to the Occupational Outlook Service, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S.
Department of Labor, Washington, D.C., 20212, to request the List of Free
Occupational Outlook Publications and to have your name placed on the
mailing list.



TIO N S : This bibliography, as the title suggests, lists the major occupational and other

manpower publications of Federal and State government agencies that will be
useful to counselors and others interested in trends and developments that have
implications for career decisions. The bulletin, No. 1421, is available from the
Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.,
20402; 50 cents a copy.

Other BLS Publications Useful to Counselors
Information on employment, unemployment, occupation trends, earnings, and other
labor force developments can be obtained from the following publications:
E M P L O Y M E N T A N D E A R N IN G S : Monthly report featuring statistics on employment,

earnings, hours of work, and labor turnover by industry for the Nation, and by
industry division for each State and 151 metropolitan areas. Also contains
statistical tables for the country as a whole developed from the Current Popula­
tion Survey appearing in the Monthly Report on the Labor Force (see following
paragraph), as well as additional detail on the characteristics of the current
labor force. Statistics for earlier years are contained in Employment and
Earnings Statistics for the United States (BLS Bulletin 1312-2), price $3.50 and
Employment and Earnings Statistics for States and Areas (BLS Bulletin 1370-1),
price $3.75.
M O N T H L Y REPO RT O N TH E L A B O R FO RCE: Monthly release analyzing the current

employment and unemployment situation. Contains summary of national data
on size and characteristics of the labor force and unemployment; national data
on employment, hours, and earnings of employees on payrolls of nonfarm estab­
lishments; and State and area data for insured unemployment. This publica­
tion is available without charge upon written request to the Bureau of Labor
Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, D.C., 20212.
S P E C IA L L A B O R FO R C E REPORTS: Reports based on special surveys of the labor force

are issued several times a year. They include statistics and analysis of selected
characteristics of the labor force, such as educational attainment, employment
of school dropouts and recent high school graduates, work experience during
the year, and marital and family status. Published in the Monthly Labor
Review, which may be available in your school library, these reports are also
available (as long as the supply lasts) without charge, upon written request to
the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S, Department of Labor, Washington, D.C.,
20212 .
O C C U P A T IO N A L W A G E S U R V E Y S: These reports include figures on average earnings

and employment in selected occupations and in major industries and labor
market areas. Weekly working hours for some groups of workers and customary
practices regarding pensions, vacations, holidays, and sick leave are also re­
ported. Occupational Wage Surveys are listed in the Directory of Cummunity
Wage Surveys which may be obtained from the Bureau of Labor Statistic, U.S.
Department of Labor, Washington, D.C., 20212. You can write BLS regional
offices for free releases on individual city surveys.



U N IO N W A G E S C A L E S : Annual releases on union scales cover wages and hours of work

in 69 major cities in the printing industry and 68 major cities in the construc­
tion, local transit, and local trucking industries. Quarterly releases on surveys
of seven major building trades in 100 cities cover averages and increases in
wage scales by trade, and wage trends for the industry as a whole. These re­
leases are available from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of
Labor, Washington, D.C., 20212, or any of the regional offices.
Priced publications mentioned above can be ordered from the Superintendent of
Documents, Washington, D.C., 20402. Both priced and free publications are available
(as long as the supply lasts) from the Regional Offices of the Bureau of Labor Statistics,
U.S. Department of Labor, at the following addresses:
450 Golden Gate Ave., Box 36017, San
Francisco, Calif., 94102.
1371 Peachtree St. NE, Suite 540, Atlanta,
Ga., 30309.
219 South Dearborn St., Chicago, 111.,

18 Oliver St., Boston, Mass., 02110.
341 Ninth Ave., New York, N.Y., 10001.
1365 Ontario St., Room 740, Cleveland,
Ohio, 44114.


O — 7 7 8 -3 1 6

Do you need reprints of O ccu pation al Outlook H an dbook statements?
Among those who seek the Handbook career information in the form of convenient pamphlets are—
Stu d e n ts interested in particular fields of work.
C o u n se lo rs a n d lib ra ria n s who want to "stretch" their Handbooks.
Te a ch e rs who want to relate their subjects to making one's way in the world.
In d u stry , la b o r, or p ro fe ssio n a l o rg a n iza tio n s that want authoritative and handy publications to

answer public inquiries about careers.

The entire Handbook has been reprinted in the Occupational Outlook Report Series. You may order
individual reprints or full sets of 115 reprints. (See next page for a complete listing of titles and prices.)
You may detach this sheet and use it as an order form. Please fill out both the order form and mailing
label, enclose payment, and send to the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. 20402, or
to the Bureau of Labor Statistics regional office nearest you. Following are the addresses of the regional
341 Ninth Ave.
New York, N.Y. 10001

1365 Ontario St.
Cleveland, Ohio 44114

219 S. Dearborn St.
Chicago, 111. 60604

1371 Peachtree St., NE
Atlanta, Ga. 30309

18 Oliver St.
Boston, Mass. 02110

450 Golden Gate Ave.
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102


Enclosed find $__________ (check, money order, or Superintendent of Documents coupons.
Please send me:

Do not send postage stamps).

__________ copies of Reports N o .___________ (Please identify by number from the other side.)
__________ sets of 115 Reports at $9.65 per set
(25-percent discount on orders of 100 or more of any single publication.)



. . . . Enclosed........................
To be mailed
. . . . later...............................

Street address......................
City, State, and ZIP Code


Coupon refund..............

P A Y M E N T O F P O S TA G E , *300



. . . . Subscription..................

Street address
City, State, and ZIP Code

N o.



A L o o k a t T o m o r r o w ’s J o b s -------- ------------------------------------------

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A c c o u n t a n t s ___________________________________________________
A d v e r tis in g , M a r k e t R e se a r c h , a n d P u b lic R e la tio n s

.0 5


C a s h ie r s ________________________________________________________
C h ir o p r a c to r s__________________________________________________
C le r g y : P r o te s ta n t C le r g y m e n , R a b b is , R o m a n C a th o lic

.0 5
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P r ie s t s _______________________________________________________
C o m m e r c ia l A r tis ts , I n d u s tr ia l D e s ig n e r s , In te r io r D e s ig n e r s
a n d D e c o r a to r s ______________________________________________
C o n s e r v a tio n O c c u p a tio n s : F o r e ste r s, F o r e str y A id s , R a n g e

. 10

M a n a g e r s___________________________________________________
C o u n s e lin g a n d P la c e m e n t: C o lle g e P la c e m e n t O fficers,
S c h o o l, R e h a b ilit a t io n , a n d V o c a tio n a l C o u n s e lo r s _______
D e n t a l H y g i e n is t s ____________________________________ ____ ____
D e n t a l L a b o r a to r y T e c h n ic ia n s ----------------------------------------------D e n t is t s ________________________________________________________
D ie s e l M e c h a n ic s ______________________________________________
D ie t i t ia n s ______________________________________________________
D is p e n s in g O p tic ia n s, O p tic a l L a b o r a to r y M e c h a n ic s ______
D r iv in g O c c u p a tio n s : T r u c k , B u s , a n d T a x i D r iv e r s;
R o u t e m e n ------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------E a r th S c ie n tis ts : G e o lo g is ts , G e o p h y s ic is ts , M e te o r o lo g ists ,
O c e a n o g r a p h e r s _____________________________________________

. 10



. 10
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.0 5
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L a n d sc a p e A r c h it e c t s _________________________________________
L a w y e r s ___ ______ _____________________________________________

.0 5
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L ib r a r i a n s .._________

.0 5


M a c h in in g O c c u p a tio n s : I n s tr u m e n t M a k e r s, M a c h in is t s ,
M a c h in e T o o l O p er a to rs, T o o l a n d D ie M a k e r s, S e tu p
M e n , L a y o u t M e n __________________________________________
M a in te n a n c e E le c tr ic ia n s , I n d u s tr ia l M a c h in e r y R e p a ir m e n ,
M illw r ig h t s _________________________________________________

. 15
. 10


M a th e m a tic s a n d R e la t e d F ie ld s : M a t h e m a t ic ia n s , S t a t is t i­
c ia n s , A c t u a r ie s _____________________________________________
M e d ic a l R e c o r d L ib r a r ia n s ___________________________________
M e d ic a l T e c h n o lo g is t s ________________________________________

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M e d ic a l X - R a y T e c h n ic ia n s _________________________________
N e w s p a p e r R e p o r te r s _________________________________________

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O c c u p a tio n a l T h e r a p is ts , P h y s ic a l T h e r a p is t s ______________

. 05


Bulletin 1450 Occupational Outlook Handbook

. 10
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O s te o p a th ic P h y s ic i a n s ________________________________________

.0 5


P e r fo r m in g A rts: A c to r s , D a n c e r s , M u s ic ia n s , S in g e r s ______
P e r s o n n e l W o r k e r s _____________________________________________
P h a r m a c is t s ____________________________________________________
P h o to g r a p h e r s __________________________________________________
P lu m b e r s a n d P ip e fitte r s , A s b e s to s a n d I n s u la t in g W o r k e r s.
P r in t in g O c c u p a tio n s __________________________________________
P h y s ic a l S c ie n tis ts : C h e m is t s , B io c h e m is t s , P h y s ic i s t s , A s ­

. 10
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tr o n o m e r s __________
.1 0
P h y s ic i a n s __________________________________________________________ 05


P o d ia t r is t s _____________________________________________________
P s y c h o lo g is t s ___________________________________________________
P u r c h a s in g A g e n ts , I n d u s tr ia l T r a ffic M a n a g e r s ____________

.0 5
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R e a l E s t a t e A g e n t s a n d B r o k e r s ---------- ----------------------------------R e c e p t io n is t s , T e le p h o n e O p e r a to r s__________________________
R e c r e a tio n W o r k e r s___________________________________________
R e g is te r e d P r o fe ss io n a l N u r s e s , L ic e n s e d P r a c tic a l N u r s e s ,
H o s p it a l A t t e n d a n t s ___________________________ ____________
S a n ita r ia n s _____________________________________________________



. 10
. 05


S a le s m e n a n d S a le s w o m e n in R e t a il S to r e s , S a le s m e n in
W h o le s a le T r a d e , M a n u fa c tu r e r s ’ S a le s m e n _______________
S e c u r itie s S a le s m e n ___________
S h ip p in g a n d R e c e iv in g C l e r k s . . .____________________________
S h e e t-m e ta l W o r k e r s, R o o fe r s _________________________________
S o c ia l S c ie n tis ts : A n th r o p o lo g is ts , E c o n o m is t s , G e o g r a p h e r s,
H is t o r ia n s , P o lit ic a l S c ie n t is t s , S o c io lo g is ts _________________
S o c ia l W o r k e r s .________________________________________________
S p e e c h P a th o lo g is ts a n d A u d io lo g is t s _____________________
.0 5
S ta tio n a r y E n g in e e r s , S ta tio n a r y F ir e m e n ( B o ile r ) ____
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S te n o g r a p h e r s a n d S e c r e ta r ie s, T y p i s t s ___________________ . . .
S tr u c tu r a l a n d o th e r Ir o n w o r k e r s , E le v a t o r C o n s t r u c t o r s ..
S u r v e y o r s ____________
T e a c h e r s: K in d e r g a r te n a n d E le m e n t a r y ,_S e c o n d a r y , C o l­
le g e a n d U n i v e r s it y
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T e c h n ic a l W r it e r s .— ______________________________________
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T e c h n ic ia n s : E n g in e e r in g a n d S c ie n c e T e c h n ic ia n s , D r a fts ­
m en
T V a n d R a d io S e r v ic e m e n _________
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U r b a n P la n n e r s ____________________________________________
V e n d in g M a c h in e M e c h a n ic s _____________________________
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V e te r in a r ia n s _______________________________________________
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W a tc h R e p a ir m e n , J e w le r s a n d J e w e lr y R e p a ir m e n , I n ­
s t r u m e n t R e p a ir m e n
W e ld e r s , O x y g e n a n d A rc C u t t e r s ________________________
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A g r ic u ltu r e _______ ______________
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A irc ra ft, M is s ile s , a n d S p a c e c r a ft_________________________
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A p p a r e l_____________________________________________________
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A t o m ic E n e r g y _____________________________________________
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B a k in g .— _____________________
B a n k in g ____________________________________________________
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C h e m ic a ls ________________________________________________ __________ 10


E le c tr ic L ig h t a n d Pow re r ______________________________________
E le c tr o n ic s _____________________________________________________
F o u n d r ie s ______________________________________________________
G o v e r n m e n t ________________________________________________
H o t e l ________________________________________________________


I n s u r a n c e O c c u p a tio n s ________________________________________
Ir o n a n d S t e e l__________________________________________________


M o to r V e h ic le s _____________________________________________
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R e s t a u r a n t_______________


T e l e p h o n e __________________________________________________
R a ilr o a d ____________________________________________________


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O p e r a tin g E n g in e e r s (C o n s tr u c tio n M a c h in e r y O p e r a t o r ) ..
O p to m e tr is ts ___________________________________________________


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E le c tr ic ia n s (C o n s t r u c t io n ) ___________________________________
E le c tr o n ic C o m p u te r O p e r a tin g P e r s o n n e l, P r o g r a m e r s____
E n g in e e r s: A e r o s p a c e , A g r ic u ltu r a l, C er a m ic , C h e m ic a l
C iv il, E le c tr ic a l, I n d u s tr ia l, M e c h a n ic a l, M e ta llu r g ic a l,
M i n i n g ______________________________________________________
F a c to r y O p e r a tiv e s : A ss e m b le r s , E le c tr o p la te r s, I n s p e c to r s,
P o w e r T r u c k O p er a to rs, P r o d u c tio n P a in t e r s ____________
F B I A g e n t s ------------------------------------------------------------------------------F ir e fig h te r s, P o lic e m e n a n d P o lic e w o m e n ___________________
F lo o r C o v e r in g I n s t a lle r s _____________________________________
F o r g in g O c c u p a tio n s , B la c k s m it h s ___________________________
H o m e E c o n o m is t s _____________________________________________
H o u s e h o ld W o r k e r s, P r iv a t e _________________________________
H o s p it a l A d m in is tr a to r s ______________________________________
L ab orers ( C o n s t r u c t io n ) ._____________________________________




W o r k e r s .---------------------------------------------------------.1 0
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A p p lia n c e S e r v ic e m e n --------------------------------------------------------------. 05
A r c h it e c t s ______________________________________________________
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A u t o m o t iv e S e r v ic e a n d S a le s O c c u p a tio n s : A u to m o b ile
M e c h a n ic s , B o d y R e p a ir m e n , G a s S t a t io n A t t e n d a n t s ,
P a in te r s , P a r ts C o u n te r m e n , S a le s m e n , S e r v ic e A d v iso r s,
T r u c k a n d B u s M e c h a n ic s , U p h o ls t e r e r s .- - ...................................... 20
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B a r b e r s, C o s m e to lo g is ts _______________________________________
B io lo g ic a l S c ie n t is t s --------------------------------------------- --------------------.1 0
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B o ile r m a k in g O c c u p a tio n s ------------ -------- --------- -----------------------B o o k k e e p in g W o r k e r s, O ffice M a c h in e O p e r a to r s____________
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B o w lin g -M a c h in e M e c h a n ic s -------- ------------------------------------------.0 5
B r ic k la y e r s, S to n e m a so n s , M a r b le S e tte r s , T ile S e tte r s,
T erra zzo W o r k e r s----------------------------------------------------------------. 15
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C a r p e n te r s , P a in te r s , P a p e r h a n g e r s, G la z ie r s________________
C e m e n t M a s o n s , P la ste r e r s , L a th e r s _________________________
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Do you need reprints of O ccu pation al Outlook H a n d b o o k statements?
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B u lletin

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A L o o k a t T o m o r r o w ’s J o b s -----------------------------------------------------


A c c o u n t a n t s ____________________________________________________
A d v e r tis in g , M a r k e t R e se a r c h , a n d P u b lic R e la tio n s




O p e r a tin g E n g in e e r s ( C o n s tr u c tio n M a c h in e r y O p e r a t o r ) - .
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O p t o m e t r is ts ____________________________________________________
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O s te o p a th ic P h y s ic i a n s ________________________________________
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W o r k e r s _____________________________________________________
A ir -C o n d itio n in g a n d R efrig e ra tio n M e c h a n ic s ----------------------A p p lia n c e S e r v ic e m e n ----------------------------------------------------------------

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A r c h it e c t s _______________________________________________________
A u t o m o t iv e S e r v ic e a n d S a le s O c c u p a tio n s : A u to m o b ile
M e c h a n ic s , B o d y R e p a ir m e n , G a s S ta tio n A t t e n d a n t s ,
P a in te r s , P a r ts C o u n te r m e n , S a le s m e n , S e r v ic e A d v iso r s,
T r u c k a n d B u s M e c h a n ic s , U p h o ls te r e r s _________________
B a r b e r s, C o s m e to lo g is ts ________________________________________

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P e r fo r m in g A rts: A c to r s , D a n c e r s , M u s ic ia n s , S in g e r s ______
P e r s o n n e l W o r k e r s_____________________________________________
P h a r m a c is t s _____________________________________________________
P h o to g r a p h e r s __________________________________ ___ ____________
P lu m b e r s a n d P ip e fitte r s , A s b e s to s a n d I n s u la t in g W o r k e r s.
P r in tin g O c c u p a tio n s __________________________________________
P h y s ic a l S c ie n tis ts : C h e m is ts , B io c h e m is t s , P h y s ic i s t s , A s ­
tr o n o m e r s ______________________________________________________
P h y s ic i a n s ______________________________________________________
P o d ia t r is t s ______________________________________________________

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P s y c h o lo g is t s -------------------------P u r c h a s in g A g e n t s , I n d u s tr ia l T ra ffic M a n a g e r s _________
R e a l E s t a t e A g e n ts a n d B r o k e r s _______________________________
R e c e p t io n is t s , T e le p h o n e O p e r a to r s ----------------------------------------R e c r e a tio n W o r k e r s____________________________________________
R e g is te r e d P r o fe ss io n a l N u r s e s , L ic e n s e d P r a c tic a l N u r s e s ,
H o s p it a l A t t e n d a n t s ________________________________________
S a n ita r ia n s ______________________________________________________
S a le s m e n a n d S a le s w o m e n in R e t a il S to r e s , S a le s m e n in
W h o le s a le T r a d e , M a n u fa c tu r e r s ’ S a le s m e n ______________
S e c u r itie s S a le s m e n -------------------------------------------------------------------S h ip p in g a n d R e c e iv in g C le r k s ________________________________
S h e e t-m e ta l W o rk er s, R o o fe r s_____I __________________________
S o c ia l S c ie n tis ts : A n th r o p o lo g is ts , E c o n o m is t s , G e o g ra p h e rs,
H is t o r ia n s , P o lit ic a l S c ie n t is t s , S o c io lo g is ts __________________
S o c ia l W o r k e r s __________________________________________________
S p e e c h P a t h o lo g is t s a n d A u d io lo g is t s _________________________
S ta tio n a r y E n g in e e r s, S ta tio n a r y F ir e m e n ( B o ile r )___________

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B io lo g ic a l S c ie n t is t s ____________________________________________
B o ile r m a k in g O c c u p a tio n s _____________________________________
B o o k k e e p in g W o r k e r s, O ffice M a c h in e O p e r a to r s___________
B o w lin g - M a c h in e M e c h a n ic s --------------------------------------------------B r ic k la y e r s , S to n e m a s o n s , M a r b le S e tte r s , T ile S e tte r s ,
T er ra zzo W o r k e r s ----------------------------------------------------------------B u s in e s s M a c h in e S e r v ic e m e n ------------------------------------------------C a r p e n te r s , P a in te r s , P a p e r h a n g e r s, G la z ie r s------------------------C e m e n t M a s o n s , P la ste r e r s , L a th e r s _________________________
C a sh ie r s ________________________________________________________
C h ir o p r a c to r s ___________________________________________________
C le r g y : P r o te s ta n t C le r g y m e n , R a b b is , R o m a n C a th o lic
P r ie s t s _______________________________________________________
C o m m e r c ia l A r tis ts , I n d u s tr ia l D e s ig n e r s , I n te r io r D e sig n e r s
a n d D e c o r a to r s ______________________________________________
C o n s e r v a tio n O c c u p a tio n s : F o r e ste r s, F o r e s tr y A id s , R a n g e
M a n a g e r s ___________________________________________________
C o u n s e lin g a n d P la c e m e n t: C o lle g e P la c e m e n t O fficers,
S c h o o l, R e h a b ilit a t io n , a n d V o c a tio n a l C o u n s e lo r s _______
D e n t a l H y g i e n is t s ______________________________________________
D e n t a l L a b o r a to r y T e c h n ic ia n s _______________________________
D e n t i s t s ________________________________________________________
D ie s e l M e c h a n ic s ______________________________________________
D ie t i t ia n s _______________________________________________________
D is p e n s in g O p tic ia n s, O p tic a l L a b o r a to r y M e c h a n ic s _______
D r iv in g O c c u p a tio n s : T r u c k , B u s , a n d T a x i D r iv e r s;
R o u t e m e n . . . _______________________________________________
E a r th S c ie n tis ts : G e o lo g is ts , G e o p h y s ic is ts , M e te o r o lo g ists ,
O c e a n o g r a p h e r s _____________________________________________
E le c tr ic ia n s (C o n s t r u c t io n ) ____________________________________

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L a n d s c a p e A r c h it e c t s - ________________________________________
L a w y e r s ________________________________________________________
L ib r a r ia n s _______ ______________________________________________

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A irc ra ft, M is s ile s , a n d S p a c e c r a ft_____________________________
A p p a r e l_________________________________________________________
A t o m ic E n e r g y _________________________________________________
A v ia t io n , C i v i l _______________________________________________
B a k in g __________________________________________________________
B a n k in g ________________________________________________________

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C h e m ic a ls ______________________________________________________
E le c tr ic L ig h t a n d P o w e r _____________________________________
E le c tr o n ic s _____________________________________________________
F o u n d r ie s ______________________________________________________

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Ir o n a n d S t e e l__________________________________________________

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M o to r V e h ic le s ______________________
P e tr o le u m a n d N a t u r a l G a s ___________________________________
P a p e r ________ : __________________________________ ^_____________

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P o s t O f f ic e .____________________________________________________

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R a d io a n d T V B r o a d c a s tin g __________________________________
R e s t a u r a n t _____________________________________________________
T e l e p h o n e ______________________________________________________

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M a in te n a n c e E le c tr ic ia n s , I n d u s tr ia l M a c h in e r y R e p a ir m e n ,
M illw r ig h t s _________________________________________________

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M a t h e m a t ic s a n d R e la t e d F ie ld s : M a th e m a tic ia n s , S t a t is t i­
c ia n s , A c t u a r ie s _____________________________________________

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M e d ic a l R e c o r d L ib r a r ia n s ____________________________________
M e d ic a l T e c h n o lo g is t s _________________________________________

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M e d ic a l X - R a y T e c h n ic ia n s __________________________________
N e w s p a p e r R e p o r te r s _________________________________________

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Bulletin 1450 Occupational Outlook Handbook

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M a c h in e T o o l O p er a to rs, T o o l a n d D ie M a k e r s, S e tu p
M e n , L a y o u t M e n __________________________________________


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S te n o g r a p h e r s a n d S e c r e ta r ie s, T y p i s t s _______________________
S tr u c tu r a l a n d o th e r Ir o n w o r k e r s , E le v a t o r C o n s t r u c t o r s - .
S u r v e y o r s _______________________________________________________
T e a c h e r s: K in d e r g a r te n a n d E le m e n t a r y , S e c o n d a r y , C o l­
le g e a n d U n i v e r s it y
T e c h n ic a l W r ite r s ______________________________________________
T e c h n ic ia n s : E n g in e e r in g a n d S c ie n c e T e c h n ic ia n s , D r a fts ­
m e n __________________________________________________________
T V a n d R a d io S e r v ic e m e n ____________________________________
U r b a n P la n n e r s ________________________________________________
V e n d in g M a c h in e M e c h a n ic s --------------------------- ----------------------V e te r in a r ia n s ___________________________________________________
W a tc h R e p a ir m e n , J e w le r s a n d J e w e lr y R e p a ir m e n , I n ­
s tr u m e n t R e p a ir m e n
W e ld e r s , O x y g e n a n d A r c C u t t e r s ____________________________

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E le c tr o n ic C o m p u te r O p e r a tin g P e r s o n n e l, P r o g r a m e r s ____
E n g in e e r s: A e r o s p a c e , A g r ic u ltu r a l, C e r a m ic , C h e m ic a l
C iv il, E le c tr ic a l, I n d u s tr ia l, M e c h a n ic a l, M e ta llu r g ic a l,
M i n i n g ______________________________________________________
F a c to r y O p e r a tiv e s : A ss e m b le r s , E le c tr o p la te r s, I n s p e c to r s,
P o w e r T r u c k O p er a to rs, P r o d u c tio n P a in t e r s ____________
F B I A g e n t s ____________________________________________________
F ir e fig h te r s, P o lic e m e n a n d P o lic e w o m e n ____________________
F lo o r C o v e r in g I n s t a lle r s ______________________________________
F o r g in g O c c u p a tio n s , B la c k s m it h s ___________________________
H o m e E c o n o m is t s ___________
H o u s e h o ld W o r k e r s, P r iv a t e __________________________________



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occupational outlook handbook

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